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Sample records for highly reducing conditions

  1. Individual and demographic consequences of reduced body condition following repeated exposure to high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Janet L; Amano, Tatsuya; Sutherland, William J; Clayton, Mark; Peters, Anne

    2016-03-01

    Although the lethal consequences of extreme heat are increasingly reported in the literature, the fitness costs of exposure to sublethal high air temperatures, typically identified in the 30-40 degrees C range, are poorly understood. We examine the effect of high (> or = 35 degrees C) daily maxima on body condition of a semiarid population of White-plumed Honeyeaters, Ptilotula penicillatus, monitored between 1986 and 2012. During this 26-yr period, temperature has risen, on average, by 0.06 degrees C each year at the site, the frequency of days with thermal maxima > or = 35 degrees C has increased and rainfall has declined. Exposure to high temperatures affected body condition of White-plumed Honeyeaters, but only in low-rainfall conditions. There was no effect of a single day of exposure to temperatures > or = 35 degrees C but repeated exposure was associated with reduced body condition: 3.0% reduction in body mass per day of exposure. Rainfall in the previous 30 d ameliorated these effects, with reduced condition evident only in dry conditions. Heat-exposed males with reduced body condition were less likely to be recaptured at the start of the following spring; they presumably died. Heat-exposed females, regardless of body condition, showed lower survival than exposed males, possibly due to their smaller body mass. The higher mortality of females and smaller males exposed to temperatures > or = 35 degrees C may have contributed to the increase in mean body size of this population over 23 years. Annual survival declined across time concomitant with increasing frequency of days > or = 35 degrees C and decreasing rainfall. Our study is one of few to identify a proximate cause of climate change related mortality, and associated long-term demographic consequence. Our results have broad implications for avian communities living in arid and semiarid regions of Australia, and other mid-latitudes regions where daily maximum temperatures already approach physiological

  2. A strategy for reducing neonatal mortality at high altitude using oxygen conditioning.

    PubMed

    West, J B

    2015-11-01

    Neonatal mortality increases with altitude. For example, in Peru the incidence of neonatal mortality in the highlands has been shown to be about double that at lower altitudes. An important factor is the low inspired PO2 of newborn babies. Typically, expectant mothers at high altitude will travel to low altitude to have their babies if possible, but often this is not feasible because of economic factors. The procedure described here raises the oxygen concentration in the air of rooms where neonates are being housed and, in effect, this means that both the mother and baby are at a much lower altitude. Oxygen conditioning is similar to air conditioning except that the oxygen concentration of the air is increased rather than the temperature being reduced. The procedure is now used at high altitude in many hotels, dormitories and telescope facilities, and has been shown to be feasible and effective. PMID:26426252

  3. A strategy for reducing neonatal mortality at high altitude using oxygen conditioning.

    PubMed

    West, J B

    2015-11-01

    Neonatal mortality increases with altitude. For example, in Peru the incidence of neonatal mortality in the highlands has been shown to be about double that at lower altitudes. An important factor is the low inspired PO2 of newborn babies. Typically, expectant mothers at high altitude will travel to low altitude to have their babies if possible, but often this is not feasible because of economic factors. The procedure described here raises the oxygen concentration in the air of rooms where neonates are being housed and, in effect, this means that both the mother and baby are at a much lower altitude. Oxygen conditioning is similar to air conditioning except that the oxygen concentration of the air is increased rather than the temperature being reduced. The procedure is now used at high altitude in many hotels, dormitories and telescope facilities, and has been shown to be feasible and effective.

  4. Reduced Volume of the Arcuate Fasciculus in Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Correia, Marta M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Shtyrov, Yury; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Mohr, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Atypical language is a fundamental feature of autism spectrum conditions (ASC), but few studies have examined the structural integrity of the arcuate fasciculus, the major white matter tract connecting frontal and temporal language regions, which is usually implicated as the main transfer route used in processing linguistic information by the brain. Abnormalities in the arcuate have been reported in young children with ASC, mostly in low-functioning or non-verbal individuals, but little is known regarding the structural properties of the arcuate in adults with ASC or, in particular, in individuals with ASC who have intact language, such as those with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome. We used probabilistic tractography of diffusion-weighted imaging to isolate and scrutinize the arcuate in a mixed-gender sample of 18 high-functioning adults with ASC (17 Asperger syndrome) and 14 age- and IQ-matched typically developing controls. Arcuate volume was significantly reduced bilaterally with clearest differences in the right hemisphere. This finding remained significant in an analysis of all male participants alone. Volumetric reduction in the arcuate was significantly correlated with the severity of autistic symptoms as measured by the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. These data reveal that structural differences are present even in high-functioning adults with ASC, who presented with no clinically manifest language deficits and had no reported developmental language delay. Arcuate structural integrity may be useful as an index of ASC severity and thus as a predictor and biomarker for ASC. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:27242478

  5. Reduced Volume of the Arcuate Fasciculus in Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Conditions.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Rachel L; Correia, Marta M; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Shtyrov, Yury; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Mohr, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Atypical language is a fundamental feature of autism spectrum conditions (ASC), but few studies have examined the structural integrity of the arcuate fasciculus, the major white matter tract connecting frontal and temporal language regions, which is usually implicated as the main transfer route used in processing linguistic information by the brain. Abnormalities in the arcuate have been reported in young children with ASC, mostly in low-functioning or non-verbal individuals, but little is known regarding the structural properties of the arcuate in adults with ASC or, in particular, in individuals with ASC who have intact language, such as those with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome. We used probabilistic tractography of diffusion-weighted imaging to isolate and scrutinize the arcuate in a mixed-gender sample of 18 high-functioning adults with ASC (17 Asperger syndrome) and 14 age- and IQ-matched typically developing controls. Arcuate volume was significantly reduced bilaterally with clearest differences in the right hemisphere. This finding remained significant in an analysis of all male participants alone. Volumetric reduction in the arcuate was significantly correlated with the severity of autistic symptoms as measured by the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. These data reveal that structural differences are present even in high-functioning adults with ASC, who presented with no clinically manifest language deficits and had no reported developmental language delay. Arcuate structural integrity may be useful as an index of ASC severity and thus as a predictor and biomarker for ASC. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:27242478

  6. High-dose corticosterone after fear conditioning selectively suppresses fear renewal by reducing anxiety-like response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongbo; Xing, Xiaoli; Liang, Jing; Bai, Yunjing; Lui, Zhengkui; Zheng, Xigeng

    2014-09-01

    Exposure therapy is widely used to treat anxiety disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, preventing the return of fear is still a major challenge after this behavioral treatment. An increasing number of studies suggest that high-dose glucocorticoid treatment immediately after trauma can alleviate the symptoms of PTSD in humans. Unknown is whether high-dose glucocorticoid treatment following fear conditioning suppresses the return of fear. In the present study, a typical fear renewal paradigm (AAB) was used, in which the fear response to an auditory cue can be restored in a novel context (context B) when both training and extinction occur in the same context (context A). We trained rats for auditory fear conditioning and administered corticosterone (CORT; 5 and 25mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle with different delays (1 and 24h). Forty-eight hours after drug injection, extinction was conducted with no drug in the training context, followed by a test of tone-induced freezing behavior in the same (AAA) or a shifted (AAB) context. Both immediate and delayed administration of high-dose CORT after fear conditioning reduced fear renewal. To examine the anxiolytic effect of CORT, independent rats were trained for cued or contextual fear conditioning, followed by an injection of CORT (5 and 25mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle at a 1 or 24h delay. One week later, anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) before and after fear expression. We found that high-dose CORT decreased anxiety-like behavior without changing tone- or context-induced freezing. These findings indicate that a single high-dose CORT administration given after fear conditioning may selectively suppress fear renewal by reducing anxiety-like behavior and not by altering the consolidation, retrieval, or extinction of fear memory.

  7. Properties of conditioned abducens nerve responses in a highly reduced in vitro brain stem preparation from the turtle.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C W; Keifer, J

    1999-03-01

    Previous work suggested that the cerebellum and red nucleus are not necessary for the acquisition, extinction, and reacquistion of the in vitro classically conditioned abducens nerve response in the turtle. These findings are extended in the present study by obtaining conditioned responses (CRs) in preparations that received a partial ablation of the brain stem circuitry. In addition to removing all tissue rostral to and including the midbrain and cerebellum, a transection was made just caudal to the emergence of the IXth nerve. Such ablations result in a 4-mm-thick section of brain stem tissue that functionally eliminates the sustained component of the unconditioned response (UR) while leaving only a phasic component. We refer to this region of brain stem tissue caudal to the IXth nerve as the "caudal premotor blink region." Neural discharge was recorded from the abducens nerve following a single shock unconditioned stimulus (US) applied to the ipsilateral trigeminal nerve. When the US was paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS) applied to the posterior eighth, or auditory, nerve using a delay conditioning paradigm, a positive slope of CR acquisition was recorded in the abducens nerve, and CR extinction was recorded when the stimuli were alternated. Resumption of paired stimuli resulted in reacquisition. Quantitative analysis of the CRs in preparations in which the caudal premotor blink region had been removed and those with cerebellar/red nucleus lesions showed that both types of preparations had abnormally short latency CR onsets compared with preparations in which these regions were intact. Preparations with brain stem transections had significantly earlier CR offsets as more CRs terminated as short bursts when compared with intact or cerebellar lesioned preparations. These data suggest that a highly reduced in vitro brain stem preparation from the turtle can be classically conditioned. Furthermore, the caudal brain stem is not a site of acquisition in this

  8. Reduced intensity conditioning followed by peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for adult patients with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Anthony S.; Palmer, Joycelynne M.; O'Donnell, Margaret R.; Kogut, Neil M.; Spielberger, Ricardo T.; Slovak, Marilyn L.; Tsai, Ni-Chun; Senitzer, David; Snyder, David S.; Thomas, Sandra H.; J.Forman, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with high-risk features has a poor prognosis in adults despite aggressive chemotherapy. Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) is a lower toxicity alternative for high-risk patients requiring hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), however it has not been widely used for ALL. We conducted a retrospective study of 24 high-risk adult ALL patients who received an RIC regimen of fludarabine/melphalan prior to allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant between 6/14/02 and 6/15/07 at City of Hope. Indications for the RIC regimen were: 1) age 50 or older (42%), 2) compromised organ function (54%), or 3) recipient of a previous HCT (37.5%). Patients had a median age of 47.5 years and the median follow-up was 28.5 months for living patients. Both overall survival and disease-free survival at two years was 61.5%. Relapse incidence was 21.1% and non-relapse mortality was 21.5% at two years. cGVHD developed in 86% of evaluable patients. In this series, no significant correlations were made between outcomes and patient age, presence of Philadelphia chromosome, relatedness of donor source or prior HCT. These high survival rates for high-risk ALL patients following RIC HCT may offer a promising option for patients not eligible for a standard myeloablative transplant. PMID:19822300

  9. Effects of temperature on anaerobic decomposition of high-molecular weight organic matter under sulfate-reducing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Takato; Kojima, Hisaya; Fukui, Manabu

    2013-03-01

    Most sedimentary mineralization occurs along coasts under anaerobic conditions. In the absence of oxygen, high-molecular weight organic matter in marine sediments is gradually decomposed by hydrolysis, fermentation and sulfate reduction. Because of the different responses of the respective steps to temperature, degradation may be specifically slowed or stopped in certain step. To evaluate the effect of temperature on cellobiose degradation, culture experiments were performed at six different temperatures (3 °C, 8 °C, 13 °C, 18 °C, 23 °C, and 28 °C) under sulfate-reducing conditions. This study measured the concentrations of sulfide, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and organic acids during that degradation. Degradation patterns were divided into three temperature groups: 3 °C, 8/13 °C, and 18/23/28 °C. The decrease in DOC proceeded in two steps, except at 3 °C. The length of the stagnant phase separating these two steps differed greatly between temperatures of 8/13 °C and 18/23/28 °C. In the first step, organic carbon was consumed by hydrolysis, fermentation and sulfate reduction. In the second step, acetate accumulated during the first step was oxidized by sulfate reduction. Bacterial communities in the cultures were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE); the major differences among the three temperature groups were attributed to shifts in acetate-using sulfate reducers of the genus Desulfobacter. This suggests that temperature characteristics of dominant acetate oxidizers are important factors in determining the response of carbon flow in coastal marine sediments in relation to the changes in temperature.

  10. Study of the PENT test conditions for reducing failure times in high-resistance polyethylene resins for pipe applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez, Carlos; García, Rafael A.; Aroca, Marcelo; Carrero, Alicia

    2012-02-01

    A thorough study of the physical conditions in the Pennsylvania Edge Notch Tensile (PENT) test, such as stress and temperature, is carried out in order to reduce the long test times observed in new bimodal and multimodal polyethylene grades (third and fourth generation grades) which may withstand hundreds or thousands of hours at the standard conditions (80○C, 2.4 MPa). The results show how on increasing the temperature up to 90○C and the applied stress up to 2.8 MPa, the failure time may be reduced by a factor of 6. Special attention should be paid to the n and Q parameters of the Brown and Lu equation, because variations in those parameters could dramatically change the result of the comparison between different systems depending on the temperature and stress value.

  11. Arsenic Mobility Under Sulfate Reducing Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keimowitz, A. R.; Mailloux, B. J.; Cole, P.; Simpson, H. J.; Stute, M.; Chillrud, S. N.; Kujawinski, E. B.; Zheng, Y.

    2004-12-01

    At a former landfill site in southern Maine approximately 300 ppb arsenic has been observed in groundwater over the last two decades. Laboratory and field measurements support the hypothesis that this arsenic originates within the underlying glaciofluvial sediments containing natural arsenic at concentrations of approximately 6 ppm. Arsenic is mobilized under the landfill by reducing conditions induced by decomposition of organic-rich landfill leachate. The feasibility of arsenic removal by in situ oxidation was investigated with laboratory and pilot field experiments. The high redox buffering capacity of the aquifer solids makes this remediation strategy very difficult to accomplish. A more promising remediation strategy may involve the sequestration of arsenic through the formation of solid phase sulfides under sulfate-reducing conditions. To test this hypothesis, laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted with sediment from beneath the landfill. Acetate was added to the sediments to stimulate sulfate reducing conditions. Microcosms were monitored for changes to the solid and aqueous phase chemistry along with changes to the microbial community. The addition of acetate enabled the native microbial community to establish sulfate reducing conditions. The production of sulfide coincided with a decrease in the observed iron and arsenic concentrations. Over ten days, roughly 70 to 80% of the dissolved arsenic and >99% of the dissolved iron was removed from solution. Arsenic was subsequently partially remobilized, possibly due to continued sulfate reduction and an increase in pH. Results indicated that laboratory manipulations of the microbial community and subsurface redox state were able to lower the dissolved arsenic concentrations.

  12. Heat and Momentum Transfer Studies in High Reynolds Number Wavy Films at Normal and Reduced Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakotaiah, V.

    1996-01-01

    We examined the effect of the gas flow on the liquid film when the gas flows in the countercurrent direction in a vertical pipe at normal gravity conditions. The most dramatic effect of the simultaneous flow of gas and liquid in pipes is the greatly increased transport rates of heat, mass, and momentum. In practical situations this enhancement can be a benefit or it can result in serious operational problems. For example, gas-liquid flow always results in substantially higher pressure drop and this is usually undesirable. However, much higher heat transfer coefficients can be expected and this can obviously be of benefit for purposes of design. Unfortunately, designers know so little of the behavior of such two phase systems and as a result these advantages are not utilized. Due to the complexity of the second order boundary model as well as the fact that the pressure variation across the film is small compared to the imposed gas phase pressure, the countercurrent gas flow affect was studied for the standard boundary layer model. A different stream function that can compensate the shear stress affect was developed and this stream function also can predict periodic solutions. The discretized model equations were transformed to a traveling wave coordinate system. A stability analysis of these sets of equations showed the presence of a Hopf bifurcation for certain values of the traveling wave velocity and the shear stress. The Hopf celerity was increased due to the countercurrent shear. For low flow rate the increases of celerity are more than for the high flow rate, which was also observed in experiments. Numerical integration of a traveling wave simplification of the model also predicts the existence of chaotic large amplitude, nonperiodic waves as observed in the experiments. The film thickness was increased by the shear.

  13. Distinguishing iron-reducing from sulfate-reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Thomas, M.A.; McMahon, P.B.

    2009-01-01

    Ground water systems dominated by iron- or sulfate-reducing conditions may be distinguished by observing concentrations of dissolved iron (Fe2+) and sulfide (sum of H2S, HS-, and S= species and denoted here as "H2S"). This approach is based on the observation that concentrations of Fe2+ and H2S in ground water systems tend to be inversely related according to a hyperbolic function. That is, when Fe2+ concentrations are high, H2S concentrations tend to be low and vice versa. This relation partly reflects the rapid reaction kinetics of Fe2+ with H2S to produce relatively insoluble ferrous sulfides (FeS). This relation also reflects competition for organic substrates between the iron- and the sulfate-reducing microorganisms that catalyze the production of Fe2+ and H 2S. These solubility and microbial constraints operate in tandem, resulting in the observed hyperbolic relation between Fe2+ and H 2S concentrations. Concentrations of redox indicators, including dissolved hydrogen (H2) measured in a shallow aquifer in Hanahan, South Carolina, suggest that if the Fe2+/H2S mass ratio (units of mg/L) exceeded 10, the screened interval being tapped was consistently iron reducing (H2 ???0.2 to 0.8 nM). Conversely, if the Fe 2+/H2S ratio was less than 0.30, consistent sulfate-reducing (H2 ???1 to 5 nM) conditions were observed over time. Concomitantly high Fe2+ and H2S concentrations were associated with H2 concentrations that varied between 0.2 and 5.0 nM over time, suggesting mixing of water from adjacent iron- and sulfate-reducing zones or concomitant iron and sulfate reduction under nonelectron donor-limited conditions. These observations suggest that Fe2+/H2S mass ratios may provide useful information concerning the occurrence and distribution of iron and sulfate reduction in ground water systems. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  14. Reoxidation of Bioreduced Uranium Under Reducing Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Jiamin; Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Larson, Joern; Zheng, Zuoping; Brodie, Eoin; Wang, Zheming; Herman, Don; Hazen, Terry C.; Firestone,Mary K.; Sutton, Stephen R.

    2005-02-05

    Uranium mining and processing for nuclear weapons and fuel have left thousands of sites with toxic levels of this actinide in soil and ground water. An emerging strategy for remediating such environments involves using organic carbon to promote microbially-mediated reduction and precipitation of insoluble U(IV) minerals. Although previous U bioreduction studies have shown promising results, they were of short duration (up to a few months). Our longer-term (20 months) laboratory study using historically contaminated sediment has alarmingly shown that microbial reduction of U was transient even under reducing (methanogenic) conditions. Uranium was reductively immobilized during the first 100 days, but later (150 to 600 days) reoxidized and mobilized, although a microbial community capable of reducing U(VI) remained through the end of the experiment. The formation of Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} complexes (caused by the elevated carbonate concentration from microbial respiration and presence of calcium) drove the U(IV)/U(VI) reduction potential to much more reducing conditions. Fe(III) and Mn(IV) were found to be likely terminal electron acceptors (TEAs) for U reoxidation. Thus, U remediation by organic carbon based reductive precipitation is not sustainable in calcareous, neutral to alkaline soils and ground waters.

  15. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOEpatents

    Springfield, Ray M.; Wheat, Jr., Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

  16. Comparable outcomes between unrelated and related donors after reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with high-risk multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    El-Cheikh, Jean; Crocchiolo, Roberto; Boher, Jean-Marie; Furst, Sabine; Stoppa, Anne-Marie; Ladaique, Patrick; Faucher, Catherine; Calmels, Boris; Castagna, Luca; Lemarie, Claude; De Colella, Jean-Marc Schiano; Coso, Diane; Bouabdallah, Reda; Chabannon, Christian; Blaise, Didier

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the results of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) from matched related donors (MRD) and unrelated donors (URD) in 40 patients with high-risk multiple myeloma (MM) in a single centre. Seventeen (43%) (Group 1) and 23 patients (57%) (Group 2) had URD and MRD, respectively. Thirty-nine patients (98%) received one or more autologous transplantation. The median follow-up was 22 months (1-49). None of our patient experienced a graft rejection. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD was higher (47%) for the URD vs. (17%) for the MRD (P = 0.092). The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was no different between the two groups (24% vs. 30%, respectively). At 2 yr, the TRM probabilities were lower in the unrelated group 12% vs. 22% in the related group (P = 0.4). Also at 2 yrs, for patients receiving unrelated transplantation overall and progression-free survivals, 59% and 42%, respectively compared to patients with related donor transplantation, 66% and 44% (P = 0.241). In conclusion, these results suggest that URD in MM is feasible. The small number of patients with URD emphasizes the need to delineate indications and perform prospective protocols.

  17. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  18. Alteration of coffinite under reducing and oxidizing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deditius, Artur P.; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Pointeau, Veronique; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2010-05-01

    Coffinite, USiO4, is a one of the two naturally occurring actinide silicates (second is thorite, ThSiO4) studied to elucidate the alteration of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under reducing conditions in a Si-rich environment. In order to understand the stability of coffinite under different redox condition in natural systems, we have investigated coffinite the Grants Uranium Belt, New Mexico, USA (reducing and oxidizing conditions) utilizing a variety of electron microbeam techniques. Fine-grained coffinite (≤10 μm) from Woodrow Mine coexists with carbonate-fluorapatite (CFAp) and (Ca,Sr)-(meta)autunite (M-Aut). It precipitated under reducing conditions replacing CFAp, pyrite and aluminosilicates. Electron-microprobe analyses (EMPA) of coffinite indicate limited incorporation of P2O5 and CaO, below 2.7 and 3.0 wt.%, respectively, into the coffinite structure during replacement of CFAp. The chemical formula of coffinite is (U0.95±0.09Ca0.15±0.02)Σ1.10±0.1(Si0.84±0.08P0.06±0.02)Σ0.90±0.08. Analysis by high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) revealed that coffinite initially formed as crystals as large as 100 nm at the edges of altered CFAp. Subsequently, infiltration of (Na,Ba,Sr)-rich oxidizing fluids into fractures resulted in precipitation of Sr-rich M-Aut (up to 4 wt.% of SrO) at the expense of coffinite and CFAp. High-resolution TEM reveals that Na-rich fluids caused a distortion of the ideal coffinite structure and stabilized amorphous domains that formed due to alpha-decay event radiation damage. Subsequently, the Na-enriched amorphous areas of coffinite were preferentially altered, and secondary porosity formed at the scale of ~1 μm. Porosity also was formed during alteration of CFAp to M-Aut, which facilitated the migration of oxidizing fluids over distances of ~150 μm into CFAp, as evidenced by precipitation of M-Aut. These results show that micro-scale dissolution of apatite can create conditions

  19. An updated validation of Promega's PowerPlex 16 System: high throughput databasing under reduced PCR volume conditions on Applied Biosystem's 96 capillary 3730xl DNA Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Spathis, Rita; Lum, J Koji

    2008-11-01

    The PowerPlex 16 System from Promega Corporation allows single tube multiplex amplification of sixteen short tandem repeat (STR) loci including all 13 core combined DNA index system STRs. This report presents an updated validation of the PowerPlex 16 System on Applied Biosystem's 96 capillary 3730xl DNA Analyzer. The validation protocol developed in our laboratory allows for the analysis of 1536 loci (96 x 16) in c. 50 min. We have further optimized the assay by decreasing the reaction volume to one-quarter that recommended by the manufacturer thereby substantially reducing the total cost per sample without compromising reproducibility or specificity. This reduction in reaction volume has the ancillary benefit of dramatically increasing the sensitivity of the assay allowing for accurate analysis of lower quantities of DNA. Due to its substantially increased throughput capability, this extended validation of the PowerPlex 16 System should be useful in reducing the backlog of unanalyzed DNA samples currently facing public DNA forensic laboratories.

  20. Reducing Muslim/Arab stereotypes through evaluative conditioning.

    PubMed

    French, Andrea R; Franz, Timothy M; Phelan, Laura L; Blaine, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    This study replicated and extended Olson and Fazio (2006) by testing whether evaluative conditioning is a means to reduce negative stereotypes about Muslim and other Arab persons. Specifically, evaluative conditioning was hypothesized to lower implicit biases against Muslim and Arab persons. The FreeIAT was used to measure implicit biases. Participants in the evaluative conditioning group showed a significant lowering in implicit biases. Explicit measures of bias were not affected by the conditioning procedure.

  1. Microbial mineralization of ethene under sulfate-reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2002-01-01

    A limited investigation of the potential for anaerobic ethylene biodegradation under SO4-reducing conditions was performed. Microorganisms indigenous to a lake-bed sediment completely mineralized [1,2-14C] ethylene to 14CO2 when incubated under SO4-reducing conditions. Reliance on ethylene and/or ethane accumulation as a quantitative indicator of complete reductive dechlorination of chloroethylene contaminants may not be warranted. SO4 addition stimulated SO4 reduction as indicated by decreasing SO4 concentrations (> 40% decrease) and production of dissolved sulfide (880 ??M). SO4 amendment completely suppressed the production of ethane and methane. The concomitant absence of ethane and methane production under SO4-amended conditions was consistent with previous conclusions that reduction of ethylene to ethane occurred under methanogenic conditions. A lack of ethylene accumulation under SO4-reducing conditions may reflect insignificant reductive dechlorination of vinyl chloride or efficient anaerobic mineralization of ethylene to CO2.

  2. REDUCED INTENSITY CONDITIONING FOR ALLOGENEIC HEMATOPOIETIC CELL TRANSPLANTATION: CURRENT PERSPECTIVES

    PubMed Central

    Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Mackinnon, Stephen; Childs, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after myeloablative conditioning is an effective therapy for patients with hematologic malignancies. In an attempt to extend this therapy to older patients or those with comorbidities, reduced intensity or truly nonmyeloablative regimens have been developed over the last decade. The principle underlying reduced intensity regimens is to provide some tumor kill with lessened regimen-related morbidity and mortality, then rely on graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects to eradicate remaining malignant cells, while nonmyeloablative regimens rely primarily on GVT effects. In this article, three representative approaches are described, demonstrating the clinical application for both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic malignancies. Current challenges include controlling graft-versus-host disease while allowing GVT to occur. In the future, clinical trials using reduced intensity and nonmyeloablative conditioning will be compared to myeloablative conditioning in selected malignancies to extend the application to standard risk patients. PMID:17222778

  3. Reducing automatically activated racial prejudice through implicit evaluative conditioning.

    PubMed

    Olson, Michael A; Fazio, Russell H

    2006-04-01

    The authors report a set of experiments that use an implicit evaluative conditioning procedure to reduce automatically activated racial prejudice in White participants in a short period and with relatively few trials. Experiment 1 demonstrated that participants were unaware of the repeated conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US) pairings of Black-good and White-bad. In Experiment 2, the procedure was found to be effective in reducing prejudice as indicated by an evaluative priming measure of automatically activated racial attitudes. In Experiment 3, this reduction in prejudice was found to persist throughout a 2-day separation between the conditioning procedure and the administration of the dependent measure. The implications of the present findings for the persistence of automatically activated racial prejudice are discussed.

  4. Degradation of 4-n-nonylphenol under nitrate reducing conditions

    PubMed Central

    Viñas, Marc; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub H. M.; Langenhoff, Alette A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) is an endocrine disruptor present as a pollutant in river sediment. Biodegradation of NP can reduce its toxicological risk. As sediments are mainly anaerobic, degradation of linear (4-n-NP) and branched nonylphenol (tNP) was studied under methanogenic, sulphate reducing and denitrifying conditions in NP polluted river sediment. Anaerobic bioconversion was observed only for linear NP under denitrifying conditions. The microbial population involved herein was further studied by enrichment and molecular characterization. The largest change in diversity was observed between the enrichments of the third and fourth generation, and further enrichment did not affect the diversity. This implies that different microorganisms are involved in the degradation of 4-n-NP in the sediment. The major degrading bacteria were most closely related to denitrifying hexadecane degraders and linear alkyl benzene sulphonate (LAS) degraders. The molecular structures of alkanes and LAS are similar to the linear chain of 4-n-NP, this might indicate that the biodegradation of linear NP under denitrifying conditions starts at the nonyl chain. Initiation of anaerobic NP degradation was further tested using phenol as a structure analogue. Phenol was chosen instead of an aliphatic analogue, because phenol is the common structure present in all NP isomers while the structure of the aliphatic chain differs per isomer. Phenol was degraded in all cases, but did not affect the linear NP degradation under denitrifying conditions and did not initiate the degradation of tNP and linear NP under the other tested conditions. PMID:20640878

  5. Oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under sulfate-reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, J.D.; Anderson, R.T.; Lovley, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    [14C]naphthalene and phenanthrene were oxidized to 14CO2 without a detectable lag under strict anaerobic conditions in sediments from San Diego Bay, San Diego, Calif., that were heavily contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) but not in less contaminated sediments. Sulfate reduction was necessary for PAH oxidation. These results suggest that the self-purification capacity of PAH-contaminated sulfate-reducing environments may be greater than previously recognized.

  6. TECHNETIUM SORPTION BY CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS UNDER REDUCING CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.; Estes, S.; Arai, Y.; Powell, B.

    2012-01-31

    The objective of this study was to measure Tc sorption to cementitious materials under reducing conditions to simulate Saltstone Disposal Facility conditions. Earlier studies were conducted and the experimental conditions were found not to simulate those of the facility. Through a five month subcontract with Clemson University, sorption of {sup 99}Tc to four cementitious materials was examined within an anaerobic glovebag targeting a 0.1% H2(g)/ 99.9% N{sub 2}(g) atmosphere. Early experiments based on Tc sorption and Eh indicated that 0.1% H{sub 2}(g) (a reductant) was necessary to preclude experimental impacts from O{sub 2}(g) diffusion into the glovebag. Preliminary data to date (up to 56 days) indicates that sorption of {sup 99}Tc to cementitious materials increased with increasing slag content for simulated saltstone samples. This is consistent with the conceptual model that redox active sulfide groups within the reducing slag facilitate reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(IV). These experiments differ from previous experiments where a 2% H{sub 2}(g) atmosphere was maintained (Kaplan et al., 2011 (SRNL-STI-2010-00668)). The impact of the 2% H{sub 2}(g) reducing atmosphere on this data was examined and determined to cause the reduction of Tc in experimental samples without slag. In the present ongoing study, after 56 days, Tc sorption by the 50-year old cement samples (no slag) was undetectable, whereas Tc sorption in the cementitious materials containing slag continues to increase with contact time (measured after 1, 4, 8, 19 and 56 days). Sorption was not consistent with spike concentrations and steady state has not been demonstrated after 56 days. The average conditional K{sub d} value for the Vault 2 cementitious material was 6,362 mL/g (17% slag), for the TR547 Saltstone (45% slag) the conditional K{sub d} was 1258 mL/g, and for TR545 (90% slag) the conditional K{sub d} was 12,112 mL/g. It is anticipated that additional samples will be collected until steady state

  7. Reducing Heating In High-Speed Cinematography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, Howard A.

    1989-01-01

    Infrared-absorbing and infrared-reflecting glass filters simple and effective means for reducing rise in temperature during high-speed motion-picture photography. "Hot-mirror" and "cold-mirror" configurations, employed in projection of images, helps prevent excessive heating of scenes by powerful lamps used in high-speed photography.

  8. Technetium Sorption by Cementitious Materials Under Reducing Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, Daniel I.; Estes, Shanna L.; Powell, Brian A.

    2012-09-28

    The objective of this study was to measure technetium ({sup 99}Tc) sorption to cementitious materials under reducing conditions to simulate Saltstone Disposal Facility conditions. {sup 99}Tc(VII) batch sorption experiments were conducted for 319 days in an inert glovebag with a variety of cementitious materials (aged cement, Vault 2, TR545, and TR547) containing varying amounts of blast furnace slag. Between 154 and 319 days, the {sup 99}Tc aqueous concentrations tended to remain constant and samples amended with different initial {sup 99}Tc concentrations, tended to merge at about 10{sup -9} M for Vault 2 (17% slag) and TR545 (90% slag) and 10{sup -8} M for TR547 (45% slag). This data provided strong evidence that solubility, and not adsorption (K{sub d} values), was controlling aqueous {sup 99}Tc concentrations. Laboratory data superimposed over thermodynamic speciation diagrams further supported the conclusion that solubility, and not adsorption controlled {sup 99}Tc aqueous concentrations. The oxidation state of the aqueous {sup 99}Tc at the end of the sorption experiment was determined by solvent extraction to be almost entirely {sup 99}Tc(VII). The pH of the present system was ~11.8. Previously proposed solubility controlling phases including Tc-sulfides may be present, but do not appear to control solubility. After the 319 day sorption period, the suspensions were removed from the glovebag and a desorption step under oxic conditions was conducted for 20 days by adding oxic, pH-buffered solutions to the suspensions. {sup 99}Tc aqueous concentrations increased by more than an order of magnitude and Eh increased by several hundred millivolts within 24 hours after the introduction of the oxic solutions. These desorption results are consistent with re-oxidation and dissolution/desorption of {sup 99}Tc(IV) phases possibly present in the cementitious materials after the anoxic sorption step of the experiment. Aqueous {sup 99}Tc concentrations continued to increase

  9. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  10. Technetium Sorption By Cementitious Materials Under Reducing Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, Daniel I.; Estes, Shanna L.; Arai, Yuji; Powell, Brian A.

    2013-07-18

    The objective of this study was to measure Tc sorption to cementitious materials under reducing conditions to simulate Saltstone Disposal Facility conditions. Earlier studies were conducted and the experimental conditions were found not to simulate those of the facility. Through a five month subcontract with Clemson University, sorption of {sup 99}Tc to four cementitious materials was examined within an anaerobic glovebag targeting a 0.1% H{sub 2}(g)/ 99.9% N{sub 2}(g) atmosphere. Early experiments based on Tc sorption and Eh indicated that 0.1% H{sub 2}(g) (a reductant) was necessary to preclude experimental impacts from O{sub 2}(g) diffusion into the glovebag. Preliminary data to date (up to 56 days) indicates that sorption of {sup 99}Tc to cementitious materials increased with increasing slag content for simulated saltstone samples. This is consistent with the conceptual model that redox active sulfide groups within the reducing slag facilitate reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(IV). These experiments differ from previous experiments where a 2% H{sub 2}(g) atmosphere was maintained (Kaplan et al., 2011 (SRNL-STI-2010-00668)). The impact of the 2% H{sub 2}(g) reducing atmosphere on this data was examined and determined to cause the reduction of Tc in experimental samples without slag. In the present ongoing study, after 56 days, Tc sorption by the 50-year old cement samples (no slag) was undetectable, whereas Tc sorption in the cementitious materials containing slag continues to increase with contact time (measured after 1, 4, 8, 19 and 56 days). Sorption was not consistent with spike concentrations and steady state has not been demonstrated after 56 days. The average conditional K{sub d} value for the Vault 2 cementitious material was 873 mL/g (17% slag), for the TR547 Saltstone (45% slag) the conditional K{sub d} was 168 mL/g, and for TR545 (90% slag) the conditional K{sub d} was 1,619 mL/g. It is anticipated that additional samples will be collected until steady state

  11. Reduced bleed air extraction for DC-10 cabin air conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, W. H.; Viele, M. R.; Hrach, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that a significant fuel savings can be achieved by reducing bleed air used for cabin air conditioning. Air in the cabin can be recirculated to maintain comfortable ventilation rates but the quality of the air tends to decrease due to entrainment of smoke and odors. Attention is given to a development system designed and fabricated under the NASA Engine Component Improvement Program to define the recirculation limit for the DC-10. It is shown that with the system, a wide range of bleed air reductions and recirculation rates is possible. A goal of 0.8% fuel savings has been achieved which results from a 50% reduction in bleed extraction from the engine.

  12. Legal Regulation of Sodium Consumption to Reduce Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Barraza, Leila F.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, tens of thousands of Americans die each year of heart disease, stroke, or other chronic conditions tied to hypertension from long-term overconsumption of sodium compounds. Major strides to lower dietary sodium have been made over decades, but the goal of reducing Americans’ daily consumption is elusive. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been urged to consider stronger regulatory limits on sodium, especially in processed and prepared foods. Still, FDA categorizes salt (and many other sodium compounds) as “generally recognized as safe,” meaning they can be added to foods when ingested in reasonable amounts. Legal reforms or actions at each level of government offer traditional and new routes to improving chronic disease outcomes. However, using law as a public health tool must be assessed carefully, given potential trade-offs and unproven efficacy. PMID:26890409

  13. Release of Pharmaceuticals under Reducing Conditions in a Wastewater-Irrigated Mexican Soil.

    PubMed

    Dalkmann, Philipp; Dresemann, Tim-Fabian; Siebe, Christina; Mansfeldt, Tim; Amelung, Wulf; Siemens, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Wastewater irrigation is often performed by flood irrigation, leading to changes in redox potential (Eh) of irrigated soils. In addition to soil organic matter, Fe-(hydr)oxides are important sorbents for pollutants, and biotransformation of pollutants can be accelerated under reducing conditions. Here, the influence of reducing conditions on the release of sorbed pharmaceuticals from soil and their potential accelerated dissipation was investigated in a microcosm study. Samples of a soil from the Mezquital Valley (Mexico) irrigated for 85 yr with untreated wastewater were incubated under oxidizing (Eh of 500 ± 20 mV), weakly reducing (Eh of 100 ± 20 mV), and moderately reducing (Eh of -100 ± 20 mV) soil conditions for 30 to 31 d. The concentrations of nine pharmaceuticals (bezafibrate, carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, enrofloxacin, clarithromycin, diclofenac, and naproxen) were extracted via solid-phase extraction from soil slurries and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Low Eh did not lead to a release of formerly sorbed pharmaceuticals from the wastewater irrigated soil. High pH values (>8) of the examined soil resulting from denitrification under reducing conditions prevented the dissolution of Fe-(hydr)oxides and, hence, the potential release of pharmaceuticals. A trend of decreasing concentrations of sulfamethoxazole and bezafibrate with time under moderately reducing conditions supports previous findings of a transformation of these compounds under anaerobic conditions. PMID:25602209

  14. Transformation of nitroaromatic pesticides under sulfate-reducing condition (SRC)

    SciTech Connect

    Gui, L.; Bouwer, E.J.

    1996-10-01

    Nitroaromatic pesticides are widely used and have been detected in various environments. Little is known about their fate under SRC where H{sub 2}S levels are elevated due to microbial activity. Nitroaromatics are highly susceptible to biotic and abiotic transformation under SRC. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the importance of biotic and abiotic transformation processes and to determine factors affecting transformation rates under SRC. Trifluralin, dicloran, PCNB, and dinoseb were examined. Biotic and abiotic transformation of PCNB and trifluralin occurred rapidly, while dicloran could only be biotically transformed. Dinoseb transformation was affected by bacterial growth conditions (the presence of co-substrates and yeast extract) for biotic transformation and the availability of H{sub 2}S and trace metals for abiotic transformation. Trace metals served as electron mediators. All pesticide transformations followed pseudo-first order kinetics. The initial transformation step appeared to be nitroreduction. This information provides ways to manipulate environmental conditions to enhance anaerobic remediation of nitroaromatic pesticides.

  15. Chalcophile element partitioning in highly oxidised and highly reduced bodies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiseeva, K.; Wood, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    In our recent studies [1-3] we showed that partitioning of many chalcophile elements could be described by a simple relationship as a function of the FeO content of the silicate liquid. LogDi ~= A-0.5nlog[FeO] where A is a constant, n is the constant related to the valency of element i and [FeO] is the concentration of FeO in the silicate melt. For many chalcophile and moderately chalcophile elements (e.g., Zn, Cr, Pb, Sb, In), the fitted slope n depends only on the valency of the element. More lithophile elements (e.g., Ti, Nb, Ce, Ga) exhibit concave upwards behavior on a plot of logD versus log[FeO] due to their strong interaction with oxygen in sulphide, which increases with the increasing FeO content of the silicate liquid. Strongly chalcophile elements, like Cu, Ag and Ni have the opposite trend (concave downwards) and their D decreases both at high (> 10-12wt %) and very low (< 1wt%) FeO contents of the silicate melt. These changes correlate with increasing S content of the silicate melt (up to 11 wt%) as the FeO content of the silicate melt declines to ~0.3wt%. An experiment at 1.5 GPa/1420oC having 4 wt% S and 0.28 wt% FeO in the silicate melt has DCu (sulf/sil) ~ 84, which is about 6 times lower than the DCu(sulf/sil) at identical p-T conditions but at 8 wt% FeO in the silicate melt. Our new experimental data on Re partitioning between sulphide and silicate melt in the CMAS+FeO system show that Re behaves similarly to the highly chalcophile elements and exhibits concave downwards behaviour on the LogD/LogFeO diagram. With the highest DRe (sulf/sil) at around 1.5-2.0x104 at 1.5-6.0 wt% FeO in the silicate melt, DRe (sulf/sil) declines to the values of 50-150 at ~0.5 wt% and > ~15 wt% FeO in the silicate melt, respectively. This means that at highly reducing conditions Re is similarly or less chalcophile than some of the highly lithophile elements, like Ta (D ≈ 9), Nb (D ≈ 600), Ti (D ≈ 6) [3]. The results mean that in oxidised bodies like Mars and

  16. Bacterial siderophores promote dissolution of UO2 under reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Scott W; Kretzschmar, Ruben; Kraemer, Stephan M

    2005-08-01

    Tetravalent actinides are often considered environmentally immobile due to their strong hydrolysis and formation of sparingly soluble oxide phases. However, biogenic ligands commonly found in the soil environment may increase their solubility and mobility. We studied the adsorption and dissolution kinetics of UO2 in the presence of a microbial siderophore, desferrioxamine-B (DFO-B), under reducing conditions. Using batch and continuous flow stirred tank reactors (CFSTR),we found that DFO-B increases the solubility of UIV and accelerates UO2 dissolution rates through a ligand-promoted dissolution mechanism. DFO-B adsorption to UO2 followed a Langmuir-type isotherm. The maximum adsorbed DFO-B concentrations were 3.3 micromol m(-2) between pH 3 and 8 and declined above pH 8. DFO-B dissolved UO2 at a DFO-B surface-saturated net rate of 64 nmol h(-1) m(-2) (pH 7.5, l = 0.01 M) according to the first-order rate equation R = kL[Lads], with a rate coefficient kL of 0.019 h(-1). Even at very low siderophore concentrations (e.g. 1 microM), net dissolution rates (16 nmol h(-1) m(-2), pH 7.5, l = 0.01 M) were substantially greater than net proton-promoted dissolution rates (3 nmol h(-1) m(-2), pH 7-7.5, l = 0.01 M). Interestingly, adding dissolved FeIII had negligible effects on DFO-B-promoted UO2 dissolution rates, despite its potential as a competitor for DFO-B and as an oxidant of UIV. Our results suggest that strong organic ligands could influence the environmental mobility of tetravalent actinides and should be considered in predictions for nuclear waste storage and remediation strategies. PMID:16124306

  17. Conditions for Describing Triplet States in Reduced Density Matrix Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Theophilou, Iris; Lathiotakis, Nektarios N; Helbig, Nicole

    2016-06-14

    We consider necessary conditions for the one-body reduced density matrix (1RDM) to correspond to a triplet wave function of a two-electron system. The conditions concern the occupation numbers and are different for the high spin projections, Sz = ±1, and the Sz = 0 projection. Hence, they can be used to test if an approximate 1RDM functional yields the same energies for both projections. We employ these conditions in reduced density matrix functional theory calculations for the triplet excitations of two-electron systems. In addition, we propose that these conditions can be used in the calculation of triplet states of systems with more than two electrons by restricting the active space. We assess this procedure in calculations for a few atomic and molecular systems. We show that the quality of the optimal 1RDMs improves by applying the conditions in all the cases we studied. PMID:27171683

  18. In situ mobility of uranium in the presence of nitrate following sulfate-reducing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradis, Charles J.; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Watson, David B.; McKay, Larry D.; Hazen, Terry C.; Park, Melora; Istok, Jonathan D.

    2016-04-01

    Reoxidation and mobilization of previously reduced and immobilized uranium by dissolved-phase oxidants poses a significant challenge for remediating uranium-contaminated groundwater. Preferential oxidation of reduced sulfur-bearing species, as opposed to reduced uranium-bearing species, has been demonstrated to limit the mobility of uranium at the laboratory scale yet field-scale investigations are lacking. In this study, the mobility of uranium in the presence of nitrate oxidant was investigated in a shallow groundwater system after establishing conditions conducive to uranium reduction and the formation of reduced sulfur-bearing species. A series of three injections of groundwater (200 L) containing U(VI) (5 μM) and amended with ethanol (40 mM) and sulfate (20 mM) were conducted in ten test wells in order to stimulate microbial-mediated reduction of uranium and the formation of reduced sulfur-bearing species. Simultaneous push-pull tests were then conducted in triplicate well clusters to investigate the mobility of U(VI) under three conditions: 1) high nitrate (120 mM), 2) high nitrate (120 mM) with ethanol (30 mM), and 3) low nitrate (2 mM) with ethanol (30 mM). Dilution-adjusted breakthrough curves of ethanol, nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, and U(VI) suggested that nitrate reduction was predominantly coupled to the oxidation of reduced-sulfur bearing species, as opposed to the reoxidation of U(IV), under all three conditions for the duration of the 36-day tests. The amount of sulfate, but not U(VI), recovered during the push-pull tests was substantially more than injected, relative to bromide tracer, under all three conditions and further suggested that reduced sulfur-bearing species were preferentially oxidized under nitrate-reducing conditions. However, some reoxidation of U(IV) was observed under nitrate-reducing conditions and in the absence of detectable nitrate and/or nitrite. This suggested that reduced sulfur-bearing species may not be fully effective at

  19. A Smoothed Boundary Condition for Reducing Nonphysical Field Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Arlynn W.; Parks, Joseph W., Jr.; Haralson, Joe N., II; Brennan, Kevin F.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the problem associated with abruptly mixing boundary conditions in the context of a two-dimensional semiconductor device simulator. Explicitly, this paper addresses the transition between an ohmic-type Dirichlet condition and a passivated Neumann boundary. In the traditional setting, the details or the transition between the two boundary types are not addressed and an abrupt transition is assumed. Subsequently, the calculated observables (most notably the potential) exhibit discontinuous derivatives near the surface at the point where the boundary type switches. This paper proposes an alternative condition which models the progression between the two boundary types through the use of a finite length, smoothed boundary whereby the numerical discontinuities are eliminated. The physical and mathematical basis for this smoothed boundary condition is discussed and examples of the technique's implementation given. It is found that the proposed boundary condition is numerically efficient and can be implemented in pre-existing device simulators with relative ease.

  20. Experimental Low Temperature Aqueous Alteration of Allende Under Reducing Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, C. L.; Brearley, A. J.

    1999-03-01

    This abstract presents the results of a series of low temperature hydrothermal alteration experiments that were carried out in an anoxic environment. The results are compared with the results of previous experiments run under oxidizing conditions.

  1. Growth Conditions To Reduce Oxalic Acid Content of Spinach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Rutzke, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    A controlled-environment agricultural (CEA) technique to increase the nutritive value of spinach has been developed. This technique makes it possible to reduce the concentration of oxalic acid in spinach leaves. It is desirable to reduce the oxalic acid content because oxalic acid acts as an anti-nutritive calcium-binding component. More than 30 years ago, an enzyme (an oxidase) that breaks down oxalic acid into CO2 and H2O2 was discovered and found to be naturally present in spinach leaves. However, nitrate, which can also be present because of the use of common nitratebased fertilizers, inactivates the enzyme. In the CEA technique, one cuts off the supply of nitrate and keeps the spinach plants cool while providing sufficient oxygen. This technique provides the precise environment that enables the enzyme to naturally break down oxalate. The result of application of this technique is that the oxalate content is reduced by 2/3 in one week.

  2. Reduced hydrogen permeability at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Klopp, W. D.; Misencik, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    CO and CO2 reduce hydrogen loss through iron, nickel, and cobalt based alloy tubes. Method is based on concept that oxide film on metal surface reduces hydrogen permeability through metal; adding CO or CO2 forms oxide films continuously during operation, and hydrogen containment is improved. Innovation enhances prospects for Stirling engine system utilization.

  3. On High-Order Radiation Boundary Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagstrom, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we develop the theory of high-order radiation boundary conditions for wave propagation problems. In particular, we study the convergence of sequences of time-local approximate conditions to the exact boundary condition, and subsequently estimate the error in the solutions obtained using these approximations. We show that for finite times the Pade approximants proposed by Engquist and Majda lead to exponential convergence if the solution is smooth, but that good long-time error estimates cannot hold for spatially local conditions. Applications in fluid dynamics are also discussed.

  4. Cord Blood Transplantation Following Reduced-intensity Conditioning for Adult-onset Inherited Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Takuro; Kato, Koji; Sakamoto, Keiji; Hayashi, Masayasu; Takashima, Shuichiro; Mori, Yasuo; Takenaka, Katsuto; Iwasaki, Hiromi; Teshima, Takanori; Harada, Naoki; Nagafuji, Koji; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Akashi, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Inherited hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a genetic anomaly disorder in which abnormally activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes cannot induce the apoptosis of target cells and antigen-presenting cells, leading to hemophagocytosis, pancytopenia, and a variety of symptoms such as a high fever. The present patient with adult-onset HLH developed refractory disease despite receiving immunosuppressive treatments. He underwent a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen that comprised antithymocyte globulin (ATG) followed by cord blood transplantation (RIC-CBT). He achieved and maintained a complete donor type. The incorporation of ATG into RIC-CBT may prevent graft failure and control hemophagocytosis, however, further efforts are necessary to reduce infectious complications. PMID:26984088

  5. Human Locomotion under Reduced Gravity Conditions: Biomechanical and Neurophysiological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Sylos-Labini, Francesca; Ivanenko, Yuri P.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced gravity offers unique opportunities to study motor behavior. This paper aims at providing a review on current issues of the known tools and techniques used for hypogravity simulation and their effects on human locomotion. Walking and running rely on the limb oscillatory mechanics, and one way to change its dynamic properties is to modify the level of gravity. Gravity has a strong effect on the optimal rate of limb oscillations, optimal walking speed, and muscle activity patterns, and gait transitions occur smoothly and at slower speeds at lower gravity levels. Altered center of mass movements and interplay between stance and swing leg dynamics may challenge new forms of locomotion in a heterogravity environment. Furthermore, observations in the lack of gravity effects help to reveal the intrinsic properties of locomotor pattern generators and make evident facilitation of nonvoluntary limb stepping. In view of that, space neurosciences research has participated in the development of new technologies that can be used as an effective tool for gait rehabilitation. PMID:25247179

  6. Plutonium Oxidation State Distribution under Aerobic and Anaerobic Subsurface Conditions for Metal-Reducing Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D. T.; Swanson, J.; Khaing, H.; Deo, R.; Rittmann, B.

    2009-12-01

    The fate and potential mobility of plutonium in the subsurface is receiving increased attention as the DOE looks to cleanup the many legacy nuclear waste sites and associated subsurface contamination. Plutonium is the near-surface contaminant of concern at several DOE sites and continues to be the contaminant of concern for the permanent disposal of nuclear waste. The mobility of plutonium is highly dependent on its redox distribution at its contamination source and along its potential migration pathways. This redox distribution is often controlled, especially in the near-surface where organic/inorganic contaminants often coexist, by the direct and indirect effects of microbial activity. The redox distribution of plutonium in the presence of facultative metal reducing bacteria (specifically Shewanella and Geobacter species) was established in a concurrent experimental and modeling study under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Pu(VI), although relatively soluble under oxidizing conditions at near-neutral pH, does not persist under a wide range of the oxic and anoxic conditions investigated in microbiologically active systems. Pu(V) complexes, which exhibit high chemical toxicity towards microorganisms, are relatively stable under oxic conditions but are reduced by metal reducing bacteria under anaerobic conditions. These facultative metal-reducing bacteria led to the rapid reduction of higher valent plutonium to form Pu(III/IV) species depending on nature of the starting plutonium species and chelating agents present in solution. Redox cycling of these lower oxidation states is likely a critical step in the formation of pseudo colloids that may lead to long-range subsurface transport. The CCBATCH biogeochemical model is used to explain the redox mechanisms and final speciation of the plutonium oxidation state distributions observed. These results for microbiologically active systems are interpreted in the context of their importance in defining the overall migration

  7. Environmental Factors Affecting Ammonium Oxidation Under Iron Reducing Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, P. R.; Huang, S.; Ruiz-Urigüen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonium (NH4+) oxidation coupled to iron (Fe) reduction in the absence of oxygen and nitrate/nitrite (NO3-/NO2-) has been reported by several investigators and referred to as Feammox. Feammox is a biological reaction, where Fe(III) is the electron acceptor, which is reduced to Fe(II), and NH4+ is the electron donor, which is oxidized to NO2-. Through a 180-day anaerobic incubation experiment, and using PCR-DGGE, 454-pyosequecing and qPCR analysis, we have shown that an Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6, a previously unreported species in the Acidimicrobiaceae family, might be either responsible or plays a key role in the Feammox process, We have enriched these Feammox bacteria (65.8% in terms of cell numbers) in a membrane reactor, and isolated the pure Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 strain in an autotrophic medium. In samples collected and then incubated from a series of local wetland-, upland-, as well as storm-water detention pond-sediments, Feammox activity was only detected in acidic soil environments that contain Fe oxides. Using primers we developed for this purpose, Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected in all incubations where Feammox was observed. Anaerobic incubations of Feammox enrichment cultures adjusted to different pH, revealed that the optimal pH for Feammox is 4 ~ 5, and the reaction does not proceed when pH > 7. Feammox was still proceeding at pH as low as 2. In Feammox culture amended with different Fe(III) sources, Feammox reaction proceeded only when Fe oxides (ferrihydrite or goethite ) were supplied, whereas samples incubated with ferric chloride or ferric citrate showed no measurable NH4+ oxidation. Furthermore, we have also determined from incubation experiments conducted with a temperature gradient (10 ~ 35℃), that the Feammox process was active when the temperature is above 15℃, and the optimal temperature is 20℃. Incubations of enrichment culture with 79% Feammox bacteria appeared to remove circa 8% more NH4+ at 20ºC than at

  8. Alteration of Coffinite (USiO{sub 4}) Under Reducing and Oxidizing Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Deditius, Artur Piotr; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2007-07-01

    Samples of natural coffinite (USiO{sub 4}.nH{sub 2}O) from Grants uranium region, New Mexico were investigated in order to understand the alteration process of coffinite under reducing and oxidizing conditions. Alteration of the primary coffinite under reducing conditions was promoted by organic acids, and as a result, secondary coffinite precipitated. Subsequently oxidizing fluids altered the coffinite, and (Na,K)-boltwoodite [(Na,K)(UO{sub 2})(SiO{sub 3}OH)(H{sub 2}O){sub 1.5}] and jachymovite [(UO{sub 2})(SO{sub 4})(OH){sub 14}(H{sub 2}O){sub 13}] precipitated with no rare earth elements. Based on the charge balance calculation, we suggest that the amount of U{sup 6+} in the coffinite is less than 0.2 [apfu] and U{sup 6+} is accommodated in the structure via substitution: U{sup 4+} + Si{sup 4+} {r_reversible} U{sup 6+} + 2(OH){sup -}. The high and variable totals for electron microprobe analyses indicate that H{sub 2}O is not an essential component in coffinite structure. The U-Pb ages of coffinite formation vary from 36.6-0 Ma suggesting that the coffinite has precipitated continuously in this period and organic matter can preserve reducing conditions even when oxidizing conditions dominate. (authors)

  9. A strategy for oxygen conditioning at high altitude: comparison with air conditioning.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2015-09-15

    Large numbers of people live or work at high altitude, and many visit to trek or ski. The inevitable hypoxia impairs physical working capacity, and at higher altitudes there is also cognitive impairment. Twenty years ago oxygen enrichment of room air was introduced to reduce the hypoxia, and this is now used in dormitories, hotels, mines, and telescopes. However, recent advances in technology now allow large amounts of oxygen to be obtained from air or cryogenic oxygen sources. As a result it is now feasible to oxygenate large buildings and even institutions such as hospitals. An analogy can be drawn between air conditioning that has improved the living and working conditions of millions of people who live in hot climates and oxygen conditioning that can do the same at high altitude. Oxygen conditioning is similar to air conditioning except that instead of cooling the air, the oxygen concentration is raised, thus reducing the equivalent altitude. Oxygen conditioning on a large scale could transform living and working conditions at high altitude, where it could be valuable in homes, hospitals, schools, dormitories, company headquarters, banks, and legislative settings.

  10. A strategy for oxygen conditioning at high altitude: comparison with air conditioning.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2015-09-15

    Large numbers of people live or work at high altitude, and many visit to trek or ski. The inevitable hypoxia impairs physical working capacity, and at higher altitudes there is also cognitive impairment. Twenty years ago oxygen enrichment of room air was introduced to reduce the hypoxia, and this is now used in dormitories, hotels, mines, and telescopes. However, recent advances in technology now allow large amounts of oxygen to be obtained from air or cryogenic oxygen sources. As a result it is now feasible to oxygenate large buildings and even institutions such as hospitals. An analogy can be drawn between air conditioning that has improved the living and working conditions of millions of people who live in hot climates and oxygen conditioning that can do the same at high altitude. Oxygen conditioning is similar to air conditioning except that instead of cooling the air, the oxygen concentration is raised, thus reducing the equivalent altitude. Oxygen conditioning on a large scale could transform living and working conditions at high altitude, where it could be valuable in homes, hospitals, schools, dormitories, company headquarters, banks, and legislative settings. PMID:26139219

  11. Adaptation of iron requirement to hypoxic conditions at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Gassmann, Max; Muckenthaler, Martina U

    2015-12-15

    Adequate acclimatization time to enable adjustment to hypoxic conditions is one of the most important aspects for mountaineers ascending to high altitude. Accordingly, most reviews emphasize mechanisms that cope with reduced oxygen supply. However, during sojourns to high altitude adjustment to elevated iron demand is equally critical. Thus in this review we focus on the interaction between oxygen and iron homeostasis. We review the role of iron 1) in the oxygen sensing process and erythropoietin (Epo) synthesis, 2) in gene expression control mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor-2 (HIF-2), and 3) as an oxygen carrier in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochromes. The blood hormone Epo that is abundantly expressed by the kidney under hypoxic conditions stimulates erythropoiesis in the bone marrow, a process requiring high iron levels. To ensure that sufficient iron is provided, Epo-controlled erythroferrone that is expressed in erythroid precursor cells acts in the liver to reduce expression of the iron hormone hepcidin. Consequently, suppression of hepcidin allows for elevated iron release from storage organs and enhanced absorption of dietary iron by enterocytes. As recently observed in sojourners at high altitude, however, iron uptake may be hampered by reduced appetite and gastrointestinal bleeding. Reduced iron availability, as observed in a hypoxic mountaineer, enhances hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and may contribute to other hypoxia-related diseases. Overall, adequate systemic iron availability is an important prerequisite to adjust to high-altitude hypoxia and may have additional implications for disease-related hypoxic conditions.

  12. High pressure droplet burning experiments in reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chauveau, Christian; Goekalp, Iskender

    1995-01-01

    A parametric investigation of single droplet gasification regimes is helpful in providing the necessary physical ideas for sub-grid models used in spray combustion numerical prediction codes. A research program has been initiated at the LCSR to explore the vaporization regimes of single and interacting hydrocarbon and liquid oxygen droplets under high pressure conditions. This paper summarizes the status of the LCSR program on the high pressure burning of single fuel droplets; recent results obtained under normal and reduced gravity conditions with suspended droplets are presented. In the work described here, parabolic flights of the CNES Caravelle is used to create a reduced gravity environment of the order of 10(exp -2) g(sub O). For all the droplet burning experiments reported here, the suspended droplet initial diameters are scattered around 1.5 mm; and the ambient air temperature is 300 K. The ambient pressure is varied between 0.1 MPa and 12 MPa. Four fuels are investigated: methanol (Pc = 7.9 MPa), n-heptane (Pc = 2.74 MPa), n-hexane (Pc = 3.01 MPa) and n-octane (Pc = 2.48 MPa).

  13. Beam-path conditioning for high-power laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, T.; Johnson, D.; Languirand, M.

    1990-01-01

    Heating of mirrors and windows by high-power radiation from a laser transmitter produces turbulent density gradients in the gas near the optical surfaces. If the gradients are left uncontrolled, the resulting phase errors reduce the intensity on the target and degrade the signal returned to a receiver. Beam path conditioning maximizes the efficiency of the optical system by alleviating thermal turbulence within the beam path. Keywords: High power radiation, Beam path, Optical surface, Laser beams, Reprints. (JHD)

  14. The proteome of dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganism Geobacter sulfurreducens under various growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan-Huai R; Hixson, Kim K; Giometti, Carol S; Stanley, Ann; Esteve-Núñez, Abraham; Khare, Tripti; Tollaksen, Sandra L; Zhu, Wenhong; Adkins, Joshua N; Lipton, Mary S; Smith, Richard D; Mester, Tünde; Lovley, Derek R

    2006-07-01

    The proteome of Geobacter sulfurreducens, a model for the Geobacter species that predominate in many Fe(III)-reducing subsurface environments, was characterized with ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry using accurate mass and time (AMT) tags as well as with more traditional two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE). Cells were grown under six different growth conditions in order to enhance the potential that a wide range of genes would be expressed. The AMT tag approach was able to identify a much greater number of proteins than could be detected with the 2-D PAGE approach. With the AMT approach over 3,000 gene products were identified, representing about 90% of the total predicted gene products in the genome. A high proportion of predicted proteins in most protein role categories were detected; the highest number of proteins was identified in the hypothetical protein role category. Furthermore, 91 c-type cytochromes of 111 predicted genes in the G. sulfurreducens genome were identified. Differences in the abundance of cytochromes and other proteins under different growth conditions provided information for future functional analysis of these proteins. These results demonstrate that a high percentage of the predicted proteins in the G. sulfurreducens genome are produced and that the AMT tag approach provides a rapid method for comparing differential expression of proteins under different growth conditions in this organism.

  15. Predicting high levels of multitasking reduces between-tasks interactions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Rico; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2015-12-01

    The simultaneous handling of 2 tasks requires shielding of the prioritized primary task (T1) from interference caused by the secondary task (T2) processing. Such interactions between tasks (e.g., between-task interference, or crosstalk) depend on the similarity of both tasks and are especially pronounced when both tasks overlap strongly in time. In the present study we investigated whether between-tasks interference can be reduced when specific items do not predict the level of interference but instead the degree of temporal proximity between both tasks. We implemented an item-specific proportion manipulation of temporal task overlap (stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA]). Selected stimuli of T1 predicted high temporal task overlap (short SOAs) in 80% of trials, whereas other stimuli of T1 predicted low temporal task overlap (long SOAs) in 80% of trials. Results showed that the predictive value of T1 stimuli determined the adjustment of T1 shielding. That is, interference from the secondary task was significantly reduced for items predicting high temporal task overlap compared to items predicting low temporal task overlap. It is important to note that task shielding was not initiated by predicting the actual conflict level (i.e., whether T1 and T2 required compatible/incompatible responses) between tasks but by specific items predicting conditions in which 2 tasks are likely to interact (i.e., short vs. long SOA). These findings offer new insights into the specificity of contextual bottom-up regulations of cognitive control. PMID:26480246

  16. Predicting high levels of multitasking reduces between-tasks interactions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Rico; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2015-12-01

    The simultaneous handling of 2 tasks requires shielding of the prioritized primary task (T1) from interference caused by the secondary task (T2) processing. Such interactions between tasks (e.g., between-task interference, or crosstalk) depend on the similarity of both tasks and are especially pronounced when both tasks overlap strongly in time. In the present study we investigated whether between-tasks interference can be reduced when specific items do not predict the level of interference but instead the degree of temporal proximity between both tasks. We implemented an item-specific proportion manipulation of temporal task overlap (stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA]). Selected stimuli of T1 predicted high temporal task overlap (short SOAs) in 80% of trials, whereas other stimuli of T1 predicted low temporal task overlap (long SOAs) in 80% of trials. Results showed that the predictive value of T1 stimuli determined the adjustment of T1 shielding. That is, interference from the secondary task was significantly reduced for items predicting high temporal task overlap compared to items predicting low temporal task overlap. It is important to note that task shielding was not initiated by predicting the actual conflict level (i.e., whether T1 and T2 required compatible/incompatible responses) between tasks but by specific items predicting conditions in which 2 tasks are likely to interact (i.e., short vs. long SOA). These findings offer new insights into the specificity of contextual bottom-up regulations of cognitive control.

  17. Post-training glucocorticoid receptor activation during Pavlovian conditioning reduces Pavlovian-instrumental transfer in rats.

    PubMed

    Pielock, Steffi M; Sommer, Susanne; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-03-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that glucocorticoid receptor activation can enhance memory consolidation in Pavlovian learning tasks. For instance, post-training injections of the synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist dexamethasone increased conditioned responding to reward-predictive Pavlovian stimuli. Here we explored whether post-training dexamethasone injections can enhance appetitive Pavlovian learning and amplify the ability of Pavlovian stimuli to invigorate instrumental behaviour, a phenomenon termed Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT). Animals were given 8 training days with two sessions per day, an instrumental training session in the morning and a Pavlovian training session in the afternoon. Dexamethasone or vehicle injections were administered daily immediately after Pavlovian training sessions. In a subsequent transfer test, we measured the general PIT effect, i.e. the enhancement of lever pressing for expected reward during presentation of an appetitive Pavlovian stimulus predictive for the same reward. Repeated high-dose (1.2 mg/kg, i.p.) dexamethasone injections elicited pronounced body weight loss, markedly reduced instrumental performance and left Pavlovian learning unaltered, whereas repeated low-dose (3 μg/kg, i.p.) dexamethasone injections inhibited body weight gain, slightly reduced instrumental performance and left Pavlovian learning unaltered during training. Importantly, in rats subjected to high- and low-dose dexamethasone injections, the overall response rates and the PIT effect were reduced in the transfer test. Thus, dexamethasone given after Pavlovian training was not able to amplify the invigorating effects of Pavlovian stimuli on instrumental action. Considerable evidence suggests that body weight changes after repeated low- and high-dose dexamethasone treatment as observed here are associated with muscle atrophy that could impair response capabilities. However, our data suggest that impaired response capabilities are not a

  18. Disrupting astrocyte–neuron lactate transfer persistently reduces conditioned responses to cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Boury-Jamot, B; Carrard, A; Martin, J L; Halfon, O; Magistretti, P J; Boutrel, B

    2016-01-01

    A central problem in the treatment of drug addiction is the high risk of relapse often precipitated by drug-associated cues. The transfer of glycogen-derived lactate from astrocytes to neurons is required for long-term memory. Whereas blockade of drug memory reconsolidation represents a potential therapeutic strategy, the role of astrocyte–neuron lactate transport in long-term conditioning has received little attention. By infusing an inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase into the basolateral amygdala of rats, we report that disruption of astrocyte-derived lactate not only transiently impaired the acquisition of a cocaine-induced conditioned place preference but also persistently disrupted an established conditioning. The drug memory was rescued by L-Lactate co-administration through a mechanism requiring the synaptic plasticity-related transcription factor Zif268 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway but not the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf). The long-term amnesia induced by glycogenolysis inhibition and the concomitant decreased expression of phospho-ERK were both restored with L-Lactate co-administration. These findings reveal a critical role for astrocyte-derived lactate in positive memory formation and highlight a novel amygdala-dependent reconsolidation process, whose disruption may offer a novel therapeutic target to reduce the long-lasting conditioned responses to cocaine. PMID:26503760

  19. Disrupting astrocyte-neuron lactate transfer persistently reduces conditioned responses to cocaine.

    PubMed

    Boury-Jamot, B; Carrard, A; Martin, J L; Halfon, O; Magistretti, P J; Boutrel, B

    2016-08-01

    A central problem in the treatment of drug addiction is the high risk of relapse often precipitated by drug-associated cues. The transfer of glycogen-derived lactate from astrocytes to neurons is required for long-term memory. Whereas blockade of drug memory reconsolidation represents a potential therapeutic strategy, the role of astrocyte-neuron lactate transport in long-term conditioning has received little attention. By infusing an inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase into the basolateral amygdala of rats, we report that disruption of astrocyte-derived lactate not only transiently impaired the acquisition of a cocaine-induced conditioned place preference but also persistently disrupted an established conditioning. The drug memory was rescued by L-Lactate co-administration through a mechanism requiring the synaptic plasticity-related transcription factor Zif268 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway but not the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf). The long-term amnesia induced by glycogenolysis inhibition and the concomitant decreased expression of phospho-ERK were both restored with L-Lactate co-administration. These findings reveal a critical role for astrocyte-derived lactate in positive memory formation and highlight a novel amygdala-dependent reconsolidation process, whose disruption may offer a novel therapeutic target to reduce the long-lasting conditioned responses to cocaine. PMID:26503760

  20. Opportunities to Reduce Air-Conditioning Loads Through Lower Cabin Soak Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, R.; Cuddy, M.; Keyser, M.; Rugh, J.

    1999-07-12

    Air-conditioning loads can significantly reduce electric vehicle (EV) range and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) fuel economy. In addition, a new U. S. emissions procedure, called the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), has provided the motivation for reducing the size of vehicle air-conditioning systems in the United States. The SFTP will measure tailpipe emissions with the air-conditioning system operating. If the size of the air-conditioning system is reduced, the cabin soak temperature must also be reduced, with no penalty in terms of passenger thermal comfort. This paper presents the impact of air-conditioning on EV range and HEV fuel economy, and compares the effectiveness of advanced glazing and cabin ventilation. Experimental and modeled results are presented.

  1. Reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Gaurav; Gundabolu, Krishna; Vallabhajosyula, Saraschandra; Silberstein, Peter T.; Bhatt, Vijaya Raj

    2016-01-01

    Elderly patients (>60 years) with acute myeloid leukemia have a poor prognosis with a chemotherapy-alone approach. Allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation (HCT) can improve overall survival (OS). However, myeloablative regimens can have unacceptably high transplant-related mortality (TRM) in an unselected group of older patients. Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) or nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning regimens preserve the graft-versus-leukemia effects but reduce TRM. NMA regimens result in minimal cytopenia and may not require stem cell support for restoring hematopoiesis. RIC regimens, intermediate in intensity between NMA and myeloablative regimens, can cause prolonged myelosuppresion and usually require stem cell support. A few retrospective and prospective studies suggest a possibility of lower risk of relapse with myeloablative HCT in fit older patients with lower HCT comorbidity index; however, RIC and NMA HCTs have an important role in less-fit patients and those with significant comorbidities because of lower TRM. Whether early tapering of immunosuppression, monitoring of minimal residual disease, and post-transplant maintenance therapy can improve the outcomes of RIC and NMA HCT in elderly patients will require prospective trials. PMID:27247754

  2. Multiple electron transfer systems in oxygen reducing biocathodes revealed by different conditions of aeration/agitation.

