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Sample records for highly educated women

  1. Work-related fatigue: the specific case of highly educated women in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Verdonk, Petra; Hooftman, Wendela E; van Veldhoven, Marc J P M; Boelens, Louise R M; Koppes, Lando L J

    2010-03-01

    This study aims to establish the prevalence of high work-related fatigue (need for recovery, NFR) among employees and to explain group differences categorized by gender, age, and education. The study particularly aims to clarify prevalence and explanatory factors in highly educated women. In 2005 and 2006, large representative samples of 80,000 Dutch employees (net response rate 33.0%; N = 47,263) received the Netherlands working conditions survey questionnaire. First, we calculated the prevalence of high NFR for men and women with different age and education levels. The average prevalence of high NFR was 28.8% and was highest among highly educated women (35.2%) in particular those aged 50-64 years (40.3%). Second, logistic regression analyses were used to compare subgroups' NFR in relation to situational factors, working conditions, and health. Three comparisons were made: (1) highly educated women versus men; (2) highly educated versus lower educated women and; (3) older highly educated versus younger highly educated women. The situational, working conditions and health factors in our model did not explain the gender differences among highly educated employees (OR = 1.37; CI = 1.3-1.5, adjusted for all factors OR = 1.32; CI = 1.2-1.5). Despite that lower autonomy and workplace violence explained highly educated women's NFR, working fewer hours counterbalanced this. Time pressure in work largely explained the differences in NFR among women at different education levels (crude OR 1.44; CI = 1.4-1.5, adjusted OR 1.14; CI = 1.0-1.3). In the age comparison, lower health ratings, more adverse working conditions, and working as a teacher explained older highly educated women's high prevalence of high NFR (crude OR 1.32; CI = 1.2-1.5, adjusted OR 0.94; CI = 0.8-1.2). NFR has high prevalence in highly educated women (35.2%) in particular those aged 50-64 years (40.3%). Our model did not explain gender differences in NFR, because working fewer hours counterbalanced the

  2. Disparities in HPV and Cervical Cancer Screening between Highly Educated White and Minority Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennefield, Zinobia C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research has been conducted to determine the impact that education has on health behaviors; specifically, comparisons between highly educated and less educated groups. However, little research has been done on the racial variation among highly educated women. Purpose: This research examined the racial variation in the relationship…

  3. Disparities in HPV and Cervical Cancer Screening between Highly Educated White and Minority Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennefield, Zinobia C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research has been conducted to determine the impact that education has on health behaviors; specifically, comparisons between highly educated and less educated groups. However, little research has been done on the racial variation among highly educated women. Purpose: This research examined the racial variation in the relationship…

  4. The educational attainment of young women: role model effects of female high school faculty.

    PubMed

    Nixon, L A; Robinson, M D

    1999-05-01

    To test for the presence of role model effects of female high school faculty and professional staff on young women in high school, we estimate several models of educational attainment for young women using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Exposure to female high school faculty and professional staff has a positive impact on the educational attainment of young women. This result, combined with our finding that female faculty and professional staff have no significant impact on the educational attainment of young men, supports a female role model hypothesis.

  5. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amano, Masako

    1997-01-01

    The high level of college admission of women in Japan is analyzed relative to changes in social and educational values, continuing evidence of gender tracking, persistent doubts regarding "appropriateness" of higher education for women, employment opportunities and related national legislation, and values held by Japanese women…

  6. Women and Industrial Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorkquist, David C.

    1973-01-01

    Deals with these three questions: (1) What is the employment status of women, (2) What do advocates of the women's rights movement want, (3) How should industrial educators respond to the women's rights movement? (SB)

  7. Tailored, interactive soap operas for breast cancer education of high-risk Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Jibaja, M L; Kingery, P; Neff, N E; Smith, Q; Bowman, J; Holcomb, J D

    2000-01-01

    While Hispanic women have lower rates of breast cancer than do women of other ethnic groups, they are the least likely to undergo screening examinations. This study evaluated a culturally sensitive and linguistically appropriate, tailored, computer-based, educational program for early detection of breast cancer aimed at high-risk Hispanic women. Spanish-speaking Hispanic women from an inner-city community health clinic were recruited and randomly assigned either to a computer intervention with an interactive soap-opera format (n = 118) or to a comparison group (n = 60). Pre- and posttests were used to identify any change in breast-cancer-related knowledge and beliefs. Both younger (18-40 years old) and older (41-65 years old) women in the intervention group demonstrated significant increases in their breast cancer screening knowledge and beliefs as compared with the younger and older women in the comparison group (n < 0.05). Computer-based tailored and interactive soap operas that are linguistically and culturally appropriate are effective in increasing breast cancer screening knowledge and beliefs among underserved Spanish-speaking Hispanic women.

  8. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifer, Alan

    Women have traditionally been discriminated against in higher education in both the attainment of degrees and in employment after earning degrees. It has been felt that women are not as capable, reliable, or effective as men in administrative and classroom situations. Statistics show that even at the present time women are underemployed and…

  9. High education and increased parity are associated with breast-feeding initiation and duration among Australian women.

    PubMed

    Holowko, Natalie; Jones, Mark; Koupil, Ilona; Tooth, Leigh; Mishra, Gita

    2016-10-01

    Breast-feeding is associated with positive maternal and infant health and development outcomes. To assist identifying women less likely to meet infant nutritional guidelines, we investigated the role of socio-economic position and parity on initiation of and sustaining breast-feeding for at least 6 months. Prospective cohort study. Australia. Parous women from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (born 1973-78), with self-reported reproductive and breast-feeding history (N 4777). While 89 % of women (83 % of infants) had ever breast-fed, only 60 % of infants were breast-fed for at least 6 months. Multiparous women were more likely to breast-feed their first child (~90 % v. ~71 % of primiparous women), and women who breast-fed their first child were more likely to breast-feed subsequent children. Women with a low education (adjusted OR (95 % CI): 2·09 (1·67, 2·62)) or a very low-educated parent (1·47 (1·16, 1·88)) had increased odds of not initiating breast-feeding with their first or subsequent children. While fewer women initiated breast-feeding with their youngest child, this was most pronounced among high-educated women. While ~60 % of women breast-fed their first, second and third child for at least 6 months, low-educated women (first child, adjusted OR (95 % CI): 2·19 (1·79, 2·68)) and women with a very low (1·82 (1·49, 2·22)) or low-educated parent (1·69 (1·33, 2·14)) had increased odds of not breast-feeding for at least 6 months. A greater understanding of barriers to initiating and sustaining breast-feeding, some of which are socio-economic-specific, may assist in reducing inequalities in infant breast-feeding.

  10. Women Art Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Enid, Ed.; Stankiewicz, Mary Ann, Ed.

    This collection of papers on women art educators reveals the variety of roles played by those women, from anonymous art teachers to leaders in their profession. "Mary Rouse: A Remembrance" (G. Hubbard) is a personal perspective on Rouse, the development of her career, and her considerable impact in the field of art education. "The…

  11. Women, Art, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Georgia; Sandell, Renee

    Sex equity issues and efforts in art and art education are examined in five major focus areas: (1) "Matters of Conscious and Consciousness" deals with problematic relationships between women, art and education. (2) "Matters of Protest and Progress" explores the sex equity progress made in art and education. (3) "Matters of Herstory and Heritage"…

  12. Women Art Educators II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankiewicz, Mary Ann, Ed.; Zimmerman, Enid, Ed.

    In this monograph, the story of achievements and struggles of a number of women art educators from the past, in both formal and informal educational settings, is documented. There are two recurring themes in this collection of 14 essays: (1) a focus on individual educators in more traditional academic settings, and (2) the role of woman folk…

  13. Women -- education and empowerment.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    The International Forum on Intercultural Exchange 1996, held November 20-22 in Tokyo, had as its central theme "women's education, learning, and empowerment." The conference was organized by the National Women's Education Center (NWEC); 120 participants attended. The director of the Training Division of JOICFP, Aiko Iijima, presented a case study of the JOICFP project in Nepal. The mortality rate in Nepal is approximately 1500 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births, one of the world's highest. Trained birth attendants are present at only 6% of deliveries. Daughters, who often receive less nutrition, education, and health care than sons, are pressured to marry at a young age; the subsequent early pregnancies increase their risk of maternal mortality. Illegal abortions also increase the risk of maternal mortality. Iijima presented a JOICFP video, "Adolescent Women -- Voices Unheard." Dr. Kajsa Sundstrom, obstetrician and gynecologist, coordinator of "Q Web Sweden: Women's Empowerment Base, Sweden," and the main speaker at the forum, spoke about women's health from a historical and cross-cultural view. According to Dr. Sundstrom, almost 600,000 women die annually due to pregnancy or childbirth, and 99% of maternal mortality occurred in developing countries. Women's health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asian countries, she said, is equivalent to that in Sweden 100 years ago, before education, women's empowerment, sex education, contraception, and legal abortions produced one of the best maternal and child health levels in the world.

  14. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Sheryl, Ed.; Shaver, Barbara, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Articles on women's studies and females in higher education are presented in this publication. A University of North Dakota project that sought to promote the integration of new research and scholarship results into the curriculum is described in "Women's Equity Committee Offers a Model Project," (Leola Furman, Robert Young). Historical…

  15. Financial Literacy Education for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarecke, Jodi; Taylor, Edward W.; Hira, Tahira K.

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the pedagogical approaches of four women's financial literacy education programs, this chapter provides an overview of trends and needs in financial education for women and offers pedagogical strategies for teaching women about finance.

  16. Financial Literacy Education for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarecke, Jodi; Taylor, Edward W.; Hira, Tahira K.

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the pedagogical approaches of four women's financial literacy education programs, this chapter provides an overview of trends and needs in financial education for women and offers pedagogical strategies for teaching women about finance.

  17. Opting For Families: Recent Trends in the Fertility of Highly Educated Women. NBER Working Paper No. 15074

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shang, Qingyan; Weinberg, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    Observers have argued about whether highly-educated women are opting out of their careers and for families. If so, it is natural to expect fertility to increase and, insofar as children are associated with lower employment, further declines in employment. This paper provides a comprehensive study of recent trends in the fertility of…

  18. Women's Education. The Cutting Edge Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coats, Maggie

    This book is about women's education. As defined in the first chapter, women's education is possessed or owned by women; is provided by women for women; focuses on the needs of women; and is designed for and about women. Chapter 2 looks at the historical roots of education for women and girls and at the growth of women's education since the early…

  19. Women in Higher Education, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenniger, Mary Dee Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the twelve consecutive numbers of the newsletter "Women in Education", published during 1998. This newsletter focus on issues concerned with women students, women faculty, and women administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news items, and profiles of significant people. Feature articles…

  20. Women's Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsuwaida, Nouf

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the historical, political, ideological (value), and government policies of women's education in Saudi Arabia implicated within teaching and learning, how women's higher education has changed over time in the realm of Saudi cultural traditions and religious norms. It also highlights the golden era of women's higher education.…

  1. Education predicts incidence of preclinical mobility disability in initially high-functioning older women. The Women's Health and Aging Study II.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Patricia C; Szanton, Sarah L; Xue, Qian-Li; Tian, Jing; Thorpe, Roland J; Fried, Linda P

    2011-05-01

    To examine the impact of educational attainment on the incidence of preclinical mobility disability (PCD). The Women's Health and Aging II Study is a prospective observational cohort study of 436 initially high-functioning community-dwelling women aged 70-79 years at baseline in Baltimore, Maryland. We measured the association of highest attained education level with preclinical mobility disability (PCD) over an 11-year period. PCD is defined as self-reported modification in any of four tasks without reporting difficulty in those tasks. The tasks were walking ½ mile, climbing up steps, doing heavy housework, and getting in/out of bed or chair. Participants with less than 9 years of education were more likely to acquire incident PCD (hazard ratio: 3.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.2-7.7) than their counterparts with more education after adjusting for income, marital status, number of diseases, and high self-efficacy. Lower education level is an independent predictor of incident preclinical mobility disability. This association has important implications for primary and secondary prevention and can be easily assessed in clinical encounters.

  2. Business Education for Women Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Calvin

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes the importance of entrepreneurship to the American economy, presents a profile of women small business owners, reviews the research pertaining to business education for women entrepreneurs, and indicates an agenda directed toward the educational needs of women venture initiators. (NRJ)

  3. Assessing the role of education in women's knowledge and acceptance of adjunct high-risk human Papillomavirus testing for cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Papa, Debra; Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Reynolds, Megan; Melnitsky, Hannah

    2009-04-01

    To assess women's knowledge, concerns, and willingness for adjunct high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing before and after an educational intervention. At the time of their annual gynecologic examination, women aged 30 years and older received an educational intervention about HR-HPV. Subjects completed preintervention and postintervention questionnaires. Demographic characteristics were summarized using frequency measures. Comparisons between the pre-education and posteducation questionnaires were performed using Fisher exact test. Fifty women completed the study. After the educational intervention, 77% of women were willing to be tested for HR-HPV. Sixty-seven percent of women would be likely to return for their annual gynecologic examination even if a Pap smear was not required for 3 years. Education statistically reduced concern regarding a positive HR-HPV result with 60% pre-education and 27% posteducation very concerned (p =.002). When surveyed about what their concerns would be if tested positive for HR-HPV, women associate future cervical cancer diagnosis (38% pre-education vs 48% posteducation, p =.903) but not partner infidelity (0%) with testing positive for HR-HPV. Knowledge concerning HPV, cervical cancer, and cervical cancer screening was statistically improved after the educational intervention in all but 2 questions. Women 30 years and older are willing to have adjunct HR-HPV testing, with education reducing their degree of concern about testing positive. Women who test positive would be most concerned about getting cervical cancer. Women would be willing to return for yearly gynecologic examinations, even if a Pap smear was not needed for 3 years. Education improves women's knowledge of HPV, cervical cancer, and cervical cancer screening, but did not allay the concern for getting cervical cancer.

  4. Putting the Physical into Education: The Politics of Teaching Women's Sport History in High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenskyj, Helen

    1990-01-01

    Cites the decreased participation rates of women in sports as they age. Contends that sports historians, by focusing on women and sports, can dispel myths about the subject and provide women with positive role models. Provides informational sources for women in sports and discusses notable Canadian female athletes in history. (RW)

  5. Women in Higher Education, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenniger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The 12 issues of this newsletter focus on issues concerned with women students, faculty, and administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news items, and profiles of significant people. The issues' main articles address: women in athletics; leadership development for women; the first year in academic administration;…

  6. Women, Class and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southampton Univ. (England).

    This collection of working papers deals with the relationship among women, social class, and adult education. In her paper entitled "Women and University Extension," Pat Usher argues that by sustaining the dominant cultural, ideological, and social relationships of production in capitalist Britain, university adult education contributes…

  7. Women's Voices in Experiential Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Karen, Ed.

    This book is a collection of feminist analyses of various topics in experiential education, particularly as it applies to outdoors and adventure education, as well as practical examples of how women's experiences can contribute to the field as a whole. Following an introduction, "The Quilt of Women's Voices" (Maya Angelou), the 25…

  8. Pioneer Women Educators: Challenges and Contributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, C. L.

    This paper outlines the educational history of women in the United States and focuses on three women educators from the nineteenth century: Emma Willard, Catherine Beecher, and Mary Lyon. The paper considers their contributions to teaching and teacher education--all of these women founded schools to educate women. While these women paved the way…

  9. Women in Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mary L.

    Perhaps the most significant challenge of the 1970's will be the effect the women's rights movement will have on the nation's established institutions and the extent to which the nation responds to the call of women for equal opportunities. Social pressures and expectations have been, until recently, such that women simply have not opted for jobs…

  10. Michigan: A Smart State for Women? Women and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Susan W.; Sharp, Sally; Miller, Jeanne E.; Waltman, Jean

    This report examines the importance of education to women and the effects of tuition, state and federal aid programs, child care, and welfare policies on Michigan women's access to higher education. Sections of the report address the following issues: (1) why the education of women matters, noting that postsecondary education is the primary means…

  11. Women in Higher Education Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).

    This volume contains 11 papers on the under-representation of women in higher education management in Bahrain, Finland, France, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Peru, the United States and Canada, the South Pacific and the West Indies. All papers were written by women vice-chancellors, presidents and senior managers of universities in those…

  12. World Religions, Women and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Ursula

    1987-01-01

    Examines religious traditions--Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Islam, and Western Christianity--to see how women were taught and what knowledge was transmitted to them. Notes that women have always had some access to religious knowledge in informal ways but were excluded from formal education once sacred knowledge became transmitted in an…

  13. Quality Issues in Women's Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivney, Veronica, Ed.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Maintaining and Monitoring Quality for Women Learners in Higher Education" (Rivis); "Women, Quality and Further Education" (Moss); "Quality Issues in Informal Women's Education in the Voluntary Sector" (Scarlett, Winner); "Women in Adult Basic Education" (Thompson); "Investors in People"…

  14. Women in Higher Education, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenniger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the issues of a 1996 newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main articles concern: (1) a successful campaign to increase female…

  15. Women in Higher Education, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenninger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This document consists of the 12 monthly issues of a newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education, issued in 1994. Each issue includes feature articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main article topics are: (1) campuses's changing…

  16. Exposure to intimate partner violence reduces the protective effect that women's high education has on children's corporal punishment: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Mariano; Dahlblom, Kjerstin; Solórzano, Lucia; Herrera, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that women's education is protective against corporal punishment (CP) of children. However, the effect that women's exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) has on the association between women's education and children's CP has not been studied. To understand how the interaction between women's exposure to IPV and their education level influences the occurrence of children's CP at the household level. We selected 10,156 women who had at least one child less than 16 years old from cross-sectional data from the 2006-2007 Nicaraguan Demographic and Health Survey. Children's CP was defined as the punishment of children by slapping them, hitting them with a fist, or hitting them with a rope, belt, stick, or other object. IPV was measured by using a conflict tactic scale. The WHO Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 (SRQ-20) was used to assess the women's mental health. We computed adjusted risk ratios (ARR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Poisson regression with a robust variance estimator. Women's exposure to IPV was associated with a 10-17% increase in the risk of children's CP. IPV and children's CP were associated with impaired women's mental health. Women's lifetime exposure to emotional IPV and controlling behavior by a partner significantly decreased the protective effect from women's high education level on children's CP. When women were exposed to emotional IPV, the protective effect from having a college education decreased from ARR=0.61 (95% CI 0.47-0.80) to ARR=0.98 (95% CI 0.80-1.19). A similar pattern was found among women exposed to controlling behavior by a partner, the protective effect decreased from ARR=0.71 (95% CI 0.53-0.90) to ARR=0.86 (95% CI 0.70-1.06). This study shows how significant gains in one positive social determinant of children's well-being can be undermined when it interacts with men's violence toward women. Policies that aim to end children's CP must include actions to end women's exposure to IPV.

  17. Women's education and fertility behaviour.

    PubMed

    1993-12-01

    The education of women results in changes in women's health status, family well being, and fertility decline. The aim of human rights and social justice is also served by increasing women's educational levels. A review of the trends in developing countries has shown that there is a strong correlation between advanced female education (10 or more years) and lower fertility. Data for 26 countries was presented in table form for total fertility rates by years of education. There were many differences in the patterns of fertility by educational level based on country level of development. The data appeared to show stronger correlations between fertility and education in more prosperous societies; culture and social structure also influenced fertility. Partial primary education has been shown in some countries to be related to increased fertility. A UN study found a curvilinear relationship between fertility and education in 14 out of 38 countries with World Fertility Surveys. There were only 3 countries with Demographic and Health Surveys which showed the curvilinear pattern. The UN study confirmed that maternal education was related to shorter durations of postpartum abstinence and short durations of lactation. Caution was urged in interpreting that an increase in a few years of schooling in a dominant rural, illiterate population would facilitate rapid fertility decline. A critical threshold effect for educational attainment was found in mainly the least developed countries. Female education has direct and indirect effects on fertility. Education may affect breast feeding patterns, contraceptive use, social norms about small families, later age at marriage, and later age at first birth. The suggestion was that education provided for reproductive choice and reduces the gap between actual and desired family size. At the country and individual level of analysis, contraceptive use was linked with education. Effective contraceptive use was still however impeded by

  18. Trends in Educational Attainment of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Educational attainment of women has risen steadily since the turn of the century. In 1900 about 57,000 girls graduated from high school, and by 1968 the number had increased to 1.4 million. A similar rise occurred in the number of bachelor's degrees received by women. In 1900 about 5,000 graduated from college, and in 1968 the number rose to…

  19. Women and Education. Equity or Equality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennema, Elizabeth, Ed.; Ayer, M. Jane, Ed.

    Suitable for use in postsecondary courses in women's studies, curriculum theory, educational policy, or introductory educational administration, this book presents current scholarship on educational goals for women as well as the role and position of women in education. Twelve essays are presented in separate chapters. Chapter 1, an introduction…

  20. Women and Education. Equity or Equality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennema, Elizabeth, Ed.; Ayer, M. Jane, Ed.

    Suitable for use in postsecondary courses in women's studies, curriculum theory, educational policy, or introductory educational administration, this book presents current scholarship on educational goals for women as well as the role and position of women in education. Twelve essays are presented in separate chapters. Chapter 1, an introduction…

  1. Women need health education.

    PubMed

    1980-05-01

    Groups of 15-20 women in Dacca, Bangladesh received a 2-week training program in basic health and nutrition in addition to advice on contraceptive methods and use. Contraceptives were also supplied. There were 18 field teams at work, operating in 24 union councils around Dacca city. The basic health training included 1 week of theoretical classes on sore eyes, scabies and parasites. The 2nd week was devoted to practical application and demonstration. At this time the mothers were given the formula to prepare saline water -- oral rehydration fluid. The mothers then prepared the saline and used it for the children in case of any diarrheal incidence in the community. It was the experience of the fieldworkers of the Concerned Women for Family Planning (CWFP) that the communities under their program live under unsanitary conditions.

  2. The Contemporary Women's Movement and Women's Education in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ila

    1998-03-01

    The contemporary women's movement in India (1975-present) has played an important role in bringing gender issues to the forefront of development planning and defining feminist politics. This paper examines how this movement has addressed the issue of women's education. The first section highlights contributions of the social reformist movement in the 19th century and the nationalist movement in promoting women's education. The role of the contemporary women's movement in changing school curricula is examined in the second section, followed by discussion on how women's studies has contributed to redefining knowledge. The fourth section discusses women's empowerment and education from the perspective of the women's movement. The article concludes by highlighting challenges facing the women's movement in promoting women's education for equality and empowerment.

  3. Women-Only (Homophilous) Networks Supporting Women Leaders in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to consider what all-women networks have, and might offer, in terms of support and development of women in educational leadership. Design/methodology/approach: The study draws on two case studies of such networks in education in England, the first, a regional network for women secondary school principals, and the other…

  4. Women-Only (Homophilous) Networks Supporting Women Leaders in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to consider what all-women networks have, and might offer, in terms of support and development of women in educational leadership. Design/methodology/approach: The study draws on two case studies of such networks in education in England, the first, a regional network for women secondary school principals, and the other…

  5. Romani Women and Popular Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flecha, Ainhoa; Oliver, Esther

    2004-01-01

    The Romani community has traditionally been excluded from many spaces of participation, in many cases within the labour market and education. In this article, the authors analyse the situation of the Romani community, focusing especially on the reality of Romi who have been the catalysts of profound change for themselves as women and their…

  6. The Report Card on Educating Hispanic Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, Elvira Valenzuela

    1982-01-01

    Hispanic women earn less, own fewer businesses, and are less represented in politics than almost any other population segment, and their history of low educational attainment is a key factor for each of these realities. In 1981, while 69% of the total population completed four or more years of high school, only 42% of the Hispanic females reached…

  7. Women's Higher Education in Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gail P., Ed.; Slaughter, Sheila, Ed.

    This book presents a collection of essays on the effect of national policies and practices on women's access to higher education, the type of courses in which women are enrolled, women's roles as academics, and how the outcomes of higher education affect women in the academic workforce and the economy. Various countries are represented in the…

  8. Women Education in Nigeria: Predicaments and Hopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akubuilo, Francis; Omeje, Monica

    2012-10-01

    This paper is focused on women education in Nigeria. It traces the genesis of western education in Nigeria and bias that existed from the traditional Nigerian society against women education. It identified and discussed barriers to women education in Nigeria. Recent trend in enrolment at various levels of education shows improvement in favor of women. In view of this realization, this paper argues that if the current momentum is sustained, women will not only achieve equal status to men in educational attainment but also have the tendency to surpass men within the next ten to fifteen years. The implications could be outreaching as the paper proffers some recommendations.

  9. Women's Participation in Higher Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujimura-Fanselow, Kumiko

    1985-01-01

    The choices that Japanese women make about higher education are, in part, a response to realistic expectations about the functions or rewards of education in their lives and the availability of job opportunities for educated women. Discusses traditional and changing Japanese attitudes toward sex roles, working women, and the types of employment…

  10. Women and Education: A Feminist Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Language Association of America, New York, NY. Commission on the Status of Women.

    This document presents the proceedings of the conference on Women and Education: A Feminist Perspective. The papers presented at the conference were: Why Women's Studies and How Sexism and Social Change; Research in Psychology Relevant to the Situation of Women; Women and the Visual Arts; The Woman in the Moon: Toward an Integration of Women's…

  11. Health education needs of incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Dinkel, Shirley; Schmidt, Katie

    2014-07-01

    This study identifies the healthcare education needs of incarcerated women in a state corrections facility. This was a naturalistic qualitative study. Focus groups included two groups of adult women incarcerated in a state corrections facility. One group consisted of women housed in maximum security, and one group consisted of women housed in medium security. Data were analyzed using a constant comparison approach. Three guiding questions provided the foundation for the identified themes. Themes included six healthcare education topics important to incarcerated women and three related to health education strategies best suited for incarcerated women. Trust, respect and empowerment are key concepts in educating incarcerated women about their personal health and health of their families. With over 200,000 women incarcerated in the United States today, creating policies and practices that focus on the healthcare education needs of women that are woman focused may enhance knowledge and skills and may ultimately lead to reduced recidivism. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  12. Girls' and Women's Education in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    As a result of intensive advocacy, girls' and women's education is a developmental priority in India. Availability of international development assistance for basic education and women's education has gone up significantly. Government and donor perceptions of gender issues in education and the importance of reaching out to girls to achieve the…

  13. Status of Indian Women in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghara, Tushar Kanti

    2016-01-01

    Women education and empowerment are the indicators of development. Women education ensures the holistic and long development. It includes equitable and increased access to technical and vocational education and training, higher education and research with due attention to quality assurance. This communication has taken a look on women…

  14. High Blood Pressure and Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More High Blood Pressure and Women Updated:Dec 14,2016 Pregnancy and ... Women . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  15. The Contemporary Women's Movement and Women's Education in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Ila

    1998-01-01

    Examines how the contemporary women's movement in India (1975-present) has addressed the issue of women's education. Highlights contributions of the 19th-century social-reformist movement and the nationalist movement. Details the role of the contemporary women's movement in redefining knowledge and the curriculum. Concludes with challenges facing…

  16. Alternate Trajectories: Women Moving into Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toney, Allison F.

    2014-01-01

    While only about one-third of each year's doctoral graduates in mathematics are women, about two-thirds of the doctoral graduates in mathematics education are women. This article reports on the results of a qualitative investigation into the nature of the graduate school-related experiences of women in collegiate mathematics education doctoral…

  17. Education for Hmong Women in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Xuefang

    2007-01-01

    The Hmong are the second largest tribal group in Thailand. Hmong society is stratified by both age and gender. Women were considered inferior to men in Hmong traditional society. There was a strong bias against education for Hmong women in the past. Hmong women's access to education has improved with recent developments in the socio-economy and…

  18. Education for Hmong Women in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Xuefang

    2007-01-01

    The Hmong are the second largest tribal group in Thailand. Hmong society is stratified by both age and gender. Women were considered inferior to men in Hmong traditional society. There was a strong bias against education for Hmong women in the past. Hmong women's access to education has improved with recent developments in the socio-economy and…

  19. Affirmative Action and Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazzard, Terry

    The purposes of this paper are to: (1) discuss the historical development of women in higher education; (2) describe the implementation of federal policies for women; (3) focus on selected problems encountered by women in the work-place; and (4) offer recommendations and suggestions for eliminating some of the problems that women encounter. The…

  20. Unwritten: Young Women Faculty in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Whitney H.; Beaty, Danna M.; Crum, Karen S.; Peters, April

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: As women professors of educational leadership who are involved with feminist research and the preparation of k-12 women leaders, the authors came to the realization that while they have dedicated their professional lives to advancing women leaders in the k-12 environment, they have neglected women like themselves, particularly young…

  1. Unwritten: Young Women Faculty in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Whitney H.; Beaty, Danna M.; Crum, Karen S.; Peters, April

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: As women professors of educational leadership who are involved with feminist research and the preparation of k-12 women leaders, the authors came to the realization that while they have dedicated their professional lives to advancing women leaders in the k-12 environment, they have neglected women like themselves, particularly young…

  2. Education Predicts Incidence of Preclinical Mobility Disability in Initially High-Functioning Older Women. The Women’s Health and Aging Study II

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Patricia C.; Xue, Qian-Li; Tian, Jing; Thorpe, Roland J.; Fried, Linda P.

