Science.gov

Sample records for highway safety research

  1. Governors Highway Safety Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Distracted Driving Drowsy Driving Drug Impaired Driving Law Enforcement Mature Drivers Motorcyclists Seat Belts Speed and ... Driving Teen and Novice Drivers Traffic Records State Laws By Issue By State Resources Publications State Highway ...

  2. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 8: Alcohol in Relation to Highway Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 8 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on alcohol in relation to highway safety. The purpose and objectives of the alcohol program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and general policies regarding…

  3. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 3: Motorcycle Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 3 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on aspects of motorcycle safety. The purpose and specific objectives of a State motorcycle safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the highway safety area and general policies…

  4. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 14: Pedestrian Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 14 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on pedestrian safety. The purpose and objectives of a pedestrian safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of pedestrian safety and policies regarding a safety program…

  5. Highway Safety Occupational Program Development Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Ronald D.; And Others

    As part of a national project conducted for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, The Center for Vocational and Technical Education conducted a nationwide search for curriculum materials related to highway safety occupations. These materials were then screened and synthesized to provide training…

  6. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 12: Highway Design, Construction and Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 12 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on highway design, construction and maintenance. The purpose and specific objectives of such a program are described. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies regarding…

  7. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 13: Traffic Engineering Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 13 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic engineering services. The introduction outlines the purposes and objectives of Highway Safety Program Standard 13 and the Highway Safety Program Manual. Program development and…

  8. Safety Early Warning Research for Highway Construction Based on Case-Based Reasoning and Variable Fuzzy Sets

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Xu, Zhen-Jun

    2013-01-01

    As a high-risk subindustry involved in construction projects, highway construction safety has experienced major developments in the past 20 years, mainly due to the lack of safe early warnings in Chinese construction projects. By combining the current state of early warning technology with the requirements of the State Administration of Work Safety and using case-based reasoning (CBR), this paper expounds on the concept and flow of highway construction safety early warnings based on CBR. The present study provides solutions to three key issues, index selection, accident cause association analysis, and warning degree forecasting implementation, through the use of association rule mining, support vector machine classifiers, and variable fuzzy qualitative and quantitative change criterion modes, which fully cover the needs of safe early warning systems. Using a detailed description of the principles and advantages of each method and by proving the methods' effectiveness and ability to act together in safe early warning applications, effective means and intelligent technology for a safe highway construction early warning system are established. PMID:24191134

  9. Safety early warning research for highway construction based on case-based reasoning and variable fuzzy sets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Yi, Ting-Hua; Xu, Zhen-Jun

    2013-01-01

    As a high-risk subindustry involved in construction projects, highway construction safety has experienced major developments in the past 20 years, mainly due to the lack of safe early warnings in Chinese construction projects. By combining the current state of early warning technology with the requirements of the State Administration of Work Safety and using case-based reasoning (CBR), this paper expounds on the concept and flow of highway construction safety early warnings based on CBR. The present study provides solutions to three key issues, index selection, accident cause association analysis, and warning degree forecasting implementation, through the use of association rule mining, support vector machine classifiers, and variable fuzzy qualitative and quantitative change criterion modes, which fully cover the needs of safe early warning systems. Using a detailed description of the principles and advantages of each method and by proving the methods' effectiveness and ability to act together in safe early warning applications, effective means and intelligent technology for a safe highway construction early warning system are established.

  10. Highway Traffic Safety Manpower Functions Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Ronald D.; And Others

    The purpose of the project, "Revision and Update of Traffic Safety Manpower Training Program Development Guide," was to develop the HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY MANPOWER FUNCTIONS GUIDE. This document provides an organizational schema illustrating the functions essential to be performed and the interrelationship of these functions to carry out…

  11. 49 CFR 1.94 - The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... research, development, and demonstration program; administering highway safety grant programs to encourage... information system improvements, motorcyclist safety, and child safety restraints; administering a nationwide... importation of motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment; conducting research, development, and testing...

  12. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... working to support the development of automated vehicle safety technologies because of their potential to save lives. September ... Drunk Driving Vehicle to Vehicle Communications Featured Topic Safety Technologies Recalls Update Takata Air Bags January 19, 2017 : ...

  13. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 15: Police Traffic Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 15 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on police traffic services. The purpose and objectives of a police services program are described. Federal authority in the areas of highway safety and policies regarding a police traffic…

  14. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 10: Traffic Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 10 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic records. The purpose and specific objectives of a traffic records program are discussed. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies regarding a traffic records…

  15. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 18: Accident Investigation and Reporting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 18 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on accident investigation and reporting. The purpose and objectives of an investigation and reporting program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies…

  16. 78 FR 53497 - Uniform Procedures for State Highway Safety Grant Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Uniform Procedures for State Highway Safety Grant Programs AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Request for public comment on..., National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Office of Regional Operations and Program...

  17. Feebates, Footprints and Highway Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a market-based policy aimed at encouraging manufacturers to develop more fuel efficient vehicles without affecting the car buyer s choice of vehicle size. A vehicle s size is measured by its footprint , the product of track width and wheelbase. Traditional market-based policies to promote higher fuel economy, such as higher gasoline taxes or gas guzzler taxes, also induce motorists to purchase smaller vehicles. Whether or not such policies affect overall road safety remains controversial, however. Feebates, a continuous schedule of new vehicle taxes and rebates as a function of vehicle fuel consumption, can also be made a function of vehicle size, thus removing the incentive to buy a smaller vehicle. A feebate system based on a vehicle s footprint creates the same incentive to adopt technology to improve fuel economy as simple feebate systems while removing any incentive for manufacturers or consumers to downsize vehicles.

  18. Alcohol and highway safety in a public health perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Dickman, F B

    1988-01-01

    The Public Health Service and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration share the responsibility for problems related to injury prevention and control regarding the alcohol-impaired operation of motor vehicles. NHTSA activities have evolved over several decades within a general framework which emphasizes community-based systems. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is promoting program activities that stress community-level involvement in problems of alcohol and highway use. The public health approach to the mortality and morbidity resulting from alcohol use and motor vehicle operation entails examining and promoting those activities that address human factors. Techniques for Effective Alcohol Management (TEAM) is a cooperative effort representing sports, entertainment, insurance, vehicle manufacturer, and other organizations and agencies building community coalitions. The Centers for Disease Control is establishing research and collaborating centers to stimulate studies and exchange information on injury-related research. Alcohol countermeasures programs include training for law enforcement and legal officials, technology development efforts, and changes in laws applied to use of alcohol and other drugs. Outreach and networking activities have encouraged the initiation and coordination of community level groups active in promoting highway safety with regard to the use of alcohol. Statistical method changes are being discussed for surveillance of motor vehicle-related injuries for Health Objectives for the Nation for the Year 2000. NHTSA data systems being discussed are thought to be more timely and more sensitive to crash activity than methods now in use.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3141961

  19. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 6: Codes and Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 6 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred safety practices) concentrates on codes and laws. The purpose and specific objectives of the Codes and Laws Program, Federal authority in the area of highway safety, and policies regarding traffic regulation are described.…

  20. 23 CFR 1200.40 - Expiration of the Highway Safety Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Expiration of the Highway Safety Plan. 1200.40 Section 1200.40 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY PROGRAMS UNIFORM PROCEDURES FOR STATE...

  1. 23 CFR 1200.40 - Expiration of the Highway Safety Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Expiration of the Highway Safety Plan. 1200.40 Section 1200.40 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY PROGRAMS UNIFORM PROCEDURES FOR STATE...

  2. 23 CFR Appendix B to Part 1200 - Highway Safety Program Cost Summary (HS-217)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Highway Safety Program Cost Summary (HS-217) B Appendix B to Part 1200 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY PROGRAMS UNIFORM PROCEDURES FOR...

  3. 23 CFR Appendix B to Part 1200 - HIGHWAY SAFETY PROGRAM COST SUMMARY (HS-217)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false HIGHWAY SAFETY PROGRAM COST SUMMARY (HS-217) B APPENDIX B TO PART 1200 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY PROGRAMS UNIFORM PROCEDURES FOR...

  4. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 1: Periodic Motor Vehicle Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 1 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices)focuses on periodic motor vehicle inspection by: (1) outlining the purpose and objectives of vehicle inspection, (2) establishing Federal authority for the program, and (3) citing general and…

  5. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 2: Motor Vehicle Registration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 2 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) describes the purposes and specific objectives of motor vehicle registration. Federal authority for vehicle registration and general policies regarding vehicle registration systems are outlined.…

  6. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 7: Traffic Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 7 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic courts, their purpose and objectives. Federal authority in the area of traffic courts are described. Program development and operations (a study of courts trying traffic cases, a…

  7. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 11: Emergency Medical Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 11 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on emergency medical services. The purpose of the program, Federal authority in the area of medical services, and policies related to an emergency medical services (EMS) program are…

  8. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Research on Marine Highway Transportation. 393.6 Section...-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a) Summary... Marine Highway or in direct support of designated Marine Highway Corridors and Projects. (b)...

  9. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research on Marine Highway Transportation. 393.6 Section...-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a) Summary... Marine Highway or in direct support of designated Marine Highway Corridors and Projects. (b)...

  10. Highway Safety, Manpower, and Training: A Report on Highway Safety, Manpower, and Training Needed to Implement National Highway Safety Bureau Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Safety Council, Chicago, IL. Traffic Education and Training Committee.

    This paper was developed by the Liaison Subcommittee of the Traffic Educational and Training Committee to: (1) delineate highway safety manpower and training problems, (2) propose activities to meet these problems, and (3) develop a proposed course of action to initate the activities. Included are: (1) a discussion of areas where manpower…

  11. 25 CFR 170.141 - What Federal funds are available for a tribe's highway safety activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What Federal funds are available for a tribe's highway... Highway Safety Functions § 170.141 What Federal funds are available for a tribe's highway safety activities? Federal funds available for a tribe's highway safety activities include, but are not limited to...

  12. 25 CFR 170.141 - What Federal funds are available for a tribe's highway safety activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What Federal funds are available for a tribe's highway... Highway Safety Functions § 170.141 What Federal funds are available for a tribe's highway safety activities? Federal funds available for a tribe's highway safety activities include, but are not limited to...

  13. 25 CFR 170.141 - What Federal funds are available for a tribe's highway safety activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What Federal funds are available for a tribe's highway... Highway Safety Functions § 170.141 What Federal funds are available for a tribe's highway safety activities? Federal funds available for a tribe's highway safety activities include, but are not limited to...

  14. 25 CFR 170.141 - What Federal funds are available for a tribe's highway safety activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What Federal funds are available for a tribe's highway... Highway Safety Functions § 170.141 What Federal funds are available for a tribe's highway safety activities? Federal funds available for a tribe's highway safety activities include, but are not limited to...

  15. 78 FR 71715 - Amendments to Highway Safety Program Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Highway & Auto Safety (Advocates), the American Automobile Association (AAA), American Traffic Safety... NHTSA received comments in response to the notice from several organizations or associations: AAA... as from one individual. General AAA offered general support for the guidelines and provided two...

  16. Colleges and Universities Highway Traffic and Safety Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaron, James E., Ed.; Ritzel, Dale O., Ed.

    After consideration of the organizing of university safety centers and the growth and role of such centers in the future, descriptions are presented of the activities and practices in each of 16 existing college and university highway traffic and safety centers. Information is presented regarding center objectives, programs, staff composition,…

  17. 76 FR 12847 - Public Road Mileage for Apportionment of Highway Safety Funds; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 460 RIN 2125-AF42 Public Road Mileage for Apportionment of Highway Safety Funds; Correction AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Correcting... definition for the Highway Safety Program. DATES: This rule is effective April 8, 2011. ] FOR FURTHER...

  18. A National Estimate of Performance: Statewide Highway Safety Program Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    A nationwide systematic approach to assess the developments and achievements of highway safety activities was conducted to measure program outputs from 1969 through 1974 using key indicators of performance such as ratios and percentages. A sample of 10 states was selected with overall sample of 105 local jurisdictions which would provide estimated…

  19. Blowing dust and highway safety in the southwestern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junran; Lee, Jeff; Gill, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Windblown dust poses a significant hazard to highway safety. In the southwestern US, dust related chain-reaction traffic accidents occurred every year, however, no known studies have specifically investigated this issue in this area. Remote sensing and field observations reveal that wind erosion in this region typically occurs in localized source areas, characterized as "hot spots", while most of the landscape does not erode. However, the spatial and temporal patterns of the hot spots and their relations to the occurrence of blowing dust to the highways are poorly understood. The lack of this critical information hinders highway managers to make informed and timely management decisions when wind events strike. Projected global changes, including changes in climate, land use, and land cover, will likely bring more frequent and extreme dust emissions to the southwestern US, including a majority of the Southern Plains, posing a serious threat to transportation safety in this region in the coming decades. Our preliminary investigation in west Texas indicated that a majority of the sources that contribute dust to the highways are located on sandy surface within a few kilometers of the highways and more than half of them are from cultivated cropland.

  20. Vehicle safety telemetry for automated highways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    The emphasis in current, automatic vehicle testing and diagnosis is primarily centered on the proper operation of the engine. Lateral and longitudinal guidance technologies, including speed control and headway sensing for collision avoidance, are reviewed. The principal guidance technique remains the buried wire. Speed control and headway sensing, even though they show the same basic elements in braking and fuel systems, are proceeding independently. The applications of on-board electronic and microprocessor techniques were investigated; each application (emission control, spark advance, or anti-slip braking) is being treated as an independent problem is proposed. A unified bus system of distributed processors for accomplishing the various functions and testing required for vehicles equipped to use automated highways.