    PubMed

    Rimboud, Mickaël; Bergel, Alain; Erable, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Oxygen reducing biocathodes were formed at -0.2V/SCE (+0.04V/SHE) from compost leachate. Depending on whether aeration was implemented or not, two different redox systems responsible for the electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction were evidenced. System I was observed at low potential (-0.03V/SHE) on cyclic voltammetries (CVs). It appeared during the early formation of the biocathode (few hours) and resisted the hydrodynamic conditions induced by the aeration. System II was observed at higher potential on CV (+0.46V/SHE); it required a longer lag time (up to 10days) and quiescent conditions to produce an electrochemical signal. The hydrodynamic effects produced by the forced aeration led to its extinction. From their different behaviors and examples in the literature, system I was identified as being a membrane-bound cytochrome-related molecule, while system II was identified as a soluble redox mediator excreted by the biofilm. This study highlighted the importance of controlling the local hydrodynamics to design efficient oxygen reducing biocathodes able to operate at high potential.

  3. Reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Gaurav; Gundabolu, Krishna; Vallabhajosyula, Saraschandra; Silberstein, Peter T; Bhatt, Vijaya Raj

    2016-06-01

    Elderly patients (>60 years) with acute myeloid leukemia have a poor prognosis with a chemotherapy-alone approach. Allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation (HCT) can improve overall survival (OS). However, myeloablative regimens can have unacceptably high transplant-related mortality (TRM) in an unselected group of older patients. Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) or nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning regimens preserve the graft-versus-leukemia effects but reduce TRM. NMA regimens result in minimal cytopenia and may not require stem cell support for restoring hematopoiesis. RIC regimens, intermediate in intensity between NMA and myeloablative regimens, can cause prolonged myelosuppresion and usually require stem cell support. A few retrospective and prospective studies suggest a possibility of lower risk of relapse with myeloablative HCT in fit older patients with lower HCT comorbidity index; however, RIC and NMA HCTs have an important role in less-fit patients and those with significant comorbidities because of lower TRM. Whether early tapering of immunosuppression, monitoring of minimal residual disease, and post-transplant maintenance therapy can improve the outcomes of RIC and NMA HCT in elderly patients will require prospective trials.

  4. Mercury's core fraction and ancient crustal composition: Predictions from planetary formation under extremely reducing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S. M.; Elkins-Tanton, L.

    2007-12-01

    Several hypotheses have been suggested to explain the paradox of Mercury's large core, which is on the order of sixty percent of the mass of the planet and recently demonstrated to be at least partially molten. Here we suggest that extremely reducing conditions in the earliest stages of planetary accretion nearest to the Sun may have produced the unusual metallic iron fraction by reducing iron otherwise bound into silicates. We demonstrate the formation conditions necessary for various meteoritic bulk compositions to produce the core/mantle ratio of Mercury. During this hypothetical core formation, we assume the remaining silicate fraction of Mercury (now largely lacking iron) has been heated to produce a magma ocean. The resulting cumulate mantle composition is calculated in a Matlab simulation of magma ocean solidification using a CMAS system adapted for Mercury. Plagioclase flotation, frequently cited as the necessary signature of a magma ocean, is highly dependent upon initial bulk composition. We demonstrate the initial silicate iron content of the magma ocean necessary to make plagioclase buoyant and thus produce a plagioclase flotation crust as seen on the Moon. In addition, over a range of bulk compositions the solidified mantle cumulates are unstable to gravitational overturn. During overturn hot cumulates rise from depth and may cross their solidi and melt, producing an earliest planetary crust. This crust may still exist on Mercury. With the first flyby results of the MESSENGER mission coming this winter, predictions from these models can be compared with initial ground measurements.

  5. Formation of diphenylthioarsinic acid from diphenylarsinic acid under anaerobic sulfate-reducing soil conditions.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Shihoko; Guan, Ling; Nakajima, Mami; Fujii, Kunihiko; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

    2013-11-15

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is a toxic phenylarsenical compound often found around sites contaminated with phenylarsenic chemical warfare agents, diphenylcyanoarsine or diphenylchloroarsine, which were buried in soil after the World Wars. This research concerns the elucidation of the chemical structure of an arsenic metabolite transformed from DPAA under anaerobic sulfate-reducing soil conditions. In LC/ICP-MS analysis, the retention time of the metabolite was identical to that of a major phenylarsenical compound synthesized by chemical reaction of DPAA and hydrogen sulfide. Moreover the mass spectra for the two compounds measured using LC/TOF-MS were similar. Subsequent high resolution mass spectral analysis indicated that two major ions at m/z 261 and 279, observed on both mass spectra, were attributable to C12H10AsS and C12H12AsSO, respectively. These findings strongly suggest that the latter ion is the molecular-related ion ([M+H](+)) of diphenylthioarsinic acid (DPTA; (C6H5)2AsS(OH)) and the former ion is its dehydrated fragment. Thus, our results reveal that DPAA can be transformed to DPTA, as a major metabolite, under sulfate-reducing soil conditions. Moreover, formation of diphenyldithioarsinic acid and subsequent dimerization were predicted by the chemical reaction analysis of DPAA with hydrogen sulfide. This is the first report to elucidate the occurrence of DPAA-thionation in an anaerobic soil. PMID:24007995

  6. Acetate Production from Oil under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions in Bioreactors Injected with Sulfate and Nitrate

    PubMed Central

    Callbeck, Cameron M.; Agrawal, Akhil

    2013-01-01

    Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266–269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields. PMID:23770914

  7. Manganese-oxide-coated redox bars as an indicator of reducing conditions in soils.

    PubMed

    Dorau, Kristof; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2015-03-01

    Identification of reducing conditions in soils is of concern not only for pedogenesis but also for nutrient and pollutant dynamics. We manufactured manganese (Mn)-oxide-coated polyvinyl chloride bars and proved their suitability for the identification of reducing soil conditions. Birnessite was synthesized and coated onto white polyvinyl chloride bars. The dark brown coatings were homogenous and durable. As revealed by microcosm devices with adjusted redox potentials (E), under oxidizing conditions (E ∼450 mV at pH 7) there was no Mn-oxide removal. Reductive dissolution of Mn-oxides, which is expressed by the removal of the coatings, started under weakly reducing conditions (E ∼175 mV) and was more intensive under moderately reducing conditions (∼80 mV). According to thermodynamics, the removal of Mn-oxide coatings (225 mm d) exceeded the removal of iron (Fe)-oxide coatings (118 mm d) in soil column experiments. This was confirmed in a soil with a shallow and strongly fluctuating water table where both types of redox bars were inserted. Consequently, it was possible to identify reducing conditions in soils using Mn-oxide-coated bars. We recommend this methodology for short-term monitoring because tri- and tetravalent Mn is the preferred electron acceptor compared with trivalent Fe, and this additionally offers the possibility of distinguishing between weakly and moderately reducing conditions. If dissolved Fe is abundant in soils, the possibility of nonenzymatic reduction of Mn has to be taken into account.

  8. Sulfate-reducing bacteria mediate thionation of diphenylarsinic acid under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ling; Shiiya, Ayaka; Hisatomi, Shihoko; Fujii, Kunihiko; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is often found as a toxic intermediate metabolite of diphenylchloroarsine or diphenylcyanoarsine that were produced as chemical warfare agents and were buried in soil after the World Wars. In our previous study Guan et al. (J Hazard Mater 241-242:355-362, 2012), after application of sulfate and carbon sources, anaerobic transformation of DPAA in soil was enhanced with the production of diphenylthioarsinic acid (DPTAA) as a main metabolite. This study aimed to isolate and characterize anaerobic soil microorganisms responsible for the metabolism of DPAA. First, we obtained four microbial consortia capable of transforming DPAA to DPTAA at a high transformation rate of more than 80% after 4 weeks of incubation. Sequencing for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from the consortia revealed that all the positive consortia contained Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans species. In contrast, the absence of dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrAB) which is unique to sulfate-reducing bacteria was confirmed in the negative consortia showing no DPAA reduction. Finally, strain DEA14 showing transformation of DPAA to DPTAA was isolated from one of the positive consortia. The isolate was assigned to D. acetoxidans based on the partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Thionation of DPAA was also carried out in a pure culture of a known sulfate-reducing bacterial strain, Desulfovibrio aerotolerans JCM 12613(T). These facts indicate that sulfate-reducing bacteria are microorganisms responsible for the transformation of DPAA to DPTAA under anaerobic conditions. PMID:25228086

  9. Sulfate-reducing bacteria mediate thionation of diphenylarsinic acid under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ling; Shiiya, Ayaka; Hisatomi, Shihoko; Fujii, Kunihiko; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is often found as a toxic intermediate metabolite of diphenylchloroarsine or diphenylcyanoarsine that were produced as chemical warfare agents and were buried in soil after the World Wars. In our previous study Guan et al. (J Hazard Mater 241-242:355-362, 2012), after application of sulfate and carbon sources, anaerobic transformation of DPAA in soil was enhanced with the production of diphenylthioarsinic acid (DPTAA) as a main metabolite. This study aimed to isolate and characterize anaerobic soil microorganisms responsible for the metabolism of DPAA. First, we obtained four microbial consortia capable of transforming DPAA to DPTAA at a high transformation rate of more than 80% after 4 weeks of incubation. Sequencing for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from the consortia revealed that all the positive consortia contained Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans species. In contrast, the absence of dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrAB) which is unique to sulfate-reducing bacteria was confirmed in the negative consortia showing no DPAA reduction. Finally, strain DEA14 showing transformation of DPAA to DPTAA was isolated from one of the positive consortia. The isolate was assigned to D. acetoxidans based on the partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Thionation of DPAA was also carried out in a pure culture of a known sulfate-reducing bacterial strain, Desulfovibrio aerotolerans JCM 12613(T). These facts indicate that sulfate-reducing bacteria are microorganisms responsible for the transformation of DPAA to DPTAA under anaerobic conditions.

  10. Conditioning rainfall-runoff model parameters to reduce prediction uncertainty in ungauged basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visessri, S.; McIntyre, N.; Maksimovic, C.

    2012-12-01

    Conditioning rainfall-runoff model parameters in ungauged catchments in Thailand presents problems common to ungauged basins involving data availability, data quality, and rainfall-runoff model suitability, which all contribute to prediction uncertainty. This paper attempts to improve the estimation of streamflow in ungauged basins and reduce associated uncertainties using the approaches of conditioning the prior parameter space. 35 catchments from the upper Ping River basin, Thailand are selected as a case study. The catchments have a range of attributes e.g. catchment sizes 20-6350 km2, elevations 632-1529 m above sea level. and annual rainfall 846-1447 mm/year. For each catchment, three indices - rainfall-runoff elasticity, base flow index and runoff coefficient - are calculated using the observed rainfall-runoff data and regression equations relating these indices to the catchment attributes are identified. Uncertainty in expected indices is defined by the regression error distribution, approximated by a Gaussian model. The IHACRES model is applied for simulating streamflow. The IHACRES parameters are randomly sampled from their presumed prior parameter space. For each sampled parameter set, the streamflow and hence the three indices are modelled. The parameter sets are conditioned on the probability distributions of the regionalised indices, allowing ensemble predictions to be made. The objective function, NSE, calculated for daily and weekly time steps from the water years 1995-2000, is used to assess model performance. Ability to capture observed streamflow and the precision of the estimate is evaluated using reliability and sharpness measures. Similarity in modelled and expected indices contributes to good objective function values. Using only the regionalised runoff coefficient to condition the model yields better NSE values compared to using either only the rainfall-runoff elasticity or only the base flow index. Conditioning on the runoff coefficient

  11. Conditioning rainfall-runoff model parameter space to reduce prediction uncertainty in ungauged basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visessri, S.; Mcintyre, N.

    2012-04-01

    Prediction of streamflow for ungauged basins is associated with large uncertainty arising from input data, model structure, and parameter values. This paper investigates how conditioning the prior parameter space using regionalised indices of streamflow affects the prediction uncertainty for ungauged basins. The main concept used is filtering out the rainfall-runoff model parameter sets that do not give estimates of streamflow indices close to the regionalised values. These values are calculated based on regression equations, and associated Gaussian error distributions, constructed from the relationship between physical catchment properties and streamflow indices at gauged sites. The performance of the model is measured by 1-NSE and 1-log(NSE) for high and low flow fitting accordingly, calculated on daily and on monthly intervals. Ability to capture streamflow and reduction in prediction uncertainty is judged by reliability and sharpness. The case study is the upper Ping River in Thailand and the spatially lumped IHACRES model is used. Using the range defined by the regression at 95% confidence level of rainfall-runoff elasticity and base flow index to condition the prior parameter space is useful for reducing streamflow prediction uncertainty. The reliability obtained from conditioned parameter space is high, 73-99%, but the sharpness is low, 7-31%. It is suggested in this study that concurrently reaching the high sharpness and reliability is difficult, maybe due to poor data quality and high spatial variability of daily rainfall in this tropical region. The model usually overestimates peak flow throughout the period of simulation. The prior range of parameter values also contributes to the performance of the model but in this case rather wide prior parameter ranges are needed to accommodate all possible parameter values for all subcatchments which have various physical characteristics. The use of runoff coefficient to reduce uncertainty in streamflow prediction

  12. Reduced-intensity conditioning using fludarabine, melphalan and thiotepa for adult patients undergoing haploidentical SCT

    PubMed Central

    Ciurea, SO; Saliba, R; Rondon, G; Pesoa, S; Cano, P; Fernandez-Vina, M; Qureshi, S; Worth, LL; McMannis, J; Kebriaei, P; Jones, RB; Korbling, M; Qazilbash, M; Shpall, EJ; Giralt, S; de Lima, M; Champlin, RE; Gajewski, J

    2014-01-01

    Haploidentical SCT (HaploSCT) has been most commonly performed using a myeloablative, TBI-based preparative regimen; however, the toxicity with this approach remains very high. We studied the feasibility of a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen in a phase II clinical trial using fludarabine, melphalan and thiotepa and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) for patients with advanced hematological malignancies undergoing T-cell depleted HaploSCT. Twenty-eight patients were entered in the study. Engraftment with donor-derived hematopoiesis was achieved in 78% of patients after a median of 13 days. Six patients experienced primary graft failure, three out of four tested patients had donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSA) (P = 0.001). Toxicity included mostly infections. A total of 21 out of 22 patients with AML/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) achieved remission after transplant (16 with relapsed/refractory AML). Five out of the 12 patients (42%) with AML/MDS with <15% BM blasts survived long term as compared with none with more advanced disease (P = 0.03). HaploSCT with this fludarabine, melphalan and thiotepa and ATG RIC is an effective, well-tolerated conditioning regimen for patients with AML/MDS with low disease burden at the time of transplant and allowed a high rate of engraftment in patients without DSA. Patients with overt relapse fared poorly and require novel treatment strategies. PMID:19668237

  13. Odor tracking in sharks is reduced under future ocean acidification conditions.

    PubMed

    Dixson, Danielle L; Jennings, Ashley R; Atema, Jelle; Munday, Philip L

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies show that ocean acidification impairs sensory functions and alters the behavior of teleost fishes. If sharks and other elasmobranchs are similarly affected, this could have significant consequences for marine ecosystems globally. Here, we show that projected future CO2 levels impair odor tracking behavior of the smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis). Adult M. canis were held for 5 days in a current-day control (405 ± 26 μatm) and mid (741 ± 22 μatm) or high CO2 (1064 ± 17 μatm) treatments consistent with the projections for the year 2100 on a 'business as usual' scenario. Both control and mid CO2 -treated individuals maintained normal odor tracking behavior, whereas high CO2 -treated sharks significantly avoided the odor cues indicative of food. Control sharks spent >60% of their time in the water stream containing the food stimulus, but this value fell below 15% in high CO2 -treated sharks. In addition, sharks treated under mid and high CO2 conditions reduced attack behavior compared to the control individuals. Our findings show that shark feeding could be affected by changes in seawater chemistry projected for the end of this century. Understanding the effects of ocean acidification on critical behaviors, such as prey tracking in large predators, can help determine the potential impacts of future ocean acidification on ecosystem function.

  14. Anaerobic oxidation of [1,2-14C]dichloroethene under Mn(IV)-reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Landmeyer, J.E.; Dinicola, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of [1,2-14C]dichloroethene to14CO2 under Mn(IV)-reducing conditions was demonstrated. The results indicate that oxidative degradation of partially chlorinated solvents like dichloroethene can be significant even under anoxic conditions and demonstrate the potential importance of Mn(IV) reduction for remediation of chlorinated groundwater contaminants.

  15. Anaerobic Oxidation of [1,2-C]Dichloroethene under Mn(IV)-Reducing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bradley, P M; Landmeyer, J E; Dinicola, R S

    1998-04-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of [1,2-C]dichloroethene to CO(2) under Mn(IV)-reducing conditions was demonstrated. The results indicate that oxidative degradation of partially chlorinated solvents like dichloroethene can be significant even under anoxic conditions and demonstrate the potential importance of Mn(IV) reduction for remediation of chlorinated groundwater contaminants.

  16. Microbial Thiocyanate Utilization under Highly Alkaline Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Tourova, Tatyana P.; Lysenko, Anatoly M.; Kuenen, J. Gijs

    2001-01-01

    Three kinds of alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate (CNS−) at pH 10 were found in highly alkaline soda lake sediments and soda soils. The first group included obligate heterotrophs that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source while growing at pH 10 with acetate as carbon and energy sources. Most of the heterotrophic strains were able to oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate to tetrathionate. The second group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles which utilized thiocyanate nitrogen during growth with thiosulfate as the energy source. Genetic analysis demonstrated that both the heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source were related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the gamma subdivision of the division Proteobacteria (the Halomonas group for the heterotrophs and the genus Thioalkalivibrio for autotrophs). The third group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate as a sole source of energy. These bacteria could be enriched on mineral medium with thiocyanate at pH 10. Growth with thiocyanate was usually much slower than growth with thiosulfate, although the biomass yield on thiocyanate was higher. Of the four strains isolated, the three vibrio-shaped strains were genetically closely related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the genus Thioalkalivibrio. The rod-shaped isolate differed from the other isolates by its ability to accumulate large amounts of elemental sulfur inside its cells and by its ability to oxidize carbon disulfide. Despite its low DNA homology with and substantial phenotypic differences from the vibrio-shaped strains, this isolate also belonged to the genus Thioalkalivibrio according to a phylogenetic analysis. The heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that grew with thiocyanate as an N source possessed a relatively high level of cyanase

  17. Microbial thiocyanate utilization under highly alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, D Y; Tourova, T P; Lysenko, A M; Kuenen, J G

    2001-02-01

    Three kinds of alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate (CNS-) at pH 10 were found in highly alkaline soda lake sediments and soda soils. The first group included obligate heterotrophs that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source while growing at pH 10 with acetate as carbon and energy sources. Most of the heterotrophic strains were able to oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate to tetrathionate. The second group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles which utilized thiocyanate nitrogen during growth with thiosulfate as the energy source. Genetic analysis demonstrated that both the heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source were related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the gamma subdivision of the division Proteobacteria (the Halomonas group for the heterotrophs and the genus Thioalkalivibrio for autotrophs). The third group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate as a sole source of energy. These bacteria could be enriched on mineral medium with thiocyanate at pH 10. Growth with thiocyanate was usually much slower than growth with thiosulfate, although the biomass yield on thiocyanate was higher. Of the four strains isolated, the three vibrio-shaped strains were genetically closely related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the genus Thioalkalivibrio. The rod-shaped isolate differed from the other isolates by its ability to accumulate large amounts of elemental sulfur inside its cells and by its ability to oxidize carbon disulfide. Despite its low DNA homology with and substantial phenotypic differences from the vibrio-shaped strains, this isolate also belonged to the genus Thioalkalivibrio according to a phylogenetic analysis. The heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that grew with thiocyanate as an N source possessed a relatively high level of cyanase

  18. Reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation in malignant lymphoma: current status

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Le; Zhang, Yi-Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is a potential cure for patients with malignant lymphoma that is based on the graft-versus-lymphoma (GVL) effect. Myeloablative conditioning allo-SCT is associated with high mortality and morbidity, particularly in patients older than 45 years, heavily pretreated patients (prior hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or more than two lines of conventional chemotherapy) or patients affected by other comorbidities. Therefore, conventional allo-SCT is restricted to younger patients (<50 to 55 years) in good physical condition. Over the last decade, allo-SCT with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC-allo-SCT) has been increasingly used to treat patients with lymphoma. This treatment is associated with lower toxicity and substantial decrease in the incidence of transplant-related mortality, and has the potential to lead to long-term remissions. Therefore, patients who are not suitable to undergo conventional allo-SCT can benefit from the potentially curative GVL effects of allo-SCT. Although RIC-allo-SCT has improved the survival of lymphoma patients, high post-transplant relapse rates or disease progression mainly results in treatment failure. Thus, further improvement is clearly needed. The role and timing of RIC-allo-SCT in the treatment of lymphoma remains unclear. Therefore, more prospective studies should clarify the effectiveness of this method. In this article, we review the recent literature on RIC-allo-SCT as a treatment for major lymphoma subtypes. Areas that require further investigation in the context of clinical trials are also highlighted. PMID:23691438

  19. Kinetics of DCE and VC mineralization under methanogenic and Fe(III)- reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1997-01-01

    The kinetics of anaerobic mineralization of DCE and VC under mathanogenic and Fe(III)-reducing conditions as a function of dissolved contaminant concentration were evaluated. Microorganisms indigenous to creek bed sediments, where groundwater contaminated with chlorinated ethenes continuously discharges, demonstrated significant mineralization of DCE and VC under methanogenic and Fe(III)- reducing conditions. Over 37 days, the recovery of [1,214C]VC radioactivity as 14CO2 ranged from 5% to 44% and from 8% to 100% under methanogenic and Fe(III)-reducing conditions, respectively. The recovery of [1,2-14C]DCE radioactivity as 14CO2 ranged from 4% to 14% and did not vary significantly between methanogenic and Fe(III)reducing conditions. VC mineralization was described by Michaelis- Menten kinetics. Under methanogenic conditions, V(max) was 0.19 ?? 0.01 ??mol L-1 d-1 and the half-saturation constant, k(m), was 7.6 ?? 1.7 ??M. Under Fe(III)-reducing conditions, V(max) was 0.76 ?? 0.07 ??mol L-1 d-1 and k(m) was 1.3 ?? 0.5 ??M. In contrast, DCE mineralization could be described by first-order kinetics. The first-order degradation rate constant for DCE mineralization was 0.6 ?? 0.2% d-1 under methanogenic and Fe(III)-reducing conditions. The results indicate that the kinetics of chlorinated ethane mineralization can vary significantly with the specific contaminant and the predominant redox conditions under which mineralization occurs.

  20. Effect of hydrothermal reaction time and alkaline conditions on the electrochemical properties of reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermisoglou, E. C.; Giannakopoulou, T.; Romanos, G.; Giannouri, M.; Boukos, N.; Lei, C.; Lekakou, C.; Trapalis, C.

    2015-12-01

    Reduced graphene oxide sheets (rGO) were prepared by hydrothermal treatment of aqueous dispersions of graphite oxide (GtO) applied for short (4 h) and prolonged reaction times (19-24 h). The effect of process duration as well as the alkaline conditions (pH ∼10) by addition of K2CO3 on the quality characteristics of the produced rGO materials was investigated. Both reduction and exfoliation occurred during this process as it was evidenced by FTIR and XRD data. SEM, TEM and HRTEM microscopy displayed highly exfoliated rGO materials. XPS verified that the re-establishment of the conjugated graphene network is more extensive for prolonged times of hydrothermal processing in accordance to Raman spectroscopy measurements. The sample produced under alkaline conditions bore fewer defects and almost 5 times higher BET surface area (∼181 m2/g) than the sample with no pH adjustment (∼34 m2/g) for the same hydrothermal reaction time (19 h), attributed to the developed microporosity. The specific capacitance of this material estimated by electrochemical impedance using three-electrode cell and KCl aqueous solution as an electrolyte was ∼400-500 F/g. When EDLC capacitors were fabricated from rGO materials the electrochemical testing in organic electrolyte i.e. TEABF4 in PC, revealed that the shortest hydrothermal reaction time (4 h) was more efficient resulting in capacitance around 60 F/g.

  1. Reducing Harassment in Elementary School Classrooms Using High School Mentors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieman, Maury; Frieman, Barry B.

    A peer mentor program was created and implemented to reduce harassment and bullying at a Massachusetts elementary school. With the help of an adjoining district high school, the school counselors selected, trained, and supervised high school students to teach the younger children how to deal with harassment. The mentors were trained to understand…

  2. Anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum-contaminated harbor sediments under sulfate-reducing and artificially imposed iron-reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, J.D.; Anderson, R.T.; Woodward, J.C.; Phillips, E.J.P.; Lovley, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The potential use of iron(III) oxide to stimulate in-situ hydrocarbon degradation in anaerobic petroleum-contaminated harbor sediments was investigated. Previous studies have indicated that Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (FeRB) can oxidize some electron donors more effectively than sulfate- reducing bacteria (SRB). In contrast to previous results in freshwater sediments, the addition of Fe(III) to marine sediments from San Diego Bay, CA did not switch the terminal electron-accepting process (TEAP) from sulfate reduction to Fe-(III) reduction. Addition of Fe(III) also did not stimulate anaerobic hydrocarbon oxidation. Exposure of the sediment to air [to reoxidize Fe(II) to Fe(III)] followed by anaerobic incubation of the sediments, resulted in Fe-(III) reduction as the TEAP, but contaminant degradation was not stimulated and in some instances was inhibited. The difference in the ability of FeRB to compete with the SRB in the different sediment treatments was related to relative population sizes. Although the addition of Fe(III) did not stimulate hydrocarbon degradation, the results presented here as well as other recent studies demonstrate that there may be significant anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation under sulfate-reducing conditions in harbor sediments.

  3. Floral resource limitation severely reduces butterfly survival, condition and flight activity in simplified agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A; Van Dyck, Hans

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural intensification has a strong negative impact on farmland biodiversity (including flower-visiting insects), but understanding the mechanisms involved in this requires experimental work. We document the impact of nectar limitation on the performance of a flower-visiting insect, the meadow brown butterfly Maniola jurtina. We conducted two types of experiments: a field experiment in agricultural landscapes with grasslands of different management intensity and an experiment in outdoor flight cages in which the nectar supply was simulated. For the field experiment, we introduced an array of nectar resources in intensively managed, nectar-poor meadows and in extensively managed, flower-rich grasslands and counted flower visitors. Despite higher butterfly abundance in the extensive meadows, our introduced nectar sources were more frequently visited in intensive meadows, indicating the lack of floral resources. The 48-h confinement under nectar-poor conditions in the flight cages had a strong negative effect on body condition, flight activity and lifetime survival compared to butterflies under nectar-rich conditions. Female lifespan was reduced by 22% and male lifespan even by 43%. Agricultural landscapes that provide limited amounts of floral nectar, and no high-quality, preferred nectar sources relative to the needs of the flower-visiting species, may create ecological sinks. Regards an insect's performance, the simple presence of nectar is not necessarily functionally adequate. The effectiveness of agri-environmental schemes for flower-visiting insects (e.g. flower strips) could be improved based on ecological and evolutionary insights on the effects of specific nectar quantities and qualities.

  4. Apparatus having reduced mechanical forces for supporting high magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, Melvin L.; Mueller, Fred M.; Smith, James L.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention identifies several configurations of conducting elements capable of supporting extremely high magnetic fields suitable for plasma confinement, wherein forces experienced by the conducting elements are significantly reduced over those which are present as a result of the generation of such high fields by conventional techniques. It is anticipated that the use of superconducting materials will both permit the attainment of such high fields and further permit such fields to be generated with vastly improved efficiency.

  5. Larval Competition Reduces Body Condition in the Female Seed Beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Schade, Daynika J.; Vamosi, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Early body condition may be important for adult behavior and fitness, and is impacted by a number of environmental conditions and biotic interactions. Reduced fecundity of adult females exposed to larval competition may be caused by reduced body condition or shifts in relative body composition, yet these mechanisms have not been well researched. Here, body mass, body size, scaled body mass index, and two body components (water content and lean dry mass) of adult Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) females exposed to larval competition or reared alone were examined. Experimental females emerged at significantly smaller body mass and body size than control females. Additionally, scaled body mass index and water content, but not lean dry mass, were significantly reduced in experimental females. To our knowledge, these are the first results that demonstrate a potential mechanism for previously documented direct effects of competition on fecundity in female bruchine beetles. PMID:22954282

  6. Reducing recidivism and symptoms in emerging adults with serious mental health conditions and justice system involvement.

    PubMed

    Davis, Maryann; Sheidow, Ashli J; McCart, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    The peak years of offending in the general population and among those with serious mental health conditions (SMHC) are during emerging adulthood. There currently are no evidence-based interventions for reducing offending behavior among 18-21 year olds, with or without SMHC. This open trial examined outcomes from an adaptation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an effective juvenile recidivism reduction intervention, modified for use with emerging adults with SMHC and recent justice system involvement. MST for emerging adults (MST-EA) targets MH symptoms, recidivism, problem substance use, and young adult functional capacities. All study participants (n = 41) were aged 17-20 and had a MH diagnosis and recent arrest or incarceration. Implementation outcomes indicated that MST-EA was delivered with strong fidelity, client satisfaction was high, and the majority of participants successfully completed the intervention. Research retention rates also were high. Pre-post-analyses revealed significant reductions in participants' MH symptoms, justice system involvement, and associations with antisocial peers. PMID:25023764

  7. Reducing Recidivism and Symptoms in Emerging Adults with Serious Mental Health Conditions and Justice System Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Maryann; Sheidow, Ashli J.; McCart, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The peak years of offending in the general population and among those with serious mental health conditions (SMHC) are during emerging adulthood. There currently are no evidence-based interventions for reducing offending behavior among 18–21 year olds, with or without SMHC. This open trial examined outcomes from an adaptation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an effective juvenile recidivism reduction intervention, modified for use with emerging adults with SMHC and recent justice system involvement. MST for emerging adults (MST-EA) targets MH symptoms, recidivism, problem substance use, and young adult functional capacities. All study participants (n=41) were aged 17–20 and had a MH diagnosis and recent arrest or incarceration. Implementation outcomes indicated that MST-EA was delivered with strong fidelity, client satisfaction was high, and the majority of participants successfully completed the intervention. Research retention rates also were high. Pre-post analyses revealed significant reductions in participants’ MH symptoms, justice-system involvement, and associations with antisocial peers. PMID:25023764

  8. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  9. Parametric conditions for stability of reduced-order linear time-varying control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, C. C. H.; Vidyasagar, M.

    1987-01-01

    Using a single framework, parametric conditions are derived which encompass those for both local and global BIBO stability of a linear multivariable discrete-time reduced-order time-varying control system. These conditions indicate that the system will be BIBO stable if the norm of the system-parameter error matrix is bounded by an l exp 1 function superimposed on an l exp infinity function.

  10. Apparatus for storing high magnetic fields having reduced mechanical forces and reduced magnetic pollution

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, Melvin L.; Mueller, Fred M.; Smith, James L.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention identifies several configurations of conducting elements capable of storing extremely high magnetic fields for the purpose of energy storage or for other uses, wherein forces experienced by the conducting elements and the magnetic field pollution produced at locations away from the configuration are both significantly reduced over those which are present as a result of the generation of such high fields by currently proposed techniques. It is anticipated that the use of superconducting materials will both permit the attainment of such high fields and further permit such fields to be generated with vastly improved efficiency.

  11. Apparatus for storing high magnetic fields having reduced mechanical forces and reduced magnetic pollution

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, M.L.; Mueller, F.M.; Smith, J.L.

    1991-04-09

    The present invention identifies several configurations of conducting elements capable of storing extremely high magnetic fields for the purpose of energy storage or for other uses, wherein forces experienced by the conducting elements and the magnetic field pollution produced at locations away from the configuration are both significantly reduced over those which are present as a result of the generation of such high fields by currently proposed techniques. It is anticipated that the use of superconducting materials will both permit the attainment of such high fields and further permit such fields to be generated with vastly improved efficiency. 15 figures.

  12. 38 CFR 21.9675 - Conditions that result in reduced rates or no payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conditions that result in reduced rates or no payment. 21.9675 Section 21.9675 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill...

  13. 38 CFR 21.9675 - Conditions that result in reduced rates or no payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conditions that result in reduced rates or no payment. 21.9675 Section 21.9675 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill...

  14. 38 CFR 21.9675 - Conditions that result in reduced rates or no payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conditions that result in reduced rates or no payment. 21.9675 Section 21.9675 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill...

  15. 38 CFR 21.9675 - Conditions that result in reduced rates or no payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conditions that result in reduced rates or no payment. 21.9675 Section 21.9675 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill...

  16. Reducing peanut allergens by high pressure combined with polyphenol oxidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been shown to reduce major peanut allergens (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2). Because high pressure (HP) can increase enzyme activity, we postulated that further reduction of peanut allergens can be achieved through HP combined with PPO. Peanut extracts were treated with each of th...

  17. Reduced beta-amyloid production and increased inflammatory responses in presenilin conditional knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Beglopoulos, Vassilios; Sun, Xiaoyan; Saura, Carlos A; Lemere, Cynthia A; Kim, Richard D; Shen, Jie

    2004-11-01

    Mutations in presenilins (PS) 1 and 2 are the major cause of familial Alzheimer's disease. Conditional double knock-out mice lacking both presenilins in the postnatal forebrain (PS cDKO mice) exhibit memory and synaptic plasticity impairments followed by progressive neurodegeneration in the cerebral cortex. Here we further investigate the molecular events that may underlie the observed phenotypes and identify additional neuropathological markers in the PS cDKO brain. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis showed reduced levels of the toxic beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides in the cerebral cortex of PS cDKO mice. Interestingly, the reduction in Abeta40 and Abeta42 peptides is similar in PS1 conditional knock-out and PS cDKO mice. We further examined the gene expression profile by oligonucleotide microarrays in the PS cDKO cerebral cortex and found that a high number of genes are differentially expressed, most notably a group of up-regulated inflammatory genes. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR and Western analyses confirmed the elevated levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein, complement component C1q, and cathepsin S, up-regulation of which has been associated with inflammatory responses in various neurodegenerative processes. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the increase in complement component C1q is confined to the hippocampal formation, whereas glial fibrillary acidic protein and cathepsin S are up-regulated throughout the entire neocortex and hippocampus. In addition, strong microglial activation occurs in the hippocampus and the deeper cortical layers of PS cDKO mice. These results indicate that the memory impairment and neurodegeneration in PS cDKO mice are not caused by Abeta accumulation and that loss of PS function leads to differential up-regulation of inflammatory markers in the cerebral cortex.

  18. Extremely reducing conditions reached during basaltic intrusion in organic matter-bearing sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacono-Marziano, Giada; Gaillard, Fabrice; Scaillet, Bruno; Polozov, Alexander G.; Marecal, Virginie; Pirre, Michel; Arndt, Nicholas T.

    2012-12-01

    Redox conditions in magma are widely interpreted as internally buffered and closely related to that of their mantle source regions. We use thermodynamic calculations to show that high-temperature interaction between magma and organic matter can lead to a dramatic reduction of the magma redox state, and significant departure from that of the original source. Field studies provide direct evidence of the process that we describe, with reported occurrences of graphite and native iron in igneous mafic rocks, implying very reducing conditions that are almost unknown in average terrestrial magmas. We calculate that the addition of 0.6 wt% organic matter (in the form of CH or CH2) to a standard basalt triggers graphite and native iron crystallization at depths of few hundred meters. Interaction with organic matter also profoundly affects the abundance and the redox state of the gases in equilibrium with the magma, which are CO-dominated with H2 as the second most abundant species on a molar basis, H2O and CO2 being minor constituents. The assimilation of only 0.1 wt% organic matter by a basalt causes a decrease in its oxygen fugacity of 2-orders of magnitude. The assimilation of 0.6 wt% organic matter at depths<500 m implies minimum CO content in the magma of 1 wt%, other gas components being less than 0.1 wt%. In the light of our calculations, we suggest that the production of native iron-bearing lava flows and associated intrusions was most likely accompanied by degassing of CO-rich gases, whose fluxes depended on the magma production rates.

  19. Double umbilical cord blood transplantation with reduced intensity conditioning and sirolimus-based GVHD prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Cutler, C; Stevenson, K; Kim, H T; Brown, J; McDonough, S; Herrera, M; Reynolds, C; Liney, D; Kao, G; Ho, V; Armand, P; Koreth, J; Alyea, E; Dey, B R; Attar, E; Spitzer, T; Boussiotis, V A; Ritz, J; Soiffer, R; Antin, J H; Ballen, K

    2011-05-01

    The main limitations to umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation (UCBT) in adults are delayed engraftment, poor immunological reconstitution and high rates of non-relapse mortality (NRM). Double UCBT (DUCBT) has been used to circumvent the issue of low cell dose, but acute GVHD remains a significant problem. We describe our experience in 32 subjects, who underwent DUCBT after reduced-intensity conditioning with fludarabine/melphalan/antithymocyte globulin and who received sirolimus and tacrolimus to prevent acute GVHD. Engraftment of neutrophils occurred in all patients at a median of 21 days, and platelet engraftment occurred at a median of 42 days. Three subjects had grade II-IV acute GVHD (9.4%) and chronic GVHD occurred in four subjects (cumulative incidence 12.5%). No deaths were caused by GVHD and NRM at 100 days was 12.5%. At 2 years, NRM, PFS and OS were 34.4, 31.2 and 53.1%, respectively. As expected, immunologic reconstitution was slow, but PFS and OS were associated with reconstitution of CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocyte subsets, suggesting that recovery of adaptive immunity is required for the prevention of infection and relapse after transplantation. In summary, sirolimus and tacrolimus provide excellent GVHD prophylaxis in DUCBT, and this regimen is associated with low NRM after DUCBT.

  20. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment reduces neutrophil-endothelial adhesion in chronic wound conditions through S-nitrosation.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Alexandra C; Whatmore, Jacqueline L; Winyard, Paul G; Smerdon, Gary R; Eggleton, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is an effective treatment for diabetic chronic wounds. HBO reduces inflammation and accelerates wound healing, by mechanisms that remain unclear. Here we examined a mechanism by which HBO may reduce neutrophil recruitment, through changes in endothelial and neutrophil adhesion molecule expression and function. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells and neutrophils were exposed to selected chronic wound conditions, comprising hypoxia in the presence of lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and then treated with HBO. We observed neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells following treatment with chronic wound conditions, which was reversed by HBO treatment. This was partly explained by reduced expression of endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 by HBO. No changes in neutrophil adhesion molecule expression (CD18, CD11b, CD62L, CD31) were observed following HBO treatment. However, HBO decreased hydrogen peroxide generation by neutrophils, and induced nitrous oxide-related protein modifications. The transnitrosating agent S-nitroso-L-cysteine ethyl ester (600 μM) also reduced neutrophil adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers, and the iNOS inhibitor 1400 W (10 μM) and HgCl2, which promotes the decomposition of S-nitrosothiols (1 mM), reversed the effect of HBO, suggesting that S-nitrosation may inhibit neutrophil-endothelial cell adhesion. This study indicates that HBO could reduce inflammation in wounds through reduced neutrophil recruitment, mediated by S-nitrosation. PMID:24134224

  1. Soil structure, colloids, and chemical transport as affected by short-term reducing conditions: a laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de-Campos, A. B.; Mamedov, A. I.; Huang, C.; Wagner, L. E.

    2008-12-01

    Upland soils in the Midwestern US often undergo reducing conditions when soils are temporally flooded during the spring and remain water saturated for days or weeks. Short-term reducing conditions change the chemistry of the soil and may affect soil structure and solution chemical transport. The effects of short-term reducing conditions on chemical and physical properties of the soils, colloids, and associated chemical/nutrients transport are still not well understood and was the objective of our study. A biogeochemical reactor was built to achieve reducing conditions. Three cultivated and three uncultivated soils with different organic carbon contents were incubated in the reactor for 1 hour and 3 days under anaerobic conditions. Effects of the redox state on soil structure (pore size distribution) and drainable porosity, colloids mobility, and chemical transport were determined using high energy moisture characteristic and analytical methods. After each treatment, the soil solution was collected for redox potential (Eh), pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) measurements, and chemical analysis of metals (Ca, Mg, K), nutrients (N, P), and dissolved organic carbon. Strongly reducing conditions were achieved after 3 days of incubation and were followed by a decrease in soil porosity and an increase in pH, EC, clay dispersion, swelling, colloids mobility, and associated chemical transport. The trend for each soil depended on their initial structural stability and chemical properties. The structure of cultivated soils and the leaching of nutrients and carbon from uncultivated soils were more sensitive to the redox state. A strong correlation was found between changes in Eh and drainable porosity. The role of short-term reducing conditions on changes in redox sensitive elements, organic matter decomposition, pH, and EC and their influence on soil structure and soil particles or colloids/chemical transport for both soil groups are discussed in the paper. This study

  2. Phase transition of Fe oxides under reducing condition and its relation with the As behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S. H.; Kim, S. H.; Jeong, G. Y.; Kim, K.

    2014-12-01

    Fe oxides are very common in the earth's crust and easily transform into other minerals such as magnetite and siderite under reducing conditions by microbial reactions. It is well known that As concentrations in groundwater is strongly regulated by adsorption onto Fe oxides. Even though some studies have suggested that the formation of siderite can also control the As concentration, direct evidences are not sufficient. In this study, we performed microbial incubation experiments to see the phase transition of As-rich Fe oxides under anoxic condition and to see how the water As concentrations are controlled accordingly. Three experiments were performed by changing organic carbon concentrations. Natural groundwaters and yeast extracts were used for the sources of microorganisms and organic carbon. Seven reactors were prepared for each experiment and opened one by one to observe the changes of the water chemistry and solid phases for 60 days. The formation of magnetite was observed at the early stage of each experiment. Siderite was formed at the later stage only when the dissolved organic carbon concentrations were high (donor/accepter molar ratio = 1.5). Goethite and hematite, instead of siderite, were formed from the experiment using low organic carbon concentration (donor/accepter molar ratio = 0.75). It is likely that dissolved ferrous ion adsorbs onto the Fe oxides and recrystallizes into hematite and goethite when the DOC concentration was low. As concentrations were generally very low in the water (normally 10 ug/L) and we could not find any relations with the Fe minerals formed by anoxic microbial reactions, maybe due to high Fe oxide/water ratio of our experiments. The sequential extraction analysis indicated that most of the As in solids are mostly associated with Fe-oxides and organic matters. The As bound to carbonates were very low even in the precipitates containing siderite due to low As concentrations in the water where the siderite formed. Further

  3. Hydrocarbon activation under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions proceeds by different mechanisms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, Ian; Gray, Neil; Aitken, Caroline; Sherry, Angela; Jones, Martin; Larter, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Microbial degradation of alkanes typically involves their conversion to fatty acids which are then catabolised by beta-oxidation. The critical step in this process is activation of the hydrocarbon. Under oxic conditions this is catalyzed by monooxygenase enzymes with the formation of long chain alcohols. In the absence of oxygen alternative alkane activation mechanisms have been observed or proposed. Fumarate addition to alkanes to form alkyl succinates is considered a central process in anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation. Comparative studies of crude oil degradation under sulphate-reducing and methanogenic conditions revealed distinctive patterns of compound class removal and metabolite formation. Alkyl succinates derived from C7 to C26 n-alkanes and branched chain alkanes were found in abundance in sulfate-reducing systems but these were not detected during methanogenic crude oil degradation. Only one other mechanism of alkane activation has been elucidated to date. This involves addition of carbon derived from bicarbonate/CO2 to C-3 of an alkane chain to form a 2-ethylalkane with subsequent removal of the ethyl group leading to the formation of a fatty acid 1 carbon shorter than the original alkane. 2-ethylalkanes have never been detected as metabolites of anaerobic alkane degradation and were not detected in crude oil-degrading methanogenic systems. Due to the range of alkanes present in crude oil it was not possible to infer the generation of C-odd acids from C-even alkanes which is characteristic of the C-3 carboxylation mechanism. Furthermore genes homologous to alkysuccinate synthetases were not detected in the methanogenic hydrocarbon degrading community by pyrosequencing of total DNA extracted from methanogenic enrichments cultures. beta-oxidation genes were detected and intriguingly, alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes were present. This offers the possibility that alkane activation in the methanogenic system does not proceed via acid metabolites

  4. A system for conducting igneous petrology experiments under controlled redox conditions in reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Shuttle and the planned Space Station will permit experimentation under conditions of reduced gravitational acceleration offering experimental petrologists the opportunity to study crystal growth, element distribution, and phase chemistry. In particular the confounding effects of macro and micro scale buoyancy-induced convection and crystal settling or floatation can be greatly reduced over those observed in experiments in the terrestrial laboratory. Also, for experiments in which detailed replication of the environment is important, the access to reduced gravity will permit a more complete simulation of processes that may have occurred on asteroids or in free space. A technique that was developed to control, measure, and manipulate oxygen fugacites with small quantities of gas which are recirculated over the sample is described. This system should be adaptable to reduced gravity space experiments requiring redox control. Experiments done conventionally and those done using this technique yield identical results done in a 1-g field.

  5. A system for conducting igneous petrology experiments under controlled redox conditions in reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Shuttle and the planned Space Station will permit experimentation under conditions of reduced gravitational acceleration offering experimental petrologists the opportunity to study crystal growth, element distribution, and phase chemistry. In particular the confounding effects of macro and micro scale buoyancy-induced convection and crystal settling or flotation can be greatly reduced over those observed in experiments in the terrestrial laboratory. Also, for experiments in which detailed replication of the environment is important, the access to reduced gravity will permit a more complete simulation of processes that may have occurred on asteroids or in free space. A technique that was developed to control, measure, and manipulate oxygen fugacities with small quantities of gas which are recirculated over the sample. This system could be adaptable to reduced gravity space experiments requiring redox control.

  6. Pharmacological depletion of serotonin in the basolateral amygdala complex reduces anxiety and disrupts fear conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Philip L.; Molosh, Andrei; Fitz, Stephanie D.; Arendt, Dave; Deehan, Gerald A.; Federici, Lauren M.; Bernabe, Cristian; Engleman, Eric A.; Rodd, Zachary A.; Lowry, Christopher A.; Shekhar, Anantha

    2015-01-01

    The basolateral and lateral amygdala nuclei complex (BLC) is implicated in a number of emotional responses including conditioned fear and social anxiety. Based on previous studies demonstrating that enhanced serotonin release in the BLC leads to increased anxiety and fear responses, we hypothesized that pharmacologically depleting serotonin in the BLC using 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) injections would lead to diminished anxiety and disrupted fear conditioning. To test this hypothesis, 5,7-DHT (a serotonin-depleting agent) was bilaterally injected into the BLC. Desipramine (a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) was systemically administered to prevent non-selective effects on norepinephrine. After 5 days, 5-7-DHT-treated rats showed increases in the duration of social interaction (SI) time, suggestive of reduced anxiety-like behavior. We then used a cue-induced fear conditioning protocol with shock as the unconditioned stimulus and tone as the conditioned stimulus for rats pretreated with bilateral 5,7-DHT, or vehicle, injections into the BLC. Compared to vehicle-treated rats, 5,7-DHT rats had reduced acquisition of fear during conditioning (measured by freezing time during tone), also had reduced fear retrieval/recall on subsequent testing days. Ex vivo analyses revealed that 5,7-DHT reduced local 5-HT concentrations in the BLC by ∼40% without altering local norepinephrine or dopamine concentrations. These data provide additional support for 5-HT playing a critical role in modulating anxiety-like behavior and fear-associated memories through its actions within the BLC. PMID:26476009

  7. Pharmacological depletion of serotonin in the basolateral amygdala complex reduces anxiety and disrupts fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip L; Molosh, Andrei; Fitz, Stephanie D; Arendt, Dave; Deehan, Gerald A; Federici, Lauren M; Bernabe, Cristian; Engleman, Eric A; Rodd, Zachary A; Lowry, Christopher A; Shekhar, Anantha

    2015-11-01

    The basolateral and lateral amygdala nuclei complex (BLC) is implicated in a number of emotional responses including conditioned fear and social anxiety. Based on previous studies demonstrating that enhanced serotonin release in the BLC leads to increased anxiety and fear responses, we hypothesized that pharmacologically depleting serotonin in the BLC using 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) injections would lead to diminished anxiety and disrupted fear conditioning. To test this hypothesis, 5,7-DHT(a serotonin-depleting agent) was bilaterally injected into the BLC. Desipramine (a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) was systemically administered to prevent non-selective effects on norepinephrine. After 5days, 5-7-DHT-treated rats showed increases in the duration of social interaction (SI) time, suggestive of reduced anxiety-like behavior. We then used a cue-induced fear conditioning protocol with shock as the unconditioned stimulus and tone as the conditioned stimulus for rats pretreated with bilateral 5,7-DHT, or vehicle, injections into the BLC. Compared to vehicle-treated rats, 5,7-DHT rats had reduced acquisition of fear during conditioning (measured by freezing time during tone), also had reduced fear retrieval/recall on subsequent testing days. Ex vivo analyses revealed that 5,7-DHT reduced local 5-HT concentrations in the BLC by ~40% without altering local norepinephrine or dopamine concentrations. These data provide additional support for 5-HT playing a critical role in modulating anxiety-like behavior and fear-associated memories through its actions within the BLC. PMID:26476009

  8. Pharmacological depletion of serotonin in the basolateral amygdala complex reduces anxiety and disrupts fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip L; Molosh, Andrei; Fitz, Stephanie D; Arendt, Dave; Deehan, Gerald A; Federici, Lauren M; Bernabe, Cristian; Engleman, Eric A; Rodd, Zachary A; Lowry, Christopher A; Shekhar, Anantha

    2015-11-01

    The basolateral and lateral amygdala nuclei complex (BLC) is implicated in a number of emotional responses including conditioned fear and social anxiety. Based on previous studies demonstrating that enhanced serotonin release in the BLC leads to increased anxiety and fear responses, we hypothesized that pharmacologically depleting serotonin in the BLC using 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) injections would lead to diminished anxiety and disrupted fear conditioning. To test this hypothesis, 5,7-DHT(a serotonin-depleting agent) was bilaterally injected into the BLC. Desipramine (a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) was systemically administered to prevent non-selective effects on norepinephrine. After 5days, 5-7-DHT-treated rats showed increases in the duration of social interaction (SI) time, suggestive of reduced anxiety-like behavior. We then used a cue-induced fear conditioning protocol with shock as the unconditioned stimulus and tone as the conditioned stimulus for rats pretreated with bilateral 5,7-DHT, or vehicle, injections into the BLC. Compared to vehicle-treated rats, 5,7-DHT rats had reduced acquisition of fear during conditioning (measured by freezing time during tone), also had reduced fear retrieval/recall on subsequent testing days. Ex vivo analyses revealed that 5,7-DHT reduced local 5-HT concentrations in the BLC by ~40% without altering local norepinephrine or dopamine concentrations. These data provide additional support for 5-HT playing a critical role in modulating anxiety-like behavior and fear-associated memories through its actions within the BLC.

  9. Decoupling of arsenic and iron release from ferrihydrite suspension under reducing conditions: a biogeochemical model

    PubMed Central

    Burnol, André; Garrido, Francis; Baranger, Philippe; Joulian, Catherine; Dictor, Marie-Christine; Bodénan, Françoise; Morin, Guillaume; Charlet, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    High levels of arsenic in groundwater and drinking water are a major health problem. Although the processes controlling the release of As are still not well known, the reductive dissolution of As-rich Fe oxyhydroxides has so far been a favorite hypothesis. Decoupling between arsenic and iron redox transformations has been experimentally demonstrated, but not quantitatively interpreted. Here, we report on incubation batch experiments run with As(V) sorbed on, or co-precipitated with, 2-line ferrihydrite. The biotic and abiotic processes of As release were investigated by using wet chemistry, X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption and genomic techniques. The incubation experiments were carried out with a phosphate-rich growth medium and a community of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria under strict anoxic conditions for two months. During the first month, the release of Fe(II) in the aqueous phase amounted to only 3% to 10% of the total initial solid Fe concentration, whilst the total aqueous As remained almost constant after an initial exchange with phosphate ions. During the second month, the aqueous Fe(II) concentration remained constant, or even decreased, whereas the total quantity of As released to the solution accounted for 14% to 45% of the total initial solid As concentration. At the end of the incubation, the aqueous-phase arsenic was present predominately as As(III) whilst X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicated that more than 70% of the solid-phase arsenic was present as As(V). X-ray diffraction revealed vivianite Fe(II)3(PO4)2.8H2O in some of the experiments. A biogeochemical model was then developed to simulate these aqueous- and solid-phase results. The two main conclusions drawn from the model are that (1) As(V) is not reduced during the first incubation month with high Eh values, but rather re-adsorbed onto the ferrihydrite surface, and this state remains until arsenic reduction is energetically more favorable than iron reduction, and (2) the release of As

  10. Reducing defects in remelting processes for high-performance alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Avyle, James A.; Brooks, John A.; Powell, Adam C.

    1998-03-01

    Defect reduction is one of the most important goals in continuing research to improve remelting technologies, such as vacuum arc remelting, electroslag remelting, or hearth melting (plasma or electron beam), of specialty alloys. Ingot defects may originate from several sources in these processes, such as foreign materials in the melt stock or electrode, drop-in material from the furnace interior, and solidification defects. Laboratory-and industrial-scale melting experiments are used by Sandia National Laboratories and the Specialty Metals Processing Consortium to determine relationships between melt-processing conditions and defect formation. Examples described here include freckle formation, a solidification defect in large ingots of alloy 625 (electroslag remelting), and alloy 718 (vacuum arc remelting). These examples demonstrate how integrated melting experiments, process modeling, and ingot analysis can guide the control of melting conditions to reduce defects.

  11. Mir space station bacteria responses to modeled reduced gravity under starvation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Paul W.; Leff, Laura G.

    2006-01-01

    Isolates from the Mir space station identified as Pseudomonas sp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were subjected to clinorotation to model reduced gravity conditions in water in slow turning lateral vessels (STLVs). To examine cells in varying physiological states, bacteria were enumerated based on the Live/Dead BacLight kit, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and colony forming units (CFU). Both Pseudomonas sp. and S. maltophilia showed a slight increase in abundance over time but only cells of Pseudomonas sp. were affected by modeled reduced gravity. For Pseudomonas sp. numbers of DAPI stained cells were significantly higher under modeled reduced gravity compared to normal gravity. In addition, the abundance of cells attached to stainless steel disks, on one sampling date, was greater for the Pseudomonas isolate under modeled reduced gravity than normal gravity. The isolates examined did not appear to appreciably enter into a viable, but not culturable state during the experiments. In general, differences between treatments were not great, demonstrating that responses to reduced gravity are less apparent under starvation conditions, compared to earlier studies which used more rich nutrient sources.

  12. Reduced isotope fractionation by denitrification under conditions relevant to the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kritee, K.; Sigman, Daniel M.; Granger, Julie; Ward, Bess B.; Jayakumar, Amal; Deutsch, Curtis

    2012-09-01

    Experiments with two well-studied denitrifiers and one recently isolated marine suboxic zone denitrifier show that the cellular-level denitrification N isotope effect (15ɛ) is typically lower than the canonical value of ˜25‰ under many conditions prevalent in the ocean. Across all three strains, 15ɛ is 10-15‰ at cellular nitrate reduction rates that are more representative of the environment than the very high rates under which we and previous investigators measure 15ɛ to be 20-30‰. A sharp decrease in 15ɛ is also observed in individual nitrate drawdown assays as the extracellular nitrate concentrations approach 2-35 μM and nitrate uptake becomes the rate-limiting step. On an apparently strain-specific basis, lower values of 15ɛ are observed under diverse conditions common in the natural environment: less reduced carbon sources, small inputs of oxygen, nutrient availability, agitation, and age of starter culture (i.e., initiation of assays with cells that had recently depleted a large previous nitrate amendment or were more recently in the exponential growth ("bloom") phase). A conserved oxygen-to-nitrogen isotope relationship across the experiments for all three denitrifiers (18ɛ/15ɛ = 0.93 ± 0.06 (1SD)) supports the interpretation that fractionation is imparted solely by the internal respiratory nitrate reductase, with the amplitude of 15ɛ varying with the proportional importance of cellular nitrate efflux relative to uptake. Aspects of the 15ɛ variation are unexpected; nevertheless, the occurrence of lower 15ɛ is robust. It is uncertain if our lower 15ɛ estimates apply to oceanic water column denitrification because field studies have generally yielded 15ɛwc between 20-30‰, more similar to previous culture estimates and our estimates at high cell specific nitrate reduction rates. If denitrification in the ocean's major suboxic zones does have an 15ɛ of ˜10-15‰, it would remove an apparent imbalance between global ocean N inputs and

  13. Aeroacoustic effects of reduced aft tip speed at constant thrust for a model counterrotation turboprop at takeoff conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Hughes, Christopher E.

    1990-01-01

    A model high-speed, advanced counterrotation propeller, F7/A7, was tested in the anechoic wind tunnel at simulated takeoff and approach conditions of Mach 0.2. The propeller was operated in a baseline configuration with the forward and aft rotor blade setting angles and forward and aft rotational speeds essentially equal. Two additional configurations were tested with the aft rotor at increased blade setting angles and the rotational speed reduced to achieve overall performance similar to that of the baseline configuration. Acoustic data were taken with an axially translating microphone probe that was attached to the tunnel floor. Concurrent aerodynamic data were taken to define propeller operating conditions.

  14. Interactions of NADP-reducing enzymes across varying environmental conditions: a model of biological complexity.

    PubMed

    Rzezniczak, Teresa Z; Merritt, Thomas J S

    2012-12-01

    Interactions across biological networks are often quantified under a single set of conditions; however, cellular behaviors are dynamic and interactions can be expected to change in response to molecular context and environment. To determine the consistency of network interactions, we examined the enzyme network responsible for the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) to NADPH across three different conditions: oxidative stress, starvation, and desiccation. Synthetic, activity-variant alleles were used in Drosophila melanogaster for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6pd), cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase (Idh), and cytosolic malic enzyme (Men) along with seven different genetic backgrounds to lend biological relevance to the data. The responses of the NADP-reducing enzymes and two downstream phenotypes (lipid and glycogen concentration) were compared between the control and stress conditions. In general, responses in NADP-reducing enzymes were greater under conditions of oxidative stress, likely due to an increased demand for NADPH. Interactions between the enzymes were altered by environmental stress in directions and magnitudes that are consistent with differential contributions of the different enzymes to the NADPH pool: the contributions of G6PD and IDH seem to be accentuated by oxidative stress, and MEN by starvation. Overall, we find that biological network interactions are strongly influenced by environmental conditions, underscoring the importance of examining networks as dynamic entities.

  15. Early age thermal conditioning immediately reduces body temperature of broiler chicks in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    De Basilio, V; Requena, F; León, A; Vilariño, M; Picard, M

    2003-08-01

    Early age thermal conditioning (TC) durably improves resistance of broilers to heat stress and reduces body temperature (Tb). Three experiments on broiler chicks were conducted to evaluate the effects of TC at 5 d of age on Tb variation measured by thermometer between 4 and 7 d of age, under a tropical environment. Because manipulation of chickens to measure Tb with a thermometer may increase Tb, a preliminary experiment on 13 3-to-4-wk-old male broilers compared Tb measured by telemetry to Tb measured in the terminal colon during three successive periods at 22, 33, and 22 degrees C. During heat exposure, Tb rapidly increased by 0.9 degrees C and plateaued over 24 h. During the last period, seven of the broilers rapidly reduced Tb to a plateau lower than the initial Tb, although six broilers exhibited more variable Tb. Measurement by thermometer underestimated on average core Tb by 0.28 degrees C at 22 degrees C and by 0.57 degrees C at 33 degrees C, whereas Tb recorded by telemetry was not affected by manipulation of the chickens. TC reduced Tb 24 h later in the three experiments. Compared to unexposed control chicks (N), 12 h of TC at 40 degrees C did not significantly reduce Tb at 7 d of age, although 24 h did. TC at 38 and 40 degrees C over 24 h significantly reduced Tb variation from 4 to 7 d of age compared to N chicks, whereas 36 degrees C did not. Withdrawing feed from the chicks for 2 h prior to measurement did not significantly reduce Tb at 4 and 7 d of age, but Tb reduction due to TC was greater in fed chicks (0.28 degrees C) than in chicks without feed (0.05 degrees C). Early age thermal conditioning at 38 to 40 degrees C at 5 d of age for 24 h reduced body temperature of 7-d-old male broilers.

  16. Delayed post-conditioning reduces post-ischemic glutamate level and improves protein synthesis in brain.

    PubMed

    Bonova, Petra; Burda, Jozef; Danielisova, Viera; Nemethova, Miroslava; Gottlieb, Miroslav

    2013-05-01

    In the clinic delayed post-conditioning would represent an attractive strategy for the survival of vulnerable neurons after an ischemic event. In this paper we studied the impact of ischemia and delayed post-conditioning on blood and brain tissue concentrations of glutamate and protein synthesis. We designed two groups of animals for analysis of brain tissues and blood after global ischemia and post-conditioning, and one for analysis of blood glutamate after transient focal ischemia. Our results showed elevated blood glutamate in two models of transient brain ischemia and decreases in blood glutamate to control in the first 20min of post-conditioning recirculation followed by a consecutive drop of about 20.5% on the first day. Similarly, we recorded reduced protein synthesis in hippocampus and cortex 2 and 3days after ischemia. However, increased glutamate was registered only in the hippocampus. Post-conditioning improves protein synthesis in CA1 and dentate gyrus and, surprisingly, leads to 50% reduction in glutamate in whole hippocampus and cortex. In conclusion, ischemia leads to meaningful elevation of blood and tissue glutamate. Post-conditioning activates mechanisms resulting in rapid elimination of glutamate from brain tissue and/or in the circulatory system that could otherwise impede brain-to-blood glutamate efflux mechanisms. Moreover, post-conditioning induces protein synthesis renewing in ischemia affected tissues that could also contribute to elimination of excitotoxicity. In addition, the potential of glutamate for monitoring the progress of ischemia and efficacy of therapy was shown.

  17. Soot formation and radiation in turbulent jet diffusion flames under normal and reduced gravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jerry C.; Tong, LI; Sun, Jun; Greenberg, Paul S.; Griffin, Devon W.

    1993-01-01

    Most practical combustion processes, as well as fires and explosions, exhibit some characteristics of turbulent diffusion flames. For hydrocarbon fuels, the presence of soot particles significantly increases the level of radiative heat transfer from flames. In some cases, flame radiation can reach up to 75 percent of the heat release by combustion. Laminar diffusion flame results show that radiation becomes stronger under reduced gravity conditions. Therefore, detailed soot formation and radiation must be included in the flame structure analysis. A study of sooting turbulent diffusion flames under reduced-gravity conditions will not only provide necessary information for such practical issues as spacecraft fire safety, but also develop better understanding of fundamentals for diffusion combustion. In this paper, a summary of the work to date and of future plans is reported.

  18. Anaerobic biodegradation of soybean biodiesel and diesel blends under sulfate-reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuyun; Yassine, Mohamad H; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2016-10-01

    Biotransformation of soybean biodiesel and its biodiesel/petrodiesel blends were investigated under sulfate-reducing conditions. Three blends of biodiesel, B100, B50, and B0, were treated using microbial cultures pre-acclimated to B100 (biodiesel only) and B80 (80% biodiesel and 20% petrodiesel). Results indicate that the biodiesel could be effectively biodegraded in the presence or absence of petrodiesel, whereas petrodiesel could not be biodegraded at all under sulfate-reducing conditions. The kinetics of biodegradation of individual Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) compounds and their accompanying sulfate-reduction rates were studied using a serum bottle test. As for the biodegradation of individual FAME compounds, the biodegradation rates for the saturated FAMEs decreased with increasing carbon chain length. For unsaturated FAMEs, biodegradation rates increased with increasing number of double bonds. The presence of petrodiesel had a greater effect on the rate of biodegradation of biodiesel than on the extent of removal. PMID:27448319

  19. Anaerobic biodegradation of soybean biodiesel and diesel blends under sulfate-reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuyun; Yassine, Mohamad H; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2016-10-01

    Biotransformation of soybean biodiesel and its biodiesel/petrodiesel blends were investigated under sulfate-reducing conditions. Three blends of biodiesel, B100, B50, and B0, were treated using microbial cultures pre-acclimated to B100 (biodiesel only) and B80 (80% biodiesel and 20% petrodiesel). Results indicate that the biodiesel could be effectively biodegraded in the presence or absence of petrodiesel, whereas petrodiesel could not be biodegraded at all under sulfate-reducing conditions. The kinetics of biodegradation of individual Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) compounds and their accompanying sulfate-reduction rates were studied using a serum bottle test. As for the biodegradation of individual FAME compounds, the biodegradation rates for the saturated FAMEs decreased with increasing carbon chain length. For unsaturated FAMEs, biodegradation rates increased with increasing number of double bonds. The presence of petrodiesel had a greater effect on the rate of biodegradation of biodiesel than on the extent of removal.

  20. Retrofitting Inefficient Rooftop Air-Conditioning Units Reduces U.S. Navy Energy Use (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Navy's overall energy strategy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) partnered with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) to demonstrate market-ready energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration. One such technology - retrofitting rooftop air-conditioning units with an advanced rooftop control system - was identified as a promising source for reducing energy use and costs, and can contribute to increasing energy security.

  1. Reduced functional connectivity within and between 'social' resting state networks in autism spectrum conditions.

    PubMed

    von dem Hagen, Elisabeth A H; Stoyanova, Raliza S; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Calder, Andrew J

    2013-08-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have difficulties in social interaction and communication, which is reflected in hypoactivation of brain regions engaged in social processing, such as medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala and insula. Resting state studies in ASC have identified reduced connectivity of the default mode network (DMN), which includes mPFC, suggesting that other resting state networks incorporating 'social' brain regions may also be abnormal. Using seed-based connectivity and group independent component analysis (ICA) approaches, we looked at resting functional connectivity in ASC between specific 'social' brain regions, as well as within and between whole networks incorporating these regions. We found reduced functional connectivity within the DMN in individuals with ASC, using both ICA and seed-based approaches. Two further networks identified by ICA, the salience network, incorporating the insula and a medial temporal lobe network, incorporating the amygdala, showed reduced inter-network connectivity. This was underlined by reduced seed-based connectivity between the insula and amygdala. The results demonstrate significantly reduced functional connectivity within and between resting state networks incorporating 'social' brain regions. This reduced connectivity may result in difficulties in communication and integration of information across these networks, which could contribute to the impaired processing of social signals in ASC.

  2. Ghrelin knockout mice show decreased voluntary alcohol consumption and reduced ethanol-induced conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Amine; Tolle, Virginie; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Brunel, Luc; Martinez, Jean; Tomasetto, Catherine-Laure; Karam, Sherif M

    2013-05-01

    Recent work suggests that stomach-derived hormone ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonism may reduce motivational aspects of ethanol intake. In the current study we hypothesized that the endogenous GHS-R1A agonist ghrelin modulates alcohol reward mechanisms. For this purpose ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation and voluntary ethanol consumption in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm were examined under conditions where ghrelin and its receptor were blocked, either using ghrelin knockout (KO) mice or the specific ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonist "JMV2959". We showed that ghrelin KO mice displayed lower ethanol-induced CPP than their wild-type (WT) littermates. Consistently, when injected during CPP-acquisition, JMV2959 reduced CPP-expression in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation was lower in ghrelin KO mice. Moreover, GHS-R1A blockade, using JMV2959, reduced alcohol-stimulated locomotion only in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. When alcohol consumption and preference were assessed using the two-bottle choice test, both genetic deletion of ghrelin and pharmacological antagonism of the GHS-R1A (JMV2959) reduced voluntary alcohol consumption and preference. Finally, JMV2959-induced reduction of alcohol intake was only observed in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. Taken together, these results suggest that ghrelin neurotransmission is necessary for the stimulatory effect of ethanol to occur, whereas lack of ghrelin leads to changes that reduce the voluntary intake as well as conditioned reward by ethanol. Our findings reveal a major, novel role for ghrelin in mediating ethanol behavior, and add to growing evidence that ghrelin is a key mediator of the effects of multiple abused drugs. PMID:23428971

  3. Ghrelin knockout mice show decreased voluntary alcohol consumption and reduced ethanol-induced conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Amine; Tolle, Virginie; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Brunel, Luc; Martinez, Jean; Tomasetto, Catherine-Laure; Karam, Sherif M

    2013-05-01

    Recent work suggests that stomach-derived hormone ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonism may reduce motivational aspects of ethanol intake. In the current study we hypothesized that the endogenous GHS-R1A agonist ghrelin modulates alcohol reward mechanisms. For this purpose ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation and voluntary ethanol consumption in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm were examined under conditions where ghrelin and its receptor were blocked, either using ghrelin knockout (KO) mice or the specific ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonist "JMV2959". We showed that ghrelin KO mice displayed lower ethanol-induced CPP than their wild-type (WT) littermates. Consistently, when injected during CPP-acquisition, JMV2959 reduced CPP-expression in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation was lower in ghrelin KO mice. Moreover, GHS-R1A blockade, using JMV2959, reduced alcohol-stimulated locomotion only in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. When alcohol consumption and preference were assessed using the two-bottle choice test, both genetic deletion of ghrelin and pharmacological antagonism of the GHS-R1A (JMV2959) reduced voluntary alcohol consumption and preference. Finally, JMV2959-induced reduction of alcohol intake was only observed in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. Taken together, these results suggest that ghrelin neurotransmission is necessary for the stimulatory effect of ethanol to occur, whereas lack of ghrelin leads to changes that reduce the voluntary intake as well as conditioned reward by ethanol. Our findings reveal a major, novel role for ghrelin in mediating ethanol behavior, and add to growing evidence that ghrelin is a key mediator of the effects of multiple abused drugs.

  4. IMPACTS OF REDUCING CONDITIONS IN THE SATURATED ZONE AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN

    SciTech Connect

    B.W. Arnold; A. Meijer; E. Kalinina; B. Robinson; S. Kelkar; C. Jove-Colon; S. Kuzio; S. James; M. Zhu

    2006-02-28

    Variations in groundwater redox chemistry in the saturated zone near Yucca Mountain could have significant repository to the accessible environment. This study examines geochemical data relevant to the distribution of redox impacts on processes associated with the potential transport of redox-sensitive radionuclides from the proposed conditions in the saturated zone, the relationships between redox state and solubility and sorption coefficients for technetium and neptunium, and sensitivity in transport model simulations. Results indicate evidence for a zone of reducing conditions in the volcanic rocks of the saturated zone located to the east and south of the repository and along the inferred flow paths from the repository. A working hypothesis is that these reducing conditions are related to the presence of minor pyrite in the matrix of some volcanic units. Chemical equilibrium modeling of technetium solubility using EQ3/6 software codes is used to estimate the value of solubility limits as a function of Eh. Surface complexation modeling with the EQ3 code is used to estimate neptunium sorption coefficient values as a function of Eh. A general analytical approach, one-dimensional reactive transport modeling, and the three-dimensional saturated zone site-scale transport model using the FEHM software code are used to evaluate the impacts of solubility limits and enhanced sorption in reducing zones on the simulated transport of technetium and neptunium in the saturated zone. Results show that if precipitation occurs in response to flow through a reducing zone, then the peak concentration released to the accessible environment will be restricted to the solubility limit. Simulations also show that enhanced sorption within a reducing zone of modest width leads to significantly greater retardation of radionuclides in the saturated zone.

