Bennefield, Zinobia C.
Background: Research has been conducted to determine the impact that education has on health behaviors; specifically, comparisons between highly educated and less educated groups. However, little research has been done on the racial variation among highly educated women. Purpose: This research examined the racial variation in the relationship…
Lanier, Hope B.; Byrne, Joan
High school students rated women for attractiveness, occupation, and educational background. A positive correlation was found between women perceived to have taken traditionally masculine courses, those perceived to be in careers generally viewed as masculine, and those perceived as physically attractive. (Author/ST)
Scarlett, Chris; Reed, Nicky; Winner, Annie
Sketches the history of women's education in Britain's Workers Educational Association, leading to the establishment of the Women's Education Committee in 1993. Outlines questions for the future of working women in labor education. (SK)
Women have traditionally been discriminated against in higher education in both the attainment of degrees and in employment after earning degrees. It has been felt that women are not as capable, reliable, or effective as men in administrative and classroom situations. Statistics show that even at the present time women are underemployed and…
Menard, Sharon L.
This packet of resource materials contains four sections: curriculum activities, a career guide for women, a role models list, and an annotated bibliography. These materials deal with women in science and mathematics and cover primary through high school educational levels. Skill Activities are outlined for use at various (K-12) levels which were…
Zimmerman, Enid, Ed.; Stankiewicz, Mary Ann, Ed.
This collection of papers on women art educators reveals the variety of roles played by those women, from anonymous art teachers to leaders in their profession. "Mary Rouse: A Remembrance" (G. Hubbard) is a personal perspective on Rouse, the development of her career, and her considerable impact in the field of art education. "The Search for Mrs.…
The International Forum on Intercultural Exchange 1996, held November 20-22 in Tokyo, had as its central theme "women's education, learning, and empowerment." The conference was organized by the National Women's Education Center (NWEC); 120 participants attended. The director of the Training Division of JOICFP, Aiko Iijima, presented a case study of the JOICFP project in Nepal. The mortality rate in Nepal is approximately 1500 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births, one of the world's highest. Trained birth attendants are present at only 6% of deliveries. Daughters, who often receive less nutrition, education, and health care than sons, are pressured to marry at a young age; the subsequent early pregnancies increase their risk of maternal mortality. Illegal abortions also increase the risk of maternal mortality. Iijima presented a JOICFP video, "Adolescent Women -- Voices Unheard." Dr. Kajsa Sundstrom, obstetrician and gynecologist, coordinator of "Q Web Sweden: Women's Empowerment Base, Sweden," and the main speaker at the forum, spoke about women's health from a historical and cross-cultural view. According to Dr. Sundstrom, almost 600,000 women die annually due to pregnancy or childbirth, and 99% of maternal mortality occurred in developing countries. Women's health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asian countries, she said, is equivalent to that in Sweden 100 years ago, before education, women's empowerment, sex education, contraception, and legal abortions produced one of the best maternal and child health levels in the world. PMID:12292052
O'Donnell, Sheryl, Ed.; Shaver, Barbara, Ed.
Articles on women's studies and females in higher education are presented in this publication. A University of North Dakota project that sought to promote the integration of new research and scholarship results into the curriculum is described in "Women's Equity Committee Offers a Model Project," (Leola Furman, Robert Young). Historical…
Adult Education Association of U.S.A., Washington, DC.
This annotated bibliography of about 150 items on women's continuing education begins with descriptions of a newsletter and three bibliographies, followed by documents on sex differences in ability, achievement, and role perception. Four other sections cover employment related interests and needs, women's participation in programs by universities…
Jarecke, Jodi; Taylor, Edward W.; Hira, Tahira K.
Exploring the pedagogical approaches of four women's financial literacy education programs, this chapter provides an overview of trends and needs in financial education for women and offers pedagogical strategies for teaching women about finance.
Furniss, W. Todd, Ed.; Graham, Patricia Albjerg, Ed.
The analyses and suggestions of 38 leaders in education, feminism, foundations, law, and government are collected to set contexts for decisions facing colleges and universities concerning those students, faculty members, and administrators who are women. Among the issues are affirmative action, academic programs, accountability, equality, and…
Eriksson, Carola; Larsson, Margareta
Background There is a trend to delay birth of the first child until the age at which female reproductive capacity has started to decrease. The aim of the present study was to explore how highly educated women and men reflected on future parenthood. Methods Twenty-two women and 18 men, who had started their professional career, were subjected to individual qualitative semi-structured interviews with qualitative content analysis guiding the analysis. Results All informants, except for three women, planned to have children when some important prerequisites were fulfilled. Women and men reflected in much the same way, and prerequisites for parenthood were being of reasonable age and having a partner in the same phase of life. A reasonable age was considered in relation to reproductive capacity, and both women and men expressed awareness of the natural decline in fertility at higher ages. Good living conditions with stable finances were also important. Parenthood was perceived as a challenge and a sacrifice but also as enriching life. Reasons for having children included being part of the future and settling down to build their own family. Many concluded that there would never be a perfect time for having children. Conclusion Highly educated women and men reflect on various factors when considering family planning. Being of reasonable age and having good living conditions, in particular a sound personal economy, were important. Given their goals, it is not surprising that many postpone parenthood until ages when female reproductive capacity is decreased. PMID:22300332
Gilbert, Caroline Marie
The importance of higher education for women on welfare, the needs of welfare women in college, and college services provided to this population are discussed, along with model college programs, and policy implications for local, state, and federal programs. It is proposed that single-parent women on welfare have access to higher education so they…
PACE, LOIS W.
THIS STUDY SOUGHT TO DETERMINE HOW WOMEN'S FELT NEEDS FOR EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES RELATE TO EMPLOYMENT OUTSIDE THE HOME, STAGE IN THE FAMILY LIFE CYCLE, AND LEVEL OF EDUCATION. WOMEN RANDOMLY SELECTED IN LIVINGSTON COUNTY, MISSOURI, WERE SENT A QUESTIONNAIRE ON PERCEIVED EDUCATIONAL NEEDS, PREFERRED MEANS OF RECEIVING INFORMATION, AND PERSONAL…
Eriksson, Carola; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta; Tydén, Tanja
Background Different reasons influence the current low birth-rate and the postponement of the birth of the first child throughout Europe. The aim of this study was to explore how highly educated women and men in Sweden reflect on fertility and postponed parenthood. Methods We interviewed women (n = 22) and men (n = 18) who had started their professional careers and still had no children. Data were analysed with qualitative content analysis. Results Fertility was perceived as an unconsidered capacity, sometimes unpredictable, and different for women and men, but nevertheless taken for granted. The participants were of the opinion that fertility could be restored by assisted reproductive technologies or replaced by alternatives to a biological child. Postponed parenthood was described as an adaptation to societal changes and current discourses about parenthood as well as a consequence of a contemporary lifestyle with many competing priorities. Conclusion Highly educated young women and men in contemporary Sweden have competing priorities when planning and setting goals for their lives, and having children is one of them. They describe fertility as an imperceptible and retrievable capacity and postponed parenthood as a rational adaptation to changes in society. These findings suggest that increased information about the limitations of human reproduction is needed, but also that societal support for younger parents is of utmost importance. PMID:23305524
Wenniger, Mary Dee, Ed.
The 12 issues of this newsletter focus on issues concerned with women students, faculty, and administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news items, and profiles of significant people. The issues' main articles address: women in athletics; leadership development for women; the first year in academic administration;…
Warren, Karen, Ed.
This book is a collection of feminist analyses of various topics in experiential education, particularly as it applies to outdoors and adventure education, as well as practical examples of how women's experiences can contribute to the field as a whole. Following an introduction, "The Quilt of Women's Voices" (Maya Angelou), the 25 chapters are:…
Gaskell, Jane S., Ed.; McLaren, Arlene Tigar, Ed.
This collection of studies argues that education cannot be understood unless it is examined from a gendered perspective. This overview of women and education, which emphasizes the Canadian experience, explores questions raised by female educational experiences to introduce new ways of thinking about education in general. The feminist perspective…
Butterfield, C. L.
This paper outlines the educational history of women in the United States and focuses on three women educators from the nineteenth century: Emma Willard, Catherine Beecher, and Mary Lyon. The paper considers their contributions to teaching and teacher education--all of these women founded schools to educate women. While these women paved the way…
National Inst. of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester (England).
This handbook is designed for use by anyone involved in providing educational or training opportunities for women. Chapter 1 discusses the outcome of women's education and use of this handbook. Chapters 2-6 make general suggestions about various issues around the provision of high quality, relevant, and responsive education and training for women.…
Ellis, Mary L.
Perhaps the most significant challenge of the 1970's will be the effect the women's rights movement will have on the nation's established institutions and the extent to which the nation responds to the call of women for equal opportunities. Social pressures and expectations have been, until recently, such that women simply have not opted for jobs…
Examines religious traditions--Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Islam, and Western Christianity--to see how women were taught and what knowledge was transmitted to them. Notes that women have always had some access to religious knowledge in informal ways but were excluded from formal education once sacred knowledge became transmitted in an…
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
Nearly 360 million women who live in the countries of Asia and the Pacific are illiterate. In this region, and in much of the world, women have restricted access to education, and are the victims of economic, social, and political marginalization. In recent years, governments have become increasingly aware that the inferior position assigned to…
Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).
This volume contains 11 papers on the under-representation of women in higher education management in Bahrain, Finland, France, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Peru, the United States and Canada, the South Pacific and the West Indies. All papers were written by women vice-chancellors, presidents and senior managers of universities in those…
Wenniger, Mary Dee, Ed.
This document consists of the issues of a 1996 newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main articles concern: (1) a successful campaign to increase female…
Wenninger, Mary Dee, Ed.
This document consists of the 12 monthly issues of a newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education, issued in 1994. Each issue includes feature articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main article topics are: (1) campuses's changing…
Successful initiatives for minority women depend on creation of an institutional ethos that supports change, adequate staff training, flexibility in scheduling and curricula, and recognition of the value of adult students' experiences. (SK)
Fennema, Elizabeth, Ed.; Ayer, M. Jane, Ed.
Suitable for use in postsecondary courses in women's studies, curriculum theory, educational policy, or introductory educational administration, this book presents current scholarship on educational goals for women as well as the role and position of women in education. Twelve essays are presented in separate chapters. Chapter 1, an introduction…
Sutherland, Margaret B.
Discusses the status of women's education throughout the world. Describes an increased access to education, progress through legislation, and women's studies. Emphasizes the concentration of women in education in the lower grades and teaching roles rather than in higher education or top administrative levels. Addresses problems such as sex role,…
Purpose: This paper aims to consider what all-women networks have, and might offer, in terms of support and development of women in educational leadership. Design/methodology/approach: The study draws on two case studies of such networks in education in England, the first, a regional network for women secondary school principals, and the other…
Kelly, Gail P., Ed.; Slaughter, Sheila, Ed.
This book presents a collection of essays on the effect of national policies and practices on women's access to higher education, the type of courses in which women are enrolled, women's roles as academics, and how the outcomes of higher education affect women in the academic workforce and the economy. Various countries are represented in the…
Discussed is the 1952 Egyptian revolutionary regime's expansion of women's education, with particular reference to the expansion of higher education opportunities for women; its effect on employment opportunities for women; and its impact on women's participation in the professional sector of the economy. (KC)
Flecha, Ainhoa; Oliver, Esther
The Romani community has traditionally been excluded from many spaces of participation, in many cases within the labour market and education. In this article, the authors analyse the situation of the Romani community, focusing especially on the reality of Romi who have been the catalysts of profound change for themselves as women and their…
Crocker, Elvira Valenzuela
Hispanic women earn less, own fewer businesses, and are less represented in politics than almost any other population segment, and their history of low educational attainment is a key factor for each of these realities. In 1981, while 69% of the total population completed four or more years of high school, only 42% of the Hispanic females reached…
Akubuilo, Francis; Omeje, Monica
This paper is focused on women education in Nigeria. It traces the genesis of western education in Nigeria and bias that existed from the traditional Nigerian society against women education. It identified and discussed barriers to women education in Nigeria. Recent trend in enrolment at various levels of education shows improvement in favor of women. In view of this realization, this paper argues that if the current momentum is sustained, women will not only achieve equal status to men in educational attainment but also have the tendency to surpass men within the next ten to fifteen years. The implications could be outreaching as the paper proffers some recommendations.
Toney, Allison F.
While only about one-third of each year's doctoral graduates in mathematics are women, about two-thirds of the doctoral graduates in mathematics education are women. This article reports on the results of a qualitative investigation into the nature of the graduate school-related experiences of women in collegiate mathematics education doctoral…
Model programs funded under the Women's Educational Equity Act (WEEA) and administered by the Office of Education Women's Program staff are intended to reach girls and women from low-income and middle-age groups those from American-Indian, Asian- and Pacific-American, black, and Spanish-speaking backgrounds, and those from rural, urban, and…
Sherman, Whitney H.; Beaty, Danna M.; Crum, Karen S.; Peters, April
Purpose: As women professors of educational leadership who are involved with feminist research and the preparation of k-12 women leaders, the authors came to the realization that while they have dedicated their professional lives to advancing women leaders in the k-12 environment, they have neglected women like themselves, particularly young…
The purposes of this paper are to: (1) discuss the historical development of women in higher education; (2) describe the implementation of federal policies for women; (3) focus on selected problems encountered by women in the work-place; and (4) offer recommendations and suggestions for eliminating some of the problems that women encounter. The…
First, Patricia F.
The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) provided that by the end of the 2005-06 school year, all teachers in core content areas, teaching in public schools, must be "highly qualified" in each subject they teach. Under the law, "highly qualified" means that a teacher is fully licensed through a traditional or alternative route and has demonstrated…
Montez, Jennifer Karas; Zajacova, Anna
Since the mid-1980s differences in mortality risk across education levels have widened considerably among non-Hispanic white women. For example, while mortality has "declined" among college-educated women, it has remained fairly "stable" among women with a high school credential or some college education and "increased" among women without a high…
John, Vaughn M.
Why do educated girls and women constitute a danger in some societies and for this face extreme danger in their educational endeavours? This article argues that historical and contemporary educational discrimination of girls and women is the hallmark of a violently patriarchal society, and this stubborn injustice is exacerbated under conditions of…
Solomon, Barbara Miller
The social, cultural, and economic circumstances that have shaped the development of women's higher education are discussed. After considering colonial America when women were outsiders to liberal arts institutions, the creation of women's and co-educational colleges is traced and the process by which women of different ethnic, racial, religious,…
Martin, Jane Roland
Martin examines the exclusion of women from philosophy of education both as subjects who have written about education and as objects of educational study and thought. She traces this exclusion from a misunderstanding of Plato, Rousseau, and Pestalozzi and builds a critique of the concepts of education, liberal education, and teaching. (Author/SK)
Provides information on the immigration history, education, income, and occupation representation in the social sciences and cultural and language barriers of Asian American women educational researchers. Includes recommendations to facilitate their entry into the social sciences in general. (MJL)
Manicur, Alice R.
The author presents an historical and cultural analysis of the place of women in society. It is stated that historically women have had to assume an aggressive role to become educated. In addition, as far back as the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, one finds records which indicate that women had to seek opportunities to study and to learn.…
DiGeorgio-Lutz, JoAnn, Ed.
The essays in this collection discuss the position of women in higher education, noting the progress that women have made in recent years in the quest to achieve gender equality and the challenges women still face in study and academic careers. The chapters are: (1) "Expanding the Academic Knowledge Base: Helping Students To Cross Gender's Great…
The Country Women's Association (CWA) is a nationwide Australian group that started in the 1920s in response to isolated women's need to socialize. The group's activities have expanded greatly over time. It distributes essential food and clothing to needy rural families, and its extensive involvement in incidental education for women includes…
Marshall, Catherine; Young, Michelle
Over the last decades, policy trends have differentially and negatively affected women educators, defied, denied or repressed feminist values and missed opportunities for using feminist insights to reframe policy issues. This article provides a critical feminist analysis of educational and social policies with negative implications for women in…
Schedler, Petra; Glastra, Folke; Hake, Barry
Discusses the place of women in higher education in the Netherlands. Suggests that it is not a question of numbers but of orientation, field, and the glass ceiling. Asserts that despite some improvement, higher education may be one of the last bastions against the recognition of women's worth. (Contains 42 references.) (JOW)
Anugwom, Edlyne E.
This paper examines the implication of the growing educational opportunities for women in Nigeria. Although bias has existed from the traditional Nigerian society against women, recent events especially in education reveal a conquering of this deep-rooted prejudice. Enrollment figures particularly in the last ten years show a remarkable bridging…
Cohen, Audrey C.
Society has traditionally discriminated against women in the educational and professional areas, and studies have shown that even talented and educated women are affected by what has been labeled "a climate of unexpectation." Colleges and universities, as part of their responsibility to build a new society, must play a major part in affecting…
Reproductive health, which in a broad sense refers to the total population, has special significance for women. In Africa, child bearing is a dangerous activity which is associated with a 1/20 chance of dying (compared to a 1/10,000 rate in Northern Europe or 1/50 in Asia). Indicators generally used to assess the level of reproductive health are 1) total fertility rate, 2) child spacing practices or use of family planning services, 3) adolescent pregnancy, 4) availability of childbirth services, 5) the general prevalence of disease, and 6) the household workload. In Uganda, for example, the high fertility rate (7.1) and low contraceptive prevalence (5-8%) combine to create major health risks for women. Since women grow 90% of the food consumed in Uganda and provide 60% of the cash crop labor, reproductive health is a major factor in the socioeconomic development of that country as it is in others where a high fertility rate outstrips the rate of economic growth. The ability of women in Uganda to contribute to their own health and to the well-being of their family is compromised by their low educational status and generally low status in society. PMID:12318963
Andrade, Maureen Snow
American Indians (AIs) have lower higher education enrollment and completion rates than Whites and most minority groups. AI women, however, participate at higher rates than AI men, White women, and White men. Research has not examined what contributes to their higher education aspirations. This study explored the middle and high school experiences…
King, E M
This study describes trends in educational attainment among women in Peru, and examines the determinants of educational attainment, labor force participation and employment, and earnings. Data were obtained from the Peruvian Living Standards Survey among a sample of 5644 women aged 20-59 years. Findings indicate that parents' educational variables had a positive and statistically significant relationship with the educational attainment of their daughters. The impact declined over time from older to younger cohorts. School reforms improved women's access to education. Education became more universal and compulsory over time. Daughters of mothers with white collar occupations had higher levels of schooling than farmers' daughters. The effects of fathers' education was larger. There was a wider gap between farmers and nonfarmers. Textbooks, teachers, and number of grades offered were the only primary school inputs that showed any clear cohort trend in their effect on years of schooling. As primary schools became more available, textbooks had a greater impact on school attainment. The impact of textbooks was larger for women than for men. The number of grades offered had a large positive effect which increased across cohorts from older to younger. Findings suggest weak effects of school reforms on women's likelihood of participating in the paid or unpaid labor force. Years of schooling had a very small and negative effect on total labor force participation. Woman's paid employment was influenced by age, education and training, household characteristics, and family's unearned income. Educational attainment had a small positive effect on participation in paid employment for younger women and no effect for older women. The average rate of return in paid employment to primary education was about 12%. Primary education had the highest rate of return. The return to job tenure was higher for younger women. PMID:12348507
Evans, Joy; Hsieh, Peggy Pei-Hsuan; Robinson, Daniel H.
Previously, Robinson, McKay, Katayama, and Fan (1998) examined women's involvement in six educational psychology journals ("American Educational Research Journal," "Contemporary Educational Psychology," "Educational Psychologist," "Educational Psychology Review," "Journal of Experimental Education," and "Journal of Educational Psychology") from…
Sakamoto, Izumi; Anastas, Jeane W.; McPhail, Beverly M.; Colarossi, Lisa G.
This invited study sought to determine the current status of women in social work education for the special section of the "Journal of Social Work Education." Analysis of the latest data available indicate that gender differences remain pervasive across many aspects of social work education, including pay, rank, job duties, and tenure. Women…
Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany
National studies have not analyzed sexual identity disparities in high school completion, college enrollment, or college completion in the United States. Using Add Health data, we document the relationship between adult sexual orientation and each of these outcomes. Many sexual minority respondents experienced disadvantages in adolescent academic achievement, school experiences, and social environments. This translates into educational attainment in complex, gendered ways. We find that the socially privileged completely heterosexual identity predicts higher educational attainment for women, while for men it is often a liability. Mostly heterosexual and gay identities are educationally beneficial for men but not women. There are college completion disparities between gay and mostly heterosexual women and their completely heterosexual counterparts. Bisexual respondents, especially women, have particularly problematic outcomes. Adolescent experiences, attitudes, and social contexts explain some of these differences. From adolescence through college, sexual minority groups, but especially females, need intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities. PMID:26257457
Karlovic, Lee; Patrick, Kathryn
Seven women involved in adult and popular education explored the collective development of environmental awareness through dialogue and learning activities. Two learning patterns emerged: paying attention and awakening awareness through ritual. (SK)
Reddy, M. C. Reddeppa
Problems in educating women in India include social taboos, dependency, parents' discriminatory attitudes, low social status, early marriage, heavy work load, lack of motivation, and family poverty. Changes in attitudes, laws, and funding are needed to expand opportunities. (SK)
Through the use of the framework of risk and resilience in a narrative inquiry, the present study examined the protective factors affecting the academic success of 24 Jamaican women in a graduate cohort in educational administration. All but two of the women rose from poverty to become academically successful, defined as having achieved graduate…
Werschkul, Misha; Gault, Barbara; Caiazza, Amy; Hartmann, Heidi
Women have made remarkable strides in education during the past three decades, but these gains have yet to translate into full equity in pay. Women still earn less than men earn in nearly every profession and at every stage of their careers, and this earnings gap is evident in every state in the nation. This report focuses on educational…
von Prummer, Christine
Reports on research that investigated characteristics of distance education programs in Germany that influenced the participation of women. Highlights include the number of women enrolled; drop-out rates; a description of the FernUniversitat, including degree programs and characteristics of the institution; and a pilot project aimed at single…
United Nations, New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs.
"This pamphlet was produced at the request of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women and the Economic and Social Council (of the United Nations)...It was written primarily for the use of leaders responsible for the civic and political education of women, whether governmental or non-governmental, and is intended as a basic document…
Zamani, Eboni M.
African American women hold a unique position as members of two groups that have been treated in a peripheral manner by postsecondary education (Moses, 1989). Membership in both marginalized groups often makes African American women invisible in colleges and universities. Given the complex intersection of race and gender, more attention should be…
Gaskell, Jane, Ed.; McLaren, Arlene, Ed.
This four-part book contains 16 papers that explore the relationship between feminist research and education, especially in Canada. The papers in the first part, "Women as Mothers, Women as Teachers," are as follows: "The Evolution of the Sexual Division of Labour in Teaching" (Danylewycz, Light, Prentice); "More than a Labour of Love" (Task Force…
Antler, Joyce, Ed.; Biklen, Sari Knopp, Ed.
Essays on feminism, theory, and education are offered in this anthology, which examines the roles of women as active agents of change, as conservators actively resisting change, or as objects of change. Seventeen chapters focus on the relationship between gender and the politics of knowledge, analyze varied situational contexts of women's…
Lyman, Christine; Engstrom, Eric L.
Explores women's issues in HIV prevention and sexual health promotion centers in regard to the biological, psychological, developmental, and social conditions and constraints in women's lives. Concludes that multiple models of HIV-prevention education and behavioral counseling will be needed to address the complex heterogeneity of roles, stages of…
Pittser, Sharan E.