  1. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research on Marine Highway Transportation. 393.6 Section...-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a) Summary... as appropriate, within the limits of available resources, to conduct research in support of...

  2. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research on Marine Highway Transportation. 393.6 Section...-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a) Summary... as appropriate, within the limits of available resources, to conduct research in support of...

  3. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Research on Marine Highway Transportation. 393.6 Section...-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a) Summary... as appropriate, within the limits of available resources, to conduct research in support of...

  4. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 16: Debris Hazard Control and Cleanup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 16 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on debris hazard control and cleanup. The purpose and objectives of such a program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies regarding a debris control…

  5. 25 CFR 170.145 - Are other funds available for a tribe's highway safety efforts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are other funds available for a tribe's highway safety... WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Highway Safety Functions § 170.145 Are other funds available for a tribe's highway safety efforts? Yes. Tribes...

  6. 25 CFR 170.143 - How can IRR Program funds be used for highway safety?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How can IRR Program funds be used for highway safety? 170... RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Highway Safety Functions § 170.143 How can IRR Program funds be used for highway safety? A tribe, tribal organization, tribal...

  7. 25 CFR 170.144 - What are eligible highway safety projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are eligible highway safety projects? 170.144... RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Highway Safety Functions § 170.144 What are eligible highway safety projects? The following are examples of activities that can...

  8. 25 CFR 170.142 - How can tribes obtain funds to perform highway safety projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How can tribes obtain funds to perform highway safety... WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Highway Safety Functions § 170.142 How can tribes obtain funds to perform highway safety projects? There are two...

  9. 25 CFR 170.145 - Are other funds available for a tribe's highway safety efforts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are other funds available for a tribe's highway safety... WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Highway Safety Functions § 170.145 Are other funds available for a tribe's highway safety efforts? Yes. Tribes...

  10. 25 CFR 170.144 - What are eligible highway safety projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What are eligible highway safety projects? 170.144 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Highway Safety Functions § 170.144 What are eligible highway safety projects? The following are examples of activities that can be...

  11. 25 CFR 170.145 - Are other funds available for a tribe's highway safety efforts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are other funds available for a tribe's highway safety... WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Highway Safety Functions § 170.145 Are other funds available for a tribe's highway safety efforts? Yes. Tribes...

  12. 25 CFR 170.142 - How can tribes obtain funds to perform highway safety projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How can tribes obtain funds to perform highway safety... WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Highway Safety Functions § 170.142 How can tribes obtain funds to perform highway safety projects? There are two...

  13. 25 CFR 170.142 - How can tribes obtain funds to perform highway safety projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can tribes obtain funds to perform highway safety... WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Highway Safety Functions § 170.142 How can tribes obtain funds to perform highway safety projects? There are two...

  14. 25 CFR 170.142 - How can tribes obtain funds to perform highway safety projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How can tribes obtain funds to perform highway safety... WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Highway Safety Functions § 170.142 How can tribes obtain funds to perform highway safety projects? There are two...

  15. 25 CFR 170.144 - What are eligible highway safety projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are eligible highway safety projects? 170.144... RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Highway Safety Functions § 170.144 What are eligible highway safety projects? The following are examples of activities that can...

  16. 25 CFR 170.142 - How can tribes obtain funds to perform highway safety projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How can tribes obtain funds to perform highway safety... WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Highway Safety Functions § 170.142 How can tribes obtain funds to perform highway safety projects? There are two...

  17. 25 CFR 170.143 - How can IRR Program funds be used for highway safety?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How can IRR Program funds be used for highway safety? 170... RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Highway Safety Functions § 170.143 How can IRR Program funds be used for highway safety? A tribe, tribal organization, tribal...

  18. 25 CFR 170.143 - How can IRR Program funds be used for highway safety?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How can IRR Program funds be used for highway safety? 170... RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Highway Safety Functions § 170.143 How can IRR Program funds be used for highway safety? A tribe, tribal organization, tribal...

  19. 25 CFR 170.145 - Are other funds available for a tribe's highway safety efforts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Are other funds available for a tribe's highway safety... WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Highway Safety Functions § 170.145 Are other funds available for a tribe's highway safety efforts? Yes. Tribes...

  20. A Study of Truck Drivers and Their Job Performance Regarding Highway Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nafukho, Fredrick M.; Hinton, Barbara E.; Graham, Carroll M.

    2007-01-01

    Limited research has addressed the issue of truck drivers and their performance regarding highway safety in terms of reduced number of crashes per driver. The primary purpose of this study was to determine how tractor trailer truck drivers' job performance could be improved while at the same time ensuring increased revenue for the transportation…

  1. A Study of Truck Drivers and Their Job Performance Regarding Highway Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nafukho, Fredrick M.; Hinton, Barbara E.; Graham, Carroll M.

    2007-01-01

    Limited research has addressed the issue of truck drivers and their performance regarding highway safety in terms of reduced number of crashes per driver. The primary purpose of this study was to determine how tractor trailer truck drivers' job performance could be improved while at the same time ensuring increased revenue for the transportation…

  2. The research of highway traffic accident management and pre-alarm system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianping; Zhang, Tiejun; Wan, Jiaonan; Zhang, Juwen; Wang, Rui

    For the rigorous traffic safety issues resulting from rapid transportation development, as well as the more and more attention paid to the traffic accidents dynamic analysis and pre-alarm methods, combined with the practical needs of the highway safety management, this paper summarizes the experience of traffic safety pre-alarm research both in domestic and abroad, designs the frame of highway traffic accident management and pre-alarm system from the function and software engineering requirement, and refines kernel modules such as accident prone section judgement, traffic safety pre-alarm analysis and perfecting safety measures analysis, in order to guide the exploitation and application of the system.

  3. 77 FR 24560 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Electric Vehicle Safety Technical Symposium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ...The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is announcing a technical symposium that will be held in Washington, DC on May 18, 2012 to discuss safety considerations for electric vehicles powered by lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. The symposium will include brief NHTSA presentations outlining current agency research and activities related to Li-ion batteries and Li-ion battery-powered vehicles, as well as presentations by the Department of Energy, voluntary standards bodies, and automotive and battery manufacturers. Information on the date, time, location, and framework for this public event is included in this notice. Because of space limitations, registration by May 11, 2012 is highly recommended. There are no fees to register or to attend this event.

  4. Landscaping of highway medians and roadway safety at unsignalized intersections.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongyun; Fabregas, Aldo; Lin, Pei-Sung

    2016-05-01

    Well-planted and maintained landscaping can help reduce driving stress, provide better visual quality, and decrease over speeding, thus improving roadway safety. Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) Standard Index (SI-546) is one of the more demanding standards in the U.S. for landscaping design criteria at highway medians near intersections. The purposes of this study were to (1) empirically evaluate the safety results of SI-546 at unsignalized intersections and (2) quantify the impacts of geometrics, traffic, and landscaping design features on total crashes and injury plus fatal crashes. The studied unsignalized intersections were divided into (1) those without median trees near intersections, (2) those with median trees near intersections that were compliant with SI-546, and (3) those with median trees near intersections that were non-compliant with SI-546. A total of 72 intersections were selected, for which five-year crash data from 2006-2010 were collected. The sites that were compliant with SI-546 showed the best safety performance in terms of the lowest crash counts and crash rates. Four crash predictive models-two for total crashes and two for injury crashes-were developed. The results indicated that improperly planted and maintained median trees near highway intersections can increase the total number of crashes and injury plus fatal crashes at a 90% confidence level; no significant difference could be found in crash rates between sites that were compliant with SI-546 and sites without trees. All other conditions remaining the same, an intersection with trees that was not compliant with SI-546 had 63% more crashes and almost doubled injury plus fatal crashes than those at intersections without trees. The study indicates that appropriate landscaping in highway medians near intersections can be an engineering technology that not only improves roadway environmental quality but also maintains intersection safety. Copyright © 2016. Published by

  5. Why has safety improved at rail-highway grade crossings?

    PubMed

    Mok, Shannon C; Savage, Ian

    2005-08-01

    The number of collisions and fatalities at rail-highway intersections in the United States has declined significantly over the past 30 years, despite considerable increases in the volume of rail and highway traffic. This article disaggregates the improvement into its constituent causes. Negative binomial regressions are conducted on a pooled data set for 49 states from 1975 to 2001. The analysis concludes that about two-fifths of the decrease is due to factors such as reduced drunk driving and improved emergency medical response that have improved safety on all parts of the highway network. The installation of gates and/or flashing lights accounts for about a fifth of the reduction. The development in the 1970s and early 1980s of the Operation Lifesaver public education campaign, and the installation of additional lights on locomotives in the mid 1990s, each led to about a seventh of the reduction. Finally, about a tenth is due to closure of crossings resulting from line abandonments or consolidation of little-used crossings.

  6. 25 CFR 170.145 - Are other funds available for a tribe's highway safety efforts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are other funds available for a tribe's highway safety efforts? 170.145 Section 170.145 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND... Safety Functions § 170.145 Are other funds available for a tribe's highway safety efforts? Yes....

  7. 49 CFR 1.95 - Delegations to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Secretary by 49 U.S.C. 20134(a) with respect to laws administered by the National Highway Traffic Safety... legislators to consider proposals related to safety belt use laws. The National Highway Traffic Safety... the Clean Air Act, Public Law 90-148, as amended . (i) Carry out the following functions and exercise...

  8. 23 CFR 1200.4 - State Highway Safety Agency-Authority and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... information contained in State highway safety data systems, including crash, citation, adjudication, emergency medical services/injury surveillance, roadway and vehicle record keeping systems, and driver license...

  9. 23 CFR 1200.4 - State Highway Safety Agency-Authority and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... information contained in State highway safety data systems, including crash, citation, adjudication, emergency medical services/injury surveillance, roadway and vehicle record keeping systems, and driver license...

  10. Alternative method of highway traffic safety analysis for developing countries using delphi technique and Bayesian network.

    PubMed

    Mbakwe, Anthony C; Saka, Anthony A; Choi, Keechoo; Lee, Young-Jae

    2016-08-01

    Highway traffic accidents all over the world result in more than 1.3 million fatalities annually. An alarming number of these fatalities occurs in developing countries. There are many risk factors that are associated with frequent accidents, heavy loss of lives, and property damage in developing countries. Unfortunately, poor record keeping practices are very difficult obstacle to overcome in striving to obtain a near accurate casualty and safety data. In light of the fact that there are numerous accident causes, any attempts to curb the escalating death and injury rates in developing countries must include the identification of the primary accident causes. This paper, therefore, seeks to show that the Delphi Technique is a suitable alternative method that can be exploited in generating highway traffic accident data through which the major accident causes can be identified. In order to authenticate the technique used, Korea, a country that underwent similar problems when it was in its early stages of development in addition to the availability of excellent highway safety records in its database, is chosen and utilized for this purpose. Validation of the methodology confirms the technique is suitable for application in developing countries. Furthermore, the Delphi Technique, in combination with the Bayesian Network Model, is utilized in modeling highway traffic accidents and forecasting accident rates in the countries of research.

  11. Fuel efficiency and automobile safety: Single-vehicle highway fatalities for passenger cars

    SciTech Connect

    Khazzoom, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    This paper reports the results of an effort to shed some light on the relationship that might exist between enhanced standards and single-vehicle passenger car highway fatalities. Quantification of this relationship is not an easy task Not surprisingly, the literature on modeling the relationship between fuel economy and highway fatalities is very scant. Our analytic framework consists of two submodels: a corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) submodel and a single-vehicle highway fatalities submodel. Some of the variables that enter the CAFE relationship affect single-vehicle fatalities, as well. The results of this study are not unequivocal in every respect. However, they indicate that enhanced standards and automobile safety need not be at odds with each other. A main message that emerges from this study is the need not to confuse car downsizing with down weighting. Quantatative studies of highway fatalities have mostly treated weight and size interchangeably, and have used only the weight variable in the fatalities equation to avoid dealing with multicollinearity. Such references as {open_quote}size/weight{close_quote} which lump size and weight together as if they were the same variable are not uncommon in the safety literature. Our study indicates that weight and size are not a proxy to each other, and that in single vehicle crashes they are likely to have opposite effects on safety. Men researchers choose to drop the size variable and include only the weight variable in the fatalities equation, the weight estimate may end up with a negative sign, not necessarily because weight has a beneficial effect on safety, but because the omitted size variable has a dominant beneficial effect on safety, which is picked up by the weight variable that appears in the equation. 65 refs., 7 tabs.

  12. Expansion of Vocational-Technical School Programs to Accommodate Highway Safety Manpower Requirements. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Ronald D.; And Others

    With the primary objective of expanding vocational and technical education programs to accommodate highway safety manpower requirements, this project focused on (1) identifying what portion of highway safety manpower needs fall within the realm of technical and skilled occupations, (2) determining the extent to which educational institutions are…

  13. 25 CFR 170.143 - How can IRR Program funds be used for highway safety?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How can IRR Program funds be used for highway safety? 170... § 170.143 How can IRR Program funds be used for highway safety? A tribe, tribal organization, tribal... if IRR Program funds are used to complete funding of the project....

  14. 25 CFR 170.143 - How can IRR Program funds be used for highway safety?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can IRR Program funds be used for highway safety? 170... § 170.143 How can IRR Program funds be used for highway safety? A tribe, tribal organization, tribal... if IRR Program funds are used to complete funding of the project....

