Bennefield, Zinobia C.
Background: Research has been conducted to determine the impact that education has on health behaviors; specifically, comparisons between highly educated and less educated groups. However, little research has been done on the racial variation among highly educated women. Purpose: This research examined the racial variation in the relationship…
Lanier, Hope B.; Byrne, Joan
High school students rated women for attractiveness, occupation, and educational background. A positive correlation was found between women perceived to have taken traditionally masculine courses, those perceived to be in careers generally viewed as masculine, and those perceived as physically attractive. (Author/ST)
Knoers, Nine V A M
Recent findings by Verdonk et al. show that the prevalence of work-related fatigue among 47,000 Dutch employees is greatest in highly-educated women, aged 50-64 years. Although the study has several limitations, the findings are alarming, demand urgent measures and should be on the shortlist of policy makers, employers, and company doctors. Reduced time pressure and emotional demand at work, adequate support for women's ambitions, and proper consideration for the work-private life balance are needed. Coaching may help women to become more assertive and generate more job control. In addition, the problem of workplace violence must be adequately addressed. I am of the strong opinion that work-related fatigue in women would significantly decrease if women were to occupy more leadership positions and top jobs. In such positions they would have greater autonomy and more opportunities to organise their work according to their own time schedules and insights. The time is ripe for women to be given a quota of top positions in the Netherlands. PMID:20356432
The social, psychological and economic problems involved in programs of adult education for women are discussed. The raising of woman's consciousness and her role change in society are explained as the goal in this education program. (RR)
Menard, Sharon L.
This packet of resource materials contains four sections: curriculum activities, a career guide for women, a role models list, and an annotated bibliography. These materials deal with women in science and mathematics and cover primary through high school educational levels. Skill Activities are outlined for use at various (K-12) levels which were…
Women have traditionally been discriminated against in higher education in both the attainment of degrees and in employment after earning degrees. It has been felt that women are not as capable, reliable, or effective as men in administrative and classroom situations. Statistics show that even at the present time women are underemployed and…
Zimmerman, Enid, Ed.; Stankiewicz, Mary Ann, Ed.
This collection of papers on women art educators reveals the variety of roles played by those women, from anonymous art teachers to leaders in their profession. "Mary Rouse: A Remembrance" (G. Hubbard) is a personal perspective on Rouse, the development of her career, and her considerable impact in the field of art education. "The Search for Mrs.…
Roby, Pamela Ann
The increasing popularity of vocational education has helped to prepare both men and women in learning the skills of different trades. However, women's position in learning better trade skills has been hindered by institutional barriers in vocational education training for technical jobs, the trades, and industry. Few studies have been made…
O'Donnell, Sheryl, Ed.; Shaver, Barbara, Ed.
Articles on women's studies and females in higher education are presented in this publication. A University of North Dakota project that sought to promote the integration of new research and scholarship results into the curriculum is described in "Women's Equity Committee Offers a Model Project," (Leola Furman, Robert Young). Historical…
Jarecke, Jodi; Taylor, Edward W.; Hira, Tahira K.
Exploring the pedagogical approaches of four women's financial literacy education programs, this chapter provides an overview of trends and needs in financial education for women and offers pedagogical strategies for teaching women about finance.
School Research Newsletter, 1989
A Swedish project was designed to address the question, "What contribution is popular education making today toward the emergence of a more democratic society?" The 2-year project involved adult education associations and folk high schools. The project had three tasks: (1) to chart equality of opportunity and to show where women are located in…
This book focuses on enabling and empowering women in higher education, and it draws both on research and experience with women-centered teaching and learning practices and professional development and training of women staff. The first section of the book concentrates on women students in higher education. Chapters include: "Women Students and…
Laughter, D C; Kean, T J; Dream, K D; Esparza, D; Hortobagyi, G; Judkins, A; Levitt, D Z; Marcus, C; Silverberg, Y
The breast self-examination (BSE) behavior of 142 women referred to a large cancer center with malignant or benign breast disease was investigated. The women were interviewed about their BSE practices and variables that may have influenced their BSE behavior. Those reporting prior BSE practice were asked to demonstrate their breast examination to a trained nurse, who rated their performance against a set of standard criteria. Although it might be assumed that these women have had more opportunity to become educated about BSE, results showed the ratings of the women's performances were uniformly poor. Less than half reported having formal instruction by a medical professional. This is of particular consequence considering that those women taught by a doctor or nurse performed significantly more BSE steps than did those taught in other ways. Women who were encouraged to do BSE by friends or relatives also performed significantly more steps. Based on the study findings, specific recommendations are made, which can be applied to the improvement of BSE educational programs.
Furniss, W. Todd, Ed.; Graham, Patricia Albjerg, Ed.
The analyses and suggestions of 38 leaders in education, feminism, foundations, law, and government are collected to set contexts for decisions facing colleges and universities concerning those students, faculty members, and administrators who are women. Among the issues are affirmative action, academic programs, accountability, equality, and…
Gould, Harley N.; Bakalov, Vladimir K.; Tankersley, Carolyn
Abstract Background Turner Syndrome (TS) is due to X chromosome monosomy and affects ∼1 per 2500 females at birth. The major features are short stature and primary ovarian failure. Short stature and monosomy for a maternal X chromosome have been implicated in impaired functionality in adult life; however, data on adult outcomes in TS are limited. In this study we evaluated the influence of adult height and parental origin of the single X chromosome on education, employment, and marital outcomes among women with TS. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 240 women (25–67 years old) with TS participating in an intramural National Institutes of Health (NIH) study. Parental origin of the single X chromosome was determined by genotyping proband and parental genomic DNA. Information on education, employment, and family status was self reported. Normative data was obtained from the U.S. Bureaus of Census and Labor and Statistics. Results Seventy percent of the TS group had a baccalaureate degree or higher, compared with 30% of U.S. women (p<0.0001). Eighty percent of the TS group was employed compared with 70% of the U.S. female population. Approximately 50% of the TS group had ever married, compared with 78% of the general female population (p<0.0001). Height and parental origin of the single normal X chromosome had no association with education, employment, or marital status. Conclusion Women with TS currently achieve education and employment levels higher than the female U.S. population but are less likely to marry. Neither adult height nor parental origin of the single X chromosome influenced outcomes in education, employment, or marriage. PMID:23421579
Sexton, Patricia Cayo
This book, one of a five-volume series dealing with perspectives in American education, discusses the education of women. The purpose of the series is to provide a better understanding of the educational process and the relation of education to human welfare. Chapters one and two examine women and schools by discussing the function of education…
Draws from interviews with women serving as tribal college presidents in discussing the current and traditional roles of women in Indian society, why women lead 10 of the 28 member colleges of the American Indian Higher Education Consortium, the need for balanced leadership, and women's future role. (DMM)
Eriksson, Carola; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta; Tydén, Tanja
Background Different reasons influence the current low birth-rate and the postponement of the birth of the first child throughout Europe. The aim of this study was to explore how highly educated women and men in Sweden reflect on fertility and postponed parenthood. Methods We interviewed women (n = 22) and men (n = 18) who had started their professional careers and still had no children. Data were analysed with qualitative content analysis. Results Fertility was perceived as an unconsidered capacity, sometimes unpredictable, and different for women and men, but nevertheless taken for granted. The participants were of the opinion that fertility could be restored by assisted reproductive technologies or replaced by alternatives to a biological child. Postponed parenthood was described as an adaptation to societal changes and current discourses about parenthood as well as a consequence of a contemporary lifestyle with many competing priorities. Conclusion Highly educated young women and men in contemporary Sweden have competing priorities when planning and setting goals for their lives, and having children is one of them. They describe fertility as an imperceptible and retrievable capacity and postponed parenthood as a rational adaptation to changes in society. These findings suggest that increased information about the limitations of human reproduction is needed, but also that societal support for younger parents is of utmost importance. PMID:23305524
Wenniger, Mary Dee, Ed.
The 12 issues of this newsletter focus on issues concerned with women students, faculty, and administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news items, and profiles of significant people. The issues' main articles address: women in athletics; leadership development for women; the first year in academic administration;…
Warren, Karen, Ed.
This book is a collection of feminist analyses of various topics in experiential education, particularly as it applies to outdoors and adventure education, as well as practical examples of how women's experiences can contribute to the field as a whole. Following an introduction, "The Quilt of Women's Voices" (Maya Angelou), the 25 chapters are:…
Werschkul, Misha; Gault, Barbara; Caiazza, Amy; Hartmann, Heidi
This publication is part of a joint project of the American Association of University Women Educational Foundation and the Institute for Women?s Policy Research to analyze women?s educational status in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. It reports detailed information on the educational status of women and the economic gains…
Butterfield, C. L.
This paper outlines the educational history of women in the United States and focuses on three women educators from the nineteenth century: Emma Willard, Catherine Beecher, and Mary Lyon. The paper considers their contributions to teaching and teacher education--all of these women founded schools to educate women. While these women paved the way…
National Inst. of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester (England).
This handbook is designed for use by anyone involved in providing educational or training opportunities for women. Chapter 1 discusses the outcome of women's education and use of this handbook. Chapters 2-6 make general suggestions about various issues around the provision of high quality, relevant, and responsive education and training for women.…
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
Nearly 360 million women who live in the countries of Asia and the Pacific are illiterate. In this region, and in much of the world, women have restricted access to education, and are the victims of economic, social, and political marginalization. In recent years, governments have become increasingly aware that the inferior position assigned to…
Examines religious traditions--Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Islam, and Western Christianity--to see how women were taught and what knowledge was transmitted to them. Notes that women have always had some access to religious knowledge in informal ways but were excluded from formal education once sacred knowledge became transmitted in an…
Park, Rosemarie J.
A survey of adult basic education (ABE) program directors in five states revealed that most ABE teachers are women and work part-time without benefits while most ABE administrators are men who are employed full-time. Concludes that women employed in ABE are victims of discrimination. (EM)
Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).
This volume contains 11 papers on the under-representation of women in higher education management in Bahrain, Finland, France, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Peru, the United States and Canada, the South Pacific and the West Indies. All papers were written by women vice-chancellors, presidents and senior managers of universities in those…
Wenninger, Mary Dee, Ed.
This document consists of the 12 monthly issues of a newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education, issued in 1994. Each issue includes feature articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main article topics are: (1) campuses's changing…
Werschkul, Misha; Gault, Barbara; Caiazza, Amy; Hartmann ,Heidi
This publication is part of a joint project of the American Association of University Women Educational Foundation and the Institute for Women's Policy Research to analyze women's educational status in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The report includes detailed information on the educational status of women and the…
Fennema, Elizabeth, Ed.; Ayer, M. Jane, Ed.
Suitable for use in postsecondary courses in women's studies, curriculum theory, educational policy, or introductory educational administration, this book presents current scholarship on educational goals for women as well as the role and position of women in education. Twelve essays are presented in separate chapters. Chapter 1, an introduction…
Maintains that sexual differentiation has been grossly neglected in the sociology of education, as it has in many other areas of sociology. Reviews recent research on the topic of sexual differentiation in education and suggests areas for additional research. For journal availability, see EJ 222 605. (Author/DB)
Purpose: This paper aims to consider what all-women networks have, and might offer, in terms of support and development of women in educational leadership. Design/methodology/approach: The study draws on two case studies of such networks in education in England, the first, a regional network for women secondary school principals, and the other…
Kelly, Gail P., Ed.; Slaughter, Sheila, Ed.
This book presents a collection of essays on the effect of national policies and practices on women's access to higher education, the type of courses in which women are enrolled, women's roles as academics, and how the outcomes of higher education affect women in the academic workforce and the economy. Various countries are represented in the…
Crocker, Elvira Valenzuela
Hispanic women earn less, own fewer businesses, and are less represented in politics than almost any other population segment, and their history of low educational attainment is a key factor for each of these realities. In 1981, while 69% of the total population completed four or more years of high school, only 42% of the Hispanic females reached…
Akubuilo, Francis; Omeje, Monica
This paper is focused on women education in Nigeria. It traces the genesis of western education in Nigeria and bias that existed from the traditional Nigerian society against women education. It identified and discussed barriers to women education in Nigeria. Recent trend in enrolment at various levels of education shows improvement in favor of women. In view of this realization, this paper argues that if the current momentum is sustained, women will not only achieve equal status to men in educational attainment but also have the tendency to surpass men within the next ten to fifteen years. The implications could be outreaching as the paper proffers some recommendations.
Warner, Linda Sue
This paper discusses American Indian educational policies and implications for educational leadership by Indian women. The paper begins with an overview of federal Indian educational policies from 1802 to the 1970s. As the tribes have moved toward self-determination in recent years, a growing number of American Indian women have assumed leadership…
Examines how the contemporary women's movement in India (1975-present) has addressed the issue of women's education. Highlights contributions of the 19th-century social-reformist movement and the nationalist movement. Details the role of the contemporary women's movement in redefining knowledge and the curriculum. Concludes with challenges facing…
Examines the role of women in Mexican public education leadership. Teaching is a desirable career for Mexican women, but gender differentiated education, training, cultural expectations, family responsibilities, and lack of affirmative government policy inhibit women's professional advancement in the centralized federal bureaucracy that manages…
Toney, Allison F.
While only about one-third of each year's doctoral graduates in mathematics are women, about two-thirds of the doctoral graduates in mathematics education are women. This article reports on the results of a qualitative investigation into the nature of the graduate school-related experiences of women in collegiate mathematics education doctoral…
The purposes of this paper are to: (1) discuss the historical development of women in higher education; (2) describe the implementation of federal policies for women; (3) focus on selected problems encountered by women in the work-place; and (4) offer recommendations and suggestions for eliminating some of the problems that women encounter. The…
Montez, Jennifer Karas; Zajacova, Anna
Since the mid-1980s differences in mortality risk across education levels have widened considerably among non-Hispanic white women. For example, while mortality has "declined" among college-educated women, it has remained fairly "stable" among women with a high school credential or some college education and "increased" among women without a high…
Wells, Jean A.
Continuing education for women has become a significant component of out educational system, as evidenced by the estimated over 500 continuing education courses, services, and programs for adult women offered throughout the country. Past emphasis of these programs had been in assisting housewives interested in job-entry or re-entry and/or…
John, Vaughn M.
Why do educated girls and women constitute a danger in some societies and for this face extreme danger in their educational endeavours? This article argues that historical and contemporary educational discrimination of girls and women is the hallmark of a violently patriarchal society, and this stubborn injustice is exacerbated under conditions of…
An annotated listing of women's organizations and services describes how they are improving women's opportunities in education. Among those reported are: the Project on the Status and Education of Women (AAC); Women's College Coalition; Women's Equity Action League; the Women's Caucus (AAHE); and the Office of Women in Higher Education (ACE). (LBH)
Solomon, Barbara Miller
The social, cultural, and economic circumstances that have shaped the development of women's higher education are discussed. After considering colonial America when women were outsiders to liberal arts institutions, the creation of women's and co-educational colleges is traced and the process by which women of different ethnic, racial, religious,…
DiGeorgio-Lutz, JoAnn, Ed.
The essays in this collection discuss the position of women in higher education, noting the progress that women have made in recent years in the quest to achieve gender equality and the challenges women still face in study and academic careers. The chapters are: (1) "Expanding the Academic Knowledge Base: Helping Students To Cross Gender's Great…
Manicur, Alice R.
The author presents an historical and cultural analysis of the place of women in society. It is stated that historically women have had to assume an aggressive role to become educated. In addition, as far back as the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, one finds records which indicate that women had to seek opportunities to study and to learn.…
The Country Women's Association (CWA) is a nationwide Australian group that started in the 1920s in response to isolated women's need to socialize. The group's activities have expanded greatly over time. It distributes essential food and clothing to needy rural families, and its extensive involvement in incidental education for women includes…
Marshall, Catherine; Young, Michelle
Over the last decades, policy trends have differentially and negatively affected women educators, defied, denied or repressed feminist values and missed opportunities for using feminist insights to reframe policy issues. This article provides a critical feminist analysis of educational and social policies with negative implications for women in…
Cohen, Audrey C.
Society has traditionally discriminated against women in the educational and professional areas, and studies have shown that even talented and educated women are affected by what has been labeled "a climate of unexpectation." Colleges and universities, as part of their responsibility to build a new society, must play a major part in affecting…
Schedler, Petra; Glastra, Folke; Hake, Barry
Discusses the place of women in higher education in the Netherlands. Suggests that it is not a question of numbers but of orientation, field, and the glass ceiling. Asserts that despite some improvement, higher education may be one of the last bastions against the recognition of women's worth. (Contains 42 references.) (JOW)
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
Cultural and socioeconomic barriers to girls' and women's education are reflected in the female literacy rate, average wage, and girls' enrollment, dropout, attainment, and participation rates in formal education. Development of national education has been given top priority in the Indonesian national development. The education system is organized…
Andrade, Maureen Snow
American Indians (AIs) have lower higher education enrollment and completion rates than Whites and most minority groups. AI women, however, participate at higher rates than AI men, White women, and White men. Research has not examined what contributes to their higher education aspirations. This study explored the middle and high school experiences…
King, E M
This study describes trends in educational attainment among women in Peru, and examines the determinants of educational attainment, labor force participation and employment, and earnings. Data were obtained from the Peruvian Living Standards Survey among a sample of 5644 women aged 20-59 years. Findings indicate that parents' educational variables had a positive and statistically significant relationship with the educational attainment of their daughters. The impact declined over time from older to younger cohorts. School reforms improved women's access to education. Education became more universal and compulsory over time. Daughters of mothers with white collar occupations had higher levels of schooling than farmers' daughters. The effects of fathers' education was larger. There was a wider gap between farmers and nonfarmers. Textbooks, teachers, and number of grades offered were the only primary school inputs that showed any clear cohort trend in their effect on years of schooling. As primary schools became more available, textbooks had a greater impact on school attainment. The impact of textbooks was larger for women than for men. The number of grades offered had a large positive effect which increased across cohorts from older to younger. Findings suggest weak effects of school reforms on women's likelihood of participating in the paid or unpaid labor force. Years of schooling had a very small and negative effect on total labor force participation. Woman's paid employment was influenced by age, education and training, household characteristics, and family's unearned income. Educational attainment had a small positive effect on participation in paid employment for younger women and no effect for older women. The average rate of return in paid employment to primary education was about 12%. Primary education had the highest rate of return. The return to job tenure was higher for younger women. PMID:12348507
Evans, Joy; Hsieh, Peggy Pei-Hsuan; Robinson, Daniel H.
Previously, Robinson, McKay, Katayama, and Fan (1998) examined women's involvement in six educational psychology journals ("American Educational Research Journal," "Contemporary Educational Psychology," "Educational Psychologist," "Educational Psychology Review," "Journal of Experimental Education," and "Journal of Educational Psychology") from…
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
Statistically, Thailand has eliminated gender disparity in access to education. Reasons that four women's conferences made very little impression on education reform could be no significant or overt discrimination against girls' enrollment and employment; education opportunity as more an issue of class (affordability) than gender (culture); and…
More Asian women are entering higher education in the UK than ever before, and the number looks likely to rise. Their engagement with higher education reflects widespread changes in the attitudes and cultural expectations of their various communities, as awareness grows of the greater long-term value associated with continuing in education. Today…
Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany
National studies have not analyzed sexual identity disparities in high school completion, college enrollment, or college completion in the United States. Using Add Health data, we document the relationship between adult sexual orientation and each of these outcomes. Many sexual minority respondents experienced disadvantages in adolescent academic achievement, school experiences, and social environments. This translates into educational attainment in complex, gendered ways. We find that the socially privileged completely heterosexual identity predicts higher educational attainment for women, while for men it is often a liability. Mostly heterosexual and gay identities are educationally beneficial for men but not women. There are college completion disparities between gay and mostly heterosexual women and their completely heterosexual counterparts. Bisexual respondents, especially women, have particularly problematic outcomes. Adolescent experiences, attitudes, and social contexts explain some of these differences. From adolescence through college, sexual minority groups, but especially females, need intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities. PMID:26257457
Lechich, Maria Lagudis
An interdisciplinary health education group program that was introduced into a women's prision offered a series of workshops on various health related topics. Discussion and conclusions from evaluation of the program are presented. (DF)
von Prummer, Christine
Reports on research that investigated characteristics of distance education programs in Germany that influenced the participation of women. Highlights include the number of women enrolled; drop-out rates; a description of the FernUniversitat, including degree programs and characteristics of the institution; and a pilot project aimed at single…
Through the use of the framework of risk and resilience in a narrative inquiry, the present study examined the protective factors affecting the academic success of 24 Jamaican women in a graduate cohort in educational administration. All but two of the women rose from poverty to become academically successful, defined as having achieved graduate…
Antler, Joyce, Ed.; Biklen, Sari Knopp, Ed.
Essays on feminism, theory, and education are offered in this anthology, which examines the roles of women as active agents of change, as conservators actively resisting change, or as objects of change. Seventeen chapters focus on the relationship between gender and the politics of knowledge, analyze varied situational contexts of women's…
Pittser, Sharan E.
Discusses the contributions of women educators to the development of geography as a discipline, focusing on seven women: (1) Susanna Rowson; (2) Emma Hart Willard; (3) Sarah Sophia Cornell; (4) Ellen Churchill Semple; (5) Zonia Baber; (6) Erna Grassmuck Gilland; and (7) Esther Sanfrieda Anderson. (CMK)
Efland, Arthur D.
Art was introduced into women's education in 19th century Boston as a kind of finishing school treatment to equip them for marriage and later for careers as school teachers. Common school art emphasized practical application. Feminine art education, by contrast, promoted the teaching of art as high culture. (Author/RM)
Cruzada, Elizabeth, Ed.
This issue contains an editorial, "Empowering Women through Education" (Elizabeth Cruzada), and eight articles. "Women and Education" (Swarna Jayaweera) presents the status of women and girls' education in Asia vis-a-vis the goals set in the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies. "Education Reforms and Development of Chinese Minority Women" (Zhen…
McGrath, Patricia L.
New educational opportunities for women around the world are traced. An introductory section provides an overview and discussion on the implications of equal education for women. Other sections discuss the historical background of equal education for women, women's literacy, the primary school experience, secondary education, technical skills,…
Iranian women have endured more than 30 years of an Islamist dictatorship that uses religion as a validation for unjust control. Human rights violations against women in Iran are a tragic phenomenon for an otherwise highly developed civilization. Invisible and powerless in a male-dominated society, Iranian women are discouraged from becoming…
Cohen, Joel E; Kravdal, Øystein; Keilman, Nico
In most societies, women at age 39 with higher levels of education have fewer children. To understand this association, we investigated the effects of childbearing on educational attainment and the effects of education on fertility in the 1964 birth cohort of Norwegian women. Using detailed annual data from ages 17 to 39, we estimated the probabilities of an additional birth, a change in educational level, and enrollment in the coming year, conditional on fertility history, educational level, and enrollment history at the beginning of each year. A simple model reproduced a declining gradient of children ever born with increasing educational level at age 39. When a counterfactual simulation assumed no effects of childbearing on educational progression or enrollment (without changing the estimated effects of education on childbearing), the simulated number of children ever born decreased very little with increasing completed educational level, contrary to data. However, when another counterfactual simulation assumed no effects of current educational level and enrollment on childbearing (without changing the estimated effects of childbearing on education), the simulated number of children ever born decreased with increasing completed educational level nearly as much as the decrease in the data. In summary, in these Norwegian data, childbearing impeded education much more than education impeded childbearing. These results suggest that women with advanced degrees have lower completed fertility on the average principally because women who have one or more children early are more likely to leave or not enter long educational tracks and never attain a high educational level.
Stier, William F.
Reviews women's struggles for equal representation in the Olympic Games on the International Olympic Committee and the national committees, and as participants in the games. Discusses problems with the language in the Olympic Charter, governance of the games, and the role of education on all levels. (SM)
Murphey, Kathleen; Moss, Glenda; Hannah, Susan; Wiener, Roberta
The purpose of this research project was to engage in self-reflective analysis of leadership development as an ongoing process of social action towards democratizing education. Four White women connected by their work as educational leaders, teachers and administrators, engaged this topic by conducting a dialogical analysis of their experiences in…
Kerber, Linda K.
Intended for use in preservice teacher education programs, this unit provides an overview of the role that women have played as educators. The publication is designed to help future teachers become knowledgeable about issues of sexism and skilled in approaches to alleviating this problem in schools. The sections are chronological. Section 1,…
Bae, Yupin; Choy, Susan; Geddes, Claire; Sable, Jennifer; Snyder, Thomas
This statistical report responds to a request by Congress for a report on educational equity for girls and women. The report assembles a series of indicators that examine the extent to which males and females have access to the same educational opportunities, avail themselves of these opportunities, perform at the same level, succeed at the same…
United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.
This booklet focuses on educating girls and women. The main issues include gender gap and its persistence in education. The reasons for this persistence include poverty, distance of schools, non-availability of gender segregated schools, absence of female teachers, inflexible school timing, and irrelevant and gender-insensitive curriculum. It is…
Ihle, Elizabeth L.