Discusses the contributions of women educators to the development of geography as a discipline, focusing on seven women: (1) Susanna Rowson; (2) Emma Hart Willard; (3) Sarah Sophia Cornell; (4) Ellen Churchill Semple; (5) Zonia Baber; (6) Erna Grassmuck Gilland; and (7) Esther Sanfrieda Anderson. (CMK)
The under-representation of Asian American women in educational research and development is related to both sociocultural and historical barriers. Some of these barriers (racial and sexual discrimination, lack of role models, and lack of professional contacts) are shared by women of all ethnic minorities. There are also, however, unique barriers…
Cruzada, Elizabeth, Ed.
This issue contains an editorial, "Empowering Women through Education" (Elizabeth Cruzada), and eight articles. "Women and Education" (Swarna Jayaweera) presents the status of women and girls' education in Asia vis-a-vis the goals set in the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies. "Education Reforms and Development of Chinese Minority Women" (Zhen…
Marini, Margaret Mooney
Reviews research on the relationship between women's educational attainment and timing of their entry into parenthood. Presents data from a 15-year follow-up of high school students originally surveyed in 1957-58 (and resurveyed in 1973-74). Concludes that educational attainment has a strong delaying effect on timing parenthood, but that their…
Iranian women have endured more than 30 years of an Islamist dictatorship that uses religion as a validation for unjust control. Human rights violations against women in Iran are a tragic phenomenon for an otherwise highly developed civilization. Invisible and powerless in a male-dominated society, Iranian women are discouraged from becoming…
Research has found that the appearance of women's apparel helps increase their attractiveness as rated by men and that men care more about physical features in potential opposite-sex mates. However, the effect of sartorial appearance has received little interest from scientists. In a series of studies, the length of women's shoe heels was examined. A woman confederate wearing black shoes with 0, 5, or 9 cm heels asked men for help in various circumstances. In Study 1, she asked men to respond to a short survey on gender equality. In Study 2, the confederate asked men and women to participate in a survey on local food habit consumption. In Study 3, men and women in the street were observed while walking in back of the female confederate who dropped a glove apparently unaware of her loss. It was found that men's helping behavior increased as soon as heel length increased. However, heel length had no effect on women's helping behavior. It was also found that men spontaneously approached women more quickly when they wore high-heeled shoes (Study 4). Change in gait, foot-size judgment, and misattribution of sexiness and sexual intent were used as possible explanations. PMID:25408499
Externally imposed macroeconomic restructuring in developing nations (termed economic liberalization or neoliberalism) has specific effects on women because free-market processes undervalue anything without direct monetary value. Two immediate effects on education are privatization and budget cutbacks, which result in differential access to…
Stier, William F.
Reviews women's struggles for equal representation in the Olympic Games on the International Olympic Committee and the national committees, and as participants in the games. Discusses problems with the language in the Olympic Charter, governance of the games, and the role of education on all levels. (SM)
Biklen, Sari Knopp
The reflection of women's image in major programs of the progressive education movement--vocational education, the core curriculum, and women's colleges--is discussed. Reasons for the parallel between image and progressive education are addressed. (LBH)
Al Rawaf, Haya Saad; Simmons, Cyril
Describes the development and expansion of formal education for women in Saudi Arabia since 1960. Discusses girls' curriculum in elementary and secondary schools, the influence of conservative attitudes toward sex roles, and the growth of female higher education despite a lack of female employment. Contains 20 references. (SV)
Murphey, Kathleen; Moss, Glenda; Hannah, Susan; Wiener, Roberta
The purpose of this research project was to engage in self-reflective analysis of leadership development as an ongoing process of social action towards democratizing education. Four White women connected by their work as educational leaders, teachers and administrators, engaged this topic by conducting a dialogical analysis of their experiences in…
Kerber, Linda K.
Intended for use in preservice teacher education programs, this unit provides an overview of the role that women have played as educators. The publication is designed to help future teachers become knowledgeable about issues of sexism and skilled in approaches to alleviating this problem in schools. The sections are chronological. Section 1,…
United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.
This booklet focuses on educating girls and women. The main issues include gender gap and its persistence in education. The reasons for this persistence include poverty, distance of schools, non-availability of gender segregated schools, absence of female teachers, inflexible school timing, and irrelevant and gender-insensitive curriculum. It is…
New University Conference, Hampton, VA. Peninsula Chapter.
This document explores how Virginia higher education perpetuates stereotypic social roles, the evolution of sexually segregated schools, the current evidences of sexual discrimination towards faculty, staff and students, the State Council of Higher Education's 1967 plan for higher education, the status of Virginia higher education under the law…
Benn, Roseanne, Ed.; Elliott, Jane, Ed.; Whaley, Pat, Ed.
This book contains 17 papers examining the various roles--learner, teacher, researcher, manager--that women have played in the development of lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Introduction: Women and Continuing Education--Where Are We Now?" (Roseanne Benn, Jane Elliott, Pat Whaley); "Dancing into the Future: Developments in…
Ferber, Marianne A.; McMahon, Walter W.
Women's expectations of high rates of return to investment in higher education, particularly in nontraditional fields and in those requiring advanced degrees, are shown to be consistent with high levels of investment in these fields. Increasing workforce participation and decreasing fertility also contribute toward reducing the female-male…
Mounier-Vehier, C; Boudghene, F; Delsart, P; Claisse, G; Kpogbemadou, N; Debarge, V; Letombe, B
Cardiovascular (CV) diseases are the primary cause of death of women. Since they kill 10 times more than breast cancer, preventive measures should be implemented. According to U.S. recommendations, a woman is either at "CV risk" or at "optimal health status" if she has no risk factors and a perfectly healthy lifestyle. Some risk factors are more deleterious to women (smoking, diabetes, stress, depression, atrial fibrillation); or specific to women (preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, contraception, menopause, headaches). The lifestyle plays a key role for them. The blood pressure measurement is the most frequent opportunity to detect women at risk. CV tests should be performed to all symptomatic women and for those over the age of 45 who want to start practicing sport. The cardiologist can play a key role to improve women's CV health by integrating their hormonal risks. Women themselves can also make a powerful contribution to prevention by adopting a healthy lifestyle. From those recommendations concerning women's CV health, there is a great opportunity to initiate a health path for women at high cardiovascular risk. The objectives of the specific path "heart, arteries and women" of University hospital of Lille will be to improve professional practice, awareness of women, educate public authorities and within a few years reduce the epidemic of CVD of French women. PMID:24972987
Shafer, Susanne M.
Maintains that political, technological, and social changes in Western Europe have produced a need for reassessment of the education of women and greater gender equality. Introduces the articles on equal education for women contained in this journal issue. (BSR)
Crippen, Carolyn; McCarthy, John R.
In this article, the authors describe the history of women in higher education in Manitoba. The historical perspective chronicles the path of women from 1825-2000. The momentum established by these women pioneers in their quest for higher education, according to the authors, must be maintained for present female students and women in academia…
Cselenszky, Mila P.
The number of women in senior administrative and leadership roles in higher education is minimal compared to the number of women in higher education jobs in general. This phenomenological study explored pathways women took to advance in their careers and barriers that prevent more women from gaining senior administrative and leadership roles.…
Coffield, Claudia Ditmar
This dissertation focuses on the educational aspirations and expectations of a heterogeneous group of women who were enrolled in, or had graduated from, adult education and literacy programs in Boston, Massachusetts. The research questions guiding the inquiry are: (1) Why do educationally disadvantaged women value education--how are these values…
A study examined personal and professional development experienced by women youth workers participating in five 5-day, residential, single-sex, outdoor education courses in England. Analysis of diaries and poetry at the end of the courses and questionnaires completed 1 year later by participants and their managers yielded findings in the areas of…
Malik, Samina; Courtney, Kathy
This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded.…
Stott, Clare; Lawson, Liz
Information about the career progression, personal traits, attitudes, and employment experiences of women principals in Further Education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom was gathered from the following: literature search; questionnaire sent to all 68 female principals in the United Kingdom (response rate, 76%); and structured interviews with a…
Solorzano, Irene Brenes
Describes development and implementation of a training program for women in workers' education. The three-course program focused on teaching methodology. Benefits gained by the participants included (1) cultural appreciation, (2) cultivation of the study habit, and (3) improved teaching competence. (CH)
In this paper I explore connections between women, art education and spatial relations drawing on the Deleuzo-Guattarian concept of "machinic assemblage" as a useful analytical tool for making sense of the heterogeneity and meshwork of life narratives and their social milieus. In focusing on Mary Bradish Titcomb, a fin-de-siecle Bostonian woman…
The author looks at what and how women were taught in the castles, convents, towns and universities of medieval Europe. She also discusses the careers of seven notable nuns and abbesses, who were both exemplars of the scholarly woman and lasting influences on female education. (SJL)
The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 confers equality on all South African citizens regardless of race and gender. It has been reported that, under apartheid, gender inequality was a way of life and even social liberation movements observed it. Education is not exempt from gender inequality; the Department of Education in 2003…
Rynne, S J
Hospitals are responding to women's demands for information about healthcare by instituting educational programs specifically for women. To plan such programs, the first step is to establish the major goal--whether to attract new market segments or to better serve existing users of services. It is possible to accomplish both, but they may require different approaches in terms of the program's location, time, presenters, topics, and promotion. In addition to attracting an audience, these programs also can build an image and promote utilization of services. Women who hear or read of the programs will get the impression the hospital cares and is enlightened about women. Targeted segments can be established by factors such as age, geography, and employment status, and programs can be set up to meet the specific needs of each segment. The program planners must resist the urge to tell women what the planners want them to know; instead, planners should learn what the women want to know. The programs also should rely on research that deals specifically with women, instead of information applicable to all people, since that information is usually based on the study of men only. Once the program has been presented, its effectiveness can be measured through random telephone or mail surveys to determine whether the target market has been reached. PMID:10283485
Bhat, Rouf Ahmad
Women education in India has a major preoccupation of both the government and civil society as educated women can play a very important role in the development of the country. Education is milestone of women empowerment because it enables them to responds to the challenges, to confront their traditional role and change their life. So that we can't…
Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Rajeswari, K.; Jabari, Kamran
This article explores theoretical and practical issues related to the impact of women's education in their empowerment. The development of women's education is discussed in this study. As women's education has become one of the key development objectives in the recent decades, the concept of empowerment has been tied to the range of activities…
As organizations like the American Council on Education are seeking to advance women in higher education, and many of them are approaching (or avoiding) retirement age, many women with great potential are questioning whether a leadership opportunity in higher education is for them. As a new generation of women leaders prepares to enter the higher…
Bullough, Vern; Bullough, Bonnie
The implications for nursing education of the fact that nursing started as a woman's occupation in a field dominated by the male physician are considered. Although in 1873 nursing represented a real educational opportunity for large numbers of women, none of the prestigious women's colleges were interested in educating women for careers. In the…
Gubrium, Aline C; Shafer, Miriam B
Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women at an alternative General Educational Development test preparation center. The program prioritized a sex positive framework, including topics such as pleasure, desire and sexual entitlement, and invited participants to explore sexuality through a multisensory orientation. Participants took part in small group discussions and activities that engaged their senses through arts-based methods. Grounded in holism, program topics were integrated with a focus on participants' everyday experiences. The pilot curriculum serves as a promising program for re-positioning young parenting women as sexual subjects, which is key to the promotion of health and wellbeing. PMID:24572457
Quezada, Rosa; Jones-Loheyde, Katherine
Because of cultural conflicts and policy or procedural barriers for Hispanic women pursuing higher education, the academic advising function is important. Advisers' understanding of the Hispanic culture and values, awareness of barriers created by color and language, and information about available support services will increase Hispanic women's…
Balancing extensive ambition and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands: A grounded theory on stress and recovery among highly educated working young women entering male-dominated occupational areas
Löve, Jesper; Hagberg, Mats; Dellve, Lotta
Several factors underline the issue of stress-related health among young highly educated women. Major societal changes might provide more new challenges with considerably changed and expanded roles than were expected by earlier generations, especially among women. The quantity of young women with higher education has also increased threefold in Sweden in less than two decades and there are a growing number of young women that hereby break with traditional gender positions and enter new occupational areas traditionally dominated by men. The research questions in the present study were: “What is the main concern, regarding stress and recovery, among young highly educated working women breaking with traditional gender positions and entering male-dominated occupational areas?” and “How do they handle this concern?” We conducted open-ended interviews with 20 informants, aged 23-29 years. The results showed that the synergy between highly ambitious individuals and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands ended up in the informants’ constantly striving to find a balance in daily life (main concern). This concern refers to the respondents experiencing a constant overload of ambiguity and that they easily became entangled in a loop of stress and dysfunctional coping behavior, threatening the balance between stress and sufficient recovery. In order to handle this concern, the respondents used different strategies in balancing extensive ambition and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands (core category). This preliminary theoretical model deepens our understanding of how the increasing numbers of highly educated young women face complex living conditions endangering their possibility of maintaining health and work ability. PMID:21909337
Kane, Roslyn D.; Frazee, Pamela E.
As a companion to a study of women in nontraditional training in postsecondary vocational education, a national survey of secondary women in area vocational technical schools (AVTSs) was conducted to determine what factors influence the occupational decisions and future plans of high school women enrolled in nontraditional vocational training, how…
Martin, Steven P.; Parashar, Sangeeta
This article examines trends in divorce attitudes of young adult women in the United States by educational attainment from 1974 to 2002. Women with 4-year college degrees, who previously had the most permissive attitudes toward divorce, have become more restrictive in their attitudes toward divorce than high school graduates and women with some…
Smith, Peggy A.; Smith, Alan D.
The early and formative years of women's involvement in the political structure of the United States was filled with high hopes, especially issues related to women and children. Educational reform was one of the major goals that women hoped to achieve. As demonstrated by an in-depth look at the 1920 National Convention of the Republican Party,…
Shows links between Islamic doctrine and girls' education in Saudi Arabia providing examples of ways in which the Islamic attitude towards women and social life is applied to educational policy. Summarizes educational opportunities available for girls and women and notes milestones in the 26-year history of girls' education. (JHZ)
A study examined the effects of single- and mixed-gender colleges on women's education, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. Results indicate women's colleges have a strong, positive influence on educational and occupational achievement, self-esteem, self-control, and views on gender equality.…
Lyman, Linda L.; Strachan, Jane; Lazaridou, Angeliki
"Shaping Social Justice Leadership: Insights of Women Educators Worldwide" contains evocative portraits of twenty-three women educators and leaders from around the world whose actions are shaping social justice leadership. Woven from words of their own narratives, the women's voices lift off the page into readers' hearts and minds to inspire and…
Schedler, Petra E.
As illustrated by the educational strategies of women's groups in the Dutch Liberal Party and Leiden University, social movements contribute to adult education. The question remains whether separate programs for women or encouragement of women's participation in existing program is more conducive to emancipation. (SK)
Olakulein, Felix Kayode; Ojo, Olugbenga David
Women emancipation through empowerment all over the world is at its peak and Africans generally are not left out. It is an attempt to make sure that women's voices are heard and are given their right places in the scheme of things. Nonetheless, the issue of educational attainment of women considering the low level of girls' education in Africa is…
A quasi-experimental research study identified obstacles to continuing education for women in the health care fields to determine if these obstacles were characteristic to continuing education for women in general. Questionnaires were distributed to 50 women health care providers within one hospital in a small community in Arizona and to 50…
Reviews Barbara Miller Solomon's "In the Company of Educated Women," a comprehensive survey of the history of collegiate women. Asserts that this history successfully describes the subtle interplay between women's possibilities within higher education and their shifting roles in the larger society. (KH)
Stalker, Jacqueline, Ed.; Prentice, Susan, Ed.
The 17 monographs in this book are written from the perspective of Canadian women students, faculty, and administrators about their experiences in postsecondary education. Selections are organized under five headings: (1) "Post-Secondary Education: The Inclusion Myth Then and Now"; (2) "Women as Students: The Marginal Majority"; (3) "Women as…
Kreager, Derek A; Felson, Richard B; Warner, Cody; Wenger, Marin R
Drawing on social exchange theories, the authors hypothesized that educated women are more likely than uneducated women to leave violent marriages and suggested that this pattern offsets the negative education - divorce association commonly found in the United States. They tested these hypotheses using 2 waves of young adult data on 914 married women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The evidence suggests that the negative relationship between women's education and divorce is weaker when marriages involve abuse than when they do not. The authors observed a similar pattern when they examined the association of women's proportional earnings and divorce, controlling for education. Supplementary analyses suggested that marital satisfaction explains some of the association among women's resources, victimization, and divorce but that marital violence continues to be a significant moderator of the education - divorce association. In sum, education appears to benefit women by both maintaining stable marriages and dissolving violent ones. PMID:24357879
Reisinger, Wendy A.
Women in institutions of higher education who deserve special attention in advising situations include those with multiple responsibilities, those in under-represented fields, and reentry women. Factors that can help women be successful in an institutional setting are a supportive family and informal peer support groups. Stressors for women seem…
This article discusses what kinds of religious education led to the improvement of women's status and the realization of higher education for women in modern Japan, by reconsidering the educational views of Jinzo Naruse (1859-1919), both a pioneer of Japanese women's education and a promoter of the Concordia movement (1912-1941), within…
Review of women's status in Eritrea before and since independence highlights significant advances in emancipation, with education playing a major role. The review identifies shortcomings and obstacles in the current political situation for women's rights and gender equity. (SK)
Ugbomeh, George M. M.
Discusses the concepts of agricultural education, women empowerment, and sustainable rural development. Suggests that, because women make up more than half of Nigeria's population, their empowerment would assist the efforts for sustainable rural development. (Contains 48 references.) (JOW)
This chapter explores the creative ways in which WE LEARN (Women Expanding Literacy Education Action Resource Network) empowers women's full participation in community across all literacy levels.
Williams, Monnica T.; Bonner, Laura
Attitudes and outcomes of sex education received by North American women are examined via an Internet survey (N = 1,400). Mean age was 19.5, with 24% reporting one or more unplanned pregnancies. Women were more satisfied with sex education from informal sources than from parents, schools, and physicians. Those receiving sex education from parents…
Mareschal, Teresa L.
The history of adult Jewish education is rich and is replete with learning opportunities for Jewish adults, and Jewish women are active participants in adult Jewish education. In this chapter, the author examines Reform Jewish women's motivations to participate in adult Jewish education. First, she provides a historical overview of Judaism and…
This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…
Women working in higher education information technology (IT) organizations and those seeking leadership positions in these organizations face a double challenge in overcoming the traditionally male-dominated environments of higher education and IT. Three women higher education chief information officers (CIOs) provided their perspectives,…
Richardson, Carol P.
Discusses findings of a survey of 18 women music educators. Reports the educators' career paths, reasons for job changes, and professional influences. Reveals their appraisals of the importance of mentoring and goal setting and their definitions of success. Argues that it is up to women music educators to nurture one another. (SG)
Roby, Pamela Ann
Vocational education programs have been growing steadily. Despite this growth, the needs of women for vocational education have not yet been given serious attention. The first hurdle that girls and women seeking vocational education confront is admission. They must fulfill all the admission criteria concerning intelligence and educational…
Mushayabasa, S.; Bhunu, C. P.; Smith?, Robert J.
Prior studies have shown that imprisonment is a major risk factor for hepatitis C infection, with the risk of infection directly proportional to the length of incarceration. Women are at least twice as likely as men to contract HCV as they have limited access to information, health services and safe intravenous drug injecting equipments. We develop a mathematical model to assess the impact of educational campaigns on controlling HCV among women in prison settings. Equilibria for the model are determined and their stability are examined. Population-level effects of increased educational campaigns to encourage safe injecting practices among women in prison are evaluated through numerical simulations. The results suggest that educating women prisoners about abstaining from intravenous drug misuse may significantly reduce HCV prevalence among women in prison settings. Targeted education campaigns, which are effective at stopping transmission of HCV more than 80% of the time, will be highly effective at controlling the disease among women in prisons.
Options in Education, Transcript for February 9, 1976: Federal Money for Higher Education; California High School Proficiency Test; College Students' Writing Problems; Columbus, Ohio Arts Impact Program; and Women in Education.
George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.
"Options in Education" is a radio news program which focuses on issues and developments in education. This transcript contains discussions of federal money for colleges and universities; the high school proficiency test in California; the writing problems of college students; letters from listeners about schooling and jobs; the Arts Impact program…
Wells, Kristen J; Vàzquez-Otero, Coralia; Bredice, Marissa; Meade, Cathy D; Chaet, Alexis; Rivera, Maria I; Arroyo, Gloria; Proctor, Sara K; Barnes, Laura E
There are few Spanish language interactive, technology-driven health education programs. Objectives of this feasibility study were to (a) learn more about computer and technology usage among Hispanic women living in a rural community and (b) evaluate acceptability of the concept of using an embodied conversational agent (ECA) computer application among this population. A survey about computer usage history and interest in computers was administered to a convenience sample of 26 women. A sample video prototype of a hospital discharge ECA was administered followed by questions to gauge opinion about the ECA. Data indicate women exhibited both a high level of computer experience and enthusiasm for the ECA. Feedback from community is essential to ensure equity in state of the art dissemination of health information. PMID:26671558
Nidiffer, Jana, Ed.; Bashaw, Carolyn Terry, Ed.
The chapters in this collection provide the history of women administrators in higher education and explore a number of current topics, including the controversies surrounding women's education, the contributions of female college presidents, the growth and development of deans of women, and the dilemmas faced by many women administrators.…
Morley, Louise, Ed.; Walsh, Val, Ed.
Essays from women in higher education, organized around two major themes: diversity, equity, and change, and feminism in the academy, and with an emphasis on these issues in the United Kingdom, include: "Women and Careers in Higher Education: What Is the Problem?" (Christine Heward); "In the Prime of Their Lives? Older Women in Higher Education"…
Dave, Dhaval M.; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E.
Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes. PMID:23504449
Stromquist, Nelly P.
Many of the programs established for women often perpetuate stereotypical roles. The most useful nonformal education programs for women should provide them with skills and knowledge related to reproductive tasks, productive work, emancipation, and empowerment. Nongovernmental voluntary organizations, especially those run by women, play a critical…
Purpose: This short essay aims to reflect on the global experiences women in education have had in becoming leaders as noted in the articles in this special issue on women's leadership. Design/methodology/approach: The essay draws upon relevant historical and contemporary literature about women in the professions and in the workforce. Findings:…
This report discusses the proposed Grad*Star Program (a Women's Educational Equity Act Program) to deal with the extremely serious dropout program in Northern Kentucky. Housed at the University of Kentucky, it examines such factors as poor economic conditions, large numbers of women and households headed by women that exist below the poverty…
Online Submission, 2006
The recruitment of women teachers can have a positive impact on girls' enrollments in school. This advocacy brief promotes the recruitment of women teachers which is currently held back as a result of gender disparities. The publication explains how recruitment of women teachers could relate to girls' education, stating some current issues facing…
Waterman, Stephanie J.; Lindley, Lorinda S.