  15. Does public education improve rail-highway crossing safety?

    PubMed

    Savage, Ian

    2006-03-01

    Improvements in rail-highway grade crossing safety have resulted from engineering, law enforcement, and educating the public about the risks and the actions they should take. The primary form of the latter is a campaign called Operation Lifesaver which started in the 1970s. This paper uses a negative binomial regression to estimate whether variations in Operation Lifesaver activity across states and from year-to-year in individual states are related to the number of collisions and fatalities at crossings. Annual data on the experience in 46 states from 1996 to 2002 are used. The analysis finds that increasing the amount of educational activity will reduce the number of collisions with a point elasticity of -0.11, but the effect on the number of deaths cannot be concluded with statistical certainty.

  16. A mathematical modeling approach to resource allocation for railroad-highway crossing safety upgrades.

    PubMed

    Konur, Dinçer; Golias, Mihalis M; Darks, Brandon

    2013-03-01

    State Departments of Transportation (S-DOT's) periodically allocate budget for safety upgrades at railroad-highway crossings. Efficient resource allocation is crucial for reducing accidents at railroad-highway crossings and increasing railroad as well as highway transportation safety. While a specific method is not restricted to S-DOT's, sorting type of procedures are recommended by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), United States Department of Transportation for the resource allocation problem. In this study, a generic mathematical model is proposed for the resource allocation problem for railroad-highway crossing safety upgrades. The proposed approach is compared to sorting based methods for safety upgrades of public at-grade railroad-highway crossings in Tennessee. The comparison shows that the proposed mathematical modeling approach is more efficient than sorting methods in reducing accidents and severity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Expansion of Vocational-Technical School Programs to Accommodate Highway Safety Manpower Requirements. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Ronald D.; And Others

    Part of a four-volume study on highway safety activities, this report describes the need for breath examiners, accident investigators, emergency medical technicians, and highway engineering personnel. Training needs are discussed, in the context of curriculum, staffing, student recruitment, facilities, equipment, enrollment, and national…

  18. Case-control analysis in highway safety: Accounting for sites with multiple crashes.

    PubMed

    Gross, Frank

    2013-12-01

    There is an increased interest in the use of epidemiological methods in highway safety analysis. The case-control and cohort methods are commonly used in the epidemiological field to identify risk factors and quantify the risk or odds of disease given certain characteristics and factors related to an individual. This same concept can be applied to highway safety where the entity of interest is a roadway segment or intersection (rather than a person) and the risk factors of interest are the operational and geometric characteristics of a given roadway. One criticism of the use of these methods in highway safety is that they have not accounted for the difference between sites with single and multiple crashes. In the medical field, a disease either occurs or it does not; multiple occurrences are generally not an issue. In the highway safety field, it is necessary to evaluate the safety of a given site while accounting for multiple crashes. Otherwise, the analysis may underestimate the safety effects of a given factor. This paper explores the use of the case-control method in highway safety and two variations to account for sites with multiple crashes. Specifically, the paper presents two alternative methods for defining cases in a case-control study and compares the results in a case study. The first alternative defines a separate case for each crash in a given study period, thereby increasing the weight of the associated roadway characteristics in the analysis. The second alternative defines entire crash categories as cases (sites with one crash, sites with two crashes, etc.) and analyzes each group separately in comparison to sites with no crashes. The results are also compared to a "typical" case-control application, where the cases are simply defined as any entity that experiences at least one crash and controls are those entities without a crash in a given period. In a "typical" case-control design, the attributes associated with single-crash segments are weighted

  19. 25 CFR 170.144 - What are eligible highway safety projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... reduce traffic accidents and deaths, injuries, and property damage; (i) Collecting data on traffic-related deaths, injuries and accidents; (j) Impaired driver initiatives; (k) Child safety seat programs... management system; (g) Education and outreach highway safety programs, such as use of child safety...

  20. Efficacies of roadway safety improvements across functional subclasses of rural two-lane highways.

    PubMed

    Labi, Samuel

    2011-08-01

    Highway crash occurrence is a leading cause of unnatural deaths, and highway agencies continually seek to identify engineering measures to reduce crashes and to assess the efficacy of such measures. Most past studies on the effectiveness of roadway improvements in terms of crash reduction considered all rural two-lane sections as a single category of roads. However, it may be hypothesized that the differences in the mobility and accessibility characteristics that are reflected in (and due to) the different design standards between different functional subclasses in the rural two-lane highway system can lead to differences in efficacies of safety improvements at these subclasses. This paper investigates the efficacy of roadway improvements, in terms of crash reduction, at the various subclasses of rural two-lane highways. An empirical analysis of safety performance at each of the three subclasses of rural two-lane highways was carried out using the negative binomial modeling technique. For each subclass, crash prediction models were developed separately for the three levels of crash severity: property-damage only, injury, and fatal/injury. The crash factors that were considered include lane width, shoulder width, pavement surface friction, pavement condition, and horizontal and vertical alignments. After having developed the safety performance functions, the effectiveness (in terms of the extent of crash reduction, for different levels of crash severity) of highway safety enhancements at each highway subclass were determined using the theoretical concepts established in past literature. These enhancements include widening lanes, widening shoulders, enhancing pavement surface friction, and improving the vertical or horizontal alignment. The study found that there is empirical evidence to justify the decomposition of the family of rural two-lane roads into its constituent subclasses for purposes of analyzing the effectiveness of safety enhancement projects and thus to

  1. Education in Transportation Systems Planning: Highway Research Record No. 462.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Transportation Research Board.

    The papers contained in the issue of Highway Research Record focus on current and emerging patterns of education and training related to transportation systems planning. The five papers are: Transportation Centers and Other Mechanisms to Encourage Interdisciplinary Research and Training Efforts in Transportation (Frederick J. Wegmann and Edward A.…

  2. Reachability-Based Safety and Goal Satisfaction of Unmanned Aerial Platoons on Air Highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mo; Hu, Qie; Fisac, Jaime F.; Akametalu, Kene; Mackin, Casey; Tomlin, Claire J.

    2017-06-01

    Recently, there has been immense interest in using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for civilian operations. As a result, unmanned aerial systems traffic management is needed to ensure the safety and goal satisfaction of potentially thousands of UAVs flying simultaneously. Currently, the analysis of large multi-agent systems cannot tractably provide these guarantees if the agents' set of maneuvers is unrestricted. In this paper, platoons of UAVs flying on air highways is proposed to impose an airspace structure that allows for tractable analysis. For the air highway placement problem, the fast marching method is used to produce a sequence of air highways that minimizes the cost of flying from an origin to any destination. The placement of air highways can be updated in real-time to accommodate sudden airspace changes. Within platoons traveling on air highways, each vehicle is modeled as a hybrid system. Using Hamilton-Jacobi reachability, safety and goal satisfaction are guaranteed for all mode transitions. For a single altitude range, the proposed approach guarantees safety for one safety breach per vehicle, in the unlikely event of multiple safety breaches, safety can be guaranteed over multiple altitude ranges. We demonstrate the platooning concept through simulations of three representative scenarios.

  3. 49 CFR 1.50 - Delegation to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delegation to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator. 1.50 Section 1.50 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ORGANIZATION AND...) Section 2014, first responder vehicle safety program; (14) Section 2015, driver performance study; (15...

  4. 49 CFR 1.95 - Delegations to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... program to prohibit racial profiling; (2) Section 2001(d) , relating to transfers of funds; (3) Section... program; (16) Section 2017(a), relating to older driver safety and, (b) , relating to law enforcement... Secretary by 49 U.S.C. 20134(a) with respect to laws administered by the National Highway Traffic Safety...

  5. 25 CFR 170.141 - What Federal funds are available for a tribe's highway safety activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... program funds under 23 U.S.C. 405; (d) Alcohol traffic safety program funds under 23 U.S.C. 408; (e... from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS); (g) Indian Highway Safety Program 25...

  6. Advanced Infant Car Seat Would Increase Highway Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan

    2004-01-01

    An advanced infant car seat has been proposed to increase highway safety by reducing the incidence of crying, fussy behavior, and other child-related distractions that divert an adult driver s attention from driving. In addition to a conventional infant car seat with safety restraints, the proposed advanced infant car seat would include a number of components and subsystems that would function together as a comprehensive infant-care system that would keep its occupant safe, comfortable, and entertained, and would enable the driver to monitor the baby without having to either stop the car or turn around to face the infant during driving. The system would include a vibrator with bulb switch to operate; the switch would double as a squeeze toy that would make its own specific sound. A music subsystem would include loudspeakers built into the seat plus digital and analog circuitry that would utilize plug-in memory modules to synthesize music or a variety of other sounds. The music subsystem would include a built-in sound generator that could synthesize white noise or a human heartbeat to calm the baby to sleep. A second bulb switch could be used to control the music subsystem and would double as a squeeze toy that would make a distinct sound. An anti-noise sound-suppression system would isolate the baby from potentially disturbing ambient external noises. This subsystem would include small microphones, placed near the baby s ears, to detect ambient noise. The outputs of the microphone would be amplified and fed to the loudspeakers at appropriate amplitude and in a phase opposite that of the detected ambient noise, such that the net ambient sound arriving at the baby s ears would be almost completely cancelled. A video-camera subsystem would enable the driver to monitor the baby visually while continuing to face forward. One or more portable miniature video cameras could be embedded in the side of the infant car seat (see figure) or in a flip-down handle. The outputs of

  7. Exploring the effects of state highway safety laws and sociocultural characteristics on fatal crashes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chunjiao; Nambisan, Shashi S; Clarke, David B; Sun, Jian

    2017-04-03

    Distinguished from the traditional perspectives in crash analyses, which examined the effects of geometric design features, traffic factors, and other relevant attributes on the crash frequencies of roadway entities, our study focuses on exploring the effects of highway safety laws, as well as sociocultural characteristics, on fatal crashes across states. Law and regulation related data were collected from the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, State Highway Safety Offices, and Governors Highway Safety Association. A variety of sociodemographic characteristics were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau. In addition, cultural factors and other attributes from a variety of resources are considered and incorporated in the modeling process. These data and fatal crash counts were collected for the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia and were analyzed using zero-truncated negative binomial (ZTNB) regression models. The results show that, in law and regulation-related factors, the use of speed cameras, no handheld cell phone ban, limited handheld cell phone ban, and no text messaging ban are found to have significant effects on fatal crashes. Regarding sociocultural characteristics, married couples with both husband and wife in the labor force are found to be associated with lower crash frequencies, the ratios of workers traveling to work by carpool, those driving alone, workers working outside the county of residence, language other than English and limited English fluency, and the number of licensed drivers are found to be associated with higher crash frequencies. Through reviewing and modeling existing state highway safety laws and sociocultural characteristics, the results reveal new insights that could influence policy making. In addition, the results would benefit amending existing laws and regulations and provide testimony about highway safety issues before lawmakers consider new legislation.

  8. Use and misuse of motor-vehicle crash death rates in assessing highway-safety performance.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Brian; Kyrychenko, Sergey Y

    2006-12-01

    The objectives of the article are to assess the extent to which comparisons of motor-vehicle crash death rates can be used to determine the effectiveness of highway-safety policies over time in a country or to compare policy effectiveness across countries. Motor-vehicle crash death rates per mile traveled in the 50 U.S. states from 1980 to 2003 are used to show the influence on these rates of factors independent of highway-safety interventions. Multiple regression models relating state death rates to various measures related to urbanization and demographics are used. The analyses demonstrate strong relationships between state death rates and urbanization and demographics. Almost 60% of the variability among the state death rates can be explained by the independent variables in the multiple regression models. When the death rates for passenger vehicle occupants (i.e., excluding motorcycle, pedestrian, and other deaths) are used in the regression models, almost 70% of the variability in the rates can be explained by urbanization and demographics. The analyses presented in the article demonstrate that motor-vehicle crash death rates are strongly influenced by factors unrelated to highway-safety countermeasures. Overall death rates should not be used as a basis for judging the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of specific highway-safety countermeasures or to assess overall highway-safety policies, especially across jurisdictions. There can be no substitute for the use of carefully designed scientific evaluations of highway-safety interventions that use outcome measures directly related to the intervention; e.g., motorcyclist deaths should be used to assess the effectiveness of motorcycle helmet laws. While this may seem obvious, there are numerous examples in the literature of death rates from all crashes being used to assess the effectiveness of interventions aimed at specific subsets of crashes.

  9. Dust and highway safety in the Southern Plains of the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The hazard of blowing dust to highway safety represents one of the significant impacts of aeolian processes on human welfare. In the Southern Plains of the US, dust related chain-reaction traffic accidents occurred every year, however, no known studies have specifically investigated this issue in New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. The lack of this critical information hinders highway authorities to make informed and timely management decisions when wind events strike. Projected global changes, including changes in climate, land use, and land cover, will likely bring more frequent and extreme dust emissions to the southwestern US, including a majority of the Southern Plains, posing a serious threat to transportation safety in this region in the coming decades. In this study, we use remotely sensed and in situ measurements of land cover, soil, and vegetation data to quantitatively assess the spatial and temporal patterns of wind erosion hot spots that contribute blowing dust to the highways of New Mexico, Oklahoma and Texas. We focus on interstate highways where investment in surveillance and warning devices is greatest, and where high traffic volumes and speeds make the threat of blowing dust most hazardous. Our preliminary investigation in west Texas indicated that a majority of the sources that contribute dust to the highways are located on sandy surface within a few kilometers of the highways and more than half of them are from cultivated cropland.