This document is the combined third and fourth modules of a series of four. It is designed to help educators learn more about how the double biases of sex and race have affected the quality of black women's high school and college education in southern schools since the Civil War. The following topics are discussed: (1) education of black women…
Arizona State Univ., Tempe. Morrison Inst. for Public Policy.
This study is part of an ongoing research program concerned with the linkages between women's status and fertility. Among the various dimensions of women's status, education deserves special attention, since it largely conditions the quality of women's lives and is highly susceptible to improvement through policy intervention. Although women's…
Benn, Roseanne, Ed.; Elliott, Jane, Ed.; Whaley, Pat, Ed.
This book contains 17 papers examining the various roles--learner, teacher, researcher, manager--that women have played in the development of lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Introduction: Women and Continuing Education--Where Are We Now?" (Roseanne Benn, Jane Elliott, Pat Whaley); "Dancing into the Future: Developments in…
The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 confers equality on all South African citizens regardless of race and gender. It has been reported that, under apartheid, gender inequality was a way of life and even social liberation movements observed it. Education is not exempt from gender inequality; the Department of Education in 2003…
Crippen, Carolyn; McCarthy, John R.
In this article, the authors describe the history of women in higher education in Manitoba. The historical perspective chronicles the path of women from 1825-2000. The momentum established by these women pioneers in their quest for higher education, according to the authors, must be maintained for present female students and women in academia…
Berry, Margaret C., Ed.
The status and satisfaction of women in higher education administration are addressed in 29 articles. Contents include the following: Why Don't Women Aspire to Leadership Positions in Education (Sylvia-Lee Tibbets); Training Women for Administration (Rae Andre and Mary I. Edwards); Kindergarten: The Training Ground for Women in Administration…
Cselenszky, Mila P.
The number of women in senior administrative and leadership roles in higher education is minimal compared to the number of women in higher education jobs in general. This phenomenological study explored pathways women took to advance in their careers and barriers that prevent more women from gaining senior administrative and leadership roles.…
Stott, Clare; Lawson, Liz
Information about the career progression, personal traits, attitudes, and employment experiences of women principals in Further Education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom was gathered from the following: literature search; questionnaire sent to all 68 female principals in the United Kingdom (response rate, 76%); and structured interviews with a…
In this paper I explore connections between women, art education and spatial relations drawing on the Deleuzo-Guattarian concept of "machinic assemblage" as a useful analytical tool for making sense of the heterogeneity and meshwork of life narratives and their social milieus. In focusing on Mary Bradish Titcomb, a fin-de-siecle Bostonian woman…
A study examined personal and professional development experienced by women youth workers participating in five 5-day, residential, single-sex, outdoor education courses in England. Analysis of diaries and poetry at the end of the courses and questionnaires completed 1 year later by participants and their managers yielded findings in the areas of…
A discussion of education and educational opportunities for women in Arab States includes formal education and literacy (examining formal education, primary school enrollment, and women's illiteracy) and non-formal education (examining a Saudi Arabian literacy program, joint action by Arab States, and the Arab Literacy and Adult Education…
As organizations like the American Council on Education are seeking to advance women in higher education, and many of them are approaching (or avoiding) retirement age, many women with great potential are questioning whether a leadership opportunity in higher education is for them. As a new generation of women leaders prepares to enter the higher…
Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn, Ed.
This document contains seven papers about and from the International Seminar on Women's Education and Empowerment, which was convened to give women educators and researchers from diverse sociocultural backgrounds an opportunity to examine collectively different education practices and their theoretical implications for empowering women. The…
Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Rajeswari, K.; Jabari, Kamran
This article explores theoretical and practical issues related to the impact of women's education in their empowerment. The development of women's education is discussed in this study. As women's education has become one of the key development objectives in the recent decades, the concept of empowerment has been tied to the range of activities…
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.
This project focuses on non-formal and adult education for women in rural areas of Uttar Pradesh, India. The objectives of the project were: (1) to provide non-formal education to girls and adult education to women in a coordinated manner; (2) to raise civic and social awareness of women; (3) to decentralize planning and implementation of programs…
Bhat, Rouf Ahmad
Women education in India has a major preoccupation of both the government and civil society as educated women can play a very important role in the development of the country. Education is milestone of women empowerment because it enables them to responds to the challenges, to confront their traditional role and change their life. So that we can't…
Bullough, Vern; Bullough, Bonnie
The implications for nursing education of the fact that nursing started as a woman's occupation in a field dominated by the male physician are considered. Although in 1873 nursing represented a real educational opportunity for large numbers of women, none of the prestigious women's colleges were interested in educating women for careers. In the…
Gubrium, Aline C; Shafer, Miriam B
Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women at an alternative General Educational Development test preparation center. The program prioritized a sex positive framework, including topics such as pleasure, desire and sexual entitlement, and invited participants to explore sexuality through a multisensory orientation. Participants took part in small group discussions and activities that engaged their senses through arts-based methods. Grounded in holism, program topics were integrated with a focus on participants' everyday experiences. The pilot curriculum serves as a promising program for re-positioning young parenting women as sexual subjects, which is key to the promotion of health and wellbeing.
Balancing extensive ambition and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands: A grounded theory on stress and recovery among highly educated working young women entering male-dominated occupational areas.
Löve, Jesper; Hagberg, Mats; Dellve, Lotta
Several factors underline the issue of stress-related health among young highly educated women. Major societal changes might provide more new challenges with considerably changed and expanded roles than were expected by earlier generations, especially among women. The quantity of young women with higher education has also increased threefold in Sweden in less than two decades and there are a growing number of young women that hereby break with traditional gender positions and enter new occupational areas traditionally dominated by men. The research questions in the present study were: "What is the main concern, regarding stress and recovery, among young highly educated working women breaking with traditional gender positions and entering male-dominated occupational areas?" and "How do they handle this concern?" We conducted open-ended interviews with 20 informants, aged 23-29 years. The results showed that the synergy between highly ambitious individuals and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands ended up in the informants' constantly striving to find a balance in daily life (main concern). This concern refers to the respondents experiencing a constant overload of ambiguity and that they easily became entangled in a loop of stress and dysfunctional coping behavior, threatening the balance between stress and sufficient recovery. In order to handle this concern, the respondents used different strategies in balancing extensive ambition and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands (core category). This preliminary theoretical model deepens our understanding of how the increasing numbers of highly educated young women face complex living conditions endangering their possibility of maintaining health and work ability.
Butler, Matilda; Marzone, Jean
The Women's Educational Equity Communications Network (WEECN) has compiled information on elements concerning the status of research and development (R&D) as they pertain to women and education. The information resources cover all educational levels from preschool through reentry and continuing education. Support for R&D is discussed in the…
Martin, Steven P.; Parashar, Sangeeta
This article examines trends in divorce attitudes of young adult women in the United States by educational attainment from 1974 to 2002. Women with 4-year college degrees, who previously had the most permissive attitudes toward divorce, have become more restrictive in their attitudes toward divorce than high school graduates and women with some…
Levy, David T; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Compton, Christine
Study objective To examine recent trends and the role of tobacco control policies associated with smoking among women of low socioeconomic status. Design Using four waves of the nationally representative tobacco use supplement to the current population survey (TUS‐CPS)—(1992–2002), the study examined trends and used multivariate logistic models of smoking prevalence among low education women to examine the role of cigarette prices, clean air regulations, and tobacco control media campaigns, while controlling for other personal characteristics. Setting USA. Participants Women ages 18 and older who report not having completed high school, compared with other women with greater educational attainment and men ages 18 and older with less than a high school degree. Main results Smoking among low education women declined at a greater rate over the study period than among more highly educated women, in contrast with trends of earlier periods. Low education women were found to be particularly responsive to media messages as well as price, especially in comparison with high education women. Conclusions The relation between health and socioeconomic status is not immutable; selected tobacco control policies, such as tax increases and media campaigns targeting low education women, may make inroads in reducing the smoking prevalence of this population. PMID:17708007
This paper explores ways in which gendered approaches have limited women's experience of higher education. Using a historical lens with primary examples from the United States and Britain, it demonstrates how beliefs about women over time led to three expectations about their educational participation: initially, that women were not interested in…
Following the enfranchisement of women in 1918 women's organisations throughout Britain reconsidered and revised their aims for the future. In many cases this involved educating their members, and women in general, on how to use their new influence in society. Such "education for citizenship", which also drove attempts to raise the political…
Lyman, Linda L.; Strachan, Jane; Lazaridou, Angeliki
"Shaping Social Justice Leadership: Insights of Women Educators Worldwide" contains evocative portraits of twenty-three women educators and leaders from around the world whose actions are shaping social justice leadership. Woven from words of their own narratives, the women's voices lift off the page into readers' hearts and minds to inspire and…
Nash, Carol S.
Describes the impact of Enlightenment philosophies on Russian women during the reign of Catherine II (1762-1796). Education for upper class women was encouraraged only to enhance performance of their domestic roles within tightly knit nuclear families. Peasant women were educated to be serf-teachers for noblemen's children. (AM)
Kidwell, Clara Sue
A study of the status of Native American women in higher education obtained questionnaires from 61 undergraduate women at 4 colleges and 9 women with advanced degrees, interviewed 6 women in or about to enter graduate programs, and reviewed previous research and available statistical data. Results indicated that: relatively few Native American…
This article discusses what kinds of religious education led to the improvement of women's status and the realization of higher education for women in modern Japan, by reconsidering the educational views of Jinzo Naruse (1859-1919), both a pioneer of Japanese women's education and a promoter of the Concordia movement (1912-1941), within…
Ugbomeh, George M. M.
Discusses the concepts of agricultural education, women empowerment, and sustainable rural development. Suggests that, because women make up more than half of Nigeria's population, their empowerment would assist the efforts for sustainable rural development. (Contains 48 references.) (JOW)
This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…
Women working in higher education information technology (IT) organizations and those seeking leadership positions in these organizations face a double challenge in overcoming the traditionally male-dominated environments of higher education and IT. Three women higher education chief information officers (CIOs) provided their perspectives,…
Williams, Monnica T.; Bonner, Laura
Attitudes and outcomes of sex education received by North American women are examined via an Internet survey (N = 1,400). Mean age was 19.5, with 24% reporting one or more unplanned pregnancies. Women were more satisfied with sex education from informal sources than from parents, schools, and physicians. Those receiving sex education from parents…
Mareschal, Teresa L.
The history of adult Jewish education is rich and is replete with learning opportunities for Jewish adults, and Jewish women are active participants in adult Jewish education. In this chapter, the author examines Reform Jewish women's motivations to participate in adult Jewish education. First, she provides a historical overview of Judaism and…
Mushayabasa, S.; Bhunu, C. P.; Smith?, Robert J.
Prior studies have shown that imprisonment is a major risk factor for hepatitis C infection, with the risk of infection directly proportional to the length of incarceration. Women are at least twice as likely as men to contract HCV as they have limited access to information, health services and safe intravenous drug injecting equipments. We develop a mathematical model to assess the impact of educational campaigns on controlling HCV among women in prison settings. Equilibria for the model are determined and their stability are examined. Population-level effects of increased educational campaigns to encourage safe injecting practices among women in prison are evaluated through numerical simulations. The results suggest that educating women prisoners about abstaining from intravenous drug misuse may significantly reduce HCV prevalence among women in prison settings. Targeted education campaigns, which are effective at stopping transmission of HCV more than 80% of the time, will be highly effective at controlling the disease among women in prisons.
Wells, Kristen J; Vàzquez-Otero, Coralia; Bredice, Marissa; Meade, Cathy D; Chaet, Alexis; Rivera, Maria I; Arroyo, Gloria; Proctor, Sara K; Barnes, Laura E
There are few Spanish language interactive, technology-driven health education programs. Objectives of this feasibility study were to (a) learn more about computer and technology usage among Hispanic women living in a rural community and (b) evaluate acceptability of the concept of using an embodied conversational agent (ECA) computer application among this population. A survey about computer usage history and interest in computers was administered to a convenience sample of 26 women. A sample video prototype of a hospital discharge ECA was administered followed by questions to gauge opinion about the ECA. Data indicate women exhibited both a high level of computer experience and enthusiasm for the ECA. Feedback from community is essential to ensure equity in state of the art dissemination of health information.
Dave, Dhaval M.; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E.
Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes. PMID:23504449
Steward, James F.; Boyd, Daniel R.
Entrepreneurial education is a valid, realistic occupational training alternative for minorities and women in business. Entrepreneurship requires that one become involved with those educational programs that contribute significantly to one's success. (Author)
This pamphlet contains 19 consciousness-raising articles for high-school women which help define their roles and rights as females, family members, and participants in the labor market. The first section, Education and Liberation, discusses ways in which schools, families, and society suppress women. For example, women are urged to take home…
Howe, Sondra Wieland
Women music educators in the USA have been active in public and private schools, churches, and community organizations. In the nineteenth century, Julia E. Crane founded the Crane Institute of Music, the first institution to train music supervisors; and women developed kindergarten programs throughout the US. In the "private sphere," women taught…
Purpose: This short essay aims to reflect on the global experiences women in education have had in becoming leaders as noted in the articles in this special issue on women's leadership. Design/methodology/approach: The essay draws upon relevant historical and contemporary literature about women in the professions and in the workforce. Findings:…
Waterman, Stephanie J.; Lindley, Lorinda S.
Beginning with an overview of historical perspectives of Native American women, this article includes some discussion of values and practices of contemporary Native American women, data pertaining to Native American women's participation in higher education, and an introduction of familial cultural capital, community cultural wealth, Native…
Wu, Ya-Ling; Wu, Hsing-Chen
Based on a sociocultural approach to adult learning and poststructural feminist theories, this study draws on interviews with 11 married Vietnamese women to explore the higher education learning experiences of Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan. On the basis of their husbands' permission and support, Vietnamese immigrant women embraced the…
Explores the barriers that senior academic women experience in Australia. Examines whether diversity management programs might provide a useful management tool to increase the participation of senior women in higher education. Asserts that if diversity management can affect the management culture, more senior women may remain in universities and…
Henderson, Karla A.; Harrolle, Michelle; Rich, Samantha; Moretz, Janell
Women represent growing numbers of faculty members in higher education as well as in recreation/leisure departments. The purpose of this study is to describe the career development of women faculty in recreation-related areas and to offer implications for faculty development and the preparation of future faculty. Data were collected from women who…
Shah, Madhuri, Ed.
This handbook presents 15 case studies on the non-formal education of women from four Asian countries: India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia. The goal of this publication is to provide information about education-related issues concerning women and girls and development. This information is intended for those people, in governmental and…
White, Julia A.; Jillson, Irene A.
As part of a 2-year study to plan, develop, and offer relevant continuing education programs for women in Pensacola, a Delphi study was conducted to determine the educational needs and priorities of different types of women living in Pensacola. The Delphi method was selected because it is considered an effective way of eliciting the opinions of a…
Although female teachers have dominated education, relatively few women have pursued administrative positions. In 1988, women in Ohio held only 4.5 percent of all superintendencies. The state generally lags behind the lackluster national average, according to a 1985 Project on Equal Education report. Because of changing U.S. demographics, future…
The women's movement in the 1970s and 1980s was a global phenomenon that achieved significant educational change. More analysis of how it developed and had an impact on education can inform our understanding of the possibilities for change today. This paper explores how the women's movement changed schooling in Vancouver in the 1970s, using a…
Christou, Miranda; Puigvert, Lidia
The INCLUD-ED project's case studies of successful schools in Europe reveal that there are advantages involved in opening schools to all kinds of women as far as educational and social inclusion is concerned. "Other Women"--those whose voices have traditionally been silenced in academic settings--help in crucial ways to improve education when they…
Neumann, Anna, Ed.; Peterson, Penelope L., Ed.
The autobiographical essays in this volume offer insights into how the field of education might change as women assume positions of intellectual leadership. After the "Foreword" (Mary Catherine Bateson), the 13 chapters are: (1) "Research Lives: Women, Scholarship, and Autobiography in Education" (Anna Neumann and Penelope L. Peterson); (2)…
Dubin, Samuel S.
The number of women occupying managerial positions in the U.S. is relatively small, but it rose 47% from 1,321,000 in 1970 to 1,942,000 in 1976. Circumstances contributing to this rise are enforcement of legal sanctions against discrimination and women's increased educational attainment. This report describes a continuing education workshop series…
When women take up the work of music education, of the university, and become nomadic, engaging Deleuze and Guattari's war machine, all kinds of things happen. As nomads in music education, women traverse borders and boundaries that would otherwise limit and constrain them as they initiate alternative possibilities related to teaching and learning…
Harris, Abigail M.
Educational Testing Service (ETS) research that is relevant to the concerns of women and the educational process can be categorized into four areas: (1) research primarily about women; (2) research focusing on sex differences or similarities; (3) research that reports, but does not focus on sex differences; and (4) research identifying methods of…
Kent, Calvin A.
Although the importance of entrepreneurship to the American economy has been documented, a review of research reveals that knowledge about entrepreneurship education is sparse and that research on entrepreneurship education for women is almost nonexistent. A summary of this research indicates that sex stereotyping in schools inhibits women from…
The most important factor that enables women to become individuals in society is education. It is also a very crucial part of rectifying the circumstances they are in. Besides formal, mass and distance education institutions, there are some other mechanisms to support women's individuality, their personal development and improve gender…
Maintains that during the early 20th century the work of women teacher activists brought issues of social reform to the forefront. Describes the work of five Chicago women who helped advance women's rights, women's suffrage, and other social reform efforts. Contends that their work has not be adequately recognized. (CFR)
Naik, Chitra; And Others
The volume contains two studies from India and Thailand on the education of women, and rural women especially, who are deprived or disadvantaged. The Indian study, "Education of Girls and Women in Deprived Groups," presents a viewpoint on deprivation in society in general, and India specifically. The concomitant of deprivation is defined as the…
Pounder, Diana G.
The National Commission on Excellence in Educational Administration 1987 report, "Leaders for America's Schools," has brought renewed attention to the underrepresentation of women and minorities in educational administration. This study attempts to collect data on placement practices of educational administration professors, analyze findings, and…
Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Dublin (Ireland).
Designed to acquaint young men and women with the agricultural education programs currently available in Ireland's institutions of vocational and higher education, this prospectus describes the educational requirements, facilities, and programs under the auspices of Ireland's Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. Specifically, this document…
Curriculum framework in the education of children became debatable during the enlightenment. Jean-Jacque Rousseau's treatise, "Emile," outlined an educational curriculum based on natural rights. Rousseau thought education should be based on espousing and exploring the natural abilities of a person. Therefore, since women have a natural…
Lyon, Catherine Dillon; Saario, Terry N.
Cites national and State statistics indicating that women, who constitute a majority of the public education teaching profession, are not well represented in administrative positions in public education. Suggests the reason is because of sexual discrimination in promotions. Makes recommendations to education policymakers to help eliminate sex…
History has a habit of ignoring women. Thirty years ago one thought that re-emerging women's movement would never be dumped in the same way previous feminist generations were consigned to the dustbin of history. It took feminist activists and scholars; women trade unionists and health workers; feminist writers, publishers and artists; and the…
Astin, Helen S.; Hirsch, Werner Z.
Essays include: some considerations on the higher education of women (Rosemary Park); three women, creators of change (Esther Raushenbush); women's education, the case for the single-sex college (Susan Romer Kaplan); liberal arts education and women's development (C. Robert Pace); women's studies, its origin, organization, and prospects (Sheila…
The first half of this monograph deals with present attitudes towards Hispanic women and migrants, comparing stereotypes and facts about both groups, including population figures and other demographic data such as income level, family size, source(s) of income, maternal mortality, and morbibity rates. Self inventories on attitudes toward the…
Guhathakurta, Meghna; Lina, Khadija
Nagorik Uddyog (Citizen's Initiative) is a non-profit, non-governmental Bangladeshi organization focused on empowering women at the grassroots level through human rights education. Although women constitute half of the total population of Bangladesh, their participation in social, cultural, and political activities is limited. Recently,…
Ghosh, Ratna; Chakravarti, Paromita; Mansi, Kumari
While women have made many advances, their inferior status to men continues to be a global phenomenon. At a time of unprecedented economic growth, India is experiencing a dramatic intensification of violence against women and the majority of girls are still not getting equal educational opportunity. In one of the most important steps for the…
Damarin, Suzanne K.
Discusses relationships among technology, women, and education. Presents three views of the computer's future: (1) the robot as superior human; (2) the cyborg; and (3) the human-computer dyad. Discusses effects that the computer has had upon work and school, particularly for women and at risk and nonliterate students. (SG)
These studies of the involvement of women in higher education in China, Nepal, and the Philippines provide a common framework for analysis. Each study is organized around five broad areas: socio-cultural factors, politico-economic factors, ideological factors, legal factors, and infrastructural factors. An analysis of the progress of women's…
The researcher is stimulated to work on the growing trends of women leadership. The problem has been designed to investigate the factors influencing the emergence of women leadership at higher education level in Pakistan. On the basis of the studies conducted by Oplatka (2006) and Cubillo, Brown, 2003, it was assumed that specific factors…
Higher education offers a variety of benefits, both economic and non-economic, and women seem to reap much bigger economic benefits from earning an associate's degree or a bachelor's degree than their male counterparts, according to a new study. The study's author said this revelation could shed some light on why the numbers of women in college…
Schmidt, Linda J.
Literature that examines reasons for the underrepresentation of women in educational administration is reviewed in this paper. Some explanations include the circular phenomenon, in which the lack of female role models contributes to fewer women applicants, discrimination, an increase in the number of males entering the teaching field, and social…
In Great Britain, it is not unusual to find primary schools staffed almost entirely by women, but managed by men. This paper argues that more women should manage education in western Europe and explains why. It examines the stereotypes of "gendered" management styles. For example, both Margaret Thatcher and Bill Clinton have encountered public…
Clover, Darlene E.; McGregor, Catherine
Women's Campaign School (WCS) is a non-partisan, non-formal three-day educational programme held annually in Vancouver, to empower and inspire women to enter politics and as a means towards socio-political change. Our findings show the WCS provides excellent practical and tactical skills and an experiential learning opportunity that is highly…
Sinkford, Jeanne C.; Valachovic, Richard W.; Harrison, Sonja
Reviews progress made since the adoption of formal policies in support of women in the profession by the American Dental Education Association (ADEA). Provides an overview of current ADEA programs designed to increase the number of women in academic dentistry and sustain an environment in which they can contribute. (EV)
This history explores the nature of postwar advocacy for women's higher education, acknowledging its unique relationship to the expectations of the era and recognizing its particular type of adaptive activism. Linda Eisenmann illuminates the impact of this advocacy in the postwar era, identifying a link between women's activism during World War II…
Cohen, Audrey C.
The role of women in a society changing from industrial to service orientation is examined. It is pointed out that women are uniquely qualified to be leaders in a society whose highest ideals are cooperation, conservation, equality, respect for others, and compassion. The suggestion is made that the educational system be equipped to train children…
Bowman, Mary Jean; Anderson, C. Arnold
This paper looks at inter- and intracountry differences in Third World women's educational opportunities and attainments. Discussion includes differences in literacy rate by age; sex differences in enrollment rate, promotion, and wastage; early marriage and other social customs impacting on women's schooling; and social class differences in…
Senior academic women in Australian Universities, as elsewhere, continue to experience both direct and indirect discrimination, with the narrow white Anglo-Celtic male management profile is a factor in this discrimination. While higher education remains a hostile work environment for senior academic women their participation rates are unlikely to…
Hewcomb, Whitney Sherman; Beaty, Danna M.; Sanzo, Karen; Peters-Hawkins, April
This work is grounded in the literature on women in the academy and offers glimpses into four young women professors' experiences in the field of educational leadership. We utilized reflective practice and interpersonal communication to create a dialogue centered on three qualitative research questions that allows a window into our lives. We…
Lacey, Candace H.
This paper presents the qualitative findings based on the analysis of open-ended responses from surveys completed by 59 incarcerated women who participated in an arts-based education program. ArtSpring focuses on promoting self-growth and effective life skills through art-making for underserved and institutionalized women and girls. Findings…
Since Edwards' influential study on mature women students and families in the 1990s, questions have been raised about the effects of Higher Education (HE) on family lives. Edwards maintained that relationships were at risk of breakdown due to the changing identity, increased self-esteem and enhanced confidence levels of women students. Men were…
O'Rourke, Carolyn L.; Papalewis, Rosemary
Following a thorough review of current studies and literature on women in leadership, this document examines the results of a study conducted to determine the significance of female gender in educational leadership, and how attitudes, values, perceptions, and life experiences of women differ from those of men and are reflected in female leadership…
Fredericks, Suzanne; Guruge, Sepali
Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death among women from low- to middle-income countries. The most common cardiovascular nursing intervention is that of patient education. However, the applicability of this intervention is questionable, as these educational initiatives are typically designed and evaluated using samples of "white" homogeneous males. Using the social determinants of health framework, this discursive article identifies specific strategies for redesigning existing cardiovascular education interventions to enhance their applicability to immigrant women. The recommendations will allow nurses to enhance the educational support offered resulting in the reduction and/or prevention of cardiovascular-related symptoms and/or complications. PMID:26517345
Vijverberg, Wim P. M.