Beginning with an overview of historical perspectives of Native American women, this article includes some discussion of values and practices of contemporary Native American women, data pertaining to Native American women's participation in higher education, and an introduction of familial cultural capital, community cultural wealth, Native…
Henderson, Karla A.; Harrolle, Michelle; Rich, Samantha; Moretz, Janell
Women represent growing numbers of faculty members in higher education as well as in recreation/leisure departments. The purpose of this study is to describe the career development of women faculty in recreation-related areas and to offer implications for faculty development and the preparation of future faculty. Data were collected from women who…
Howe, Sondra Wieland
Women music educators in the USA have been active in public and private schools, churches, and community organizations. In the nineteenth century, Julia E. Crane founded the Crane Institute of Music, the first institution to train music supervisors; and women developed kindergarten programs throughout the US. In the "private sphere," women taught…
Wu, Ya-Ling; Wu, Hsing-Chen
Based on a sociocultural approach to adult learning and poststructural feminist theories, this study draws on interviews with 11 married Vietnamese women to explore the higher education learning experiences of Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan. On the basis of their husbands' permission and support, Vietnamese immigrant women embraced the…
This pamphlet contains 19 consciousness-raising articles for high-school women which help define their roles and rights as females, family members, and participants in the labor market. The first section, Education and Liberation, discusses ways in which schools, families, and society suppress women. For example, women are urged to take home…
Magnusen, Etta; Wetzel, Jodi
The on-going project, first initiated at the University of Minnesota in the spring of 1973, has two objectives: (1) to provide interested undergraduate women at the university with research and development training in Women's Studies; and (2) to provide metropolitan area high schools with information and education regarding the women's movement.…
Flecha Garcia, C
This study looks at the topic of women's education as considered by the first two women to receive the degree of Doctor in Medicine from a Spanish university. Delores Aleu and Martina Castells decided to present as a doctoral thesis the development of an issue of particular relevance during the final decades of the 19th century. The importance given to public education and the difficulties young women encountered in participating under the same conditions as young men led these two women--who both held a bachelor's degree--to raise the issue and defend personal and social reasons that justified their full participation in different levels of education. PMID:11624263
Shah, Madhuri, Ed.
This handbook presents 15 case studies on the non-formal education of women from four Asian countries: India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia. The goal of this publication is to provide information about education-related issues concerning women and girls and development. This information is intended for those people, in governmental and…
Davidson, S. H.; Shoenhair, Margaret T.
New VIEW (The New Vocational Education for Women Program) is an educational experiment undertaken by the Foothill-De Anza Community College district, designed to help mature women entering the labor force prepare for, and acquire, responsible careers. Objectives of the program are to raise each student's level of confidence and competence, prepare…
When women take up the work of music education, of the university, and become nomadic, engaging Deleuze and Guattari's war machine, all kinds of things happen. As nomads in music education, women traverse borders and boundaries that would otherwise limit and constrain them as they initiate alternative possibilities related to teaching and learning…
Neumann, Anna, Ed.; Peterson, Penelope L., Ed.
The autobiographical essays in this volume offer insights into how the field of education might change as women assume positions of intellectual leadership. After the "Foreword" (Mary Catherine Bateson), the 13 chapters are: (1) "Research Lives: Women, Scholarship, and Autobiography in Education" (Anna Neumann and Penelope L. Peterson); (2)…
Kotite, Phyllis, Ed.
Women's education and its development have been United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) issues since its inception. As humankind enters the 21st century, it faces a range of unresolved global issues that reflect the interdependence of the world's peoples. Since women comprise half of the world's population, they…
Discusses the impact that Spelman and Bennett Colleges have had on educational opportunities for Black women and highlights the contributions to the Black community of several alumnae from these institutions. Also provides an extensive bibliography of materials that focuses on Black women and higher education. (Author/GC)
Clabaugh, Gary K.
The author examines male attitudes regarding the education of women. He discusses the lives and education of women in ancient Greece and Rome, in the Middle Ages, in the Renaissance and Reformation, in the 1700s, and in the 20th century. (CT)
The women's movement in the 1970s and 1980s was a global phenomenon that achieved significant educational change. More analysis of how it developed and had an impact on education can inform our understanding of the possibilities for change today. This paper explores how the women's movement changed schooling in Vancouver in the 1970s, using a…
Davis, Sara N., Ed.; Crawford, Mary, Ed.; Sebrechts, Jadwiga, Ed.
This book outlines approaches to teaching and learning that can address the diverse needs of students of different genders, races, ethnicities, classes, ages, and sexual orientations. The text focuses on strategies that optimize women's educational experiences, particularly education that is women-centered, and the attendant strategies that…
Harris, Abigail M.
Educational Testing Service (ETS) research that is relevant to the concerns of women and the educational process can be categorized into four areas: (1) research primarily about women; (2) research focusing on sex differences or similarities; (3) research that reports, but does not focus on sex differences; and (4) research identifying methods of…
Dubin, Samuel S.
The number of women occupying managerial positions in the U.S. is relatively small, but it rose 47% from 1,321,000 in 1970 to 1,942,000 in 1976. Circumstances contributing to this rise are enforcement of legal sanctions against discrimination and women's increased educational attainment. This report describes a continuing education workshop series…
Tittle, Carol Kehr; And Others
The Committee on the Role and Status of Women within the American Educational Research Association (AERA) decided to send a series of questionnaires to universities, school districts, state departments of education, and major research and development organizations in order to analyze the respective roles and statuses of men and women within AERA.…
Christou, Miranda; Puigvert, Lidia
The INCLUD-ED project's case studies of successful schools in Europe reveal that there are advantages involved in opening schools to all kinds of women as far as educational and social inclusion is concerned. "Other Women"--those whose voices have traditionally been silenced in academic settings--help in crucial ways to improve education when they…
The lack of women in top administrative positions in education has often been dismissed as attributable to role conflict. The available research literature is examined to determine if there is evidence of role conflict, and, if present, if role conflict prevents women from functioning adequately as educational administrators. Three possible types…
In 1988, the Government of Nepal introduced the following measures to promote literacy and primary education among women: 1) provision of scholarships for 5% of female enrollees; 2) provision of school uniforms for deserving primary school girls; 3) promotion of women's teacher training programs; 4) nonformal education programs for adult women; and 5) initiation of a campaign to encourage parents in remote areas to send their daughters to school. PMID:12289218
The most important factor that enables women to become individuals in society is education. It is also a very crucial part of rectifying the circumstances they are in. Besides formal, mass and distance education institutions, there are some other mechanisms to support women's individuality, their personal development and improve gender…
Baird, Leonard L.
The rates at which men and women attend graduate and professional school were compared in a large national sample of college seniors followed up a year after graduation. Women attended less often, even women with very high grades. Women were particularly underrepresented in law and medicine. When the attendance rates of individuals who had planned…
Holland, Janet; And Others
Government AIDS education programs in Britain have focused on nonheterosexual behavior. Protection of population depends on changes in high-risk sexual practices among heterosexuals. The part played by young women has received little attention. Reviews data from a survey of young women's sexual beliefs and behavior and suggests that appropriate…
Cook, Linda J
1. There is mounting research evidence that alcohol use and abuse affects women much differently than men. 2. Research indicates that women absorb and metabolize alcohol differently than men, partly due to body composition differences and the production of less gastric alcohol dehydrogenase by women. 3. Women of child-bearing age who engage in binge drinking are at increased risk of bearing children with fetal alcohol syndrome or alcohol-related neurological deficits. 4. Psychiatric nurses are often in the position to provide education and counseling to women regarding the hidden dangers of alcohol use and abuse. PMID:15237789
Okunuga, A. O.
In the past, the African female child had always been denied formal education due to various cultural and social prejudices. Distance education has been employed by numerous women, who had earlier thus been deprived, to bridge the educational gap between males and females in the country. These are mature females, of which the majority (54%) are…
de Sousa, Isabela Cabral Felix
Interviews with 20 women in governmental and nongovernmental organizations in Rio de Janeiro revealed the following: (1) formal education programs lacked courses on gender issues; (2) nonformal education was a potential source of gender awareness; and (3) informal education was the main source of gender awareness. (SK)
De Jong, Shirley
Educational interests of women aged 60 and over were studied, and a correlation between the respondents' ages, educational levels, marital status, as well as the number and types of educational topics they chose was investigated. The subjects' preferences as to selected program design questions were also identified. One hundred current members of…
Curriculum framework in the education of children became debatable during the enlightenment. Jean-Jacque Rousseau's treatise, "Emile," outlined an educational curriculum based on natural rights. Rousseau thought education should be based on espousing and exploring the natural abilities of a person. Therefore, since women have a natural…
Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Dublin (Ireland).
Designed to acquaint young men and women with the agricultural education programs currently available in Ireland's institutions of vocational and higher education, this prospectus describes the educational requirements, facilities, and programs under the auspices of Ireland's Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. Specifically, this document…
Lyon, Catherine Dillon; Saario, Terry N.
Cites national and State statistics indicating that women, who constitute a majority of the public education teaching profession, are not well represented in administrative positions in public education. Suggests the reason is because of sexual discrimination in promotions. Makes recommendations to education policymakers to help eliminate sex…
History has a habit of ignoring women. Thirty years ago one thought that re-emerging women's movement would never be dumped in the same way previous feminist generations were consigned to the dustbin of history. It took feminist activists and scholars; women trade unionists and health workers; feminist writers, publishers and artists; and the…
In spite of gains, Indian women's educational level still lags behind that of Indian men. Illiteracy is highest for rural women; unemployment is highest for urban women. Access to education for women is limited and is further delimited in higher levels. Acceptance of changed roles for educated women is lacking. (BRR)
Astin, Helen S.; Hirsch, Werner Z.
Essays include: some considerations on the higher education of women (Rosemary Park); three women, creators of change (Esther Raushenbush); women's education, the case for the single-sex college (Susan Romer Kaplan); liberal arts education and women's development (C. Robert Pace); women's studies, its origin, organization, and prospects (Sheila…
The first half of this monograph deals with present attitudes towards Hispanic women and migrants, comparing stereotypes and facts about both groups, including population figures and other demographic data such as income level, family size, source(s) of income, maternal mortality, and morbibity rates. Self inventories on attitudes toward the…
Ghosh, Ratna; Chakravarti, Paromita; Mansi, Kumari
While women have made many advances, their inferior status to men continues to be a global phenomenon. At a time of unprecedented economic growth, India is experiencing a dramatic intensification of violence against women and the majority of girls are still not getting equal educational opportunity. In one of the most important steps for the…
Senior academic women in Australian Universities, as elsewhere, continue to experience both direct and indirect discrimination, with the narrow white Anglo-Celtic male management profile is a factor in this discrimination. While higher education remains a hostile work environment for senior academic women their participation rates are unlikely to…
The researcher is stimulated to work on the growing trends of women leadership. The problem has been designed to investigate the factors influencing the emergence of women leadership at higher education level in Pakistan. On the basis of the studies conducted by Oplatka (2006) and Cubillo, Brown, 2003, it was assumed that specific factors…
Hayes, Mabel E.
This paper analyzes the status of minority women in higher education in relation to recruitment, retention, fair employment, and equity. Recent research on the American Professoriate showed women made up 27 percent of full-time faculty members and that 10 percent of full- and part-time faculty members are members of a minority. In the California…
Since Edwards' influential study on mature women students and families in the 1990s, questions have been raised about the effects of Higher Education (HE) on family lives. Edwards maintained that relationships were at risk of breakdown due to the changing identity, increased self-esteem and enhanced confidence levels of women students. Men were…
Alverno Research Center on Women, Milwaukee, WI.
This booklet presents descriptions of courses at Alverno College that were being offered during the fall of 1971 and that in some way attempted to deal with special aspects of the education of women students. In each case the faculty member listed the approach or changes in content, methodology, etc., that reflected awareness of women students'…
Rehnke, Mary Ann
Women administrators in higher education must deal not only with the usual challenges facing administrators (decision-making, resolving conflict, and advancing professionally), but also with the effects of sex stereotyping. Women are not seen as decision-makers, nor as conflict-resolvers, and are often viewed as supporting personnel rather than…
Hewcomb, Whitney Sherman; Beaty, Danna M.; Sanzo, Karen; Peters-Hawkins, April
This work is grounded in the literature on women in the academy and offers glimpses into four young women professors' experiences in the field of educational leadership. We utilized reflective practice and interpersonal communication to create a dialogue centered on three qualitative research questions that allows a window into our lives. We…
Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Bordes, Veronica; Zapata, Angela; Arredondo, Patricia; Rutter, Marie-Christine; Howard, Christina
This exploratory study focused on the mentoring experiences of women faculty members and graduate students within a counseling psychology graduate program. Results from semi-structured interviews and focus groups identified the women's contextual mentoring experiences in higher education and highlighted several factors that contribute to…
Martin, L. M.
Changes in women's participation in Australian higher education since the 1950s, primarily as employees, are examined in the context of policies and structures in place during that period. Factors influencing employment and promotion of women university employees are discussed, and action that could be taken at personal and system levels to…
Sinkford, Jeanne C.; Valachovic, Richard W.; Harrison, Sonja
Reviews progress made since the adoption of formal policies in support of women in the profession by the American Dental Education Association (ADEA). Provides an overview of current ADEA programs designed to increase the number of women in academic dentistry and sustain an environment in which they can contribute. (EV)
Amin, Sajeda; Al-Bassusi, Nagah H.
We explore young working women's perceptions of marriage and work in contemporary Egypt, when an increase in age at marriage was evident from national survey data. Both working conditions and employment opportunities declined significantly for young women even as their educational attainment increased and marriage was delayed. In-depth interviews…
Davis, Fran; Steiger, Arlene
While acknowledging the research that suggests that women approach their education with lower levels of self-confidence than men, this paper raises fundamental questions about how self-confidence has been described and measured during the last two decades. The validity of work on women's attitudes toward academic success is shown to be undercut by…
Hackney, Catherine Eggleston
This paper examines the effects of organizational culture on women's professional lives. It focuses on women in entry-level positions in educational administration and explores the interaction of organizational attitudes and expectations with the participants' personalities, epistemological positions, work needs, performance self-esteem, and sense…
Clover, Darlene E.; McGregor, Catherine
Women's Campaign School (WCS) is a non-partisan, non-formal three-day educational programme held annually in Vancouver, to empower and inspire women to enter politics and as a means towards socio-political change. Our findings show the WCS provides excellent practical and tactical skills and an experiential learning opportunity that is highly…
Miranda (L.) and Associates, Bethesda, MD.
Presented in this document are results of a study conducted to determine the needs and problems of minority women with regard to vocational education. Information provided includes: (1) a description of the study's objectives, methodologies, and development; (2) an overview of minority women and employment; (3) highlights of Federal legislation…
O'Rourke, Carolyn L.; Papalewis, Rosemary
Following a thorough review of current studies and literature on women in leadership, this document examines the results of a study conducted to determine the significance of female gender in educational leadership, and how attitudes, values, perceptions, and life experiences of women differ from those of men and are reflected in female leadership…
Chanda, Sanjoy Kumar; Howlader, Hasan; Nahar, Nasrin
The key focus of this study is to explain the level of education of married women and their participation in decision making process at different arena of rural household. To find out the nature of the reality, survey research design was used for this study. The study was conducted at Maharajpur, one of the unions of Jhenidah district in Bangladesh in 2011. The respondents of the study consisted of 120 married women who were purposively selected from the study area. Data were collected through direct interview method using an interview schedule. Data were shown on univariate, as well as bivariate statistical tables and then analyzed. The study reveals that a significant percent (93.3) of higher level of education completed women had their consent of getting married whereas no consent was made by illiterate women. In the same way 46.7 percent higher level of education completed women had high level of purchasing power in compare to illiterate (.0%) and primary (14.6%) level completed women for the same level of purchasing. In the political decision making 86.7 percent higher level of education completed women had own consent to vote for election in contrast to 77.8 percent illiterate and 70.7 percent primary level completed women were influenced by their husband to decide voting.
Fredericks, Suzanne; Guruge, Sepali
Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death among women from low- to middle-income countries. The most common cardiovascular nursing intervention is that of patient education. However, the applicability of this intervention is questionable, as these educational initiatives are typically designed and evaluated using samples of "white" homogeneous males. Using the social determinants of health framework, this discursive article identifies specific strategies for redesigning existing cardiovascular education interventions to enhance their applicability to immigrant women. The recommendations will allow nurses to enhance the educational support offered resulting in the reduction and/or prevention of cardiovascular-related symptoms and/or complications. PMID:26517345
Dilley, James; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha
In high-risk women, risk reducing surgery remains the cornerstone of prevention. However, the resulting premature menopause has led to continued efforts to develop effective screening strategies for those who wish to delay or avoid surgery. This review describes how the screening of women at risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer has evolved to its current state. Serial monitoring of CA125 is core to ovarian cancer screening and most recent studies have used the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Algorithm (ROCA) to interpret CA125 profile. The additional use of a second tumour marker, HE4, is reviewed. The results to date of key ovarian cancer screening studies in high-risk women are summarised ahead of their concluding findings due later in 2016. The role of both ultrasound and endometrial sampling in the management of women at increased risk of endometrial cancer is outlined. Exciting new methodology, which could help shape the future of screening is investigated. The article summarises the current recommendations and guidelines from recognised international bodies to aid the clinician with management of these women. PMID:26930388
Matthews, Hollie L.; Laya, Mary; DeWitt, Dawn E.
Context: Little is known about rural women's knowledge about osteoporosis. Purpose: To explore what women from high-prevalence rural communities know about osteoporosis and to assess their learning preferences. Methods: We surveyed 437 women in rural Washington and Oregon. Findings: The response rate was 93% (N = 406). The mean age of respondents…
Watts, Shelly C.; Daley, Candice
The following paper focuses on the education system in Trinidad and Tobago, particularly on the involvement of girls and women in physics. The educational system is a three-tiered structure: primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Girls and women are given equal opportunities at all levels; however, career choices and the demand of the job market determines whether physics is chosen at the secondary level and onward. No formal survey was performed to quantify the number of girls and women involved in physics; however, scenarios are used to illustrate the different opportunities and tracks that are available to girls.
Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Holford, M.
Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W) is a 501c non profit corporation whose mission is to aid in increasing and retaining the number of women - especially underrepresented females - engaged in scientific teaching and research. Initiated by a Protein Chemist and an Astronomer, our ultimate goal has been to develop informational tools and create innovative outreach programs for women across all STEM fields. At present RAISE-W is recruiting women at the undergraduate, graduate, and early career stages to participate in a unique, 1-year, executive coaching program modeled after those used in the business sector.
Ha, P Y
Results of a survey of demand for education among women managers of small-scale businesses in Korea are provided. Personal interviews were conducted by the Korean Women Development Institute in 1988 among 56 prospective women managers and 15 women managers and 32 experts. A pilot education program was held in 1988 and 1989; 69 women completed the course. Educational objectives are to give women an opportunity to learn the basic rudiments of running a business and develop the self-confidence to undertake this venture. The general objectives, management, evaluation, and postguidance of an educational program for women managers is given in addition to curriculum descriptions of several model programs in general and specifically directed to women. A profile of women surveyed is given; most had completed education beyond high school and were married. 66% planned to use their own money. In self-preparation for the establishment of a business, 26.9% of women used published market surveys and the advice of women already in business. 8 out of the 15 women managers had used their own start-up money. Net monthly earned income for women managers ranged from 500,000 won to 1.5 million won. Women worked 14-15 hour days. Some took holidays. Obstacles articulated by prospective managers were the lack of professional knowledge and experience and difficulties in human relationships due to lack of self-confidence and negative character. Difficulties expressed by women managers were lack of funding for expansion and maintenance of the business, of up-to-date technology, of information on the circulation of merchandise, credit dealings with customers, pricing, health, and laws. 78.5% of prospective women reported no confidence in management skills while most managers were satisfied. 54.2% reported feeling more confident after the pilot course and 39.0% had acquired skills. Content recommended included items on investment, site selection, and business planning for prospective managers
Martin, Jennifer L., Ed.
This up-to-date, candid examination of women's careers in education and leadership in education describes the pitfalls, triumphs, and future promise of female leaders in education. Despite the gains women have made in higher education over the past few decades, and an increasing number of well-qualified female candidates, they are still…
Sharp, Gemma; Tiggemann, Marika
The study investigated the effectiveness of two online resources aimed at improving women's knowledge of the variation in normal female genital appearance and their attitudes towards their own genitals. The first consisted of a photographic array of normal female genitals and the second consisted of a video addressing digital airbrushing of women's genitals in media images. A sample of 136 female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to view the photographs, video, both the photographs and video, or neither. The video significantly increased women's perceptions of genital appearance diversity as well as awareness of digital airbrushing of genital images. Owing to relatively low levels of genital appearance concern, there was no effect of either resource on women's attitudes towards their own genitals; however, women who viewed the video indicated they would pass on their knowledge to help other women. Our results suggest that an educational video could be a useful tool. PMID:26723015
Vor der Bruegge, Ellen; And Others
Credit with Education provides poor women with small loans; a safe place for savings; and education in health, nutrition, and family planning. The strategy integrates financial and educational services to empower women toward self-sufficiency. (SK)
Clabaugh, Gary K.
The very essence of a culture is revealed in its educational attitudes, policies, and practices. Just as blood pressure and body temperature are measures of physical health, such matters are measures of social justice. This article focuses on the attitudes of males toward the education of women by highlighting the attitudes of the most famous and…
Liu, Jane; Carpenter, Marilyn
China has a rich educational history dating back more than three thousand years, but women did not become part of the mainstream education system until the last sixty years. The Confucian ideology, which has been deeply rooted throughout Chinese history, confined females to an oppressed social status. Moreover, this historical ideology continues…
The lives and contributions of nine women educators, all early founders or leaders of the International Kindergarten Union (IKU) or the National Council of Primary Education (NCPE), are profiled in this book. Their biographical sketches are presented in two sections. The Froebelian influences are discussed in Part 1 which includes the chapters on…
Davis, Sharrika D.; Amelink, Catherine; Hirt, Joan B.; Miyazaki, Yasuo
Education is one key to economic prosperity. However, in a society bolstered by patriarchal systems, economic and educational inequalities exist among the genders. The purpose of this study was to determine whether certain collegiate experiences predict undergraduate women's expectation to enroll in graduate study and to determine if the…
McKenna, Teresa, Ed.; Ortiz, Flora Ida, Ed.
The articles in this volume document an educational situation which underserves Chicanas/Latinas and contributes to an unraveling of women's power to perform creative functions in society. The lack of research on this topic only serves to hide the problem which threatens to undermine the educational success of a major percentage of Chicana/Latina…
While there is a wealth of feminist research on women's educational leadership and policy-making in the interwar years, this article extends the discussion into the Second World War. My focus is the educational leadership of Dorothy Walker, head teacher of St Peter's Infant School and the youngest head teacher in Birmingham, and Lillian de Lissa,…
After a survey of the social status and education of women in India prior to the passage of the Government of India Act and the introduction of diarchial government this document provides data on education for females in the Pre-Independence Period (1921-1947) and in the Post-Independence Period (1947-1966). Information is given on enrollment,…
Irby, Beverly, Ed.; Brown, Genevieve H., Ed.
The Research on Women and Education SIG of the American Educational Research Association presents the third book in its series, Gender and Early Learning Environments. Finding after the publication of Gender and Schooling in the Early Years, the second book in the series, that there was and is a paucity of published literature on early childhood…
This case study of Southeast Asian women in higher education management investigates culture-specific dimensions of "glass ceiling" impediments to career advancement in higher education. Respondents note that despite considerable training and expertise, Asian values and ideologies demand enactment of a construct of Asian femininity that militates…
Women and men too are becoming increasingly concerned about and aware of sex discrimination in higher education. In the past 2 years, formal charges of sex discrimination have been filed against 360 colleges and universities, none of which have been refuted by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Discrimination exists in all facets of…
Bureau of Postsecondary Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.