  10. Multi-scale traffic safety and operational performance study of large trucks on mountainous interstate highway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Suren; Chen, Feng; Wu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    In addition to multi-vehicle accidents, large trucks are also prone to single-vehicle accidents on the mountainous interstate highways due to the complex terrain and fast-changing weather. By integrating both historical data analysis and simulations, a multi-scale approach is developed to evaluate the traffic safety and operational performance of large trucks on mountainous interstate highways in both scales of individual vehicle as well as traffic on the whole highway. A typical mountainous highway in Colorado is studied for demonstration purposes. Firstly, the ten-year historical accident records are analyzed to identify the accident-vulnerable-locations (AVLs) and site-specific critical adverse driving conditions. Secondly, simulation-based single-vehicle assessment is performed for different driving conditions at those AVLs along the whole corridor. Finally, the cellular-automaton (CA)-based simulation is carried out to evaluate the multi-vehicle traffic safety as well as the operational performance of the traffic by considering the actual speed limits, including the differential speed limits (DSL) at some locations. It is found that the multi-scale approach can provide insightful and comprehensive observations of the highway performance, which is especially important for mountainous highways.

  11. 77 FR 64588 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Calibrating Units for Breath Alcohol Testers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... of Calibrating Units for Breath Alcohol Testers AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... conform to the Model Specifications for Calibrating Units for Breath Alcohol Tester (CUs) dated, June 25...) published a standard for Calibrating Units for Breath Alcohol Testers. A Qualified Products List of...

  12. 75 FR 11624 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT... Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices (58 FR 48705). DATES: Effective Date: March 11, 2010. FOR... Administration (NHTSA) published the Standards for Devices to Measure Breath Alcohol (38 FR 30459). A Qualified...

  13. 78 FR 4985 - Uniform Procedures for State Highway Safety Grant Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ...This action establishes new uniform procedures governing the implementation of State highway safety grant programs as amended by the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21). It also reorganizes and amends existing requirements to implement the provisions of MAP-21. This document is being issued as an interim final rule to provide timely guidance about the application......

  14. Pennsylvania Alcohol Highway Safety Program (Curriculum Guide, Judicial, Law Enforcement, Counseling & Rehabilitation, and Local Officials Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Alcohol and Mental Health Associates, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

    This material is for the use of educators involved in the Pennsylvania Alcohol-Highway Safety Program. The 16-hour course of instruction has been prepared to inform both teachers and students of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's DUI (Driving under the Influence) Safe Driving School. It concentrates on the development of knowledge, and the…

  15. Another look at the safety effects of horizontal curvature on rural two-lane highways.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Taha; Persaud, Bhagwant

    2017-06-12

    Crash Modification Factors (CMFs) are used to represent the effects on crashes of changes to highway design elements and are usually obtained from observational studies based on reported crashes. The design element of interest for this paper is horizontal curvature on rural 2-lane highways. The data for this study came from the Washington State database in the Highway Safety Information System (HSIS). Crash prediction models are developed for curve sections on rural 2-lane highway and the tangent sections up- and down-stream of the curve sections. Different negative binomial models were developed for segments on level grades (<3%), moderate grades (3-6%), and steep grades (>6%) to account for the confounding effects of gradient. The relationships between crashes at different traffic volumes and deflection angles are explored to illustrate how to get estimates of CMFs for increases in the minimum radius, considering the effect of increased tangent length for sharper curves, an effect that is overlooked in the Highway Safety Manual CMF, in addition to the effect of gradient. The results of that exploration indicated that even at different design speeds and deflection angles, the CMF estimates for incremental increases in radius lie within the same range, and that the crash reduction rate (CRR) is higher at segments on higher grades compared to the ones on lower grades. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future…

  17. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future…

  18. 77 FR 37093 - Amendments to Highway Safety Program Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... implement a communications and educational plan for assisting local entities in the deployment of the... are important to driving safety: policies; practices; and, communications. Recommended driver... drivers, the State should implement a communications program, through the DMV to: Make medical referral...

  19. Methodology for safety optimization of highway cross-sections for horizontal curves with restricted sight distance.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Shewkar E; Sayed, Tarek; Ismail, Karim

    2012-11-01

    Several earlier studies have noted the shortcomings with existing geometric design guides which provide deterministic standards. In these standards the safety margin of the design output is generally unknown and there is little knowledge of the safety implications of deviating from the standards. To mitigate these shortcomings, probabilistic geometric design has been advocated where reliability analysis can be used to account for the uncertainty in the design parameters and to provide a mechanism for risk measurement to evaluate the safety impact of deviations from design standards. This paper applies reliability analysis for optimizing the safety of highway cross-sections. The paper presents an original methodology to select a suitable combination of cross-section elements with restricted sight distance to result in reduced collisions and consistent risk levels. The purpose of this optimization method is to provide designers with a proactive approach to the design of cross-section elements in order to (i) minimize the risk associated with restricted sight distance, (ii) balance the risk across the two carriageways of the highway, and (iii) reduce the expected collision frequency. A case study involving nine cross-sections that are parts of two major highway developments in British Columbia, Canada, was presented. The results showed that an additional reduction in collisions can be realized by incorporating the reliability component, P(nc) (denoting the probability of non-compliance), in the optimization process. The proposed approach results in reduced and consistent risk levels for both travel directions in addition to further collision reductions.

  20. 23 CFR Appendix A to Part 1200 - CERTIFICATION AND ASSURANCES FOR HIGHWAY SAFETY GRANTS (23 U.S.C. CHAPTER 4)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (23 U.S.C. CHAPTER 4) A APPENDIX A TO PART 1200 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... basis of sex; (c) Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended (29 U.S.C. 794), and the... company-owned, rented, or personally-owned vehicles. The National Highway Traffic Safety...

  1. 23 CFR Appendix A to Part 1200 - Certification and Assurances for Highway Safety Grants (23 U.S.C. Chapter 4)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (23 U.S.C. Chapter 4) A Appendix A to Part 1200 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... basis of sex; (c) Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended (29 U.S.C. 794), and the... company-owned, rented, or personally-owned vehicles. The National Highway Traffic Safety...

  2. Evaluating the safety impact of increased speed limits on rural highways in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Tarek; Sacchi, Emanuele

    2016-10-01

    Maximum speed limits are usually set to inform drivers of the highest speed that it is safe and appropriate for ideal traffic, road and weather conditions. Many previous studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between changed speed limits and safety. The results of these studies generally show that relaxing speed limits can negatively affect safety, especially with regard to fatal and injury crashes. Despite these results, several road jurisdictions in North America continue to raise the maximum speed limits. In 2013, the British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure initiated a speed limits review. The review found that the 85th percentile speed on many highway segments was 10km/h higher than corresponding posted speed limits and 1300km of rural provincial highway segments were recommended for higher speed limits. Most of the highway segments had 10km/h speed limit increase with a small section having 20km/h speed limit increase. As speed limit changes can have a substantial impact on safety, the main objective of this study is to estimate the effect of the increased speed limits on crash occurrence. A before-after evaluation was undertaken with the full Bayesian technique. Overall, the evaluation showed that changed speed limits led to a statistically significant increase in fatal-plus-injury (severe) crashes of 11.1%. A crash modification function that includes changes in the treatment effect over time showed that the initial increase of the first post-implementation period may slightly decrease over time.

  3. Drowsy drivers--medical implication of highway traffic safety.

    PubMed

    Pant, S

    2011-01-01

    The estimates of the contribution of drowsiness and fatigue to the number of road crashes is often neglected considerably, due both to under-reporting of these factors by drivers, and technical difficulty in investigating the problem. Preventing and treating the reasons for falling asleep behind the wheel may have considerable contribution in traffic safety. Therefore the licensing authorities in co-operation with the medical profession should attend more closely to the issue of sleep related disorders and their implications for driving in cases with notoriously high risk. The police and other enforcement authorities need appropriate knowledge and procedures to detect drivers at risk of falling asleep while driving. Considering the increasing number of road traffic accidents day per day, it is a need of the hour to detect drivers possibly at risk, and to take appropriate precautions in terms of education, advice and treatment regimes, as well as restrictions on licensing.

  4. Rural casualty crashes on the Kings Highway: A new approach for road safety studies.

    PubMed

    Alian, Sahar; Baker, R G V; Wood, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    This paper will consider the contribution that changes in road geometry and driver visual information make to the incidence and distribution of road casualties in different driving environments. This relationship will be explored specifically for the Kings Highway, a major arterial road connecting Queanbeyan with coastal southern New South Wales, Australia. It introduces and suggests a new empirical approach of plotting crashes with road segmentation, calculating sinuosity indices and grades as key features of road geometry, and critical visual points as a behavioural component of road curvature, within a GIS context. It is an approach that might be used when detailed road geometry data is not available. The visualisation and segmentation approach in this research might be used for summarising crash rates and road geometry factors, and for comparing day/night and eastbound/westbound driving conditions. The results suggest some early interpretations for detailed road safety studies that might be considered at local or national levels. The rate of crashes increases according to changes in road geometry factors during the day and for eastbound travel. This is not the case for night driving where the incidence of crashes is similar on both straight and curved roads segments due to the headlight effect and limited background visual field. Crash clusters at day-time may be due to the stronger effect of road geometry (e.g. combination of curvature and vertical grade) on driver behaviour travelling eastbound. The outcomes suggest that it might be essential to consider the effect of environmental factors in any road safety and crash analysis studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analyzing the influence of median cross-section design on highway safety using vehicle dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Stine, Jason S; Hamblin, Bridget C; Brennan, Sean N; Donnell, Eric T

    2010-11-01

    Although vehicle dynamics simulations have long been used in vehicle design and crash reconstruction, their use for highway design is rare. This paper investigates the safety of highway medians through iterative simulations of off-road median encroachments. The commercially available software CarSim was used to simulate over one hundred thousand encroachments, representing the entire passenger vehicle fleet and a wide range of encroachment angles, departure speeds, steering inputs, and braking inputs. Each individual simulation output was then weighted using data from previous studies to reflect the probability of each specific accident scenario occurring in a real-life median encroachment. Results of this analysis illustrate the relative influence of median cross-section geometry on the resulting accident outcomes. The simulations indicate that the overall safety of a highway median depends on the occurrence of both vehicle rollover and median crossover events, and the cross-section shape, slope, and width are all shown to greatly affect each of these incidents. An evaluation of the simulation results was conducted with vehicle trajectories from previous experimental crash tests. Further assessment of the aggregate simulation results to actual crash data was achieved through comparison with several databases of crash statistics. Both efforts showed a strong agreement between the simulations and the real-life crash data.

  6. 75 FR 70670 - Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2010-2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research... availability of the Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2010-2013 (Priority Plan) in Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0108. This Priority Plan is an update to the Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking...

  7. REVIEW AND PERSPECTIVE OF HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND QUALITY OF SERVICE RESEARCH IN JAPAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, Takashi; Nakamura, Hideki

    The highway traffic congestion is one of the most important social and technical issues from the early days of motorization in Japan. Accordingly, the highway capacity has long been a major concern of traffic engineers, not only in research but also in practice, in order to alleviate the traffic congestions. Also, the concept of the quality of service of traffic flow and its proper understanding according to diverse conditions are crucial for implementing the performance-oriented highway planning and design schemes. This article therefore overviews the recent research works regarding highway capacity and quality of service particularly in Japan, after reviewing the state of the arts in bottleneck phenomena observed on Japan motorways and highways. And the future perspective of these research fields is discussed.

  8. Blowing Dust on Highway Safety: Characterizing and Modeling of Dust Emission Hot Spots in the Southern Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, J., III; Li, J. J.; Kandakji, T.; Collins, J. D., Jr.; Lee, J.; Gill, T. E.

    2016-12-01

    Blowing dust and highway safety have become increasingly prevalent problems concerning human safety and welfare. Two factors precipitate wind-blown dust accidents: sudden loss of visibility, and loss of traction due to soil particles on the road surface. The project, using remote sensing and in situ measurements of surface and subsurface characteristics, will identify the location of dust emission "hotspots" and associated geomorphic features within the southwest region and panhandle (New Mexico, Texas, and Oklahoma), measure the threshold shear velocity and vegetative cover and model the results. The results of this study will provide critical information for land managers, policy makers, and highway authorities when making timely and informed potentially life-saving decisions and modifications here, in the southwest region and panhandle, as well as, anywhere else in the world where blowing dust is a hazard to highway safety.

  9. 49 CFR 1.48 - Delegations to Federal Highway Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section 322. (4) Section 409 of chapter 4, Highway Safety. (5) Chapter 5, Research, Technology, and.... 374). (5) The Highway Revenue Act of 1956, as amended (Pub. L. 84-627, 70 Stat. 374, 387, 23 U.S.C.A... Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1982 (Pub. L. 97-327, 96 Stat. 1611), except section 6 as it relates to...

  10. 49 CFR 1.48 - Delegations to Federal Highway Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... section 322. (4) Section 409 of chapter 4, Highway Safety. (5) Chapter 5, Research, Technology, and.... 374). (5) The Highway Revenue Act of 1956, as amended (Pub. L. 84-627, 70 Stat. 374, 387, 23 U.S.C.A... Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1982 (Pub. L. 97-327, 96 Stat. 1611), except section 6 as it relates to...

  11. Overview of safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Aircraft safety is reviewed by first establishing a perspective of air transportation accidents as a function of calendar year, geographic area, and phase of flight, and then by describing the threats to safety and NASA research underway in the three representative areas of engine operational problems, meteorological phenomena, and fire. Engine rotor burst protection, aircraft nacelle fire extinguishment, the aircraft-weather interface, severe weather wind shears and turbulence, clear air turbulence, and lightning are among the topics covered. Fire impact management through fire resistant materials technology development is emphasized.