Estimates of wage and nonfarm self-employment earnings in the Ivory Coast show that rates of return to education are high for both sexes, but men's wages exceed women's by a substantial margin for all but the most educated. (Author/SK)
Matthews, Hollie L.; Laya, Mary; DeWitt, Dawn E.
Context: Little is known about rural women's knowledge about osteoporosis. Purpose: To explore what women from high-prevalence rural communities know about osteoporosis and to assess their learning preferences. Methods: We surveyed 437 women in rural Washington and Oregon. Findings: The response rate was 93% (N = 406). The mean age of respondents…
Watts, Shelly C.; Daley, Candice
The following paper focuses on the education system in Trinidad and Tobago, particularly on the involvement of girls and women in physics. The educational system is a three-tiered structure: primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Girls and women are given equal opportunities at all levels; however, career choices and the demand of the job market determines whether physics is chosen at the secondary level and onward. No formal survey was performed to quantify the number of girls and women involved in physics; however, scenarios are used to illustrate the different opportunities and tracks that are available to girls.
In the modern social background of strengthening the nation and its people, woman's health got the attention of Chinese and became one important part in the modernization progress of state and nation, they started the work of women's health education, publicized women's health knowledge and nursery methods through many ways and carried out midwifery education.In the name of "health", woman's body gradually be socialized and internationalized. Meanwhile, Chinese women also gradually got rid of their own discipline of the state and society, began to seek their own liberation, became one important part of China's modernization. PMID:26815023
Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Holford, M.
Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W) is a 501c non profit corporation whose mission is to aid in increasing and retaining the number of women - especially underrepresented females - engaged in scientific teaching and research. Initiated by a Protein Chemist and an Astronomer, our ultimate goal has been to develop informational tools and create innovative outreach programs for women across all STEM fields. At present RAISE-W is recruiting women at the undergraduate, graduate, and early career stages to participate in a unique, 1-year, executive coaching program modeled after those used in the business sector.
Ha, P Y
Results of a survey of demand for education among women managers of small-scale businesses in Korea are provided. Personal interviews were conducted by the Korean Women Development Institute in 1988 among 56 prospective women managers and 15 women managers and 32 experts. A pilot education program was held in 1988 and 1989; 69 women completed the course. Educational objectives are to give women an opportunity to learn the basic rudiments of running a business and develop the self-confidence to undertake this venture. The general objectives, management, evaluation, and postguidance of an educational program for women managers is given in addition to curriculum descriptions of several model programs in general and specifically directed to women. A profile of women surveyed is given; most had completed education beyond high school and were married. 66% planned to use their own money. In self-preparation for the establishment of a business, 26.9% of women used published market surveys and the advice of women already in business. 8 out of the 15 women managers had used their own start-up money. Net monthly earned income for women managers ranged from 500,000 won to 1.5 million won. Women worked 14-15 hour days. Some took holidays. Obstacles articulated by prospective managers were the lack of professional knowledge and experience and difficulties in human relationships due to lack of self-confidence and negative character. Difficulties expressed by women managers were lack of funding for expansion and maintenance of the business, of up-to-date technology, of information on the circulation of merchandise, credit dealings with customers, pricing, health, and laws. 78.5% of prospective women reported no confidence in management skills while most managers were satisfied. 54.2% reported feeling more confident after the pilot course and 39.0% had acquired skills. Content recommended included items on investment, site selection, and business planning for prospective managers
Ha, P Y
Results of a survey of demand for education among women managers of small-scale businesses in Korea are provided. Personal interviews were conducted by the Korean Women Development Institute in 1988 among 56 prospective women managers and 15 women managers and 32 experts. A pilot education program was held in 1988 and 1989; 69 women completed the course. Educational objectives are to give women an opportunity to learn the basic rudiments of running a business and develop the self-confidence to undertake this venture. The general objectives, management, evaluation, and postguidance of an educational program for women managers is given in addition to curriculum descriptions of several model programs in general and specifically directed to women. A profile of women surveyed is given; most had completed education beyond high school and were married. 66% planned to use their own money. In self-preparation for the establishment of a business, 26.9% of women used published market surveys and the advice of women already in business. 8 out of the 15 women managers had used their own start-up money. Net monthly earned income for women managers ranged from 500,000 won to 1.5 million won. Women worked 14-15 hour days. Some took holidays. Obstacles articulated by prospective managers were the lack of professional knowledge and experience and difficulties in human relationships due to lack of self-confidence and negative character. Difficulties expressed by women managers were lack of funding for expansion and maintenance of the business, of up-to-date technology, of information on the circulation of merchandise, credit dealings with customers, pricing, health, and laws. 78.5% of prospective women reported no confidence in management skills while most managers were satisfied. 54.2% reported feeling more confident after the pilot course and 39.0% had acquired skills. Content recommended included items on investment, site selection, and business planning for prospective managers
Martin, Jennifer L., Ed.
This up-to-date, candid examination of women's careers in education and leadership in education describes the pitfalls, triumphs, and future promise of female leaders in education. Despite the gains women have made in higher education over the past few decades, and an increasing number of well-qualified female candidates, they are still…
Rury, John L.
This study examines the development of women's secondary education in U.S. cities in the years between the Civil War and the Great Depression. Chapter 1 looks at the period between 1870 and 1900 when, through the coeducational high school, women came to share in the academic culture traditionally reserved for males. Chapter 2 looks at who went to…
Sharp, Gemma; Tiggemann, Marika
The study investigated the effectiveness of two online resources aimed at improving women's knowledge of the variation in normal female genital appearance and their attitudes towards their own genitals. The first consisted of a photographic array of normal female genitals and the second consisted of a video addressing digital airbrushing of women's genitals in media images. A sample of 136 female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to view the photographs, video, both the photographs and video, or neither. The video significantly increased women's perceptions of genital appearance diversity as well as awareness of digital airbrushing of genital images. Owing to relatively low levels of genital appearance concern, there was no effect of either resource on women's attitudes towards their own genitals; however, women who viewed the video indicated they would pass on their knowledge to help other women. Our results suggest that an educational video could be a useful tool. PMID:26723015
McKenna, Teresa, Ed.; Ortiz, Flora Ida, Ed.
The articles in this volume document an educational situation which underserves Chicanas/Latinas and contributes to an unraveling of women's power to perform creative functions in society. The lack of research on this topic only serves to hide the problem which threatens to undermine the educational success of a major percentage of Chicana/Latina…
Brown, Genevieve; Irby, Beverly J.
If the challenges of the 21st century are to be met successfully, education must transform its orientation from one of exclusion to inclusion. To assist in the transformation of systems, to address specific barriers to inclusion, and to offer exemplary models in educational leadership, the Texas Council of Women School Executives sponsored a pilot…
When the Holloway Prison is completed, it will be the largest establishment in the penal service for women. Its education center has been designed to incorporate "all of the best aspects of new adult education centers and technical colleges in the free community." (Editor/RB)
National Center for Research in Vocational Education, Berkeley, CA.
This annotated but nonexhaustive resource list, describing 21 publications and 23 organizations, supports efforts funded through the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act of 1990 to improve the academic and economic outcomes of women and girls in vocational education. The listings are grouped under the following topics:…
This case study of Southeast Asian women in higher education management investigates culture-specific dimensions of "glass ceiling" impediments to career advancement in higher education. Respondents note that despite considerable training and expertise, Asian values and ideologies demand enactment of a construct of Asian femininity that militates…
Segkulu, L.; Gyimah, K.
Within the Tamale Metropolis, it is observed that only a few women occupy top level management positions within the Ghana Education Service (GES). A descriptive survey was therefore conducted in 2013/2014 academic year to assess the factors affecting the gender disparity in educational leadership within the Service. Specifically, the study sought…
Liu, Jane; Carpenter, Marilyn
China has a rich educational history dating back more than three thousand years, but women did not become part of the mainstream education system until the last sixty years. The Confucian ideology, which has been deeply rooted throughout Chinese history, confined females to an oppressed social status. Moreover, this historical ideology continues…
After a survey of the social status and education of women in India prior to the passage of the Government of India Act and the introduction of diarchial government this document provides data on education for females in the Pre-Independence Period (1921-1947) and in the Post-Independence Period (1947-1966). Information is given on enrollment,…
Irby, Beverly, Ed.; Brown, Genevieve H., Ed.
The Research on Women and Education SIG of the American Educational Research Association presents the third book in its series, Gender and Early Learning Environments. Finding after the publication of Gender and Schooling in the Early Years, the second book in the series, that there was and is a paucity of published literature on early childhood…
Clabaugh, Gary K.
The very essence of a culture is revealed in its educational attitudes, policies, and practices. Just as blood pressure and body temperature are measures of physical health, such matters are measures of social justice. This article focuses on the attitudes of males toward the education of women by highlighting the attitudes of the most famous and…
Women and men too are becoming increasingly concerned about and aware of sex discrimination in higher education. In the past 2 years, formal charges of sex discrimination have been filed against 360 colleges and universities, none of which have been refuted by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Discrimination exists in all facets of…
While there is a wealth of feminist research on women's educational leadership and policy-making in the interwar years, this article extends the discussion into the Second World War. My focus is the educational leadership of Dorothy Walker, head teacher of St Peter's Infant School and the youngest head teacher in Birmingham, and Lillian de Lissa,…
Vor der Bruegge, Ellen; And Others
Credit with Education provides poor women with small loans; a safe place for savings; and education in health, nutrition, and family planning. The strategy integrates financial and educational services to empower women toward self-sufficiency. (SK)
Hootsmans, Helen M.
Reviews existing programs for equal education and employment for women in Europe, including reentry to school and work, training for nontraditional fields, and management training. Discusses the role of adult educators in setting priorities, influencing policy, and obtaining funding for women's programs. (SK)
Stade, Brenda C; Bailey, Carol; Dzendoletas, Darlene; Sgro, Michael; Dowswell, Therese; Bennett, Daniel
health of mothers and babies. Authors’ conclusions The evidence from the limited number of studies suggests that psychological and educational interventions may result in increased abstinence from alcohol, and a reduction in alcohol consumption among pregnant women. However, results were not consistent, and the paucity of studies, the number of total participants, the high risk of bias of some of the studies, and the complexity of interventions limits our ability to determine the type of intervention which would be most effective in increasing abstinence from, or reducing the consumption of, alcohol among pregnant women. PMID:19370597
London Univ. (England). Inst. of Education.
Delivered at a conference on women in British education, this collection of papers demonstrates with statistical evidence and close argument the extent of discrimination against women in higher education. "The Place of Women in the Changing Pattern of Further Education" by Eileen Byrne looks at women as they leave school at the secondary level and…
Pinnick, Cassandra L.
This paper examines the relation between situated cognition theory in science education, and feminist standpoint theory in philosophy of science. It shows that situated cognition is an idea borrowed from a long since discredited philosophy of science. It argues that feminist standpoint theory ought not be indulged as it is a failed challenge to traditional philosophy of science. Standpoint theory diverts attention away from the abiding educational and career needs of women in science. In the interest of women in science, and in the interest of science, science educators would do best for their constituencies by a return to feminist philosophy understood as the demand for equal access and a level playing field for women in science and society.
Western theories of development, and the resulting strategies and planning represent major structural barriers to Moroccan Women's Liberation. The author advocates a shift from current anti-participatory strategies to a new people-oriented approach, emphasizing the multiple roles of women within an integrated strategy. This involves linking educational projects with other parts of the infrastructure. Morocco's `way out' of exogenous development, the author contends, is contingent upon an adequate management of the educational system both at the institutional and personal levels. Therefore, educating women can be considered a sine qua non in optimizing conditions leading to endogenous development. The foundation is the establishment or strengthening of a whole infrastructure for the creation, transmission, and application of alternative methods likely to sustain socio-economic opportunities leading to Morocco's self-reliance.
Morse, G G
To operate from a feminist paradigm is a new way of thinking for nurse educators. Feminist perspectives in nursing provide a new stage of consciousness--one that values women's voices, their way of knowing, and their life experiences, and, most important, one that challenges traditional patriarchal practices. Furthermore, nursing curricula with feminist perspectives provides a biopsychosocial approach that encourages the full recognition of variables that can influence women's health, such as socioeconomic status, racial and ethnic background, and biobehavioral factors. The debate in medicine over a specialty in women's health is not unique. The history of academia abounds with descriptions of struggles to establish new fields and disciplines. Recent specialties, such as pediatrics and gerontology, which are distinguished by age rather than specific organ or system, struggled for establishment and recognition. Historically, nursing curricula has emulated the biomedical model that is reductionistic and contradictory to nursing's holistic mission. Rather than classifying women's health into a separate entity, women's health may be introduced into present curricula by employing feminist ideals and pedagogy throughout the curriculum. This approach would provide a mechanism to explore women's health issues that were previously minimally addressed at best, or not addressed at all. More important, students would be provided with an opportunity to examine the societal effects of racism, sexism, and classism, and this education would potentially lead to a growing awareness of concerns specific to women and minorities.
In Thailand, the International Center for Research on Women conducted a study comparing the effect of various HIV/AIDS prevention activities on never-married women 14-24 years old who migrated to Chiang Mai to work in the export garment industry. These young women are very vulnerable to HIV/AIDS because they are freed from traditional norms and exposed to urban peer pressure. However, focus groups revealed that the women did not consider themselves at risk and feared negative reactions if they tried to discuss condoms with their boyfriends (who would equate knowledge with prior sexual experience). Among the interventions were a comic book which couched condom negotiation information in humorous terms and a romantic novel about a factory worker diagnosed with HIV. For 3 months trained peer leaders and health promoters led weekly educational sessions that included role-play. All participants were given a certificate noting that they had completed an AIDS education course. This certificate enabled the young women to broach the subject of AIDS with their boyfriends, their families, and their friends. The project improved their communication skills, their self-confidence, and their perceptions of risk. The most significant improvements were found among the women enrolled in the groups facilitated by peer leaders. Even though the peer leaders were not as knowledgeable as the health promoters, the peer leaders were more sensitive to the needs of the women and more capable of leading group discussions and participatory learning activities.
Perez Ferrer, Carolina; McMunn, Anne; Rivera Dommarco, Juan A.; Brunner, Eric J.
Background Obesity is one of the leading causes of global morbidity and mortality. Trends in educational inequalities in obesity prevalence among Mexican women have not been analysed systematically to date. Methods Data came from four nationally representative surveys (1988, 1999, 2006, and 2012) of a total of 51 220 non-pregnant women aged 20 to 49. Weight and height were measured during home visits. Education level (higher education, high school, secondary, primary or less) was self-reported. We analysed trends in relative and absolute educational inequalities in obesity prevalence separately for urban and rural areas. Results Nationally, age-standardised obesity prevalence increased from 9.3% to 33.7% over 25 years to 2012. Obesity prevalence was inversely associated with education level in urban areas at all survey waves. In rural areas, obesity prevalence increased markedly but there was no gradient with education level at any survey. The relative index of inequality in urban areas declined over the period (2.87 (95%CI: 1.94, 4.25) in 1988, 1.55 (95%CI: 1.33, 1.80) in 2012, trend p<0.001). Obesity increased 5.92 fold (95%CI: 4.03, 8.70) among urban women with higher education in the period 1988–2012 compared to 3.23 fold (95%CI: 2.88, 3.63) for urban women with primary or no education. The slope index of inequality increased in urban areas from 1988 to 2012. Over 0.5 M cases would be avoided if the obesity prevalence of women with primary or less education was the same as for women with higher education. Conclusions The expected inverse association between education and obesity was observed in urban areas of Mexico. The declining trend in relative educational inequalities in obesity was due to a greater increase in obesity prevalence among higher educated women. In rural areas there was no social gradient in the association between education level and obesity across the four surveys. PMID:24599098
Kroeger, Rhiannon A.; Frank, Reanne; Schmeer, Kammi K.
We use data from Wave 3 of the Mexican Family Life Survey (N = 7276) and discrete-time regression analyses to evaluate changes in the association between educational attainment and timing to first union across three generations of women in Mexico, including a mature cohort (born between 1930 and 1949), a middle cohort (born between 1950 and 1969), and a young cohort (born between 1970 and 1979). Mirroring prior research, we find a curvilinear pattern between educational attainment and timing to first union for women born between 1930 and 1969, such that once we account for the delaying effect of school enrollment, those with the lowest (0–5 years) and highest levels of education (13+ years) are characterized by the earliest transition to a first union. For women born between 1970 and 1979, however, we find that the pattern between education and first union formation has changed. In contrast to their peers born in earlier cohorts, highly educated women in Mexico are now postponing first union formation relative to the least educated. We draw on competing theories of educational attainment and timing to first union to help clarify these patterns in the context of Mexico. PMID:26005234
Gubrium, Aline C.; Shafer, Miriam B.
Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women…
This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in Taiwan's universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative…
Levin, Dana S; Woodford, Michael R; Gutiérrez, Lorraine M; Luke, Katherine P
Social work faculty play an important role in preparing students to address sexism and engage in culturally competent practice with women. This study examines the nature of U.S. and Anglo-Canadian graduate social work faculty's support for content on women and on sexism. Although support appears high for both content areas, results suggest that faculty endorsement for content on women is significantly greater than that for sexism. Further, bivariate and multivariate analyses indicate that the nature of support differs for each content area. Implications for social work education are discussed.
George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.
"Options in Education" is a radio news program which focuses on issues and developments in education. This transcript contains discussions of Individually Guided Education, a program which was developed at the University of Wisconsin Research & Development Center; creative playacting; women in education, including children's perceptions of women…
Wilson, Lindsey D
Research has consistently shown that people absorb information significantly better when written information is provided in conjunction with verbal explanations. Despite this, studies also show that many written health education materials do not have readability levels that are appropriate for women who have low literacy skills. This article summarizes the process and essential considerations, such as content of the material, readability, layout, design, culture, language, and medium of delivery in the development of low-literacy health education materials.
Falciglia, Grace; Piazza, Julia; Ritcher, Erika; Reinerman, Christina; Lee, Seung Yeon
This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a 4-month clinic-based dietary intervention emphasizing the intake of deep yellow and dark green vegetables versus usual care on improving diet quality in postpartum women. The intervention group (n = 31) received 1 face-to-face nutrition education session with a registered dietitian, 2 follow-up phone calls, and 3 pamphlets distributed by mail. The usual care group (n = 25) received handouts with guidelines on healthy eating. Dietary outcomes were assessed from 3-day food recalls and evaluated using paired and independent t tests. Intervention women exhibited a significant increase in total vegetable intake (P < .001) and in dark green and deep yellow vegetables (P < .001). In comparison, the control group increased the intake of total vegetables (P < .001), but did not increase the consumption of dark green and deep yellow vegetables. When comparing the change in intake between study groups for both types of vegetables, the difference was not significant. Furthermore, 61% of the intervention women met the goals for total vegetable intake compared with 12% for the usual care group (P < .001). The intervention group also had a greater percentage of women (25.8%) that met the goal for deep yellow and dark green vegetable intake when compared with the usual care group (8%; P < .08). These results suggest that postpartum women are receptive to nutrition education and that nutrition education can influence vegetable intake.
Love, Gail D.; Tanjasiri, Sora Park
Southeast Asian women in California have high cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, but low levels of Pap screening. No published reports have addressed screening among Thai women. Entertainment-education (EE) is a useful strategy for low-literacy, culturally diverse populations. This quasi-experimental study determined whether a soap-opera-themed, Thai-language EE video was superior to a print handout for increasing knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intention toward Pap testing. No uniform differences were found between the intervention group (video) and the control group (brochure). Both educational modalities appeared to result in selected increases in knowledge and attitudes. PMID:22581487
Tellis-Nayak, Jessie B.
The third of five publications of the Indian Social Institute (ISI)-Women's Development Series, this book outlines a non-formal education program for girls of India with emphasis on training for income generation. The program stresses the practical skills of home-making, motherhood, social skills, and character formation. The book describes some…
Trends in women's education in Poland for the period 1960-1986 are reviewed, with a focus on the status of women and the allocation of women's time. The author concludes that the rapid changes in women's educational status that have occurred are not matched by equally rapid changes in family behavior.
Paul, Glendora B.
The problem of this study is to trace the emancipation and education of women since 1829 and to determine the factors that have shaped the course of this development and directed its trends. Before the Moslem conquest, which brought the Purdah system, child-marriage, polygamy and divorce, the Hindu woman's status had changed from equality to men…
The present study aimed to explore the various constraints faced by orthopaedically challenged women in their way towards higher education in Indian society. The tools used for the investigation are the General Information Schedule (GIS), Socioeconomic Schedule, and Interview Schedule. The sample consisted of 100 orthopaedically challenged women…
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to discuss and examine the development of frameworks and models to guide future research into studies of women's paths to educational leadership worldwide. Design/methodology/approach: A grounded theory approach to the development of a model of the factors and their interaction that determine the path to…
Bulman, Donna; Coben, Diana; Nguyen, Van Anh
This paper describes current trends in the HIV/AIDS epidemic. It looks at issues and strategies involved in educating women about HIV/AIDS in the context of the global pandemic, focusing particularly on Canada and Vietnam. These strategies are essential steps in preventing the spread of HIV and in caring for those who have already developed AIDS.…
Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter
This paper takes as its starting point the concept of concerted cultivation as coined by Annette Lareau. It examines whether a focus on concerted cultivation adequately captures the various practices observed in young women's experiences of being privately educated in four schools in one area of England. We suggest that a variety of practices of…
Trigg, Mary K.
The Leadership Scholars Certificate Program at Rutgers University is an intellectually rigorous program that draws on the rich scholarship in gender studies to reimagine leadership, accelerate young women to leadership, and prepare them as educated citizens who will make a difference in the world. This article describes a leadership development…
Butler, Matilda; Strover, Sharon
This information guide on women's educational equity is intended for legislators and others concerned with legislation. Each of the two sections--people resources and print resources--is only a partial listing of what exists, but serves as an entry point to the vast number of resources available. Many of the print resources are described briefly.…
Literacy Discussion, 1975
The Unesco National Commissions carried out a series of studies simultaneously in Argentina, the Ivory Coast, Lebanon, Sierra Leone, and Sri Lanka regarding the relationship between the educational opportunities and the opportunities of employment open to women. Basic conclusions of international scope are presented. (LH)
Women's Educational Equity Communications Network, San Francisco, CA.
This compilation of over 2,000 document resumes contains abstracts or annotations of materials relevant to women's educational equity which were entered into computerized data bases from January 1975 through December 1976. Covering material produced from about 1973 to 1976, the citations relate to one of six subject categories which were the…
Hinojosa, Tamara J.; Carney, JoLynn V.
The authors used narrative inquiry and Anzaldúa's (1999) bordlerlands theory to understand the cultural experiences of 5 Mexican American women in doctoral programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. Results indicated that participants navigated multiple cultural spheres and that the…
Baum, Nehami; Yedidya, Tova; Schwartz, Chaya; Aran, Ofra
The study reported in this article concerns the beginnings of higher education for women in the Haredi (ultra-Orthodox) enclave in Israel. Haredi Jews are a self-secluded fundamentalist group committed to particularly strict interpretation of Jewish religious law. In recent years, they have been compelled by poverty and other factors to allow…
Maslak, Mary Ann; Singhal, Gayatri
Under the combined effects of commercialisation, urbanisation, migration and employment, significant changes are taking place in India's process of modernisation. One change is the emergence of a population of women with degrees in higher education. These degrees, and the individuals' desire to pursue professional positions that relate to their…
Johnson, Megan Patricia
The purpose of this study was to reveal the ways in which first-generation women in Tanzania explained their success in pursuing a university education despite cultural and social obstacles. Such obstacles include social policies, socio-cultural factors, and academic factors. A review of the literature revealed that issues such as patriarchy,…
Molla, Tebeje; Cuthbert, Denise
This article examines the lived experiences of women in Ethiopian higher education (HE) as a counterpoint to understandings of gender equity informed only by data on admission, progression and completions rates. Drawing on a critical qualitative inquiry approach, we analyse and interpret data drawn from focus group discussions with female students…
Korcheck, Stephanie A., Ed.; Reese, Marianne, Ed.
This monograph is a collection of articles on research and reflection by faculty and practitioners on educational leadership. Part I, "Leading a Learning Organization," contains the following articles: "Emotional Intelligence and Leading a Learning Organization" (C. Sue McCullough); "Women's Leadership Through Agency" (Jennie Billot); "Mary Parker…
Bialeschki, M. Deborah; Henderson, Karla A.
