Bennefield, Zinobia C.
Background: Research has been conducted to determine the impact that education has on health behaviors; specifically, comparisons between highly educated and less educated groups. However, little research has been done on the racial variation among highly educated women. Purpose: This research examined the racial variation in the relationship…
The high level of college admission of women in Japan is analyzed relative to changes in social and educational values, continuing evidence of gender tracking, persistent doubts regarding "appropriateness" of higher education for women, employment opportunities and related national legislation, and values held by Japanese women…
Nixon, L A; Robinson, M D
To test for the presence of role model effects of female high school faculty and professional staff on young women in high school, we estimate several models of educational attainment for young women using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Exposure to female high school faculty and professional staff has a positive impact on the educational attainment of young women. This result, combined with our finding that female faculty and professional staff have no significant impact on the educational attainment of young men, supports a female role model hypothesis.
Bjorkquist, David C.
Deals with these three questions: (1) What is the employment status of women, (2) What do advocates of the women's rights movement want, (3) How should industrial educators respond to the women's rights movement? (SB)
Women have traditionally been discriminated against in higher education in both the attainment of degrees and in employment after earning degrees. It has been felt that women are not as capable, reliable, or effective as men in administrative and classroom situations. Statistics show that even at the present time women are underemployed and…
Zimmerman, Enid, Ed.; Stankiewicz, Mary Ann, Ed.
This collection of papers on women art educators reveals the variety of roles played by those women, from anonymous art teachers to leaders in their profession. "Mary Rouse: A Remembrance" (G. Hubbard) is a personal perspective on Rouse, the development of her career, and her considerable impact in the field of art education. "The…
Collins, Georgia; Sandell, Renee
Sex equity issues and efforts in art and art education are examined in five major focus areas: (1) "Matters of Conscious and Consciousness" deals with problematic relationships between women, art and education. (2) "Matters of Protest and Progress" explores the sex equity progress made in art and education. (3) "Matters of Herstory and Heritage"…
O'Donnell, Sheryl, Ed.; Shaver, Barbara, Ed.
Articles on women's studies and females in higher education are presented in this publication. A University of North Dakota project that sought to promote the integration of new research and scholarship results into the curriculum is described in "Women's Equity Committee Offers a Model Project," (Leola Furman, Robert Young). Historical…
Jarecke, Jodi; Taylor, Edward W.; Hira, Tahira K.
Exploring the pedagogical approaches of four women's financial literacy education programs, this chapter provides an overview of trends and needs in financial education for women and offers pedagogical strategies for teaching women about finance.
Wenniger, Mary Dee Ed.
This document consists of the twelve consecutive numbers of the newsletter "Women in Education", published during 1998. This newsletter focus on issues concerned with women students, women faculty, and women administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news items, and profiles of significant people. Feature articles…
This paper discusses the historical, political, ideological (value), and government policies of women's education in Saudi Arabia implicated within teaching and learning, how women's higher education has changed over time in the realm of Saudi cultural traditions and religious norms. It also highlights the golden era of women's higher education.…
Summarizes the importance of entrepreneurship to the American economy, presents a profile of women small business owners, reviews the research pertaining to business education for women entrepreneurs, and indicates an agenda directed toward the educational needs of women venture initiators. (NRJ)
Southampton Univ. (England).
This collection of working papers deals with the relationship among women, social class, and adult education. In her paper entitled "Women and University Extension," Pat Usher argues that by sustaining the dominant cultural, ideological, and social relationships of production in capitalist Britain, university adult education contributes…
Warren, Karen, Ed.
This book is a collection of feminist analyses of various topics in experiential education, particularly as it applies to outdoors and adventure education, as well as practical examples of how women's experiences can contribute to the field as a whole. Following an introduction, "The Quilt of Women's Voices" (Maya Angelou), the 25…
Butterfield, C. L.
This paper outlines the educational history of women in the United States and focuses on three women educators from the nineteenth century: Emma Willard, Catherine Beecher, and Mary Lyon. The paper considers their contributions to teaching and teacher education--all of these women founded schools to educate women. While these women paved the way…
Ellis, Mary L.
Perhaps the most significant challenge of the 1970's will be the effect the women's rights movement will have on the nation's established institutions and the extent to which the nation responds to the call of women for equal opportunities. Social pressures and expectations have been, until recently, such that women simply have not opted for jobs…
Kaufmann, Susan W.; Sharp, Sally; Miller, Jeanne E.; Waltman, Jean
This report examines the importance of education to women and the effects of tuition, state and federal aid programs, child care, and welfare policies on Michigan women's access to higher education. Sections of the report address the following issues: (1) why the education of women matters, noting that postsecondary education is the primary means…
Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).
This volume contains 11 papers on the under-representation of women in higher education management in Bahrain, Finland, France, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Peru, the United States and Canada, the South Pacific and the West Indies. All papers were written by women vice-chancellors, presidents and senior managers of universities in those…
Wenninger, Mary Dee, Ed.
This document consists of the 12 monthly issues of a newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education, issued in 1994. Each issue includes feature articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main article topics are: (1) campuses's changing…
Wenniger, Mary Dee, Ed.
This document consists of the issues of a 1996 newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main articles concern: (1) a successful campaign to increase female…
Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.
Educational attainment of women has risen steadily since the turn of the century. In 1900 about 57,000 girls graduated from high school, and by 1968 the number had increased to 1.4 million. A similar rise occurred in the number of bachelor's degrees received by women. In 1900 about 5,000 graduated from college, and in 1968 the number rose to…
Fennema, Elizabeth, Ed.; Ayer, M. Jane, Ed.
Suitable for use in postsecondary courses in women's studies, curriculum theory, educational policy, or introductory educational administration, this book presents current scholarship on educational goals for women as well as the role and position of women in education. Twelve essays are presented in separate chapters. Chapter 1, an introduction…
The contemporary women's movement in India (1975-present) has played an important role in bringing gender issues to the forefront of development planning and defining feminist politics. This paper examines how this movement has addressed the issue of women's education. The first section highlights contributions of the social reformist movement in the 19th century and the nationalist movement in promoting women's education. The role of the contemporary women's movement in changing school curricula is examined in the second section, followed by discussion on how women's studies has contributed to redefining knowledge. The fourth section discusses women's empowerment and education from the perspective of the women's movement. The article concludes by highlighting challenges facing the women's movement in promoting women's education for equality and empowerment.
Purpose: This paper aims to consider what all-women networks have, and might offer, in terms of support and development of women in educational leadership. Design/methodology/approach: The study draws on two case studies of such networks in education in England, the first, a regional network for women secondary school principals, and the other…
Groups of 15-20 women in Dacca, Bangladesh received a 2-week training program in basic health and nutrition in addition to advice on contraceptive methods and use. Contraceptives were also supplied. There were 18 field teams at work, operating in 24 union councils around Dacca city. The basic health training included 1 week of theoretical classes on sore eyes, scabies and parasites. The 2nd week was devoted to practical application and demonstration. At this time the mothers were given the formula to prepare saline water -- oral rehydration fluid. The mothers then prepared the saline and used it for the children in case of any diarrheal incidence in the community. It was the experience of the fieldworkers of the Concerned Women for Family Planning (CWFP) that the communities under their program live under unsanitary conditions.
Kelly, Gail P., Ed.; Slaughter, Sheila, Ed.
This book presents a collection of essays on the effect of national policies and practices on women's access to higher education, the type of courses in which women are enrolled, women's roles as academics, and how the outcomes of higher education affect women in the academic workforce and the economy. Various countries are represented in the…
Crocker, Elvira Valenzuela
Hispanic women earn less, own fewer businesses, and are less represented in politics than almost any other population segment, and their history of low educational attainment is a key factor for each of these realities. In 1981, while 69% of the total population completed four or more years of high school, only 42% of the Hispanic females reached…
Akubuilo, Francis; Omeje, Monica
This paper is focused on women education in Nigeria. It traces the genesis of western education in Nigeria and bias that existed from the traditional Nigerian society against women education. It identified and discussed barriers to women education in Nigeria. Recent trend in enrolment at various levels of education shows improvement in favor of women. In view of this realization, this paper argues that if the current momentum is sustained, women will not only achieve equal status to men in educational attainment but also have the tendency to surpass men within the next ten to fifteen years. The implications could be outreaching as the paper proffers some recommendations.
The choices that Japanese women make about higher education are, in part, a response to realistic expectations about the functions or rewards of education in their lives and the availability of job opportunities for educated women. Discusses traditional and changing Japanese attitudes toward sex roles, working women, and the types of employment…
Ghara, Tushar Kanti
Women education and empowerment are the indicators of development. Women education ensures the holistic and long development. It includes equitable and increased access to technical and vocational education and training, higher education and research with due attention to quality assurance. This communication has taken a look on women…
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
As a result of intensive advocacy, girls' and women's education is a developmental priority in India. Availability of international development assistance for basic education and women's education has gone up significantly. Government and donor perceptions of gender issues in education and the importance of reaching out to girls to achieve the…
Examines how the contemporary women's movement in India (1975-present) has addressed the issue of women's education. Highlights contributions of the 19th-century social-reformist movement and the nationalist movement. Details the role of the contemporary women's movement in redefining knowledge and the curriculum. Concludes with challenges facing…
The Hmong are the second largest tribal group in Thailand. Hmong society is stratified by both age and gender. Women were considered inferior to men in Hmong traditional society. There was a strong bias against education for Hmong women in the past. Hmong women's access to education has improved with recent developments in the socio-economy and…
Toney, Allison F.
While only about one-third of each year's doctoral graduates in mathematics are women, about two-thirds of the doctoral graduates in mathematics education are women. This article reports on the results of a qualitative investigation into the nature of the graduate school-related experiences of women in collegiate mathematics education doctoral…
The purposes of this paper are to: (1) discuss the historical development of women in higher education; (2) describe the implementation of federal policies for women; (3) focus on selected problems encountered by women in the work-place; and (4) offer recommendations and suggestions for eliminating some of the problems that women encounter. The…
Sherman, Whitney H.; Beaty, Danna M.; Crum, Karen S.; Peters, April
Purpose: As women professors of educational leadership who are involved with feminist research and the preparation of k-12 women leaders, the authors came to the realization that while they have dedicated their professional lives to advancing women leaders in the k-12 environment, they have neglected women like themselves, particularly young…
Montez, Jennifer Karas; Zajacova, Anna
Since the mid-1980s differences in mortality risk across education levels have widened considerably among non-Hispanic white women. For example, while mortality has "declined" among college-educated women, it has remained fairly "stable" among women with a high school credential or some college education and "increased" among women without a high…
John, Vaughn M.
Why do educated girls and women constitute a danger in some societies and for this face extreme danger in their educational endeavours? This article argues that historical and contemporary educational discrimination of girls and women is the hallmark of a violently patriarchal society, and this stubborn injustice is exacerbated under conditions of…
Martin, Jane Roland
Martin examines the exclusion of women from philosophy of education both as subjects who have written about education and as objects of educational study and thought. She traces this exclusion from a misunderstanding of Plato, Rousseau, and Pestalozzi and builds a critique of the concepts of education, liberal education, and teaching. (Author/SK)
Gill, Barbara A.
A study was conducted during spring 1993 of 29 women educators in New Brunswick, Canada, who had either obtained a position or who were actively seeking a position in educational administration. About 25 percent of administrators in the Anglophone school system are women. The largest percentage of these women administrators are in rural school…
In Viet Nam, government policy to achieve universal literacy has led to virtual equality in the numbers of girls and boys attending primary schools (50.7% girls) and to a 43.7% and 41.38% enrollment level for girls in junior secondary and high secondary schools, respectively. Women also fill 70% of primary teaching posts, and 37% of the female teachers at all levels have college degrees. In order to achieve further advances, the government has set targets for the year 2000 that include 1) abolition of illiteracy among women aged 15-25; 2) a 50% representation of girls in junior secondary schools; 3) a 45% enrollment of girls at the high secondary level; and 4) an increased number of women trained in professional, managerial, and women-related matters. To achieve this goal, the government will increase its training and education budget by 15%. In the health care field, women account for 60% of the work force and have been instrumental in achieving improvements in public health. However, women's health remains at risk from the after-effects of war and other factors, 4,000,000 people are disabled, 300,000 children have been orphaned, and millions of people face old age without the support of offspring who were killed in the war. Thus, government goals for the year 2000 include 1) reducing maternal and child mortality rates, 2) eliminating anemia among pregnant women, 3) reducing the infant mortality rate, 4) reducing malnutrition in children under age 5 from 42% to 30%, and 5) reducing population growth.
Massiah, Joycelin, Ed.
One of a series emanating from a three-year project concerned with the role of women in the English-speaking Caribbean, these papers discuss the history of Caribbean women's education. The project's objectives are to establish a data base for teaching, research, and planning purposes and to develop guidelines for a social policy that recognizes…
Manicur, Alice R.
The author presents an historical and cultural analysis of the place of women in society. It is stated that historically women have had to assume an aggressive role to become educated. In addition, as far back as the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, one finds records which indicate that women had to seek opportunities to study and to learn.…
The Country Women's Association (CWA) is a nationwide Australian group that started in the 1920s in response to isolated women's need to socialize. The group's activities have expanded greatly over time. It distributes essential food and clothing to needy rural families, and its extensive involvement in incidental education for women includes…
DiGeorgio-Lutz, JoAnn, Ed.
The essays in this collection discuss the position of women in higher education, noting the progress that women have made in recent years in the quest to achieve gender equality and the challenges women still face in study and academic careers. The chapters are: (1) "Expanding the Academic Knowledge Base: Helping Students To Cross Gender's Great…
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
While girls and women in Laos are not the target of strong discriminatory practices, they are at a higher risk of dropping out of school and never attending school. Specific components have been developed within educational policies and strategies to address needs of and concerns for girls and women. Reasons that girls and women lack access to…
Bullard, Melissa Meriam
Presented is a history of higher education for women that explores the changing circumstances that made it possible for a woman, Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Psicopia, to earn a university degree. Topics include the education of women in ancient society, Christianity's influence, the rise of universities, and changes caused by the humanists. (JMD)
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
Cultural and socioeconomic barriers to girls' and women's education are reflected in the female literacy rate, average wage, and girls' enrollment, dropout, attainment, and participation rates in formal education. Development of national education has been given top priority in the Indonesian national development. The education system is organized…
Berry, Mary Frances
Reviews the impact of numerous Black women on American education. Discusses how, because of their overriding interest in educational opportunity, these leaders have often overlooked the issue of educational quality. Indicates that those who subscribe to educating Blacks for social assimilation encounter less opposition than those who emphasize…
Holmes, Caroline; Jackson, Judith
Many British unions are failing to attract women members. The General Federal of Trade Unions has begun a women's studies program, offering communication and confidence building, women's history, and other courses that are helping women become involved in union l leadership and decision making. (SK)
Andrade, Maureen Snow
American Indians (AIs) have lower higher education enrollment and completion rates than Whites and most minority groups. AI women, however, participate at higher rates than AI men, White women, and White men. Research has not examined what contributes to their higher education aspirations. This study explored the middle and high school experiences…
Evans, Joy; Hsieh, Peggy Pei-Hsuan; Robinson, Daniel H.
Previously, Robinson, McKay, Katayama, and Fan (1998) examined women's involvement in six educational psychology journals ("American Educational Research Journal," "Contemporary Educational Psychology," "Educational Psychologist," "Educational Psychology Review," "Journal of Experimental Education," and "Journal of Educational Psychology") from…
Sakamoto, Izumi; Anastas, Jeane W.; McPhail, Beverly M.; Colarossi, Lisa G.
This invited study sought to determine the current status of women in social work education for the special section of the "Journal of Social Work Education." Analysis of the latest data available indicate that gender differences remain pervasive across many aspects of social work education, including pay, rank, job duties, and tenure.…
Statistically, Thailand has eliminated gender disparity in access to education. Reasons that four women's conferences made very little impression on education reform could be no significant or overt discrimination against girls' enrollment and employment; education opportunity as more an issue of class (affordability) than gender (culture); and…
Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany
National studies have not analyzed sexual identity disparities in high school completion, college enrollment, or college completion in the United States. Using Add Health data, we document the relationship between adult sexual orientation and each of these outcomes. Many sexual minority respondents experienced disadvantages in adolescent academic achievement, school experiences, and social environments. This translates into educational attainment in complex, gendered ways. We find that the socially privileged completely heterosexual identity predicts higher educational attainment for women, while for men it is often a liability. Mostly heterosexual and gay identities are educationally beneficial for men but not women. There are college completion disparities between gay and mostly heterosexual women and their completely heterosexual counterparts. Bisexual respondents, especially women, have particularly problematic outcomes. Adolescent experiences, attitudes, and social contexts explain some of these differences. From adolescence through college, sexual minority groups, but especially females, need intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities. PMID:26257457
Research has found that the appearance of women's apparel helps increase their attractiveness as rated by men and that men care more about physical features in potential opposite-sex mates. However, the effect of sartorial appearance has received little interest from scientists. In a series of studies, the length of women's shoe heels was examined. A woman confederate wearing black shoes with 0, 5, or 9 cm heels asked men for help in various circumstances. In Study 1, she asked men to respond to a short survey on gender equality. In Study 2, the confederate asked men and women to participate in a survey on local food habit consumption. In Study 3, men and women in the street were observed while walking in back of the female confederate who dropped a glove apparently unaware of her loss. It was found that men's helping behavior increased as soon as heel length increased. However, heel length had no effect on women's helping behavior. It was also found that men spontaneously approached women more quickly when they wore high-heeled shoes (Study 4). Change in gait, foot-size judgment, and misattribution of sexiness and sexual intent were used as possible explanations.
United Nations, New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs.
"This pamphlet was produced at the request of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women and the Economic and Social Council (of the United Nations)...It was written primarily for the use of leaders responsible for the civic and political education of women, whether governmental or non-governmental, and is intended as a basic…
Gaskell, Jane, Ed.; McLaren, Arlene, Ed.
This four-part book contains 16 papers that explore the relationship between feminist research and education, especially in Canada. The papers in the first part, "Women as Mothers, Women as Teachers," are as follows: "The Evolution of the Sexual Division of Labour in Teaching" (Danylewycz, Light, Prentice); "More than a…
Werschkul, Misha; Gault, Barbara; Caiazza, Amy; Hartmann, Heidi
Women have made remarkable strides in education during the past three decades, but these gains have yet to translate into full equity in pay. Women still earn less than men earn in nearly every profession and at every stage of their careers, and this earnings gap is evident in every state in the nation. This report focuses on educational…
Pittser, Sharan E.
Discusses the contributions of women educators to the development of geography as a discipline, focusing on seven women: (1) Susanna Rowson; (2) Emma Hart Willard; (3) Sarah Sophia Cornell; (4) Ellen Churchill Semple; (5) Zonia Baber; (6) Erna Grassmuck Gilland; and (7) Esther Sanfrieda Anderson. (CMK)
von Prummer, Christine
Reports on research that investigated characteristics of distance education programs in Germany that influenced the participation of women. Highlights include the number of women enrolled; drop-out rates; a description of the FernUniversitat, including degree programs and characteristics of the institution; and a pilot project aimed at single…
Through the use of the framework of risk and resilience in a narrative inquiry, the present study examined the protective factors affecting the academic success of 24 Jamaican women in a graduate cohort in educational administration. All but two of the women rose from poverty to become academically successful, defined as having achieved graduate…
Iranian women have endured more than 30 years of an Islamist dictatorship that uses religion as a validation for unjust control. Human rights violations against women in Iran are a tragic phenomenon for an otherwise highly developed civilization. Invisible and powerless in a male-dominated society, Iranian women are discouraged from becoming…
Murphey, Kathleen; Moss, Glenda; Hannah, Susan; Wiener, Roberta
The purpose of this research project was to engage in self-reflective analysis of leadership development as an ongoing process of social action towards democratizing education. Four White women connected by their work as educational leaders, teachers and administrators, engaged this topic by conducting a dialogical analysis of their experiences in…
United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.
This booklet focuses on educating girls and women. The main issues include gender gap and its persistence in education. The reasons for this persistence include poverty, distance of schools, non-availability of gender segregated schools, absence of female teachers, inflexible school timing, and irrelevant and gender-insensitive curriculum. It is…
Bae, Yupin; Choy, Susan; Geddes, Claire; Sable, Jennifer; Snyder, Thomas
This statistical report responds to a request by Congress for a report on educational equity for girls and women. The report assembles a series of indicators that examine the extent to which males and females have access to the same educational opportunities, avail themselves of these opportunities, perform at the same level, succeed at the same…
The most important factor that enables women to become individuals in society is education. It is also a very crucial part of rectifying the circumstances they are in. Besides formal, mass and distance education institutions, there are some other mechanisms to support women's individuality, their personal development and improve gender equality.…
Benn, Roseanne, Ed.; Elliott, Jane, Ed.; Whaley, Pat, Ed.
This book contains 17 papers examining the various roles--learner, teacher, researcher, manager--that women have played in the development of lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Introduction: Women and Continuing Education--Where Are We Now?" (Roseanne Benn, Jane Elliott, Pat Whaley); "Dancing into the Future:…
Ferber, Marianne A.; McMahon, Walter W.
Women's expectations of high rates of return to investment in higher education, particularly in nontraditional fields and in those requiring advanced degrees, are shown to be consistent with high levels of investment in these fields. Increasing workforce participation and decreasing fertility also contribute toward reducing the female-male…
Cruzada, Elizabeth, Ed.
This issue contains an editorial, "Empowering Women through Education" (Elizabeth Cruzada), and eight articles. "Women and Education" (Swarna Jayaweera) presents the status of women and girls' education in Asia vis-a-vis the goals set in the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies. "Education Reforms and Development of Chinese…
The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 confers equality on all South African citizens regardless of race and gender. It has been reported that, under apartheid, gender inequality was a way of life and even social liberation movements observed it. Education is not exempt from gender inequality; the Department of Education in 2003…
Coffield, Claudia Ditmar
This dissertation focuses on the educational aspirations and expectations of a heterogeneous group of women who were enrolled in, or had graduated from, adult education and literacy programs in Boston, Massachusetts. The research questions guiding the inquiry are: (1) Why do educationally disadvantaged women value education--how are these values…
Cselenszky, Mila P.
The number of women in senior administrative and leadership roles in higher education is minimal compared to the number of women in higher education jobs in general. This phenomenological study explored pathways women took to advance in their careers and barriers that prevent more women from gaining senior administrative and leadership roles.…
Berry, Margaret C., Ed.
The status and satisfaction of women in higher education administration are addressed in 29 articles. Contents include the following: Why Don't Women Aspire to Leadership Positions in Education (Sylvia-Lee Tibbets); Training Women for Administration (Rae Andre and Mary I. Edwards); Kindergarten: The Training Ground for Women in Administration…
In this paper I explore connections between women, art education and spatial relations drawing on the Deleuzo-Guattarian concept of "machinic assemblage" as a useful analytical tool for making sense of the heterogeneity and meshwork of life narratives and their social milieus. In focusing on Mary Bradish Titcomb, a fin-de-siecle Bostonian woman…
Durbin, Nancy E.; Kent, Lori
Uses state-level census data from 1900 to examine relationships between the social-structure characteristics and enrollments in three types of institutions of higher education: coeducational colleges and universities, women's colleges, and normal schools. Concluded that enrollments were differentially affected by characteristics of the social…
David, Miriam E.
I look at the changes in higher education (HE) and women's lives over the last 50 years, drawing on my recent book "Feminism, Gender & Universities: Politics, Passion & Pedagogies" which is a life history of feminism entering academe. The Robbins Report (cmnd 2154 1963) on HE was published in the same year that I went to…
Malik, Samina; Courtney, Kathy
This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded.…
Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Rajeswari, K.; Jabari, Kamran
This article explores theoretical and practical issues related to the impact of women's education in their empowerment. The development of women's education is discussed in this study. As women's education has become one of the key development objectives in the recent decades, the concept of empowerment has been tied to the range of activities…
Bhat, Rouf Ahmad
Women education in India has a major preoccupation of both the government and civil society as educated women can play a very important role in the development of the country. Education is milestone of women empowerment because it enables them to responds to the challenges, to confront their traditional role and change their life. So that we can't…
Bullough, Vern; Bullough, Bonnie
The implications for nursing education of the fact that nursing started as a woman's occupation in a field dominated by the male physician are considered. Although in 1873 nursing represented a real educational opportunity for large numbers of women, none of the prestigious women's colleges were interested in educating women for careers. In the…
As organizations like the American Council on Education are seeking to advance women in higher education, and many of them are approaching (or avoiding) retirement age, many women with great potential are questioning whether a leadership opportunity in higher education is for them. As a new generation of women leaders prepares to enter the higher…
Gubrium, Aline C; Shafer, Miriam B
Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women at an alternative General Educational Development test preparation center. The program prioritized a sex positive framework, including topics such as pleasure, desire and sexual entitlement, and invited participants to explore sexuality through a multisensory orientation. Participants took part in small group discussions and activities that engaged their senses through arts-based methods. Grounded in holism, program topics were integrated with a focus on participants' everyday experiences. The pilot curriculum serves as a promising program for re-positioning young parenting women as sexual subjects, which is key to the promotion of health and wellbeing.