This brochure lists educational opportunities for minorities and women at the postsecondary level. In addition to specific loan, scholarship, and fellowship opportunities, it also provides some general information on how and where to seek out general assistance to prepare oneself to pursue additional education and career goals. The pamphlet was…
Robertson, Claire C.
Ghanian women have a long history as traders. In early 1978, 42 Central Accra schoolgirls and 42 girls engaged in selling were surveyed to determine the relationship of formal education to marketing skills. Formal education was not significantly helpful in promoting schoolgirls' trading knowledge nor in providing skills likely to land them jobs.…
Wright, Hazel R.
Most studies of adult education align it with life change, but this research-based book tells a different story. It reveals how mature women who are training to work in childcare within the voluntary sector seek continuity in their lives. They engage with activities that connect aspects of their family, workplace and educational experience, and…
Tooth, Leigh; Mishra, Gita D.
Objective We analyzed whether further education in young adult and mid-life [adult educational mobility] influences physical functioning and depressive symptoms in women. Methods 14247 women born 1973–78 (younger cohort) and 13715 women born 1946–51 (mid-aged cohort) from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health were followed for 14–16 years. Measures were the Short-Form 36 Health Survey physical functioning subscale (SF-36 PF) and Centre for Epidemiologic Studies 10-item Depression Scale (CESD-10). Linear mixed modelling, accounting for time varying covariates, assessed the influence of further education on physical functioning and depressive symptoms over time. Sensitivity analysis to assess the impact of missing data was conducted using multiple imputation. Results Compared to younger women with a pre-existing high level of education, women gaining further education (up to age 39 years) from low levels had lower SF-36 PF scores (poorer physical functioning) (fully adjusted beta estimates (95%CIs) -1.52 (-2.59, -0.44)) while those gaining further education from middle to high levels showed equivalent SF-36 PF scores (-0.08 (-0.61, 0.44)). A similar pattern was shown for CESD-10 scores (0.78 (0.29, 1.25); -0.02 (-0.26, 0.21), respectively) where higher scores represented more depressive symptoms. For mid-age women, further education from a middle to high level resulted in equivalent SF-36 PF scores (-0.61 (-1.93,0.71)) but higher CESD-10 scores (0.49 (0.11, 0.86)), compared to highly educated women. Conclusion Women who delay further education until they are aged between their 40s and 60s can improve or maintain their physical functioning but may have missed the critical time to minimise depressive symptomatology. Public health policy should focus on encouraging women to upgrade their educational qualifications earlier in life in order to potentially offset the negative associations between their initial lower socio-economic position class of
Pollard, Mignonne Y.
This paper examines how the educational philosophies of two representative African American women university professors were influenced by multiple sojourns between Africa and North America. Two African American women born in the 1940s were interviewed about their early educational experiences, racial identity, and experiences in Africa. Each…
Hootsmans, Helen M.
Reviews existing programs for equal education and employment for women in Europe, including reentry to school and work, training for nontraditional fields, and management training. Discusses the role of adult educators in setting priorities, influencing policy, and obtaining funding for women's programs. (SK)
Himelein, Melissa J.
Reasons are presented why rape education programming for women who have been sexually victimized may need to be different and separate from general programming. A process for identifying high-risk women is described. "Inoculation," a counseling group process, is described. Evaluation, feedback, and recommendations are reported. (EMK)
Stade, Brenda C; Bailey, Carol; Dzendoletas, Darlene; Sgro, Michael; Dowswell, Therese; Bennett, Daniel
health of mothers and babies. Authors’ conclusions The evidence from the limited number of studies suggests that psychological and educational interventions may result in increased abstinence from alcohol, and a reduction in alcohol consumption among pregnant women. However, results were not consistent, and the paucity of studies, the number of total participants, the high risk of bias of some of the studies, and the complexity of interventions limits our ability to determine the type of intervention which would be most effective in increasing abstinence from, or reducing the consumption of, alcohol among pregnant women. PMID:19370597
Henrich, Janet B
Since the U.S. Congress first requested an assessment of women's health content in medical school curricula ten years ago, surveys indicate at least a two-fold increase in the number of schools with a women's health curriculum and no change in the number that offer a women's health clinical elective or rotation. Despite a marked increase in the number of schools with an office or program responsible for integration of women's health and gender-specific content into curricula, change has been modest. Reasons for this slow progress include uncertainty about the domain of women's health and what should be included in a curriculum, a lack of practical guidelines for implementation, and institutional resistance to change. The dominant factors that will influence future curriculum development are the increasing scientific knowledge base on sex and gender differences and the emerging scientific field of sex-based biology, both of which have potential to benefit the health of women. Evidence-based data on significant sex and gender differences will provide compelling reasons for schools to integrate this information into curricula, and new educational initiatives must further develop educational models to help implement change. As women's health becomes synonymous with the term "sex and gender differences," the challenge to schools is to address equally in their curricula those unique aspects of women's health that were part of the original intent of the congressional mandate. PMID:15044158
London Univ. (England). Inst. of Education.
Delivered at a conference on women in British education, this collection of papers demonstrates with statistical evidence and close argument the extent of discrimination against women in higher education. "The Place of Women in the Changing Pattern of Further Education" by Eileen Byrne looks at women as they leave school at the secondary level and…
Magura, S; Kang, S Y; Shapiro, J L; O'Day, J
This paper reports outcome evaluation results of an AIDS education program for drug-using women in jail, of whom the majority were current drug injectors, had high-risk sexual partners, and never used condoms for insertive sex. The women participated in four small-group health/HIV education sessions. Education participants and controls were followed-up 7 months after their release from jail; the two groups did not differ significantly on drug- or sex-related HIV risk behaviors at follow-up. However, being in drug dependency treatment (primarily methadone maintenance) at follow-up was associated with reduced heroin use, crack use, drug dealing, and criminal activity. Although improved HIV education in jail is important, better networks of community resources, including more accessible community drug dependency treatment, also must be developed to support drug-dependent women after their release from jail. PMID:7790127
Taylor, Victoria M.; Burke, Nancy J.; Sos, Channdara; Do, H. Hoai; Liu, Qi; Yasui, Yutaka
Background Cambodian Americans have high rates of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and liver cancer. There is very limited information about the utility of community health worker (CHW) approaches to cancer education for Asian American men. We have previously reported our positive findings from a trial of CHW education about HBV for Cambodian Americans who had never been tested for HBV. This report describes similarities and differences between the outcomes of our CHW HBV educational intervention among Cambodian American men and women. Methods The study group for this analysis included 87 individuals (39 men and 48 women) who were randomized to the experimental (HBV education) arm of our trial, participated in the CHW educational intervention, and provided follow-up data six months post-intervention. We examined HBV testing rates at follow-up, changes in HBV-related knowledge between baseline and follow-up, and barriers to HBV testing (that were reported to CHWs) by gender. Results At follow-up, 15% of men and 31% of women reported they had received a HBV test (p=0.09). HBV-related knowledge levels increased significantly among both men and women. With respect to HBV testing barriers, women were more likely than men to cite knowledge deficits, and men were more likely than women to cite logistic issues. Discussion Our study findings indicate that CHW interventions can positively impact knowledge among Cambodian American men, as well as women. They also suggest CHW interventions may be less effective in promoting the use of preventive procedures by Cambodian American men than women. Future CHW research initiatives should consider contextual factors that may differ by gender and, therefore, potentially influence the relative effectiveness of CHW interventions for men versus women. PMID:24083730
National Association for Women Deans, Administrators, and Counselors, Washington, DC.
Reference materials for the educator who has an employment-related grievance are presented. Basic principles and rights of employment and general procedures for filing a grievance both within and outside an employing institution are examined. The procedures apply for educators at the K-12 level, in higher education, and in social service agencies.…
The attitude of the famous plant physiologist Julius von Sachs (1832-1897) to higher education of women is described on the basis of some new documents. Generally, Sachs was in favour of academic education of women at universities, but initially wanted to exclude females from the study of medicine. However, by the example of a bright young Russian lady, who studied medicine in St. Petersburg and who worked 1871 in his laboratory in Würzburg on lower fungi for some time (presumably illegally, since the access for woman to the university was at that time officially forbidden in Würzburg), he changed his mind: 1) In contrast to many colleagues of his time he granted females similar intelligence and skills as males and stated that women had legal rights for the access to the university. 2) He favoured the general necessity of higher education (in particular in science) for women and did not see any contrast in respect to this to the role of women in the society as wives, mothers, and housewives. 3) Access to the university would stimulate the development of young women and thereby would be an improvement for our society. However, in conclusion he asked himself, whether the higher education of females should take place at special women colleges (not existing at that time in Germany) or at universities and whether girl students should preferentially become teachers at high schools for daughters of the high society. He admitted that he also felt uncomfortable because of the threatening job competition between young academic male (traditionally the majority of students in science) and female students. The liberal view of Sachs in respect to higher education of women is compared to the rather conservative view of his former student and friend Hugo Thiel. PMID:17153314
Western theories of development, and the resulting strategies and planning represent major structural barriers to Moroccan Women's Liberation. The author advocates a shift from current anti-participatory strategies to a new people-oriented approach, emphasizing the multiple roles of women within an integrated strategy. This involves linking educational projects with other parts of the infrastructure. Morocco's `way out' of exogenous development, the author contends, is contingent upon an adequate management of the educational system both at the institutional and personal levels. Therefore, educating women can be considered a sine qua non in optimizing conditions leading to endogenous development. The foundation is the establishment or strengthening of a whole infrastructure for the creation, transmission, and application of alternative methods likely to sustain socio-economic opportunities leading to Morocco's self-reliance.
In Thailand, the International Center for Research on Women conducted a study comparing the effect of various HIV/AIDS prevention activities on never-married women 14-24 years old who migrated to Chiang Mai to work in the export garment industry. These young women are very vulnerable to HIV/AIDS because they are freed from traditional norms and exposed to urban peer pressure. However, focus groups revealed that the women did not consider themselves at risk and feared negative reactions if they tried to discuss condoms with their boyfriends (who would equate knowledge with prior sexual experience). Among the interventions were a comic book which couched condom negotiation information in humorous terms and a romantic novel about a factory worker diagnosed with HIV. For 3 months trained peer leaders and health promoters led weekly educational sessions that included role-play. All participants were given a certificate noting that they had completed an AIDS education course. This certificate enabled the young women to broach the subject of AIDS with their boyfriends, their families, and their friends. The project improved their communication skills, their self-confidence, and their perceptions of risk. The most significant improvements were found among the women enrolled in the groups facilitated by peer leaders. Even though the peer leaders were not as knowledgeable as the health promoters, the peer leaders were more sensitive to the needs of the women and more capable of leading group discussions and participatory learning activities. PMID:12288826
Woosnam, Margaret D.; Williams, Frankie K.
Of the 114 accredited architecture programs within colleges and universities across America, only 18 (16%) have females in the highest administrative positions such as deans, directors, chairs, or heads. Despite this statistic, 50% of all graduates from architecture programs are female. Little is known about women administrators in architectural…
Hammarström, Anne; Haukenes, Inger; Fjellman Wiklund, Anncristine; Lehti, Arja; Wiklund, Maria; Evengård, Birgitta; Stålnacke, Britt-Marie
Background There is a lack of research about a potential education-related bias in assessment of patients with chronic pain. The aim of this study was to analyze whether low-educated men and women with chronic pain were less often selected to multidisciplinary rehabilitation than those with high education. Methods The population consisted of consecutive patients (n = 595 women, 266 men) referred during a three-year period from mainly primary health care centers for a multidisciplinary team assessment at a pain rehabilitation clinic at a university hospital in Northern Sweden. Patient data were collected from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation National Pain Register. The outcome variable was being selected by the multidisciplinary team assessment to a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program. The independent variables were: sex, age, born outside Sweden, education, pain severity as well as the hospital, anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Results Low-educated women were less often selected to multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs than high-educated women (OR 0.55, CI 0.30–0.98), even after control for age, being born outside Sweden, pain intensity and HADS. No significant findings were found when comparing the results between high- and low-educated men. Conclusion Our findings can be interpreted as possible discrimination against low-educated women with chronic pain in hospital referrals to pain rehabilitation. There is a need for more gender-theoretical research emphasizing the importance of taking several power dimensions into account when analyzing possible bias in health care. PMID:24849625
Levin, Dana S; Woodford, Michael R; Gutiérrez, Lorraine M; Luke, Katherine P
Social work faculty play an important role in preparing students to address sexism and engage in culturally competent practice with women. This study examines the nature of U.S. and Anglo-Canadian graduate social work faculty's support for content on women and on sexism. Although support appears high for both content areas, results suggest that faculty endorsement for content on women is significantly greater than that for sexism. Further, bivariate and multivariate analyses indicate that the nature of support differs for each content area. Implications for social work education are discussed. PMID:26489356
Yu, Lucy C.; And Others
Data from 204 female faculty or faculty wives show that family life cycle (number and ages of children) and family migration significantly affect wives' employment status. Only extremely highly educated women initiate family relocation. (SK)
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
The impact of enlightened policies and incentives designed to increase girls' enrollment and achievement in education has been marginal in Nepal. Ministry of Education (MOE) goals aimed at increasing girls' participation include increasing the enrollment rate, opening early childhood development centers, promoting recruitment of at least one…
This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in Taiwan's universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative…
Gubrium, Aline C.; Shafer, Miriam B.
Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women…
George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.
"Options in Education" is a radio news program which focuses on issues and developments in education. This transcript contains discussions of Individually Guided Education, a program which was developed at the University of Wisconsin Research & Development Center; creative playacting; women in education, including children's perceptions of women…
The fact that women constitute two-thirds of the world's non-literate population has been a cause for concern for several decades. Despite a number of high-profile literacy interventions specifically targeting women--including UNESCO's LIFE initiative--the disparity between male and female literacy rates persists in many countries of the world…
Fifty percent (260) of the women in the United States identified as holding positions of superintendents, assistant/associate superintendents, and high school principals responded to questionnaires concerning career contingencies, career patterns, and career attitudes. Based on data from previous studies of men administrators, the women were, as a…
Love, Gail D.; Tanjasiri, Sora Park
Southeast Asian women in California have high cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, but low levels of Pap screening. No published reports have addressed screening among Thai women. Entertainment-education (EE) is a useful strategy for low-literacy, culturally diverse populations. This quasi-experimental study determined whether a soap-opera-themed, Thai-language EE video was superior to a print handout for increasing knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intention toward Pap testing. No uniform differences were found between the intervention group (video) and the control group (brochure). Both educational modalities appeared to result in selected increases in knowledge and attitudes. PMID:22581487
Drawing on data from 12 women's groups in Kenya, a recent study identified these women's general and demographic characteristics and discovered how rural Kenyan women acquire and exchange information, education, and learning skills; how education affects the groups' organizational management and leadership; how women work in groups and benefit…
Maher, F. A.
Examines the attitudes of mature British women's studies students, exploring personal meanings given to education and kinds of knowledge appropriated. Their perspectives reveal dichotomies taken for granted throughout the university (experience versus theory and research versus teaching) which are structurally embedded in the current practices of…
Paul, Glendora B.
The problem of this study is to trace the emancipation and education of women since 1829 and to determine the factors that have shaped the course of this development and directed its trends. Before the Moslem conquest, which brought the Purdah system, child-marriage, polygamy and divorce, the Hindu woman's status had changed from equality to men…
Baum, Nehami; Yedidya, Tova; Schwartz, Chaya; Aran, Ofra
The study reported in this article concerns the beginnings of higher education for women in the Haredi (ultra-Orthodox) enclave in Israel. Haredi Jews are a self-secluded fundamentalist group committed to particularly strict interpretation of Jewish religious law. In recent years, they have been compelled by poverty and other factors to allow…
Discusses the school-work relationship for women, noting that pertinent research traditions (occupational status attainment research, human capital research) have focused on men and male-female differences. Suggests reworking the models to focus on male-female differences in education (academic achievement, course choices, school socialization).…
Women's Educational Equity Communications Network, San Francisco, CA.
This compilation of over 2,000 document resumes contains abstracts or annotations of materials relevant to women's educational equity which were entered into computerized data bases from January 1975 through December 1976. Covering material produced from about 1973 to 1976, the citations relate to one of six subject categories which were the…
Maslak, Mary Ann; Singhal, Gayatri
Under the combined effects of commercialisation, urbanisation, migration and employment, significant changes are taking place in India's process of modernisation. One change is the emergence of a population of women with degrees in higher education. These degrees, and the individuals' desire to pursue professional positions that relate to their…
Bialeschki, M. Deborah; Henderson, Karla A.
A study was conducted to ascertain the continuing education needs of men and women leisure service professionals in Wisconsin and to identify differences caused by gender. (Leisure service professionals were defined as persons employed full-time in administering, directing, leading, organizing, and planning in leisure service organizations.) A…
Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter
This paper takes as its starting point the concept of concerted cultivation as coined by Annette Lareau. It examines whether a focus on concerted cultivation adequately captures the various practices observed in young women's experiences of being privately educated in four schools in one area of England. We suggest that a variety of practices of…
Dlamini, Eunice Tressa; Adams, Jabulile Dorothy
This article presents research on women's experiences of patriarchy in a Higher Education Institution X. This is a qualitative study located within the interpretivists' paradigm. The research problem of this study is articulated through the following research questions: how do female academics experience patriarchy? How does patriarchy…
In this ethnographic study I explored women's somatic and sexual experiences, reception of breast self-examination (BSE) messages, and reactions to the practice of BSE. Mainstream BSE education uses messages that deemphasize the woman, her breasts, and her relationship to them as sexual. The turbid confluence of societally eroticized breasts and self-touch taboos makes it unlikely that women filter these messages in an asexual way. Using grounded theory, I examined women's expression of the self-body relationship and the sociocultural milieu within which women consider BSE education materials. Seven subjects varying in age, sexual orientation, parenting, and relationship status were interviewed about their physical experiences, self-touch, and body image. Subjects also participated in a BSE class and focus group, and composed a journal entry describing their reactions to practicing BSE. Discernible patterns in somatic memories, somatic styles, and reactions to BSE educational messages were found. This study suggests a need for a more consciously feminist approach to BSE education. PMID:14742115
The subordination of South Korean women, both in general and as manifested in education and employment, results from traditional patriarchal ideology derived from Confucianism and from capitalist economic development and industrialization. Discusses sex roles in the family and workplace and sex differences in school enrollments, employment, wages,…
Williams, Shawn D.
The history of black women's social reform work remains unrecognized in the academy and the general culture. The contributions of courageous black feminist authors such as bell hooks, Nikki Giovanni, and Audre Lorde are important for all students. Hooks works with educators to denounce sexist and racist stereotypes, Giovanni stresses the concept…
Molla, Tebeje; Cuthbert, Denise
This article examines the lived experiences of women in Ethiopian higher education (HE) as a counterpoint to understandings of gender equity informed only by data on admission, progression and completions rates. Drawing on a critical qualitative inquiry approach, we analyse and interpret data drawn from focus group discussions with female students…
Johnson, Megan Patricia
The purpose of this study was to reveal the ways in which first-generation women in Tanzania explained their success in pursuing a university education despite cultural and social obstacles. Such obstacles include social policies, socio-cultural factors, and academic factors. A review of the literature revealed that issues such as patriarchy,…
Literacy Discussion, 1975
The Unesco National Commissions carried out a series of studies simultaneously in Argentina, the Ivory Coast, Lebanon, Sierra Leone, and Sri Lanka regarding the relationship between the educational opportunities and the opportunities of employment open to women. Basic conclusions of international scope are presented. (LH)
Korcheck, Stephanie A., Ed.; Reese, Marianne, Ed.
This monograph is a collection of articles on research and reflection by faculty and practitioners on educational leadership. Part I, "Leading a Learning Organization," contains the following articles: "Emotional Intelligence and Leading a Learning Organization" (C. Sue McCullough); "Women's Leadership Through Agency" (Jennie Billot); "Mary Parker…
Kolo, Yovonda Ingram
African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.
Gibbons, Melinda M.; Woodside, Marianne; Hannon, Christine; Sweeney, Jeffrey R.; Davison, John
There is a dearth of research exploring the career and work development of adults and the influence of family of origin on that development. In this qualitative study, the authors used a phenomenological approach to examine the career and work experiences of women whose parents have no education beyond high school and the influences of family on…
Parkerson, Annette H.
The effects of participation in extracurricular activities on young women's career and educational development were examined. A constant comparative method was used to analyze the open-ended responses to questionnaires completed by 156 high school girls and the transcripts from semi-structured interviews with 5 female college freshmen and 2 young…
Lafreniere, Shawna L.; Longman, Karen A.
Women who seek high-level administrative leadership positions in various sectors of higher education continue to meet a variety of barriers (Eagly & Carli, 2007). These challenges are especially evident among the 105-member Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU), an association of faith-based liberal arts institutions. Seeking to…
O'Toole, J. Corbett; Weeks, CeCe
The report, over half of which consists of appendixes and lists of resources, discusses the educational and related life experiences of six disabled women. Focus is on their early experiences with school and family, their high school years, their college years, and their work. Their disabilities include blindness, osteogenesis imperfecta (fragile…
Graduate Management Admission Council, 2012
This paper provides statistics on women and graduate management education for 2012. This paper contains two parts: (1) Women in the Business School Talent Pipeline; and (2) Women in Business. "Women in the Business School Talent Pipeline" discusses: (1) GMAT[R] Examinees; (2) B-School Demand from Younger Women; (3) MBA, Masters & Other Intended…
Taylor, Viviene; Conradie, Ina
This report describes a study undertaken in South Africa on women's leadership and the role of development education to empower women for leadership. The report is divided into the following six chapters: (1) "Women at the Crossroads"; (2) "Participatory Action Research: The Challenge of Women Researching with Women within a Development Approach";…
Davis, Cinda-Sue; And Others
This volume includes 10 reports that present findings and recommendations for advancing women in science, mathematics and engineering. Critical issues facing women in these disciplines are addressed, including demographic myths and realities at various educational levels; the educational pipeline for girls and women; involvement in education and…
This paper explores the educational experiences of a specific group of refugees, namely academic women refugees who were members of various branches of the International Federation of University Women, and who came to Britain under the auspices of the British Federation of University Women from 1933. As a result of voluntary or forced migration…
Armoni, Michal; Gal-Ezer, Judith
The gap between enrollments in higher education computing programs and the high-tech industry's demands is widely reported, and is especially prominent for women. Increasing the availability of computer science education in high school is one of the strategies suggested in order to address this gap. We look at the connection between exposure…
Using ethnographic data, this article explores how Muslim women teachers from low-income Pakistani communities employ the notion of "wisdom" to construct and perform their educated subjectivity in a transnational women's education project. Through Butler's performativity framework, I demonstrate how local and global discourses overlap to shape…
Patterson, Lorne; Dowd, Kathleen
The recent economic downturn and surge in unemployment has focused attention on education and training as a strategic response to Ireland's socio-economic crisis. However, that attention has been concentrated on training through statutory institutions, particularly FAS and the VECs. Longford Women's Link, a Women's Community Education centre in Co…
Mary, Bright; D'Sa, Juliana Linnette
Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer in women worldwide. One way by which the incidence of this malignant disease can be minimized is by imparting knowledge through health education. This study aimed at developing an educational package on cervical cancer (EPCC) and determining its effectiveness in terms of significant increase in knowledge of rural women regarding cervical cancer. A one group pre-test, post-test design was adopted. Thirty rural women were selected using a convenient sampling method. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and a structured knowledge questionnaire developed by the researchers. The EPCC was designed for a duration of one hour and 10 minutes. The structured knowledge questionnaire was first administered as the pre-test, following which knowledge on cervical cancer was imparted using the EPCC. On the 8th day, the post-test was administered. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean post-test knowledge score of the women regarding cervical cancer was significantly higher than that of their mean pre-test score, indicating that the EPCC was effective in improving the knowledge of rural women on cervical cancer. The association between pre-test knowledge scores and selected demo-graphic variables were computed using chi-square test showed that pre-test knowledge score of the women regarding cervical cancer was independent of all the socio-demographic variables. It was concluded that the EPCC is effective in improving the knowledge of women, regarding cervical cancer. Since the prevalence of cervical cancer is high, there is an immediate need to educate women on prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:25169495
Bulus, Vincent Hassan
The impetus for conducting this research is near and dear to my heart along with desiring to make a change for the better. In conducting interviews of Nigerian women's experiences, struggles and accessibility to secondary education, the research shows significant barriers to secondary education in their narrative experiences that their male…
This study challenges and evaluates modern-liberal-humanistic discourse on education as enlightenment through analysis of the life stories of the first Bedouin women to acquire higher education (hereafter: First Women). The liberal discourse is examined in terms of its ethnic and genderial contexts and the special status these women gained as…
McNae, Rachel; Vali, Kerren
The ways in which women deliberately press back against practices of oppression and demonstrate agency in higher education institutions are highly contextual and culturally bound. The formal and informal networks that women develop and maintain are important elements of generating agency and enhancing women's access to and opportunities for…
Tuomi, Margaret Trotta; Lehtomäki, Elina; Matonya, Magreth
Globally, persons with disabilities are underrepresented in higher education. In sub-Saharan Africa, where opportunities for higher education are especially limited, women are unlikely to continue their education. This research investigates women in Tanzanian higher education with the double marginalisation of being a woman and having…
Abdi, Ali A.