A study was conducted to ascertain the continuing education needs of men and women leisure service professionals in Wisconsin and to identify differences caused by gender. (Leisure service professionals were defined as persons employed full-time in administering, directing, leading, organizing, and planning in leisure service organizations.) A…
Armoni, Michal; Gal-Ezer, Judith
The gap between enrollments in higher education computing programs and the high-tech industry's demands is widely reported, and is especially prominent for women. Increasing the availability of computer science education in high school is one of the strategies suggested in order to address this gap. We look at the connection between exposure…
Elmendorf, M L
This article goes beyond the rhetorical issue of women's participation as a key to implementing water supply and sanitation projects and suggests concrete ways in which training and education can make these plans a reality. With the improvements proposed for the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, women could be freed to do other tasks vital to the well being of the family and the community. Women, the "invisible resource" of society, play and essential part in encouraging family members to use technological advances and should be trained to effectively promote their acceptance. The author highlights the influence women have in the field of public health: with adequate training, for example, they can help control the spread of diarrheal disease with proper hygiene and an understanding of the fecal-oral route of infection. Moreover, she says that the central role women play in socializing the young and their permanence within the household make them suitable as trainees and trainers for water and sanitation projects at the community and household levels. Women should be recruited for these roles and should be consulted at every stage of development; while women's bureaus exist in many countries, the author states that planners often hesitate to call on them for assistance. The article describes several innovative training programs and, along with a bibliography, presents separate case studies for Mexico and Panama.
Kolo, Yovonda Ingram
African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.
This study of feminist high school teachers investigates and analyzes individual action within the bounds of structural constraints. The book draws on feminist theory that has addressed the role of schools in reproducing the inequality and oppression of women. Chapter One, "Critical Educational Theory," examines the implications and value of…
O'Toole, J. Corbett; Weeks, CeCe
The report, over half of which consists of appendixes and lists of resources, discusses the educational and related life experiences of six disabled women. Focus is on their early experiences with school and family, their high school years, their college years, and their work. Their disabilities include blindness, osteogenesis imperfecta (fragile…
Gibbons, Melinda M.; Woodside, Marianne; Hannon, Christine; Sweeney, Jeffrey R.; Davison, John
There is a dearth of research exploring the career and work development of adults and the influence of family of origin on that development. In this qualitative study, the authors used a phenomenological approach to examine the career and work experiences of women whose parents have no education beyond high school and the influences of family on…
Lafreniere, Shawna L.; Longman, Karen A.
Women who seek high-level administrative leadership positions in various sectors of higher education continue to meet a variety of barriers (Eagly & Carli, 2007). These challenges are especially evident among the 105-member Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU), an association of faith-based liberal arts institutions. Seeking to…
Duncan, Lauren E.; Wentworth Phyllis A.; Owen-Smith, Ashli; LaFavor, Theresa
Examined midlife educational, career, and family outcomes of women who attended women's colleges in the 1960s, one with a coed learning environment (CLE) and one with a single-sex environment (SLE). Overall, graduates of both colleges were very accomplished 30 years later. However, those who had experienced a CLE reported more sexism and active…
Begun in the early 1990s, The Skills-Based Literacy Programme for Women aims to improve the lives of rural Chinese women by linking literacy education with skills training in agriculture and other forms of income generation. Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, was chosen as the seat of the project because of high female illiteracy rates and the need…
Graduate Management Admission Council, 2012
This paper provides statistics on women and graduate management education for 2012. This paper contains two parts: (1) Women in the Business School Talent Pipeline; and (2) Women in Business. "Women in the Business School Talent Pipeline" discusses: (1) GMAT[R] Examinees; (2) B-School Demand from Younger Women; (3) MBA, Masters & Other Intended…
Taylor, Viviene; Conradie, Ina
This report describes a study undertaken in South Africa on women's leadership and the role of development education to empower women for leadership. The report is divided into the following six chapters: (1) "Women at the Crossroads"; (2) "Participatory Action Research: The Challenge of Women Researching with Women within a Development Approach";…
Davis, Cinda-Sue; And Others
This volume includes 10 reports that present findings and recommendations for advancing women in science, mathematics and engineering. Critical issues facing women in these disciplines are addressed, including demographic myths and realities at various educational levels; the educational pipeline for girls and women; involvement in education and…
Gondek, Matthew; Shogan, May; Saad-Harfouche, Frances G; Rodriguez, Elisa M; Erwin, Deborah O; Griswold, Kim; Mahoney, Martin C
This project assessed the impact of a community-based educational program on breast cancer knowledge and screening among Buffalo (NY) immigrant and refugee females. Program participants completed language-matched pre- and post-test assessments during a single session educational program; breast cancer screening information was obtained from the mobile mammography unit to which participants were referred. Pre- and post-test knowledge scores were compared to assess changes in responses to each of the six individual knowledge items, as well as overall. Mammogram records were reviewed to identify Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) scores. The proportion of correct responses to each of the six knowledge items increased significantly on the post-program assessments; 33 % of women >40 years old completed mammograms. The findings suggest that a health education program for immigrant and refugee women, delivered in community-based settings and involving interpreters, can enhance breast cancer knowledge and lead to improvements in mammography completion.
Fifteen women's studies programs across the U.S. were examined in this review commissioned by the National Advisory Council on Women's Educational Programs. All of the programs were in phase two of women's studies, defined as having a line budget, a paid administrator, and a curriculum that moves through committees and is recognized in an official…
This paper explores the educational experiences of a specific group of refugees, namely academic women refugees who were members of various branches of the International Federation of University Women, and who came to Britain under the auspices of the British Federation of University Women from 1933. As a result of voluntary or forced migration…
Patterson, Lorne; Dowd, Kathleen
The recent economic downturn and surge in unemployment has focused attention on education and training as a strategic response to Ireland's socio-economic crisis. However, that attention has been concentrated on training through statutory institutions, particularly FAS and the VECs. Longford Women's Link, a Women's Community Education centre in Co…
Using ethnographic data, this article explores how Muslim women teachers from low-income Pakistani communities employ the notion of "wisdom" to construct and perform their educated subjectivity in a transnational women's education project. Through Butler's performativity framework, I demonstrate how local and global discourses overlap to shape…
Mary, Bright; D'Sa, Juliana Linnette
Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer in women worldwide. One way by which the incidence of this malignant disease can be minimized is by imparting knowledge through health education. This study aimed at developing an educational package on cervical cancer (EPCC) and determining its effectiveness in terms of significant increase in knowledge of rural women regarding cervical cancer. A one group pre-test, post-test design was adopted. Thirty rural women were selected using a convenient sampling method. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and a structured knowledge questionnaire developed by the researchers. The EPCC was designed for a duration of one hour and 10 minutes. The structured knowledge questionnaire was first administered as the pre-test, following which knowledge on cervical cancer was imparted using the EPCC. On the 8th day, the post-test was administered. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean post-test knowledge score of the women regarding cervical cancer was significantly higher than that of their mean pre-test score, indicating that the EPCC was effective in improving the knowledge of rural women on cervical cancer. The association between pre-test knowledge scores and selected demo-graphic variables were computed using chi-square test showed that pre-test knowledge score of the women regarding cervical cancer was independent of all the socio-demographic variables. It was concluded that the EPCC is effective in improving the knowledge of women, regarding cervical cancer. Since the prevalence of cervical cancer is high, there is an immediate need to educate women on prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:25169495
Bulus, Vincent Hassan
The impetus for conducting this research is near and dear to my heart along with desiring to make a change for the better. In conducting interviews of Nigerian women's experiences, struggles and accessibility to secondary education, the research shows significant barriers to secondary education in their narrative experiences that their male…
This study challenges and evaluates modern-liberal-humanistic discourse on education as enlightenment through analysis of the life stories of the first Bedouin women to acquire higher education (hereafter: First Women). The liberal discourse is examined in terms of its ethnic and genderial contexts and the special status these women gained as…
Gail Kelly's research on women's education in developing nations enriched scholarship on improving women's quality of life through education. Main strands of inquiry examined how school processes and curricula affect women's educational outcomes (versus men's), the false bifurcation of private and public spheres of women's lives, and how women's…
Tuomi, Margaret Trotta; Lehtomäki, Elina; Matonya, Magreth
Globally, persons with disabilities are underrepresented in higher education. In sub-Saharan Africa, where opportunities for higher education are especially limited, women are unlikely to continue their education. This research investigates women in Tanzanian higher education with the double marginalisation of being a woman and having…
McNae, Rachel; Vali, Kerren
The ways in which women deliberately press back against practices of oppression and demonstrate agency in higher education institutions are highly contextual and culturally bound. The formal and informal networks that women develop and maintain are important elements of generating agency and enhancing women's access to and opportunities for…
high fertility women. The data demonstrate the growing acceptance of family planning in rural as well as in urban areas. In 1969, only 10% of rural women in union had ever used a contraceptive method. The 43.1% of Mexican women with little or no schooling contribute 63% of the high fertility. High fertility women are overrepresented in the lowest educational stratum in all age groups. Methodological difficulties arise in comparing the fertility performance of different social groups. It appears however that agricultural workers and unsalaried self-employed workers contribute a disproportionate share of high fertility. PMID:12342500
Williams, A B
In order to acquire the information nurses need to develop education and support programs for women at risk for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a qualitative needs assessment of women at risk was conducted. Interviews were conducted with 21 women who were at risk for AIDS through their own injection drug use or as the heterosexual partners of injection drug users. Results were analyzed using the variables of the Health Belief Model, including the concept of self-efficacy. The perception of AIDS as a serious and a personal health threat motivated these women to practice both "safe sex" and "safe drug use." However, they did not always believe that recommended health behaviors would be effective; and they noted significant costs associated with these behaviors. In addition, the impact of AIDS was seen to be a heightening of the isolation and mistrust which were characteristic of the injection drug using community before the epidemic. AIDS programs for women at risk should facilitate discussion of social and community issues and should emphasize hope rather than fear.
Pihl, R O; Marinier, R; Lapp, J; Drake, H
One thousand one hundred and eighty-seven women were interviewed concerning their use of psychotropic medication, health and visits to physicians, use of tobacco and alcohol, and life-style and general satisfaction. Subjects were categorized as high, moderate, and non-consumers of psychotropes; respectively, 5.5%, 22.6%, and 71.9% of the sample. High drug consumers typically were older, reported being in poorer health, visited physicians more frequently (and more frequently for undefined reasons), rated themselves as more unhappy, were less well educated, were more likely unemployed, smoked more but drank less alcohol, and were more likely unemployed, smoked more but drank less alcohol, and were more likely to have children than the moderate users or abstainers. The findings are shown to support in part the hypotheses that social and psychological problems of women are expressed vaguely and subsequently are more likely medicalized than those of men. The implications of these findings for drug prevention programs and future research are discussed.
Focus group discussions and interviews with 240 single adolescent women who had migrated to northern Thailand to work in the garment industry revealed a high incidence of unprotected premarital sex and widespread misinformation about the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Many believed that "good people" could not get AIDS and that condoms were men's concern, for use with prostitutes rather than girlfriends. In response, an educational program was designed for these young factory workers with the aim of providing accurate information and encouraging women to insist on protected sex. Peer education was selected as the strategy most likely to promote participatory learning, skill acquisition, and emotional support. Educational materials were interactive and based on problem-solving. A comic book featured an invisible flying condom that instructed young women how to negotiate condom use; a romantic novel about a young migrant factory worker addressed the false notion that "good men" cannot become infected with AIDS. The peer education program lasted for 3 months, after which participants received a certificate. Post-program evaluation indicated widespread acceptance of condoms as a contraceptive option for women and enhanced relational skills in negotiating for safe sex. PMID:12345370
Focus group discussions and interviews with 240 single adolescent women who had migrated to northern Thailand to work in the garment industry revealed a high incidence of unprotected premarital sex and widespread misinformation about the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Many believed that "good people" could not get AIDS and that condoms were men's concern, for use with prostitutes rather than girlfriends. In response, an educational program was designed for these young factory workers with the aim of providing accurate information and encouraging women to insist on protected sex. Peer education was selected as the strategy most likely to promote participatory learning, skill acquisition, and emotional support. Educational materials were interactive and based on problem-solving. A comic book featured an invisible flying condom that instructed young women how to negotiate condom use; a romantic novel about a young migrant factory worker addressed the false notion that "good men" cannot become infected with AIDS. The peer education program lasted for 3 months, after which participants received a certificate. Post-program evaluation indicated widespread acceptance of condoms as a contraceptive option for women and enhanced relational skills in negotiating for safe sex.
Describes presentations and discussions from the seminar "Women and Leadership in Higher Education in the UK and US," jointly sponsored by the Society for Research into Higher Education, the Commission on University Career Opportunity, and Through the Glass Ceiling. Participants agreed that the time has come to replace individual, high-profile…
This paper explores the educational and migrational pathways which a number of middle-class women from Bangladesh took as they grew up in the 1980s and 1990s. It draws on qualitative research, conducted between July and November 2011, with highly educated Bangladeshi women who migrated to Britain in the early 2000s. French Sociologist Pierre…
Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.; Moghadam, Valentine M.
In contemporary Iran, women with higher education face both gender discrimination and an unfavourable economic system, one that is not conducive to employment-generation for women. This paper provides an analysis of women's access to higher education in Iran, which has varied over the last 30 years, and their continuously limited participation in…
Isen, Adam; Stevenson, Betsey
This paper examines how marital and fertility patterns have changed along racial and educational lines for men and women. Historically, women with more education have been the least likely to marry and have children, but this marriage gap has eroded as the returns to marriage have changed. Marriage and remarriage rates have risen for women with a…
McSweeney, Brenda Gael; Freedman, Marion
In Upper Volta, a major nonformal educational program attempted to overcome environment and time obstacles to educational participation by rural girls and women. This article discusses project findings on women's time use, the impact of various labor-saving technologies introduced, and women's participation in and attitudes toward project…
As the number of women working within leadership positions in the higher education system increases, there becomes more of a need to research these positions. With the number of women holding leadership positions in higher education organizations increasing in what are still considered male dominated roles, these women are being expected to…
Doraiswami, Smt. S.
The educational advancement of women in India is not perceived as an important characteristic since education is perceived as irrelevant to their roles. The equality of women in status and opportunity is guaranteed in the 1955 Constitution of India and by the government. Although achievements by women in the local and national levels exist, a…
Tower, Leslie E.; Lazzari, Marceline M.; Faul, Anna C.; Alvarez, Ann Rosegrant
This article highlights the contributions of the Council on the Role and Status of Women in Social Work Education (Women's Council) as well as the role and status of women in social work education. For this historical analysis update, the authors drew on several primary and secondary data sources. The first major theme was organizational…
This article uses Melucci's approach to social movements to explore how the women"s movement changed education in British Columbia in the 1970s. The women's movement was a multifaceted social phenomenon with multiple agendas and actors. In the early 1970s, it developed a temporary sense of cohesion in the field of education in the context of a…
Having limited access to colleges and universities offering women the same educational opportunities available to men, elite women of the 19th century crossed national borders for advanced study and teaching opportunities. The career of Tsuda Umeko, founder of one of the first private institutions of higher education for women in Japan, leader in…
Moore, Kathryn M.
Career issues, educational concerns, and the professional, educational, and personal backgrounds of 2,896 senior college administrators were studied, with focus on the status of women and minorities. Women represented 20 percent of the sample; minorities, 8 percent. Women and minorities were largely registrars, librarians, and financial aid…
Christman, Dana; McClellan, Rhonda
Background: Despite access for women administrators in educational leadership departments, the longevity of their service within them is tenuous. Women administrators are caught in the social constructions of gender and leadership. Purpose: To explore how some women administrators in educational leadership programs have sustained their…
Butler, Blaine R.; And Others
A plan at Purdue University to develop a model program for women in engineering is described. The Purdue Department of Freshman Engineering received a grant from the U.S. Department of Education through the Women's Education Equity Act to help overcome some of the problems faced by women who enter engineering. The program focuses on an…
A recent publication by the American Council on Education's, Office of Women in Higher Education (2010), shows that women and minorities promoted to senior level administrative positions have made gains. However, they remain underrepresented on most campuses. This paper argues that the slow emergence of women and minorities into senior level…
Since at least the early 1990s, Arab governments have made women's participation in higher education a priority. Across the region, young women fill the crowded lecture halls and bustling courtyards of universities. On many campuses, they outnumber men. But women's increased participation in higher education does not necessarily translate into…
Hoeritz, Kimberly Jean
Women are underrepresented as leaders in most facets of American work life. While present in fields that are traditionally feminine, there is a scarcity of women leaders in all other occupations including business, government, science and technology, agriculture, education in general and higher education in particular. While women currently…
Luedtke, Jacqueline R.
A study was done to examine the reasons for the low number of women in collegiate aviation education by focusing on the number and status of women aviation educators and on attitudes toward women in aviation. Information was sought from each of the 67 four-year University Aviation Association member institutions, with a response rate of 63%.…
Huang, Haigen; Placier, Peggy
Our study sought to understand changes in gender inequality in education across four generations of rural Chinese women's educational experiences in a small community in southern China. The 24 interviews and numerous informal conversations with 12 women showed that gender-based favouritism for men and against women undergirded family expectations,…
Little is known about the research characteristics of past women studies in engineering education. In order to add knowledge base about the advanced development of women studies in current engineering education research, the purpose of the study is to investigate research characteristics of past women studies published in three referred…
Zurack, H C
The influence of education of women and urbanization on actual and desired fertility and on fertility control in Lebanon was examined. Data were used from 1 study conducted in the Nabatieh district of South Lebanon in the summer of 1976 and from a 2nd study conducted in 1970 in an area on the outskirts of the capital city of Beirut. The total number of completed interviews in the Nabatieh sample was 1054. This population consisted mostly of Shiites with Christian and Sunni minorities. The urban sample consisted of 1545 Shiite and 1459 Maronite. The examination revealed that: 1) among the rural sample, a relatively high level of education (beyond the primary level) is necessary to induce a substantial decrease in average children ever born; 2) a comparison of rural and urban samples showed the effect of the education variable was dependent on religious affiliation - the Shiite women at low levels of education demonstrated higher fertility than Maronite women, but they responded more to an improvement in education in the urban area; 3) women urban residents showed lower fertility than women rural dwellers, controlling for religion and age; 4) the rural study conducted 5 years after the urban study showed a lower level of desired fertility; and 5) the Shiite women (who are a majority of the women in South Lebanon) revealed a tendency to use modern contraceptive methods, particularly the oral contraceptive, suggesting a receptivity in the area to the Lebanon Family Planning Associations project of Community Based Family Planning Services.
High-achieving women are significantly less likely to enter the teaching profession than they were just 40 years ago. Why? While the social and economic reasons for this decline have been well documented in the literature, what is lacking is a discussion with high-achieving women, as they make their first career decisions, about their perceptions…
Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn, Ed.
This publication puts together the written contributions of 20 women at an international seminar-workshop on "Promoting the Empowerment of Women through Adult Learning" who shared, reflected, and analyzed the different types of educational opportunities for women provided to women. The presentations are as follows: "Designing the Model: A Process…
Diehl, Amy B.
Despite the fact that women now earn more bachelor's, master's and doctorates than men, a gender gap for women leaders persists in the field of higher education. Women hold only 26 percent of all college and university presidencies with a large variance by type of institution. Women lead 33 percent of associate's level institutions but only 22…
This article will examine Asian women's experiences of financial support in higher education. The article is based on 30 in-depth interviews with Asian women who were studying at a "new" (post-1992) university in the South East of England. Women identified themselves as Muslim, Hindu and Sikh. The findings reveal that women's religious…
Smith, Margaret A.; Berger, Joseph B.
The purpose of this study was to explore college women's high-risk alcohol use and related consequences. This study employed a qualitative approach to understand and provide visibility for a gender-related perspective on college women's alcohol experiences and related outcomes. Data were collected from interviews with 10 undergraduate females at a…
Cortland-Madison Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Cortland, NY.
The eighth in a series of nine career education guides contains six unit plans for grades 7-9. In general each unit presents goals, objectives, measuring devices, activities, instructional materials or resources, careers appropriate to the unit, a multimedia bibliography, and a unit evaluation form for teachers. Part one is a science unit which…
Flamez, E.; Vanobbergen, B.
This research explores political-educational debates regarding the concept of women's emancipation in women and family programmes on Belgian television between 1954 and 1975. From the very beginning, the women's episodes were regarded as explicitly educational. The episodes were created to increase women's participation by means of their…
Sauter, Diana; And Others
Identifies high school experiences and attitudes of freshmen college women that influenced their choice of traditional or nontraditional careers. Educators should provide counseling and teaching techniques that provide a more egalitarian perspective on women's roles and careers, including literature, work experience, and unbiased counseling. (JAC)
Owen, H. James
Considers the general education component of technical programs as a means of helping adults adjust to today's industrial changes in processes, machines, and management and thereby to hold jobs, move into new ones, and change careers. Reviews the literature on the general education needs of students in high technology programs and models for…
Thomas, Barbara; Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg; Lafreniere, Kathryn D; Delahunt, Tabitha D
Health education programs supported by women's groups or workplaces have been successful in reaching large populations and changing intentions to perform breast health behaviors. This study examined the responses women working in the automotive industry had to two health education interventions, mailed pamphlets, and a combination of mailed material and classes at the worksite compared to a control group. A quasi-experimental design was used. Of the 948 women completing the pre-test, 437 also completed the post-test and were highly representative of the initial sample. The findings suggest that although the mailed information produced some change in practices and intentions, the classes in combination with the mailed pamphlets produced greater change. In addition, confidence in breast self examination as a method of detecting an existing breast lump increased from pre-test to post-test across all age groups. The reported influences on the women's decisions related to breast health varied across the life span. The results of this study can be used to support the development of effective health promotion programs for use at workplaces to increase the likelihood of women engaging in healthy breast practices.
Taylor, Kay Ann; Fernandez-Bergersen, Sandra Luz
This qualitative case study examined 5 Mexican American women's experiences at the intersection of race and gender in public high school. Critical race theory provided the analysis and interpretation. The significant findings of this research included the following: (a) Racism is endemic and pervasive in public education; (b) many educational…
Sifuna, Daniel N.
The paper provides a comprehensive review of the major obstacles that hinder the participation of girls and women in higher education in Kenya. This is on the basis that their low participation in this level of education is a key constraint to the development of the country. While it is reckoned that girls' and women's education is inextricably…
Thomas, Veronica G.; Jackson, Janine A.
This article examines the education of African American girls and women. It begins with a look at scholarship on African American girls and women published in "The Journal of Negro Education" from its inception in 1932 to the present. Subsequently, a historical overview of the long, hard-fought struggles of educating this population for…
This paper discusses barriers to the participation of women with disabilities in Kenyan university education. While studies have shown that students with disabilities are increasingly enrolling in and completing university education, the number of women with disabilities in higher education remains low. This paper highlights the factors that…
Gilmartin, Kevin J.
This paper reports on the educational status of women and ethnic minorities. The first part of the paper presents a literature review containing overviews of the past and present status of women and minorities in education and briefly discusses the concept of equality of educational opportunity. The second part of the paper, which comprises the…
Hammad, Tehmina; Singal, Nidhi
This paper examines the extent to which the capability approach captures the complexity of the lives of young women with disabilities in Pakistan, particularly in relation to their education. Focusing on their educational experiences and outcomes, we examine the ways in which education shaped what these young women were able to achieve--what they…
Barry, Kate R.
The purpose of this study is to critically explore low-income women's experience as they negotiate post secondary education in community colleges. Three research questions explore the context through which low-income women have entered the college experience, what that experience is like for them, and how the community college experience has…
This qualitative case study attempts to conceptualize certain "patterns" and "processes" of which 28 mature women undergraduates give meanings to their motivation for higher education in their life contexts. Particular attention has been paid to include diverse groups of women according to their age, prior educational…
Attardo, Jessica L.
The following study was conducted to examine existing research in education regarding the development of stereotypes in children, analyze historical documents and research to acquire an accurate portrayal of American Indian women, and determine if secondary social studies students lack adequate knowledge about the history of American Indian women,…
Gondek, Matthew; Shogan, May; Saad-Harfouche, Frances G.; Rodriguez, Elisa M.; Erwin, Deborah O.; Griswold, Kim; Mahoney, Martin C.
This project assessed the impact of a community-based educational program on breast cancer knowledge and screening among Buffalo (NY) immigrant and refugee females. Program participants completed language-matched pre- and post-test assessments during a single session educational program; breast cancer screening information was obtained from the mobile mammography unit to which participants were referred. Pre- and post-test knowledge scores were compared to assess changes in responses to each of the six individual knowledge items, as well as overall. Mammogram records were reviewed to identify Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) scores. The proportion of correct responses to each of the six knowledge items increased significantly on the post-program assessments; 33 % of women >40 years old completed mammograms. The findings suggest that a health education program for immigrant and refugee women, delivered in community-based settings and involving interpreters, can enhance breast cancer knowledge and lead to improvements in mammography completion. PMID:25385693
Foster, Elaine; Appleby, Karen M.