Dobson, C D; Houseknecht, S K
"This study uses data from the June 1992 Current Population Survey to examine the effect of educational attainment on age at first marriage among Black and White women in the United States. The results both support and modify claims stemming from previous research. There is evidence for the contention that educational attainment delays age at first marriage for Black and White women. The greater impact of educational attainment on delaying marriage for White women in confirmed. An important discovery stems from using degree attained rather than years of education and our distinguishing four levels of education beyond high school. At less than a bachelor's degree, Black women marry later than White women, but among those with a bachelor's degree or higher, Black women who marry do so earlier than White women."
Balancing extensive ambition and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands: A grounded theory on stress and recovery among highly educated working young women entering male-dominated occupational areas.
Löve, Jesper; Hagberg, Mats; Dellve, Lotta
Several factors underline the issue of stress-related health among young highly educated women. Major societal changes might provide more new challenges with considerably changed and expanded roles than were expected by earlier generations, especially among women. The quantity of young women with higher education has also increased threefold in Sweden in less than two decades and there are a growing number of young women that hereby break with traditional gender positions and enter new occupational areas traditionally dominated by men. The research questions in the present study were: "What is the main concern, regarding stress and recovery, among young highly educated working women breaking with traditional gender positions and entering male-dominated occupational areas?" and "How do they handle this concern?" We conducted open-ended interviews with 20 informants, aged 23-29 years. The results showed that the synergy between highly ambitious individuals and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands ended up in the informants' constantly striving to find a balance in daily life (main concern). This concern refers to the respondents experiencing a constant overload of ambiguity and that they easily became entangled in a loop of stress and dysfunctional coping behavior, threatening the balance between stress and sufficient recovery. In order to handle this concern, the respondents used different strategies in balancing extensive ambition and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands (core category). This preliminary theoretical model deepens our understanding of how the increasing numbers of highly educated young women face complex living conditions endangering their possibility of maintaining health and work ability.
Albisetti, James C.
Helene Lange worked to obtain equal educational opportunities for women in Germany at the end of the nineteenth century. She tried to improve teacher training for women, enhance the curriculum in girls' high schools, and increase professional training opportunities for women. (AM)
Martin, Steven P.; Parashar, Sangeeta
This article examines trends in divorce attitudes of young adult women in the United States by educational attainment from 1974 to 2002. Women with 4-year college degrees, who previously had the most permissive attitudes toward divorce, have become more restrictive in their attitudes toward divorce than high school graduates and women with some…
Freeman, Janice L.; Kepler, Karen B.
In the context of recent reappraisals of women's education and discussions about what it should be, and as part of the effort to clarify the purposes of collegiate education that may be unique to women, the students and faculty at Smith College, the largest undergraduate college for women, were surveyed. The questionnaire used was designed to…
Mitchell, Patricia Turner, Ed.
This volume contains 13 papers and an introduction on women in higher education administration. The papers include an introduction by editor Patricia T. Mitchell and chapters as follows: (1) "Career Paths of Women in Higher Education Administration" (Rebecca Warner and Lois B. DeFleur); (2) "Women, Leadership, and the Academy:…
Lyman, Linda L.; Strachan, Jane; Lazaridou, Angeliki
"Shaping Social Justice Leadership: Insights of Women Educators Worldwide" contains evocative portraits of twenty-three women educators and leaders from around the world whose actions are shaping social justice leadership. Woven from words of their own narratives, the women's voices lift off the page into readers' hearts and minds to inspire and…
Following the enfranchisement of women in 1918 women's organisations throughout Britain reconsidered and revised their aims for the future. In many cases this involved educating their members, and women in general, on how to use their new influence in society. Such "education for citizenship", which also drove attempts to raise the…
This paper explores ways in which gendered approaches have limited women's experience of higher education. Using a historical lens with primary examples from the United States and Britain, it demonstrates how beliefs about women over time led to three expectations about their educational participation: initially, that women were not interested in…
Nash, Carol S.
Describes the impact of Enlightenment philosophies on Russian women during the reign of Catherine II (1762-1796). Education for upper class women was encouraraged only to enhance performance of their domestic roles within tightly knit nuclear families. Peasant women were educated to be serf-teachers for noblemen's children. (AM)
Kreager, Derek A; Felson, Richard B; Warner, Cody; Wenger, Marin R
Drawing on social exchange theories, the authors hypothesized that educated women are more likely than uneducated women to leave violent marriages and suggested that this pattern offsets the negative education - divorce association commonly found in the United States. They tested these hypotheses using 2 waves of young adult data on 914 married women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The evidence suggests that the negative relationship between women's education and divorce is weaker when marriages involve abuse than when they do not. The authors observed a similar pattern when they examined the association of women's proportional earnings and divorce, controlling for education. Supplementary analyses suggested that marital satisfaction explains some of the association among women's resources, victimization, and divorce but that marital violence continues to be a significant moderator of the education - divorce association. In sum, education appears to benefit women by both maintaining stable marriages and dissolving violent ones.
This article discusses what kinds of religious education led to the improvement of women's status and the realization of higher education for women in modern Japan, by reconsidering the educational views of Jinzo Naruse (1859-1919), both a pioneer of Japanese women's education and a promoter of the Concordia movement (1912-1941), within the…
This chapter explores the creative ways in which WE LEARN (Women Expanding Literacy Education Action Resource Network) empowers women's full participation in community across all literacy levels.
Review of women's status in Eritrea before and since independence highlights significant advances in emancipation, with education playing a major role. The review identifies shortcomings and obstacles in the current political situation for women's rights and gender equity. (SK)
Examines Black womens' participation in higher education in the United States and in East Africa. The progress of Black women in institutions and careers in both places is hindered by discrimination. Prescribes strategies to remedy this situation. (DM)
Levandowski, Barbara S.
The number of women in educational administrative positions is declining even though federal legislation and affirmative action programs exist to remedy the problem and research has shown women to be effective leaders. (Author/IRT)
Richardson, Carol P.
Discusses findings of a survey of 18 women music educators. Reports the educators' career paths, reasons for job changes, and professional influences. Reveals their appraisals of the importance of mentoring and goal setting and their definitions of success. Argues that it is up to women music educators to nurture one another. (SG)
Women working in higher education information technology (IT) organizations and those seeking leadership positions in these organizations face a double challenge in overcoming the traditionally male-dominated environments of higher education and IT. Three women higher education chief information officers (CIOs) provided their perspectives,…
Williams, Monnica T.; Bonner, Laura
Attitudes and outcomes of sex education received by North American women are examined via an Internet survey (N = 1,400). Mean age was 19.5, with 24% reporting one or more unplanned pregnancies. Women were more satisfied with sex education from informal sources than from parents, schools, and physicians. Those receiving sex education from parents…
Mareschal, Teresa L.
The history of adult Jewish education is rich and is replete with learning opportunities for Jewish adults, and Jewish women are active participants in adult Jewish education. In this chapter, the author examines Reform Jewish women's motivations to participate in adult Jewish education. First, she provides a historical overview of Judaism and…
This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…
Mushayabasa, S.; Bhunu, C. P.; Smith?, Robert J.
Prior studies have shown that imprisonment is a major risk factor for hepatitis C infection, with the risk of infection directly proportional to the length of incarceration. Women are at least twice as likely as men to contract HCV as they have limited access to information, health services and safe intravenous drug injecting equipments. We develop a mathematical model to assess the impact of educational campaigns on controlling HCV among women in prison settings. Equilibria for the model are determined and their stability are examined. Population-level effects of increased educational campaigns to encourage safe injecting practices among women in prison are evaluated through numerical simulations. The results suggest that educating women prisoners about abstaining from intravenous drug misuse may significantly reduce HCV prevalence among women in prison settings. Targeted education campaigns, which are effective at stopping transmission of HCV more than 80% of the time, will be highly effective at controlling the disease among women in prisons.
Wells, Kristen J; Vàzquez-Otero, Coralia; Bredice, Marissa; Meade, Cathy D; Chaet, Alexis; Rivera, Maria I; Arroyo, Gloria; Proctor, Sara K; Barnes, Laura E
There are few Spanish language interactive, technology-driven health education programs. Objectives of this feasibility study were to (a) learn more about computer and technology usage among Hispanic women living in a rural community and (b) evaluate acceptability of the concept of using an embodied conversational agent (ECA) computer application among this population. A survey about computer usage history and interest in computers was administered to a convenience sample of 26 women. A sample video prototype of a hospital discharge ECA was administered followed by questions to gauge opinion about the ECA. Data indicate women exhibited both a high level of computer experience and enthusiasm for the ECA. Feedback from community is essential to ensure equity in state of the art dissemination of health information.
Mitchell, Marianne H.; And Others
Seven case studies describing a number of situations in which various forms of discrimination against women in higher education have occurred are presented. The case materials were gathered from a number of doctoral level universities, which are not individually identified. Types of discrimination that are considered include: (1) selection…
Koblin, Beryl A.; Bonner, Sebastian; Hoover, Donald R.; Xu, Guozhen; Lucy, Debbie; Fortin, Princess; Putnam, Sara; Latka, Mary H.
Background Limited data are available on interventions to reduce sexual risk behaviors and increase knowledge of HIV vaccine trial concepts in high risk populations eligible to participate in HIV vaccine efficacy trials. Methods The UNITY Study was a two-arm randomized trial to determine the efficacy of enhanced HIV risk reduction and vaccine trial education interventions to reduce the occurrence of unprotected vaginal sex acts and increase HIV vaccine trial knowledge among 311 HIV-negative non-injection drug using women. The enhanced vaccine education intervention using pictures along with application vignettes and enhanced risk reduction counseling consisting of three one-on-one counseling sessions were compared to standard conditions. Follow-up visits at one week and one, six and twelve months after randomization included HIV testing and assessment of outcomes. Results During follow up, the percent of women reporting sexual risk behaviors declined significantly, but did not differ significantly by study arm. Knowledge of HIV vaccine trial concepts significantly increased but did not significantly differ by study arm. Concepts about HIV vaccine trials not adequately addressed by either condition included those related to testing a vaccine for both efficacy and safety, guarantees about participation in future vaccine trials, assurances of safety, medical care, and assumptions about any protective effect of a test vaccine. Conclusions Further research is needed to boost educational efforts and strengthen risk reduction counseling among high-risk non-injection drug using women. PMID:20190585
McDaniel, Sue P., Comp.; Krauss, Robert, Comp.
This report provides statistical analysis of women in education and the work force in Missouri along with a list of the high growth occupations in Missouri. A chart shows that the percentage of high school graduates that are women has remained at about 50% for 10 years. Although there are noted decreases in the number of computer science,…
Dave, Dhaval M.; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E.
Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes. PMID:23504449
This pamphlet contains 19 consciousness-raising articles for high-school women which help define their roles and rights as females, family members, and participants in the labor market. The first section, Education and Liberation, discusses ways in which schools, families, and society suppress women. For example, women are urged to take home…
Mason, M L
The March 1995 UN Social Summit failed to build on the success women experienced at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Rather than endorsing the recommendations (complete with timetables) that women's groups had prepared for the Social Summit, the delegates paid them only lip service. Resistance to monitored government accountability has also been noted during the preparatory meetings for the September UN Conference for Women. This resistance to the will of the people is illustrated by actions taken by the World Bank and the Government of India to construct the world's largest dam on the Narmada River in central India. Construction of this dam would benefit sugar cane farmers and factory owners but would displace 160,000 people from the most fertile valley in the subcontinent. This aid project, funded by the World Bank, will increase poverty and discontent. Activists organized a "Save Narmada Movement" which involved protest marches and hunger strikes. Despite international pressure to review the project, however, the building has continued because the government continues to ignore the voices of the people. In order to engender the respect for people needed to stop projects like this one and to support recommendations such as those presented at the Social Summit, a world court must be created to administer world law.
Calhoun, D A; Oparil, S
There is a sexual dimorphism in blood pressure of humans and experimental animals: males tend to have higher blood pressure than females with functional ovaries, while ovariectomy or menopause tends to abolish the sexual dimorphism and cause females to develop a "male" pattern of blood pressure. Hypertensive male laboratory animals tend to have NaCl-sensitive blood pressure, while females are NaCl resistant unless their ovaries are removed, in which case NaCl sensitivity appears. The hormonal basis of NaCl sensitivity of blood pressure and of the sexual dimorphism of hypertension remains to be defined. Synthetic estrogens and progestins, as found in oral contraceptives, tend to elevate blood pressure, while naturally occurring estrogens lower it, or have no effect. Hypertension increases cardiovascular risk in women, as well as men, although the benefits of antihypertensive treatment have been more difficult to demonstrate in women. In the population of the United States, women are more aware of their hypertension, more likely to be treated medically, and more likely to have their blood pressure controlled.
Howe, Sondra Wieland
Women music educators in the USA have been active in public and private schools, churches, and community organizations. In the nineteenth century, Julia E. Crane founded the Crane Institute of Music, the first institution to train music supervisors; and women developed kindergarten programs throughout the US. In the "private sphere," women taught…
Henderson, Karla A.; Harrolle, Michelle; Rich, Samantha; Moretz, Janell
Women represent growing numbers of faculty members in higher education as well as in recreation/leisure departments. The purpose of this study is to describe the career development of women faculty in recreation-related areas and to offer implications for faculty development and the preparation of future faculty. Data were collected from women who…
Wu, Ya-Ling; Wu, Hsing-Chen
Based on a sociocultural approach to adult learning and poststructural feminist theories, this study draws on interviews with 11 married Vietnamese women to explore the higher education learning experiences of Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan. On the basis of their husbands' permission and support, Vietnamese immigrant women embraced the…
Interviews with 18 women enrolled in postsecondary education used a framework of misogyny to reinterpret barriers to their participation Resulting themes included women's role in maintaining the home as sanctuary, women needing constraint, and men's role as suppressors. Results suggest how a theory based in misogyny can explain obstacles to…
Waterman, Stephanie J.; Lindley, Lorinda S.
Beginning with an overview of historical perspectives of Native American women, this article includes some discussion of values and practices of contemporary Native American women, data pertaining to Native American women's participation in higher education, and an introduction of familial cultural capital, community cultural wealth, Native…
Purpose: This short essay aims to reflect on the global experiences women in education have had in becoming leaders as noted in the articles in this special issue on women's leadership. Design/methodology/approach: The essay draws upon relevant historical and contemporary literature about women in the professions and in the workforce. Findings:…
Harder, Martha; Waldo, Karen
This article explores why women may choose not to seek educational administrative positions or why they are not chosen if they do seek them. Discussed are (1) women's qualifications for leadership; (2) models of socialization; (3) career socialization; and (4) limited opportunities for women. (JMK)
Flecha Garcia, C
This study looks at the topic of women's education as considered by the first two women to receive the degree of Doctor in Medicine from a Spanish university. Delores Aleu and Martina Castells decided to present as a doctoral thesis the development of an issue of particular relevance during the final decades of the 19th century. The importance given to public education and the difficulties young women encountered in participating under the same conditions as young men led these two women--who both held a bachelor's degree--to raise the issue and defend personal and social reasons that justified their full participation in different levels of education.
Clabaugh, Gary K.
The author examines male attitudes regarding the education of women. He discusses the lives and education of women in ancient Greece and Rome, in the Middle Ages, in the Renaissance and Reformation, in the 1700s, and in the 20th century. (CT)
Dubin, Samuel S.
The number of women occupying managerial positions in the U.S. is relatively small, but it rose 47% from 1,321,000 in 1970 to 1,942,000 in 1976. Circumstances contributing to this rise are enforcement of legal sanctions against discrimination and women's increased educational attainment. This report describes a continuing education workshop series…
When women take up the work of music education, of the university, and become nomadic, engaging Deleuze and Guattari's war machine, all kinds of things happen. As nomads in music education, women traverse borders and boundaries that would otherwise limit and constrain them as they initiate alternative possibilities related to teaching and learning…
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.
This document seeks to create a greater sense of awareness of the relevance of women's issues to quality of life themes that come within the domain of population education. The handbook provides guidelines on the various modalities of integrating women's issues into population education programs. It offers sample lessons and teaching materials…
Kotite, Phyllis, Ed.
Women's education and its development have been United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) issues since its inception. As humankind enters the 21st century, it faces a range of unresolved global issues that reflect the interdependence of the world's peoples. Since women comprise half of the world's population, they…
Babbitt, Samuel F.; And Others
Inadequate support is presently offered for the study of certain important questions which have serious implications for educational policies affecting women. Priority should be given to the support of those areas of research and program development and evaluation that have the most critical implications for both the higher education of women and…
Based on interviews with 18 UK women academics and managers on quality and power in higher education, this article interrogates the impact of quality assurance discourses and practices on women in higher education. Micro-level analysis of the effects of audit and the evaluative state seem to suggest that hegemonic masculinities and gendered power…
Kent, Calvin A.
Although the importance of entrepreneurship to the American economy has been documented, a review of research reveals that knowledge about entrepreneurship education is sparse and that research on entrepreneurship education for women is almost nonexistent. A summary of this research indicates that sex stereotyping in schools inhibits women from…
Neumann, Anna, Ed.; Peterson, Penelope L., Ed.
The autobiographical essays in this volume offer insights into how the field of education might change as women assume positions of intellectual leadership. After the "Foreword" (Mary Catherine Bateson), the 13 chapters are: (1) "Research Lives: Women, Scholarship, and Autobiography in Education" (Anna Neumann and Penelope L.…
The women's movement in the 1970s and 1980s was a global phenomenon that achieved significant educational change. More analysis of how it developed and had an impact on education can inform our understanding of the possibilities for change today. This paper explores how the women's movement changed schooling in Vancouver in the 1970s, using a…
Najarian, Cheryl G.
Using life history interviews with 10 college educated Deaf women this paper investigates connections between early education and college experience and how they identified as Deaf. The women developed strategies as they managed their impressions while employing Goffman's practices of loyalty, discipline and circumspection. Acknowledging deafness…
Howard-Vital, Michelle R.; Brunson, Deborah A.
After participating on a search committee for an academic leader, the authors conduct an empirical and philosophical analysis of factors that influence the work and productivity of women in higher education. The authors query--how can women achieve more balance in educational institutions so they can pursue careers that reflect the complexity and…
Although female teachers have dominated education, relatively few women have pursued administrative positions. In 1988, women in Ohio held only 4.5 percent of all superintendencies. The state generally lags behind the lackluster national average, according to a 1985 Project on Equal Education report. Because of changing U.S. demographics, future…
Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.
Educators are increasingly seeking information about minority women as they attempt to develop realistic, viable programs to benefit them. This paper summarizes some of the relevant data concerning the educational and economic status of Spanish speaking women. Whenever possible, ethnic variations are noted. In general, the data are divided into…
Maintains that during the early 20th century the work of women teacher activists brought issues of social reform to the forefront. Describes the work of five Chicago women who helped advance women's rights, women's suffrage, and other social reform efforts. Contends that their work has not be adequately recognized. (CFR)
Morley, Louise, Ed.; Walsh, Val, Ed.
Essays from women in higher education, organized around two major themes: diversity, equity, and change, and feminism in the academy, and with an emphasis on these issues in the United Kingdom, include: "Women and Careers in Higher Education: What Is the Problem?" (Christine Heward); "In the Prime of Their Lives? Older Women in…
Baldissera, Vanessa Denardi Antoniassi; Bueno, Sonia Maria Villela; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura
The purpose of this action research (AR) was to explore the ways in which sexuality is experienced daily and to improve the expression of older women's sexuality. The pedagogy of autonomy as proposed by the Brazilian educator Paulo Freire theoretically supported this AR, with the participation of six older adult women living in a rural setting in southwest Brazil. The older women's experiences regarding sexuality, their concerns, and their educational demands could be summarized through five phrases: the improvement of self-esteem as a way to promote sexuality; sexuality impaired by loneliness and lack of affection; men's sexual satisfaction seen as a woman's obligation; women's sexuality controlled by the society; and relinquishment of the companion to attend to the expectations of family members. Dialogical and participative educational approaches and continuous observation-participation strategies were performed to support the women's care and educational requirements.
Montez, Jennifer Karas; Zajacova, Anna
Over the last half century the gap in mortality across education levels grew in the United States, and since the mid-1980s the growth was especially pronounced among white women. The reasons for the growth among white women are unclear. We investigated three explanations—social-psychological factors, economic circumstances, and health behaviors—for the widening education gap in mortality across 1997-2006 among white women 45-84 years of age. We used data from the National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality File (N=46,744; deaths=4,053). We found little support for social-psychological factors; however, economic circumstances and health behaviors jointly explained the growing education gap in mortality to statistical nonsignificance. Employment and smoking were the most important individual components. Increasing high school graduation rates, reducing smoking prevalence, and designing work-family policies that help women find and maintain desirable employment may reduce mortality inequalities among women. PMID:23723344
Montez, Jennifer Karas; Zajacova, Anna
Over the past half century the gap in mortality across education levels has grown in the United States, and since the mid-1980s, the growth has been especially pronounced among white women. The reasons for the growth among white women are unclear. We investigated three explanations-social-psychological factors, economic circumstances, and health behaviors-for the widening education gap in mortality from 1997 to 2006 among white women aged 45 to 84 years using data from the National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality File (N = 46,744; 4,053 deaths). Little support was found for social-psychological factors, but economic circumstances and health behaviors jointly explained the growing education gap in mortality to statistical nonsignificance. Employment and smoking were the most important individual components. Increasing high school graduation rates, reducing smoking prevalence, and designing work-family policies that help women find and maintain desirable employment may reduce mortality inequalities among women.
Mobley, Pamela Rios
In 2005, the National Education Association (NEA) began publishing a series of reports on the status of underserved groups in education. This report on the status of women and girls is based on the principle that every student has the human and civil right to a quality public education. America's public schools are expected to serve the needs of…
Curriculum framework in the education of children became debatable during the enlightenment. Jean-Jacque Rousseau's treatise, "Emile," outlined an educational curriculum based on natural rights. Rousseau thought education should be based on espousing and exploring the natural abilities of a person. Therefore, since women have a natural…
Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Dublin (Ireland).
Designed to acquaint young men and women with the agricultural education programs currently available in Ireland's institutions of vocational and higher education, this prospectus describes the educational requirements, facilities, and programs under the auspices of Ireland's Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. Specifically, this document…
History has a habit of ignoring women. Thirty years ago one thought that re-emerging women's movement would never be dumped in the same way previous feminist generations were consigned to the dustbin of history. It took feminist activists and scholars; women trade unionists and health workers; feminist writers, publishers and artists; and the…
Astin, Helen S.; Hirsch, Werner Z.
Essays include: some considerations on the higher education of women (Rosemary Park); three women, creators of change (Esther Raushenbush); women's education, the case for the single-sex college (Susan Romer Kaplan); liberal arts education and women's development (C. Robert Pace); women's studies, its origin, organization, and prospects (Sheila…
Rehakova, P; Rexhaj, E; Farron, F; Duplain, H
Nowadays, high altitude resorts have become popular destinations for family vacations. Based on a limited number of publications and international guidelines, this article summarizes the effects of high altitude on children and pregnant women. Children also suffer from high altitude-related diseases, however their presentation and clinical significance are different from their adult counterparts. Careful planning of the itinerary with respect to altitude of the overnight stays, access to medical services and potential evacuation routes is the cornerstone of a successful vacation.
The first half of this monograph deals with present attitudes towards Hispanic women and migrants, comparing stereotypes and facts about both groups, including population figures and other demographic data such as income level, family size, source(s) of income, maternal mortality, and morbibity rates. Self inventories on attitudes toward the…
Mpofu, Stanley T.