    2011-01-01

    Background. To examine the impact of educational attainment on the incidence of preclinical mobility disability (PCD). Methods. The Women's Health and Aging II Study is a prospective observational cohort study of 436 initially high-functioning community-dwelling women aged 70–79 years at baseline in Baltimore, Maryland. We measured the association of highest attained education level with preclinical mobility disability (PCD) over an 11-year period. PCD is defined as self-reported modification in any of four tasks without reporting difficulty in those tasks. The tasks were walking ½ mile, climbing up steps, doing heavy housework, and getting in/out of bed or chair. Results. Participants with less than 9 years of education were more likely to acquire incident PCD (hazard ratio: 3.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.2–7.7) than their counterparts with more education after adjusting for income, marital status, number of diseases, and high self-efficacy. Conclusions. Lower education level is an independent predictor of incident preclinical mobility disability. This association has important implications for primary and secondary prevention and can be easily assessed in clinical encounters. PMID:21382883

  3. The Dangers of Educated Girls and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Vaughn M.

    2016-01-01

    Why do educated girls and women constitute a danger in some societies and for this face extreme danger in their educational endeavours? This article argues that historical and contemporary educational discrimination of girls and women is the hallmark of a violently patriarchal society, and this stubborn injustice is exacerbated under conditions of…

  4. The Dangers of Educated Girls and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Vaughn M.

    2016-01-01

    Why do educated girls and women constitute a danger in some societies and for this face extreme danger in their educational endeavours? This article argues that historical and contemporary educational discrimination of girls and women is the hallmark of a violently patriarchal society, and this stubborn injustice is exacerbated under conditions of…

  5. Why Have Educational Disparities in Mortality Increased among White Women in the United States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Zajacova, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s differences in mortality risk across education levels have widened considerably among non-Hispanic white women. For example, while mortality has "declined" among college-educated women, it has remained fairly "stable" among women with a high school credential or some college education and "increased" among women without a high…

  6. Effects of education based on the health belief model on screening behavior in high risk women for breast cancer, Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Hajian, Sepideh; Vakilian, Katayon; Najabadi, Khadijeh Mirzaii; Hosseini, Jalil; Mirzaei, Hamid Reza

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Early diagnosis allows efficient treatment and increases survival, but the efficacy of breast self examination (BSE) is not sufficiently well established. The American Cancer Society aims to give women the opportunity to recognize the utility, limitations and adverse effects of breast cancer screening through education models based on psychological theories. With the Health Belief Model, people's health perceptions and attitudes influence their practices, for example with screening. The purpose of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to determine the effect of education based on this model on breast cancer screening in high risk Iranian women. Participants were women with a family history of breast cancer (mother, sister, and daughter). After explanation of the study objectives to participants, they were recruited on obtaining oral consent and each filled out the study questionnaire based on the Health Belief Model. Allocation was into two groups by computerized randomization, control and intervention, receiving education on breast cancer screening. Perceived susceptibility to and seriousness of breast cancer, perceived usefulness of and barriers to BSE, clinical breast examination, and mammography, and self-efficacy in the ability to perform these, were assessed, with comparison of scores for BSE practice before and after education and doing mammography and clinical examination by a physician in intervention and control group. The mean age was 37.8 ± 11.7 (range 19-60). The mean rank in the intervention group significantly differed before and after the education, but except for " perceived threat" and "perceived usefulness of breast self examination", we did not find any significant differences from the control group. After educational sessions, breast self examination and clinical examination practice rates were elevated. Health education based on well known psychological theories for breast cancer

  7. Excluding Women from the Educational Realm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jane Roland

    1982-01-01

    Martin examines the exclusion of women from philosophy of education both as subjects who have written about education and as objects of educational study and thought. She traces this exclusion from a misunderstanding of Plato, Rousseau, and Pestalozzi and builds a critique of the concepts of education, liberal education, and teaching. (Author/SK)

  8. Excluding Women from the Educational Realm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jane Roland

    1982-01-01

    Martin examines the exclusion of women from philosophy of education both as subjects who have written about education and as objects of educational study and thought. She traces this exclusion from a misunderstanding of Plato, Rousseau, and Pestalozzi and builds a critique of the concepts of education, liberal education, and teaching. (Author/SK)

  9. Educators and Visionaries: Women in Educational Administration in New Brunswick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Barbara A.

    A study was conducted during spring 1993 of 29 women educators in New Brunswick, Canada, who had either obtained a position or who were actively seeking a position in educational administration. About 25 percent of administrators in the Anglophone school system are women. The largest percentage of these women administrators are in rural school…

  10. Vietnamese women in education and health care.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    In Viet Nam, government policy to achieve universal literacy has led to virtual equality in the numbers of girls and boys attending primary schools (50.7% girls) and to a 43.7% and 41.38% enrollment level for girls in junior secondary and high secondary schools, respectively. Women also fill 70% of primary teaching posts, and 37% of the female teachers at all levels have college degrees. In order to achieve further advances, the government has set targets for the year 2000 that include 1) abolition of illiteracy among women aged 15-25; 2) a 50% representation of girls in junior secondary schools; 3) a 45% enrollment of girls at the high secondary level; and 4) an increased number of women trained in professional, managerial, and women-related matters. To achieve this goal, the government will increase its training and education budget by 15%. In the health care field, women account for 60% of the work force and have been instrumental in achieving improvements in public health. However, women's health remains at risk from the after-effects of war and other factors, 4,000,000 people are disabled, 300,000 children have been orphaned, and millions of people face old age without the support of offspring who were killed in the war. Thus, government goals for the year 2000 include 1) reducing maternal and child mortality rates, 2) eliminating anemia among pregnant women, 3) reducing the infant mortality rate, 4) reducing malnutrition in children under age 5 from 42% to 30%, and 5) reducing population growth.

  11. Women in Higher Education: Empowering Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGeorgio-Lutz, JoAnn, Ed.

    The essays in this collection discuss the position of women in higher education, noting the progress that women have made in recent years in the quest to achieve gender equality and the challenges women still face in study and academic careers. The chapters are: (1) "Expanding the Academic Knowledge Base: Helping Students To Cross Gender's Great…

  12. Women in Higher Education: Empowering Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGeorgio-Lutz, JoAnn, Ed.

    The essays in this collection discuss the position of women in higher education, noting the progress that women have made in recent years in the quest to achieve gender equality and the challenges women still face in study and academic careers. The chapters are: (1) "Expanding the Academic Knowledge Base: Helping Students To Cross Gender's Great…

  13. Girls' and Women's Education in Laos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    While girls and women in Laos are not the target of strong discriminatory practices, they are at a higher risk of dropping out of school and never attending school. Specific components have been developed within educational policies and strategies to address needs of and concerns for girls and women. Reasons that girls and women lack access to…

  14. Incidental Education (for Women) in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Valmai

    The Country Women's Association (CWA) is a nationwide Australian group that started in the 1920s in response to isolated women's need to socialize. The group's activities have expanded greatly over time. It distributes essential food and clothing to needy rural families, and its extensive involvement in incidental education for women includes…

  15. Status of Professional Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manicur, Alice R.

    The author presents an historical and cultural analysis of the place of women in society. It is stated that historically women have had to assume an aggressive role to become educated. In addition, as far back as the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, one finds records which indicate that women had to seek opportunities to study and to learn.…

  16. Women and Education. Women in the Caribbean Project, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massiah, Joycelin, Ed.

    One of a series emanating from a three-year project concerned with the role of women in the English-speaking Caribbean, these papers discuss the history of Caribbean women's education. The project's objectives are to establish a data base for teaching, research, and planning purposes and to develop guidelines for a social policy that recognizes…

  17. Women, Education and Work in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anugwom, Edlyne E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the implication of the growing educational opportunities for women in Nigeria. Although bias has existed from the traditional Nigerian society against women, recent events especially in education reveal a conquering of this deep-rooted prejudice. Enrollment figures particularly in the last ten years show a remarkable bridging…

  18. Women and Higher Education; Recommendations for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Audrey C.

    Society has traditionally discriminated against women in the educational and professional areas, and studies have shown that even talented and educated women are affected by what has been labeled "a climate of unexpectation." Colleges and universities, as part of their responsibility to build a new society, must play a major part in affecting…

  19. Glass Ceiling for Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schedler, Petra; Glastra, Folke; Hake, Barry

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the place of women in higher education in the Netherlands. Suggests that it is not a question of numbers but of orientation, field, and the glass ceiling. Asserts that despite some improvement, higher education may be one of the last bastions against the recognition of women's worth. (Contains 42 references.) (JOW)

  20. The Roots of Higher Education for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Melissa Meriam

    1979-01-01

    Presented is a history of higher education for women that explores the changing circumstances that made it possible for a woman, Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Psicopia, to earn a university degree. Topics include the education of women in ancient society, Christianity's influence, the rise of universities, and changes caused by the humanists. (JMD)

  1. Twentieth-Century Black Women in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Mary Frances

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the impact of numerous Black women on American education. Discusses how, because of their overriding interest in educational opportunity, these leaders have often overlooked the issue of educational quality. Indicates that those who subscribe to educating Blacks for social assimilation encounter less opposition than those who emphasize…

  2. Girls' and Women's Education in Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    Cultural and socioeconomic barriers to girls' and women's education are reflected in the female literacy rate, average wage, and girls' enrollment, dropout, attainment, and participation rates in formal education. Development of national education has been given top priority in the Indonesian national development. The education system is organized…

  3. The Successful Educational Journeys of American Indian Women: Forming Aspirations for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2014-01-01

    American Indians (AIs) have lower higher education enrollment and completion rates than Whites and most minority groups. AI women, however, participate at higher rates than AI men, White women, and White men. Research has not examined what contributes to their higher education aspirations. This study explored the middle and high school experiences…

  4. High Heels Increase Women's Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Research has found that the appearance of women's apparel helps increase their attractiveness as rated by men and that men care more about physical features in potential opposite-sex mates. However, the effect of sartorial appearance has received little interest from scientists. In a series of studies, the length of women's shoe heels was examined. A woman confederate wearing black shoes with 0, 5, or 9 cm heels asked men for help in various circumstances. In Study 1, she asked men to respond to a short survey on gender equality. In Study 2, the confederate asked men and women to participate in a survey on local food habit consumption. In Study 3, men and women in the street were observed while walking in back of the female confederate who dropped a glove apparently unaware of her loss. It was found that men's helping behavior increased as soon as heel length increased. However, heel length had no effect on women's helping behavior. It was also found that men spontaneously approached women more quickly when they wore high-heeled shoes (Study 4). Change in gait, foot-size judgment, and misattribution of sexiness and sexual intent were used as possible explanations.

  5. Women's Involvement in Educational Psychology Journals from 1976 to 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Joy; Hsieh, Peggy Pei-Hsuan; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2005-01-01

    Previously, Robinson, McKay, Katayama, and Fan (1998) examined women's involvement in six educational psychology journals ("American Educational Research Journal," "Contemporary Educational Psychology," "Educational Psychologist," "Educational Psychology Review," "Journal of Experimental Education," and "Journal of Educational Psychology") from…

  6. Women's Involvement in Educational Psychology Journals from 1976 to 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Joy; Hsieh, Peggy Pei-Hsuan; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2005-01-01

    Previously, Robinson, McKay, Katayama, and Fan (1998) examined women's involvement in six educational psychology journals ("American Educational Research Journal," "Contemporary Educational Psychology," "Educational Psychologist," "Educational Psychology Review," "Journal of Experimental Education," and "Journal of Educational Psychology") from…

  7. Status of Women in Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakamoto, Izumi; Anastas, Jeane W.; McPhail, Beverly M.; Colarossi, Lisa G.

    2008-01-01

    This invited study sought to determine the current status of women in social work education for the special section of the "Journal of Social Work Education." Analysis of the latest data available indicate that gender differences remain pervasive across many aspects of social work education, including pay, rank, job duties, and tenure.…

  8. Girls' and Women's Education in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    Statistically, Thailand has eliminated gender disparity in access to education. Reasons that four women's conferences made very little impression on education reform could be no significant or overt discrimination against girls' enrollment and employment; education opportunity as more an issue of class (affordability) than gender (culture); and…

  9. Understanding the Educational Attainment of Sexual Minority Women and Men*

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany

    2015-01-01

    National studies have not analyzed sexual identity disparities in high school completion, college enrollment, or college completion in the United States. Using Add Health data, we document the relationship between adult sexual orientation and each of these outcomes. Many sexual minority respondents experienced disadvantages in adolescent academic achievement, school experiences, and social environments. This translates into educational attainment in complex, gendered ways. We find that the socially privileged completely heterosexual identity predicts higher educational attainment for women, while for men it is often a liability. Mostly heterosexual and gay identities are educationally beneficial for men but not women. There are college completion disparities between gay and mostly heterosexual women and their completely heterosexual counterparts. Bisexual respondents, especially women, have particularly problematic outcomes. Adolescent experiences, attitudes, and social contexts explain some of these differences. From adolescence through college, sexual minority groups, but especially females, need intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities. PMID:26257457

  10. Civic and Political Education of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations, New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs.

    "This pamphlet was produced at the request of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women and the Economic and Social Council (of the United Nations)...It was written primarily for the use of leaders responsible for the civic and political education of women, whether governmental or non-governmental, and is intended as a basic…

  11. Voices of Resilience: Successful Jamaican Women Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dole, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Through the use of the framework of risk and resilience in a narrative inquiry, the present study examined the protective factors affecting the academic success of 24 Jamaican women in a graduate cohort in educational administration. All but two of the women rose from poverty to become academically successful, defined as having achieved graduate…

  12. Early Women Geography Educators, 1783-1932.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittser, Sharan E.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the contributions of women educators to the development of geography as a discipline, focusing on seven women: (1) Susanna Rowson; (2) Emma Hart Willard; (3) Sarah Sophia Cornell; (4) Ellen Churchill Semple; (5) Zonia Baber; (6) Erna Grassmuck Gilland; and (7) Esther Sanfrieda Anderson. (CMK)

  13. Early Women Geography Educators, 1783-1932.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittser, Sharan E.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the contributions of women educators to the development of geography as a discipline, focusing on seven women: (1) Susanna Rowson; (2) Emma Hart Willard; (3) Sarah Sophia Cornell; (4) Ellen Churchill Semple; (5) Zonia Baber; (6) Erna Grassmuck Gilland; and (7) Esther Sanfrieda Anderson. (CMK)

  14. Women's Education and Earnings in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werschkul, Misha; Gault, Barbara; Caiazza, Amy; Hartmann, Heidi

    2005-01-01

    Women have made remarkable strides in education during the past three decades, but these gains have yet to translate into full equity in pay. Women still earn less than men earn in nearly every profession and at every stage of their careers, and this earnings gap is evident in every state in the nation. This report focuses on educational…

  15. Women in the Profession of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loring, Rosalind

    The challenge of International Women's Year for us is to expand educational opportunities for all women. Between and among the national organizations we can demonstrate our willingness to share our accumulated knowledge of problem-solving methods applied to personal and community needs both here and abroad. Relatively recent trends (modern…

  16. Asian-American Women in Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Lily

    The under-representation of Asian American women in educational research and development is related to both sociocultural and historical barriers. Some of these barriers (racial and sexual discrimination, lack of role models, and lack of professional contacts) are shared by women of all ethnic minorities. There are also, however, unique barriers…

  17. Women-Friendly Perspectives in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Prummer, Christine

    1994-01-01

    Reports on research that investigated characteristics of distance education programs in Germany that influenced the participation of women. Highlights include the number of women enrolled; drop-out rates; a description of the FernUniversitat, including degree programs and characteristics of the institution; and a pilot project aimed at single…

  18. Women and Education: A Canadian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane, Ed.; McLaren, Arlene, Ed.

    This four-part book contains 16 papers that explore the relationship between feminist research and education, especially in Canada. The papers in the first part, "Women as Mothers, Women as Teachers," are as follows: "The Evolution of the Sexual Division of Labour in Teaching" (Danylewycz, Light, Prentice); "More than a…

  19. Voices of Resilience: Successful Jamaican Women Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dole, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Through the use of the framework of risk and resilience in a narrative inquiry, the present study examined the protective factors affecting the academic success of 24 Jamaican women in a graduate cohort in educational administration. All but two of the women rose from poverty to become academically successful, defined as having achieved graduate…

  20. Women-Friendly Perspectives in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Prummer, Christine

    1994-01-01

    Reports on research that investigated characteristics of distance education programs in Germany that influenced the participation of women. Highlights include the number of women enrolled; drop-out rates; a description of the FernUniversitat, including degree programs and characteristics of the institution; and a pilot project aimed at single…

  1. Childbearing impeded education more than education impeded childbearing among Norwegian women

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Joel E.; Kravdal, Øystein; Keilman, Nico

    2011-01-01

    In most societies, women at age 39 with higher levels of education have fewer children. To understand this association, we investigated the effects of childbearing on educational attainment and the effects of education on fertility in the 1964 birth cohort of Norwegian women. Using detailed annual data from ages 17 to 39, we estimated the probabilities of an additional birth, a change in educational level, and enrollment in the coming year, conditional on fertility history, educational level, and enrollment history at the beginning of each year. A simple model reproduced a declining gradient of children ever born with increasing educational level at age 39. When a counterfactual simulation assumed no effects of childbearing on educational progression or enrollment (without changing the estimated effects of education on childbearing), the simulated number of children ever born decreased very little with increasing completed educational level, contrary to data. However, when another counterfactual simulation assumed no effects of current educational level and enrollment on childbearing (without changing the estimated effects of childbearing on education), the simulated number of children ever born decreased with increasing completed educational level nearly as much as the decrease in the data. In summary, in these Norwegian data, childbearing impeded education much more than education impeded childbearing. These results suggest that women with advanced degrees have lower completed fertility on the average principally because women who have one or more children early are more likely to leave or not enter long educational tracks and never attain a high educational level. PMID:21730138

  2. Childbearing impeded education more than education impeded childbearing among Norwegian women.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel E; Kravdal, Øystein; Keilman, Nico

    2011-07-19

    In most societies, women at age 39 with higher levels of education have fewer children. To understand this association, we investigated the effects of childbearing on educational attainment and the effects of education on fertility in the 1964 birth cohort of Norwegian women. Using detailed annual data from ages 17 to 39, we estimated the probabilities of an additional birth, a change in educational level, and enrollment in the coming year, conditional on fertility history, educational level, and enrollment history at the beginning of each year. A simple model reproduced a declining gradient of children ever born with increasing educational level at age 39. When a counterfactual simulation assumed no effects of childbearing on educational progression or enrollment (without changing the estimated effects of education on childbearing), the simulated number of children ever born decreased very little with increasing completed educational level, contrary to data. However, when another counterfactual simulation assumed no effects of current educational level and enrollment on childbearing (without changing the estimated effects of childbearing on education), the simulated number of children ever born decreased with increasing completed educational level nearly as much as the decrease in the data. In summary, in these Norwegian data, childbearing impeded education much more than education impeded childbearing. These results suggest that women with advanced degrees have lower completed fertility on the average principally because women who have one or more children early are more likely to leave or not enter long educational tracks and never attain a high educational level.

  3. Iranian Women: Between Education and Repression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bousalis, Rina

    2012-01-01

    Iranian women have endured more than 30 years of an Islamist dictatorship that uses religion as a validation for unjust control. Human rights violations against women in Iran are a tragic phenomenon for an otherwise highly developed civilization. Invisible and powerless in a male-dominated society, Iranian women are discouraged from becoming…

  4. Iranian Women: Between Education and Repression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bousalis, Rina

    2012-01-01

    Iranian women have endured more than 30 years of an Islamist dictatorship that uses religion as a validation for unjust control. Human rights violations against women in Iran are a tragic phenomenon for an otherwise highly developed civilization. Invisible and powerless in a male-dominated society, Iranian women are discouraged from becoming…

  5. Women in the Olympic Movement: Advancing Women's Roles through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stier, William F.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews women's struggles for equal representation in the Olympic Games on the International Olympic Committee and the national committees, and as participants in the games. Discusses problems with the language in the Olympic Charter, governance of the games, and the role of education on all levels. (SM)

  6. Women in Educational Leadership: Finding Common Ground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Kathleen; Moss, Glenda; Hannah, Susan; Wiener, Roberta

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to engage in self-reflective analysis of leadership development as an ongoing process of social action towards democratizing education. Four White women connected by their work as educational leaders, teachers and administrators, engaged this topic by conducting a dialogical analysis of their experiences in…

  7. Educating Girls and Women: A Moral Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This booklet focuses on educating girls and women. The main issues include gender gap and its persistence in education. The reasons for this persistence include poverty, distance of schools, non-availability of gender segregated schools, absence of female teachers, inflexible school timing, and irrelevant and gender-insensitive curriculum. It is…

  8. Trends in Educational Equity of Girls & Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Yupin; Choy, Susan; Geddes, Claire; Sable, Jennifer; Snyder, Thomas

    This statistical report responds to a request by Congress for a report on educational equity for girls and women. The report assembles a series of indicators that examine the extent to which males and females have access to the same educational opportunities, avail themselves of these opportunities, perform at the same level, succeed at the same…

  9. Women in Educational Leadership: The Case of Hope High School in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diko, Nolutho

    2014-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 confers equality on all South African citizens regardless of race and gender. It has been reported that, under apartheid, gender inequality was a way of life and even social liberation movements observed it. Education is not exempt from gender inequality; the Department of Education in 2003…

  10. Women in Educational Leadership: The Case of Hope High School in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diko, Nolutho

    2014-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 confers equality on all South African citizens regardless of race and gender. It has been reported that, under apartheid, gender inequality was a way of life and even social liberation movements observed it. Education is not exempt from gender inequality; the Department of Education in 2003…

  11. Education of Women and Women's Expectations from Distance Education on the Issues Concerning Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demiray, Emine

    2014-01-01

    The most important factor that enables women to become individuals in society is education. It is also a very crucial part of rectifying the circumstances they are in. Besides formal, mass and distance education institutions, there are some other mechanisms to support women's individuality, their personal development and improve gender equality.…

  12. Educating Rita and Her Sisters. Women and Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benn, Roseanne, Ed.; Elliott, Jane, Ed.; Whaley, Pat, Ed.

    This book contains 17 papers examining the various roles--learner, teacher, researcher, manager--that women have played in the development of lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Introduction: Women and Continuing Education--Where Are We Now?" (Roseanne Benn, Jane Elliott, Pat Whaley); "Dancing into the Future:…

  13. Educating Rita and Her Sisters. Women and Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benn, Roseanne, Ed.; Elliott, Jane, Ed.; Whaley, Pat, Ed.

    This book contains 17 papers examining the various roles--learner, teacher, researcher, manager--that women have played in the development of lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Introduction: Women and Continuing Education--Where Are We Now?" (Roseanne Benn, Jane Elliott, Pat Whaley); "Dancing into the Future:…

  14. Women's Expected Earnings and Their Investment in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferber, Marianne A.; McMahon, Walter W.

    1979-01-01

    Women's expectations of high rates of return to investment in higher education, particularly in nontraditional fields and in those requiring advanced degrees, are shown to be consistent with high levels of investment in these fields. Increasing workforce participation and decreasing fertility also contribute toward reducing the female-male…

  15. Education for Women's Empowerment in Asia and South Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruzada, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue contains an editorial, "Empowering Women through Education" (Elizabeth Cruzada), and eight articles. "Women and Education" (Swarna Jayaweera) presents the status of women and girls' education in Asia vis-a-vis the goals set in the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies. "Education Reforms and Development of Chinese…

  16. Women's Hospitals Education Equity Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Whitehouse, Sheldon [D-RI

    2009-10-01

    Senate - 10/01/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Non-Traditional Educational Trajectories: The Educational Aspirations and Expectations of Women Who Are Educationally Disadvantaged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Claudia Ditmar

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the educational aspirations and expectations of a heterogeneous group of women who were enrolled in, or had graduated from, adult education and literacy programs in Boston, Massachusetts. The research questions guiding the inquiry are: (1) Why do educationally disadvantaged women value education--how are these values…

  18. Non-Traditional Educational Trajectories: The Educational Aspirations and Expectations of Women Who Are Educationally Disadvantaged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Claudia Ditmar

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the educational aspirations and expectations of a heterogeneous group of women who were enrolled in, or had graduated from, adult education and literacy programs in Boston, Massachusetts. The research questions guiding the inquiry are: (1) Why do educationally disadvantaged women value education--how are these values…

  19. Balancing extensive ambition and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands: A grounded theory on stress and recovery among highly educated working young women entering male-dominated occupational areas.

    PubMed

    Löve, Jesper; Hagberg, Mats; Dellve, Lotta

    2011-01-01

    Several factors underline the issue of stress-related health among young highly educated women. Major societal changes might provide more new challenges with considerably changed and expanded roles than were expected by earlier generations, especially among women. The quantity of young women with higher education has also increased threefold in Sweden in less than two decades and there are a growing number of young women that hereby break with traditional gender positions and enter new occupational areas traditionally dominated by men. The research questions in the present study were: "What is the main concern, regarding stress and recovery, among young highly educated working women breaking with traditional gender positions and entering male-dominated occupational areas?" and "How do they handle this concern?" We conducted open-ended interviews with 20 informants, aged 23-29 years. The results showed that the synergy between highly ambitious individuals and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands ended up in the informants' constantly striving to find a balance in daily life (main concern). This concern refers to the respondents experiencing a constant overload of ambiguity and that they easily became entangled in a loop of stress and dysfunctional coping behavior, threatening the balance between stress and sufficient recovery. In order to handle this concern, the respondents used different strategies in balancing extensive ambition and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands (core category). This preliminary theoretical model deepens our understanding of how the increasing numbers of highly educated young women face complex living conditions endangering their possibility of maintaining health and work ability.

  20. Balancing extensive ambition and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands: A grounded theory on stress and recovery among highly educated working young women entering male-dominated occupational areas

    PubMed Central

    Löve, Jesper; Hagberg, Mats; Dellve, Lotta

    2011-01-01

    Several factors underline the issue of stress-related health among young highly educated women. Major societal changes might provide more new challenges with considerably changed and expanded roles than were expected by earlier generations, especially among women. The quantity of young women with higher education has also increased threefold in Sweden in less than two decades and there are a growing number of young women that hereby break with traditional gender positions and enter new occupational areas traditionally dominated by men. The research questions in the present study were: “What is the main concern, regarding stress and recovery, among young highly educated working women breaking with traditional gender positions and entering male-dominated occupational areas?” and “How do they handle this concern?” We conducted open-ended interviews with 20 informants, aged 23-29 years. The results showed that the synergy between highly ambitious individuals and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands ended up in the informants’ constantly striving to find a balance in daily life (main concern). This concern refers to the respondents experiencing a constant overload of ambiguity and that they easily became entangled in a loop of stress and dysfunctional coping behavior, threatening the balance between stress and sufficient recovery. In order to handle this concern, the respondents used different strategies in balancing extensive ambition and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands (core category). This preliminary theoretical model deepens our understanding of how the increasing numbers of highly educated young women face complex living conditions endangering their possibility of maintaining health and work ability. PMID:21909337

  1. Continuing Education for Women: A Clarion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Joy K.

    1979-01-01

    A vacuum exists in the systematic collection of data on Continuing Education for Women (CEW). CEW programs must become accountable by maintaining records to demonstrate user patterns and program effectiveness. The author outlines specific suggestions for assessment, evaluation, and research; three areas which are integral to the mission of CEW…

  2. Postsecondary Education of White Women in 1900.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durbin, Nancy E.; Kent, Lori

    1989-01-01

    Uses state-level census data from 1900 to examine relationships between the social-structure characteristics and enrollments in three types of institutions of higher education: coeducational colleges and universities, women's colleges, and normal schools. Concluded that enrollments were differentially affected by characteristics of the social…

  3. Higher Education and Women's Empowerment in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Samina; Courtney, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded.…

  4. Mentoring Women and Minorities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordova, Fred; And Others

    Some relevant issues concerning the mentoring of women and minorities in the realm of higher education are addressed, primarily focusing on the differences and problems that exist in assisting these two groups of professionals in achieving their career goals. The importance of mentoring and methods that can be used by a mentor in assisting the…

  5. Machinic Assemblages: Women, Art Education and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamboukou, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I explore connections between women, art education and spatial relations drawing on the Deleuzo-Guattarian concept of "machinic assemblage" as a useful analytical tool for making sense of the heterogeneity and meshwork of life narratives and their social milieus. In focusing on Mary Bradish Titcomb, a fin-de-siecle Bostonian woman…

  6. Machinic Assemblages: Women, Art Education and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamboukou, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I explore connections between women, art education and spatial relations drawing on the Deleuzo-Guattarian concept of "machinic assemblage" as a useful analytical tool for making sense of the heterogeneity and meshwork of life narratives and their social milieus. In focusing on Mary Bradish Titcomb, a fin-de-siecle Bostonian woman…

  7. Higher Education and Women's Empowerment in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Samina; Courtney, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded.…

  8. Women and Gender Equality in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Miriam E.

    2015-01-01

    I look at the changes in higher education (HE) and women's lives over the last 50 years, drawing on my recent book "Feminism, Gender & Universities: Politics, Passion & Pedagogies" which is a life history of feminism entering academe. The Robbins Report (cmnd 2154 1963) on HE was published in the same year that I went to…

  9. Education and the Process of Emancipation of Western European Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Susanne M.

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that political, technological, and social changes in Western Europe have produced a need for reassessment of the education of women and greater gender equality. Introduces the articles on equal education for women contained in this journal issue. (BSR)

  10. Phenomenological Study of Empowering Women Senior Leaders in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cselenszky, Mila P.

    2012-01-01

    The number of women in senior administrative and leadership roles in higher education is minimal compared to the number of women in higher education jobs in general. This phenomenological study explored pathways women took to advance in their careers and barriers that prevent more women from gaining senior administrative and leadership roles.…

  11. Phenomenological Study of Empowering Women Senior Leaders in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cselenszky, Mila P.

    2012-01-01

    The number of women in senior administrative and leadership roles in higher education is minimal compared to the number of women in higher education jobs in general. This phenomenological study explored pathways women took to advance in their careers and barriers that prevent more women from gaining senior administrative and leadership roles.…

  12. Women in Higher Education Administration: A Book of Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Margaret C., Ed.

    The status and satisfaction of women in higher education administration are addressed in 29 articles. Contents include the following: Why Don't Women Aspire to Leadership Positions in Education (Sylvia-Lee Tibbets); Training Women for Administration (Rae Andre and Mary I. Edwards); Kindergarten: The Training Ground for Women in Administration…

  13. Women in Higher Education Administration: A Book of Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Margaret C., Ed.