In general, physical activity subsides for females after high school. Researchers have found that women experience unique barriers to remaining physically active during their college years. Obstacles such as social anxiety, lack of social support, and life balance have been cited as challenges for women in relation to maintaining consistent…
Powe, Barbara D; Daniels, Elvan C; Finnie, Ramona; Thompson, Angela
Despite the availability of factual information about breast cancer, there continues to be an abundance of misperceptions about the disease. This study, guided by the Patient/Provider/System Model for cancer screening, describes perceptions about breast cancer among African American women (N = 179) at primary care centers. Data were collected using the Breast Cancer Perceptions and Knowledge Survey and a demographic questionnaire. Breast cancer pamphlets available at the centers were evaluated (readability, extent they challenged misperceptions). The average age of the women was 34 years with an average educational level of 12 years. A number of misperceptions were prevalent. The majority viewed breast self-examination as a form of early detection and some viewed pain as an indicator of cancer. Pamphlets did not explicitly challenge the misperceptions and the SMOG reading level was high. Intervention studies are needed to identify the effective methods to challenge and correct misperceptions about breast cancer for these women. PMID:15653249
Peterat, Linda, Ed.
The papers in this publication are the result of a symposium assessing the role of home economics in women's education. In her paper entitled "The Human Sciences and Home Economics: An Emerging Conversation," Francine H. Hultgren questions the possibilities for home economics within the human sciences. "Hestian Hermeneutics: A Lens of Analysis for…
This article focuses on how citizenship education was built into the organisational practices as well as the formal instructional programmes of women's organisations in Britain in the pre- and post-Second World War period. It compares the efforts of two such organisations, the National Federation of Women's Institutes (NFWI) and the British…
Reed, Michael J; Corry, Ann Marie; Liu, Ying W
The purpose of this study was to analyze data collected by the American Dental Association and the American Dental Education Association over the past two decades relating to changes in the number of women active in dental education and dental practice. The concept of a pipeline of women in dentistry was explored by analyzing predoctoral, postdoctoral, dental practice, and dental education domains for the inclusion of women. Statistical analyses show that there has been a consistent and progressive increase in the number of women in all stages of the pipeline. Over the past two decades, the number of female students attending and graduating from dental school has steadily increased. In 1984-85, 23.7 percent of all predoctoral students were women; in 2009-10, 45.1 percent were women. Similarly, in 1999, the graduating class was 35.3 percent women; in 2009, it was 46.1 percent women. In the postdoctoral domain, in 1996, 29.9 percent of all residents were women; in 2010, this had increased to 39.0 percent. In dental practice, the number of actively licensed women dentists in 1999 was 15.3 percent of the workforce; in 2010, this percentage had grown to 24.0 percent. In dental education, the number of women clinical faculty members has gradually increased from 669 in 1997-98 to 902 in 2007-08. Until 2000, there had been only two women deans and very few associate/assistant deans, with only sixteen in 1990. In 2000, major changes began with three women deans and seventy-two women associate/assistant deans. In 2009-10, there were 111 associate/assistant women deans and twelve women deans. These data show a progressive increase in the presence of women in all domains of dentistry, especially in leadership positions in dental education. PMID:23144477
Chen, Hsiang-Feng; Cropsey, Karen L.; Clarke, Jennifer G.; Kelly, Patricia J.
Abstract Background: We examined factors associated with women's use of highly effective birth control before and after incarceration, since women with ongoing criminal justice involvement bear a disproportionate burden of sexual and reproductive health problems, including high rates of unintended pregnancy and inconsistent contraceptive use. Methods: Using a longitudinal study design, we conducted surveys with 102 women in an urban midwestern jail and then followed up with 66 of them 6 months after incarceration. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess individual, interpersonal, resource-based, organizational, and environmental factors associated with utilizing highly effective birth control. Results: Forty-two percent of women reported utilizing highly effective birth control (e.g., sterilization or other highly effective reversible methods) prior to incarceration, and 54% reported using these methods after release from jail (p<0.001). Ninety percent of women reported not wanting to get pregnant. Consistent use of birth control (p=0.001) and alcohol problems (p=0.027) were associated with utilization of highly effective birth control prior to incarceration. Previous pregnancies (p=0.012) were the only factor associated with utilization of highly effective birth control after release from jail. Conclusions: Clinicians and public health practitioners can use findings from this study to develop clinical and intervention efforts aimed at improving unintended-pregnancy prevention among incarcerated women both during their confinement and during the tumultuous period after their release from jail. PMID:25555175
Unterhalter, Elaine; Dutt, Shushmita
Examines different understandings of gender equity and women's empowerment in the District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) and Mahila Samakhya (Women's Empowerment). Highlights achievements of the two organizations. Concludes that social justice and educational transformation cannot proceed in India without the powerful interconnections of the…
Yeoh, Ping Ling; Hornetz, Klaus; Dahlui, Maznah
Background The purpose of antenatal care is to monitor and improve the wellbeing of the mother and foetus. The World Health Organization recommends risk-oriented strategy that includes: (i) routine care to all women, (ii) additional care for women with moderately severe diseases and complications, (iii) specialised obstetrical and neonatal care for women with severe diseases and complications. Antenatal care is concerned with adequate care in order to be effective. Measurement for adequacy of antenatal care often applies indexes that assess initiation of care and number of visits. In addition, adequacy of care content should also be assessed. Results of studies in developed settings demonstrate that women without risk factors use antenatal services more frequently than recommended. Such over-utilisation is problematic for low-resourced settings. Moreover, studies show that a substantial proportion of high-risk women had utilisation or content of care below the recommended standard. Yet studies in developing countries have seldom included a comparison between low-risk and high-risk women. The purpose of the study was therefore to assess adequacy of care and pregnancy outcomes for the different risk groups. Methods A retrospective study using a multistage sampling technique, at public-funded primary health care clinics was conducted. Antenatal utilisation level was assessed using a modified Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilisation index that measures the timing for initiation of care and observed-to-expected visits ratio. Adequacy of antenatal care content assessed compliance to routine care based on the local guidelines. Results Intensive or “adequate-plus” antenatal care utilisation as defined by the modified index was noted in over half of the low-risk women. On the other hand, there were 26% of the high-risk women without the expected intensive utilisation. Primary- or non-educated high-risk women were less likely to have a higher antenatal care utilisation
Casebolt, Kevin M.; Hodge, Samuel R.
The purpose of this study was to analyze high school physical education teachers' beliefs about teaching students with disabilities in inclusive physical education. The participants (3 men, 2 women) were certified physical education teachers at four suburban high schools. The research method was descriptive-qualitative using a case study approach…
Demographic changes among the Hispanic population across the United States depict evidence that there is a need across all segments of higher education to develop a diverse pool of administrative leaders that are representative of the rapidly changing population. This study aims to understand Latina women in higher education, their career paths to…
In all societies, there is a new interest in the education of women, their role in society, and their place in the economy. Western societies have moved away from single-sex education in the past few decades, but recent research and experience has begun to highlight again the value of single-sex colleges and schools. Changes in working patterns…
Lindau, Stacy Tessler; Drum, Melinda L.; Gaumer, Elyzabeth; Surawska, Hanna; Jordan, Jeanne A.
Objective To estimate the prevalence, genotypes, and individual-level correlates of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) among women aged 57–85. Methods Community-residing women (n=1550), aged 57–85, were drawn from a nationally-representative probability sample. In-home interviews and biomeasures, including a self-collected vaginal specimen, were obtained between 2005 and 2006. Specimens were analyzed for high-risk HPV DNA using probe hybridization and signal amplification (hc2); of 1,028 specimens provided, 1,010 were adequate for analysis. All samples testing positive were analyzed for HPV DNA by L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction followed by type-specific hybridization. Results The overall population-based weighted estimate of high-risk HPV prevalence by hc2 was 6.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.5 to 7.9). Current marital and smoking status, frequency of sexual activity, history of cancer, and hysterectomy were associated with high-risk HPV positivity. Among high-risk HPV+ women, 63% had multiple type infections. HPV 16 or 18 was present in 17.4% of all high-risk HPV+ women. The most common high-risk genotypes among high-risk HPV+ women were HPV 61 (19.1%), 31 (13.1%), 52 (12.9%), 58 (12.5%), 83 (12.3%), 66(12.0%), 51 (11.7%), 45 (11.2%), 56 (10.3%), 53 (10.2%), 16 (9.7%), and 62 (9.2%). Being married and having an intact uterus were independently associated with lower prevalence of high-risk HPV. Among unmarried women, current sexual activity and smoking were independently and positively associated with high-risk HPV infection. Conclusions In this nationally representative population, nearly 1 in 16 women aged 57–85 were found to have high-risk HPV and prevalence was stable across older age groups. PMID:18978096
In global terms, the position of women in New Zealand society is relatively strong and at one stage in the early 2000s many senior roles were occupied by women. Equality of opportunity for women in leadership in science and the community has been a focus of attention in New Zealand in government, education, and the sciences for at least two…
Tibbitts, Felisa L.
This article presents evidence of the links between human rights education and social change by analyzing the long-term effects on 88 trainers engaged in a non-formal adult training program sponsored by a women's human rights group in Turkey, Women for Women's Human Rights--New Ways. In this article, I show the transformative impacts of carrying…
Cassara, Beverly Benner
About 30 years ago, Betty Friedan published "The Feminine Mystique" and changed the lives of millions of women forever. The education of women, the prime vehicle to bring about change, has passed through many phases. In the late 1960s and the 1970s, many kinds of special programs for women blossomed in colleges and universities, continuing…
Farrant, Patricia A., Ed.
Approaches to help women in educational administation be successful in their professional and personal lives are considered in this collection of 30 articles. Among the titles and authors are: "The Society of Outsiders: Women in Administration" (Marian Swoboda, Jane Vanderbosch); "Upward Mobility for Women Administrators" (Adrian Tinsley); "Do…
Thomas, Kirk R.; Parker, L. Allen
This case description portrays the educational programs of the National Association of Bank Women designed to meet the special needs of women seeking advancement or career changes in the banking industry. After sketching several shorter programs, the case elaborates upon the collaborative Baccalaureate Degree Program in Management for Women, which…
The purpose of this article is to illustrate a number of the deficiencies that currently exist in our understanding of women's participation in prison education, and to offer alternative methods to reduce such deficiencies. Through a review of empirical studies that examine the conditions of women's prisons and two trend studies examining women's…
Kennedy, Kathryn; Liu, Feng; Dawson, Kara; Cavanaugh, Cathy
Professional qualifications for men and women are equivalent across disciplines, however, women tend to be underrepresented in technology-related fields. The purpose of this study is to analyze the content of seven journals published by the Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE) to explore women's publications in…
Tran, Natalie A.
While numerous scholars have investigated the role of mentoring in the success of women of color in faculty positions, few have examined how mentoring affects the development of women leaders of color in higher education. Using qualitative data gathered from interviews with women leaders of color at Hispanic-serving institution, this study…
Comfort, Helen Courtney
Midlife transition is a potentially problematic time for all women, but especially for those who are unmarried, relatively less well-educated, and who do not reside in urban areas. Some studies suggest that unmarried women have more difficulty in identity formation and acceptance of their role by society. Married women whose children are nearly…
To obtain more information about the characteristics, work patterns, and career paths of women in middle management roles, this study collected structured interview data from 45 managerial women in business and education. During summer 1987, each student in the Women and Careers class at Texas Woman's University interviewed two female managers,…
Lowe, Mary E.
One of the prevailing notions within American culture is the idea that women are prevalent in leadership positions. The reality, however, is that while women are slightly more than 50% of the population, they are underrepresented in leadership. Fewer than 10% of chief executive officers in theological education are women. Traditional roles in…
Takayanagi, Taeko; Shimomura, Takayuki
This paper addresses the life and educational experiences of Ainu women, using the framework of postcolonial feminist theory. It explores the extent to which two factors--gender and ethnic minority status--affect young Ainu women as they attempt to enter mainstream society. The authors analyse life history interviews from three Ainu women aged 25.…
Danger and pleasure are terms commonly employed to describe women's sexual experiences, including those of young women. This paper explores how young women's sexual danger and pleasure are represented and characterized in official discourses, specifically those of school-based sexuality education. Drawing on Michelle Fine's four major discourses…
Bahkali, Salwa; Almaiman, Ahmad; Bahkali, Ahlam; Almaiman, Sara; Househ, Mowafa; Alsurimi, Khaled
Social media has the potential to improve women's health in developing countries through health education and promotion. In the Arab world, women's health interventions are lacking. However, with a high penetration rate of social media in the Arab world, there is good opportunity to utilize social media platforms such as Twitter to promote women's health. In this paper, we analyze the Tweet feeds of Saudi-based Twitter account to promote women's health. A total of 5167 Tweets were extracted and analyzed retrospectively, using NVivo Ncapture between June 2014 and March 2015. There were a total number of 3449 followers by March 20, 2015. Results showed that a majority of the Twitter followers (61%, n=2104) were seeking gynecological information, followed by pregnancy related information (27%, n=931), breast-feeding advice (9%, n=310), and other health related information (3%, n=103). Results also showed an increased level of health awareness and comprehension among Twitter followers. Further research is needed to promote women's health in Saudi Arabia and the Arab world through social media platforms such as Twitter and similar platforms including Instagram, Facebook, and YouTube which are also popular in the Arab world.
Bahkali, Salwa; Almaiman, Ahmad; Bahkali, Ahlam; Almaiman, Sara; Househ, Mowafa; Alsurimi, Khaled
Social media has the potential to improve women's health in developing countries through health education and promotion. In the Arab world, women's health interventions are lacking. However, with a high penetration rate of social media in the Arab world, there is good opportunity to utilize social media platforms such as Twitter to promote women's health. In this paper, we analyze the Tweet feeds of Saudi-based Twitter account to promote women's health. A total of 5167 Tweets were extracted and analyzed retrospectively, using NVivo Ncapture between June 2014 and March 2015. There were a total number of 3449 followers by March 20, 2015. Results showed that a majority of the Twitter followers (61%, n=2104) were seeking gynecological information, followed by pregnancy related information (27%, n=931), breast-feeding advice (9%, n=310), and other health related information (3%, n=103). Results also showed an increased level of health awareness and comprehension among Twitter followers. Further research is needed to promote women's health in Saudi Arabia and the Arab world through social media platforms such as Twitter and similar platforms including Instagram, Facebook, and YouTube which are also popular in the Arab world. PMID:26153009
Ferguson, Christopher J
Several legal cases in the United States in which adolescents were charged with child pornography distribution after sharing nude photographs of themselves with romantic partners or others have highlighted the issue of sexting behaviors among youth. Although policy makers, mental health workers, educators and parents have all expressed concern regarding the potential harm of sexting behaviors, little to no research has examined this phenomenon empirically. The current study presents some preliminary data on the incidence of sexting behavior and associated high risk sexual behaviors in a sample of 207 predominantly Hispanic young women age 16-25. Approximately 20% of young women reported engaging in sexting behavior. Sexting behaviors were not associated with most other high-risk sexual behaviors, but were slightly more common in women who found sex to be highly pleasurable or who displayed histrionic personality traits.
In 19th century America, some women decried the opportunity for scholarly education as rebellion against religion and predicted a grim decline in the quality of life, home, and hearth for American families and for American culture and politics. In particular, women who opposed scholarly education argued that God had not created men and women…
Peppin Vaughan, Rosie
By 2000, girls' and women's education was a priority for international development organisations. While studies have examined the impact of recent campaigns and programmes, there has been less exploration of ideas about girls' and women's education within development thought in the immediate post-colonial period, and the political mechanisms…
Herz, Barbara K., Ed.; Khandker, Shahidur R., Ed.
This report examines ways of improving women's productivity and education and the consequences for development in Peru. The research finds that women account for about 39 percent of family income in Peru. They carry the main responsibility for child care and heavily influence family decisions on children's education and family size. Improving…
Al-Khalidi, Nasiema Mustafa Sadeq
The study aimed to identify the image of women and how it was dealt with in the National Education books in Jordan, where the content of the National Education books analyzed and for multiple age stages, also it addressed the content analysis of images, concepts and fees, activities and evaluation to identify the image of women in the family, at…
ROSENSTEIN, BETTY L.
AN INVESTIGATION OF THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF WOMEN, THEIR LIFE STYLE AND PAST EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCES, WAS MADE OF WOMEN BETWEEN 21 AND 72 YEARS OF AGE. MAILED QUESTIONNAIRES OBTAINED DATA FROM 337 RESPONDENTS ON WHAT THEY WERE DOING AND WHY, IF THEY LIKED WHAT THEY WERE DOING, AND HOW PAST EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCES INFLUENCED THEIR ACTIVITIES.…
Rasheed, Lisa R.
Within the last twenty years, some educational researchers initiated an emphasis to study the accomplishments and contributions of African-American women in higher education. Although they were marginally recognized, some African-American women forged into uncharted territories by providing examples of administrative leadership in post-secondary…
Marzone, Jean; Butler, Matilda
Using the resources of the Women's Educational Equity Communications Network (WEECN), the authors addressed two questions: (1) What are the topics that have been extensively researched, and (2) What are the topics most frequently requested by those using information on women's educational equity? Some initial findings of this study are presented…
Hendrick, C. Emily; Cohen, Alison K.; Deardorff, Julianna; Cance, Jessica D.
Background: Lifetime educational attainment is an important predictor of health and well-being for women in the United States. In this study, we examine the roles of sociocultural factors in youth and an understudied biological life event, pubertal timing, in predicting women's lifetime educational attainment. Methods: Using data from the National…
Women in upper-level leadership positions in higher education are underrepresented. This study examined the predominant leadership styles of women who have achieved upper-level leadership positions in higher education explored intentional changes in their leadership styles. Primarily, the study sought to determine if these leaders had similar…
Hill, Janice; Freeman, Kate
Traditional educational practices of Indigenous Canadians were aimed at cultural transmission. All adults were responsible for educating the young, but because children stayed with the women until puberty, women played the most significant role in transmitting the culture. Adults with certain gifts and talents looked for similar attributes in…
Strachan, Jane; Akao, Shalom; Kilavanwa, Bessie; Warsal, Daisy
This article presents findings from research on women's educational leadership experiences in Melanesia, a least developed part of the world. Specific context research is needed so that theories and strategies developed that help women access educational leadership in developing countries are grounded in grassroots experience. (Contains 4 notes.)
White, Arden; Hernandez, Nelda
Women in academic appointments have published less frequently than men. Since this difference is only partially explainable on the basis of fewer years in higher education, a study was conducted to determine men's and women's perceptions and experiences of writing for publication in the field of counselor education. A sample of 82 counselor…
Gordon, Howard R. D.
A literature review was conducted to determine how women's role was seen in vocational education and development. The study reviewed the historical background of occupational gender segregation related to vocational education, reviewed and described the role of women and division of labor, and summarized labor market statistics concerning females…
This article aims to clarify the relationship between education and women's empowerment. Drawing from qualitative data collected in a study of four Garifuna villages on the north coast of Honduras, it argues that education can trigger the empowerment process if it expands women's knowledge and understanding, self-confidence and awareness of gender…
The increased participation of women in higher education in India since 1947 has not received the scholarly attention it deserves. Since independence, there have been shifts--dispersal and clustering of women students in various disciplines in higher education. There is a need to understand the processes of decision making regarding schooling,…
Crawford, LouEllen; Sidener, Nancy L.
Research indicates that the education of Philippine women pays off in the economic growth of the country. Previous research which examined women's contribution to national income in six countries indicated that levels of educational attainment and levels of per capita national income were positively or moderately associated in five of the…
Relations between socio-economic differences and health have previously been well documented, but women's education level and relative attitudes towards children's health development has been seldom found in studies. This paper examines the relation between women's education level and their attitudes in understanding kindergarten children's health…
Syomwene, Anne; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga
This paper is a discussion of the relationship between women education and sustainable economic development in Kenya and its implications for curriculum development and implementation processes. The argument advanced in this paper is that the solution to the development problems in Kenya and other developing nations lies on women education.…
Owens, Otis Holloway; Emplaincourt, Marilyn
Examined were the educational attitudes, experiences, needs, and constraints of a selected sample of women in the Tuscaloosa area who were not enrolled in educational programs during the spring of 1975. A total of 116 women participated in the study and completed a 64-item questionnaire. The majority of the respondents indicated positive attitudes…
El-Halawany, Hanan Salah El-Deen
This research aims to compare the effect of higher education on some Upper Egyptian women's practice of self autonomy at both work and home. The most important revelation this research makes is the fact that although no one can deny the importance and significance of higher education to Upper Egyptian women, yet it failed to challenge the…
This directory is a national listing of women administrators currently employed in vocational education. This publication is organized into eight major sections and two indexes. The major sections are categorized according to institutional affiliations: (1) state education agencies, (2) local education agencies, (3) regional education agencies,…
George, R.; Yadla, V.L.; Zohruailiani, M.
Renewable energy cooking technologies (RECTs) like solar cookers, biogas units and improved cookstoves are promoted by Government of India to combat fuel wood scarcity and ensure a cleaner environment. The value of an energy education software (EES) to generate awareness about cooking energy scarcity and to achieve scientific empowerment of potential end users of RECTs, needs no emphasis. An attempt was made to assess the impact of an EES that consisted of flip charts--visuals with minimum text on rural women. The major objective of the research endeavor was to measure the difference in the selected attributes, namely, attitude towards biomass generation and biomass conservation (BG-BC), cooking management practices (CMP) and knowledge level (KL) of rural women due to exposure to EES. A descriptive research design coupled with a before and after experimental design was adopted for the study. A sample of rural women from Nani Sherkhi village were exposed to EES through a series of three training sessions with pre and post sessions for group discussions. Data on the selected attributes were gathered in the pre and post training periods using descriptive rating scales with reliability coefficients of 0.80, 0.81 and 0.74 respectively. The computed t values showed significant differences at 0.01 level in the pre and post exposure mean scores on attitude, cooking management practice and knowledge scale. The t values revealed that the gain in score in each of the attributes due to exposure to EES were significant. Further, utility of EES, policy implications and strategies for popularizing it as an aid to reach sustainable development are also discussed in brief in the paper.
Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.
This collection of nutrition lessons has been produced so that junior high school teachers of various subject areas may offer an occasional lesson on a nutrition topic. The objectives of each nutrition lesson are consistent with concepts which the Nutrition Education and Training Program in Illinois has identified as the most important nutrition…
A process evaluation was conducted to assess the High Tech Educators Network's (HTEN's) activities. Four basic components to the evaluation approach were documentation review, program logic model, written survey, and participant interviews. The model mapped the basic goals and objectives, assumptions, activities, outcome expectations, and…
New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.
This experimental course of study for high school students was designed to prepare teenage consumers to understand the choice of products and services offered in the marketplace and to make their choices wisely. Billions of dollars annually are spent by teenagers on merchandise and services. The need for a course in consumer education is so…
Nyamathi, A M; Bennett, C; Leake, B
The researchers sought to explore and describe the demographic, cognitive, psychosocial, and behavioral factors associated with the continued risky behavior of a convenience sample of homeless and drug-addicted women two to four weeks after they had completed an AIDS education program. The sample included 942 crack users and 767 women who had multiple sex partners. Analyses revealed that impoverished women who maintained multiple sexual partners were less likely to be in drug recovery programs than in homeless shelters. They were more likely to share needles and be involved sexually with male injection drug users compared with impoverished women who did not maintain multiple sexual partners. Persistent crack users were older than those who reported cessation of crack use, were more often African American, and were more likely to have sex partners who were injecting drug users. Women who demonstrated less improvement in depression and distress scores, concerns, use of affective coping, appraisal of threat, and social support were more likely to maintain crack use and multiple partners. The study's implications for the design of intervention programs aimed at risk reduction based on ethnicity are discussed.