Notes that in Zimbabwe, women's agencies pursue practical, strategic, and interagency gender interests consistent with adult education practice. However, they also manifest the globalizing tendencies of pluralism, cultural homogenization, and the coalescence of transnational and domestic processes and structures. (SK)
Guhathakurta, Meghna; Lina, Khadija
Nagorik Uddyog (Citizen's Initiative) is a non-profit, non-governmental Bangladeshi organization focused on empowering women at the grassroots level through human rights education. Although women constitute half of the total population of Bangladesh, their participation in social, cultural, and political activities is limited. Recently,…
Ghosh, Ratna; Chakravarti, Paromita; Mansi, Kumari
While women have made many advances, their inferior status to men continues to be a global phenomenon. At a time of unprecedented economic growth, India is experiencing a dramatic intensification of violence against women and the majority of girls are still not getting equal educational opportunity. In one of the most important steps for the…
Kirk, Jackie; Mak, Monica
"Women Educating for Peace" is an exploratory research project focused on the lives and experiences of a group of fifteen women in Montreal, all concerned with issues of pedagogy and peace, but working in different ways, in different schools. Video was used to record interviews and group discussions, focused around key topics and/or…
These studies of the involvement of women in higher education in China, Nepal, and the Philippines provide a common framework for analysis. Each study is organized around five broad areas: socio-cultural factors, politico-economic factors, ideological factors, legal factors, and infrastructural factors. An analysis of the progress of women's…
Moore, Colleen A.
The decline in the number and status of women in educational administration and the magnitude of their lack of representation in administrative positions is evidenced by numerous studies. To achieve the goal of identifying the components of the problem, solutions suggested by the research, and implications for women who aspire to administrative…
In Great Britain, it is not unusual to find primary schools staffed almost entirely by women, but managed by men. This paper argues that more women should manage education in western Europe and explains why. It examines the stereotypes of "gendered" management styles. For example, both Margaret Thatcher and Bill Clinton have encountered…
Damarin, Suzanne K.
Discusses relationships among technology, women, and education. Presents three views of the computer's future: (1) the robot as superior human; (2) the cyborg; and (3) the human-computer dyad. Discusses effects that the computer has had upon work and school, particularly for women and at risk and nonliterate students. (SG)
Senior academic women in Australian Universities, as elsewhere, continue to experience both direct and indirect discrimination, with the narrow white Anglo-Celtic male management profile is a factor in this discrimination. While higher education remains a hostile work environment for senior academic women their participation rates are unlikely to…
Amin, Sajeda; Al-Bassusi, Nagah H.
We explore young working women's perceptions of marriage and work in contemporary Egypt, when an increase in age at marriage was evident from national survey data. Both working conditions and employment opportunities declined significantly for young women even as their educational attainment increased and marriage was delayed. In-depth interviews…
Rehnke, Mary Ann
Women administrators in higher education must deal not only with the usual challenges facing administrators (decision-making, resolving conflict, and advancing professionally), but also with the effects of sex stereotyping. Women are not seen as decision-makers, nor as conflict-resolvers, and are often viewed as supporting personnel rather than…
This history explores the nature of postwar advocacy for women's higher education, acknowledging its unique relationship to the expectations of the era and recognizing its particular type of adaptive activism. Linda Eisenmann illuminates the impact of this advocacy in the postwar era, identifying a link between women's activism during World War II…
Since Edwards' influential study on mature women students and families in the 1990s, questions have been raised about the effects of Higher Education (HE) on family lives. Edwards maintained that relationships were at risk of breakdown due to the changing identity, increased self-esteem and enhanced confidence levels of women students. Men were…
Sinkford, Jeanne C.; Valachovic, Richard W.; Harrison, Sonja
Reviews progress made since the adoption of formal policies in support of women in the profession by the American Dental Education Association (ADEA). Provides an overview of current ADEA programs designed to increase the number of women in academic dentistry and sustain an environment in which they can contribute. (EV)
Clover, Darlene E.; McGregor, Catherine
Women's Campaign School (WCS) is a non-partisan, non-formal three-day educational programme held annually in Vancouver, to empower and inspire women to enter politics and as a means towards socio-political change. Our findings show the WCS provides excellent practical and tactical skills and an experiential learning opportunity that is highly…
Hewcomb, Whitney Sherman; Beaty, Danna M.; Sanzo, Karen; Peters-Hawkins, April
This work is grounded in the literature on women in the academy and offers glimpses into four young women professors' experiences in the field of educational leadership. We utilized reflective practice and interpersonal communication to create a dialogue centered on three qualitative research questions that allows a window into our lives. We…
Jesmin, Syeda S; Chaudhuri, Sanjukta; Abdullah, Shahnaz
Mass media is an important vehicle for health promotion in developing countries. In Bangladesh multiple media campaigns are being carried out to educate people about HIV/AIDS. We examined the extent of HIV/AIDS knowledge and the association of exposure to mass media among women in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) provides data for this article. We found that media exposure (combined index of television, radio, and newspaper) was a highly significant predictor of women's knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Other significant predictors of HIV knowledge include women's education, age, employment, and urban residence.
Matthews, Hollie L.; Laya, Mary; DeWitt, Dawn E.
Context: Little is known about rural women's knowledge about osteoporosis. Purpose: To explore what women from high-prevalence rural communities know about osteoporosis and to assess their learning preferences. Methods: We surveyed 437 women in rural Washington and Oregon. Findings: The response rate was 93% (N = 406). The mean age of respondents…
Watts, Shelly C.; Daley, Candice
The following paper focuses on the education system in Trinidad and Tobago, particularly on the involvement of girls and women in physics. The educational system is a three-tiered structure: primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Girls and women are given equal opportunities at all levels; however, career choices and the demand of the job market determines whether physics is chosen at the secondary level and onward. No formal survey was performed to quantify the number of girls and women involved in physics; however, scenarios are used to illustrate the different opportunities and tracks that are available to girls.
Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Holford, M.
Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W) is a 501c non profit corporation whose mission is to aid in increasing and retaining the number of women - especially underrepresented females - engaged in scientific teaching and research. Initiated by a Protein Chemist and an Astronomer, our ultimate goal has been to develop informational tools and create innovative outreach programs for women across all STEM fields. At present RAISE-W is recruiting women at the undergraduate, graduate, and early career stages to participate in a unique, 1-year, executive coaching program modeled after those used in the business sector.
Ha, P Y
Results of a survey of demand for education among women managers of small-scale businesses in Korea are provided. Personal interviews were conducted by the Korean Women Development Institute in 1988 among 56 prospective women managers and 15 women managers and 32 experts. A pilot education program was held in 1988 and 1989; 69 women completed the course. Educational objectives are to give women an opportunity to learn the basic rudiments of running a business and develop the self-confidence to undertake this venture. The general objectives, management, evaluation, and postguidance of an educational program for women managers is given in addition to curriculum descriptions of several model programs in general and specifically directed to women. A profile of women surveyed is given; most had completed education beyond high school and were married. 66% planned to use their own money. In self-preparation for the establishment of a business, 26.9% of women used published market surveys and the advice of women already in business. 8 out of the 15 women managers had used their own start-up money. Net monthly earned income for women managers ranged from 500,000 won to 1.5 million won. Women worked 14-15 hour days. Some took holidays. Obstacles articulated by prospective managers were the lack of professional knowledge and experience and difficulties in human relationships due to lack of self-confidence and negative character. Difficulties expressed by women managers were lack of funding for expansion and maintenance of the business, of up-to-date technology, of information on the circulation of merchandise, credit dealings with customers, pricing, health, and laws. 78.5% of prospective women reported no confidence in management skills while most managers were satisfied. 54.2% reported feeling more confident after the pilot course and 39.0% had acquired skills. Content recommended included items on investment, site selection, and business planning for prospective managers
Martin, Jennifer L., Ed.
This up-to-date, candid examination of women's careers in education and leadership in education describes the pitfalls, triumphs, and future promise of female leaders in education. Despite the gains women have made in higher education over the past few decades, and an increasing number of well-qualified female candidates, they are still…
Himelein, Melissa J.
Reasons are presented why rape education programming for women who have been sexually victimized may need to be different and separate from general programming. A process for identifying high-risk women is described. "Inoculation," a counseling group process, is described. Evaluation, feedback, and recommendations are reported. (EMK)
Rury, John L.
This study examines the development of women's secondary education in U.S. cities in the years between the Civil War and the Great Depression. Chapter 1 looks at the period between 1870 and 1900 when, through the coeducational high school, women came to share in the academic culture traditionally reserved for males. Chapter 2 looks at who went to…
Liu, Jane; Carpenter, Marilyn
China has a rich educational history dating back more than three thousand years, but women did not become part of the mainstream education system until the last sixty years. The Confucian ideology, which has been deeply rooted throughout Chinese history, confined females to an oppressed social status. Moreover, this historical ideology continues…
Meyers, Lindsay Pennell
Counselor education pedagogy has not sufficiently recognized or incorporated current knowledge of gender differences and their potential impact on women's learning experiences. Instead, the body of research that addresses gender in counselor education refers to incorporating gender in the classroom as a topic of discussion rather than considering…
Irby, Beverly, Ed.; Brown, Genevieve H., Ed.
The Research on Women and Education SIG of the American Educational Research Association presents the third book in its series, Gender and Early Learning Environments. Finding after the publication of Gender and Schooling in the Early Years, the second book in the series, that there was and is a paucity of published literature on early childhood…
McKenna, Teresa, Ed.; Ortiz, Flora Ida, Ed.
The articles in this volume document an educational situation which underserves Chicanas/Latinas and contributes to an unraveling of women's power to perform creative functions in society. The lack of research on this topic only serves to hide the problem which threatens to undermine the educational success of a major percentage of Chicana/Latina…
Davis, Sharrika D.; Amelink, Catherine; Hirt, Joan B.; Miyazaki, Yasuo
Education is one key to economic prosperity. However, in a society bolstered by patriarchal systems, economic and educational inequalities exist among the genders. The purpose of this study was to determine whether certain collegiate experiences predict undergraduate women's expectation to enroll in graduate study and to determine if the…
Robertson, Claire C.
Ghanian women have a long history as traders. In early 1978, 42 Central Accra schoolgirls and 42 girls engaged in selling were surveyed to determine the relationship of formal education to marketing skills. Formal education was not significantly helpful in promoting schoolgirls' trading knowledge nor in providing skills likely to land them jobs.…
While there is a wealth of feminist research on women's educational leadership and policy-making in the interwar years, this article extends the discussion into the Second World War. My focus is the educational leadership of Dorothy Walker, head teacher of St Peter's Infant School and the youngest head teacher in Birmingham, and Lillian de Lissa,…
Clabaugh, Gary K.
The very essence of a culture is revealed in its educational attitudes, policies, and practices. Just as blood pressure and body temperature are measures of physical health, such matters are measures of social justice. This article focuses on the attitudes of males toward the education of women by highlighting the attitudes of the most famous and…
Brown, Genevieve; Irby, Beverly J.
If the challenges of the 21st century are to be met successfully, education must transform its orientation from one of exclusion to inclusion. To assist in the transformation of systems, to address specific barriers to inclusion, and to offer exemplary models in educational leadership, the Texas Council of Women School Executives sponsored a pilot…
When the Holloway Prison is completed, it will be the largest establishment in the penal service for women. Its education center has been designed to incorporate "all of the best aspects of new adult education centers and technical colleges in the free community." (Editor/RB)
Segkulu, L.; Gyimah, K.
Within the Tamale Metropolis, it is observed that only a few women occupy top level management positions within the Ghana Education Service (GES). A descriptive survey was therefore conducted in 2013/2014 academic year to assess the factors affecting the gender disparity in educational leadership within the Service. Specifically, the study sought…
This case study of Southeast Asian women in higher education management investigates culture-specific dimensions of "glass ceiling" impediments to career advancement in higher education. Respondents note that despite considerable training and expertise, Asian values and ideologies demand enactment of a construct of Asian femininity that…
Wright, Hazel R.
Most studies of adult education align it with life change, but this research-based book tells a different story. It reveals how mature women who are training to work in childcare within the voluntary sector seek continuity in their lives. They engage with activities that connect aspects of their family, workplace and educational experience, and…
Futrell, Mary Hatwood
Nations cannot survive unless they promote education for all people. The paper examines why education for females is still neglected worldwide. Problems include lack of government commitment, cultural values, poverty and child labor, and the structure of educational systems. The role of Education International in improving the situation is…
Palme, Mårten; Simeonova, Emilia
Breast cancer is a notable exception to the well documented positive education gradient in health. A number of studies have found that highly educated women are more likely to be diagnosed with the disease. Breast cancer is therefore often labeled as a "welfare disease". However, it has not been established whether the strong positive correlation holds up when education is exogenously determined. We estimate the causal effect of education on the probability of being diagnosed with breast cancer by exploiting an education reform that extended compulsory schooling and was implemented as a social experiment. We find that the incidence of breast cancer increased for those exposed to the reform.
National Association for Women Deans, Administrators, and Counselors, Washington, DC.
Reference materials for the educator who has an employment-related grievance are presented. Basic principles and rights of employment and general procedures for filing a grievance both within and outside an employing institution are examined. The procedures apply for educators at the K-12 level, in higher education, and in social service agencies.…
Horn, H; Holzemer, W L
This study examined the demographic characteristics, vocational personality, and sex-role orientation of Israeli women studying nursing compared to women studying education and engineering. The convenience sample was 176 university students. The instrument included a demographic inventory, Holland's Self-Directed Search (SDS) questionnaire, and the Sex-Role Orientation Attitude questionnaire. Nursing and education students had Holland's "social" personality types and engineering students were more "realistic" or "investigative". Nursing and engineering students were significantly more feminist in their orientation than education majors. Nursing students were nontraditional women who had traditional family backgrounds, yet were nontraditional in their feminist orientation. With nursing's move into colleges and universities, the need for academically qualified applicants has intensified. Developing a better understanding of the unique nature of nursing and nursing students is a challenge.
Pinnick, Cassandra L.
This paper examines the relation between situated cognition theory in science education, and feminist standpoint theory in philosophy of science. It shows that situated cognition is an idea borrowed from a long since discredited philosophy of science. It argues that feminist standpoint theory ought not be indulged as it is a failed challenge to traditional philosophy of science. Standpoint theory diverts attention away from the abiding educational and career needs of women in science. In the interest of women in science, and in the interest of science, science educators would do best for their constituencies by a return to feminist philosophy understood as the demand for equal access and a level playing field for women in science and society.
Boston Univ., MA. School of Education.
The Women's Leadership Project represents an initial effort to combat discrimination against women in adult education, with special emphasis on adult basic education. Overall goals involved leadership development, impact, and support to: (1) recruit and prepare 10 qualified women adult educators for leadership positions in adult education, (2)…
Hastings, Sally A.
Describes the contributions of three women educators to Japanese education and to the development of the modern Japanese empire. Criticizes Japanese historiography that ignores the role of conservative women. Discusses the educators' views of the importance of female education to help women raise children who could benefit the state. (DK)
This report responds to your request that we review the Department of Education’s Women’s Educational Equity Act (WEEA) Program. First authorized by... educational equity for women, (2) help educational institutions meet the requirements of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 prohibiting sex...discrimination in all educational institutions receiving federal funds, and (3) provide educational equity for women and girls who suffer multiple
Perez Ferrer, Carolina; McMunn, Anne; Rivera Dommarco, Juan A.; Brunner, Eric J.
Background Obesity is one of the leading causes of global morbidity and mortality. Trends in educational inequalities in obesity prevalence among Mexican women have not been analysed systematically to date. Methods Data came from four nationally representative surveys (1988, 1999, 2006, and 2012) of a total of 51 220 non-pregnant women aged 20 to 49. Weight and height were measured during home visits. Education level (higher education, high school, secondary, primary or less) was self-reported. We analysed trends in relative and absolute educational inequalities in obesity prevalence separately for urban and rural areas. Results Nationally, age-standardised obesity prevalence increased from 9.3% to 33.7% over 25 years to 2012. Obesity prevalence was inversely associated with education level in urban areas at all survey waves. In rural areas, obesity prevalence increased markedly but there was no gradient with education level at any survey. The relative index of inequality in urban areas declined over the period (2.87 (95%CI: 1.94, 4.25) in 1988, 1.55 (95%CI: 1.33, 1.80) in 2012, trend p<0.001). Obesity increased 5.92 fold (95%CI: 4.03, 8.70) among urban women with higher education in the period 1988–2012 compared to 3.23 fold (95%CI: 2.88, 3.63) for urban women with primary or no education. The slope index of inequality increased in urban areas from 1988 to 2012. Over 0.5 M cases would be avoided if the obesity prevalence of women with primary or less education was the same as for women with higher education. Conclusions The expected inverse association between education and obesity was observed in urban areas of Mexico. The declining trend in relative educational inequalities in obesity was due to a greater increase in obesity prevalence among higher educated women. In rural areas there was no social gradient in the association between education level and obesity across the four surveys. PMID:24599098
"The voice of women needs to be heard" because "when we truly take their lives seriously it changes our whole understanding of who we are and what we are called to become" (Chilcote 10). The revolutionary impact of feminist theory and practice in all areas of contemporary culture illustrates the world-transforming potential of…
Huber, Susanne; Bookstein, Fred L; Fieder, Martin
Although associations between status or resources and reproduction are positive in premodern societies and also in men in modern societies, in modern women the associations are typically negative. We investigated how the association between socioeconomic status and reproductive output varies with the source of status and resources, the woman's education, and her age at reproductive onset (proxied by age at marriage). By using a large sample of US women, we examined the association between a woman's reproductive output and her own and her husband's income and education. Education, income, and age at marriage are negatively associated with a woman's number of children and increase her chances of childlessness. Among the most highly educated two-thirds of the sample of women, husband's income predicts the number of children. The association between a woman's number of children and her husband's income turns from positive to negative when her education and age at marriage is low (even though her mean offspring number rises at the same time). The association between a woman's own income and her number of children is negative, regardless of education. Rather than maximizing the offspring number, these modern women seem to adjust investment in children based on their family size and resource availability. Striving for resources seems to be part of a modern female reproductive strategy--but, owing to costs of resource acquisition, especially higher education, it may lead to lower birthrates: a possible evolutionary explanation of the demographic transition, and a complement to the human capital theory of net reproductive output.
Kroeger, Rhiannon A.; Frank, Reanne; Schmeer, Kammi K.
We use data from Wave 3 of the Mexican Family Life Survey (N = 7276) and discrete-time regression analyses to evaluate changes in the association between educational attainment and timing to first union across three generations of women in Mexico, including a mature cohort (born between 1930 and 1949), a middle cohort (born between 1950 and 1969), and a young cohort (born between 1970 and 1979). Mirroring prior research, we find a curvilinear pattern between educational attainment and timing to first union for women born between 1930 and 1969, such that once we account for the delaying effect of school enrollment, those with the lowest (0–5 years) and highest levels of education (13+ years) are characterized by the earliest transition to a first union. For women born between 1970 and 1979, however, we find that the pattern between education and first union formation has changed. In contrast to their peers born in earlier cohorts, highly educated women in Mexico are now postponing first union formation relative to the least educated. We draw on competing theories of educational attainment and timing to first union to help clarify these patterns in the context of Mexico. PMID:26005234
Wheeler, Helen Rippier
Discusses the backgrounds and current status of Women's Studies in Japan today. Research on which it is based was conducted while the author was visiting scholar and guest lecturer in Women's Studies at Toyo University in Tokyo in spring and summer 1984. (Author)
The impact of enlightened policies and incentives designed to increase girls' enrollment and achievement in education has been marginal in Nepal. Ministry of Education (MOE) goals aimed at increasing girls' participation include increasing the enrollment rate, opening early childhood development centers, promoting recruitment of at least one…
Gubrium, Aline C.; Shafer, Miriam B.
Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women…
Levin, Dana S; Woodford, Michael R; Gutiérrez, Lorraine M; Luke, Katherine P
Social work faculty play an important role in preparing students to address sexism and engage in culturally competent practice with women. This study examines the nature of U.S. and Anglo-Canadian graduate social work faculty's support for content on women and on sexism. Although support appears high for both content areas, results suggest that faculty endorsement for content on women is significantly greater than that for sexism. Further, bivariate and multivariate analyses indicate that the nature of support differs for each content area. Implications for social work education are discussed.
Demiral, Yucel; Arik, Hale; Toğrul, Belgin Unal
The aim of the researchers in this study was to examine the relations of paid work versus housework and educational level to metabolic syndrome in women. The study sample consisted of women who participated in a baseline survey of the Heart of Balcova Project, which is an ongoing cohort study in Izmir, Turkey. A randomly selected subsample of women who were aged 30-64 years and who were not retired or unemployed was derived from the individuals who participated in the Heart of Balcova Project. All data were collected through face-to-face interviews with 191 workers and 342 housewives. The association between employment status and metabolic syndrome was explored using multiple logistic regression models. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher among housewives than among workers. Among the women with a high educational level, odds of metabolic syndrome were significantly higher for housewives than for those who were employed. An association between employment status and metabolic syndrome was not observed in the group with a low level of education. The findings revealed that educational level had a modifying effect on the relationship between employment status and metabolic syndrome among women and thus has implications for improving the understanding of the importance of health and educational opportunities for housewives.
George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.
"Options in Education" is a radio news program which focuses on issues and developments in education. This transcript contains discussions of Individually Guided Education, a program which was developed at the University of Wisconsin Research & Development Center; creative playacting; women in education, including children's…
Love, Gail D; Tanjasiri, Sora Park
Southeast Asian women in California have high cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, but low levels of Pap screening. No published reports have addressed screening among Thai women. Entertainment-education (EE) is a useful strategy for low-literacy, culturally diverse populations. This quasi-experimental study determined whether a soap-opera-themed, Thai-language EE video was superior to a print handout for increasing knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intention toward Pap testing. No uniform differences were found between the intervention group (video) and the control group (brochure). Both educational modalities appeared to result in selected increases in knowledge and attitudes.
The fact that women constitute two-thirds of the world's non-literate population has been a cause for concern for several decades. Despite a number of high-profile literacy interventions specifically targeting women--including UNESCO's LIFE initiative--the disparity between male and female literacy rates persists in many countries of the world…
Fifty percent (260) of the women in the United States identified as holding positions of superintendents, assistant/associate superintendents, and high school principals responded to questionnaires concerning career contingencies, career patterns, and career attitudes. Based on data from previous studies of men administrators, the women were, as a…
Armoni, Michal; Gal-Ezer, Judith
The gap between enrollments in higher education computing programs and the high-tech industry's demands is widely reported, and is especially prominent for women. Increasing the availability of computer science education in high school is one of the strategies suggested in order to address this gap. We look at the connection between exposure to…
Maher, F. A.
Examines the attitudes of mature British women's studies students, exploring personal meanings given to education and kinds of knowledge appropriated. Their perspectives reveal dichotomies taken for granted throughout the university (experience versus theory and research versus teaching) which are structurally embedded in the current practices of…
Molla, Tebeje; Cuthbert, Denise
This article examines the lived experiences of women in Ethiopian higher education (HE) as a counterpoint to understandings of gender equity informed only by data on admission, progression and completions rates. Drawing on a critical qualitative inquiry approach, we analyse and interpret data drawn from focus group discussions with female students…
Connor, Kathleen M.
Unfavorable world and national economic and social trends of recent years have been paralleled by a reduced commitment to social services for marginalized peoples, including educational programs for women inmates. The potential negative results for future levels of delinquency and crime cannot be precisely calculated, according to sociologists and…
Adkison, Judith A.; Bailey, Jerry D.