    The status and satisfaction of women in higher education administration are addressed in 29 articles. Contents include the following: Why Don't Women Aspire to Leadership Positions in Education (Sylvia-Lee Tibbets); Training Women for Administration (Rae Andre and Mary I. Edwards); Kindergarten: The Training Ground for Women in Administration…

  14. The Education of Women in the Arab States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustaffa-Kedah, Omar

    1975-01-01

    A discussion of education and educational opportunities for women in Arab States includes formal education and literacy (examining formal education, primary school enrollment, and women's illiteracy) and non-formal education (examining a Saudi Arabian literacy program, joint action by Arab States, and the Arab Literacy and Adult Education…

  15. Sensual sexuality education with young parenting women.

    PubMed

    Gubrium, Aline C; Shafer, Miriam B

    2014-08-01

    Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women at an alternative General Educational Development test preparation center. The program prioritized a sex positive framework, including topics such as pleasure, desire and sexual entitlement, and invited participants to explore sexuality through a multisensory orientation. Participants took part in small group discussions and activities that engaged their senses through arts-based methods. Grounded in holism, program topics were integrated with a focus on participants' everyday experiences. The pilot curriculum serves as a promising program for re-positioning young parenting women as sexual subjects, which is key to the promotion of health and wellbeing.

  16. Where Are All the Real Women in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pippins, Shirley

    2008-01-01

    As organizations like the American Council on Education are seeking to advance women in higher education, and many of them are approaching (or avoiding) retirement age, many women with great potential are questioning whether a leadership opportunity in higher education is for them. As a new generation of women leaders prepares to enter the higher…

  17. Empowerment of Women through Education in Twenty First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Rajeswari, K.; Jabari, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    This article explores theoretical and practical issues related to the impact of women's education in their empowerment. The development of women's education is discussed in this study. As women's education has become one of the key development objectives in the recent decades, the concept of empowerment has been tied to the range of activities…

  18. Role of Education in the Empowement of Women in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Rouf Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Women education in India has a major preoccupation of both the government and civil society as educated women can play a very important role in the development of the country. Education is milestone of women empowerment because it enables them to responds to the challenges, to confront their traditional role and change their life. So that we can't…

  19. Women Nurses and Male Physicians: Their Educational Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Vern; Bullough, Bonnie

    The implications for nursing education of the fact that nursing started as a woman's occupation in a field dominated by the male physician are considered. Although in 1873 nursing represented a real educational opportunity for large numbers of women, none of the prestigious women's colleges were interested in educating women for careers. In the…

  20. Black and white differences in the effect of women's educational attainment on age at first marriage.

    PubMed

    Dobson, C D; Houseknecht, S K

    1998-03-01

    "This study uses data from the June 1992 Current Population Survey to examine the effect of educational attainment on age at first marriage among Black and White women in the United States. The results both support and modify claims stemming from previous research. There is evidence for the contention that educational attainment delays age at first marriage for Black and White women. The greater impact of educational attainment on delaying marriage for White women in confirmed. An important discovery stems from using degree attained rather than years of education and our distinguishing four levels of education beyond high school. At less than a bachelor's degree, Black women marry later than White women, but among those with a bachelor's degree or higher, Black women who marry do so earlier than White women."

  1. The Influence of Education and Family Background on Women's Earnings in Midlife: Evidence from a British National Birth Cohort Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuh, Diana; Head, Fenny; Hardy, Rebecca; Wadsworth, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Observes that research on the influence of education on adult earnings hasn't focused on differences between women. Looks at British women born immediately after World War Two. Shows that women who were able to take advantage of expanded educational opportunities and achieve high educational qualifications earned significantly more than less…

  2. Women's Changing Attitudes toward Divorce, 1974-2002: Evidence for an Educational Crossover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Steven P.; Parashar, Sangeeta

    2006-01-01

    This article examines trends in divorce attitudes of young adult women in the United States by educational attainment from 1974 to 2002. Women with 4-year college degrees, who previously had the most permissive attitudes toward divorce, have become more restrictive in their attitudes toward divorce than high school graduates and women with some…

  3. Women's Changing Attitudes toward Divorce, 1974-2002: Evidence for an Educational Crossover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Steven P.; Parashar, Sangeeta

    2006-01-01

    This article examines trends in divorce attitudes of young adult women in the United States by educational attainment from 1974 to 2002. Women with 4-year college degrees, who previously had the most permissive attitudes toward divorce, have become more restrictive in their attitudes toward divorce than high school graduates and women with some…

  4. Could Separate Be Equal? Helene Lange and Women's Education in Imperial Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albisetti, James C.

    1982-01-01

    Helene Lange worked to obtain equal educational opportunities for women in Germany at the end of the nineteenth century. She tried to improve teacher training for women, enhance the curriculum in girls' high schools, and increase professional training opportunities for women. (AM)

  5. Women at High Risk for Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... fat or high cholesterol foods; only 78% of non-Hispanic whites were given the same advice. • There ... received this advice. Weight Loss • Only 50% of non-Hispanic black and Mexican American women at high ...

  6. Women's Education, Marital Violence, and Divorce: A Social Exchange Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kreager, Derek A; Felson, Richard B; Warner, Cody; Wenger, Marin R

    2013-06-01

    Drawing on social exchange theories, the authors hypothesized that educated women are more likely than uneducated women to leave violent marriages and suggested that this pattern offsets the negative education - divorce association commonly found in the United States. They tested these hypotheses using 2 waves of young adult data on 914 married women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The evidence suggests that the negative relationship between women's education and divorce is weaker when marriages involve abuse than when they do not. The authors observed a similar pattern when they examined the association of women's proportional earnings and divorce, controlling for education. Supplementary analyses suggested that marital satisfaction explains some of the association among women's resources, victimization, and divorce but that marital violence continues to be a significant moderator of the education - divorce association. In sum, education appears to benefit women by both maintaining stable marriages and dissolving violent ones.

  7. The Impact of Historical Expectations on Women's Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenmann, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which gendered approaches have limited women's experience of higher education. Using a historical lens with primary examples from the United States and Britain, it demonstrates how beliefs about women over time led to three expectations about their educational participation: initially, that women were not interested in…

  8. Education for Active Citizenship: Women's Organisations in Interwar Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    Following the enfranchisement of women in 1918 women's organisations throughout Britain reconsidered and revised their aims for the future. In many cases this involved educating their members, and women in general, on how to use their new influence in society. Such "education for citizenship", which also drove attempts to raise the…

  9. Shaping Social Justice Leadership: Insights of Women Educators Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Linda L.; Strachan, Jane; Lazaridou, Angeliki

    2012-01-01

    "Shaping Social Justice Leadership: Insights of Women Educators Worldwide" contains evocative portraits of twenty-three women educators and leaders from around the world whose actions are shaping social justice leadership. Woven from words of their own narratives, the women's voices lift off the page into readers' hearts and minds to inspire and…

  10. Cracking the Wall: Women in Higher Education Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Patricia Turner, Ed.

    This volume contains 13 papers and an introduction on women in higher education administration. The papers include an introduction by editor Patricia T. Mitchell and chapters as follows: (1) "Career Paths of Women in Higher Education Administration" (Rebecca Warner and Lois B. DeFleur); (2) "Women, Leadership, and the Academy:…

  11. Shaping Social Justice Leadership: Insights of Women Educators Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Linda L.; Strachan, Jane; Lazaridou, Angeliki

    2012-01-01

    "Shaping Social Justice Leadership: Insights of Women Educators Worldwide" contains evocative portraits of twenty-three women educators and leaders from around the world whose actions are shaping social justice leadership. Woven from words of their own narratives, the women's voices lift off the page into readers' hearts and minds to inspire and…

  12. Cracking the Wall: Women in Higher Education Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Patricia Turner, Ed.

    This volume contains 13 papers and an introduction on women in higher education administration. The papers include an introduction by editor Patricia T. Mitchell and chapters as follows: (1) "Career Paths of Women in Higher Education Administration" (Rebecca Warner and Lois B. DeFleur); (2) "Women, Leadership, and the Academy:…

  13. Educating New Mothers: Women and the Enlightenment in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Carol S.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the impact of Enlightenment philosophies on Russian women during the reign of Catherine II (1762-1796). Education for upper class women was encouraraged only to enhance performance of their domestic roles within tightly knit nuclear families. Peasant women were educated to be serf-teachers for noblemen's children. (AM)

  14. Women's Education: A Survey of Purposes at a Liberal Arts College for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Janice L.; Kepler, Karen B.

    In the context of recent reappraisals of women's education and discussions about what it should be, and as part of the effort to clarify the purposes of collegiate education that may be unique to women, the students and faculty at Smith College, the largest undergraduate college for women, were surveyed. The questionnaire used was designed to…

  15. African Women, Cultural Knowledge, and Environmental Education with a Focus on Kenya's Indigenous Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wane, Njoki; Chandler, Deborah J.

    2002-01-01

    Examines African women's cultural knowledge of environmental education within a specific case study in rural Kenya. Indicates that rural women are connected to the land and the environment. Suggests that the knowledge that women have on the environment could be incorporated into teaching environmental education. (Contains 42 references.)…

  16. The Ethnography of Education: Problems and Prospects for Women Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emihovich, Catherine

    The focus of this paper is on women with respect to three themes: the reasons why women are attracted to ethnographic research, the problems they may encounter in making this choice, and the prospects for women researchers to influence the future direction of educational research. Four interrelated psychological aspects seem to attract women to…

  17. Religious Education Leading to Higher Education for Women: Historical Insights on Modern Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omori, Hideko

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses what kinds of religious education led to the improvement of women's status and the realization of higher education for women in modern Japan, by reconsidering the educational views of Jinzo Naruse (1859-1919), both a pioneer of Japanese women's education and a promoter of the Concordia movement (1912-1941), within the…

  18. Religious Education Leading to Higher Education for Women: Historical Insights on Modern Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omori, Hideko

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses what kinds of religious education led to the improvement of women's status and the realization of higher education for women in modern Japan, by reconsidering the educational views of Jinzo Naruse (1859-1919), both a pioneer of Japanese women's education and a promoter of the Concordia movement (1912-1941), within the…

  19. Vivir Con Un Corazón Saludable: a Community-Based Educational Program Aimed at Increasing Cardiovascular Health Knowledge in High-Risk Hispanic Women.

    PubMed

    Romero, Daniela C; Sauris, Aileen; Rodriguez, Fátima; Delgado, Daniela; Reddy, Ankita; Foody, JoAnne M

    2016-03-01

    Hispanic women suffer from high rates of cardiometabolic risk factors and an increasingly disproportionate burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Particularly, Hispanic women with limited English proficiency suffer from low levels of CVD knowledge associated with adverse CVD health outcomes. Thirty-two predominantly Spanish-speaking Hispanic women completed, Vivir Con un Corazón Saludable (VCUCS), a culturally tailored Spanish language-based 6-week intensive community program targeting CVD health knowledge through weekly interactive health sessions. A 30-question CVD knowledge questionnaire was used to assess mean changes in CVD knowledge at baseline and postintervention across five major knowledge domains including CVD epidemiology, dietary knowledge, medical information, risk factors, and heart attack symptoms. Completion of the program was associated with a statistically significant (p < 0.001) increase in total mean CVD knowledge scores from 39 % (mean 11.7/30.0) to 66 % (mean 19.8/30.0) postintervention consistent with a 68 % increase in overall mean CVD scores. There was a statistically significant (p < 0.001) increase in mean knowledge scores across all five CVD domains. A culturally tailored Spanish language-based health program is effective in increasing CVD awareness among high CVD risk Hispanic women with low English proficiency and low baseline CVD knowledge.

  20. Women's high hopes -- dashed again?

    PubMed

    Mason, M L

    1995-01-01

    The March 1995 UN Social Summit failed to build on the success women experienced at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Rather than endorsing the recommendations (complete with timetables) that women's groups had prepared for the Social Summit, the delegates paid them only lip service. Resistance to monitored government accountability has also been noted during the preparatory meetings for the September UN Conference for Women. This resistance to the will of the people is illustrated by actions taken by the World Bank and the Government of India to construct the world's largest dam on the Narmada River in central India. Construction of this dam would benefit sugar cane farmers and factory owners but would displace 160,000 people from the most fertile valley in the subcontinent. This aid project, funded by the World Bank, will increase poverty and discontent. Activists organized a "Save Narmada Movement" which involved protest marches and hunger strikes. Despite international pressure to review the project, however, the building has continued because the government continues to ignore the voices of the people. In order to engender the respect for people needed to stop projects like this one and to support recommendations such as those presented at the Social Summit, a world court must be created to administer world law.

  1. High blood pressure in women.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, D A; Oparil, S

    1997-01-01

    There is a sexual dimorphism in blood pressure of humans and experimental animals: males tend to have higher blood pressure than females with functional ovaries, while ovariectomy or menopause tends to abolish the sexual dimorphism and cause females to develop a "male" pattern of blood pressure. Hypertensive male laboratory animals tend to have NaCl-sensitive blood pressure, while females are NaCl resistant unless their ovaries are removed, in which case NaCl sensitivity appears. The hormonal basis of NaCl sensitivity of blood pressure and of the sexual dimorphism of hypertension remains to be defined. Synthetic estrogens and progestins, as found in oral contraceptives, tend to elevate blood pressure, while naturally occurring estrogens lower it, or have no effect. Hypertension increases cardiovascular risk in women, as well as men, although the benefits of antihypertensive treatment have been more difficult to demonstrate in women. In the population of the United States, women are more aware of their hypertension, more likely to be treated medically, and more likely to have their blood pressure controlled.

  2. A randomized trial of enhanced HIV risk reduction and vaccine trial education interventions among HIV-negative, high-risk women who use non-injection drugs: The UNITY Study

    PubMed Central

    Koblin, Beryl A.; Bonner, Sebastian; Hoover, Donald R.; Xu, Guozhen; Lucy, Debbie; Fortin, Princess; Putnam, Sara; Latka, Mary H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited data are available on interventions to reduce sexual risk behaviors and increase knowledge of HIV vaccine trial concepts in high risk populations eligible to participate in HIV vaccine efficacy trials. Methods The UNITY Study was a two-arm randomized trial to determine the efficacy of enhanced HIV risk reduction and vaccine trial education interventions to reduce the occurrence of unprotected vaginal sex acts and increase HIV vaccine trial knowledge among 311 HIV-negative non-injection drug using women. The enhanced vaccine education intervention using pictures along with application vignettes and enhanced risk reduction counseling consisting of three one-on-one counseling sessions were compared to standard conditions. Follow-up visits at one week and one, six and twelve months after randomization included HIV testing and assessment of outcomes. Results During follow up, the percent of women reporting sexual risk behaviors declined significantly, but did not differ significantly by study arm. Knowledge of HIV vaccine trial concepts significantly increased but did not significantly differ by study arm. Concepts about HIV vaccine trials not adequately addressed by either condition included those related to testing a vaccine for both efficacy and safety, guarantees about participation in future vaccine trials, assurances of safety, medical care, and assumptions about any protective effect of a test vaccine. Conclusions Further research is needed to boost educational efforts and strengthen risk reduction counseling among high-risk non-injection drug using women. PMID:20190585

  3. Empowering Women in Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugbomeh, George M. M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the concepts of agricultural education, women empowerment, and sustainable rural development. Suggests that, because women make up more than half of Nigeria's population, their empowerment would assist the efforts for sustainable rural development. (Contains 48 references.) (JOW)

  4. Creating a Community of Women Educated in Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mev

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the creative ways in which WE LEARN (Women Expanding Literacy Education Action Resource Network) empowers women's full participation in community across all literacy levels.

  5. Creating a Community of Women Educated in Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mev

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the creative ways in which WE LEARN (Women Expanding Literacy Education Action Resource Network) empowers women's full participation in community across all literacy levels.

  6. Women and Education in Eritrea: A Historical and Contemporary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanos, Asgedet

    1997-01-01

    Review of women's status in Eritrea before and since independence highlights significant advances in emancipation, with education playing a major role. The review identifies shortcomings and obstacles in the current political situation for women's rights and gender equity. (SK)

  7. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Beverly

    1989-01-01

    Examines Black womens' participation in higher education in the United States and in East Africa. The progress of Black women in institutions and careers in both places is hindered by discrimination. Prescribes strategies to remedy this situation. (DM)

  8. Women in Educational Administration: Where Do They Stand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levandowski, Barbara S.

    1977-01-01

    The number of women in educational administrative positions is declining even though federal legislation and affirmative action programs exist to remedy the problem and research has shown women to be effective leaders. (Author/IRT)

  9. Council for the Continuing Education of Women Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaynor, Elizabeth H.

    The 1972 annual report of the Greater Miami Council for the Continuing Education of Women (CCEW) is presented. The CCEW, in operation for two years and now a part of Miami-Dade Junior College, offers programs encouraging women to continue their education and serves as an information and referral center to educational resources in academic, career…

  10. Sex Education Attitudes and Outcomes among North American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Monnica T.; Bonner, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Attitudes and outcomes of sex education received by North American women are examined via an Internet survey (N = 1,400). Mean age was 19.5, with 24% reporting one or more unplanned pregnancies. Women were more satisfied with sex education from informal sources than from parents, schools, and physicians. Those receiving sex education from parents…

  11. Women's Role in Early Childhood Education in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balke, Eva

    1993-01-01

    Highlights women's influence on the development of early childhood education in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe. Traces the development of schools, the growth of women's influence, nineteenth-century trends, and the role of male educators. Offers brief biographical sketches of female early childhood education pioneers and notes…

  12. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  13. Women Technology Leaders: Gender Issues in Higher Education Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Women working in higher education information technology (IT) organizations and those seeking leadership positions in these organizations face a double challenge in overcoming the traditionally male-dominated environments of higher education and IT. Three women higher education chief information officers (CIOs) provided their perspectives,…

  14. Adult Jewish Education and Participation among Reform Jewish Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mareschal, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    The history of adult Jewish education is rich and is replete with learning opportunities for Jewish adults, and Jewish women are active participants in adult Jewish education. In this chapter, the author examines Reform Jewish women's motivations to participate in adult Jewish education. First, she provides a historical overview of Judaism and…

  15. Women Technology Leaders: Gender Issues in Higher Education Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Women working in higher education information technology (IT) organizations and those seeking leadership positions in these organizations face a double challenge in overcoming the traditionally male-dominated environments of higher education and IT. Three women higher education chief information officers (CIOs) provided their perspectives,…

  16. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  17. Adult Jewish Education and Participation among Reform Jewish Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mareschal, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    The history of adult Jewish education is rich and is replete with learning opportunities for Jewish adults, and Jewish women are active participants in adult Jewish education. In this chapter, the author examines Reform Jewish women's motivations to participate in adult Jewish education. First, she provides a historical overview of Judaism and…

  18. The Improvised Lives of Women in Music Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Carol P.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses findings of a survey of 18 women music educators. Reports the educators' career paths, reasons for job changes, and professional influences. Reveals their appraisals of the importance of mentoring and goal setting and their definitions of success. Argues that it is up to women music educators to nurture one another. (SG)

  19. Women's Education for Economic Development in Cross Section of Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    International organizations and researchers in the field of education and development have emphasized the importance of women's education for the social and economic development of Third World countries. However, women's educational levels are lower than men's in most countries throughout the world. This paper presents findings of a study that…

  20. Sex Education Attitudes and Outcomes among North American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Monnica T.; Bonner, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Attitudes and outcomes of sex education received by North American women are examined via an Internet survey (N = 1,400). Mean age was 19.5, with 24% reporting one or more unplanned pregnancies. Women were more satisfied with sex education from informal sources than from parents, schools, and physicians. Those receiving sex education from parents…

  1. Women in Higher Education: A Casebook. Equity for Women in Higher Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Marianne H.; And Others

    Seven case studies describing a number of situations in which various forms of discrimination against women in higher education have occurred are presented. The case materials were gathered from a number of doctoral level universities, which are not individually identified. Types of discrimination that are considered include: (1) selection…

  2. Acceptability of a Virtual Patient Educator for Hispanic Women.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kristen J; Vàzquez-Otero, Coralia; Bredice, Marissa; Meade, Cathy D; Chaet, Alexis; Rivera, Maria I; Arroyo, Gloria; Proctor, Sara K; Barnes, Laura E

    2015-01-01

    There are few Spanish language interactive, technology-driven health education programs. Objectives of this feasibility study were to (a) learn more about computer and technology usage among Hispanic women living in a rural community and (b) evaluate acceptability of the concept of using an embodied conversational agent (ECA) computer application among this population. A survey about computer usage history and interest in computers was administered to a convenience sample of 26 women. A sample video prototype of a hospital discharge ECA was administered followed by questions to gauge opinion about the ECA. Data indicate women exhibited both a high level of computer experience and enthusiasm for the ECA. Feedback from community is essential to ensure equity in state of the art dissemination of health information.

  3. Assessing the impact of educational campaigns on controlling HCV among women in prison settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushayabasa, S.; Bhunu, C. P.; Smith?, Robert J.

    2012-04-01

    Prior studies have shown that imprisonment is a major risk factor for hepatitis C infection, with the risk of infection directly proportional to the length of incarceration. Women are at least twice as likely as men to contract HCV as they have limited access to information, health services and safe intravenous drug injecting equipments. We develop a mathematical model to assess the impact of educational campaigns on controlling HCV among women in prison settings. Equilibria for the model are determined and their stability are examined. Population-level effects of increased educational campaigns to encourage safe injecting practices among women in prison are evaluated through numerical simulations. The results suggest that educating women prisoners about abstaining from intravenous drug misuse may significantly reduce HCV prevalence among women in prison settings. Targeted education campaigns, which are effective at stopping transmission of HCV more than 80% of the time, will be highly effective at controlling the disease among women in prisons.

  4. Women's Agency and Educational Policy: The Experiences of the Women of Kilome, Kenya. SUNY Series, the Social Context of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiluva-Ndunda, Mutindi Mumbua

    This book examines rural African women's educational experiences in Kilome, Kenya, providing testimony on the cultural, historical, social, economic, and political factors that have shaped, and continue to shape, women's educational and economic opportunities there. The author, a Kamba woman who grew up in rural Kenya and received an education in…

  5. High School Women's Liberation. FPS: A Magazine of Young People's Liberation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    This pamphlet contains 19 consciousness-raising articles for high-school women which help define their roles and rights as females, family members, and participants in the labor market. The first section, Education and Liberation, discusses ways in which schools, families, and society suppress women. For example, women are urged to take home…

  6. Effects of Welfare Reform on Education Acquisition of Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes. PMID:23504449

  7. Missouri Women Today...in Education...in Employment. 1991 Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Sue P., Comp.; Krauss, Robert, Comp.

    This report provides statistical analysis of women in education and the work force in Missouri along with a list of the high growth occupations in Missouri. A chart shows that the percentage of high school graduates that are women has remained at about 50% for 10 years. Although there are noted decreases in the number of computer science,…

  8. Educational attainment, perceived control and the quality of women's diets.

    PubMed

    Barker, Mary; Lawrence, Wendy; Crozier, Sarah; Robinson, Siân; Baird, Janis; Margetts, Barrie; Cooper, Cyrus

    2009-06-01

    Data from the Southampton Women's Survey have established that women of lower educational attainment have poorer quality diets than those of higher educational attainment. This relationship is strong and graded such that for every increase in level of educational qualification, there is an increase in the likelihood that a woman will have a better quality diet. It is not wholly explained by socio-economic status. Qualitative research carried out in Southampton suggests that women of lower educational attainment may have a poorer diet because they feel they lack control over the food choices they make for themselves and their families. We set out to investigate the relationship between educational attainment, perceived control and quality of diet in a sample of women from Southampton. Cross-sectional study using structured interviews in which women's diet, educational attainment and perceived control were assessed. 19 Children's Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. 372 women, median age 28 years. Quality of diet assessed by prudent diet score produced from principal components analysis of 20-item food frequency questionnaire, and perceived control assessed by a validated questionnaire. Women of lower educational attainment tended to have lower prudent diet scores and lower perceived control scores than women of higher educational attainment. Having a lower prudent diet score was associated with consuming fewer vegetables and vegetable dishes, less wholemeal bread and vegetarian food, and more chips and roast potatoes, meat pies, Yorkshire puddings and pancakes, crisps and snacks, white bread and added sugar. In a regression model both lower educational attainment and lower perceived control were associated with lower prudent diet scores, independent of the effects of confounding factors. However there was an interaction effect such that lower perceived control was only related to prudent diet score in the group of women of lower educational attainment. Women

  9. A Historical View of Women in Music Education Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Sondra Wieland

    2009-01-01

    Women music educators in the USA have been active in public and private schools, churches, and community organizations. In the nineteenth century, Julia E. Crane founded the Crane Institute of Music, the first institution to train music supervisors; and women developed kindergarten programs throughout the US. In the "private sphere," women taught…

  10. Misogyny, Women, and Obstacles to Tertiary Education: A Vile Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalker, Joyce

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with 18 women enrolled in postsecondary education used a framework of misogyny to reinterpret barriers to their participation Resulting themes included women's role in maintaining the home as sanctuary, women needing constraint, and men's role as suppressors. Results suggest how a theory based in misogyny can explain obstacles to…

  11. Cultural Strengths to Persevere: Native American Women in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Stephanie J.; Lindley, Lorinda S.

    2013-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of historical perspectives of Native American women, this article includes some discussion of values and practices of contemporary Native American women, data pertaining to Native American women's participation in higher education, and an introduction of familial cultural capital, community cultural wealth, Native…

  12. Women Faculty, Higher Education, and the Recreation/Leisure Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.; Harrolle, Michelle; Rich, Samantha; Moretz, Janell

    2012-01-01

    Women represent growing numbers of faculty members in higher education as well as in recreation/leisure departments. The purpose of this study is to describe the career development of women faculty in recreation-related areas and to offer implications for faculty development and the preparation of future faculty. Data were collected from women who…

  13. Conclusion: Women around the World Reshaping Leadership for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogan, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This short essay aims to reflect on the global experiences women in education have had in becoming leaders as noted in the articles in this special issue on women's leadership. Design/methodology/approach: The essay draws upon relevant historical and contemporary literature about women in the professions and in the workforce. Findings:…

  14. Women Faculty, Higher Education, and the Recreation/Leisure Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.; Harrolle, Michelle; Rich, Samantha; Moretz, Janell

    2012-01-01

    Women represent growing numbers of faculty members in higher education as well as in recreation/leisure departments. The purpose of this study is to describe the career development of women faculty in recreation-related areas and to offer implications for faculty development and the preparation of future faculty. Data were collected from women who…

  15. Higher Education Learning Experiences among Vietnamese Immigrant Women in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ya-Ling; Wu, Hsing-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sociocultural approach to adult learning and poststructural feminist theories, this study draws on interviews with 11 married Vietnamese women to explore the higher education learning experiences of Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan. On the basis of their husbands' permission and support, Vietnamese immigrant women embraced the…

  16. Higher Education Learning Experiences among Vietnamese Immigrant Women in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ya-Ling; Wu, Hsing-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sociocultural approach to adult learning and poststructural feminist theories, this study draws on interviews with 11 married Vietnamese women to explore the higher education learning experiences of Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan. On the basis of their husbands' permission and support, Vietnamese immigrant women embraced the…

  17. Understanding Women's Position in Education: The Nigerian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okorafor, Philomena N.; Obidile, Jacinta I.; Okorafor, Anthony O.; Uduanochie, Christian A.

    2015-01-01

    All over the world, women's education has been neglected for a long time. This neglect has its foundation in the strong and cherished age-old belief in men's superiority and women's subordination. In recent years, it has been acknowledged that women possess hidden potentials that if fully developed, will contribute greatly in transforming their…

  18. Educational Access for Women in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Sherree F.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews literature on the history of women in higher education in the United States, focusing on colleges for women (specifically Bryn Mawr and Wellesley) in comparison with each other and coeducational colleges (specifically Oberlin and the University of Michigan). Discusses women's access at the community college level. (DMM)

  19. A Historical View of Women in Music Education Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Sondra Wieland

    2009-01-01

    Women music educators in the USA have been active in public and private schools, churches, and community organizations. In the nineteenth century, Julia E. Crane founded the Crane Institute of Music, the first institution to train music supervisors; and women developed kindergarten programs throughout the US. In the "private sphere," women taught…

  20. Cultural Strengths to Persevere: Native American Women in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Stephanie J.; Lindley, Lorinda S.

    2013-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of historical perspectives of Native American women, this article includes some discussion of values and practices of contemporary Native American women, data pertaining to Native American women's participation in higher education, and an introduction of familial cultural capital, community cultural wealth, Native…

  1. Women as Educational Leaders: The Theories behind the Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Martha; Waldo, Karen

    1983-01-01

    This article explores why women may choose not to seek educational administrative positions or why they are not chosen if they do seek them. Discussed are (1) women's qualifications for leadership; (2) models of socialization; (3) career socialization; and (4) limited opportunities for women. (JMK)

  2. Deaf Women: Educational Experiences and Self-Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najarian, Cheryl G.

    2008-01-01

    Using life history interviews with 10 college educated Deaf women this paper investigates connections between early education and college experience and how they identified as Deaf. The women developed strategies as they managed their impressions while employing Goffman's practices of loyalty, discipline and circumspection. Acknowledging deafness…

  3. Equitunity in Vocational Education Administration: A Handbook for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, James C.; And Others

    This handbook is designed to assist women in and aspiring to vocational education administration in planning for entry into and success in vocational education administration. It consists of five sections. Section 1 describes the following barriers inhibiting the progress of women in administration: self-concept, career choice, career preparation,…

  4. Opportunity or Exploitation? Women and Quality Assurance in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise

    2005-01-01

    Based on interviews with 18 UK women academics and managers on quality and power in higher education, this article interrogates the impact of quality assurance discourses and practices on women in higher education. Micro-level analysis of the effects of audit and the evaluative state seem to suggest that hegemonic masculinities and gendered power…

  5. Learning from Our Lives: Women, Research, and Autobiography in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Anna, Ed.; Peterson, Penelope L., Ed.

    The autobiographical essays in this volume offer insights into how the field of education might change as women assume positions of intellectual leadership. After the "Foreword" (Mary Catherine Bateson), the 13 chapters are: (1) "Research Lives: Women, Scholarship, and Autobiography in Education" (Anna Neumann and Penelope L.…

  6. Learning from Our Lives: Women, Research, and Autobiography in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Anna, Ed.; Peterson, Penelope L., Ed.