  5. Ghrelin reduces hypertonic saline intake in a variety of natriorexigenic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mietlicki, Elizabeth G; Daniels, Derek

    2011-10-01

    Ghrelin is a gut peptide that has been studied extensively for its role in food intake and energy balance. More recent studies show that ghrelin reduces water intake in rats and some non-mammalian species. Despite the importance of the regulation of NaCl intake in body fluid homeostasis, the effects of ghrelin on saline intake have not been investigated. Accordingly, we tested the effect of ghrelin on water and 1.8% NaCl intake in two-bottle test conditions with the following five stimuli that increase hypertonic saline intake: central angiotensin II administration; 24 h fluid deprivation; water deprivation followed by partial rehydration; dietary sodium deficiency; and polyethylene glycol administration combined with dietary sodium deficiency. We found that ghrelin attenuated saline intake stimulated by angiotensin II, by water deprivation followed by partial rehydration and by dietary sodium deficiency. We did not detect an effect of ghrelin on saline intake after 24 h fluid deprivation without partial rehydration or after the combination of polyethylene glycol and dietary sodium deficiency. The finding that ghrelin reduced hypertonic saline intake in some, but not all, natriorexigenic conditions mirrors the previously published findings that in one-bottle tests of drinking, ghrelin reduces water intake in only some conditions. The results provide evidence for a new role for ghrelin in the regulation of body fluid homeostasis.

  6. Donor Chimerism Early after Reduced-intensity Conditioning Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Predicts Relapse and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Koreth, John; Kim, Haesook T.; Nikiforow, Sarah; Milford, Edgar L.; Armand, Philippe; Cutler, Corey; Glotzbecker, Brett; Ho, Vincent T.; Antin, Joseph H.; Soiffer, Robert J.; Ritz, Jerome; Alyea, Edwin P.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of early donor cell chimerism on outcomes of T-replete reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is ill-defined. We evaluated day 30 (D30) and 100 (D100) total donor cell chimerism after RIC HSCT undertaken between 2002 and 2010 at our institution, excluding patients who died or relapsed before D30. When available, donor T-cell chimerism was also assessed. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Secondary outcomes included progression-free survival (PFS), relapse and non-relapse mortality (NRM). 688 patients with hematologic malignancies (48% myeloid; 52% lymphoid) and a median age of 57 years (range, 18-74) undergoing RIC HSCT with T-replete donor grafts (97% peripheral blood; 92% HLA-matched) and median follow-up of 58.2 months (range, 12.6-120.7) were evaluated. In multivariable analysis total donor cell and T-cell chimerism at D30 and D100 each predicted RIC HSCT outcomes, with D100 total donor cell chimerism most predictive. D100 total donor cell chimerism <90% was associated with increased relapse (HR 2.54, 95% CI 1.83-3.51, p<0.0001), impaired PFS (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.53-2.65, p<0.0001) and worse OS (1.50, 95% CI 1.11-2.04, p=0.009), but not NRM (HR 0.76; 95% CI 0.44-2.27, p=0.33). There was no additional utility of incorporating sustained D30-D100 total donor cell chimerism, or T-cell chimerism. Low donor chimerism early after RIC HSCT is an independent risk factor for relapse and impaired survival. Donor chimerism assessment early after RIC HSCT can prognosticate for long-term outcomes and help identify high-risk patient cohorts that may benefit from additional therapeutic interventions. PMID:24907627

  7. High resistance to helium embrittlement in reduced activation martensitic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, A.; Kasada, R.; Morishita, K.; Sugano, R.; Hasegawa, A.; Abe, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Matsui, H.; Yoshida, N.; Wirth, B. D.; Rubia, T. D.

    2002-12-01

    Reduced activation martensitic steels (RAMSs) are the prime candidate structural material for the DEMO reactor and beyond where the material has been considered to suffer severe embrittlement caused by high-dose neutron irradiation and several thousands appm of transmutated helium. However, recent several works show high resistance to helium embrittlement of RAMS. Good performance of RAMS in the presence of rather high concentration of helium is considered to be due to high trapping capacity for helium atoms in the martensitic structure that consists of dislocations, lath boundaries, grain boundaries and carbide/matrix interfaces. To make clear the role of dislocations in trapping helium, thermal helium desorption spectra were measured for iron specimens annealed at different temperatures after cold work. A desorption peak, which increased its height with increasing dislocation density, was observed at around 550 °C, suggesting that dislocations trap helium atoms. A molecular dynamics simulation study for investigating the helium trapping behavior at helium-vacancy complexes suggests that helium is rather strongly bound to the complexes and increases the binding energy of vacancy to the complex, resulting in increasing stability of the complexes at elevated temperatures by reducing thermal emission of vacancies.

  8. Teaching and Learning Conditions Improve High School Reform Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Teaching Quality, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The North Carolina high school reform movement is focused on creating small, personalized and academically rigorous schools that increase graduation rates, reduce suspension and expulsion rates, increase college going rates and reduce college remediation rates. This report indicates that redesigned and early college high schools in North Carolina…

  9. High Speed Gear Sized and Configured to Reduce Windage Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunz, Robert F. (Inventor); Medvitz, Richard B. (Inventor); Hill, Matthew John (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A gear and drive system utilizing the gear include teeth. Each of the teeth has a first side and a second side opposite the first side that extends from a body of the gear. For each tooth of the gear, a first extended portion is attached to the first side of the tooth to divert flow of fluid adjacent to the body of the gear to reduce windage losses that occur when the gear rotates. The gear may be utilized in drive systems that may have high rotational speeds, such as speeds where the tip velocities are greater than or equal to about 68 m/s. Some embodiments of the gear may also utilize teeth that also have second extended portions attached to the second sides of the teeth to divert flow of fluid adjacent to the body of the gear to reduce windage losses that occur when the gear rotates.

  10. OH solubility in olivine in the peridotite-COH system under reducing conditions and implications for water storage and hydrous melting in the reducing upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaozhi

    2015-12-01

    Experimental studies of OH solubility in peridotite minerals are of crucial importance for understanding some key geochemical, geophysical and geodynamical properties of the upper mantle. In reducing depths of the upper mantle, C-O-H fluids are dominated by CH4 and H2O. However, available experimental H-annealing of olivine concerning water storage capacity in the reducing upper mantle has been exclusively carried out by equilibrating olivine with H2O only. In this study, OH solubility in olivine has been investigated by annealing natural olivine crystals under peridotite-bearing and CH4-H2O-present conditions with piston cylinder and multi-anvil apparatus. Experiments were performed at 1-7 GPa and 1100-1350 °C and with oxygen fugacity controlled by Fe-FeO buffer, and OH solubilities were measured from polarized infrared spectra. The olivines show no change in chemical composition during the experiments. The infrared spectra of all the annealed olivines show OH bands in the range 3650-3000 cm-1, at both high (>3450 cm-1) and low (<3450 cm-1) frequency, and the bands at ˜3400-3300 cm-1 are greatly enhanced above ˜3 GPa and 1300 °C. The determined H2O solubility is ˜90-385 ppm for the olivine coexisting with H2O (1-7 GPa and 1100 °C), and is ˜40-380 ppm for the olivine coexisting with CH4-H2O (1-7 GPa and 1100-1350 °C). When CH4 is present in the equilibrium fluid, the H2O solubility is reduced by a factor of ˜2.3 under otherwise identical conditions, indicating a strong effect of CH4 on the partitioning of water between olivine and coexisting fluid. The storage capacity of water in the reducing upper mantle is, modeled with the measured solubility of olivine and available partition coefficients of water between coexisting minerals, up to ˜2 orders of magnitude lower than some previous estimates. Considering the temperature along the geotherm in the reducing oceanic upper mantle, the required H2O concentration to trigger hydrous melting is 250 and 535 ppm

  11. Evaluation of redox indicators for determining sulfate-reducing and dechlorinating conditions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brian D; Ingle, James D

    2005-11-01

    An in situ methodology based on covalently bonded redox indicators has been developed for determining when sulfate-reducing conditions exist in environmental samples. Three immobilized redox indicators [thionine (Thi, formal potential at pH 7 (E(0')7) equals 52 mV), cresyl violet (CV, E(0')7 = -81 mV), and phenosafranine (PSaf, E(0')7 = -267 mV)] were tested for their response to sulfide in synthetic solutions and under sulfate-reducing conditions in wastewater slurries. The byproduct of the sulfate-reducing process, sulfide, was found to couple well to CV in the concentration range of 1-100 microM total sulfide ([S(-II)]) and the pH range of 6-8. Thi, the indicator with the highest formal potential, reacts rapidly with sulfide at levels well below 1 microM while PSaf, the indicator with the lowest formal potential, does not couple to sulfide at levels in excess of 100 microM [S(-II)]. The degree of reduction of the indicators (i.e., the fraction of cresyl violet oxidized) in contact with a given level of sulfide can be modeled qualitatively with an equilibrium expression for [S(-II)]-indicator based on the Nernst equation assuming that rhombic sulfur is the product of sulfide oxidation. In a groundwater sample with dechlorinating microbes, reduction of Thi and partial reduction of CV correlated with dechlorination of TCE to cis-DCE.

  12. Method of reducing temperature in high-speed photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, E. D.; Slater, H. A.

    1984-01-01

    A continuing problem in high-speed motion picture photography is adequate lighting and the associated temperature rise. Large temperature rises can damage subject matter and make recording of the desired images impossible. The problem is more severe in macrophotography because of bellows extension and the necessary increase in light. This report covers one approach to reducing the initial temperature rise: the use of filters and heat-absorbing materials. The accompanying figures provide the starting point for selecting distance as a function of light intensity and determining the associated temperature rise. Using these figures will allow the photographer greater freedom in meeting different photographic situations.

  13. Riboflavin enhanced fluorescence of highly reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliut, Maria; Gabudean, Ana-Maria; Leordean, Cosmin; Simon, Timea; Teodorescu, Cristian-Mihail; Astilean, Simion

    2013-10-01

    The improvement of graphene derivates' fluorescence properties is a challenging topic and very few ways were reported up to now. In this Letter we propose an easy method to enhance the fluorescence of highly reduced graphene oxide (rGO) through non-covalent binding to a molecular fluorophore, namely the riboflavin (Rb). While the fluorescence of Rb is quenched, the Rb - decorated rGO exhibits strong blue fluorescence and significantly increased fluorescence lifetime, as compared to its pristine form. The data reported here represent a promising start towards tailoring the optical properties of rGOs, having utmost importance in optical applications.

  14. Performance of Cerebral Palsied Children under Conditions of Reduced Auditory Input on Selected Intellectual, Cognitive and Perceptual Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fassler, Joan

    The study investigated the task performance of cerebral palsied children under conditions of reduced auditory input and under normal auditory conditions. A non-cerebral palsied group was studied in a similar manner. Results indicated that cerebral palsied children showed some positive change in performance, under conditions of reduced auditory…

  15. Enhanced transformation of diphenylarsinic acid in soil under sulfate-reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ling; Hisatomi, Shihoko; Fujii, Kunihiko; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

    2012-11-30

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is known to be the major contaminant in soils where diphenylchloroarsine and diphenylcyanoarsine were abandoned after World Wars I and II. In this study, experimental model studies were performed to elucidate key factors regulating the transformation of DPAA under anaerobic soil conditions. The elimination of DPAA in Gleysol soils (Qiqihar and Shindori soils) was more rapid than in Mollisol and Regosol soils (Heihe and Ikarashi soils, respectively) during a 5-week incubation. No clear relationship between decreasing rates of DPAA concentrations and soil Eh values was found. The Ikarashi soil showed the slowest decrease in DPAA concentrations among the four soils, but the transformation of DPAA was notably enhanced by addition of exogenous sulfate together with acetate, cellulose or rice straw. Addition of molybdate, a specific inhibitor of sulfate reduction, resulted in the stagnation of DPAA transformation, suggesting that indigenous sulfate reducers play a role in DPAA transformation under anaerobic conditions. Arsenate, phenylarsonic acid, phenylmethylarsinic acid, diphenylmethylarsine oxide and three unknown compounds were detected as metabolites of DPAA. This is the first study to reveal enhancement of DPAA transformation under sulfate-reducing conditions. PMID:23069334

  16. 78 FR 27033 - Safety Zone; High Water Conditions; Illinois River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; High Water Conditions; Illinois River... intended to place restrictions on vessels due to current extreme high-water conditions. This safety zone is... flood waters and potential catastrophic failure of the Marseilles Dam. DATES: This rule will be...

  17. Stress responses of Calluna vulgaris to reduced and oxidised N applied under 'real world conditions'.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Lucy J; Leith, Ian D; Crossley, A; Van Dijk, N; Fowler, D; Sutton, M A; Woods, C

    2008-08-01

    Effects and implications of reduced and oxidised N, applied under 'real world' conditions, since May 2002, are reported for Calluna growing on an ombrotrophic bog. Ammonia has been released from a 10 m line source generating monthly concentrations of 180-6 microg m(-3), while ammonium chloride and sodium nitrate are applied in rainwater at nitrate and ammonium concentrations below 4mM and providing up to 56 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) above a background deposition of 10 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). Ammonia concentrations, >8 microg m(-3) have significantly enhanced foliar N concentrations, increased sensitivity to drought, frost and winter desiccation, spring frost damage and increased the incidence of pathogen outbreaks. The mature Calluna bushes nearest the NH3 source have turned bleached and moribund. By comparison the Calluna receiving reduced and oxidised N in rain has shown no significant visible or stress related effects with no significant increase in N status.

  18. Stress responses of Calluna vulgaris to reduced and oxidised N applied under 'real world conditions'.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Lucy J; Leith, Ian D; Crossley, A; Van Dijk, N; Fowler, D; Sutton, M A; Woods, C

    2008-08-01

    Effects and implications of reduced and oxidised N, applied under 'real world' conditions, since May 2002, are reported for Calluna growing on an ombrotrophic bog. Ammonia has been released from a 10 m line source generating monthly concentrations of 180-6 microg m(-3), while ammonium chloride and sodium nitrate are applied in rainwater at nitrate and ammonium concentrations below 4mM and providing up to 56 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) above a background deposition of 10 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). Ammonia concentrations, >8 microg m(-3) have significantly enhanced foliar N concentrations, increased sensitivity to drought, frost and winter desiccation, spring frost damage and increased the incidence of pathogen outbreaks. The mature Calluna bushes nearest the NH3 source have turned bleached and moribund. By comparison the Calluna receiving reduced and oxidised N in rain has shown no significant visible or stress related effects with no significant increase in N status. PMID:18177985

  19. Complete reduction of TNT and other (poly)nitroaromatic compounds under iron-reducing subsurface conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, T.B.; Haderlein, S.B.; Schwarzenbach, R.P.; Heijman, C.G.; Holliger, C.

    1999-05-01

    Contamination of soils and aquifers with (poly)nitroaromatic compounds ((P)NACs) is a widespread problem. This work demonstrates that (P)NACs such as the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) can be completely reduced to the corresponding aromatic polyamines by Fe(II) present at the surface of Fe(III)(hydr)oxides or, less efficiently, by hydroquinone moieties of (natural) organic matter in the presence of H{sub 2}S. The reduction kinetics of (P)NACs were investigated in sterile batch systems as well as in columns containing either FeOOH-coated sand and a pure culture of the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter metallireducens or ferrogenic consortia in aquifer sediments. The relative reactivities as well as the competition behavior of (P)NACs in batch and column systems, respectively, correlated well with their one-electron reduction potentials, E{sub h}{sup 1}{prime}, which the authors determined for TNT and its aminonitrotoluene transformation products. A similar reactivity pattern of (P)NACs was found irrespective of the processes that (re)generated the surface-bound Fe(II), i.e., adsorption of Fe(II) from aqueous solution or microbial reduction of Fe(III)(hydr)oxides. The apparent stability of the toxic arylamine products under ferrogenic conditions may compromise intrinsic attenuation as an acceptable remediation option for (P)NAC contaminated anoxic aquifers. Iron-reducing conditions would, however, be favorable as a first step in a two-stage anaerobic/aerobic treatment of PNAC contaminated sediments since aromatic polyamines are biodegradable and/or bind irreversibly to the solid matrix under oxic conditions.

  20. HDAC inhibitor reduces cytokine storm and facilitates induction of chimerism that reverses lupus in anti-CD3 conditioning regimen.

    PubMed

    Li, Nainong; Zhao, Dongchang; Kirschbaum, Mark; Zhang, Chunyan; Lin, Chia-Lei; Todorov, Ivan; Kandeel, Fouad; Forman, Stephen; Zeng, Defu

    2008-03-25

    In allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), donor T cell-mediated graft versus host leukemia (GVL) and graft versus autoimmune (GVA) activity play critical roles in treatment of hematological malignancies and refractory autoimmune diseases. However, graft versus host disease (GVHD), which sometimes can be fatal, remains a major obstacle in classical HCT, where recipients are conditioned with total body irradiation or high-dose chemotherapy. We previously reported that anti-CD3 conditioning allows donor CD8(+) T cells to facilitate engraftment and mediate GVL without causing GVHD. However, the clinical application of this radiation-free and GVHD preventative conditioning regimen is hindered by the cytokine storm syndrome triggered by anti-CD3 and the high-dose donor bone marrow (BM) cells required for induction of chimerism. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors such as suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) are known to induce apoptosis of cancer cells and reduce production of proinflammatory cytokines by nonmalignant cells. Here, we report that SAHA inhibits the proliferative and cytotoxic activity of anti-CD3-activated T cells. Administration of low-dose SAHA reduces cytokine production and ameliorates the cytokine storm syndrome triggered by anti-CD3. Conditioning with anti-CD3 and SAHA allows induction of chimerism with lower doses of donor BM cells in old nonautoimmune and autoimmune lupus mice. In addition, conditioning with anti-CD3 and SAHA allows donor CD8(+) T cell-mediated GVA activity to reverse lupus glomerulonephritis without causing GVHD. These results indicate that conditioning with anti-CD3 and HDAC inhibitors represent a radiation-free and GVHD-preventative regimen with clinical application potential.

  1. Bubble Generation in a Continuous Liquid Flow Under Reduced Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pais, Salvatore Cezar

    1999-01-01

    The present work reports a study of bubble generation under reduced gravity conditions for both co-flow and cross-flow configurations. Experiments were performed aboard the DC-9 Reduced Gravity Aircraft at NASA Glenn Research Center, using an air-water system. Three different flow tube diameters were used: 1.27, 1.9, and 2.54 cm. Two different ratios of air injection nozzle to tube diameters were considered: 0.1 and 0.2. Gas and liquid volumetric flow rates were varied from 10 to 200 ml/s. It was experimentally observed that with increasing superficial liquid velocity, the bubbles generated decreased in size. The bubble diameter was shown to increase with increasing air injection nozzle diameters. As the tube diameter was increased, the size of the detached bubbles increased. Likewise, as the superficial liquid velocity was increased, the frequency of bubble formation increased and thus the time to detach forming bubbles decreased. Independent of the flow configuration (for either single nozzle or multiple nozzle gas injection), void fraction and hence flow regime transition can be controlled in a somewhat precise manner by solely varying the gas and liquid volumetric flow rates. On the other hand, it is observed that uniformity of bubble size can be controlled more accurately by using single nozzle gas injection than by using multiple port injection, since this latter system gives rise to unpredictable coalescence of adjacent bubbles. A theoretical model, based on an overall force balance, is employed to study single bubble generation in the dynamic and bubbly flow regime. Under conditions of reduced gravity, the gas momentum flux enhances bubble detachment; however, the surface tension forces at the nozzle tip inhibits bubble detachment. Liquid drag and inertia can act either as attaching or detaching force, depending on the relative velocity of the bubble with respect to the surrounding liquid. Predictions of the theoretical model compare well with performed

  2. Effects of Calcination Condition on Porous Reduced Titanium Oxides and Oxynitrides via Preceramic Polymer Route

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, George; Sato, Tatsuya; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Ren, Yang; Kobayashi, Yoji; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Abe, Takeshi; Nakanishi, Kazuki

    2015-03-16

    The preceramic polymer route from titanium-based inorganic-organic hybrid networks provides electro conductive N-doped reduced titanium oxides (TinO2n–1) and titanium oxynitrides (TiOxNy) with a monolithic shape as well as well-defined porous structure. This methodology demonstrates advantageously lower temperature of crystal phase transition compared to the reduction of TiO2 by carbon or H2. In this study, effects of calcination condition on various features of the products have been explored by adopting three different atmospheric conditions and varying the calcination temperature. The detailed crystallographic and elemental analyses disclose the distinguished difference in phase transition behavior with respect to calcination atmosphere. Correlation between the crystallization and nitridation behaviors, porous properties and electric conductivities in the final products has been discussed.

  3. Extreme weather conditions reduce the CO2 fertilization effect in temperate C3 grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermeier, Wolfgang; Lehnert, Lukas; Kammann, Claudia; Müller, Christoph; Grünhage, Ludger; Luterbacher, Jürg; Erbs, Martin; Yuan, Naiming; Bendix, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    The increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations from anthropogenic activities is the major driver of global climate change. The rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations may stimulate plant photosynthesis and, thus, cause a net sink effect in the global carbon cycle. As a consequence of an enhanced photosynthesis, an increase in the net primary productivity (NPP) of C3 plants (termed CO2 fertilization) is widely assumed. This process is associated with a reduced stomatal conductance of leaves as the carbon demand of photosynthesis is met earlier. This causes a higher water-use efficiency and, hence, may reduce water stress in plants exposed to elevated CO2 concentrations ([eCO2]). However, the magnitude and persistence of the CO2 fertilization effect under a future climate including more frequent weather extremes are controversial. To test the CO2 fertilization effect for Central European grasslands, a data set comprising 16 years of biomass samples and environmental variables such as local weather and soil conditions was analysed by means of a novel approach. The data set was recorded on a "Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment" (FACE) experimental site which allows to quantify the CO2 fertilization effect under naturally occurring climate variations. The results indicate that the CO2 fertilization effect on the aboveground biomass is strongest under local average environmental conditions. Such intermediate regimes were defined by the mean +/- 1 standard deviation of the long-term average in the respective variable three months before harvest. The observed CO2 fertilization effect was reduced or vanished under drier, wetter and hotter conditions when the respective variable exceeded the bounds of the intermediate regimes. Comparable conditions, characterized by a higher frequency of more extreme weather conditions, are predicted for the future by climate projections. Consequently, biogeochemical models may overestimate the future NPP sink

  4. Donor chimerism early after reduced-intensity conditioning hematopoietic stem cell transplantation predicts relapse and survival.

    PubMed

    Koreth, John; Kim, Haesook T; Nikiforow, Sarah; Milford, Edgar L; Armand, Philippe; Cutler, Corey; Glotzbecker, Brett; Ho, Vincent T; Antin, Joseph H; Soiffer, Robert J; Ritz, Jerome; Alyea, Edwin P

    2014-10-01

    The impact of early donor cell chimerism on outcomes of T cell-replete reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is ill defined. We evaluated day 30 (D30) and 100 (D100) total donor cell chimerism after RIC HSCT undertaken between 2002 and 2010 at our institution, excluding patients who died or relapsed before D30. When available, donor T cell chimerism was also assessed. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Secondary outcomes included progression-free survival (PFS), relapse, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). We evaluated 688 patients with hematologic malignancies (48% myeloid and 52% lymphoid) and a median age of 57 years (range, 18 to 74) undergoing RIC HSCT with T cell-replete donor grafts (97% peripheral blood; 92% HLA-matched), with a median follow-up of 58.2 months (range, 12.6 to 120.7). In multivariable analysis, total donor cell and T cell chimerism at D30 and D100 each predicted RIC HSCT outcomes, with D100 total donor cell chimerism most predictive. D100 total donor cell chimerism <90% was associated with increased relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.83 to 3.51; P < .0001), impaired PFS (HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.53 to 2.65; P < .0001), and worse OS (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.04, P = .009), but not with NRM (HR, .76; 95% CI, .44 to 2.27; P = .33). There was no additional utility of incorporating sustained D30 to D100 total donor cell chimerism or T cell chimerism. Low donor chimerism early after RIC HSCT is an independent risk factor for relapse and impaired survival. Donor chimerism assessment early after RIC HSCT can prognosticate for long-term outcomes and help identify high-risk patient cohorts who may benefit from additional therapeutic interventions.

  5. Comparison of the conditioning of high gradient accelerating structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degiovanni, Alberto; Wuensch, Walter; Giner Navarro, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    Accelerating gradients in excess of 100 MV /m , at very low breakdown rates, have been successfully achieved in numerous prototype CLIC accelerating structures. The conditioning and operational histories of several structures, tested at KEK and CERN, have been compared and there is clear evidence that the conditioning progresses with the number of rf pulses and not with the number of breakdowns. This observation opens the possibility that the optimum conditioning strategy, which minimizes the total number of breakdowns the structure is subject to without increasing conditioning time, may be to never exceed the breakdown rate target for operation. The result is also likely to have a strong impact on efforts to understand the physical mechanism underlying conditioning and may lead to preparation procedures which reduce conditioning time.

  6. High average power solid state laser power conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Steinkraus, R.F.

    1987-03-03

    The power conditioning system for the High Average Power Laser program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described. The system has been operational for two years. It is high voltage, high power, fault protected, and solid state. The power conditioning system drives flashlamps that pump solid state lasers. Flashlamps are driven by silicon control rectifier (SCR) switched, resonant charged, (LC) discharge pulse forming networks (PFNs). The system uses fiber optics for control and diagnostics. Energy and thermal diagnostics are monitored by computers.

  7. Dissolution of Technetium(IV) Oxide by Natural and Synthetic Organic Ligands Under both Reducing and Oxidizing Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Baohua; Dong, W.; Liang, Liyuan; Wall, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Technetium-99 (Tc) in nuclear waste is a significant environmental concern due to its long half-life and high mobility in the subsurface. Reductive precipitation of Tc(IV) oxides [TcO2(s)] is an effective means of immobilizing Tc, thereby impeding its migration in groundwater. However, TcO2(s) is subject to dissolution by oxidants and/or complexing agents. In this study we ascertain the effects of a synthetic organic ligand, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), and two natural humic isolates on the dissolution and solubility of Tc(IV) oxides. Pure synthetic TcO2(s) (0.23 mM) was used in batch experiments to determine dissolution kinetics at pH ~6 under both reducing and oxidizing conditions. All organic ligands were found to enhance the dissolution of Tc(IV) oxides, increasing their solubility from ~10-8 M (without ligands) to 4 10-7 M under strictly anoxic conditions. Reduced Tc(IV) was also found to re-oxidize rapidly under oxic conditions, with an observed oxidative dissolution rate approximately an order of magnitude higher than that of ligand-promoted dissolution under reducing conditions. Significantly, oxidative dissolution was inhibited by EDTA but enhanced by humic acid compared with experiments without any complexing agents. The redox functional properties of humics, capable of facilitating intra-molecular electron transfer, may account for this increased oxidation rate under oxic conditions. Our results highlight the importance of complex interactions for the stability and mobility of Tc, and thus for the long-term fate of Tc in contaminated environments.

  8. Better fear conditioning is associated with reduced symptom severity in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    South, Mikle; Larson, Michael J; White, Sarah E; Dana, Julianne; Crowley, Michael J

    2011-12-01

    Evidence from behavioral and neuroimaging studies suggest that atypical amygdala function plays a critical role in the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The handful of psychophysiological studies examining amygdala function in ASD using classical fear conditioning paradigms have yielded discordant results. We recorded skin conductance response (SCR) during a simple discrimination conditioning task in 30 children and adolescents (ages 8-18) diagnosed with high-functioning ASD and 30 age- and IQ-matched, typically developing controls. SCR response in the ASD group was uniquely and positively associated with social anxiety; and negatively correlated with autism symptom severity, in particular with social functioning. Fear conditioning studies have tremendous potential to aid understanding regarding the amygdale's role in the varied symptom profile of ASD. Our data demonstrate that such studies require careful attention to task-specific factors, including task complexity; and also to contributions of dimensional, within-group factors that contribute to ASD heterogeneity.

  9. Conditional Economic Incentives for Reducing HIV Risk Behaviors: Integration of Psychology and Behavioral Economics

    PubMed Central

    Operario, Don; Kuo, Caroline C.; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G.; Gálarraga, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Objective This paper reviews psychology and behavioral economic approaches to HIV prevention, and examines the integration and application of these approaches in conditional economic incentive (CEI) programs for reducing HIV risk behavior. Methods We discuss the history of HIV prevention approaches, highlighting the important insights and limitations of psychological theories. We provide an overview of the theoretical tenets of behavioral economics that are relevant to HIV prevention, and utilize CEIs as an illustrative example of how traditional psychological theories end behavioral economics can be combined into new approaches for HIV prevention. Results Behavioral economic interventions can complement psychological frameworks for reducing HIV risk by introducing unique theoretical understandings about the conditions under which risky decisions are amenable to intervention. Findings from illustrative CEI programs show mixed but generally promising effects of economic interventions on HIV and STI prevalence, HIV testing, HIV medication adherence, and drug use. Conclusion CEI programs can complement psychological interventions for HIV prevention and behavioral risk reduction. To maximize program effectiveness, CEI programs must be designed according to contextual and population-specific factors that may determine intervention applicability and success. PMID:24001243

  10. Formation of an interphase boundary under highly nonequilibrium conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, A. P.; Rubets, V. P.; Antipov, V. V.

    2007-12-15

    The results of comparison studies of the CdTe-CdS interphase boundary in Au/CdTe/CdS sandwich structures synthesized on a substrate of artificial fluorophlogopite mica in highly nonequilibrium conditions (with a substrate temperature T{sub s} = 125 K) and in quasi-equilibrium conditions (T{sub s} > 720 K) are reported. The X-ray diffraction patterns and a capacitance-voltage characteristic are also reported. It is shown that highly nonequilibrium conditions allow synthesis of structures with excellent crystalline quality and with an interphase boundary that is no worse than in the structures grown under equilibrium conditions.

  11. Increasing concentrations of iron in surface waters as a consequence of reducing conditions in the catchment area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekström, Sara M.; Regnell, Olof; Reader, Heather E.; Nilsson, P. Anders; Löfgren, Stefan; Kritzberg, Emma S.

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies report trends of strongly increasing iron (Fe) concentrations in freshwaters. Since Fe is a key element with a decisive role in the biogeochemical cycling of major elements, it is important to understand the mechanisms behind these trends. We hypothesized that variations in Fe concentration are driven mainly by redox dynamics in hydraulically connected soils. Notably, Fe(III), which is the favored oxidation state except in environments where microbial activity provide strong reducing intensity, has several orders of magnitude lower water solubility than Fe(II). To test our hypothesis, seasonal variation in water chemistry, discharge, and air temperature was studied in three Swedish rivers. Methylmercury and sulfate were used as indicators of seasonal redox changes. Seasonal variability in water chemistry, discharge, and air temperature in the Emån and Lyckeby Rivers implied that the variation in Fe was primarily driven by the prevalence of reducing conditions in the catchment. In general, high Fe concentrations were observed when methylmercury was high and sulfate was low, indicative of reducing conditions. The Fe concentrations showed no or weak relationships with variations in dissolved organic matter concentration and aromaticity. The seasonal variation in Fe concentration of the Ume river was primarily dependent on timing of the snowmelt in high- versus low-altitude areas of the catchment. There were long-term trends of increasing temperature in all catchments and also trends of increasing discharge in the southern rivers, which should increase the probability for anaerobic conditions in space and time and thereby increase Fe transport to the aquatic systems.

  12. Structural stability of coprecipitated natural organic matter and ferric iron under reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henneberry, Yumiko K.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Nico, Peter S.; Horwath, William R.

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to assess the interaction of Fe coprecipitated with dissolved organic matter (DOM) and its effect on Fe (hydr)oxide crystallinity and DOM retention under abiotic reducing conditions. A Fe-based coagulant was reacted with DOM from an agricultural drain and the resulting precipitate (floc) was exposed to S(-II) and Fe(II). Solution concentrations of Fe(II/III) and DOM were monitored, floc crystallinity was determined using X-ray diffraction, and the composition and distribution of functional groups were assessed using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. Results indicate coprecipitation of Fe(III) with DOM forms a non-crystalline floc that withstands crystallization regardless of change in pH, Fe:DOM ratio and type of reductant added. There was no evidence that exposure to reducing conditions led to release of DOM from the floc, indicating that coprecipitation with complex natural DOM in aquatic environments may stabilize Fe (hydr)oxides against crystallization upon reaction with reduced species and lead to long term sequestration of the DOM. STXM analysis identified spatially distinct regions with remarkable functional group purity, contrary to the model of DOM as a relatively uniform complex polymer lacking identifiable organic compounds. Polysaccharide-like OM was strongly and directly correlated with the presence of Fe but showed different Fe binding strength depending on the presence of carboxylic acid functional groups, whereas amide and aromatic functional groups were inversely correlated with Fe content.

  13. The dual function of nitrite under stomach conditions is modulated by reducing compounds.

    PubMed

    Volk, J; Gorelik, S; Granit, R; Kohen, R; Kanner, J

    2009-09-01

    Salivary nitrite plays a role in the lipid peroxidation process of muscle tissue in simulated gastric fluid. The objectives of our study were to elucidate the fate of nitrite in the presence of reducing compounds and to evaluate its effect on lipid peroxidation during digestion. Nitrite at pH 3 (possibly NO(2.), not NO.) can oxidize beta-carotene, but the addition of reducing compounds, ascorbic acid or polyphenols, alters its effect. Ascorbic acid alone promoted the formation of NO. from nitrite only up to pH 3, but the addition of iron ions facilitated the formation of NO. up to pH 5.5. NO prevented membranal lipid peroxidation under stomach conditions. Nitrite, only in the presence of reducing compounds, achieved the same goal but at much higher concentrations. Addition of polyphenols to nitrite synergistically improved its antioxidant effect. Therefore, to promote NO. production and to achieve better control of the lipid peroxidation process in the stomach, a nitrite-rich meal should be consumed simultaneously with food rich in polyphenols. PMID:19375499

  14. The dual function of nitrite under stomach conditions is modulated by reducing compounds.

    PubMed

    Volk, J; Gorelik, S; Granit, R; Kohen, R; Kanner, J

    2009-09-01

    Salivary nitrite plays a role in the lipid peroxidation process of muscle tissue in simulated gastric fluid. The objectives of our study were to elucidate the fate of nitrite in the presence of reducing compounds and to evaluate its effect on lipid peroxidation during digestion. Nitrite at pH 3 (possibly NO(2.), not NO.) can oxidize beta-carotene, but the addition of reducing compounds, ascorbic acid or polyphenols, alters its effect. Ascorbic acid alone promoted the formation of NO. from nitrite only up to pH 3, but the addition of iron ions facilitated the formation of NO. up to pH 5.5. NO prevented membranal lipid peroxidation under stomach conditions. Nitrite, only in the presence of reducing compounds, achieved the same goal but at much higher concentrations. Addition of polyphenols to nitrite synergistically improved its antioxidant effect. Therefore, to promote NO. production and to achieve better control of the lipid peroxidation process in the stomach, a nitrite-rich meal should be consumed simultaneously with food rich in polyphenols.

  15. [Reduced performance and high somatic cell counts in a dairy herd fed high amounts of brewers' grain].

    PubMed

    Wenzinger, B

    2013-09-01

    The present case report describes a herd problem on a Holstein Friesian dairy farm in Switzerland, which could be attributed to the feeding of high amounts of wet brewers' grain over several months. Apathy and reduced general appearance, reduced feed intake as well as a decline in milk yield could be observed. A strong increase in milk somatic cell counts as well as an increase in the incidence of mastitis could be found. The milk fat content was highly elevated in all cows, whereas the milk protein content was reduced. The exclusion of wet brewers' grain from the partial mixed ration resulted in a considerable improvement of the general appearance of the cows and a decrease of the milk somatic cell counts. Feed that is easily spoiled could be a health risk for animals, particularly under hot and humid weather conditions and if fed in high amounts.

  16. Violation of eating expectancies does not reduce conditioned desires for chocolate.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Karolien; van den Broek, Myrr; Havermans, Remco C; Jansen, Anita

    2016-05-01

    Although eating desires can be easily learned, their extinction appears more difficult. The present two-session study aimed to investigate the role of eating expectancies in the short and longer-term extinction of eating desires. In addition, the relationship between eating desires and conditioned evaluations was examined to test whether they might share a similar mechanism. It was hypothesized that the short-term extinction of eating desires would be more successful after the disconfirmation of eating expectancies (instructed extinction or IE), while resulting in worse longer-term extinction because omission of the food reward during extinction is not surprising. In contrast to the hypotheses, it was found that IE had no effect on the short-term and longer-term extinction of eating desires. Eating desires correlated with conditioned evaluations only to some extent. It is concluded that eating expectancies do not mediate the short-term extinction of conditioned eating desires. In addition, their longer-term extinction does not appear to be facilitated by a greater violation of eating expectancies. This suggests that it might not be necessary to focus on expectancy violation in cue exposure therapy to reduce eating desires. PMID:26853599

  17. Straw mulching reduces the harmful effects of extreme hydrological and temperature conditions in citrus orchards.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jing; Liu, Dongbi; Li, Zhiguo; Zhang, Guoshi; Tao, Yong; Xie, Juan; Pan, Junfeng; Chen, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Extreme weather conditions with negative impacts can strongly affect agricultural production. In the Danjiangkou reservoir area, citrus yields were greatly influenced by cold weather conditions and drought stress in 2011. Soil straw mulching (SM) practices have a major effect on soil water and thermal regimes. A two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate whether the SM practices can help achieve favorable citrus fruit yields. Results showed that the annual total runoff was significantly (P<0.05) reduced with SM as compared to the control (CK). Correspondingly, mean soil water storage in the top 100 cm of the soil profile was increased in the SM as compared to the CK treatment. However, this result was significant only in the dry season (Jan to Mar), and not in the wet season (Jul to Sep) for both years. Interestingly, the SM treatment did not significantly increase citrus fruit yield in 2010 but did so in 2011, when the citrus crop was completely destroyed (zero fruit yield) in the CK treatment plot due to extremely low temperatures during the citrus overwintering stage. The mulch probably acted as an insulator, resulting in smaller fluctuations in soil temperature in the SM than in the CK treatment. The results suggested that the small effects on soil water and temperature changes created by surface mulch had limited impact on citrus fruit yield in a normal year (e.g., in 2010). However, SM practices can positively impact citrus fruit yield in extreme weather conditions.

  18. Straw mulching reduces the harmful effects of extreme hydrological and temperature conditions in citrus orchards.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jing; Liu, Dongbi; Li, Zhiguo; Zhang, Guoshi; Tao, Yong; Xie, Juan; Pan, Junfeng; Chen, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Extreme weather conditions with negative impacts can strongly affect agricultural production. In the Danjiangkou reservoir area, citrus yields were greatly influenced by cold weather conditions and drought stress in 2011. Soil straw mulching (SM) practices have a major effect on soil water and thermal regimes. A two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate whether the SM practices can help achieve favorable citrus fruit yields. Results showed that the annual total runoff was significantly (P<0.05) reduced with SM as compared to the control (CK). Correspondingly, mean soil water storage in the top 100 cm of the soil profile was increased in the SM as compared to the CK treatment. However, this result was significant only in the dry season (Jan to Mar), and not in the wet season (Jul to Sep) for both years. Interestingly, the SM treatment did not significantly increase citrus fruit yield in 2010 but did so in 2011, when the citrus crop was completely destroyed (zero fruit yield) in the CK treatment plot due to extremely low temperatures during the citrus overwintering stage. The mulch probably acted as an insulator, resulting in smaller fluctuations in soil temperature in the SM than in the CK treatment. The results suggested that the small effects on soil water and temperature changes created by surface mulch had limited impact on citrus fruit yield in a normal year (e.g., in 2010). However, SM practices can positively impact citrus fruit yield in extreme weather conditions. PMID:24489844

  19. High-albedo materials for reducing building cooling energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, H.; Sailor, D.; Akbari, H.

    1992-01-01

    One simple and effective way to mitigate urban heat islands, i.e., the higher temperatures in cities compared to those of the surrounds, and their negative impacts on cooling energy consumption is to use high-albedo materials on major urban surfaces such as rooftops, streets, sidewalks, school yards, and the exposed surfaces of parking lots. High-albedo materials can save cooling energy use by directly reducing the heat gain through a building`s envelope (direct effect) and also by lowering the urban air temperature in the neighborhood of the building (indirect effect). This project is an attempt to address high-albedo materials for buildings and to perform measurements of roof coatings. We search for existing methods and materials to implement fighter colors on major building and urban surfaces. Their cost effectiveness are examined and the possible related technical, maintenance, and environmental problems are identified. We develop a method for measuring albedo in the field by studying the instrumentation aspects of such measurements. The surface temperature impacts of various albedo/materials in the actual outdoor environment are studied by measuring the surface temperatures of a variety of materials tested on an actual roof. We also generate an albedo database for several urban surfaces to serve as a reference for future use. The results indicate that high-albedo materials can have a large impact on the surface temperature regime. On clear sunny days, when the solar noon surface temperatures of conventional roofing materials were about 40{degrees}C (72{degrees}F) warmer than air, the surface temperature of high-albedo coatings were only about 5{degrees}C warmer than air. In the morning and in the late afternoon, the high-albedo materials were as cool as the air itself. While conventional roofing materials warm up by an average 0.055{degrees}C/(W m{sup {minus}2}), the high-albedo surfaces warm up by an average 0.015{degrees}C/(W m{sup {minus}2}).

  20. High-albedo materials for reducing building cooling energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, H.; Sailor, D.; Akbari, H.

    1992-01-01

    One simple and effective way to mitigate urban heat islands, i.e., the higher temperatures in cities compared to those of the surrounds, and their negative impacts on cooling energy consumption is to use high-albedo materials on major urban surfaces such as rooftops, streets, sidewalks, school yards, and the exposed surfaces of parking lots. High-albedo materials can save cooling energy use by directly reducing the heat gain through a building's envelope (direct effect) and also by lowering the urban air temperature in the neighborhood of the building (indirect effect). This project is an attempt to address high-albedo materials for buildings and to perform measurements of roof coatings. We search for existing methods and materials to implement fighter colors on major building and urban surfaces. Their cost effectiveness are examined and the possible related technical, maintenance, and environmental problems are identified. We develop a method for measuring albedo in the field by studying the instrumentation aspects of such measurements. The surface temperature impacts of various albedo/materials in the actual outdoor environment are studied by measuring the surface temperatures of a variety of materials tested on an actual roof. We also generate an albedo database for several urban surfaces to serve as a reference for future use. The results indicate that high-albedo materials can have a large impact on the surface temperature regime. On clear sunny days, when the solar noon surface temperatures of conventional roofing materials were about 40{degrees}C (72{degrees}F) warmer than air, the surface temperature of high-albedo coatings were only about 5{degrees}C warmer than air. In the morning and in the late afternoon, the high-albedo materials were as cool as the air itself. While conventional roofing materials warm up by an average 0.055{degrees}C/(W m{sup {minus}2}), the high-albedo surfaces warm up by an average 0.015{degrees}C/(W m{sup {minus}2}).

  1. Conditional Disabled-1 Deletion in Mice Alters Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Reduces Seizure Threshold.

    PubMed

    Korn, Matthew J; Mandle, Quinton J; Parent, Jack M

    2016-01-01

    Many animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) exhibit altered neurogenesis arising from progenitors within the dentate gyrus subgranular zone (SGZ). Aberrant integration of new neurons into the existing circuit is thought to contribute to epileptogenesis. In particular, adult-born neurons that exhibit ectopic migration and hilar basal dendrites (HBDs) are suggested to be pro-epileptogenic. Loss of reelin signaling may contribute to these morphological changes in patients with epilepsy. We previously demonstrated that conditional deletion of the reelin adaptor protein, disabled-1 (Dab1), from postnatal mouse SGZ progenitors generated dentate granule cells (DGCs) with abnormal dendritic development and ectopic placement. To determine whether the early postnatal loss of reelin signaling is epileptogenic, we conditionally deleted Dab1 in neural progenitors and their progeny on postnatal days 7-8 and performed chronic video-EEG recordings 8-10 weeks later. Dab1-deficient mice did not have spontaneous seizures but exhibited interictal epileptiform abnormalities and a significantly reduced latency to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. After chemoconvulsant treatment, over 90% of mice deficient for Dab1 developed generalized motor convulsions with tonic-clonic movements, rearing, and falling compared to <20% of wild-type mice. Recombination efficiency, measured by Cre reporter expression, inversely correlated with time to the first sustained seizure. These pro-epileptogenic changes were associated with decreased neurogenesis and increased numbers of hilar ectopic DGCs. Interestingly, neurons co-expressing the Cre reporter comprised a fraction of these hilar ectopic DGCs cells, suggesting a non-cell autonomous effect for the loss of reelin signaling. We also noted a dispersion of the CA1 pyramidal layer, likely due to hypomorphic effects of the conditional Dab1 allele, but this abnormality did not correlate with seizure susceptibility. These findings suggest that

  2. High duck nesting success in a predator-reduced environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duebbert, H.F.; Lokemoen, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Duck nesting and production were studied during 1969-74 on a 51-ha field of undisturbed grass-legume cover and a surrounding 8.13-km2 area in north-central South Dakota. The principal mammalian predators of ducks were reduced within a 259-km2 zone from May 1969 through August 1971. Dabbling duck nest densities, hatching success, and breeding populations attained high levels. Seven duck species produced 1,062 nests on the 51-ha field during 6 years, 864 (81%) hatched, 146 (14%) were destroyed, and 52 (5%) had other fates. During 1970-72, when predator reduction was most effective, the hatching success for 756 nests was 94%. The number of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) nests increased from 37 (0.7/ha) in 1969 to 181 (3.5/ha) in 1972. Mallard pairs increased from 2.8/km2 to 16.8/km2 on the 8.13-km2 area during the same period. A minimum of 7,250 ducklings hatched on the 51-ha field during the 6 years, including 2,342 ducklings in 1972. Exceptionally high duck nesting densities and hatching rates occurred when predators were controlled.

  3. The High School Strength and Conditioning Professional: A Job Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Randy

    2001-01-01

    Presents a job description for the high school strength and conditioning professional, who is in a unique position to integrate athletics and academics, highlighting: minimum qualifications; school-related benefits derived from employing a strength and conditioning professional; whom the professional reports to and works with; job…

  4. A new system to reduce formaldehyde levels improves safety conditions during gross veterinary anatomy learning.

    PubMed

    Nacher, Víctor; Llombart, Cristina; Carretero, Ana; Navarro, Marc; Ysern, Pere; Calero, Sebastián; Fígols, Enric; Ruberte, Jesús

    2007-01-01

    Dissection is a very useful method of learning veterinary anatomy. However, formaldehyde, which is widely used to preserve cadavers, is an irritant, and it has recently been classified as a carcinogen. In 1997, the Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo [National Institute of Workplace Security and Hygiene] found that the levels of formaldehyde in our dissection room were above the threshold limit values. Unfortunately, no optimal substitute for formaldehyde is currently available. Therefore, we designed a new ventilation system that combines slow propulsion of fresh air from above the dissection table and rapid aspiration of polluted air from the perimeter. Formaldehyde measurements performed in 2004, after the introduction of this new system into our dissection laboratory, showed a dramatic reduction (about tenfold, or 0.03 ppm). A suitable propelling/aspirating air system successfully reduces the concentration of formaldehyde in the dissection room, significantly improving safety conditions for students, instructors, and technical staff during gross anatomy learning.

  5. Blood circulation in rat lungs under conditions of reduced oxygen level in inhaled air.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, K P; Mel'nikova, N N

    2012-12-01

    According to some authors, reduction in oxygen level in the lung alveoli results in constriction of afferent vessels, while others observed no vessel constriction. The issue is of principle importance in relation to the lung involvement in body adaptation to hypoxia. Conventional methods are inefficient to solve it, therefore we used a contact microscope allowing observation of lung circulatory system structure and condition of the lung circulatory system in whole, virtually intact animal, on whole undamaged lungs in situ, at normal physiological lung position in the thorax. We found that large vessels carrying blood to the alveoli do not constrict or dilate at reduced Po(2)in lung alveoli. These vessels with a diameter of 15 to 40 μ and more are the only blood source for alveoli.

  6. Aqueous Dissolution of Silver Iodide and Associated Iodine Release Under Reducing Conditions with Sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Yaohiro Inagaki; Toshitaka Imamura; Kazuya Idemitsu; Tatsumi Arima; Osamu Kato; Hidekazu Asano; Tsutomu Nishimura

    2007-07-01

    Aqueous dissolution tests of silver iodide (AgI) were performed in Na{sub 2}S solutions in order to evaluate, empirically, dissolution of AgI to release iodine under reducing conditions with sulfide. The results indicated that AgI dissolves to release iodine being controlled by mainly precipitation of Ag{sub 2}S. However, the dissolution of AgI can be depressed to proceed, and the thermodynamic equilibrium cannot be attained easily. Solid phase analysis for the reacted AgI suggested that a thin layer of solid silver forming at AgI surface may evolve to be protective against transportation of reactant species, which can lead to the depression in the dissolution of AgI. (authors)

  7. Outcome after Transplantation According to Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Regimen in Patients Undergoing Transplantation for Myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Robin, Marie; Porcher, Raphael; Wolschke, Christine; Sicre de Fontbrune, Flore; Alchalby, Haefaa; Christopeit, Maximilian; Cassinat, Bruno; Zabelina, Tatjana; Peffault de Latour, Régis; Ayuk, Francis; Socié, Gérard; Kröger, Nicolaus

    2016-07-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the sole curative option for myelofibrosis. Many transplantation recipients receive a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen owing to age or comorbidities; however, there is little published evidence to guide the choice of RIC regimen. In this study, we compared outcomes in patients who received 1 of 2 frequently used RIC regimens for patients with myelofibrosis: fludarabine-busulfan (FB) and fludarabine-melphalan (FM). A total of 160 patients underwent a RIC allograft procedure (FB group, n = 105; FM group, n = 55). We have developed a complex statistical model involving weighting and adjustment to permit comparison between these 2 groups. After weighting, the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 62% in the FM group and 31% in the FB group (P = .001), and the corresponding incidence of chronic GVHD was 49% and 53%, respectively. The 7-year progression-free survival was were 52% in the FM group versus 33% in the FB group, and the 7-year overall survival rate 52% in the FM group versus 59% in the FB group. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 43% in the FM group and 31% in the FB group. Multivariable analyses revealed no significant differences in PFS between the 2 groups; however, the relapse rate was significantly lower in the FM group (hazard ratio, 9.21; P = .008), whereas a trend toward reduced NRM was seen in the FB group (hazard ratio, 0.51; P = .068). In conclusion, both regimens appear to be efficient in mediating disease control and can be used to successfully condition patients with myelofibrosis. The FM regimen appears to induce more NRM than the FB regimen, but with augmented control of disease, leading to comparable overall survival rates for both regimens.

  8. Mass transport phenomena between bubbles and dissolved gases in liquids under reduced gravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, Kenneth J.; Brockwell, Jonathan L.; Yung, Chain-Nan; Chai, An-Ti; Mcquillen, John B.; Sotos, Raymond G.; Neumann, Eric S.

    1988-01-01

    The experimental and analytical work that was done to establish justification and feasibility for a shuttle middeck experiment involving mass transfer between a gas bubble and a liquid is described. The experiment involves the observation and measurement of the dissolution of an isolated immobile gas bubble of specified size and composition in a thermostatted solvent liquid of known concentration in the reduced gravity environment of earth orbit. Methods to generate and deploy the bubble were successful both in normal gravity using mutually buoyant fluids and under reduced gravity conditions in the NASA Lear Jet. Initialization of the experiment with a bubble of a prescribed size and composition in a liquid of known concentration was accomplished using the concept of unstable equilibrium. Subsequent bubble dissolution or growth is obtained by a step increase or decrease in the liquid pressure. A numerical model was developed which simulates the bubble dynamics and can be used to determine molecular parameters by comparison with the experimental data. The primary objective of the experiment is the elimination of convective effects that occur in normal gravity.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of an Enterobacter cloacae Strain That Reduces Hexavalent Chromium under Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pi-Chao; Mori, Tsukasa; Komori, Kohya; Sasatsu, Masanori; Toda, Kiyoshi; Ohtake, Hisao

    1989-01-01

    An Enterobacter cloacae strain (HO1) capable of reducing hexavalent chromium (chromate) was isolated from activated sludge. This bacterium was resistant to chromate under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Only the anaerobic culture of the E. cloacae isolate showed chromate reduction. In the anaerobic culture, yellow turned white with chromate and the turbidity increased as the reduction proceeded, suggesting that insoluble chromium hydroxide was formed. E. cloacae is likely to utilize toxic chromate as an electron acceptor anaerobically because (i) the anaerobic growth of E. cloacae HO1 accompanied the decrease of toxic chromate in culture medium, (ii) the chromate-reducing activity was rapidly inhibited by oxygen, and (iii) the reduction occurred more rapidly in glycerol- or acetate-grown cells than in glucose-grown cells. The chromate reduction in E. cloacae HO1 was observed at pH 6.0 to 8.5 (optimum pH, 7.0) and at 10 to 40°C (optimum, 30°C). PMID:16347962

  10. Bioremediation of benzene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes in groundwater under iron-amended, sulfate-reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Jin, Song; Fallgren, Paul H; Bilgin, A Azra; Morris, Jeffrey M; Barnes, Paul W

    2007-02-01

    Elevated concentrations of sulfide in groundwater (approximately 63 mg S(2-)/L in water and 500 mg dissolved H2S/L dissipating from the wellhead) at a field site near South Lovedale (OK, USA) were inhibiting the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) that are known to degrade contaminants, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes. Elevated concentrations of these contaminants, except for toluene, also were present in this groundwater. Microcosms were established in the laboratory using groundwater and sediment collected from the field site and amended with various nutrient, substrate, and inhibitor treatments. All microcosms initially were amended with FeCl2 to induce FeS precipitation and, thereby, to reduce aqueous sulfide concentrations. Complete removal of benzene, ethylbenzene, and m+p-xylenes (BEX; o-xylene not detected) was observed within 39 d in treatments with various combinations of nutrient and substrate amendments, including treatments with no amendments (other than FeCl2). This indicates that the elevated concentration of sulfide is the only limiting factor to BEX biodegradation at this site under anaerobic conditions and that treating the groundwater with FeCl2 may be a simple remedy to both facilitate and enhance BEX degradation by the indigenous SRB population.

  11. Biperiden (an M1 antagonist) reduces memory consolidation of cocaine-conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Zacarias, Marina S; Ramos, Anna C; Alves, Danielle R; Galduróz, José C F

    2012-04-01

    It is well-known that cocaine dependence is a public health issue, and several studies stress the need to look for new and more effective treatments. Although the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system, which originates in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and projects to several forebrain structures, is known to be critically involved in the neurobiology of cocaine dependence, acetylcholine (ACh) has also been shown to play an important role in cocaine dependence via its action on this reward system. ACh is also important in the formation of hippocampal memory associated with appetitive behavior. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of biperiden, an ACh antagonist with high affinity for muscarinic M1 type receptors, on the acquisition of cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice. The cocaine and biperiden were dissolved in sterile saline and were administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 10mg/kg. The conditioning regime was 8 days long, and the cholinergic antagonist was given immediately at the end of each conditioning session. The test for CPP occurred 24h after the last session. The results showed that animals treated with biperiden spent significantly less time in the cocaine-paired compartment than did the ones treated with saline. This finding represents a reduction in the consolidation of cocaine-induced CPP. One hypothesis that could explain this outcome focuses on the action of cholinergic antagonists on the consolidation of contextual memories. The amnesic effect of M1 antagonists on aversive tasks and on morphine CPP has been demonstrated when administered before the training or the conditioning session. The present study highlights the possibility of impairment in the acquisition of an appetitive memory, even when the cholinergic drug is administered after the conditioning session. This protocol also rejects the possibility of performance disturbance and suggests a possible pharmacological tool in the treatment of cocaine

  12. The use of magnesium peroxide for the inhibition of sulfate-reducing bacteria under anoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Jie; Chang, Yi-Tang; Hung, Chun-Hsiung

    2008-11-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which cause microbiologically influenced material corrosion under anoxic conditions, form one of the major groups of microorganisms responsible for the generation of hydrogen sulfide. In this study, which is aimed at reducing the presence of SRB, a novel alternative approach involving the addition of magnesium peroxide (MgO2) compounds involving the use of reagent-grade MgO2 and a commercial product (ORC) was evaluated as a means of inhibiting SRB in laboratory batch columns. Different concentrations of MgO2 were added in the columns when black sulfide sediment had appeared in the columns. The experimental results showed that MgO2 is able to inhibit biogenic sulfide. The number of SRB, the sulfide concentration and the sulfate reducing rate (SRR) were decreased. ORCtrade mark as an additive was able to decrease more effectively the concentration of sulfide in water and the SRB-control effect was maintained over a longer time period when ORCtrade mark was used. The level of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), which has a linear relationship to the sulfide/sulfate ratio, is a good indicator of SRB activity. As determined by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), most SRB growth was inhibited under increasing amounts of added MgO2. The concentration of sulfide reflected the abundance of the SRB. Utilization of organic matter greater than the theoretical SRB utilization rate indicated that facultative heterotrophs became dominant after MgO2 was added. The results of this study could supply the useful information for further study on evaluating the solution to biocorrosion problems in practical situations. PMID:18712535

  13. Experimental cooling during incubation leads to reduced innate immunity and body condition in nestling tree swallows.

    PubMed

    Ardia, Daniel R; Pérez, Jonathan H; Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2010-06-22

    Nest microclimate can have strong effects that can carry over to later life-history stages. We experimentally cooled the nests of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Females incubating in cooled nests reduced incubation time and allowed egg temperatures to drop, leading to extended incubation periods. We partially cross-fostered nestlings to test carry-over effects of cooling during incubation on nestling innate constitutive immunity, assessed through bacteria killing ability (BKA) of blood. Nestlings that had been cooled as eggs showed a lower ability to kill bacteria than control nestlings, regardless of the treatment of their foster mother. However, there was no effect of treatment of rearing females on nestling BKA in control nestlings, even though cooled females made significantly fewer feeding visits than did control females. This suggests that the effect of cooling occurred during incubation and was not due to carry-over effects on nestling condition. Nestlings that were exposed to experimental cooling as embryos had lower residual body mass and absolute body mass at all four ages measured. Our results indicate that environmental conditions and trade-offs experienced during one stage of development can have important carry-over effects on later life-history stages.

  14. Effect of oxalic acid treatment on sediment arsenic concentrations and lability under reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Bostick, Benjamin C; Mailloux, Brian J; Ross, James M; Chillrud, Steven N

    2016-07-01

    Oxalic acid enhances arsenic (As) mobilization by dissolving As host minerals and competing for sorption sites. Oxalic acid amendments thus could potentially improve the efficiency of widely used pump-and-treat (P&T) remediation. This study investigates the effectiveness of oxalic acid on As mobilization from contaminated sediments with different As input sources and redox conditions, and examines whether residual sediment As after oxalic acid treatment can still be reductively mobilized. Batch extraction, column, and microcosm experiments were performed in the laboratory using sediments from the Dover Municipal Landfill and the Vineland Chemical Company Superfund sites. Oxalic acid mobilized As from both Dover and Vineland sediments, although the efficiency rates were different. The residual As in both Dover and Vineland sediments after oxalic acid treatment was less vulnerable to microbial reduction than before the treatment. Oxalic acid could thus improve the efficiency of P&T. X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis indicated that the Vineland sediment samples still contained reactive Fe(III) minerals after oxalic acid treatment, and thus released more As into solution under reducing conditions than the treated Dover samples. Therefore, the efficacy of enhanced P&T must consider sediment Fe mineralogy when evaluating its overall potential for remediating groundwater As.

  15. A case study employing operant conditioning to reduce stress of capture for red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus).

    PubMed

    Owen, Yvonne; Amory, Jonathan R

    2011-01-01

    Traditional techniques used to capture New World monkeys, such as net capture, can induce high levels of acute stress detrimental to welfare. Alternatively, training nonhuman animals via operant conditioning to voluntarily participate in husbandry and/or veterinary practices is accepted as a humane process that can reduce stress and improve welfare. This study details the use of operant conditioning using positive reinforcement training (PRT) and target training to train a family of 5 captive red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus) in a wildlife park to voluntarily enter a transportation box and remain calm for 1 min after 54 training sessions. Observations of 2 unrelated net-capture processes provided measures of locomotion and vocalizations as indicators of stress behavior that were compared with those of the trained tamarins. Net-captured monkeys exhibited rapid erratic locomotion and emitted long, high-frequency vocalizations during capture whereas the trained tamarins exhibited minimal locomotion and emitted only 4 brief vocalizations (root mean square 35 dB) during capture. This indicates that the use of PRT considerably reduced potential for stress and improved welfare during the capture and containment of the tamarins.

  16. The ecophysiology of sulfur isotope fractionation by sulfate reducing bacteria in response to variable environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leavitt, W.; Bradley, A. S.; Johnston, D. T.; Pereira, I. A. C.; Venceslau, S.; Wallace, C.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reducers (MSR) drive the Earth's biogeochemical sulfur cycle. At the heart of this energy metabolism is a cascade of redox transformations coupling organic carbon and/or hydrogen oxidation to the dissimilatory reduction of sulfate to sulfide. The sulfide produced is depleted in the heavier isotopes of sulfur relative to sulfate. The magnitude of discrimination (fractionation) depends on: i) the cell-specific sulfate reduction rate (csSRR, Kaplan & Rittenberg (1964) Can. J. Microbio.; Chambers et al. (1975) Can. J. Microbio; Sim et al. (2011) GCA; Leavitt et al. (2013) PNAS), ii) the ambient sulfate concentration (Harrison & Thode (1958) Research; Habicht et al. (2002) Science; Bradley et al. in review), iii) both sulfate and electron donor availability, or iv) an intrinsic physiological limitation (e.g. cellular division rate). When neither sulfate nor electron donor limits csSRR a more complex function relates the magnitude of isotope fractionation to cell physiology and environmental conditions. In recent and on-going work we have examined the importance of enzyme-specific fractionation factors, as well as the influence of electron donor or electron acceptor availability under carefully controlled culture conditions (e.g. Leavitt et al. (2013) PNAS). In light of recent advances in MSR genetics and biochemistry we utilize well-characterized mutant strains, along with a continuous-culture methodology (Leavitt et al. (2013) PNAS) to further probe the fractionation capacity of this metabolism under controlled physiological conditions. We present our latest findings on the magnitude of S and D/H isotope fractionation in both wild type and mutant strains. We will discuss these in light of recent theoretical advances (Wing & Halevy (2014) PNAS), examining the mode and relevance of MSR isotope fractionation in the laboratory to modern and ancient environmental settings, particularly anoxic marine sediments.

  17. Studies of Two-Phase Flow Dynamics and Heat Transfer at Reduced Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Larry C.; Bousman, W. Scott; Fore, Larry B.

    1996-01-01

    The ability to predict gas-liquid flow patterns is crucial to the design and operation of two-phase flow systems in the microgravity environment. Flow pattern maps have been developed in this study which show the occurrence of flow patterns as a function of gas and liquid superficial velocities as well as tube diameter, liquid viscosity and surface tension. The results have demonstrated that the location of the bubble-slug transition is affected by the tube diameter for air-water systems and by surface tension, suggesting that turbulence-induced bubble fluctuations and coalescence mechanisms play a role in this transition. The location of the slug-annular transition on the flow pattern maps is largely unaffected by tube diameter, liquid viscosity or surface tension in the ranges tested. Void fraction-based transition criteria were developed which separate the flow patterns on the flow pattern maps with reasonable accuracy. Weber number transition criteria also show promise but further work is needed to improve these models. For annular gas-liquid flows of air-water and air- 50 percent glycerine under reduced gravity conditions, the pressure gradient agrees fairly well with a version of the Lockhart-Martinelli correlation but the measured film thickness deviates from published correlations at lower Reynolds numbers. Nusselt numbers, based on a film thickness obtained from standard normal-gravity correlations, follow the relation, Nu = A Re(sup n) Pr(exp l/3), but more experimental data in a reduced gravity environment are needed to increase the confidence in the estimated constants, A and n. In the slug flow regime, experimental pressure gradient does not correlate well with either the Lockhart-Martinelli or a homogeneous formulation, but does correlate nicely with a formulation based on a two-phase Reynolds number. Comparison with ground-based correlations implies that the heat transfer coefficients are lower at reduced gravity than at normal gravity under the same

  18. Reducing peanut allergens by high pressure combined with polyphenol oxidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Si-Yin; Houska, Milan; Reed, Shawndrika

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been shown to reduce major peanut allergens. Since high pressure (HP) can increase enzyme activity, we postulated that further reduction of peanut allergens can be achieved through HP combined with PPO. Peanut extracts containing caffeic acid were treated with each of the following: (1) HP; (2) HP+PPO; (3) PPO; and (4) none. HP was conducted at 300 and 500 MPa, each for 3 and 10 min, 37 °C. After treatment, SDS-PAGE was performed and allergenic capacity (IgE binding) was determined colorimetrically in inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blots, using a pooled plasma from peanut-allergic patients. Data showed that HP alone had no effect on major peanut allergens. However, HP at 500 MPa combined with PPO (HP500/PPO) induced a higher (approximately twofold) reduction of major peanut allergens and IgE binding than PPO alone or HP300/PPO. There was no difference between treatment times. We concluded that HP500/PPO at 3-min enhanced a twofold reduction of the allergenic capacity of peanut extracts, as compared to PPO itself.

  19. Reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for adult acute myeloid leukemia in complete remission - a review from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the EBMT

    PubMed Central

    Sengsayadeth, Salyka; Savani, Bipin N.; Blaise, Didier; Malard, Florent; Nagler, Arnon; Mohty, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia is the most common indication for an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. The introduction of reduced intensity conditioning has expanded the recipient pool for transplantation, which has importantly made transplant an option for the more commonly affected older age groups. Reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic transplantation is currently the standard of care for patients with intermediate or high-risk acute myeloid leukemia and is now most often employed in older patients and those with medical comorbidities. Despite being curative for a significant proportion of patients, post-transplant relapse remains a challenge in the reduced intensity conditioning setting. Herein we discuss the studies that demonstrate the feasibility of reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic transplants, compare the outcomes of reduced intensity conditioning versus chemotherapy and conventional myeloablative conditioning regimens, describe the optimal donor and stem cell source, and consider the impact of post-remission consolidation, comorbidities, center experience, and more intensive (reduced toxicity conditioning) regimens on outcomes. Additionally, we discuss the need for further prospective studies to optimize transplant outcomes. PMID:26130513

  20. 15 CFR 14.14 - High risk special award conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High risk special award conditions. 14.14 Section 14.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce UNIFORM...-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 14.14 High risk special award...

  1. Abiotic formation of valine peptides under conditions of high temperature and high pressure.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Otake, Tsubasa; Ishiguro, Takato; Nakazawa, Hiromoto; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the oligomerization of solid valine and the stabilities of valine and valine peptides under conditions of high temperature (150-200 °C) and high pressure (50-150 MPa). Experiments were performed under non-aqueous condition in order to promote dehydration reaction. After prolonged exposure of monomeric valine to elevated temperatures and pressures, the products were analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry comparing their retention times and masses. We identified linear peptides that ranged in size from dimer to hexamer, as well as a cyclic dimer. Previous studies that attempted abiotic oligomerization of valine in the absence of a catalyst have never reported valine peptides larger than a dimer. Increased reaction temperature increased the dissociative decomposition of valine and valine peptides to products such as glycine, β-alanine, ammonia, and amines by processes such as deamination, decarboxylation, and cracking. The amount of residual valine and peptide yields was greater at higher pressures at a given temperature, pressure, and reaction time. This suggests that dissociative decomposition of valine and valine peptides is reduced by pressure. Our findings are relevant to the investigation of diagenetic processes in prebiotic marine sediments where similar pressures occur under water-poor conditions. These findings also suggest that amino acids, such as valine, could have been polymerized to peptides in deep prebiotic marine sediments within a few hundred million years.

  2. Abiotic Formation of Valine Peptides Under Conditions of High Temperature and High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Otake, Tsubasa; Ishiguro, Takato; Nakazawa, Hiromoto; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the oligomerization of solid valine and the stabilities of valine and valine peptides under conditions of high temperature (150-200 °C) and high pressure (50-150 MPa). Experiments were performed under non-aqueous condition in order to promote dehydration reaction. After prolonged exposure of monomeric valine to elevated temperatures and pressures, the products were analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry comparing their retention times and masses. We identified linear peptides that ranged in size from dimer to hexamer, as well as a cyclic dimer. Previous studies that attempted abiotic oligomerization of valine in the absence of a catalyst have never reported valine peptides larger than a dimer. Increased reaction temperature increased the dissociative decomposition of valine and valine peptides to products such as glycine, β-alanine, ammonia, and amines by processes such as deamination, decarboxylation, and cracking. The amount of residual valine and peptide yields was greater at higher pressures at a given temperature, pressure, and reaction time. This suggests that dissociative decomposition of valine and valine peptides is reduced by pressure. Our findings are relevant to the investigation of diagenetic processes in prebiotic marine sediments where similar pressures occur under water-poor conditions. These findings also suggest that amino acids, such as valine, could have been polymerized to peptides in deep prebiotic marine sediments within a few hundred million years.