Examines women's education and related issues in South Africa in light of restrictions on educational spending imposed by Structural Adjustment Programs stipulated by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. Argues that the contraction of educational resources will have a strong negative effect on women's education, particularly for black…
Merry, Lisa; Vangen, Siri; Small, Rhonda
High caesarean birth rates among migrant women living in high-income countries are of concern. Women from sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia consistently show overall higher rates compared with non-migrant women, whereas women from Latin America and North Africa/Middle East consistently show higher rates of emergency caesarean. Higher rates are more common with emergency caesareans than with planned caesareans. Evidence regarding risk factors among migrant women for undergoing a caesarean birth is lacking. Research suggests that pathways leading to caesarean births in migrants are complex, and they are likely to involve a combination of factors related to migrant women's physical and psychological health, their social and cultural context and the quality of their maternity care. Migration factors, including length of time in receiving country and migration classification, have an influence on delivery outcome; however, their effects appear to differ by women's country/region of origin. PMID:26458998
Focus group discussions and interviews with 240 single adolescent women who had migrated to northern Thailand to work in the garment industry revealed a high incidence of unprotected premarital sex and widespread misinformation about the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Many believed that "good people" could not get AIDS and that condoms were men's concern, for use with prostitutes rather than girlfriends. In response, an educational program was designed for these young factory workers with the aim of providing accurate information and encouraging women to insist on protected sex. Peer education was selected as the strategy most likely to promote participatory learning, skill acquisition, and emotional support. Educational materials were interactive and based on problem-solving. A comic book featured an invisible flying condom that instructed young women how to negotiate condom use; a romantic novel about a young migrant factory worker addressed the false notion that "good men" cannot become infected with AIDS. The peer education program lasted for 3 months, after which participants received a certificate. Post-program evaluation indicated widespread acceptance of condoms as a contraceptive option for women and enhanced relational skills in negotiating for safe sex. PMID:12345370
Describes presentations and discussions from the seminar "Women and Leadership in Higher Education in the UK and US," jointly sponsored by the Society for Research into Higher Education, the Commission on University Career Opportunity, and Through the Glass Ceiling. Participants agreed that the time has come to replace individual, high-profile…
This paper explores the educational and migrational pathways which a number of middle-class women from Bangladesh took as they grew up in the 1980s and 1990s. It draws on qualitative research, conducted between July and November 2011, with highly educated Bangladeshi women who migrated to Britain in the early 2000s. French Sociologist Pierre…
Stankiewicz, Mary Ann
Gives a historical analysis of nineteenth-century attitudes toward women, with special focus on the development of art education for women at the College of Fine Arts, Syracuse University. Stereotyped beliefs about female physiognomy and morality justified a conception of art education as a cultural refinement especially suited to women.…
Doraiswami, Smt. S.
The educational advancement of women in India is not perceived as an important characteristic since education is perceived as irrelevant to their roles. The equality of women in status and opportunity is guaranteed in the 1955 Constitution of India and by the government. Although achievements by women in the local and national levels exist, a…
Isen, Adam; Stevenson, Betsey
This paper examines how marital and fertility patterns have changed along racial and educational lines for men and women. Historically, women with more education have been the least likely to marry and have children, but this marriage gap has eroded as the returns to marriage have changed. Marriage and remarriage rates have risen for women with a…
As the number of women working within leadership positions in the higher education system increases, there becomes more of a need to research these positions. With the number of women holding leadership positions in higher education organizations increasing in what are still considered male dominated roles, these women are being expected to…
Luedtke, Jacqueline R.
A study was done to examine the reasons for the low number of women in collegiate aviation education by focusing on the number and status of women aviation educators and on attitudes toward women in aviation. Information was sought from each of the 67 four-year University Aviation Association member institutions, with a response rate of 63%.…
Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.; Moghadam, Valentine M.
In contemporary Iran, women with higher education face both gender discrimination and an unfavourable economic system, one that is not conducive to employment-generation for women. This paper provides an analysis of women's access to higher education in Iran, which has varied over the last 30 years, and their continuously limited participation in…
Huang, Haigen; Placier, Peggy
Our study sought to understand changes in gender inequality in education across four generations of rural Chinese women's educational experiences in a small community in southern China. The 24 interviews and numerous informal conversations with 12 women showed that gender-based favouritism for men and against women undergirded family expectations,…
Little is known about the research characteristics of past women studies in engineering education. In order to add knowledge base about the advanced development of women studies in current engineering education research, the purpose of the study is to investigate research characteristics of past women studies published in three referred…
Christman, Dana; McClellan, Rhonda
Background: Despite access for women administrators in educational leadership departments, the longevity of their service within them is tenuous. Women administrators are caught in the social constructions of gender and leadership. Purpose: To explore how some women administrators in educational leadership programs have sustained their…
Since at least the early 1990s, Arab governments have made women's participation in higher education a priority. Across the region, young women fill the crowded lecture halls and bustling courtyards of universities. On many campuses, they outnumber men. But women's increased participation in higher education does not necessarily translate into…
Hoeritz, Kimberly Jean
Women are underrepresented as leaders in most facets of American work life. While present in fields that are traditionally feminine, there is a scarcity of women leaders in all other occupations including business, government, science and technology, agriculture, education in general and higher education in particular. While women currently…
Tower, Leslie E.; Lazzari, Marceline M.; Faul, Anna C.; Alvarez, Ann Rosegrant
This article highlights the contributions of the Council on the Role and Status of Women in Social Work Education (Women's Council) as well as the role and status of women in social work education. For this historical analysis update, the authors drew on several primary and secondary data sources. The first major theme was organizational…
This article uses Melucci's approach to social movements to explore how the women"s movement changed education in British Columbia in the 1970s. The women's movement was a multifaceted social phenomenon with multiple agendas and actors. In the early 1970s, it developed a temporary sense of cohesion in the field of education in the context of a…
Diehl, Amy B.
Despite the fact that women now earn more bachelor's, master's and doctorates than men, a gender gap for women leaders persists in the field of higher education. Women hold only 26 percent of all college and university presidencies with a large variance by type of institution. Women lead 33 percent of associate's level institutions but only 22…
Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn, Ed.
This publication puts together the written contributions of 20 women at an international seminar-workshop on "Promoting the Empowerment of Women through Adult Learning" who shared, reflected, and analyzed the different types of educational opportunities for women provided to women. The presentations are as follows: "Designing the Model: A Process…
Crim, Roger D.
Attitudes about the role of women in higher education were examined in this research study that surveyed (1) opinions and attitudes of selected faculty men toward faculty women, and (2) opinions and attitudes of selected faculty women toward other faculty women. The population surveyed was all full-time faculty of the institutions of higher…
This article will examine Asian women's experiences of financial support in higher education. The article is based on 30 in-depth interviews with Asian women who were studying at a "new" (post-1992) university in the South East of England. Women identified themselves as Muslim, Hindu and Sikh. The findings reveal that women's religious…
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).
Female illiteracy and the overall educational status of women in Islamic societies are the two main themes of this collection of conference papers. The papers include: THe Eradication of Female Illiteracy in Kirghizia: the Historical Situation (1920-1930) (I. S. Boldzhurova); Women's Education in Kirghiszstan (R. Achylova); Literacy and Education…
Flamez, E.; Vanobbergen, B.
This research explores political-educational debates regarding the concept of women's emancipation in women and family programmes on Belgian television between 1954 and 1975. From the very beginning, the women's episodes were regarded as explicitly educational. The episodes were created to increase women's participation by means of their…
Smith, Margaret A.; Berger, Joseph B.
The purpose of this study was to explore college women's high-risk alcohol use and related consequences. This study employed a qualitative approach to understand and provide visibility for a gender-related perspective on college women's alcohol experiences and related outcomes. Data were collected from interviews with 10 undergraduate females at a…
Reviews "Women Educators--Employees of Schools in Western Countries" edited by Patricia A. Schmuck, a collection of 12 chapters by separate authors from various western countries that discuss women's employment in schools. (TE)
This paper discusses barriers to the participation of women with disabilities in Kenyan university education. While studies have shown that students with disabilities are increasingly enrolling in and completing university education, the number of women with disabilities in higher education remains low. This paper highlights the factors that…
Hammad, Tehmina; Singal, Nidhi
This paper examines the extent to which the capability approach captures the complexity of the lives of young women with disabilities in Pakistan, particularly in relation to their education. Focusing on their educational experiences and outcomes, we examine the ways in which education shaped what these young women were able to achieve--what they…
Gilmartin, Kevin J.
This paper reports on the educational status of women and ethnic minorities. The first part of the paper presents a literature review containing overviews of the past and present status of women and minorities in education and briefly discusses the concept of equality of educational opportunity. The second part of the paper, which comprises the…
This paper explores the way that opportunity of access to higher education, particularly for women of color and those disadvantaged by homelessness, is placed at risk by market approaches to education. In England, Asian and Afro-Caribbean women, have been able to access higher education through funds made available under the Race Relations Act of…
Examines the experiences of 12 working class women attending an Access course at an inner city further education college. Risks and costs involved in transitioning to higher education were evident in the women's narratives. Material and cultural factors inhibited their access to higher education. The desire to "give something back" motivated…
National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.
These conference papers address the issues of educational and occupational equality for women and identify factors contributing to the underrepresentation of minority women in education and work. The conferences, sponsored by the National Institute of Education (NIE), were held between 1975 and 1978 to solicit the views of black,…
Sifuna, Daniel N.
The paper provides a comprehensive review of the major obstacles that hinder the participation of girls and women in higher education in Kenya. This is on the basis that their low participation in this level of education is a key constraint to the development of the country. While it is reckoned that girls' and women's education is inextricably…
Barry, Kate R.
The purpose of this study is to critically explore low-income women's experience as they negotiate post secondary education in community colleges. Three research questions explore the context through which low-income women have entered the college experience, what that experience is like for them, and how the community college experience has…
This qualitative case study attempts to conceptualize certain "patterns" and "processes" of which 28 mature women undergraduates give meanings to their motivation for higher education in their life contexts. Particular attention has been paid to include diverse groups of women according to their age, prior educational…
Taylor, Kay Ann; Fernandez-Bergersen, Sandra Luz
This qualitative case study examined 5 Mexican American women's experiences at the intersection of race and gender in public high school. Critical race theory provided the analysis and interpretation. The significant findings of this research included the following: (a) Racism is endemic and pervasive in public education; (b) many educational…
Curry, Linda C; Hogstel, Mildred O; Davis, Gail C; Frable, Pamela J
With an increased focus on wellness and health promotion, there is a need for community-based strategies to complement traditional strategies aimed at improving individual and aggregate health. An educational program on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis was provided for 188 women age 60 and older in three different community settings: churches, retirement homes, and senior citizen centers. The major purposes of the study were to determine whether a community-based program might (a) contribute to older women's knowledge about osteoporosis and (b) promote their intent to use this knowledge. Each participant completed a demographic profile, the Osteoporosis Risk Checklist, and the Osteoporosis Knowledge Questionnaire (OKQ), with the OKQ serving as a pre- and post-test. Before post-testing, a 30-min educational program was provided. Differences among the three groups were risk factors, prior knowledge about osteoporosis, and knowledge at the completion of the program. A majority of the clients indicated an intent to increase calcium in their diet, discuss osteoporosis with their health care provider, check their home environment for safety/falls, and discuss what they had learned with others. Nurses need to plan educational programs in all settings to teach older clients about the risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:12406180
Gondek, Matthew; Shogan, May; Saad-Harfouche, Frances G; Rodriguez, Elisa M; Erwin, Deborah O; Griswold, Kim; Mahoney, Martin C
This project assessed the impact of a community-based educational program on breast cancer knowledge and screening among Buffalo (NY) immigrant and refugee females. Program participants completed language-matched pre- and post-test assessments during a single session educational program; breast cancer screening information was obtained from the mobile mammography unit to which participants were referred. Pre- and post-test knowledge scores were compared to assess changes in responses to each of the six individual knowledge items, as well as overall. Mammogram records were reviewed to identify Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) scores. The proportion of correct responses to each of the six knowledge items increased significantly on the post-program assessments; 33 % of women >40 years old completed mammograms. The findings suggest that a health education program for immigrant and refugee women, delivered in community-based settings and involving interpreters, can enhance breast cancer knowledge and lead to improvements in mammography completion. PMID:25385693
Gondek, Matthew; Shogan, May; Saad-Harfouche, Frances G.; Rodriguez, Elisa M.; Erwin, Deborah O.; Griswold, Kim; Mahoney, Martin C.
This project assessed the impact of a community-based educational program on breast cancer knowledge and screening among Buffalo (NY) immigrant and refugee females. Program participants completed language-matched pre- and post-test assessments during a single session educational program; breast cancer screening information was obtained from the mobile mammography unit to which participants were referred. Pre- and post-test knowledge scores were compared to assess changes in responses to each of the six individual knowledge items, as well as overall. Mammogram records were reviewed to identify Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) scores. The proportion of correct responses to each of the six knowledge items increased significantly on the post-program assessments; 33 % of women >40 years old completed mammograms. The findings suggest that a health education program for immigrant and refugee women, delivered in community-based settings and involving interpreters, can enhance breast cancer knowledge and lead to improvements in mammography completion. PMID:25385693
Objective Family violence, specifically domestic violence, has been identified by the medical community as a serious, no remitting epidemic with adverse health consequences. World Health Organization(WHO) has stated that violence against women is a priority issue in the fields of health and human rights. A quasi experimental study were conducted in different faculties of Tehran University of Medical Sciences to determine the effect of teaching on prevention of domestic violence against female employees. Methods Forty four women working in various faculties of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2004 were selected. A designed questionnaire was given to the participants to identify kinds, causes and consequences of domestic violence. Then an educational booklet was given to subjects. This booklet contained information about kinds, causes and consequences of domestic violence and how to manage them. To compare the impact of teaching, the same questionnaires were distributed among the subjects after six months. The questionnaire was specifically tested for content validity. Results The results indicated that the incidence rate of domestic violence pre test and post test education was 5.17%. Conclusion Our study showed that education had no effect on domestic violence. Solving problems relating to domestic violence due to cardinal roots in short time seems to be impossible and impracticable. PMID:22952527
The discussion about the study of medicine for women rose in high waves in Germany in the middle of the eighties of the last century. A lecture on this topic held by the anatomist Waldeyer in 1888 was typical for the reservations of the majority of the German professors. It led to a polemics by means of which a convinced suffragatte tried to refute those prejudices which had to be overcome before beginning with 1908 the way to the Prussian universities was judicially made free for the German women. PMID:2683428
Foster, Elaine; Appleby, Karen M.
In general, physical activity subsides for females after high school. Researchers have found that women experience unique barriers to remaining physically active during their college years. Obstacles such as social anxiety, lack of social support, and life balance have been cited as challenges for women in relation to maintaining consistent…
Cortland-Madison Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Cortland, NY.
The last in a series of nine career education guides contains seven unit plans for grades 9-12. In general each unit presents goals, objectives, measuring devices, activities, instructional materials or resources, careers appropriate to the unit, a multimedia bibliography, and a unit evaluation form for teachers. Part one is a social studies unit…
Cortland-Madison Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Cortland, NY.
The eighth in a series of nine career education guides contains six unit plans for grades 7-9. In general each unit presents goals, objectives, measuring devices, activities, instructional materials or resources, careers appropriate to the unit, a multimedia bibliography, and a unit evaluation form for teachers. Part one is a science unit which…
Powe, Barbara D; Daniels, Elvan C; Finnie, Ramona; Thompson, Angela
Despite the availability of factual information about breast cancer, there continues to be an abundance of misperceptions about the disease. This study, guided by the Patient/Provider/System Model for cancer screening, describes perceptions about breast cancer among African American women (N = 179) at primary care centers. Data were collected using the Breast Cancer Perceptions and Knowledge Survey and a demographic questionnaire. Breast cancer pamphlets available at the centers were evaluated (readability, extent they challenged misperceptions). The average age of the women was 34 years with an average educational level of 12 years. A number of misperceptions were prevalent. The majority viewed breast self-examination as a form of early detection and some viewed pain as an indicator of cancer. Pamphlets did not explicitly challenge the misperceptions and the SMOG reading level was high. Intervention studies are needed to identify the effective methods to challenge and correct misperceptions about breast cancer for these women. PMID:15653249
Peterat, Linda, Ed.
The papers in this publication are the result of a symposium assessing the role of home economics in women's education. In her paper entitled "The Human Sciences and Home Economics: An Emerging Conversation," Francine H. Hultgren questions the possibilities for home economics within the human sciences. "Hestian Hermeneutics: A Lens of Analysis for…
Reed, Michael J; Corry, Ann Marie; Liu, Ying W
The purpose of this study was to analyze data collected by the American Dental Association and the American Dental Education Association over the past two decades relating to changes in the number of women active in dental education and dental practice. The concept of a pipeline of women in dentistry was explored by analyzing predoctoral, postdoctoral, dental practice, and dental education domains for the inclusion of women. Statistical analyses show that there has been a consistent and progressive increase in the number of women in all stages of the pipeline. Over the past two decades, the number of female students attending and graduating from dental school has steadily increased. In 1984-85, 23.7 percent of all predoctoral students were women; in 2009-10, 45.1 percent were women. Similarly, in 1999, the graduating class was 35.3 percent women; in 2009, it was 46.1 percent women. In the postdoctoral domain, in 1996, 29.9 percent of all residents were women; in 2010, this had increased to 39.0 percent. In dental practice, the number of actively licensed women dentists in 1999 was 15.3 percent of the workforce; in 2010, this percentage had grown to 24.0 percent. In dental education, the number of women clinical faculty members has gradually increased from 669 in 1997-98 to 902 in 2007-08. Until 2000, there had been only two women deans and very few associate/assistant deans, with only sixteen in 1990. In 2000, major changes began with three women deans and seventy-two women associate/assistant deans. In 2009-10, there were 111 associate/assistant women deans and twelve women deans. These data show a progressive increase in the presence of women in all domains of dentistry, especially in leadership positions in dental education. PMID:23144477
Using data on applicants to an Israeli university, researchers examined whether high school course-taking patterns affected gender segregation in higher education. Women were underrepresented among applicants to mathematics-related studies. Mathematical background in high school effectively narrowed the gender gap in applying to selective and…
Focuses on the history of women's education in western India during the nineteenth century addressing the issues of home education versus school education, gender construction and the school curriculum, and nationalism and women's education. Discusses a woman's position as a point of conflict between the patriarchal family structure and women's…
Jones, Robert, Ed.; Koestler, Frances A., Ed.
Nine articles focus on the special educational and vocational needs of blind and visually impaired adult women. Articles touch on personal experiences in overcoming stereotypes, educational resources for job preparation, employment projections, and attitudinal barriers. (CL)
Kelly, J A; Murphy, D A; Washington, C D; Wilson, T S; Koob, J J; Davis, D R; Ledezma, G; Davantes, B
OBJECTIVE. This study reports the results of a behavior change intervention offered to women at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection seen in an urban primary health care clinic. METHODS. Participants were 197 women randomly assigned to either an HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk reduction group or a comparison group. Women in the HIV/AIDS intervention group attended five group sessions focusing on risk education; skills training in condom use, sexual assertiveness, problem solving, and risk trigger self-management; and peer support for change efforts. Women in the comparison group attended sessions on health topics unrelated to AIDS. RESULTS. At the 3-month follow-up, women in the HIV/AIDS intervention group had increased in sexual communication and negotiation skills. Unprotected sexual intercourse had declined significantly and condom use had increased from 26% to 56% of all intercourse occasions. Women in the comparison group showed no change. CONCLUSIONS. Socially disadvantaged women can be assisted in reducing their risk of contracting HIV infection. Risk reduction behavior change interventions should be offered routinely in primary health care clinics serving low-income and high-risk patients. PMID:7998630
In all societies, there is a new interest in the education of women, their role in society, and their place in the economy. Western societies have moved away from single-sex education in the past few decades, but recent research and experience has begun to highlight again the value of single-sex colleges and schools. Changes in working patterns…
Demographic changes among the Hispanic population across the United States depict evidence that there is a need across all segments of higher education to develop a diverse pool of administrative leaders that are representative of the rapidly changing population. This study aims to understand Latina women in higher education, their career paths to…
Chen, Hsiang-Feng; Cropsey, Karen L.; Clarke, Jennifer G.; Kelly, Patricia J.