    The autobiographical essays in this volume offer insights into how the field of education might change as women assume positions of intellectual leadership. After the "Foreword" (Mary Catherine Bateson), the 13 chapters are: (1) "Research Lives: Women, Scholarship, and Autobiography in Education" (Anna Neumann and Penelope L.…

  7. Entrepreneurship Education for Women: A Research Review and Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Calvin A.

    Although the importance of entrepreneurship to the American economy has been documented, a review of research reveals that knowledge about entrepreneurship education is sparse and that research on entrepreneurship education for women is almost nonexistent. A summary of this research indicates that sex stereotyping in schools inhibits women from…

  8. Women and Leadership in the Spanish Educational System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Montserrat

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the Spanish educational system does not discriminate between men and women in access to administrative positions, and that women in Spain are neither interested in nor motivated to seek positions in educational administration because they do not identify with the traditional hierarchical model of administration. Organizational reforms…

  9. Integrating Women's Issues into Population Education (A Handbook).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This document seeks to create a greater sense of awareness of the relevance of women's issues to quality of life themes that come within the domain of population education. The handbook provides guidelines on the various modalities of integrating women's issues into population education programs. It offers sample lessons and teaching materials…

  10. New V I E W; Vocational Internship Education for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, S. H.; Shoenhair, Margaret T.

    New VIEW (The New Vocational Education for Women Program) is an educational experiment undertaken by the Foothill-De Anza Community College district, designed to help mature women entering the labor force prepare for, and acquire, responsible careers. Objectives of the program are to raise each student's level of confidence and competence, prepare…

  11. Learning from the Women's Movement about Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The women's movement in the 1970s and 1980s was a global phenomenon that achieved significant educational change. More analysis of how it developed and had an impact on education can inform our understanding of the possibilities for change today. This paper explores how the women's movement changed schooling in Vancouver in the 1970s, using a…

  12. Women Working in Music Education: The War Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    When women take up the work of music education, of the university, and become nomadic, engaging Deleuze and Guattari's war machine, all kinds of things happen. As nomads in music education, women traverse borders and boundaries that would otherwise limit and constrain them as they initiate alternative possibilities related to teaching and learning…

  13. The Education of Women in Kenya, 1975-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshiwani, G. S.

    The extent to which the educational system reaches women in Kenya will in some measure dictate the pace of national development. Data indicate that significant progress was made in the area of education for Kenyan women during the 1975-1984 decade. This was particularly so at the primary school level where near-parity was achieved in the…

  14. Research and Support Strategies For Women's Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babbitt, Samuel F.; And Others

    Inadequate support is presently offered for the study of certain important questions which have serious implications for educational policies affecting women. Priority should be given to the support of those areas of research and program development and evaluation that have the most critical implications for both the higher education of women and…

  15. Women's Education Looks Forward: Programmes, Experiences, Strategies 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotite, Phyllis, Ed.

    Women's education and its development have been United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) issues since its inception. As humankind enters the 21st century, it faces a range of unresolved global issues that reflect the interdependence of the world's peoples. Since women comprise half of the world's population, they…

  16. A History of Male Attitudes toward Educating Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clabaugh, Gary K.

    1986-01-01

    The author examines male attitudes regarding the education of women. He discusses the lives and education of women in ancient Greece and Rome, in the Middle Ages, in the Renaissance and Reformation, in the 1700s, and in the 20th century. (CT)

  17. Historical Perspectives on Women's Advancement in Higher Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihle, Elizabeth L.

    This paper presents a chronological description of the evolution of women's advancement in higher education, particularly in administrative capacities, and examines the establishment of the three types of institutions that came into being in order to meet women's educational needs: the single-sex college; the coordinate college; and the…

  18. Women Working in Music Education: The War Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    When women take up the work of music education, of the university, and become nomadic, engaging Deleuze and Guattari's war machine, all kinds of things happen. As nomads in music education, women traverse borders and boundaries that would otherwise limit and constrain them as they initiate alternative possibilities related to teaching and learning…

  19. Training Women in Management: A Continuing Education Workshop Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Samuel S.

    The number of women occupying managerial positions in the U.S. is relatively small, but it rose 47% from 1,321,000 in 1970 to 1,942,000 in 1976. Circumstances contributing to this rise are enforcement of legal sanctions against discrimination and women's increased educational attainment. This report describes a continuing education workshop series…

  20. Training Women in Management: A Continuing Education Workshop Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Samuel S.

    The number of women occupying managerial positions in the U.S. is relatively small, but it rose 47% from 1,321,000 in 1970 to 1,942,000 in 1976. Circumstances contributing to this rise are enforcement of legal sanctions against discrimination and women's increased educational attainment. This report describes a continuing education workshop series…

  1. Structuring a Supportive Environment for Women in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard-Vital, Michelle R.; Brunson, Deborah A.

    2006-01-01

    After participating on a search committee for an academic leader, the authors conduct an empirical and philosophical analysis of factors that influence the work and productivity of women in higher education. The authors query--how can women achieve more balance in educational institutions so they can pursue careers that reflect the complexity and…

  2. Women in Educational Leadership. Monograph. Volume 3, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Judith

    Although female teachers have dominated education, relatively few women have pursued administrative positions. In 1988, women in Ohio held only 4.5 percent of all superintendencies. The state generally lags behind the lackluster national average, according to a 1985 Project on Equal Education report. Because of changing U.S. demographics, future…

  3. Women in Higher Education. A Collection of Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, David Warren, Ed.

    A program by the British Staff Development in Universities attempts to lessen the evident discrimination against women (both in their roles as students and staff) in British education. In an attempt to understand sex discrimination and the forms that it takes, six papers discuss: (1) the place of women in the changing pattern of further education;…

  4. [Women's education according to the first women to receive doctorates in medicine from Spanish universities, 1882].

    PubMed

    Flecha Garcia, C

    1999-01-01

    This study looks at the topic of women's education as considered by the first two women to receive the degree of Doctor in Medicine from a Spanish university. Delores Aleu and Martina Castells decided to present as a doctoral thesis the development of an issue of particular relevance during the final decades of the 19th century. The importance given to public education and the difficulties young women encountered in participating under the same conditions as young men led these two women--who both held a bachelor's degree--to raise the issue and defend personal and social reasons that justified their full participation in different levels of education.

  5. Spanish Speaking Women and Higher Education: A Review of Their Current Status. Minority Women and Higher Education #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.

    Educators are increasingly seeking information about minority women as they attempt to develop realistic, viable programs to benefit them. This paper summarizes some of the relevant data concerning the educational and economic status of Spanish speaking women. Whenever possible, ethnic variations are noted. In general, the data are divided into…

  6. Educators as Activists: Five Women from Chicago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Petra

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that during the early 20th century the work of women teacher activists brought issues of social reform to the forefront. Describes the work of five Chicago women who helped advance women's rights, women's suffrage, and other social reform efforts. Contends that their work has not be adequately recognized. (CFR)

  7. Educators as Activists: Five Women from Chicago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Petra

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that during the early 20th century the work of women teacher activists brought issues of social reform to the forefront. Describes the work of five Chicago women who helped advance women's rights, women's suffrage, and other social reform efforts. Contends that their work has not be adequately recognized. (CFR)

  8. Bias Against Women in American Educational History--A Propaganda Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thum, Gladys E.

    A dissertation study done by the author examining the bias against women in American histories of education is discussed in this paper. The educational histories selected for the study were categorized by recognized high professional quality and high academic status. Each book analyzed concentrated on different subject areas of educational…

  9. [Children and pregnant women at high altitude].

    PubMed

    Rehakova, P; Rexhaj, E; Farron, F; Duplain, H

    2014-05-07

    Nowadays, high altitude resorts have become popular destinations for family vacations. Based on a limited number of publications and international guidelines, this article summarizes the effects of high altitude on children and pregnant women. Children also suffer from high altitude-related diseases, however their presentation and clinical significance are different from their adult counterparts. Careful planning of the itinerary with respect to altitude of the overnight stays, access to medical services and potential evacuation routes is the cornerstone of a successful vacation.

  10. Education for Rural Development - A Portfolio of Studies. Volume 2: Education for Disadvantaged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naik, Chitra; And Others

    The volume contains two studies from India and Thailand on the education of women, and rural women especially, who are deprived or disadvantaged. The Indian study, "Education of Girls and Women in Deprived Groups," presents a viewpoint on deprivation in society in general, and India specifically. The concomitant of deprivation is defined…

  11. Breaking Boundaries: Women in Higher Education. Gender and Higher Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise, Ed.; Walsh, Val, Ed.

    Essays from women in higher education, organized around two major themes: diversity, equity, and change, and feminism in the academy, and with an emphasis on these issues in the United Kingdom, include: "Women and Careers in Higher Education: What Is the Problem?" (Christine Heward); "In the Prime of Their Lives? Older Women in…

  12. Improvement of older women's sexuality through emancipatory education.

    PubMed

    Baldissera, Vanessa Denardi Antoniassi; Bueno, Sonia Maria Villela; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this action research (AR) was to explore the ways in which sexuality is experienced daily and to improve the expression of older women's sexuality. The pedagogy of autonomy as proposed by the Brazilian educator Paulo Freire theoretically supported this AR, with the participation of six older adult women living in a rural setting in southwest Brazil. The older women's experiences regarding sexuality, their concerns, and their educational demands could be summarized through five phrases: the improvement of self-esteem as a way to promote sexuality; sexuality impaired by loneliness and lack of affection; men's sexual satisfaction seen as a woman's obligation; women's sexuality controlled by the society; and relinquishment of the companion to attend to the expectations of family members. Dialogical and participative educational approaches and continuous observation-participation strategies were performed to support the women's care and educational requirements.

  13. Smoke-free policies among Asian-American women: comparisons by education status.

    PubMed

    Tong, Elisa K; Tang, Hao; Tsoh, Janice; Wong, Candice; Chen, Moon S

    2009-08-01

    California has significantly decreased racial/ethnic and educational disparities in smoke-free home and indoor work policies. California's ethnic-specific surveys present an opportunity to disaggregate data and examine the impact of California's smoke-free social norm campaign for Asian-American women. The California Tobacco Use Surveys for Chinese Americans and Korean Americans were conducted in 2003 and analyzed in 2008 to compare women with lower (high school graduate) or higher education status for smoke-free policy adoption and enforcement. Lower-educated and higher-educated women had similar proportions of smoke-free policies at home (58%) or indoor work (90%). However, lower-educated women were more likely than higher-educated women to report anyone ever smoking at home (OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.06, 2.48, p=0.03) and exposure during the past 2 weeks at an indoor workplace (OR=2.43, 95% CI= 1.30, 4.55, p=0.005), even after controlling for ethnicity, smoke-free policy, knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure, and acculturation. There was no interaction between education and knowledge about secondhand smoke health harms. The intended consequences of California's tobacco-control efforts have resulted in similar rates of smoke-free policies at home and in indoor work environments among Asian-American women across educational levels. However, an unintended consequence of this success is a disparity in enforcement by educational status, with lower-educated Asian-American women reporting greater smoke exposure despite similar rates of knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure. Besides establishing policies, lower-educated Asian-American women may need to be empowered to assert and enforce their right to smoke-free environments.

  14. Smoke-Free Policies Among Asian-American Women: Comparisons by Education Status

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Elisa K; Tang, Hao; Tsoh, Janice; Wong, Candice; Chen, Moon S.

    2009-01-01

    Background California has significantly decreased racial/ethnic and educational disparities in smoke-free home and indoor work policies. California's ethnic-specific surveys present an opportunity to disaggregate data and examine the impact of California's smoke-free social norm campaign for Asian-American women. Methods The California Tobacco Use Surveys for Chinese Americans and Korean Americans were conducted in 2003 and analyzed in 2008 to compare women with lower (≤ high school graduate) or higher education status for smoke-free policy adoption and enforcement. Results Lower-educated and higher-educated women had similar proportions of smoke-free policies at home (58%) or indoor work (90%). However, lower-educated women were more likely than higher-educated women to report anyone ever smoking at home (OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.06, 2.48, p=0.03) and exposure during the past 2 weeks at an indoor workplace (OR=2.43, 95% CI= 1.30, 4.55, p=0.005), even after controlling for ethnicity, smoke-free policy, knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure, and acculturation. There was no interaction between education and knowledge about secondhand smoke health harms. Conclusions The intended consequences of California's tobacco-control efforts have resulted in similar rates of smoke-free policies at home and in indoor work environments among Asian-American women across educational levels. However, an unintended consequence of this success is a disparity in enforcement by educational status, with lower-educated Asian-American women reporting greater smoke exposure despite similar rates of knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure. Besides establishing policies, lower-educated Asian-American women may need to be empowered to assert and enforce their right to smoke-free environments. PMID:19591754

  15. Women in Managerial Positions in Greek Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanassoula-Reppa, Anastasia; Koutouzis, Manolis

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the under representation of women in managerial positions in Greece and the evidence of barriers that inhibit women from pursuing and taking such positions, a type of covert discrimination that is counter to notions of democratic citizenship. (SLD)

  16. Women/Men in Leadership Roles in Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, John A.

    1977-01-01

    Presents the results of an extensive survey on the status of women in leadership positions in art education: specifically state art supervisors/directors, art supervisors/directors, chairpersons/heads of college/university art education programs, presidents of state art education associations, officers and council/board of directors of regional…

  17. Encountering Education in the Rural: Migrant Women's Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Robyn; McAreavey, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores migrant women's encounters with formal and informal education in what can be termed new immigration rural destinations. We ask to what extent educational opportunities are realized in these new destinations. We show that education aspirations may be jeopardized because of the desire to achieve economic goals and thus require…

  18. Who Won the Debate in Women Education? Rousseau or Wollstonecraft?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu-Gyamfi, Clifford

    2016-01-01

    Curriculum framework in the education of children became debatable during the enlightenment. Jean-Jacque Rousseau's treatise, "Emile," outlined an educational curriculum based on natural rights. Rousseau thought education should be based on espousing and exploring the natural abilities of a person. Therefore, since women have a natural…

  19. General Prospectus of Agricultural Education for Young Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Dublin (Ireland).

    Designed to acquaint young men and women with the agricultural education programs currently available in Ireland's institutions of vocational and higher education, this prospectus describes the educational requirements, facilities, and programs under the auspices of Ireland's Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. Specifically, this document…

  20. Breaking bad habits by education - smoking dynamics among Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Kjellsson, Gustav; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus

    2011-07-01

    In a dynamic Two-Part Model (2 PM), we find the effect of previous smoking on the participation decision to be decreasing with education among Swedish women, i.e. more educated are less state dependent. However, we do not find an analogous effect of education on the conditional intensity of consumption. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Women, Education and the Big, Bad Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jane

    2011-01-01

    History has a habit of ignoring women. Thirty years ago one thought that re-emerging women's movement would never be dumped in the same way previous feminist generations were consigned to the dustbin of history. It took feminist activists and scholars; women trade unionists and health workers; feminist writers, publishers and artists; and the…

  2. Distance Education and Women Empowerment: The Women Who Dared at Distance Learning Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okunuga, A. O.

    2011-01-01

    In the past, the African female child had always been denied formal education due to various cultural and social prejudices. Distance education has been employed by numerous women, who had earlier thus been deprived, to bridge the educational gap between males and females in the country. These are mature females, of which the majority (54%) are…

  3. A Report on the Status of Women in Education: Achieving Gender Equity for Women and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobley, Pamela Rios

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, the National Education Association (NEA) began publishing a series of reports on the status of underserved groups in education. This report on the status of women and girls is based on the principle that every student has the human and civil right to a quality public education. America's public schools are expected to serve the needs of…

  4. Explaining the Widening Education Gap in Mortality among U.S. White Women

    PubMed Central

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Zajacova, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Over the last half century the gap in mortality across education levels grew in the United States, and since the mid-1980s the growth was especially pronounced among white women. The reasons for the growth among white women are unclear. We investigated three explanations—social-psychological factors, economic circumstances, and health behaviors—for the widening education gap in mortality across 1997-2006 among white women 45-84 years of age. We used data from the National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality File (N=46,744; deaths=4,053). We found little support for social-psychological factors; however, economic circumstances and health behaviors jointly explained the growing education gap in mortality to statistical nonsignificance. Employment and smoking were the most important individual components. Increasing high school graduation rates, reducing smoking prevalence, and designing work-family policies that help women find and maintain desirable employment may reduce mortality inequalities among women. PMID:23723344

  5. Explaining the widening education gap in mortality among U.S. white women.

    PubMed

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Zajacova, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Over the past half century the gap in mortality across education levels has grown in the United States, and since the mid-1980s, the growth has been especially pronounced among white women. The reasons for the growth among white women are unclear. We investigated three explanations-social-psychological factors, economic circumstances, and health behaviors-for the widening education gap in mortality from 1997 to 2006 among white women aged 45 to 84 years using data from the National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality File (N = 46,744; 4,053 deaths). Little support was found for social-psychological factors, but economic circumstances and health behaviors jointly explained the growing education gap in mortality to statistical nonsignificance. Employment and smoking were the most important individual components. Increasing high school graduation rates, reducing smoking prevalence, and designing work-family policies that help women find and maintain desirable employment may reduce mortality inequalities among women.

  6. Education for contraceptive use by women after childbirth.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Laureen M; Grey, Thomas W; Hiller, Janet E; Chen, Mario

    2015-07-29

    were conducted in the USA; the others were from Australia, Nepal, Pakistan, and Syria. Four studies provided one session before hospital discharge; three had structured counseling of varying intensity and one involved informal counseling. Of eight interventions with than one contact, five focused on adolescents. Three of the five involved home visiting, one provided multiple clinic services, and one had in-person contact and phone follow-up. Of the remaining three for women of varying ages, two involved home visits and one provided phone follow-up.Our sensitivity analysis included six trials with evidence of moderate or high quality. In a study with adolescents, the group with home-based mentoring had fewer second births within two years compared to the control group (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.00). The other five interventions had no effect. Of trials with lower quality evidence, two showed some effectiveness. In Nepal, women with an educational session immediately postpartum were more likely to use contraception at six months than those with a later or no session (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.50). In an Australian study, teenagers in a structured home-visiting program were more likely to have effective contraception use at six months than those with standard home visits (OR 3.24; 95% CI 1.35 to 7.79). We focused our results summary on trials with moderate or high quality evidence. Overall, the overall quality of evidence in this review was moderate to low and the evidence of effectiveness was mostly low quality. The interventions could be improved by strengthening the program design and implementation. Some studies did not report program training for providers, adherence to the intervention protocol, or measurement of participants' knowledge and skills. Many trials did not have an objective outcome measure, i.e., pregnancy test or structured questionnaire for contraceptive use. Valid and reliable outcome measures are needed to obtain meaningful results. Still, given the

  7. Educational and Occupational Aspirations of High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNerney, Kristine A.; Coleman, Christy L.

    Shifts in the number of women in the workplace and a greater diversity and prestige level in their work may have an impact on the educational and occupational level to which students aspire. To examine the consequences of this shift, a comparison of the educational and occupational aspirations of high school students with the educational and…

  8. Vocational Education Needs of Hispanic Women. The Minority Women's Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivares, Teresa

    The first half of this monograph deals with present attitudes towards Hispanic women and migrants, comparing stereotypes and facts about both groups, including population figures and other demographic data such as income level, family size, source(s) of income, maternal mortality, and morbibity rates. Self inventories on attitudes toward the…

  9. The Higher Education of Women: Essays in Honor of Rosemary Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astin, Helen S.; Hirsch, Werner Z.

    Essays include: some considerations on the higher education of women (Rosemary Park); three women, creators of change (Esther Raushenbush); women's education, the case for the single-sex college (Susan Romer Kaplan); liberal arts education and women's development (C. Robert Pace); women's studies, its origin, organization, and prospects (Sheila…

  10. The Higher Education of Women: Essays in Honor of Rosemary Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astin, Helen S.; Hirsch, Werner Z.

    Essays include: some considerations on the higher education of women (Rosemary Park); three women, creators of change (Esther Raushenbush); women's education, the case for the single-sex college (Susan Romer Kaplan); liberal arts education and women's development (C. Robert Pace); women's studies, its origin, organization, and prospects (Sheila…

  11. Educational Investments and Returns for Women and Men in Cote d'Ivoire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vijverberg, Wim P. M.

    1993-01-01

    Estimates of wage and nonfarm self-employment earnings in the Ivory Coast show that rates of return to education are high for both sexes, but men's wages exceed women's by a substantial margin for all but the most educated. (Author/SK)

  12. Special Programs for Minorities and Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Financial Aid to Education, New York, NY.

    This volume describes and discusses numerous educational programs for minorities and women conducted and/or supported by academic and nonacademic institutions and organizations. Included are general assistance programs conducted at black, minority, and women's colleges and specific/career oriented programs supported by corporations. Information is…

  13. Education, Wage Work, and Marriage: Perspectives of Egyptian Working Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amin, Sajeda; Al-Bassusi, Nagah H.

    2004-01-01

    We explore young working women's perceptions of marriage and work in contemporary Egypt, when an increase in age at marriage was evident from national survey data. Both working conditions and employment opportunities declined significantly for young women even as their educational attainment increased and marriage was delayed. In-depth interviews…

  14. Mature Women and Higher Education: Reconstructing Identity and Family Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Since Edwards' influential study on mature women students and families in the 1990s, questions have been raised about the effects of Higher Education (HE) on family lives. Edwards maintained that relationships were at risk of breakdown due to the changing identity, increased self-esteem and enhanced confidence levels of women students. Men were…

  15. Women's Participation in Higher Education: China, Nepal, and the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    These studies of the involvement of women in higher education in China, Nepal, and the Philippines provide a common framework for analysis. Each study is organized around five broad areas: socio-cultural factors, politico-economic factors, ideological factors, legal factors, and infrastructural factors. An analysis of the progress of women's…

  16. Women and Leadership in Higher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kate

    2003-01-01

    Senior academic women in Australian Universities, as elsewhere, continue to experience both direct and indirect discrimination, with the narrow white Anglo-Celtic male management profile is a factor in this discrimination. While higher education remains a hostile work environment for senior academic women their participation rates are unlikely to…

  17. Women and Information Technology: Framing Some Issues for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damarin, Suzanne K.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses relationships among technology, women, and education. Presents three views of the computer's future: (1) the robot as superior human; (2) the cyborg; and (3) the human-computer dyad. Discusses effects that the computer has had upon work and school, particularly for women and at risk and nonliterate students. (SG)

  18. Advancement of Women in Dental Education: Trends and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinkford, Jeanne C.; Valachovic, Richard W.; Harrison, Sonja

    2003-01-01

    Reviews progress made since the adoption of formal policies in support of women in the profession by the American Dental Education Association (ADEA). Provides an overview of current ADEA programs designed to increase the number of women in academic dentistry and sustain an environment in which they can contribute. (EV)

  19. Progress and Paradox for Women in US Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daryl G.

    2017-01-01

    Gender, and especially the status of women, is certainly one of the most salient identities in all corners of the world. For some countries, the issues begin with the right to education at even the earliest ages. In the United States, there is a prevailing assumption, because women are a majority of the undergraduate and graduate populations in…

  20. Advancement of Women in Dental Education: Trends and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinkford, Jeanne C.; Valachovic, Richard W.; Harrison, Sonja

    2003-01-01

    Reviews progress made since the adoption of formal policies in support of women in the profession by the American Dental Education Association (ADEA). Provides an overview of current ADEA programs designed to increase the number of women in academic dentistry and sustain an environment in which they can contribute. (EV)

  1. A Portrayal of Women Educational Leadership in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Samina

    2011-01-01

    The researcher is stimulated to work on the growing trends of women leadership. The problem has been designed to investigate the factors influencing the emergence of women leadership at higher education level in Pakistan. On the basis of the studies conducted by Oplatka (2006) and Cubillo, Brown, 2003, it was assumed that specific factors…

  2. Mature Women and Higher Education: Reconstructing Identity and Family Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Since Edwards' influential study on mature women students and families in the 1990s, questions have been raised about the effects of Higher Education (HE) on family lives. Edwards maintained that relationships were at risk of breakdown due to the changing identity, increased self-esteem and enhanced confidence levels of women students. Men were…

  3. A Feminist Study of a Political Education Programme for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clover, Darlene E.; McGregor, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Women's Campaign School (WCS) is a non-partisan, non-formal three-day educational programme held annually in Vancouver, to empower and inspire women to enter politics and as a means towards socio-political change. Our findings show the WCS provides excellent practical and tactical skills and an experiential learning opportunity that is highly…

  4. Higher Education for Women in Postwar America, 1945-1965

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenmann, Linda

    2006-01-01

    This history explores the nature of postwar advocacy for women's higher education, acknowledging its unique relationship to the expectations of the era and recognizing its particular type of adaptive activism. Linda Eisenmann illuminates the impact of this advocacy in the postwar era, identifying a link between women's activism during World War II…

  5. The Role of "Other Women" in Current Educational Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christou, Miranda; Puigvert, Lidia

    2011-01-01

    The INCLUD-ED project's case studies of successful schools in Europe reveal that there are advantages involved in opening schools to all kinds of women as far as educational and social inclusion is concerned. "Other Women"--those whose voices have traditionally been silenced in academic settings--help in crucial ways to improve education…

  6. Women and Information Technology: Framing Some Issues for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damarin, Suzanne K.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses relationships among technology, women, and education. Presents three views of the computer's future: (1) the robot as superior human; (2) the cyborg; and (3) the human-computer dyad. Discusses effects that the computer has had upon work and school, particularly for women and at risk and nonliterate students. (SG)

  7. Women's Participation in Higher Education: China, Nepal, and the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    These studies of the involvement of women in higher education in China, Nepal, and the Philippines provide a common framework for analysis. Each study is organized around five broad areas: socio-cultural factors, politico-economic factors, ideological factors, legal factors, and infrastructural factors. An analysis of the progress of women's…

  8. "Women Educating for Peace": A Participatory Video Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Jackie; Mak, Monica

    2005-01-01

    "Women Educating for Peace" is an exploratory research project focused on the lives and experiences of a group of fifteen women in Montreal, all concerned with issues of pedagogy and peace, but working in different ways, in different schools. Video was used to record interviews and group discussions, focused around key topics and/or…

  9. Higher Education for Women in Postwar America, 1945-1965

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenmann, Linda

    2006-01-01

    This history explores the nature of postwar advocacy for women's higher education, acknowledging its unique relationship to the expectations of the era and recognizing its particular type of adaptive activism. Linda Eisenmann illuminates the impact of this advocacy in the postwar era, identifying a link between women's activism during World War II…

  10. Strategies for the Challenges Facing Women in Higher Education Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehnke, Mary Ann

    Women administrators in higher education must deal not only with the usual challenges facing administrators (decision-making, resolving conflict, and advancing professionally), but also with the effects of sex stereotyping. Women are not seen as decision-makers, nor as conflict-resolvers, and are often viewed as supporting personnel rather than…

  11. Personal Commitment: A Prerequisite for Women Aspiring to Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Colleen A.

    The decline in the number and status of women in educational administration and the magnitude of their lack of representation in administrative positions is evidenced by numerous studies. To achieve the goal of identifying the components of the problem, solutions suggested by the research, and implications for women who aspire to administrative…

  12. The Encouragement and Development of Women into Education Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Anne

    In Great Britain, it is not unusual to find primary schools staffed almost entirely by women, but managed by men. This paper argues that more women should manage education in western Europe and explains why. It examines the stereotypes of "gendered" management styles. For example, both Margaret Thatcher and Bill Clinton have encountered…

  13. A Feminist Study of a Political Education Programme for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clover, Darlene E.; McGregor, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Women's Campaign School (WCS) is a non-partisan, non-formal three-day educational programme held annually in Vancouver, to empower and inspire women to enter politics and as a means towards socio-political change. Our findings show the WCS provides excellent practical and tactical skills and an experiential learning opportunity that is highly…

  14. Finding Our Stride: Young Women Professors of Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewcomb, Whitney Sherman; Beaty, Danna M.; Sanzo, Karen; Peters-Hawkins, April

    2013-01-01

    This work is grounded in the literature on women in the academy and offers glimpses into four young women professors' experiences in the field of educational leadership. We utilized reflective practice and interpersonal communication to create a dialogue centered on three qualitative research questions that allows a window into our lives. We…

  15. The Women's Movement, Adult Education and Globalization: Women's Agencies in Zimbabwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpofu, Stanley T.

    1996-01-01

    Notes that in Zimbabwe, women's agencies pursue practical, strategic, and interagency gender interests consistent with adult education practice. However, they also manifest the globalizing tendencies of pluralism, cultural homogenization, and the coalescence of transnational and domestic processes and structures. (SK)

  16. Women's Empowerment and Education: Panchayats and Women's Self-Help Groups in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Ratna; Chakravarti, Paromita; Mansi, Kumari

    2015-01-01

    While women have made many advances, their inferior status to men continues to be a global phenomenon. At a time of unprecedented economic growth, India is experiencing a dramatic intensification of violence against women and the majority of girls are still not getting equal educational opportunity. In one of the most important steps for the…

  17. Women's Empowerment and Education: Panchayats and Women's Self-Help Groups in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Ratna; Chakravarti, Paromita; Mansi, Kumari

    2015-01-01

    While women have made many advances, their inferior status to men continues to be a global phenomenon. At a time of unprecedented economic growth, India is experiencing a dramatic intensification of violence against women and the majority of girls are still not getting equal educational opportunity. In one of the most important steps for the…

  18. Empowering Women at the Grassroots: A Manual for Women's Human Rights Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhathakurta, Meghna; Lina, Khadija

    Nagorik Uddyog (Citizen's Initiative) is a non-profit, non-governmental Bangladeshi organization focused on empowering women at the grassroots level through human rights education. Although women constitute half of the total population of Bangladesh, their participation in social, cultural, and political activities is limited. Recently,…

  19. Educating women about congenital cytomegalovirus: assessment of health education materials through a web-based survey.