  3. Does high biodiversity reduce the risk of Lyme disease invasion?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that increasing biodiversity, specifically host diversity, reduces pathogen and parasite transmission amongst wildlife (causing a “dilution effect”), whereby transmission amongst efficient reservoir hosts, (e.g. Peromyscus spp. mice for the agent of Lyme disease Borrelia burgdorferi) is reduced by the presence of other less efficient host species. If so, then increasing biodiversity should inhibit pathogen and parasite invasion. Methods We investigated this hypothesis by studying invasion of B. burgdorferi and its tick vector Ixodes scapularis in 71 field sites in southeastern Canada. Indices of trapped rodent host diversity, and of biodiversity of the wider community, were investigated as variables explaining the numbers of I. scapularis collected and B. burgdorferi infection in these ticks. A wide range of alternative environmental explanatory variables were also considered. Results The observation of low I. scapularis abundance and low B. burgdorferi infection prevalence in sites where I. scapularis were detected was consistent with early-stage invasion of the vector. There were significant associations between the abundance of ticks and season, year of study and ambient temperature. Abundance of host-seeking larvae was significantly associated with deer density, and abundance of host-seeking larvae and nymphs were positively associated with litter layer depth. Larval host infestations were lower where the relative proportion of non-Peromyscus spp. was high. Infestations of hosts with nymphs were lower when host species richness was higher, but overall nymphal abundance increased with species richness because Peromyscus spp. mouse abundance and host species richness were positively correlated. Nymphal infestations of hosts were lower where tree species richness was higher. B. burgdorferi infection prevalence in ticks varied significantly with an index of rates of migratory bird-borne vector and pathogen invasion. Conclusions

  4. Methodology of high-resolution photography for mural condition database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, R.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, M.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Digital documentation is one of the most useful techniques to record the condition of cultural heritage. Recently, high-resolution images become increasingly useful because it is possible to show general views of mural paintings and also detailed mural conditions in a single image. As mural paintings are damaged by environmental stresses, it is necessary to record the details of painting condition on high-resolution base maps. Unfortunately, the cost of high-resolution photography and the difficulty of operating its instruments and software have commonly been an impediment for researchers and conservators. However, the recent development of graphic software makes its operation simpler and less expensive. In this paper, we suggest a new approach to make digital heritage inventories without special instruments, based on our recent our research project in Üzümlü church in Cappadocia, Turkey. This method enables us to achieve a high-resolution image database with low costs, short time, and limited human resources.

  5. Changes in Soil Minerology Reduce Phosphorus Mobility During Anoxic Soil Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, S. K.; Geohring, L. D.; Richards, B. K.; Walter, M.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2008-05-01

    soil incubation showed higher P sorption than aerobic soil due to reduced iron (Fe+2) - P mineral formation. Some of the readily available P in the soil solution tended to co-precipitate quickly with Fe, Al, Ca, and Mn, but it also resulted in the formation of earthy masses of vivianite [Fe2+3(PO4)2 . 8 H20], thus almost completely immobilizing P. These findings suggest that where conditions in the landscape are saturated, but remain stagnant for extended time periods, P additions may not necessarily enhance leaching once hydrological transport resumes. The temporal nature of P mobilization processes combined with rapid (i.e., preferential flow) hydrological transport appears to have a more important role in controlling P transport through the landscape.

  6. Ignition and combustion of bulk metals under elevated, normal and reduced gravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel; Branch, Melvyn C.; Daily, John W.

    1995-01-01

    This research effort is aimed at providing further insight into this multi-variable dependent phenomena by looking at the effects of gravity on the ignition and combustion behavior of metals. Since spacecraft are subjected to higher-than-1g gravity loads during launch and reentry and to zero-gravity environments while in orbit, the study of ignition and combustion of bulk metals at different gravitational potentials is of great practical concern. From the scientific standpoint, studies conducted under microgravity conditions provide simplified boundary conditions since buoyancy is removed, and make possible the identification of fundamental ignition mechanisms. The effect of microgravity on the combustion of bulk metals has been investigated by Steinberg, et al. on a drop tower simulator. However, no detailed quantitative work has been done on ignition phenomena of bulk metals at lower or higher-than-normal gravitational fields or on the combustion characteristics of metals at elevated gravity. The primary objective of this investigation is the development of an experimental system capable of providing fundamental physical and chemical information on the ignition of bulk metals under different gravity levels. The metals used in the study, iron (Fe), titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) were selected because of their importance as elements of structural metals and their simple chemical composition (pure metals instead of multi-component alloys to avoid complication in morphology and spectroscopic studies). These samples were also chosen to study the two different combustion modes experienced by metals: heterogeneous or surface oxidation, and homogeneous or gas-phase reaction. The experimental approach provides surface temperature profiles, spectroscopic measurements, surface morphology, x-ray spectrometry of metals specimens and their combustion products, and high-speed cinematography of the heating, ignition and combustion

  7. Measurement of oxygen fugacities under reducing conditions: non-Nernstian behavior of Y 2O 3-doped zirconia oxygen sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendybaev, R. A.; Beckett, J. R.; Stolper, E.; Grossman, L.

    1998-09-01

    A calibration procedure is presented for the use of a Y 2O 3-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) oxygen sensor in 1 atm gas-mixing furnaces in the temperature range 1200-1500°C and 0-8 orders of magnitude below the iron-wüstite (IW) buffer. Corrections to the Nernst equation were obtained by measuring apparent oxygen fugacities of gases in equilibrium with graphite (equilibrated with pure CO vapor), Cr + Cr 2O 3, and Ta + Ta 2O 5. Under reducing conditions, fO 2s calculated using the ideal form of the Nernst equation are erroneously high, by <0.1 log units at IW but by nearly three log units for Ta-Ta 2O 5 at 1000°C. The deviations between measured emfs and those calculated assuming Nernstian behavior of the electrolyte in the oxygen sensor reflect mixed ionic-electronic conduction. Measured emfs under reducing conditions are readily corrected for this effect via experimentally determined values of P θ, the oxygen fugacity at which electronic conduction constitutes half of the total conductivity. For the oxygen sensors used in this study, logP θ(±0.20,1σ)=3.70(±0.72)- (32.95±1.15)×10 3/T(K). Even under conditions more reducing than a gas of solar composition ( fO 2 = 10 -18 at 1200°C), YSZ oxygen sensors can be used to determine absolute values of the oxygen fugacity to within ±0.2 log units.

  8. Effects of hydrogen and acetate on benzene mineralisation under sulphate-reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Rakoczy, Jana; Schleinitz, Kathleen M; Müller, Nicolai; Richnow, Hans H; Vogt, Carsten

    2011-08-01

    Syntrophic mineralisation of benzene, as recently proposed for a sulphate-reducing enrichment culture, was tested in product inhibition experiments with acetate and hydrogen, both putative intermediates of anaerobic benzene fermentation. Using [(13)C(6)]-benzene enabled tracking the inhibition of benzene mineralisation sensitively by analysis of (13)CO(2). In noninhibited cultures, hydrogen was detected at partial pressures of 2.4 × 10(-6) ± 1.5 × 10(-6) atm. Acetate was detected at concentrations of 17 ± 2 μM. Spiking with 0.1 atm hydrogen produced a transient inhibitory effect on (13)CO(2) formation. In cultures spiked with higher amounts of hydrogen, benzene mineralisation did not restart after hydrogen consumption, possibly due to the toxic effects of the sulphide produced. An inhibitory effect was also observed when acetate was added to the cultures (0.3, 3.5 and 30 mM). Benzene mineralisation resumed after acetate was degraded to concentrations found in noninhibited cultures, indicating that acetate is another key intermediate in anaerobic benzene mineralisation. Although benzene mineralisation by a single sulphate reducer cannot be ruled out, our results strongly point to an involvement of syntrophic interactions in the process. Thermodynamic calculations revealed that, under in situ conditions, benzene fermentation to hydrogen and acetate yielded a free energy change of ΔG'=-83.1 ± 5.6 kJ mol(-1). Benzene mineralisation ceased when ΔG' values declined below -61.3 ± 5.3 kJ mol(-1) in the presence of acetate, indicating that ATP-consuming reactions are involved in the pathway.

  9. Microbial Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation Under Iron Reducing Conditions, Alternative Electron Acceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Urigüen, M.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Autotrophic Acidimicrobiaceae-bacterium named A6 (A6), part of the Actinobacteria phylum have been linked to anaerobic ammonium (NH4+) oxidation under iron reducing conditions. These organisms obtain their energy by oxidizing NH4+ and transferring the electrons to a terminal electron acceptor (TEA). Under environmental conditions, the TEAs are iron oxides [Fe(III)], which are reduced to Fe(II), this process is known as Feammox. Our studies indicate that alternative forms of TEAs can be used by A6, e.g. iron rich clays (i.e. nontronite) and electrodes in bioelectrochemical systems such as Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MECs), which can sustain NH4+removal and A6 biomass production. Our results show that nontronite can support Feammox and promote bacterial cell production. A6 biomass increased from 4.7 x 104 to 3.9 x 105 cells/ml in 10 days. Incubations of A6 in nontronite resulted in up to 10 times more NH4+ removal and 3 times more biomass production than when ferrihydrite is used as the Fe(III) source. Additionally, Fe in nontronite can be reoxidized by aeration and A6 can reutilize it; however, Fe is still finite in the clay. In contrast, in MECs, A6 harvest electrons from NH4+ and use an anode as an unlimited TEA, as a result current is produced. We operated multiple MECs in parallel using a single external power source, as described by Call & Logan (2011). MECs were run with an applied voltage of 0.7V and different growing mediums always containing initial 5mM NH4+. Results show that current production is favored when anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), an electron shuttled, is present in the medium as it facilitates the transfer of electrons from the bacterial cell to the anode. Additionally, A6 biomass increased from 1 x 104 to 9.77 x 105cells/ml in 14 days of operation. Due to Acidimicrobiaceae-bacterium A6's ability to use various TEAs, MECs represent an alternative, iron-free form, for optimized biomass production of A6 and its application in NH4

  10. Does "transition shoe" promote an intermediate biomechanical condition compared to running in conventional shoe and in reduced protection condition?

    PubMed

    da Silva Azevedo, Ana Paula; Mezêncio, Bruno; Valvassori, Raísa; Mochizuki, Luis; Amadio, Alberto Carlos; Serrão, Júlio Cerca

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated if running in a "transition shoe" commercially available results in intermediate mechanical load upon lower extremities compared to conventional shoe and minimalist shoe/barefoot. Kinematic and kinetic parameters while running in different shoe conditions were compared. Fourteen runners (12 men, 2 women; age=28.4±7.3 years), inexperienced in minimalist shoes and barefoot running, ran on an instrumented treadmill within four experimental conditions (conventional shoe - CS, transition shoe - TrS, minimalist shoe - MS, and barefoot - BF). Running was performed at 9km/h for 10min in each experimental condition. Vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) and two-dimensional kinematic variables of lower limbs (both legs) were recorded. Nine data acquisitions (10s) were conducted for each footwear condition. Transition shoe lead to significant changes in VGRF variables related to impact control, while kinematic parameters were little affected. The TrS had smaller first peak of VGRF (Fy1) than CS (p≤0.001) and higher than MS (p=0.050) and BF (p≤0.001). Time to first peak of VGRF (tFy1) of TrS was smaller than CS (p≤0.001) and higher than MS (p≤0.001) and BF (p≤0.001). The TrS and MS induced to lesser knee flexion (p<0.001) and greater dorsiflexion (p<0.001) than CS and BF. Thus, results suggest the transition shoe (TrS) tested seem to promote an intermediate mechanical load condition only for VGRF parameters, presenting values of impact forces between those found for conventional shoe and minimalist shoe/barefoot. Such knowledge could be useful for the transition process from conventional running shoe to minimalist shoe/barefoot. PMID:27131192

  11. Dual design resistor for high voltage conditioning and transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Siggins, Timothy Lynn; Murray, Charles W.; Walker, Richard L.

    2007-01-23

    A dual resistor for eliminating the requirement for two different value resistors. The dual resistor includes a conditioning resistor at a high resistance value and a run resistor at a low resistance value. The run resistor can travel inside the conditioning resistor. The run resistor is capable of being advanced by a drive assembly until an electrical path is completed through the run resistor thereby shorting out the conditioning resistor and allowing the lower resistance run resistor to take over as the current carrier.

  12. Reduced intensity conditioning is effective for hematopoietic SCT in dyskeratosis congenita-related BM failure.

    PubMed

    Ayas, M; Nassar, A; Hamidieh, A A; Kharfan-Dabaja, M; Othman, T B; Elhaddad, A; Seraihy, A; Hussain, F; Alimoghaddam, K; Ladeb, S; Fahmy, O; Bazarbachi, A; Mohamed, S Y; Bakr, M; Korthof, E; Aljurf, M; Ghavamzadeh, A

    2013-09-01

    BM failure (BMF) is a major and frequent complication of dyskeratosis congenita (DKC). Allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (allo-HSCT) represents the only curative treatment for BMF associated with this condition. Transplant-related morbidity/mortality is common especially after myeloablative conditioning regimens. Herein, we report nine cases of patients with DKC who received an allo-SCT at five different member centers within the Eastern Mediterranean Blood and Marrow Transplantation Registry. Between October 1992 and February 2011, nine DKC patients (male, 7 and female, 2), with a median age at transplantation of 19.1 (4.9-31.1) years, underwent an allo-HSCT from HLA-matched, morphologically normal-related donors (100%). Preparative regimens varied according to different centers, but was reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) in eight patients. Graft source was unstimulated BM in five cases (56%) and G-CSF-mobilized PBSCs in four (44%) cases. The median stem cell dose was 6.79 (2.06-12.4) × 10(6) cells/kg body weight. GVHD prophylaxis consisted of CsA in all nine cases; MTX or mycophenolate mofetil were added in five (56%) and two (22%) cases, respectively. Anti-thymocyte globulin was administered at various doses and scheduled in four (44%) cases. Median time-to-neutrophil engraftment was 21 (17-27) days. In one case, late graft failure was noted at 10.4 months post allo-HSCT. Only one patient developed grade II acute GVHD (11%). Extensive chronic GVHD was reported in one case, whereas limited chronic GVHD occurred in another four cases. At a median follow-up of 61 (0.8-212) months, seven (78%) patients were still alive and transfusion independent. One patient died of metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma and graft failure was the cause of death in another patient. This study suggests that RIC preparative regimens are successful in inducing hematopoietic cell engraftment in patients with BMF from DKC. Owing to the limited sample size, the use of registry data and

  13. Fault gouge rheology under confined, high-velocity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reches, Z.; Madden, A. S.; Chen, X.

    2012-12-01

    We recently developed the experimental capability to investigate the shear properties of fine-grain gouge under confined conditions and high-velocity. The experimental system includes a rotary apparatus that can apply large displacements of tens of meters, slip velocity of 0.001- 2.0 m/s, and normal stress of 35 MPa (Reches and Lockner, 2010). The key new component is a Confined ROtary Cell (CROC) that can shear a gouge layer either dry or under pore-pressure. The pore pressure is controlled by two syringe pumps. CROC includes a ring-shape gouge chamber of 62.5 mm inner diameter, 81.25 mm outer diameter, and up to 3 mm thick gouge sample. The lower, rotating part of CROC contains the sample chamber, and the upper, stationary part includes the loading, hollow cylinder and setting for temperature, and dilation measurements, and pore-pressure control. Each side of the gouge chamber has two pairs of industrial, spring-energized, self-lubricating, teflon-graphite seals, built for particle media and can work at temperature up to 250 ded C. The space between each of the two sets of seals is pressurized by nitrogen. This design generates 'zero-differential pressure' on the inner seal (which is in contact with the gouge powder), and prevents gouge leaks. For the preliminary dry experiments, we used ~2.0 mm thick layers of room-dry kaolinite powder. Total displacements were on the order of meters and normal stress up to 4 MPa. The initial shear was accommodated by multiple internal slip surfaces within the kaolinite layer accommodated as oriented Riedel shear structures. Later, the shear was localized within a thin, plate-parallel Y-surface. The kaolinite layer was compacted at a quasi-asymptotic rate, and displayed a steady-state friction coefficient of ~ 0.5 with no clear dependence on slip velocity up to 0.15 m/s. Further experiments with loose quartz sand (grain size ~ 125 micron) included both dry runs and pore-pressure (distilled water) controlled runs. The sand was

  14. Sonification of in-vehicle interface reduces gaze movements under dual-task condition.

    PubMed

    Tardieu, Julien; Misdariis, Nicolas; Langlois, Sabine; Gaillard, Pascal; Lemercier, Céline

    2015-09-01

    In-car infotainment systems (ICIS) often degrade driving performances since they divert the driver's gaze from the driving scene. Sonification of hierarchical menus (such as those found in most ICIS) is examined in this paper as one possible solution to reduce gaze movements towards the visual display. In a dual-task experiment in the laboratory, 46 participants were requested to prioritize a primary task (a continuous target detection task) and to simultaneously navigate in a realistic mock-up of an ICIS, either sonified or not. Results indicated that sonification significantly increased the time spent looking at the primary task, and significantly decreased the number and the duration of gaze saccades towards the ICIS. In other words, the sonified ICIS could be used nearly exclusively by ear. On the other hand, the reaction times in the primary task were increased in both silent and sonified conditions. This study suggests that sonification of secondary tasks while driving could improve the driver's visual attention of the driving scene. PMID:25959316

  15. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with AIDS: a relatively uncommon condition associated with reduced survival.

    PubMed Central

    Parente, F; Cernuschi, M; Valsecchi, L; Rizzardini, G; Musicco, M; Lazzarin, A; Bianchi Porro, G

    1991-01-01

    To determine the cumulative incidence of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and its effect upon survival in patients with AIDS, 453 consecutive AIDS patients diagnosed in our hospital between June 1985 and March 1989 were followed for a median period of six months (maximum 42 months). The cumulative probability of acute gastrointestinal bleeding was 3% at six months and 6% at 14 months. This event was associated with significantly reduced survival. Independent risk factors for bleeding were: severe thrombocytopenia at the time of diagnosis and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma as the first clinical manifestation of AIDS. The potential causes of bleeding were investigated in all cases by emergency endoscopy or by necropsy examination in those patients whose clinical condition precluded the procedure. In nine of 15 patients, bleeding was due to lesions specifically associated with AIDS, but in the remainder the source of bleeding was not a direct consequence of HIV infection. We conclude that acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding rarely complicates the course of AIDS, but its occurrence is associated with decreased survival. As many of the causes are potentially treatable, a complete diagnostic approach is indicated in these patients, except those who are terminally ill. PMID:1916503

  16. The interactive biotic and abiotic processes of DDT transformation under dissimilatory iron-reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xin; Wang, Fang; Gu, Chenggang; Yang, Xinglun; Kengara, Fredrick O; Bian, Yongrong; Song, Yang; Jiang, Xin

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the study was to elucidate the biotic and abiotic processes under dissimilatory iron reducing conditions involved in reductive dechlorination and iron reduction. DDT transformation was investigated in cultures of Shewanella putrefaciens 200 with/without α-FeOOH. A modified first-order kinetics model was developed and described DDT transformation well. Both the α-FeOOH reduction rate and the dechlorination rate of DDT were positively correlated to the biomass. Addition of α-FeOOH enhanced reductive dechlorination of DDT by favoring the cell survival and generating Fe(II) which was absorbed on the surface of bacteria and iron oxide. 92% of the absorbed Fe(II) was Na-acetate (1M) extractable. However, α-FeOOH also played a negative role of competing for electrons as reflected by the dechlorination rate of DDT was inhibited when increasing the α-FeOOH from 1 g L(-1) to 5 g L(-1). DDT was measured to be toxic to S. putrefaciens 200. The metabolites DDD, DDE and DDMU were recalcitrant to S. putrefaciens 200. The results suggested that iron oxide was not the key factor to promote the dissipation of DDX (DDT and the metabolites), whereas the one-electron reduction potential (E1) of certain organochlorines is the main factor and that the E1 higher than the threshold of the reductive driving forces of DIRB probably ensures the occur of reductive dechlorination.

  17. Incubation of ethanol reinstatement depends on test conditions and how ethanol consumption is reduced.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Brett C; Lamb, R J

    2015-04-01

    In reinstatement studies (a common preclinical procedure for studying relapse), incubation occurs (longer abstinence periods result in more responding). This finding is discordant with the clinical literature. Identifying determinants of incubation could aid in interpreting reinstatement and identifying processes involved in relapse. Reinstated responding was examined in rats trained to respond for ethanol and food under a multiple concurrent schedule (Component 1: ethanol FR5, food FR150; Component 2: ethanol FR5, food FR5-alternating across the 30-min session). Ethanol consumption was then reduced for 1 or 16 sessions either by suspending training (rats remained in home cage) or by providing alternative reinforcement (only Component 2 stimuli and contingencies were presented throughout the session). In the next session, stimuli associated with Component 1 were presented and responses recorded but ethanol and food were never delivered. Two test conditions were studied: fixed-ratio completion either produced ethanol- or food-associated stimuli (signaled) or had no programmed consequence (unsignaled). Incubation of ethanol responding was observed only after suspended training during signaled test sessions. Incubation of food responding was also observed after suspended training. These results are most consistent with incubation resulting from a degradation of feedback functions limiting extinction responding, rather than from increased motivation. PMID:25595114

  18. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation following reduced-intensity conditioning for mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shiratori, Souichi; Fujimoto, Katsuya; Nishimura, Machiko; Hatanaka, Kanako C; Kosugi-Kanaya, Mizuha; Okada, Kohei; Sugita, Junichi; Shigematsu, Akio; Hashimoto, Daigo; Endo, Tomoyuki; Kondo, Takeshi; Abe, Riichiro; Hashino, Satoshi; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Teshima, Takanori

    2016-03-01

    Advanced-stage mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome (MF/SS) have a poor prognosis. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), particularly using a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen, is a promising treatment for advanced-stage MF/SS. We performed RIC-HSCT in nine patients with advanced MF/SS. With a median follow-up period of 954 days after HSCT, the estimated 3-year overall survival was 85.7% (95% confidence interval, 33.4-97.9%) with no non-relapse mortality. Five patients relapsed after RIC-HSCT; however, in four patients whose relapse was detected only from the skin, persistent complete response was achieved in one patient, and the disease was manageable in other three patients by the tapering of immunosuppressants and donor lymphocyte infusion, suggesting that graft-versus-lymphoma effect and 'down-staging' effect from advanced stage to early stage by HSCT improve the prognosis of advanced-stage MF/SS. These results suggest that RIC-HSCT is an effective treatment for advanced MF/SS.

  19. Anaerobic benzene biodegradation by a pure bacterial culture of Bacillus cereus under nitrate reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Dou, Junfeng; Ding, Aizhong; Liu, Xiang; Du, Yongchao; Deng, Dong; Wang, Jinsheng

    2010-01-01

    A pure culture using benzene as sole carbon and energy sources was isolated by screening procedure from gasoline contaminated soil. The analysis of the 16S rDNA gene sequence, morpholpgical and physiological characteristics showed that the isolated strain was a member of genus Bacillus cereus. The biodegradation performance of benzene by B. cereus was evaluated, and the results showed that benzene could be efficiently biodegraded when the initial benzene concentration was below 150 mg/L. The metabolites of anaerobic nitrate-dependent benzene oxidation by strain B. cereus were identified as phenol and benzoate. The results of substrate interaction between binary combinations for benzene, phenol and benzoate showed that the simultaneous presence of benzene stimulated the degradation of benzoate, whereas the addition of benzene inhibited the degradation of phenol. Benzene degradation by B. cereus was enhanced by the addition of phenol and benzoate, the enhanced effects were more pronounced at higher concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first report that the isolated bacterial culture of B. cereus can efficiently degraded benzene under nitrate reducing conditions.

  20. Electric Current Activated Combustion Synthesis and Chemical Ovens Under Terrestrial and Reduced Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unuvar, C.; Fredrick, D.; Anselmi-Tamburini, U.; Manerbino, A.; Guigne, J. Y.; Munir, Z. A.; Shaw, B. D.

    2004-01-01

    Combustion synthesis (CS) generally involves mixing reactants together (e.g., metal powders) and igniting the mixture. Typically, a reaction wave will pass through the sample. In field activated combustion synthesis (FACS), the addition of an electric field has a marked effect on the dynamics of wave propagation and on the nature, composition, and homogeneity of the product as well as capillary flow, mass-transport in porous media, and Marangoni flows, which are influenced by gravity. The objective is to understand the role of an electric field in CS reactions under conditions where gravity-related effects are suppressed or altered. The systems being studied are Ti+Al and Ti+3Al. Two different ignition orientations have been used to observe effects of gravity when one of the reactants becomes molten. This consequentially influences the position and concentration of the electric current, which in turn influences the entire process. Experiments have also been performed in microgravity conditions. This process has been named Microgravity Field Activated Combustion Synthesis (MFACS). Effects of gravity have been demonstrated, where the reaction wave temperature and velocity demonstrate considerable differences besides the changes of combustion mechanisms with the different high currents applied. Also the threshold for the formation of a stable reaction wave is increased under zero gravity conditions. Electric current was also utilized with a chemical oven technique, where inserts of aluminum with minute amounts of tungsten and tantalum were used to allow observation of effects of settling of the higher density solid particles in liquid aluminum at the present temperature profile and wave velocity of the reaction.

  1. Amendment of biochar reduces the release of toxic elements under dynamic redox conditions in a contaminated floodplain soil.

    PubMed

    Rinklebe, Jörg; Shaheen, Sabry M; Frohne, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Biochar (BC) can be used to remediate soils contaminated with potential toxic elements (PTEs). However, the efficiency of BC to immobilize PTEs in highly contaminated floodplain soils under dynamic redox conditions has not been studied up to date. Thus, we have (i) quantified the impact of pre-definite redox conditions on the release dynamics of dissolved aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in a highly contaminated soil (CS) (non-treated) and in the same soil treated with 10 g kg(-1) biochar based material (CS+BC), and (ii) assessed the efficacy of the material to reduce the concentrations of PTEs in soil solution under dynamic redox conditions using an automated biogeochemical microcosm apparatus. The impact of redox potential (EH), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and sulfate (SO4(2-)) on dynamics of PTEs was also determined. The EH was lowered to +68 mV and afterwards increased stepwise to +535 mV. Significant negative correlation between EH and pH in CS and CS+BC was detected. The systematic increase of EH along with decrease of pH favors the mobilization of PTEs in CS and CS+BC. The material addition seems to have little effect on redox processes because pattern of EH/pH and release dynamics of PTEs was basically similar in CS and CS+BC. However, concentrations of dissolved PTEs were considerably lower in CS+BC than in CS which demonstrates that BC is able to decrease concentrations of dissolved PTEs even under dynamic redox conditions. PMID:25900116

  2. Amendment of biochar reduces the release of toxic elements under dynamic redox conditions in a contaminated floodplain soil.

    PubMed

    Rinklebe, Jörg; Shaheen, Sabry M; Frohne, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Biochar (BC) can be used to remediate soils contaminated with potential toxic elements (PTEs). However, the efficiency of BC to immobilize PTEs in highly contaminated floodplain soils under dynamic redox conditions has not been studied up to date. Thus, we have (i) quantified the impact of pre-definite redox conditions on the release dynamics of dissolved aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in a highly contaminated soil (CS) (non-treated) and in the same soil treated with 10 g kg(-1) biochar based material (CS+BC), and (ii) assessed the efficacy of the material to reduce the concentrations of PTEs in soil solution under dynamic redox conditions using an automated biogeochemical microcosm apparatus. The impact of redox potential (EH), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and sulfate (SO4(2-)) on dynamics of PTEs was also determined. The EH was lowered to +68 mV and afterwards increased stepwise to +535 mV. Significant negative correlation between EH and pH in CS and CS+BC was detected. The systematic increase of EH along with decrease of pH favors the mobilization of PTEs in CS and CS+BC. The material addition seems to have little effect on redox processes because pattern of EH/pH and release dynamics of PTEs was basically similar in CS and CS+BC. However, concentrations of dissolved PTEs were considerably lower in CS+BC than in CS which demonstrates that BC is able to decrease concentrations of dissolved PTEs even under dynamic redox conditions.

  3. Glow discharge techniques for conditioning high vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.

    1988-03-01

    A review is given of glow discharge techniques which are useful for conditioning vacuum vessels for high vacuum applications. Substantial development of glow discharge techniques has been done for the purpose of in-situ conditioning of the large ultrahigh vacuum systems for particle accelerators and magnetic fusion devices. In these applications the glow discharge treatments remove impurities from vessel surfaces in order to minimize particle-induced desorption coefficients. Cleaning mechanisms involve a mixture of sputtering and ion- (or neutral) induced desorption effects depending on the gas mixture (ArO/sub 2/ vs. H/sub 2/) and excitation method (DC, RF, and ECR). The author will review the methodology of glow discharge conditioning, diagnostic measurements provided by residual gas and surface composition analysis, and applications to vessel conditioning and materials processing. 76 refs., 16 figs.

  4. Mechanical Isolation of Highly Stable Antimonene under Ambient Conditions.

    PubMed

    Ares, Pablo; Aguilar-Galindo, Fernando; Rodríguez-San-Miguel, David; Aldave, Diego A; Díaz-Tendero, Sergio; Alcamí, Manuel; Martín, Fernando; Gómez-Herrero, Julio; Zamora, Félix

    2016-08-01

    Antimonene fabricated by mechanical exfoliation is highly stable under atmospheric conditions over periods of months and even when immersed in water. Density functional theory confirms the experiments and predicts an electronic gap of ≈1 eV. These results highlight the use of antimonene for optoelectronics applications. PMID:27272099

  5. SCHOOL AIR CONDITIONING/CASE STUDY, MCPHERSON HIGH SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OSTENBERG, JOE W.

    THE STANFORD UNIVERSITY SCHOOL PLANNING LABORATORIES CONDUCTED AN EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF THE MCPHERSON CITY SCHOOLS BY STUDYING THE EXISTING CONDITIONS, LOCAL ECONOMIES, AND POTENTIAL POPULATION GROWTH. IT WAS RECOMMENDED THAT A NEW SENIOR HIGH BE BUILT TO HOUSE 700-750 STUDENTS, THE ANTICIPATED ENROLLMENT 10 YEARS AFTER…

  6. Impact of KIR and HLA Genotypes on Outcomes after Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sobecks, Ronald M; Wang, Tao; Askar, Medhat; Gallagher, Meighan M; Haagenson, Michael; Spellman, Stephen; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo; Malmberg, Karl-Johan; Müller, Carlheinz; Battiwalla, Minoo; Gajewski, James; Verneris, Michael R; Ringdén, Olle; Marino, Susana; Davies, Stella; Dehn, Jason; Bornhäuser, Martin; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Woolfrey, Ann; Shaw, Peter; Pollack, Marilyn; Weisdorf, Daniel; Milller, Jeffrey; Hurley, Carolyn; Lee, Stephanie J; Hsu, Katharine

    2015-09-01

    Natural killer cells are regulated by killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) interactions with HLA class I ligands. Several models of natural killer cell reactivity have been associated with improved outcomes after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but this issue has not been rigorously addressed in reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) unrelated donor (URD) HCT. We studied 909 patients undergoing RIC-URD HCT. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, n = 612) lacking ≥ 1 KIR ligands experienced higher grade III to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.28; P = .005) compared to those with all ligands present. Absence of HLA-C2 for donor KIR2DL1 was associated with higher grade II to IV (HR, 1.4; P = .002) and III to IV acute GVHD (HR, 1.5; P = .01) compared with HLA-C2(+) patients. AML patients with KIR2DS1(+), HLA-C2 homozygous donors had greater treatment-related mortality compared with others (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4 to 4.2; P = .002) but did not experience lower relapse. There were no significant associations with outcomes for AML when assessing donor-activating KIRs or centromeric KIR content or for any donor-recipient KIR-HLA assessments in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 297). KIR-HLA combinations in RIC-URD HCT recapitulate some but not all KIR-HLA effects observed in myeloablative HCT. PMID:25960307

  7. Impact of KIR and HLA Genotypes on Outcomes after Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sobecks Ronald, M; Tao, Wang; Medhat, Askar; Gallagher Meighan, M; Michael, Haagenson; Stephen, Spellman; Marcelo, Fernandez-Vina; Karl-Johan, Malmberg; Carlheinz, Muller; Minoo, Battiwalla; James, Gajewski; Verneris Michael, R; Olle, Ringden; Marino Susana, R; Stella, Davies; Jason, Dehn; Martin, Bornhäuser; Yoshihiro, Inamoto; Ann, Woolfrey; Peter, Shaw; Marilyn, Pollack; Daniel, Weisdorf; Jeffrey, Miller; Hurley Carolyn, K; Lee Stephanie, J; Hsu Katharine, C

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are regulated killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) interactions with HLA class I ligands. Several models of NK reactivity have been associated with improved outcomes following myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but this issue has not been rigorously addressed in reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) unrelated donor (URD) HCT. We studied 909 patients undergoing RIC-URD HCT. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, n=612) lacking ≥1 KIR ligands experienced higher grade III–IV acute graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD) (HR 1.6, 95%CI 1.16–2.28, p=0.005) compared to those with all ligands present. Absence of HLA-C2 for donor KIR2DL1 was associated with higher grade II–IV (HR 1.4, p=0.002) and III–IV acute GvHD (HR 1.5, p=0.01) compared to HLA-C2+patients. AML patients with KIR2DS1+, HLA-C2 homozygous donors had greater treatment-related mortality compared to others (HR 2.4, 95%CI 1.4–4.2, p=0.002), but did not experience lower relapse. There were no significant associations with outcomes for AML when assessing donor activating KIRs or centromeric KIR content, nor for any donor-recipient KIR-HLA assessments in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (n=297). KIR-HLA combinations in RIC-URD HCT recapitulate some but not all KIR-HLA effects observed in myeloablative HCT. PMID:25960307

  8. Successful matched sibling donor marrow transplantation following reduced intensity conditioning in children with hemoglobinopathies.

    PubMed

    King, Allison A; Kamani, Naynesh; Bunin, Nancy; Sahdev, Indira; Brochstein, Joel; Hayashi, Robert J; Grimley, Michael; Abraham, Allistair; Dioguardi, Jacqueline; Chan, Ka Wah; Douglas, Dorothea; Adams, Roberta; Andreansky, Martin; Anderson, Eric; Gilman, Andrew; Chaudhury, Sonali; Yu, Lolie; Dalal, Jignesh; Hale, Gregory; Cuvelier, Geoff; Jain, Akshat; Krajewski, Jennifer; Gillio, Alfred; Kasow, Kimberly A; Delgado, David; Hanson, Eric; Murray, Lisa; Shenoy, Shalini

    2015-12-01

    Fifty-two children with symptomatic sickle cell disease sickle cell disease (SCD) (N = 43) or transfusion-dependent thalassemia (N = 9) received matched sibling donor marrow (46), marrow and cord product (5), or cord blood (1) allografts following reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) with alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan between March 2003 and May 2014*. The Kaplan-Meier probabilities of overall and event-free survival at a median of 3.42 (range, 0.75-11.83) years were 94.2% and 92.3% for the group, 93% and 90.7% for SCD, and 100% and 100% for thalassemia, respectively. Treatment-related mortality (all related to graft versus host disease, GVHD) was noted in three (5.7%) recipients, all 17-18 years of age. Acute and chronic GVHD was noted in 23% and 13%, respectively, with 81% of recipients off immunosuppression by 1 year. Graft rejection was limited to the single umbilical cord blood recipient who had prompt autologous hematopoietic recovery. Fourteen (27%) had mixed chimerism at 1 year and beyond; all had discontinued immunosuppression between 4 and 12 months from transplant with no subsequent consequence on GVHD or rejection. Infectious complications included predominantly bacteremia (48% were staphylococcus) and CMV reactivation (43%) necessitating preemptive therapy. Lymphocyte recovery beyond 6 months was associated with subsidence of infectious complications. All patients who engrafted were transfusion independent; no strokes or pulmonary complications of SCD were noted, and pain symptoms subsided within 6 months posttransplant. These findings support using RIC for patients with hemoglobinopathy undergoing matched sibling marrow transplantation (*www.Clinical Trials.gov: NCT00920972, NCT01050855, NCT02435901). PMID:26348869

  9. Anaerobic Biodegradation Of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Under Iron-Reducing Conditions In Batch And Continuous-Flow Cultures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of biodegradation of the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) under iron-reducing conditions was explored in batch and continuous-flow systems. A porous pot completely-mixed reactor was seeded with diverse cultures and operated under iron-reducing...

  10. Embryonic Methamphetamine Exposure Inhibits Methamphetamine Cue Conditioning and Reduces Dopamine Concentrations in Adult N2 Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Katner, Simon N; Neal-Beliveau, Bethany S; Engleman, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MAP) addiction is substantially prevalent in today's society, resulting in thousands of deaths and costing billions of dollars annually. Despite the potential deleterious consequences, few studies have examined the long-term effects of embryonic MAP exposure. Using the invertebrate nematode Caenorhabditis elegans allows for a controlled analysis of behavioral and neurochemical changes due to early developmental drug exposure. The objective of the current study was to determine the long-term behavioral and neurochemical effects of embryonic exposure to MAP in C. elegans. In addition, we sought to improve our conditioning and testing procedures by utilizing liquid filtration, as opposed to agar, and smaller, 6-well testing plates to increase throughput. Wild-type N2 C. elegans were embryonically exposed to 50 μM MAP. Using classical conditioning, adult-stage C. elegans were conditioned to MAP (17 and 500 μM) in the presence of either sodium ions (Na+) or chloride ions (Cl-) as conditioned stimuli (CS+/CS-). Following conditioning, a preference test was performed by placing worms in 6-well test plates spotted with the CS+ and CS- at opposite ends of each well. A preference index was determined by counting the number of worms in the CS+ target zone divided by the total number of worms in the CS+ and CS- target zones. A food conditioning experiment was also performed in order to determine whether embryonic MAP exposure affected food conditioning behavior. For the neurochemical experiments, adult worms that were embryonically exposed to MAP were analyzed for dopamine (DA) content using high-performance liquid chromatography. The liquid filtration conditioning procedure employed here in combination with the use of 6-well test plates significantly decreased the time required to perform these experiments and ultimately increased throughput. The MAP conditioning data found that pairing an ion with MAP at 17 or 500 μM significantly increased the preference

  11. Proteomic analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under high gravity fermentation conditions.

    PubMed

    Pham, Trong Khoa; Chong, Poh Kuan; Gan, Chee Sian; Wright, Phillip C

    2006-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae KAY446 was utilized for ethanol production, with glucose concentrations ranging from 120 g/L (normal) to 300 g/L (high). Although grown in a high glucose environment, S. cerevisiae still retained the ability to produce ethanol with a high degree of glucose utilization. iTRAQ-mediated shotgun proteomics was applied to identify relative expression change of proteins under the different glucose conditions. A total of 413 proteins were identified from three replicate, independent LC-MS/MS runs. Unsurprisingly, many proteins in the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway showed significant changes in expression level. Twenty five proteins involved in amino acid metabolism decreased their expression, while the expressions of 12 heat-shock related proteins were also identified. Under high glucose conditions, ethanol was produced as a major product. However, the assimilation of glucose as well as a number of byproducts was also enhanced. Therefore, to optimize the ethanol production under very high gravity conditions, a number of pathways will need to be deactivated, while still maintaining the correct cellular redox or osmotic state. Proteomics is demonstrated here as a tool to aid in this forward metabolic engineering.

  12. [HIGH ALTITUDE EXPOSURE IN TRAVELERS WITH PREEXISTING MEDICAL CONDITIONS].

    PubMed

    Mintzer, Dalya Navat; Leshem, Eyal; Chazan, Bibiana; Schwartz, Eli

    2015-11-01

    The number of travelers visiting high altitude regions is increasing. High altitude areas have become more accessible in recent years, and reaching areas at altitudes over 3000 meters above sea level has become more common than before. In many circumstances older travelers, who are more likely to have pre-existing chronic diseases and for whom altitude and hypoxic condition might be a risk, reach high altitudes in a fast and tight schedule, therefore having a shorter time for adaptation and acclimatization. Pre-travel consultation, including the discussion of chronic illnesses and medication use, is therefore crucial for the reduction of the risk of acute mountain sickness and preventing the deterioration of their pre-existing medical conditions.

  13. High CD3+ and CD34+ peripheral blood stem cell grafts content is associated with increased risk of graft-versus-host disease without beneficial effect on disease control after reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic transplantation from matched unrelated donors for acute myeloid leukemia — an analysis from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Czerw, Tomasz; Labopin, Myriam; Schmid, Christoph; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Chevallier, Patrice; Blaise, Didier; Kuball, Jürgen; Vigouroux, Stephane; Garban, Frédéric; Lioure, Bruno; Fegueux, Nathalie; Clement, Laurence; Sandstedt, Anna; Maertens, Johan; Guillerm, Gaëlle; Bordessoule, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Inconsistent results have been reported regarding the influence of graft composition on the incidence of graft versus host disease (GVHD), disease control and survival after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (allo-PBSCT). These discrepancies may be at least in part explained by the differences in disease categories, disease status at transplant, donor type and conditioning. The current retrospective EBMT registry study aimed to analyze the impact of CD3+ and CD34+ cells dose on the outcome of RIC allo-PBSCT in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in first complete remission, allografted from HLA-matched unrelated donors (10 of 10 match). We included 203 adults. In univariate analysis, patients transplanted with the highest CD3+ and CD34+ doses (above the third quartile cut-off point values, >347 × 10^6/kg and >8.25 × 10^6 /kg, respectively) had an increased incidence of grade III-IV acute (a) GVHD (20% vs. 6%, P = .003 and 18% vs. 7%, P = .02, respectively). There was no association between cellular composition of grafts and transplant-related mortality, AML relapse, incidence of chronic GVHD and survival. Neither engraftment itself nor the kinetics of engraftment were affected by the cell dose. In multivariate analysis, CD3+ and CD34+ doses were the only adverse predicting factors for grade III-IV aGVHD (HR = 3.6; 95%CI: 1.45-9.96, P = .006 and 2.65 (1.07-6.57), P = .04, respectively). These results suggest that careful assessing the CD3+ and CD34+ graft content and tailoring the cell dose infused may help in reducing severe acute GVHD risk without negative impact on the other transplantation outcomes. PMID:27036034

  14. A novel bacteriophage cocktail reduces and disperses Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms under static and flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Alves, Diana R; Perez-Esteban, P; Kot, W; Bean, J E; Arnot, T; Hansen, L H; Enright, Mark C; Jenkins, A Tobias A

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that forms highly stable communities - biofilms, which contribute to the establishment and maintenance of infections. The biofilm state and intrinsic/acquired bacterial resistance mechanisms contribute to resistance/tolerance to antibiotics that is frequently observed in P. aeruginosa isolates. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of six novel lytic bacteriophages: viruses that infect bacteria, which together efficiently infect and kill a wide range of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. The phages were used to formulate a cocktail with the potential to eliminate P. aeruginosa PAO1 planktonic cultures. Two biofilm models were studied, one static and one dynamic, and the phage cocktail was assessed for its ability to reduce and disperse the biofilm biomass. For the static model, after 4 h of contact with the phage suspension (MOI 10) more than 95% of biofilm biomass was eliminated. In the flow biofilm model, a slower rate of activity by the phage was observed, but 48 h after addition of the phage cocktail the biofilm was dispersed, with most cells eliminated (> 4 logs) comparing with the control. This cocktail has the potential for development as a therapeutic to control P. aeruginosa infections, which are predominantly biofilm centred. PMID:26347362

  15. A truncated implicit high-order finite-difference scheme combined with boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Suo-Liang; Liu, Yang

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, first we calculate finite-difference coefficients of implicit finitedifference methods (IFDM) for the first- and second-order derivatives on normal grids and firstorder derivatives on staggered grids and find that small coefficients of high-order IFDMs exist. Dispersion analysis demonstrates that omitting these small coefficients can retain approximately the same order accuracy but greatly reduce computational costs. Then, we introduce a mirrorimage symmetric boundary condition to improve IFDMs accuracy and stability and adopt the hybrid absorbing boundary condition (ABC) to reduce unwanted reflections from the model boundary. Last, we give elastic wave modeling examples for homogeneous and heterogeneous models to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed scheme.

  16. High power CO2 laser windows and reflection reducing coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Atanassov, G.A.; Peifu, G.

    1995-04-10

    This article describes evaluation standards for window materials. In conjunction with that, comparisons were made between the four types of materials Ge, GaAs, ZnSe, and KCl. It was discovered that KCl possesses optimum optical characteristics. In conjunction with this, reflection reducing films associated with good performance were designed and prepared. Measurements were done of their absorption and laser damage threshold values.

  17. High Motility Reduces Grazing Mortality of Planktonic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Matz, Carsten; Jürgens, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    We tested the impact of bacterial swimming speed on the survival of planktonic bacteria in the presence of protozoan grazers. Grazing experiments with three common bacterivorous nanoflagellates revealed low clearance rates for highly motile bacteria. High-resolution video microscopy demonstrated that the number of predator-prey contacts increased with bacterial swimming speed, but ingestion rates dropped at speeds of >25 μm s−1 as a result of handling problems with highly motile cells. Comparative studies of a moderately motile strain (<25 μm s−1) and a highly motile strain (>45 μm s−1) further revealed changes in the bacterial swimming speed distribution due to speed-selective flagellate grazing. Better long-term survival of the highly motile strain was indicated by fourfold-higher bacterial numbers in the presence of grazing compared to the moderately motile strain. Putative constraints of maintaining high swimming speeds were tested at high growth rates and under starvation with the following results: (i) for two out of three strains increased growth rate resulted in larger and slower bacterial cells, and (ii) starved cells became smaller but maintained their swimming speeds. Combined data sets for bacterial swimming speed and cell size revealed highest grazing losses for moderately motile bacteria with a cell size between 0.2 and 0.4 μm3. Grazing mortality was lowest for cells of >0.5 μm3 and small, highly motile bacteria. Survival efficiencies of >95% for the ultramicrobacterial isolate CP-1 (≤0.1 μm3, >50 μm s−1) illustrated the combined protective action of small cell size and high motility. Our findings suggest that motility has an important adaptive function in the survival of planktonic bacteria during protozoan grazing. PMID:15691949

  18. A high precision radiation-tolerant LVDT conditioning module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masi, A.; Danzeca, S.; Losito, R.; Peronnard, P.; Secondo, R.; Spiezia, G.

    2014-05-01

    Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) position sensors are widely used in particle accelerators and nuclear plants, thanks to their properties of contact-less sensing, radiation tolerance, infinite resolution, good linearity and cost efficiency. Many applications require high reading accuracy, even in environments with high radiation levels, where the conditioning electronics must be located several hundred meters away from the sensor. Sometimes even at long distances the conditioning module is still exposed to ionizing radiation. Standard off-the-shelf electronic conditioning modules offer limited performances in terms of reading accuracy and long term stability already with short cables. A radiation tolerant stand-alone LVDT conditioning module has been developed using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components. The reading of the sensor output voltages is based on a sine-fit algorithm digitally implemented on an FPGA ensuring few micrometers reading accuracy even with low signal-to-noise ratios. The algorithm validation and board architecture are described. A full metrological characterization of the module is reported and radiation tests results are discussed.

  19. High Temperature Thermosetting Polyimide Nanocomposites Prepared with Reduced Charge Organoclay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Sandi; Liang, Margaret I.

    2005-01-01

    The naturally occurring sodium and calcium cations found in bentonite clay galleries were exchanged with lithium cations. Following the cation exchange, a series of reduced charge clays were prepared by heat treatment of the lithium bentonite at 130 C, 150 C, or 170 C. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis showed that heating the lithium clay at elevated temperatures reduced its cation exchange capacity. Ion exchange of heat-treated clays with either a protonated alkyl amine or a protonated aromatic diamine resulted in decreasing amounts of the organic modifier incorporated into the lithium clay. The level of silicate dispersion in a thermosetting polyimide matrix was dependent upon the temperature of Li-clay heat treatment as well as the organic modification. In general, clays treated at 150 C or 170 C, and exchanged with protonated octadcylamine or protonated 2,2'-dimethlybenzidine (DMBZ) showed a higher degree of dispersion than clays treated at 130 C, or exchanged with protonated dodecylamine. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed little change in the storage modulus or T(sub g) of the nanocomposites compared to the base resin. However, long term isothermal aging of the samples showed a significant decrease in the resin oxidative weight loss. Nanocomposite samples aged in air for 1000 hours at 288 C showed of to a decrease in weight loss compared to that of the base resin. This again was dependent on the temperature at which the Li-clay was heated and the choice of organic modification.

  20. Reduced discomfort during high-definition transcutaneous stimulation using 6% benzocaine

    PubMed Central

    Guleyupoglu, Berkan; Febles, Nicole; Minhas, Preet; Hahn, Christoph; Bikson, Marom

    2014-01-01

    Background: High-Definition transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS) allows for non-invasive neuromodulation using an array of compact (approximately 1 cm2 contact area) “High-Definition” (HD) electrodes, as compared to conventional tDCS (which uses two large pads that are approximately 35 cm2). In a previous transcutaneous study, we developed and validated designs for HD electrodes that reduce discomfort over >20 min session with 2 mA electrode current. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of a chemical pretreatment with 6% benzocaine (topical numbing agent) to further reduce subjective discomfort during transcutaneous stimulation and to allow for better sham controlled studies. Methods: Pre-treatment with 6% benzocaine was compared with control (no pretreatment) for 22 min 2 mA of stimulation, with either CCNY-4 or Lectron II electroconductive gel, for both cathodal and anodal transcutaneous (forearm) stimulation (eight different combinations). Results: Results show that for all conditions and polarities tested, stimulation with HD electrodes is safe and well tolerated and that pretreatment further reduced subjective discomfort. Conclusion: Pretreatment with a mild analgesic reduces discomfort during HD-tDCS. PMID:25071548

  1. Symmetry recovery of cell-free layer after bifurcations of small arterioles in reduced flow conditions: effect of RBC aggregation.

    PubMed

    Ng, Yan Cheng; Namgung, Bumseok; Tien, Sim Leng; Leo, Hwa Liang; Kim, Sangho

    2016-08-01

    Heterogeneous distribution of red blood cells (RBCs) in downstream vessels of arteriolar bifurcations can be promoted by an asymmetric formation of cell-free layer (CFL) in upstream vessels. Consequently, the CFL widths in subsequent downstream vessels become an important determinant for tissue oxygenation (O2) and vascular tone change by varying nitric oxide (NO) availability. To extend our previous understanding on the formation of CFL in arteriolar bifurcations, this study investigated the formation of CFL widths from 2 to 6 vessel-diameter (2D-6D) downstream of arteriolar bifurcations in the rat cremaster muscle (D = 51.5 ± 1.3 μm). As the CFL widths are highly influenced by RBC aggregation, the degree of aggregation was adjusted to simulate levels seen during physiological and pathological states. Our in vivo experimental results showed that the asymmetry of CFL widths persists along downstream vessels up to 6D from the bifurcating point. Moreover, elevated levels of RBC aggregation appeared to retard the recovery of CFL width symmetry. The required length of complete symmetry recovery was estimated to be greater than 11D under reduced flow conditions, which is relatively longer than interbifurcation distances of arterioles for vessel diameter of ∼50 μm. In addition, our numerical prediction showed that the persistent asymmetry of CFL widths could potentially result in a heterogeneous vasoactivity over the entire arteriolar network in such abnormal flow conditions.

  2. Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americanus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in western Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draxler, Andrew F.J.; Sherrell, Robert M.; Wieczorek, Dan; Lavigne, Michele G.; Paulson, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically nai??ve lobsters held in situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4-0.8 ??g/g/d (???16 ??g/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 ??g/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 ??g/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 ??g/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

  3. Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americansus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in Western Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draxler, Andrew F.J.; Sherrell, Robert M.; Wieczorek, Daniel; Lavigne, Michele G.; Paulson, Anthony J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically naïve lobsters heldin situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4–0.8 μ g/g/d (~16 μg/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 μg/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 μg/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 μg/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

  4. Effects of the genetically reduced feather coverage in naked neck and featherless broilers on their performance under hot conditions.

    PubMed

    Cahaner, A; Ajuh, J A; Siegmund-Schultze, M; Azoulay, Y; Druyan, S; Zárate, A Valle

    2008-12-01

    Under hot conditions, contemporary commercial broilers do not reach their full genetic potential for growth rate, body weight (BW), or breast meat yield because dissipation of their excessively produced internal (metabolic) heat is hindered by the feathers. Therefore, it was hypothesized that heat stress can be alleviated by using the naked-neck gene (Na) or the featherless gene (sc). The study consisted of 4 experimental genetic groups (fully feathered, heterozygous naked neck, homozygous naked neck, featherless), progeny of the same double-heterozygous parents (Na/na +/sc), and commercial broilers. Birds from all 5 groups were brooded together until d 21 when one-half of the birds from each group were moved to hot conditions (constant 35 degrees C), and the others remained under comfortable conditions (constant 25 degrees C). Individual BW was recorded from hatch to slaughter at d 45 and 52 at 25 and 35 degrees C, respectively, when breast meat, rear part, heart, and spleen weights were recorded. Body temperature was recorded weekly from d 14 to 42. Feather coverage significantly affected the thermoregulatory capacity of the broilers under hot conditions. With reduced feather coverage (naked-neck), and more so without any feathers (featherless), the birds at 35 degrees C were able to minimize the elevation in body temperature. Consequently, only the featherless birds exhibited similar growth and BW under the 2 temperature treatments. The naked-neck birds at 35 degrees C showed only a marginal advantage over their fully feathered counterparts, indicating that 20 to 40% reduction in feather coverage provided only limited tolerance to the heat stress imposed by hot conditions. Breast meat yield of the featherless birds was much greater (3.5% of BW, approximately 25% advantage) than that of their partly feathered and fully feathered counterparts and the commercial birds under hot conditions. The high breast meat yield (at both 25 and 35 degrees C) of the featherless

  5. High Quality Acquisition of Surface Electromyography - Conditioning Circuit Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobaki, Mohammed M.; Malik, Noreha Abdul; Khan, Sheroz; Nurashikin, Anis; Haider, Samnan; Larbani, Sofiane; Arshad, Atika; Tasnim, Rumana

    2013-12-01

    The acquisition of Surface Electromyography (SEMG) signals is used for many applications including the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases, and prosthesis control. The diagnostic quality of the SEMG signal is highly dependent on the conditioning circuit of the SEMG acquisition system. This paper presents the design of an SEMG conditioning circuit that can guarantee to collect high quality signal with high SNR such that it is immune to environmental noise. The conditioning circuit consists of four stages; consisting of an instrumentation amplifier that is used with a gain of around 250; 4th order band pass filter in the 20-500Hz frequency range as the two initial stages. The third stage is an amplifier with adjustable gain using a variable resistance; the gain could be changed from 1000 to 50000. In the final stage the signal is translated to meet the input requirements of data acquisition device or the ADC. Acquisition of accurate signals allows it to be analyzed for extracting the required characteristic features for medical and clinical applications. According to the experimental results, the value of SNR for collected signal is 52.4 dB which is higher than the commercial system, the power spectrum density (PSD) graph is also presented and it shows that the filter has eliminated the noise below 20 Hz.

  6. High-performance mussel-inspired adhesives of reduced complexity

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, B. Kollbe; Das, Saurabh; Linstadt, Roscoe; Kaufman, Yair; Martinez-Rodriguez, Nadine R.; Mirshafian, Razieh; Kesselman, Ellina; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Lipshutz, Bruce H.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Waite, J. Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent progress in and demand for wet adhesives, practical underwater adhesion remains limited or non-existent for diverse applications. Translation of mussel-inspired wet adhesion typically entails catechol functionalization of polymers and/or polyelectrolytes, and solution processing of many complex components and steps that require optimization and stabilization. Here we reduced the complexity of a wet adhesive primer to synthetic low-molecular-weight catecholic zwitterionic surfactants that show very strong adhesion (∼50 mJ m−2) and retain the ability to coacervate. This catecholic zwitterion adheres to diverse surfaces and self-assembles into a molecularly smooth, thin (<4 nm) and strong glue layer. The catecholic zwitterion holds particular promise as an adhesive for nanofabrication. This study significantly simplifies bio-inspired themes for wet adhesion by combining catechol with hydrophobic and electrostatic functional groups in a small molecule. PMID:26478273

  7. High-performance mussel-inspired adhesives of reduced complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, B. Kollbe; Das, Saurabh; Linstadt, Roscoe; Kaufman, Yair; Martinez-Rodriguez, Nadine R.; Mirshafian, Razieh; Kesselman, Ellina; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Lipshutz, Bruce H.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Waite, J. Herbert

    2015-10-01

    Despite the recent progress in and demand for wet adhesives, practical underwater adhesion remains limited or non-existent for diverse applications. Translation of mussel-inspired wet adhesion typically entails catechol functionalization of polymers and/or polyelectrolytes, and solution processing of many complex components and steps that require optimization and stabilization. Here we reduced the complexity of a wet adhesive primer to synthetic low-molecular-weight catecholic zwitterionic surfactants that show very strong adhesion (~50 mJ m-2) and retain the ability to coacervate. This catecholic zwitterion adheres to diverse surfaces and self-assembles into a molecularly smooth, thin (<4 nm) and strong glue layer. The catecholic zwitterion holds particular promise as an adhesive for nanofabrication. This study significantly simplifies bio-inspired themes for wet adhesion by combining catechol with hydrophobic and electrostatic functional groups in a small molecule.

  8. High-performance mussel-inspired adhesives of reduced complexity.

    PubMed

    Ahn, B Kollbe; Das, Saurabh; Linstadt, Roscoe; Kaufman, Yair; Martinez-Rodriguez, Nadine R; Mirshafian, Razieh; Kesselman, Ellina; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Lipshutz, Bruce H; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Waite, J Herbert

    2015-10-19

    Despite the recent progress in and demand for wet adhesives, practical underwater adhesion remains limited or non-existent for diverse applications. Translation of mussel-inspired wet adhesion typically entails catechol functionalization of polymers and/or polyelectrolytes, and solution processing of many complex components and steps that require optimization and stabilization. Here we reduced the complexity of a wet adhesive primer to synthetic low-molecular-weight catecholic zwitterionic surfactants that show very strong adhesion (∼50 mJ m(-2)) and retain the ability to coacervate. This catecholic zwitterion adheres to diverse surfaces and self-assembles into a molecularly smooth, thin (<4 nm) and strong glue layer. The catecholic zwitterion holds particular promise as an adhesive for nanofabrication. This study significantly simplifies bio-inspired themes for wet adhesion by combining catechol with hydrophobic and electrostatic functional groups in a small molecule.

  9. Inhibition of social behavior in chimpanzees under high-density conditions.

    PubMed

    Aureli, F; de Waal, F B

    1997-01-01

    This is the first study to investigate the short-term effects of high population density on captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Subjects of the study were 45 chimpanzees living in five different groups at the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center. The groups were observed under two conditions: 1) when they had access to both the indoor and outdoor sections of their enclosures; 2) during cold days when they were locked into the indoor runs, which reduced the available space by more than half. Under the high-density condition, allogrooming and submissive greetings decreased, but juvenile play increased. Remarkably, the rate of various forms of agonistic behavior, such as aggression, bluff charge, bluff display, and hooting, occurred less frequently under the high-density condition. This general decrease in adult social activity, including agonistic behavior, can be interpreted as an inhibition strategy to reduce opportunities for conflict when interindividual distances are reduced. This strategy is probably effective only in the short run, however. Behavioral indicators of anxiety, such as rough scratching and yawning, showed elevated rates, suggesting increased social tension under the high-density condition.

  10. Reducing High Absenteeism through Low-Cost Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Chaplik, Barbara D.; Engel, Ross A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study of the effects of a low-cost incentive program--including daily, weekly, and monthly reinforcements such as attention, approval, and inexpensive awards--on the absenteeism of high-absence employees in an urban school district's transportation department. A 20-percent reduction in absenteeism was achieved. (TE)

  11. Teacher Initiatives to Reduce Truancy among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemec, Christopher J.; Watson, Rod A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to improve the attendance of high school students using teacher initiatives. There were two teachers and about 140 students involved. The interventions used were improving lesson plans, developing better relationships with students and positive incentives. The students at this school had a history of very…

  12. Atmospheric conditions during high ragweed pollen concentrations in Zagreb, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prtenjak, Maja Telišman; Srnec, Lidija; Peternel, Renata; Madžarević, Valentina; Hrga, Ivana; Stjepanović, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    We examined the atmospheric conditions favourable to the occurrence of maximum concentrations of ragweed pollen with an extremely high risk of producing allergy. Over the 2002-2009 period, daily pollen data collected in Zagreb were used to identify two periods of high pollen concentration (> 600 grains/m3) for our analysis: period A (3-4 September 2002) and period B (6-7 September 2003). Synoptic conditions in both periods were very similar: Croatia was under the influence of a lower sector high pressure system moving slowly eastward over Eastern Europe. During the 2002-2009 period, this type of weather pattern (on ~ 70% of days), in conjunction with almost non-gradient surface pressure conditions in the area (on ~ 30% of days) characterised days when the daily pollen concentrations were higher than 400 grains/m3. Numerical experiments using a mesoscale model at fine resolution showed successful multi-day simulations reproducing the local topographic influence on wind flow and in reasonable agreement with available observations. According to the model, the relatively weak synoptic flow (predominantly from the eastern direction) allowed local thermal circulations to develop over Zagreb during both high pollen episodes. Two-hour pollen concentrations and 48-h back-trajectories indicated that regional-range transport of pollen grains from the central Pannonian Plain was the cause of the high pollen concentrations during period A. During period B, the north-westward regional-range transport in Zagreb was supplemented significantly by pronounced horizontal recirculation of pollen grains. This recirculation happened within the diurnal local circulation over the city, causing a late-evening increase in pollen concentration.

  13. Observation of antibacterial effects obtained at atmospheric and reduced pressures in afterglow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrette, J.-P.; Cousty, S.; Merbahi, N.; Nègre-Salvayre, A.; Clément, F.

    2010-01-01

    Bactericidal activities of three different afterglows operating at reduced and atmospheric pressures and ambient temperature are established and compared through the use of a unique protocol for bacteria (E. coli, CIP 54.8 T) exposition, recovery and numeration. The influence of three important parameters is shown. An original scenario for bacterial inactivation at reduced pressure is proposed, compatible with previously published results and with the observation of conformational changes appearing on the treated bacteria.

  14. Reduced amygdala responsivity during conditioning to trauma-related stimuli in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Diener, Slawomira J; Nees, Frauke; Wessa, Michèle; Wirtz, Gustav; Frommberger, Ulrich; Penga, Tina; Ruttorf, Michaela; Ruf, Matthias; Schmahl, Christian; Flor, Herta

    2016-10-01

    Exaggerated conditioned fear responses and impaired extinction along with amygdala overactivation have been observed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These fear responses might be triggered by cues related to the trauma through higher-order conditioning, where reminders of the trauma may serve as unconditioned stimuli (US) and could maintain the fear response. We compared arousal, valence, and US expectancy ratings and BOLD brain responses using fMRI in 14 traumatized persons with PTSD and 14 without PTSD (NPTSD) and 13 matched healthy controls (HC) in a differential aversive conditioning paradigm. The US were trauma-specific pictures for the PTSD and NPTSD group and equally aversive and arousing for the HC; the conditioned stimuli (CS) were graphic displays. During conditioning, the PTSD patients compared to the NPTSD and HC indicated higher arousal to the conditioned stimulus that was paired with the trauma picture (CS+) compared to the unpaired (CS-), increased dissociation during acquisition and extinction, and failure to extinguish the CS/US-association compared to NPTSD. During early and late acquisition, the PTSD patients showed a significantly lower amygdala activation to CS+ versus CS- and a negative interaction between activation in the amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), while NPTSD and HC displayed a negative interaction between amygdala and medial PFC. These findings suggest maladaptive anticipatory coping with trauma-related stimuli in patients with PTSD, indicated by enhanced conditioning, with related abnormal amygdala reactivity and connectivity, and delayed extinction. PMID:27412783

  15. Effects of stigma-reducing conditions on intention to seek psychological help among Korean college students with anxious-ambivalent attachment.

    PubMed

    Nam, Suk Kyung; Choi, Seong In; Lee, Sang Min

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to examine whether stigma-reducing conditions (i.e., random assignment of participants to hypothetical scenarios with varying levels of stigma) effectively increase intention to seek help for Korean college students with anxious-ambivalent attachment style, depending on previous counseling experience. Three hundred thirty Korean college students participated and were randomly assigned to either a low or a high stigma-reducing manipulative condition group. Each group was provided with three possible strategies to reduce stigma: the location of a counseling center, contact with a mental health patient, and the media portrayal of mental illness. In the high-stigma group, the strategies were described in a way that was highly stigmatizing. In the other group, the 3 strategies were created in a way that was not as stigmatizing. In order to examine the effect of stigma-reducing scenarios through the conditions, participants were also instructed to remember a previous or current stressful situation before responding to the questionnaire. The results of multivariate analysis of variance showed a 3-way interaction effect (i.e., level of stigma based on stigma manipulative condition, level of attachment anxiety, and previous counseling experience) on the intentions score when the "contact" and the "media" strategies were applied. The results indicated that individuals who have a higher level of attachment anxiety and a previous experience of counseling were more sensitive to the stigma-reducing manipulative condition. These results highlight the importance of the "contact" and "media" strategies in reducing stigma of seeking counseling for mental health services.

  16. (-)-Bornyl acetate induces autonomic relaxation and reduces arousal level after visual display terminal work without any influences of task performance in low-dose condition.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Eri; Fukagawa, Mio; Okamoto, Tsuyoshi; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2011-04-01

    (-)-Bornyl acetate is the main volatile constituent in numerous conifer oils and has a camphoraceous, pine-needle-like odor. It is frequently used as the conifer needle composition in soap, bath products, room sprays, and pharmaceutical products. However, the psychophysiological effects of (-)-bornyl acetate remained unclear. We investigated the effects of breathing air mixed with (-)-bornyl acetate at different doses (low-dose and high-dose conditions) on the individuals during and after VDT (visual display terminal) work using a visual discrimination task. The amounts of (-)-bornyl acetate through our odorant delivery system for 40 min were 279.4 µg in the low-dose and 716.3 µg in the high-dose (-)-bornyl acetate condition. (-)-Bornyl acetate induced changes of autonomic nervous system for relaxation and reduced arousal level after VDT work without any influences of task performance in low-dose condition, but not in high-dose condition.

  17. High-quality AlN layers grown by hot-wall MOCVD at reduced temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakanakova-Georgieva, A.; Nilsson, D.; Janzén, E.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a growth of AlN at reduced temperatures of 1100 °C and 1200 °C in a horizontal-tube hot-wall metalorganic chemical vapor deposition reactor configured for operation at temperatures of up to 1500-1600 °C and using a joint delivery of precursors. We present a simple route—as viewed in the context of the elaborate multilayer growth approaches with pulsed ammonia supply—for the AlN growth process on SiC substrates at the reduced temperature of 1200 °C. The established growth conditions in conjunction with the particular in-situ intervening SiC substrate treatment are considered pertinent to the accomplishment of crystalline, relatively thin, ˜700 nm, single AlN layers of high-quality. The feedback is obtained from surface morphology, cathodoluminescence and secondary ion mass spectrometry characterization.

  18. High Technology Centrifugal Compressor for Commercial Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckes, John

    2006-04-15

    R&D Dynamics, Bloomfield, CT in partnership with the State of Connecticut has been developing a high technology, oil-free, energy-efficient centrifugal compressor called CENVA for commercial air conditioning systems under a program funded by the US Department of Energy. The CENVA compressor applies the foil bearing technology used in all modern aircraft, civil and military, air conditioning systems. The CENVA compressor will enhance the efficiency of water and air cooled chillers, packaged roof top units, and other air conditioning systems by providing an 18% reduction in energy consumption in the unit capacity range of 25 to 350 tons of refrigeration The technical approach for CENVA involved the design and development of a high-speed, oil-free foil gas bearing-supported two-stage centrifugal compressor, CENVA encompassed the following high technologies, which are not currently utilized in commercial air conditioning systems: Foil gas bearings operating in HFC-134a; Efficient centrifugal impellers and diffusers; High speed motors and drives; and System integration of above technologies. Extensive design, development and testing efforts were carried out. Significant accomplishments achieved under this program are: (1) A total of 26 builds and over 200 tests were successfully completed with successively improved designs; (2) Use of foil gas bearings in refrigerant R134a was successfully proven; (3) A high speed, high power permanent magnet motor was developed; (4) An encoder was used for signal feedback between motor and controller. Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, the compressor could not operate at higher speed and in turn at higher pressure. In order to alleviate this problem a unique sensorless controller was developed; (5) This controller has successfully been tested as stand alone; however, it has not yet been integrated and tested as a system; (6) The compressor successfully operated at water cooled condensing temperatures Due to temperature

  19. Reduced drag coefficient for high wind speeds in tropical cyclones.

    PubMed

    Powell, Mark D; Vickery, Peter J; Reinhold, Timothy A

    2003-03-20

    The transfer of momentum between the atmosphere and the ocean is described in terms of the variation of wind speed with height and a drag coefficient that increases with sea surface roughness and wind speed. But direct measurements have only been available for weak winds; momentum transfer under extreme wind conditions has therefore been extrapolated from these field measurements. Global Positioning System sondes have been used since 1997 to measure the profiles of the strong winds in the marine boundary layer associated with tropical cyclones. Here we present an analysis of these data, which show a logarithmic increase in mean wind speed with height in the lowest 200 m, maximum wind speed at 500 m and a gradual weakening up to a height of 3 km. By determining surface stress, roughness length and neutral stability drag coefficient, we find that surface momentum flux levels off as the wind speeds increase above hurricane force. This behaviour is contrary to surface flux parameterizations that are currently used in a variety of modelling applications, including hurricane risk assessment and prediction of storm motion, intensity, waves and storm surges.

  20. High explosive violent reaction (HEVR) from slow heating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, A.S.

    1999-03-01

    The high explosives (HEs) developed and used at the Los Alamos National Laboratory are designed to be insensitive to impact and thermal insults under all but the most extreme conditions. Nevertheless, violent reactions do occasionally occur when HE is involved in an accident. The HE response is closely dependent on the type of external stimulus that initiates the reaction. For example, fast heating of conventional HE will probably result in fairly benign burning, while long-term, slow heating of conventional HE is more likely to produce an HEVR that will do much more damage to the immediate surroundings. An HEVR (High Explosive Violent Reaction) can be defined as the rapid release of energy from an explosive that ranges from slightly faster than a deflagration (very rapid burning) to a reaction that approaches a detonation. A number of thermal analyses have been done to determine slow heat/cook-off conditions that produce HE self-heating that can build up to a catastrophic runaway reaction. The author specifies the conditions that control reaction violence, describes experiments that produced an HEVR, describes analyses done to determine a heating rate threshold for HEVR, and lists possible HEVR situations.

  1. Ultrafilter Conditions for High Level Waste Sludge Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2006-08-28

    An evaluation of the optimal filtration conditions was performed based on test data obtained from filtration of a High Level Waste Sludge sample from the Hanford tank farms. This evaluation was performed using the anticipated configuration for the Waste Treatment Plant at the Hanford site. Testing was performed to identify the optimal pressure drop and cross flow velocity for filtration at both high and low solids loading. However, this analysis indicates that the actual filtration rate achieved is relatively insensitive to these conditions under anticipated operating conditions. The maximum filter flux was obtained by adjusting the system control valve pressure from 400 to 650 kPa while the filter feed concentration increased from 5 to 20 wt%. However, operating the system with a constant control valve pressure drop of 500 kPa resulted in a less than 1% reduction in the average filter flux. Also note that allowing the control valve pressure to swing as much as +/- 20% resulted in less than a 5% decrease in filter flux.