  12. Propensity scores-potential outcomes framework to incorporate severity probabilities in the highway safety manual crash prediction algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Lekshmi; Donnell, Eric T

    2014-10-01

    Accurate estimation of the expected number of crashes at different severity levels for entities with and without countermeasures plays a vital role in selecting countermeasures in the framework of the safety management process. The current practice is to use the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials' Highway Safety Manual crash prediction algorithms, which combine safety performance functions and crash modification factors, to estimate the effects of safety countermeasures on different highway and street facility types. Many of these crash prediction algorithms are based solely on crash frequency, or assume that severity outcomes are unchanged when planning for, or implementing, safety countermeasures. Failing to account for the uncertainty associated with crash severity outcomes, and assuming crash severity distributions remain unchanged in safety performance evaluations, limits the utility of the Highway Safety Manual crash prediction algorithms in assessing the effect of safety countermeasures on crash severity. This study demonstrates the application of a propensity scores-potential outcomes framework to estimate the probability distribution for the occurrence of different crash severity levels by accounting for the uncertainties associated with them. The probability of fatal and severe injury crash occurrence at lighted and unlighted intersections is estimated in this paper using data from Minnesota. The results show that the expected probability of occurrence of fatal and severe injury crashes at a lighted intersection was 1 in 35 crashes and the estimated risk ratio indicates that the respective probabilities at an unlighted intersection was 1.14 times higher compared to lighted intersections. The results from the potential outcomes-propensity scores framework are compared to results obtained from traditional binary logit models, without application of propensity scores matching. Traditional binary logit analysis suggests that

  13. Summary of Work Performed Pursuant to the Development of Training Manuals for a Highway Safety Workshop for Traffic Court Judges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The report summarizes the work involved in developing a highway safety workshop for traffic court judges. It describes the testing of previously developed workshop materials and their evaluation, resulting in a contract modification to redesign and refocus the workshop. The report identifies the resources and procedures used in this development…

  14. Evaluating safety risk of locating above ground utility structures in the highway right-of-way.

    PubMed

    El Esawey, Mohamed; Sayed, Tarek

    2012-11-01

    Roadside safety has been a concern for highway engineers and designers for many decades. A significant part of this concern is related to collisions with utility poles. Current practices and standards for placing utility poles are based on a combination of qualitative guidelines/heuristics and relatively outdated findings. Accordingly, there is a need to study the safety level associated with placing utility poles at different lateral offsets from the edge of the travel-way. In this paper a Safety Performance Function (SPF) is developed to relate roadway and roadside variables to utility pole collision frequency. It was found that increasing the poles offset has a more significant effect on reducing the frequency of utility pole collisions compared to increasing poles spacing. Based on the developed utility pole-SPF, design charts were provided to facilitate calculations and decision-making process. The developed utility pole-SPF was compared to a widely-used utility pole collisions model and the differences in the type of data and the development methodology were highlighted.

  15. Safety effects of wider edge lines on rural, two-lane highways.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Sug; Carlson, Paul J; Porter, Richard J; Andersen, Carl K

    2012-09-01

    Although it is generally expected that wider lines will have a positive effect on vehicle safety, there have not been any convincing evidence based on the crash data analysis, partly because of the lack of relevant data. In this paper, the safety effect of wider edge lines was examined by analyzing crash frequency data for road segments with and without wider edge lines. The data from three states, Kansas, Michigan, and Illinois, have been analyzed. Because of different nature of data from each state, a different statistical analysis approach was employed for each state: an empirical Bayes, before-after analysis of Kansas data, an interrupted time series design and generalized linear segmented regression analysis of Michigan data, and a cross sectional analysis of Illinois data. Although it is well-known that causation is hard to establish based on observational studies, the results from three extensive statistical analyses all point to the same findings. The consistent findings lend support to the positive safety effects of wider edge lines installed on rural, two-lane highways. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Research on combined coal mining technology under highway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiao; Zhang, Wenjun

    2017-05-01

    Based on the 3107 working face of a mine in Shanxi province, using the theoretical calculation and field measurement methods, explored a coal mining technology by combining use of the caving method and the roadway filling method, to solve the coal mining problems under the highway, under the premise that not change the mining layout of the coal mine. The results show that it is feasible to solve the problem of coal mining under the highway by using the combined mining technology. The surface subsidence can be controlled at the range of 282 to 312mm and 278 85mm, in parallel to and vertical to the working face direction, respectively, by using this technology; and the maximum slope of the surface deformation was controlled at 1.52mm/m, and all of the deformation variables are controlled under the requirement of the regulation

  17. Safety status of farm tractors that operate on public highways in four rural Kentucky counties.

    PubMed

    Cole, H P; Piercy, L R; Heinz, K L; Westneat, S C; Arrowsmith, H E; Raymond, K M

    2009-07-01

    Kentucky FFA students inspected 153 farm tractors for safety features that prevent operator injuries during tractor overturns, highway collisions, runovers, and power take-off (PTO) entanglements. Tractor mean age was 23.6 years (SD = 20.9). Rollover protective structures (ROPS) were present on 50.66% of tractors, but only 33.33% of these had functional seatbelts. Loose and damaged seats were found on 30.46% of tractors. In 38.99% of cases, tractor rear-wheel fenders exposed operators to moving tractor tires, and 48.67% of tractors had dangerously worn or damaged tires. Tractors with a narrow front-end stance comprised 16.11% of the total. Only 53.06% of the tractors had starters with secure hard cover by-pass starting shields that fully covered the starter terminals, and 37.37% had fully exposed terminals with no cover. PTO master shields with all parts present and undamaged were present on only 29.27% of the tractors, and in 39.02% of cases the entire shield was missing. Only 44.67% of the tractors had properly mounted and fully functional mounting and dismounting access steps and handholds. SMV emblems were missing on 53.64% of tractors and in the proper place and condition in only 25.83% of cases. Tractors with properly mounted and fully functional head and tail lights comprised 40.94% of the sample, and tractors with no functional lights comprised 24.16%. Properly mounted, clean, and functional rearview mirrors were present on only 19.87% of the tractors, and 69.54% had no rearview mirrors. The project increased farming and non-farming students' awareness of tractor safety issues, provided empirical data about the safety status of a sample of tractors that frequently travel public highways in four rural Kentucky farming counties, and promoted dialog about these issues with adult farmers and other community members with whom the students interacted.

  18. Handbook of road safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Grime, G.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes the road safety, accident investigation or vehicle and highway design. This book also discusses the nature and cause of road accidents. It discusses the following contents: Forward; Preface; The main features of the accident situation in Great Britain; The interacting roles of road environment, vehicle and road user in accidents; Roads - features which may be related to accidents; Movements of vehicles and road users before accidents; What happens to vehicles during and after accidents; Injuries to road users; The potential for savings in accidents involving injury; General remarks on accident investigation; Appendices References.

  19. Prioritizing Highway Safety Manual's crash prediction variables using boosted regression trees.

    PubMed

    Saha, Dibakar; Alluri, Priyanka; Gan, Albert

    2015-06-01

    The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) recommends using the empirical Bayes (EB) method with locally derived calibration factors to predict an agency's safety performance. However, the data needs for deriving these local calibration factors are significant, requiring very detailed roadway characteristics information. Many of the data variables identified in the HSM are currently unavailable in the states' databases. Moreover, the process of collecting and maintaining all the HSM data variables is cost-prohibitive. Prioritization of the variables based on their impact on crash predictions would, therefore, help to identify influential variables for which data could be collected and maintained for continued updates. This study aims to determine the impact of each independent variable identified in the HSM on crash predictions. A relatively recent data mining approach called boosted regression trees (BRT) is used to investigate the association between the variables and crash predictions. The BRT method can effectively handle different types of predictor variables, identify very complex and non-linear association among variables, and compute variable importance. Five years of crash data from 2008 to 2012 on two urban and suburban facility types, two-lane undivided arterials and four-lane divided arterials, were analyzed for estimating the influence of variables on crash predictions. Variables were found to exhibit non-linear and sometimes complex relationship to predicted crash counts. In addition, only a few variables were found to explain most of the variation in the crash data.

  20. An Intelligent System Proposal for Improving the Safety and Accessibility of Public Transit by Highway.

    PubMed

    García, Carmelo R; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Pérez, Ricardo; Alayón, Francisco

    2015-08-18

    The development of public transit systems that are accessible and safe for everyone, including people with special needs, is an objective that is justified from the civic and economic points of view. Unfortunately, public transit services are conceived for people who do not have reduced physical or cognitive abilities. In this paper, we present an intelligent public transit system by highway with the goal of facilitating access and improving the safety of public transit for persons with special needs. The system is deployed using components that are commonly available in transport infrastructure, e.g., sensors, mobile communications systems, and positioning systems. In addition, the system can operate in non-urban transport contexts, e.g., isolated rural areas, where the availability of basic infrastructure, such as electricity and communications infrastructures, is not always guaranteed. To construct the system, the principles and techniques of Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence have been employed. To illustrate the utility of the system, two cases of services rendered by the system are described: the first case involves a surveillance system to guarantee accessibility at bus stops; the second case involves a route assistant for blind people.

  1. An Intelligent System Proposal for Improving the Safety and Accessibility of Public Transit by Highway

    PubMed Central

    García, Carmelo R.; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Pérez, Ricardo; Alayón, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The development of public transit systems that are accessible and safe for everyone, including people with special needs, is an objective that is justified from the civic and economic points of view. Unfortunately, public transit services are conceived for people who do not have reduced physical or cognitive abilities. In this paper, we present an intelligent public transit system by highway with the goal of facilitating access and improving the safety of public transit for persons with special needs. The system is deployed using components that are commonly available in transport infrastructure, e.g., sensors, mobile communications systems, and positioning systems. In addition, the system can operate in non-urban transport contexts, e.g., isolated rural areas, where the availability of basic infrastructure, such as electricity and communications infrastructures, is not always guaranteed. To construct the system, the principles and techniques of Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence have been employed. To illustrate the utility of the system, two cases of services rendered by the system are described: the first case involves a surveillance system to guarantee accessibility at bus stops; the second case involves a route assistant for blind people. PMID:26295234

  2. Sample-size guidelines for recalibrating crash prediction models: Recommendations for the highway safety manual.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Mohammadali; Lord, Dominique; Geedipally, Srinivas Reddy

    2016-08-01

    The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) prediction models are fitted and validated based on crash data collected from a selected number of states in the United States. Therefore, for a jurisdiction to be able to fully benefit from applying these models, it is necessary to calibrate or recalibrate them to local conditions. The first edition of the HSM recommends calibrating the models using a one-size-fits-all sample-size of 30-50 locations with total of at least 100 crashes per year. However, the HSM recommendation is not fully supported by documented studies. The objectives of this paper are consequently: (1) to examine the required sample size based on the characteristics of the data that will be used for the calibration or recalibration process; and, (2) propose revised guidelines. The objectives were accomplished using simulation runs for different scenarios that characterized the sample mean and variance of the data. The simulation results indicate that as the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean (i.e., coefficient of variation) of the crash data increases, a larger sample-size is warranted to fulfill certain levels of accuracy. Taking this observation into account, sample-size guidelines were prepared based on the coefficient of variation of the crash data that are needed for the calibration process. The guidelines were then successfully applied to the two observed datasets. The proposed guidelines can be used for all facility types and both for segment and intersection prediction models.

  3. Safety and health of professional drivers who drive on Brazilian highways

    PubMed Central

    Narciso, Fernanda Veruska; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traffic accidents and resulting injuries and deaths have become a global epidemic. In Brazil, most professional drivers, especially truck drivers, face irregular working hours and can be awake for more than 18 hours/day, which reduces their performance and alertness. In this article, we discuss the laws related to Brazilian professional drivers and their current amendments (No. 12,619/2012 and No. 13,103/2015) in relation to working hours at the wheel and rest breaks, which are vital for the quality of life of drivers and society in general. We note that the new law appears to be less efficient than the previous one as it causes insecurity and concern to the users of the transportation system, drivers, and employers. To restrict and reduce accidents, deaths, and injuries in traffic, appropriate legislation is essential, aiming at the safety of workers and users of highways. The law must also benefit the commercial aspect, strengthening the reduction in production and logistics losses. Additionally, traffic education programs are needed, as well as better supervision in relation to total working hours. PMID:28380210

  4. Highway development

    Treesearch

    Peter M. Harvard; Bernard L. Chaplin

    1979-01-01

    Highways are something we see, and some-thing we see the landscape from. They exert tremendous visual influence on our national landscape and will continue to do so. While most interstate mileage is in place, major unbuilt urban segments remain, and rural and suburban trunk roads are receiving renewed emphasis. Nationwide programs of bridge replacement, safety and...

  5. Development of safety performance functions for Spanish two-lane rural highways on flat terrain.

    PubMed

    Garach, Laura; de Oña, Juan; López, Griselda; Baena, Leticia

    2016-10-01

    Over decades safety performance functions (SPF) have been developed as a tool for traffic safety in order to estimate the number of crashes in a specific road section. Despite the steady progression of methodological innovations in the crash analysis field, many fundamental issues have not been completely addressed. For instance: Is it better to use parsimonious or fully specified models? How should the goodness-of-fit of the models be assessed? Is it better to use a general model for the entire sample or specific models based on sample stratifications? This paper investigates the above issues by means of several SPFs developed using negative binomial regression models for two-lane rural highways in Spain. The models were based on crash data gathered over a 5-year period, using a broad number of explanatory variables related to exposure, geometry, design consistency and roadside features. Results show that the principle of parsimony could be too restrictive and that it provided simplistic models. Most previous studies apply conventional measurements (i.e., R(2), BIC, AIC, etc.) to assess the goodness-of-fit of models. Seldom do studies apply cumulative residual (CURE) analysis as a tool for model evaluation. This paper shows that CURE plots are essential tools for calibrating SPF, while also providing information for possible sample stratification. Previous authors suggest that sample segmentation increases the model accuracy. The results presented here confirm that finding, and show that the number of significant variables in the final models increases with sample stratification. This paper point out that fully models based on sample segmentation and on CURE may provide more useful insights about traffic crashes than general parsimonious models when developing SPF.