    PubMed

    Price, Simani M; Bonilla, Erika; Zador, Paul; Levis, Denise M; Kilgo, Christina L; Cannon, Michael J

    2014-11-30

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common congenital infection in the U.S. and can result in permanent disabilities, such as hearing and vision loss, intellectual disability, and psychomotor and language impairments. Women can adopt prevention behaviors in an attempt to reduce their exposure to CMV. Currently, few women are familiar with CMV. To increase awareness of CMV, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed draft health education materials. The purpose of this study was to pilot test two health education materials to gauge their appeal and to determine if they increase knowledge about CMV and motivate audiences to seek additional information on CMV and adopt CMV prevention behaviors. African-American (n = 404) and Caucasian women (n = 405), who had a young child and were either pregnant or planning a pregnancy, were recruited to participate in a 15-minute web survey. Participants were randomly assigned to view one of two CMV health education materials, either a factsheet or video. Pre and post survey measures were used to assess changes in knowledge of CMV and motivation to adopt prevention behaviors. We also examined audience preferences regarding materials and motivation. CMV knowledge score increased significantly after presentation of either the video or factsheet (from 3.7 out of 10 to 9.1 out of 10, p <0.001). The average materials appeal score was high, with a mean of 3.6 on a four-point scale, indicating women responded very positively to both materials. Regression analyses indicated that appeal, message involvement (e.g., information seeking, discussing with others), post materials knowledge score, and viewing the video (vs. factsheet) were significantly positively associated with increased support for CMV prevention behaviors. Overall, we found that the health education materials improved women's knowledge of CMV and encouraged them to adopt prevention behaviors. Given the low awareness levels among women

  20. Educating women for HIV prevention: does exposure to mass media make them more knowledgeable?

    PubMed

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Chaudhuri, Sanjukta; Abdullah, Shahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Mass media is an important vehicle for health promotion in developing countries. In Bangladesh multiple media campaigns are being carried out to educate people about HIV/AIDS. We examined the extent of HIV/AIDS knowledge and the association of exposure to mass media among women in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) provides data for this article. We found that media exposure (combined index of television, radio, and newspaper) was a highly significant predictor of women's knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Other significant predictors of HIV knowledge include women's education, age, employment, and urban residence.

  1. An Historical Study of Adult Education in Two Canadian Women's Organizations: The Federated Women's Institutes of Canada and the Young Women's Christian Association of Canada 1870-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witter, Susan R.

    This document discusses the adult education component of two Canadian women's organizations from a historical perspective. The two organizations chosen, the Federated Women's Institutes of Canada and the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) of Canada have traditionally emphasized the education of women. The six sections of the paper cover…

  2. Attitudes of Older Women Toward Continuing Adult Education at the University Level: Implications for Program Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papalia-Finlay, Diane; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Examined the attitudes of older women concerning factors that would reduce anxiety, and appropriate educational experiences. Most of the upper-middle-class, highly educated women indicated an interest in taking humanities classes. In addition, 55 percent preferred the lecture format; 81 percent preferred mixed ages in classes. (Author/JAC)

  3. Educational Status of the Married Women and Their Participation at Household Decision Making in Rural Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanda, Sanjoy Kumar; Howlader, Hasan; Nahar, Nasrin

    2012-11-01

    The key focus of this study is to explain the level of education of married women and their participation in decision making process at different arena of rural household. To find out the nature of the reality, survey research design was used for this study. The study was conducted at Maharajpur, one of the unions of Jhenidah district in Bangladesh in 2011. The respondents of the study consisted of 120 married women who were purposively selected from the study area. Data were collected through direct interview method using an interview schedule. Data were shown on univariate, as well as bivariate statistical tables and then analyzed. The study reveals that a significant percent (93.3) of higher level of education completed women had their consent of getting married whereas no consent was made by illiterate women. In the same way 46.7 percent higher level of education completed women had high level of purchasing power in compare to illiterate (.0%) and primary (14.6%) level completed women for the same level of purchasing. In the political decision making 86.7 percent higher level of education completed women had own consent to vote for election in contrast to 77.8 percent illiterate and 70.7 percent primary level completed women were influenced by their husband to decide voting.

  4. Intergenerational educational trajectories and lower back pain in young women and men.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Sara; Correia, Sofia; Alves, Luís; Carnide, Filomena; Silva, Susana; Lucas, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    We examined the association between intergenerational educational trajectories and lower back pain (LBP) outcomes in young women and men from the general population. Participants were part of the 21 years old follow-up of the EPITeen cohort study, which was set up during the 2003/2004 school year and recruited subjects born in 1990 attending schools in Porto, Portugal (n=1657, 51.6% women). Parental and individual educational levels were used to define intergenerational educational trajectories as stable-high, upward, stable-low, and downward. Data on the presence, severity and chronicity of LBP were also assessed. Gender-specific adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed to estimate the associations between educational trajectories and LBP outcomes. When compared to women with stable-high educational trajectories, those with stable-low educational trajectories were significantly more likely to report moderate/severe (adjusted OR=1.76, 95% CI: 1.21-2.57) and chronic (adjusted OR=1.82, 95% CI: 1.02-3.22) LBP. The magnitude of these associations was even stronger among females with downward educational trajectories (moderate/severe: adjusted OR=2.58, 95% CI: 1.49-4.46; chronic: adjusted OR=2.42, 95% CI: 1.12-5.27). Educational trajectories were not significantly associated to LBP outcomes among men. In conclusion, intergenerational educational trajectories may contribute to LBP as reported in early adulthood, particularly in women.

  5. Acquaintance Rape Prevention with High-Risk Women: Identification and Inoculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himelein, Melissa J.

    1999-01-01

    Reasons are presented why rape education programming for women who have been sexually victimized may need to be different and separate from general programming. A process for identifying high-risk women is described. "Inoculation," a counseling group process, is described. Evaluation, feedback, and recommendations are reported. (EMK)

  6. Acquaintance Rape Prevention with High-Risk Women: Identification and Inoculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himelein, Melissa J.

    1999-01-01

    Reasons are presented why rape education programming for women who have been sexually victimized may need to be different and separate from general programming. A process for identifying high-risk women is described. "Inoculation," a counseling group process, is described. Evaluation, feedback, and recommendations are reported. (EMK)

  7. Rural Women and Osteoporosis: Awareness and Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hollie L.; Laya, Mary; DeWitt, Dawn E.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Little is known about rural women's knowledge about osteoporosis. Purpose: To explore what women from high-prevalence rural communities know about osteoporosis and to assess their learning preferences. Methods: We surveyed 437 women in rural Washington and Oregon. Findings: The response rate was 93% (N = 406). The mean age of respondents…

  8. Rural Women and Osteoporosis: Awareness and Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hollie L.; Laya, Mary; DeWitt, Dawn E.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Little is known about rural women's knowledge about osteoporosis. Purpose: To explore what women from high-prevalence rural communities know about osteoporosis and to assess their learning preferences. Methods: We surveyed 437 women in rural Washington and Oregon. Findings: The response rate was 93% (N = 406). The mean age of respondents…

  9. Women and physics education in Trinidad and Tobago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Shelly C.; Daley, Candice

    2013-03-01

    The following paper focuses on the education system in Trinidad and Tobago, particularly on the involvement of girls and women in physics. The educational system is a three-tiered structure: primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Girls and women are given equal opportunities at all levels; however, career choices and the demand of the job market determines whether physics is chosen at the secondary level and onward. No formal survey was performed to quantify the number of girls and women involved in physics; however, scenarios are used to illustrate the different opportunities and tracks that are available to girls.

  10. [A general review on women's health education of modern China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaoyang

    2015-07-01

    In the modern social background of strengthening the nation and its people, woman's health got the attention of Chinese and became one important part in the modernization progress of state and nation, they started the work of women's health education, publicized women's health knowledge and nursery methods through many ways and carried out midwifery education.In the name of "health", woman's body gradually be socialized and internationalized. Meanwhile, Chinese women also gradually got rid of their own discipline of the state and society, began to seek their own liberation, became one important part of China's modernization.

  11. Does Further Education in Adulthood Improve Physical and Mental Health among Australian Women? A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Tooth, Leigh; Mishra, Gita D

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed whether further education in young adult and mid-life [adult educational mobility] influences physical functioning and depressive symptoms in women. 14247 women born 1973-78 (younger cohort) and 13715 women born 1946-51 (mid-aged cohort) from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were followed for 14-16 years. Measures were the Short-Form 36 Health Survey physical functioning subscale (SF-36 PF) and Centre for Epidemiologic Studies 10-item Depression Scale (CESD-10). Linear mixed modelling, accounting for time varying covariates, assessed the influence of further education on physical functioning and depressive symptoms over time. Sensitivity analysis to assess the impact of missing data was conducted using multiple imputation. Compared to younger women with a pre-existing high level of education, women gaining further education (up to age 39 years) from low levels had lower SF-36 PF scores (poorer physical functioning) (fully adjusted beta estimates (95%CIs) -1.52 (-2.59, -0.44)) while those gaining further education from middle to high levels showed equivalent SF-36 PF scores (-0.08 (-0.61, 0.44)). A similar pattern was shown for CESD-10 scores (0.78 (0.29, 1.25); -0.02 (-0.26, 0.21), respectively) where higher scores represented more depressive symptoms. For mid-age women, further education from a middle to high level resulted in equivalent SF-36 PF scores (-0.61 (-1.93,0.71)) but higher CESD-10 scores (0.49 (0.11, 0.86)), compared to highly educated women. Women who delay further education until they are aged between their 40s and 60s can improve or maintain their physical functioning but may have missed the critical time to minimise depressive symptomatology. Public health policy should focus on encouraging women to upgrade their educational qualifications earlier in life in order to potentially offset the negative associations between their initial lower socio-economic position class of origin and their mental health.

  12. The Impact on Society of Educating Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Mary Hatwood

    1995-01-01

    Nations cannot survive unless they promote education for all people. The paper examines why education for females is still neglected worldwide. Problems include lack of government commitment, cultural values, poverty and child labor, and the structure of educational systems. The role of Education International in improving the situation is…

  13. Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Holford, M.

    2014-01-01

    Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W) is a 501c non profit corporation whose mission is to aid in increasing and retaining the number of women - especially underrepresented females - engaged in scientific teaching and research. Initiated by a Protein Chemist and an Astronomer, our ultimate goal has been to develop informational tools and create innovative outreach programs for women across all STEM fields. At present RAISE-W is recruiting women at the undergraduate, graduate, and early career stages to participate in a unique, 1-year, executive coaching program modeled after those used in the business sector.

  14. Women's Educational Needs and Perceptions About Survivorship Following Bilateral Mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Suplee, Patricia D; Jerome-D'Emilia, Bonnie; Boiler, Jennifer L K

    2016-08-01

    More women are choosing to have a bilateral mastectomy to treat unilateral breast cancer despite it not being considered the standard of care. Women are making this choice for various reasons, including anxiety of follow-up screening of the other breast, risk of cancer recurrence for the rest of their lives, and desire to maintain control over the localized cancer. Currently, evidence-based information is lacking regarding this treatment choice. In addition, the concept of survivorship has yet to be examined in this population of women. This study aimed to explore women's educational needs and perceptions about survivorship following bilateral mastectomy as a treatment for unilateral breast cancer. In-depth interviews were conducted with 23 women using a semistructured interview guide. Data were elicited, coded, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Two themes were identified that addressed education and survivorship.

  15. Does women's education affect breast cancer risk and survival? Evidence from a population based social experiment in education.

    PubMed

    Palme, Mårten; Simeonova, Emilia

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer is a notable exception to the well documented positive education gradient in health. A number of studies have found that highly educated women are more likely to be diagnosed with the disease. Breast cancer is therefore often labeled as a "welfare disease". However, it has not been established whether the strong positive correlation holds up when education is exogenously determined. We estimate the causal effect of education on the probability of being diagnosed with breast cancer by exploiting an education reform that extended compulsory schooling and was implemented as a social experiment. We find that the incidence of breast cancer increased for those exposed to the reform.

  16. Medical education, women's status, and medical issues' effect on women's health in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Cox, C

    1997-01-01

    At an international conference in 1992 on women and health, an attempt was made to redefine health concerns for women of the English-speaking Caribbean in the 1990s. Medical practices in developing countries change as advances are made in public health; clinical issues on the islands now resemble those in the United States (e.g. hypertension, cancer, sexually transmitted diseases, domestic violence, and abortion). In the Caribbean, however, these problems exist in a unique socioeconomic context, and women's health there suffers indirectly because of cultural mores. Gender bias in medical education and practice influences treatment of women and obstructs their advancement to policy-making levels in the design and delivery of programs that bear on maternal and child health, among others. The effect of local cultural beliefs and practices on women's health must be considered when setting goals and direction for health policy if aid or educational programs are to be effective.

  17. Combined effect of education and reproductive history on weight trajectories of young Australian women: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Holowko, Natalie; Jones, Mark; Koupil, Ilona; Tooth, Leigh; Mishra, Gita

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the combined effect of education and reproductive history on weight trajectory. The association of education with weight trajectory (1996-2012) in relation to reproductive history was analyzed among 9,336 women (born 1973-1978) from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health using random effects models. Compared with women with a university degree/higher, lower-educated women were 2 kg heavier at baseline and gained an additional 0.24 kg/year. Giving birth was associated with an increase in weight which was more pronounced among women having their first birth <26 years of age (2.1 kg, 95% CI: 1.5-2.7), compared with 26 to 32 years or >32 years. While younger first-time mothers had a steeper weight trajectory (∼+0.16 kg/year, 95% CI: 0.1-0.3), this was less steep among lower-educated women. High-educated women with a second birth between 26 and 32 years had 0.9 kg decreased weight after this birth, while low-educated women gained 0.9 kg. While the effect of having children on weight in young adulthood was minimal, women having their first birth <26 years of age had increased risk of weight gain, particularly primiparous women. Educational differences in weight persisted after accounting for reproductive history, suggesting a need to explore alternative mechanisms through which social differences in weight are generated. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  18. The Preparation of Today's Educational Leaders: Inclusivity of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Genevieve; Irby, Beverly J.

    If the challenges of the 21st century are to be met successfully, education must transform its orientation from one of exclusion to inclusion. To assist in the transformation of systems, to address specific barriers to inclusion, and to offer exemplary models in educational leadership, the Texas Council of Women School Executives sponsored a pilot…

  19. The Broken Web: The Educational Experience of Hispanic American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Teresa, Ed.; Ortiz, Flora Ida, Ed.

    The articles in this volume document an educational situation which underserves Chicanas/Latinas and contributes to an unraveling of women's power to perform creative functions in society. The lack of research on this topic only serves to hide the problem which threatens to undermine the educational success of a major percentage of Chicana/Latina…

  20. Gender and Early Learning Environments. Research on Women and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Beverly, Ed.; Brown, Genevieve H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The Research on Women and Education SIG of the American Educational Research Association presents the third book in its series, Gender and Early Learning Environments. Finding after the publication of Gender and Schooling in the Early Years, the second book in the series, that there was and is a paucity of published literature on early childhood…

  1. A History of Male Attitudes toward Educating Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clabaugh, Gary K.

    2010-01-01

    The very essence of a culture is revealed in its educational attitudes, policies, and practices. Just as blood pressure and body temperature are measures of physical health, such matters are measures of social justice. This article focuses on the attitudes of males toward the education of women by highlighting the attitudes of the most famous and…

  2. Women's Leadership of "Much Needed National Work" in Wartime Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Kay

    2016-01-01

    While there is a wealth of feminist research on women's educational leadership and policy-making in the interwar years, this article extends the discussion into the Second World War. My focus is the educational leadership of Dorothy Walker, head teacher of St Peter's Infant School and the youngest head teacher in Birmingham, and Lillian de Lissa,…

  3. Women in Educational Leadership within the Tamale Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segkulu, L.; Gyimah, K.

    2016-01-01

    Within the Tamale Metropolis, it is observed that only a few women occupy top level management positions within the Ghana Education Service (GES). A descriptive survey was therefore conducted in 2013/2014 academic year to assess the factors affecting the gender disparity in educational leadership within the Service. Specifically, the study sought…

  4. Women's Educational Opportunities: Factors that Influence Their Graduate School Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sharrika D.; Amelink, Catherine; Hirt, Joan B.; Miyazaki, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Education is one key to economic prosperity. However, in a society bolstered by patriarchal systems, economic and educational inequalities exist among the genders. The purpose of this study was to determine whether certain collegiate experiences predict undergraduate women's expectation to enroll in graduate study and to determine if the…

  5. Globalization and Women in Southeast Asian Higher Education Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    This case study of Southeast Asian women in higher education management investigates culture-specific dimensions of "glass ceiling" impediments to career advancement in higher education. Respondents note that despite considerable training and expertise, Asian values and ideologies demand enactment of a construct of Asian femininity that…

  6. Women's Leadership of "Much Needed National Work" in Wartime Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Kay

    2016-01-01

    While there is a wealth of feminist research on women's educational leadership and policy-making in the interwar years, this article extends the discussion into the Second World War. My focus is the educational leadership of Dorothy Walker, head teacher of St Peter's Infant School and the youngest head teacher in Birmingham, and Lillian de Lissa,…

  7. The Broken Web: The Educational Experience of Hispanic American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Teresa, Ed.; Ortiz, Flora Ida, Ed.

    The articles in this volume document an educational situation which underserves Chicanas/Latinas and contributes to an unraveling of women's power to perform creative functions in society. The lack of research on this topic only serves to hide the problem which threatens to undermine the educational success of a major percentage of Chicana/Latina…

  8. Education in the New Holloway Prison for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, A.

    1971-01-01

    When the Holloway Prison is completed, it will be the largest establishment in the penal service for women. Its education center has been designed to incorporate "all of the best aspects of new adult education centers and technical colleges in the free community." (Editor/RB)

  9. Formal or Nonformal Education? Entrepreneurial Women in Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Claire C.

    1984-01-01

    Ghanian women have a long history as traders. In early 1978, 42 Central Accra schoolgirls and 42 girls engaged in selling were surveyed to determine the relationship of formal education to marketing skills. Formal education was not significantly helpful in promoting schoolgirls' trading knowledge nor in providing skills likely to land them jobs.…

  10. Trends and Issues of Women's Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jane; Carpenter, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    China has a rich educational history dating back more than three thousand years, but women did not become part of the mainstream education system until the last sixty years. The Confucian ideology, which has been deeply rooted throughout Chinese history, confined females to an oppressed social status. Moreover, this historical ideology continues…

  11. Women Studying Childcare: Integrating Lives through Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Hazel R.

    2011-01-01

    Most studies of adult education align it with life change, but this research-based book tells a different story. It reveals how mature women who are training to work in childcare within the voluntary sector seek continuity in their lives. They engage with activities that connect aspects of their family, workplace and educational experience, and…

  12. Education in the New Holloway Prison for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, A.

    1971-01-01

    When the Holloway Prison is completed, it will be the largest establishment in the penal service for women. Its education center has been designed to incorporate "all of the best aspects of new adult education centers and technical colleges in the free community." (Editor/RB)

  13. Globalization and Women in Southeast Asian Higher Education Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    This case study of Southeast Asian women in higher education management investigates culture-specific dimensions of "glass ceiling" impediments to career advancement in higher education. Respondents note that despite considerable training and expertise, Asian values and ideologies demand enactment of a construct of Asian femininity that…

  14. Gender and Early Learning Environments. Research on Women and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Beverly, Ed.; Brown, Genevieve H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The Research on Women and Education SIG of the American Educational Research Association presents the third book in its series, Gender and Early Learning Environments. Finding after the publication of Gender and Schooling in the Early Years, the second book in the series, that there was and is a paucity of published literature on early childhood…

  15. Trends and Issues of Women's Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jane; Carpenter, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    China has a rich educational history dating back more than three thousand years, but women did not become part of the mainstream education system until the last sixty years. The Confucian ideology, which has been deeply rooted throughout Chinese history, confined females to an oppressed social status. Moreover, this historical ideology continues…

  16. A Phenomenological Investigation of Women's Learning Experiences in Counselor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Lindsay Pennell

    2016-01-01

    Counselor education pedagogy has not sufficiently recognized or incorporated current knowledge of gender differences and their potential impact on women's learning experiences. Instead, the body of research that addresses gender in counselor education refers to incorporating gender in the classroom as a topic of discussion rather than considering…

  17. Women Studying Childcare: Integrating Lives through Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Hazel R.

    2011-01-01

    Most studies of adult education align it with life change, but this research-based book tells a different story. It reveals how mature women who are training to work in childcare within the voluntary sector seek continuity in their lives. They engage with activities that connect aspects of their family, workplace and educational experience, and…

  18. A Phenomenological Investigation of Women's Learning Experiences in Counselor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Lindsay Pennell

    2016-01-01

    Counselor education pedagogy has not sufficiently recognized or incorporated current knowledge of gender differences and their potential impact on women's learning experiences. Instead, the body of research that addresses gender in counselor education refers to incorporating gender in the classroom as a topic of discussion rather than considering…

  19. Women's Educational Opportunities: Factors that Influence Their Graduate School Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sharrika D.; Amelink, Catherine; Hirt, Joan B.; Miyazaki, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Education is one key to economic prosperity. However, in a society bolstered by patriarchal systems, economic and educational inequalities exist among the genders. The purpose of this study was to determine whether certain collegiate experiences predict undergraduate women's expectation to enroll in graduate study and to determine if the…

  20. Education Was for Women What the Frontier Was for Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan B.

    When tracing the status of females in education over the last 200 years, it can be seen that while schools reflected the sexism of the larger society, they differentiated by gender far less than institutions such as the family, the labor market, and government. Although women's access to educational institutions varied by their race and class,…

  1. The development of educational programs for small-scale business women managers.

    PubMed

    Ha, P Y

    1991-01-01

    Results of a survey of demand for education among women managers of small-scale businesses in Korea are provided. Personal interviews were conducted by the Korean Women Development Institute in 1988 among 56 prospective women managers and 15 women managers and 32 experts. A pilot education program was held in 1988 and 1989; 69 women completed the course. Educational objectives are to give women an opportunity to learn the basic rudiments of running a business and develop the self-confidence to undertake this venture. The general objectives, management, evaluation, and postguidance of an educational program for women managers is given in addition to curriculum descriptions of several model programs in general and specifically directed to women. A profile of women surveyed is given; most had completed education beyond high school and were married. 66% planned to use their own money. In self-preparation for the establishment of a business, 26.9% of women used published market surveys and the advice of women already in business. 8 out of the 15 women managers had used their own start-up money. Net monthly earned income for women managers ranged from 500,000 won to 1.5 million won. Women worked 14-15 hour days. Some took holidays. Obstacles articulated by prospective managers were the lack of professional knowledge and experience and difficulties in human relationships due to lack of self-confidence and negative character. Difficulties expressed by women managers were lack of funding for expansion and maintenance of the business, of up-to-date technology, of information on the circulation of merchandise, credit dealings with customers, pricing, health, and laws. 78.5% of prospective women reported no confidence in management skills while most managers were satisfied. 54.2% reported feeling more confident after the pilot course and 39.0% had acquired skills. Content recommended included items on investment, site selection, and business planning for prospective managers

  2. The relationship between education and health among incarcerated men and women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nowotny, Kathryn M; Masters, Ryan K; Boardman, Jason D

    2016-09-01

    This paper contributes to research on the education-health association by extending the scope of inquiry to adult inmates. Not only are inmates excluded from most nationally representative studies of health but they also represent a highly select group in terms of both education and health. As such, our study provides new information about the health of incarcerated populations and it extends the generalizability of the education-health association beyond the non-institutionalized population. We use a prison-level fixed-effects regression model with the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities (n = 287 facilities) to evaluate the effects of education on a standardized morbidity scale of 11 lifetime and current health conditions among incarcerated men (n = 10,493) and women (n = 2,797). Education prior to incarceration is negatively associated with lifetime health problems for both women and men and the association is stronger among women. Among inmates who enter prison with less than a GED level of education, attaining a GED in prison is associated with better current health outcomes for men, but not women. The generalization of the education-health association among prisoners further highlights the fundamental nature of education as a health promotive resource. Discussed are the implications for the education-health literature in general and health promotion efforts among incarcerated adults specifically.

  3. Educating women about normal female genital appearance variation.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Gemma; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-03-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of two online resources aimed at improving women's knowledge of the variation in normal female genital appearance and their attitudes towards their own genitals. The first consisted of a photographic array of normal female genitals and the second consisted of a video addressing digital airbrushing of women's genitals in media images. A sample of 136 female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to view the photographs, video, both the photographs and video, or neither. The video significantly increased women's perceptions of genital appearance diversity as well as awareness of digital airbrushing of genital images. Owing to relatively low levels of genital appearance concern, there was no effect of either resource on women's attitudes towards their own genitals; however, women who viewed the video indicated they would pass on their knowledge to help other women. Our results suggest that an educational video could be a useful tool. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Women as Leaders in Education: Succeeding Despite Inequity, Discrimination, and Other Challenges. Women and Careers in Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jennifer L., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This up-to-date, candid examination of women's careers in education and leadership in education describes the pitfalls, triumphs, and future promise of female leaders in education. Despite the gains women have made in higher education over the past few decades, and an increasing number of well-qualified female candidates, they are still…

  5. Women as Leaders in Education: Succeeding Despite Inequity, Discrimination, and Other Challenges. Women and Careers in Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jennifer L., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This up-to-date, candid examination of women's careers in education and leadership in education describes the pitfalls, triumphs, and future promise of female leaders in education. Despite the gains women have made in higher education over the past few decades, and an increasing number of well-qualified female candidates, they are still…

  6. Education and Women's Work: Female Schooling and the Division of Labor in Urban America, 1870-1930. SUNY Series on Women and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rury, John L.

    This study examines the development of women's secondary education in U.S. cities in the years between the Civil War and the Great Depression. Chapter 1 looks at the period between 1870 and 1900 when, through the coeducational high school, women came to share in the academic culture traditionally reserved for males. Chapter 2 looks at who went to…

  7. A Grievance Handbook for Women Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Women Deans, Administrators, and Counselors, Washington, DC.

    Reference materials for the educator who has an employment-related grievance are presented. Basic principles and rights of employment and general procedures for filing a grievance both within and outside an employing institution are examined. The procedures apply for educators at the K-12 level, in higher education, and in social service agencies.…

  8. High School Computer Science Education Paves the Way for Higher Education: The Israeli Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armoni, Michal; Gal-Ezer, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The gap between enrollments in higher education computing programs and the high-tech industry's demands is widely reported, and is especially prominent for women. Increasing the availability of computer science education in high school is one of the strategies suggested in order to address this gap. We look at the connection between exposure to…

  9. High School Computer Science Education Paves the Way for Higher Education: The Israeli Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armoni, Michal; Gal-Ezer, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The gap between enrollments in higher education computing programs and the high-tech industry's demands is widely reported, and is especially prominent for women. Increasing the availability of computer science education in high school is one of the strategies suggested in order to address this gap. We look at the connection between exposure to…

  10. Women in Higher Education. Papers from a Conference Held in London on 29 June 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London Univ. (England). Inst. of Education.

    Delivered at a conference on women in British education, this collection of papers demonstrates with statistical evidence and close argument the extent of discrimination against women in higher education. "The Place of Women in the Changing Pattern of Further Education" by Eileen Byrne looks at women as they leave school at the secondary…

  11. Hearing Women's Voices in General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigwood, Laura

    2012-01-01

    "The voice of women needs to be heard" because "when we truly take their lives seriously it changes our whole understanding of who we are and what we are called to become" (Chilcote 10). The revolutionary impact of feminist theory and practice in all areas of contemporary culture illustrates the world-transforming potential of…

  12. Hearing Women's Voices in General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigwood, Laura

    2012-01-01

    "The voice of women needs to be heard" because "when we truly take their lives seriously it changes our whole understanding of who we are and what we are called to become" (Chilcote 10). The revolutionary impact of feminist theory and practice in all areas of contemporary culture illustrates the world-transforming potential of…

  13. The Education of Women as Philosophers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Bruehl, Elisabeth

    1987-01-01

    Argues that, as feminist scholars continue to question the roots of prejudice against women, they are simultaneously developing a philosophical self-critique. Discusses broadly the feminist response to European intellectual history, focusing specifically on the nature/culture question, individual vs. collective identity, and the usefulness of…

  14. Science Education for Women: Situated Cognition, Feminist Standpoint Theory, and the Status of Women in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnick, Cassandra L.

    2008-11-01

    This paper examines the relation between situated cognition theory in science education, and feminist standpoint theory in philosophy of science. It shows that situated cognition is an idea borrowed from a long since discredited philosophy of science. It argues that feminist standpoint theory ought not be indulged as it is a failed challenge to traditional philosophy of science. Standpoint theory diverts attention away from the abiding educational and career needs of women in science. In the interest of women in science, and in the interest of science, science educators would do best for their constituencies by a return to feminist philosophy understood as the demand for equal access and a level playing field for women in science and society.

  15. Characteristics of Israeli women studying nursing compared to women studying education and engineering.

    PubMed

    Horn, H; Holzemer, W L

    1991-11-01

    This study examined the demographic characteristics, vocational personality, and sex-role orientation of Israeli women studying nursing compared to women studying education and engineering. The convenience sample was 176 university students. The instrument included a demographic inventory, Holland's Self-Directed Search (SDS) questionnaire, and the Sex-Role Orientation Attitude questionnaire. Nursing and education students had Holland's "social" personality types and engineering students were more "realistic" or "investigative". Nursing and engineering students were significantly more feminist in their orientation than education majors. Nursing students were nontraditional women who had traditional family backgrounds, yet were nontraditional in their feminist orientation. With nursing's move into colleges and universities, the need for academically qualified applicants has intensified. Developing a better understanding of the unique nature of nursing and nursing students is a challenge.

  16. Sensual Sexuality Education with Young Parenting Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubrium, Aline C.; Shafer, Miriam B.