  2. High-Latitude Ionospheric Dynamics During Conditions of Northward IMF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    In order to better understand the physical processes operating during conditions of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), in situ measurements from the Dynamics Explorer-2 (low altitude) polar satellite and simultaneous observations from the auroral imager on the Dynamics Explorer-1 (high altitude) satellite were used to investigate the relationships between optical emissions, particle precipitation, and convective flows in the high-latitude ionosphere. Field aligned current and convective flow patterns during IMF north include polar cap arcs, the theta aurora or transpolar arc, and the 'horse-collar' aurora. The initial part of the study concentrated on the electrodynamics of auroral features in the horse-collar aurora, a contracted but thickened emission region in which the dawn and dusk portions can spread to very high latitudes, while the latter part focused on the evolution of one type of IMF north auroral pattern to another, specifically the quiet-time horse-collar pattern to a theta aurora.

  3. Polyimide Nanocomposites Prepared from High-Temperature, Reduced Charge Organoclays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delozier, D. M.; Orwoll, R. A.; Cahoon, J. F.; Ladislaw, J. S.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    Montmorillonite clays modified with the dihydrochloride salt of 1,3-bis(3-aminophenoxy)benzene (APB) were used in the preparation of polyimide/organoclay hybrid films. Organoclays with varying surface charge based upon APB were prepared and examined for their dispersion behavior in the polymer matrix. High molecular weight poly(amide acid) solutions were prepared in the presence of the organoclays. Films were cast and subsequently heated to 300C to cause imidization. The resulting nanocomposite films, containing 3 wt% of organoclay, were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The clay's cation exchange capacity (CEC) played a key role in determining the extent of dispersion in the polyimide matrix. Considerable dispersion was observed in some of the nanocomposite films. The most effective organoclay was found to have a CEC of 0.70 meq/g. Nanocomposite films prepared with 3-8 wt% of this organoclay were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thin-film tensile testing. High levels of clay dispersion could be achieved even at the higher clay loadings. Results from mechanical testing revealed that while the moduli of the nanocomposites increased with increasing clay loadings, both strength and elongation decreased.

  4. High Accuracy Temperature Measurements Using RTDs with Current Loop Conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gerald M.

    1997-01-01

    To measure temperatures with a greater degree of accuracy than is possible with thermocouples, RTDs (Resistive Temperature Detectors) are typically used. Calibration standards use specialized high precision RTD probes with accuracies approaching 0.001 F. These are extremely delicate devices, and far too costly to be used in test facility instrumentation. Less costly sensors which are designed for aeronautical wind tunnel testing are available and can be readily adapted to probes, rakes, and test rigs. With proper signal conditioning of the sensor, temperature accuracies of 0.1 F is obtainable. For reasons that will be explored in this paper, the Anderson current loop is the preferred method used for signal conditioning. This scheme has been used in NASA Lewis Research Center's 9 x 15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel, and is detailed.

  5. Speciation and Fate of Trace Metals in Estuarine Sediments Under Reduced and Oxidized Conditions, Seaplane Lagoon, Alameda Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S A; Day, P A; Esser, B; Randall, S

    2002-10-18

    We have identified important chemical reactions that control the fate of metal-contaminated estuarine sediments if they are left undisturbed (in situ) or if they are dredged. We combined information on the molecular bonding of metals in solids from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with thermodynamic and kinetic driving forces obtained from dissolved metal concentrations to deduce the dominant reactions under reduced and oxidized conditions. We evaluated the in situ geochemistry of metals (cadmium, chromium, iron, lead, manganese and zinc) as a function of sediment depth (to 100 cm) from a 60-year record of contamination at the Alameda Naval Air Station, California. Results from XAS and thermodynamic modeling of porewaters show that cadmium and most of the zinc form stable sulfide phases, and that lead and chromium are associated with stable carbonate, phosphate, phyllosilicate, or oxide minerals. Therefore, there is minimal risk associated with the release of these trace metals from the deeper sediments contaminated prior to the Clean Water Act (1975) as long as reducing conditions are maintained. Increased concentrations of dissolved metals with depth were indicative of the formation of metal HS- complexes. The sediments also contain zinc, chromium, and manganese associated with detrital iron-rich phyllosilicates and/or oxides. These phases are recalcitrant at near-neutral pH and do not undergo reductive dissolution within the 60-year depositional history of sediments at this site. The fate of these metals during dredging was evaluated by comparing in situ geochemistry with that of sediments oxidized by seawater in laboratory experiments. Cadmium and zinc pose the greatest hazard from dredging because their sulfides were highly reactive in seawater. However, their dissolved concentrations under oxic conditions were limited eventually by sorption to or co-precipitation with an iron (oxy)hydroxide. About 50% of the reacted CdS and 80% of the reacted ZnS were

  6. Proton delocalization under extreme conditions of high pressure and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, Alexander F.; Crowhurst, Jonathan

    2008-10-02

    Knowledge of the behaviour of light hydrogen-containing molecules under extreme conditions of high pressure and temperature is crucial to a comprehensive understanding of the fundamental physics and chemistry that is relevant under such conditions. It is also vital for interpreting the results of planetary observations, in particular those of the gas giants, and also for various materials science applications. On a fundamental level, increasing pressure causes the redistribution of the electronic density, which results in a modification of the interatomic potentials followed by a consequent qualitative change in the character of the associated bonding. Ultimately, at sufficiently high pressure, one may anticipate a transformation to a homogeneously bonded material possessing unusual physical properties (e.g. a quantum fluid). As temperature increases so does the concentration of ionised species leading ultimately to a plasma. Considerable improvements have recently been made in both the corresponding experimental and theoretical investigations. Here we review recent results for hydrogen and water that reveal unexpected routes of transformation to nonmolecular materials. We stress the importance of quantum effects, which remain significant even at high temperatures.

  7. A method for manufacturing superior set yogurt under reduced oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, H; Inoue, N; Liu, E; Fukui, M; Sasaki, Y; Sasaki, T

    2009-09-01

    The yogurt starters Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus are well-known facultatively anaerobic bacteria that can grow in oxygenated environments. We found that they removed dissolved oxygen (DO) in a yogurt mix as the fermentation progressed and that they began to produce acid actively after the DO concentration in the yogurt mix was reduced to 0 mg/kg, suggesting that the DO retarded the production of acid. Yogurt fermentation was carried out at 43 or 37 degrees C both after the DO reduction treatment and without prior treatment. Nitrogen gas was mixed and dispersed into the yogurt mix after inoculation with yogurt starter culture to reduce the DO concentration in the yogurt mix. The treatment that reduced DO concentration in the yogurt mix to approximately 0 mg/kg beforehand caused the starter culture LB81 used in this study to enter into the exponential growth phase earlier. Furthermore, the combination of reduced DO concentration in the yogurt mix beforehand and incubation at a lower temperature (37 degrees C) resulted in a superior set yogurt with a smooth texture and strong curd structure.

  8. Influence of the pH on the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide under hydrothermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Bosch-Navarro, Concha; Coronado, Eugenio; Martí-Gastaldo, Carlos; Sánchez-Royo, J F; Gómez, Maribel Gómez

    2012-07-01

    Here we describe the important role played by the pH on the morphology and structure of the reduced graphite oxide (rGO) samples obtained by hydrothermal treatment of the previously prepared GO. The nature of the resulting samples has been studied on the basis of a complete battery of experimental techniques.

  9. Effect of sporulation conditions on the resistance of Bacillus subtilis spores to heat and high pressure.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Thi Minh, Hue; Durand, Alain; Loison, Pauline; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; Gervais, Patrick

    2011-05-01

    Bacillus subtilis(B. subtilis) cells were placed in various environmental conditions to study the effects of aeration, water activity of the medium, temperature, pH, and calcium content on spore formation and the resulting properties. Modification of the sporulation conditions lengthened the growth period of B. subtilis and its sporulation. In some cases, it reduced the final spore concentration. The sporulation conditions significantly affected the spore properties, including germination capacity and resistance to heat treatment in water (30 min at 97°C) or to high pressure (60 min at 350 MPa and 40°C). The relationship between the modifications of these spore properties and the change in the spore structure induced by different sporulation conditions is also considered. According to this study, sporulation conditions must be carefully taken into account during settling sterilization processes applied in the food industry.

  10. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate

  11. Thermophysical Properties Measurement of High-Temperature Liquids Under Microgravity Conditions in Controlled Atmospheric Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, Masahito; Ozawa, Shumpei; Mizuno, Akotoshi; Hibiya, Taketoshi; Kawauchi, Hiroya; Murai, Kentaro; Takahashi, Suguru

    2012-01-01

    Microgravity conditions have advantages of measurement of surface tension and viscosity of metallic liquids by the oscillating drop method with an electromagnetic levitation (EML) device. Thus, we are preparing the experiments of thermophysical properties measurements using the Materials-Science Laboratories ElectroMagnetic-Levitator (MSL-EML) facilities in the international Space station (ISS). Recently, it has been identified that dependence of surface tension on oxygen partial pressure (Po2) must be considered for industrial application of surface tension values. Effect of Po2 on surface tension would apparently change viscosity from the damping oscillation model. Therefore, surface tension and viscosity must be measured simultaneously in the same atmospheric conditions. Moreover, effect of the electromagnetic force (EMF) on the surface oscillations must be clarified to obtain the ideal surface oscillation because the EMF works as the external force on the oscillating liquid droplets, so extensive EMF makes apparently the viscosity values large. In our group, using the parabolic flight levitation experimental facilities (PFLEX) the effect of Po2 and external EMF on surface oscillation of levitated liquid droplets was systematically investigated for the precise measurements of surface tension and viscosity of high temperature liquids for future ISS experiments. We performed the observation of surface oscillations of levitated liquid alloys using PFLEX on board flight experiments by Gulfstream II (G-II) airplane operated by DAS. These observations were performed under the controlled Po2 and also under the suitable EMF conditions. In these experiments, we obtained the density, the viscosity and the surface tension values of liquid Cu. From these results, we discuss about as same as reported data, and also obtained the difference of surface oscillations with the change of the EMF conditions.

  12. Wooden breast condition results in reduced thaw loss in frozen-thawed broiler breast fillets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wooden breast condition (WBC) is an emerging quality issue with broiler breast meat that significantly affects both raw and cooked meat properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of WBC on meat water-holding capacity (WHC) estimated with different methods. Broiler breast ...

  13. Reduced Sensitivity to Minimum-Jerk Biological Motion in Autism Spectrum Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jennifer; Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Swain, Rachel; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2009-01-01

    We compared psychophysical thresholds for biological and non-biological motion detection in adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) and controls. Participants watched animations of a biological stimulus (a moving hand) or a non-biological stimulus (a falling tennis ball). The velocity profile of the movement was varied between 100% natural…

  14. Contribution of enrichments and resampling for sulfate reducing bacteria diversity assessment by high-throughput cultivation.

    PubMed

    Colin, Yannick; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Caumette, Pierre; Guyoneaud, Rémy

    2015-03-01

    The development of new high-throughput cultivation methods aims to increase the isolation efficiency as compared to standard techniques that often require enrichment procedures to compensate the low microbial recovery. In the current study, estuarine sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated using an anaerobic isolation procedure in 384-well microplates. Ninety-nine strains were recovered from initial sediments. Isolates were identified according to their partial 16S rRNA sequences and clustered into 13 phylotypes. Besides, the increase in species richness obtained through enrichments or resampling was investigated. Forty-four enrichment procedures were conducted and shifts in sulfate-reducing bacterial communities were investigated through dsrAB gene fingerprinting. Despite efforts in conducting numerous enrichment conditions only few of them were statistically different from initial sample. The cultural diversity obtained from 3 of the most divergent enrichments, as well as from resampled sediments equally contributed to raise the sulfate-reducing diversity up to 22 phylotypes. Enrichments (selection of metabolism) or resampling (transient populations and micro-heterogeneity) may still be helpful to assess new microbial phylotypes. Nevertheless, all the newly cultivated strains were all representatives of minor Operational Taxonomic Units and could eventually be recovered by maintaining high-throughput isolation effort from the initial sediments.

  15. Reduced graphene oxide with ultrahigh conductivity as carbon coating layer for high performance sulfur@reduced graphene oxide cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongbin; Peng, Zhenhuan; Wang, Wenjun; Chen, Xikun; Fang, Jianhui; Xu, Jiaqiang

    2014-01-01

    We developed hydrogen iodide (HI) reduction of rGO and surfactant-assisted chemical reaction- deposition method to form hybrid material of sulfur (S) encapsulated in reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets for rechargeable lithium batteries. The surfactant-assisted chemical reaction-deposition method strategy provides intimate contact between the S and graphene oxide. Chemical reduced rGO with high conductivity as carbon coating layer prevented the dissolution of polysulfide ions and improved the electron transfer. This novel core-shell structured S@rGO composites with high S content showed high reversible capacity, good discharge capacity retention and enhanced rate capability used as cathodes in rechargeable Li/S cells. We demonstrated here that an electrode prepared from a S@rGO with up to 85 wt% S maintains a stable discharge capacity of about 980 mAh g-1 at 0.05 C and 570 mAh g-1 at 1C after 200 cycles charge/discharge. These results emphasize the importance of rGO with high electrical conductivity after HI-reduced rGO homogeneously coating on the surface of S, therefore, effectively alleviating the shuttle phenomenon of polysulfides in organic electrolyte. Our surfactant-assisted chemical reaction-HI reduction approach should offer a new technique for the design and synthesis of battery electrodes based on highly conducting carbon materials.

  16. High pressure processing alters water distribution enabling the production of reduced-fat and reduced-salt pork sausages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huijuan; Han, Minyi; Bai, Yun; Han, Yanqing; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-04-01

    High pressure processing (HPP) was used to explore novel methods for modifying the textural properties of pork sausages with reduced-salt, reduced-fat and no fat replacement additions. A 2×7 factorial design was set up, incorporating two pressure levels (0.1 or 200 MPa) and seven fat levels (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%). Sausages treated at 200 MPa exhibited improved tenderness at all fat levels compared with 0.1 MPa treated samples, and the shear force of sausages treated at 200 MPa with 15 or 20% fat content was similar to the 0.1 MPa treated sausages with 30% fat. HPP significantly changed the P₂ peak ratio of the four water components in raw sausages, resulting in improved textural properties of emulsion-type sausages with reduced-fat and reduced-salt. Significant correlations were found between pH, color, shear force and water proportions. The scanning and transmission micrographs revealed the formation of smaller fat globules and an improved network structure in the pressure treated sausages. In conclusion, there is potential to manufacture sausages with reduced-fat and reduced-salt by using HPP to maintain textural qualities.

  17. High pressure processing alters water distribution enabling the production of reduced-fat and reduced-salt pork sausages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huijuan; Han, Minyi; Bai, Yun; Han, Yanqing; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-04-01

    High pressure processing (HPP) was used to explore novel methods for modifying the textural properties of pork sausages with reduced-salt, reduced-fat and no fat replacement additions. A 2×7 factorial design was set up, incorporating two pressure levels (0.1 or 200 MPa) and seven fat levels (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%). Sausages treated at 200 MPa exhibited improved tenderness at all fat levels compared with 0.1 MPa treated samples, and the shear force of sausages treated at 200 MPa with 15 or 20% fat content was similar to the 0.1 MPa treated sausages with 30% fat. HPP significantly changed the P₂ peak ratio of the four water components in raw sausages, resulting in improved textural properties of emulsion-type sausages with reduced-fat and reduced-salt. Significant correlations were found between pH, color, shear force and water proportions. The scanning and transmission micrographs revealed the formation of smaller fat globules and an improved network structure in the pressure treated sausages. In conclusion, there is potential to manufacture sausages with reduced-fat and reduced-salt by using HPP to maintain textural qualities. PMID:25553411

  18. High-pressure highly reduced nitrides and oxides from chromitite of a Tibetan ophiolite

    PubMed Central

    Dobrzhinetskaya, Larissa F.; Wirth, Richard; Yang, Jingsui; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Weber, Peter K.; Green, Harry W.

    2009-01-01

    The deepest rocks known from within Earth are fragments of normal mantle (≈400 km) and metamorphosed sediments (≈350 km), both found exhumed in continental collision terranes. Here, we report fragments of a highly reduced deep mantle environment from at least 300 km, perhaps very much more, extracted from chromite of a Tibetan ophiolite. The sample consists, in part, of diamond, coesite-after-stishovite, the high-pressure form of TiO2, native iron, high-pressure nitrides with a deep mantle isotopic signature, and associated SiC. This appears to be a natural example of the recently discovered disproportionation of Fe2+ at very high pressure and consequent low oxygen fugacity (fO2) in deep Earth. Encapsulation within chromitite enclosed within upwelling solid mantle rock appears to be the only vehicle capable of transporting these phases and preserving their low-fO2 environment at the very high temperatures of oceanic spreading centers. PMID:19880742

  19. Local charge transport properties of hydrazine reduced monolayer graphene oxide sheets prepared under pressure condition

    SciTech Connect

    Ryuzaki, Sou Meyer, Jakob A. S.; Petersen, Søren; Nørgaard, Kasper; Hassenkam, Tue; Laursen, Bo W.

    2014-09-01

    Charge transport properties of chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets prepared by treatment with hydrazine were examined using conductive atomic force microscopy. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of monolayer RGO sheets prepared under atmospheric pressure followed an exponentially increase due to 2D variable-range hopping conduction through small graphene domains in an RGO sheet containing defect regions of residual sp{sup 3} carbon clusters bonded to oxygen groups, whereas RGO sheets prepared in a closed container under moderate pressure showed linear I-V characteristics with a conductivity of 267.2−537.5 S/m. It was found that the chemical reduction under pressure results in larger graphene domains (sp{sup 2} networks) in the RGO sheets when compared to that prepared under atmospheric pressure, indicating that the present reduction of GO sheets under the pressure is one of the effective methods to make well-reduced GO sheets.

  20. Soot formation in diesel combustion under high-EGR conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Idicheria, Cherian A.; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2005-06-01

    Experiments were conducted in an optically accessible constant-volume combustion vessel to investigate soot formation at diesel combustion conditions - in a high exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) environment. The ambient oxygen concentration was decreased systematically from 21% to 8% to simulate a wide range of EGR conditions. Quantitative measurements of in-situ soot in quasi-steady n-heptane and No.2 diesel fuel jets were made by using laser extinction and planar laser-induced incandescence (PLII) measurements. Flame lift-off length measurements were also made in support of the soot measurements. At constant ambient temperature, results show that the equivalence ratio estimated at the lift-off length does not vary with the use of EGR, implying an equal amount of fuel-air mixing prior to combustion. Soot measurements show that the soot volume fraction decreases with increasing EGR. The regions of soot formation are effectively 'stretched out' to longer axial and radial distances from the injector with increasing EGR, according to the dilution in ambient oxygen. However, the axial soot distribution and location of maximum soot collapses if plotted in terms of a 'flame coordinate', where the relative fuel-oxygen mixture is equivalent. The total soot in the jet cross-section at the maximum axial soot location initially increases and then decreases to zero as the oxygen concentration decreases from 21% to 8%. The trend is caused by competition between soot formation rates and increasing residence time. Soot formation rates decrease with decreasing oxygen concentration because of the lower combustion temperatures. At the same time, the residence time for soot formation increases, allowing more time for accumulation of soot. Increasing the ambient temperature above nominal diesel engine conditions leads to a rapid increase in soot for high-EGR conditions when compared to conditions with no EGR. This result emphasizes the importance of EGR cooling and its beneficial

  1. Severe fludarabine neurotoxicity after reduced intensity conditioning regimen to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Annaloro, Claudio; Costa, Antonella; Fracchiolla, Nicola S; Mometto, Gabriella; Artuso, Silvia; Saporiti, Giorgia; Tagliaferri, Elena; Grifoni, Federica; Onida, Francesco; Cortelezzi, Agostino

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We present a case of severe, irreversible neurotoxicity in a 55-year-old-patient with myelofibrosis undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation following a reduced intensity conditioning including fludarabine. The patient developed progressive sensory-motor, visual and consciousness disturbances, eventually leading to death. MRI imaging pattern was unique and attributable to fludarabine neurotoxicity. PMID:26273463

  2. Early donor chimerism levels predict relapse and survival after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation with reduced intensity conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Reshef, Ran; Hexner, Elizabeth O.; Loren, Alison W.; Frey, Noelle V.; Stadtmauer, Edward A.; Luger, Selina M.; Mangan, James K.; Gill, Saar I.; Vassilev, Pavel; Lafferty, Kathryn A.; Smith, Jacqueline; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Mick, Rosemarie; Porter, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The success of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) is limited by a high rate of disease relapse. Early risk assessment could potentially improve outcomes by identifying appropriate patients for pre-emptive strategies that may ameliorate this high risk. Using a series of landmark analyses, we investigated the predictive value of early (day-30) donor chimerism measurements on disease relapse, graft-versus-host disease and survival in a cohort of 121 patients who were allografted with a uniform RIC regimen. Chimerism levels were analyzed as continuous variables. In multivariate analysis, day-30 whole blood chimerism levels were significantly associated with relapse (HR=0.90, p<0.001), relapse-free survival (HR=0.89, p<0.001) and overall survival (HR=0.94, p=0.01). Day-30 T-cell chimerism levels were also significantly associated with relapse (HR=0.97, p=0.002), relapse-free survival (HR=0.97, p<0.001) and overall survival (HR=0.99, p=0.05). Multivariate models that included T-cell chimerism provided a better prediction for these outcomes compared to whole blood chimerism. Day-30 chimerism levels were not associated with acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease. We found that high donor chimerism levels were significantly associated with a low lymphocyte count in the recipient prior to transplant, highlighting the impact of pre-transplant lymphopenia on the kinetics of engraftment after RIC HSCT. In summary, low donor chimerism levels are associated with relapse and mortality and can potentially be used as an early predictive and prognostic marker. These findings can be used to design novel approaches to prevent relapse and to improve survival after RIC HSCT. PMID:25016197

  3. Small Scale Trace Contaminant Testing of SA9T at Ambient and Reduced Pressure Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broerman, Craig; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    A principle concern for air revitalization technology in a closed loop system is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O). An amine based sorbent technology, SA9T, has long been evaluated for use in this application and several programs are evaluating it for use in both a cabin as well as space suit applications. While the CO2 and H2O performance of the sorbent has been tested extensively, the question of how trace contaminants impact performance requires further evaluation. This paper presents experimental results of small scale SA9T testing that was performed over a variety of test conditions and with a variety of trace contaminants. Testing evaluated the ability of SA9T media to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O after exposure to a fully saturated trace contaminant at ambient conditions. Testing also evaluated the impact of CO2 and H2O removal performance at suit loop pressures during cyclic operation with a constant inlet contaminant load. In addition, testing evaluated the performance of SA9T at ambient conditions in a continuous 30-day test with a mixed trace contaminant stream.

  4. Bench-Scale Trace Contaminant Testing of SA9T at Ambient and Reduced Pressure Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broerman, Craig; Sweterlitsch, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    A principal concern for air revitalization technology in a closed loop system is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O). An amine based sorbent technology, SA9T, has been evaluated for use in this application and several programs are evaluating it for use in both cabin and space suit applications. While the CO2 and H2O performance of the sorbent has been tested extensively, the question of how trace contaminants impact performance requires further evaluation. This paper presents experimental results of bench-scale SA9T testing that was performed under a variety of test conditions and with several different trace contaminants. Tests were conducted to determine if the capacity of the SA9T media to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O is compromised after exposure to a fully saturated trace contaminant at ambient conditions. Tests also were conducted to evaluate the performance of SA9T at ambient conditions in a continuous 30-day test with a mixed trace contaminant stream. In addition, testing also evaluated the impact of CO2 and H2O removal performance at suit loop pressures (29.6 KPa/4.3 psia) during cyclic operation with a constant inlet contaminant load.

  5. Development of High Speed Inverter Rotary Compressor for the Air-conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Seoung-Min; Yang, Eun-soo; Shin, Jin-Ung; Park, Joon-Hong; Lee, Se-Dong; Ha, Jong-Hun; Son, Young-Boo; Lee, Byeong-Chul

    2015-08-01

    In order to meet the various operating loads of an air-conditioning system, an inverter compressor with a wide operational range is necessary. One of the ways to achieve a wide operation range is to drive a small capacity compressor at high speed. Moreover, it is possible to maximize the efficiency in part-load operation condition close to actual operating conditions and to reduce the cost by compact design of a small capacity compressor. In addition, the shortage of maximum capacity, due to the small rated capacity, is covered through high speed operation. However, in general, if the compressor operates at high speed, problems occurs such as reduced efficiency due to friction, increased noise, increased amount of oil discharge and decreased durability of the main components. In order to solve these problems the following have been investigated: optimized dimension parameters of the compression chamber, enhanced shaft design and the structure for the reduction of oil discharge and noise at high speed operation. Finally the high speed inverter rotary compressor with high efficiency and more compact size has been developed as compared with the conventional rotary compressor.

  6. ATM gene single nucleotide polymorphisms predict regimen-related gastrointestinal toxicity in patients allografted after reduced conditioning.

    PubMed

    Kuba, Adam; Raida, Ludek; Mrazek, Frantisek; Schneiderova, Petra; Kriegova, Eva; Furst, Tomas; Furstova, Jana; Faber, Edgar; Ambruzova, Zuzana; Papajik, Tomas

    2015-06-01

    Polymorphisms of genes involved in innate and adaptive immunity have become an object of major interest in regard to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) complications. Regimen-related gastrointestinal toxicity (RR-GIT) is the dominant complication during the pre-engraftment period and has been linked to increased risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) development. According to our hypothesis, functional variants of genes participating in DNA damage response (DDR) may have an impact on the extent of tissue damage caused by the conditioning regimen. In our single-center study, we analyzed 62 patients who underwent HSCT from HLA-identical donors after reduced conditioning. The patients were genotyped for 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs4585 T/G, rs189037 A/G, rs227092 T/G, rs228590 C/T, and rs664677 T/C) of the ATM gene-the essential member of the DDR pathways, using allele-specific matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry assay. Because of almost absolute linkage disequilibrium observed among all 5 SNPs, association of 2 major ATM haplotypes (ATM1/ATM2) with RR-GIT and acute GVHD (aGVHD) was analyzed. Importantly, the univariate and multivariate analysis showed that patients homozygous for ATM2 haplotype (rs4585*T, rs189037*A, rs227092*T, rs228590*C, and rs664677*T) are more likely to suffer from high-grade RR-GIT than ATM1 homozygous patients. The association with aGVHD was not significant. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the ATM gene variability in relation to RR-GIT in the allogeneic HSCT setting.

  7. Final Report Construction of Whole Genome Microarrays, and Expression Analysis of Desulfovibrio vulgaris cells in Metal-Reducing Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    M.W. Fields; J.D. Wall; J. Keasling; J. Zhou

    2008-05-15

    We continue to utilize the oligonucleotide microarrays that were constructed through funding with this project to characterize growth responses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris relevant to metal-reducing conditions. To effectively immobilize heavy metals and radionuclides via sulfate-reduction, it is important to understand the cellular responses to adverse factors observed at contaminated subsurface environments (e.g., nutrients, pH, contaminants, growth requirements and products). One of the major goals of the project is to construct whole-genome microarrays for Desulfovibrio vulgaris. First, in order to experimentally establish the criteria for designing gene-specific oligonucleotide probes, an oligonucleotide array was constructed that contained perfect match (PM) and mismatch (MM) probes (50mers and 70mers) based upon 4 genes. The effects of probe-target identity, continuous stretch, mismatch position, and hybridization free energy on specificity were examined. Little hybridization was observed at a probe-target identity of <85% for both 50mer and 70mer probes. 33 to 48% of the PM signal intensities were detected at a probe-target identity of 94% for 50mer oligonucleotides, and 43 to 55% for 70mer probes at a probe-target identity of 96%. When the effects of sequence identity and continuous stretch were considered independently, a stretch probe (>15 bases) contributed an additional 9% of the PM signal intensity compared to a non-stretch probe (< 15 bases) at the same identity level. Cross-hybridization increased as the length of continuous stretch increased. A 35-base stretch for 50mer probes or a 50-base stretch for 70mer probes had approximately 55% of the PM signal. Mismatches should be as close to the middle position of an oligonucleotide probe as possible to minimize cross-hybridization. Little cross-hybridization was observed for probes with a minimal binding free energy greater than -30 kcal/mol for 50mer probes or -40 kcal/mol for 70mer probes. Based on the

  8. Mackinawite (FeS) reduces mercury(II) under sulfidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Bone, Sharon E; Bargar, John R; Sposito, Garrison

    2014-09-16

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxicant of global concern that accumulates in organisms as methyl Hg. The production of methyl Hg by anaerobic bacteria may be limited in anoxic sediments by the sequestration of divalent Hg [Hg(II)] into a solid phase or by the formation of elemental Hg [Hg(0)]. We tested the hypothesis that nanocrystalline mackinawite (tetragonal FeS), which is abundant in sediments where Hg is methylated, both sorbs and reduces Hg(II). Mackinawite suspensions were equilibrated with dissolved Hg(II) in batch reactors. Examination of the solid phase using Hg LIII-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy showed that Hg(II) was indeed reduced in FeS suspensions. Measurement of purgeable Hg using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS) from FeS suspensions and control solutions corroborated the production of Hg(0) that was observed spectroscopically. However, a fraction of the Hg(II) initially added to the suspensions remained in the divalent state, likely in the form of β-HgS-like clusters associated with the FeS surface or as a mixture of β-HgS and surface-associated species. Complexation by dissolved S(-II) in anoxic sediments hinders Hg(0) formation, but, by contrast, Hg(II)-S(-II) species are reduced in the presence of mackinawite, producing Hg(0) after only 1 h of reaction time. The results of our work support the idea that Hg(0) accounts for a significant fraction of the total Hg in wetland and estuarine sediments.

  9. Mackinawite (FeS) Reduces Mercury(II) under Sulfidic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxicant of global concern that accumulates in organisms as methyl Hg. The production of methyl Hg by anaerobic bacteria may be limited in anoxic sediments by the sequestration of divalent Hg [Hg(II)] into a solid phase or by the formation of elemental Hg [Hg(0)]. We tested the hypothesis that nanocrystalline mackinawite (tetragonal FeS), which is abundant in sediments where Hg is methylated, both sorbs and reduces Hg(II). Mackinawite suspensions were equilibrated with dissolved Hg(II) in batch reactors. Examination of the solid phase using Hg LIII-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy showed that Hg(II) was indeed reduced in FeS suspensions. Measurement of purgeable Hg using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS) from FeS suspensions and control solutions corroborated the production of Hg(0) that was observed spectroscopically. However, a fraction of the Hg(II) initially added to the suspensions remained in the divalent state, likely in the form of β-HgS-like clusters associated with the FeS surface or as a mixture of β-HgS and surface-associated species. Complexation by dissolved S(-II) in anoxic sediments hinders Hg(0) formation, but, by contrast, Hg(II)–S(-II) species are reduced in the presence of mackinawite, producing Hg(0) after only 1 h of reaction time. The results of our work support the idea that Hg(0) accounts for a significant fraction of the total Hg in wetland and estuarine sediments. PMID:25180562

  10. Effect of the conditions of sintering of sodium-reduced tantalum powders on their characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorova, T. Yu.; Orlov, V. M.; Miroshnichenko, M. N.; Kolosov, V. N.

    2014-07-01

    The effect of the granulation and heat treatment of sodium-reduced tantalum powders with a specific surface area of 2.5-3.6 m2/g on the bulk density, the powder flow time, and the specific surface area of the powders and the specific capacitance of the anodes made of them is studied. It is shown that heat treatment of a granulated powder in vacuum at 1100°C or in a mixture with magnesium at 800°C makes it possible to achieve the required powder flow time.

  11. Impact of iron-reducing bacteria on the corrosion rate of carbon steel under simulated geological disposal conditions.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Marta K; Schlegel, Michel L; Libert, Marie; Bildstein, Olivier

    2015-06-16

    The current projects for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste rely on underground burial and confinement by metallic envelopes that are susceptible to corrosion processes. The impact of microbial activity must be fully clarified in order to provide biological parameters for predictive reactive transport models. This study investigates the impact of hydrogenotrophic iron-reducing bacteria (Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1) on the corrosion rate of carbon steel under simulated geological disposal conditions by using a geochemical approach. It was found that corrosion damage changes mostly according to the experimental solution (i.e., chemical composition). Magnetite and vivianite were identified as the main corrosion products. In the presence of bacteria, the corrosion rate increased by a factor of 1.3 (according to weight loss analysis) to 1.8 (according to H2 measurements), and the detected amount of magnetite diminished. The mechanism likely to enhance corrosion is the destabilization and dissolution of the passivating magnetite layer by reduction of structural Fe(III) coupled to H2 oxidation.

  12. Biologically-Induced Precipitation of Minerals in a Medium with Zinc Under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Wolicka, Dorota; Borkowski, Andrzej; Jankiewicz, Urszula; Stępień, Wojciech; Kowalczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing microbial communities were enriched from soils collected in areas with crude-oil exploitation. Cultures were grown in modified Postgate C medium and minimal medium, with ethanol or lactate as an electron donor. The batch cultures were grown with addition of zinc in concentrations of 100-700 mg/l. A lack of increased protein concentration in the solutions compared with the control batch, was noted in cultures containing over 200 mg Zn2+/l. The 16S rRNA method was applied to determine the specific composition of the selected microorganism communities. The analysis indicated the presence of Desulfovibrio spp., Desulfobulbus spp. and Desulfotomaculum spp. in the communities. Diffractometric analysis indicated the presence of biogenic sphalerite in cultures with 100 and 200 mg Zn2+/l and elemental sulfur in cultures with 200 mg Zn2+/l. Other post culture sediments (300-700 mg Zn2+/l) contained only hopeite [Zn3(PO4)2·4H2O] formed abiotically during the experiment, which was confirmed by studies of the activity of sulfate-reducing microbial communities. PMID:26373175

  13. Biologically-Induced Precipitation of Minerals in a Medium with Zinc Under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Wolicka, Dorota; Borkowski, Andrzej; Jankiewicz, Urszula; Stępień, Wojciech; Kowalczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing microbial communities were enriched from soils collected in areas with crude-oil exploitation. Cultures were grown in modified Postgate C medium and minimal medium, with ethanol or lactate as an electron donor. The batch cultures were grown with addition of zinc in concentrations of 100-700 mg/l. A lack of increased protein concentration in the solutions compared with the control batch, was noted in cultures containing over 200 mg Zn2+/l. The 16S rRNA method was applied to determine the specific composition of the selected microorganism communities. The analysis indicated the presence of Desulfovibrio spp., Desulfobulbus spp. and Desulfotomaculum spp. in the communities. Diffractometric analysis indicated the presence of biogenic sphalerite in cultures with 100 and 200 mg Zn2+/l and elemental sulfur in cultures with 200 mg Zn2+/l. Other post culture sediments (300-700 mg Zn2+/l) contained only hopeite [Zn3(PO4)2·4H2O] formed abiotically during the experiment, which was confirmed by studies of the activity of sulfate-reducing microbial communities.

  14. Surface tension measurements of coal ash slags under reducing conditions at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Tobias Melchior; Gunther Putz; Michael Mueller

    2009-09-15

    The global demand for reduced CO{sub 2} emission from power plants can be answered by coal gasification techniques. To develop integrated gasification combined cycles that incorporate hot syngas cleaning facilities, detailed knowledge of the thermophysical properties of coal ashes is imperative. Currently, the surface tension of liquid coal ash slags in a reducing environment was studied by means of the sessile drop method. Three different algorithms were employed to analyze the acquired drop images. The slags under consideration were obtained from black and brown coals as well as from an experimental gasification reactor. Typically, a sharp surface tension decrease with temperature was found in the melting interval of the ashes. This was followed by a temperature range of smooth drop contours during which a slight rise of the surface tension could mostly be observed. Bubbles at the circumference of the drops started to appear when approaching the measurement temperature limit of 1550{sup o}C. With regard to the temperature regime of uncorrugated drop profiles, coal ash slags exhibited surface tension values between 400 and 700 mN/m. 32 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Higher Dose of Mycophenolate Mofetil Reduces Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Reduced Intensity Conditioning Double Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bejanyan, Nelli; Rogosheske, John; DeFor, Todd; Lazaryan, Aleksandr; Esbaum, Kelli; Holtan, Shernan; Arora, Mukta; MacMillan, Margaret L.; Weisdorf, Daniel; Jacobson, Pamala; Wagner, John; Brunstein, Claudio G.

    2016-01-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is frequently used in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis and to facilitate engraftment. We previously reported that a higher level of mycophenolic acid can be achieved with an MMF dose of 3 g/day as compared to 2g/day. Here, we retrospectively compared clinical outcomes of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) double umbilical cord blood (dUCB) HCT recipients receiving cyclosporine A with MMF 2g (n=93) vs. 3g (n=175) daily. Multiple regression analysis adjusted for ATG in the conditioning revealed that MMF 3g/day led to a 49% relative risk reduction in grade II–IV acute GVHD rate (RR=0.51, 95%CI 0.36–0.72; p<0.01). However, the higher MMF dose was not protective for chronic GVHD. Additionally, MMF dose was not an independent predictor of neutrophil engraftment, treatment-related mortality at 6 months, or 2-year post-transplant disease relapse, disease-free survival, or overall survival. Higher MMF dose did not increase risk of infectious complications and infection-related mortality was similar for both MMF doses. Our data indicate that MMF 3g/day reduces the risk of acute GVHD without affecting other clinical outcomes and should be used for GVHD prophylaxis after RIC dUCBT. PMID:25655791

  16. Bubble Stripping as a Tool To Reduce High Dissolved CO2 in Coastal Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Koweek, David A; Mucciarone, David A; Dunbar, Robert B

    2016-04-01

    High dissolved CO2 concentrations in coastal ecosystems are a common occurrence due to a combination of large ecosystem metabolism, shallow water, and long residence times. Many important coastal species may have adapted to this natural variability over time, but eutrophication and ocean acidification may be perturbing the water chemistry beyond the bounds of tolerance for these organisms. We are currently limited in our ability to deal with the geochemical changes unfolding in our coastal ocean. This study helps to address this deficit of solutions by introducing bubble stripping as a novel geochemical engineering approach to reducing high CO2 in coastal marine ecosystems. We use a process-based model to find that air/sea gas exchange rates within a bubbled system are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than within a nonbubbled system. By coupling bubbling-enhanced ventilation to a coastal ecosystem metabolism model, we demonstrate that strategically timed bubble plumes can mitigate exposure to high CO2 under present-day conditions and that exposure mitigation is enhanced in the more acidic conditions predicted by the end of the century. We argue that shallow water CO2 bubble stripping should be considered among the growing list of engineering approaches intended to increase coastal resilience in a changing ocean.

  17. The critical flux method for reduced filter membrane fouling when monitoring high-solids digesters.

    PubMed

    Tait, Stephan; Carney, Christopher R; Batstone, Damien J

    2013-01-01

    Membrane fouling currently makes filtration of high-solids anaerobic sludges difficult and this is discouraging online monitoring of volatile fatty acids and control of high-solids digesters. The present study tests the critical flux approach to reduce membrane fouling. Filtration tests are performed on two sludges, filtered via a side-stream off two full-scale digesters. Sub-critical flux operating conditions (for minimal cake layer formation) are identified for each of the sludges and the filtration units are operated at these conditions to assess longer term performance. Results for one of the sludges (co-digested primary and secondary sludge) is found to be encouraging, showing that sufficient flux rates (up to 40 L m(-2) h(-1)) can be readily sustained to allow longer term digester monitoring and control. Filtration performance for this sludge did not deteriorate significantly over the test period. Results for the other test sludge (digested thermally hydrolyzed waste activated sludge) were not as favorable and indicated that application may be limited for very high solids digesters (>5% total solids concentration). Differences in filtration behavior for the two test sludges were ascribed to the presence of complex soluble organics, the concentration of sludge solids and their particle size.

  18. Bubble Stripping as a Tool To Reduce High Dissolved CO2 in Coastal Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Koweek, David A; Mucciarone, David A; Dunbar, Robert B

    2016-04-01

    High dissolved CO2 concentrations in coastal ecosystems are a common occurrence due to a combination of large ecosystem metabolism, shallow water, and long residence times. Many important coastal species may have adapted to this natural variability over time, but eutrophication and ocean acidification may be perturbing the water chemistry beyond the bounds of tolerance for these organisms. We are currently limited in our ability to deal with the geochemical changes unfolding in our coastal ocean. This study helps to address this deficit of solutions by introducing bubble stripping as a novel geochemical engineering approach to reducing high CO2 in coastal marine ecosystems. We use a process-based model to find that air/sea gas exchange rates within a bubbled system are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than within a nonbubbled system. By coupling bubbling-enhanced ventilation to a coastal ecosystem metabolism model, we demonstrate that strategically timed bubble plumes can mitigate exposure to high CO2 under present-day conditions and that exposure mitigation is enhanced in the more acidic conditions predicted by the end of the century. We argue that shallow water CO2 bubble stripping should be considered among the growing list of engineering approaches intended to increase coastal resilience in a changing ocean. PMID:26988138

  19. Bidirectional microbial electron transfer: Switching an acetate oxidizing biofilm to nitrate reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Pous, Narcís; Carmona-Martínez, Alessandro A; Vilajeliu-Pons, Anna; Fiset, Erika; Bañeras, Lluis; Trably, Eric; Balaguer, M Dolors; Colprim, Jesús; Bernet, Nicolas; Puig, Sebastià

    2016-01-15

    Up to date a few electroactive bacteria embedded in biofilms are described to catalyze both anodic and cathodic reactions in bioelectrochemical systems (i.e. bidirectional electron transfer). How these bacteria transfer electrons to or from the electrode is still uncertain. In this study the extracellular electron transfer mechanism of bacteria within an electroactive biofilm was investigated by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). First, a mature anodic electroactive biofilm was developed from an activated sludge sample (inoculum), acetate as electron donor and a poised electrode (+397mV vs. SHE). Later, this biofilm was "switched" to biocathodic conditions by feeding it with a medium containing nitrates and poising the electrode at -303mV vs. SHE. The electrochemical characterization indicated that both, acetate oxidation and nitrate reduction took place at a similar formal potential of -175±05 and -175±34mV vs. SHE, respectively. The biofilm was predominantly composed by Geobacter sp. at both experimental conditions. Taken together, the results indicated that both processes could be catalyzed by using the same electron conduit, and most likely by the same bacterial consortium. Hence, this study suggests that electroactive bacteria within biofilms could use the same electron transfer conduit for catalyzing anodic and cathodic reactions.

  20. Green synthesis of highly reduced graphene oxide by compressed hydrogen gas towards energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng Chao; Yu, Hong; Yan, Qingyu; Hng, Huey Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we present a new strategy for the mass production of high-quality reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with a surface area of 354 m2 g-1 using high pressure hydrogen as a reducing agent under hydrothermal conditions. The high pressure used is solely generated from the packing of the gas cylinder itself and a pressure meter could simply fulfil the role of monitoring pressure. The reduction process is green without chemical wastes produced. Comparing to other reported methods, the significant advancements of our strategy lie not only in the high-quality RGO with high C/O ratio, conductivity and surface area, but also in the most environment-friendliness and cost-effectiveness, which make the large scale fabrication feasible. Moreover, clean noble metal nanocrystals such as Pt could be easily in situ deposited onto the surface of RGO nanosheets when noble metal salts are introduced into the system. In particular, the prepared RGO and Pt/RGO show exceptional electrochemical performances in supercapacitors and lithium oxygen batteries because of their clean electrochemical surface, good conductivity and large surface area. Our results reveal that the obtained RGO have a specific capacitance of 884.4 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1, and the Pt/RGO electrode can deliver discharge-charge capacities of 1000 mAh g-1 for 40 cycles with a high round-trip efficiencies of 74.9% at 50 mA g-1 when used as Li-O2 battery electrodes.

  1. Experimental Study on the pH of Pore water in Compacted Bentonite under Reducing Conditions with Electromigration

    SciTech Connect

    Nessa, S.A.; Idemitsu, K.; Yamazaki, S.; Ikeuchi, H.; Inagaki, Y.; Arima, T.

    2008-07-01

    Compacted bentonite and carbon steel are considered a good buffer and over-pack materials in the repositories of high-level radioactive waste disposal. Sodium bentonite, Kunipia-F contains approximately 95 wt% of montmorillonite. Bentonites prominent properties of high swelling, sealing ability and cation exchange capacity provide retardation against the transport of radionuclides from the waste into the surrounding rocks in the repository and its properties determine the behavior of bentonite. In this regards, the pH of pore water in compacted bentonite is measured with pH test paper wrapped with semi-permeable membrane of collodion sheet under reducing conditions. On 30 days, the pH test paper in the experimental apparatus indicated that the pH of pore water in compacted bentonite is around 8.0 at saturated state. The carbon steel coupon is connected as the working electrode to the potentiostat and is held at a constant supplied potential between +300 and -300 mV vs. Ag/AgCl electrode for up to 7 days. During applying electromigration the pH of pore water in bentonite decreased and it reached 6.0{approx}6.0 on 7 days. The concentration of iron and sodium showed nearly complementary distribution in the bentonite specimen after electromigration. It is expected that iron could migrate as ferrous ion through the interlayer of montmorillonite replacing exchangeable sodium ions in the interlayer. Semi-permeable membrane of collodion sheet does not affect the color change of pH test paper during the experiment. (authors)

  2. Reducing Conservatism in Aircraft Engine Response Using Conditionally Active Min-Max Limit Regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Current aircraft engine control logic uses a Min-Max control selection structure to prevent the engine from exceeding any safety or operational limits during transients due to throttle commands. This structure is inherently conservative and produces transient responses that are slower than necessary. In order to utilize the existing safety margins more effectively, a modification to this architecture is proposed, referred to as a Conditionally Active (CA) limit regulator. This concept uses the existing Min-Max architecture with the modification that limit regulators are active only when the operating point is close to a particular limit. This paper explores the use of CA limit regulators using a publicly available commercial aircraft engine simulation. The improvement in thrust response while maintaining all necessary safety limits is demonstrated in a number of cases.

  3. System and method of providing quick thermal comfort with reduced energy by using directed spot conditioning

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Mingyu; Kadle, Prasad S.; Ghosh, Debashis; Zima, Mark J.; Wolfe, IV, Edward; Craig, Timothy D

    2016-10-04

    A heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system and a method of controlling a HVAC system that is configured to provide a perceived comfortable ambient environment to an occupant seated in a vehicle cabin. The system includes a nozzle configured to direct an air stream from the HVAC system to the location of a thermally sensitive portion of the body of the occupant. The system also includes a controller configured to determine an air stream temperature and an air stream flow rate necessary to establish the desired heat supply rate for the sensitive portion and provide a comfortable thermal environment by thermally isolating the occupant from the ambient vehicle cabin temperature. The system may include a sensor to determine the location of the sensitive portion. The nozzle may include a thermoelectric device to heat or cool the air stream.

  4. Optimal conditions for tissue perforation using high intensity focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Kihara, Taizo; Ogawa, Kouji; Tanabe, Ryoko; Yosizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro; Kakimoto, Takashi; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Chiba, Toshio

    2012-10-01

    To perforate tissue lying deep part in body, a large size transducer was assembled by combining four spherical-shaped transducers, and the optimal conditions for tissue perforation have studied using ventricle muscle of chicken as a target. The ex vivo experiments showed that ventricle muscle was successfully perforated both when it was exposed to High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) directly and when it was exposed to HIFU through atrial muscle layer. Moreover, it was shown that calculated acoustic power distributions are well similar to the perforation patterns, and that the acoustic energy distributes very complexly near the focus. Lastly, perforation on the living rabbit bladder wall was demonstrated as a preliminary in vivo experiment.

  5. CONDITIONED ANALYSIS OF HIGH-LATITUDE SOLAR WIND INTERMITTENCY

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amicis, R.; Consolini, G.; Bavassano, B.; Bruno, R.

    2012-08-10

    The solar wind is a turbulent medium displaying intermittency. Its intermittent features have been widely documented and studied, showing how the intermittent character is different in fast and slow wind. In this paper, a statistical conditioned analysis of the solar wind intermittency for a period of high-latitude fast solar wind is presented. In particular, the intermittent features are investigated as a function of the Alfvenic degree of fluctuations at a given scale. The results show that the main contribution to solar wind intermittency is due to non-Alfvenic structures, while Alfvenic increments are found to be characterized by a smaller level of intermittency than the previous ones. Furthermore, the lifetime statistics of Alfvenic periods are discussed in terms of a multiscale texture of randomly oriented flux tubes.

  6. Conditional Sox9 ablation reduces chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan levels and improves motor function following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    McKillop, William M; Dragan, Magdalena; Schedl, Andreas; Brown, Arthur

    2013-02-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) found in perineuronal nets and in the glial scar after spinal cord injury have been shown to inhibit axonal growth and plasticity. Since we have previously identified SOX9 as a transcription factor that upregulates the expression of a battery of genes associated with glial scar formation in primary astrocyte cultures, we predicted that conditional Sox9 ablation would result in reduced CSPG expression after spinal cord injury and that this would lead to increased neuroplasticity and improved locomotor recovery. Control and Sox9 conditional knock-out mice were subject to a 70 kdyne contusion spinal cord injury at thoracic level 9. One week after injury, Sox9 conditional knock-out mice expressed reduced levels of CSPG biosynthetic enzymes (Xt-1 and C4st), CSPG core proteins (brevican, neurocan, and aggrecan), collagens 2a1 and 4a1, and Gfap, a marker of astrocyte activation, in the injured spinal cord compared with controls. These changes in gene expression were accompanied by improved hind limb function and locomotor recovery as evaluated by the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) and rodent activity boxes. Histological assessments confirmed reduced CSPG deposition and collagenous scarring at the lesion of Sox9 conditional knock-out mice, and demonstrated increased neurofilament-positive fibers in the lesion penumbra and increased serotonin immunoreactivity caudal to the site of injury. These results suggest that SOX9 inhibition is a potential strategy for the treatment of SCI. PMID:23027386

  7. Low Magnitude, High Frequency Signals Could Reduce Bone Loss During Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkey, A.

    The removal of gravitational loading results in a loss of homeostasis of the skeleton. This leads to significant losses of bone mass during long-duration missions in space. Conventional exercise countermeasures, such as running and resistance training, have only limited effectiveness in reducing the rate at which bone is demineralised in microgravity. Bone loss, therefore, remains a major concern and if not annulled could be so severe as to jeopardise an extended human presence in space. In addition, current exercise regimes occupy valuable crew time, and astronauts often find the equipment cumbersome and uncomfortable to use. Recent studies suggest that exposing the body to short periods (<20mins) of low magnitude (<1g), high frequency (15-35Hz) signals (vibration) everyday could reduce, even prevent, bone loss during conditions such as osteoporo- sis on earth. The new vibration therapy treatment could also have several advantages over existing exercise countermeasures used in spaceflight due to it being very simple to operate, relatively inexpensive, and requiring only short periods of time `training', unlike the complicated, expensive and time-consuming devices currently used. This review highlights the detrimen- tal effects that microgravity has on the strength and integrity of bone, how current countermeasures are ineffective at stemming this level of deterioration, and how new vibration techniques could significantly reduce space-induced bone loss.

  8. PROBING THE PHYSICAL CONDITIONS OF ATOMIC GAS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Neeleman, Marcel; Wolfe, Arthur M.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2015-02-10

    A new method is used to measure the physical conditions of the gas in damped Lyα systems (DLAs). Using high-resolution absorption spectra of a sample of 80 DLAs, we are able to measure the ratio of the upper and lower fine-structure levels of the ground state of C{sup +} and Si{sup +}. These ratios are determined solely by the physical conditions of the gas. We explore the allowed physical parameter space using a Monte Carlo Markov chain method to constrain simultaneously the temperature, neutral hydrogen density, and electron density of each DLA. The results indicate that at least 5% of all DLAs have the bulk of their gas in a dense, cold phase with typical densities of ∼100 cm{sup –3} and temperatures below 500 K. We further find that the typical pressure of DLAs in our sample is log (P/k{sub B} ) = 3.4 (K cm{sup –3}), which is comparable to the pressure of the local interstellar medium (ISM), and that the components containing the bulk of the neutral gas can be quite small with absorption sizes as small as a few parsecs. We show that the majority of the systems are consistent with having densities significantly higher than expected for a purely canonical warm neutral medium, indicating that significant quantities of dense gas (i.e., n {sub H} > 0.1 cm{sup –3}) are required to match observations. Finally, we identify eight systems with positive detections of Si II*. These systems have pressures (P/k{sub B} ) in excess of 20,000 K cm{sup –3}, which suggest that these systems tag a highly turbulent ISM in young, star-forming galaxies.

  9. Reduced-mode (REM) diodes enable high brightness fiber-coupled modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanskar, M.; Bao, L.; Chen, Z.; Dawson, D.; DeVito, M.; Dong, W.; Grimshaw, M.; Guan, X.; Hemenway, M.; Kennedy, K.; Martinsen, R.; Urbanek, W.; Zhang, S.

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing demand for high-power, high-brightness diode lasers from 8xx nm to 9xx nm for applications such as fiber laser pumping, materials processing, solid-state laser pumping, and consumer electronics manufacturing. The kilowatt CW fiber laser pumping (915 nm - 976 nm), in particular, requires the diode lasers to have both high power and high brightness in order to achieve high-performance and reduced manufacturing costs. This paper presents continued progress in the development of high brightness fiber-coupled product platform, elementTM. Further brightness improvement and power-scaling have been enabled by both the rise in chip brightness as well as the increase in number of chips used to couple into a given numerical aperture. We have developed a new generation of high power broad area laser known as reduced-mode diode (REM-diode) which suppresses many of the higher order modes in the slow axis and reduces divergence up to two times at the same operating conditions. To date, we have achieved slow-axis brightness as high as 4.3 W/mm-mrad for devices with thermal resistance of ~2.5 C/W. As a result, we have achieved >75 watts from a 1×6 elementTMin the 9xx nm spectral range; and 177 watts of peak power from a 2×6 elementTM. We have also improved our optics for fiber-coupling which accommodates 7 emitters per polarization in the same numerical aperture. Using this configuration, we project 200 watts of peak power from a 2×7 elementTM with a reliable product at 176 W of power from 105 μm and 0.15 NA fiber. REM-diodes can also be wavelength stabilized using VBGs. The reliability of REM-diodes are equal or better than broad area lasers (BALs). We present current status on ongoing reliability assessment of chip-on-submount.

  10. Conditional abrogation of Atm in osteoclasts extends osteoclast lifespan and results in reduced bone mass

    PubMed Central

    Hirozane, Toru; Tohmonda, Takahide; Yoda, Masaki; Shimoda, Masayuki; Kanai, Yae; Matsumoto, Morio; Morioka, Hideo; Nakamura, Masaya; Horiuchi, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase is a central component involved in the signal transduction of the DNA damage response (DDR) and thus plays a critical role in the maintenance of genomic integrity. Although the primary functions of ATM are associated with the DDR, emerging data suggest that ATM has many additional roles that are not directly related to the DDR, including the regulation of oxidative stress signaling, insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial homeostasis, and lymphocyte development. Patients and mice lacking ATM exhibit growth retardation and lower bone mass; however, the mechanisms underlying the skeletal defects are not fully understood. In the present study, we generated mutant mice in which ATM is specifically inactivated in osteoclasts. The mutant mice did not exhibit apparent developmental defects but showed reduced bone mass due to increased osteoclastic bone resorption. Osteoclasts lacking ATM were more resistant to apoptosis and showed a prolonged lifespan compared to the controls. Notably, the inactivation of ATM in osteoclasts resulted in enhanced NF-κB signaling and an increase in the expression of NF-κB-targeted genes. The present study reveals a novel function for ATM in regulating bone metabolism by suppressing the lifespan of osteoclasts and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. PMID:27677594

  11. Anaerobic biodegradation of long-chain n-alkanes under sulfate-reducing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, M.E.; Suflita, J.M.; Garrett, R.M.; Prince, R.C.

    1998-07-15

    The ability of anaerobic microorganisms to degrade a wide variety of crude oil components was investigated using chronically hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediments as the source of inoculum. When sulfate reduction was the predominant electron-accepting process, gas chromatographic analysis revealed almost complete n-alkane removal (C{sub 15}-C{sub 34}) from a weathered oil within 201 d of incubation. No alteration of the oil was detected in sterile control incubations or when nitrate served as an alternate electron acceptor. The amount of sulfate reduced in the oil-amended nonsterile incubations was more than enough to account for the complete mineralization of the n-alkane fraction of the oil; no loss of this anion was observed in sterile control incubations. The mineralization of the alkanes was confirmed using {sup 14}C-14,15-octacosane (C{sub 28}H{sub 58}), with 97% of the radioactivity recovered as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. These findings extend the range of hydrocarbons known to be amenable to anaerobic biodegradation. Moreover, the rapid and extensive alteration in the n-alkanes can no longer be considered a defining characteristic of aerobic oil biodegradation processes alone.

  12. Void swelling in high dose ion-irradiated reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu; Monterrosa, Anthony M.; Zhang, Feifei; Huang, Hao; Yan, Qingzhi; Jiao, Zhijie; Was, Gary S.; Wang, Lumin

    2015-07-01

    To determine the void swelling resistance of reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic steels CNS I and CNS II at high doses, ion irradiation was performed up to 188 dpa (4.6 × 1017 ion/cm2) at 460 °C using 5 MeV Fe++ ions. Helium was pre-implanted at levels of 10 and 100 appm at room temperature to investigate the role of helium on void swelling. Commercial FM steel T91 was also irradiated in this condition and the swelling results are of included in this paper as a reference. Voids were observed in all conditions. The 9Cr CNS I samples implanted with 10 appm helium exhibited lower swelling than 9Cr T91 irradiated at the same condition. The 12Cr CNS II with 10 and 100 appm helium showed significantly lower swelling than CNS I and T91. The swelling rate for CNS I and CNS II were determined to be 0.02%/dpa and 0.003%/dpa respectively. Increasing the helium content from 10 to 100 appm shortened the incubation region and increased the void density but had no effect on the swelling rates.

  13. Cerebellar dentate nuclei lesions reduce motivation in appetitive operant conditioning and open field exploration.

    PubMed

    Bauer, David J; Kerr, Abigail L; Swain, Rodney A

    2011-02-01

    Recently identified pathways from the dentate nuclei of the cerebellum to the rostral cerebral cortex via the thalamus suggest a cerebellar role in frontal and prefrontal non-motor functioning. Disturbance of cerebellar morphology and connectivity, particularly involving these cerebellothalamocortical (CTC) projections, has been implicated in motivational and cognitive deficits. The current study explored the effects of CTC disruption on motivation in male Long Evans rats. The results of two experiments demonstrate that electrolytic lesions of the cerebellar dentate nuclei lower breaking points on an operant conditioning progressive ratio schedule and decrease open field exploration compared to sham controls. Changes occurred in the absence of motor impairment, assessed via lever pressing frequency and rotarod performance. Similar elevated plus maze performances between lesioned and sham animals indicated that anxiety did not influence task performance. Our results demonstrate hedonic and purposive motivational reduction and suggest a CTC role in global motivational processes. These implications are discussed in terms of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism, in which cerebellar damage and motivational deficits often present concomitantly.

  14. On Reducing the Impact of Exceptional Conditions on Museum Sightseeing Crowdedness Control Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Yoondeuk; Ahn, Jinho

    As ubiquitous computing technology convergences into many industrial domains, most museums want to apply this technique to their domain. However, most ubiquitous museums merely provide the simplest service giving visitors only static information of artifact. To resolve limitations of the existing ubiquitous museums, we had proposed Visitor Preference based Museum Viewing Search Algorithm that provides the best path for visitors to reflect their preferences. However, since the Visitor Preference based Museum Viewing Search Algorithm did not consider abnormal situations that occur while visitors look at the exhibit. So when abnormal situations occur, the exhibition may cause congestion problems that may make visitors feel very uncomfortable. In this paper, we propose an efficient congestion control algorithm to solve these problems. This algorithm automatically re-finds proper alternative paths for avoiding congestion resulting from the abnormal ones occurring during the museum viewing. The proposed algorithm improves comfortable museum viewing services by preventing congestion in advance when exceptional conditions occur. For the experiment of the proposed algorithm, we show that the algorithm can provide the best path without congestion exhibition.

  15. Does mercury contamination reduce body condition of endangered California clapper rails?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Keister, Robin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    We examined mercury exposure in 133 endangered California clapper rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) within tidal marsh habitats of San Francisco Bay, California from 2006 to 2010. Mean total mercury concentrations were 0.56 μg/g ww in blood (range: 0.15–1.43), 9.87 mg/g fw in head feathers (3.37–22.0), 9.04 μg/g fw in breast feathers (3.68–20.2), and 0.57 μg/g fww in abandoned eggs (0.15–2.70). We recaptured 21 clapper rails and most had low within-individual variation in mercury. Differences in mercury concentrations were largely attributed to tidal marsh site, with some evidence for year and quadratic date effects. Mercury concentrations in feathers were correlated with blood, and slopes differed between sexes (R2 = 0.58–0.76). Body condition was negatively related to mercury concentrations. Model averaged estimates indicated a potential decrease in body mass of 20e22 g (5–7%) over the observed range of mercury concentrations. Our results indicate the potential for detrimental effects of mercury contamination on endangered California clapper rails in tidal marsh habitats.

  16. Does mercury contamination reduce body condition of endangered California clapper rails?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, J.T.; Overton, C.T.; Casazza, M.L.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Eagles-Smith, C. A.; Keister, R.A.; Herzog, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    We examined mercury exposure in 133 endangered California clapper rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) within tidal marsh habitats of San Francisco Bay, California from 2006 to 2010. Mean total mercury concentrations were 0.56 ??g/g ww in blood (range: 0.15-1.43), 9.87 ??g/g fw in head feathers (3.37-22.0), 9.04 ??g/g fw in breast feathers (3.68-20.2), and 0.57 ??g/g fww in abandoned eggs (0.15-2.70). We recaptured 21 clapper rails and most had low within-individual variation in mercury. Differences in mercury concentrations were largely attributed to tidal marsh site, with some evidence for year and quadratic date effects. Mercury concentrations in feathers were correlated with blood, and slopes differed between sexes (R 2 = 0.58-0.76). Body condition was negatively related to mercury concentrations. Model averaged estimates indicated a potential decrease in body mass of 20-22 g (5-7%) over the observed range of mercury concentrations. Our results indicate the potential for detrimental effects of mercury contamination on endangered California clapper rails in tidal marsh habitats. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Does mercury contamination reduce body condition of endangered California clapper rails?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Overton, Cory T.; Cassazza, Michael L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Keister, Robin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    We examined mercury exposure in 133 endangered California clapper rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) within tidal marsh habitats of San Francisco Bay, California from 2006 to 2010. Mean total mercury concentrations were 0.56 μg/g ww in blood (range: 0.15–1.43), 9.87 μg/g fw in head feathers (3.37–22.0), 9.04 μg/g fw in breast feathers (3.68–20.2), and 0.57 μg/g fww in abandoned eggs (0.15–2.70). We recaptured 21 clapper rails and most had low within-individual variation in mercury. Differences in mercury concentrations were largely attributed to tidal marsh site, with some evidence for year and quadratic date effects. Mercury concentrations in feathers were correlated with blood, and slopes differed between sexes (R2 = 0.58–0.76). Body condition was negatively related to mercury concentrations. Model averaged estimates indicated a potential decrease in body mass of 20–22 g (5–7%) over the observed range of mercury concentrations. Our results indicate the potential for detrimental effects of mercury contamination on endangered California clapper rails in tidal marsh habitats.

  18. Auxotrophic Mutations Reduce Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Very High Levels of Ethanol Stress

    PubMed Central

    Swinnen, Steve; Goovaerts, Annelies; Schaerlaekens, Kristien; Dumortier, Françoise; Verdyck, Pieter; Souvereyns, Kris; Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Foulquié-Moreno, María R.

    2015-01-01

    Very high ethanol tolerance is a distinctive trait of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with notable ecological and industrial importance. Although many genes have been shown to be required for moderate ethanol tolerance (i.e., 6 to 12%) in laboratory strains, little is known of the much higher ethanol tolerance (i.e., 16 to 20%) in natural and industrial strains. We have analyzed the genetic basis of very high ethanol tolerance in a Brazilian bioethanol production strain by genetic mapping with laboratory strains containing artificially inserted oligonucleotide markers. The first locus contained the ura3Δ0 mutation of the laboratory strain as the causative mutation. Analysis of other auxotrophies also revealed significant linkage for LYS2, LEU2, HIS3, and MET15. Tolerance to only very high ethanol concentrations was reduced by auxotrophies, while the effect was reversed at lower concentrations. Evaluation of other stress conditions showed that the link with auxotrophy is dependent on the type of stress and the type of auxotrophy. When the concentration of the auxotrophic nutrient is close to that limiting growth, more stress factors can inhibit growth of an auxotrophic strain. We show that very high ethanol concentrations inhibit the uptake of leucine more than that of uracil, but the 500-fold-lower uracil uptake activity may explain the strong linkage between uracil auxotrophy and ethanol sensitivity compared to leucine auxotrophy. Since very high concentrations of ethanol inhibit the uptake of auxotrophic nutrients, the active uptake of scarce nutrients may be a major limiting factor for growth under conditions of ethanol stress. PMID:26116212

  19. Origins of life and biochemistry under high-pressure conditions.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Isabelle; Oger, Philippe; Winter, Roland

    2006-10-01

    Life on Earth can be traced back to as far as 3.8 billion years (Ga) ago. The catastrophic meteoritic bombardment ended between 4.2 and 3.9 Ga ago. Therefore, if life emerged, and we know it did, it must have emerged from nothingness in less than 400 million years. The most recent scenarios of Earth accretion predict some very unstable physico-chemical conditions at the surface of Earth, which, in such a short time period, would impede the emergence of life from a proto-biotic soup. A possible alternative would be that life originated in the depth of the proto-ocean of the Hadean Earth, under high hydrostatic pressure. The large body of water would filter harmful radiation and buffer physico-chemical variations, and therefore would provide a more stable radiation-free environment for pre-biotic chemistry. After a short introduction to Earth history, the current tutorial review presents biological and physico-chemical arguments in support of high-pressure origin for life on Earth.

  20. Impact of Solar Proton Events on High Latitude Ionospheric Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, A. M.; Gwal, Ashok Kumar; Mansoori, Azad Ahmad

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the ionospheric response to the solar protons which are accelerated to different energies (MeV-GeV) and thought to be originated at the solar atmosphere during the various energetic phenomena knows as solar transients viz. Solar Flares, Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). These transients are believed to be a manifestation of same energy release processes from a highly complex condition in the magnetic field configuration on the solar surface. We have taken six solar proton events (SPE) of solar cycle 23rd for analysis in the various energy bands of the protons. In order to find the ionospheric responses to these incoming solar protons ionospheric total electron content (TEC) is taken as the characteristic parameter. We have taken the data observed by GOES satellites which provides the data for different energy channels (0.8-4 MeV, 4-9 MeV, 9-15 MeV, 15-40 MeV, 40-80 MeV, 80-165 MeV, and 165-500 MeV). The enhancement in peak TEC (∆TEC) was then obtained for the high latitude station Davis (Lat-68.35, Lon 77.58). To find the association of this enhancement with proton flux characteristics we derived the correspondence between spectral indices and ∆TEC. We obtained a strong correlation (0.84) to exist between the spectral indices and ∆TEC.

  1. Fatigue behavior of high-strength concrete under marine conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Mor, A.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, 24 high-strength reinforced concrete beams were tested in fatigue under simulated marine conditions. Low-cycle, high-magnitude loading was imposed on beams, some of which were exposed to air, and others which were submerged in water. The beams were cycled at 1 Hz, to 80% of their yield capacity in negative and positive flexure. Four concrete mixes were compared. Half of the specimens were made with lightweight aggregate (LWA), and half were made with river gravel (NWA). Half of each group contained silica-fume as partial replacement of cement (13%). By manipulating the water/cement ratio, the 28-day compressive strength of all concretes was 9500 {plus minus} 300 psi. The previously reported phenomenon of water pumping through the cracks was observed, but did not appear to be directly related to the subsequent failure. When silica fume is added to the concrete mix, the adhesion is greatly improved. LWA concrete utilizes this additional adhesion effectively. NWA concrete with silica-fume, on the other hand, is not able to utilize the increased adhesion due to microcracking. Main findings of both the fatigue and pull-out bond tests are listed.

  2. Correlation between viral production and carbon mineralization under nitrate-reducing conditions in aquifer sediment

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Donald; Watson, Rachel; Wang, Dake; Tan, Zheng Huan; Snow, Daniel D; Weber, Karrie A

    2014-01-01

    A variety of microbially mediated metabolic pathways impact biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial subsurface environments. However, the role that viruses have in influencing microbial mortality and microbial community structure is poorly understood. Here we investigated the production of viruses and change in microbial community structure within shallow alluvial aquifer sediment slurries amended with 13C-labeled acetate and nitrate. Biostimulation resulted in production of viruses concurrent with acetate oxidation, 13CO2 production and nitrate reduction. Interestingly, change in viral abundance was positively correlated to acetate consumption (r2=0.6252, P<0.05) and 13CO2 production (r2=0.6572, P<0.05); whereas change in cell abundance was not correlated to acetate consumption or 13CO2 production. Viral-mediated cell lysis has implications for microbial community structure. Betaproteobacteria predominated microbial community composition (62% of paired-end reads) upon inoculation but decreased in relative abundance and was negatively correlated to changes in viral abundance (r2=0.5036, P<0.05). As members of the Betaproteobacteria decreased, Gammaproteobacteria, specifically Pseudomonas spp., increased in relative abundance (82% of paired-end reads) and was positively correlated with the change in viral abundance (r2=0.5368, P<0.05). A nitrate-reducing bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. strain Alda10, was isolated from these sediments and produced viral-like particles with a filamentous morphology that did not result in cell lysis. Together, these results indicate that viruses are linked to carbon biogeochemistry and community structure in terrestrial subsurface sediments. The subsequent cell lysis has the potential to alter available carbon pools in subsurface environments, additionally controlling microbial community structure from the bottom-up. PMID:24671088

  3. Reducing high calorie snack food in young adults: a role for social norms and health based messages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Consumption of high calorie junk foods has increased recently, especially among young adults and higher intake may cause weight gain. There is a need to develop public health approaches to motivate people to reduce their intake of junk food. Objective To assess the effect of health and social norm messages on high calorie snack food intake (a type of junk food) as a function of usual intake of junk food. Design In a between-subjects design, 129 young adults (45 men and 84 women, mean age = 22.4 years, SD = 4.5) were assigned to one of three conditions: 1) a social norm condition, in which participants saw a message about the junk food eating habits of others; 2) a health condition, in which participants saw a message outlining the health benefits of reducing junk food consumption and; 3) a control condition, in which participants saw a non-food related message. After exposure to the poster messages, participants consumed a snack and the choice and amount of snack food consumed was examined covertly. We also examined whether usual intake of junk food moderated the effect of message type on high calorie snack food intake. Results The amount of high calorie snack food consumed was significantly lower in both the health and the social norm message condition compared with the control message condition (36% and 28%, both p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in snack food or energy intake between the health and social norm message conditions. There was no evidence that the effect of the messages depended upon usual consumption of junk food. Conclusions Messages about the health effects of junk food and social normative messages about intake of junk food can motivate people to reduce their consumption of high calorie snack food. PMID:23738741

  4. High Energy Boundary Conditions for a Cartesian Mesh Euler Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandya, Shishir; Murman, Scott; Aftosmis, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Inlets and exhaust nozzles are common place in the world of flight. Yet, many aerodynamic simulation packages do not provide a method of modelling such high energy boundaries in the flow field. For the purposes of aerodynamic simulation, inlets and exhausts are often fared over and it is assumed that the flow differences resulting from this assumption are minimal. While this is an adequate assumption for the prediction of lift, the lack of a plume behind the aircraft creates an evacuated base region thus effecting both drag and pitching moment values. In addition, the flow in the base region is often mis-predicted resulting in incorrect base drag. In order to accurately predict these quantities, a method for specifying inlet and exhaust conditions needs to be available in aerodynamic simulation packages. A method for a first approximation of a plume without accounting for chemical reactions is added to the Cartesian mesh based aerodynamic simulation package CART3D. The method consists of 3 steps. In the first step, a components approach where each triangle is assigned a component number is used. Here, a method for marking the inlet or exhaust plane triangles as separate components is discussed. In step two, the flow solver is modified to accept a reference state for the components marked inlet or exhaust. In the third step, the flow solver uses these separated components and the reference state to compute the correct flow condition at that triangle. The present method is implemented in the CART3D package which consists of a set of tools for generating a Cartesian volume mesh from a set of component triangulations. The Euler equations are solved on the resulting unstructured Cartesian mesh. The present methods is implemented in this package and its usefulness is demonstrated with two validation cases. A generic missile body is also presented to show the usefulness of the method on a real world geometry.