Abstract Background: We examined factors associated with women's use of highly effective birth control before and after incarceration, since women with ongoing criminal justice involvement bear a disproportionate burden of sexual and reproductive health problems, including high rates of unintended pregnancy and inconsistent contraceptive use. Methods: Using a longitudinal study design, we conducted surveys with 102 women in an urban midwestern jail and then followed up with 66 of them 6 months after incarceration. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess individual, interpersonal, resource-based, organizational, and environmental factors associated with utilizing highly effective birth control. Results: Forty-two percent of women reported utilizing highly effective birth control (e.g., sterilization or other highly effective reversible methods) prior to incarceration, and 54% reported using these methods after release from jail (p<0.001). Ninety percent of women reported not wanting to get pregnant. Consistent use of birth control (p=0.001) and alcohol problems (p=0.027) were associated with utilization of highly effective birth control prior to incarceration. Previous pregnancies (p=0.012) were the only factor associated with utilization of highly effective birth control after release from jail. Conclusions: Clinicians and public health practitioners can use findings from this study to develop clinical and intervention efforts aimed at improving unintended-pregnancy prevention among incarcerated women both during their confinement and during the tumultuous period after their release from jail. PMID:25555175
Yeoh, Ping Ling; Hornetz, Klaus; Dahlui, Maznah
Background The purpose of antenatal care is to monitor and improve the wellbeing of the mother and foetus. The World Health Organization recommends risk-oriented strategy that includes: (i) routine care to all women, (ii) additional care for women with moderately severe diseases and complications, (iii) specialised obstetrical and neonatal care for women with severe diseases and complications. Antenatal care is concerned with adequate care in order to be effective. Measurement for adequacy of antenatal care often applies indexes that assess initiation of care and number of visits. In addition, adequacy of care content should also be assessed. Results of studies in developed settings demonstrate that women without risk factors use antenatal services more frequently than recommended. Such over-utilisation is problematic for low-resourced settings. Moreover, studies show that a substantial proportion of high-risk women had utilisation or content of care below the recommended standard. Yet studies in developing countries have seldom included a comparison between low-risk and high-risk women. The purpose of the study was therefore to assess adequacy of care and pregnancy outcomes for the different risk groups. Methods A retrospective study using a multistage sampling technique, at public-funded primary health care clinics was conducted. Antenatal utilisation level was assessed using a modified Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilisation index that measures the timing for initiation of care and observed-to-expected visits ratio. Adequacy of antenatal care content assessed compliance to routine care based on the local guidelines. Results Intensive or “adequate-plus” antenatal care utilisation as defined by the modified index was noted in over half of the low-risk women. On the other hand, there were 26% of the high-risk women without the expected intensive utilisation. Primary- or non-educated high-risk women were less likely to have a higher antenatal care utilisation
Danger and pleasure are terms commonly employed to describe women's sexual experiences, including those of young women. This paper explores how young women's sexual danger and pleasure are represented and characterized in official discourses, specifically those of school-based sexuality education. Drawing on Michelle Fine's four major discourses…
Farrant, Patricia A., Ed.
Approaches to help women in educational administation be successful in their professional and personal lives are considered in this collection of 30 articles. Among the titles and authors are: "The Society of Outsiders: Women in Administration" (Marian Swoboda, Jane Vanderbosch); "Upward Mobility for Women Administrators" (Adrian Tinsley); "Do…
Kennedy, Kathryn; Liu, Feng; Dawson, Kara; Cavanaugh, Cathy
Professional qualifications for men and women are equivalent across disciplines, however, women tend to be underrepresented in technology-related fields. The purpose of this study is to analyze the content of seven journals published by the Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE) to explore women's publications in…
Lowe, Mary E.
One of the prevailing notions within American culture is the idea that women are prevalent in leadership positions. The reality, however, is that while women are slightly more than 50% of the population, they are underrepresented in leadership. Fewer than 10% of chief executive officers in theological education are women. Traditional roles in…
Robbins, Lillian; Robbins, Edwin
Since World War II, American women have gained much greater access to higher education, with women now 56% of undergraduates, and approximately half of medical and law school students, as well as attaining 49% of PhD's. Despite their greater representation, women pursuing professional careers still experience considerable stress. At the…
In global terms, the position of women in New Zealand society is relatively strong and at one stage in the early 2000s many senior roles were occupied by women. Equality of opportunity for women in leadership in science and the community has been a focus of attention in New Zealand in government, education, and the sciences for at least two…
The purpose of this article is to illustrate a number of the deficiencies that currently exist in our understanding of women's participation in prison education, and to offer alternative methods to reduce such deficiencies. Through a review of empirical studies that examine the conditions of women's prisons and two trend studies examining women's…
To obtain more information about the characteristics, work patterns, and career paths of women in middle management roles, this study collected structured interview data from 45 managerial women in business and education. During summer 1987, each student in the Women and Careers class at Texas Woman's University interviewed two female managers,…
Tibbitts, Felisa L.
This article presents evidence of the links between human rights education and social change by analyzing the long-term effects on 88 trainers engaged in a non-formal adult training program sponsored by a women's human rights group in Turkey, Women for Women's Human Rights--New Ways. In this article, I show the transformative impacts of carrying…
Equity topics that need special attention from higher education researchers are discussed. It is argued that focusing on the increased numbers of women students, faculty, and administrators may disguise more complex issues. It is advocated that when researchers propose to study "women," they should identify which women are being examined. When…
Takayanagi, Taeko; Shimomura, Takayuki
This paper addresses the life and educational experiences of Ainu women, using the framework of postcolonial feminist theory. It explores the extent to which two factors--gender and ethnic minority status--affect young Ainu women as they attempt to enter mainstream society. The authors analyse life history interviews from three Ainu women aged 25.…
Tran, Natalie A.
While numerous scholars have investigated the role of mentoring in the success of women of color in faculty positions, few have examined how mentoring affects the development of women leaders of color in higher education. Using qualitative data gathered from interviews with women leaders of color at Hispanic-serving institution, this study…
Thomas, Kirk R.; Parker, L. Allen
This case description portrays the educational programs of the National Association of Bank Women designed to meet the special needs of women seeking advancement or career changes in the banking industry. After sketching several shorter programs, the case elaborates upon the collaborative Baccalaureate Degree Program in Management for Women, which…
Women in general have made vast progress in gaining leadership positions in higher education administration; however, women of color, including Asian Americans, Native Americans, and Latinas, continue to lag behind. According to the literature, a number of issues prevent women of color from achieving senior-level positions. A dissertation study by…
Bahkali, Salwa; Almaiman, Ahmad; Bahkali, Ahlam; Almaiman, Sara; Househ, Mowafa; Alsurimi, Khaled
Social media has the potential to improve women's health in developing countries through health education and promotion. In the Arab world, women's health interventions are lacking. However, with a high penetration rate of social media in the Arab world, there is good opportunity to utilize social media platforms such as Twitter to promote women's health. In this paper, we analyze the Tweet feeds of Saudi-based Twitter account to promote women's health. A total of 5167 Tweets were extracted and analyzed retrospectively, using NVivo Ncapture between June 2014 and March 2015. There were a total number of 3449 followers by March 20, 2015. Results showed that a majority of the Twitter followers (61%, n=2104) were seeking gynecological information, followed by pregnancy related information (27%, n=931), breast-feeding advice (9%, n=310), and other health related information (3%, n=103). Results also showed an increased level of health awareness and comprehension among Twitter followers. Further research is needed to promote women's health in Saudi Arabia and the Arab world through social media platforms such as Twitter and similar platforms including Instagram, Facebook, and YouTube which are also popular in the Arab world. PMID:26153009
Casebolt, Kevin M.; Hodge, Samuel R.
The purpose of this study was to analyze high school physical education teachers' beliefs about teaching students with disabilities in inclusive physical education. The participants (3 men, 2 women) were certified physical education teachers at four suburban high schools. The research method was descriptive-qualitative using a case study approach…
Interviews with 10 women who did not continue on to higher education following the successful completion of an access course identified three obstacles: caregiving responsibilities, financial constraints, and lack of career advice. Their experiences suggest that attempts to widen access to higher education must take account of the broader…
Peppin Vaughan, Rosie
By 2000, girls' and women's education was a priority for international development organisations. While studies have examined the impact of recent campaigns and programmes, there has been less exploration of ideas about girls' and women's education within development thought in the immediate post-colonial period, and the political mechanisms…
FISHER, NANETTE HUNT
THIS STUDY, BASED ON THE HYPOTHESIS THAT PREPARATION FOR MARRIAGE IS INADEQUATE IN OUR SOCIETY, INCLUDES A SURVEY OF LITERATURE RELATING TO THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF MODERN WOMEN AND THE PROPER ROLE OF HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION, TOGETHER WITH RESULTS OF A SURVEY OF HUNTER COLLEGE HOME ECONOMICS MAJORS AND OTHER WOMEN REGARDING PROBLEMS IN FAMILY…
In 19th century America, some women decried the opportunity for scholarly education as rebellion against religion and predicted a grim decline in the quality of life, home, and hearth for American families and for American culture and politics. In particular, women who opposed scholarly education argued that God had not created men and women…
This paper highlights the strengths of giving visibility to the concepts of space and time in research related to women's lives and higher education. It is based on research that explores the everyday practice and experience of women higher education students at a community college in the north of England. It focuses on the ways in which space and…
Women in upper-level leadership positions in higher education are underrepresented. This study examined the predominant leadership styles of women who have achieved upper-level leadership positions in higher education explored intentional changes in their leadership styles. Primarily, the study sought to determine if these leaders had similar…
Strachan, Jane; Akao, Shalom; Kilavanwa, Bessie; Warsal, Daisy
This article presents findings from research on women's educational leadership experiences in Melanesia, a least developed part of the world. Specific context research is needed so that theories and strategies developed that help women access educational leadership in developing countries are grounded in grassroots experience. (Contains 4 notes.)
Rasheed, Lisa R.
Within the last twenty years, some educational researchers initiated an emphasis to study the accomplishments and contributions of African-American women in higher education. Although they were marginally recognized, some African-American women forged into uncharted territories by providing examples of administrative leadership in post-secondary…
Hendrick, C. Emily; Cohen, Alison K.; Deardorff, Julianna; Cance, Jessica D.
Background: Lifetime educational attainment is an important predictor of health and well-being for women in the United States. In this study, we examine the roles of sociocultural factors in youth and an understudied biological life event, pubertal timing, in predicting women's lifetime educational attainment. Methods: Using data from the National…
Syomwene, Anne; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga
This paper is a discussion of the relationship between women education and sustainable economic development in Kenya and its implications for curriculum development and implementation processes. The argument advanced in this paper is that the solution to the development problems in Kenya and other developing nations lies on women education.…
The increased participation of women in higher education in India since 1947 has not received the scholarly attention it deserves. Since independence, there have been shifts--dispersal and clustering of women students in various disciplines in higher education. There is a need to understand the processes of decision making regarding schooling,…
El-Halawany, Hanan Salah El-Deen
This research aims to compare the effect of higher education on some Upper Egyptian women's practice of self autonomy at both work and home. The most important revelation this research makes is the fact that although no one can deny the importance and significance of higher education to Upper Egyptian women, yet it failed to challenge the…
Herz, Barbara K., Ed.; Khandker, Shahidur R., Ed.
This report examines ways of improving women's productivity and education and the consequences for development in Peru. The research finds that women account for about 39 percent of family income in Peru. They carry the main responsibility for child care and heavily influence family decisions on children's education and family size. Improving…
Identifies those women mentioned most frequently in general U.S. music education history books and examines the contexts in which the books discussed their work. Surveys individuals interested in music education history to determine name recognition of these women and opinions regarding the importance of their contributions. (MJP)
This article aims to clarify the relationship between education and women's empowerment. Drawing from qualitative data collected in a study of four Garifuna villages on the north coast of Honduras, it argues that education can trigger the empowerment process if it expands women's knowledge and understanding, self-confidence and awareness of gender…
Owens, Otis Holloway; Emplaincourt, Marilyn
Examined were the educational attitudes, experiences, needs, and constraints of a selected sample of women in the Tuscaloosa area who were not enrolled in educational programs during the spring of 1975. A total of 116 women participated in the study and completed a 64-item questionnaire. The majority of the respondents indicated positive attitudes…
Crawford, LouEllen; Sidener, Nancy L.
Research indicates that the education of Philippine women pays off in the economic growth of the country. Previous research which examined women's contribution to national income in six countries indicated that levels of educational attainment and levels of per capita national income were positively or moderately associated in five of the…
Hofmann, Sudie, Comp.
This guide was prepared to aid adult educators in teaching women of minority groups in adult basic education programs. It provides background information about the cultural roles and expectations of these women so that teachers can structure the classroom situation to serve their needs. The first section of the guide contains six essays on the…
Romano, Amy M.
Internet use among pregnant women is common and frequent, while attendance at childbirth education classes appears to be on the decline. This article explores why women turn to the Internet in pregnancy and how Internet use may affect their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. It suggests strategies for engaging women's interest in the Internet and describes how doing so may help increase the effectiveness of “traditional” childbirth education while mitigating the potentially overwhelming and confusing aspects of Internet use. PMID:18769519
Ferszt, Ginette G; Erickson-Owens, Debra A
It is estimated that 6-10% of women are pregnant when they enter the prison system. The majority have had little, if any, prenatal care and/or childbirth education. Given economic constraints, the educational and support needs of this population are often not met. In response to these needs, an educational/support group was developed and led by a social worker, a mental health clinical nurse specialist, and a nurse midwife in a women's correctional facility in the Northeast. Women in various stages of pregnancy and early postpartum voluntarily attended. The need for education and psychosocial support was overwhelming. This group fostered a safe space for women to discuss real-life issues in a supportive environment. Meeting the educational and support needs of incarcerated women is paramount. PMID:18522603
George, R.; Yadla, V.L.; Zohruailiani, M.
Renewable energy cooking technologies (RECTs) like solar cookers, biogas units and improved cookstoves are promoted by Government of India to combat fuel wood scarcity and ensure a cleaner environment. The value of an energy education software (EES) to generate awareness about cooking energy scarcity and to achieve scientific empowerment of potential end users of RECTs, needs no emphasis. An attempt was made to assess the impact of an EES that consisted of flip charts--visuals with minimum text on rural women. The major objective of the research endeavor was to measure the difference in the selected attributes, namely, attitude towards biomass generation and biomass conservation (BG-BC), cooking management practices (CMP) and knowledge level (KL) of rural women due to exposure to EES. A descriptive research design coupled with a before and after experimental design was adopted for the study. A sample of rural women from Nani Sherkhi village were exposed to EES through a series of three training sessions with pre and post sessions for group discussions. Data on the selected attributes were gathered in the pre and post training periods using descriptive rating scales with reliability coefficients of 0.80, 0.81 and 0.74 respectively. The computed t values showed significant differences at 0.01 level in the pre and post exposure mean scores on attitude, cooking management practice and knowledge scale. The t values revealed that the gain in score in each of the attributes due to exposure to EES were significant. Further, utility of EES, policy implications and strategies for popularizing it as an aid to reach sustainable development are also discussed in brief in the paper.
Schniederjan, Stephanie; Donovan, G Kevin
In a survey of junior and senior medical students at the University of Oklahoma, a large majority of respondents reported having performed pelvic exams on anesthetized gynecologic surgery patients. Nearly three-quarters also reported believing that these patients had not specifically consented to undergo exams by students during their surgical procedures. While some students and medical educators maintain that pelvic exams under anesthesia are necessary for the development of students' examination skills, this assertion has not gone unquestioned. Serious ethical concerns have been raised by members of the medical community and women's advocacy groups, and the practice was recently outlawed in one state. Despite this widespread opposition, non-consented pelvic examinations evidently remain a common practice in US teaching hospitals. Our consideration of this controversial issue leads us to conclude that explicit, informed consent must be obtained in order for pelvic examinations to be performed on surgical patients, or risk compromising the doctor-patient relationship. PMID:16206868
Ratnaike, R N; Chinner, T L
This paper presents a Community Health Education System which is cost-effective, sustainable, strongly community-based, and directed at improving the health status of rural women in Indo-china (Kampuchea, Laos and Vietnam). The system is developed through a series of steps which are concerned with the education of Community Health Education Units (in national ministries of health) and, at the village level, among community health workers, women's groups, and other women. The ultimate aim is the establishment of a community health education program in Indochinese villages. PMID:1602046
Lawrence, Wendy; Schlotz, Wolff; Crozier, Sarah; Skinner, Timothy C; Haslam, Cheryl; Robinson, Sian; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Barker, Mary
Our previous work found that perceived control over life was a significant predictor of the quality of diet of women of lower educational attainment. In this paper, we explore the influence on quality of diet of a range of psychological and social factors identified during focus group discussions, and specify the way this differs in women of lower and higher educational attainment. We assessed educational attainment, quality of diet, and psycho-social factors in 378 women attending Sure Start Children's Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. Multiple-group path analysis showed that in women of lower educational attainment, the effect of general self-efficacy on quality of diet was mediated through perceptions of control and through food involvement, but that there were also direct effects of social support for healthy eating and having positive outcome expectancies. There was no effect of self-efficacy, perceived control or outcome expectancies on the quality of diet of women of higher educational attainment, though having more social support and food involvement were associated with improved quality of diet in these women. Our analysis confirms our hypothesis that control-related factors are more important in determining dietary quality in women of lower educational attainment than in women of higher educational attainment. PMID:21078352
Lawrence, Wendy; Schlotz, Wolff; Crozier, Sarah; Skinner, Timothy C; Haslam, Cheryl; Robinson, Sian; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Barker, Mary
Our previous work found that perceived control over life was a significant predictor of the quality of diet of women of lower educational attainment. In this paper, we explore the influence on quality of diet of a range of psychological and social factors identified during focus group discussions, and specify the way this differs in women of lower and higher educational attainment. We assessed educational attainment, quality of diet, and psycho-social factors in 378 women attending Sure Start Children’s Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. Multiple-group path analysis showed that in women of lower educational attainment, the effect of general self-efficacy on quality of diet was mediated through perceptions of control and through food involvement, but that there were also direct effects of social support for healthy eating and having positive outcome expectancies. There was no effect of self-efficacy, perceived control or outcome expectancies on the quality of diet of women of higher educational attainment, though having more social support and food involvement were associated with improved quality of diet in these women. Our analysis confirms our hypothesis that control-related factors are more important in determining dietary quality in women of lower educational attainment than in women of higher educational attainment. PMID:21078352
Despite considerable progress by Middle Eastern and North African countries in improving opportunities for women to access and attain education at all levels, much remains to be done. This report focuses on three sets of highly inter-related determinants of access, achievement, and outcome--macro-level societal determinants, school…
Jones, A M
This article compares nonformal education (NFE) and training options for women among the small island countries of Fiji, Kiribati, Niue, Tonga, Barbados, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent. Data were obtained from 4 groups (the government agency for women, the national women's organization, a nongovernmental organization, and the university extension center) that operated an NFE course during 1992-94. Interviews were conducted among the tutor and 5 women from the selected NFE programs who had attended research workshops. Over 200 women were interviewed. Caribbean country NFE programs included a varied program of instruction that included, for example, self-defense, assertiveness training, and women-in-trade programs. South Pacific training programs included, for example, training of trainers, leadership training, women and traditional medicine, and women in development. Regional papers in preparation for the 1995 Beijing Conference included research findings on NFE, including workshop findings. Facilitators from Niue and Tonga were more satisfied with women's status in their countries than those in Fiji and Kiribati, but women in all 4 countries said things were changing. Women reported benefits from NFE programs such as new information, acquiring new skills, visiting new places, and sharing experiences with other women. In Kiribati and Tonga, women were disappointed in lack of follow-up. Caribbean women were self-aware, but gained insight into their lack of rights and justice. Not all programs empowered women. NFE providers and participants were unable to identify significant outcomes. PMID:12348991
Busby, Linda J.
Drawing on questionnaire responses given by 46 universities offering women's studies programs, on information contained in "Media Report to Women" (a monthly publication for women interested in media), and on a variety of books, films, and periodicals, this report identifies the topics concerned with women and the media that are taught in…
Renn, Kristen A.
Women's colleges and universities persist around the world, even as the vast majority of tertiary institutions are open to men and women. In nearly every nation, women can attend even the most elite formerly all-male universities, and in several nations women are the majority of all college students. Questions therefore arise about the continued…
Nyamathi, A M; Bennett, C; Leake, B
The researchers sought to explore and describe the demographic, cognitive, psychosocial, and behavioral factors associated with the continued risky behavior of a convenience sample of homeless and drug-addicted women two to four weeks after they had completed an AIDS education program. The sample included 942 crack users and 767 women who had multiple sex partners. Analyses revealed that impoverished women who maintained multiple sexual partners were less likely to be in drug recovery programs than in homeless shelters. They were more likely to share needles and be involved sexually with male injection drug users compared with impoverished women who did not maintain multiple sexual partners. Persistent crack users were older than those who reported cessation of crack use, were more often African American, and were more likely to have sex partners who were injecting drug users. Women who demonstrated less improvement in depression and distress scores, concerns, use of affective coping, appraisal of threat, and social support were more likely to maintain crack use and multiple partners. The study's implications for the design of intervention programs aimed at risk reduction based on ethnicity are discussed. PMID:7480615
Gharaibeh, Huda; Haddad, Linda; Alzyoud, Sukaina; El-Shahawy, Omar; Baker, Nesrin Abu; Umlauf, Mary
Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a serious public health threat worldwide; in the developing world there are less serious efforts towards controlling women’s and children’s exposure to SHS. Knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices among Jordanian women have never been thoroughly studied. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and avoidance behavior towards SHS exposure among employed Jordanian women with higher education. Methods A survey was conducted among employed Jordanian women at two universities. A total of 209 women were included in the analysis. Two questionnaires regarding SHS exposure were used to measure knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices. Results Most respondents were regularly exposed to SHS in various locations during daily life, even though they were very knowledgeable about the dangers of SHS exposure for women and children. However, the subject’s attitudes and avoidance behavior did not reflect the level of knowledge about SHS risks. The results suggests there is a large discrepancy between SHS exposure, knowledge, attitudes and avoidance behavior among highly educated Jordanian women that is likely influenced by culture and traditional gender roles. Public health initiatives are needed in Jordan to address public policy, institutional practices and to empowerment of women to reduce SHS exposure. PMID:22163203
Casey, Tommye W.; Stolte, Joanne B.
An annotated bibliography on the participation of minorities and women in education research and development (R&D) leadership and management is presented. Topics are as follows: status of minorities and women in education (R&D); issues related to minorities and women in education leadership and management; variables affecting the participation of…
Wingler, Sylvia Adams
This dissertation focuses on the narratives of four rural art educators of the Foothills of Western North Carolina. These women are the first art educators in this area in public education. They are often viewed as the invisible women in art who support community arts, much like the "invisible women in art history." From the view of the dominant…
"Women constitute the key resource for attaining the goal of health for all by the year 2000," maintains a report by The World Health Organization. Achieving this goal requires massive efforts including (1) the training of women health care professionals; and (2) the nonformal health education of women, the primary health care providers to their families and communities. This paper focuses on the first area, specifically on the education of women nurses in a Third World country, Saudi Arabia, where traditional attitudes persist against intermingling of the genders and the treatment of women by men. It examines the progress and problems encountered in recruiting Saudi women for nursing education and practice; describes the evolution of nursing education programs; and analyzes the obstacles to women's participation in these programs and in the nursing profession. The paper concludes with recommendations to address the problem, increase women's participation, and contribute to that country's health development. The paper is based upon primary and secondary data, including official statistics; personal interviews with Saudi women health professionals and students; the memoirs of a leading Saudi woman nurse and educator, the author's personal observations and experiences with the health care system during four years of residence in Saudi Arabia, and available literature on the subject. PMID:8284700
Concurring with Cunningham's assessment of the need for a counter-hegemonic vision of critical pedagogy in adult education thought and practice, this article theorizes a coalition-engendered education as a specific type of emancipatory pedagogy common in North America. Examining the Boston Women's Health Book Collective's body education as an…
Mak, Grace C. L., Ed.
This book contains original essays that examine the interplay between women's education and development and how they affect women's status in selected nations in Asia. The volume focuses on how women in Asia use opportunities and challenge limits in education, the role of education in their economic participation, and the enhancement and tension…
Tidball, M. Elizabeth; Smith, Daryl G.; Tidball, Charles S.; Wolf-Wendel, Lisa E.