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women…

  17. Girls' and Women's Education in Nepal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    The impact of enlightened policies and incentives designed to increase girls' enrollment and achievement in education has been marginal in Nepal. Ministry of Education (MOE) goals aimed at increasing girls' participation include increasing the enrollment rate, opening early childhood development centers, promoting recruitment of at least one…

  18. Identifying the Educational Needs of Menopausal Women: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Trudeau, Kimberlee J.; Ainscough, Jessica L.; Trant, Meredith; Starker, Joan; Cousineau, Tara

    2013-01-01

    Background The goal of this project was to identify the educational needs of menopausal women and test the feasibility of an online self management program based on social learning theory. Methods The four stages included: (1) a needs assessment using a) focus groups with 24 women ages 40 – 55 and b) phone interviews with eight health experts, (2) the use of concept mapping methodology for quantifying qualitative data from Stage 1 to identify the core programmatic concepts, (3) development of a demonstration program, and (4) a pilot study with 35 women and nine health experts to assess knowledge gained and program satisfaction. Results Results show that women desire more information about normalcy of menopause and symptom management, found the program to meet a need for menopausal education otherwise perceived as unavailable, and they significantly increased their menopausal knowledge after brief exposure (t34= 3.64, p = .001). Conclusions This project provides support for an online health education program for menopausal women and content ideas for inclusion in women’s health education curriculum. PMID:21185735

  19. Women's Studies, Higher Education, and Feminist Educators in Japan Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Helen Rippier

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the backgrounds and current status of Women's Studies in Japan today. Research on which it is based was conducted while the author was visiting scholar and guest lecturer in Women's Studies at Toyo University in Tokyo in spring and summer 1984. (Author)

  20. Educational inequalities in obesity among Mexican women: time-trends from 1988 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Perez Ferrer, Carolina; McMunn, Anne; Rivera Dommarco, Juan A; Brunner, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is one of the leading causes of global morbidity and mortality. Trends in educational inequalities in obesity prevalence among Mexican women have not been analysed systematically to date. Data came from four nationally representative surveys (1988, 1999, 2006, and 2012) of a total of 51 220 non-pregnant women aged 20 to 49. Weight and height were measured during home visits. Education level (higher education, high school, secondary, primary or less) was self-reported. We analysed trends in relative and absolute educational inequalities in obesity prevalence separately for urban and rural areas. Nationally, age-standardised obesity prevalence increased from 9.3% to 33.7% over 25 years to 2012. Obesity prevalence was inversely associated with education level in urban areas at all survey waves. In rural areas, obesity prevalence increased markedly but there was no gradient with education level at any survey. The relative index of inequality in urban areas declined over the period (2.87 (95%CI: 1.94, 4.25) in 1988, 1.55 (95%CI: 1.33, 1.80) in 2012, trend p<0.001). Obesity increased 5.92 fold (95%CI: 4.03, 8.70) among urban women with higher education in the period 1988-2012 compared to 3.23 fold (95%CI: 2.88, 3.63) for urban women with primary or no education. The slope index of inequality increased in urban areas from 1988 to 2012. Over 0.5 M cases would be avoided if the obesity prevalence of women with primary or less education was the same as for women with higher education. The expected inverse association between education and obesity was observed in urban areas of Mexico. The declining trend in relative educational inequalities in obesity was due to a greater increase in obesity prevalence among higher educated women. In rural areas there was no social gradient in the association between education level and obesity across the four surveys.

  1. Educational Inequalities in Obesity among Mexican Women: Time-Trends from 1988 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Perez Ferrer, Carolina; McMunn, Anne; Rivera Dommarco, Juan A.; Brunner, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is one of the leading causes of global morbidity and mortality. Trends in educational inequalities in obesity prevalence among Mexican women have not been analysed systematically to date. Methods Data came from four nationally representative surveys (1988, 1999, 2006, and 2012) of a total of 51 220 non-pregnant women aged 20 to 49. Weight and height were measured during home visits. Education level (higher education, high school, secondary, primary or less) was self-reported. We analysed trends in relative and absolute educational inequalities in obesity prevalence separately for urban and rural areas. Results Nationally, age-standardised obesity prevalence increased from 9.3% to 33.7% over 25 years to 2012. Obesity prevalence was inversely associated with education level in urban areas at all survey waves. In rural areas, obesity prevalence increased markedly but there was no gradient with education level at any survey. The relative index of inequality in urban areas declined over the period (2.87 (95%CI: 1.94, 4.25) in 1988, 1.55 (95%CI: 1.33, 1.80) in 2012, trend p<0.001). Obesity increased 5.92 fold (95%CI: 4.03, 8.70) among urban women with higher education in the period 1988–2012 compared to 3.23 fold (95%CI: 2.88, 3.63) for urban women with primary or no education. The slope index of inequality increased in urban areas from 1988 to 2012. Over 0.5 M cases would be avoided if the obesity prevalence of women with primary or less education was the same as for women with higher education. Conclusions The expected inverse association between education and obesity was observed in urban areas of Mexico. The declining trend in relative educational inequalities in obesity was due to a greater increase in obesity prevalence among higher educated women. In rural areas there was no social gradient in the association between education level and obesity across the four surveys. PMID:24599098

  2. Women’s Educational Equity Act: A Review of Program Goals and Strategies Needed,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    This report responds to your request that we review the Department of Education’s Women’s Educational Equity Act (WEEA) Program. First authorized by... educational equity for women, (2) help educational institutions meet the requirements of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 prohibiting sex...discrimination in all educational institutions receiving federal funds, and (3) provide educational equity for women and girls who suffer multiple

  3. Women Educators of the Meiji Era and the Making of Modern Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Sally A.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the contributions of three women educators to Japanese education and to the development of the modern Japanese empire. Criticizes Japanese historiography that ignores the role of conservative women. Discusses the educators' views of the importance of female education to help women raise children who could benefit the state. (DK)

  4. The Women's Leadership Project: A One-Year Training Project in Adult Education Administration. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston Univ., MA. School of Education.

    The Women's Leadership Project represents an initial effort to combat discrimination against women in adult education, with special emphasis on adult basic education. Overall goals involved leadership development, impact, and support to: (1) recruit and prepare 10 qualified women adult educators for leadership positions in adult education, (2)…

  5. Educational Attainment and Timing to First Union across Three Generations of Mexican Women

    PubMed Central

    Kroeger, Rhiannon A.; Frank, Reanne; Schmeer, Kammi K.

    2014-01-01

    We use data from Wave 3 of the Mexican Family Life Survey (N = 7276) and discrete-time regression analyses to evaluate changes in the association between educational attainment and timing to first union across three generations of women in Mexico, including a mature cohort (born between 1930 and 1949), a middle cohort (born between 1950 and 1969), and a young cohort (born between 1970 and 1979). Mirroring prior research, we find a curvilinear pattern between educational attainment and timing to first union for women born between 1930 and 1969, such that once we account for the delaying effect of school enrollment, those with the lowest (0–5 years) and highest levels of education (13+ years) are characterized by the earliest transition to a first union. For women born between 1970 and 1979, however, we find that the pattern between education and first union formation has changed. In contrast to their peers born in earlier cohorts, highly educated women in Mexico are now postponing first union formation relative to the least educated. We draw on competing theories of educational attainment and timing to first union to help clarify these patterns in the context of Mexico. PMID:26005234

  6. Socioeconomic status, education, and reproduction in modern women: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Huber, Susanne; Bookstein, Fred L; Fieder, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Although associations between status or resources and reproduction are positive in premodern societies and also in men in modern societies, in modern women the associations are typically negative. We investigated how the association between socioeconomic status and reproductive output varies with the source of status and resources, the woman's education, and her age at reproductive onset (proxied by age at marriage). By using a large sample of US women, we examined the association between a woman's reproductive output and her own and her husband's income and education. Education, income, and age at marriage are negatively associated with a woman's number of children and increase her chances of childlessness. Among the most highly educated two-thirds of the sample of women, husband's income predicts the number of children. The association between a woman's number of children and her husband's income turns from positive to negative when her education and age at marriage is low (even though her mean offspring number rises at the same time). The association between a woman's own income and her number of children is negative, regardless of education. Rather than maximizing the offspring number, these modern women seem to adjust investment in children based on their family size and resource availability. Striving for resources seems to be part of a modern female reproductive strategy--but, owing to costs of resource acquisition, especially higher education, it may lead to lower birthrates: a possible evolutionary explanation of the demographic transition, and a complement to the human capital theory of net reproductive output.

  7. Multiparity is associated with high motivation to change diet among overweight and obese postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Lori A; Pathiraja, Viranga C; Krause, Katrina; Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J; Swamy, Geeta K; Lovelady, Cheryl A; Østbye, Truls

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with weight gain and obesity. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of parity and other factors on motivation to change diet to lose weight in a cohort of overweight and obese postpartum women. Active Mothers Postpartum is a randomized, controlled trial aimed at postpartum weight reduction. At baseline, we measured motivation to change diet to lose weight among 491 overweight/obese postpartum women. Logistic regression was used to model the effect of parity on motivation to change diet at baseline while adjusting for potential confounders including age, race, education, body mass index category, and breastfeeding status. Approximately two thirds (68%) of participants were highly motivated to change their diet to lose weight. In the multivariable model, women with three or more children had 2.5 times the odds of high motivation compared with primigravid women, and women not breastfeeding had 1.6 times the odds of high motivation compared with any breastfeeding. Although risk for obesity is incurred starting with a woman's first pregnancy, women in this study were more motivated to change their diet to lose weight after their third pregnancy. Further research is needed to understand how to best capitalize on the high motivation in women with several children as well as how to improve motivation for primigravid women and women who are breastfeeding. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Options in Education, Transcript for February 2, 1976: Individually Guided Education, Creative Playacting, and Women in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    "Options in Education" is a radio news program which focuses on issues and developments in education. This transcript contains discussions of Individually Guided Education, a program which was developed at the University of Wisconsin Research & Development Center; creative playacting; women in education, including children's…

  9. Options in Education, Transcript for February 2, 1976: Individually Guided Education, Creative Playacting, and Women in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    "Options in Education" is a radio news program which focuses on issues and developments in education. This transcript contains discussions of Individually Guided Education, a program which was developed at the University of Wisconsin Research & Development Center; creative playacting; women in education, including children's…

  10. The Education of Women in the Reformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lowell

    1979-01-01

    Seventeenth Century Reformation leaders played an important role in establishing universal education in Germany. Their work created new opportunities for the individual, raised social conditions of countless people, and laid the foundation for modern science and learning. (Author/KC)

  11. Characteristics of men and women with diabetes: observations during patients' initial visit to a diabetes education centre.

    PubMed

    Gucciardi, Enza; Wang, Shirley Chi-Tyan; DeMelo, Margaret; Amaral, Lina; Stewart, Donna E

    2008-02-01

    To determine whether men and women with type 2 diabetes have different psychosocial, behavioural, and clinical characteristics at the time of their first visit to a diabetes education centre. A questionnaire on psychosocial and behavioural characteristics was administered at participants' first appointments. Clinical and disease-related data were collected from their medical records. Bivariate analyses (chi(2) test, t test, and Mann-Whitney test) were conducted to examine differences between men and women on the various characteristics. Two diabetes education centres in the greater Toronto area in Ontario. A total of 275 men and women with type 2 diabetes. Women were more likely to have a family history of diabetes,previous diabetes education, and higher expectations of the benefits of self-management. Women reported higher levels of social support from their diabetes health care team than men did, and had more depressive symptoms, higher body mass, and higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than men did. The results of this study provide evidence that diabetes prevention, care, and education need to be targeted to men and women differently. Primary care providers should encourage men to attend diabetes self-management education sessions and emphasize the benefits of self-care. Primary care providers should promote regular diabetes screening and primary prevention to women, particularly women with a family history of diabetes or a high body mass index; emphasize the importance of weight management for those with and without diabetes; and screen diabetic women for depressive symptoms.

  12. Graduate Social Work Faculty's Support for Educational Content on Women and on Sexism.

    PubMed

    Levin, Dana S; Woodford, Michael R; Gutiérrez, Lorraine M; Luke, Katherine P

    2015-10-01

    Social work faculty play an important role in preparing students to address sexism and engage in culturally competent practice with women. This study examines the nature of U.S. and Anglo-Canadian graduate social work faculty's support for content on women and on sexism. Although support appears high for both content areas, results suggest that faculty endorsement for content on women is significantly greater than that for sexism. Further, bivariate and multivariate analyses indicate that the nature of support differs for each content area. Implications for social work education are discussed.

  13. Career Education: [Junior High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortland-Madison Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Cortland, NY.

    The eighth in a series of nine career education guides contains six unit plans for grades 7-9. In general each unit presents goals, objectives, measuring devices, activities, instructional materials or resources, careers appropriate to the unit, a multimedia bibliography, and a unit evaluation form for teachers. Part one is a science unit which…

  14. The association between employment status and metabolic syndrome in women: modifying effect of education.

    PubMed

    Demiral, Yucel; Arik, Hale; Toğrul, Belgin Unal

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the researchers in this study was to examine the relations of paid work versus housework and educational level to metabolic syndrome in women. The study sample consisted of women who participated in a baseline survey of the Heart of Balcova Project, which is an ongoing cohort study in Izmir, Turkey. A randomly selected subsample of women who were aged 30-64 years and who were not retired or unemployed was derived from the individuals who participated in the Heart of Balcova Project. All data were collected through face-to-face interviews with 191 workers and 342 housewives. The association between employment status and metabolic syndrome was explored using multiple logistic regression models. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher among housewives than among workers. Among the women with a high educational level, odds of metabolic syndrome were significantly higher for housewives than for those who were employed. An association between employment status and metabolic syndrome was not observed in the group with a low level of education. The findings revealed that educational level had a modifying effect on the relationship between employment status and metabolic syndrome among women and thus has implications for improving the understanding of the importance of health and educational opportunities for housewives.

  15. Developing low-literacy health education materials for women.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Lindsey D

    2011-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that people absorb information significantly better when written information is provided in conjunction with verbal explanations. Despite this, studies also show that many written health education materials do not have readability levels that are appropriate for women who have low literacy skills. This article summarizes the process and essential considerations, such as content of the material, readability, layout, design, culture, language, and medium of delivery in the development of low-literacy health education materials.

  16. Careers in Educational Administration: Are Women the Exception?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Susan

    Fifty percent (260) of the women in the United States identified as holding positions of superintendents, assistant/associate superintendents, and high school principals responded to questionnaires concerning career contingencies, career patterns, and career attitudes. Based on data from previous studies of men administrators, the women were, as a…

  17. Literacy and Education for Sustainable Development and Women's Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson-Pant, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The fact that women constitute two-thirds of the world's non-literate population has been a cause for concern for several decades. Despite a number of high-profile literacy interventions specifically targeting women--including UNESCO's LIFE initiative--the disparity between male and female literacy rates persists in many countries of the world…

  18. Careers in Educational Administration: Are Women the Exception?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Susan

    Fifty percent (260) of the women in the United States identified as holding positions of superintendents, assistant/associate superintendents, and high school principals responded to questionnaires concerning career contingencies, career patterns, and career attitudes. Based on data from previous studies of men administrators, the women were, as a…

  19. Using entertainment-education to promote cervical cancer screening in Thai women.

    PubMed

    Love, Gail D; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

    2012-06-01

    Southeast Asian women in California have high cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, but low levels of Pap screening. No published reports have addressed screening among Thai women. Entertainment-education (EE) is a useful strategy for low-literacy, culturally diverse populations. This quasi-experimental study determined whether a soap-opera-themed, Thai-language EE video was superior to a print handout for increasing knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intention toward Pap testing. No uniform differences were found between the intervention group (video) and the control group (brochure). Both educational modalities appeared to result in selected increases in knowledge and attitudes.

  20. Using Entertainment-Education to Promote Cervical Cancer Screening in Thai Women

    PubMed Central

    Love, Gail D.; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

    2015-01-01

    Southeast Asian women in California have high cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, but low levels of Pap screening. No published reports have addressed screening among Thai women. Entertainment-education (EE) is a useful strategy for low-literacy, culturally diverse populations. This quasi-experimental study determined whether a soap-opera-themed, Thai-language EE video was superior to a print handout for increasing knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intention toward Pap testing. No uniform differences were found between the intervention group (video) and the control group (brochure). Both educational modalities appeared to result in selected increases in knowledge and attitudes. PMID:22581487

  1. Trends in Work–Family Context among U.S. Women by Education Level, 1976 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Sabbath, Erika; Glymour, M. Maria; Berkman, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    This study compares trends in work-family context by education level from 1976 to 2011 among U.S. women. The major aim is to assess whether differences in work-family context by education level widened, narrowed, or persisted. We used data from the 1976–2011 March Current Population Surveys on women aged 25–64 (n=1,597,914). We compare trends in four work-family forms by education level within three race/ethnic groups. The work-family forms reflect combinations of marital and employment status among women with children at home. Trends in the four work-family forms exhibited substantial heterogeneity by education and race/ethnicity. Educational differences in the work-family forms widened mainly among white women. Compared with more-educated peers, white women without a high school credential became increasingly less likely to be married, to be employed, to have children at home, and to combine these roles. In contrast, educational differences in the work-family forms generally narrowed among black women and were directionally mixed among Hispanic women. Only one form—unmarried and employed with children at home—became more strongly linked to a woman’s education level within all three race/ethnic groups. This form carries an elevated risk of work-family conflict and its prevalence increased moderately during the 35-year period. Taken together, the trends underscore recent calls to elevate work-family policy on the national agenda. PMID:28066092

  2. Becoming Accomplished: Concerted Cultivation among Privately Educated Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper takes as its starting point the concept of concerted cultivation as coined by Annette Lareau. It examines whether a focus on concerted cultivation adequately captures the various practices observed in young women's experiences of being privately educated in four schools in one area of England. We suggest that a variety of practices of…

  3. Understanding the Hiring of Women and Minorities in Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Alison M.; Pfeffer, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    Studies conditions under which women and minorities were hired for managerial positions in higher education administration. Determines that odds of a new person hired being a woman or minority is positively affected if the previous employee in that position was a woman or minority. Finds that past segregation is among the leading influences on…

  4. Women's Access to Higher Education in Tanzania: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Megan Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the ways in which first-generation women in Tanzania explained their success in pursuing a university education despite cultural and social obstacles. Such obstacles include social policies, socio-cultural factors, and academic factors. A review of the literature revealed that issues such as patriarchy,…

  5. Women's somatic styles: rethinking breast self-examination education.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Lyndall

    2003-11-01

    In this ethnographic study I explored women's somatic and sexual experiences, reception of breast self-examination (BSE) messages, and reactions to the practice of BSE. Mainstream BSE education uses messages that deemphasize the woman, her breasts, and her relationship to them as sexual. The turbid confluence of societally eroticized breasts and self-touch taboos makes it unlikely that women filter these messages in an asexual way. Using grounded theory, I examined women's expression of the self-body relationship and the sociocultural milieu within which women consider BSE education materials. Seven subjects varying in age, sexual orientation, parenting, and relationship status were interviewed about their physical experiences, self-touch, and body image. Subjects also participated in a BSE class and focus group, and composed a journal entry describing their reactions to practicing BSE. Discernible patterns in somatic memories, somatic styles, and reactions to BSE educational messages were found. This study suggests a need for a more consciously feminist approach to BSE education.

  6. Mexican American Women Pursuing Counselor Education Doctorates: A Narrative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinojosa, Tamara J.; Carney, JoLynn V.

    2016-01-01

    The authors used narrative inquiry and Anzaldúa's (1999) bordlerlands theory to understand the cultural experiences of 5 Mexican American women in doctoral programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. Results indicated that participants navigated multiple cultural spheres and that the…

  7. Educating Women about HIV/AIDS: Some International Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulman, Donna; Coben, Diana; Nguyen, Van Anh

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes current trends in the HIV/AIDS epidemic. It looks at issues and strategies involved in educating women about HIV/AIDS in the context of the global pandemic, focusing particularly on Canada and Vietnam. These strategies are essential steps in preventing the spread of HIV and in caring for those who have already developed AIDS.…

  8. Prospects of Higher Education of the Challenged Women in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halder, Santoshi

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the various constraints faced by orthopaedically challenged women in their way towards higher education in Indian society. The tools used for the investigation are the General Information Schedule (GIS), Socioeconomic Schedule, and Interview Schedule. The sample consisted of 100 orthopaedically challenged women…

  9. The ICES Model: Increasing Women's Participation in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison, Judith A.; Bailey, Jerry D.

    The study assesses the feasibility of implementing a specific model designed to increase women's participation in the administration of a state's public school systems. The model intervenes to affect the structure of opportunity, the structure of power, and the social composition of peer groups in a state's educational system. The researchers use…

  10. Women's Access to Higher Education in Tanzania: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Megan Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the ways in which first-generation women in Tanzania explained their success in pursuing a university education despite cultural and social obstacles. Such obstacles include social policies, socio-cultural factors, and academic factors. A review of the literature revealed that issues such as patriarchy,…

  11. Laws on Equal Education and Employment Opportunities for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Gloria T.

    Over the past 10 years, several laws have been passed and Executive Orders issued to eliminate some of the sex-based discrimination found in employment. The speaker, director of Education and Women's Activities of the International Union of Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers, discusses several of these laws in depth, including: (1) the Equal…

  12. Women as School Executives: Research and Reflections on Educational Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korcheck, Stephanie A., Ed.; Reese, Marianne, Ed.

    This monograph is a collection of articles on research and reflection by faculty and practitioners on educational leadership. Part I, "Leading a Learning Organization," contains the following articles: "Emotional Intelligence and Leading a Learning Organization" (C. Sue McCullough); "Women's Leadership Through Agency"…

  13. Emancipation and Education of Indian Women Since 1829.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Glendora B.

    The problem of this study is to trace the emancipation and education of women since 1829 and to determine the factors that have shaped the course of this development and directed its trends. Before the Moslem conquest, which brought the Purdah system, child-marriage, polygamy and divorce, the Hindu woman's status had changed from equality to men…

  14. Educating Women Leaders for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigg, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    The Leadership Scholars Certificate Program at Rutgers University is an intellectually rigorous program that draws on the rich scholarship in gender studies to reimagine leadership, accelerate young women to leadership, and prepare them as educated citizens who will make a difference in the world. This article describes a leadership development…

  15. Qualitative Inequality: Experiences of Women in Ethiopian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Tebeje; Cuthbert, Denise

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the lived experiences of women in Ethiopian higher education (HE) as a counterpoint to understandings of gender equity informed only by data on admission, progression and completions rates. Drawing on a critical qualitative inquiry approach, we analyse and interpret data drawn from focus group discussions with female students…

  16. Women Pursuing Higher Education in Ultra-Orthodox Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Nehami; Yedidya, Tova; Schwartz, Chaya; Aran, Ofra

    2014-01-01

    The study reported in this article concerns the beginnings of higher education for women in the Haredi (ultra-Orthodox) enclave in Israel. Haredi Jews are a self-secluded fundamentalist group committed to particularly strict interpretation of Jewish religious law. In recent years, they have been compelled by poverty and other factors to allow…

  17. Women--Their Access to Education and Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Discussion, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The Unesco National Commissions carried out a series of studies simultaneously in Argentina, the Ivory Coast, Lebanon, Sierra Leone, and Sri Lanka regarding the relationship between the educational opportunities and the opportunities of employment open to women. Basic conclusions of international scope are presented. (LH)

  18. Qualitative Inequality: Experiences of Women in Ethiopian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Tebeje; Cuthbert, Denise

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the lived experiences of women in Ethiopian higher education (HE) as a counterpoint to understandings of gender equity informed only by data on admission, progression and completions rates. Drawing on a critical qualitative inquiry approach, we analyse and interpret data drawn from focus group discussions with female students…

  19. The Identity of Educated Women in India: Confluence or Divergence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslak, Mary Ann; Singhal, Gayatri

    2008-01-01

    Under the combined effects of commercialisation, urbanisation, migration and employment, significant changes are taking place in India's process of modernisation. One change is the emergence of a population of women with degrees in higher education. These degrees, and the individuals' desire to pursue professional positions that relate to their…

  20. Marginal Maidens and Educational Policy for Women's Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Kathleen M.

    Unfavorable world and national economic and social trends of recent years have been paralleled by a reduced commitment to social services for marginalized peoples, including educational programs for women inmates. The potential negative results for future levels of delinquency and crime cannot be precisely calculated, according to sociologists and…

  1. Women Pursuing Higher Education in Ultra-Orthodox Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Nehami; Yedidya, Tova; Schwartz, Chaya; Aran, Ofra

    2014-01-01

    The study reported in this article concerns the beginnings of higher education for women in the Haredi (ultra-Orthodox) enclave in Israel. Haredi Jews are a self-secluded fundamentalist group committed to particularly strict interpretation of Jewish religious law. In recent years, they have been compelled by poverty and other factors to allow…

  2. Educated Women's Career Patterns: Separating Social and Developmental Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Abigail J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Presents a secondary analysis of selected work and family variables drawn from a longitudinal study of educated American women. Illustrates methods of analysis that enable separation of the effects of general social change, cohort specific change, and developmental change. (Author/GC)

  3. Mexican American Women Pursuing Counselor Education Doctorates: A Narrative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinojosa, Tamara J.; Carney, JoLynn V.

    2016-01-01

    The authors used narrative inquiry and Anzaldúa's (1999) bordlerlands theory to understand the cultural experiences of 5 Mexican American women in doctoral programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. Results indicated that participants navigated multiple cultural spheres and that the…

  4. Patriarchy: A Case of Women in Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlamini, Eunice Tressa; Adams, Jabulile Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    This article presents research on women's experiences of patriarchy in a Higher Education Institution X. This is a qualitative study located within the interpretivists' paradigm. The research problem of this study is articulated through the following research questions: how do female academics experience patriarchy? How does patriarchy…

  5. CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR WOMEN, A SELECTED ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SPIEGEL, JEANNE

    A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MATERIALS WAS PREPARED ON THE SUBJECT OF THE ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CHALLENGES CONFRONTING WOMEN IN DEVELOPING THEIR CAPABILITIES THROUGH CONTINUING EDUCATION. SELECTIONS ARE NOT EVALUATED, BUT ANNOTATIONS SUMMARIZE CONTENT AND FINDINGS. INCLUDED ARE 30 BOOKS, REPORTS, AND PAMPHLETS, 24 PERIODICAL ARTICLES, FOUR…

  6. Continuing Education for Men and Women in Leisure Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialeschki, M. Deborah; Henderson, Karla A.

    A study was conducted to ascertain the continuing education needs of men and women leisure service professionals in Wisconsin and to identify differences caused by gender. (Leisure service professionals were defined as persons employed full-time in administering, directing, leading, organizing, and planning in leisure service organizations.) A…

  7. Resources in Women's Educational Equity. Special Issue 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Educational Equity Communications Network, San Francisco, CA.

    This compilation of over 2,000 document resumes contains abstracts or annotations of materials relevant to women's educational equity which were entered into computerized data bases from January 1975 through December 1976. Covering material produced from about 1973 to 1976, the citations relate to one of six subject categories which were the…

  8. Gender discrimination, educational attainment, and illicit drug use among U.S. women.

    PubMed

    Carliner, Hannah; Sarvet, Aaron L; Gordon, Allegra R; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-03-01

    While gender inequality has been a topic of concern for decades, little is known about the relationship between gender discrimination and illicit drug use. Further, whether this association varies by education level is unknown. Among 19,209 women participants in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005), we used logistic regression to test the association between gender discrimination (measured with four items from the Experiences of Discrimination instrument) and three outcomes: past-year illicit drug use, frequent drug use, and drug use disorders. We then tested whether associations differed by education level. Gender discrimination was reported by 9% of women and was associated with past-year drug use [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.17-3.29], frequent drug use (aOR = 2.82; CI 1.99-4.00), and past-year drug use disorders (aOR = 3.15; CI 2.16-4.61). All specific domains of gender discrimination (on the job, in public, with institutions, being called a sexist name) were associated with all drug use outcomes. The association between gender discrimination and past-year drug use was stronger among women with less than a high school education (aOR = 6.33; CI 3.38-11.85) compared to those with more education (aOR = 2.45; CI 1.97-3.04; p interaction < 0.01). Gender discrimination is consistently and strongly associated with illicit drug use and drug use disorders among U.S. women, with significantly higher odds for drug use among women with less than a high school education. Future research should examine whether explicitly addressing distress from discrimination could benefit women in drug treatment, especially among clients with lower educational attainment.

  9. Does Education Empower Women? The Regulated Empowerment of "Parhi Likhi" Women in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khurshid, Ayesha

    2017-01-01

    Through employing ethnographic data collected with female teachers from rural and low-income communities in Pakistan, this paper examines how parhi likhi (educated) women's access to valuable opportunities in public domains is contingent upon them becoming subject to new regulations, especially regarding their sexuality. This gendered process of…

  10. Association between dietary habits, education, serum triglycerides and blood cholesterol among women of Cabildo, Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Raul J; Barengo, Noel; Haapala, Irja; Tavella, Marcelo

    2006-01-01

    A cross sectional study of 107 women between 20 and 69 years old, living in the town of Cabildo, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, which describes food intake and analyses its relation to their education, blood cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels. A food frequency questionnaire including questions regarding meal patterns and food use were completed by the participants. Questions regarding educational status were included. A nutritional risk score was created from nine food groups. Total blood cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels were determined. Average total blood cholesterol levels of the women who participated in the present study were higher (209 mg/dl) than those recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program, while triglyceride values remained within the normal range (124 mg/dl). Total blood cholesterol levels increased with age. Bread, biscuits and cakes were consumed on a daily basis by 98% of the participants and dairy products by 92%, these being mainly full-fat. Meat and fast food intake were very high (96% and 100% respectively). Vegetable and fish intakes were higher among the more educated women. Mayonnaise (58%) and butter (43%) are popular as food dressings and bread spreads respectively, and sunflower oil was the most commonly used for cooking by 94% of the participants. Women with low educational levels (less than 7 years) had higher nutritional risk scores, and thus unhealthier dietary habits than those with more years of formal education. No statistically significant association was found between food groups and cholesterol or triglyceride levels.