  5. Allogeneic transplantation with myeloablative FluBu4 conditioning improves survival compared to reduced intensity FluBu2 conditioning for acute myeloid leukemia in remission.

    PubMed

    Magenau, John M; Braun, Thomas; Reddy, Pavan; Parkin, Brian; Pawarode, Attaphol; Mineishi, Shin; Choi, Sung; Levine, John; Li, Yumeng; Yanik, Gregory; Kitko, Carrie; Churay, Tracey; Frame, David; Riwes, Mary Mansour; Harris, Andrew; Bixby, Dale; Couriel, Daniel R; Goldstein, Steven C

    2015-06-01

    The optimal intensity of conditioning for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains undefined. Traditionally, myeloablative conditioning regimens improve disease control, but at the risk of greater nonrelapse mortality. Because fludarabine with myeloablative doses of intravenous busulfan using pharmacokinetic monitoring has excellent tolerability, we reasoned that this regimen would limit relapse without substantially elevating toxicity when compared to reduced intensity conditioning. We retrospectively analyzed 148 consecutive AML patients in remission receiving T cell replete HCT conditioned with fludarabine and intravenous busulfan at doses defined as reduced (6.4 mg/kg; FluBu2, n = 63) or myeloablative (12.8 mg/kg; FluBu4, n = 85). Early and late nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was similar among FluBu4 and FluBu2 recipients, respectively (day + 100: 4 vs 0 %; 5 years: 19 vs 22 %; p = 0.54). NRM did not differ between FluBu4 and FluBu2 in patients >50 years of age (24 vs 22 %, p = 0.75). Relapse was lower in recipients of FluBu4 (5 years: 30 vs 49 %; p = 0.04), especially in patients with poor risk cytogenetics (22 vs 59 %; p = 0.02) and those >50 years of age (28 vs 51 %; p = 0.02). Overall survival favored FluBu4 recipients at 5 years (53 vs 34 %, p = 0.02), a finding confirmed in multivariate analysis (HR: 0.57; 95 % CI: 0.34-0.95; p = 0.03). These data suggest that myeloablative FluBu4 may provide equivalent NRM, reduced relapse, and improved survival compared to FluBu2, emphasizing the importance of busulfan dose in conditioning for AML.

  6. Evidence that crude oil alkane activation proceeds by different mechanisms under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitken, C. M.; Jones, D. M.; Maguire, M. J.; Gray, N. D.; Sherry, A.; Bowler, B. F. J.; Ditchfield, A. K.; Larter, S. R.; Head, I. M.

    2013-05-01

    Fumarate addition has been widely proposed as an initial step in the anaerobic oxidation of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Alkyl and aryl succinates have been reported as metabolites of hydrocarbon degradation in laboratory studies with both pure and enrichment cultures of sulfate-, nitrate-, and iron-reducing bacteria. In addition these compounds have been reported in samples from environments such as hydrocarbon contaminated aquifers where, in addition to the above redox processes, hydrocarbon degradation linked to methanogenesis was observed. Here we report data from anaerobic crude oil degrading microcosms which revealed significant differences between the acid metabolite profiles of crude oil degraded under sulfate-reducing or methanogenic conditions. Under sulfate-reducing conditions fumarate addition and the formation of alkylsuccinate metabolites was the principal mechanism for the anaerobic degradation of n-alkanes and branched chain alkanes. Other than alkyl succinates that represent indigenous metabolites in the sediment inoculum, alkyl succinate metabolites were never detected in sediment microcosms where methane generation was quantitatively linked to n-alkane degradation. This indicates that alternative mechanisms of alkane activation may operate under methanogenic conditions.

  7. Ammonium Oxidation Under Iron Reducing Conditions: Environmental Factors Characterization and Process Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shan; Ruiz, Melany; Jaffe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Ammonium (NH4+) oxidation coupled to iron (Fe) reduction in the absence of oxygen and nitrate/nitrite (NO3-/NO2-) has been reported by several investigators and is referred to as Feammox. Feammox is a biological reaction, where Fe(III) is the electron acceptor, which is reduced to Fe(II), and NH4+ is the electron donor, which is oxidized to NO2-. An Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium named A6, a previously unreported species in the Acidimicrobiaceae family, has been identified as being responsible for the Feammox process(1, 2) Feammox process was noted in riparian wetland soils in New Jersey(1,3), in tropical rainforest soils in Puerto Rico (4) and in paddy soils in China (5). In addition to these published locations, Feammox process was also found in samples collected from a series of local wetland-, upland-, as well as storm-water detention pond-sediments in New Jersey, river sediments from South Carolina, and forested soils near an acid mine drainage (Dabaoshan, Guangdong province) in China. Using primers acm342f - 439r (2), Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected in samples where Feammox was observed, after strictly anaerobic incubations. According to a canonical correspondence analysis with environmental characteristics and soil microbial communities, the species-environment relationship indicated that pH and Fe oxides content were the primary factors controlling Feammox process. Anaerobic incubations of Feammox enrichment cultures adjusted to different pH, revealed that the optimal pH for Feammox is 4 ~ 5, and the reaction does not proceed when pH > 7. No correlation was found between the distributions of Feammox bacteria and other NH4+ oxidation bacteria. Pure Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 strain was isolated in an autotrophic medium, from an active Feammox membrane reactor (A6 was enriched to 65.8% of the total bacteria). A 13C labeled CO2 amendment was conducted, and the 13C in cells of A6 increased from 1.80% to 10.3% after 14 days incubation. In a separate

  8. Crystallization of insulin and lysozyme under reduced convection condition in a large gradient magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, D. C.; Wakayama, N. I.; Fujiwara, M.; Harata, K.; Xue, X. P.; Fu, Z. X.; Zhang, S. W.; Shang, P.; Tanimoto, Y.

    The crystallization of protein from solution is governed by the process of transport phenomenon Any reason affecting the process of solute transport will impose effects on the crystallization process thus further affects the crystal quality Recent advancement in superconducting magnet technology makes it possible to provide a low cost long-time durable low effective gravity environment for the control of convection which is similar to the environment in the space As an ideal means to damp natural convection in a non-conductive solution on the Earth it may find applications in the field of protein crystallization In this presentation the authors investigated the crystallization of orthorhombic lysozyme crystals tetragonal lysozyme crystals and insulin crystals in a large gradient magnetic field Three effective gravity levels were used milli-gravity around 0G normal gravity 1G and hypergravity 1 8G Comparisons of the crystal quality obtained inside and outside the magnetic field showed that both the magnetic field and the effective gravity could affect the crystal quality But the effect also depends on the crystal and protein type For lysozyme crystals in tetragonal form the magnetic field and effective gravity showed no obvious effect on the quality whereas for the crystals in orthorhombic form both the magnetic field and effective gravity improved the crystal quality For insulin crystal which is highly symmetrical magnetic field and effective gravity showed no strong effect on the crystal quality It is well known that

  9. Mathematical Modelling on Chemically Reacting Boundary Type Flow under Reduced Gravity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui Ying; Herviou, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A numerical study was performed to give a quantitative description of a heavily sooting, non-premixed laminar flame established in a shear boundary layer in microgravity. The competition between fuel pyrolysis rate, radiation loss due to soot formation and oxygen- side diffusion creates a number of unusual phenomena. A three-dimensional, laminar diffusion flame over plate in low-speed concurrent flow was formulated and solved. The model consists of full Navier-Stokes equations for mass, momentum, energy and species. Gas radiation associated with soot formation is included. The PAH inception model, which is based on the formation of two and three-ringed aromatic species, reproduces correctly the measured soot from a laminar ethylene diffusion flame. The flame standoff distance is beyond the boundary layer thickness, while soot resides always within the boundary layer. The fraction of the total energy released by the flame to the surface increases with a rise of pyrolysis rate due to increase in the flame volume. The zone of the high heat flux increases noticeably when the flame becomes most obviously dual on the cross-stream section due to development of the counter-rotating vortex.

  10. Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts on Multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under Reduced Oxygen Conditions Using Intracellular and Axenic Assays.

    PubMed

    Bhatter, Purva D; Gupta, Pooja D; Birdi, Tannaz J

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Test the activity of selected medicinal plant extracts on multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under reduced oxygen concentration which represents nonreplicating conditions. Material and Methods. Acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the plants Acorus calamus L. (rhizome), Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf), Piper nigrum L. (seed), and Pueraria tuberosa DC. (tuber) were tested on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv intracellularly using an epithelial cell (A549) infection model. The extracts found to be active intracellularly were further studied axenically under reducing oxygen concentrations. Results and Conclusions. Intracellular multiplication was inhibited ≥60% by five of the twelve extracts. Amongst these 5 extracts, in axenic culture, P. nigrum (acetone) was active under aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic conditions indicating presence of multiple components acting at different levels and P. tuberosa (aqueous) showed bactericidal activity under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions implying the influence of anaerobiosis on its efficacy. P. nigrum (aqueous) and A. calamus (aqueous and ethanol) extracts were not active under axenic conditions but only inhibited intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting activation of host defense mechanisms to mediate bacterial killing rather than direct bactericidal activity. PMID:26941797

  11. Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts on Multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under Reduced Oxygen Conditions Using Intracellular and Axenic Assays

    PubMed Central

    Bhatter, Purva D.; Gupta, Pooja D.; Birdi, Tannaz J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Test the activity of selected medicinal plant extracts on multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under reduced oxygen concentration which represents nonreplicating conditions. Material and Methods. Acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the plants Acorus calamus L. (rhizome), Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf), Piper nigrum L. (seed), and Pueraria tuberosa DC. (tuber) were tested on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv intracellularly using an epithelial cell (A549) infection model. The extracts found to be active intracellularly were further studied axenically under reducing oxygen concentrations. Results and Conclusions. Intracellular multiplication was inhibited ≥60% by five of the twelve extracts. Amongst these 5 extracts, in axenic culture, P. nigrum (acetone) was active under aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic conditions indicating presence of multiple components acting at different levels and P. tuberosa (aqueous) showed bactericidal activity under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions implying the influence of anaerobiosis on its efficacy. P. nigrum (aqueous) and A. calamus (aqueous and ethanol) extracts were not active under axenic conditions but only inhibited intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting activation of host defense mechanisms to mediate bacterial killing rather than direct bactericidal activity. PMID:26941797

  12. A new reducing agent to prepare single-layer, high-quality reduced graphene oxide for device applications.

    PubMed

    Mao, Shun; Yu, Kehan; Cui, Shumao; Bo, Zheng; Lu, Ganhua; Chen, Junhong

    2011-07-01

    We report on a novel, efficient, and one-step approach to prepare single-layer reduced graphene oxide (RGO) suspensions and films using hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The effective chemical reduction of GO was evidenced by a significant increase in the C/O ratio and five orders of magnitude decrease in the GO resistance. Field-effect transistor gas sensors were fabricated using as-produced RGO sheets and the resulting sensor exhibited a fast response and a high sensitivity to low-concentration target gases at room temperature. PMID:21674112

  13. TORC1 activity is partially reduced under nitrogen starvation conditions in sake yeast Kyokai no. 7, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Nobushige; Sato, Aya; Hosaka, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    Industrial yeasts are generally unable to sporulate but treatment with the immunosuppressive drug rapamycin restores this ability in a sake yeast strain Kyokai no. 7 (K7), Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This finding suggests that TORC1 is active under sporulation conditions. Here, using a reporter gene assay, Northern and Western blots, we tried to gain insight into how TORC1 function under nitrogen starvation conditions in K7 cells. Similarly to a laboratory strain, RPS26A transcription was repressed and Npr1 was dephosphorylated in K7 cells, indicative of the expected loss of TORC1 function under nitrogen starvation. The expression of nitrogen catabolite repression-sensitive genes, however, was not induced, the level of Cln3 remained constant, and autophagy was more slowly induced than in a laboratory strain, all suggestive of active TORC1. We conclude that TORC1 activity is partially reduced under nitrogen starvation conditions in K7 cells.

  14. Quality Factor for the Hadronic Calorimeter in High Luminosity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seixas, J. M.; ATLAS Tile Calorimeter System

    2015-05-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS experiment of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and has about 10,000 eletronic channels. An Optimal Filter (OF) has been used to estimate the energy sampled by the calorimeter and applies a Quality Factor (QF) for signal acceptance. An approach using Matched Filter (MF) has also been pursued. In order to cope with the luminosity rising foreseen for LHC operation upgrade, different algorithms have been developed. Currently, the OF measurement for signal acceptance is implemented through a chi-square test. At a low luminosity scenario, such QF measurement has been used as a way to describe how the acquired signal is compatible to the pulse shape pattern. However, at high-luminosity conditions, due to pile up, this QF acceptance is no longer possible when OF is employed, and the QF becomes a measurement to indicate whether the reconstructed signal suffers or not from pile up. Methods are being developed in order to recover the superimposed information, and the QF may be used again as signal acceptance criterion. In this work, a new QF measurement is introduced. It is based on divergence statistics, which measures the similarity of probability density functions.

  15. Relative sensitivity of five Hawaiian coral species to high temperature under high-pCO2 conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, Keisha D.; Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Ku'ulei S.

    2016-06-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are presently undergoing decline due to anthropogenic climate change. The chief detrimental factors are increased temperature and increased pCO2. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of these two stressors operating independently and in unison on the biological response of common Hawaiian reef corals. Manipulative experiments were performed using five species ( Porites compressa, Pocillopora damicornis, Fungia scutaria, Montipora capitata, and Leptastrea purpurea) in a continuous-flow mesocosm system under natural sunlight conditions. Corals were grown together as a community under treatments of high temperature (2 °C above normal maximum summer temperature), high pCO2 (twice present-day conditions), and with both factors acting in unison. Control corals were grown under present-day pCO2 and at normal summer temperatures. Leptastrea purpurea proved to be an extremely hardy coral. No change in calcification or mortality occurred under treatments of high temperature, high pCO2, or combined high temperature-high pCO2. The remaining four species showed reduced calcification in the high-temperature treatment. Two species ( L. purpurea and M. capitata) showed no response to increased pCO2. Also, high pCO2 ameliorated the negative effect of high temperature on the calcification rates of P. damicornis. Mortality was driven primarily by high temperature, with a negative synergistic effect in P. compressa only in the high-pCO2-high-temperature treatment. Results support the observation that biological response to temperature and pCO2 elevation is highly species-specific, so generalizations based on response of a single species might not apply to a diverse and complex coral reef community.

  16. Developmental acclimation to low or high humidity conditions affect starvation and heat resistance of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Parkash, Ravi; Ranga, Poonam; Aggarwal, Dau Dayal

    2014-09-01

    Several Drosophila species originating from tropical humid localities are more resistant to starvation and heat stress than populations from high latitudes but mechanistic bases of such physiological changes are largely unknown. In order to test whether humidity levels affect starvation and heat resistance, we investigated developmental acclimation effects of low to high humidity conditions on the storage and utilization of energy resources, body mass, starvation survival, heat knockdown and heat survival of D. melanogaster. Isofemale lines reared under higher humidity (85% RH) stored significantly higher level of lipids and showed greater starvation survival hours but smaller in body size. In contrast, lines reared at low humidity evidenced reduced levels of body lipids and starvation resistance. Starvation resistance and lipid storage level were higher in females than males. However, the rate of utilization of lipids under starvation stress was lower for lines reared under higher humidity. Adult flies of lines reared at 65% RH and acclimated under high or low humidity condition for 200 hours also showed changes in resistance to starvation and heat but such effects were significantly lower as compared with developmental acclimation. Isofemale lines reared under higher humidity showed greater heat knockdown time and heat-shock survival. These laboratory observations on developmental and adult acclimation effects of low versus high humidity conditions have helped in explaining seasonal changes in resistance to starvation and heat of the wild-caught flies of D. melanogaster. Thus, we may suggest that wet versus drier conditions significantly affect starvation and heat resistance of D. melanogaster.

  17. A High-Temperature Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor with an Integrated Signal-Conditioning Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zong; Liang, Ting; Jia, Pinggang; Hong, Yingping; Qi, Lei; Lei, Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Xiong, Jijun

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design and fabrication of a high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensor with an integrated signal-conditioning circuit, which consists of an encapsulated pressure-sensitive chip, a temperature compensation circuit and a signal-conditioning circuit. A silicon on insulation (SOI) material and a standard MEMS process are used in the pressure-sensitive chip fabrication, and high-temperature electronic components are adopted in the temperature-compensation and signal-conditioning circuits. The entire pressure sensor achieves a hermetic seal and can be operated long-term in the range of −50 °C to 220 °C. Unlike traditional pressure sensor output voltage ranges (in the dozens to hundreds of millivolts), the output voltage of this sensor is from 0 V to 5 V, which can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio and measurement accuracy in practical applications of long-term transmission based on experimental verification. Furthermore, because this flexible sensor’s output voltage is adjustable, general follow-up pressure transmitter devices for voltage converters need not be used, which greatly reduces the cost of the test system. Thus, the proposed high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensor with an integrated signal-conditioning circuit is expected to be highly applicable to pressure measurements in harsh environments. PMID:27322288

  18. A High-Temperature Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor with an Integrated Signal-Conditioning Circuit.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zong; Liang, Ting; Jia, Pinggang; Hong, Yingping; Qi, Lei; Lei, Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Xiong, Jijun

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design and fabrication of a high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensor with an integrated signal-conditioning circuit, which consists of an encapsulated pressure-sensitive chip, a temperature compensation circuit and a signal-conditioning circuit. A silicon on insulation (SOI) material and a standard MEMS process are used in the pressure-sensitive chip fabrication, and high-temperature electronic components are adopted in the temperature-compensation and signal-conditioning circuits. The entire pressure sensor achieves a hermetic seal and can be operated long-term in the range of -50 °C to 220 °C. Unlike traditional pressure sensor output voltage ranges (in the dozens to hundreds of millivolts), the output voltage of this sensor is from 0 V to 5 V, which can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio and measurement accuracy in practical applications of long-term transmission based on experimental verification. Furthermore, because this flexible sensor's output voltage is adjustable, general follow-up pressure transmitter devices for voltage converters need not be used, which greatly reduces the cost of the test system. Thus, the proposed high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensor with an integrated signal-conditioning circuit is expected to be highly applicable to pressure measurements in harsh environments. PMID:27322288

  19. A High-Temperature Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor with an Integrated Signal-Conditioning Circuit.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zong; Liang, Ting; Jia, Pinggang; Hong, Yingping; Qi, Lei; Lei, Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Xiong, Jijun

    2016-06-18

    This paper focuses on the design and fabrication of a high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensor with an integrated signal-conditioning circuit, which consists of an encapsulated pressure-sensitive chip, a temperature compensation circuit and a signal-conditioning circuit. A silicon on insulation (SOI) material and a standard MEMS process are used in the pressure-sensitive chip fabrication, and high-temperature electronic components are adopted in the temperature-compensation and signal-conditioning circuits. The entire pressure sensor achieves a hermetic seal and can be operated long-term in the range of -50 °C to 220 °C. Unlike traditional pressure sensor output voltage ranges (in the dozens to hundreds of millivolts), the output voltage of this sensor is from 0 V to 5 V, which can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio and measurement accuracy in practical applications of long-term transmission based on experimental verification. Furthermore, because this flexible sensor's output voltage is adjustable, general follow-up pressure transmitter devices for voltage converters need not be used, which greatly reduces the cost of the test system. Thus, the proposed high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensor with an integrated signal-conditioning circuit is expected to be highly applicable to pressure measurements in harsh environments.

  20. A new reducing agent to prepare single-layer, high-quality reduced graphene oxide for device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Shun; Yu, Kehan; Cui, Shumao; Bo, Zheng; Lu, Ganhua; Chen, Junhong

    2011-07-01

    We report on a novel, efficient, and one-step approach to prepare single-layer reduced graphene oxide (RGO) suspensions and films using hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The effective chemical reduction of GO was evidenced by a significant increase in the C/O ratio and five orders of magnitude decrease in the GO resistance. Field-effect transistor gas sensors were fabricated using as-produced RGO sheets and the resulting sensor exhibited a fast response and a high sensitivity to low-concentration target gases at room temperature.We report on a novel, efficient, and one-step approach to prepare single-layer reduced graphene oxide (RGO) suspensions and films using hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The effective chemical reduction of GO was evidenced by a significant increase in the C/O ratio and five orders of magnitude decrease in the GO resistance. Field-effect transistor gas sensors were fabricated using as-produced RGO sheets and the resulting sensor exhibited a fast response and a high sensitivity to low-concentration target gases at room temperature. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10270b

  1. High night temperatures during grain number determination reduce wheat and barley grain yield: a field study.

    PubMed

    García, Guillermo A; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Miralles, Daniel J; Serrago, Román A

    2015-11-01

    Warm nights are a widespread predicted feature of climate change. This study investigated the impact of high night temperatures during the critical period for grain yield determination in wheat and barley crops under field conditions, assessing the effects on development, growth and partitioning crop-level processes driving grain number per unit area (GN). Experiments combined: (i) two contrasting radiation and temperature environments: late sowing in 2011 and early sowing in 2013, (ii) two well-adapted crops with similar phenology: bread wheat and two-row malting barley and (iii) two temperature regimes: ambient and high night temperatures. The night temperature increase (ca. 3.9 °C in both crops and growing seasons) was achieved using purpose-built heating chambers placed on the crop at 19:000 hours and removed at 7:00 hours every day from the third detectable stem node to 10 days post-flowering. Across growing seasons and crops, the average minimum temperature during the critical period ranged from 11.2 to 17.2 °C. Wheat and barley grain yield were similarly reduced under warm nights (ca. 7% °C(-1) ), due to GN reductions (ca. 6% °C(-1) ) linked to a lower number of spikes per m(2) . An accelerated development under high night temperatures led to a shorter critical period duration, reducing solar radiation capture with negative consequences for biomass production, GN and therefore, grain yield. The information generated could be used as a starting point to design management and/or breeding strategies to improve crop adaptation facing climate change.

  2. High night temperatures during grain number determination reduce wheat and barley grain yield: a field study.

    PubMed

    García, Guillermo A; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Miralles, Daniel J; Serrago, Román A

    2015-11-01

    Warm nights are a widespread predicted feature of climate change. This study investigated the impact of high night temperatures during the critical period for grain yield determination in wheat and barley crops under field conditions, assessing the effects on development, growth and partitioning crop-level processes driving grain number per unit area (GN). Experiments combined: (i) two contrasting radiation and temperature environments: late sowing in 2011 and early sowing in 2013, (ii) two well-adapted crops with similar phenology: bread wheat and two-row malting barley and (iii) two temperature regimes: ambient and high night temperatures. The night temperature increase (ca. 3.9 °C in both crops and growing seasons) was achieved using purpose-built heating chambers placed on the crop at 19:000 hours and removed at 7:00 hours every day from the third detectable stem node to 10 days post-flowering. Across growing seasons and crops, the average minimum temperature during the critical period ranged from 11.2 to 17.2 °C. Wheat and barley grain yield were similarly reduced under warm nights (ca. 7% °C(-1) ), due to GN reductions (ca. 6% °C(-1) ) linked to a lower number of spikes per m(2) . An accelerated development under high night temperatures led to a shorter critical period duration, reducing solar radiation capture with negative consequences for biomass production, GN and therefore, grain yield. The information generated could be used as a starting point to design management and/or breeding strategies to improve crop adaptation facing climate change. PMID:26111197

  3. Fludarabine/Busulfan versus Fludarabine/Melphalan Conditioning in Patients Undergoing Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kekre, Natasha; Marquez-Malaver, Francisco J; Cabrero, Monica; Piñana, Jl; Esquirol, Albert; Soiffer, Robert J; Caballero, Dolores; Terol, M J; Martino, Rodrigo; Antin, Joseph H; Lopez-Corral, L; Solano, Carlos; Armand, Philippe; Pérez-Simon, Jose A

    2016-10-01

    There is at present little data to guide the choice of conditioning for patients with lymphoma undergoing reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). In this study, we compared the outcomes of patients undergoing RIC SCT who received fludarabine and melphalan (FluMel), the standard RIC regimen used by the Spanish Group of Transplantation, and fludarabine and busulfan (FluBu), the standard RIC regimen used by the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital. We analyzed 136 patients undergoing RIC SCT for lymphoma with either FluBu (n = 61) or FluMel (n = 75) conditioning between 2007 and 2014. Median follow-up was 36 months. The cumulative incidence of grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 13% with FluBu and 36% with FluMel (P = .002). The cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 1 year was 3.3% with FluBu and 31% with FluMel (P < .0001). The cumulative incidence of relapse at 1 year was 29% with FluBu and 10% with FluMel (P = .08). The 3-year disease-free survival rate was 47% with FluBu and 36% with FluMel (P = .24), and the 3-year overall survival rate was 62% with FluBu and 48% with FluMel (P = .01). In multivariable analysis, FluMel was associated with a higher risk of acute grades II to IV GVHD (HR, 7.45; 95% CI, 2.30 to 24.17; P = .001) and higher risk of NRM (HR, 4.87; 95% CI, 1.36 to 17.44; P = .015). The type of conditioning was not significantly associated with relapse or disease-free survival in multivariable models. However, conditioning regimen was the only factor significantly associated with overall survival: FluMel conditioning was associated with a hazard ratio for death of 2.78 (95% CI, 1.23 to 6.27; P = .014) compared with FluBu. In conclusion, the use of FluBu as conditioning for patients undergoing SCT for lymphoma was associated with a lower risk of acute GVHD and NRM and improved overall survival when compared with

  4. Chronic reduction of GIP secretion alleviates obesity and insulin resistance under high-fat diet conditions.

    PubMed

    Nasteska, Daniela; Harada, Norio; Suzuki, Kazuyo; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Joo, Erina; Iwasaki, Kanako; Shibue, Kimitaka; Harada, Takanari; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2014-07-01

    Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) exhibits potent insulinotropic effects on β-cells and anabolic effects on bone formation and fat accumulation. We explored the impact of reduced GIP levels in vivo on glucose homeostasis, bone formation, and fat accumulation in a novel GIP-GFP knock-in (KI) mouse. We generated GIP-GFP KI mice with a truncated prepro-GIP gene. The phenotype was assessed in heterozygous and homozygous states in mice on a control fat diet and a high-fat diet (HFD) in vivo and in vitro. Heterozygous GIP-GFP KI mice (GIP-reduced mice [GIP(gfp/+)]) exhibited reduced GIP secretion; in the homozygous state (GIP-lacking mice [GIP(gfp/gfp)]), GIP secretion was undetectable. When fed standard chow, GIP(gfp/+) and GIP(gfp/gfp) mice showed mild glucose intolerance with decreased insulin levels; bone volume was decreased in GIP(gfp/gfp) mice and preserved in GIP(gfp/+) mice. Under an HFD, glucose levels during an oral glucose tolerance test were similar in wild-type, GIP(gfp/+), and GIP(gfp/gfp) mice, while insulin secretion remained lower. GIP(gfp/+) and GIP(gfp/gfp) mice showed reduced obesity and reduced insulin resistance, accompanied by higher fat oxidation and energy expenditure. GIP-reduced mice demonstrate that partial reduction of GIP does not extensively alter glucose tolerance, but it alleviates obesity and lessens the degree of insulin resistance under HFD conditions, suggesting a potential therapeutic value.

  5. Long-term effects of conventional and reduced tillage systems on soil condition and yield of maize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rátonyi, Tamás; Széles, Adrienn; Harsányi, Endre

    2015-04-01

    As a consequence of operations which neglect soil condition and consist of frequent soil disturbance, conventional tillage (primary tillage with autumn ploughing) results in the degradation and compaction of soil structure, as well as the reduction of organic matter. These unfavourable processes pose an increasing economic and environmental protection problem today. The unfavourable physical condition of soils on which conventional tillage was performed indicate the need for preserving methods and tools. The examinations were performed in the multifactorial long-term tillage experiment established at the Látókép experiment site of DE MÉK. The experiment site is located in the Hajdúság loess ridge (Hungary) and its soil is loess-based calcareous chernozem with deep humus layer. The physical soil type is mid-heavy adobe. The long-term experiment has a split-split plot design. The main plots are different tillage methods (autumn ploughing, spring shallow tillage) without replication. In this paper, the effect of conventional and reduced (shallow) tillage methods on soil conditions and maize yield was examined. A manual penetrometer was used to determine the physical condition and compactedness of the soil. The soil moisture content was determined with deep probe measurement (based on capacitive method). In addition to soil analyses, the yield per hectare of different plots was also observed. In reduced tillage, one compacted layer is shown in the soil resistance profile determined with a penetrometer, while there are two compacted layers in autumn ploughing. The highest resistance was measured in the case of primary tillage performed at the same depth for several years in the compacted (pan disk) layer developed under the developed layer in both treatments. The unfavourable impact of spring shallow primary tillage on physical soil conditions is shown by the fact that the compaction of the pan disk exceed the critical limit value of 3 MPa. Over the years, further

  6. Reduced toxicity, myeloablative conditioning with BU, fludarabine, alemtuzumab and SCT from sibling donors in children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, M; Jin, Z; Baker, C; Geyer, M B; Radhakrishnan, K; Morris, E; Satwani, P; George, D; Garvin, J; Del Toro, G; Zuckerman, W; Lee, M T; Licursi, M; Hawks, R; Smilow, E; Baxter-Lowe, L A; Schwartz, J; Cairo, M S

    2014-07-01

    BU and CY (BU/CY; 200 mg/kg) before HLA-matched sibling allo-SCT in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with ~85% EFS but is limited by the acute and late effects of BU/CY myeloablative conditioning. Alternatives include reduced toxicity but more immunosuppressive conditioning. We investigated in a prospective single institutional study, the safety and efficacy of a reduced-toxicity conditioning (RTC) regimen of BU 12.8-16 mg/kg, fludarabine 180 mg/m(2), alemtuzumab 54 mg/m(2) (BFA) before HLA-matched sibling donor transplantation in pediatric recipients with symptomatic SCD. Eighteen patients, median age 8.9 years (2.3-20.2), M/F 15/3, 15 sibling BM and 3 sibling cord blood (CB) were transplanted. Mean whole blood and erythroid donor chimerism was 91% and 88%, at days +100 and +365, respectively. Probability of grade II-IV acute GVHD was 17%. Two-year EFS and OS were both 100%. Neurological, pulmonary and cardiovascular function were stable or improved at 2 years. BFA RTC and HLA-matched sibling BM and CB allo-SCT in pediatric recipients result in excellent EFS, long-term donor chimerism, low incidence of GVHD and stable/improved organ function.

  7. Toward Quantitative, High-Shear Strain Deformation Experiments at Lower Mantle Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slivka, L.; Miyagi, L. M.; Amulele, G.; Otsuka, K.; Du, Z.; Karato, S.

    2010-12-01

    Relatively little is known about the deformation properties of lower mantle mineral phases. This is largely due to the fact that conventional deformation devices have been unable to reach pressure and temperature conditions beyond those of the transition zone. The Rotational Drickamer Apparatus (RDA) has been used successfully to perform quantitative, high shear strain deformation experiments at conditions of the transition zone. New technological advances such as beveling anvils to reduce cupping of the anvil tips at high pressures, and high precision laser machining of sample assemblies are allowing us to increase the available pressure range of the RDA toward lower mantle conditions. We have already performed deformation experiments on ringwoodite at ~23 GPa and 1800 K, conditions quite close to those of the top of the lower mantle. These experiments were performed at beamline X17B2 of the National Synchrotron Light Source, using white x-rays to collect energy-dispersive diffraction patterns at a fixed 2θ of 6.7° over ten azimuth angles. Determination of strain was made in-situ using x-ray radiography and a Pt strain marker. Equivalent strains of up to γ = 2 are achieved. Uniaxial and shear stresses were determined in-situ from the d-spacing of ringwoodite (311) and (400) lattice planes as a function of azimuth angle.

  8. Silicate-H2O Systems at High Pressure Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tailby, N.; Mavrogenes, J. A.; Hermann, J.; O'Neill, H. S.

    2008-12-01

    Since the discovery of the second critical endpoint (CP2) in the albite-water system, numerous attempts have been made to determine the pressure and temperature of this CP2 and the mutual solubilities within more complex systems. The P-T position of the CP2 has been estimated for many systems: SiO2 (<10 kb/900 °C, Newton and Manning, 2008); NaAlSi3O8 (15 kb/800 °C, Burnham and Davis, 1974; Shen and Keppler, 1997); Pelite (50 kb/1,000 °C, Schmidt et al., 2004), basalt (50 kb/ 1000 °C, Kessel et al., 2004), Peridotite (38 kb/1000 °C, Mibe et al., 2007). A number of experimental techniques have been used to determine phase relations and H2O solubility in experiments. These include in-situ experimental techniques (e.g., HYDAC; Shen and Keppler, 1997), fluid trap techniques (e.g., diamond traps; Stalder et al., 2000), and single crystal weight-loss techniques (e.g., SiO2-H2O techniques employed by Newton and Manning, 2008). None of these techniques is without difficulties, as H2O rich experiments need to overcome huge retrograde fluid solubilities upon quench in order to determine mutual solubilities at experimental conditions. We have developed a new technique to determine "rock"-H2O relationships at high-P conditions, with particular focus on the shape and locus of solvi in pressure temperature space. In this series of experiments, an oxygen fugacity buffer (Re-ReO2) and a sliding H-fugacity sensor (NiO-Ni-Pd mixture) are combined to monitor H2O activity over the entire range of pressure and temperature. Unlike other techniques, the use of sensor capsules does not require textural interpretation of experiments. H2O activity is related to oxygen and hydrogen fugacity by the reaction: H2O = H2 + ½O2 NiO-Ni-Pd mixtures were placed within a ZrO2 jacket and sealed within a welded 2.3 mm Pt capsule. This 2.3 mm Pt sensor capsule was then encased within a larger, thick walled 6 mm diameter Ag capsule. Pelite-H2O mixtures and oxygen buffers were held within this larger

  9. Thermophilic nitrate-reducing microorganisms prevent sulfate reduction in cold marine sediments incubated at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepomnyashchaya, Yana; Rezende, Julia; Hubert, Casey

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogen sulphide produced during metabolism of sulphate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) is toxic, corrosive and causes detrimental oil reservoir souring. During secondary oil recovery, injecting oil reservoirs with seawater that is rich in sulphate and that also cools high temperature formations provides favourable growth conditions for SRM. Nitrate addition can prevent metabolism of SRM by stimulating nitrate-reducing microorganisms (NRM). The investigations of thermophilic NRM are needed to develop mechanisms to control the metabolism of SRM in high temperature oil field ecosystems. We therefore established a model system consisting of enrichment cultures of cold surface marine sediments from the Baltic Sea (Aarhus Bay) that were incubated at 60°C. Enrichments contained 25 mM nitrate and 40 mM sulphate as potential electron acceptors, and a mixture of the organic substrates acetate, lactate, propionate, butyrate (5 mM each) and yeast extract (0.01%) as potential carbon sources and electron donors. Slurries were incubated at 60°C both with and without initial pasteurization at 80°C for 2 hours. In the enrichments containing both nitrate and sulphate, the concentration of nitrate decreased indicating metabolic activity of NRM. After a four-hour lag phase the rate of nitrate reduction increased and the concentration of nitrate dropped to zero after 10 hours of incubation. The concentration of nitrite increased as the reduction of nitrate progressed and reached 16.3 mM after 12 hours, before being consumed and falling to 4.4 mM after 19-day of incubation. No evidence for sulphate reduction was observed in these cultures during the 19-day incubation period. In contrast, the concentration of sulphate decreased up to 50% after one week incubation in controls containing only sulphate but no nitrate. Similar sulfate reduction rates were seen in the pasteurized controls suggesting the presence of heat resistant SRM, whereas nitrate reduction rates were lower in the

  10. High methylmercury production under ferruginous conditions in sediments impacted by sewage treatment plant discharges.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Andrea G; Bouchet, Sylvain; Guédron, Stéphane; Amouroux, David; Dominik, Janusz; Zopfi, Jakob

    2015-09-01

    Sewage treatment plants (STPs) are important point sources of mercury (Hg) to the environment. STPs are also significant sources of iron when hydrated ferric oxide (HFO) is used as a dephosphatation agent during water purification. In this study, we combined geochemical and microbiological characterization with Hg speciation and sediment amendments to evaluate the impact of STP's effluents on monomethylmercury (MMHg) production. The highest in-situ Hg methylation was found close to the discharge pipe in subsurface sediments enriched with Hg, organic matter, and iron. There, ferruginous conditions were prevailing with high concentrations of dissolved Fe(2+) and virtually no free sulfide in the porewater. Sediment incubations demonstrated that the high MMHg production close to the discharge was controlled by low demethylation yields. Inhibition of dissimilatory sulfate reduction with molybdate led to increased iron reduction rates and Hg-methylation, suggesting that sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) may not have been the main Hg methylators under these conditions. However, Hg methylation in sediments amended with amorphous Fe(III)-oxides was only slightly higher than control conditions. Thus, in addition to iron-reducing bacteria, other non-SRB most likely contributed to Hg methylation. Overall, this study highlights that sediments impacted by STP discharges can become local hot-spots for Hg methylation due to the combined inputs of i) Hg, ii) organic matter, which fuels bacterial activities and iii) iron, which keeps porewater sulfide concentration low and hence Hg bioavailable.

  11. Impact of reduced exhaust and ventilation rates at ``no-load`` cooking conditions in a commercial kitchen during winter operation

    SciTech Connect

    Spata, A.J.; Turgeon, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    While previous studies have examined the effect of reduced exhaust and ventilation rates on comfort levels and air-conditioning requirements in commercial kitchens when cooling of this space was required, no investigation had been performed to document energy savings that may be obtainable by a similar technique during periods when heating of make-up air was dictated. In addition, these prior studies examined the resultant kitchen conditions with lower exhaust and ventilation rates applied while the hooded appliances were actively being used for cooking. This paper presents the field evaluation findings by a major quick-service restaurant chain. These findings resulted from the reduction of exhaust and make-up air quantities during periods when heating of kitchen make-up air was required and no cooking was occurring on the grills. The initial results indicate that these reductions yield significant utility savings, with no detrimental effect on the environment within the kitchen, by minimizing the amount of outside air tempered by the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment during ``no load`` cooking conditions.

  12. Osteocalcin protects pancreatic beta cell function and survival under high glucose conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kover, Karen; Yan, Yun; Tong, Pei Ying; Watkins, Dara; Li, Xiaoyu; Tasch, James; Hager, Melissa; Clements, Mark; Moore, Wayne V.

    2015-06-19

    Diabetes is characterized by progressive beta cell dysfunction and loss due in part to oxidative stress that occurs from gluco/lipotoxicity. Treatments that directly protect beta cell function and survival in the diabetic milieu are of particular interest. A growing body of evidence suggests that osteocalcin, an abundant non-collagenous protein of bone, supports beta cell function and proliferation. Based on previous gene expression data by microarray, we hypothesized that osteocalcin protects beta cells from glucose-induced oxidative stress. To test our hypothesis we cultured isolated rat islets and INS-1E cells in the presence of normal, high, or high glucose ± osteocalcin for up to 72 h. Oxidative stress and viability/mitochondrial function were measured by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} assay and Alamar Blue assay, respectively. Caspase 3/7 activity was also measured as a marker of apoptosis. A functional test, glucose stimulated insulin release, was conducted and expression of genes/protein was measured by qRT-PCR/western blot/ELISA. Osteocalcin treatment significantly reduced high glucose-induced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels while maintaining viability/mitochondrial function. Osteocalcin also significantly improved glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin content in rat islets after 48 h of high glucose exposure compared to untreated islets. As expected sustained high glucose down-regulated gene/protein expression of INS1 and BCL2 while increasing TXNIP expression. Interestingly, osteocalcin treatment reversed the effects of high glucose on gene/protein expression. We conclude that osteocalcin can protect beta cells from the negative effects of glucose-induced oxidative stress, in part, by reducing TXNIP expression, thereby preserving beta cell function and survival. - Highlights: • Osteocalcin reduces glucose-induced oxidative stress in beta cells. • Osteocalcin preserves beta cell function and survival under stress conditions. • Osteocalcin reduces glucose

  13. Reduced mass absorption cross section of black carbon under an extremely polluted condition in southern suburb of Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Hua, Y.; Jiang, J.; Zhao, B.; Xing, J.; Jiang, S.; Cai, R.; Hao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), as one of the most important climate-warming agent, has been the focus of extensive studies in recent years. Mass absorption cross section (MAC) is a key parameter to assess the radiative forcing by linking the mass concentration with the radiation effect. In this study, we conducted a two-month field campaign in Beijing, the capital city of China, in a October and November, a period that severe PM2.5 pollution occurred. PM2.5 offline samples were collected daily onto quartz fiber filters by a Partisol 2300 Speciation Sampler. Size-segregated aerosol samples of the size ranged from 0.056 - 10 µm with 11 bins were collected onto quartz fiber filters by a cascade impactor developed by National Chiao Tung University (NCTU). A DRI Model 2001 thermal/optical carbon analyzer were used to analyze the samples. The MAC of BC is measured by a thermal-optical carbon analyzer. In contrast to previous studies, we found that after "shadow effect" has been corrected, the MAC is reduced from 14 m2/g to 5 m2/g with the increase of BC concentrations. There was no significant correlation between MAC with secondary inorganic aerosols. Such unexpected reduction in MAC of BC is possibly associated with the microphysical property of BC modulated under serious pollution condition. The study of size-segregated species concentrations shows that the size distribution of BC is unimodal, with the peak around 0.56-1.8 µm. The results also show the proportion of BC larger than 0.56 µm is significant increased. Additionally, "soot superaggregate", as distinct from conventional sub-micron aggregates, was found in the bins of BC with size ranged from 1 to1.8 µm. Such high carbon aerosol proportion and large BC size distribution suggests that emissions from residential biomass burning is dominant during this episode. This study suggests that the optical property for BC from different emission sectors should be considered in the estimation of radiative forcing.

  14. Growth, condition factor, and bioenergetics modeling link warmer stream temperatures below a small dam to reduced performance of juvenile steelhead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, S.T.; Connolly, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the growth and feeding performance of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss using field measures and bioenergetics modeling. Juvenile steelhead populations were sampled from mid-June through August 2004 at study sites upstream and downstream of Hemlock Dam. The growth and diet of juvenile steelhead were determined for a warm (summer) and subsequent (late summer) transitional period at each study site. Empirical data on the growth and diet of juvenile steelhead and mean daily temperatures were used in a bioenergetics model to estimate the proportion of maximum consumption achieved by juvenile steelhead by site and period. Modeled estimates of feeding performance were better for juvenile steelhead at the upstream compared to the downstream site during both periods. The median condition factor of juvenile steelhead did not change over the summer at the upstream site, but showed a significant decline over time at the downstream site. A negative trend in median condition factor at the downstream site supported bioenergetics modeling results that suggested the warmer stream temperatures had a negative impact on juvenile steelhead. Bioenergetics modeling predicted a lower feeding performance for juvenile steelhead rearing downstream compared to upstream of Hemlock Dam although food availability appeared to be limited at both study sites during the warm period. Warmer water temperatures, greater diel variation, and change in diel pattern likely led to the reduced feeding performance and reduced growth, which could have affected the overall survival of juvenile steelhead downstream of Hemlock Dam. ?? 2010 by the Northwest Scientific Association.

  15. Biological reduction of uranium coupled with oxidation of ammonium by Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 under iron reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Emily R; Huang, Shan; Jaffé, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the possibility of links between the biological immobilization of uranium (U) and ammonium oxidation under iron (Fe) reducing conditions. The recently-identified Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 (ATCC, PTA-122488) derives energy from ammonium oxidation coupled with Fe reduction. This bacterium has been found in various soil and wetland environments, including U-contaminated wetland sediments. Incubations of Acidimicrobiaceae bacteria A6 with nontronite, an Fe(III)-rich clay, and approximately 10 µM U indicate that these bacteria can use U(VI) in addition to Fe(III) as an electron acceptor in the presence of ammonium. Measurements of Fe(II) production and ammonium oxidation support this interpretation. Concentrations of approximately 100 µM U were found to entirely inhibit Acidimicrobiaceae bacteria A6 activity. These results suggest that natural sites of active ammonium oxidation under Fe reducing conditions by Acidimicrobiaceae bacteria A6 could be hotspots of U immobilization by bioreduction. This is the first report of biological U reduction that is not coupled to carbon oxidation.

  16. The best laid plans: examining the conditions under which a planning intervention improves learning and reduces attrition.

    PubMed

    Sitzmann, Traci; Johnson, Stefanie K

    2012-09-01

    Planning plays an instrumental role in prominent self-regulation theories (e.g., action regulation, control, goal setting), yet as a scientific community we know little about how people carry out their learning plans. Using an experimental field study, we implemented a repeated-measures intervention requiring trainees to create a plan for when, where, and how much time they intended to devote to training before each of 4 online modules and examined the conditions under which the planning intervention improved learning and reduced attrition. Trainees benefited from the planning intervention when it was paired with another intervention-prompting self-regulation-targeting self-regulatory processes that occur subsequent to planning (e.g., monitoring, concentration, learning strategies). Trainees' learning performance was highest and attrition lowest when they received both interventions. The planning intervention was also advantageous for enhancing learning and reducing attrition when trainees followed through on the amount of time that they planned to devote to training. Finally, the relationship between planned study time, time on task, and learning performance was cyclical. Planned study time had a positive effect on time on task, which, in turn, had a positive effect on learning performance. However, trainees planned to devote less time to training following higher rather than lower learning performance. The current study contributes to our theoretical understanding of self-regulated learning by researching one of the most overlooked components of the process-planning-and examining the conditions under which establishing a learning plan enhances training outcomes.

  17. Biodegradation of low-molecular-weight alkanes under mesophilic, sulfate-reducing conditions: metabolic intermediates and community patterns.

    PubMed

    Savage, Kristen N; Krumholz, Lee R; Gieg, Lisa M; Parisi, Victoria A; Suflita, Joseph M; Allen, Jon; Philp, R Paul; Elshahed, Mostafa S

    2010-06-01

    We evaluated the ability of the native microbiota in a low-temperature, sulfidic natural hydrocarbon seep (Zodletone) to metabolize short-chain hydrocarbons. n-Propane and n-pentane were metabolized under sulfate-reducing conditions in initial enrichments and in sediment-free subcultures. Carbon isotope analysis of residual propane in active enrichments showed that propane became enriched in (13)C by 6.7 (+/-2.0) per thousand, indicating a biological mechanism for propane loss. The detection of n-propylsuccinic and isopropylsuccinic acids in active propane-degrading enrichments provided evidence for anaerobic biodegradation via a fumarate addition pathway. A eubacterial 16S rRNA gene survey of sediment-free enrichments showed that the majority of the sequenced clones were phylogenetically affiliated within the Deltaproteobacteria. Such sequences were most closely affiliated with clones retrieved from hydrocarbon-impacted marine ecosystems, volatile fatty acid metabolizers, hydrogen users, and with a novel Deltaproteobacterial lineage. Other cloned sequences were affiliated with the Firmicutes and Chloroflexi phyla. The sequenced clones were only distantly (<95%) related to other reported low-molecular-weight alkane-degrading sulfate-reducing populations. This work documents the potential for anaerobic short-chain n-alkane metabolism for the first time in a terrestrial environment, provides evidence for a fumarate addition mechanism for n-propane activation under these conditions, and reveals microbial community members present in such enrichments.

  18. Reduced intensity conditioning HLA identical sibling donor allogeneic stem cell transplantation for patients with follicular lymphoma: long-term follow-up from two prospective multicenter trials

    PubMed Central

    Piñana, José Luis; Martino, Rodrigo; Gayoso, Jorge; Sureda, Anna; de la Serna, Javier; Díez-Martín, Jose Luis; Vazquez, Lourdes; Arranz, Reyes; Tomás, José Francisco; Sampol, Antonia; Solano, Carlos; Delgado, Julio; Sierra, Jorge; Caballero, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    Background Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment for patients with poor risk lymphoma, at least in part because of the graft-versus-lymphoma effect. Over the past decade, reduced intensity conditioning regimens have been shown to offer results similar to those of conventional high-dose conditioning regimens but with lower toxicity early after transplantation, especially in patients with chemosensitive disease at transplant. Design and Methods The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term outcome of patients with follicular lymphoma who received an HLA identical sibling allogeneic stem cell transplant with a reduced intensity conditioning regimen within prospective trials. The prospective multicenter studies considered included 37 patients with follicular lymphoma who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation between 1998 and 2007 with a fludarabine plus melphalan-based reduced intensity conditioning regimen. Results The median age of the patients was 50 years (range, 34–62 years) and the median follow-up was 52 months (range, 0.6 to 113 months). Most patients (77%) had stage III-IV at diagnosis, and patients had received a median of three lines of therapy before the reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation. At the time of transplantation, 14 patients were in complete remission, 16 in partial remission and 7 had refractory or progressive disease after salvage chemotherapy. The 4-year overall survival rates for patients in complete remission, partial remission, or with refractory or progressive disease were 71%, 48% and 29%, respectively (P=0.09), whereas the 4-year cumulative incidences of non-relapse mortality were 26% (95% CI, 11–61), 33% (95% CI, 16–68) and 71% (95% CI, 44–100), respectively. The incidence of relapse for the whole group was only 8% (95% CI, 2–23). Conclusions We conclude that this strategy of reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation

  19. Ultra-reducing conditions in average mantle peridotites and in podiform chromitites: a thermodynamic model for moissanite (SiC) formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubkova, Anastasia; Schmidt, Max W.; Connolly, James A. D.

    2016-05-01

    Natural moissanite (SiC) is reported from mantle-derived samples ranging from lithospheric mantle keel diamonds to serpentinites to podiform chromitites in ophiolites related to suprasubduction zone settings (Luobusa, Dongqiao, Semail, and Ray-Iz). To simulate ultra-reducing conditions and the formation of moissanite, we compiled thermodynamic data for alloys (Fe-Si-C and Fe-Cr), carbides (Fe3C, Fe7C3, SiC), and Fe-silicides; these data were augmented by commonly used thermodynamic data for silicates and oxides. Computed phase diagram sections then constrain the P- T- fO2 conditions of SiC stability in the upper mantle. Our results demonstrate that: Moissanite only occurs at oxygen fugacities 6.5-7.5 log units below the iron-wustite buffer; moissanite and chromite cannot stably coexist; increasing pressure does not lead to the stability of this mineral pair; and silicates that coexist with moissanite have X Mg > 0.99. At upper mantle conditions, chromite reduces to Fe-Cr alloy at fO2 values 3.7-5.3 log units above the moissanite-olivine-(ortho)pyroxene-carbon (graphite or diamond) buffer (MOOC). The occurrence of SiC in chromitites and the absence of domains with almost Fe-free silicates suggest that ultra-reducing conditions allowing for SiC are confined to grain scale microenvironments. In contrast to previous ultra-high-pressure and/or temperature hypotheses for SiC origin, we postulate a low to moderate temperature mechanism, which operates via ultra-reducing fluids. In this model, graphite-/diamond-saturated moderately reducing fluids evolve in chemical isolation from the bulk rock to ultra-reducing methane-dominated fluids by sequestering H2O into hydrous phases (serpentine, brucite, phase A). Carbon isotope compositions of moissanite are consistent with an origin of such fluids from sediments originally rich in organic compounds. Findings of SiC within rocks mostly comprised by hydrous phases (serpentine + brucite) support this model. Both the hydrous phases

  20. Study Shows Aspirin Reduces Colorectal Cancer in Those at High Risk

    Cancer.gov

    Findings from the first large clinical trial of its kind indicate that taking high doses of aspirin daily for at least 2 years substantially reduces the risk of colorectal cancer among people at increased risk of the disease.

  1. Exemestane Reduces Breast Cancer Risk in High-Risk Postmenopausal Women

    Cancer.gov

    Clinical trial results presented at the 2011 ASCO annual meeting showed that the aromatase inhibitor exemestane—used to treat early and advanced breast cancer—substantially reduced the risk of invasive breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women.

  2. Reduction of Cr(VI) under acidic conditions by the facultative Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Acidiphilium cryptum

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Cummings; Scott Fendorf; Rajesh K. Sani; Brent M. Peyton; Timothy S. Magnuson

    2007-01-01

    The potential for biological reduction of Cr(VI) under acidic conditions was evaluated with the acidophilic, facultatively metal-reducing bacterium Acidiphilium cryptum strain JF-5 to explore the role of acidophilic microorganisms in the Cr cycle in low-pH environments. An anaerobic suspension of washed A. cryptum cells rapidly reduced 50 M Cr(VI) at pH 3.2; biological reduction was detected from pH 1.7-4.7. The reduction product, confirmed by XANES analysis, was entirely Cr(III) that was associated predominantly with the cell biomass (70-80%) with the residual residing in the aqueous phase. Reduction of Cr(VI) showed a pH optimum similar to that for growth and was inhibited by 5 mM HgCl2, suggesting that the reaction was enzyme-mediated. Introduction of O2 into the reaction medium slowed the reduction rate only slightly, whereas soluble Fe(III) (as ferric sulfate) increased the rate dramatically, presumably by the shuttling of electrons from bioreduced Fe(II) to Cr(VI) in a coupled biotic-abiotic cycle. Starved cells could not reduce Cr(VI) when provided as sole electron acceptor, indicating that Cr(VI) reduction is not an energy-conserving process in A. cryptum. We speculate, rather, that Cr(VI) reduction is used here as a detoxification mechanism.

  3. Arsenic Re-Mobilization in Water Treatment Adsorbents Under Reducing Conditions: Part II, XAS and Modeling Study

    SciTech Connect

    Liu,S.; Jing, C.; Meng, X.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of arsenic re-mobilization in spent adsorbents under reducing conditions was studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and surface complexation model calculations. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy demonstrated that As(V) was partially reduced to As(III) in spent granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), titanium dioxide (TiO2), activated alumina (AA) and modified activated alumina (MAA) adsorbents after 2 years of anaerobic incubation. As(V) was completely reduced to As(III) in spent granular ferric oxide (GFO) under 2-year incubation. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy analysis showed that As(III) formed bidentate binuclear surface complexes on GFO as evidenced by an average As(III)-O bond distance of 1.78 Angstroms and As(III)-Fe distance of 3.34 Angstroms . The release of As from the spent GFO and TiO2 was simulated using the charge distribution multi-site complexation (CD-MUSIC) model. The observed redox ranges for As release and sulfate mobility were described by model calculations.

  4. Design, conditioning, and performance of a high voltage, high brightness dc photoelectron gun with variable gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxson, Jared; Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Dobbins, John; Liu, Xianghong; Smolenski, Karl

    2014-09-01

    A new high voltage photoemission gun has been constructed at Cornell University which features a segmented insulator and a movable anode, allowing the cathode-anode gap to be adjusted. In this work, we describe the gun's overall mechanical and high voltage design, the surface preparation of components, as well as the clean construction methods. We present high voltage conditioning data using a 50 mm cathode-anode gap, in which the conditioning voltage exceeds 500 kV, as well as at smaller gaps. Finally, we present simulated emittance results obtained from a genetic optimization scheme using voltage values based on the conditioning data. These results indicate that for charges up to 100 pC, a 30 mm gap at 400 kV has equal or smaller 100% emittance than a 50 mm gap at 450 kV, and also a smaller core emittance, when placed as the source for the Cornell energy recovery linac photoinjector with bunch length constrained to be <3 ps rms. For 100 pC up to 0.5 nC charges, the 50 mm gap has larger core emittance than the 30 mm gap, but conversely smaller 100% emittance.

  5. Design, conditioning, and performance of a high voltage, high brightness dc photoelectron gun with variable gap

    SciTech Connect

    Maxson, Jared; Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Dobbins, John; Liu, Xianghong; Smolenski, Karl

    2014-09-15

    A new high voltage photoemission gun has been constructed at Cornell University which features a segmented insulator and a movable anode, allowing the cathode-anode gap to be adjusted. In this work, we describe the gun's overall mechanical and high voltage design, the surface preparation of components, as well as the clean construction methods. We present high voltage conditioning data using a 50 mm cathode-anode gap, in which the conditioning voltage exceeds 500 kV, as well as at smaller gaps. Finally, we present simulated emittance results obtained from a genetic optimization scheme using voltage values based on the conditioning data. These results indicate that for charges up to 100 pC, a 30 mm gap at 400 kV has equal or smaller 100% emittance than a 50 mm gap at 450 kV, and also a smaller core emittance, when placed as the source for the Cornell energy recovery linac photoinjector with bunch length constrained to be <3 ps rms. For 100 pC up to 0.5 nC charges, the 50 mm gap has larger core emittance than the 30 mm gap, but conversely smaller 100% emittance.

  6. Influence of high gravity process conditions on the environmental impact of ethanol production from wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Matty; Tillman, Anne-Marie; Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-12-01

    Biofuel production processes at high gravity are currently under development. Most of these processes however use sugars or first generation feedstocks as substrate. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the production of bio-ethanol at high gravity conditions from a second generation feedstock, namely, wheat straw. The LCA used lab results of a set of 36 process configurations in which dry matter content, enzyme preparation and loading, and process strategy were varied. The LCA results show that higher dry matter content leads to a higher environmental impact of the ethanol production, but this can be compensated by reducing the impact of enzyme production and use, and by polyethylene glycol addition at high dry matter content. The results also show that the renewable and non-renewable energy use resulting from the different process configurations ultimately determine their environmental impact. PMID:25299491

  7. Influence of high gravity process conditions on the environmental impact of ethanol production from wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Matty; Tillman, Anne-Marie; Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-12-01

    Biofuel production processes at high gravity are currently under development. Most of these processes however use sugars or first generation feedstocks as substrate. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the production of bio-ethanol at high gravity conditions from a second generation feedstock, namely, wheat straw. The LCA used lab results of a set of 36 process configurations in which dry matter content, enzyme preparation and loading, and process strategy were varied. The LCA results show that higher dry matter content leads to a higher environmental impact of the ethanol production, but this can be compensated by reducing the impact of enzyme production and use, and by polyethylene glycol addition at high dry matter content. The results also show that the renewable and non-renewable energy use resulting from the different process configurations ultimately determine their environmental impact.

  8. Can a prescribed turnout conditioning program reduce the differential between passive and active turnout in pre-professional dancers?

    PubMed

    Sherman, Astrid J; Mayall, Erika; Tasker, Susan L

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary and speculative findings are reported on the benefits of a prescribed turnout conditioning program (TCP) designed to facilitate pre-professional dancers' active use of natural turnout potential. While of some debate, it is reported in the literature that many dancers use less turnout than what is available to them when measured passively. Key muscles required to achieve full turnout were the focus of the TCP, and exercises were introduced in a manner that, theoretically, should stimulate appropriate activation patterns for proper turnout biomechanics. A group of female pre-professional dancers (13 to 17 years old, training 20 to 25 hours a week, N = 16) were measured before and after the 7-week program for total passive turnout, total active turnout, passive hip external rotation, and tibial torsion. Statistically and functionally significant improvements were found in both static total active turnout (standing in first position on a large piece of paper) and dynamic total active turnout (standing in first position on rotational Balanced Body discs). These results indicate that the TCP was effective in improving active turnout, thereby reducing the differential between passive and active turnout in pre-professional ballet dancers. Implications are discussed for dancer-specific turnout conditioning programs, the role of cognitive imagery cueing, and emphasis on the importance of quantity with quality in the conditioning and teaching of active turnout. PMID:25474295

  9. Can a prescribed turnout conditioning program reduce the differential between passive and active turnout in pre-professional dancers?

    PubMed

    Sherman, Astrid J; Mayall, Erika; Tasker, Susan L

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary and speculative findings are reported on the benefits of a prescribed turnout conditioning program (TCP) designed to facilitate pre-professional dancers' active use of natural turnout potential. While of some debate, it is reported in the literature that many dancers use less turnout than what is available to them when measured passively. Key muscles required to achieve full turnout were the focus of the TCP, and exercises were introduced in a manner that, theoretically, should stimulate appropriate activation patterns for proper turnout biomechanics. A group of female pre-professional dancers (13 to 17 years old, training 20 to 25 hours a week, N = 16) were measured before and after the 7-week program for total passive turnout, total active turnout, passive hip external rotation, and tibial torsion. Statistically and functionally significant improvements were found in both static total active turnout (standing in first position on a large piece of paper) and dynamic total active turnout (standing in first position on rotational Balanced Body discs). These results indicate that the TCP was effective in improving active turnout, thereby reducing the differential between passive and active turnout in pre-professional ballet dancers. Implications are discussed for dancer-specific turnout conditioning programs, the role of cognitive imagery cueing, and emphasis on the importance of quantity with quality in the conditioning and teaching of active turnout.

  10. High-quality and high-purity homoepitaxial diamond (100) film growth under high oxygen concentration condition

    SciTech Connect

    Teraji, Tokuyuki

    2015-09-21

    Defect formation during diamond homoepitaxial growth was sufficiently inhibited by adding oxygen simultaneously in the growth ambient with high concentration of 2%. A 30-μm thick diamond films with surface roughness of <2 nm were homoepitaxially deposited on the (100) diamond single crystal substrates with reasonable growth rate of approximately 3 μm h{sup −1} under the conditions of higher methane concentration of 10%, higher substrate temperature of ∼1000 °C, and higher microwave power density condition of >100 W cm{sup −3}. Surface characteristic patterns moved to an identical direction with growth thickness, indicating that lateral growth was dominant growth mode. High chemical purity represented by low nitrogen concentration of less than 1 ppb and the highest {sup 12}C isotopic ratio of 99.998% of the obtained homoepitaxial diamond (100) films suggest that the proposed growth condition has high ability of impurity control.

  11. A modified resistance equation for modeling underwater spark discharge with salinity and high pressure conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Pengfei; Roy, Subrata

    2014-05-07

    This work investigates the performance of underwater spark discharge relating to bubble growth and decay under high pressure and with salinity conditions by introducing a modified form of the resistance equation. Here, we study salinity influence on circuit parameters by fitting the experimental data for which gap resistance is much larger in conductive water than in dielectric water. Accordingly, the resistance equation is modified by considering the influence of both plasma and its surrounding liquid. Thermal radiation effect of the bubble is also studied by comparing two different radiation models. Numerical results predict a larger bubble pressure for saline water but a reduced size and a smaller bubble cycle at a greater water depth. Such study may be useful in many saltwater applications, including that for deep sea conditions.

  12. Reduced basis ANOVA methods for partial differential equations with high-dimensional random inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Qifeng; Lin, Guang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we present a reduced basis ANOVA approach for partial deferential equations (PDEs) with random inputs. The ANOVA method combined with stochastic collocation methods provides model reduction in high-dimensional parameter space through decomposing high-dimensional inputs into unions of low-dimensional inputs. In this work, to further reduce the computational cost, we investigate spatial low-rank structures in the ANOVA-collocation method, and develop efficient spatial model reduction techniques using hierarchically generated reduced bases. We present a general mathematical framework of the methodology, validate its accuracy and demonstrate its efficiency with numerical experiments.

  13. High voltage conditioning of the electrostatic deflector of MARA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partanen, J.; Johansen, U.; Sarén, J.; Tuunanen, J.; Uusitalo, J.

    2016-06-01

    MARA is a new recoil mass separator in the Accelerator Laboratory of University of Jyväskylä (JYFL-ACCLAB) with a mass resolving power of 250 and an ion-optical configuration of QQQDEDM . In this paper the construction, control and conditioning of its electrostatic deflector are described. The deflector was designed for voltages up to 500 kV accross the gap, corresponding to a 3.6 MV/m field, to accomodate fusion reactions with inverse kinematics. Titanium electrodes with a beam dump opening in the anode are used. The conditioning procedure, which has been used repeatedly to take the deflector to 450 kV, is described, along with the safety systems and precautions that are in place.

  14. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL... flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. (a) Special flight...

  15. Low-socioeconomic-status enrollees in high-deductible plans reduced high-severity emergency care.

    PubMed

    Wharam, J Frank; Zhang, Fang; Landon, Bruce E; Soumerai, Stephen B; Ross-Degnan, Dennis

    2013-08-01

    One-third of US workers now have high-deductible health plans, and those numbers are expected to grow in 2014 as implementation of the Affordable Care Act continues. There is concern that high-deductible health plans might cause enrollees of low socioeconomic status to forgo emergency care as a result of burdensome out-of-pocket costs. We analyzed emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations over two years among enrollees insured in high-deductible plans through small employers in Massachusetts. We found that plan members of low socioeconomic status experienced 25-30 percent reductions in high-severity ED visits over both years, while hospitalizations declined by 23 percent in year 1 but rose again in year 2. Similar trends were not found among high-deductible plan members of high socioeconomic status. Our findings suggest that plan members of low socioeconomic status at small firms responded inappropriately to high-deductible plans and that initial reductions in high-severity ED visits might have increased the need for subsequent hospitalizations. Policy makers and employers should consider proactive strategies to educate high-deductible plan members about their benefit structures or identify members at higher risk of avoiding needed care. They should also consider implementing means-based deductibles.

  16. Reduced anticipatory dopamine responses to food in rats exposed to high fat during early development.

    PubMed

    Naef, L; Moquin, L; Gratton, A; Walker, C-D

    2013-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated that exposure to high fat (HF) during early development alters the presynaptic regulation of mesolimbic dopamine (DA), and increases incentive motivation for HF food rewards. The goal of the present experiments was to examine the long-term consequences of early exposure to HF on anticipatory and consumatory nucleus accumbens (NAc) DA responses to HF food rewards. Mothers were maintained on a HF (30% fat) or control diet (CD; 5% fat) from gestation day 13 to postnatal day 22 when offspring from both diet groups were weaned and maintained on the CD until adulthood. In vivo NAc DA responses to food anticipation and consumption were measured in a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm using voltammetry in freely moving rats. HF-exposed offspring displayed reduced NAc DA responses to a tone previously paired with the delivery of HF food rewards. In an unconditioned protocol, consumatory NAc DA responses could be isolated, and were similar in HF and control offspring. These data demonstrate that exposure to HF through maternal diet during early development might program behavioral and functional responses associated with mesolimbic DA neurotransmission, thus leading to an increased HF feeding and obesity.

  17. Response of reduced activation ferritic steels to high-fluence ion-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanigawa, H.; Ando, M.; Katoh, Y.; Hirose, T.; Sakasegawa, H.; Jitsukawa, S.; Kohyama, A.; Iwai, T.

    2001-09-01

    Effects of high-fluence irradiation in fusion-relevant helium production condition on defect cluster formation and swelling of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFs), JLF-1 (Fe-9Cr-2W-V-Ta) and F82H (Fe-8Cr-2W-V-Ta), have been investigated. Dual-ion (nickel plus helium ions) irradiation using electrostatic accelerators was adopted to simulate fusion neutron environment. The irradiation has been carried out up to a damage level of 100 displacement per atom (dpa) at around 723 K, at the HIT facility in the University of Tokyo. Thin foils for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were prepared with a focused ion beam (FIB) microsampling system. The system enabled not only the broad cross-sectional TEM observation, but also the detailed study of irradiated microstructure, since unfavorable effects of ferromagnetism of a ferritic steel specimen were completely suppressed with this system by sampling a small volume in interests from the irradiated material.

  18. Outcomes of HLA Matched Sibling Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Myeloablative vs. Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Sobecks, Ronald M.; Leis, Jose F.; Gale, Robert Peter; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Zhu, Xiaochun; Sabloff, Mitchell; de Lima, Marcos; Brown, Jennifer R.; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Hale, Gregory A.; Aljurf, Mahmoud D.; Kamble, Rammurti T.; Hsu, Jack W.; Pavletic, Steven Z.; Wirk, Baldeep; Seftel, Matthew D.; Lewis, Ian D.; Alyea, Edwin P.; Cortes, Jorge; Kalaycio, Matt E.; Maziarz, Richard T.; Saber, Wael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can cure some chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) subjects. This study compared outcomes of myeloablative (MA) and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) transplants from HLA-matched sibling donors (MSD) for CLL. Patients and Methods From 1995–2007 there were 297 CLL subjects reported to the CIBMTR who received MA (N=163) and RIC (N=134) MSD HCT. The MA subjects were less often transplanted after 2000 and less commonly received anti-thymocyte globulin (4% vs. 13%, p=0.004) or prior antibody therapy (14% vs. 53%; p<0.001). Results RIC was associated with a greater likelihood of platelet recovery and less grade 2–4 acute GvHD compared to MA conditioning. 1 and 5-year treatment related mortality (TRM) were 24% (95% confidence intervals (CI), 16–33%) vs. 37% (95% CI, 30–45%; p=0.023), and 40% (95% CI, 29–51%) vs. 54% (95% CI, 46–62%; p=0.036), and the relapse/progression rates were 21% (95% CI, 14–29%) vs. 10% (95% CI, 6–15%; p=0.020), and 35% (95% CI, 26–46%) vs. 17% (95% CI, 12–24%; p=0.003). MA conditioning was associated with better progression-free (PFS) (relative risk (RR) 0.60; 95% CI, 0.37–0.97, p=0.038) and 3-year survival in transplants before 2001, but for subsequent years RIC was associated with better PFS and survival (RR 1.49 (95% CI, 0.92–2.42), p=0.10; and RR 1.86 (95% CI, 1.11–3.13), p=0.019). Pre-transplant disease status was the most important predictor of relapse (p=0.003) and PFS (p=0.0007) for both forms of transplant conditioning. Conclusion MA and RIC MSD transplants are effective for CLL. Future strategies to decrease TRM and reduce relapses are warranted. PMID:24880021

  19. Sulfonated reduced graphene oxide as a highly efficient catalyst for direct amidation of carboxylic acids with amines using ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Mirza-Aghayan, Maryam; Tavana, Mahdieh Molaee; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2016-03-01

    Sulfonated reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (rGO-SO3H) were prepared by grafting sulfonic acid-containing aryl radicals onto chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) under sonochemical conditions. rGO-SO3H catalyst was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). rGO-SO3H catalyst was successfully applied as a reusable solid acid catalyst for the direct amidation of carboxylic acids with amines into the corresponding amides under ultrasonic irradiation. The direct sonochemical amidation of carboxylic acid takes place under mild conditions affording in good to high yields (56-95%) the corresponding amides in short reaction times.