This book looks at why women's colleges continue to produce graduates whose career achievement is significantly higher than that of peers educated in coeducational settings. The book suggests that there is a loss of women's talent in coeducational institutions and that institutional priorities, patterns, and principles at women's colleges offer…
Science is a part of all students' education, PreK-12. Preparing students for a more scientifically and technologically complex world requires the best possible education including the deliberate inclusion and full contributions of all students, especially an underrepresented group: females in science. In the United States, as elsewhere in the world, the participation of girls and women in science education and professional careers in science is limited, particularly in the physical sciences (National Academy of Sciences [NAS], 2006). The goal of this research study is to gain a better understanding of the perspectives and perceptions of girls and women, both science educators and students, related to gender and participation in science at the time of an important course: high school chemistry. There is a rich body of research literature in science education that addresses gender studies post---high school, but less research that recognizes the affective voices of practicing female science teachers and students at the high school level (Bianchini, Cavazos, & Helms, 2000; Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Gilligan, 1982). Similarly, little is known with regard to how female students and teachers navigate their educational, personal, and professional experiences in science, or how they overcome impediments that pose limits on their participation in science, particularly the physical sciences. This exploratory study focuses on capturing voices (Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Gilligan, 1982) of high school chemistry students and teachers from selected urban and suburban learning communities in public schools in the Capital Region of New York State. Through surveys, interviews, and focus groups, this qualitative study explores the intersection of the students' and teachers' experiences with regard to the following questions: (1) How do female chemistry teachers view the role gender has played in their professional and personal lives as they have pursued education, degree status, and
Singh, Kavita; Luseno, Winnie; Haney, Erica
Gender equality and education are being promoted as strategies to combat the HIV epidemic in Africa, but few studies have looked at the role of gender equality and education in the uptake of a vital service - HIV testing. This study looks at the associations between education (a key input needed for gender equality) and key gender equality measures (financial decision making and attitudes toward violence) with ever tested for HIV and tested for HIV in the past year. The study focused on currently married women ages between15-24 and 25-34 in three countries - Kenya, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The data came from the Demographic and Health Surveys. Logistic regression was used to study the role of gender equality and education on the HIV testing outcomes after controlling for both social and biological factors. Results indicated that education had a consistent positive relationship with testing for both age groups, and the associations were always significant for young women aged 15-24 years (p<0.01). The belief that gender-based violence is unacceptable was positively associated with testing for women aged 25-34 in all the three countries, although the associations were only significant in Kenya (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.58, p<0.00; among women reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.34, p<0.05) and Zambia (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.24, p<0.10; among women reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.29, p<0.05). High financial decision making was associated with testing for women aged 25-34 in Zimbabwe only (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.66, p<0.01). Overall, the findings indicate that the education and the promotion of gender equality are important strategies for increasing uptake of a vital HIV service, and thus are important tools for protecting girls and young women against HIV. PMID:23438082
Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.
This collection of nutrition lessons has been produced so that junior high school teachers of various subject areas may offer an occasional lesson on a nutrition topic. The objectives of each nutrition lesson are consistent with concepts which the Nutrition Education and Training Program in Illinois has identified as the most important nutrition…
New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.
This experimental course of study for high school students was designed to prepare teenage consumers to understand the choice of products and services offered in the marketplace and to make their choices wisely. Billions of dollars annually are spent by teenagers on merchandise and services. The need for a course in consumer education is so…
Nguyen, Thi Huong; Oosterhoff, Pauline; White, Joanna
Stereotypical portrayals of the Hmong in Vietnam emphasize their apparently exotic customs related to sexual relationships and marriage and their alleged backwardness and resistance to change. Yet their history shows their ability to respond to changing socioeconomic contexts. This study details practices and aspirations concerning love, marriage and education among different generations of White Hmong women in the northern mountains of Vietnam, with particular attention to the perspectives of young women. We found a diversity of ideas and identified certain rapidly changing practices regarding marriage. Forced marriage through 'wife-snatching' was reported to have always been rare and its meaning and prevalence has seemingly been misunderstood by outsiders. Bride price payment was reported to be an important element of most Hmong marriages. Hmong girls studying at high school and secondary level were found to have particular aspirations pertaining to their marriage, education and career, but lacked confidence in their abilities to create their desired future. Findings also reveal how patrilocal residence following marriage places young women under the strict control of their husbands and parents-in-law, which is likely to contribute to their lack of self-esteem and sense of autonomy. PMID:22066896
Wobie, K; Eyler, F D; Behnke, M; Conlon, M
Pregnant women using rural health departments for prenatal care often experience chronic stressors (minority status, poor education, low income, young age, and single parenting of young children) that contribute to depression. Yet these same women may be reluctant to express their feelings. Because depression has been related to negative patterns of motherchild interaction and even newborn irritability, it is important to identify symptoms in high-risk mothers. For years, symbolic methods of expression have been used to reveal psychological traits or to identify clinical diagnoses, but few have been used to evaluate pregnant women. Women attending a rural health department were administered a comprehensive health and psychosocial questionnaire, including the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). They were then asked to complete a drawing expressing their feelings regarding their pregnancy. The relationship between CES-D scores and drawing ratings determined by two different methods of interpretation (expert, non-expert) was then examined. Non-expert art analysis was able to distinguish those women with the highest scores on the depression index, while expert analysis was able to discern racial differences consistent with risk status. Suggestions for the use of this drawing measure in the clinical setting are discussed. Alternative (non-verbal) methods of assessment that may improve communication with pregnant women are important for optimizing maternal and infant health and well-being and child development. PMID:9379164
Seven, Memnun; Akyüz, Aygül; Robertson, Lyn B
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the three methods of education-individual, individual with an educational brochure for spouses, and group-on participation on breast cancer screening in Turkey. A total of 550 home visits were made and 446 women were interviewed to accrue 327 women for the study, 26.7% of whom reported receiving a screening mammogram within the past 2 years. Participants were divided into one of the three educational groups, and following the educational session, they were invited to attend a breast cancer screening program. The results indicated that the decision to have a screening mammogram was influenced by the method of education and the knowledge score. Women, who were educated, within a group scored the highest. These results demonstrate that group education is an effective method of increasing breast cancer knowledge and screening awareness. PMID:25077769
Eshiwani, George S.
Results of a study of women's access to higher education in Kenya, especially in the areas of science and mathematics, are presented. Forty secondary school teachers completed a questionnaire, and women students studying science and science-based subjects were interviewed. Enrollment at the elementary, secondary, and college levels and the…
Mertz, Norma T., Ed.
These are the inspiring and illuminating stories of women professors who first broke into the exclusive, all-male academic club of educational administration. Women of this pioneering generation tell how they overcame daunting challenges, traumas, the naivete of others, sexual harassment, and retaliation, as well as how they encountered unexpected…
Ghose, Malini; Mullick, Disha
This paper is based on the findings of a research study which traced 56 rural women learners 15 years after they had participated in an empowerment and education programme in North India. It attempts to understand, from the perspectives of women from marginalised communities, the ways in which participating in the programme had been empowering for them, or not. While most of the women were indeed able to transform several areas in their lives, this study illustrates that empowering outcomes cannot be assumed or articulated in categorical terms and that bringing about change requires the negotiation of power at various levels. The women's narratives stand in contrast to the prevalent discourses around women's literacy and empowerment, which highlight the importance of literacy only in terms of its positive impact on attaining development goals. Despite the vigorously discussed de-politicisation of the concept of empowerment, the authors show in this paper that empowerment, when informed by a critical feminist understanding, continues to provide a useful framework to analyse women's experiences related to education, as a process enabling women to understand and negotiate structures of power - which are neither static nor wholly dominating - and to find spaces to exercise agency. There are few longitudinal studies which trace the long-term impact of educational programmes on adult women, and most studies are in the nature of impact assessments of programmes. Through this paper the authors argue for the need to analyse the complexities around the relationship between women's education and empowerment.
This paper examined the degree of socioeconomic empowerment of Asian women due to higher education (HE). Examples illustrate different cultural contexts and stages in development. Colonial administrations established the first modern educational institutions. These schools trained Western-oriented elites in Western and gender values. Uneven development led to increased socioeconomic differences and disparities by region, ethnicity, religion, and gender. The international focus on women's rights has helped with promotion of education for gender equity. But, the international economic climate has led to adverse outcomes for education. Educational mobility is restricted by exclusion or lack of access to HE. Most of the 15 countries with strong educational systems have minimal gender disparities in primary and secondary education, but even Japan has gender disparities in HE. In 9 South Asian countries, most girls are disadvantaged from birth through the school years. Women are not a homogenous group. Socioeconomic factors affect access to HE. Women are channeled into gender appropriate jobs. Gender division of labor and gender tracking in education limit course and occupational choices. Changes in labor market structures further affect the economic empowerment of female graduates. Demand for female labor migrants siphons off females. Access of women to positions of authority is limited. Women who do reach the top are viewed as role models. Gender based division of labor in the household has changed little. Only India and the Philippines have explicit, conscious policies to promote gender equity. PMID:12348990
Ghimire, Dirgha J; Axinn, William G; Smith-Greenaway, Emily
This paper investigates the association between mass education and married women's experience with domestic violence in rural Nepal. Previous research on domestic violence in South Asian societies emphasizes patriarchal ideology and the widespread subordinate status of women within their communities and families. The recent spread of mass education is likely to shift these gendered dynamics, thereby lowering women's likelihood of experiencing domestic violence. Using data from 1775 currently married women from the Chitwan Valley Family Study in Nepal, we provide a thorough analysis of how the spread of mass education is associated with domestic violence among married women. The results show that women's childhood access to school, their parents' schooling, their own schooling, and their husbands' schooling are each associated with their lower likelihood of experiencing domestic violence. Indeed, husbands' education has a particularly strong, inverse association with women's likelihood of experiencing domestic violence. These associations suggest that the proliferation of mass education will lead to a marked decline in women's experience with domestic violence in Nepal. PMID:26463551
Women's Education: The Contending Discourses and Possibilities for Change. Promoting the Empowerment of Women. A Series of 29 Booklets Documenting Workshops Held at the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education (Hamburg, Germany, July 14-18, 1997).
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. for Education.
This booklet reflects issues raised at a workshop on women's education and empowerment held at the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education. It focuses on promoting empowerment for women in educational contexts ranging from formal education systems to literacy and poverty alleviation programs. Section 1 discusses two perspectives on…
Al-Faris, Nora A.
Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50–74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements. PMID:26861386
Al-Faris, Nora A
Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50-74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements. PMID:26861386
Hart, Jennifer L.
This study examined the response of higher education to the increased presence of women in the academy through an investigation of academic literature. A feminist framework was used to guide the analysis, which focused on 5 years of three leading journals in higher education: (1) "The Review of Higher Education" (RHE); (2) "The Journal of Higher…
Wilson, Susan E.
The study's purpose was to gain information regarding the status of women in the field of adult education. Questionnaires were mailed to a randomly selected sample of 1,312 members of the Adult Education Association (AEA) to determine general member characteristics and male/female differences in income, educational levels and aspirations,…
Sedlak, Robert A.; Sedlak, Denise M.
Issues (1976-80) of five popular women-oriented magazines were examined to determine special education content. Good Housekeeping had the highest content of special education material. Physical and sensory impairments were the exceptions most written about. The potential of popular magazines in providing special education information is stressed.…
Central in the analyses of women's and gender studies within the history of education has been Rousseau's (Emil oder Uber die Erziehung, 12th edn. Ferdinand Schoningh, Paderborn 1762) educational novel Emile, especially Book 5, which deals with the education of Sophie, Emilie's future spouse. Given the lasting interest in the person of Rousseau…
Smith, Cristine A.; Stone, Rebecca Paulson; Kahando, Sarah
Delaying girls' early marriage is a critical public health and education goal in developing countries, in which their own or their mothers' education may play an important role. This paper reviews the existing evidence of any relationship between girls' schooling or women's literacy education and delayed marriage for themselves or their daughters.…
Porter, Shirley Anne
This literature review will trace the recent history of the globalisation of human rights with reference to education, particularly for girls and women, but also looking more broadly to include education for boys and men. The main paradigms--traditional, neo-liberalism and philanthrocapitalism--for providing education in developing countries will…
Crocco, Margaret Smith, Ed.; Davis, O. L., Jr., Ed.
This book examines the lives and work of women who forged a distinctive tradition of social education from the late 19th century to the late 20th century, one that offered an alternative set of ideas about its means and ends to those propounded by mainstream educational theorists. In the book, the term "social education" is used to suggest that…
Vaughan, Rosie Peppin
This article explores the dynamics of global campaigns for education through a study of the movement for girls' and women's education in India since independence in 1947. In particular, it uses the trajectory of ideas within India to theorise about international collaboration on educational goals, with UNESCO and the World Bank being two of the…
Gouthro, Patricia A.
This paper examines a qualitative research study which examines the experiences of ten Jamaican and Canadian women engaged in learning via distance in a graduate adult education program. Using a critical feminist perspective, three power issues emerged as topics for discussion that are important for distance educators in higher education to take…
Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.
The proceedings of this roundtable discuss the current status of Florida women in educational leadership and ways to expand their opportunities for advancement. The report begins with an introduction and opening remarks by Florida's Assistant Commissioner of Education, Laurey T. Stryker and Florida Commissioner of Education, Betty Castor. A…
Lindsey, Tonya D.; Buttice, Matthew K.
Primary, secondary, and higher education organizations are tasked with, among other things, preparing people for careers. Until the later decades of the 20th century women were often openly discouraged from the study of certain subjects (e.g., science, mathematics) and from obtaining higher degrees. Policies enacted during this time period sought…
Outdoor adventure is stereotyped as a White, male activity. Women who participate are going against the stereotype of outdoor activities as a male domain, but women of color additionally confront the domain of race. Constraints on women generally include socialization into an ethic of care, concern for physical and psychological safety, and lack…
Rieder, Corinne H.
Occupational segregation by sex caused by covert discrimination, often unintentional, effectively limits the careers pursued by both men and women. Data indicate that despite the gains in the number of employed women, job segregation patterns that confine women to the traditional female occupations persist and worsen along with the resultant low…
Freeborn, Donna; Mandleco, Barbara
The purpose of this study was to examine the childhood experiences of women with cerebral palsy (CP), from the perspectives of these women. Using the feminist biographical method, eight women with CP participated in two in-depth interviews. Participants ranged in age from 22 to 55 years and had moderate to severe athetoid or spastic CP. Four…
Scarbrough, Jacquelin W.
Little research has been directed at the psychological development of poor women. So as to better understand this group, the results of a qualitative study of 20 white, semi-rural women receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children (welfare) are reported in this paper. All of the women were completing a two-year college degree. Their process…
The Labor Force 2008 projections reflected that the rate of growth for women in the labor force will increase at a faster rate than that of men (Fullerton, 1999). In 2008, the majority of employed women (39 percent) worked in management, professional, and related occupations (U.S. Department of Labor, 2008). Although women's participation in the…
McCall, M. A.; Sorbie, J.
OBJECTIVE: To identify which women's health issues are taught in the 2-year core curriculum of Canadian family medicine residency programs and whether educators think their current teaching of women's health is adequate. DESIGN: Mailed survey using a questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS: All program and unit directors of the 16 Canadian family medicine residency training programs were surveyed. Replies were received from 63% (10 of 16) of program directors and 79% (55 of 70) of unit directors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Percentage of programs teaching specific women's health topics from a list of 21 possible topics; percentage offering educational opportunities with sexual assault teams and women's shelters; participants' assessment of the adequacy of current teaching in each training program; plans to increase women's health education. RESULTS: Topics such as violence against women and medical conditions more common among women were taught in more than 80% of programs, but poverty and the health care concerns of Native and immigrant women were included in fewer than 40% of programs. Half of the program directors indicated that residents were given educational opportunities with sexual assault teams or women's shelters. Unit directors gave a lower estimate. Most (90%) program directors thought their current teaching of women's health issues was inadequate and had plans to increase it, as did 64% of unit directors. CONCLUSION: Violence against women and the traditional medical topics of osteoporosis, weight disorders, and reproductive and breast cancer are frequently taught in family medicine training programs. However, the social and cultural aspects of health are addressed less often. It is encouraging that many family medicine programs plan to increase their teaching of women's health. PMID:8038635
Perry, Natasha; Newman, Louise K; Hunter, Mick; Dunlop, Adrian
Antenatal substance use and related psychosocial risk factors are known to increase the likelihood of child protection involvement; less is known about the predictive nature of maternal reflective functioning (RF) in this population. This preliminary study assessed psychosocial and psychological risk factors for a group of substance dependent women exposed to high risks in pregnancy, and their impact on child protection involvement. Pregnant women on opiate substitution treatment (n = 11) and a comparison group (n = 15) were recruited during their third trimester to complete measures of RF (Pregnancy Interview), childhood trauma, mental health and psychosocial assessments. At postnatal follow-up, RF was reassessed (Parent Development Interview - Revised Short Version) and mother-infant dyads were videotaped to assess emotional availability (EA). Child protection services were contacted to determine if any concerns had been raised for infant safety. Significant between-group differences were observed for demographics, psychosocial factors, trauma and mental health symptoms. Unexpectedly, no significant differences were found for RF or EA between groups. Eight women in the 'exposed to high risks' group became involved with child protection services. Reflective functioning was not significantly associated with psychosocial risk factors, and therefore did not mediate the outcome of child protection involvement. Women 'exposed to high risks' were equally able to generate a model of their own and their infants' mental states and should not be seen within a deficit perspective. Further research is required to better understand the range of risk factors that predict child protection involvement in high risk groups. PMID:23982989
Ghose, Malini; Mullick, Disha
This paper is based on the findings of a research study which traced 56 rural women learners 15 years after they had participated in an empowerment and education programme in North India. It attempts to understand, from the perspectives of women from marginalised communities, the ways in which participating in the programme had been empowering for…
This article examines the work of two Quaker women, Priscilla Wakefield (1750-1832) and Maria Hack (1777-1844) as popularizers of science and in the context of the development of scientific literacy. Both women were writers who specialized in scientific educational texts for children and young adults. As Quakers their community and culture played…
Walton, Karen Doyle, Ed.
Women describe their personal journeys to top positions of leadership in higher education in the 20 essays collected in this book. Ten American and 10 British college and university heads tell their unique stories about passing through the "glass ceiling" that limits the career leadership opportunities for women in academe. Essays include: "Good…
Middle managers in higher education hold diverse titles and perform a variety of roles. Women represent a large portion of this midlevel management, but there is limited research exploring their experiences. As a result, little is known about women middle managers' career trajectories and what effect their experiences have on their future career…
In exploring the connections among gender, schooling, and knowledge, this paper considers the relationships between, and the effects of silencing or expressing anger, in women and their work as educators. Data come from two action research projects: Women Teaching Girls retreats and the Exploring Gender and Knowledge. Each consisted of a series of…
Connecticut Women's Education and Legal Fund, 2008
Connecticut Women's Education and Legal Fund (CWEALF) is a statewide non-profit organization dedicated to empowering women, girls and their families to achieve equal opportunities in their personal and professional lives. Members are guided by their commitment to feminism, diversity, empowerment, personal responsibility and self-sufficiency,…
This article profiles Leta Steller Hollingworth, who gave what she had to human beings through her life as a poet, a scholar, a researcher, a feminist, an educational psychologist, and a powerful advocate for gifted children. Hollingworth's research during her graduate studies focused on the psychology of women. At a time when women's professional…
Bourgeois, Monique; Kirby, Dale
The significance of post-secondary education is investigated for rural Newfoundland women enrolled in undergraduate liberal arts degree programs. Data collection for this research involved comprehensive, detailed semi-structured biographical interviews with rural women studying liberal arts disciplines during the 2006-2007 academic year at…
Roberts, Leonard H.; Pollman, Mary Jo
Two hundred years ago, Mary Wollstonecraft, the English women's rights pioneer, published her immortal work: "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman." In it she placed much of the blame for women's inferior political, intellectual, and social status on "faulty education." In "Vindication," she offered a number of recommendations aimed at enhancing…
Voices Rising: A Bulletin about Women and Popular Education, 1990
This document consists of the six issues of the serial "Voices Rising" issued during the four-year period 1987-1990. "Voices Rising" is the primary networking tool of the Women's Program of the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE). Articles in these issues include: "Tribute to a Courageous Woman--Nabila Breir"; "Centre for Women's…
Turner, Sandra V.; Bernt, Phyllis W.; Pecora, Norma
The educational, social, and familial influences that lead women to choose information technology (IT) careers were examined in an online survey. Of the 2,500 women who were employed in IT careers in 38 countries and who belonged to the IT professional organization, Systers, 275 responded to the online survey (11% response rate). The respondents…
Wardell, Mary J. Lomax
Higher education is steadily including more women of color in the leadership of the academy. Daily leadership challenges require campus administrators to engage and move others toward exceptional workplace performance. As such, executive women of color must handle complex campus demands and leadership challenges, particularly as they relate to…
Guerrero, Laura; Singh, Satvir
Using Blustein's (2006) psychology of working and Hackman and Oldham's (1975) job characteristics theory, the authors investigated the job attribute preferences of Mexican American women with low educational attainment. They used content analysis to code and analyze the interview transcripts of 27 women. The most valued job attributes were not…
Mishra, Arun; Khanna, Pinki; Shrivastava, Nalini
Despite United Nations' efforts, inequality of access for girls and women to technical and vocational education (TVE) persists in India. Challenges of the 21st century with regard to ensuring equal access of girls and women to TVE include: increasing the participation of girls (especially rural girls) in TVE; overcoming gender bias and…
Pryor, Jacqueline D.
This qualitative inquire examined the financial behavior of six college educated Black women located in the Midwest. Utilizing Black feminism as a theoretical framework for analysis, a depiction was prepared on the adeptness of the women at managing their finances; the influence of parental teaching on personal finances; and their behavior toward…
Mack, Yejide S.
African American women administrators working in urban educational settings have been found to be effective leaders of school improvement. Underutilized women and people of color are the untapped value that organizations of all types need to enhance creativity, change efforts, teamwork, and financial benefits (Northouse, 2001). During the last…
This article examines the relative progress and major setbacks in the education of Afghan women from the end of the Taliban regime until the present, focusing on government and NGO reconstruction efforts. It is argued that these projects promote the agendas of the state and of NGOs over the needs of women and girls. The adversities arising from…
Cragg, C. E. (Betty); Andrusyszyn, Mary-Anne; Fraser, Joy
Women with multiple roles face many challenges when taking distance education courses in professional programs to achieve credentials or maintain competence. Among these challenges is finding the supports necessary for success as a distance student. As part of a larger study on advantages and stressors identified by such women in distance…
Alvarado, Emmanuel; Nehring, Daniel
Our study explored cultural understandings surrounding the reproductive decisions of US-born, college-educated Mexican American women through a series of semi-structured in-depth interviews. In considering the results, this article advances debates on Latina women's reproductive choices beyond the theoretical paradigms of "assimilation" and…
Camarao, Gloria C.
A survey of Philippine vocational-technical institutions analyzed policies and practices providing equal opportunities to women in vocational/technical education and the extent to which these are actually implemented. It found that there is a need to increase the equality of women and to improve the practices that would accomplish that. (JOW)
The expansion of higher education in the 19th century United States to include women both restricted and increased their freedom. Because the industrial revolution and the movement westward limited the availability of men, the "moral guardian" role society prescribed for women was logically extended to teaching. The reason, however, for the…
Ironside, Ellen M.