  11. What Happens After School? A Study of Disabled Women and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, J. Corbett; Weeks, CeCe

    The report, over half of which consists of appendixes and lists of resources, discusses the educational and related life experiences of six disabled women. Focus is on their early experiences with school and family, their high school years, their college years, and their work. Their disabilities include blindness, osteogenesis imperfecta (fragile…

  12. Gendered Realities and Women's Leadership Development: Participant Voices from Faith-Based Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafreniere, Shawna L.; Longman, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    Women who seek high-level administrative leadership positions in various sectors of higher education continue to meet a variety of barriers (Eagly & Carli, 2007). These challenges are especially evident among the 105-member Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU), an association of faith-based liberal arts institutions. Seeking to…

  13. Gendered Realities and Women's Leadership Development: Participant Voices from Faith-Based Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafreniere, Shawna L.; Longman, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    Women who seek high-level administrative leadership positions in various sectors of higher education continue to meet a variety of barriers (Eagly & Carli, 2007). These challenges are especially evident among the 105-member Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU), an association of faith-based liberal arts institutions. Seeking to…

  14. What Happens After School? A Study of Disabled Women and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, J. Corbett; Weeks, CeCe

    The report, over half of which consists of appendixes and lists of resources, discusses the educational and related life experiences of six disabled women. Focus is on their early experiences with school and family, their high school years, their college years, and their work. Their disabilities include blindness, osteogenesis imperfecta (fragile…

  15. Relationship between health-related fitness and educational and income levels in Spanish women.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, José M; Torres, Silvia; Caro, Berta; Escalante, Yolanda; De la Cruz, Ernesto; Durán, María J; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between health-related fitness, taken as an indicator of regular physical activity, and educational and income levels in adult Spanish women. Descriptive, correlation, cross-sectional study. A stepwise stratification procedure according to population size, age and level of physical activity according to a previous epidemiological survey was used for sampling. Two thousand and thirty-eight women gave their written consent to participate (62.8% of those invited). The final sample consisted of 1709 healthy women (aged 18-88 years). Subjects were categorized into high, medium and low level groups for education and income. All participants were assessed for morphological and physical health-related fitness. Three-way MANCOVA (age as covariate) and Bonferroni's post hoc test were used to determine the differences between groups. No significant relationships were found between age-adjusted educational and income levels. The lowest values for health-related fitness were found in the lowest educational and income groups (P<0.001). The higher the level of education and income, the better the values for all fitness variables (P<0.001), except anterior trunk flexibility. A positive relationship was found between health-related fitness and educational and income levels, which appeared to be most evident in the lowest educational and income groups. This implies that health-related promotion policies in Spain should stress the importance of regular physical activity in social classes with low levels of education and income.

  16. Women and the Future of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, George

    1975-01-01

    Education in the future must meet the requirements of equal proportions of males and females, yet take account of their different abilities and expectations. Available from: Futures, IPC (America) Inc., 205 East 42nd St., New York, N.Y. 10017 Subscription $65 institutions; $46.80 individuals. (JG)

  17. Educating Women for Success: Overcoming Psychological Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Abigail J.

    1979-01-01

    Personal and institutional characteristics that might increase the likelihood of a female student successfully developing and pursuing individual goals are discussed. Three studies examine: psychological characteristics associated with life outcomes of satisfaction, effect of college education and environments on psychological characteristics, and…

  18. Women in Higher Education: A Biographical Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Patricia Albjerg

    The history of higher education in the U. S. traditionally has been characterized by the same kinds of studies as most other American history: ones that focus on the experiences or concerns of the authors. What such history ignores is the group that for most of this century comprised about 40 percent or more of the undergraduate student body and…

  19. Experiences of African American Young Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolo, Yovonda Ingram

    African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.

  20. Midlife Education, Career, and Family Outcomes of Women Educated at Two Single-Sex Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Lauren E.; Wentworth Phyllis A.; Owen-Smith, Ashli; LaFavor, Theresa

    2002-01-01

    Examined midlife educational, career, and family outcomes of women who attended women's colleges in the 1960s, one with a coed learning environment (CLE) and one with a single-sex environment (SLE). Overall, graduates of both colleges were very accomplished 30 years later. However, those who had experienced a CLE reported more sexism and active…

  1. Educational Brokering: The Women's Resources Centre Experience. Occasional Papers in Continuing Education, Number 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Rose Marie Ettel

    A client-reaction study examined the effectiveness of the Women's Resources Centre in Vancouver in facilitating clients' access to educational and vocational opportunities. The focus of the study was on the extent to which the center attracts women who are disadvantaged and on the results of clients' associations with the center. After analyzing…

  2. Moonlighting by Women Jumped to Record Highs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, John F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The data on multiple jobholders are examined by the author. He finds a particularly sharp increase in the number of women with two jobs, which is another sign of the growing strength of their ties to the job market. Nearly five percent of working women are now multiple jobholders. (CT)

  3. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated

    PubMed Central

    Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2015-01-01

    In the U.S. college-educated women earn approximately 30 percent less than their non-Hispanic white male counterparts. We conduct an empirical examination of this wage disparity for four groups of women—non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian—using the National Survey of College Graduates, a large data set that provides unusually detailed information on higher-level education. Nonparametric matching analysis indicates that among men and women who speak English at home, between 44 and 73 percent of the gender wage gaps are accounted for by such pre-market factors as highest degree and major. When we restrict attention further to women who have “high labor force attachment” (i.e., work experience that is similar to male comparables) we account for 54 to 99 percent of gender wage gaps. Our nonparametric approach differs from familiar regression-based decompositions, so for the sake of comparison we conduct parametric analyses as well. Inferences drawn from these latter decompositions can be quite misleading. PMID:26097255

  4. Women--the underused human resource: education and training of women for community participation.

    PubMed

    Elmendorf, M L

    1982-01-01

    This article goes beyond the rhetorical issue of women's participation as a key to implementing water supply and sanitation projects and suggests concrete ways in which training and education can make these plans a reality. With the improvements proposed for the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, women could be freed to do other tasks vital to the well being of the family and the community. Women, the "invisible resource" of society, play and essential part in encouraging family members to use technological advances and should be trained to effectively promote their acceptance. The author highlights the influence women have in the field of public health: with adequate training, for example, they can help control the spread of diarrheal disease with proper hygiene and an understanding of the fecal-oral route of infection. Moreover, she says that the central role women play in socializing the young and their permanence within the household make them suitable as trainees and trainers for water and sanitation projects at the community and household levels. Women should be recruited for these roles and should be consulted at every stage of development; while women's bureaus exist in many countries, the author states that planners often hesitate to call on them for assistance. The article describes several innovative training programs and, along with a bibliography, presents separate case studies for Mexico and Panama.

  5. Strategies for Survival in Kenya: Women, Education, and Self-Help Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbugua-Murithi, Tata

    1997-01-01

    Drawing on data from 12 women's groups in Kenya, a recent study identified these women's general and demographic characteristics and discovered how rural Kenyan women acquire and exchange information, education, and learning skills; how education affects the groups' organizational management and leadership; how women work in groups and benefit…

  6. Nativity, Country of Education, and Mexican-Origin Women's Breastfeeding Behaviors in the First 10 Months Postpartum.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, C Emily; Potter, Joseph E

    2017-03-01

    Breastfeeding is associated with numerous health benefits for the infant and mother. Latina women in the United States have historically had high overall rates of initiation and duration of breastfeeding. However, these rates vary by nativity and time lived in the United States. Exclusive breastfeeding patterns among Latina women are unclear. In this study, we investigate the current and exclusive breastfeeding patterns of Mexican-origin women at four time points from delivery to 10 months postpartum to determine the combined association of nativity and country of education with breastfeeding duration and supplementation. Data are from the Postpartum Contraception Study, a prospective cohort study of postpartum women ages 18-44 recruited from three hospitals in Austin and El Paso, Texas. We included Mexican-origin women who were born in either the United States or Mexico in the analytic sample (n = 593). Women completing schooling in Mexico had higher rates of overall breastfeeding throughout the study period than women educated in the United States, regardless of country of birth. This trend held in multivariate models while diminishing over time. Women born in Mexico who completed their schooling in the United States were least likely to exclusively breastfeed. Country of education should also be considered when assessing Latina women's risk for breastfeeding discontinuation. Efforts should be made to identify the barriers and facilitators to breastfeeding among US-educated Mexican-origin women to enhance existing breastfeeding promotion efforts in the United States. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Perceived weight status may contribute to education inequalities in five-year weight change among mid-aged women.

    PubMed

    Siu, Jessica; Giskes, Katrina; Shaw, Jonathan; Turrell, Gavin

    2011-06-01

    To examine education differences in five-year weight change among mid-aged adults, and to ascertain if this may be due to socioeconomic differences in perceived weight status or weight control behaviours (WCBs). Data were used from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study. Mid-aged men and women with measured weights at both baseline (1999-2000) and follow-up (2004-2005) were included. Percent weight change over the five-year interval was calculated and perceived weight status, WCBs and highest attained education were collected at baseline. Low-educated men and women were more likely to be obese at baseline compared to their high-educated counterparts. Women with a certificate-level education had a greater five-year weight gain than those with a bachelor degree or higher. Perceived weight status or WCBs did not differ by education among men and women, however participants that perceived themselves as very overweight had less weight gain than those perceiving themselves as underweight or normal weight. WCBs were not associated with five-year weight change. The higher prevalence of overweight/obesity among low-educated women may be a consequence of greater weight gain in mid-adulthood. Education inequalities in overweight/obesity among men and women made be due (in part) to overweight or obese individuals in low-educated groups not perceiving themselves as having a weight problem. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  8. Engaging Immigrant and Refugee Women in Breast Health Education.

    PubMed

    Gondek, Matthew; Shogan, May; Saad-Harfouche, Frances G; Rodriguez, Elisa M; Erwin, Deborah O; Griswold, Kim; Mahoney, Martin C

    2015-09-01

    This project assessed the impact of a community-based educational program on breast cancer knowledge and screening among Buffalo (NY) immigrant and refugee females. Program participants completed language-matched pre- and post-test assessments during a single session educational program; breast cancer screening information was obtained from the mobile mammography unit to which participants were referred. Pre- and post-test knowledge scores were compared to assess changes in responses to each of the six individual knowledge items, as well as overall. Mammogram records were reviewed to identify Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) scores. The proportion of correct responses to each of the six knowledge items increased significantly on the post-program assessments; 33 % of women >40 years old completed mammograms. The findings suggest that a health education program for immigrant and refugee women, delivered in community-based settings and involving interpreters, can enhance breast cancer knowledge and lead to improvements in mammography completion.

  9. Educating in a "Regressive Era": Exploring the Race-Full Ideological Standpoint of Black Women Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Wanda

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this 2-year phenomenological study was to build on the legacy of Black women educators before and after "Brown v. Board of Education" and examine the ideological standpoint of early career Black women educators from the millennial generation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with three Black women educators…

  10. Chance, Choice, and Opportunity in the Careers of Four Women Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Beth

    Life history interviews with four women holding doctorates in educational administration are presented in this paper, which examines how chances and choice affect women administrators' career decisions. A second focus is on how organizational structure in educational organizations can enhance career opportunities for women educators. Three…

  11. Continuing Education of Women, Report of a Seminar (Toronto, Canada, March 1, 2, 3, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association for Adult Education, Toronto (Ontario).

    A report of a Seminar on Continuing Education of Women, held in March 1973 for Canadian women, is provided. The seminar was held to explore key issues in continuing education of women and to give guidelines to the Canadian Association for Adult Education (CAAE) as to relevant action that could be taken by the association. The contents of the…

  12. Women and Graduate Management Education (2012). GMAC[R] Data-to-Go Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graduate Management Admission Council, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides statistics on women and graduate management education for 2012. This paper contains two parts: (1) Women in the Business School Talent Pipeline; and (2) Women in Business. "Women in the Business School Talent Pipeline" discusses: (1) GMAT[R] Examinees; (2) B-School Demand from Younger Women; (3) MBA, Masters &…

  13. College Today, Part II: Women's Colleges. Options in Education Transcript: Program No. 120.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    The need for all-women colleges is discussed in this, the second of four transcripts of radio programs on college today. Dialogue on the following subjects is provided: the need for women's colleges; women comment on life at all-women's colleges; history of women's colleges; education at Hood College, Frederick, Maryland; Hood students'…

  14. Can an Educational Intervention Improve Iodine Nutrition Status in Pregnant Women? A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Parisa; Hamzavi Zarghani, Najmeh; Nazeri, Pantea; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Karimi, Mehrdad; Amouzegar, Atieh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-03-01

    Because of their increased need for iodine, pregnant women are among the high-risk groups for iodine deficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational program on the iodine nutrition status of pregnant women. In this randomized controlled trial, 100 pregnant women were randomly selected from five healthcare centers in the southern region of Tehran, the capital of Iran. In the intervention group, pregnant women received a four-month educational program, which included two face-to-face educational sessions, using a researcher-designed educational pamphlet in the second and third trimesters, and two follow-up telephone calls. Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) scores, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and salt iodine content were assessed at baseline and four months after the intervention. At baseline, there were significant associations between knowledge and attitude (r = 0.38, p = 0.03) between practice and UIC (r = 0.28, p = 0.01) and between UIC and iodine content of salt (r = 0.24, p = 0.009). Although a significant difference was found in mean KAP scores between the two groups after the educational intervention, scores were significantly higher in the intervention group compared with controls (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in UIC and iodine content of salt between the two groups at follow-up. Despite educational intervention increasing KAP among women regarding the importance of iodine and iodized salt consumption during pregnancy, their iodine status did not improve. Considering the main socio-environmental determinants of iodine deficiency, in particular, the monitoring of salt fortification, prescribing iodine containing supplements as well as improving health literacy in pregnant women seem essential strategies.

  15. Exploring How Nigerian Women Foster Action to Be Taken to Involve More Women Participation in Technical and Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akor, Robert; Bakar, Ab Rahim Bin; Hamzah, Azim B. Hj; Rashid, Abdullah Bin Mat

    2015-01-01

    Despite the documented benefits to economic and social development of women and the constitutional guarantee for equal right under the law to all citizens, the advancement of the status of women in Nigeria is still far from satisfactory. The participation of women in technical and vocational education is abysmally low. Recent literature describing…

  16. Crossing Borders: Academic Refugee Women, Education and the British Federation of University Women during the Nazi Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the educational experiences of a specific group of refugees, namely academic women refugees who were members of various branches of the International Federation of University Women, and who came to Britain under the auspices of the British Federation of University Women from 1933. As a result of voluntary or forced migration…

  17. Seven Years Later: Women's Studies Programs in 1976. A Report of the National Advisory Council on Women's Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Florence

    Fifteen women's studies programs across the U.S. were examined in this review commissioned by the National Advisory Council on Women's Educational Programs. All of the programs were in phase two of women's studies, defined as having a line budget, a paid administrator, and a curriculum that moves through committees and is recognized in an official…

  18. Crossing Borders: Academic Refugee Women, Education and the British Federation of University Women during the Nazi Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the educational experiences of a specific group of refugees, namely academic women refugees who were members of various branches of the International Federation of University Women, and who came to Britain under the auspices of the British Federation of University Women from 1933. As a result of voluntary or forced migration…

  19. World Education Report, 1995. The Education of Women and Girls; Challenges to Pedagogy; Education for Peace, Human Rights and Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This report, the third in UNESCO's series of World Education Reports, focuses on the largest single category of persons denied equality of educational opportunity in the world today: women and girls. The report examines global trends and developments in female access to formal education in both industrial and developing countries, focusing in…

  20. Low levels of food involvement and negative affect reduce the quality of diet in women of lower educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Jarman, M; Lawrence, W; Ntani, G; Tinati, T; Pease, A; Black, C; Baird, J; Barker, M

    2012-10-01

    Women of lower educational attainment tend to have poorer quality diets and lower food involvement (an indicator of the priority given to food) than women of higher educational attainment. The present study reports a study of the role of food involvement in the relationship between educational attainment and quality of diet in young women. The first phase uses six focus group discussions (n = 28) to explore the function of food involvement in shaping the food choices of women of lower and higher educational attainment with young children. The second phase is a survey that examines the relationship between educational attainment and quality of diet in women, and explores the role of mediating factors identified by the focus group discussions. The focus groups suggested that lower food involvement in women of lower educational attainment might be associated with negative affect (i.e. an observable expression of negative emotion), and that this might mean that they did not place a high priority on eating a good quality diet. In support of this hypothesis, the survey of 1010 UK women found that 14% of the effect of educational attainment on food involvement was mediated through the woman's affect (P ≤ 0.001), and that 9% of the effect of educational attainment on quality of diet was mediated through food involvement (P ≤ 0.001). Women who leave school with fewer qualifications may have poorer quality diets than women with more qualifications because they tend to have a lower level of food involvement, partly attributed to a more negative affect. Interventions to improve women's mood may benefit their quality of diet. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  1. Role of patient education level in predicting macrosomia among women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chung, J H; Voss, K J; Caughey, A B; Wing, D A; Henderson, E J D; Major, C A

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate the role of education level in predicting the risk of macrosomia among women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Women with gestational diabetes, who were referred to the California Diabetes and Pregnancy Sweet Success Program between June 2001 and December 2002, were included in the study. Multiple logistic regression was used estimate the risk of macrosomia, defined as a birth weight >4000 g. Compared to college-educated women, high school- and middle school-educated women were 21% (relative risk (RR), 1.21; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.01-1.44) and 35% (RR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.09-1.70) more likely to deliver a macrosomic infant, respectively. Gestational diabetics with a lower level of educational attainment appear to have an increased risk of macrosomia. Future studies are necessary to determine whether this finding reflects a variation in adherence to recommended treatments by education/literacy level, or if it is a surrogate marker for intrinsic, biological differences or differences in lifestyle.

  2. Violence against Educated Women by Intimate Partners in Urban Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Kundapur, Rashmi; Shetty, Shruthi M; Kempaller, Vinayak J; Kumar, Ashwini; Anurupa, M

    2017-01-01

    Initially viewed as a human rights issue, partner violence is increasingly seen as an important public health problem of international concern. To assess the extent of physical, sexual, psychological, and controlling behavior of intimate partners against women in an educated society and find the association with age, age of marriage, married years, educational status of the women and that of partner. A prevalence of 15% was taken and final sample was 200, after considering loss of follow-up. Proportion, Z-test, Chi-square test. The prevalence of violence against intimate partner in educated society was found to be 40.5% in a South Indian city. Physical assault was high in 30-50 years and increased with duration of marriage from 5.5% at 5 years to 33.3% in 10-20 years of married life. Sexual and psychological assault also increased in <5 years of married life to 35% and 47.6% in 10-20 years duration of marriage, which was statistically significant. Sexual and psychological assault showed a bimodal presentation. Less educated women and their partners were found to report more violence, which was statistically significant. Violence against women is not uncommon in the educated society.

  3. A Transnational Community of Pakistani Muslim Women: Narratives of Rights, Honor, and Wisdom in a Women's Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khurshid, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    Using ethnographic data, this article explores how Muslim women teachers from low-income Pakistani communities employ the notion of "wisdom" to construct and perform their educated subjectivity in a transnational women's education project. Through Butler's performativity framework, I demonstrate how local and global discourses overlap to…

  4. Women Hold Up More Than Half the Sky. A Third World Perspective on Women and Nonformal Education for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Anne; Gayfer, Margaret

    A study examined the nature and extent of women's participation in adult and nonformal education in third world areas. During the study, female coordinators of adult and nonformal educational programs for women in the Arab states, South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, Latin America, Africa, and the South Pacific collected information on such…

  5. A Transnational Community of Pakistani Muslim Women: Narratives of Rights, Honor, and Wisdom in a Women's Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khurshid, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    Using ethnographic data, this article explores how Muslim women teachers from low-income Pakistani communities employ the notion of "wisdom" to construct and perform their educated subjectivity in a transnational women's education project. Through Butler's performativity framework, I demonstrate how local and global discourses overlap to…

  6. Using the Women's Community Education Approach to Deliver Community Employment Training: A Case Study from Longford Women's Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Lorne; Dowd, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The recent economic downturn and surge in unemployment has focused attention on education and training as a strategic response to Ireland's socio-economic crisis. However, that attention has been concentrated on training through statutory institutions, particularly FAS and the VECs. Longford Women's Link, a Women's Community Education centre in Co…

  7. The educational journeys of first-generation college women in STEM: A grounded theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, Susan

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the various factors that influenced these first-generation college women as they chose a college and selected a STEM major and subsequently persisted to upper level (junior/senior) status. Twenty-five first-generation college women in STEM majors who attended a research-intensive university in the Midwest were interviewed. Approaching this study using constructivist grounded theory provided the opportunity for deeper insights by examining data at a conceptual level while preserving the voices of the women in this study. The women faced numerous challenges on their journeys, yet they persisted. As the women in this study selected and persisted in STEM, they demonstrated thoughtful determination, experienced shifting identities, established purposeful relationships and applied forward thinking, as they practiced high-stakes decision-making during their journeys. The experiences of these women, namely first-generation women in STEM fields, may inform students, parents, educators, researchers, and policymakers concerned with (a) inspiring students to consider STEM majors, (b) fostering student success in STEM throughout their academic journeys, and (c) ultimately increasing the number of underrepresented minorities and women in the STEM fields.

  8. Narratives of Nigerian Educated Women Pursuing Higher Education Degrees in Western Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulus, Vincent Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The impetus for conducting this research is near and dear to my heart along with desiring to make a change for the better. In conducting interviews of Nigerian women's experiences, struggles and accessibility to secondary education, the research shows significant barriers to secondary education in their narrative experiences that their male…

  9. Emancipation in Educational System: Formation of Women's Higher Education in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornilova, Irina V.; Magsumov, Timur A.

    2017-01-01

    The focus of the article is on one of the turning points in the education development in Russia of the late imperial period, i.e., the establishment of women's higher education in the second half of the 19th century. The researchers involved various sources, including periodicals, ego-documents, documents of management and record keeping obtained…

  10. Gendering Agricultural Education: A Study of Historical Pictures of Women in the Agricultural Education Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enns, Kellie J.; Martin, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of women agriculture teachers over the past 50 years has opened opportunities while revealing issues which females still face in agricultural education. Issues such as lack of female role models, gender stereotyping, and gender bias have been documented in agricultural education research. The purpose of this study was to explore the…

  11. Narratives of Nigerian Educated Women Pursuing Higher Education Degrees in Western Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulus, Vincent Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The impetus for conducting this research is near and dear to my heart along with desiring to make a change for the better. In conducting interviews of Nigerian women's experiences, struggles and accessibility to secondary education, the research shows significant barriers to secondary education in their narrative experiences that their male…

  12. Educational attainment but not literacy is associated with HIV risk behavior among incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Clarke, Jennifer G; Hebert, Megan R; Ray, Moira K; Stein, Michael D

    2005-11-01

    To identify the educational factors associated with HIV risk behaviors among incarcerated women. We evaluated a cohort of female detainees at The Rhode Island Adult Correctional Institute between July and September 2004. Among the 423 women who participated in the study, 55% did not have a high school diploma, 29% had < or = 8th grade reading capacity, 32% had a learning disability, 37% had problem drinking, and 61% (257/423) reported HIV risk behavior. In multiple logistic regression, participants who had completed high school had the lowest likelihood of HIV risk behavior (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12-1.00). There was no association between participants? literacy level and HIV risk behavior (adjusted OR 2.02, 95% CI 0.83-4.92). Correctional education programs to reduce HIV risk behavior should focus on those with low educational attainment irrespective of literacy skills.

  13. Evaluation of an educational program on cervical cancer for rural women in Mangalore, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Mary, Bright; D'Sa, Juliana Linnette

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer in women worldwide. One way by which the incidence of this malignant disease can be minimized is by imparting knowledge through health education. This study aimed at developing an educational package on cervical cancer (EPCC) and determining its effectiveness in terms of significant increase in knowledge of rural women regarding cervical cancer. A one group pre-test, post-test design was adopted. Thirty rural women were selected using a convenient sampling method. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and a structured knowledge questionnaire developed by the researchers. The EPCC was designed for a duration of one hour and 10 minutes. The structured knowledge questionnaire was first administered as the pre-test, following which knowledge on cervical cancer was imparted using the EPCC. On the 8th day, the post-test was administered. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean post-test knowledge score of the women regarding cervical cancer was significantly higher than that of their mean pre-test score, indicating that the EPCC was effective in improving the knowledge of rural women on cervical cancer. The association between pre-test knowledge scores and selected demo-graphic variables were computed using chi-square test showed that pre-test knowledge score of the women regarding cervical cancer was independent of all the socio-demographic variables. It was concluded that the EPCC is effective in improving the knowledge of women, regarding cervical cancer. Since the prevalence of cervical cancer is high, there is an immediate need to educate women on prevention of cervical cancer.

  14. Does Education Necessarily Mean Enlightenment? The Case of Higher Education among Palestinians--Bedouin Women in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia-Queder, Sarab

    2008-01-01

    This study challenges and evaluates modern-liberal-humanistic discourse on education as enlightenment through analysis of the life stories of the first Bedouin women to acquire higher education (hereafter: First Women). The liberal discourse is examined in terms of its ethnic and genderial contexts and the special status these women gained as…

  15. As Capable as Other Students: Tanzanian Women with Disabilities in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuomi, Margaret Trotta; Lehtomäki, Elina; Matonya, Magreth

    2015-01-01

    Globally, persons with disabilities are underrepresented in higher education. In sub-Saharan Africa, where opportunities for higher education are especially limited, women are unlikely to continue their education. This research investigates women in Tanzanian higher education with the double marginalisation of being a woman and having…

  16. Economic Liberalization and Women's Education: Prospects for Post-Apartheid South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines women's education and related issues in South Africa in light of restrictions on educational spending imposed by Structural Adjustment Programs stipulated by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. Argues that the contraction of educational resources will have a strong negative effect on women's education, particularly for black…

  17. As Capable as Other Students: Tanzanian Women with Disabilities in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuomi, Margaret Trotta; Lehtomäki, Elina; Matonya, Magreth

    2015-01-01

    Globally, persons with disabilities are underrepresented in higher education. In sub-Saharan Africa, where opportunities for higher education are especially limited, women are unlikely to continue their education. This research investigates women in Tanzanian higher education with the double marginalisation of being a woman and having…

  18. Women's Ways of Drinking: College Women, High-Risk Alcohol Use, and Negative Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Margaret A.; Berger, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore college women's high-risk alcohol use and related consequences. This study employed a qualitative approach to understand and provide visibility for a gender-related perspective on college women's alcohol experiences and related outcomes. Data were collected from interviews with 10 undergraduate females at a…

  19. Diverse Experiences of Women Leading in Higher Education: Locating Networks and Agency for Leadership within a University Context in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNae, Rachel; Vali, Kerren

    2015-01-01

    The ways in which women deliberately press back against practices of oppression and demonstrate agency in higher education institutions are highly contextual and culturally bound. The formal and informal networks that women develop and maintain are important elements of generating agency and enhancing women's access to and opportunities for…

  20. Diverse Experiences of Women Leading in Higher Education: Locating Networks and Agency for Leadership within a University Context in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNae, Rachel; Vali, Kerren

    2015-01-01

    The ways in which women deliberately press back against practices of oppression and demonstrate agency in higher education institutions are highly contextual and culturally bound. The formal and informal networks that women develop and maintain are important elements of generating agency and enhancing women's access to and opportunities for…

  1. "He can be good and still have AIDS". Peer education prevents AIDS in Thai women workers.

    PubMed

    Cash, K

    1993-01-01

    Focus group discussions and interviews with 240 single adolescent women who had migrated to northern Thailand to work in the garment industry revealed a high incidence of unprotected premarital sex and widespread misinformation about the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Many believed that "good people" could not get AIDS and that condoms were men's concern, for use with prostitutes rather than girlfriends. In response, an educational program was designed for these young factory workers with the aim of providing accurate information and encouraging women to insist on protected sex. Peer education was selected as the strategy most likely to promote participatory learning, skill acquisition, and emotional support. Educational materials were interactive and based on problem-solving. A comic book featured an invisible flying condom that instructed young women how to negotiate condom use; a romantic novel about a young migrant factory worker addressed the false notion that "good men" cannot become infected with AIDS. The peer education program lasted for 3 months, after which participants received a certificate. Post-program evaluation indicated widespread acceptance of condoms as a contraceptive option for women and enhanced relational skills in negotiating for safe sex.

  2. Implementing a Project-Based Technology Program for High School Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudria, Theodore J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the successful implementation of a Women in Technology (WIT) Project-Based Learning Program in High Tech Manufacturing by the Tech Prep Consortium at Bristol Community College (Massachusetts). Reports that the program's success was mainly due to the establishment of partnerships with industry, government, and education, including area…

  3. Mexican American Women's Reflections from Public High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kay Ann; Fernandez-Bergersen, Sandra Luz

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative case study examined 5 Mexican American women's experiences at the intersection of race and gender in public high school. Critical race theory provided the analysis and interpretation. The significant findings of this research included the following: (a) Racism is endemic and pervasive in public education; (b) many educational…

  4. Mexican American Women's Reflections from Public High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kay Ann; Fernandez-Bergersen, Sandra Luz

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative case study examined 5 Mexican American women's experiences at the intersection of race and gender in public high school. Critical race theory provided the analysis and interpretation. The significant findings of this research included the following: (a) Racism is endemic and pervasive in public education; (b) many educational…

  5. Women's Work Is Never Done: Resolving Gender Inequalities in Education. Book Review of "Gendered Education: Sociological Reflections on Women, Teaching and Feminism," by Sandra Acker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symbaluk, Diane G.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews a book that examines women's progress in education during the last 30 years. The book emphasizes the continuity of women's inferior status as students and academics despite advances since the second wave of feminism during the 1960s, describes teacher career structures in England and Wales, and examines women's conflicting role…

  6. Educational achievement and pain disability among women with chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Roth, R S; Punch, M R; Bachman, J E

    2001-10-01

    This study examined the relationship of level of educational (LOE) achievement to pain experience, affective disturbance, and perceived disability among women with chronic pelvic pain presenting for pain treatment. 187 patients completed a battery of self-report inventories assessing pain, psychological status, and functional ability. Educational attainment was stratified across five levels from "less than high school" to "graduate/professional school." Significant inverse associations were found between lower educational achievement and more severe pain, somatic preoccupation, emotional suffering and guardedness, and functional impairment. No differences were obtained across the groups for age, duration of pain, or symptoms of depression. These data provide support for the importance of socioeconomic factors, particularly LOE, in furthering our understanding of the morbidity observed among women suffering chronic pelvic pain.