  20. High-speed visualization of disturbed pathlines in axial flow ventricular assist device under pulsatile conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fang; Kormos, Robert L.; Antaki, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate potentially pro-thrombotic flow patterns within an axial flow ventricular assist device under clinically relevant pulsatile hemodynamic conditions. Methods A transparent replica of the HeartMate-II was visualized using a high speed camera at both low and high frame rates (125 and 3000 fps). Three steady-state conditions were studied: nominal (4.5 lpm), low flow (3.0 lpm) and high flow (6.0 lpm). Time-varying conditions were introduced with external pulsatile pump which modulated the flow rate by approximately +/−50% of the mean, corresponding to a pulsatility index of 1.0. Results At nominal and high flow rates, the path lines within the upstream region were generally stable, well attached, and streamlined. As the flow rate was reduced below 3.8 lpm, a rapid transition to a chaotic velocity field occurred exhibiting a large toroidal vortex adjacent to the upstream bearing. The pathlines in the downstream stator section were consistently chaotic for all hemodynamic conditions investigated. It was common to observe tracer particles trapped within recirculation bubbles and drawn retrograde, causing repeated contact with the bearing surfaces. The addition of pulsatility caused the flow field to become periodically chaotic during the diastolic portion of the cardiac cycle depending on the instantaneous flow rate and acceleration. Conclusion The contribution of pulsatility by the native heart may induce a periodic disturbance to an otherwise stable flow field within an axial flow VAD, particularly during the diastolic and decelerating portion of the cardiac cycle. Potentially pro-thrombotic flow features were found to occur periodically in the region of the upstream bearing. PMID:26208892

  1. Flow separation in rocket nozzles under high altitude condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, R.; Génin, C.

    2016-03-01

    The knowledge of flow separation in rocket nozzles is crucial for rocket engine design and optimum performance. Typically, flow separation is studied under sea-level conditions. However, this disregards the change of the ambient density during ascent of a launcher. The ambient flow properties are an important factor concerning the design of altitude-adaptive rocket nozzles like the dual bell nozzle. For this reason an experimental study was carried out to study the influence of the ambient density on flow separation within conventional nozzles.

  2. Use of highly alkaline conditions to improve cost-effectiveness of algal biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Canon-Rubio, Karen A; Sharp, Christine E; Bergerson, Joule; Strous, Marc; De la Hoz Siegler, Hector

    2016-02-01

    Phototrophic microorganisms have been proposed as an alternative to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) and to produce biofuels and other valuable products. Low CO2 absorption rates, low volumetric productivities, and inefficient downstream processing, however, currently make algal biotechnology highly energy intensive, expensive, and not economically competitive to produce biofuels. This mini-review summarizes advances made regarding the cultivation of phototrophic microorganisms at highly alkaline conditions, as well as other innovations oriented toward reducing the energy input into the cultivation and processing stages. An evaluation, in terms of energy requirements and energy return on energy invested, is performed for an integrated high-pH, high-alkalinity growth process that uses biofilms. Performance in terms of productivity and expected energy return on energy invested is presented for this process and is compared to previously reported life cycle assessments (LCAs) for systems at near-neutral pH. The cultivation of alkaliphilic phototrophic microorganisms in biofilms is shown to have a significant potential to reduce both energy requirements and capital costs.

  3. Evaluating the anti Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd. axenically under reducing oxygen conditions and in intracellular assays

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In tuberculosis (TB), the steadily increasing bacterial resistance to existing drugs and latent TB continue to be major concerns. A combination of conventional drugs and plant derived therapeutics can serve to expand the antimicrobial spectrum, prevent the emergence of drug resistant mutants and minimize toxicity. Alpinia galanga, used in various traditional medicines, possesses broad spectrum antibacterial properties. The study was undertaken to assess the antimycobacterial potential of A. galanga in axenic (under aerobic and anaerobic conditions) and intracellular assays. Methods Phytochemical analysis was done using HPTLC. The acetone, aqueous and ethanolic extracts (1, 10, 25, 50 and 100 μg/ml) of A. galanga were tested axenically using Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) H37Rv and three drug sensitive and three multi drug resistant clinical isolates. The activity of the extracts was also evaluated intracellularly in A549 cell line against these strains. The extracts active under intracellular conditions were further tested in an axenic setup under reducing oxygen concentrations using only H37Rv. Results 1´ acetoxychavicol acetate, the reference standard used, was present in all the three extracts. The acetone and ethanolic extracts were active in axenic (aerobic and anaerobic) and intracellular assays. The aqueous extract did not demonstrate activity under the defined assay parameters. Conclusion A. galanga exhibits anti M.tb activity with multiple modes of action. Since the activity of the extracts was observed under reducing oxygen concentrations, it may be effective in treating the dormant and non-replicating bacteria of latent TB. Though the hypothesis needs further testing, A. galanga being a regular dietary component may be utilized in combination with the conventional TB therapy for enhanced efficacy. PMID:24592852

  4. 44 CFR 13.12 - Special grant or subgrant conditions for “high-risk” grantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... grant or subgrant conditions for “high-risk” grantees. (a) A grantee or subgrantee may be considered “high risk” if an awarding agency determines that a grantee or subgrantee: (1) Has a history of... will be made, special conditions and/or restrictions shall correspond to the high risk condition...

  5. 28 CFR 66.12 - Special grant or subgrant conditions for “high-risk” grantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pre-Award Requirements § 66.12 Special grant or subgrant conditions for “high-risk” grantees. (a) A grantee or subgrantee may be considered “high risk” if an awarding agency determines that a grantee or... correspond to the high risk condition and shall be included in the award. (b) Special conditions...

  6. CD226 reduces endothelial cell glucose uptake under hyperglycemic conditions with inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zilong; Zhang, Jinxue; Sun, Yizheng; Jin, Boquan; Gao, Feng; Guo, Shuzhong; Zhuang, Ran

    2016-01-01

    CD226 is a co-stimulatory adhesion molecule found on immune and endothelial cells. Here, we evaluated a possible role for CD226 in inhibiting glucose uptake in isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in wild-type (WT) and CD226 knockout (KO) mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes (T2DM). CD226 expression increased under hyperglycemic conditions in the presence of TNF-α. Furthermore, CD226 knockdown improved glucose uptake in endothelial cells, and CD226 KO mice exhibited increased glucose tolerance. Levels of soluble CD226 in plasma were higher in T2DM patients following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) than under fasting conditions. Our results indicate that low-grade inflammation coupled with elevated blood glucose increases CD226 expression, resulting in decreased endothelial cell glucose uptake in T2DM. PMID:26910838

  7. A model for calculation of RCS pressure during reflux boiling under reduced inventory conditions and its assessment against PKL data

    SciTech Connect

    Palmrose, D.E.; Mandl, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    There has been recent interest in the United States concerning the loss of residual heat removal system (RHRS) under reduced coolant inventory conditions for pressurized water reactors. This issue is also of interest in the Federal Republic of Germany and an experiment was performed in the integral PKL-HI experimental facility at Siemens-KWU to supply applicable data. Recently, an NRC-sponsored effort has been undertaken at the Idaho-National Engineering Laboratory to identify and analyze the important thermal-hydraulic phenomena in pressurized water reactors following the long term loss-of-RHRS during reduced inventory operation. The thermal-hydraulic response of a closed reactor coolant system during such a transient is investigated in this report. Some of the specific processes investigated include: reflux condensation in the steam generators, the corresponding pressure increase in the reactor coolant system, and void fraction distributions on the primary side of the system. Mathematical models of these and other physical processes Experiment B4.5.

  8. Neuropeptide S reduces fear and avoidance of con-specifics induced by social fear conditioning and social defeat, respectively.

    PubMed

    Zoicas, Iulia; Menon, Rohit; Neumann, Inga D

    2016-09-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) has anxiolytic effects and facilitates extinction of cued fear in rodents. Here, we investigated whether NPS reverses social fear and social avoidance induced by social fear conditioning (SFC) and acute social defeat (SD), respectively, in male CD1 mice. Our results revealed that intracerebroventricular NPS (icv; 10 and 50 nmol/2 μl) reversed fear of unknown con-specifics induced by SFC and dose-dependently reduced avoidance of known aggressive con-specifics induced by SD. While 50 nmol of NPS completely reversed social avoidance and reinstated social preference, 10 nmol of NPS reduced social avoidance, but did not completely reinstate social preference in socially-defeated mice. Further, a lower dose (1 nmol/2 μl) of NPS facilitated the within-session extinction of cued fear, while a higher dose (10 nmol/2 μl) reduced the expression of cued fear. We could also confirm the anxiolytic effects of NPS (1, 10 and 50 nmol/2 μl) on the elevated plus-maze (EPM), which were not accompanied by alterations in locomotor activity either on the EPM or in the home cage. Finally, we could show that icv infusion of the NPS receptor 1 antagonist D-Cys((t)Bu)(5)-NPS (10 nmol/2 μl) did not alter SFC-induced social fear, general anxiety and locomotor activity. Taken together, our study extends the potent anxiolytic profile of NPS to a social context by demonstrating the reduction of social fear and social avoidance, thus providing the framework for studies investigating the involvement of the NPS system in the regulation of different types of social behaviour.

  9. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation following reduced-intensity conditioning regimen in children: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Strullu, Marion; Rialland, Fanny; Cahu, Xavier; Brissot, Eolia; Corradini, Nadege; Thomas, Caroline; Blin, Nicolas; Rialland, Xavier; Méchinaud, Françoise; Mohty, Mohamad

    2012-06-01

    This single-center retrospective study reported the outcome of 19 children treated with a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), for hematologic malignancies (n = 17), bone marrow failure (n = 1), and neuroblastoma (n = 1). Children were ineligible for standard myeloablative conditioning because of severe comorbidities (n = 9), a previous auto or allo-SCT (n = 7) or a prior history of extensive chemotherapy (n = 3). All patients underwent a fludarabine-based RIC regimen, and received grafts from matched-related donors (n = 5), match-unrelated donors (n = 6), or unrelated cord blood (UCB, n = 8). In this series, two patients treated with UCB failed to engraft and 63% achieved full donor chimerism at day 100 after allo-SCT. With a median follow-up of 537 d (range, 115-4136), treatment-related mortality was 16% and overall survival was 47%. The principal cause of death was disease relapse (n = 7). Acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) occurred in 53% of patients, while only 10% developed extensive chronic GVHD. Overall, results from this series suggest that RIC allo-SCT can be a valid alternative treatment option in unfit children with malignant hematological diseases. Prospective studies are needed to enlarge pediatric experience in this domain and better identify those children more suitable for a RIC allo-SCT approach.

  10. Clinical and immunological correction of DOCK8 deficiency by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation following a reduced toxicity conditioning regimen.

    PubMed

    Boztug, Heidrun; Karitnig-Weiß, Cäcilia; Ausserer, Bernd; Renner, Ellen D; Albert, Michael H; Sawalle-Belohradsky, Julie; Belohradsky, Bernd H; Mann, Georg; Horcher, Ernst; Rümmele-Waibel, Alexandra; Geyeregger, Rene; Lakatos, Karoly; Peters, Christina; Lawitschka, Anita; Matthes-Martin, Susanne

    2012-10-01

    Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 protein (DOCK8) deficiency is a combined immunodeficiency disorder characterized by an expanding clinical picture with typical features of recurrent respiratory or gastrointestinal tract infections, atopic eczema, food allergies, chronic viral infections of the skin, and blood eosinophilia often accompanied by elevated serum IgE levels. The only definitive treatment option is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We report a patient with early severe manifestation of DOCK8 deficiency, who underwent unrelated allogeneic HSCT at the age of 3 years following a reduced toxicity conditioning regimen. The transplant course was complicated by pulmonary aspergilloma pretransplantation, adenovirus (ADV) reactivation, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis 4 weeks after transplantation. With antifungal and antiviral treatment the patient recovered. Seven months after transplantation the patient is in excellent clinical condition. Eczematous rash, chronic viral skin infections, and food allergies have subsided, associated with normalization of IgE levels and absolute numbers of eosinophils. Chimerism analysis shows stable full donor chimerism. DOCK8 deficiency can be successfully cured by allogeneic HSCT. This treatment option should be considered early after diagnosis, as opportunistic infections and malignancies that occur more frequently during the natural course of the disease are associated with higher morbidity and mortality. PMID:22897717

  11. Breakdown of coral colonial form under reduced pH conditions is initiated in polyps and mediated through apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Kvitt, Hagit; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Maor-Landaw, Keren; Zandbank, Keren; Kushmaro, Ariel; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Fine, Maoz; Tchernov, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Certain stony corals can alternate between a calcifying colonial form and noncalcifying solitary polyps, supporting the hypothesis that corals have survived through geologic timescale periods of unfavorable calcification conditions. However, the mechanisms enabling this biological plasticity are yet to be identified. Here we show that incubation of two coral species (Pocillopora damicornis and Oculina patagonica) under reduced pH conditions (pH 7.2) simulating past ocean acidification induce tissue-specific apoptosis that leads to the dissociation of polyps from coenosarcs. This in turn leads to the breakdown of the coenosarc and, as a consequence, to loss of coloniality. Our data show that apoptosis is initiated in the polyps and that once dissociation between polyp and coenosarc terminates, apoptosis subsides. After reexposure of the resulting solitary polyps to normal pH (pH 8.2), both coral species regenerated coenosarc tissues and resumed calcification. These results indicate that regulation of coloniality is under the control of the polyp, the basic modular unit of the colony. A mechanistic explanation for several key evolutionarily important phenomena that occurred throughout coral evolution is proposed, including mechanisms that permitted species to survive the third tier of mass extinctions. PMID:25646434

  12. Evaluating the efficacy of distributed detention structures to reduce downstream flooding under variable rainfall, antecedent soil, and structural storage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nicholas W.; Arenas Amado, Antonio; Schilling, Keith E.; Weber, Larry J.

    2016-10-01

    This research systematically analyzed the influence of antecedent soil wetness, rainfall depth, and the subsequent impact on peak flows in a 45 km2 watershed. Peak flows increased with increasing antecedent wetness and rainfall depth, with the highest peak flows occurring under intense precipitation on wet soils. Flood mitigation structures were included and investigated under full and empty initial storage conditions. Peak flows were reduced at the outlet of the watershed by 3-17%. The highest peak flow reductions occurred in scenarios with dry soil, empty project storage, and low rainfall depths. These analyses showed that with increased rainfall depth, antecedent moisture conditions became increasingly less impactful. Scaling invariance of peak discharges were shown to hold true within this basin and were fit through ordinary least squares regression for each design scenario. Scale-invariance relationships were extrapolated beyond the outlet of the analyzed basin to the point of intersection of with and without structure scenarios. In each scenario extrapolated peak discharge benefits depreciated at a drainage area of approximately 100 km2. The associated drainage area translated to roughly 2 km downstream of the Beaver Creek watershed outlet. This work provides an example of internal watershed benefits of structural flood mitigation efforts, and the impact the may exert outside of the basin. Additionally, the influence of 1.8 million in flood reduction tools was not sufficient to routinely address downstream flood concerns, shedding light on the additional investment required to alter peak flows in large basins.

  13. Western Grid Can Handle High Renewables in Challenging Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-01

    Fact sheet outlining the key findings of Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3). NREL and GE find that with good system planning, sound engineering practices, and commercially available technologies, the Western grid can maintain reliability and stability during the crucial first minute after grid disturbances with high penetrations of wind and solar power.

  14. Teachers Working Conditions in Turnaround Team High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Eric; Emerick, Scott

    2006-01-01

    North Carolina has become a leader in the national movement toward creating new, smaller high schools that can prepare students for the 21st century demands of higher education and the workforce. Governor Easley has established 13 (with 21 additional schools scheduled to open this Fall) Learn and Earn schools to provide students with at least…

  15. Appraising options to reduce shallow groundwater tables and enhance flow conditions over regional scales in an irrigated alluvial aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morway, Eric D.; Gates, Timothy K.; Niswonger, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Some of the world’s key agricultural production systems face big challenges to both water quantity and quality due to shallow groundwater that results from long-term intensive irrigation, namely waterlogging and salinity, water losses, and environmental problems. This paper focuses on water quantity issues, presenting finite-difference groundwater models developed to describe shallow water table levels, non-beneficial groundwater consumptive use, and return flows to streams across two regions within an irrigated alluvial river valley in southeastern Colorado, USA. The models are calibrated and applied to simulate current baseline conditions in the alluvial aquifer system and to examine actions for potentially improving these conditions. The models provide a detailed description of regional-scale subsurface unsaturated and saturated flow processes, thereby enabling detailed spatiotemporal description of groundwater levels, recharge to infiltration ratios, partitioning of ET originating from the unsaturated and saturated zones, and groundwater flows, among other variables. Hybrid automated and manual calibration of the models is achieved using extensive observations of groundwater hydraulic head, groundwater return flow to streams, aquifer stratigraphy, canal seepage, total evapotranspiration, the portion of evapotranspiration supplied by upflux from the shallow water table, and irrigation flows. Baseline results from the two regional-scale models are compared to model predictions under variations of four alternative management schemes: (1) reduced seepage from earthen canals, (2) reduced irrigation applications, (3) rotational lease fallowing (irrigation water leased to municipalities, resulting in temporary dry-up of fields), and (4) combinations of these. The potential for increasing the average water table depth by up to 1.1 and 0.7 m in the two respective modeled regions, thereby reducing the threat of waterlogging and lowering non-beneficial consumptive use

  16. Appraising options to reduce shallow groundwater tables and enhance flow conditions over regional scales in an irrigated alluvial aquifer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morway, Eric D.; Gates, Timothy K.; Niswonger, Richard G.

    2013-07-01

    Some of the world’s key agricultural production systems face big challenges to both water quantity and quality due to shallow groundwater that results from long-term intensive irrigation, namely waterlogging and salinity, water losses, and environmental problems. This paper focuses on water quantity issues, presenting finite-difference groundwater models developed to describe shallow water table levels, non-beneficial groundwater consumptive use, and return flows to streams across two regions within an irrigated alluvial river valley in southeastern Colorado, USA. The models are calibrated and applied to simulate current baseline conditions in the alluvial aquifer system and to examine actions for potentially improving these conditions. The models provide a detailed description of regional-scale subsurface unsaturated and saturated flow processes, thereby enabling detailed spatiotemporal description of groundwater levels, recharge to infiltration ratios, partitioning of ET originating from the unsaturated and saturated zones, and groundwater flows, among other variables. Hybrid automated and manual calibration of the models is achieved using extensive observations of groundwater hydraulic head, groundwater return flow to streams, aquifer stratigraphy, canal seepage, total evapotranspiration, the portion of evapotranspiration supplied by upflux from the shallow water table, and irrigation flows. Baseline results from the two regional-scale models are compared to model predictions under variations of four alternative management schemes: (1) reduced seepage from earthen canals, (2) reduced irrigation applications, (3) rotational lease fallowing (irrigation water leased to municipalities, resulting in temporary dry-up of fields), and (4) combinations of these. The potential for increasing the average water table depth by up to 1.1 and 0.7 m in the two respective modeled regions, thereby reducing the threat of waterlogging and lowering non-beneficial consumptive use

  17. mTOR ensures increased release and reduced uptake of the organic osmolyte taurine under hypoosmotic conditions in mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Jensen, Jane Vendelbo; Pedersen, Per Amstrup

    2014-06-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that modulates translation in response to growth factors and alterations in nutrient availability following hypoxia and DNA damage. Here we demonstrate that mTOR activity in Ehrlich Lettré ascites (ELA) cells is transiently increased within minutes following osmotic cell swelling and that inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphatase (PTEN) counteracts the upstream phosphatidylinositol kinase and potentiates mTOR activity. PTEN inhibition concomitantly potentiates swelling-induced taurine release via the volume-sensitive transporter for organic osmolytes and anion channels (VSOAC) and enhances swelling-induced inhibition of taurine uptake via the taurine-specific transporter (TauT). Chronic osmotic stress, i.e., exposure to hypotonic or hypertonic media for 24 h, reduces and increases mTOR activity in ELA cells, respectively. Using rapamycin, we demonstrate that mTOR inhibition is accompanied by reduction in TauT activity and increase in VSOAC activity in cells expressing high (NIH3T3 fibroblasts) or low (ELA) amounts of mTOR protein. The effect of mTOR inhibition on TauT activity reflects reduced TauT mRNA, TauT protein abundance, and an overall reduction in protein synthesis, whereas the effect on VSOAC is mimicked by catalase inhibition and correlates with reduced catalase mRNA abundance. Hence, mTOR activity favors loss of taurine following hypoosmotic cell swelling, i.e., release via VSOAC and uptake via TauT during acute hypotonic exposure is potentiated and reduced, respectively, by phosphorylation involving mTOR and/or the kinases upstream to mTOR. Decrease in TauT activity during chronic hypotonic exposure, on the other hand, involves reduction in expression/activity of TauT and enzymes in antioxidative defense. PMID:24696147

  18. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sneha; Yan, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. This study tested the hypothesis that time-restricted feeding (TRF) reduces high-fat diet-induced increase in adiposity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN93G or the high-fat diet ad libitum (ad lib); TRF of the high-fat diet for 12 or 8hours during the dark cycle was initiated when high-fat diet-fed mice exhibited significant increases in body weight. Energy intake of the TRF 12-hour group was not different from that of the high-fat ad lib group, although that of the TRF 8-hour group was slightly but significantly lower. Restricted feeding of the high-fat diet reduced body fat mass and body weight compared with mice fed the high-fat diet ad lib. There were no differences in respiratory exchange ratio (RER) among TRF and high-fat ad lib groups, but the RER of these groups was lower than that of the AIN93G group. Energy expenditure of the TRF groups was slightly but significantly lower than that of the high-fat ad lib group. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin were increased in TRF groups compared with both AIN93G and high-fat ad lib groups. Elevations of plasma concentrations of insulin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1 by high-fat ad lib feeding were reduced by TRF to the levels of mice fed the AIN93G diet. In conclusion, TRF during the dark cycle reduces high-fat diet-induced increases in adiposity and proinflammatory cytokines. These results indicate that circadian timing of food intake may prevent obesity and abate obesity-related metabolic disturbance.

  19. Formation of oligopeptides in high yield under simple programmable conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Marc; Surman, Andrew J.; Cooper, Geoffrey J.T.; Suárez-Marina, Irene; Hosni, Zied; Lee, Michael P.; Cronin, Leroy

    2015-01-01

    Many high-yielding reactions for forming peptide bonds have been developed but these are complex, requiring activated amino-acid precursors and heterogeneous supports. Herein we demonstrate the programmable one-pot dehydration–hydration condensation of amino acids forming oligopeptide chains in around 50% yield. A digital recursive reactor system was developed to investigate this process, performing these reactions with control over parameters such as temperature, number of cycles, cycle duration, initial monomer concentration and initial pH. Glycine oligopeptides up to 20 amino acids long were formed with very high monomer-to-oligomer conversion, and the majority of these products comprised three amino acid residues or more. Having established the formation of glycine homo-oligopeptides, we then demonstrated the co-condensation of glycine with eight other amino acids (Ala, Asp, Glu, His, Lys, Pro, Thr and Val), incorporating a range of side-chain functionality. PMID:26442968

  20. Performance satisfaction of depressives under high and low success conditions.

    PubMed

    Sacco, W P; Hokanson, J E

    1978-10-01

    Evaluated two competing predictions about the effects of high and low success experiences on depressives' satisfaction with performance. No support was found for the prediction derived from Beck's cognitive theory, which posits distorted, negative cognitions about the self as the central dynamic of depression. However, results did tend to support the learned helplessness model's contention that depression is characterized by the perception that reinforcements occur independent of the individual's responses.

  1. Operating condition limitations of high density QCW arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junghans, Jeremy; Levy, Joseph; Feeler, Ryan

    2012-03-01

    Northrop Grumman Cutting Edge Optronics (NGCEO) has developed a laser diode array package with minimal bar-tobar spacing. These High Density Stack (HDS) packages allow for a power density increase on the order of ~ 2.5x when compared to industry-standard arrays. Power densities as high as 15 kW/cm2 can be achieved when operated at 200 W/bar. This work provides a detailed description of the duty factor, pulse width and power limitations of high density arrays. The absence of the interposing heatsinks requires that all of the heat generated by the interior bars must travel through the adjacent bars to the electrical contacts. This results in limitations to the allowable operating envelope of the HDS arrays. Thermal effects such as wavelength shifts across large HDS arrays are discussed. An overview of recent HDS design and manufacturing improvements is also presented. These improvements result in reliable operation at higher power densities and increased duty factors. A comparison of the effect of bar geometry on HDS performance is provided. Test data from arrays featuring these improvements based on both full 1 cm wide diode bars as well as 3 mm wide mini-bars is also presented.

  2. High-efficiency isolated SEPIC converter with reduced conduction losses for LED displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo-Young; Yang, Min-Kwon

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes a high-efficiency isolated bridgeless single-ended primary inductor converter (SEPIC) for light-emitting-diode (LED) displays. The proposed isolated SEPIC converter can supply LED back-light power with reduced conduction losses. Switching power losses as well as conduction losses are reduced. The proposed converter is theoretically analysed. Experimental results based on a 28 V, 300 W back-light power are discussed to verify the performance of the proposed converter.

  3. Archaeal Inorganic Pyrophosphatase Displays Robust Activity under High-Salt Conditions and in Organic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Lana J.; Hepowit, Nathaniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases (PPAs) that hydrolyze inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) to orthophosphate (Pi) are commonly used to accelerate and detect biosynthetic reactions that generate PPi as a by-product. Current PPAs are inactivated by high salt concentrations and organic solvents, which limits the extent of their use. Here we report a class A type PPA of the haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii (HvPPA) that is thermostable and displays robust PPi-hydrolyzing activity under conditions of 25% (vol/vol) organic solvent and salt concentrations from 25 mM to 3 M. HvPPA was purified to homogeneity as a homohexamer by a rapid two-step method and was found to display non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a Vmax of 465 U · mg−1 for PPi hydrolysis (optimal at 42°C and pH 8.5) and Hill coefficients that indicated cooperative binding to PPi and Mg2+. Similarly to other class A type PPAs, HvPPA was inhibited by sodium fluoride; however, hierarchical clustering and three-dimensional (3D) homology modeling revealed HvPPA to be distinct in structure from characterized PPAs. In particular, HvPPA was highly negative in surface charge, which explained its extreme resistance to organic solvents. To demonstrate that HvPPA could drive thermodynamically unfavorable reactions to completion under conditions of reduced water activity, a novel coupled assay was developed; HvPPA hydrolyzed the PPi by-product generated in 2 M NaCl by UbaA (a “salt-loving” noncanonical E1 enzyme that adenylates ubiquitin-like proteins in the presence of ATP). Overall, we demonstrate HvPPA to be useful for hydrolyzing PPi under conditions of reduced water activity that are a hurdle to current PPA-based technologies. PMID:26546423

  4. Explicit disassociation of a conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus during extinction training reduces both time to asymptotic extinction and spontaneous recovery of a conditioned taste aversion

    PubMed Central

    Mickley, G. Andrew; DiSorbo, Anthony; Wilson, Gina N.; Huffman, Jennifer; Bacik, Stephanie; Hoxha, Zana; Biada, Jaclyn M.; Kim, Ye-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversions (CTAs) may be acquired when an animal consumes a novel taste (CS) and then experiences the symptoms of poisoning (US). This aversion may be extinguished by repeated exposure to the CS alone. However, following a latency period in which the CS is not presented, the CTA will spontaneously recover (SR). In the current study we employed an explicitly unpaired extinction procedure (EU-EXT) to determine if it could thwart SR of a CTA. Sprague-Dawley rats acquired a strong CTA after 3 pairings of saccharin (SAC the CS) and Lithium Chloride (LiCl the US). CTA acquisition was followed by extinction (EXT) training consisting of either (a) CS-only exposure (CSO) or, (b) exposure to saccharin and Lithium Chloride on alternate days (i.e., explicitly unpaired: EU). Both extinction procedures resulted in ≥ 90% reacceptance of SAC, although the EU extinction procedure (EU-EXT) significantly decreased the time necessary for rats to reach this criterion (compared to CSO controls). Rats were subsequently tested for SR of the CTA upon re-exposure to SAC following a 30-day latency period of water drinking. Rats that acquired a CTA and then underwent the CSO extinction procedure exhibited a significant suppression of SAC drinking during the SR test (as compared to their SAC drinking at the end of extinction). However, animals in the EU-EXT group did not show such suppression in drinking compared to CSO controls. These data suggest that the EU-EXT procedure may be useful in reducing both time to extinction and the spontaneous recovery of fears. PMID:20161299

  5. The proteomic response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in very high glucose conditions with amino acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pham, Trong Khoa; Wright, Phillip C

    2008-11-01

    Ethanol yield by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in very high glucose (VHG) media with an amino acid supplement was investigated. Amino acid supplementation led to positive cell responses, including reduced lag time and increased cell viability in VHG media. A quantitative shotgun proteomic analysis was used to understand how amino acid supplemented S. cerevisiae responds to high osmotic conditions. iTRAQ data revealed that most proteins involved in glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathways were up-regulated under high glucose shock. Reactivation of amino acid metabolism was also observed at the end of the lag phase. The relative abundance of most identified proteins, including aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis proteins, and heat-shock proteins, remained unchanged in the hours immediately following application of glucose shock. However, the expression of these proteins increased significantly at the end of the lag phase. Furthermore, the up-regulation of trehalose and glycogen biosynthesis proteins, first maintaining then latterly increasing glycolysis pathway activity was also observed. This was verified by enhanced ethanol yields at 10 and 12 h (0.43 and 0.45 g ethanol/g glucose) compared to 2 h (0.32 g ethanol/g glucose). These data combined with relevant metabolite measurements demonstrates that enhanced ethanol fermentation under VHG conditions can be achieved with the aid of amino acid supplementation.

  6. High precision moving magnet chopper for variable operation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aicher, Winfried; Schmid, Manfred

    1994-05-01

    In the context of an ESTEC technology contract, a Chopping Mechanism was developed and built with the Far Infrared and Submillimeter Telescope (FIRST) astronomy mission as a reference. The task of the mechanism is to tilt the subreflector of the telescope with an assumed mass of 2.5 kg about one chopping axis at nominal frequencies of up to 5 Hz and chopping angles of up to +/- 11.25 mrad with high efficiency (minimum time for position change). The chopping axis is required to run through the subreflector vertex. After performing a concept trade-off also considering the low operational temperatures in the 130 K range, a design using moving magnet actuators was found to be the favorite one. In addition, a bearing concept using flexible pivots was chosen to meet the high chopping accuracy required. With this approach, a very reliable design could be realized, since the actuators work without any mechanical contact between its moving and fixed parts, and the only bearings used are two flexible pivots supporting the subreflector mounting interface. The mechanism was completely built in titanium in a lightweight and stiff design. The moving magnet actuators were designed to meet the stringent requirements for minimum risetime (time necessary to move from one angular position to a new one) in the 20 msec range. The angular position and the corresponding chopping frequency as well can be arbitrarily selected by the user.

  7. Current collection by high voltage anodes in near ionospheric conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoniades, John A.; Greaves, Rod G.; Boyd, D. A.; Ellis, R.

    1990-01-01

    The authors experimentally identified three distinct regimes with large differences in current collection in the presence of neutrals and weak magnetic fields. In magnetic field/anode voltage space the three regions are separated by very sharp transition boundaries. The authors performed a series of laboratory experiments to study the dependence of the region boundaries on several parameters, such as the ambient neutral density, plasma density, magnetic field strength, applied anode voltage, voltage pulsewidth, chamber material, chamber size and anode radius. The three observed regimes are: classical magnetic field limited collection; stable medium current toroidal discharge; and large scale, high current space glow discharge. There is as much as several orders of magnitude of difference in the amount of collected current upon any boundary crossing, particularly if one enters the space glow regime. They measured some of the properties of the plasma generated by the breakdown that is present in regimes II and III in the vicinity of the anode including the sheath modified electrostatic potential, I-V characteristics at high voltage as well as the local plasma density.

  8. High precision moving magnet chopper for variable operation conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aicher, Winfried; Schmid, Manfred

    1994-01-01

    In the context of an ESTEC technology contract, a Chopping Mechanism was developed and built with the Far Infrared and Submillimeter Telescope (FIRST) astronomy mission as a reference. The task of the mechanism is to tilt the subreflector of the telescope with an assumed mass of 2.5 kg about one chopping axis at nominal frequencies of up to 5 Hz and chopping angles of up to +/- 11.25 mrad with high efficiency (minimum time for position change). The chopping axis is required to run through the subreflector vertex. After performing a concept trade-off also considering the low operational temperatures in the 130 K range, a design using moving magnet actuators was found to be the favorite one. In addition, a bearing concept using flexible pivots was chosen to meet the high chopping accuracy required. With this approach, a very reliable design could be realized, since the actuators work without any mechanical contact between its moving and fixed parts, and the only bearings used are two flexible pivots supporting the subreflector mounting interface. The mechanism was completely built in titanium in a lightweight and stiff design. The moving magnet actuators were designed to meet the stringent requirements for minimum risetime (time necessary to move from one angular position to a new one) in the 20 msec range. The angular position and the corresponding chopping frequency as well can be arbitrarily selected by the user.

  9. Plasma-induced highly efficient synthesis of boron doped reduced graphene oxide for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaobo; Wang, Zhaofeng; Jiang, Hanmei; Zhang, Limei; Ren, Jingzheng; Zheng, Mingtao; Dong, Lichun; Sun, Luyi

    2016-09-21

    In this work, we presented a novel route to synthesize boron doped reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by using the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma technology under ambient conditions. The doping of boron (1.4 at%) led to a significant improvement in the capacitance of rGO and supercapacitors based on the as-synthesized B-rGO exhibited an outstanding specific capacitance.

  10. Plasma-induced highly efficient synthesis of boron doped reduced graphene oxide for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaobo; Wang, Zhaofeng; Jiang, Hanmei; Zhang, Limei; Ren, Jingzheng; Zheng, Mingtao; Dong, Lichun; Sun, Luyi

    2016-09-21

    In this work, we presented a novel route to synthesize boron doped reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by using the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma technology under ambient conditions. The doping of boron (1.4 at%) led to a significant improvement in the capacitance of rGO and supercapacitors based on the as-synthesized B-rGO exhibited an outstanding specific capacitance. PMID:27534806

  11. High throughput screening of particle conditioning operations: I. System design and method development.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Aaron; Huffman, Ben; Godavarti, Ranga; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel; Coffman, Jonathan; Sunasara, Khurram; Mukhopadhyay, Tarit

    2015-08-01

    The biotech industry is under increasing pressure to decrease both time to market and development costs. Simultaneously, regulators are expecting increased process understanding. High throughput process development (HTPD) employs small volumes, parallel processing, and high throughput analytics to reduce development costs and speed the development of novel therapeutics. As such, HTPD is increasingly viewed as integral to improving developmental productivity and deepening process understanding. Particle conditioning steps such as precipitation and flocculation may be used to aid the recovery and purification of biological products. In this first part of two articles, we describe an ultra scale-down system (USD) for high throughput particle conditioning (HTPC) composed of off-the-shelf components. The apparatus is comprised of a temperature-controlled microplate with magnetically driven stirrers and integrated with a Tecan liquid handling robot. With this system, 96 individual reaction conditions can be evaluated in parallel, including downstream centrifugal clarification. A comprehensive suite of high throughput analytics enables measurement of product titer, product quality, impurity clearance, clarification efficiency, and particle characterization. HTPC at the 1 mL scale was evaluated with fermentation broth containing a vaccine polysaccharide. The response profile was compared with the Pilot-scale performance of a non-geometrically similar, 3 L reactor. An engineering characterization of the reactors and scale-up context examines theoretical considerations for comparing this USD system with larger scale stirred reactors. In the second paper, we will explore application of this system to industrially relevant vaccines and test different scale-up heuristics.

  12. Reduction of uranium(VI) under sulfate-reducing conditions in the presence of Fe(III)-(hydr)oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sani, R. K.; Peyton, B. M.; Amonette, J. E.; Geesey, G. G.

    2004-06-01

    Hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] dissolved in a modified lactate-C medium was treated under anoxic conditions with a mixture of an Fe(III)-(hydr)oxide mineral (hematite, goethite, or ferrihydrite) and quartz. The mass of Fe(III)-(hydr)oxide mineral was varied to give equivalent Fe(III)-mineral surface areas. After equilibration, the U(VI)-mineral suspensions were inoculated with sulfate-reducing bacteria, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20. Inoculation of the suspensions containing sulfate-limited medium yielded significant G20 growth, along with concomitant reduction of sulfate and U(VI) from solution. With lactate-limited medium, however, some of the uranium that had been removed from solution was resolubilized in the hematite treatments and, to a lesser extent, in the goethite treatments, once the lactate was depleted. No resolubilization was observed in the lactate-limited ferrihydrite treatment even after a prolonged incubation of 4 months. Uranium resolubilization was attributed to reoxidation of the uraninite by Fe(III) present in the (hydr)oxide phases. Analysis by U L 3-edge XANES spectroscopy of mineral specimens sampled at the end of the experiments yielded spectra similar to that of uraninite, but having distinct features, notably a much more intense and slightly broader white line consistent with precipitation of nanometer-sized particles. The XANES spectra thus provided strong evidence for SRB-promoted removal of U(VI) from solution by reductive precipitation of uraninite. Consequently, our results suggest that SRB mediate reduction of soluble U(VI) to an insoluble U(IV) oxide, so long as a suitable electron donor is available. Depletion of the electron donor may result in partial reoxidation of the U(IV) to soluble U(VI) species when the surfaces of crystalline Fe(III)-(hydr)oxides are incompletely reduced.

  13. Reduced Intensity Conditioning, Combined Transplantation of Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Patients with Severe Aplastic Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Gao, Chun-Ji; Da, Wan-Ming; Cao, Yong-Bin; Wang, Zhi-Hong; Xu, Li-Xin; Wu, Ya-Mei; Liu, Bei; Liu, Zhou-Yang; Yan, Bei; Li, Song-Wei; Yang, Xue-Liang; Wu, Xiao-Xiong; Han, Zhong-Chao

    2014-01-01

    We examined if transplantation of combined haploidentical hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) affected graft failure and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA). Patients with SAA-I (N = 17) received haploidentical HSCT plus MSC infusion. Stem cell grafts used a combination of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-primed bone marrow and G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells of haploidentical donors and the culture-expanded third-party donor-derived umbilical cord MSCs (UC-MSCs), respectively. Reduced intensity conditioning consisted of fludarabine (30 mg/m2·d)+cyclosphamide (500 mg/m2·d)+anti-human thymocyte IgG. Transplant recipients also received cyclosporin A, mycophenolatemofetil, and CD25 monoclonal antibody. A total of 16 patients achieved hematopoietic reconstitution. The median mononuclear cell and CD34 count was 9.3×108/kg and 4.5×106/kg. Median time to ANC was >0.5×109/L and PLT count >20×109/L were 12 and 14 days, respectively. Grade III-IV acute GVHD was seen in 23.5% of the cases, while moderate and severe chronic GVHD were seen in 14.2% of the cases. The 3-month and 6-month survival rates for all patients were 88.2% and 76.5%, respectively; mean survival time was 56.5 months. Combined transplantation of haploidentical HSCs and MSCs on SAA without an HLA-identical sibling donor was safe, effectively reduced the incidence of severe GVHD, and improved patient survival. PMID:24594618

  14. Final Report - Phase II - Biogeochemistry of Uranium Under Reducing and Re-oxidizing Conditions: An Integrated Laboratory and Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Peyton, Brent; Sani, Rajesh

    2006-09-28

    Our understanding of subsurface microbiology is hindered by the inaccessibility of this environment, particularly when the hydrogeologic medium is contaminated with toxic substances. Past research in our labs indicated that the composition of the growth medium (e.g., bicarbonate complexation of U(VI)) and the underlying mineral phase (e.g., hematite) significantly affects the rate and extent of U(VI) reduction and immobilization through a variety of effects. Our research was aimed at elucidating those effects to a much greater extent, while exploring the potential for U(IV) reoxidation and subsequent re-mobilization, which also appears to depend on the mineral phases present in the system. The project reported on here was an extension ($20,575) of the prior (much larger) project. This report is focused only on the work completed during the extension period. Further information on the larger impacts of our research, including 28 publications, can be found in the final report for the following projects: 1) Biogeochemistry of Uranium Under Reducing and Re-oxidizing Conditions: An Integrated Laboratory and Field Study Grant # DE-FG03-01ER63270, and 2) Acceptable Endpoints for Metals and Radionuclides: Quantifying the Stability of Uranium and Lead Immobilized Under Sulfate Reducing Conditions Grant # DE-FG03-98ER62630/A001 In this Phase II project, the toxic effects of uranium(VI) were studied using Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 in a medium containing bicarbonate or 1, 4-piperazinediethane sulfonic acid disodium salt monohydrate (PIPES) buffer (each at 30 mM, pH 7). The toxicity of uranium(VI) was dependent on the medium buffer and was observed in terms of longer lag times and in some cases, no measurable growth. The minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC) was 140 M U(VI) in PIPES buffered medium. This is 36 times lower than previously reported for D. desulfuricans. These results suggest that U(VI) toxicity and the detoxification mechanisms of G20 depend greatly on the

  15. Limb remote ischemic per-conditioning in combination with post-conditioning reduces brain damage and promotes neuroglobin expression in the rat brain after ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Changhong; Wang, Pengcheng; Wang, Brian; Li, Ning; Li, Weiguang; Zhang, Chenggang; Jin, Kunlin; Ji, Xunming

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Limb remote ischemic per-conditioning or post-conditioning has been shown to be neuroprotective after cerebral ischemic stroke. However, the effect of combining remote per-conditioning with post-conditioning on ischemic/reperfusion injury as well as the underlying mechanisms are largely unexplored. Methods: Here, adult male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The limb ischemic stimulus was immediately applied after onset of focal ischemia (per-conditioning), followed by repeated short episodes of remote ischemia 24 hr after reperfusion (post-conditioning). The infarct volume, motor function, and the expression of neuroglobin (Ngb) were measured at different durations after reperfusion. Results: We found that a single episode of limb remote per-conditioning afforded short-term protection, but combining repeated remote post-conditioning during the 14 days after reperfusion significantly ameliorated cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Interestingly, we also found that ischemic per- and post-conditioning significantly increased expression of Ngb, an oxygen-binding globin protein that has been demonstrated to be neuroprotective against stroke, at peri-infarct regions from day 1 to day 14 following ischemia/reperfusion. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the conventional per-conditioning combined with post-conditioning may be used as a novel neuroprotective strategy against ischemia-reperfusion injury, and Ngb seems to be one of the important players in limb remote ischemia-mediated neuroprotection. PMID:25868435

  16. A commercial PCV2a-based vaccine significantly reduces PCV2b transmission in experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Rose, N; Andraud, M; Bigault, L; Jestin, A; Grasland, B

    2016-07-19

    Transmission characteristics of PCV2 have been compared between vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs in experimental conditions. Twenty-four Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) piglets, vaccinated against PCV2 at 3weeks of age (PCV2a recombinant CAP protein-based vaccine), were inoculated at 15days post-vaccination with a PCV2b inoculum (6⋅10(5) TCID50), and put in contact with 24 vaccinated SPF piglets during 42days post-inoculation. Those piglets were shared in six replicates of a contact trial involving 4 inoculated piglets mingled with 4 susceptible SPF piglets. Two replicates of a similar contact trial were made with non-vaccinated pigs. Non vaccinated animals received a placebo at vaccination time and were inoculated the same way and at the same time as the vaccinated group. All the animals were monitored twice weekly using quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA for serology until 42days post-inoculation. The frequency of infection and the PCV2 genome load in sera of the vaccinated pigs were significantly reduced compared to the non-vaccinated animals. The duration of infectiousness was significantly different between vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups (16.6days [14.7;18.4] and 26.6days [22.9;30.4] respectively). The transmission rate was also considerably decreased in vaccinated pigs (β=0.09 [0.05-0.14] compared to β=0.19 [0.11-0.32] in non-vaccinated pigs). This led to an estimated reproduction ratio of 1.5 [95% CI 0.8 - 2.2] in vaccinated animals versus 5.1 [95% CI 2.5 - 8.2] in non-vaccinated pigs when merging data of this experiment with previous trials carried out in same conditions. PMID:27318416

  17. Impact of ATG-containing reduced-intensity conditioning after single- or double-unit allogeneic cord blood transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pascal, Laurent; Tucunduva, Luciana; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Blaise, Didier; Ceballos, Patrice; Chevallier, Patrice; Cornelissen, Jan; Maillard, Natacha; Tabrizi, Reza; Petersen, Eefke; Linkesch, Werner; Sengeloev, Henrik; Kenzey, Chantal; Pagliuca, Antonio; Holler, Ernst; Einsele, Hermann; Gluckman, Eliane; Rocha, Vanderson; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim

    2015-08-20

    We analyzed 661 adult patients who underwent single-unit (n = 226) or double-unit (n = 435) unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT) following a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) consisting of low-dose total body irradiation (TBI), cyclophosphamide, and fludarabine (Cy/Flu/TBI200). Eighty-two patients received rabbit antithymocyte globulin (ATG) as part of the conditioning regimen (ATG group), whereas 579 did not (non-ATG group). Median age at UCBT was 54 years, and diagnoses were acute leukemias (51%), myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm (19%), and lymphoproliferative diseases (30%). Forty-four percent of patients were transplanted with advanced disease. All patients received ≥4 antigens HLA-matched UCBT. Median number of collected total nucleated cells was 4.4 × 10(7)/kg. In the ATG group, on 64 evaluable patients, ATG was discontinued 1 (n = 27), 2 (n = 20), or > 2 days before the graft infusion (n = 17). In multivariate analyses, the use of ATG was associated with decreased incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (hazard ratio [HR], 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-0.55; P < .0001), higher incidence of nonrelapse mortality (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.16-2.43; P = .0009), and decreased overall survival (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.19-2.415; P = .003). Collectively, our results suggest that the use of ATG could be detrimental, especially if given too close to graft infusion in adults undergoing UCBT following Cy/Flu/TBI200 regimen.

  18. A commercial PCV2a-based vaccine significantly reduces PCV2b transmission in experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Rose, N; Andraud, M; Bigault, L; Jestin, A; Grasland, B

    2016-07-19

    Transmission characteristics of PCV2 have been compared between vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs in experimental conditions. Twenty-four Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) piglets, vaccinated against PCV2 at 3weeks of age (PCV2a recombinant CAP protein-based vaccine), were inoculated at 15days post-vaccination with a PCV2b inoculum (6⋅10(5) TCID50), and put in contact with 24 vaccinated SPF piglets during 42days post-inoculation. Those piglets were shared in six replicates of a contact trial involving 4 inoculated piglets mingled with 4 susceptible SPF piglets. Two replicates of a similar contact trial were made with non-vaccinated pigs. Non vaccinated animals received a placebo at vaccination time and were inoculated the same way and at the same time as the vaccinated group. All the animals were monitored twice weekly using quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA for serology until 42days post-inoculation. The frequency of infection and the PCV2 genome load in sera of the vaccinated pigs were significantly reduced compared to the non-vaccinated animals. The duration of infectiousness was significantly different between vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups (16.6days [14.7;18.4] and 26.6days [22.9;30.4] respectively). The transmission rate was also considerably decreased in vaccinated pigs (β=0.09 [0.05-0.14] compared to β=0.19 [0.11-0.32] in non-vaccinated pigs). This led to an estimated reproduction ratio of 1.5 [95% CI 0.8 - 2.2] in vaccinated animals versus 5.1 [95% CI 2.5 - 8.2] in non-vaccinated pigs when merging data of this experiment with previous trials carried out in same conditions.

  19. High folic acid intake reduces natural killer cell cytotoxicity in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Sawaengsri, Hathairat; Wang, Junpeng; Reginaldo, Christina; Steluti, Josiane; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Selhub, Jacob; Paul, Ligi

    2016-04-01

    Presence of unmetabolized folic acid in plasma, which is indicative of folic acid intake beyond the metabolic capacity of the body, is associated with reduced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in postmenopausal women ≥50years. NK cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that are part of the innate immune system critical for surveillance and defense against virus-infected and cancer cells. We determined if a high folic acid diet can result in reduced NK cell cytotoxicity in an aged mouse model. Female C57BL/6 mice (16-month-old) were fed an AIN-93M diet with the recommended daily allowance (1× RDA, control) or 20× RDA (high) folic acid for 3months. NK cytotoxicity was lower in splenocytes from mice fed a high folic acid diet when compared to mice on control diet (P<.04). The lower NK cell cytotoxicity in high folic acid fed mice could be due to their lower mature cytotoxic/naïve NK cell ratio (P=.03) when compared to the control mice. Splenocytes from mice on high folic acid diet produced less interleukin (IL)-10 when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (P<.05). The difference in NK cell cytotoxicity between dietary groups was abolished when the splenocytes were supplemented with exogenous IL-10 prior to assessment of the NK cytotoxicity, suggesting that the reduced NK cell cytotoxicity of the high folic acid group was at least partially due to reduced IL-10 production. This study demonstrates a causal relationship between high folic acid intake and reduced NK cell cytotoxicity and provides some insights into the potential mechanisms behind this relationship.

  20. The First Discovery of Presolar Graphite Grains from the Highly Reducing Qingzhen (EH3) Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuchen; Lin, Yangting; Zhang, Jianchao; Hao, Jialong

    2016-07-01

    Presolar graphite grains have been extensively studied, but are limited in carbonaceous chondrites, particularly in Murchison (CM2) and Orgueil (CI1), which sampled materials from the oxidizing regions in the solar nebula. Here, we report the first discovery of presolar graphite grains from the Qingzhen (EH3) enstatite chondrite which formed under a highly reducing condition. Eighteen presolar graphite grains were identified by C-isotope mapping of the low-density fraction (1.75-1.85 g cm-3) from Qingzhen acid residue. Another 58 graphite spherules were found in different areas of the same sample mount using a scanning electron microscope and were classified into three morphologies, including cauliflower, onion, and cauliflower-onion. The Raman spectra of these spherules vary from ordered, disordered, and glassy to kerogen-like, suggestive of a wide range of thermal metamorphisms. NanoSIMS analysis of the C- and Si-isotopes of these graphite spherules confirmed 23 presolar grains. The other 35 graphite spherules have no significant isotopic anomalies, but they share similar morphologies and Raman spectra with the presolar ones. Another three grains were identified during NanoSIMS analysis. Of all the 44 presolar graphite grains identified, six grains show 28Si-excesses, suggestive of supernovae origins, and four grains are 12C- and 29,30Si-rich, consistent with low-metallicity asymptotic giant branch star origins. Another two graphite spherules have extremely low 12C/13C ratios with marginal solar Si-isotopes. The morphologies, Raman spectra, and C- and Si-isotopic distributions of the presolar graphite grains from the Qingzhen enstatite chondrite are similar to those of the low-density fractions from Murchison carbonaceous chondrites. This study suggests a homogeneous distribution of presolar graphite grains in the solar nebula.

  1. The First Discovery of Presolar Graphite Grains from the Highly Reducing Qingzhen (EH3) Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuchen; Lin, Yangting; Zhang, Jianchao; Hao, Jialong

    2016-07-01

    Presolar graphite grains have been extensively studied, but are limited in carbonaceous chondrites, particularly in Murchison (CM2) and Orgueil (CI1), which sampled materials from the oxidizing regions in the solar nebula. Here, we report the first discovery of presolar graphite grains from the Qingzhen (EH3) enstatite chondrite which formed under a highly reducing condition. Eighteen presolar graphite grains were identified by C-isotope mapping of the low-density fraction (1.75–1.85 g cm‑3) from Qingzhen acid residue. Another 58 graphite spherules were found in different areas of the same sample mount using a scanning electron microscope and were classified into three morphologies, including cauliflower, onion, and cauliflower–onion. The Raman spectra of these spherules vary from ordered, disordered, and glassy to kerogen-like, suggestive of a wide range of thermal metamorphisms. NanoSIMS analysis of the C- and Si-isotopes of these graphite spherules confirmed 23 presolar grains. The other 35 graphite spherules have no significant isotopic anomalies, but they share similar morphologies and Raman spectra with the presolar ones. Another three grains were identified during NanoSIMS analysis. Of all the 44 presolar graphite grains identified, six grains show 28Si-excesses, suggestive of supernovae origins, and four grains are 12C- and 29,30Si-rich, consistent with low-metallicity asymptotic giant branch star origins. Another two graphite spherules have extremely low 12C/13C ratios with marginal solar Si-isotopes. The morphologies, Raman spectra, and C- and Si-isotopic distributions of the presolar graphite grains from the Qingzhen enstatite chondrite are similar to those of the low-density fractions from Murchison carbonaceous chondrites. This study suggests a homogeneous distribution of presolar graphite grains in the solar nebula.

  2. 22 CFR 135.12 - Special grant or subgrant conditions for “high-risk” grantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Requirements § 135.12 Special grant or subgrant conditions for “high-risk” grantees. (a) A grantee or subgrantee may be considered “high risk” if an awarding agency determines that a grantee or subgrantee: (1... risk condition and shall be included in the award. (b) Special conditions or restrictions may...

  3. Ceramic materials under high temperature heat transfer conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittenbühler, A.; Jung, J.

    1990-04-01

    Ceramic materials for application in a High-Temperature Reactor coupled with the steam gasification of coal were investigated. The study concentrated on the hot gas duct and their thermal insulation. Materials examined for the inner lining of the tubes were graphite, carbon fibre reinforced carbon and amorphous silica, while fibres, porous alumina and bonded alumina fibres were tested as insulating materials. During material investigations qualification was performed on samples and in component tests. For two carbon fibre reinforced carbon qualities with different graphitizing temperatures, the bending strength was determined as a function of volume corrosion. Devitrification of amorphous silica can be tolerated up to operating temperatures of about 950°C. The resilience of fibre materials depends on the Al2O3/ SiO2 ratio. It decreases according to the different fibre composition with increasing temperature and limits the maximum operating temperature for long term operation. The porous hollow spherical corundum inserted in the form of bricks fulfilled the thermal shock and mechanical requirements but led to an insulation exhibiting gaps in component tests. An advanced insulation on the basis of bonded alumina fibre showed a quasi-elastic material behaviour. Resistance to abrasion was achieved with a protective ceramic coating. The different materials and design concepts are compared and the results provide a good solution for the project.

  4. Development of high gradient magnetic separation system under dry condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Y.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2010-11-01

    The interfusion of impurities such as metallic wear debris has been a problem in the manufacturing process of foods, medicines, and industrial products. Gravity separation system and membrane separation system has been used widely for powder separation, however magnetic separation system is much efficient to separate magnetic particles. Magnetic separation system under wet process is used conventionally, however, it has some demerit such as necessity of drying treatment after separation and difficulty of running the system in the cold region and so on. Thus, magnetic separation under dry process is prospective as alternative method. In this paper, we developed high gradient magnetic separation system (HGMS) under dry process. In dry HGMS system, powder coagulation caused by particle interaction is considerable. Powder coagulation causes a blockage of magnetic filters and results in decrease of separation performance of dry HGMS system. In order to investigate the effect of powder coagulation on separation performance, we conducted experiments with two kinds of powdered materials whose cohesive properties are different.

  5. Partial Root-Zone Drying of Olive (Olea europaea var. 'Chetoui') Induces Reduced Yield under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Dbara, Soumaya; Haworth, Matthew; Emiliani, Giovani; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Centritto, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The productivity of olive trees in arid and semi-arid environments is closely linked to irrigation. It is necessary to improve the efficiency of irrigation techniques to optimise the amount of olive fruit produced in relation to the volume of water used. Partial root-zone drying (PRD) is a water saving irrigation technique that theoretically allows the production of a root-to-shoot signal that modifies the physiology of the above-ground parts of the plant; specifically reducing stomatal conductance (gs) and improving water use efficiency (WUE). Partial root-zone drying has been successfully applied under field conditions to woody and non-woody crops; yet the few previous trials with olive trees have produced contrasting results. Thirty year-old olive trees (Olea europaea 'var. Chetoui') in a Tunisian grove were exposed to four treatments from May to October for three-years: 'control' plants received 100% of the potential evapotranspirative demand (ETc) applied to the whole root-zone; 'PRD100' were supplied with an identical volume of water to the control plants alternated between halves of the root-zone every ten-days; 'PRD50' were given 50% of ETc to half of the root-system, and; 'rain-fed' plants received no supplementary irrigation. Allowing part of the root-zone to dry resulted in reduced vegetative growth and lower yield: PRD100 decreased yield by ~47% during productive years. During the less productive years of the alternate bearing cycle, irrigation had no effect on yield; this suggests that withholding of water during 'off-years' may enhance the effectiveness of irrigation over a two-year cycle. The amount and quality of oil within the olive fruit was unaffected by the irrigation treatment. Photosynthesis declined in the PRD50 and rain-fed trees due to greater diffusive limitations and reduced biochemical uptake of CO2. Stomatal conductance and the foliar concentration of abscisic acid (ABA) were not altered by PRD100 irrigation, which may indicate the

  6. Partial Root-Zone Drying of Olive (Olea europaea var. 'Chetoui') Induces Reduced Yield under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Dbara, Soumaya; Haworth, Matthew; Emiliani, Giovani; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Centritto, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The productivity of olive trees in arid and semi-arid environments is closely linked to irrigation. It is necessary to improve the efficiency of irrigation techniques to optimise the amount of olive fruit produced in relation to the volume of water used. Partial root-zone drying (PRD) is a water saving irrigation technique that theoretically allows the production of a root-to-shoot signal that modifies the physiology of the above-ground parts of the plant; specifically reducing stomatal conductance (gs) and improving water use efficiency (WUE). Partial root-zone drying has been successfully applied under field conditions to woody and non-woody crops; yet the few previous trials with olive trees have produced contrasting results. Thirty year-old olive trees (Olea europaea 'var. Chetoui') in a Tunisian grove were exposed to four treatments from May to October for three-years: 'control' plants received 100% of the potential evapotranspirative demand (ETc) applied to the whole root-zone; 'PRD100' were supplied with an identical volume of water to the control plants alternated between halves of the root-zone every ten-days; 'PRD50' were given 50% of ETc to half of the root-system, and; 'rain-fed' plants received no supplementary irrigation. Allowing part of the root-zone to dry resulted in reduced vegetative growth and lower yield: PRD100 decreased yield by ~47% during productive years. During the less productive years of the alternate bearing cycle, irrigation had no effect on yield; this suggests that withholding of water during 'off-years' may enhance the effectiveness of irrigation over a two-year cycle. The amount and quality of oil within the olive fruit was unaffected by the irrigation treatment. Photosynthesis declined in the PRD50 and rain-fed trees due to greater diffusive limitations and reduced biochemical uptake of CO2. Stomatal conductance and the foliar concentration of abscisic acid (ABA) were not altered by PRD100 irrigation, which may indicate the

  7. Coupling of soil solarization and reduced rate fumigation: effects on methyl iodide emissions from raised beds under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Daniel J; Yates, Scott R; Luo, Lifang; Lee, Sang R; Xuan, Richeng

    2013-12-26

    Using field plots, we studied the effect on methyl iodide (MeI) emissions of coupling soil solarization (passive and active) and reduced rate fumigation (70% of a standard fumigation) in raised beds under virtually impermeable film (VIF). The results showed that for the standard fumigation and the passive solarization + fumigation treatments, emissions from the nontarped furrow were very high (∼50%). Emissions from the bed top and sidewall of these treatments were relatively low but were increased in the latter due to the longer environmental exposure of the VIF covering with the coupled approach (increased tarp permeability). Overall, this approach offered no advantage over fumigation-only in terms of emission reduction. With active solarization + fumigation, the large application of hot water during solarization apparently led to severely limited diffusion causing very low total emissions (<1%). Although this suggests a benefit in terms of air quality, a lack of diffusion could limit the pesticidal efficacy of the treatment.

  8. Enrichment of sulfate-reducing bacteria and resulting mineral formation in media mimicking pore water metal ion concentrations and pH conditions of acidic pit lakes.

    PubMed

    Meier, Jutta; Piva, Angela; Fortin, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Acid mine drainage sites are extreme environments with high acidity and metal ion concentrations. Under anoxic conditions, microbial sulfate reduction may trigger the formation of secondary minerals as a result of H2S production and pH increase. This process was studied in batch experiments with enrichment cultures from acidic sediments of a pit lake using growth media set at different pH values and containing elevated concentrations of Fe²⁺ and Al³⁺. At initial pH values of 5 and 6, sulfate reduction occurred shortly after inoculation. Sulfate- reducing bacteria affiliated to the genus Desulfosporosinus predominated the microbial communities as shown by 16S rRNA gene analysis performed at the end of the incubation. At initial pH values of 3 and 4, sulfate reduction and cell growth occurred only after an extended lag phase, however, at a higher rate than in the less acidic assays. At the end of the growth phase, enrichments were dominated by Thermodesulfobium spp. suggesting that these sulfate reducers were better adapted to acidic conditions. Iron sulfides in the bulk phase were common in all assays, but specific aluminum precipitates formed in close association with cell surfaces and may function as a detoxification mechanism of dissolved Al species at low pH.

  9. Successful treatment of idiopathic colitis related to XIAP deficiency with allo-HSCT using reduced-intensity conditioning.

    PubMed

    Tsuma, Yusuke; Imamura, Toshihiko; Ichise, Eisuke; Sakamoto, Kenichi; Ouchi, Kazutaka; Osone, Shinya; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Wada, Taizo; Hosoi, Hajime

    2015-02-01

    Recently, it has been reported that Crohn's-like intractable colitis occurred in approximately 20% of the patients with XIAP deficiency, also known as X-linked lymphoproliferative disease type 2. Because treatment used for Crohn's disease is not always effective for Crohn's-like colitis related to XIAP deficiency, more effective treatment should be established. Although several studies reported allo-HSCT might be promising even for Crohn's-like colitis related to XIAP deficiency, the outcome of allo-HSCT using MAC for XIAP deficiency is extremely poor due to frequent TRM. In addition, there is little information about the outcome of allo-HSCT for intractable colitis related to XIAP deficiency. Herein, we describe a patient with intractable colitis related to XIAP deficiency who was successfully treated with allo-HSCT using a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen. Although allo-HSCT using the RIC regimen might be a curative therapeutic option for intractable colitis with XIAP deficiency, the prognostic factors that will determine the success of allo-HSCT require further clinical information of more patients.

  10. Engraftment of unrelated cord blood after reduced-intensity conditioning regimen in children with refractory neuroblastoma: a feasibility trial.

    PubMed

    Jubert, C; Wall, D A; Grimley, M; Champagne, M A; Duval, M

    2011-02-01

    Relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma is uniformly fatal. We hypothesized that allogeneic response could provide a platform for immunotherapy in neuroblastoma. We therefore undertook a pilot trial of unrelated cord blood transplantation after reduced intensity conditioning regimen (RIC) in children with relapsed neuroblastoma to assess engraftment and tolerability in this heavily pretreated population. The RIC included CY (50 mg/kg, day -6), fludarabine (40 mg/m(2), days -6 to -2), total body irradiation (200 cGy, day -1), and rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (2.5 mg/kg, days -3 to -1). Six patients were enrolled: four were in partial responsive relapse, one with a mixed response and one in refractory relapse. All patients tolerated the regimen well and had donor engraftment with full neutrophil and plt recovery (median time 12 and 35 days, respectively). One patient never experienced neutropenia and another did not need plt transfusions. All patients progressed after transplant (median time 55 days, 26-180 days). Natural killer (NK) cell counts were normal within 2 months, whereas T-cell recovery was slower. In conclusion, unrelated cord blood engrafts after RIC in children with refractory neuroblastoma. Future research should be aimed at transplanting patients with minimal residual disease, using less intensive immunosuppression and adding NK-cell based post transplant immunotherapy.

  11. Effect of post remission therapy prior to reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission

    PubMed Central

    Warlick, Erica D.; Paulson, Kristjan; Brazauskas, Ruta; Zhong, Xiaobo; Miller, Alan M.; Camitta, Bruce M.; George, Biju; Savani, Bipin N.; Ustun, Celalettin; Marks, David I.; Waller, Edmund K.; Baron, Frédéric; Freytes, César O.; Socie, Gérard; Akpek, Gorgun; Schouten, Harry C.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Horwitz, Edwin M.; Koreth, John; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Bornhauser, Martin; Seftel, Matthew; Cairo, Mitchell S.; Laughlin, Mary J.; Sabloff, Mitchell; Ringdén, Olle; Gale, Robert Peter; Kamble, Rammurti T.; Vij, Ravi; Gergis, Usama; Mathews, Vikram; Saber, Wael; Chen, Yi-Bin; Liesveld, Jane L.; Cutler, Corey S.; Ghobadi, Armin; Uy, Geoffrey L.; Eapen, Mary; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Litzow, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of pre transplant (HCT) cytarabine consolidation therapy on post HCT outcomes has yet to be evaluated after reduced intensity or non-myeloablative conditioning. We analyzed 604 adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1) reported to the CIBMTR who received a RIC or NMA HCT from an HLA-identical sibling, HLA-matched unrelated donor (URD), or umbilical cord blood (UCB) donor in 2000–2010. We compared transplant outcomes based on exposure to cytarabine post remission consolidation. Three year survival rates were 36% (29–43%, 95% CI) in the no consolidation arm and 42% (37–47%, 95% CI) in the cytarabine consolidation arm (p=0.16). Disease free survival was 34% (27–41%, 95% CI) and 41% (35–46%, 95% CI) (p=0.15), respectively. Three year cumulative incidences of relapse were 37% (30–44%, 95% CI) and 38% (33–43%, 95% CI), respectively (p=0.80). Multivariate regression confirmed no effect of consolidation on relapse, DFS and survival. Prior to RIC/NMA HCT, these data suggest pre-HCT consolidation cytarabine does not significantly alter outcomes and support prompt transition to transplant as soon as morphologic CR1 is attained. If HCT is delayed while identifying a donor, our data suggest that consolidation does not increase transplant TRM and is reasonable if required. PMID:24184335

  12. High protein flexibility and reduced hydration water dynamics are key pressure adaptive strategies in prokaryotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, N.; Michoud, G.; Cario, A.; Ollivier, J.; Franzetti, B.; Jebbar, M.; Oger, P.; Peters, J.

    2016-09-01

    Water and protein dynamics on a nanometer scale were measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the piezophile archaeon Thermococcus barophilus and the closely related pressure-sensitive Thermococcus kodakarensis, at 0.1 and 40 MPa. We show that cells of the pressure sensitive organism exhibit higher intrinsic stability. Both the hydration water dynamics and the fast protein and lipid dynamics are reduced under pressure. In contrast, the proteome of T. barophilus is more pressure sensitive than that of T. kodakarensis. The diffusion coefficient of hydration water is reduced, while the fast protein and lipid dynamics are slightly enhanced with increasing pressure. These findings show that the coupling between hydration water and cellular constituents might not be simply a master-slave relationship. We propose that the high flexibility of the T. barophilus proteome associated with reduced hydration water may be the keys to the molecular adaptation of the cells to high hydrostatic pressure.

  13. High protein flexibility and reduced hydration water dynamics are key pressure adaptive strategies in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, N; Michoud, G; Cario, A; Ollivier, J; Franzetti, B; Jebbar, M; Oger, P; Peters, J

    2016-01-01

    Water and protein dynamics on a nanometer scale were measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the piezophile archaeon Thermococcus barophilus and the closely related pressure-sensitive Thermococcus kodakarensis, at 0.1 and 40 MPa. We show that cells of the pressure sensitive organism exhibit higher intrinsic stability. Both the hydration water dynamics and the fast protein and lipid dynamics are reduced under pressure. In contrast, the proteome of T. barophilus is more pressure sensitive than that of T. kodakarensis. The diffusion coefficient of hydration water is reduced, while the fast protein and lipid dynamics are slightly enhanced with increasing pressure. These findings show that the coupling between hydration water and cellular constituents might not be simply a master-slave relationship. We propose that the high flexibility of the T. barophilus proteome associated with reduced hydration water may be the keys to the molecular adaptation of the cells to high hydrostatic pressure. PMID:27595789

  14. High protein flexibility and reduced hydration water dynamics are key pressure adaptive strategies in prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, N.; Michoud, G.; Cario, A.; Ollivier, J.; Franzetti, B.; Jebbar, M.; Oger, P.; Peters, J.

    2016-01-01

    Water and protein dynamics on a nanometer scale were measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the piezophile archaeon Thermococcus barophilus and the closely related pressure-sensitive Thermococcus kodakarensis, at 0.1 and 40 MPa. We show that cells of the pressure sensitive organism exhibit higher intrinsic stability. Both the hydration water dynamics and the fast protein and lipid dynamics are reduced under pressure. In contrast, the proteome of T. barophilus is more pressure sensitive than that of T. kodakarensis. The diffusion coefficient of hydration water is reduced, while the fast protein and lipid dynamics are slightly enhanced with increasing pressure. These findings show that the coupling between hydration water and cellular constituents might not be simply a master-slave relationship. We propose that the high flexibility of the T. barophilus proteome associated with reduced hydration water may be the keys to the molecular adaptation of the cells to high hydrostatic pressure. PMID:27595789

  15. Fludarabine and treosulfan compared with other reduced-intensity conditioning regimens for allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with lymphoid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Yerushalmi, R; Shem-Tov, N; Danylesko, I; Avigdor, A; Nagler, A; Shimoni, A

    2015-12-01

    Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (SCT) is a potentially curative therapy for lymphoid malignancies. Myeloablative conditioning is associated with high non-relapse mortality (NRM). Reduced-intensity condition (RIC) reduces NRM but relapse rate is increased. Novel regimens with intensive anti-malignancy activity but limited toxicity are of benefit. We evaluated outcomes of 144 lymphoma patients given allogeneic SCT with RIC consisting of fludarabine and treosulfan (FT, n=50), intravenous-busulfan (FB2, n=38) or melphalan (FM, n=56). Sixty-nine patients (48%) had chemo-sensitive disease and 75 (52%) had chemo-refractory disease at SCT. The median follow-up is 39 months (4-149). Three-year survival was 67, 74 and 48% after FT, FB2 and FM, in chemo-sensitive disease (P=0.14) and 34, 11 and 17% in chemo-refractory disease, respectively (P=0.08). Three-year NRM was 24, 24 and 54% (P=0.002), whereas relapse mortality was 22, 34 and 18%, respectively (P=0.13). Multivariate analysis identified a high comorbidity-score, chemo-refractory disease and FM as associated with shortened survival. In conclusion, FB2 is associated with low NRM and good results in chemo-sensitive disease, but with higher relapse mortality rates. FM controls disease better, but with high NRM. FT probably balances these outcomes more optimally. It is as safe as FB2 and as cytoreductive as FM, resulting in improved outcome, mostly in advanced disease. PMID:26237166

  16. A highly reducing metal-free photoredox catalyst: design and application in radical dehalogenations.

    PubMed

    Discekici, Emre H; Treat, Nicolas J; Poelma, Saemi O; Mattson, Kaila M; Hudson, Zachary M; Luo, Yingdong; Hawker, Craig J; Read de Alaniz, Javier

    2015-07-25

    Here we report the use of 10-phenylphenothiazine (PTH) as an inexpensive, highly reducing metal-free photocatalyst for the reduction of carbon-halogen bonds via the trapping of carbon-centered radical intermediates with a mild hydrogen atom donor. Dehalogenations were carried out on various substrates with excellent yields at room temperature in the presence of air. PMID:26104847

  17. High-pressure structure made of rings with peripheral weldments of reduced thickness

    DOEpatents

    Leventry, Samuel C.