The career paths and backgrounds of 30 upper-level women administrators in 25 North Carolina four-year public and private institutions were evaluated. These women occupied the highest or next-highest positions within a given category and held a doctorate or equivalent. Structured interviews covered background and education; work history; and the…
Montez, Jennifer Karas; Zajacova, Anna
Over the past half century the gap in mortality across education levels has grown in the United States, and since the mid-1980s, the growth has been especially pronounced among white women. The reasons for the growth among white women are unclear. We investigated three explanations--social-psychological factors, economic circumstances, and health…
Acker, Sandra; Dillabough, Jo-Anne
This article reflects an interest in exposing links between women's academic work and the gender codes which organize and shape working life in the university context, both now and in the recent past, as a contribution to the sociology of women's work. Our specific focus is the gendered division of labour in teacher education in universities in…
Graesser, Cheryl C.; Rose, Clare
The Project to Assess the Status of Women Students and Employees in Vocational Education assessed number and distribution of women students and employees in vocational programs, their perceptions of equal access, and extent of efforts to address sex equity. Its main activity was a survey of 3,609 vocational students, 455 faculty, 126 counselors,…
This study was written as the Finnish contribution to a symposium convened to describe and analyze for comparative purposes the factual development of the position of women as educators, i.e., as employees in the school sytems of different countries. The study emphasizes the close connections that the position of women in the school system have…
The purpose of this study was to discover and understand the experiences that influenced women to obtain and persevere in leadership roles in higher education administrative positions. The results enhanced understanding of what motivates women to pursue leadership positions and provided strategies for career advancement and leadership development.…
Ogden, Jane; Smith, Lauren; Nolan, Helen; Moroney, Rachel; Lynch, Hannah
Purpose: Media images of unrealistic beauty have been identified as a determinant of women's body dissatisfaction. This experimental study aims to explore whether the negative impact of such images could be reduced by a one-time educational intervention consisting of a presentation and discussion, teaching women to be critical of media images.…
Wadende, Pamela Akinyi
The aim of this dissertation is to present the procedure and proceedings of an instructional research into the teaching and learning among Luo women of Western Kenya. The purposes of the research are threefold. First, it seeks to document a system of indigenous adult education that has proved sustainable among Luo women from generation to…
Cirksena, Kathy, Comp.; And Others
Intended to provide an overview of available resources, the annotated bibliography contains 88 references to major resources on women and education. Most entries were published during the 1970s. The bibliography is designed for school personnel, researchers, parents, citizens, and members of women's organizations who want to know what programs,…
This study endeavored to investigate the impact of education on rural women's participation in political and economic activities. Six hundred rural women and 12 gender Activists were selected for this study from three Zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia using multi-stage random sampling technique and purposeful sampling techniques respectively.…
Ausmer, Nicole M.
There is an apparent dearth in the leadership literature of African American women when juxtaposed with race, gender and social class. This scarcity appears to be connected with the small percentage of African American women who hold the position of president in institutions of higher education. Additionally, recent reports have noted, that the…
Butcher, Patricia Smith
A feminist newspaper, "The Revolution," published between 1868 and 1870 filled a void in the popular press of the time, proclaiming the necessity of equal rights for women in all areas of life. Owned by Susan B. Anthony and edited by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, the paper repeatedly emphasized the importance of education of women. Four major themes…
Amari-Omaka, Lois Nnenna; Obande-Ogbuinya, Nkiru Edith
The purpose of this study was to determine sources of malaria information among pregnant women in Ebonyi state and implications for malaria education. The cross sectional research design was adopted and stratified sampling technique was used to select a total of five hundred and four (504) pregnant women from 12 hospitals in the state. A self…
Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda
This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, discusses women in nontraditional occupations. It is designed to help women consider the option of working in nontraditional occupations and to recognize that access to these jobs is…
Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda
This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in an adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) course, focuses on the problems faced by immigrant women in their work lives and legal provisions to protect employed women. The following items are included: module overview; list of basic,…
Welch, Andrea D.
The link between women in poverty and higher education is important because it reflects inequities in access and resources that exist in the Mid-Atlantic Appalachian region. Two main questions guided the research of women in poverty in regard to postsecondary access and attainment. First, what are the experiences of Mid-Atlantic Appalachian-born…
Eloundou-Enyegue, Parfait M.; Calves, Anne Emmanuele
In this article the authors examine the remittance interpretation for parents' selective investment in boys' education in sub-Saharan contexts. Using evidence from several African countries, they compare the relative capacity of married women versus men to assist their respective families of origin. They measure this capacity by women's leverage…
Machira, Mary Achieng
Low enrollment of women in higher education is a problem in Africa, particularly in Kenya, where despite the government's introduction of affirmative action, female enrollment averages only 36.7% at public universities. This gender gap may be due to the patriarchal influence in Kenyan society, where the role of women is seen as child-bearing,…
Introduction Percent mammographic density (PMD) adjusted for age and body mass index is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer and is known to be approximately 60% heritable. Here we report a finding of an association between genetic ancestry and adjusted PMD. Methods We selected self-identified Caucasian women in the California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute Cohort whose screening mammograms placed them in the top or bottom quintiles of age-adjusted and body mass index-adjusted PMD. Our final dataset included 474 women with the highest adjusted PMD and 469 with the lowest genotyped on the Illumina 1 M platform. Principal component analysis (PCA) and identity-by-descent analyses allowed us to infer the women's genetic ancestry and correlate it with adjusted PMD. Results Women of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, as defined by the first principal component of PCA and identity-by-descent analyses, represented approximately 15% of the sample. Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, defined by the first principal component of PCA, was associated with higher adjusted PMD (P = 0.004). Using multivariate regression to adjust for epidemiologic factors associated with PMD, including age at parity and use of postmenopausal hormone therapy, did not attenuate the association. Conclusions Women of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, based on genetic analysis, are more likely to have high age-adjusted and body mass index-adjusted PMD. Ashkenazi Jews may have a unique set of genetic variants or environmental risk factors that increase mammographic density. PMID:23668689
Perez, Shireese Redmond
The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…
Robinson; McKay; Katayama; Fan
To determine the progress women have made in the last 20 years in terms of contributions to the knowledge base (i.e., authorship) and reputations as leading contributors (i.e., appointments as editors and editorial board members) in educational psychology, we analyzed data from six journals: the American Educational Research Journal, Contemporary Educational Psychology, the Educational Psychologist, Educational Psychology Review, the Journal of Experimental Education, and the Journal of Educational Psychology. Results indicated that (a) women's progress in terms of authorships could be predicted by their increasing representation as educational psychologists, (b) opportunities for females to become editorial board members seem to be getting better, and (c) opportunities for females to become editors seem to be getting worse. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9665794
Toohill, Jocelyn; Fenwick, Jennifer; Gamble, Jenny; Creedy, Debra K; Buist, Anne; Turkstra, Erika; Ryding, Elsa-Lena
Background Childbirth fear is associated with increased obstetric interventions and poor emotional and psychological health for women. The purpose of this study is to test an antenatal psycho-education intervention by midwives in reducing women's childbirth fear. Methods Women (n = 1,410) attending three hospitals in South East Queensland, Australia, were recruited into the BELIEF trial. Participants reporting high fear were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 170) or control (n = 169) groups. All women received a decision-aid booklet on childbirth choices. The telephone counseling intervention was offered at 24 and 34 weeks of pregnancy. The control group received usual care offered by public maternity services. Primary outcome was reduction in childbirth fear (WDEQ-A) from second trimester to 36 weeks’ gestation. Secondary outcomes were improved childbirth self-efficacy, and reduced decisional conflict and depressive symptoms. Demographic, obstetric & psychometric measures were administered at recruitment, and 36 weeks of pregnancy. Results There were significant differences between groups on postintervention scores for fear of birth (p < 0.001) and childbirth self-efficacy (p = 0.002). Decisional conflict and depressive symptoms reduced but were not significant. Conclusion Psycho-education by trained midwives was effective in reducing high childbirth fear levels and increasing childbirth confidence in pregnant women. Improving antenatal emotional well-being may have wider positive social and maternity care implications for optimal childbirth experiences. PMID:25303111
Oyeoku, E. K.; Meziobi, D.; Ezegbe, N. B.; Obikwelu, C. L.
The main purpose of the study was to evolve modalities for preventing domestic violence against women in Nsukka education zone. Three research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The sample comprised 150 urban women and 450 rural women in Nsukka education zone. A 20-item questionnaire was developed, validated, and administered to…
The article discusses contributions towards female higher education made by a group of women whose views on gender roles were conservative, rather than feminist or suffragist. Four women's conservative ideals and interconnected work for women's education are reviewed in the context of late Victorian Oxford. This study is prefaced by a discussion…
In contemporary society women leaders in education have struggled to balance work and family. While some women have succeeded in finding that balance, many others are still struggling. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences of three Armenian women in senior-level leadership positions in higher education in the United…
Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia M.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.
We examine gender wage disparities for four groups of college-educated women--black, Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white--using the National Survey of College Graduates. Raw log wage gaps, relative to non-Hispanic white male counterparts, generally exceed -0.30. Estimated gaps decline to between -0.08 and -0.19 in nonparametric analyses that…
Albert, Marissa; Schnabel, Freya; Chun, Jennifer; Schwartz, Shira; Lee, Jiyon; Leite, Ana Paula Klautau; Moy, Linda
Structured Abstract Purpose To evaluate the relationship between mammographic breast density (MBD), background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), and fibroglandular tissue (FGT) in women with breast cancer (BC) and at high risk for developing BC. Methods Our institutional database was queried for patients who underwent mammography and MRI. Results 403 (85%) had BC and 72 (15%) were at high risk. MBD (p=0.0005), BPE (p<0.0001), and FGT (p=0.02) were all higher in high risk women compared to the BC group. Conclusions Higher levels of MBD, BPE and FGT are seen in women at higher risk for developing BC when compared to women with BC. PMID:26351036
McIntyre, John; Kimberley, Helen
The formal and informal pathways taken by Australian women from nonaccredited adult community education (ACE) to accredited programs of vocational education and training (VET) were examined in a national survey. Data were collected from a review of the literature on ACE, and telephone interviews with providers of ACE and VET (from a sample limited…
Smith, Cristine A.; Paulson Stone, Rebecca; Kahando, Sarah
Delaying girls' early marriage is a critical public health and education goal in developing countries, in which their own or their mothers' education may play an important role. This paper reviews the existing evidence of any relationship between girls' schooling or women's literacy education and delayed marriage for themselves or their daughters. The majority of research reports focus on the correlation between girls' schooling and brides' age at first marriage. But it is conceivable that adult women's/mothers' literacy education also has considerable influence on the age at which their daughters are married. Since this aspect has hitherto not been explicitly investigated, the authors propose a model - based on relevant research about the outcomes of girls' schooling and women's literacy education - of the mechanisms that mediate between women's education and delayed marriage for their daughters. The authors argue for research that will inform policy makers interested in helping girls complete secondary schooling about the potential contributions of adult women's literacy education to this goal.
Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.; Moghadam, Valentine M.
In contemporary Iran, women with higher education face both gender discrimination and an unfavourable economic system, one that is not conducive to employment-generation for women. This paper provides an analysis of women's access to higher education in Iran, which has varied over the last 30 years, and their continuously limited participation in the job market. Based on qualitative field research, this paper includes the voices of individual women, discussing their experience of higher education and factors they think are contributing to their limited choice of employment. The paper suggests that while the recent trend in negotiating mehrieh (a nuptial gift which is payable by the groom to the bride) has been a strategy employed by Iranian women to overcome some of the discriminatory laws they are subject to, this trend cannot actually be explained by the fact that women's employment opportunities are limited. The paper concludes by asserting that limited labour force participation for educated women is a consequence of both political economy and gender ideology.
Zoch, Lynn M.; Russell, Maria P.
Reports on a survey of women faculty teaching public relations regarding gender equality and workplace equity. Alternates viewpoints from the literature indicating ingrained institutional biases against women with survey findings that perhaps respondents are not doing what they could to advance in their field. (SR)
Two powerful images for women as teachers and principals, the schoolmarm and the token administrator, were discerned in a study which analyzed the life histories of 24 women and men working in elementary or secondary schools in Toronto, Canada between 1930 and 1980. These two images have contributed to a continued pattern of underrepresentation…
This paper examines the reasons Italian women migrate to other countries. The paper asserts that, historically, women have been virtually ignored in the study of migration patterns. A growing consensus among experts is to consider migrations as a social phenomenon of global importance and under the banner of international cooperation. The reasons…
The status of academic women is compared with that of men to determine whether disciminating practices and resulting inequality for women continue to exist. Current scientific periodicals, monographs, and books were searched, and the most recent statistics are presented. Results are discussed in terms of admissions, enrollment and degrees earned,…
Stromquist, Nelly P.
Women's empowerment is a concept that has acquired substantial recognition in the past decade. However, it is better known among international development organisations, NGOs, and grassroots groups than in academic circles. This article examines the concept of women's empowerment as a foundational element in a theory of social change in which the…
Mckay, Susan; Bonner, Frances
Women's magazines in Australia have become increasingly involved in various public health awareness campaigns. In particular, breast cancer has been targeted as an issue for attention. This disease occupies a privileged position in women's magazines, being represented as treatable and survivable with an emphasis on the advocacy of early detection…
Chemical and Engineering News, 1980
The results of a survey to determine the status of women on university chemistry faculties are presented in this article. Results show that women are still being hired in disproportionately low numbers in relation to their growing representation in Ph.D. graduating classes. (Author/SA)
Describes Capacitacion Integral de la Mujer Campesina (CIMCA) development efforts within Bolivian farm communities. Describes CIMCA's focus on social change, ethnic empowerment, and women's rights. Describes organization's initial clashes with rural culture. Describes use of rotafolio drawings to spark workshop discussions, to improve women's…
This article presents the findings of a qualitative study on the "Bang' jomariek," a women's group in West Reru in Western Kenya who engage in the production of indigenous arts and crafts (pots, baskets, and architecture) to generate income and explore politics, medicine, and other matters that affect them and their community. The women shared…
Holland, Dorothy C.; Eisenhart, Margaret A.
This ethnographic study investigated why so few women become scientists or mathematicians. The study followed the lives of two groups of women, one black and one white, all with strong academic records, who were attending two southern U.S. universities, one predominantly black and the other predominantly white. The study was initiated in 1979 when…
The status of women students at the University of Washington was reviewed in terms of admissions at the undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools for autumn 1975. Academic performance, financial aids, and student employment were also examined. Women were underrepresented at the graduate level and in the professional schools. Greater…
Graduate Management Admission Council, 2015
To commemorate International Women's Day on March 8, 2015, GMAC prepared this Data-to-Go brief as a summary of current GMAT test taker and research data about women in the business school pipeline. Findings in this Data-to-Go report are derived from several sources of GMAT test taker data and GMAC surveys conducted in 2014 and 2015. In testing…
Mutanyatta, J. N. S.
Despite their significant role in African economies, women are still the victims of poverty, illiteracy, discrimination, and powerlessness. Most African countries are classified as "low" on the Human Development Index and exhibit a relationship between per capita gross domestic product and the adult literacy rate. Rural women appear to be the most…
This paper undertakes a critique of the gendered nature of leadership in modern universities in Kenya. The paper argues that the inclusive nature of African feminism makes it easier for both men and women to join in this discussion since African feminism demands a more holistic perspective that does not pit men against women but encourages them to…
Academic feminism is now largely concerned with abstract theory and a discourse which distances it from the lived reality of working class women. This paper explores, through the concept and approach of dialogical feminism, ways in which feminists in the academy can re-connect with 'other women' in working towards social transformation for all…
Conable, Charlotte Williams
The history of women at Cornell is presented. First, the origins of coeducation at Cornell are explored. The commitment of the university to women as well as men is analyzed in the context of the social climate of the nineteenth century, particularly in central New York State, as well as the goals of those individuals who established the…
Janzen, Melanie D.
This article describes a snapshot ethnography conducted in Uganda with the Agabagaya Women's Group. The purpose of the study was to explore how women share knowledge among themselves to support their communities. Using post-development theory and Freire's critical theory as a lens, I argue that although international development is often focused…
This article draws on data collected from a wider, longitudinal life history study conducted in South Africa between 2010 and 2014. The study focussed specifically on the personal and professional pathways to principalship of a sample of women leaders of co-educational high schools in South Africa, in both rural and peri-urban provinces: a role…
García-Subirats, Irene; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Díez, Elia; Borrell, Carme
This study aims to describe trends in inequalities by women’s socioeconomic position and age in induced abortion in Barcelona (Spain) over 1992–1996 and 2000–2004. Induced abortions occurring in residents in Barcelona aged 20 and 44 years in the study period are included. Variables are age, educational level, and time periods. Induced abortion rates per 1,000 women and absolute differences for educational level, age, and time period are calculated. Poisson regression models are fitted to obtain the relative risk (RR) for trends. Induced abortion rates increased from 10.1 to 14.6 per 1,000 women aged 20–44 (RR = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41–1.47) between 1992–1996 and 2000–2004. The abortion rate was highest among women aged 20–24 and 25–34 and changed little among women aged 35–44. Among women aged 20–24 and 25–34, those with a primary education or less had higher rates of induced abortion in the second period. Induced abortion rates also grew in those women with secondary education. In the 35–44 age group, the induced abortion rate declined among women with a secondary education (RR = 0.66; 95% CI 0.60–0.73) and slightly among those with a greater level of education. Induced abortion is rising most among women in poor socioeconomic positions. This study reveals deep inequalities in induced abortion in Barcelona, Spain. The trends identified in this study suggest that policy efforts to reduce unintended pregnancies are failing in Spain. Our study fills an important gap in literature on recent trends in Southern Europe. PMID:20229107
Karau, Paul Bundi; Winnie, Mueni Saumu; Geoffrey, Muriira; Mwenda, Mukuthuria
Uptake of VCT and other HIV prevention strategies among rural African women is affected by various socio-cultural and economic factors which need elucidation. Our aim was to establish the responsiveness to HIV education among rural women attending three dispensaries in Kenya. This study was designed to assess gender and psycho-social factors that influence HIV dynamics in rural Kenya. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire based study of 1347 women, conducted in October 2009. Socio-economic status as well as knowledge on methods of HIV transmission was assessed. Testing status, knowledge on existing VCT services and willingness to share HIV information with their children was assessed. Majority of the women have heard about VCT services, but significantly few of them have been tested. Those with secondary school education and above are more knowledgeable on methods of HIV transmission, while those with inadequate education are more likely to cite shaking hands, sharing utensils, mosquito bites and hugging as means of transmission (p = 0.001). 90% of educated women are willing to share HIV information with their children, compared to 40% of uneducated women. Marital status is seen to positively influence testing status, but has no significant effect on dissemination of information to children. We conclude that despite the aggressive HIV education and proliferation of VCT services in Kenya, women are not heeding the call to get tested. Education has a positive impact on dissemination of HIV information. Focus needs to shift into increasing acceptability of testing by women in rural Kenya. PMID:21495609
Carvalho, Teresa; Santiago, Rui
This paper provides an analysis of the potential impact of changes in recruitment and hiring processes in Portuguese higher education institutions--under the New Public Management framework--on the representation of women in academia. Based on official data from the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education, two major…
University Grants Commission (Sri Lanka).
The Commonwealth Higher Education Support Scheme (CHESS) 1997 Workshop was designed to promote the professional development of women in leadership positions in higher education. Participants were drawn from senior university academics and administrators from five countries: Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Specific objectives…
Summers, Lawrence H.
This seminar paper discusses the enormous economic benefits of investing in women's education. Over time increases in girls' education have the potential to transform societies. Four conclusions were reached: (1) the excess female mortality in many developing countries is a horrifying problem that is the most obvious manifestation of a much…
This qualitative, phenomenological study was conducted to explore the lived experiences of 12 Afghan women enrolled in higher education institutions in Afghanistan. The objective was to develop an understanding of the participants' perceptions of the factors that led to their enrollment in higher education and the factors that inhibit Afghan…
Mentkowski, Marcia; Rogers, Glen
We argue that (1) faculty and other academic professionals who educate undergraduate women in capabilities such as effective communication, teamwork, and leadership that are integrated with the disciplines (e.g., biology, history, fine arts) and professions (e.g., education, nursing, management) indirectly assist their students to confront gender…
Nazombe, Elmira T.
The goal of popular education, as articulated by Paulo Freire and others, is the transformation of communities and societies. There is in need to supplement existing literature with assessment of the outcomes of the practice of popular education in the US, especially under women's leadership. This qualitative research study assesses the outcomes…
Austin, Nancy; Mazile, Bontshetse
Higher education opportunities for women in Botswana were studied through a feminist theoretical framework and a participant conversation methodology. Nine female students, participants in a postgraduate diploma program for secondary teacher certification or a masters program in education, ranged in age from 23 to 49. All but one were first…
Cortez, David Sifuentes
This article examines the participation of women in decision-making processes in the field of education, from a global perspective, through their roles and positions in International Conferences on Education (ICEs). This analysis is based on a sample of sixteen of the forty-six ICEs held from 1934 to this day. All of the ICEs that took place over…
Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.
Annotated bibliographic citations of literature relevant to women's educational equity are presented, drawn from computerized data bases from spring 1978 through October 1978, with slight exceptions. Topics covered include: curriculum and educational materials development and dissemination; preservice and inservice personnel training; research and…
Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn; Bernhardt, Anna
This article gives an overview of the development of gender equality and women's participation in adult learning and education in the history of the International Conferences on Adult Education (CONFINTEA). Though the equality of rights was highlighted throughout the various conferences, the first Global Report on Adult Learning and Education…
Lykes, M. Brinton
Describes development of a rural Guatemalan women's organization created to respond to the psychological, economic, and educational consequences of long-term war, massacre, military occupation, poverty, and exile. The association's genesis and current work reflect collaborative processes of interethnic and transnational nonformal education,…
Discusses the historiography of women's education as it relates to the need for marginal groups to becomed involved in networking structures. Offers three frameworks (networking, religion, and money), illustrating ways to make gender more central to educational history. Argues that there is much work to be done in identifying a useful framework…
Once societies embarked on programmes of mass education home schooling became essentially a middle-class project and remains so. This paper looks at the educational experiences of some lower middle class women at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries for whom the resources of the middle-class home were simply not available. It…
Usman, Lantana M.
Recently, politics of education in Nigeria have shifted from urban to rural literacy, which led to the development of programmes such as the nomadic women's adult education programme. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the programme's implementation strategies, and the extent to which the health educational…
Roseboro, Donyell L.; Ross, Sabrina N.
This article builds upon earlier work exploring the implications of care theory for Black women educators by exploring the issue of colorblindness more broadly, as it relates to libratory education. Using the work of Freire (1970, 1998a, 1998b) and Noddings (1992a, 1995, 2001, 2005b), the authors revisit the relationship between libratory…
Dolinsky, Arthur L.; And Others
A study using a national longitudinal sample of women to examine variations in the likelihood of entering, staying, and reentering self-employment by level of educational attainment found that each likelihood increased with increasing levels of education. Differences in the likelihood of entry accounted for most of the overall difference between…
Dale, Angela; Shaheen, Nusrat; Kalra, Virinder; Fieldhouse, E.
Routes into education and employment for young Pakistani and Bangladeshi women in Oldham, England, were examined. The data sources were as follows: group discussions with Pakistani and Bangladeshi young people at different stages in the educational system and at an early stage of labor market participation; interviews with public and voluntary…