The study assesses the feasibility of implementing a specific model designed to increase women's participation in the administration of a state's public school systems. The model intervenes to affect the structure of opportunity, the structure of power, and the social composition of peer groups in a state's educational system. The researchers use…
Johnson, Megan Patricia
The purpose of this study was to reveal the ways in which first-generation women in Tanzania explained their success in pursuing a university education despite cultural and social obstacles. Such obstacles include social policies, socio-cultural factors, and academic factors. A review of the literature revealed that issues such as patriarchy,…
Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter
This paper takes as its starting point the concept of concerted cultivation as coined by Annette Lareau. It examines whether a focus on concerted cultivation adequately captures the various practices observed in young women's experiences of being privately educated in four schools in one area of England. We suggest that a variety of practices of…
In this ethnographic study I explored women's somatic and sexual experiences, reception of breast self-examination (BSE) messages, and reactions to the practice of BSE. Mainstream BSE education uses messages that deemphasize the woman, her breasts, and her relationship to them as sexual. The turbid confluence of societally eroticized breasts and self-touch taboos makes it unlikely that women filter these messages in an asexual way. Using grounded theory, I examined women's expression of the self-body relationship and the sociocultural milieu within which women consider BSE education materials. Seven subjects varying in age, sexual orientation, parenting, and relationship status were interviewed about their physical experiences, self-touch, and body image. Subjects also participated in a BSE class and focus group, and composed a journal entry describing their reactions to practicing BSE. Discernible patterns in somatic memories, somatic styles, and reactions to BSE educational messages were found. This study suggests a need for a more consciously feminist approach to BSE education.
Hinojosa, Tamara J.; Carney, JoLynn V.
The authors used narrative inquiry and Anzaldúa's (1999) bordlerlands theory to understand the cultural experiences of 5 Mexican American women in doctoral programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. Results indicated that participants navigated multiple cultural spheres and that the…
Bulman, Donna; Coben, Diana; Nguyen, Van Anh
This paper describes current trends in the HIV/AIDS epidemic. It looks at issues and strategies involved in educating women about HIV/AIDS in the context of the global pandemic, focusing particularly on Canada and Vietnam. These strategies are essential steps in preventing the spread of HIV and in caring for those who have already developed AIDS.…
Paul, Glendora B.
The problem of this study is to trace the emancipation and education of women since 1829 and to determine the factors that have shaped the course of this development and directed its trends. Before the Moslem conquest, which brought the Purdah system, child-marriage, polygamy and divorce, the Hindu woman's status had changed from equality to men…
Johnson, Gloria T.
Over the past 10 years, several laws have been passed and Executive Orders issued to eliminate some of the sex-based discrimination found in employment. The speaker, director of Education and Women's Activities of the International Union of Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers, discusses several of these laws in depth, including: (1) the Equal…
Baum, Nehami; Yedidya, Tova; Schwartz, Chaya; Aran, Ofra
The study reported in this article concerns the beginnings of higher education for women in the Haredi (ultra-Orthodox) enclave in Israel. Haredi Jews are a self-secluded fundamentalist group committed to particularly strict interpretation of Jewish religious law. In recent years, they have been compelled by poverty and other factors to allow…
Maslak, Mary Ann; Singhal, Gayatri
Under the combined effects of commercialisation, urbanisation, migration and employment, significant changes are taking place in India's process of modernisation. One change is the emergence of a population of women with degrees in higher education. These degrees, and the individuals' desire to pursue professional positions that relate to their…
Korcheck, Stephanie A., Ed.; Reese, Marianne, Ed.
This monograph is a collection of articles on research and reflection by faculty and practitioners on educational leadership. Part I, "Leading a Learning Organization," contains the following articles: "Emotional Intelligence and Leading a Learning Organization" (C. Sue McCullough); "Women's Leadership Through Agency"…
The present study aimed to explore the various constraints faced by orthopaedically challenged women in their way towards higher education in Indian society. The tools used for the investigation are the General Information Schedule (GIS), Socioeconomic Schedule, and Interview Schedule. The sample consisted of 100 orthopaedically challenged women…
Kolo, Yovonda Ingram
African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.
Elmendorf, M L
This article goes beyond the rhetorical issue of women's participation as a key to implementing water supply and sanitation projects and suggests concrete ways in which training and education can make these plans a reality. With the improvements proposed for the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, women could be freed to do other tasks vital to the well being of the family and the community. Women, the "invisible resource" of society, play and essential part in encouraging family members to use technological advances and should be trained to effectively promote their acceptance. The author highlights the influence women have in the field of public health: with adequate training, for example, they can help control the spread of diarrheal disease with proper hygiene and an understanding of the fecal-oral route of infection. Moreover, she says that the central role women play in socializing the young and their permanence within the household make them suitable as trainees and trainers for water and sanitation projects at the community and household levels. Women should be recruited for these roles and should be consulted at every stage of development; while women's bureaus exist in many countries, the author states that planners often hesitate to call on them for assistance. The article describes several innovative training programs and, along with a bibliography, presents separate case studies for Mexico and Panama.
O'Toole, J. Corbett; Weeks, CeCe
The report, over half of which consists of appendixes and lists of resources, discusses the educational and related life experiences of six disabled women. Focus is on their early experiences with school and family, their high school years, their college years, and their work. Their disabilities include blindness, osteogenesis imperfecta (fragile…
Lafreniere, Shawna L.; Longman, Karen A.
Women who seek high-level administrative leadership positions in various sectors of higher education continue to meet a variety of barriers (Eagly & Carli, 2007). These challenges are especially evident among the 105-member Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU), an association of faith-based liberal arts institutions. Seeking to…
Duncan, Lauren E.; Wentworth Phyllis A.; Owen-Smith, Ashli; LaFavor, Theresa
Examined midlife educational, career, and family outcomes of women who attended women's colleges in the 1960s, one with a coed learning environment (CLE) and one with a single-sex environment (SLE). Overall, graduates of both colleges were very accomplished 30 years later. However, those who had experienced a CLE reported more sexism and active…
Fournier, Rose Marie Ettel
A client-reaction study examined the effectiveness of the Women's Resources Centre in Vancouver in facilitating clients' access to educational and vocational opportunities. The focus of the study was on the extent to which the center attracts women who are disadvantaged and on the results of clients' associations with the center. After analyzing…
Graduate Management Admission Council, 2012
This paper provides statistics on women and graduate management education for 2012. This paper contains two parts: (1) Women in the Business School Talent Pipeline; and (2) Women in Business. "Women in the Business School Talent Pipeline" discusses: (1) GMAT[R] Examinees; (2) B-School Demand from Younger Women; (3) MBA, Masters &…
Life history interviews with four women holding doctorates in educational administration are presented in this paper, which examines how chances and choice affect women administrators' career decisions. A second focus is on how organizational structure in educational organizations can enhance career opportunities for women educators. Three…
Canadian Association for Adult Education, Toronto (Ontario).
A report of a Seminar on Continuing Education of Women, held in March 1973 for Canadian women, is provided. The seminar was held to explore key issues in continuing education of women and to give guidelines to the Canadian Association for Adult Education (CAAE) as to relevant action that could be taken by the association. The contents of the…
Education in the future must meet the requirements of equal proportions of males and females, yet take account of their different abilities and expectations. Available from: Futures, IPC (America) Inc., 205 East 42nd St., New York, N.Y. 10017 Subscription $65 institutions; $46.80 individuals. (JG)
Graham, Patricia Albjerg
The history of higher education in the U. S. traditionally has been characterized by the same kinds of studies as most other American history: ones that focus on the experiences or concerns of the authors. What such history ignores is the group that for most of this century comprised about 40 percent or more of the undergraduate student body and…
Fifteen women's studies programs across the U.S. were examined in this review commissioned by the National Advisory Council on Women's Educational Programs. All of the programs were in phase two of women's studies, defined as having a line budget, a paid administrator, and a curriculum that moves through committees and is recognized in an official…
This paper explores the educational experiences of a specific group of refugees, namely academic women refugees who were members of various branches of the International Federation of University Women, and who came to Britain under the auspices of the British Federation of University Women from 1933. As a result of voluntary or forced migration…
Using ethnographic data, this article explores how Muslim women teachers from low-income Pakistani communities employ the notion of "wisdom" to construct and perform their educated subjectivity in a transnational women's education project. Through Butler's performativity framework, I demonstrate how local and global discourses overlap to…
The purpose of this study was to ascertain the various factors that influenced these first-generation college women as they chose a college and selected a STEM major and subsequently persisted to upper level (junior/senior) status. Twenty-five first-generation college women in STEM majors who attended a research-intensive university in the Midwest were interviewed. Approaching this study using constructivist grounded theory provided the opportunity for deeper insights by examining data at a conceptual level while preserving the voices of the women in this study. The women faced numerous challenges on their journeys, yet they persisted. As the women in this study selected and persisted in STEM, they demonstrated thoughtful determination, experienced shifting identities, established purposeful relationships and applied forward thinking, as they practiced high-stakes decision-making during their journeys. The experiences of these women, namely first-generation women in STEM fields, may inform students, parents, educators, researchers, and policymakers concerned with (a) inspiring students to consider STEM majors, (b) fostering student success in STEM throughout their academic journeys, and (c) ultimately increasing the number of underrepresented minorities and women in the STEM fields.
Mary, Bright; D'Sa, Juliana Linnette
Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer in women worldwide. One way by which the incidence of this malignant disease can be minimized is by imparting knowledge through health education. This study aimed at developing an educational package on cervical cancer (EPCC) and determining its effectiveness in terms of significant increase in knowledge of rural women regarding cervical cancer. A one group pre-test, post-test design was adopted. Thirty rural women were selected using a convenient sampling method. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and a structured knowledge questionnaire developed by the researchers. The EPCC was designed for a duration of one hour and 10 minutes. The structured knowledge questionnaire was first administered as the pre-test, following which knowledge on cervical cancer was imparted using the EPCC. On the 8th day, the post-test was administered. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean post-test knowledge score of the women regarding cervical cancer was significantly higher than that of their mean pre-test score, indicating that the EPCC was effective in improving the knowledge of rural women on cervical cancer. The association between pre-test knowledge scores and selected demo-graphic variables were computed using chi-square test showed that pre-test knowledge score of the women regarding cervical cancer was independent of all the socio-demographic variables. It was concluded that the EPCC is effective in improving the knowledge of women, regarding cervical cancer. Since the prevalence of cervical cancer is high, there is an immediate need to educate women on prevention of cervical cancer.
Stinson, John F., Jr.
The data on multiple jobholders are examined by the author. He finds a particularly sharp increase in the number of women with two jobs, which is another sign of the growing strength of their ties to the job market. Nearly five percent of working women are now multiple jobholders. (CT)
Enns, Kellie J.; Martin, Michael J.
The emergence of women agriculture teachers over the past 50 years has opened opportunities while revealing issues which females still face in agricultural education. Issues such as lack of female role models, gender stereotyping, and gender bias have been documented in agricultural education research. The purpose of this study was to explore the…
Bulus, Vincent Hassan
The impetus for conducting this research is near and dear to my heart along with desiring to make a change for the better. In conducting interviews of Nigerian women's experiences, struggles and accessibility to secondary education, the research shows significant barriers to secondary education in their narrative experiences that their male…
Abdi, Ali A.
Examines women's education and related issues in South Africa in light of restrictions on educational spending imposed by Structural Adjustment Programs stipulated by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. Argues that the contraction of educational resources will have a strong negative effect on women's education, particularly for black…
Tuomi, Margaret Trotta; Lehtomäki, Elina; Matonya, Magreth
Globally, persons with disabilities are underrepresented in higher education. In sub-Saharan Africa, where opportunities for higher education are especially limited, women are unlikely to continue their education. This research investigates women in Tanzanian higher education with the double marginalisation of being a woman and having…
McNae, Rachel; Vali, Kerren
The ways in which women deliberately press back against practices of oppression and demonstrate agency in higher education institutions are highly contextual and culturally bound. The formal and informal networks that women develop and maintain are important elements of generating agency and enhancing women's access to and opportunities for…
Focus group discussions and interviews with 240 single adolescent women who had migrated to northern Thailand to work in the garment industry revealed a high incidence of unprotected premarital sex and widespread misinformation about the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Many believed that "good people" could not get AIDS and that condoms were men's concern, for use with prostitutes rather than girlfriends. In response, an educational program was designed for these young factory workers with the aim of providing accurate information and encouraging women to insist on protected sex. Peer education was selected as the strategy most likely to promote participatory learning, skill acquisition, and emotional support. Educational materials were interactive and based on problem-solving. A comic book featured an invisible flying condom that instructed young women how to negotiate condom use; a romantic novel about a young migrant factory worker addressed the false notion that "good men" cannot become infected with AIDS. The peer education program lasted for 3 months, after which participants received a certificate. Post-program evaluation indicated widespread acceptance of condoms as a contraceptive option for women and enhanced relational skills in negotiating for safe sex.
Symbaluk, Diane G.
Reviews a book that examines women's progress in education during the last 30 years. The book emphasizes the continuity of women's inferior status as students and academics despite advances since the second wave of feminism during the 1960s, describes teacher career structures in England and Wales, and examines women's conflicting role…
Singh, Kavita; Luseno, Winnie; Haney, Erica
Gender equality and education are being promoted as strategies to combat the HIV epidemic in Africa, but few studies have looked at the role of gender equality and education in the uptake of a vital service - HIV testing. This study looks at the associations between education (a key input needed for gender equality) and key gender equality measures (financial decision making and attitudes toward violence) with ever tested for HIV and tested for HIV in the past year. The study focused on currently married women ages between15-24 and 25-34 in three countries - Kenya, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The data came from the Demographic and Health Surveys. Logistic regression was used to study the role of gender equality and education on the HIV testing outcomes after controlling for both social and biological factors. Results indicated that education had a consistent positive relationship with testing for both age groups, and the associations were always significant for young women aged 15-24 years (p<0.01). The belief that gender-based violence is unacceptable was positively associated with testing for women aged 25-34 in all the three countries, although the associations were only significant in Kenya (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.58, p<0.00; among women reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.34, p<0.05) and Zambia (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.24, p<0.10; among women reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.29, p<0.05). High financial decision making was associated with testing for women aged 25-34 in Zimbabwe only (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.66, p<0.01). Overall, the findings indicate that the education and the promotion of gender equality are important strategies for increasing uptake of a vital HIV service, and thus are important tools for protecting girls and young women against HIV.
Bosco, Susan M
Research on the career decision processes of women has focused primarily on internal considerations such as mathematical ability, intelligence, and self-esteem; however, the external environment also has an influence on these processes. To date, the environmental factors have primarily been researched separately, if at all. They include government policies, industry/economics, social trends/expected sex roles, and educational opportunities. This pilot study investigated these four external factors simultaneously. In addition, a survey of literature on career decision indicated such research to be based on a limited pool of highly educated, management/professional women. This study also uses a wider group including housewives, blue collar, and pink collar women.
Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.
In the U.S. college-educated women earn approximately 30 percent less than their non-Hispanic white male counterparts. We conduct an empirical examination of this wage disparity for four groups of women—non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian—using the National Survey of College Graduates, a large data set that provides unusually detailed information on higher-level education. Nonparametric matching analysis indicates that among men and women who speak English at home, between 44 and 73 percent of the gender wage gaps are accounted for by such pre-market factors as highest degree and major. When we restrict attention further to women who have “high labor force attachment” (i.e., work experience that is similar to male comparables) we account for 54 to 99 percent of gender wage gaps. Our nonparametric approach differs from familiar regression-based decompositions, so for the sake of comparison we conduct parametric analyses as well. Inferences drawn from these latter decompositions can be quite misleading. PMID:26097255
This paper explores the educational and migrational pathways which a number of middle-class women from Bangladesh took as they grew up in the 1980s and 1990s. It draws on qualitative research, conducted between July and November 2011, with highly educated Bangladeshi women who migrated to Britain in the early 2000s. French Sociologist Pierre…
Isen, Adam; Stevenson, Betsey
This paper examines how marital and fertility patterns have changed along racial and educational lines for men and women. Historically, women with more education have been the least likely to marry and have children, but this marriage gap has eroded as the returns to marriage have changed. Marriage and remarriage rates have risen for women with a…
Little is known about the research characteristics of past women studies in engineering education. In order to add knowledge base about the advanced development of women studies in current engineering education research, the purpose of the study is to investigate research characteristics of past women studies published in three referred…
Luedtke, Jacqueline R.
A study was done to examine the reasons for the low number of women in collegiate aviation education by focusing on the number and status of women aviation educators and on attitudes toward women in aviation. Information was sought from each of the 67 four-year University Aviation Association member institutions, with a response rate of 63%.…
Huang, Haigen; Placier, Peggy
Our study sought to understand changes in gender inequality in education across four generations of rural Chinese women's educational experiences in a small community in southern China. The 24 interviews and numerous informal conversations with 12 women showed that gender-based favouritism for men and against women undergirded family expectations,…
Having limited access to colleges and universities offering women the same educational opportunities available to men, elite women of the 19th century crossed national borders for advanced study and teaching opportunities. The career of Tsuda Umeko, founder of one of the first private institutions of higher education for women in Japan, leader in…
As the number of women working within leadership positions in the higher education system increases, there becomes more of a need to research these positions. With the number of women holding leadership positions in higher education organizations increasing in what are still considered male dominated roles, these women are being expected to…
Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.; Moghadam, Valentine M.
In contemporary Iran, women with higher education face both gender discrimination and an unfavourable economic system, one that is not conducive to employment-generation for women. This paper provides an analysis of women's access to higher education in Iran, which has varied over the last 30 years, and their continuously limited participation in…
Since at least the early 1990s, Arab governments have made women's participation in higher education a priority. Across the region, young women fill the crowded lecture halls and bustling courtyards of universities. On many campuses, they outnumber men. But women's increased participation in higher education does not necessarily translate into…
This article uses Melucci's approach to social movements to explore how the women"s movement changed education in British Columbia in the 1970s. The women's movement was a multifaceted social phenomenon with multiple agendas and actors. In the early 1970s, it developed a temporary sense of cohesion in the field of education in the context of a…
Hoeritz, Kimberly Jean
Women are underrepresented as leaders in most facets of American work life. While present in fields that are traditionally feminine, there is a scarcity of women leaders in all other occupations including business, government, science and technology, agriculture, education in general and higher education in particular. While women currently…
Tower, Leslie E.; Lazzari, Marceline M.; Faul, Anna C.; Alvarez, Ann Rosegrant
This article highlights the contributions of the Council on the Role and Status of Women in Social Work Education (Women's Council) as well as the role and status of women in social work education. For this historical analysis update, the authors drew on several primary and secondary data sources. The first major theme was organizational…
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).
Female illiteracy and the overall educational status of women in Islamic societies are the two main themes of this collection of conference papers. The papers include: THe Eradication of Female Illiteracy in Kirghizia: the Historical Situation (1920-1930) (I. S. Boldzhurova); Women's Education in Kirghiszstan (R. Achylova); Literacy and Education…
Morantz, Regina Markell
Orthodox medical education for women in the nineteenth century is examined to determine to what extent women's actual experience reflected their stated goals. It is contended that although women successfully founded some medical schools providing creditable, and in some cases outstanding, training to females, women physicians' ambivalence about…
Diehl, Amy B.
Despite the fact that women now earn more bachelor's, master's and doctorates than men, a gender gap for women leaders persists in the field of higher education. Women hold only 26 percent of all college and university presidencies with a large variance by type of institution. Women lead 33 percent of associate's level institutions but only 22…
Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn, Ed.
This publication puts together the written contributions of 20 women at an international seminar-workshop on "Promoting the Empowerment of Women through Adult Learning" who shared, reflected, and analyzed the different types of educational opportunities for women provided to women. The presentations are as follows: "Designing the Model: A Process…
Loeffler, T. A.
Women with past or present careers in outdoor leadership were asked to suggest strategies by which outdoor and experiential education programs could increase the number of women employed in the field, and support women in becoming even more successful in their careers. The 25 women interviewed ranged in age from 22 to 44, had 1-25 years experience…
This article will examine Asian women's experiences of financial support in higher education. The article is based on 30 in-depth interviews with Asian women who were studying at a "new" (post-1992) university in the South East of England. Women identified themselves as Muslim, Hindu and Sikh. The findings reveal that women's religious…
Cortland-Madison Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Cortland, NY.
The eighth in a series of nine career education guides contains six unit plans for grades 7-9. In general each unit presents goals, objectives, measuring devices, activities, instructional materials or resources, careers appropriate to the unit, a multimedia bibliography, and a unit evaluation form for teachers. Part one is a science unit which…
Flamez, E.; Vanobbergen, B.
This research explores political-educational debates regarding the concept of women's emancipation in women and family programmes on Belgian television between 1954 and 1975. From the very beginning, the women's episodes were regarded as explicitly educational. The episodes were created to increase women's participation by means of their…
Beaujouan, Eva; Brzozowska, Zuzanna; Zeman, Kryštof
During the twentieth century, trends in childlessness varied strongly across European countries while educational attainment grew continuously across them. Using census and large-scale survey data from 13 European countries, we investigated the relationship between these two factors among women born between 1916 and 1965. Up to the 1940 birth cohort, the share of women childless at age 40+ decreased universally. Afterwards, the trends diverged across countries. The results suggest that the overall trends were related mainly to changing rates of childlessness within educational groups and only marginally to changes in the educational composition of the population. Over time, childlessness levels of the medium-educated and high-educated became closer to those of the low-educated, but the difference in level between the two better educated groups remained stable in Western and Southern Europe and increased slightly in the East. PMID:27545484
Boudria, Theodore J.
Describes the successful implementation of a Women in Technology (WIT) Project-Based Learning Program in High Tech Manufacturing by the Tech Prep Consortium at Bristol Community College (Massachusetts). Reports that the program's success was mainly due to the establishment of partnerships with industry, government, and education, including area…
Taylor, Kay Ann; Fernandez-Bergersen, Sandra Luz
This qualitative case study examined 5 Mexican American women's experiences at the intersection of race and gender in public high school. Critical race theory provided the analysis and interpretation. The significant findings of this research included the following: (a) Racism is endemic and pervasive in public education; (b) many educational…
Moroishi, Yasumi; Martin, Don T.
This paper aims to show the significance of the educational reforms of women's higher education during the U.S. occupation of post-World War II Japan. To help fill the gap of research on women's higher education in Japan, focus is on an historical analysis of women's higher education reform policies. Since educational reforms are not…
Heslop, Yvonne, Ed.
This document contains papers that were presented at a 1988 conference on nonformal education for women held in Guangzhow, China, and organized by the Asian South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education in association with the Chinese Federation for Women, the Guangzhou Adult Education Association, and Caritas Hong Kong. The following 12 papers are…
This paper discusses barriers to the participation of women with disabilities in Kenyan university education. While studies have shown that students with disabilities are increasingly enrolling in and completing university education, the number of women with disabilities in higher education remains low. This paper highlights the factors that…
Hammad, Tehmina; Singal, Nidhi
This paper examines the extent to which the capability approach captures the complexity of the lives of young women with disabilities in Pakistan, particularly in relation to their education. Focusing on their educational experiences and outcomes, we examine the ways in which education shaped what these young women were able to achieve--what they…
In order to explore education at the first two Pan-Pacific Women's Conferences, this article builds on Campbell and Sherington's account of education in Oceania and on empirical research undertaken by Selleck and others, along with relevant primary source material. It traces elements of empire as they played out in inter-war women's education and…
Barry, Kate R.
The purpose of this study is to critically explore low-income women's experience as they negotiate post secondary education in community colleges. Three research questions explore the context through which low-income women have entered the college experience, what that experience is like for them, and how the community college experience has…
Foster, Elaine; Appleby, Karen M.
In general, physical activity subsides for females after high school. Researchers have found that women experience unique barriers to remaining physically active during their college years. Obstacles such as social anxiety, lack of social support, and life balance have been cited as challenges for women in relation to maintaining consistent…
Powe, Barbara D; Daniels, Elvan C; Finnie, Ramona; Thompson, Angela
Despite the availability of factual information about breast cancer, there continues to be an abundance of misperceptions about the disease. This study, guided by the Patient/Provider/System Model for cancer screening, describes perceptions about breast cancer among African American women (N = 179) at primary care centers. Data were collected using the Breast Cancer Perceptions and Knowledge Survey and a demographic questionnaire. Breast cancer pamphlets available at the centers were evaluated (readability, extent they challenged misperceptions). The average age of the women was 34 years with an average educational level of 12 years. A number of misperceptions were prevalent. The majority viewed breast self-examination as a form of early detection and some viewed pain as an indicator of cancer. Pamphlets did not explicitly challenge the misperceptions and the SMOG reading level was high. Intervention studies are needed to identify the effective methods to challenge and correct misperceptions about breast cancer for these women.