    1988-01-01

    A high-pressure structure having a circular cylindrical metal shell made of metal rings joined together by weldments and which have peripheral areas of reduced shell thickness at the weldments which permit a reduction in the amount of weld metal deposited while still maintaining sufficient circumferential or hoop stress strength.

  18. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Chicago, Illinois, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed, with the generous support of State Farm[R], a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  19. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Atlanta, Georgia, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  20. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the New York City Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  1. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Detroit, Michigan, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  2. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Houston, Texas, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  3. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the New Orleans, Louisiana, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  4. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Jackson, Mississippi, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  5. Reducing transmission risk through high-level disinfection of transvaginal ultrasound transducer handles.

    PubMed

    Ngu, Andrew; McNally, Glenn; Patel, Dipika; Gorgis, Vivian; Leroy, Sandrine; Burdach, Jon

    2015-05-01

    Intracavity ultrasound transducer handles are not routinely immersed in liquid high-level disinfectants. We show that residual bacteria, including pathogens, persist on more than 80% of handles that are not disinfected, whereas use of an automated device reduces contamination to background levels. Clinical staff should consider the need for handle disinfection.

  6. An Action Science Research Approach to Reducing Student Tardiness at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gile, Curtis S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to design, implement, analyze, and evaluate a series of interventions to reduce student tardiness at the high school level. Another purpose of the study was to determine the underlying values, beliefs, and behaviors associated with student tardiness from a faculty and staff perspective. The study…

  7. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Indianapolis, Indiana, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The model allows various economic projections to be…

  8. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Oakland, California, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The model allows various economic projections to be…

  9. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Nashville, Tennessee, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The model allows various economic projections to be…

  10. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Louisville, Kentucky, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The model allows various economic projections to be…

  11. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Washington, DC Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The model allows various economic projections to be…

  12. Reducing the Disruptive Behavior of Junior High School Students: A Classroom Self-Management Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Deborah, J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Four junior high aged students (three behaviorally disordered and one learning disabled) received self-management training, without the external control of a token program. The self-evaluation procedures reduced students' off-task and disruptive behaviors in the resource room, but there was little or no spontaneous generalization to the students'…

  13. Monophyletic group of unclassified γ-Proteobacteria dominates in mixed culture biofilm of high-performing oxygen reducing biocathode.

    PubMed

    Rothballer, Michael; Picot, Matthieu; Sieper, Tina; Arends, Jan B A; Schmid, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Boon, Nico; Buisman, Cees J N; Barrière, Frédéric; Strik, David P B T B

    2015-12-01

    Several mixed microbial communities have been reported to show robust bioelectrocatalysis of oxygen reduction over time at applicable operation conditions. However, clarification of electron transfer mechanism(s) and identification of essential micro-organisms have not been realised. Therefore, the objective of this study was to shape oxygen reducing biocathodes with different microbial communities by means of surface modification using the electrochemical reduction of two different diazonium salts in order to discuss the relation of microbial composition and performance. The resulting oxygen reducing mixed culture biocathodes had complex bacterial biofilms variable in size and shape as observed by confocal and electron microscopy. Sequence analysis of ribosomal 16S rDNA revealed a putative correlation between the abundance of certain microbiota and biocathode performance. The best performing biocathode developed on the unmodified graphite electrode and reached a high current density for oxygen reducing biocathodes at neutral pH (0.9 A/m(2)). This correlated with the highest domination (60.7%) of a monophyletic group of unclassified γ-Proteobacteria. These results corroborate earlier reports by other groups, however, higher current densities and higher presence of these unclassified bacteria were observed in this work. Therefore, members of this group are likely key-players for highly performing oxygen reducing biocathodes.

  14. Frictional Behavior of Anorthite and Quartz at High Pressure and High Temperature Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, T.; Masuda, K.; Fujimoto, K.; Shigematsu, N.; Ohtani, T.; Sumii, T.; Okuyama, Y.

    2002-12-01

    Most of earthquakes in the crust occurred at the depth of 5 to 20km, and the distribution of mainshocks matches the base of this zone, where is considered to be consistent with brittle-ductile transition zone. The lower boundary on seismicity results from a switch from velocity weakening to velocity strengthening of friction with increasing temperature. The physical properties of rocks associated with elevated temperatures were determined by many frictional experiments. In these experimental studies, quartz, which controls the rock strength at brittle-ductile transition zone, was generally used. On the other hand, frictional experiment with feldspar is very few in spite of dominant phase in the crust, because feldspar behaves in a brittle manner at greenshist facies. However, recent studies indicate fine-grained plagioclase (1um) contributed deformation process largely at the Hatagawa fault zone, northeast Japan, where is considered to have been brittle-ductile transition zone in the past. In order to understand the source processes of earthquakes, it is important to evaluate the physical properties of fine grained plagioclace as well as those of quartz. In this study, we conducted frictional experiments by using anorthite and quartz gouges under high pressure and high temperature in a triaxial apparatus, and compared frictional behaviors of two minerals with elevated temperature. Temperature varied from room temperature to 800°C. Fine- (1-10um,1um) and coarse-grained (50um, 100um) samples were prepared to evaluate the effect of different grain size as observed Hatagawa fault zone. The samples were put between upper and lower sawcut cylinders (20mm diameter x 40mm long). The sawcut was oriented at 30° to the loading axis. These were jacketed with thin sleeves of annealed Cu. Pore fluids accelerated deformation process of Hatagawa mylonite at higher temperature than 600°C under the same effective confining pressure (Masuda et al., presented in this meeting

  15. Effect of surface condition on the formation of solid lubricating films at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanyaloglu, Bengi; Graham, E. E.

    1992-01-01

    Solid films were produced on active metal or ceramic surfaces using lubricants (such as tricresyl phosphate) delivered as a vapor at high temperatures, and the lubricity of these deposits under different dynamic wear conditions was investigated. A method is described for chemically activating ceramic surfaces resulting in a surface that could promote the formation of lubricating polymeric derivative of TCP. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the wear characteristics of unlubricated cast iron and of Sialon ceramic at 25 and 280 C, and lubricated with a vapor of TCP at 280 C. It is shown that continuous vapor phase lubrication of chemically treated Sialon reduced its coefficient of friction from 0.7 to less than 0.1.

  16. The Deflection Plate Analyzer: A Technique for Space Plasma Measurements Under Highly Disturbed Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Dutton, Ken; Martinez, Nelson; Smith, Dennis; Stone, Nobie H.

    2004-01-01

    A technique has been developed to measure the characteristics of space plasmas under highly disturbed conditions; e.g., non-Maxwellian plasmas with strong drifting populations and plasmas contaminated by spacecraft outgassing. The present method is an extension of the capabilities of the Differential Ion Flux Probe (DIFP) to include a mass measurement that does not include either high voltage or contamination sensitive devices such as channeltron electron multipliers or microchannel plates. This reduces the complexity and expense of instrument fabrication, testing, and integration of flight hardware as compared to classical mass analyzers. The new instrument design is called the Deflection Plate Analyzer (DPA) and can deconvolve multiple ion streams and analyze each stream for ion flux intensity (density), velocity (including direction of motion), mass, and temperature (or energy distribution). The basic functionality of the DPA is discussed. The performance characteristics of a flight instrument as built for an electrodynamic tether mission, the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS), and the instrument s role in measuring key experimental conditions are also discussed.

  17. 32 CFR 33.12 - Special grant or subgrant conditions for “high-risk” grantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for “high-risk” grantees. (a) A grantee or subgrantee may be considered “high risk” if an awarding..., special conditions and/or restrictions shall correspond to the high risk condition and shall be included... performance within a given funding period; (3) Requiring additional, more detailed financial reports;...

  18. 38 CFR 43.12 - Special grant or subgrant conditions for “high-risk” grantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for “high-risk” grantees. (a) A grantee or subgrantee may be considered “high risk” if an awarding..., special conditions and/or restrictions shall correspond to the high risk condition and shall be included... performance within a given funding period; (3) Requiring additional, more detailed financial reports;...

  19. 13 CFR 143.12 - Special grant or subgrant conditions for “high-risk” grantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GOVERNMENTS Pre-Award Requirements § 143.12 Special grant or subgrant conditions for “high-risk” grantees. (a) A grantee or subgrantee may be considered high risk if an awarding agency determines that a grantee... restrictions shall correspond to the high risk condition and shall be included in the award. (b)...

  20. 40 CFR 31.12 - Special grant or subgrant conditions for “high-risk” grantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for “high-risk” grantees. (a) A grantee or subgrantee may be considered “high risk” if an awarding..., special conditions and/or restrictions shall correspond to the high risk condition and shall be included... performance within a given funding period; (3) Requiring additional, more detailed financial reports;...

  1. 36 CFR 1207.12 - Special grant or subgrant conditions for “high-risk” grantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special grant or subgrant conditions for âhigh-riskâ grantees. 1207.12 Section 1207.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... subgrant conditions for “high-risk” grantees. (a) A grantee or subgrantee may be considered “high risk”...

  2. 36 CFR 1207.12 - Special grant or subgrant conditions for “high-risk” grantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Special grant or subgrant conditions for âhigh-riskâ grantees. 1207.12 Section 1207.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... subgrant conditions for “high-risk” grantees. (a) A grantee or subgrantee may be considered “high risk”...

  3. 36 CFR 1207.12 - Special grant or subgrant conditions for “high-risk” grantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special grant or subgrant conditions for âhigh-riskâ grantees. 1207.12 Section 1207.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... subgrant conditions for “high-risk” grantees. (a) A grantee or subgrantee may be considered “high risk”...

  4. 36 CFR 1207.12 - Special grant or subgrant conditions for “high-risk” grantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special grant or subgrant conditions for âhigh-riskâ grantees. 1207.12 Section 1207.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... subgrant conditions for “high-risk” grantees. (a) A grantee or subgrantee may be considered “high risk”...

  5. 36 CFR 1207.12 - Special grant or subgrant conditions for “high-risk” grantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special grant or subgrant conditions for âhigh-riskâ grantees. 1207.12 Section 1207.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... subgrant conditions for “high-risk” grantees. (a) A grantee or subgrantee may be considered “high risk”...

  6. Bile acids reduce endocytosis of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Röhrl, Clemens; Eigner, Karin; Fruhwürth, Stefanie; Stangl, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) transports lipids to hepatic cells and the majority of HDL-associated cholesterol is destined for biliary excretion. Cholesterol is excreted into the bile directly or after conversion to bile acids, which are also present in the plasma as they are effectively reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. Here, we provide evidence that bile acids affect HDL endocytosis. Using fluorescent and radiolabeled HDL, we show that HDL endocytosis was reduced in the presence of high concentrations of taurocholate, a natural non-cell-permeable bile acid, in human hepatic HepG2 and HuH7 cells. In contrast, selective cholesteryl-ester (CE) uptake was increased. Taurocholate exerted these effects extracellularly and independently of HDL modification, cell membrane perturbation or blocking of endocytic trafficking. Instead, this reduction of endocytosis and increase in selective uptake was dependent on SR-BI. In addition, cell-permeable bile acids reduced HDL endocytosis by farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation: chenodeoxycholate and the non-steroidal FXR agonist GW4064 reduced HDL endocytosis, whereas selective CE uptake was unaltered. Reduced HDL endocytosis by FXR activation was independent of SR-BI and was likely mediated by impaired expression of the scavenger receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36). Taken together we have shown that bile acids reduce HDL endocytosis by transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Further, we suggest that HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake are not necessarily tightly linked to each other.

  7. Bile acids reduce endocytosis of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Röhrl, Clemens; Eigner, Karin; Fruhwürth, Stefanie; Stangl, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) transports lipids to hepatic cells and the majority of HDL-associated cholesterol is destined for biliary excretion. Cholesterol is excreted into the bile directly or after conversion to bile acids, which are also present in the plasma as they are effectively reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. Here, we provide evidence that bile acids affect HDL endocytosis. Using fluorescent and radiolabeled HDL, we show that HDL endocytosis was reduced in the presence of high concentrations of taurocholate, a natural non-cell-permeable bile acid, in human hepatic HepG2 and HuH7 cells. In contrast, selective cholesteryl-ester (CE) uptake was increased. Taurocholate exerted these effects extracellularly and independently of HDL modification, cell membrane perturbation or blocking of endocytic trafficking. Instead, this reduction of endocytosis and increase in selective uptake was dependent on SR-BI. In addition, cell-permeable bile acids reduced HDL endocytosis by farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation: chenodeoxycholate and the non-steroidal FXR agonist GW4064 reduced HDL endocytosis, whereas selective CE uptake was unaltered. Reduced HDL endocytosis by FXR activation was independent of SR-BI and was likely mediated by impaired expression of the scavenger receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36). Taken together we have shown that bile acids reduce HDL endocytosis by transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Further, we suggest that HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake are not necessarily tightly linked to each other. PMID:25010412

  8. Effects of Reduced Sulfur Compounds on Pd-catalytic Hydrodechlorination of TCE in Groundwater by Cathodic H2 under Electrochemically-induced Oxidizing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Songhu; Chen, Mingjie; Mao, Xuhui; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) poison Pd catalysts for catalytic hydrodechlorination of contaminants in anoxic groundwater. This study investigates the effects of RSCs on Pd-catalytic hydrodechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) in oxic groundwater. Water electrolysis in an undivided electrolytic cell is used to produce H2 for TCE hydrodechlorination under oxidizing conditions. TCE is efficiently hydrodechlorinated to ethane, with significant accumulation of H2O2 under acidic conditions. Presence of sulfide at concentrations less than 93.8 μM moderately inhibits TCE hydrodechlorination and H2O2 production. Presence of sulfite at low concentrations (≤ 1 mM) significantly enhances TCE decay, while at high concentration (3 mM) inhibits initially and enhances afterwards when sulfite concentration declines to less than 1 mM. Using radical scavenging experiments and electron spin resonance assay, SO3•− which is generated from sulfite under oxidizing conditions is validated as the new reactive species contributing to the enhancement. This study reveals a distinct mechanism of effect of sulfite on TCE hydrodechlorination by Pd and H2 in oxic groundwater and presents an alternative approach to increasing resistance of Pd to RSCs poisoning. PMID:23962132

  9. [Impact of the crisis on the relationship between housing and health. Policies for good practice to reduce inequalities in health related to housing conditions].

    PubMed

    Novoa, Ana M; Bosch, Jordi; Díaz, Fernando; Malmusi, Davide; Darnell, Mercè; Trilla, Carme

    2014-06-01

    Housing conditions can impact on physical and mental health through 4 interrelated dimensions: 1) the home (the emotional housing conditions), 2) the physical housing conditions, and 3) the physical environment, and 4) the social (community) environment of the neighborhood where the house is located. In Spain, the use of the construction market as an engine for economic growth and the promotion of private property as the main type of housing tenure has led to the use of housing as a speculative good instead of its being considered a first-necessity good. While Spain is the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) country with the largest housing stock per inhabitant, this stock is highly underutilized, thus excluding the most deprived sector of the population from access to housing. The impact of the current economic crisis on housing has mainly been due to a reduction in household income, which has increased the number of families or persons struggling to cover their housing costs or being evicted. Evidence indicates that this type of problem has a negative impact on health, especially on mental health, but financial problems also make it difficult to meet other basic needs such as eating. There are several instruments to reduce the impact of the economic crisis, such as debt financing or deed of assignment in payment. In the long-term, the creation of a social housing stock should be promoted, as well as rental assistance mechanisms. PMID:24863993

  10. [Impact of the crisis on the relationship between housing and health. Policies for good practice to reduce inequalities in health related to housing conditions].

    PubMed

    Novoa, Ana M; Bosch, Jordi; Díaz, Fernando; Malmusi, Davide; Darnell, Mercè; Trilla, Carme

    2014-06-01

    Housing conditions can impact on physical and mental health through 4 interrelated dimensions: 1) the home (the emotional housing conditions), 2) the physical housing conditions, and 3) the physical environment, and 4) the social (community) environment of the neighborhood where the house is located. In Spain, the use of the construction market as an engine for economic growth and the promotion of private property as the main type of housing tenure has led to the use of housing as a speculative good instead of its being considered a first-necessity good. While Spain is the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) country with the largest housing stock per inhabitant, this stock is highly underutilized, thus excluding the most deprived sector of the population from access to housing. The impact of the current economic crisis on housing has mainly been due to a reduction in household income, which has increased the number of families or persons struggling to cover their housing costs or being evicted. Evidence indicates that this type of problem has a negative impact on health, especially on mental health, but financial problems also make it difficult to meet other basic needs such as eating. There are several instruments to reduce the impact of the economic crisis, such as debt financing or deed of assignment in payment. In the long-term, the creation of a social housing stock should be promoted, as well as rental assistance mechanisms.

  11. Effects of reduced sulfur compounds on Pd-catalytic hydrodechlorination of trichloroethylene in groundwater by cathodic H2 under electrochemically induced oxidizing conditions.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Songhu; Chen, Mingjie; Mao, Xuhui; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

    2013-09-17

    Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) poison Pd catalysts for catalytic hydrodechlorination of contaminants in anoxic groundwater. This study investigates the effects of RSCs on Pd-catalytic hydrodechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) in oxic groundwater. Water electrolysis in an undivided electrolytic cell is used to produce H2 for TCE hydrodechlorination under oxidizing conditions. TCE is efficiently hydrodechlorinated to ethane, with significant accumulation of H2O2 under acidic conditions. The presence of sulfide at concentrations less than 93.8 μM moderately inhibits TCE hydrodechlorination and H2O2 production. The presence of sulfite at low concentrations (≤1 mM) significantly enhances TCE decay, while at high concentration (3 mM) inhibits initially and enhances afterward when sulfite concentration declines to less than 1 mM. Using radical scavenging experiments and an electron spin resonance assay, SO3(•-), which is generated from sulfite under oxidizing conditions, is validated as the new reactive species contributing to the enhancement. This study reveals a distinct mechanism of effect of sulfite on TCE hydrodechlorination by Pd and H2 in oxic groundwater and presents an alternative approach to increasing resistance of Pd to RSCs poisoning.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Flow-Induced Noise in High Pressure Reducing Valve

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lin; Zhu, Guorong; Qian, Jinyuan; Fei, Yang; Jin, Zhijiang

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to study the characteristics of flow-induced noise in high pressure reducing valve (HPRV) and to provide some guidance for noise control. Based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD), numerical method was used to compute flow field. Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings Model was applied to obtain acoustic signals. The unsteady flow field shows that noise sources are located at the bottom of plug for valve without perforated plate, and noise sources are behind the plate for valve with perforated plate. Noise directivity analysis and spectrum characteristics indicate that the perforated plate could help to reduce noise effectively. Inlet pressure has great effects on sound pressure level (SPL). The higher inlet pressure will lead to larger SPL at high frequency. When the maximum Ma is close to 1, SPL at low frequency becomes very high. PMID:26061396

  13. Isolation of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mutant in ABA 8'-hydroxylase gene: effect of reduced ABA catabolism on germination inhibition under field condition.

    PubMed

    Chono, Makiko; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Seki, Masako; Fujita, Masaya; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Oda, Shunsuke; Kojima, Hisayo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kawakami, Naoto

    2013-03-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seeds on the mother plant under moist condition, is a serious problem in cereals. To investigate the effect of reduced abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism on germination in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), we cloned the wheat ABA 8'-hydroxyase gene which was highly expressed during seed development (TaABA8'OH1) and screened for mutations that lead to reduced ABA catabolism. In a screen for natural variation, one insertion mutation in exon 5 of TaABA8'OH1 on the D genome (TaABA8'OH1-D) was identified in Japanese cultivars including 'Tamaizumi'. However, a single mutation in TaABA8'OH1-D had no clear effect on germination inhibition in double haploid lines. In a screen for a mutation, one deletion mutant lacking the entire TaABA8'OH1 on the A genome (TaABA8'OH1-A), TM1833, was identified from gamma-ray irradiation lines of 'Tamaizumi'. TM1833 (a double mutant in TaABA8'OH1-A and TaABA8'OH1-D) showed lower TaABA8'OH1 expression, higher ABA content in embryos during seed development under field condition and lower germination than those in 'Tamaizumi' (a single mutant in TaABA8'OH1-D). These results indicate that reduced ABA catabolism through mutations in TaABA8'OH1 may be effective in germination inhibition in field-grown wheat.

  14. Isolation of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mutant in ABA 8′-hydroxylase gene: effect of reduced ABA catabolism on germination inhibition under field condition

    PubMed Central

    Chono, Makiko; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Seki, Masako; Fujita, Masaya; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Oda, Shunsuke; Kojima, Hisayo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kawakami, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seeds on the mother plant under moist condition, is a serious problem in cereals. To investigate the effect of reduced abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism on germination in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), we cloned the wheat ABA 8′-hydroxyase gene which was highly expressed during seed development (TaABA8′OH1) and screened for mutations that lead to reduced ABA catabolism. In a screen for natural variation, one insertion mutation in exon 5 of TaABA8′OH1 on the D genome (TaABA8′OH1-D) was identified in Japanese cultivars including ‘Tamaizumi’. However, a single mutation in TaABA8′OH1-D had no clear effect on germination inhibition in double haploid lines. In a screen for a mutation, one deletion mutant lacking the entire TaABA8′OH1 on the A genome (TaABA8′OH1-A), TM1833, was identified from gamma-ray irradiation lines of ‘Tamaizumi’. TM1833 (a double mutant in TaABA8′OH1-A and TaABA8′OH1-D) showed lower TaABA8′OH1 expression, higher ABA content in embryos during seed development under field condition and lower germination than those in ‘Tamaizumi’ (a single mutant in TaABA8′OH1-D). These results indicate that reduced ABA catabolism through mutations in TaABA8′OH1 may be effective in germination inhibition in field-grown wheat. PMID:23641187

  15. Ethanol intake and ethanol-conditioned place preference are reduced in mice treated with the bioflavonoid agent naringin.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Amine; Nurulain, Syed M; Ojha, Shreesh

    2014-11-01

    Recently, PPAR-γ activation has emerged as a potential treatment for alcoholism. However, the adverse effects of synthetic PPAR-γ activators, despite being effective drugs, prompted the need for novel PPAR-γ agonists that retain efficacy and potency with a lower potential of side effects. Hence, naringin, a bioflavonoid isolated from citrus fruits and recently identified as a natural ligand of PPAR-γ, has begun to be evaluated for treatment of alcoholism. It is well known to possess several therapeutic benefits in addition to its anti-anxiety and antidepressant properties. In the present study, we assessed whether naringin treatment possesses anti-ethanol reward properties in C57BL/6 mice. We used the two-bottle choice drinking paradigm and ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) to examine the effect of naringin treatment on ethanol drinking. Results have shown that, compared with vehicle, naringin (10-100 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently decreased voluntary ethanol intake and preference in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm [3-15% (v/v) escalating over 2 weeks], with no significant effect observed on saccharin [0.02-0.08% (w/v)] or on quinine [15-60 μM (w/v)] intake. In addition, there was no significant difference in blood ethanol concentration (BEC) between groups following naringin administration of 3 g of ethanol/kg body weight. Interestingly, when mice were treated with vehicle or naringin (30 mg/kg) before injection of ethanol (1.5 g/kg) during conditioning days, naringin inhibited the acquisition of ethanol-CPP. More importantly, these effects were significantly attenuated when mice were pre-injected with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) antagonist, GW9662. Taken together, the present findings are the first to implicate naringin and PPAR-γ receptors in the behavioral and reward-related effects of ethanol and raise the question of whether specific drugs that target PPAR-γ receptors could potentially

  16. Reduced graphene oxide electrically contacted graphene sensor for highly sensitive nitric oxide detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiwei; Geng, Xiumei; Guo, Yufen; Rong, Jizan; Gong, Youpin; Wu, Liqiong; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Peng; Xu, Jianbao; Cheng, Guosheng; Sun, Mengtao; Liu, Liwei

    2011-09-27

    We develop graphene-based devices fabricated by alternating current dielectrophoresis (ac-DEP) for highly sensitive nitric oxide (NO) gas detection. The novel device comprises the sensitive channels of palladium-decorated reduced graphene oxide (Pd-RGO) and the electrodes covered with chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene. The highly sensitive, recoverable, and reliable detection of NO gas ranging from 2 to 420 ppb with response time of several hundred seconds has been achieved at room temperature. The facile and scalable route for high performance suggests a promising application of graphene devices toward the human exhaled NO and environmental pollutant detections. PMID:21834585

  17. Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering of Reduced Ribonuclease A: Effects of Solution Conditions And Comparisons With a Computational Model of Unfolded Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Trewhella, J.; Goldenberg, D.P.

    2009-05-26

    The disulfide-reduced form of bovine ribonuclease A, with the Cys thiols irreversibly blocked, was characterized by small-angle x-ray scattering. To help resolve the conflicting results and interpretations from previous studies of this model unfolded protein, we measured scattering profiles using a range of solution conditions and compared them with the profiles predicted by a computational model for a random-coil polypeptide. Analysis of the simulated and experimental profiles reveals that scattering intensities at intermediate angles, corresponding to interatomic distances in the range of 5--20 {angstrom}, are particularly sensitive to changes in solvation and can be used to assess the internal scaling behavior of the polypeptide chain, expressed as a mass fractal dimension, D{sub m}. This region of the scattering curve is also much less sensitive to experimental artifacts than is the very small angle regime (the Guinier region) that has been more typically used to characterize unfolded proteins. The experimental small-angle x-ray scattering profiles closely matched those predicted by the computational model assuming relatively small solvation energies. The scaling behavior of the polypeptide approaches that of a well-solvated polymer under conditions where it has a large net charge and at high urea concentrations. At lower urea concentrations and neutral pH, the behavior of the chain approaches that expected for {theta}-conditions, where the effects of slightly unfavorable interactions with solvent balance those of excluded volume, leading to scaling behavior comparable to that of an idealized random walk chain. Though detectable, the shift toward more compact conformations at lower urea concentrations does not correspond to a transition to a globule state and is associated with little or no reduction in conformational entropy. This type of collapse, therefore, is unlikely to greatly reduce the conformational search for the native state.

  18. Method and apparatus for reducing coherence of high-power laser beams

    DOEpatents

    Moncur, Norman K.; Mayer, Frederick J.

    1978-01-01

    Method and apparatus for reducing the coherence and for smoothing the power density profile of a collimated high-power laser beam in which the beam is focused at a point on the surface of a target fabricated of material having a low atomic number. The initial portion of the focused beam heats the material to form a hot reflective plasma at the material surface. The remaining, major portion of the focused beam is reflected by the plasma and recollected to form a collimated beam having reduced beam coherence.

  19. The emergence of the Activity Reduces Conflict Associated Strain (ARCAS) model: a test of a conditional mediation model of workplace conflict and employee strain.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Maria T M; Beersma, Bianca; Cornelissen, Roosmarijn A W M

    2012-07-01

    To test and extend the emerging Activity Reduces Conflict-Associated Strain (ARCAS) model, we predicted that the relationship between task conflict and employee strain would be weakened to the extent that people experience high organization-based self-esteem (OBSE). A survey among Dutch employees demonstrated that, consistent with the model, the conflict-employee strain relationship was weaker the higher employees' OBSE and the more they engaged in active problem-solving conflict management. Our data also revealed that higher levels of OBSE were related to more problem-solving conflict management. Moreover, consistent with the ARCAS model, we could confirm a conditional mediation model in which organization-based self-esteem through its relationship with problem-solving conflict management weakened the relationship between task conflict and employee strain. Potential applications of the results are discussed.

  20. An investigation of side-stick-controller/stability and control-augmentation system requirements for helicopter terrain flight under reduced visibility conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, K. H.; Glusman, S. I.; Aiken, E. W.; Hilbert, K. B.

    1984-01-01

    Simulation of the reduced visibility tasks is effected by providing the pilot with a visually coupled, helmet-mounted display of flight-control symbols superimposed upon terrain-board imagery. Forward-flight, low-speed, and precision-hover control modes are implemented, and a method is developed for the blending of control laws between each control mode. An investigation is made of the variations in the level of integration of primary control functions on a single side-stick controller. For most of the flight tasks investigated, separated controller configurations are preferred to a single, fully integrated side-stick device. Satisfactory handling qualities over all controller configurations are attained only for a precision-hover task conducted with a high level of stability and control augmentation. For most tasks flown with the helmet-mounted display significant degradation in handling qualities occurs relative to the identical tasks flown under visual flight conditions.

  1. Reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation for Hodgkin’s lymphoma: identification of prognostic factors predicting outcome

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Stephen P.; Sureda, Anna; Canals, Carmen; Russell, Nigel; Caballero, Dolores; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Iriondo, Arturo; Cook, Gordon; Pettitt, Andrew; Socie, Gerard; Bonifazi, Francesca; Bosi, Alberto; Michallet, Mauricette; Liakopoulou, Effie; Maertens, Johan; Passweg, Jakob; Clarke, Fiona; Martino, Rodrigo; Schmitz, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Background The role of reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic stem transplantation (RICalloSCT) in the management of patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma remains controversial. Design and Methods To further define its role we have conducted a retrospective analysis of 285 patients with HL who underwent a RICalloSCT in order to identify prognostic factors that predict outcome. Eighty percent of patients had undergone a prior autologous stem cell transplantation and 25% had refractory disease at transplant. Results Non-relapse mortality was associated with chemorefractory disease, poor performance status, age >45 and transplantation before 2002. For patients with no risk factors the 3-year non-relapse mortality rate was 12.5% compared to 46.2% for patients with 2 or more risk factors. The use of an unrelated donor had no adverse effect on the non-relapse mortality. Acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) grades II–IV developed in 30% and chronic GVHD in 42%. The development of cGVHD was associated with a lower relapse rate. The disease progression rate at one and five years was 41% and 58.7% respectively and was associated with chemorefractory disease and extent of prior therapy. Donor lymphocyte infusions were administered to 64 patients for active disease of whom 32% showed a clinical response. Eight out of 18 patients receiving donor lymphocyte infusions alone had clinical responses. Progression-free and overall survival were both associated with performance status and disease status at transplant. Patients with neither risk factor had a 3-year PFS and overall survival of 42% and 56% respectively compared to 8% and 25% for patients with one or more risk factors. Relapse within six months of a prior autologous transplant was associated with a higher relapse rate and a lower progression-free. Conclusions This analysis identifies important clinical parameters that may be useful in predicting the outcome of RICaIICalloSCT in Hodgkin’s lymphoma. PMID:19066328

  2. Long-Term Follow-Up after Reduced-Intensity Conditioning and Stem Cell Transplantation for Childhood Nonmalignant Disorders.

    PubMed

    Madden, Lisa M; Hayashi, Robert J; Chan, Ka Wah; Pulsipher, Michael A; Douglas, Dorothea; Hale, Gregory A; Chaudhury, Sonali; Haut, Paul; Kasow, Kimberly A; Gilman, Andrew L; Murray, Lisa M; Shenoy, Shalini

    2016-08-01

    Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) in children could result in fewer complications during follow-up compared with myeloablative regimens. Hence, many RIC regimens are under investigation, but long-term follow-up is essential. We describe late follow-up beyond 2 years post-HCT in 43 children with nonmalignant disorders who underwent related or unrelated donor (56%) HCT on a multicenter study using a RIC regimen (alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan) followed by bone marrow (n = 30), peripheral blood (n = 3), or umbilical cord blood (n = 10) HCT for immune dysfunction, bone marrow failure, metabolic disorders, or hemoglobinopathy. Recipients (median age, 7.5 years; range, 3 to 26) underwent HCT 2 to 8 years (median, 3.1 years) before this report. Full donor (67%) or stable mixed chimerism (33%) was noted without late graft rejection. Five patients (12%) required systemic immunosuppression therapy (IST) beyond 2 years post-HCT for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD); 2 patients died 38 and 79 months later, whereas the others improved, enabling an IST wean. Overall, 17 complications were documented in 10 patients (23%). Complications not related to GVHD included hypothyroidism (n = 2), low grade neoplasms (n = 2), and delayed puberty (n = 1). One patient with GVHD had ovarian failure; all other postpubertal females resumed normal ovarian function. Twenty-seven of 28 school-age recipients were functioning at grade level. RIC HCT recipients thus had few regimen-related toxicities during long-term follow-up. However, objective long-term follow-up is still necessary to identify complications so timely intervention may be planned.

  3. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors reduce oxidative stress intensity in hyperglicemic conditions in rats independently from bradykinin receptor inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mikrut, Kinga; Kupsz, Justyna; Koźlik, Jacek; Krauss, Hanna; Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, Ewa; Gibas-Dorna, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether bradykinin-independent antioxidative effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) exist in acute hyperglycemia. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into the normoglycemic group (n = 40) and the hyperglycemic group (n = 40). Hyperglycemia was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg body weight) dissolved in 0.1 mol/L citrate buffer (pH 4.5) 72 hours before sacrifice. The normoglycemic group received the same volume of citrate buffer. Each group was divided into five subgroups (n = 8): control group, captopril group, captopril + bradykinin B1 and B2 receptor antagonists group, enalapril group, and enalapril + bradykinin B1 and B2 receptor antagonists group. Captopril, enalapril, B1 and B2 receptor antagonists, or 0.15 mol/L NaCl were given at 2 and 1 hour before sacrifice. Oxidative status was determined by measuring the concentration of malondialdehyde and H2O2, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Results In STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats ACEIs significantly reduced H2O2 and MDA concentration, while they significantly enhanced SOD and GPx activity. The hyperglycemic group treated simultaneously with ACEIs and bradykinin B1 and B2 receptor antagonists showed a significant decrease in H2O2 concentration compared to the control hyperglycemic group. Conclusion These results suggest the existence of additional antioxidative effect of ACEIs in hyperglycemic conditions, which is not related to the bradykinin mediation and the structure of the drug molecule. PMID:27586552

  4. Partial Root-Zone Drying of Olive (Olea europaea var. 'Chetoui') Induces Reduced Yield under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Dbara, Soumaya; Haworth, Matthew; Emiliani, Giovani; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Centritto, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The productivity of olive trees in arid and semi-arid environments is closely linked to irrigation. It is necessary to improve the efficiency of irrigation techniques to optimise the amount of olive fruit produced in relation to the volume of water used. Partial root-zone drying (PRD) is a water saving irrigation technique that theoretically allows the production of a root-to-shoot signal that modifies the physiology of the above-ground parts of the plant; specifically reducing stomatal conductance (gs) and improving water use efficiency (WUE). Partial root-zone drying has been successfully applied under field conditions to woody and non-woody crops; yet the few previous trials with olive trees have produced contrasting results. Thirty year-old olive trees (Olea europaea ‘var. Chetoui’) in a Tunisian grove were exposed to four treatments from May to October for three-years: ‘control’ plants received 100% of the potential evapotranspirative demand (ETc) applied to the whole root-zone; ‘PRD100’ were supplied with an identical volume of water to the control plants alternated between halves of the root-zone every ten-days; ‘PRD50’ were given 50% of ETc to half of the root-system, and; ‘rain-fed’ plants received no supplementary irrigation. Allowing part of the root-zone to dry resulted in reduced vegetative growth and lower yield: PRD100 decreased yield by ~47% during productive years. During the less productive years of the alternate bearing cycle, irrigation had no effect on yield; this suggests that withholding of water during ‘off-years’ may enhance the effectiveness of irrigation over a two-year cycle. The amount and quality of oil within the olive fruit was unaffected by the irrigation treatment. Photosynthesis declined in the PRD50 and rain-fed trees due to greater diffusive limitations and reduced biochemical uptake of CO2. Stomatal conductance and the foliar concentration of abscisic acid (ABA) were not altered by PRD100 irrigation

  5. Reducing indoor air pollution by air conditioning is associated with improvements in cardiovascular health among the general population.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Liu, I-Jung; Chen, Hua-Wei; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2013-10-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with cardiovascular effects, however, little is known about the effects of improving indoor air quality on cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to explore whether improving indoor air quality through air conditioning can improve cardiovascular health in human subjects. We recruited a panel of 300 healthy subjects from Taipei, aged 20 and over, to participate in six home visits each, to measure a variety of cardiovascular endpoints, including high sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), fibrinogen in plasma and heart rate variability (HRV). Indoor particles and total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured simultaneously at the participant's home during each visit. Three exposure conditions were investigated in this study: participants were requested to keep their windows open during the first two visits, close their windows during the next two visits, and close the windows and turn on their air conditioners during the last two visits. We used linear mixed-effects models to associate the cardiovascular endpoints with individual indoor air pollutants. The results showed that increases in hs-CRP, 8-OHdG and fibrinogen, and decreases in HRV indices were associated with increased levels of indoor particles and total VOCs in single-pollutant and two-pollutant models. The effects of indoor particles and total VOCs on cardiovascular endpoints were greatest during visits with the windows open. During visits with the air conditioners turned on, no significant changes in cardiovascular endpoints were observed. In conclusion, indoor air pollution is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, blood coagulation and autonomic dysfunction. Reductions in indoor air pollution and subsequent improvements in cardiovascular health can be achieved by closing windows and turning on air conditioners at home.

  6. Prediction of Bubble Diameter at Detachment from a Wall Orifice in Liquid Cross Flow Under Reduced and Normal Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Kamotani, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Bubble formation and detachment is an integral part of the two-phase flow science. The objective of the present work is to theoretically investigate the effects of liquid cross-flow velocity, gas flow rate embodied in the momentum flux force, and orifice diameter on bubble formation in a wall-bubble injection configuration. A two-dimensional one-stage theoretical model based on a global force balance on the bubble evolving from a wall orifice in a cross liquid flow is presented in this work. In this model, relevant forces acting on the evolving bubble are expressed in terms of the bubble center of mass coordinates and solved simultaneously. Relevant forces in low gravity included the momentum flux, shear-lift, surface tension, drag and inertia forces. Under normal gravity conditions, the buoyancy force, which is dominant under such conditions, can be added to the force balance. Two detachment criteria were applicable depending on the gas to liquid momentum force ratio. For low ratios, the time when the bubble acceleration in the direction of the detachment angle is greater or equal to zero is calculated from the bubble x and y coordinates. This time is taken as the time at which all the detaching forces that are acting on the bubble are greater or equal to the attaching forces. For high gas to liquid momentum force ratios, the time at which the y coordinate less the bubble radius equals zero is calculated. The bubble diameter is evaluated at this time as the diameter at detachment from the fact that the bubble volume is simply given by the product of the gas flow rate and time elapsed. Comparison of the model s predictions was also made with predictions from a two-dimensional normal gravity model based on Kumar-Kuloor formulation and such a comparison is presented in this work.

  7. High-Pressure-High-Temperature Processing Reduces Maillard Reaction and Viscosity in Whey Protein-Sugar Solutions.

    PubMed

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Xi, Bingyan; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; van Boekel, Martinus; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Stieger, Markus

    2016-09-28

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of pressure in high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) processing on Maillard reactions and protein aggregation of whey protein-sugar solutions. Solutions of whey protein isolate containing either glucose or trehalose at pH 6, 7, and 9 were treated by HPHT processing or conventional high-temperature (HT) treatments. Browning was reduced, and early and advanced Maillard reactions were retarded under HPHT processing at all pH values compared to HT treatment. HPHT induced a larger pH drop than HT treatments, especially at pH 9, which was not associated with Maillard reactions. After HPHT processing at pH 7, protein aggregation and viscosity of whey protein isolate-glucose/trehalose solutions remained unchanged. It was concluded that HPHT processing can potentially improve the quality of protein-sugar-containing foods, for which browning and high viscosities are undesired, such as high-protein beverages.

  8. Rapid induction of single donor chimerism after double umbilical cord blood transplantation preceded by reduced intensity conditioning: results of the HOVON 106 phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Somers, Judith A.E.; Braakman, Eric; van der Holt, Bronno; Petersen, Eefke J.; Marijt, Erik W.A.; Huisman, Cynthia; Sintnicolaas, Kees; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Groenendijk-Sijnke, Marlies E.; Brand, Anneke; Cornelissen, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    Double umbilical cord blood transplantation is increasingly applied in the treatment of adult patients with high-risk hematological malignancies and has been associated with improved engraftment as compared to that provided by single unit cord blood transplantation. The mechanism of improved engraftment is, however, still incompletely understood as only one unit survives. In this multicenter phase II study we evaluated engraftment, early chimerism, recovery of different cell lineages and transplant outcome in 53 patients who underwent double cord blood transplantation preceded by a reduced intensity conditioning regimen. Primary graft failure occurred in one patient. Engraftment was observed in 92% of patients with a median time to neutrophil recovery of 36 days (range, 15–102). Ultimate single donor chimerism was established in 94% of patients. Unit predominance occurred by day 11 after transplantation and early CD4+ T-cell chimerism predicted for unit survival. Total nucleated cell viability was also associated with unit survival. With a median follow up of 35 months (range, 10–51), the cumulative incidence of relapse and non-relapse mortality rate at 2 years were 39% and 19%, respectively. Progressionfree survival and overall survival rates at 2 years were 42% (95% confidence interval, 28–56) and 57% (95% confidence interval, 43–70), respectively. Double umbilical cord blood transplantation preceded by a reduced intensity conditioning regimen using cyclophosphamide/fludarabine/4 Gy total body irradiation results in a high engraftment rate with low non-relapse mortality. Moreover, prediction of unit survival by early CD4+ lymphocyte chimerism might suggest a role for CD4+ lymphocyte mediated unit-versus-unit alloreactivity. www.trialregister.nl NTR1573. PMID:25107890

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of MapReduce for High-Performance Climate Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Daniel Q.; Schnase, John L.; Thompson, John H.; Freeman, Shawn M.; Clune, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    MapReduce is an approach to high-performance analytics that may be useful to data intensive problems in climate research. It offers an analysis paradigm that uses clusters of computers and combines distributed storage of large data sets with parallel computation. We are particularly interested in the potential of MapReduce to speed up basic operations common to a wide range of analyses. In order to evaluate this potential, we are prototyping a series of canonical MapReduce operations over a test suite of observational and climate simulation datasets. Our initial focus has been on averaging operations over arbitrary spatial and temporal extents within Modern Era Retrospective- Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data. Preliminary results suggest this approach can improve efficiencies within data intensive analytic workflows.

  10. High salt reduces the activation of IL-4– and IL-13–stimulated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Binger, Katrina J.; Gebhardt, Matthias; Heinig, Matthias; Rintisch, Carola; Schroeder, Agnes; Neuhofer, Wolfgang; Hilgers, Karl; Manzel, Arndt; Schwartz, Christian; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Voelkl, Jakob; Schatz, Valentin; Linker, Ralf A.; Lang, Florian; Voehringer, David; Wright, Mark D.; Hubner, Norbert; Dechend, Ralf; Jantsch, Jonathan; Titze, Jens; Müller, Dominik N.

    2015-01-01

    A high intake of dietary salt (NaCl) has been implicated in the development of hypertension, chronic inflammation, and autoimmune diseases. We have recently shown that salt has a proinflammatory effect and boosts the activation of Th17 cells and the activation of classical, LPS-induced macrophages (M1). Here, we examined how the activation of alternative (M2) macrophages is affected by salt. In stark contrast to Th17 cells and M1 macrophages, high salt blunted the alternative activation of BM-derived mouse macrophages stimulated with IL-4 and IL-13, M(IL-4+IL-13) macrophages. Salt-induced reduction of M(IL-4+IL-13) activation was not associated with increased polarization toward a proinflammatory M1 phenotype. In vitro, high salt decreased the ability of M(IL-4+IL-13) macrophages to suppress effector T cell proliferation. Moreover, mice fed a high salt diet exhibited reduced M2 activation following chitin injection and delayed wound healing compared with control animals. We further identified a high salt–induced reduction in glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolic output, coupled with blunted AKT and mTOR signaling, which indicates a mechanism by which NaCl inhibits full M2 macrophage activation. Collectively, this study provides evidence that high salt reduces noninflammatory innate immune cell activation and may thus lead to an overall imbalance in immune homeostasis. PMID:26485286

  11. High salt reduces the activation of IL-4- and IL-13-stimulated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Binger, Katrina J; Gebhardt, Matthias; Heinig, Matthias; Rintisch, Carola; Schroeder, Agnes; Neuhofer, Wolfgang; Hilgers, Karl; Manzel, Arndt; Schwartz, Christian; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Voelkl, Jakob; Schatz, Valentin; Linker, Ralf A; Lang, Florian; Voehringer, David; Wright, Mark D; Hubner, Norbert; Dechend, Ralf; Jantsch, Jonathan; Titze, Jens; Müller, Dominik N

    2015-11-01

    A high intake of dietary salt (NaCl) has been implicated in the development of hypertension, chronic inflammation, and autoimmune diseases. We have recently shown that salt has a proinflammatory effect and boosts the activation of Th17 cells and the activation of classical, LPS-induced macrophages (M1). Here, we examined how the activation of alternative (M2) macrophages is affected by salt. In stark contrast to Th17 cells and M1 macrophages, high salt blunted the alternative activation of BM-derived mouse macrophages stimulated with IL-4 and IL-13, M(IL-4+IL-13) macrophages. Salt-induced reduction of M(IL-4+IL-13) activation was not associated with increased polarization toward a proinflammatory M1 phenotype. In vitro, high salt decreased the ability of M(IL-4+IL-13) macrophages to suppress effector T cell proliferation. Moreover, mice fed a high salt diet exhibited reduced M2 activation following chitin injection and delayed wound healing compared with control animals. We further identified a high salt-induced reduction in glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolic output, coupled with blunted AKT and mTOR signaling, which indicates a mechanism by which NaCl inhibits full M2 macrophage activation. Collectively, this study provides evidence that high salt reduces noninflammatory innate immune cell activation and may thus lead to an overall imbalance in immune homeostasis.

  12. Sensitive high-throughput screening for the detection of reducing sugars.

    PubMed

    Mellitzer, Andrea; Glieder, Anton; Weis, Roland; Reisinger, Christoph; Flicker, Karlheinz

    2012-01-01

    The exploitation of renewable resources for the production of biofuels relies on efficient processes for the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials. The development of enzymes and strains for these processes requires reliable and fast activity-based screening assays. Additionally, these assays are also required to operate on the microscale and on the high-throughput level. Herein, we report the development of a highly sensitive reducing-sugar assay in a 96-well microplate screening format. The assay is based on the formation of osazones from reducing sugars and para-hydroxybenzoic acid hydrazide. By using this sensitive assay, the enzyme loads and conversion times during lignocellulose hydrolysis can be reduced, thus allowing higher throughput. The assay is about five times more sensitive than the widely applied dinitrosalicylic acid based assay and can reliably detect reducing sugars down to 10 μM. The assay-specific variation over one microplate was determined for three different lignocellulolytic enzymes and ranges from 2 to 8%. Furthermore, the assay was combined with a microscale cultivation procedure for the activity-based screening of Pichia pastoris strains expressing functional Thermomyces lanuginosus xylanase A, Trichoderma reesei β-mannanase, or T. reesei cellobiohydrolase 2.

  13. Highly efficient visible light mediated azo dye degradation through barium titanate decorated reduced graphene oxide sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, Monisha; Kushwaha, H. S.; Vaish, Rahul

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates BaTiO3 decorated reduced graphene oxide sheets as a potential visible light active catalyst for dye degradation (Rhodamine B). The composites were prepared through conventional hydrothermal synthesis technique using hydrazine as a reducing agent. A number of techniques have been employed to affirm the morphology, composition and photocatalytic properties of the composites; these include UV-visible spectrophotoscopy that assisted in quantifying the concentration difference of Rhodamine B. The phase homogeneity of the composites was examined through x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was employed to confirm the orientation of the BaTiO3 particles over the reduced graphene oxide sheets. Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra assisted in determining the surface structure and excited state of the catalyst. Fourier transformed-infrared (FTIR) spectra investigated the vibrations and adsorption peak of the composites, thereby ascertaining the formation of reduced graphene oxide. In addition, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) demonstrated an enhanced absorption in the visible region. The experimental investigations revealed that graphene oxide acted as charge collector and simultaneously facilitated surface adsorption and photo-sensitization. It could be deduced that BaTiO3-reduced graphene oxide composites are of significant interest the field of water purification through solar photocatalysis. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Poor oxic conditions in a large estuary reduce connectivity from marine to freshwater habitats of a diadromous fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tétard, Stéphane; Feunteun, Eric; Bultel, Elise; Gadais, Romain; Bégout, Marie-Laure; Trancart, Thomas; Lasne, Emilien

    2016-02-01

    Connectivity in aquatic systems is often related to abundance and permeability of physical barriers, such as dams, which delay or impede movements of biota with important consequences for aquatic biodiversity. Water quality may, however, also control connectivity between essential habitats. In macrotidal estuaries, Estuarine Turbidity Maxima (ETM) have a strong impact on water quality because of the low oxygen concentration occurring as a response to the related high bacterial and low photosynthetic activities. In this study, we assess Allis shad estuarine spawning migration in 2011 and 2012 in the Loire River (France) where the ETM occurs at spring and summer. Using an acoustic telemetry array, we show that trans-estuarine migration is inhibited during hypoxic episodes in the middle part of the estuary. Shad tends to stay in downstream areas, and even at sea, where oxygen conditions are more suitable. Trans-estuarine migration occurs hastily during neap tide when the ETM decreases, both in terms of spatial extent and intensity, inducing a shift in a set of covariates including dissolved oxygen, which increases, and suspended matter, which decreases. In the context of climate warming, ETM are expected to increase with probable adverse implications for shad migration success and doubtless other diadromous populations.

  15. Green synthesis of biphasic TiO₂-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites with highly enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Sher Shah, Md Selim Arif; Park, A Reum; Zhang, Kan; Park, Jong Hyeok; Yoo, Pil J

    2012-08-01

    A series of TiO(2)-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposites were prepared by simple one-step hydrothermal reactions using the titania precursor, TiCl(4) and graphene oxide (GO) without reducing agents. Hydrolysis of TiCl(4) and mild reduction of GO were simultaneously carried out under hydrothermal conditions. While conventional approaches mostly utilize multistep chemical methods wherein strong reducing agents, such as hydrazine, hydroquinone, and sodium borohydride are employed, our method provides the notable advantages of a single step reaction without employing toxic solvents or reducing agents, thereby providing a novel green synthetic route to produce the nanocomposites of RGO and TiO(2). The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by several crystallographic, microscopic, and spectroscopic characterization methods, which enabled confrimation of the robustness of the suggested reaction scheme. Notably, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron micrograph proved that TiO(2) contained both anatase and rutile phases. In addition, the photocatalytic activities of the synthesized composites were measured for the degradation of rhodamine B dye. The catalyst also can degrade a colorless dye such as benzoic acid under visible light. The synthesized nanocomposites of biphasic TiO(2) with RGO showed enhanced catalytic activity compared to conventional TiO(2) photocatalyst, P25. The photocatalytic activity is strongly affected by the concentration of RGO in the nanocomposites, with the best photocatalytic activity observed for the composite of 2.0 wt % RGO. Since the synthesized biphasic TiO(2)-RGO nanocomposites have been shown to effectively reduce the electron-hole recombination rate, it is anticipated that they will be utilized as anode materials in lithium ion batteries. PMID:22788800

  16. Ultra High Bypass Ratio Engine Research for Reducing Noise, Emissions, and Fuel Consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Schweitzer, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    A pictorial history of NASA development of advanced engine technologies for reducing environmental emissions and increasing performance from the 1970s to 2000s is presented. The goals of the Subsonic Fixed Wing Program portion of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program are discussed, along with the areas of investigation currently being pursued by the Ultra High Bypass Partnership Element of the Subsonic Fixed Wing Program.

  17. A high-protein, high-fat, carbohydrate-free diet reduces energy intake, hepatic lipogenesis, and adiposity in rats.

    PubMed

    Pichon, Lisa; Huneau, Jean-François; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effects in rats of ingesting 1 of 3 diets with normal or high protein concentrations and various carbohydrate:lipid ratios on weight gain, body composition, and the development and metabolism of white adipose tissue (WAT). For this purpose, male Wistar rats were fed for 20 or 42 d a high-carbohydrate, low-fat, normal-protein diet (76, 10, and 14% of energy as carbohydrate, lipid, and protein, respectively, carbohydrate:lipid ratio (C/L) = 7.6), a normal-carbohydrate, low-fat, high-protein diet (35, 10, and 55% of energy as carbohydrate, lipid, and protein respectively, C:L = 3.5), or a carbohydrate-free, high-fat, high-protein diet (45 and 55% of energy as fat and protein, respectively, C:L = 0). Growth, food intake, body composition, WAT cellularity, and several markers of lipogenesis including fatty acid synthase and lipoprotein lipase activities were measured in adipose tissue and liver. Lowering the C:L ratio reduced the development of WAT, weight gain, body fat mass, and adipocyte size, and in rats fed the carbohydrate-free diet (C:L = 0), the total number of adipocytes in subcutaneous WAT. These reductions in adipose tissue development with decreases in the C:L ratio of the diet seemed to be due primarily to reduced hepatic lipogenesis.

  18. Geochemical properties of bentonite pore water in high-level-waste repository condition

    SciTech Connect

    Ohe, Toshiaki; Tsukamoto, Masaki

    1997-04-01

    The chemically favorable nature of bentonite pore water is clarified by the PHREEQE geochemical simulation code. Bentonite is viewed as a candidate buffer material for a high-level-waste repository, and bentonite`s pore water chemistry is expected to result in a reduced Eh and weak alkaline pH region. Pyrite (Fe{sub 2}S), initially contained in bentonite, alters to magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), and this redox couple reaction controls the oxidation reduction potential. A mild alkaline pH condition is produced mainly by an ion exchange reaction between the sodium in bentonite and the protons in the solution. A geochemical simulation of the ion exchange reactions and the pyrite-magnetite alteration suggests that a favorable chemical condition would exist during the waste glass dissolution and indicates that the Ph and the Eh values are {minus}7.5 to {minus}9.4 and {minus}450 to {minus}320 mV, respectively, when the granitic groundwater intrudes into the compacted bentonite in the repository.

  19. Electric Field Effects in Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis under Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unuvar, C.; Frederick, D. M.; Shaw, B. D.; Munir, Z. A.

    2003-01-01

    Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) has been used to form many materials. SHS generally involves mixing reactants together (e.g., metal powders) and igniting the mixture such that a combustion (deflagration) wave passes though the mixture. The imposition of an electric field (AC or DC) across SHS reactants has been shown to have a marked effect on the dynamics of wave propagation and on the nature, composition, and homogeneity of the product . The use of an electric field with SHS has been termed "field-assisted SHS". Combustion wave velocities and temperatures are directly affected by the field, which is typically perpendicular to the average wave velocity. The degree of activation by the field (e.g., combustion rate) is related to the current density distribution within the sample, and is therefore related to the temperature-dependent spatial distribution of the effective electrical conductivity of reactants and products. Furthermore, the field can influence other important SHS-related phenomena including capillary flow, mass-transport in porous media, and Marangoni flows. These phenomena are influenced by gravity in conventional SHS processes (i.e., without electric fields). As a result the influence of the field on SHS under reduced gravity is expected to be different than under normal gravity. It is also known that heat loss rates from samples, which can depend significantly on gravity, can influence final products in SHS. This research program is focused on studying field-assisted SHS under reduced gravity conditions. The broad objective of this research program is to understand the role of an electric field in SHS reactions under conditions where gravity-related effects are suppressed. The research will allow increased understanding of fundamental aspects of field-assisted SHS processes as well as synthesis of materials that cannot be formed in normal gravity.

  20. Evaluation of a high efficiency cabin air (HECA) filtration system for reducing particulate pollutants inside school buses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eon S; Fung, Cha-Chen D; Zhu, Yifang

    2015-03-17

    An increasing number of studies have reported deleterious health effects of vehicle-emitted particulate matter (PM), including PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter≤2.5 μm), black carbon (BC), and ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter≤100 nm). When commuting inside school buses, children are exposed to high level of these pollutants due to emissions from both school bus itself and other on-road vehicles. This study developed an on-board high efficiency cabin air (HECA) filtration system for reducing children's exposure inside school buses. Six school buses were driven on two typical routes to evaluate to what extent the system reduces particulate pollutant levels inside the buses. The testing routes included freeways and major arterial roadways in Los Angeles, CA. UFP number concentrations and size distributions as well as BC and PM2.5 concentrations were monitored concurrently inside and outside of each bus. With the HECA filtration system on, in-cabin UFP and BC levels were reduced by 88±6% and 84±5% on averages across all driving conditions, respectively. The system was less effective for PM2.5 (55±22%) but successfully kept its levels below 12 μg/m3 inside all the buses. For all three types of particulate pollutants, in-cabin reductions were higher on freeways than on arterial roadways.

  1. Evaluation of a high efficiency cabin air (HECA) filtration system for reducing particulate pollutants inside school buses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eon S; Fung, Cha-Chen D; Zhu, Yifang

    2015-03-17

    An increasing number of studies have reported deleterious health effects of vehicle-emitted particulate matter (PM), including PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter≤2.5 μm), black carbon (BC), and ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter≤100 nm). When commuting inside school buses, children are exposed to high level of these pollutants due to emissions from both school bus itself and other on-road vehicles. This study developed an on-board high efficiency cabin air (HECA) filtration system for reducing children's exposure inside school buses. Six school buses were driven on two typical routes to evaluate to what extent the system reduces particulate pollutant levels inside the buses. The testing routes included freeways and major arterial roadways in Los Angeles, CA. UFP number concentrations and size distributions as well as BC and PM2.5 concentrations were monitored concurrently inside and outside of each bus. With the HECA filtration system on, in-cabin UFP and BC levels were reduced by 88±6% and 84±5% on averages across all driving conditions, respectively. The system was less effective for PM2.5 (55±22%) but successfully kept its levels below 12 μg/m3 inside all the buses. For all three types of particulate pollutants, in-cabin reductions were higher on freeways than on arterial roadways. PMID:25728749

  2. Arginine and lysine reduce the high viscosity of serum albumin solutions for pharmaceutical injection.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Naoto; Takai, Eisuke; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2014-05-01

    Therapeutic protein solutions for subcutaneous injection must be very highly concentrated, which increases their viscosity through protein-protein interactions. However, maintaining a solution viscosity below 50 cP is important for the preparation and injection of therapeutic protein solutions. In this study, we examined the effect of various amino acids on the solution viscosity of very highly concentrated bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) at a physiological pH. Among the amino acids tested, l-arginine hydrochloride (ArgHCl) and l-lysine hydrochloride (LysHCl) (50-200 mM) successfully reduced the viscosity of both BSA and HSA solutions; guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl), NaCl, and other sodium salts were equally as effective, indicating the electrostatic shielding effect of these additives. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that BSA is in its native state even in the presence of ArgHCl, LysHCl, and NaCl at high protein concentrations. These results indicate that weakened protein-protein interactions play a key role in reducing solution viscosity. ArgHCl and LysHCl, which are also non-toxic compounds, will be used as additives to reduce the solution viscosity of concentrated therapeutic proteins.

  3. The Potential for Bayesian Compressive Sensing to Significantly Reduce Electron Dose in High Resolution STEM Images

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Andrew J.; Yang, Hao; Carin, Lawrence; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D.

    2014-02-11

    The use of high resolution imaging methods in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is limited in many cases by the sensitivity of the sample to the beam and the onset of electron beam damage (for example in the study of organic systems, in tomography and during in-situ experiments). To demonstrate that alternative strategies for image acquisition can help alleviate this beam damage issue, here we apply compressive sensing via Bayesian dictionary learning to high resolution STEM images. These experiments successively reduce the number of pixels in the image (thereby reducing the overall dose while maintaining the high resolution information) and show promising results for reconstructing images from this reduced set of randomly collected measurements. We show that this approach is valid for both atomic resolution images and nanometer resolution studies, such as those that might be used in tomography datasets, by applying the method to images of strontium titanate and zeolites. As STEM images are acquired pixel by pixel while the beam is scanned over the surface of the sample, these post acquisition manipulations of the images can, in principle, be directly implemented as a low-dose acquisition method with no change in the electron optics or alignment of the microscope itself.

  4. Identification of acetate- or methanol-assimilating bacteria under nitrate-reducing conditions by stable-isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Toshifumi; Yoshie, Sachiko; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Hirata, Akira; Iwami, Norio; Inamori, Yuhei

    2006-08-01

    Stable-isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify acetate- or methanol-assimilating bacteria under nitrate-reducing conditions in activated sludge. A sludge sample obtained from wastewater treatment systems was incubated in a denitrifying batch reactor fed with synthetic wastewater containing [(13)C]acetate or [(13)C]methanol as the main carbon source and nitrate as the electron acceptor. We analyzed how growth of bacterial populations was stimulated by acetate or methanol as the external carbon source in nitrogen-removal systems. Most of the acetate- or methanol-assimilating bacteria identified by SIP have been known as denitrifiers in wastewater treatment systems. When acetate was used as the carbon source, 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from (13)C-labeled DNA were closely related to the 16S rRNA genes of Comamonadaceae (e.g., Comamonas and Acidovorax) and Rhodocyclaceae (e.g., Thauera and Dechloromonas) of the Betaproteobacteria, and Rhodobacteraceae (e.g., Paracoccus and Rhodobacter) of the Alphaproteobacteria. When methanol was used as the carbon source, 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from (13)C-DNA were affiliated with Methylophilaceae (e.g., Methylophilus, Methylobacillus, and Aminomonas) and Hyphomicrobiaceae. Rarefaction curves for clones retrieved from (13)C-DNA showed that the diversity levels for methanol-assimilating bacteria were considerably lower than those for acetate-assimilating bacteria. Furthermore, we characterized nitrite reductase genes (nirS and nirK) as functional marker genes for denitrifier communities in acetate- or methanol-assimilating populations and detected the nirS or nirK sequence related to that of some known pure cultures, such as Alcaligenes, Hyphomicrobium, and Thauera. However, most of the nirS or nirK sequences retrieved from (13)C-DNA were clustered in some unidentified groups. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries retrieved from (13)C-DNA, these unidentified nir sequences might be identified by examining the

  5. Long-term outcome after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation with reduced-intensity conditioning in patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    El-Cheikh, Jean; Crocchiolo, Roberto; Furst, Sabine; Stoppa, Anne-Marie; Ladaique, Patrick; Faucher, Catherine; Calmels, Boris; Lemarie, Claude; De Colella, Jean-Marc Schiano; Granata, Angela; Coso, Diane; Bouabdallah, Reda; Chabannon, Christian; Blaise, Didier

    2013-05-01

    This study examines the long-term outcomes of a cohort of patients with myeloma who were treated with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens after a minimum follow-up of 5 years at our centre. A total of 53 patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (Allo-SCT) between January 2000 and January 2007 were identified. The median follow-up of living patients was 84 months (51-141). The median age of the MM patients was 50 (28-70) years. Fifty-one patients (96%) received a transplant from a sibling donor. The median time between diagnosis and Allo-SCT was 34 months (6-161), and the median time between auto-SCT and Allo-SCT was 10 months (1-89). Fifty-one patients (96%) received at least one auto-SCT; 24 patients (45%) received a tandem auto-Allo-SCT. At last follow-up, 21 patients (40%) are alive > 5 years post RIC Allo-SCT. At last follow-up, 14 (26%) are in first complete remission (CR), and four patients (8%) in second CR after donor lymphocyte infusion or re-induction with one of the new anti-myeloma drugs (bortezomib or lenalidomide) after Allo-SCT. Eight patients (38%) among these long survivors received one of these new drugs as induction or relapse treatment before Allo-SCT. Disease status and occurrence of cGvHD were significantly associated with progression-free survival (PFS); hazard ratio (HR) = 0.62 (0.30-1.29, P = 0.20). Acute GvHD was correlated with higher transplant-related mortality; HR = 4.19 (1.05-16.77, P = 0.04). No variables were associated with overall survival (OS). In conclusion, we observe that long-term disease control can be expected in a subset of MM patients undergoing RIC Allo-SCT. After 10 years, the OS and PFS were 32% and 24%, respectively. The PFS curve after Allo-SCT stabilizes in time with a plateau after 6 years post Allo-SCT.

  6. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Antisocial/aggressive and hyperactive-inattentive measures were collected at age 8, while social adversity was assessed at age 3. Results Poor electrodermal fear conditioning from ages 3 to 8 years was associated with aggressive behavior at age 8 in both males and females. Conclusions Results indicate that the relationship between poor fear conditioning and aggression occurs early in childhood. Enhanced electrodermal fear conditioning may protect children against future aggressive/violent behavior. Abnormal amygdala functioning, as indirectly assessed by fear conditioning, may be one of the factors influencing the development of childhood aggression. PMID:19788551

  7. Real-time, high frequency QRS electrocardiograph with reduced amplitude zone detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T. (Inventor); DePalma, Jude L. (Inventor); Moradi, Saeed (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Real time cardiac electrical data are received from a patient, manipulated to determine various useful aspects of the ECG signal, and displayed in real time in a useful form on a computer screen or monitor. The monitor displays the high frequency data from the QRS complex in units of microvolts, juxtaposed with a display of conventional ECG data in units of millivolts or microvolts. The high frequency data are analyzed for their root mean square (RMS) voltage values and the discrete RMS values and related parameters are displayed in real time. The high frequency data from the QRS complex are analyzed with imbedded algorithms to determine the presence or absence of reduced amplitude zones, referred to herein as ''RAZs''. RAZs are displayed as ''go, no-go'' signals on the computer monitor. The RMS and related values of the high frequency components are displayed as time varying signals, and the presence or absence of RAZs may be similarly displayed over time.

  8. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space... flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. (a) Special flight restrictions. When any information indicates that barometric pressure on the route of flight currently exceeds...

  9. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space... flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. (a) Special flight restrictions. When any information indicates that barometric pressure on the route of flight currently exceeds...

  10. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space... flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. (a) Special flight restrictions. When any information indicates that barometric pressure on the route of flight currently exceeds...

  11. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space... flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. (a) Special flight restrictions. When any information indicates that barometric pressure on the route of flight currently exceeds...

  12. Explicit Disassociation of a Conditioned Stimulus and Unconditioned Stimulus during Extinction Training Reduces Both Time to Asymptotic Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery of a Conditioned Taste Aversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickley, G. Andrew; DiSorbo, Anthony; Wilson, Gina N.; Huffman, Jennifer; Bacik, Stephanie; Hoxha, Zana; Biada, Jaclyn M.; Kim, Ye-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversions (CTAs) may be acquired when an animal consumes a novel taste (CS) and then experiences the symptoms of poisoning (US). This aversion may be extinguished by repeated exposure to the CS alone. However, following a latency period in which the CS is not presented, the CTA will spontaneously recover (SR). In the current…

  13. Diet rich in high glucoraphanin broccoli reduces plasma LDL cholesterol: Evidence from randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Armah, Charlotte N; Derdemezis, Christos; Traka, Maria H; Dainty, Jack R; Doleman, Joanne F; Saha, Shikha; Leung, Wing; Potter, John F; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mithen, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Scope Cruciferous-rich diets have been associated with reduction in plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), which may be due to the action of isothiocyanates derived from glucosinolates that accumulate in these vegetables. This study tests the hypothesis that a diet rich in high glucoraphanin (HG) broccoli will reduce plasma LDL-C. Methods and results One hundred and thirty volunteers were recruited to two independent double-blind, randomly allocated parallel dietary intervention studies, and were assigned to consume either 400 g standard broccoli or 400 g HG broccoli per week for 12 weeks. Plasma lipids were quantified before and after the intervention. In study 1 (37 volunteers), the HG broccoli diet reduced plasma LDL-C by 7.1% (95% CI: –1.8%, –12.3%, p = 0.011), whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL-C by 1.8% (95% CI +3.9%, –7.5%, ns). In study 2 (93 volunteers), the HG broccoli diet resulted in a reduction of 5.1% (95% CI: –2.1%, –8.1%, p = 0.001), whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL-C by 2.5% (95% CI: +0.8%, –5.7%, ns). When data from the two studies were combined the reduction in LDL-C by the HG broccoli was significantly greater than standard broccoli (p = 0.031). Conclusion Evidence from two independent human studies indicates that consumption of high glucoraphanin broccoli significantly reduces plasma LDL-C. PMID:25851421

  14. High-temp heat transfer fluid reduces equipment and operating costs

    SciTech Connect

    Spagnuolo, G.M.

    1987-08-01

    Batch processing of complex polymers at the Du Pont Automotive Finishes plant in Front Royal, Virginia, requires frequent and extreme cycling of the heat transfer fluid. The fluid temperature conditions range from 600/sup 0/F to ambient temperature during the heating and cooling cycles of the process. During the design stage, engineers realized the required design conditions could represent significant costs on both a short- and long-term basis. The selection of the heat transfer fluid thus played an important part in reducing both construction and operating. After reviewing the various heat transfer fluids available, design engineers selected a silicone heat transfer fluid with a recommended operating range of -4 to 750/sup 0/F. The higher temperature range of this silicon fluid allows Du Pont to operate well below the products's recommended maximum, thereby extending its life expectancy. A computer model used to evaluate a number of system variables estimated a fluid lifespan well in excess of 20 years. Furthermore, the low freezing temperature of the silicone fluid almost totally eliminates the need for heat tracing, which engineers estimate could save $100,000. The silicone fluid is less toxic than organic fluids, and is non-corrosive to the stainless steel process vessel as well as the carbon steel equipment and piping. Du Pont reports that the system is both efficient and reliable, and no problems have occurred during the year it has been in service. The non-fouling silicone fluid is expected to reduce maintenance and eliminate the thermal shock to the process equipment that was experienced with a steam/water heat transfer syste