  6. Prospects for nuclear safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-04-01

    This document is the text of a paper presented by Eric S. Beckjord (Director, Nuclear Regulatory Research/NRC) at the 22nd Water Reactor Safety Meeting in Bethesda, MD in October 1994. The following topics are briefly reviewed: (1) Reactor vessel research, (2) Probabilistic risk assessment, (3) Direct containment heating, (4) Advanced LWR research, (5) Nuclear energy prospects in the US, and (6) Future nuclear safety research. Subtopics within the last category include economics, waste disposal, and health and safety.

  7. MANPOWER INVENTORY AND TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS. LOUISIANA DEPARTMENT OF HIGHWAYS MAINTENANCE RESEARCH PROJECT, REPORT NUMBER 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen (Roy) and Associates, Washington, DC.

    AS PART OF A LONG-RANGE (1965-69) RESEARCH PROJECT IN LOUISIANA, A STUDY (1) IDENTIFIED TRAINING NEEDS OF PERSONS SUPERVISING THE MAINTENANCE AND OPERATION OF HIGHWAYS, BRIDGES, FERRIES, AND EQUIPMENT, (2) ESTIMATED TRAINING NEEDS OF POTENTIAL SUPERVISORY PERSONNEL, (3) DETERMINED CHARACTERISTICS OF BOTH GROUPS, AND (4) MADE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A…

  8. MANPOWER INVENTORY AND TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS. LOUISIANA DEPARTMENT OF HIGHWAYS MAINTENANCE RESEARCH PROJECT, REPORT NUMBER 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen (Roy) and Associates, Washington, DC.

    AS PART OF A LONG-RANGE (1965-69) RESEARCH PROJECT IN LOUISIANA, A STUDY (1) IDENTIFIED TRAINING NEEDS OF PERSONS SUPERVISING THE MAINTENANCE AND OPERATION OF HIGHWAYS, BRIDGES, FERRIES, AND EQUIPMENT, (2) ESTIMATED TRAINING NEEDS OF POTENTIAL SUPERVISORY PERSONNEL, (3) DETERMINED CHARACTERISTICS OF BOTH GROUPS, AND (4) MADE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A…

  9. Reactor Safety Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Dotson, CW

    1980-08-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest laboratory from October 1 through December 31, 1979, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Evaluation of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibilty of determining structural graphite strength, evaluating the feasibilty of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the remaining integrity of pressurized water reactor steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Test assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include the loss-of-coolant accident simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; the fuel rod deformation and post-accident coolability tests for the ESSOR Test Reactor Program, lspra, Italy; the blowdown and reflood tests in the test facility at Cadarache, France; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and the experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  10. Reactor Safety Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Edler, S. K.

    1981-07-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from January 1 through March 31, 1981, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision-making regarding pipeto- pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Core thermal models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation, severe fuel damage, and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR reactor Super Sara Test Program, Ispra, Italy; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  11. Navigating the information technology highway: computer solutions to reduce errors and enhance patient safety.

    PubMed

    Koshy, Ranie

    2005-10-01

    Standardized, seamless, integrated information technology in the health-care environment used with other industry tools can markedly decrease preventable errors or adverse events and increase patient safety. According to an Institute of Medicine (IOM) report released in 1999, preventable errors have caused between 44,000 and 98,000 deaths per year. Following the report, President Bill Clinton requested that the Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality, a government agency, look into the issue and fund, at the local or state level, processes that can reduce errors. Funding subsequently was made available for research that utilizes best practice tools in clinical practice to increase patient safety. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization has placed a great deal of emphasis on strategies to reduce patient identification errors. Fragmented systems tout the individual as well as enhanced safety applications. These applications, however, are related to prevention in specific conditions and in specific health-care settings. Systems are not integrated with common reference data and common terminology aggregated at a regional or national level to provide access to patient safety risks for timely interventions before errors and adverse events occur. Standardized integrated patient care information systems are not available either on a regional or on a national level. This article examines tangible options to increase patient safety through improved state-of-the-art tools that can be incorporated into the health-care system to prevent errors.

  12. 49 CFR 1.94 - The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... information system improvements, motorcyclist safety, and child safety restraints; administering a nationwide... concerning motor vehicle safety, including vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to infrastructure technologies and other new or advanced vehicle technologies; and investigating safety-related defects and...

  13. Construction techniques for the Taklamakan Desert Highway: research on the construction materials and the results of field tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Changning; Dong, Zhibao; Li, Zhinong

    2006-03-01

    After conducting many laboratory and field experiments, several key technical issues related to the construction of China’s Taklamakan Desert Highway have been satisfactorily resolved. In particular, considerable progress has been made on the dry compaction of a sand sub-base, road design parameters, the creation of a structure that combines a sub-grade and asphalt pavement, analysis of the stability of a sand sub-base strengthened with geotextiles, and on the development of a complete set of construction techniques. The achievements of this research were successfully applied for the first time in the Taklamakan Desert, where the environmental conditions are extremely harsh. The results suggest that the construction of this highway was economical and that the simple construction methods produced a reliable highway. The resulting highway is believed to be the world’s first long-distance graded highway running through a huge desert with migrating dunes.

  14. Safety and health of professional drivers who drive on Brazilian highways.

    PubMed

    Narciso, Fernanda Veruska; Mello, Marco Túlio de

    2017-03-30

    Traffic accidents and resulting injuries and deaths have become a global epidemic. In Brazil, most professional drivers, especially truck drivers, face irregular working hours and can be awake for more than 18 hours/day, which reduces their performance and alertness. In this article, we discuss the laws related to Brazilian professional drivers and their current amendments (No. 12,619/2012 and No. 13,103/2015) in relation to working hours at the wheel and rest breaks, which are vital for the quality of life of drivers and society in general. We note that the new law appears to be less efficient than the previous one as it causes insecurity and concern to the users of the transportation system, drivers, and employers. To restrict and reduce accidents, deaths, and injuries in traffic, appropriate legislation is essential, aiming at the safety of workers and users of highways. The law must also benefit the commercial aspect, strengthening the reduction in production and logistics losses. Additionally, traffic education programs are needed, as well as better supervision in relation to total working hours. RESUMO Acidentes de trânsito com consequentes lesões e mortes têm se tornado uma epidemia em nível mundial. No Brasil, a maioria dos motoristas profissionais, sobretudo motoristas de transporte de cargas, enfrenta jornada de trabalho irregular e permanece acordado por mais de 18 horas/dia, o que reduz seu desempenho e estado de alerta. Neste artigo, discutimos as leis dos motoristas profissionais brasileiros e suas alterações vigentes (nº 12.619/2012 e nº 13.103/2015) em relação às horas de trabalho ao volante e a pausas para descanso, imprescindíveis para a qualidade de vida dos motoristas e para a sociedade em geral. Observamos que a nova legislação se mostra menos eficiente que a anterior por causar insegurança e preocupação aos usuários do sistema de transporte, aos próprios motoristas e aos empregadores. Para restringir e reduzir acidentes

  15. Investigation of a supplementary tool to assist in the prioritization of emphasis areas in North American strategic highway safety plans.

    PubMed

    Park, Peter Y; Young, Jason

    2012-03-01

    An important potential benefit of a jurisdiction developing an upper-level traffic safety policy statement, such as a strategic highway safety plan (SHSP) or a traffic safety action plan, is the creation of a manageable number of focus areas, known as emphasis areas. The responsible agencies in the jurisdiction can then direct their finite resources in a systematic and strategic way designed to maximize the effort to reduce the number and severity of roadway collisions. In the United States, the federal government through AASHTO has suggested 22 potential emphasis areas. In Canada, CCMTA's 10 potential emphasis areas have been listed for consideration. This study reviewed the SHSP and traffic safety action plan of 53 jurisdictions in North America, and conducted descriptive data analyses to clarify the issues that currently affect the selection and prioritization process of jurisdiction-specific emphasis areas. We found that the current process relies heavily on high-level collision data analysis and communication among the SHSP stakeholders, but may not be the most efficient and effective way of selecting and prioritizing the emphasis areas and allocating safety improvement resources. This study then formulated a formal collision diagnosis test, known as the beta-binomial test, to clarify and illuminate the selection and the prioritization of jurisdiction-specific emphasis areas. We developed numerical examples to demonstrate how engineers can apply the proposed diagnosis test to improve the selection and prioritization of individual jurisdictions' emphasis areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 77 FR 44472 - Safety Zone; Port Valdez, Alaska Maritime Highway System Ferry Terminal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... AMHS Ferry Terminal. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of passenger vessels and... the ferry is within 200-yards of the pier. Persons desiring to transit within these safety zones must... is necessary to protect all vessels operating in the vicinity of the AMHS Ferry Terminal. The safety...

  17. Tough but True: School Board Neglect of Bus Safety Led to Government's Overblown, Under-Researched Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The apparent lack of concern school boards evidenced in the past over school bus safety has precipitated the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration regulations that have angered board members and bus manufacturers alike. It is argued that the new regulations are not based on research. (Author/IRT)

  18. Recommended research on LNG safety

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, H.J.; Gilmore, F.R.

    1981-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research on the safety and other environmental aspects of liquefied energy gases including liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effort reported here was conducted as part of the planning for further research into the safety aspects of transporting and storing LNG, with primary emphasis on public safety. Although the modern LNG industry has enjoyed excellent success in providing for safe operations, significant questions remain on the part of many, the expressions of which were intensified with the addition of marine-based LNG import terminals. Public safety with regard to large-scale importation of this fuel has received widespread attention in the US Congress, state legislatures, county and city governments, and from various individuals and public groups, with coverage in all the news media, including books published on the subject. The safety concerns have centered around the consequences to the public of a large spill of the cryogenic liquid from an ocean tanker or a larger storage tank, either of which might hold as much as 125,000 m/sup 3/ of LNG.

  19. 25 CFR 170.144 - What are eligible highway safety projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... reduce traffic accidents and deaths, injuries, and property damage; (i) Collecting data on traffic-related deaths, injuries and accidents; (j) Impaired driver initiatives; (k) Child safety seat programs... travel on IRRs, such as guardrail construction and traffic markings; (f) Development of a safety...

  20. 49 CFR 1.94 - The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... concerning motor vehicle safety, including vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to infrastructure technologies and other new or advanced vehicle technologies; and investigating safety-related defects and non-compliance... as the New Car Assessment Program; bumper standards for passenger motor vehicles;...

  1. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight D...

  2. 23 CFR 470.113 - National Highway System procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false National Highway System procedures. 470.113 Section 470.113 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.113 National Highway System procedures. (a) Proposals...

  3. 23 CFR 470.113 - National Highway System procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false National Highway System procedures. 470.113 Section 470.113 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.113 National Highway System procedures. (a) Proposals...

  4. 23 CFR 470.113 - National Highway System procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false National Highway System procedures. 470.113 Section 470.113 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.113 National Highway System procedures. (a) Proposals...

  5. 23 CFR 470.113 - National Highway System procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false National Highway System procedures. 470.113 Section 470.113 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.113 National Highway System procedures. (a) Proposals...

  6. 23 CFR 470.113 - National Highway System procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false National Highway System procedures. 470.113 Section 470.113 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.113 National Highway System procedures. (a) Proposals...

  7. Exemption from the make inoperative prohibition. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), DOT. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2001-02-27

    NHTSA is taking action to facilitate the modification of motor vehicles so that persons with disabilities can drive or ride in them. The agency is accomplishing this by issuing a limited exemption from a statutory provision that prohibits specified types of commercial entities from either removing safety equipment or features installed on motor vehicles pursuant to the Federal motor vehicle safety standards or altering the equipment or features so as to adversely affect their performance. The exemption is limited in that it allows repair businesses to modify only certain types of Federally-required safety equipment and features, under specified circumstances.

  8. Expansion of Vocational-Technical School Programs to Accommodate Highway Safety Manpower Requirements. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Ronald D.; And Others

    This second volume of a four-volume report covers manpower needs in motor vehicle inspection and registration, motorcycle safety, driver education, driver licensing, traffic court, and codes and laws. Aspects of training such as staffing, student recruitment, enrollments, facilities, equipment, and curriculum are discussed. Course outlines are…

  9. 49 CFR 1.50 - Delegation to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... safety. (q) Carry out the functions and exercise the authority vested in the Secretary under the “Energy... Economy; (4) Section 110, Periodic Review of Accuracy of Fuel Economy Labeling; (5) Section 113, Exemption...), Renewable Fuel Dispenser Requirements; and (10) Section 248(a), Biofuels Distribution and Advanced...

  10. Organizational culture, safety culture, and safety performance at research facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, William S.

    2000-07-30

    Organizational culture surveys of research facilities conducted several years ago and archival occupational injury reports were used to determine whether differences in safety performance are related to general organizational factors or to ''safety culture'' as reflected in specific safety-related dimensions. From among the organizations surveyed, a pair of facilities was chosen that were similar in size and scientific mission while differing on indices of work-related injuries. There were reliable differences in organizational style between the facilities, especially among workers in environment, safety, and health functions; differences between the facilities (and among job categories) on the safety scale were more modest and less regular.

  11. A Bayesian procedure for evaluating the frequency of calibration factor updates in highway safety manual (HSM) applications.