Zajacova, Anna; Montez, Jennifer Karas
Functional limitations and disability declined in the US during the 1980s and 1990s, but reports of early 21st century trends are mixed. Whether educational inequalities in functioning increased or decreased is also poorly understood. Given the importance of disability for productivity, independent living, and health care costs, these trends are critical to US social and health policies. We examine recent trends in functional limitations and disability among women and men aged 45-64. Using 2000-2015 National Health Interview Surveys data on over 155,000 respondents, semiparametric and logistic regression models visualize and test functioning trends by education. Among women and men with at least a college degree, there was no change in disability and mild increase in limitations over time. All other education levels experienced significant increases in functioning problems ranging from 18% higher odds of functional limitations in 2015 compared to 2000 among men with some college to about 80% increase in the odds of disability among women and men with less than high school education. The similar trends for both genders suggest common underlying causes, possibly including the worsening economic well-being of middle- and working-class families. The pervasive growth of functioning problems is a cause for concern that necessitates further scholarly investigation.
Kimmel, Marcia S.
Ambivalent feelings about achievement and success which affect the career choices of women are caused by the kind of educational experiences prevalent in the United States today. The distinction between sexes is recognized by children at age 2 and by kindergarten, girls show dependency in achievement-related situations. During their elementary…
This article focuses on how citizenship education was built into the organisational practices as well as the formal instructional programmes of women's organisations in Britain in the pre- and post-Second World War period. It compares the efforts of two such organisations, the National Federation of Women's Institutes (NFWI) and the British…
Chen, Hsiang-Feng; Cropsey, Karen L.; Clarke, Jennifer G.; Kelly, Patricia J.
Abstract Background: We examined factors associated with women's use of highly effective birth control before and after incarceration, since women with ongoing criminal justice involvement bear a disproportionate burden of sexual and reproductive health problems, including high rates of unintended pregnancy and inconsistent contraceptive use. Methods: Using a longitudinal study design, we conducted surveys with 102 women in an urban midwestern jail and then followed up with 66 of them 6 months after incarceration. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess individual, interpersonal, resource-based, organizational, and environmental factors associated with utilizing highly effective birth control. Results: Forty-two percent of women reported utilizing highly effective birth control (e.g., sterilization or other highly effective reversible methods) prior to incarceration, and 54% reported using these methods after release from jail (p<0.001). Ninety percent of women reported not wanting to get pregnant. Consistent use of birth control (p=0.001) and alcohol problems (p=0.027) were associated with utilization of highly effective birth control prior to incarceration. Previous pregnancies (p=0.012) were the only factor associated with utilization of highly effective birth control after release from jail. Conclusions: Clinicians and public health practitioners can use findings from this study to develop clinical and intervention efforts aimed at improving unintended-pregnancy prevention among incarcerated women both during their confinement and during the tumultuous period after their release from jail. PMID:25555175
Kelly, J A; Murphy, D A; Washington, C D; Wilson, T S; Koob, J J; Davis, D R; Ledezma, G; Davantes, B
OBJECTIVE. This study reports the results of a behavior change intervention offered to women at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection seen in an urban primary health care clinic. METHODS. Participants were 197 women randomly assigned to either an HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk reduction group or a comparison group. Women in the HIV/AIDS intervention group attended five group sessions focusing on risk education; skills training in condom use, sexual assertiveness, problem solving, and risk trigger self-management; and peer support for change efforts. Women in the comparison group attended sessions on health topics unrelated to AIDS. RESULTS. At the 3-month follow-up, women in the HIV/AIDS intervention group had increased in sexual communication and negotiation skills. Unprotected sexual intercourse had declined significantly and condom use had increased from 26% to 56% of all intercourse occasions. Women in the comparison group showed no change. CONCLUSIONS. Socially disadvantaged women can be assisted in reducing their risk of contracting HIV infection. Risk reduction behavior change interventions should be offered routinely in primary health care clinics serving low-income and high-risk patients. PMID:7998630
Cwiek, Dorota; Luczyńska, Violetta; Augustyniuk, Katarzyna; Jurczak, Anna
Future parents have a wide range of possibilities in gaining theoretical knowledge from books, magazines, relatives' advice, doctor or midwife' consultations in outpatient clinics. The most professional ways of getting skills in that matter are birth schools. The aim of this study was to analyze the sources of knowledge about puerperium and breast feeding at birth schools in comparison to mothers who did not attend such training. The study was undertaken in the Department of Obstetric and Perinatology in Szczecin. Group I (investigated) consisted of 129 women who finished birth school training course and group II (control) consisted of 165 women with no formalized prenatal education. A questionnaire and medical histories were used in our analysis. The results showed that the birth school attendants were more likely to use a lot of education sources in the field of breast feeding and that some law aspects in puerperium and puerperium pathology need more attention because books and magazines are the main source of knowledge in that matter instead of birth schools classes.
Casebolt, Kevin M.; Hodge, Samuel R.
The purpose of this study was to analyze high school physical education teachers' beliefs about teaching students with disabilities in inclusive physical education. The participants (3 men, 2 women) were certified physical education teachers at four suburban high schools. The research method was descriptive-qualitative using a case study approach…
Lindau, Stacy Tessler; Drum, Melinda L.; Gaumer, Elyzabeth; Surawska, Hanna; Jordan, Jeanne A.
Objective To estimate the prevalence, genotypes, and individual-level correlates of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) among women aged 57–85. Methods Community-residing women (n=1550), aged 57–85, were drawn from a nationally-representative probability sample. In-home interviews and biomeasures, including a self-collected vaginal specimen, were obtained between 2005 and 2006. Specimens were analyzed for high-risk HPV DNA using probe hybridization and signal amplification (hc2); of 1,028 specimens provided, 1,010 were adequate for analysis. All samples testing positive were analyzed for HPV DNA by L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction followed by type-specific hybridization. Results The overall population-based weighted estimate of high-risk HPV prevalence by hc2 was 6.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.5 to 7.9). Current marital and smoking status, frequency of sexual activity, history of cancer, and hysterectomy were associated with high-risk HPV positivity. Among high-risk HPV+ women, 63% had multiple type infections. HPV 16 or 18 was present in 17.4% of all high-risk HPV+ women. The most common high-risk genotypes among high-risk HPV+ women were HPV 61 (19.1%), 31 (13.1%), 52 (12.9%), 58 (12.5%), 83 (12.3%), 66(12.0%), 51 (11.7%), 45 (11.2%), 56 (10.3%), 53 (10.2%), 16 (9.7%), and 62 (9.2%). Being married and having an intact uterus were independently associated with lower prevalence of high-risk HPV. Among unmarried women, current sexual activity and smoking were independently and positively associated with high-risk HPV infection. Conclusions In this nationally representative population, nearly 1 in 16 women aged 57–85 were found to have high-risk HPV and prevalence was stable across older age groups. PMID:18978096
In all societies, there is a new interest in the education of women, their role in society, and their place in the economy. Western societies have moved away from single-sex education in the past few decades, but recent research and experience has begun to highlight again the value of single-sex colleges and schools. Changes in working patterns…
Danger and pleasure are terms commonly employed to describe women's sexual experiences, including those of young women. This paper explores how young women's sexual danger and pleasure are represented and characterized in official discourses, specifically those of school-based sexuality education. Drawing on Michelle Fine's four major discourses…
Describes an educational program that enables women to explore, in a safe environment, male violence and its impact on their lives. Topics include battered women, rape, incest, pornography, nonphysical violence, and sexual harassment. The course helps women realize that violence is a societal, not individual, problem and empowers them to take…
Lowe, Mary E.
One of the prevailing notions within American culture is the idea that women are prevalent in leadership positions. The reality, however, is that while women are slightly more than 50% of the population, they are underrepresented in leadership. Fewer than 10% of chief executive officers in theological education are women. Traditional roles in…
In global terms, the position of women in New Zealand society is relatively strong and at one stage in the early 2000s many senior roles were occupied by women. Equality of opportunity for women in leadership in science and the community has been a focus of attention in New Zealand in government, education, and the sciences for at least two…
To obtain more information about the characteristics, work patterns, and career paths of women in middle management roles, this study collected structured interview data from 45 managerial women in business and education. During summer 1987, each student in the Women and Careers class at Texas Woman's University interviewed two female managers,…
Robbins, Lillian; Robbins, Edwin
Since World War II, American women have gained much greater access to higher education, with women now 56% of undergraduates, and approximately half of medical and law school students, as well as attaining 49% of PhD's. Despite their greater representation, women pursuing professional careers still experience considerable stress. At the…
Tran, Natalie A.
While numerous scholars have investigated the role of mentoring in the success of women of color in faculty positions, few have examined how mentoring affects the development of women leaders of color in higher education. Using qualitative data gathered from interviews with women leaders of color at Hispanic-serving institution, this study…
Takayanagi, Taeko; Shimomura, Takayuki
This paper addresses the life and educational experiences of Ainu women, using the framework of postcolonial feminist theory. It explores the extent to which two factors--gender and ethnic minority status--affect young Ainu women as they attempt to enter mainstream society. The authors analyse life history interviews from three Ainu women aged 25.…
Tibbitts, Felisa L.
This article presents evidence of the links between human rights education and social change by analyzing the long-term effects on 88 trainers engaged in a non-formal adult training program sponsored by a women's human rights group in Turkey, Women for Women's Human Rights--New Ways. In this article, I show the transformative impacts of carrying…
A study identified the factors that assist or impede women's access, participation, and progression within education and training in Britain. The project rationale was as follows: women face continuing inequalities in the labor market, there are signs of a diminishing concern with equal opportunities, and women's position and experiences in…
Ferguson, Christopher J
Several legal cases in the United States in which adolescents were charged with child pornography distribution after sharing nude photographs of themselves with romantic partners or others have highlighted the issue of sexting behaviors among youth. Although policy makers, mental health workers, educators and parents have all expressed concern regarding the potential harm of sexting behaviors, little to no research has examined this phenomenon empirically. The current study presents some preliminary data on the incidence of sexting behavior and associated high risk sexual behaviors in a sample of 207 predominantly Hispanic young women age 16-25. Approximately 20% of young women reported engaging in sexting behavior. Sexting behaviors were not associated with most other high-risk sexual behaviors, but were slightly more common in women who found sex to be highly pleasurable or who displayed histrionic personality traits.
George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.
Education is the crucial institution involved in sex-role socialization. The percentage of women in school administrative positions has declined. Schools have adopted modern corporation and military management models. Women unhappy about the status quo must learn about power, both theoretically and practically, in order to change their position in…
Bahkali, Salwa; Almaiman, Ahmad; Bahkali, Ahlam; Almaiman, Sara; Househ, Mowafa; Alsurimi, Khaled
Social media has the potential to improve women's health in developing countries through health education and promotion. In the Arab world, women's health interventions are lacking. However, with a high penetration rate of social media in the Arab world, there is good opportunity to utilize social media platforms such as Twitter to promote women's health. In this paper, we analyze the Tweet feeds of Saudi-based Twitter account to promote women's health. A total of 5167 Tweets were extracted and analyzed retrospectively, using NVivo Ncapture between June 2014 and March 2015. There were a total number of 3449 followers by March 20, 2015. Results showed that a majority of the Twitter followers (61%, n=2104) were seeking gynecological information, followed by pregnancy related information (27%, n=931), breast-feeding advice (9%, n=310), and other health related information (3%, n=103). Results also showed an increased level of health awareness and comprehension among Twitter followers. Further research is needed to promote women's health in Saudi Arabia and the Arab world through social media platforms such as Twitter and similar platforms including Instagram, Facebook, and YouTube which are also popular in the Arab world.
Consumers Union of United States, Inc., Mount Vernon, NY. Educational Services Div.
"Consumer Education in Lincoln High School" was prepared by the Consumer Education Committee, faculty members of the school. The document presents a series of teacher-prepared case studies of Lincoln High School's consumer education program and how consumer education has been integrated into the following departments: business education,…
Maber, Elizabeth Jane Tregoning
This paper explores the role played by women activists and educators in mobilising community education to support new opportunities for women's activism in the context of Myanmar's political transition. Recent political reorientations in Myanmar which have resulted in a civilian-led democracy emerging from a repressive military regime, have…
El-Halawany, Hanan Salah El-Deen
This research aims to compare the effect of higher education on some Upper Egyptian women's practice of self autonomy at both work and home. The most important revelation this research makes is the fact that although no one can deny the importance and significance of higher education to Upper Egyptian women, yet it failed to challenge the…
Olomukoro, Caroline O.; Adelore, Omobola O.
The study examined the political empowerment of women through literacy education programmes in Edo and Delta States in the South-South Geopolitical zone of Nigeria. A sample of 1022 women was randomly drawn from the different levels of literacy classes organised by the Agency of Adult and Nonformal Education and non-governmental and private…
Hofmann, Sudie, Comp.
This guide was prepared to aid adult educators in teaching women of minority groups in adult basic education programs. It provides background information about the cultural roles and expectations of these women so that teachers can structure the classroom situation to serve their needs. The first section of the guide contains six essays on the…
Owens, Otis Holloway; Emplaincourt, Marilyn
Examined were the educational attitudes, experiences, needs, and constraints of a selected sample of women in the Tuscaloosa area who were not enrolled in educational programs during the spring of 1975. A total of 116 women participated in the study and completed a 64-item questionnaire. The majority of the respondents indicated positive attitudes…
Identifies those women mentioned most frequently in general U.S. music education history books and examines the contexts in which the books discussed their work. Surveys individuals interested in music education history to determine name recognition of these women and opinions regarding the importance of their contributions. (MJP)
Peppin Vaughan, Rosie
By 2000, girls' and women's education was a priority for international development organisations. While studies have examined the impact of recent campaigns and programmes, there has been less exploration of ideas about girls' and women's education within development thought in the immediate post-colonial period, and the political mechanisms…
Gouthro, Patricia A.
In this paper a critical feminist theoretical framework is used to explore the challenges of creating democratic learning spaces that will foster active and inclusive citizenship for women. Three democratic considerations are addressed to assess how adult educators can create more inclusive opportunities for lifelong education for women. The first…
This article aims to clarify the relationship between education and women's empowerment. Drawing from qualitative data collected in a study of four Garifuna villages on the north coast of Honduras, it argues that education can trigger the empowerment process if it expands women's knowledge and understanding, self-confidence and awareness of gender…
LeBold, William K.; And Others
A model program for freshman women in engineering was field tested and evaluated at the Purdue University Department of Freshman Engineering. The course, open to men and women, was designed to provide more equitable educational opportunities through hands-on laboratories, career education, and role-model lectures on energy, environment,…
Herz, Barbara K., Ed.; Khandker, Shahidur R., Ed.
This report examines ways of improving women's productivity and education and the consequences for development in Peru. The research finds that women account for about 39 percent of family income in Peru. They carry the main responsibility for child care and heavily influence family decisions on children's education and family size. Improving…
FISHER, NANETTE HUNT
THIS STUDY, BASED ON THE HYPOTHESIS THAT PREPARATION FOR MARRIAGE IS INADEQUATE IN OUR SOCIETY, INCLUDES A SURVEY OF LITERATURE RELATING TO THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF MODERN WOMEN AND THE PROPER ROLE OF HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION, TOGETHER WITH RESULTS OF A SURVEY OF HUNTER COLLEGE HOME ECONOMICS MAJORS AND OTHER WOMEN REGARDING PROBLEMS IN FAMILY…
Burbridge, Lynn C.
A literature review was conducted to determine the impact of secondary vocational education on females. Literature on the following topics was reviewed: women in the labor market (wages and occupations, the role of women's wages in family income, and the future labor market); the vocational education system (issues and problems in vocational…
In 19th century America, some women decried the opportunity for scholarly education as rebellion against religion and predicted a grim decline in the quality of life, home, and hearth for American families and for American culture and politics. In particular, women who opposed scholarly education argued that God had not created men and women…
Hendrick, C. Emily; Cohen, Alison K.; Deardorff, Julianna; Cance, Jessica D.
Background: Lifetime educational attainment is an important predictor of health and well-being for women in the United States. In this study, we examine the roles of sociocultural factors in youth and an understudied biological life event, pubertal timing, in predicting women's lifetime educational attainment. Methods: Using data from the National…
Syomwene, Anne; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga
This paper is a discussion of the relationship between women education and sustainable economic development in Kenya and its implications for curriculum development and implementation processes. The argument advanced in this paper is that the solution to the development problems in Kenya and other developing nations lies on women education.…
Rasheed, Lisa R.
Within the last twenty years, some educational researchers initiated an emphasis to study the accomplishments and contributions of African-American women in higher education. Although they were marginally recognized, some African-American women forged into uncharted territories by providing examples of administrative leadership in post-secondary…
Al-Khalidi, Nasiema Mustafa Sadeq
The study aimed to identify the image of women and how it was dealt with in the National Education books in Jordan, where the content of the National Education books analyzed and for multiple age stages, also it addressed the content analysis of images, concepts and fees, activities and evaluation to identify the image of women in the family, at…
Women in upper-level leadership positions in higher education are underrepresented. This study examined the predominant leadership styles of women who have achieved upper-level leadership positions in higher education explored intentional changes in their leadership styles. Primarily, the study sought to determine if these leaders had similar…
Strachan, Jane; Akao, Shalom; Kilavanwa, Bessie; Warsal, Daisy
This article presents findings from research on women's educational leadership experiences in Melanesia, a least developed part of the world. Specific context research is needed so that theories and strategies developed that help women access educational leadership in developing countries are grounded in grassroots experience. (Contains 4 notes.)
White, Arden; Hernandez, Nelda
Women in academic appointments have published less frequently than men. Since this difference is only partially explainable on the basis of fewer years in higher education, a study was conducted to determine men's and women's perceptions and experiences of writing for publication in the field of counselor education. A sample of 82 counselor…
A process evaluation was conducted to assess the High Tech Educators Network's (HTEN's) activities. Four basic components to the evaluation approach were documentation review, program logic model, written survey, and participant interviews. The model mapped the basic goals and objectives, assumptions, activities, outcome expectations, and…
Romano, Amy M.
Internet use among pregnant women is common and frequent, while attendance at childbirth education classes appears to be on the decline. This article explores why women turn to the Internet in pregnancy and how Internet use may affect their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. It suggests strategies for engaging women's interest in the Internet and describes how doing so may help increase the effectiveness of “traditional” childbirth education while mitigating the potentially overwhelming and confusing aspects of Internet use. PMID:18769519
This study explores postwar educational reform in Japan from 1945 to 1952 and focuses on issues related to women's higher education. It describes the transformation of the educational system and the effect of the educational reforms of U.S. occupation forces on post-World War II Japan. The basic research design emphasizes narrative historical…
Hayes, Elisabeth; Smith, Letitia
To clarify dominant perspectives on women in adult education publications, ethnographic content analysis was used to examine 112 journal articles in 4 major adult education journals. Articles analyzed were from two North American journals ("Adult Education"/"Adult Education Quarterly" and "Adult…
This article examines the causal effect of women's education on maternal health in Peru, a country where maternal mortality has declined by more than 70% in the last two and a half decades. To isolate the effects of education, the author employs an instrumented regression discontinuity that takes advantage of an exogenous source of variation-an amendment to compulsory schooling laws in 1993. The results indicate that extending women's years of schooling reduced the probability of several maternal health complications at last pregnancy/birth, sometimes by as much as 29%. Underlying these effects, increasing women's education is found to decrease the probability of short birth intervals and unwanted pregnancies (which may result in unsafe abortions) and to increase antenatal healthcare use, potentially owing to changes in women's cognitive skills, economic resources, and autonomy. These findings underscore the influential role of education in reducing maternal morbidity and highlight the contributions of women's education to population health and health transitions.
Nyamathi, A M; Bennett, C; Leake, B
The researchers sought to explore and describe the demographic, cognitive, psychosocial, and behavioral factors associated with the continued risky behavior of a convenience sample of homeless and drug-addicted women two to four weeks after they had completed an AIDS education program. The sample included 942 crack users and 767 women who had multiple sex partners. Analyses revealed that impoverished women who maintained multiple sexual partners were less likely to be in drug recovery programs than in homeless shelters. They were more likely to share needles and be involved sexually with male injection drug users compared with impoverished women who did not maintain multiple sexual partners. Persistent crack users were older than those who reported cessation of crack use, were more often African American, and were more likely to have sex partners who were injecting drug users. Women who demonstrated less improvement in depression and distress scores, concerns, use of affective coping, appraisal of threat, and social support were more likely to maintain crack use and multiple partners. The study's implications for the design of intervention programs aimed at risk reduction based on ethnicity are discussed. PMID:7480615
Using data from the World Fertility Survey of 1977-78, this paper examines how community characteristics influence completed fertility in Peru. The analysis shows that community characteristics do not condition (interact with) the effects of mother's education in determining completed fertility. Rather, the effects of community characteristics are best described by a threshold model, which posits that below or above critical cut points, the effects on fertility of community (or individual) characteristics will diminish or increase. Empirical results showed that residence in communities with higher levels of access to the benefits of development decreased completed fertility beyond what one would have predicted on the basis of women's characteristics alone, and this effect was further amplified with increasing levels of development.
Lawrence, Wendy; Schlotz, Wolff; Crozier, Sarah; Skinner, Timothy C; Haslam, Cheryl; Robinson, Sian; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Barker, Mary
Our previous work found that perceived control over life was a significant predictor of the quality of diet of women of lower educational attainment. In this paper, we explore the influence on quality of diet of a range of psychological and social factors identified during focus group discussions, and specify the way this differs in women of lower and higher educational attainment. We assessed educational attainment, quality of diet, and psycho-social factors in 378 women attending Sure Start Children’s Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. Multiple-group path analysis showed that in women of lower educational attainment, the effect of general self-efficacy on quality of diet was mediated through perceptions of control and through food involvement, but that there were also direct effects of social support for healthy eating and having positive outcome expectancies. There was no effect of self-efficacy, perceived control or outcome expectancies on the quality of diet of women of higher educational attainment, though having more social support and food involvement were associated with improved quality of diet in these women. Our analysis confirms our hypothesis that control-related factors are more important in determining dietary quality in women of lower educational attainment than in women of higher educational attainment. PMID:21078352
Smith, Jeanne W.
As more women choose to reenter college or seek employment, marital and family systems undergo change. From an initial sample of 251 women who participated in a reassessment series conducted between 1973 and 1977, 24 women who had chosen to reenter college or initiate careers were selected for follow-up interviews. Women (N=12) who had divorced…
Schulze, Marco H; Völker, Fabian M; Lugert, Raimond; Cooper, Paul; Hasenclever, Kai; Groß, Uwe; Pfister, Herbert; Silling, Steffi
Data about the prevalence of human papillomaviruses (HPV) in African women with normal and abnormal cervical cytology are still scarce. Current HPV vaccines contain HPV types, which mainly represent the HPV epidemiology of industrial countries. As further developments of HPV vaccines are going on, it is necessary to regard regional differences in HPV type prevalence to ensure optimal protection by the vaccine. Vaginal swabs of Ghanaian pregnant women, routinely collected before delivery to rule out bacterial infections causing early onset sepsis, were screened for 12 high-risk (HR), 13 probably/possibly (pHR), and 18 low-risk (LR) HPV types. Most pregnant women come for delivery to the hospital. This was considered as appropriate possibility to have an unselected group of women. HPV DNA were detected in 55/165 women (33.3, 95 % CI 26.3-41.1 %). Thirty-four out of fifty-five (61.8, 95 % CI 47.7-74.3 %) of HPV-positive women were infected with HR and/or pHR HPV types. The five most prevalent HR or pHR HPV types were HPV-52 and HPV-67 (7 women each, 4.2, 95 % CI 1.9-8.9 %), HPV-53 (six women, 3.6, 95 % CI 1.5-8.1 %), HPV-45 (five women, 3.0, 95 % CI 1.1-7.3 %), and HPV-18 (four women, 2.4, 95 % CI 0.8-6.5 %), respectively. HPV-16 was found in two women only (1.2, 95 % CI 0.2-4.8 %). Future HPV vaccine research may devote special interest to HPV-67 and HPV-53 provided further studies confirm their high prevalence in the general population of Sub-Saharan African countries. The true carcinogenic potential of HPV-67, which is a member of species alpha9 including HPV-16, and so far categorized as pHR, should be clarified.
Hayes, Elisabeth; Flannery, Daniele D.