Nyamathi, A M; Bennett, C; Leake, B
The researchers sought to explore and describe the demographic, cognitive, psychosocial, and behavioral factors associated with the continued risky behavior of a convenience sample of homeless and drug-addicted women two to four weeks after they had completed an AIDS education program. The sample included 942 crack users and 767 women who had multiple sex partners. Analyses revealed that impoverished women who maintained multiple sexual partners were less likely to be in drug recovery programs than in homeless shelters. They were more likely to share needles and be involved sexually with male injection drug users compared with impoverished women who did not maintain multiple sexual partners. Persistent crack users were older than those who reported cessation of crack use, were more often African American, and were more likely to have sex partners who were injecting drug users. Women who demonstrated less improvement in depression and distress scores, concerns, use of affective coping, appraisal of threat, and social support were more likely to maintain crack use and multiple partners. The study's implications for the design of intervention programs aimed at risk reduction based on ethnicity are discussed. PMID:7480615
Ratnaike, R N; Chinner, T L
This paper presents a Community Health Education System which is cost-effective, sustainable, strongly community-based, and directed at improving the health status of rural women in Indo-china (Kampuchea, Laos and Vietnam). The system is developed through a series of steps which are concerned with the education of Community Health Education Units (in national ministries of health) and, at the village level, among community health workers, women's groups, and other women. The ultimate aim is the establishment of a community health education program in Indochinese villages. PMID:1602046
Lawrence, Wendy; Schlotz, Wolff; Crozier, Sarah; Skinner, Timothy C; Haslam, Cheryl; Robinson, Sian; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Barker, Mary
Our previous work found that perceived control over life was a significant predictor of the quality of diet of women of lower educational attainment. In this paper, we explore the influence on quality of diet of a range of psychological and social factors identified during focus group discussions, and specify the way this differs in women of lower and higher educational attainment. We assessed educational attainment, quality of diet, and psycho-social factors in 378 women attending Sure Start Children’s Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. Multiple-group path analysis showed that in women of lower educational attainment, the effect of general self-efficacy on quality of diet was mediated through perceptions of control and through food involvement, but that there were also direct effects of social support for healthy eating and having positive outcome expectancies. There was no effect of self-efficacy, perceived control or outcome expectancies on the quality of diet of women of higher educational attainment, though having more social support and food involvement were associated with improved quality of diet in these women. Our analysis confirms our hypothesis that control-related factors are more important in determining dietary quality in women of lower educational attainment than in women of higher educational attainment. PMID:21078352
BROWN, ANNA CAROLINE BAKER
RELATIVELY STANDARD SOCIOMETRIC PROCEDURES WERE USED IN THREE SMALL MICHIGAN COMMUNITIES TO IDENTIFY WOMEN SAID TO HAVE HIGH INFLUENCE. DATA ON PARTICIPATION, DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS, AND PERCEPTIONS OF ADULT EDUCATION WERE THEN OBTAINED IN PERSONAL INTERVIEWS. SOME MAJOR FINDINGS WERE THAT THE INFLUENTIALS BELONGED TO MORE THAN ONE…
Despite considerable progress by Middle Eastern and North African countries in improving opportunities for women to access and attain education at all levels, much remains to be done. This report focuses on three sets of highly inter-related determinants of access, achievement, and outcome--macro-level societal determinants, school…
Renn, Kristen A.
Women's colleges and universities persist around the world, even as the vast majority of tertiary institutions are open to men and women. In nearly every nation, women can attend even the most elite formerly all-male universities, and in several nations women are the majority of all college students. Questions therefore arise about the continued…
Jones, A M
This article compares nonformal education (NFE) and training options for women among the small island countries of Fiji, Kiribati, Niue, Tonga, Barbados, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent. Data were obtained from 4 groups (the government agency for women, the national women's organization, a nongovernmental organization, and the university extension center) that operated an NFE course during 1992-94. Interviews were conducted among the tutor and 5 women from the selected NFE programs who had attended research workshops. Over 200 women were interviewed. Caribbean country NFE programs included a varied program of instruction that included, for example, self-defense, assertiveness training, and women-in-trade programs. South Pacific training programs included, for example, training of trainers, leadership training, women and traditional medicine, and women in development. Regional papers in preparation for the 1995 Beijing Conference included research findings on NFE, including workshop findings. Facilitators from Niue and Tonga were more satisfied with women's status in their countries than those in Fiji and Kiribati, but women in all 4 countries said things were changing. Women reported benefits from NFE programs such as new information, acquiring new skills, visiting new places, and sharing experiences with other women. In Kiribati and Tonga, women were disappointed in lack of follow-up. Caribbean women were self-aware, but gained insight into their lack of rights and justice. Not all programs empowered women. NFE providers and participants were unable to identify significant outcomes.
Jones, A M
This article compares nonformal education (NFE) and training options for women among the small island countries of Fiji, Kiribati, Niue, Tonga, Barbados, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent. Data were obtained from 4 groups (the government agency for women, the national women's organization, a nongovernmental organization, and the university extension center) that operated an NFE course during 1992-94. Interviews were conducted among the tutor and 5 women from the selected NFE programs who had attended research workshops. Over 200 women were interviewed. Caribbean country NFE programs included a varied program of instruction that included, for example, self-defense, assertiveness training, and women-in-trade programs. South Pacific training programs included, for example, training of trainers, leadership training, women and traditional medicine, and women in development. Regional papers in preparation for the 1995 Beijing Conference included research findings on NFE, including workshop findings. Facilitators from Niue and Tonga were more satisfied with women's status in their countries than those in Fiji and Kiribati, but women in all 4 countries said things were changing. Women reported benefits from NFE programs such as new information, acquiring new skills, visiting new places, and sharing experiences with other women. In Kiribati and Tonga, women were disappointed in lack of follow-up. Caribbean women were self-aware, but gained insight into their lack of rights and justice. Not all programs empowered women. NFE providers and participants were unable to identify significant outcomes. PMID:12348991
Hayes, Elisabeth; Flannery, Daniele D.
This book is intended to address the need for information and understanding about adult women's learning and education. It gathers knowledge about women and their learning and places women's learning experiences in the contexts of where women live. The book also promotes an understanding of women's diversity and makes recommendations for future…
Casey, Tommye W.; Stolte, Joanne B.
An annotated bibliography on the participation of minorities and women in education research and development (R&D) leadership and management is presented. Topics are as follows: status of minorities and women in education (R&D); issues related to minorities and women in education leadership and management; variables affecting the participation of…
Wingler, Sylvia Adams
This dissertation focuses on the narratives of four rural art educators of the Foothills of Western North Carolina. These women are the first art educators in this area in public education. They are often viewed as the invisible women in art who support community arts, much like the "invisible women in art history." From the view of the dominant…
Wilson, Maggie, Ed.
This book examines the experience of European young women in secondary and higher education. After an introductory chapter by Maggie Wilson, chapter 2 (by Nadine Plateau) presents an account of the failure of educational reforms and the introduction of co-education in French-speaking Belgium to mitigate divergent patterns of choice between boys…
"Women constitute the key resource for attaining the goal of health for all by the year 2000," maintains a report by The World Health Organization. Achieving this goal requires massive efforts including (1) the training of women health care professionals; and (2) the nonformal health education of women, the primary health care providers to their families and communities. This paper focuses on the first area, specifically on the education of women nurses in a Third World country, Saudi Arabia, where traditional attitudes persist against intermingling of the genders and the treatment of women by men. It examines the progress and problems encountered in recruiting Saudi women for nursing education and practice; describes the evolution of nursing education programs; and analyzes the obstacles to women's participation in these programs and in the nursing profession. The paper concludes with recommendations to address the problem, increase women's participation, and contribute to that country's health development. The paper is based upon primary and secondary data, including official statistics; personal interviews with Saudi women health professionals and students; the memoirs of a leading Saudi woman nurse and educator, the author's personal observations and experiences with the health care system during four years of residence in Saudi Arabia, and available literature on the subject. PMID:8284700
Mak, Grace C. L., Ed.
This book contains original essays that examine the interplay between women's education and development and how they affect women's status in selected nations in Asia. The volume focuses on how women in Asia use opportunities and challenge limits in education, the role of education in their economic participation, and the enhancement and tension…
Science is a part of all students' education, PreK-12. Preparing students for a more scientifically and technologically complex world requires the best possible education including the deliberate inclusion and full contributions of all students, especially an underrepresented group: females in science. In the United States, as elsewhere in the world, the participation of girls and women in science education and professional careers in science is limited, particularly in the physical sciences (National Academy of Sciences [NAS], 2006). The goal of this research study is to gain a better understanding of the perspectives and perceptions of girls and women, both science educators and students, related to gender and participation in science at the time of an important course: high school chemistry. There is a rich body of research literature in science education that addresses gender studies post---high school, but less research that recognizes the affective voices of practicing female science teachers and students at the high school level (Bianchini, Cavazos, & Helms, 2000; Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Gilligan, 1982). Similarly, little is known with regard to how female students and teachers navigate their educational, personal, and professional experiences in science, or how they overcome impediments that pose limits on their participation in science, particularly the physical sciences. This exploratory study focuses on capturing voices (Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Gilligan, 1982) of high school chemistry students and teachers from selected urban and suburban learning communities in public schools in the Capital Region of New York State. Through surveys, interviews, and focus groups, this qualitative study explores the intersection of the students' and teachers' experiences with regard to the following questions: (1) How do female chemistry teachers view the role gender has played in their professional and personal lives as they have pursued education, degree status, and
Tidball, M. Elizabeth; Smith, Daryl G.; Tidball, Charles S.; Wolf-Wendel, Lisa E.
This book looks at why women's colleges continue to produce graduates whose career achievement is significantly higher than that of peers educated in coeducational settings. The book suggests that there is a loss of women's talent in coeducational institutions and that institutional priorities, patterns, and principles at women's colleges offer…
Background Socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality have been observed in different European countries and the US until the end of the 1990s, with changes over time in the magnitude of these inequalities and contrasted situations between countries. The aim of this study is to estimate relative and absolute educational differences in cancer mortality in France between 1999 and 2007, and to compare these inequalities with those reported during the 1990s. Methods Data from a representative sample including 1% of the French population were analysed. Educational differences among people aged 30–74 were quantified with hazard ratios and relative indices of inequality (RII) computed using Cox regression models as well as mortality rate difference and population attributable fraction. Results In the period 1999–2007, large relative inequalities were found among men for total cancer and smoking and/or alcohol related cancers mortality (lung, head and neck, oesophagus). Among women, educational differences were reported for total cancer, head and neck and uterus cancer mortality. No association was found between education and breast cancer mortality. Slight educational differences in colorectal cancer mortality were observed in men and women. For most frequent cancers, no change was observed in the magnitude of relative inequalities in mortality between the 1990s and the 2000s, although the RII for lung cancer increased both in men and women. Among women, a large increase in absolute inequalities in mortality was observed for all cancers combined, lung, head and neck and colorectal cancer. In contrast, among men, absolute inequalities in mortality decreased for all smoking and/or alcohol related cancers. Conclusion Although social inequalities in cancer mortality are still high among men, an encouraging trend is observed. Among women though, the situation regarding social inequalities is less favourable, mainly due to a health improvement limited to higher educated
This paper presents a theoretical framework for approaches to women's education and employs this framework in a discussion of the effects of patriarchy and colonialism on the educational process in Western Europe and North America as adapted in India. According to Sylvia Walby, patriarchy is the system of social structures and practices in which men dominate, oppress, and exploit women, while colonialism depends on a relationship in which the colonized group is assumed to be intellectually, morally, and physically inferior to the colonizer. It is on the perspectives of these two systems that educational policy in Britain was based then imported to India, subsequently finding expression in various official and unofficial pronouncements. Most important, over the course of time educated Indian men in their official capacity endorsed and adapted these same pronouncements while concretizing policies relating to women's education. After the framework, an overview of schooling in Madras Presidency in the 1920s is presented. The impetus for the development of formal education for women had more to do with the notion of imparting a far greater impulse to the educational and moral tone of the people in general, and to men in particular, than with the espousal of equality of educational opportunities for women. Many issues, each of which needs to be explored further to get a picture of the complexity of the subject, compounded the problem of the expansion of women's education.
Singh, Kavita; Luseno, Winnie; Haney, Erica
Gender equality and education are being promoted as strategies to combat the HIV epidemic in Africa, but few studies have looked at the role of gender equality and education in the uptake of a vital service - HIV testing. This study looks at the associations between education (a key input needed for gender equality) and key gender equality measures (financial decision making and attitudes toward violence) with ever tested for HIV and tested for HIV in the past year. The study focused on currently married women ages between15-24 and 25-34 in three countries - Kenya, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The data came from the Demographic and Health Surveys. Logistic regression was used to study the role of gender equality and education on the HIV testing outcomes after controlling for both social and biological factors. Results indicated that education had a consistent positive relationship with testing for both age groups, and the associations were always significant for young women aged 15-24 years (p<0.01). The belief that gender-based violence is unacceptable was positively associated with testing for women aged 25-34 in all the three countries, although the associations were only significant in Kenya (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.58, p<0.00; among women reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.34, p<0.05) and Zambia (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.24, p<0.10; among women reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.29, p<0.05). High financial decision making was associated with testing for women aged 25-34 in Zimbabwe only (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.66, p<0.01). Overall, the findings indicate that the education and the promotion of gender equality are important strategies for increasing uptake of a vital HIV service, and thus are important tools for protecting girls and young women against HIV. PMID:23438082
Nguyen, Thi Huong; Oosterhoff, Pauline; White, Joanna
Stereotypical portrayals of the Hmong in Vietnam emphasize their apparently exotic customs related to sexual relationships and marriage and their alleged backwardness and resistance to change. Yet their history shows their ability to respond to changing socioeconomic contexts. This study details practices and aspirations concerning love, marriage and education among different generations of White Hmong women in the northern mountains of Vietnam, with particular attention to the perspectives of young women. We found a diversity of ideas and identified certain rapidly changing practices regarding marriage. Forced marriage through 'wife-snatching' was reported to have always been rare and its meaning and prevalence has seemingly been misunderstood by outsiders. Bride price payment was reported to be an important element of most Hmong marriages. Hmong girls studying at high school and secondary level were found to have particular aspirations pertaining to their marriage, education and career, but lacked confidence in their abilities to create their desired future. Findings also reveal how patrilocal residence following marriage places young women under the strict control of their husbands and parents-in-law, which is likely to contribute to their lack of self-esteem and sense of autonomy.
Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo
An increasing number of studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes in mothers, neonates and children. There are no representative country data available on vitamin D status of pregnant women in Europe. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Belgian pregnant women and to assess the determinants of vitamin D status in the first and third trimester of pregnancy. The women were selected via a multi-stage proportionate-to-size sampling design. Blood samples were collected and a questionnaire was completed face-to-face. 55 obstetric clinics were randomly selected and 1311 pregnant women participated in the study. The median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)D] concentration was significantly lower in the first trimester (20.4 ng/ml) than in third trimester (22.7 ng/ml). Of all women, 74.1% (95%CI = 71.8-76.5%) were vitamin D insufficient (25-(OH)D <30 ng/ml), 44.6% (95%CI = 41.9-47.3%) were vitamin D deficient (25-(OH)D <20 ng/ml), while 12.1% (95%CI = 10.3-13.8%) were severely vitamin D deficient (25-(OH)D <10 ng/ml). Of all women included, 62.0% reported taking vitamin D-containing multivitamins, of which only 24.2% started taking those before pregnancy. The risk of vitamin D deficiency (25-(OH)D <20 ng/ml) was significantly higher for less educated women and women who reported not going on holidays to sunny climates. The risk of severe vitamin D deficiency (25-(OH)D <10 ng/ml) decreased for women who reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy, decreased with more frequent use of sunscreen lotion and increased for smokers and women who reported preference for shadow. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Belgium and this raises concerns about the health consequences for the mother and the offspring. A targeted screening strategy to detect and treat women at high risk of severe vitamin D deficiency is needed in
Al-Faris, Nora A
Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50-74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.
Al-Faris, Nora A.
Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50–74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements. PMID:26861386
Kaviani, Maasumeh; Rahnavard, Tahereh; Azima, Sara; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Asadi, Nasrin; Sayadi, Mehrab
Background: Sexuality constitutes an important part of women’s life. Healthy and proper sexual functioning is one of the signs of physical and mental health. The present study aimed to identify the effect of education on sexual health of women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 80 married women at reproductive age were randomly divided into a control and an education group. These women participated in this study based on self-reporting of having hypoactive sexual desire disorder. After six weekly educational sessions regarding sexual health, percentage of changes in sexual desire was assayed using Hurlbert index of sexual desire. Independent and paired t-test and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Results: After the intervention, a significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the sexual desire score (P<0.001). The results also showed a significant difference within groups in this regard (P<0.001). Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it seems that educational intervention regarding sexual health was effective for the women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Thus, establishing sexual health education units in different health centers is highly necessary. These centers can help couples to promote their sexual knowledge and treat their sexual dysfunctions. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2012101911032N2 PMID:25349850
Oplatka, Izhar; Lapidot, Orit
Based on semi-structured interviews with 11 Muslim women graduate students in Israel, the current study provides insight into the determinants enabling this group of women in the Arab sector to apply for a second degree and succeed. Among these determinants are the family, the high school, the individual's personal drive for learning, the…
Mertz, Norma T., Ed.
These are the inspiring and illuminating stories of women professors who first broke into the exclusive, all-male academic club of educational administration. Women of this pioneering generation tell how they overcame daunting challenges, traumas, the naivete of others, sexual harassment, and retaliation, as well as how they encountered unexpected…
Ghose, Malini; Mullick, Disha
This paper is based on the findings of a research study which traced 56 rural women learners 15 years after they had participated in an empowerment and education programme in North India. It attempts to understand, from the perspectives of women from marginalised communities, the ways in which participating in the programme had been empowering for them, or not. While most of the women were indeed able to transform several areas in their lives, this study illustrates that empowering outcomes cannot be assumed or articulated in categorical terms and that bringing about change requires the negotiation of power at various levels. The women's narratives stand in contrast to the prevalent discourses around women's literacy and empowerment, which highlight the importance of literacy only in terms of its positive impact on attaining development goals. Despite the vigorously discussed de-politicisation of the concept of empowerment, the authors show in this paper that empowerment, when informed by a critical feminist understanding, continues to provide a useful framework to analyse women's experiences related to education, as a process enabling women to understand and negotiate structures of power - which are neither static nor wholly dominating - and to find spaces to exercise agency. There are few longitudinal studies which trace the long-term impact of educational programmes on adult women, and most studies are in the nature of impact assessments of programmes. Through this paper the authors argue for the need to analyse the complexities around the relationship between women's education and empowerment.
Central in the analyses of women's and gender studies within the history of education has been Rousseau's (Emil oder Uber die Erziehung, 12th edn. Ferdinand Schoningh, Paderborn 1762) educational novel Emile, especially Book 5, which deals with the education of Sophie, Emilie's future spouse. Given the lasting interest in the person of Rousseau…
Porter, Shirley Anne
This literature review will trace the recent history of the globalisation of human rights with reference to education, particularly for girls and women, but also looking more broadly to include education for boys and men. The main paradigms--traditional, neo-liberalism and philanthrocapitalism--for providing education in developing countries will…
Crocco, Margaret Smith, Ed.; Davis, O. L., Jr., Ed.
This book examines the lives and work of women who forged a distinctive tradition of social education from the late 19th century to the late 20th century, one that offered an alternative set of ideas about its means and ends to those propounded by mainstream educational theorists. In the book, the term "social education" is used to suggest that…
LEE, SYLVIA L.; AND OTHERS
THE IMPLICATIONS OF WOMEN'S LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION FOR EDUCATORS AND LEADERS PLANNING PROGRAMS IN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION WERE DERIVED AT A 2-DAY CONFERENCE BY 30 PEOPLE REPRESENTING THE VARIOUS SERVICES IN VOCATIONAL-TECHNICAL EDUCATION AND RELATED AREAS. IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION…
Sedlak, Robert A.; Sedlak, Denise M.
Issues (1976-80) of five popular women-oriented magazines were examined to determine special education content. Good Housekeeping had the highest content of special education material. Physical and sensory impairments were the exceptions most written about. The potential of popular magazines in providing special education information is stressed.…
Vaughan, Rosie Peppin
This article explores the dynamics of global campaigns for education through a study of the movement for girls' and women's education in India since independence in 1947. In particular, it uses the trajectory of ideas within India to theorise about international collaboration on educational goals, with UNESCO and the World Bank being two of the…
Hart, Jennifer L.
This study examined the response of higher education to the increased presence of women in the academy through an investigation of academic literature. A feminist framework was used to guide the analysis, which focused on 5 years of three leading journals in higher education: (1) "The Review of Higher Education" (RHE); (2) "The Journal of Higher…
Smith, Cristine A.; Stone, Rebecca Paulson; Kahando, Sarah
Delaying girls' early marriage is a critical public health and education goal in developing countries, in which their own or their mothers' education may play an important role. This paper reviews the existing evidence of any relationship between girls' schooling or women's literacy education and delayed marriage for themselves or their daughters.…
Research for Better Schools, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.
Based on the assumption that educational research and development (R&D) requires the same technical managerial skills as any other business organization, this survey examined fifty management training programs for women and/or minorities in eighteen business, academic, and industrial settings. Information gathered on courses, workshops, and…
Outdoor adventure is stereotyped as a White, male activity. Women who participate are going against the stereotype of outdoor activities as a male domain, but women of color additionally confront the domain of race. Constraints on women generally include socialization into an ethic of care, concern for physical and psychological safety, and lack…
Rieder, Corinne H.
Occupational segregation by sex caused by covert discrimination, often unintentional, effectively limits the careers pursued by both men and women. Data indicate that despite the gains in the number of employed women, job segregation patterns that confine women to the traditional female occupations persist and worsen along with the resultant low…
Freeborn, Donna; Mandleco, Barbara
The purpose of this study was to examine the childhood experiences of women with cerebral palsy (CP), from the perspectives of these women. Using the feminist biographical method, eight women with CP participated in two in-depth interviews. Participants ranged in age from 22 to 55 years and had moderate to severe athetoid or spastic CP. Four…
The Labor Force 2008 projections reflected that the rate of growth for women in the labor force will increase at a faster rate than that of men (Fullerton, 1999). In 2008, the majority of employed women (39 percent) worked in management, professional, and related occupations (U.S. Department of Labor, 2008). Although women's participation in the…
Hacker, Helen Mayer
This report discusses the history of societal attitudes toward the role of women. The question is raised as to whether the present sexual revolution can enhance either sexual fulfillment or civil liberties for contemporary women. This is discussed in reference to the nuclear family, sexual bargaining, cultural assumptions about women's sexual…
Gjergja, Romana; Stipoljev, Feodora; Hafner, Tomislav; Tezak, Nenad; Luzar-Stiffler, Vesna
Adequate periconceptional folic acid (FA) intake reduces the risk of neural tube defects. There are still no official FA supplementation guidelines, FA fortification policies or larger studies of awareness regarding FA or number of planned pregnancies in Croatia. This study assesses the knowledge and practice regarding FA supplementation and reports the trends in pregnancy planning in Croatia. A total of 569 pregnant women completed an anonymous questionnaire and about 72% of them were aware of the benefits of FA. Despite 75.53% of planned pregnancies, only 14.41% of all women took FA appropriately. Croatian women get information about FA from the media, health professionals and friends, but 63.77% got this information too late. The present study showed low percentage of appropriate FA intake despite high number of planned pregnancies in Croatia. It emphasizes the need for immediate and continuous public health education initiative about FA intake targeted to the women of childbearing age before their pregnancies have occurred.
Dumrongpakapakorn, Phensiri; Hopkins, Kathy; Sherwood, Paula; Zorn, Kristin; Donovan, Heidi
A majority of women with ovarian cancer will face recurrent disease despite receiving aggressive chemotherapy at the time of diagnosis. Given the complex medical and psychosocial needs of women with ovarian cancer and the time constraints within busy clinical settings, providing women with the necessary education related to their disease and treatments can be challenging. The advent of computers and web-based technologies has created new opportunities for educating cancer patients and supporting them to better cope with their disease. This article reviews prior studies of computer-based patient education interventions to identify key intervention components and other factors associated with improved patient outcomes. Opportunities for using computer-based technologies to support women with ovarian cancer are discussed and WRITE Symptoms (a Written Representational Intervention To Ease Symptoms), a web-based, symptom management intervention for women with recurrent ovarian cancer, is introduced.
Introduction Percent mammographic density (PMD) adjusted for age and body mass index is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer and is known to be approximately 60% heritable. Here we report a finding of an association between genetic ancestry and adjusted PMD. Methods We selected self-identified Caucasian women in the California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute Cohort whose screening mammograms placed them in the top or bottom quintiles of age-adjusted and body mass index-adjusted PMD. Our final dataset included 474 women with the highest adjusted PMD and 469 with the lowest genotyped on the Illumina 1 M platform. Principal component analysis (PCA) and identity-by-descent analyses allowed us to infer the women's genetic ancestry and correlate it with adjusted PMD. Results Women of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, as defined by the first principal component of PCA and identity-by-descent analyses, represented approximately 15% of the sample. Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, defined by the first principal component of PCA, was associated with higher adjusted PMD (P = 0.004). Using multivariate regression to adjust for epidemiologic factors associated with PMD, including age at parity and use of postmenopausal hormone therapy, did not attenuate the association. Conclusions Women of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, based on genetic analysis, are more likely to have high age-adjusted and body mass index-adjusted PMD. Ashkenazi Jews may have a unique set of genetic variants or environmental risk factors that increase mammographic density. PMID:23668689
Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia M.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.