    PubMed

    Saha, Dibakar; Alluri, Priyanka; Gan, Albert

    2017-01-01

    The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) presents statistical models to quantitatively estimate an agency's safety performance. The models were developed using data from only a few U.S. states. To account for the effects of the local attributes and temporal factors on crash occurrence, agencies are required to calibrate the HSM-default models for crash predictions. The manual suggests updating calibration factors every two to three years, or preferably on an annual basis. Given that the calibration process involves substantial time, effort, and resources, a comprehensive analysis of the required calibration factor update frequency is valuable to the agencies. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to evaluate the HSM's recommendation and determine the required frequency of calibration factor updates. A robust Bayesian estimation procedure is used to assess the variation between calibration factors computed annually, biennially, and triennially using data collected from over 2400 miles of segments and over 700 intersections on urban and suburban facilities in Florida. Bayesian model yields a posterior distribution of the model parameters that give credible information to infer whether the difference between calibration factors computed at specified intervals is credibly different from the null value which represents unaltered calibration factors between the comparison years or in other words, zero difference. The concept of the null value is extended to include the range of values that are practically equivalent to zero. Bayesian inference shows that calibration factors based on total crash frequency are required to be updated every two years in cases where the variations between calibration factors are not greater than 0.01. When the variations are between 0.01 and 0.05, calibration factors based on total crash frequency could be updated every three years.

  12. Fruits of 20 Years of Highway Safety Legislative Advocacy in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ted R.; Bhattacharya, Soma; Zaloshnja, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the effects on crash fatalities and costs of 20 years of legislative actions resulting from Federal and state advocacy efforts. We catalogued road safety laws passed between 1990 and 2009 and motorcycle helmet law repeals that advocacy efforts narrowly defeated. We used NHTSA’s estimates of lives saved by airbags and published estimates of the percentage reduction in related crash fatalities associated with each type of law. State by state and year by year, from the actual fatality count for the year, we modeled how many fatalities each state's laws averted. We assumed, somewhat shakily, that the percentage reduction in nonfatal injury costs would mirror the fatality reduction. We used crash cost estimates for 10 years between 1990 and 2008 to estimate total crash costs from 1990–2009. The costs were built from NHTSA’s estimates of cost per crash. The state laws passed included 113 occupant protection laws, 131 impaired driving laws, and 76 teen driving laws, plus a Federal airbag mandate. These laws saved an estimated 120,000 lives. The life-saving benefits accelerated as the number of laws in force grew. By 2009, they resulted in 25% fewer crash fatalities. The largest life-saving benefits sprang from airbag, belt use, and impaired driving laws. Laws that affect narrow subpopulations had more modest impacts. The laws reduced insurance costs by more than $210 billion and saved government an estimated $42 billion. Including the value of lost quality of life, estimated savings exceeded $1.3 trillion. Legislative advocacy is truly a spark plug in the safety engine. PMID:22105410

  13. Fruits of 20 years of highway safety legislative advocacy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ted R; Bhattacharya, Soma; Zaloshnja, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the effects on crash fatalities and costs of 20 years of legislative actions resulting from Federal and state advocacy efforts. We catalogued road safety laws passed between 1990 and 2009 and motorcycle helmet law repeals that advocacy efforts narrowly defeated. We used NHTSA's estimates of lives saved by airbags and published estimates of the percentage reduction in related crash fatalities associated with each type of law. State by state and year by year, from the actual fatality count for the year, we modeled how many fatalities each state's laws averted. We assumed, somewhat shakily, that the percentage reduction in nonfatal injury costs would mirror the fatality reduction. We used crash cost estimates for 10 years between 1990 and 2008 to estimate total crash costs from 1990-2009. The costs were built from NHTSA's estimates of cost per crash. The state laws passed included 113 occupant protection laws, 131 impaired driving laws, and 76 teen driving laws, plus a Federal airbag mandate. These laws saved an estimated 120,000 lives. The life-saving benefits accelerated as the number of laws in force grew. By 2009, they resulted in 25% fewer crash fatalities. The largest life-saving benefits sprang from airbag, belt use, and impaired driving laws. Laws that affect narrow subpopulations had more modest impacts. The laws reduced insurance costs by more than $210 billion and saved government an estimated $42 billion. Including the value of lost quality of life, estimated savings exceeded $1.3 trillion. Legislative advocacy is truly a spark plug in the safety engine.

  14. Recent innovations in IFR safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, D.C.

    1994-03-01

    Recent progress in IFR safety research suggests potential for two extensions of passive features to improve the robustness of safety response. This report provides a discussion of these recent innovations.

  15. A Strategic Study for Communication Programs on Alcohol and Highway Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This report is a synopsis of the findings of a nine-month research study into the beliefs, attitudes, and behavior of both adults and high school youth involved in the use of alcoholic beverages and driving. A questionnaire was administered to a nationally projectable samply of 1,660 adults between the ages of 18 and 55 and to a representative…

  16. Chemical Safety for Sustainability: Research Action Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Strategic Research Action Plan for EPA’s Chemical Safety for Sustainability research program presents the purpose, design and themes of the Agency’s research efforts to ensure safety in the design, manufacture and use of existing and future chemicals.

  17. Safety management of complex research operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Complex research and technology operations present many varied potential hazards which must be addressed in a disciplined independent safety review and approval process. The research and technology effort at the Lewis Research Center is divided into programmatic areas of aeronautics, space and energy. Potential hazards vary from high energy fuels to hydrocarbon fuels, high pressure systems to high voltage systems, toxic chemicals to radioactive materials and high speed rotating machinery to high powered lasers. A Safety Permit System presently covers about 600 potentially hazardous operations. The Safety Management Program described in this paper is believed to be a major factor in maintaining an excellent safety record at the Lewis Research Center.

  18. Safety management of complex research operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Complex research and technology operations present varied potential hazards which are addressed in a disciplined, independent safety review and approval process. Potential hazards vary from high energy fuels to hydrocarbon fuels, high pressure systems to high voltage systems, toxic chemicals to radioactive materials and high speed rotating machinery to high powered lasers. A Safety Permit System presently covers about 600 potentially hazardous operations. The Safety Management Program described is believed to be a major factor in maintaining an excellent safety record.

  19. Researchers' Roles in Patient Safety Improvement.

    PubMed

    Pietikäinen, Elina; Reiman, Teemu; Heikkilä, Jouko; Macchi, Luigi

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore how researchers can contribute to patient safety improvement. We aim to expand the instrumental role researchers have often occupied in relation to patient safety improvement. We reflect on our own improvement model and experiences as patient safety researchers in an ongoing Finnish multi-actor innovation project through self-reflective narration. Our own patient safety improvement model can be described as systemic. Based on the purpose of the innovation project, our improvement model, and the improvement models of the other actors in the project, we have carried out a wide range of activities. Our activities can be summarized in 8 overlapping patient safety improvement roles: modeler, influencer, supplier, producer, ideator, reflector, facilitator, and negotiator. When working side by side with "practice," researchers are offered and engage in several different activities. The way researchers contribute to patient safety improvement and balance between different roles depends on the purpose of the study, as well as on the underlying patient safety improvement models. Different patient safety research paradigms seem to emphasize different improvement roles, and thus, they also face different challenges. Open reflection on the underlying improvement models and roles can help researchers with different backgrounds-as well as other actors involved in patient safety improvement-in structuring their work and collaborating productively.

  20. How Can We Improve School Safety Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astor, Ron Avi; Guerra, Nancy; Van Acker, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this article consider how education researchers can improve school violence and school safety research by (a) examining gaps in theoretical, conceptual, and basic research on the phenomena of school violence; (b) reviewing key issues in the design and evaluation of evidence-based practices to prevent school violence; and (c)…

  1. How Can We Improve School Safety Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astor, Ron Avi; Guerra, Nancy; Van Acker, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this article consider how education researchers can improve school violence and school safety research by (a) examining gaps in theoretical, conceptual, and basic research on the phenomena of school violence; (b) reviewing key issues in the design and evaluation of evidence-based practices to prevent school violence; and (c)…

  2. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS...). (3) The National Highway System shall include the Strategic Highway Corridor Network (STRAHNET) and... important to the United States strategic defense policy and which provide defense access, continuity, and...

  3. NASA's aviation safety research and technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, G. H.

    1977-01-01

    Aviation safety is challenged by the practical necessity of compromising inherent factors of design, environment, and operation. If accidents are to be avoided these factors must be controlled to a degree not often required by other transport modes. The operational problems which challenge safety seem to occur most often in the interfaces within and between the design, the environment, and operations where mismatches occur due to ignorance or lack of sufficient understanding of these interactions. Under this report the following topics are summarized: (1) The nature of operating problems, (2) NASA aviation safety research, (3) clear air turbulence characterization and prediction, (4) CAT detection, (5) Measurement of Atmospheric Turbulence (MAT) Program, (6) Lightning, (7) Thunderstorm gust fronts, (8) Aircraft ground operating problems, (9) Aircraft fire technology, (10) Crashworthiness research, (11) Aircraft wake vortex hazard research, and (12) Aviation safety reporting system.

  4. Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Tehran Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hadi; Nematollahi, Mohammad Reza; Sepanloo, Kamran

    2004-07-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) application is found to be a practical tool for research reactor safety due to intense involvement of human interactions in an experimental facility. In this paper the application of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment to the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) is presented. The level 1 PSA application involved: Familiarization with the plant, selection of accident initiators, mitigating functions and system definitions, event tree constructions and quantification, fault tree constructions and quantification, human reliability, component failure data base development and dependent failure analysis. Each of the steps of the analysis given above is discussed with highlights from the selected results. Quantification of the constructed models is done using SAPHIRE software. This Study shows that the obtained core damage frequency for Tehran Research Reactor (8.368 E-6 per year) well meets the IAEA criterion for existing nuclear power plants (1E-4). But safety improvement suggestions are offered to decrease the most probable accidents. (authors)

  5. 46 CFR 393.3 - Marine Highway Corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., landside infrastructure maintenance savings, improved safety, and added system resiliency. Additional... infrastructure maintenance costs, safety and system resiliency. Specify if the Marine Highway Corridor...

  6. Proposal for development of a resource and commodity highway system. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Deacon, J.A.; Allen, D.L.; Crabtree, J.D.; Agent, K.R.; Pigman, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    In 1986, the Kentucky General Assembly established the Extended Weight Coal and Coal By-Products Haul Road System. The system includes approximately 3,200 miles of the most significant coal-haul roads in the state and permits coal trucks to carry much larger payloads than trucks with other commodities. In many ways, the extended-weight system has been very successful. Coal-transportation productivity has been substantially increased, and Kentucky coal continues to remain competitive in the marketplace. The study, conducted by the Kentucky Transportation Center, concluded that development of a statewide trucking network, herein named the Resource and Commodity Highway System, was both feasibile and desirable.

  7. 78 FR 7336 - Safety Zone; Alaska Marine Highway System Port Valdez Ferry Terminal, Port Valdez; Valdez, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... the shoreline adjacent to the AMHS Port Valdez Ferry Terminal. We believe a permanent safety zone is necessary to ensure the safety of vessels ] operating in the vicinity of the AMHS Port Valdez Ferry Terminal... yards of the AMHS Port Valdez Ferry Terminal. Enforcement of the safety zone would terminate when the...

  8. [Patient safety in clinical intervention research].

    PubMed

    Brekelmans, Cecile T M; Kenter, Marcel J H; Bouter, Lex M; Koëter, Gerard H

    2011-01-01

    In clinical intervention research, the monitoring of patient safety is essential. In December 2009, a symposium on the role of the different parties involved was organised. Research starts with a robust protocol with a section dealing with interim decision-making and procedures for reporting during the research. After the approval by an accredited Ethics Committee, the responsibility for the patient safety primarily lies with the investigators and sponsor (in the case of investigator-initiated research generally the Institutional Board of Directors). In addition, the appointment of a Data and Safety Monitoring Committee (DSMC) has become more frequent during recent years. This committee monitors the safety of patients by means of evaluation of interim results and advises the sponsor accordingly. The decision process concerning premature ending is a clinical decision, which should not exclusively be based on exceeding a statistical limit. The focus of the DSMC should be on safety issues; only in exceptional cases should a trial be discontinued because of clear efficacy, or the lack of it.

  9. Accident prediction model for public highway-rail grade crossings.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pan; Tolliver, Denver

    2016-05-01

    Considerable research has focused on roadway accident frequency analysis, but relatively little research has examined safety evaluation at highway-rail grade crossings. Highway-rail grade crossings are critical spatial locations of utmost importance for transportation safety because traffic crashes at highway-rail grade crossings are often catastrophic with serious consequences. The Poisson regression model has been employed to analyze vehicle accident frequency as a good starting point for many years. The most commonly applied variations of Poisson including negative binomial, and zero-inflated Poisson. These models are used to deal with common crash data issues such as over-dispersion (sample variance is larger than the sample mean) and preponderance of zeros (low sample mean and small sample size). On rare occasions traffic crash data have been shown to be under-dispersed (sample variance is smaller than the sample mean) and traditional distributions such as Poisson or negative binomial cannot handle under-dispersion well. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare various alternate highway-rail grade crossing accident frequency models that can handle the under-dispersion issue. The contributions of the paper are two-fold: (1) application of probability models to deal with under-dispersion issues and (2) obtain insights regarding to vehicle crashes at public highway-rail grade crossings.