This book is intended to address the need for information and understanding about adult women's learning and education. It gathers knowledge about women and their learning and places women's learning experiences in the contexts of where women live. The book also promotes an understanding of women's diversity and makes recommendations for future…
Sinkford, Jeanne C; Harrison, Sonja; Brunson, W David; Valachovic, Richard W
In the recent past, we have seen both the dental student applicant and enrollment pools of women in the United States increase. There has been an increase in both women applicants and first-year enrollees from the year 2000. The advancement of women in advanced educational programs and into dental faculty positions has likewise seen a trend of increase. The challenge to dental education is to ensure that the recruitment and advancement of women to careers in dental education and research in the future are consistent with their talent, expertise, and career expectations. Within this pool of women are our future leaders, deans, and researchers. As we consider future faculty needs for all dental faculty members, we must consider the unique needs of women who must balance their careers with other societal demands related to their gender.
Wingler, Sylvia Adams
This dissertation focuses on the narratives of four rural art educators of the Foothills of Western North Carolina. These women are the first art educators in this area in public education. They are often viewed as the invisible women in art who support community arts, much like the "invisible women in art history." From the view of the…
Wilson, Maggie, Ed.
This book examines the experience of European young women in secondary and higher education. After an introductory chapter by Maggie Wilson, chapter 2 (by Nadine Plateau) presents an account of the failure of educational reforms and the introduction of co-education in French-speaking Belgium to mitigate divergent patterns of choice between boys…
"Women constitute the key resource for attaining the goal of health for all by the year 2000," maintains a report by The World Health Organization. Achieving this goal requires massive efforts including (1) the training of women health care professionals; and (2) the nonformal health education of women, the primary health care providers to their families and communities. This paper focuses on the first area, specifically on the education of women nurses in a Third World country, Saudi Arabia, where traditional attitudes persist against intermingling of the genders and the treatment of women by men. It examines the progress and problems encountered in recruiting Saudi women for nursing education and practice; describes the evolution of nursing education programs; and analyzes the obstacles to women's participation in these programs and in the nursing profession. The paper concludes with recommendations to address the problem, increase women's participation, and contribute to that country's health development. The paper is based upon primary and secondary data, including official statistics; personal interviews with Saudi women health professionals and students; the memoirs of a leading Saudi woman nurse and educator, the author's personal observations and experiences with the health care system during four years of residence in Saudi Arabia, and available literature on the subject.
Al Riyami, Asya; Afifi, Mustafa; Mabry, Ruth M
Since 1970 political and economic changes have brought about great improvements in health and education in Oman, and since 1994 the government has provided free contraceptives to all married couples in primary health care centres. Despite rapid socio-economic development, the fertility rate was 4.2 in 2001. The aim of this study was to define baseline data on ever-married women's empowerment in Oman from a national study in 2000, analyse the correlates of women's empowerment and the effect of empowerment on unmet need for contraception. Two indicators of empowerment were used: women's involvement in decision-making and freedom of movement. Bivariate analysis was used to link these measures and their proxies, education and employment status, with use of a family planning method. Education was a key indicator of women's status. Unmet contraceptive need for women exposed to pregnancy was nearly 25%, but decreased significantly with educational level and paid employment. While empowered women were more likely to use contraception, women's education was a better predictor of "met need" than autonomy, as traditional factors and community influence remain strong. For nearly half the 1,830 women in the study, the husband decided whether contraception was used. Fewer than 1% were using contraception before their first child as women are expected to have a child within the first year of marriage.
Science is a part of all students' education, PreK-12. Preparing students for a more scientifically and technologically complex world requires the best possible education including the deliberate inclusion and full contributions of all students, especially an underrepresented group: females in science. In the United States, as elsewhere in the world, the participation of girls and women in science education and professional careers in science is limited, particularly in the physical sciences (National Academy of Sciences [NAS], 2006). The goal of this research study is to gain a better understanding of the perspectives and perceptions of girls and women, both science educators and students, related to gender and participation in science at the time of an important course: high school chemistry. There is a rich body of research literature in science education that addresses gender studies post---high school, but less research that recognizes the affective voices of practicing female science teachers and students at the high school level (Bianchini, Cavazos, & Helms, 2000; Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Gilligan, 1982). Similarly, little is known with regard to how female students and teachers navigate their educational, personal, and professional experiences in science, or how they overcome impediments that pose limits on their participation in science, particularly the physical sciences. This exploratory study focuses on capturing voices (Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Gilligan, 1982) of high school chemistry students and teachers from selected urban and suburban learning communities in public schools in the Capital Region of New York State. Through surveys, interviews, and focus groups, this qualitative study explores the intersection of the students' and teachers' experiences with regard to the following questions: (1) How do female chemistry teachers view the role gender has played in their professional and personal lives as they have pursued education, degree status, and
Wobie, K; Eyler, F D; Behnke, M; Conlon, M
Pregnant women using rural health departments for prenatal care often experience chronic stressors (minority status, poor education, low income, young age, and single parenting of young children) that contribute to depression. Yet these same women may be reluctant to express their feelings. Because depression has been related to negative patterns of motherchild interaction and even newborn irritability, it is important to identify symptoms in high-risk mothers. For years, symbolic methods of expression have been used to reveal psychological traits or to identify clinical diagnoses, but few have been used to evaluate pregnant women. Women attending a rural health department were administered a comprehensive health and psychosocial questionnaire, including the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). They were then asked to complete a drawing expressing their feelings regarding their pregnancy. The relationship between CES-D scores and drawing ratings determined by two different methods of interpretation (expert, non-expert) was then examined. Non-expert art analysis was able to distinguish those women with the highest scores on the depression index, while expert analysis was able to discern racial differences consistent with risk status. Suggestions for the use of this drawing measure in the clinical setting are discussed. Alternative (non-verbal) methods of assessment that may improve communication with pregnant women are important for optimizing maternal and infant health and well-being and child development.
Vaid, Isam; Wigington, Charles; Borbely, Deborah; Ferry, Patricia; Manheim, Diane
In the United States, the cardiovascular health of women is affected by the disparate impact of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) on many minority ethnic and racial groups. Women with low income also endure a disproportionate impact of the burden of CVD. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Well-Integrated Screening and Evaluation for Women Across the Nation (WISEWOMAN) Program was authorized by Congress in 1993 to extend the preventive health services offered to participants of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). These are low-income, uninsured, and underinsured women. The intent was to expand services of an existing federal program to address cardiovascular health concerns in this vulnerable, high-risk population. CDC funds 19 state health departments and 2 tribal organizations (both in Alaska) to implement WISEWOMAN. In the first 2 years of the current 5-year funding cycle, which began in June 2008, the WISEWOMAN grantees succeeded in providing almost 78,000 screenings, of which 46% were to women of minority racial and ethnic groups. The individual successes are important, and the WISEWOMAN Program also has achieved success in the broader arenas of healthcare and the communities in which WISEWOMAN is implemented. WISEWOMAN impacts clinical systems of care, provider education, physician extenders, and the broader community and will continue to play an important role in connecting low-income, uninsured, and underinsured women with clinical systems of care and other community resources that will result in the prevention, treatment, and management of their CVD risk.
Karau, Paul Bundi; Winnie, Mueni Saumu; Geoffrey, Muriira; Mwenda, Mukuthuria
Uptake of VCT and other HIV prevention strategies among rural African women is affected by various socio-cultural and economic factors which need elucidation. Our aim was to establish the responsiveness to HIV education among rural women attending three dispensaries in Kenya. This study was designed to assess gender and psycho-social factors that influence HIV dynamics in rural Kenya. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire based study of 1347 women, conducted in October 2009. Socio-economic status as well as knowledge on methods of HIV transmission was assessed. Testing status, knowledge on existing VCT services and willingness to share HIV information with their children was assessed. Majority of the women have heard about VCT services, but significantly few of them have been tested. Those with secondary school education and above are more knowledgeable on methods of HIV transmission, while those with inadequate education are more likely to cite shaking hands, sharing utensils, mosquito bites and hugging as means of transmission (p = 0.001). 90% of educated women are willing to share HIV information with their children, compared to 40% of uneducated women. Marital status is seen to positively influence testing status, but has no significant effect on dissemination of information to children. We conclude that despite the aggressive HIV education and proliferation of VCT services in Kenya, women are not heeding the call to get tested. Education has a positive impact on dissemination of HIV information. Focus needs to shift into increasing acceptability of testing by women in rural Kenya.
Tidball, M. Elizabeth; Smith, Daryl G.; Tidball, Charles S.; Wolf-Wendel, Lisa E.
This book looks at why women's colleges continue to produce graduates whose career achievement is significantly higher than that of peers educated in coeducational settings. The book suggests that there is a loss of women's talent in coeducational institutions and that institutional priorities, patterns, and principles at women's colleges offer…
Nguyen, Thi Huong; Oosterhoff, Pauline; White, Joanna
Stereotypical portrayals of the Hmong in Vietnam emphasize their apparently exotic customs related to sexual relationships and marriage and their alleged backwardness and resistance to change. Yet their history shows their ability to respond to changing socioeconomic contexts. This study details practices and aspirations concerning love, marriage and education among different generations of White Hmong women in the northern mountains of Vietnam, with particular attention to the perspectives of young women. We found a diversity of ideas and identified certain rapidly changing practices regarding marriage. Forced marriage through 'wife-snatching' was reported to have always been rare and its meaning and prevalence has seemingly been misunderstood by outsiders. Bride price payment was reported to be an important element of most Hmong marriages. Hmong girls studying at high school and secondary level were found to have particular aspirations pertaining to their marriage, education and career, but lacked confidence in their abilities to create their desired future. Findings also reveal how patrilocal residence following marriage places young women under the strict control of their husbands and parents-in-law, which is likely to contribute to their lack of self-esteem and sense of autonomy.
Al-Faris, Nora A
Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50-74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.
Kaviani, Maasumeh; Rahnavard, Tahereh; Azima, Sara; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Asadi, Nasrin; Sayadi, Mehrab
Background: Sexuality constitutes an important part of women’s life. Healthy and proper sexual functioning is one of the signs of physical and mental health. The present study aimed to identify the effect of education on sexual health of women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 80 married women at reproductive age were randomly divided into a control and an education group. These women participated in this study based on self-reporting of having hypoactive sexual desire disorder. After six weekly educational sessions regarding sexual health, percentage of changes in sexual desire was assayed using Hurlbert index of sexual desire. Independent and paired t-test and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Results: After the intervention, a significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the sexual desire score (P<0.001). The results also showed a significant difference within groups in this regard (P<0.001). Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it seems that educational intervention regarding sexual health was effective for the women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Thus, establishing sexual health education units in different health centers is highly necessary. These centers can help couples to promote their sexual knowledge and treat their sexual dysfunctions. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2012101911032N2 PMID:25349850
Oplatka, Izhar; Lapidot, Orit
Based on semi-structured interviews with 11 Muslim women graduate students in Israel, the current study provides insight into the determinants enabling this group of women in the Arab sector to apply for a second degree and succeed. Among these determinants are the family, the high school, the individual's personal drive for learning, the…
Mertz, Norma T., Ed.
These are the inspiring and illuminating stories of women professors who first broke into the exclusive, all-male academic club of educational administration. Women of this pioneering generation tell how they overcame daunting challenges, traumas, the naivete of others, sexual harassment, and retaliation, as well as how they encountered unexpected…
Ghose, Malini; Mullick, Disha
This paper is based on the findings of a research study which traced 56 rural women learners 15 years after they had participated in an empowerment and education programme in North India. It attempts to understand, from the perspectives of women from marginalised communities, the ways in which participating in the programme had been empowering for them, or not. While most of the women were indeed able to transform several areas in their lives, this study illustrates that empowering outcomes cannot be assumed or articulated in categorical terms and that bringing about change requires the negotiation of power at various levels. The women's narratives stand in contrast to the prevalent discourses around women's literacy and empowerment, which highlight the importance of literacy only in terms of its positive impact on attaining development goals. Despite the vigorously discussed de-politicisation of the concept of empowerment, the authors show in this paper that empowerment, when informed by a critical feminist understanding, continues to provide a useful framework to analyse women's experiences related to education, as a process enabling women to understand and negotiate structures of power - which are neither static nor wholly dominating - and to find spaces to exercise agency. There are few longitudinal studies which trace the long-term impact of educational programmes on adult women, and most studies are in the nature of impact assessments of programmes. Through this paper the authors argue for the need to analyse the complexities around the relationship between women's education and empowerment.
Ghimire, Dirgha J; Axinn, William G; Smith-Greenaway, Emily
This paper investigates the association between mass education and married women's experience with domestic violence in rural Nepal. Previous research on domestic violence in South Asian societies emphasizes patriarchal ideology and the widespread subordinate status of women within their communities and families. The recent spread of mass education is likely to shift these gendered dynamics, thereby lowering women's likelihood of experiencing domestic violence. Using data from 1775 currently married women from the Chitwan Valley Family Study in Nepal, we provide a thorough analysis of how the spread of mass education is associated with domestic violence among married women. The results show that women's childhood access to school, their parents' schooling, their own schooling, and their husbands' schooling are each associated with their lower likelihood of experiencing domestic violence. Indeed, husbands' education has a particularly strong, inverse association with women's likelihood of experiencing domestic violence. These associations suggest that the proliferation of mass education will lead to a marked decline in women's experience with domestic violence in Nepal.
Porter, Shirley Anne
This literature review will trace the recent history of the globalisation of human rights with reference to education, particularly for girls and women, but also looking more broadly to include education for boys and men. The main paradigms--traditional, neo-liberalism and philanthrocapitalism--for providing education in developing countries will…
Leach, Mary S.
Examines the relations between the Philosophy of Education Society (PES) and various educational reform movements, noting the emergence of women as a more feasible part of PES and the impact of feminist theory on issues pursued by philosophy of education and the conception of philosophy as a mode of investigation. (SM)
Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.
The proceedings of this roundtable discuss the current status of Florida women in educational leadership and ways to expand their opportunities for advancement. The report begins with an introduction and opening remarks by Florida's Assistant Commissioner of Education, Laurey T. Stryker and Florida Commissioner of Education, Betty Castor. A…
Smith, Cristine A.; Stone, Rebecca Paulson; Kahando, Sarah
Delaying girls' early marriage is a critical public health and education goal in developing countries, in which their own or their mothers' education may play an important role. This paper reviews the existing evidence of any relationship between girls' schooling or women's literacy education and delayed marriage for themselves or their daughters.…
Crocco, Margaret Smith, Ed.; Davis, O. L., Jr., Ed.
This book examines the lives and work of women who forged a distinctive tradition of social education from the late 19th century to the late 20th century, one that offered an alternative set of ideas about its means and ends to those propounded by mainstream educational theorists. In the book, the term "social education" is used to…
Vaughan, Rosie Peppin
This article explores the dynamics of global campaigns for education through a study of the movement for girls' and women's education in India since independence in 1947. In particular, it uses the trajectory of ideas within India to theorise about international collaboration on educational goals, with UNESCO and the World Bank being two of the…
Central in the analyses of women's and gender studies within the history of education has been Rousseau's (Emil oder Uber die Erziehung, 12th edn. Ferdinand Schoningh, Paderborn 1762) educational novel Emile, especially Book 5, which deals with the education of Sophie, Emilie's future spouse. Given the lasting interest in the person of Rousseau…
Tittle, Carol Kehr; And Others
This report provides an exploratory survey of several aspects of educational testing, with a view toward identifying discrimination against women. Two major ways in which discrimination can occur are examined in educational testing: reinforcement of sex-role stereotypes and restriction of individual choice. Major educational achievement tests are…
Lawrence, Wendy; Skinner, Chas; Haslam, Cheryl; Robinson, Sian; Inskip, Hazel; Barker, David; Cooper, Cyrus; Jackson, Alan; Barker, Mary
Women of lower educational attainment are more likely to eat unhealthy diets than women of higher educational attainment. To identify influences on the food choices of women with lower educational attainment, 11 focus groups (eight with women of lower, and three with women of higher educational attainment) were held. Using a semi-structured discussion guide, environmental, social, historical and psychological factors known to be associated with food choice were explored. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Compared to women of higher educational attainment, women of lower educational attainment had less control over their families' food choices, less support for attempts to eat healthily, fewer opportunities to observe and learn good food-related practices, more negative affect, more perceived environmental constraints and more ambiguous beliefs about the consequences of eating a nutritious diet. These findings provide a starting point for taking forward the design of an intervention to improve the diets of young women.
Lindsey, Tonya D.; Buttice, Matthew K.
Primary, secondary, and higher education organizations are tasked with, among other things, preparing people for careers. Until the later decades of the 20th century women were often openly discouraged from the study of certain subjects (e.g., science, mathematics) and from obtaining higher degrees. Policies enacted during this time period sought…
The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the differences between the women's rights movements of the 19th and 20th centuries in the United States, focusing upon origins, issues, problems, attempted solutions, and outcomes pertaining to white and black women. The study attempted to predict benefits black women could expect from the current…
Outdoor adventure is stereotyped as a White, male activity. Women who participate are going against the stereotype of outdoor activities as a male domain, but women of color additionally confront the domain of race. Constraints on women generally include socialization into an ethic of care, concern for physical and psychological safety, and lack…
Hacker, Helen Mayer
This report discusses the history of societal attitudes toward the role of women. The question is raised as to whether the present sexual revolution can enhance either sexual fulfillment or civil liberties for contemporary women. This is discussed in reference to the nuclear family, sexual bargaining, cultural assumptions about women's sexual…
Freeborn, Donna; Mandleco, Barbara
The purpose of this study was to examine the childhood experiences of women with cerebral palsy (CP), from the perspectives of these women. Using the feminist biographical method, eight women with CP participated in two in-depth interviews. Participants ranged in age from 22 to 55 years and had moderate to severe athetoid or spastic CP. Four…
The Labor Force 2008 projections reflected that the rate of growth for women in the labor force will increase at a faster rate than that of men (Fullerton, 1999). In 2008, the majority of employed women (39 percent) worked in management, professional, and related occupations (U.S. Department of Labor, 2008). Although women's participation in the…
Callister, Lynn Clark; Coverston, Catherine; Hobbins-Garbett, Debra
A women's-health course developed by nursing faculty in cooperation with women's studies takes a holistic, contextual view of women's health. Student outcomes include heightened self-awareness, commitment to personal wellness and community service, and increased knowledge of the societal context of health issues. (SK)
Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia M.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.
We examine gender wage disparities for four groups of college-educated women--black, Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white--using the National Survey of College Graduates. Raw log wage gaps, relative to non-Hispanic white male counterparts, generally exceed -0.30. Estimated gaps decline to between -0.08 and -0.19 in nonparametric analyses that…
Reberte, Luciana Magnoni; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura; Gomes, Ana Luisa Zaniboni
This study aimed to describe the production process of an educational booklet focusing on health promotion of pregnant women. The action research method was used in this process composed of the following steps: choice of the content based on the needs of pregnant women, creation of illustrations, content preparation based on scientific literature, validation of the material by experts and pregnant women. This work resulted in the final version of the booklet, which was entitled "Celebrating life: our commitment with the health promotion of pregnant women". Active participation of health professionals and pregnant women through dialogue and collective strategy permeated the process of development of the booklet. The opinions of pregnant women and experts who considered the booklet enriching and enlightening justify the use of it as an additional resource of educational activities carried out during the prenatal care.
Dumrongpakapakorn, Phensiri; Hopkins, Kathy; Sherwood, Paula; Zorn, Kristin; Donovan, Heidi
A majority of women with ovarian cancer will face recurrent disease despite receiving aggressive chemotherapy at the time of diagnosis. Given the complex medical and psychosocial needs of women with ovarian cancer and the time constraints within busy clinical settings, providing women with the necessary education related to their disease and treatments can be challenging. The advent of computers and web-based technologies has created new opportunities for educating cancer patients and supporting them to better cope with their disease. This article reviews prior studies of computer-based patient education interventions to identify key intervention components and other factors associated with improved patient outcomes. Opportunities for using computer-based technologies to support women with ovarian cancer are discussed and WRITE Symptoms (a Written Representational Intervention To Ease Symptoms), a web-based, symptom management intervention for women with recurrent ovarian cancer, is introduced.
Kim, Geumwoon; Youn, Gahyun
This study investigated generativity differences between employed and unemployed women in Korea and examined the effect of education on generativity. There were 472 participants in this study, 252 employed married women and 220 unemployed married women living in the Kwangju metropolitan area. A questionnaire requesting demographic information and responses to the translated Loyola Generativity Scale was administered individually. Analysis showed significant generativity differences between the two groups, who also differed in education and mother and spouse roles. However, employment status was not a significant predictor for generativity when a stepwise regression analysis was applied. The analysis showed that education was the strongest predictor for generativity, while mother/wife roles, socioeconomic status, health, and childcare stress were also significant predictors. It was concluded that for Korean married women, generativity is more strongly related to education than employment status.
Smith, Maria A; Garbharran, Hari; Edwards, M Jo; O'Hara-Murdock, Peggy
Poor sanitation and hygiene facilitate transmission of environmental diseases and pose a threat to the health of South African residents. This study focused on identifying sanitation needs from the perspective of informal community residents, addressing need related issues, and empowering Zulu and Xhosa women. The study used a multistep approach to identify and access communities of interest, reflexive critique during data collection from 300 heads of households, and a reiterative process to identify major themes. A process, which impacted 1,467 residents, was developed; it included culturally sensitive presentation styles and educational materials that facilitated understanding of sanitation concepts. Main sanitation themes were health knowledge and community role models. Educational sessions incorporated women. Using women as educators elevated their status and validated their community importance. Project participation added to the educational background of the Zulu and Xhosa women. It empowered them and provided an opportunity for them to articulate community needs.
Archie-Booker, D. Elaine; Cervero, Ronald M.; Langone, Christine A.
Interviews and observations of three AIDS-prevention programs revealed that in this agency, AIDS education overall was not culturally relevant for African-American women for several reasons: (1) organization image and financing were geared toward White gay males; (2) interpretation of the mission did not include African-American women; and (3)…
Kwolek, Deborah S.; Donnelly, Michael B.; Carr, Ellen; Sloan, David A.; Haist, Steven A.
Women's health topics of interest for continuing medical education were identified by 91 primary care physicians. Most felt that more knowledge of these topics would reduce the number of referrals to specialists. A more comprehensive, rather than reproductive, perspective of women's health was called for. (SK)
This article examines the relative progress and major setbacks in the education of Afghan women from the end of the Taliban regime until the present, focusing on government and NGO reconstruction efforts. It is argued that these projects promote the agendas of the state and of NGOs over the needs of women and girls. The adversities arising from…
Acker, Sandra; Dillabough, Jo-Anne
This article reflects an interest in exposing links between women's academic work and the gender codes which organize and shape working life in the university context, both now and in the recent past, as a contribution to the sociology of women's work. Our specific focus is the gendered division of labour in teacher education in universities in…
Voices Rising: A Bulletin about Women and Popular Education, 1990
This document consists of the six issues of the serial "Voices Rising" issued during the four-year period 1987-1990. "Voices Rising" is the primary networking tool of the Women's Program of the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE). Articles in these issues include: "Tribute to a Courageous Woman--Nabila Breir"; "Centre for Women's…
Amari-Omaka, Lois Nnenna; Obande-Ogbuinya, Nkiru Edith
The purpose of this study was to determine sources of malaria information among pregnant women in Ebonyi state and implications for malaria education. The cross sectional research design was adopted and stratified sampling technique was used to select a total of five hundred and four (504) pregnant women from 12 hospitals in the state. A self…
Access to higher education opened up avenues for more women workforce in decent employment contributing to the national economy. Government policies/schemes played a significant role in improving this significant indicator of women empowerment. This access also had an impact on their enrolment and choice of subjects but was accompanied by several…
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Federal Women's Bureau.
Descriptions are given of mission-oriented or programmatic activities for or of concern to women, ongoing or initiated by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare during International Women's Year. Extensive comments are made about background and progress of programs, research, workshops, and other activities in the following eight…
A participatory research approach was used to determine the extent to which nonformal education (NFE) programs have contributed to the empowerment of women living on four Caribbean islands. Twelve agencies/organizations/providers on the islands of Barbados, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent that have offered NFE programs to women between 1992…
Jensen, Joan M.