We examine gender wage disparities for four groups of college-educated women--black, Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white--using the National Survey of College Graduates. Raw log wage gaps, relative to non-Hispanic white male counterparts, generally exceed -0.30. Estimated gaps decline to between -0.08 and -0.19 in nonparametric analyses that…
Technological education is more effective than general education in improving social mobility. Remarkable gender disparities currently exist in overall enrollment in secondary and higher education in the Arab states. Encouraging more Arab women to enroll in technological education would lead to higher percentages of women in higher-paying jobs,…
Manly, Jennifer J; Smith, Clifford; Crystal, Howard A; Richardson, Jean; Golub, Elizabeth T; Greenblatt, Ruth; Robison, Esther; Martin, Eileen M; Young, Mary
Use of neuropsychological tests to identify HIV-associated neurocognitive dysfunction must involve normative standards that are well suited to the population of interest. Norms should be based on a population of HIV-uninfected individuals as closely matched to the HIV-infected group as possible and must include examination of the potential effects of demographic factors on test performance. This is the first study to determine the normal range of scores on measures of psychomotor speed and executive function among a large group of ethnically and educationally diverse HIV-uninfected, high-risk women, as well as their HIV-infected counterparts. Participants (n = 1,653) were administered the Trail Making Test Parts A and B (Trails A and Trails B), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Wide Range Achievement Test-3 (WRAT-3). Among HIV-uninfected women, race/ethnicity accounted for almost 5% of the variance in cognitive test performance. The proportions ofvariance in cognitive test performance accounted for by age (13.8%), years of school (4.1%), and WRAT-3 score (11.5%) were each significant, but did not completely account for the effect of race (3%). HIV-infected women obtained lower scores than HIV-uninfected women on time to complete Trails A and B, SDMT total correct, and SDMT incidental recall score, but after adjustment for age, years of education, racial/ethnic classification, and reading level, only the difference on SDMT total correct remained significant. Results highlight the need to adjust for demographic variables when diagnosing cognitive impairment in HIV-infected women. Advantages of demographically adjusted regression equations developed using data from HIV-uninfected women are discussed.
Acker, D. G.; McBreen, E. L.; Taylor, S.
Literature reviews and interviews in Eastern and Southern African universities identified obstacles to women's participation in agricultural education. Innovative strategies in Tanzania (recruitment and policy changes), Botswana (infrastructure development), and Malawi (outreach to secondary schools) were identified. (SK)
McCaffery, Juliet; And Others
Includes "Introduction" (McCaffery, Edmond-Smith); "Celebrating Achievements" (Hancock); "Building for Future" (Coleman); "Women in Community" (Patel); "Education/Training for Older Women" (Cooper, Kennedy); "Women with Disabilities" (Goddard); "Open/Distance Learning" (Sargant); "Open College Networks" (Mager); "Staff Development Initiatives"…
This study endeavored to investigate the impact of education on rural women's participation in political and economic activities. Six hundred rural women and 12 gender Activists were selected for this study from three Zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia using multi-stage random sampling technique and purposeful sampling techniques respectively.…
While previous research has focused on the relationship between education and women's empowerment in the public sphere, their empowerment in the private sphere has been less fully developed in empirical studies. Drawing on a theoretical model of change in marital relationships, this article examines how women who participated in an innovative…
This article profiles Leta Steller Hollingworth, who gave what she had to human beings through her life as a poet, a scholar, a researcher, a feminist, an educational psychologist, and a powerful advocate for gifted children. Hollingworth's research during her graduate studies focused on the psychology of women. At a time when women's professional…
This article examines the relative progress and major setbacks in the education of Afghan women from the end of the Taliban regime until the present, focusing on government and NGO reconstruction efforts. It is argued that these projects promote the agendas of the state and of NGOs over the needs of women and girls. The adversities arising from…
A study examined the experiences of Mexican immigrant women holding a vocational certificate from a technical school in Mexico. Interviews with eight Mexican women living in San Francisco and rural Idaho indicated that vocational education did not ensure success as measured by common social science indicators. However, the informants were highly…
Eloundou-Enyegue, Parfait M.; Calves, Anne Emmanuele
In this article the authors examine the remittance interpretation for parents' selective investment in boys' education in sub-Saharan contexts. Using evidence from several African countries, they compare the relative capacity of married women versus men to assist their respective families of origin. They measure this capacity by women's leverage…
Pryor, Jacqueline D.
This qualitative inquire examined the financial behavior of six college educated Black women located in the Midwest. Utilizing Black feminism as a theoretical framework for analysis, a depiction was prepared on the adeptness of the women at managing their finances; the influence of parental teaching on personal finances; and their behavior toward…
Fischer, Linda; Molstad, Susan
"Exploring Female Images Through Movement," a course at Skidmore College, features activities that help students reexamine their attitudes toward their bodies, improve their self-image, and, through a combination of physical education and women's studies, experiment with new activities and ideas about themselves as women. (MB)
Ausmer, Nicole M.
There is an apparent dearth in the leadership literature of African American women when juxtaposed with race, gender and social class. This scarcity appears to be connected with the small percentage of African American women who hold the position of president in institutions of higher education. Additionally, recent reports have noted, that the…
Aguele, Lawrence I.; Idialu, Ethel E.; Aluede, Oyaziwo
The paper presents Science, Technology and Mathematics (STM) as the bedrock of the development of any nation. It emphasizes the role of women in national development. To achieve meaningful advancement in national development, the paper emphasizes the need to give priority to the education of women in STM. It recommended that deliberate efforts be…
Ogden, Jane; Smith, Lauren; Nolan, Helen; Moroney, Rachel; Lynch, Hannah
Purpose: Media images of unrealistic beauty have been identified as a determinant of women's body dissatisfaction. This experimental study aims to explore whether the negative impact of such images could be reduced by a one-time educational intervention consisting of a presentation and discussion, teaching women to be critical of media images.…
Amari-Omaka, Lois Nnenna; Obande-Ogbuinya, Nkiru Edith
The purpose of this study was to determine sources of malaria information among pregnant women in Ebonyi state and implications for malaria education. The cross sectional research design was adopted and stratified sampling technique was used to select a total of five hundred and four (504) pregnant women from 12 hospitals in the state. A self…
Welch, Andrea D.
The link between women in poverty and higher education is important because it reflects inequities in access and resources that exist in the Mid-Atlantic Appalachian region. Two main questions guided the research of women in poverty in regard to postsecondary access and attainment. First, what are the experiences of Mid-Atlantic Appalachian-born…
Pedras, Melvin J.; And Others
Responses from 61 of 75 Idaho sprints and 105 of 148 principals show that, despite awareness of the need for more female technology education teachers, few administrators (male or female) would hire women over equally qualified men. Administrators were not well informed about teaching opportunities for women nor about female students preparing for…
Walton, Karen Doyle, Ed.
Women describe their personal journeys to top positions of leadership in higher education in the 20 essays collected in this book. Ten American and 10 British college and university heads tell their unique stories about passing through the "glass ceiling" that limits the career leadership opportunities for women in academe. Essays include: "Good…
Ghose, Malini; Mullick, Disha
This paper is based on the findings of a research study which traced 56 rural women learners 15 years after they had participated in an empowerment and education programme in North India. It attempts to understand, from the perspectives of women from marginalised communities, the ways in which participating in the programme had been empowering for…
Ropers-Huilman, Rebecca; Winters, Kelly T.; Hakkola, Leah
This article explores the ways in which women's perceptions of their own bodies affect their experiences as students in higher education. Based on online focus group interviews with 25 college women, the authors use Foucault's concept of the "Panopticon" to consider how students internalize and enforce gendered expectations related to…
Alvarado, Emmanuel; Nehring, Daniel
Our study explored cultural understandings surrounding the reproductive decisions of US-born, college-educated Mexican American women through a series of semi-structured in-depth interviews. In considering the results, this article advances debates on Latina women's reproductive choices beyond the theoretical paradigms of "assimilation" and…
A participatory research approach was used to determine the extent to which nonformal education (NFE) programs have contributed to the empowerment of women living on four Caribbean islands. Twelve agencies/organizations/providers on the islands of Barbados, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent that have offered NFE programs to women between 1992…
This study explores the perspectives of women Post 9/11 veterans on their experiences in the military and subsequently in higher education. Using feminist research methodology, I interviewed three women veterans about their decisions to join the military, their gendered experiences in the military, their decisions to enroll in college, and their…
The purpose of this study was to discover and understand the experiences that influenced women to obtain and persevere in leadership roles in higher education administrative positions. The results enhanced understanding of what motivates women to pursue leadership positions and provided strategies for career advancement and leadership development.…
The focus group assessment technique was used to conduct an assessment of continuing education needs of rural women living in or near the Moberly Junior College district. (This technique uses small group interaction to identify responses to a set of questions.) Nine to ten rural women participated in each of two meetings. When a focus group was…
Cragg, C. E. (Betty); Andrusyszyn, Mary-Anne; Fraser, Joy
Women with multiple roles face many challenges when taking distance education courses in professional programs to achieve credentials or maintain competence. Among these challenges is finding the supports necessary for success as a distance student. As part of a larger study on advantages and stressors identified by such women in distance…
Middle managers in higher education hold diverse titles and perform a variety of roles. Women represent a large portion of this midlevel management, but there is limited research exploring their experiences. As a result, little is known about women middle managers' career trajectories and what effect their experiences have on their future career…
Connecticut Women's Education and Legal Fund, 2008
Connecticut Women's Education and Legal Fund (CWEALF) is a statewide non-profit organization dedicated to empowering women, girls and their families to achieve equal opportunities in their personal and professional lives. Members are guided by their commitment to feminism, diversity, empowerment, personal responsibility and self-sufficiency,…
Bourgeois, Monique; Kirby, Dale
The significance of post-secondary education is investigated for rural Newfoundland women enrolled in undergraduate liberal arts degree programs. Data collection for this research involved comprehensive, detailed semi-structured biographical interviews with rural women studying liberal arts disciplines during the 2006-2007 academic year at…
Voices Rising: A Bulletin about Women and Popular Education, 1990
This document consists of the six issues of the serial "Voices Rising" issued during the four-year period 1987-1990. "Voices Rising" is the primary networking tool of the Women's Program of the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE). Articles in these issues include: "Tribute to a Courageous Woman--Nabila Breir"; "Centre for Women's…
Acker, Sandra; Dillabough, Jo-Anne
This article reflects an interest in exposing links between women's academic work and the gender codes which organize and shape working life in the university context, both now and in the recent past, as a contribution to the sociology of women's work. Our specific focus is the gendered division of labour in teacher education in universities in…
This article examines the work of two Quaker women, Priscilla Wakefield (1750-1832) and Maria Hack (1777-1844) as popularizers of science and in the context of the development of scientific literacy. Both women were writers who specialized in scientific educational texts for children and young adults. As Quakers their community and culture played…
This paper reports the extent to which women participate and take leadership roles in educational administration in India, and looks at the impact of social and political forces affecting their participation. The participation of women in labor and management in developed and developing nations is reviewed to provide a broader context in which to…
Wadende, Pamela Akinyi
The aim of this dissertation is to present the procedure and proceedings of an instructional research into the teaching and learning among Luo women of Western Kenya. The purposes of the research are threefold. First, it seeks to document a system of indigenous adult education that has proved sustainable among Luo women from generation to…
Wardell, Mary J. Lomax
Higher education is steadily including more women of color in the leadership of the academy. Daily leadership challenges require campus administrators to engage and move others toward exceptional workplace performance. As such, executive women of color must handle complex campus demands and leadership challenges, particularly as they relate to…
Graesser, Cheryl C.; Rose, Clare
The Project to Assess the Status of Women Students and Employees in Vocational Education assessed number and distribution of women students and employees in vocational programs, their perceptions of equal access, and extent of efforts to address sex equity. Its main activity was a survey of 3,609 vocational students, 455 faculty, 126 counselors,…
In exploring the connections among gender, schooling, and knowledge, this paper considers the relationships between, and the effects of silencing or expressing anger, in women and their work as educators. Data come from two action research projects: Women Teaching Girls retreats and the Exploring Gender and Knowledge. Each consisted of a series of…
Machira, Mary Achieng
Low enrollment of women in higher education is a problem in Africa, particularly in Kenya, where despite the government's introduction of affirmative action, female enrollment averages only 36.7% at public universities. This gender gap may be due to the patriarchal influence in Kenyan society, where the role of women is seen as child-bearing,…
Perez, Shireese Redmond
The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…
Albert, Marissa; Schnabel, Freya; Chun, Jennifer; Schwartz, Shira; Lee, Jiyon; Leite, Ana Paula Klautau; Moy, Linda
Structured Abstract Purpose To evaluate the relationship between mammographic breast density (MBD), background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), and fibroglandular tissue (FGT) in women with breast cancer (BC) and at high risk for developing BC. Methods Our institutional database was queried for patients who underwent mammography and MRI. Results 403 (85%) had BC and 72 (15%) were at high risk. MBD (p=0.0005), BPE (p<0.0001), and FGT (p=0.02) were all higher in high risk women compared to the BC group. Conclusions Higher levels of MBD, BPE and FGT are seen in women at higher risk for developing BC when compared to women with BC. PMID:26351036
Toohill, Jocelyn; Fenwick, Jennifer; Gamble, Jenny; Creedy, Debra K; Buist, Anne; Turkstra, Erika; Ryding, Elsa-Lena
Background Childbirth fear is associated with increased obstetric interventions and poor emotional and psychological health for women. The purpose of this study is to test an antenatal psycho-education intervention by midwives in reducing women's childbirth fear. Methods Women (n = 1,410) attending three hospitals in South East Queensland, Australia, were recruited into the BELIEF trial. Participants reporting high fear were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 170) or control (n = 169) groups. All women received a decision-aid booklet on childbirth choices. The telephone counseling intervention was offered at 24 and 34 weeks of pregnancy. The control group received usual care offered by public maternity services. Primary outcome was reduction in childbirth fear (WDEQ-A) from second trimester to 36 weeks’ gestation. Secondary outcomes were improved childbirth self-efficacy, and reduced decisional conflict and depressive symptoms. Demographic, obstetric & psychometric measures were administered at recruitment, and 36 weeks of pregnancy. Results There were significant differences between groups on postintervention scores for fear of birth (p < 0.001) and childbirth self-efficacy (p = 0.002). Decisional conflict and depressive symptoms reduced but were not significant. Conclusion Psycho-education by trained midwives was effective in reducing high childbirth fear levels and increasing childbirth confidence in pregnant women. Improving antenatal emotional well-being may have wider positive social and maternity care implications for optimal childbirth experiences. PMID:25303111
Oyeoku, E. K.; Meziobi, D.; Ezegbe, N. B.; Obikwelu, C. L.
The main purpose of the study was to evolve modalities for preventing domestic violence against women in Nsukka education zone. Three research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The sample comprised 150 urban women and 450 rural women in Nsukka education zone. A 20-item questionnaire was developed, validated, and administered to…
In contemporary society women leaders in education have struggled to balance work and family. While some women have succeeded in finding that balance, many others are still struggling. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences of three Armenian women in senior-level leadership positions in higher education in the United…
Pérez, Gloria; García-Subirats, Irene; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Díez, Elia; Borrell, Carme
This study aims to describe trends in inequalities by women's socioeconomic position and age in induced abortion in Barcelona (Spain) over 1992-1996 and 2000-2004. Induced abortions occurring in residents in Barcelona aged 20 and 44 years in the study period are included. Variables are age, educational level, and time periods. Induced abortion rates per 1,000 women and absolute differences for educational level, age, and time period are calculated. Poisson regression models are fitted to obtain the relative risk (RR) for trends. Induced abortion rates increased from 10.1 to 14.6 per 1,000 women aged 20-44 (RR = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41-1.47) between 1992-1996 and 2000-2004. The abortion rate was highest among women aged 20-24 and 25-34 and changed little among women aged 35-44. Among women aged 20-24 and 25-34, those with a primary education or less had higher rates of induced abortion in the second period. Induced abortion rates also grew in those women with secondary education. In the 35-44 age group, the induced abortion rate declined among women with a secondary education (RR = 0.66; 95% CI 0.60-0.73) and slightly among those with a greater level of education. Induced abortion is rising most among women in poor socioeconomic positions. This study reveals deep inequalities in induced abortion in Barcelona, Spain. The trends identified in this study suggest that policy efforts to reduce unintended pregnancies are failing in Spain. Our study fills an important gap in literature on recent trends in Southern Europe.
Armoni, Michal; Gal-Ezer, Judith
The gap between enrollments in higher education computing programs and the high-tech industry's demands is widely reported, and is especially prominent for women. Increasing the availability of computer science education in high school is one of the strategies suggested in order to address this gap. We look at the connection between exposure to computer science in high school and pursuing computing in higher education. We also examine the gender gap, in the context of high school computer science education. We show that in Israel, students who took the high-level computer science matriculation exam were more likely to pursue computing in higher education. Regarding the issue of gender, we will show that, in general, in Israel the difference between males and females who take computer science in high school is relatively small, and a larger, though still not very large difference exists only for the highest exam level. In addition, exposing females to high-level computer science in high school has more relative impact on pursuing higher education in computing.
Smith, Cristine A.; Paulson Stone, Rebecca; Kahando, Sarah
Delaying girls' early marriage is a critical public health and education goal in developing countries, in which their own or their mothers' education may play an important role. This paper reviews the existing evidence of any relationship between girls' schooling or women's literacy education and delayed marriage for themselves or their daughters. The majority of research reports focus on the correlation between girls' schooling and brides' age at first marriage. But it is conceivable that adult women's/mothers' literacy education also has considerable influence on the age at which their daughters are married. Since this aspect has hitherto not been explicitly investigated, the authors propose a model - based on relevant research about the outcomes of girls' schooling and women's literacy education - of the mechanisms that mediate between women's education and delayed marriage for their daughters. The authors argue for research that will inform policy makers interested in helping girls complete secondary schooling about the potential contributions of adult women's literacy education to this goal.
This article draws on data collected from a wider, longitudinal life history study conducted in South Africa between 2010 and 2014. The study focussed specifically on the personal and professional pathways to principalship of a sample of women leaders of co-educational high schools in South Africa, in both rural and peri-urban provinces: a role…
Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.; Moghadam, Valentine M.
In contemporary Iran, women with higher education face both gender discrimination and an unfavourable economic system, one that is not conducive to employment-generation for women. This paper provides an analysis of women's access to higher education in Iran, which has varied over the last 30 years, and their continuously limited participation in the job market. Based on qualitative field research, this paper includes the voices of individual women, discussing their experience of higher education and factors they think are contributing to their limited choice of employment. The paper suggests that while the recent trend in negotiating mehrieh (a nuptial gift which is payable by the groom to the bride) has been a strategy employed by Iranian women to overcome some of the discriminatory laws they are subject to, this trend cannot actually be explained by the fact that women's employment opportunities are limited. The paper concludes by asserting that limited labour force participation for educated women is a consequence of both political economy and gender ideology.
Graduate Management Admission Council, 2015
To commemorate International Women's Day on March 8, 2015, GMAC prepared this Data-to-Go brief as a summary of current GMAT test taker and research data about women in the business school pipeline. Findings in this Data-to-Go report are derived from several sources of GMAT test taker data and GMAC surveys conducted in 2014 and 2015. In testing…
Zoch, Lynn M.; Russell, Maria P.
Reports on a survey of women faculty teaching public relations regarding gender equality and workplace equity. Alternates viewpoints from the literature indicating ingrained institutional biases against women with survey findings that perhaps respondents are not doing what they could to advance in their field. (SR)
Academic feminism is now largely concerned with abstract theory and a discourse which distances it from the lived reality of working class women. This paper explores, through the concept and approach of dialogical feminism, ways in which feminists in the academy can re-connect with 'other women' in working towards social transformation for all…
This paper undertakes a critique of the gendered nature of leadership in modern universities in Kenya. The paper argues that the inclusive nature of African feminism makes it easier for both men and women to join in this discussion since African feminism demands a more holistic perspective that does not pit men against women but encourages them to…
The status of academic women is compared with that of men to determine whether disciminating practices and resulting inequality for women continue to exist. Current scientific periodicals, monographs, and books were searched, and the most recent statistics are presented. Results are discussed in terms of admissions, enrollment and degrees earned,…
Describes Capacitacion Integral de la Mujer Campesina (CIMCA) development efforts within Bolivian farm communities. Describes CIMCA's focus on social change, ethnic empowerment, and women's rights. Describes organization's initial clashes with rural culture. Describes use of rotafolio drawings to spark workshop discussions, to improve women's…
Conable, Charlotte Williams
The history of women at Cornell is presented. First, the origins of coeducation at Cornell are explored. The commitment of the university to women as well as men is analyzed in the context of the social climate of the nineteenth century, particularly in central New York State, as well as the goals of those individuals who established the…
Stromquist, Nelly P.
Women's empowerment is a concept that has acquired substantial recognition in the past decade. However, it is better known among international development organisations, NGOs, and grassroots groups than in academic circles. This article examines the concept of women's empowerment as a foundational element in a theory of social change in which the…
de Wolf, Virginia A.
This study compared 105 women university baccalaureates intending graduate study the year following graduation with women graduates matched by age and major who did not intend such study. Aspirers had significantly higher GPAs than non-aspirers, were more satisfied with their undergraduate major, had more often selected their major as preparation…
Janzen, Melanie D.
This article describes a snapshot ethnography conducted in Uganda with the Agabagaya Women's Group. The purpose of the study was to explore how women share knowledge among themselves to support their communities. Using post-development theory and Freire's critical theory as a lens, I argue that although international development is often focused…
Two powerful images for women as teachers and principals, the schoolmarm and the token administrator, were discerned in a study which analyzed the life histories of 24 women and men working in elementary or secondary schools in Toronto, Canada between 1930 and 1980. These two images have contributed to a continued pattern of underrepresentation…
Mutanyatta, J. N. S.
Despite their significant role in African economies, women are still the victims of poverty, illiteracy, discrimination, and powerlessness. Most African countries are classified as "low" on the Human Development Index and exhibit a relationship between per capita gross domestic product and the adult literacy rate. Rural women appear to be the most…
This article presents the findings of a qualitative study on the "Bang' jomariek," a women's group in West Reru in Western Kenya who engage in the production of indigenous arts and crafts (pots, baskets, and architecture) to generate income and explore politics, medicine, and other matters that affect them and their community. The women shared…
Mckay, Susan; Bonner, Frances
Women's magazines in Australia have become increasingly involved in various public health awareness campaigns. In particular, breast cancer has been targeted as an issue for attention. This disease occupies a privileged position in women's magazines, being represented as treatable and survivable with an emphasis on the advocacy of early detection…
García-Subirats, Irene; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Díez, Elia; Borrell, Carme
This study aims to describe trends in inequalities by women’s socioeconomic position and age in induced abortion in Barcelona (Spain) over 1992–1996 and 2000–2004. Induced abortions occurring in residents in Barcelona aged 20 and 44 years in the study period are included. Variables are age, educational level, and time periods. Induced abortion rates per 1,000 women and absolute differences for educational level, age, and time period are calculated. Poisson regression models are fitted to obtain the relative risk (RR) for trends. Induced abortion rates increased from 10.1 to 14.6 per 1,000 women aged 20–44 (RR = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41–1.47) between 1992–1996 and 2000–2004. The abortion rate was highest among women aged 20–24 and 25–34 and changed little among women aged 35–44. Among women aged 20–24 and 25–34, those with a primary education or less had higher rates of induced abortion in the second period. Induced abortion rates also grew in those women with secondary education. In the 35–44 age group, the induced abortion rate declined among women with a secondary education (RR = 0.66; 95% CI 0.60–0.73) and slightly among those with a greater level of education. Induced abortion is rising most among women in poor socioeconomic positions. This study reveals deep inequalities in induced abortion in Barcelona, Spain. The trends identified in this study suggest that policy efforts to reduce unintended pregnancies are failing in Spain. Our study fills an important gap in literature on recent trends in Southern Europe. PMID:20229107
Karau, Paul Bundi; Winnie, Mueni Saumu; Geoffrey, Muriira; Mwenda, Mukuthuria
Uptake of VCT and other HIV prevention strategies among rural African women is affected by various socio-cultural and economic factors which need elucidation. Our aim was to establish the responsiveness to HIV education among rural women attending three dispensaries in Kenya. This study was designed to assess gender and psycho-social factors that influence HIV dynamics in rural Kenya. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire based study of 1347 women, conducted in October 2009. Socio-economic status as well as knowledge on methods of HIV transmission was assessed. Testing status, knowledge on existing VCT services and willingness to share HIV information with their children was assessed. Majority of the women have heard about VCT services, but significantly few of them have been tested. Those with secondary school education and above are more knowledgeable on methods of HIV transmission, while those with inadequate education are more likely to cite shaking hands, sharing utensils, mosquito bites and hugging as means of transmission (p = 0.001). 90% of educated women are willing to share HIV information with their children, compared to 40% of uneducated women. Marital status is seen to positively influence testing status, but has no significant effect on dissemination of information to children. We conclude that despite the aggressive HIV education and proliferation of VCT services in Kenya, women are not heeding the call to get tested. Education has a positive impact on dissemination of HIV information. Focus needs to shift into increasing acceptability of testing by women in rural Kenya. PMID:21495609
Boateng, John; Flanagan, Constance
Women's physical and psychological access to health care was analyzed using the 2003 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS), a nationally representative study for monitoring population and health in Ghana. Female respondents from the 2133 cases in the couple's data set were used in this study. Women's level of education was positively related to physical but not to psychological access to health care. Residing in an urban area was positively related to both types of access. Matriliny consistently showed positive effects on physical access. In addition to these demographic factors, both physical and psychological access were positively related to women's self-determination, i.e., women's right and ability to make real choices about their lives including their health, fertility, sexuality, childcare and all areas where women are denied autonomy and dignity in their identities as women. Self-determination factors both mediated the effects of background factors on access and added explanatory power to the models.