  7. Evaluation of Entertainment Education Strategies to Promote Cervical Cancer Screening and Knowledge in Colombian Women.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Roland Lincoln Boyden; Ramos Jaraba, Sara Milena; Graciano Tangarife, Valentina; Garcés-Palacio, Isabel C

    2017-04-04

    Cervical cancer is considered to be a major health problem for women in developing countries, but it is also problematic for more developed countries as global migration increases and health behaviors move from the countries of origin to new places of residence. We designed and produced a testimonial video and a fotonovela (printed short story) to educate women about cervical cancer and screening. The development of the materials included formative research, production, pretesting, dissemination, and evaluation. The evaluation included 100 women that completed a pretest and a posttest at eight health clinics in Medellin. The pretest and posttest were analyzed using McNemar's test for categorical variables and paired t test for continuous variables. Women in the study had a high initial Stage of Change as defined by the Transtheoretical Model and a high baseline knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer, with the caveat of specific knowledge deficiencies especially for HPV. While not statistically significant, postintervention Transtheoretical Model status in both interventions changed towards higher stages, specifically, from Precontemplation to Contemplation and Preparation. Women who participated in the study liked the educational materials and their knowledge increased, especially for HPV. However, the perception of risk did not change.

  8. Government policies, industry/economics, social trends, and educational opportunities in 'women's decisions to work outside versus inside the home.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Susan M

    2002-12-01

    Research on the career decision processes of women has focused primarily on internal considerations such as mathematical ability, intelligence, and self-esteem; however, the external environment also has an influence on these processes. To date, the environmental factors have primarily been researched separately, if at all. They include government policies, industry/economics, social trends/expected sex roles, and educational opportunities. This pilot study investigated these four external factors simultaneously. In addition, a survey of literature on career decision indicated such research to be based on a limited pool of highly educated, management/professional women. This study also uses a wider group including housewives, blue collar, and pink collar women.

  9. From Gender-Not-an-Issue to Gender Is the Issue: The Educational and Migrational Pathways of Middle-Class Women Moving from Urban Bangladesh to Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahbub, Rifat

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the educational and migrational pathways which a number of middle-class women from Bangladesh took as they grew up in the 1980s and 1990s. It draws on qualitative research, conducted between July and November 2011, with highly educated Bangladeshi women who migrated to Britain in the early 2000s. French Sociologist Pierre…

  10. From Gender-Not-an-Issue to Gender Is the Issue: The Educational and Migrational Pathways of Middle-Class Women Moving from Urban Bangladesh to Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahbub, Rifat

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the educational and migrational pathways which a number of middle-class women from Bangladesh took as they grew up in the 1980s and 1990s. It draws on qualitative research, conducted between July and November 2011, with highly educated Bangladeshi women who migrated to Britain in the early 2000s. French Sociologist Pierre…

  11. Gender Equality and Education: Increasing the Uptake of HIV Testing among Married Women in Kenya, Zambia and Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavita; Luseno, Winnie; Haney, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Gender equality and education are being promoted as strategies to combat the HIV epidemic in Africa, but few studies have looked at the role of gender equality and education in the uptake of a vital service - HIV testing. This study looks at associations between education (a key input needed for gender equality) and key gender equality measures (financial decision-making and attitudes towards violence) with ever tested for HIV and tested for HIV in the past year. The study focused on currently married women ages 15–24 and 25–34 in three countries - Kenya, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The data came from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Logistic regression was used to study the role of gender equality and education on the HIV testing outcomes after controlling for both social and biological factors. Results indicated that education had a consistent positive relationship with testing for both age groups, and the associations were always significant for young women 15–24 (p<0.01). The belief that gender-based violence is unacceptable was positively associated with testing for women 25–34 in all three countries though the associations were only significant in Kenya (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.58, p<0.00; among women reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.34, p<0.05) and Zambia (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.24, p<0.10; among women reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.29, p< 0.05). High financial decision-making was associated with testing for women 25–34 in Zimbabwe only (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.66, p< 0.01). Overall the findings indicate that education and the promotion of gender equality are important strategies for increasing uptake of a vital HIV service, and thus are important tools for protecting girls and young women against HIV. PMID:23438082

  12. Gender equality and education: Increasing the uptake of HIV testing among married women in Kenya, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kavita; Luseno, Winnie; Haney, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Gender equality and education are being promoted as strategies to combat the HIV epidemic in Africa, but few studies have looked at the role of gender equality and education in the uptake of a vital service - HIV testing. This study looks at the associations between education (a key input needed for gender equality) and key gender equality measures (financial decision making and attitudes toward violence) with ever tested for HIV and tested for HIV in the past year. The study focused on currently married women ages between15-24 and 25-34 in three countries - Kenya, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The data came from the Demographic and Health Surveys. Logistic regression was used to study the role of gender equality and education on the HIV testing outcomes after controlling for both social and biological factors. Results indicated that education had a consistent positive relationship with testing for both age groups, and the associations were always significant for young women aged 15-24 years (p<0.01). The belief that gender-based violence is unacceptable was positively associated with testing for women aged 25-34 in all the three countries, although the associations were only significant in Kenya (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.58, p<0.00; among women reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.34, p<0.05) and Zambia (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.24, p<0.10; among women reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.29, p<0.05). High financial decision making was associated with testing for women aged 25-34 in Zimbabwe only (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.66, p<0.01). Overall, the findings indicate that the education and the promotion of gender equality are important strategies for increasing uptake of a vital HIV service, and thus are important tools for protecting girls and young women against HIV.

  13. Consumer Education for High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    This experimental course of study for high school students was designed to prepare teenage consumers to understand the choice of products and services offered in the marketplace and to make their choices wisely. Billions of dollars annually are spent by teenagers on merchandise and services. The need for a course in consumer education is so…

  14. High Tech Educators Network Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, Dan

    A process evaluation was conducted to assess the High Tech Educators Network's (HTEN's) activities. Four basic components to the evaluation approach were documentation review, program logic model, written survey, and participant interviews. The model mapped the basic goals and objectives, assumptions, activities, outcome expectations, and…

  15. Feasibility of a targeted breast health education intervention for Chinese American immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Lee-Lin, Frances; Menon, Usha; Leo, Michael C; Pedhiwala, Nisreen

    2013-07-01

    To assess the feasibility and acceptability of a targeted educational intervention to increase mammography screening among Chinese American women. One-group pre- and post-test quasiexperimental design. Metropolitan areas of Portland, OR. 44 foreign-born Chinese American women aged 40 years and older. Participants who had not had a mammogram within the past 12 months were recruited and enrolled to a targeted breast health educational program. Before starting the group session, participants completed a baseline survey, which was administered again 12 weeks postintervention. Completion of mammography screening test, movement in stage of readiness, mammography and breast cancer knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, and perceived common and cultural barriers. The study response rate was high (71%). Of the 42 women who completed the study, 21 (50%) had a mammogram postintervention. The top three reasons for not completing a mammogram at the end of the study were no need or no symptom, busy, and reliance on family for assistance. Mean breast cancer susceptibility scores increased significantly at post-test as theorized (t[40] = -2.88, p < 0.01). Participants were more likely to obtain a mammogram when they had been in the United States for 3-15 years. A targeted program that aims to increase breast health knowledge, improve access, and remove barriers may promote mammography screening among Chinese American immigrant women. This promising intervention now being tested under a randomized, controlled design can be adapted to other Asian subgroups. Targeted breast health intervention is feasible for improving mammography screening among Chinese immigrant women. Educating these women about early detection is important, as the first sign of breast cancer usually shows on a woman's mammogram before it can be felt or any other symptoms are present. Immigrant women may be too busy to dedicate proper time to self-care behaviors; therefore, making it easier and

  16. Islam, Perestroika, and the Education of Women: Principles and Possibilities. International Seminar on Literacy and Lifelong Education for Women (Frunze, Kirghizstan, November 26-December 1, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Female illiteracy and the overall educational status of women in Islamic societies are the two main themes of this collection of conference papers. The papers include: THe Eradication of Female Illiteracy in Kirghizia: the Historical Situation (1920-1930) (I. S. Boldzhurova); Women's Education in Kirghiszstan (R. Achylova); Literacy and Education…

  17. Women Studies in Engineering Education: Content Analysis in Three Referred Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Pao-Nan

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the research characteristics of past women studies in engineering education. In order to add knowledge base about the advanced development of women studies in current engineering education research, the purpose of the study is to investigate research characteristics of past women studies published in three referred…

  18. Educational Advancement and Socio-Economic Participation of Women in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doraiswami, Smt. S.

    The educational advancement of women in India is not perceived as an important characteristic since education is perceived as irrelevant to their roles. The equality of women in status and opportunity is guaranteed in the 1955 Constitution of India and by the government. Although achievements by women in the local and national levels exist, a…

  19. Stereotypes and Their Consequences for Women as Leaders in Higher Education Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeritz, Kimberly Jean

    2013-01-01

    Women are underrepresented as leaders in most facets of American work life. While present in fields that are traditionally feminine, there is a scarcity of women leaders in all other occupations including business, government, science and technology, agriculture, education in general and higher education in particular. While women currently…

  20. Women's Education and Family Behavior: Trends in Marriage, Divorce and Fertility. NBER Working Paper No. 15725

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isen, Adam; Stevenson, Betsey

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how marital and fertility patterns have changed along racial and educational lines for men and women. Historically, women with more education have been the least likely to marry and have children, but this marriage gap has eroded as the returns to marriage have changed. Marriage and remarriage rates have risen for women with a…

  1. Stereotypes and Their Consequences for Women as Leaders in Higher Education Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeritz, Kimberly Jean

    2013-01-01

    Women are underrepresented as leaders in most facets of American work life. While present in fields that are traditionally feminine, there is a scarcity of women leaders in all other occupations including business, government, science and technology, agriculture, education in general and higher education in particular. While women currently…

  2. The Barriers, Fears and Motivations Encountered by Women Leaders in Higher Education Leadership Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabas, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    As the number of women working within leadership positions in the higher education system increases, there becomes more of a need to research these positions. With the number of women holding leadership positions in higher education organizations increasing in what are still considered male dominated roles, these women are being expected to…

  3. Women and Higher Education in Iran: What Are the Implications for Employment and the "Marriage Market"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.; Moghadam, Valentine M.

    2011-01-01

    In contemporary Iran, women with higher education face both gender discrimination and an unfavourable economic system, one that is not conducive to employment-generation for women. This paper provides an analysis of women's access to higher education in Iran, which has varied over the last 30 years, and their continuously limited participation in…

  4. Tsuda Umeko and a Transnational Network Supporting Women's Higher Education in Japan during the Victorian Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Having limited access to colleges and universities offering women the same educational opportunities available to men, elite women of the 19th century crossed national borders for advanced study and teaching opportunities. The career of Tsuda Umeko, founder of one of the first private institutions of higher education for women in Japan, leader in…

  5. Four Generations of Women's Educational Experience in a Rural Chinese Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Haigen; Placier, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Our study sought to understand changes in gender inequality in education across four generations of rural Chinese women's educational experiences in a small community in southern China. The 24 interviews and numerous informal conversations with 12 women showed that gender-based favouritism for men and against women undergirded family expectations,…

  6. Maximizing Participation of Women in Collegiate Aviation Education. NIAR Report 93-14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luedtke, Jacqueline R.

    A study was done to examine the reasons for the low number of women in collegiate aviation education by focusing on the number and status of women aviation educators and on attitudes toward women in aviation. Information was sought from each of the 67 four-year University Aviation Association member institutions, with a response rate of 63%.…

  7. Arab Women Make Inroads in Higher Education but Often Find Dead Ends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Since at least the early 1990s, Arab governments have made women's participation in higher education a priority. Across the region, young women fill the crowded lecture halls and bustling courtyards of universities. On many campuses, they outnumber men. But women's increased participation in higher education does not necessarily translate into…

  8. "Politics" of Upward Mobility for Women and Minorities in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omachonu, Florence

    2012-01-01

    A recent publication by the American Council on Education's, Office of Women in Higher Education (2010), shows that women and minorities promoted to senior level administrative positions have made gains. However, they remain underrepresented on most campuses. This paper argues that the slow emergence of women and minorities into senior level…

  9. Educational Change and the Women's Movement: Lessons From British Columbia Schools in the 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This article uses Melucci's approach to social movements to explore how the women"s movement changed education in British Columbia in the 1970s. The women's movement was a multifaceted social phenomenon with multiple agendas and actors. In the early 1970s, it developed a temporary sense of cohesion in the field of education in the context of a…

  10. Arab Women Make Inroads in Higher Education but Often Find Dead Ends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Since at least the early 1990s, Arab governments have made women's participation in higher education a priority. Across the region, young women fill the crowded lecture halls and bustling courtyards of universities. On many campuses, they outnumber men. But women's increased participation in higher education does not necessarily translate into…

  11. Women's Education and Family Behavior: Trends in Marriage, Divorce and Fertility. NBER Working Paper No. 15725

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isen, Adam; Stevenson, Betsey

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how marital and fertility patterns have changed along racial and educational lines for men and women. Historically, women with more education have been the least likely to marry and have children, but this marriage gap has eroded as the returns to marriage have changed. Marriage and remarriage rates have risen for women with a…

  12. Four Generations of Women's Educational Experience in a Rural Chinese Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Haigen; Placier, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Our study sought to understand changes in gender inequality in education across four generations of rural Chinese women's educational experiences in a small community in southern China. The 24 interviews and numerous informal conversations with 12 women showed that gender-based favouritism for men and against women undergirded family expectations,…

  13. Challenges, Changes, and Impact of the Council on Social Work Education Women's Council: An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tower, Leslie E.; Lazzari, Marceline M.; Faul, Anna C.; Alvarez, Ann Rosegrant

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the contributions of the Council on the Role and Status of Women in Social Work Education (Women's Council) as well as the role and status of women in social work education. For this historical analysis update, the authors drew on several primary and secondary data sources. The first major theme was organizational…

  14. Challenges, Changes, and Impact of the Council on Social Work Education Women's Council: An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tower, Leslie E.; Lazzari, Marceline M.; Faul, Anna C.; Alvarez, Ann Rosegrant

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the contributions of the Council on the Role and Status of Women in Social Work Education (Women's Council) as well as the role and status of women in social work education. For this historical analysis update, the authors drew on several primary and secondary data sources. The first major theme was organizational…

  15. The Barriers, Fears and Motivations Encountered by Women Leaders in Higher Education Leadership Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabas, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    As the number of women working within leadership positions in the higher education system increases, there becomes more of a need to research these positions. With the number of women holding leadership positions in higher education organizations increasing in what are still considered male dominated roles, these women are being expected to…

  16. Associations between education and personal income with body mass index among Australian women residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lauren K; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Cleland, Verity; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to (1) determine the association between personal income and body mass index (BMI) and between individual education and BMI, and (2) examine the association between education and BMI across strata of personal income among women. The design of the study was a quantitative analysis of data from self-report questionnaires. The study setting was socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods in Victoria, Australia. The study included 4065 nonpregnant women (ages 18-45 years) living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The study used a self-report questionnaire measuring sociodemographic characteristics known to be associated with BMI. Multiple linear regressions with imputation were used to assess the association between education level, personal income, and BMI, while controlling for covariates. Mean (SD) observed BMI was 26.0 (6.1) kg/m2. Compared with women with low education, women with medium (b = -0.81; 95% confidence interval, -1.30 to -0.27; p = .004) and high (b = -1.71; 95% confidence interval, -2.34 to -1.09; p < .001) education had statistically significantly lower BMI values. No differences in BMI were observed between income categories. Stratified analyses suggested that the education-BMI association may be stronger in low-income than higher-income women. Our data show that among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas, high education level rather than personal income may be protective against overweight/obesity. High personal income, however, may buffer the effects of low education on BMI. Obesity prevention efforts should target women with amplified disadvantage.

  17. Consumer Education in Lincoln High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumers Union of United States, Inc., Mount Vernon, NY. Educational Services Div.

    "Consumer Education in Lincoln High School" was prepared by the Consumer Education Committee, faculty members of the school. The document presents a series of teacher-prepared case studies of Lincoln High School's consumer education program and how consumer education has been integrated into the following departments: business education,…

  18. Leading the Way: Strategies That Enhance Women's Involvement in Experiential Education Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeffler, T. A.

    Women with past or present careers in outdoor leadership were asked to suggest strategies by which outdoor and experiential education programs could increase the number of women employed in the field, and support women in becoming even more successful in their careers. The 25 women interviewed ranged in age from 22 to 44, had 1-25 years experience…

  19. Making Meaning of Adversity: Experiences of Women Leaders in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Amy B.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that women now earn more bachelor's, master's and doctorates than men, a gender gap for women leaders persists in the field of higher education. Women hold only 26 percent of all college and university presidencies with a large variance by type of institution. Women lead 33 percent of associate's level institutions but only 22…

  20. Negotiating and Creating Spaces of Power. Women's Educational Practices amidst Crisis. UIE Studies 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn, Ed.

    This publication puts together the written contributions of 20 women at an international seminar-workshop on "Promoting the Empowerment of Women through Adult Learning" who shared, reflected, and analyzed the different types of educational opportunities for women provided to women. The presentations are as follows: "Designing the Model: A Process…

  1. British Asian Women and the Costs of Higher Education in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhopal, Kalwant

    2016-01-01

    This article will examine Asian women's experiences of financial support in higher education. The article is based on 30 in-depth interviews with Asian women who were studying at a "new" (post-1992) university in the South East of England. Women identified themselves as Muslim, Hindu and Sikh. The findings reveal that women's religious…

  2. Making Meaning of Adversity: Experiences of Women Leaders in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Amy B.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that women now earn more bachelor's, master's and doctorates than men, a gender gap for women leaders persists in the field of higher education. Women hold only 26 percent of all college and university presidencies with a large variance by type of institution. Women lead 33 percent of associate's level institutions but only 22…

  3. Women Physicians, Coeducation and the Struggle for Professional Standards in 19th Century Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morantz, Regina Markell

    Orthodox medical education for women in the nineteenth century is examined to determine to what extent women's actual experience reflected their stated goals. It is contended that although women successfully founded some medical schools providing creditable, and in some cases outstanding, training to females, women physicians' ambivalence about…

  4. British Asian Women and the Costs of Higher Education in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhopal, Kalwant

    2016-01-01

    This article will examine Asian women's experiences of financial support in higher education. The article is based on 30 in-depth interviews with Asian women who were studying at a "new" (post-1992) university in the South East of England. Women identified themselves as Muslim, Hindu and Sikh. The findings reveal that women's religious…

  5. Education Mitigates the Relationship of Stress and Mental Disorders Among Rural Indian Women.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Nisha; Soni, Apurv; Allison, Jeroan; Vankar, Jagdish; Prabhakaran, Anusha; Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Byatt, Nancy; Phatak, Ajay; O'Keefe, Eileen; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar

    Common mental disorders (CMD) are a constellation of mental health conditions that include depression, anxiety, and other related nonpsychotic affective disorders. Qualitative explanatory models of mental health among reproductive-aged women in India reveal that distress is strongly associated with CMD. The relationship of perceived stress and CMD might be attenuated or exacerbated based on an individual's sociodemographic characteristics. To screen for Common Mental Disorders (CMD) among reproductive-aged women from rural western India and explore how the relationship between perceived stress and CMD screening status varies by sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional survey of 700 women from rural Gujarat, India. CMD screening status was assessed using Self-Reported Questionnaire 20 (SRQ-20). Factors associated with CMD screening status were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. Effect modification for the relationship of perceived stress and CMD screening status was assessed using interaction terms and interpreted in terms of predicted probabilities. The analytic cohort included 663 women, with roughly 1 in 4 screening positive for CMD (157, 23.7%). Poor income, low education, food insecurity, and recurrent thoughts after traumatic events were associated with increased risk of positive CMD screen. Perceived stress was closely associated with CMD screening status. Higher education attenuated the relationship between high levels of stress and CMD screening status (82.3%, 88.8%, 32.9%; P value for trend: 0.03). Increasing income and age attenuated the link between moderate stress and CMD. Our findings suggest a high burden of possible CMD among reproductive-aged women from rural western India. Higher education might mitigate the association between elevated stress and CMD. Future efforts to improve mental health in rural India should focus on preventing CMD by enhancing rural women's self-efficacy and problem-solving capabilities to overcome

  6. The limited effect of increasing educational attainment on childlessness trends in twentieth-century Europe, women born 1916–65

    PubMed Central

    Beaujouan, Eva; Brzozowska, Zuzanna; Zeman, Kryštof

    2016-01-01

    During the twentieth century, trends in childlessness varied strongly across European countries while educational attainment grew continuously across them. Using census and large-scale survey data from 13 European countries, we investigated the relationship between these two factors among women born between 1916 and 1965. Up to the 1940 birth cohort, the share of women childless at age 40+ decreased universally. Afterwards, the trends diverged across countries. The results suggest that the overall trends were related mainly to changing rates of childlessness within educational groups and only marginally to changes in the educational composition of the population. Over time, childlessness levels of the medium-educated and high-educated became closer to those of the low-educated, but the difference in level between the two better educated groups remained stable in Western and Southern Europe and increased slightly in the East. PMID:27545484

  7. High School Physical Education Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Students with Mild to Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casebolt, Kevin M.; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze high school physical education teachers' beliefs about teaching students with disabilities in inclusive physical education. The participants (3 men, 2 women) were certified physical education teachers at four suburban high schools. The research method was descriptive-qualitative using a case study approach…

  8. High School Physical Education Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Students with Mild to Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casebolt, Kevin M.; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze high school physical education teachers' beliefs about teaching students with disabilities in inclusive physical education. The participants (3 men, 2 women) were certified physical education teachers at four suburban high schools. The research method was descriptive-qualitative using a case study approach…

  9. Does relaxation education in anxious primigravid Iranian women influence adverse pregnancy outcomes?: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bastani, Farideh; Hidarnia, Alireza; Montgomery, Kristen S; Aguilar-Vafaei, Maria E; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2006-01-01

    Maternal anxiety and stress are found to be predictors of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including low birth weight and prematurity. The aim of the study was to determine whether relaxation education in anxious pregnant Iranian women in their first pregnancy affects selected pregnancy outcomes, including birth weight, preterm birth, and surgical delivery rate. A total of 110 obstetrically and medically low-risk primigravid women in Iran with a high anxiety level demonstrated by Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. In this randomized controlled trial, the experimental group received routine prenatal care along with 7-week applied relaxation training sessions, while the control group received only routine prenatal care. Anxiety and perceived stress were measured by pre-educational and post-educational intervention. Data related to pregnancy outcomes include birth weight, gestational age at birth, and type of delivery. Significant reductions in low birth weight, cesarean section, and/or instrumental extraction were found in the experimental group compared with the control group. No significant differences were found in the rate of preterm birth. The findings suggest beneficial effects of nurse-led relaxation education sessions during the prenatal period. This intervention could serve as a resource for improving pregnancy outcomes in women with high anxiety.

  10. Educational level and use of osteoporosis drugs in elderly men and women: a Swedish nationwide register-based study.

    PubMed

    Wastesson, J W; Ringbäck Weitoft, G; Parker, M G; Johnell, K

    2013-02-01

    We examined educational disparities in use of osteoporosis drugs in a nationwide population of Swedes aged 75-89 years old. Individuals with high education were more likely to receive osteoporosis drug treatment than lower educated individuals, particularly among women. This study aims to investigate whether educational level is associated with use of osteoporosis drugs in the general population of older men and women in Sweden, also after adjustment for fractures. By record linkage of The Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, The Swedish Patient Register, and The Swedish Education Register, we obtained information on filling of prescriptions for osteoporosis drugs (bisphosphonates, calcium/vitamin D combinations, and selective estrogen receptor modulators) from July to October 2005, osteoporotic fractures from 1998 to 2004, and educational level for 645,429 people aged 75-89 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to investigate whether education was associated with use of osteoporosis drug therapy. Higher education was associated with use of osteoporosis drugs for both men [odds ratio (OR)(high education vs low), 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19-1.35] and women (OR(high education vs low), 1.57; 95% CI, 1.52-1.61), after adjustment for age, osteoporotic fractures, and comorbidity (i.e., number of other drugs). Among those who had sustained a fracture (n = 57,613), the educational differences in osteoporosis drug treatment were more pronounced in women than men. Further, women were more likely to receive osteoporosis drug treatment after osteoporotic fracture. Uptake of osteoporosis drug therapy seems to be unequally distributed in the elderly population, even in a country with presumably equal access to health care.

  11. Highly Effective Birth Control Use Before and After Women's Incarceration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsiang-Feng; Cropsey, Karen L.; Clarke, Jennifer G.; Kelly, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: We examined factors associated with women's use of highly effective birth control before and after incarceration, since women with ongoing criminal justice involvement bear a disproportionate burden of sexual and reproductive health problems, including high rates of unintended pregnancy and inconsistent contraceptive use. Methods: Using a longitudinal study design, we conducted surveys with 102 women in an urban midwestern jail and then followed up with 66 of them 6 months after incarceration. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess individual, interpersonal, resource-based, organizational, and environmental factors associated with utilizing highly effective birth control. Results: Forty-two percent of women reported utilizing highly effective birth control (e.g., sterilization or other highly effective reversible methods) prior to incarceration, and 54% reported using these methods after release from jail (p<0.001). Ninety percent of women reported not wanting to get pregnant. Consistent use of birth control (p=0.001) and alcohol problems (p=0.027) were associated with utilization of highly effective birth control prior to incarceration. Previous pregnancies (p=0.012) were the only factor associated with utilization of highly effective birth control after release from jail. Conclusions: Clinicians and public health practitioners can use findings from this study to develop clinical and intervention efforts aimed at improving unintended-pregnancy prevention among incarcerated women both during their confinement and during the tumultuous period after their release from jail. PMID:25555175

  12. "Since when Are We, Mothers Who Raise Their Kids Themselves, Dopes?" Debates on Women's Emancipation in Belgian Educational Television Programmes for Women (1954-1975)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flamez, E.; Vanobbergen, B.

    2013-01-01

    This research explores political-educational debates regarding the concept of women's emancipation in women and family programmes on Belgian television between 1954 and 1975. From the very beginning, the women's episodes were regarded as explicitly educational. The episodes were created to increase women's participation by means of their…

  13. "Since when Are We, Mothers Who Raise Their Kids Themselves, Dopes?" Debates on Women's Emancipation in Belgian Educational Television Programmes for Women (1954-1975)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flamez, E.; Vanobbergen, B.

    2013-01-01

    This research explores political-educational debates regarding the concept of women's emancipation in women and family programmes on Belgian television between 1954 and 1975. From the very beginning, the women's episodes were regarded as explicitly educational. The episodes were created to increase women's participation by means of their…

  14. Prevalence of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Among Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Lindau, Stacy Tessler; Drum, Melinda L.; Gaumer, Elyzabeth; Surawska, Hanna; Jordan, Jeanne A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence, genotypes, and individual-level correlates of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) among women aged 57–85. Methods Community-residing women (n=1550), aged 57–85, were drawn from a nationally-representative probability sample. In-home interviews and biomeasures, including a self-collected vaginal specimen, were obtained between 2005 and 2006. Specimens were analyzed for high-risk HPV DNA using probe hybridization and signal amplification (hc2); of 1,028 specimens provided, 1,010 were adequate for analysis. All samples testing positive were analyzed for HPV DNA by L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction followed by type-specific hybridization. Results The overall population-based weighted estimate of high-risk HPV prevalence by hc2 was 6.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.5 to 7.9). Current marital and smoking status, frequency of sexual activity, history of cancer, and hysterectomy were associated with high-risk HPV positivity. Among high-risk HPV+ women, 63% had multiple type infections. HPV 16 or 18 was present in 17.4% of all high-risk HPV+ women. The most common high-risk genotypes among high-risk HPV+ women were HPV 61 (19.1%), 31 (13.1%), 52 (12.9%), 58 (12.5%), 83 (12.3%), 66(12.0%), 51 (11.7%), 45 (11.2%), 56 (10.3%), 53 (10.2%), 16 (9.7%), and 62 (9.2%). Being married and having an intact uterus were independently associated with lower prevalence of high-risk HPV. Among unmarried women, current sexual activity and smoking were independently and positively associated with high-risk HPV infection. Conclusions In this nationally representative population, nearly 1 in 16 women aged 57–85 were found to have high-risk HPV and prevalence was stable across older age groups. PMID:18978096

  15. Democratic Reforms and Women's Higher Education during the U.S. Occupation of Japan, 1945-1952.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moroishi, Yasumi; Martin, Don T.

    This paper aims to show the significance of the educational reforms of women's higher education during the U.S. occupation of post-World War II Japan. To help fill the gap of research on women's higher education in Japan, focus is on an historical analysis of women's higher education reform policies. Since educational reforms are not…

  16. Education, Internationalism and Empire at the 1928 and 1930 Pan-Pacific Women's Conferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore education at the first two Pan-Pacific Women's Conferences, this article builds on Campbell and Sherington's account of education in Oceania and on empirical research undertaken by Selleck and others, along with relevant primary source material. It traces elements of empire as they played out in inter-war women's education and…

  17. The Status of Women and Minorities in Education. Technical Report 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmartin, Kevin J.

    This paper reports on the educational status of women and ethnic minorities. The first part of the paper presents a literature review containing overviews of the past and present status of women and minorities in education and briefly discusses the concept of equality of educational opportunity. The second part of the paper, which comprises the…

  18. Education, Internationalism and Empire at the 1928 and 1930 Pan-Pacific Women's Conferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore education at the first two Pan-Pacific Women's Conferences, this article builds on Campbell and Sherington's account of education in Oceania and on empirical research undertaken by Selleck and others, along with relevant primary source material. It traces elements of empire as they played out in inter-war women's education and…

  19. Education of Women with Disabilities in Pakistan: Enhanced Agency, Unfulfilled Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammad, Tehmina; Singal, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which the capability approach captures the complexity of the lives of young women with disabilities in Pakistan, particularly in relation to their education. Focusing on their educational experiences and outcomes, we examine the ways in which education shaped what these young women were able to achieve--what they…

  20. The Education of African American Girls and Women: Past to Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Veronica G.; Jackson, Janine A.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the education of African American girls and women. It begins with a look at scholarship on African American girls and women published in "The Journal of Negro Education" from its inception in 1932 to the present. Subsequently, a historical overview of the long, hard-fought struggles of educating this population for…