From its inception in 1914 until 1940, the New Mexico Agricultural Extension Service was quite successful in delivering educational programs to non-English speaking, Hispanic women in Santa Fe County and almost totally unsuccessful in Dona Ana County. Criteria for success were involvement of ethnic women in the program, ability to adapt national…
Middle managers in higher education hold diverse titles and perform a variety of roles. Women represent a large portion of this midlevel management, but there is limited research exploring their experiences. As a result, little is known about women middle managers' career trajectories and what effect their experiences have on their future career…
The purpose of this study was to discover and understand the experiences that influenced women to obtain and persevere in leadership roles in higher education administrative positions. The results enhanced understanding of what motivates women to pursue leadership positions and provided strategies for career advancement and leadership development.…
Fischer, Linda; Molstad, Susan
"Exploring Female Images Through Movement," a course at Skidmore College, features activities that help students reexamine their attitudes toward their bodies, improve their self-image, and, through a combination of physical education and women's studies, experiment with new activities and ideas about themselves as women. (MB)
This article examines the work of two Quaker women, Priscilla Wakefield (1750-1832) and Maria Hack (1777-1844) as popularizers of science and in the context of the development of scientific literacy. Both women were writers who specialized in scientific educational texts for children and young adults. As Quakers their community and culture played…
Montez, Jennifer Karas; Zajacova, Anna
Over the past half century the gap in mortality across education levels has grown in the United States, and since the mid-1980s, the growth has been especially pronounced among white women. The reasons for the growth among white women are unclear. We investigated three explanations--social-psychological factors, economic circumstances, and health…
Eloundou-Enyegue, Parfait M.; Calves, Anne Emmanuele
In this article the authors examine the remittance interpretation for parents' selective investment in boys' education in sub-Saharan contexts. Using evidence from several African countries, they compare the relative capacity of married women versus men to assist their respective families of origin. They measure this capacity by women's leverage…
Walton, Karen Doyle, Ed.
Women describe their personal journeys to top positions of leadership in higher education in the 20 essays collected in this book. Ten American and 10 British college and university heads tell their unique stories about passing through the "glass ceiling" that limits the career leadership opportunities for women in academe. Essays…
Wadende, Pamela Akinyi
The aim of this dissertation is to present the procedure and proceedings of an instructional research into the teaching and learning among Luo women of Western Kenya. The purposes of the research are threefold. First, it seeks to document a system of indigenous adult education that has proved sustainable among Luo women from generation to…
In exploring the connections among gender, schooling, and knowledge, this paper considers the relationships between, and the effects of silencing or expressing anger, in women and their work as educators. Data come from two action research projects: Women Teaching Girls retreats and the Exploring Gender and Knowledge. Each consisted of a series of…
Ropers-Huilman, Rebecca; Winters, Kelly T.; Hakkola, Leah
This article explores the ways in which women's perceptions of their own bodies affect their experiences as students in higher education. Based on online focus group interviews with 25 college women, the authors use Foucault's concept of the "Panopticon" to consider how students internalize and enforce gendered expectations related to…
This study endeavored to investigate the impact of education on rural women's participation in political and economic activities. Six hundred rural women and 12 gender Activists were selected for this study from three Zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia using multi-stage random sampling technique and purposeful sampling techniques respectively.…
Wardell, Mary J. Lomax
Higher education is steadily including more women of color in the leadership of the academy. Daily leadership challenges require campus administrators to engage and move others toward exceptional workplace performance. As such, executive women of color must handle complex campus demands and leadership challenges, particularly as they relate to…
Ausmer, Nicole M.
There is an apparent dearth in the leadership literature of African American women when juxtaposed with race, gender and social class. This scarcity appears to be connected with the small percentage of African American women who hold the position of president in institutions of higher education. Additionally, recent reports have noted, that the…
Cragg, C. E. (Betty); Andrusyszyn, Mary-Anne; Fraser, Joy
Women with multiple roles face many challenges when taking distance education courses in professional programs to achieve credentials or maintain competence. Among these challenges is finding the supports necessary for success as a distance student. As part of a larger study on advantages and stressors identified by such women in distance…
Bourgeois, Monique; Kirby, Dale
The significance of post-secondary education is investigated for rural Newfoundland women enrolled in undergraduate liberal arts degree programs. Data collection for this research involved comprehensive, detailed semi-structured biographical interviews with rural women studying liberal arts disciplines during the 2006-2007 academic year at…
This qualitative research explores women's experiences of accessing higher education (HE) in England, through the mother-daughter relationship. Women's pathways to university and their funding histories are presented from both past and recent generations, to contextualise an understanding of funding HE in light of the 2012 tuition fee increase.…
Ghose, Malini; Mullick, Disha
This paper is based on the findings of a research study which traced 56 rural women learners 15 years after they had participated in an empowerment and education programme in North India. It attempts to understand, from the perspectives of women from marginalised communities, the ways in which participating in the programme had been empowering for…
While previous research has focused on the relationship between education and women's empowerment in the public sphere, their empowerment in the private sphere has been less fully developed in empirical studies. Drawing on a theoretical model of change in marital relationships, this article examines how women who participated in an innovative…
Ogden, Jane; Smith, Lauren; Nolan, Helen; Moroney, Rachel; Lynch, Hannah
Purpose: Media images of unrealistic beauty have been identified as a determinant of women's body dissatisfaction. This experimental study aims to explore whether the negative impact of such images could be reduced by a one-time educational intervention consisting of a presentation and discussion, teaching women to be critical of media images.…
Guerrero, Laura; Singh, Satvir
Using Blustein's (2006) psychology of working and Hackman and Oldham's (1975) job characteristics theory, the authors investigated the job attribute preferences of Mexican American women with low educational attainment. They used content analysis to code and analyze the interview transcripts of 27 women. The most valued job attributes were not…
Graesser, Cheryl C.; Rose, Clare
The Project to Assess the Status of Women Students and Employees in Vocational Education assessed number and distribution of women students and employees in vocational programs, their perceptions of equal access, and extent of efforts to address sex equity. Its main activity was a survey of 3,609 vocational students, 455 faculty, 126 counselors,…
Turner, Sandra V.; Bernt, Phyllis W.; Pecora, Norma
The educational, social, and familial influences that lead women to choose information technology (IT) careers were examined in an online survey. Of the 2,500 women who were employed in IT careers in 38 countries and who belonged to the IT professional organization, Systers, 275 responded to the online survey (11% response rate). The respondents…
This study explores the perspectives of women Post 9/11 veterans on their experiences in the military and subsequently in higher education. Using feminist research methodology, I interviewed three women veterans about their decisions to join the military, their gendered experiences in the military, their decisions to enroll in college, and their…
Welch, Andrea D.
The link between women in poverty and higher education is important because it reflects inequities in access and resources that exist in the Mid-Atlantic Appalachian region. Two main questions guided the research of women in poverty in regard to postsecondary access and attainment. First, what are the experiences of Mid-Atlantic Appalachian-born…
Kane, Roslyn D.
The impetus for developing a model to retrain women teachers and skilled women to become teachers in traditionally male-intensive secondary vocational education has emerged from a combination of problems and issues. The most pertinent of these involve the factors of supply and demand, coupled with the need to reduce sex stereotyping and bias in…
Mack, Yejide S.
African American women administrators working in urban educational settings have been found to be effective leaders of school improvement. Underutilized women and people of color are the untapped value that organizations of all types need to enhance creativity, change efforts, teamwork, and financial benefits (Northouse, 2001). During the last…
Machira, Mary Achieng
Low enrollment of women in higher education is a problem in Africa, particularly in Kenya, where despite the government's introduction of affirmative action, female enrollment averages only 36.7% at public universities. This gender gap may be due to the patriarchal influence in Kenyan society, where the role of women is seen as child-bearing,…
Pryor, Jacqueline D.
This qualitative inquire examined the financial behavior of six college educated Black women located in the Midwest. Utilizing Black feminism as a theoretical framework for analysis, a depiction was prepared on the adeptness of the women at managing their finances; the influence of parental teaching on personal finances; and their behavior toward…
Mishra, Arun; Khanna, Pinki; Shrivastava, Nalini
Despite United Nations' efforts, inequality of access for girls and women to technical and vocational education (TVE) persists in India. Challenges of the 21st century with regard to ensuring equal access of girls and women to TVE include: increasing the participation of girls (especially rural girls) in TVE; overcoming gender bias and…
Alvarado, Emmanuel; Nehring, Daniel
Our study explored cultural understandings surrounding the reproductive decisions of US-born, college-educated Mexican American women through a series of semi-structured in-depth interviews. In considering the results, this article advances debates on Latina women's reproductive choices beyond the theoretical paradigms of "assimilation" and…
Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda
This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in an adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) course, focuses on the problems faced by immigrant women in their work lives and legal provisions to protect employed women. The following items are included: module overview; list of basic,…
WOMEN UNIVERSITY GRADUATES IN CONTINUING EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT, AN EXPLORATORY STUDY INITIATED BY THE CANADIAN FEDERATION OF UNIVERSITY WOMEN 1966, AND LA FEMME DIPLOMEE FACE A L'EDUCATION PERMANENTE ET AU MONDE DU TRAVAIL.
COCKBURN, PATRICIA; RAYMOND, YVONNE R.
TO MEASURE THE EMPLOYMENT POTENTIAL OF CANADIAN WOMEN UNIVERSITY GRADUATES, TO INTEREST GOVERNMENT IN RETRAINING PROFESSIONAL WOMEN, AND TO ASSESS THE INTEREST OF WOMEN IN CONTINUING THEIR UNIVERSITY EDUCATION, A MAIL SURVEY WAS MADE OF 10,000 MEMBERS OF THE CANADIAN FEDERATION OF UNIVERSITY WOMEN, 500 NON-MEMBER GRADUATES, AND 850 FRENCH-SPEAKING…
Kim, Hyunjung; Song, Sanghoon; Park, Hyunjeong; Park, Jiseon; An, Jihye; Park, Joyoung; Yim, Haein; Song, Jeonghyeon; Yoon, Jin-Hee; Park, Youngah
The Korean Physical Society (KPS) Women Committee has organized a series of the physics camps for high school girl students to give them an opportunity to work together and interact with professional physicists. Although the KPS Women Committee has successfully set the KPS's face toward women's issues, it still needs more systematic support for helping and promoting the activities of women physicists. We describe the physics camp initiative and present the current status of women in physics in Korea, comparing female ratios in undergraduate and graduate school and faculty for the last ten years (1998-2007). The employment rate for females is compared with that for males according to education level. The total number of female students in physics in Korea has increased; however, it is still a very small portion of females who stay in physics with professional positions.
Perez, Shireese Redmond
The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…
Sabbah-Karkaby, Maha; Stier, Haya
This study focuses on the link between education and marriage timing among Israeli-Palestinian women. Theoretical discussions on marriage timing center on the effect of the time women spend in educational institutions on their age at marriage, and on the change in the desirable traits of women in the marriage market. But most of these arguments overlook situations where significant changes in education take place alongside retention of traditional patriarchal values. Based on data from three population censuses - in 1983, 1995 and 2008-our results suggest that staying longer in schooling delays marriage, so women with less education are more likely to marry earlier than others. While young age is still considered an important characteristic in the Israeli-Palestinian marriage market, and women who delay marriage face a greater risk of remaining single, education becomes more important over the years so that postponing marriage becomes especially problematic for low-educated women. Our findings suggest that traditional norms and structural conditions together shape marriage timing.
The article discusses contributions towards female higher education made by a group of women whose views on gender roles were conservative, rather than feminist or suffragist. Four women's conservative ideals and interconnected work for women's education are reviewed in the context of late Victorian Oxford. This study is prefaced by a discussion…
In contemporary society women leaders in education have struggled to balance work and family. While some women have succeeded in finding that balance, many others are still struggling. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences of three Armenian women in senior-level leadership positions in higher education in the United…
Oyeoku, E. K.; Meziobi, D.; Ezegbe, N. B.; Obikwelu, C. L.
The main purpose of the study was to evolve modalities for preventing domestic violence against women in Nsukka education zone. Three research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The sample comprised 150 urban women and 450 rural women in Nsukka education zone. A 20-item questionnaire was developed, validated, and administered to…
Elliott, Anne, Ed.; Williams, Patricia, Ed.
This document, which is intended for adult educators, contains information learned during the course of pilot workshops on the connections between violence and women's education that were held in four areas of Canada (Pine Grove, Montreal, Toronto, and the Yukon). First, the pilot workshops and development/use of the document are discussed, and…
Willers, Jack C.
The women's rights movement has brought American education to a crucial point of testing. Will the schools remain passive agents of social control or can they actively prepare those who seek self-direction? The speaker, professor of history and philosophy of education, George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, Tennessee, discusses two issues…
Passy, Lynn E.
The cultural position of women vis-a-vis work is changing. Family breakdown and the financial burdens which come with single-parenting are forcing women to enter the job market for the first time or in a new way. Even in two-parent families, economic constraints are demanding that wives as well as husbands work full-time. Too many women will…
Pérez, Gloria; García-Subirats, Irene; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Díez, Elia; Borrell, Carme
This study aims to describe trends in inequalities by women's socioeconomic position and age in induced abortion in Barcelona (Spain) over 1992-1996 and 2000-2004. Induced abortions occurring in residents in Barcelona aged 20 and 44 years in the study period are included. Variables are age, educational level, and time periods. Induced abortion rates per 1,000 women and absolute differences for educational level, age, and time period are calculated. Poisson regression models are fitted to obtain the relative risk (RR) for trends. Induced abortion rates increased from 10.1 to 14.6 per 1,000 women aged 20-44 (RR = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41-1.47) between 1992-1996 and 2000-2004. The abortion rate was highest among women aged 20-24 and 25-34 and changed little among women aged 35-44. Among women aged 20-24 and 25-34, those with a primary education or less had higher rates of induced abortion in the second period. Induced abortion rates also grew in those women with secondary education. In the 35-44 age group, the induced abortion rate declined among women with a secondary education (RR = 0.66; 95% CI 0.60-0.73) and slightly among those with a greater level of education. Induced abortion is rising most among women in poor socioeconomic positions. This study reveals deep inequalities in induced abortion in Barcelona, Spain. The trends identified in this study suggest that policy efforts to reduce unintended pregnancies are failing in Spain. Our study fills an important gap in literature on recent trends in Southern Europe.
Hills, Stephen M.; De Souza, Gita
The economic returns of taking math and science courses in high school are estimated for women who do not go on to college and for women entrepreneurs. A human capital model is used to estimate returns for respondents drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey's New Youth Cohort. Wage rates in 1990 of women who were ages 14-21 in 1979 were…
This article draws on data collected from a wider, longitudinal life history study conducted in South Africa between 2010 and 2014. The study focussed specifically on the personal and professional pathways to principalship of a sample of women leaders of co-educational high schools in South Africa, in both rural and peri-urban provinces: a role…
Smith, Cristine A.; Paulson Stone, Rebecca; Kahando, Sarah
Delaying girls' early marriage is a critical public health and education goal in developing countries, in which their own or their mothers' education may play an important role. This paper reviews the existing evidence of any relationship between girls' schooling or women's literacy education and delayed marriage for themselves or their daughters. The majority of research reports focus on the correlation between girls' schooling and brides' age at first marriage. But it is conceivable that adult women's/mothers' literacy education also has considerable influence on the age at which their daughters are married. Since this aspect has hitherto not been explicitly investigated, the authors propose a model - based on relevant research about the outcomes of girls' schooling and women's literacy education - of the mechanisms that mediate between women's education and delayed marriage for their daughters. The authors argue for research that will inform policy makers interested in helping girls complete secondary schooling about the potential contributions of adult women's literacy education to this goal.
Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.; Moghadam, Valentine M.
In contemporary Iran, women with higher education face both gender discrimination and an unfavourable economic system, one that is not conducive to employment-generation for women. This paper provides an analysis of women's access to higher education in Iran, which has varied over the last 30 years, and their continuously limited participation in the job market. Based on qualitative field research, this paper includes the voices of individual women, discussing their experience of higher education and factors they think are contributing to their limited choice of employment. The paper suggests that while the recent trend in negotiating mehrieh (a nuptial gift which is payable by the groom to the bride) has been a strategy employed by Iranian women to overcome some of the discriminatory laws they are subject to, this trend cannot actually be explained by the fact that women's employment opportunities are limited. The paper concludes by asserting that limited labour force participation for educated women is a consequence of both political economy and gender ideology.
de Wolf, Virginia A.
This study compared 105 women university baccalaureates intending graduate study the year following graduation with women graduates matched by age and major who did not intend such study. Aspirers had significantly higher GPAs than non-aspirers, were more satisfied with their undergraduate major, had more often selected their major as preparation…
Developmental theorists have suggested recently that at midlife women often want to reduce responsibilities to family and concentrate on self-development and growth, which earlier in their lives would have seemed to them selfish and therefore not acceptable. The aim of this comparative study was to determine if women returning to school at midlife…
Janzen, Melanie D.
This article describes a snapshot ethnography conducted in Uganda with the Agabagaya Women's Group. The purpose of the study was to explore how women share knowledge among themselves to support their communities. Using post-development theory and Freire's critical theory as a lens, I argue that although international development is often focused…
Academic feminism is now largely concerned with abstract theory and a discourse which distances it from the lived reality of working class women. This paper explores, through the concept and approach of dialogical feminism, ways in which feminists in the academy can re-connect with 'other women' in working towards social transformation for all…
Holland, Dorothy C.; Eisenhart, Margaret A.
This ethnographic study investigated why so few women become scientists or mathematicians. The study followed the lives of two groups of women, one black and one white, all with strong academic records, who were attending two southern U.S. universities, one predominantly black and the other predominantly white. The study was initiated in 1979 when…
Stromquist, Nelly P.
Women's empowerment is a concept that has acquired substantial recognition in the past decade. However, it is better known among international development organisations, NGOs, and grassroots groups than in academic circles. This article examines the concept of women's empowerment as a foundational element in a theory of social change in which the…
The history of women's studies in Australian universities is reviewed from 1973 to the present. Three phases are identified: phase one 1972-82: revolutionary feminism versus liberal feminism; phase two 1983-88: development of academic feminism; and phase three 1989-91: women's studies in the post-Dawkins era. (DB)
Mckay, Susan; Bonner, Frances
Women's magazines in Australia have become increasingly involved in various public health awareness campaigns. In particular, breast cancer has been targeted as an issue for attention. This disease occupies a privileged position in women's magazines, being represented as treatable and survivable with an emphasis on the advocacy of early detection…
Graduate Management Admission Council, 2015
To commemorate International Women's Day on March 8, 2015, GMAC prepared this Data-to-Go brief as a summary of current GMAT test taker and research data about women in the business school pipeline. Findings in this Data-to-Go report are derived from several sources of GMAT test taker data and GMAC surveys conducted in 2014 and 2015. In testing…
Türko, Esra Sena
The aim of this study is to investigate whether entrepreneurship trainings can reduce stereotypes against women entrepreneurship. With this aim socio-psychological obstacles to women entrepreneurship in Turkey are examined, and an experimental study is carried out. Entrepreneurship courses were given with a special emphasis on women…
Zoch, Lynn M.; Russell, Maria P.
Reports on a survey of women faculty teaching public relations regarding gender equality and workplace equity. Alternates viewpoints from the literature indicating ingrained institutional biases against women with survey findings that perhaps respondents are not doing what they could to advance in their field. (SR)
Mutanyatta, J. N. S.
Despite their significant role in African economies, women are still the victims of poverty, illiteracy, discrimination, and powerlessness. Most African countries are classified as "low" on the Human Development Index and exhibit a relationship between per capita gross domestic product and the adult literacy rate. Rural women appear to…
Describes Capacitacion Integral de la Mujer Campesina (CIMCA) development efforts within Bolivian farm communities. Describes CIMCA's focus on social change, ethnic empowerment, and women's rights. Describes organization's initial clashes with rural culture. Describes use of rotafolio drawings to spark workshop discussions, to improve women's…
This paper undertakes a critique of the gendered nature of leadership in modern universities in Kenya. The paper argues that the inclusive nature of African feminism makes it easier for both men and women to join in this discussion since African feminism demands a more holistic perspective that does not pit men against women but encourages them to…
Raffel, Norma K.
The movement for equality of women is by no means something new in the United States, but the changing life-patterns of women in the work world, the recent legal basis for equal opportunity, and the modification of sex roles and aspirations due to elimination of bias in elementary and secondary schools are causing important changes in society that…
Hunter, Jennifer L
The rate of invasive cervical cancer in US Hispanic women is nearly doubled that of non-Hispanics. Using in-depth interviews and content/grade level analysis of educational materials, this study explores the relevance of cervical cancer education materials to the needs of Mexican immigrant women. It also addresses health literacy issues that create barriers to learning. Findings show aspects of language, content, reading level, structure, and visual images in 22 cervical cancer pamphlets from 11 health care sites in a Midwest city were not relevant to the learning needs or health literacy levels of local Mexican immigrant women. Further research is recommended to establish an evidence base regarding optimal presentation of key elements of the cervical cancer educational message for Mexican immigrant women.
May, Philip A.; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J. Phillip; Barnard, Ronel; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Hendricks, Natalie; Roux, Sumien; Blom, Annalien; Steenekamp, Jeanetta; Alexander, Theresa; Andreas, Romena; Human, Suzanne; Snell, Cudore; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles C.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Buckley, David; Blankenship, Jason
Aim Estimate the efficacy of Case Management (CM) for women at high risk for bearing a child with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Design Women were recruited from antenatal clinics and engaged in 18 months of CM. Setting A South African community with a subculture of heavy, regular, weekend, recreational drinking and high documented rates of FASD. Participants Forty-one women who were high risk for bearing a child with FASD. Measures Statistical analysis of trends in drinking and other risk factors. Findings At intake 87.8% were pregnant, most had previous alcohol-exposed pregnancies, most/all of their friends drink alcohol (67.5%), and 50.0% had stressful lives. CM was particularly valuable for pregnant women, as statistically significant reductions in alcohol risk were obtained for them in multiple variables: total drinks on weekends after six months of CM (p = .026) and estimated peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at six (p < .001) and 18 months (p < .001). For participants completing 18 months of CM, AUDIT scores improved significantly by 6-month follow-up (from 19.8 to 9.7, p = .000), and even though rising at 12 and 18 months, AUDIT scores indicate that problematic drinking remained statistically significantly lower than baseline throughout CM. Happiness scale scores correlated significantly with reduced drinking in most time periods. Conclusions An enduring change in drinking behavior is difficult in this social setting. Yet, CM provided by skilled and empathic case managers reduced maternal drinking at critical times, and therefore, alcohol exposure levels to the fetus. PMID:24729823
García-Subirats, Irene; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Díez, Elia; Borrell, Carme
This study aims to describe trends in inequalities by women’s socioeconomic position and age in induced abortion in Barcelona (Spain) over 1992–1996 and 2000–2004. Induced abortions occurring in residents in Barcelona aged 20 and 44 years in the study period are included. Variables are age, educational level, and time periods. Induced abortion rates per 1,000 women and absolute differences for educational level, age, and time period are calculated. Poisson regression models are fitted to obtain the relative risk (RR) for trends. Induced abortion rates increased from 10.1 to 14.6 per 1,000 women aged 20–44 (RR = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41–1.47) between 1992–1996 and 2000–2004. The abortion rate was highest among women aged 20–24 and 25–34 and changed little among women aged 35–44. Among women aged 20–24 and 25–34, those with a primary education or less had higher rates of induced abortion in the second period. Induced abortion rates also grew in those women with secondary education. In the 35–44 age group, the induced abortion rate declined among women with a secondary education (RR = 0.66; 95% CI 0.60–0.73) and slightly among those with a greater level of education. Induced abortion is rising most among women in poor socioeconomic positions. This study reveals deep inequalities in induced abortion in Barcelona, Spain. The trends identified in this study suggest that policy efforts to reduce unintended pregnancies are failing in Spain. Our study fills an important gap in literature on recent trends in Southern Europe. PMID:20229107
Gipson, Jessica D; Hindin, Michelle J
Women's education is associated with positive social and health outcomes for women and their families, as well as greater opportunities and decision-making power for women. An extensive literature documents ways in which broader, societal changes have facilitated roles for women beyond reproduction, yet there is minimal exploration at the family level. This study used inter-generational cohort data from the Philippines to examine mothers' aspirations for their children's education, and how these aspirations predict children's subsequent educational attainment. Mothers' education, household wealth and a locally developed measure of women's status were positively associated with higher educational aspirations for children; however, only mothers with the highest fertility were less likely to desire their children to attend college or higher. Mothers' fertility and aspirations both significantly and independently predicted children's school completion. Together, these findings indicate that increased opportunities for Filipina women beyond childbearing may not only positively benefit these women themselves, but also future generations.