Cortez, David Sifuentes
This article examines the participation of women in decision-making processes in the field of education, from a global perspective, through their roles and positions in International Conferences on Education (ICEs). This analysis is based on a sample of sixteen of the forty-six ICEs held from 1934 to this day. All of the ICEs that took place over…
Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.
Annotated bibliographic citations of literature relevant to women's educational equity are presented, drawn from computerized data bases from spring 1978 through October 1978, with slight exceptions. Topics covered include: curriculum and educational materials development and dissemination; preservice and inservice personnel training; research and…
Investigates the long-term educational development of African American adolescents. The dependent variable was the highest level of education that participants ever expected to receive. Path models revealed differing processes for women and men. Overall, effects of early academic performance variables were strongest, followed by effects of family…
Emergent Leadership, 1978
This periodical is intended for exchanging information about leadership achievements, program innovations, research findings, and organizational developments having special interest to and bearing upon minority group members and women in education. This issue contains six articles, "State Education Agencies and the Delivery of Quality Educational…
Espino, Michelle M.
In this study, Michelle M. Espino uncovers the ways in which twenty-five Mexican American women PhDs made meaning of conflicting messages about the purpose of higher education as they navigated within and through educational structures and shifting familial expectations. Participants received "consejos", or nurturing advice, from parents…
National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).
This report is a summary update of a more extensive report on the participation of women in the Australian public VET (vocational and technical education) sector in 2000. Data were obtained from publicly-funded training providers, including TAFE (Technical and Further Education) institutions and some schools and universities, registered community…
Once societies embarked on programmes of mass education home schooling became essentially a middle-class project and remains so. This paper looks at the educational experiences of some lower middle class women at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries for whom the resources of the middle-class home were simply not available. It…
Dolinsky, Arthur L.; And Others
A study using a national longitudinal sample of women to examine variations in the likelihood of entering, staying, and reentering self-employment by level of educational attainment found that each likelihood increased with increasing levels of education. Differences in the likelihood of entry accounted for most of the overall difference between…
Proctor, Carnisia M., Comp.
This publication presents information regarding higher education opportunities for minorities and women, focusing on scholarships, grants, loans, internships, and fellowships. Section 1 contains general information about books, brochures, lists, and publications that describe a variety of higher education opportunities, many of which solicit, give…
Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn; Bernhardt, Anna
This article gives an overview of the development of gender equality and women's participation in adult learning and education in the history of the International Conferences on Adult Education (CONFINTEA). Though the equality of rights was highlighted throughout the various conferences, the first Global Report on Adult Learning and Education…
This qualitative, phenomenological study was conducted to explore the lived experiences of 12 Afghan women enrolled in higher education institutions in Afghanistan. The objective was to develop an understanding of the participants' perceptions of the factors that led to their enrollment in higher education and the factors that inhibit Afghan…
This study looked at three areas of women's aspirations for careers in educational administration: the relative distribution of aspiration levels; the relationships to achievement orientation; and the relationship of self-role congruence to educational administration. Significant inequalities were found in the distribution of subjects based on…
Lykes, M. Brinton
Describes development of a rural Guatemalan women's organization created to respond to the psychological, economic, and educational consequences of long-term war, massacre, military occupation, poverty, and exile. The association's genesis and current work reflect collaborative processes of interethnic and transnational nonformal education,…
Discusses the historiography of women's education as it relates to the need for marginal groups to becomed involved in networking structures. Offers three frameworks (networking, religion, and money), illustrating ways to make gender more central to educational history. Argues that there is much work to be done in identifying a useful framework…
Purpose: This paper seeks to set the stage for the exploration of female leadership in educational systems within developing countries by reviewing the current research on women in educational administration within developing countries and suggesting future directions for further research on this subject in non-western countries.…
Usman, Lantana M.
Recently, politics of education in Nigeria have shifted from urban to rural literacy, which led to the development of programmes such as the nomadic women's adult education programme. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the programme's implementation strategies, and the extent to which the health educational…
Roseboro, Donyell L.; Ross, Sabrina N.
This article builds upon earlier work exploring the implications of care theory for Black women educators by exploring the issue of colorblindness more broadly, as it relates to libratory education. Using the work of Freire (1970, 1998a, 1998b) and Noddings (1992a, 1995, 2001, 2005b), the authors revisit the relationship between libratory…
Byrd-Johnson, Linda E.; Smith, Carol J.
Postsecondary educational opportunities for minorities and women are listed by subject field. Specific information is provided on loans, scholarships, and fellowship opportunities, along with general information on how and where to get general assistance in preparing for educational and career goals. Addresses of the offices that operate the…
In this paper, I look into the papers of Fannia Cohn, an immigrant labour organizer, who served the Education Department of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU) between 1918 and 1962 and became one of its few women vice-presidents. As an internationally recognized figure in the history of workers' education, Cohn left a rich…
Tittle, Carol Kehr; Denker, Elenor Rubin
Some factors related to the reentry of adult females to post secondary education, as reported in recent literature, are reviewed. Barriers and opportunities in continuing education, current theories and research on career choice for women, and sex bias in counseling and interest inventories are discussed. (GDC)
University Grants Commission (Sri Lanka).
The Commonwealth Higher Education Support Scheme (CHESS) 1997 Workshop was designed to promote the professional development of women in leadership positions in higher education. Participants were drawn from senior university academics and administrators from five countries: Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Specific objectives…
Carvalho, Teresa; Santiago, Rui
This paper provides an analysis of the potential impact of changes in recruitment and hiring processes in Portuguese higher education institutions--under the New Public Management framework--on the representation of women in academia. Based on official data from the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education, two major…
This quantitative study examines the current status of Black women higher education administrators in comparison to other higher education administrators of another race and/or gender. Specifically, years of service, social support, highest degree attained, income level, and current title held was analyzed to evaluate the actual levels of…
Mentkowski, Marcia; Rogers, Glen
We argue that (1) faculty and other academic professionals who educate undergraduate women in capabilities such as effective communication, teamwork, and leadership that are integrated with the disciplines (e.g., biology, history, fine arts) and professions (e.g., education, nursing, management) indirectly assist their students to confront gender…
Derryck, Vivian Lowery
This final report describes a five-phase study to ascertain whether formal or non-formal education has the greater functionality to accelerate women's integration into development activities. Part 1 (two chapters), introduction and background, defines the problem, sets parameters of the study, and provides definitions of education terms. Part 2…
In this article I describe the extent to which Bangladeshi women have taken advantage of the increased opportunities both to lead and manage educational institutions and to own them. I use data from government and informal sector educational institutions and interviews with female private school owners collected during fieldwork in Bangladesh. I…
Young, William C., Comp.
Information on opportunities for minorities and women who wish to pursue higher education and career goals is provided in this annotated bibliography. The resource materials cover information on how and where to seek assistance to pursue higher education, including information on loans, scholarships, and fellowships. For each entry, information is…
Hines, S. Maxwell; And Others
It is a safe assumption that the increasing influx of women of color in science education will over time redefine and have an impact on the process and system that educate them. With inclusion comes additional methods of confronting issues, many of which may include alternative modes of teaching and maintaining diverse populations in science. The…
Rapp, Stephen R; Espeland, Mark A; Manson, Joann E; Resnick, Susan M; Bryan, Nick R; Smoller, Sylvia; Coker, Laura H; Phillips, Lawrence S; Stefanick, Marcia L; Sarto, Gloria E
The relationship between neuropathology and clinically manifested functional and cognitive deficits is complex. Clinical observations of individuals with greater neuropathology who function better than some individuals with less neuropathology are common and puzzling. Educational attainment, a proxy for "cognitive reserve," may help to explain this apparent contradiction. The objective of this study is to determine if educational attainment is correlated with cognitive decline, brain lesion volume, and total brain atrophy. One thousand three hundred ninety of the 7,479 community-dwelling women 65 years of age and older enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study, two parallel randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials comparing unopposed and opposed postmenopausal hormone therapy with placebo, were studied. Study participants received annual assessments of global cognitive function with the Modified Mini Mental State exam. One thousand sixty-three participants also received supplemental neurocognitive battery and neuroimaging studies. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to calculate total ischemic lesion and brain volumes. Incident cases of probable dementia and mild cognitive impairment were centrally adjudicated. After adjustment for total lesion and total brain volumes (atrophy), higher educational attainment predicted better cognitive performance (p < 0.001). Following conversion to dementia/MCI, higher education predicted steeper declines in cognitive function (p < 0.001). Thus, higher educational attainment was associated with a delay in diagnosis of dementia/MCI in the face of a growing neuropathological load. PMID:24552037
Rapp, Stephen R; Espeland, Mark A; Manson, Joann E; Resnick, Susan M; Bryan, Nick R; Smoller, Sylvia; Coker, Laura H; Phillips, Lawrence S; Stefanick, Marcia L; Sarto, Gloria E
The relationship between neuropathology and clinically manifested functional and cognitive deficits is complex. Clinical observations of individuals with greater neuropathology who function better than some individuals with less neuropathology are common and puzzling. Educational attainment, a proxy for "cognitive reserve," may help to explain this apparent contradiction. The objective of this study is to determine if educational attainment is correlated with cognitive decline, brain lesion volume, and total brain atrophy. One thousand three hundred ninety of the 7,479 community-dwelling women 65 years of age and older enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study, two parallel randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials comparing unopposed and opposed postmenopausal hormone therapy with placebo, were studied. Study participants received annual assessments of global cognitive function with the Modified Mini Mental State exam. One thousand sixty-three participants also received supplemental neurocognitive battery and neuroimaging studies. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to calculate total ischemic lesion and brain volumes. Incident cases of probable dementia and mild cognitive impairment were centrally adjudicated. After adjustment for total lesion and total brain volumes (atrophy), higher educational attainment predicted better cognitive performance (p < 0.001). Following conversion to dementia/MCI, higher education predicted steeper declines in cognitive function (p < 0.001). Thus, higher educational attainment was associated with a delay in diagnosis of dementia/MCI in the face of a growing neuropathological load.
Slater, Stephanie Jean
The long-running REU-program is tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. This longitudinal, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which REUs acted as educational experiences for 51 women in the field of astronomy, in an attempt to develop a theory of experience related to the REU. Stage-1 consisted of an ex post facto analysis of data collected over 8 years, including multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes. All data were analyzed using a theoretical framework of continuity and interaction, in a search for transformative experiences. Four findings emerged, related to developing understandings of the nature of professional scientific work, the scientific process, the culture of academia, and an understanding of the "self." Analysis provided an initial theory that was used to design the Stage-2 interview protocol. In Stage-2, over 10 hours of interviews were conducted with 8 participants selected for their potential to disconfirm the initial theory. Results indicate that the REU provided a limited impact in terms of participants' knowledge of professional astronomy as a largely computer-based endeavor. The REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, the culture of academia, participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, or other aspects of the "self". Instead, the data suggests that these women began the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not function to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently associated with other mentors/scientist interactions, from middle school into the undergraduate years. Instructors and family members also served as crucial forces in
This article discusses the relevance of curriculum to current UN Millennium targets to extend access to education and equality in education for women. It argues, firstly, that it is contradictory to be concerned about women's access to education but leave curriculum out of the discussion; secondly, that curriculum is not adequately seen as a…
The IOR project (Idea and reality underlying educational reforms of higher education) used women's life stories as case studies to help understand the reforms of higher education during an expansive, "rational" planning period. The project gathered data from 300 women who returned questionnaires. A central topic in the IOR-questionnaires was the…
Kollins, Judith M.; Hansman, Catherine A.
This study examines how the Education Office of the "Oficina Juridica Para la Mujer" [Women's Legal Office] , a community-based popular education organization in Cochabamba, Bolivia, works with women to address personal, legal, and policy issues through local leadership training and popular education methodology. We investigate the marginalization…
Roberts, Leonard H.
This paper presents biographical information about Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797), focusing especially on her education. The paper begins with an overview of the status of women's education, or lack of it, in 18th century England. It then describes Wollstonecraft's reaction to Jean Jacques Rousseau's views on women's education and the influence…
Metcalfe, Amy; Vekved, Monica; Tough, Suzanne C
Under Canada's Employment Insurance system, parents are entitled to receive up to 50 weeks of parental leave at 55 % of salary. Despite this national policy, women with higher education are more likely to delay childbearing. This analysis aimed to assess the association between workplace support, educational attainment and the timing of first births. Women who had recently given birth to their first live-born infant and lived in Alberta, Canada, were randomly selected to participate in a telephone survey. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between workplace support, educational attainment and timing of first pregnancy. Among 835 women with a planned pregnancy, 26 % agreed that support or lack of support for pregnant women at their workplace affected their decision about when to begin their family. After controlling for age and income, women who had completed a post-graduate degree were three times (OR 3.39, 95 % CI 1.69-6.81) more likely to indicate that support or lack of support for pregnant women in their workplace affected their childbearing decisions. In spite of national policies, and the potential risks associated with delayed childbearing, workplace support impacts timing of pregnancy, particularly for highly educated women.
Mary Kieran, McElroy, Sister
Describes an interdisciplinary program in the areas of biochemistry, biology, and computer science offered at Chestnut Hill College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to update 30 women in order to prepare them to return to the job market in chemistry. (HM)
Describes traditional training methods for the occupations of Yoruba women of West Africa, such as weaving, dyeing, and pottery-making. Suggests that these vocational training methodologies could be applied to contemporary African economic problems. (SK)
Papaioannou, A; Parkinson, W; Adachi, J; O'Connor, A; Jolly, E E; Tugwell, P; Bédard, M
BACKGROUND: The decisions that postmenopausal women make about whether to start hormone replacement therapy may depend on the potential risks and benefits of such therapy as well as their risk for osteoporosis-related fractures. This study examined the decisions made by women at risk for osteoporosis-related fractures who were educated about hormone replacement therapy and who were given information about their bone mineral density. METHODS: The study employed a prospective cohort design. Thirty-seven post--menopausal women with risk factors for osteoporosis-related fractures were recruited from an orthopedic clinic at a teaching hospital in Hamilton, Ont. The women were given an education kit (consisting of an audio tape and a work-book) to clarify the benefits and risks of hormone replacement therapy. Two to 4 weeks later, densitometry of the hip and the lumbar spine was performed. A summary of the risks, the densitometry findings and decisions about hormone replacement therapy were given to the women's family physicians for follow-up. Outcome measures included decisions about hormone replacement therapy, as well as use of such therapy and other medications at 12 months. RESULTS: After the education component alone, 10 (27%) of the women requested hormone replacement therapy. After densitometry testing, 4 more requested hormone replacement therapy (for a total of 14 women [38%]). At 12 months, 2 (5%) of the women had been lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 35, 6 (17%) were receiving hormone replacement therapy, 7 (20%) were using bisphosphonates, and 24 (68%) were taking calcium supplements. INTERPRETATION: These preliminary findings suggest that the combination of education about hormone therapy and feedback about bone density is associated with an increase in the use of hormone replacement therapy and other preventive medications by women at risk for osteoporosis-related fractures. However, the observed increase was small and so the clinical significance must
Gomez-Scott, Jessica; Cooney, Teresa M
In the USA, most pregnancies occurring to teenage women are unplanned, making both the decisions regarding their resolution and the consequences of those decisions important topics of inquiry. Substantial debate surrounds the potential consequences for young women of either carrying an unintended pregnancy to term or voluntarily terminating it. The present study utilises data from The US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health prospectively to examine the predictors of pregnancy resolution decisions in terms of young women's educational goals and their engagement in risk behaviours. Additionally, the long-term consequences of these decisions for education and risk-taking behaviours are identified. Results indicate that young women with strong educational goals have a greater likelihood of terminating an unintended pregnancy than those with low aspirations, and that pregnancy termination predicts higher educational attainment compared to motherhood. Risk behaviours did not predict pregnancy-resolution decisions, but young women who became mothers reported lower rates of subsequent substance use and fewer sexual partners post-pregnancy than those who terminated the pregnancy or who had never been pregnant. Motherhood appears to be a catalyst for lifestyle change among young women, limiting substance use and sexual partnering, in contrast to abortion, which appears to allow adolescents to continue risk-taking trajectories.
The dramatic changes during the past 20 years in Taiwan offer a good example of how gender policy in education is facilitated by a combination of interrelated economic, political and social forces. Taiwan's policy on gender education emerged from the interaction of state, education, academic and non-academic feminist positions in reforms. This…
The paper analyses gender disparity in education evident across the socio-economic spectrum in India. Concern for girls' education in last few years has lead to a considerable expansion of access at the primary level. But a great number of girls especially in the rural areas drop out before they reach secondary or higher stages of education. Many…
Weiss, Helen A.; Vandepitte, Judith; Bukenya, Justine N.; Mayanja, Yunia; Nakubulwa, Susan; Kamali, Anatoli; Seeley, Janet; Grosskurth, Heiner
The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of problem drinking in a cohort of women at high-risk of HIV in Kampala, Uganda. Overall, 1027 women at high risk of HIV infection were followed from 2008 to 2013. The CAGE and AUDIT questionnaires were used to identify problem drinkers in the cohort. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to ascertain socio-demographic and behavioural factors. Blood and genital samples were tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. At enrollment, most women (71%) reported using alcohol at least weekly and about a third reported having drunk alcohol daily for at least 2 weeks during the past 3 months. Over half (56%) were problem drinkers by CAGE at enrollment, and this was independently associated with vulnerability (being divorced/separated/widowed, less education, recruiting clients at bars/clubs, and forced sex at first sexual experience). Factors associated with problem drinking during follow-up included younger age, meeting clients in bars/clubs, number of clients, using drugs and HSV-2 infection. HIV prevalence was associated with drinking at enrollment, but not during follow-up. This longitudinal study found high levels of persistent problem drinking. Further research is needed to adapt and implement alcohol-focused interventions in vulnerable key populations in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26805868
Jones, Lauren Ila
In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the women…
Ba, F H
Population education programs in Africa are specific to each country, yet have important common characteristics. Concern with safeguarding positive cultural traditions and moral values, and an essential objective of improving quality of life for individuals and societies are shared by many different programs. The idea of responsible parenthood, often touched on in the context of larger programs of "population and development" or "economic development and quality of life", calls for relating family size to prospects of economic development rather than limiting families to small sizes dictated by available family resources. Small families are seen not as a panacea but as a favoring factor within development policies. Smaller families are viewed as facilitating education of children and protecting family health through avoidance of early and closely spaced pregnancies. Rehabilitation of family values, modernization of means of production, and increasing educational levels and marriage ages are considered necessary steps in reduction of family sizes and improving quality of life. Fertility per se receives less priority in population education programs and when the issue is raised it is usually related to mortality or woman's status. The value attached to children in traditional African societies and their importance to female status limits receptivity to messages focusing exclusively on reducing family size. Most of the programs also place little emphasis on family size in relation to management of family resources, partly because of the continued importance of the extended family. Women occupy the most important place in population education programs because of their role in assuring family health, protecting the environment, educating children, and in production, and also because of their increasing marginalization in distribution of the benefits of growth. Educational activity is directed toward explaining the current status of women as resulting from sociocultural
Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Yazdekhasti, Safoura; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Pourmoghaddas, Ali; Kasaei, Zahra; Aghdak, Pejman
Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most common cause of mortality and morbidity in women. Intervention programs aimed at improving the lifestyle can reduce the incidence of these diseases and their factors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference of the interventions impact on CVD risk factors and the women's physical and biochemical indicators based on education levels. Materials and Methods: As part of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program after identifying the status of women over the age of 18 and over five years, a large educational or environmental intervention was performed in different methodologies and in order to improve the lifestyle. Some organizations such as health care centers and the Literacy Campaign Organization have cooperated for low educated women. Demographic data and risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes and serum lipids were investigated and compared during the first and last phase. Data were entered in SPSS-15 software and were analyzed by using T-test in two independent samples, Chi-square test and Fisher exact test. Results: Findings of this study showed that performing the five years interventions could reduce physical and biochemical indexes such as nutrition, lipid profile, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio in both groups (P < 0.005). In the pre-intervention phase, 6391 subjects and after the intervention 4786 women participated. After Interventions, women with higher educational levels were showed significant decrease in Body Mass Index (BMI) (P = 0.01) and dyslipidemia (P = 0.02). Conclusion: The present study showed that the community-based interventions even in low-literate women could cause effective changes on improving lifestyle and CVD risk factors. Due to the greater impact of interventions in literate women, effective interventions should be considered in the society to decrease the prevalence of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). PMID:25250369
Baheiraei, Azam; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Mohammadi, Eesa; Majdzadeh, Reza
Background: Smoking is a well-known public health problem in women as well as men. In many countries including Iran, there is an increase in tobacco use among women. Exploring the experience of smoking by educated women in order to develop effective tobacco prevention programs in these women is necessary. This study aimed to explore the experiences of smoking among Iranian educated women. Methods: This study used a method of qualitative content analysis with the deep individual, semi-structured interviews on a sample of 14 educated female smokers, selected purposefully. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with conventional approach while being collected. Results: The data analysis led to 16 subcategories which were divided into four main categories: (1) Personal factors including subcategories of imitation, show-off and independence, inexperience and curiosity, personal interest and desire, improved mood, and social defiance; (2) family factors including smokers in the family, intrafamily conflicts, and family strictures and limitations; (3) social factors including subcategories of effects of work and school environment, gender equality symbols, peer pressure, and acceptance among friends; and (4) negative consequences of smoking including subcategories of a sense of being physically hurt, psychological and emotional stress, and being looked upon in a negative and judgmental manner. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that smoking among Iranian educated women is a multifactorial problem. Thus, it is necessary to address smoking among educated women in a holistic approach that focuses on different determinants including personal, family, and social factors particularly the gender roles and stereotypes. PMID:27563429
This paper examines fertility transition in Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and second-largest city in sub-Saharan Africa. Shapiro (1996) documented the onset of fertility transition in the city, using data from 1990. Women's education was strongly inversely related to fertility, beginning with secondary schooling, and increases in women's education were important in initiating fertility transition in the city. The paper uses data from the 2007 Demographic and Health Survey in the DRC to examine fertility in Kinshasa and assess fertility transition since 1990, a period characterized by severe adverse economic conditions in the DRC. Fertility transition has continued at a strong pace. In part this reflects increased educational attainment of women, but it appears also to be largely a consequence of enduring economic hardship. The ongoing fertility decline has been accompanied by substantial delays in entry to marriage and childbearing, reflecting adverse economic conditions, which in turn have contributed to continuing declines in fertility.
Osezuah, Simon; Nwadiani, C. O.
This investigation focused on womenís share in Science and Technology education and their job performance in Nigeria. The investigation was conducted with two questions that were raised as a guide. A sample of 4886 was drawn through the questionnaire method. Analysis of the data was conducted through the use of frequency count. Findings obtained indicated that there was disparity between male and female gender in access to Science and Technology education in Nigeria, and also that there were no differences between women and men scientists and technologists in job performance. The conclusion was therefore reached that women do not have equal share with men in Science and Technology education even though the male and female scientists and technologists perform jobs equally in Nigeria. Recommendation was therefore made accordingly.
Herr, Jane Leber; Wolfram, Catherine
This paper examines the propensity of highly educated women to exit the labor force at motherhood. We focus on systematic differences across women with various graduate degrees to analyze whether these speak to differences in the capacity to combine children with work over a variety of high-education career paths. Working with a sample of Harvard…
Schlickau, Jane; Wilson, Margaret
Many immigrant Hispanic women in the United States choose to bottle-feed rather than breastfeed. This article describes an intervention that was developed and tested in a two-step process. Two studies were undertaken. First, a qualitative inquiry explored the breastfeeding beliefs, attitudes, meanings, and practices of Hispanic women. Results informed the design of a culturally appropriate prenatal breastfeeding education intervention. Secondly, the researchers undertook a quantitative study of the intervention's success in increasing breastfeeding duration among Hispanic women. Methodology and findings of this study have implications for future interventions that promote breastfeeding. PMID:17273450
Frederick County Public Schools, MD.
Arranged into 26 sections, this curriculum guide provides high school teachers with a competency based approach to teaching art education. Following a statement of appreciation, the philosophy and goals for art education in Maryland are presented. An excerpt from Edmund Feldman's "Varieties of Visual Experience" discusses aesthetic expression.…
This article examines two groups of Bedouin women who studied in different cultural spaces. The first group, due to a lack of high schools in the Negev (during the 1970s), were obliged to leave the village to study and reside in boarding schools in the central and northern regions of Israel. These women returned to their society of origin after…
Haque, Riffat; Batool, Syeda Najeeba
The Allama Iqbal Open University of Pakistan started the Women's Secondary Education Project through distance learning in 1986. It was designed to meet the educational needs of rural women who are denied access to the formal education system because of social and economic constraints. The distance education method suited these women because by…