Boateng, John; Flanagan, Constance
Women's physical and psychological access to health care was analyzed using the 2003 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS), a nationally representative study for monitoring population and health in Ghana. Female respondents from the 2133 cases in the couple's data set were used in this study. Women's level of education was positively related to physical but not to psychological access to health care. Residing in an urban area was positively related to both types of access. Matriliny consistently showed positive effects on physical access. In addition to these demographic factors, both physical and psychological access were positively related to women's self-determination, i.e., women's right and ability to make real choices about their lives including their health, fertility, sexuality, childcare and all areas where women are denied autonomy and dignity in their identities as women. Self-determination factors both mediated the effects of background factors on access and added explanatory power to the models.
Carvalho, Teresa; Santiago, Rui
This paper provides an analysis of the potential impact of changes in recruitment and hiring processes in Portuguese higher education institutions--under the New Public Management framework--on the representation of women in academia. Based on official data from the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education, two major…
Maaka, Margaret J.; Au, Kathryn H.; Luna, Corrina A.
This study examined issues of educational equity, emphasizing how native Hawaiian women came to be educators, how their experiences as pupils influenced their professional development as teachers, how their commitments developed over time, and how their professional development could be fostered in preservice and inservice settings. The five…
Previous migration discourse views educational migration through narrowly defined push-pull forces, which ignores overseas graduate education as a path for maneuvering through restrictive gendered and cultural experiences. The purpose of this exploratory research is to expand migration research and view women's migration decisions as employing…
Espino, Michelle M.
In this study, Michelle M. Espino uncovers the ways in which twenty-five Mexican American women PhDs made meaning of conflicting messages about the purpose of higher education as they navigated within and through educational structures and shifting familial expectations. Participants received "consejos", or nurturing advice, from parents…
Usman, Lantana M.
Recently, politics of education in Nigeria have shifted from urban to rural literacy, which led to the development of programmes such as the nomadic women's adult education programme. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the programme's implementation strategies, and the extent to which the health educational…
Emergent Leadership, 1978
This periodical is intended for exchanging information about leadership achievements, program innovations, research findings, and organizational developments having special interest to and bearing upon minority group members and women in education. This issue contains six articles, "State Education Agencies and the Delivery of Quality…
Byrd-Johnson, Linda E.; Smith, Carol J.
Postsecondary educational opportunities for minorities and women are listed by subject field. Specific information is provided on loans, scholarships, and fellowship opportunities, along with general information on how and where to get general assistance in preparing for educational and career goals. Addresses of the offices that operate the…
Byrd-Johnson, Linda, Comp.; Smith, Carol J., Comp.
Information on opportunities for minorities and women who wish to pursue higher education and career goals is provided in this annotated directory, which contains approximately 175 listings. The resource materials cover information on how and where to seek assistance to pursue higher education, including information on loans, scholarships, and…
Byrd-Johnson, Linda, Comp.; Smith, Carol J. Comp.
A directory on sources of postsecondary education opportunities available to minorities and women is presented. In some instances, information is provided on loans, scholarships, and fellowships. Thirty-three publications providing general information on how and where to seek assistance on pursuing education and career goals are briefly described.…
Young, William C., Comp.
Information on opportunities for minorities and women who wish to pursue higher education and career goals is provided in this annotated bibliography. The resource materials cover information on how and where to seek assistance to pursue higher education, including information on loans, scholarships, and fellowships. For each entry, information is…
This quantitative study examines the current status of Black women higher education administrators in comparison to other higher education administrators of another race and/or gender. Specifically, years of service, social support, highest degree attained, income level, and current title held was analyzed to evaluate the actual levels of…
Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.
Annotated bibliographic citations of literature relevant to women's educational equity are presented, drawn from computerized data bases from spring 1978 through October 1978, with slight exceptions. Topics covered include: curriculum and educational materials development and dissemination; preservice and inservice personnel training; research and…
Franklin, Barry M.
Focuses on the Atlanta (Georgia) Junior League, a women's volunteer organization, that chose to address education and welfare of disabled children. Explores the League's role in the education of children that have speech impairments, addressing the establishment of the School for Speech Correction. Reports on the League's role in social mothering.…
Cortez, David Sifuentes
This article examines the participation of women in decision-making processes in the field of education, from a global perspective, through their roles and positions in International Conferences on Education (ICEs). This analysis is based on a sample of sixteen of the forty-six ICEs held from 1934 to this day. All of the ICEs that took place over…
Mentkowski, Marcia; Rogers, Glen
We argue that (1) faculty and other academic professionals who educate undergraduate women in capabilities such as effective communication, teamwork, and leadership that are integrated with the disciplines (e.g., biology, history, fine arts) and professions (e.g., education, nursing, management) indirectly assist their students to confront gender…
Proctor, Carnisia M., Comp.
This publication presents information regarding higher education opportunities for minorities and women, focusing on scholarships, grants, loans, internships, and fellowships. Section 1 contains general information about books, brochures, lists, and publications that describe a variety of higher education opportunities, many of which solicit, give…
In this paper, I look into the papers of Fannia Cohn, an immigrant labour organizer, who served the Education Department of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU) between 1918 and 1962 and became one of its few women vice-presidents. As an internationally recognized figure in the history of workers' education, Cohn left a rich…
Hines, S. Maxwell; And Others
It is a safe assumption that the increasing influx of women of color in science education will over time redefine and have an impact on the process and system that educate them. With inclusion comes additional methods of confronting issues, many of which may include alternative modes of teaching and maintaining diverse populations in science. The…
Boyd, Neal Richard, Jr.; Windsor, Richard A.
Meta-analysis of five studies advocating nutrition education for pregnant women led to recommendations for research: (1) define nutrition education to aid replication; (2) describe the intervention thoroughly; (3) use experimental designs; (4) collect follow-up data; and (5) describe baseline demographic, behavioral, and health characteristics of…
Once societies embarked on programmes of mass education home schooling became essentially a middle-class project and remains so. This paper looks at the educational experiences of some lower middle class women at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries for whom the resources of the middle-class home were simply not available. It…
This qualitative, phenomenological study was conducted to explore the lived experiences of 12 Afghan women enrolled in higher education institutions in Afghanistan. The objective was to develop an understanding of the participants' perceptions of the factors that led to their enrollment in higher education and the factors that inhibit Afghan women…
Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn; Bernhardt, Anna
This article gives an overview of the development of gender equality and women's participation in adult learning and education in the history of the International Conferences on Adult Education (CONFINTEA). Though the equality of rights was highlighted throughout the various conferences, the first Global Report on Adult Learning and Education…
Berg, Marie; Lundgren, Ingela; Lindmark, Gunilla
Women at obstetric high risk more often experience negative feelings related to childbirth than women with normal outcomes. For these high-risk women, an individual birth plan does not appear to improve the overall experience of childbirth; rather, it seems to intensify the negative feelings in several aspects. The increased vulnerability in women at high risk warrants special attention to the possibility that types of care routinely offered to all women may negatively influence the experiences of high-risk women. PMID:17273335
Slater, Stephanie Jean
The long-running REU-program is tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. This longitudinal, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which REUs acted as educational experiences for 51 women in the field of astronomy, in an attempt to develop a theory of experience related to the REU. Stage-1 consisted of an ex post facto analysis of data collected over 8 years, including multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes. All data were analyzed using a theoretical framework of continuity and interaction, in a search for transformative experiences. Four findings emerged, related to developing understandings of the nature of professional scientific work, the scientific process, the culture of academia, and an understanding of the "self." Analysis provided an initial theory that was used to design the Stage-2 interview protocol. In Stage-2, over 10 hours of interviews were conducted with 8 participants selected for their potential to disconfirm the initial theory. Results indicate that the REU provided a limited impact in terms of participants' knowledge of professional astronomy as a largely computer-based endeavor. The REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, the culture of academia, participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, or other aspects of the "self". Instead, the data suggests that these women began the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not function to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently associated with other mentors/scientist interactions, from middle school into the undergraduate years. Instructors and family members also served as crucial forces in
Rapp, Stephen R; Espeland, Mark A; Manson, Joann E; Resnick, Susan M; Bryan, Nick R; Smoller, Sylvia; Coker, Laura H; Phillips, Lawrence S; Stefanick, Marcia L; Sarto, Gloria E
The relationship between neuropathology and clinically manifested functional and cognitive deficits is complex. Clinical observations of individuals with greater neuropathology who function better than some individuals with less neuropathology are common and puzzling. Educational attainment, a proxy for "cognitive reserve," may help to explain this apparent contradiction. The objective of this study is to determine if educational attainment is correlated with cognitive decline, brain lesion volume, and total brain atrophy. One thousand three hundred ninety of the 7,479 community-dwelling women 65 years of age and older enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study, two parallel randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials comparing unopposed and opposed postmenopausal hormone therapy with placebo, were studied. Study participants received annual assessments of global cognitive function with the Modified Mini Mental State exam. One thousand sixty-three participants also received supplemental neurocognitive battery and neuroimaging studies. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to calculate total ischemic lesion and brain volumes. Incident cases of probable dementia and mild cognitive impairment were centrally adjudicated. After adjustment for total lesion and total brain volumes (atrophy), higher educational attainment predicted better cognitive performance (p < 0.001). Following conversion to dementia/MCI, higher education predicted steeper declines in cognitive function (p < 0.001). Thus, higher educational attainment was associated with a delay in diagnosis of dementia/MCI in the face of a growing neuropathological load.
This article discusses the relevance of curriculum to current UN Millennium targets to extend access to education and equality in education for women. It argues, firstly, that it is contradictory to be concerned about women's access to education but leave curriculum out of the discussion; secondly, that curriculum is not adequately seen as a…
Dignan, M B; Michielutte, R; Wells, H B; Sharp, P; Blinson, K; Case, L D; Bell, R; Konen, J; Davis, S; McQuellon, R P
Although age-adjusted mortality rates from cancer among Native-Americans are generally lower than for the US population as a whole, cervical cancer mortality rates are higher. This report presents results from a National Cancer Institute-funded health education program conducted among the Lumbee tribe in North Carolina that was designed to increase the proportion of women, age 18 and older, who receive Pap smears to screen for cervical cancer. The Solomon Four Group research design was used for this project. Participants were selected at random from the enrollment records of the Lumbee tribe and data collection was carried out during face-to-face interviews. The health education program was provided one-on-one in women's homes by a trained lay health educator and included verbal, print and videotape information. A total of 979 women were enrolled in the study, and 125 were lost to follow-up between the pre-test and post-test. Women who received the education program were found to be more likely to have knowledge of the Pap smear and to report a Pap smear in the past year at the post-test than those in the control group, regardless of whether they received the pre-test interview, P < 0.05. Women most likely to respond to the education program were also likely to have reported that they receive an annual physical examination. Women with better knowledge of the Pap smear tended to have more education, higher income and greater identification with Native-American culture than those with less knowledge. We conclude that the health education program was associated with greater knowledge about cervical cancer prevention and higher proportions of Lumbee women obtaining Pap smears in the past year.
Sax, Linda J.; Lehman, Kathleen J.; Barthelemy, Ramón S.; Lim, Gloria
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] The dearth of women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields has been lamented by scholars, administrators, policymakers, and the general public for decades, and the STEM gender gap is particularly pronounced in physics. While previous research has demonstrated that this gap is largely attributable to a lack of women pursuing physics in college, prior research reveals little in terms of the characteristics and career interests of women who do plan to major in physics or how these traits have evolved over time. To address these gaps, this study utilized nationwide data on first-time, full-time college students to (1) document national trends in plans to major in physics among women entering college, (2) document the career aspirations of women who intend to major in physics, and (3) explore the characteristics of women who intend to major in physics and how this population has evolved across time. This study found that women's interest in physics has been consistently very low in the past four decades. The most popular career aspiration among women who plan to major in physics is research scientist, although this career aspiration is declining in popularity, while increasing numbers of women say that they are undecided in their career choice. Further, this study identifies a distinctive profile of the average female physics student as compared to women in other STEM fields and women across all majors. Women who plan to pursue a physics major tend to be confident in their math abilities, value college as an opportunity to learn, plan to attend graduate school, and desire to make theoretical contributions to science. However, they are less likely than women in other fields to have a social activist orientation. These findings have important implications for scholars, educators, administrators, and policymakers as they seek to recruit more women into the physics field.
Metcalfe, Amy; Vekved, Monica; Tough, Suzanne C
Under Canada's Employment Insurance system, parents are entitled to receive up to 50 weeks of parental leave at 55 % of salary. Despite this national policy, women with higher education are more likely to delay childbearing. This analysis aimed to assess the association between workplace support, educational attainment and the timing of first births. Women who had recently given birth to their first live-born infant and lived in Alberta, Canada, were randomly selected to participate in a telephone survey. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between workplace support, educational attainment and timing of first pregnancy. Among 835 women with a planned pregnancy, 26 % agreed that support or lack of support for pregnant women at their workplace affected their decision about when to begin their family. After controlling for age and income, women who had completed a post-graduate degree were three times (OR 3.39, 95 % CI 1.69-6.81) more likely to indicate that support or lack of support for pregnant women in their workplace affected their childbearing decisions. In spite of national policies, and the potential risks associated with delayed childbearing, workplace support impacts timing of pregnancy, particularly for highly educated women.
Mary Kieran, McElroy, Sister
Describes an interdisciplinary program in the areas of biochemistry, biology, and computer science offered at Chestnut Hill College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to update 30 women in order to prepare them to return to the job market in chemistry. (HM)
Stevens, P E
AIDS is increasing almost four times as fast among women, yet lesbians and bisexual women are among the least studied, least understood and most elusive populations affected by the AIDS epidemic. This paper reports the results of community-level HIV prevention research designed: (a) to examine the knowledge, perceptions, social contingencies and political constraints affecting the HIV risk taking of lesbians and bisexual women; and (b) to offer them context specific HIV prevention education. The study was a peer educator-based intervention project situated in San Francisco's women's bars, dance clubs, and sex clubs to reach socially and sexually active lesbians and bisexual women in natural settings. Between June 1992 and May 1993, ethnographic interviews were conducted with 626 women attending the bars and clubs; group presentations at these locales reached 1,315 women. The structure of the intervention was effective in prompting interest in HIV prevention information and intent to change behavior. The resultant cultural analysis details risk behaviors lesbians and bisexual women participate in, myriad constraints they face in trying to enact safer behaviors, gaps in knowledge, difficulties comprehending the relevance of HIV prevention, and risk reduction strategies commonly employed.
Weiss, Helen A.; Vandepitte, Judith; Bukenya, Justine N.; Mayanja, Yunia; Nakubulwa, Susan; Kamali, Anatoli; Seeley, Janet; Grosskurth, Heiner
The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of problem drinking in a cohort of women at high-risk of HIV in Kampala, Uganda. Overall, 1027 women at high risk of HIV infection were followed from 2008 to 2013. The CAGE and AUDIT questionnaires were used to identify problem drinkers in the cohort. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to ascertain socio-demographic and behavioural factors. Blood and genital samples were tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. At enrollment, most women (71%) reported using alcohol at least weekly and about a third reported having drunk alcohol daily for at least 2 weeks during the past 3 months. Over half (56%) were problem drinkers by CAGE at enrollment, and this was independently associated with vulnerability (being divorced/separated/widowed, less education, recruiting clients at bars/clubs, and forced sex at first sexual experience). Factors associated with problem drinking during follow-up included younger age, meeting clients in bars/clubs, number of clients, using drugs and HSV-2 infection. HIV prevalence was associated with drinking at enrollment, but not during follow-up. This longitudinal study found high levels of persistent problem drinking. Further research is needed to adapt and implement alcohol-focused interventions in vulnerable key populations in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26805868
Law, Gordon F.
Reviews of 17 studies relating to female vocational education are organized by topics: (1) "New Directions in Business Education" reports a program for scientific secretaries, the effects of interval pacing on typing skills, a task analysis of an office occupation cluster, and a 4-week preservice institute for office education teachers, (2) "Home…
The dramatic changes during the past 20 years in Taiwan offer a good example of how gender policy in education is facilitated by a combination of interrelated economic, political and social forces. Taiwan's policy on gender education emerged from the interaction of state, education, academic and non-academic feminist positions in reforms. This…
Jones, Lauren Ila
In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the…
Herr, Jane Leber; Wolfram, Catherine
This paper examines the propensity of highly educated women to exit the labor force at motherhood. We focus on systematic differences across women with various graduate degrees to analyze whether these speak to differences in the capacity to combine children with work over a variety of high-education career paths. Working with a sample of Harvard…
Malagon, Maria C.; Alvarez, Crystal R.
Drawing from extensive oral history interviews with five Chicana women, Malagon and Alvarez (re)conceptualize the way educational scholarship defines "high achieving." As attendees of California continuation high schools, all five women defy societal expectations by moving from these alternative educational spaces to community colleges,…
In Quebec, the relationship between instruction of women and their fertility almost always conforms to hypotheses and traditional theoretical reasonings. The history of education in Quebec contradicts certain sub-vacant theories of explicative models. Until recently, the Quebecois school was not a bearer of new and progressive ideas as the theoretical demographic frameworks demographers thought. On the contrary, due to the strong influence of Catholicism, it tried to maintain the woman in her traditional roles of mother and housewife. Inversely, it is not clear that it allowed girls to acquire the means of their freedom. The Quebecois school did promote birth limitations by the act of educating if not by the contents of its teaching. The school's pronatalist position shaped the collective conscience to respect tradition. The cultural and ideological conservatism of yesterday's school is certainly not an unknown reality of researchers. It is surprising that one must note its persistent absence in demographic studies. The demographers conducting this historical survey of women's schools and fertility do not claim that an approach of the relationship between fertility and education taking in account the cultural and political finality of school would change profoundly the statistical evidence. The evidence shows that the school's emancipatory characteristics did influence the reproductive behavior of Quebec women, but its conservative characteristics probably kept the school from fully contributing to progress. This approach makes us better understand this phenomenon of Quebec history and a little less in terms of some models which are a little too conventional. In conclusion, education in Quebec probably did not have as much impact on fertility decline as fertility decline theories claim.
Contacos-Sawyer, Jonna; Revels, Mark; Ciampa, Mark
The purpose of this paper is to identify the key elements of a High Performance Work System (HPWS) and explore the possibility of implementation in an online institution of higher learning. With the projected rapid growth of the demand for online education and its importance in post-secondary education, providing high quality curriculum, excellent…
Baheiraei, Azam; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Mohammadi, Eesa; Majdzadeh, Reza
Background: Smoking is a well-known public health problem in women as well as men. In many countries including Iran, there is an increase in tobacco use among women. Exploring the experience of smoking by educated women in order to develop effective tobacco prevention programs in these women is necessary. This study aimed to explore the experiences of smoking among Iranian educated women. Methods: This study used a method of qualitative content analysis with the deep individual, semi-structured interviews on a sample of 14 educated female smokers, selected purposefully. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with conventional approach while being collected. Results: The data analysis led to 16 subcategories which were divided into four main categories: (1) Personal factors including subcategories of imitation, show-off and independence, inexperience and curiosity, personal interest and desire, improved mood, and social defiance; (2) family factors including smokers in the family, intrafamily conflicts, and family strictures and limitations; (3) social factors including subcategories of effects of work and school environment, gender equality symbols, peer pressure, and acceptance among friends; and (4) negative consequences of smoking including subcategories of a sense of being physically hurt, psychological and emotional stress, and being looked upon in a negative and judgmental manner. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that smoking among Iranian educated women is a multifactorial problem. Thus, it is necessary to address smoking among educated women in a holistic approach that focuses on different determinants including personal, family, and social factors particularly the gender roles and stereotypes. PMID:27563429
Stephenson, M. Beth; Burge, Penny L.
Interviews with eight women enrolled in gender-nontraditional associate degree programs at a community college revealed that most were preparing for work out of economic necessity, chose nontraditional occupations for better pay, and had strong female role models. Most instructors and peers provided a welcoming environment that outweighed a few…
Chi, Ying-Chen; Sha, Feng; Yip, Paul S. F.; Chen, Jiunn-Liang; Chen, Ying-Yeh
Abstract Background: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is deleterious to pregnant women and their unborn children. The prevalence of SHS exposure among pregnant women is particularly high in many Asian countries where approximately half of the male population smokes. We aim to investigate the efficacy of an intervention based on an expanded Health Belief Model (HBM) incorporating self-efficacy to educate and empower pregnant women to reduce their SHS exposure. Methods: We conducted a 3-arm randomized controlled trial (N = 50 in each arm) comparing the effectiveness of group-based and individual-based interventions with a treatment-as-usual group. A questionnaire tapping into constructs of the expanded HBM was administered at baseline and 1- and 2-month follow-ups. Exhaled carbon monoxide was used to determine SHS exposure (>=6 ppm). ANOVA was used to compare HBM construct scores, self-efficacy for rejecting SHS exposure, and SHS rejection behavior among the 3 groups at baseline and the 1- and 2-month follow-ups, while logistic regression analysis was used to compare the risk of exposure to SHS at each follow-up. Results: The group-based intervention significantly improved health beliefs, self-efficacy, and self-reported rejection behaviors. The individual-based intervention effect was limited to some health belief constructs and SHS rejection behaviors. Both group- and individual-based interventions showed significant reductions in SHS exposure 2 months after the intervention (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Group-based educational interventions based on the HBM are particularly effective in training pregnant women to avoid and refuse exposure to SHS. Policy makers should consider offering group-delivered programs to educate and empower pregnant women to reduce their SHS exposure. PMID:27749578
This article presents the findings of a qualitative study on the "Bang' jomariek," a women's group in West Reru in Western Kenya who engage in the production of indigenous arts and crafts (pots, baskets, and architecture) to generate income and explore politics, medicine, and other matters that affect them and their community. The women…
Robin, Helenan S.; Robin, Stanley S.
In 1977-78 and 1978-79, women faculty at a state university were receiving lower salaries than the average at all ranks, even with adjustment for several variables. Salary inequities persisted in 1979-80, despite implementation of an equity agreement between the administration and a faculty bargaining unit. (Author/MJL)
Li, Guofang, Ed.; Beckett, Gulbahar H., Ed.
No less than other minorities, Asian women scholars are confronted with racial discrimination and stereotyping as well as disrespect for their research, teaching, and leadership, and are underrepresented in academia. In the face of such barriers, many Asian female scholars have developed strategies to survive and thrive. This book is among the…
The paper explores gender relations in academia and discusses how gender is constructed within academic institutions. It is based upon the study of a business school, part of a British university. The construction of gender relations within this institution was of special interest because the majority of managerial roles were occupied by women.…
Gerlach, Jeanne Marcum, Ed.; Monseau, Virginia R., Ed.
This book is a historical study showing how 10 key women in the English teaching profession earlier in this century helped to develop the concepts that shape the profession today. The 10 articles and their authors are (1) "Rewey Belle Inglis: A Crystal-Ball Gazer" (Jeanne Marcum Gerlach); (2) "Ruth Mary Weeks: Teaching the Art of…
Stromquist, Nelly P.
A fundamental reason for the advocacy of women's literacy is its contribution to the attainment of citizenship, that is the claiming and use of public space and power. Following a presentation of basic trends and public policies in literacy, this article reviews the diverse theoretical understandings of literacy. It discusses normative arguments…
Longman, Karen A.; Anderson, Patricia S.
This article presents a discussion of the gender imbalance in senior-level leadership roles within the U.S. member institutions of the Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU), highlighting data across the last two decades. The underrepresentation of women in this sector is placed within a theological context and is compared with…
McCarthy, Martha M.; And Others
Guidelines for using training materials that are designed to advance women's equity are presented. This resource manual accompanies materials developed by Indiana University and may be used in conjunction with training sessions for administrators and policy-makers in postsecondary institutions or by individuals or groups interested in equity…
Lasonen, Johanna; Burge, Penny L.
The United States and Finland show a clear gender stratification in work life. The uneven, gender-biased division of labor has been maintained, even though about half of the total U.S. and Finnish labor force are women. In both countries, female students tend to make traditional occupational choices that prepare them for low-paying fields where…
Aiken, Lolita Chappel; Cervero, Ronald M.; Johnson-Bailey, Juanita
Interviews with 10 black women enrolled in or graduated from baccalaureate nursing programs identified intrapersonal and cultural factors encouraging their participation. Hindrances were classified as the experience of being the "other" and the culture of racism. Findings show that individual and institutional racism is a barrier in registered…