  10. Research on fast ecological restoration technology of high and steep rocky slope of highway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xin

    2017-08-01

    Along with the development of the western region, the traffic construction in mountainous areas is booming. In the infrastructure, it produced a large number of secondary bare land. Soil erosion is serious. Based on the literature search and analysis of the domestic and international slope ecological restoration technology, this paper proposes a fast and efficient adaptive highway high steep rock slope ecological restoration technology (it has been authorized by the national patent). And it states the systemic structure, working principle and key construction technology. The ecological restoration technique combines the growth characteristics of the vegetation and the characteristics of the rock mass, which not only improves the survival rate of plants, but also stable slope. The results of this study make up for the shortcomings of the existing ecological restoration technology of slope. Compared with the prior art, which have obvious advantages and suitable for the ecological restoration of high steep rock slope.

  11. Reactor Safety Research: Semiannual report, January-June 1986: Reactor Safety Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is conducting, under USNRC sponsorship, phenomenological research related to the safety of commercial nuclear power reactors. The research includes experiments to simulate the phenomenology of accident conditions and the development of analytical models, verified by experiment, which can be used to predict reactor and safety systems performance behavior under abnormal conditions. The objective of this work is to provide NRC requisite data bases and analytical methods to (1) identify and define safety issues, (2) understand the progression of risk-significant accident sequences, and (3) conduct safety assessments. The collective NRC-sponsored effort at Sandia National Laboratories is directed at enhancing the technology base supporting licensing decisions.

  12. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M

    1999-01-28

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  13. Groundwater and highways interaction: past and present experiences of highway construction in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brencic, Mihael

    2006-03-01

    During the planning, designing, construction, operation and maintenance of highways, groundwater can be of important environmental and constructional constraint that can significantly influence the safety operation of traffic and of big influence on the operational costs of highways. To classify and conceptualize the relation between groundwater and highways, three important groups of problems can be determined: groundwater protection from highway influences, protection of highway from groundwater and economic use of groundwater for highway operation. In the present study, groundwater management strategies are represented during all life cycles of highways. Greater emphasis is given to groundwater protection and field hydrogeological investigations for proper groundwater management related to the highway. The approach adopted in Slovenia and the role of hydrogeology is given as an illustration.

  14. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. 470.105 Section 470.105 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and...

  15. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. 470.105 Section 470.105 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and...

  16. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. 470.105 Section 470.105 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and...

  17. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. 470.105 Section 470.105 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and...

  18. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway functional... PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on the Federal-aid highway...

  19. Psychiatric safety of ketamine in psychopharmacology research.

    PubMed

    Perry, Edward B; Cramer, Joyce A; Cho, Hyun-Sang; Petrakis, Ismene L; Karper, Laurence P; Genovese, Angelina; O'Donnell, Elizabeth; Krystal, John H; D'Souza, D Cyril

    2007-06-01

    A growing number of investigators are studying ketamine effects in healthy human subjects, but concerns remain about its safety as a research tool. Therefore, it is timely to revisit the safety of subanesthetic doses of ketamine in experimental psychopharmacology studies. To report on the safety of laboratory studies with subanesthetic doses of ketamine in healthy humans using an existing dataset. Medically healthy subjects with no personal or familial Axis I psychotic spectrum disorders were administered subanesthetic doses of ketamine by intravenous infusion in a series of clinical investigations from 1989 to 2005. The safety of ketamine administration was monitored in these subjects. Four hundred and fifty subjects received at least one dose of active ketamine. Eight hundred and thirty three active ketamine and 621 placebo infusions were administered. Ten adverse mental status events were documented in nine subjects/infusions that were deemed related to ketamine administration (2% of subjects, 1.45% of infusions). All but one adverse reaction resolved by the end of the test session. The side effects in the remaining individual were no longer clinically significant within 4 days of the test session. No residual sequelae were observed. Ketamine administration at subanesthetic doses appears to present an acceptable level of risk for carefully screened populations of healthy human subjects in the context of clinical research programs that intensively monitor subjects throughout their study participation.

  20. Potential impacts of highway median barriers on wildlife: state of the practice and gap analysis.

    PubMed

    Clevenger, Anthony P; Kociolek, Angela V

    2013-11-01

    Median barriers separate lanes of traffic moving in opposite directions on multilane highways. Such traffic safety devices can reduce head-on collisions but also have the potential to reduce landscape permeability by impeding wildlife movements across highways. Median barriers may also increase the risk of wildlife-vehicle collisions if an animal becomes trapped or confused amid barriers searching for a place to cross. A 2002 Transportation Research Board report highlighted the need to better understand the potential impacts of highway median barriers on wildlife. This lack of information can cause significant project delays and increase transportation project costs. This study represents the first attempt in North America to bring together information about highway median and roadside barriers and wildlife and provide preliminary guidelines to balance the needs of motorist safety and wildlife movements.

  1. Potential Impacts of Highway Median Barriers on Wildlife: State of the Practice and Gap Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clevenger, Anthony P.; Kociolek, Angela V.

    2013-11-01

    Median barriers separate lanes of traffic moving in opposite directions on multilane highways. Such traffic safety devices can reduce head-on collisions but also have the potential to reduce landscape permeability by impeding wildlife movements across highways. Median barriers may also increase the risk of wildlife-vehicle collisions if an animal becomes trapped or confused amid barriers searching for a place to cross. A 2002 Transportation Research Board report highlighted the need to better understand the potential impacts of highway median barriers on wildlife. This lack of information can cause significant project delays and increase transportation project costs. This study represents the first attempt in North America to bring together information about highway median and roadside barriers and wildlife and provide preliminary guidelines to balance the needs of motorist safety and wildlife movements.

  2. Management of nanomaterials safety in research environment.

    PubMed

    Groso, Amela; Petri-Fink, Alke; Magrez, Arnaud; Riediker, Michael; Meyer, Thierry

    2010-12-10

    Despite numerous discussions, workshops, reviews and reports about responsible development of nanotechnology, information describing health and environmental risk of engineered nanoparticles or nanomaterials is severely lacking and thus insufficient for completing rigorous risk assessment on their use. However, since preliminary scientific evaluations indicate that there are reasonable suspicions that activities involving nanomaterials might have damaging effects on human health; the precautionary principle must be applied. Public and private institutions as well as industries have the duty to adopt preventive and protective measures proportionate to the risk intensity and the desired level of protection. In this work, we present a practical, 'user-friendly' procedure for a university-wide safety and health management of nanomaterials, developed as a multi-stakeholder effort (government, accident insurance, researchers and experts for occupational safety and health). The process starts using a schematic decision tree that allows classifying the nano laboratory into three hazard classes similar to a control banding approach (from Nano 3--highest hazard to Nano1--lowest hazard). Classifying laboratories into risk classes would require considering actual or potential exposure to the nanomaterial as well as statistical data on health effects of exposure. Due to the fact that these data (as well as exposure limits for each individual material) are not available, risk classes could not be determined. For each hazard level we then provide a list of required risk mitigation measures (technical, organizational and personal). The target 'users' of this safety and health methodology are researchers and safety officers. They can rapidly access the precautionary hazard class of their activities and the corresponding adequate safety and health measures. We succeed in convincing scientist dealing with nano-activities that adequate safety measures and management are promoting

  3. Management of nanomaterials safety in research environment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Despite numerous discussions, workshops, reviews and reports about responsible development of nanotechnology, information describing health and environmental risk of engineered nanoparticles or nanomaterials is severely lacking and thus insufficient for completing rigorous risk assessment on their use. However, since preliminary scientific evaluations indicate that there are reasonable suspicions that activities involving nanomaterials might have damaging effects on human health; the precautionary principle must be applied. Public and private institutions as well as industries have the duty to adopt preventive and protective measures proportionate to the risk intensity and the desired level of protection. In this work, we present a practical, 'user-friendly' procedure for a university-wide safety and health management of nanomaterials, developed as a multi-stakeholder effort (government, accident insurance, researchers and experts for occupational safety and health). The process starts using a schematic decision tree that allows classifying the nano laboratory into three hazard classes similar to a control banding approach (from Nano 3 - highest hazard to Nano1 - lowest hazard). Classifying laboratories into risk classes would require considering actual or potential exposure to the nanomaterial as well as statistical data on health effects of exposure. Due to the fact that these data (as well as exposure limits for each individual material) are not available, risk classes could not be determined. For each hazard level we then provide a list of required risk mitigation measures (technical, organizational and personal). The target 'users' of this safety and health methodology are researchers and safety officers. They can rapidly access the precautionary hazard class of their activities and the corresponding adequate safety and health measures. We succeed in convincing scientist dealing with nano-activities that adequate safety measures and management are promoting

  4. The epistemology of patient safety research.

    PubMed

    Runciman, William B; Baker, G Ross; Michel, Philippe; Jauregui, Itziar Larizgoitia; Lilford, Richard J; Andermann, Anne; Flin, Rhona; Weeks, William B

    2008-12-01

    Patient safety has only recently been subjected to wide-spread systematic study. Healthcare differs from other high risk industries in being more diverse and multi-contextual, and less certain and regulated. Also many patient safety problems are low-frequency events associated with many, varied contributing factors. The subject of this paper is the epistemology of patient safety (the science of the method of finding out about patient safety). Patient safety research is considered here on the background of a risk management framework which requires researchers to: •  Understand the context - as a subset of healthcare quality, services and systems research, with technical and human behavioural (cultural) components and a range of external and internal organisational influences, a wide range of research disciplines is necessary •  Identify the risks - identify the things that go wrong and the frequency and nature of different types of incidents from sources such as medical record review, observational studies, audit, incident and medico-legal reports •  Analyse the risks - deconstruct the things that go wrong, identifying contributing factors and trying to detect trends and patterns in contributing factors, detection, mitigation factors, ameliorating factors and actions taken to reduce risk •  Evaluate the risks - decide on priorities, identifying preventive and corrective strategies and judging the risk- and cost-benefit of potential corrective strategies such as standardisation or simplification of a process or device •  Manage the risk - evaluate and scope preventive and/or corrective strategies and then implement these, or place the problem on a risk register pending solution, or accept that what is needed is unaffordable •  Communicate and consult - use interactive sessions, audit, on-going feedback, reminders and patient mediated prompts •  Monitor and review the state of the problem - get baseline trends and patterns so that changes

  5. Work Climate, Organizational Commitment, and Highway Safety in the Trucking Industry: Toward Causal Modeling of Large Truck Crashes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Carroll M.; Scott, Aaron J.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

    2008-01-01

    While theoretical models aimed at explaining or predicting employee turnover outcomes have been developed, minimal consideration has been given to the same task regarding safety, often measured as the probability of a crash in a given time frame. The present literature review identifies four constructs from turnover literature, which are believed…

  6. Highway Collision Investigation Training Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, John W.

    The report was prepared for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) of the U.S. Department of Transportation. The report briefly reviews the appropriate literature, then describes the one-year program which involved planning and organization of a Highway Collision Investigation Training Program, preparing a course syllabus, and…

  7. The smart highway project: Smart highways, smart vehicles, smart engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pethtel, Ray D.

    1996-01-01

    The Smart Highway project is a six mile, limited access roadway being built between Interstate 81 and Blacksburg, Virginia. The initial construction segment will be two miles long and is designed to serve as a test bed and test track for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) research. The Center for Transportation Research (CTR) at Virginia Tech is developing three evaluation tools for its ITS research including DYNAVIMTS (a software framework), and the FLASH Lab (a 1/15th scale model highway and vehicle system). The Smart Highway rounds out the Center's evaluation methodology by allowing full scale operational tests, evaluations, and research under both experimental and conventional traffic conditions. Currently under development is a concept for a fully automated highway using a 'Cooperative Infrastructure Managed System' which involves ultra wide band communication beacons installed in the infrastructure with appropriate sensors, receivers and processors on board the vehicles. The project is part of the research program funded by the National Automated Highway System Consortium. The CTR hopes to develop the automated concept to prototype status by 1997. Other smart transportation and smart engineering concepts are proposed. This presentation will address the goals and objectives of the Smart Highway project, overview its status and importance to the region, and identify some of the transportation technology now under development and planned in the future.

  8. Organizational safety factors research lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T.G.

    1995-10-01

    This Paper reports lessons learned and state of knowledge gained from an organizational factors research activity involving commercial nuclear power plants in the United States, through the end of 1991, as seen by the scientists immediately involved in the research. Lessons learned information was gathered from the research teams and individuals using a question and answer format. The following five questions were submitted to each team and individual: (1) What organizational factors appear to influence safety performance in some systematic way, (2) Should organizational factors research focus at the plant level, or should it extend beyond the plant level to the parent company, rate setting commissions, regulatory agencies, (3) How important is having direct access to plants for doing organizational factors research, (4) What lessons have been learned to date as the result of doing organizational factors research in a nuclear regulatory setting, and (5) What organizational research topics and issues should be pursued in the future? Conclusions based on the responses provided for this report are that organizational factors research can be conducted in a regulatory setting and produce useful results. Technologies pioneered in other academic, commercial, and military settings can be adopted for use in a nuclear regulatory setting. The future success of such research depends upon the cooperation of regulators, contractors, and the nuclear industry.

  9. Chemical Safety for Sustainability Research Action Plan 2012-2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s Chemical Safety for Sustainability (CSS) research program presents the purpose, design and themes of the Agency’s CSS research efforts to ensure safety in the design, manufacture and use of existing and future chemicals

  10. Highway Repair: A New Silicosis Threat

    PubMed Central

    Valiante, David J.; Schill, Donald P.; Rosenman, Kenneth D.; Socie, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We describe an emerging public health concern regarding silicosis in the fast-growing highway repair industry. Methods. We examined highway construction trends, silicosis surveillance case data, and environmental exposure data to evaluate the risk of silicosis among highway repair workers. We reviewed silicosis case data from the construction industry in 3 states that have silicosis registries, and we conducted environmental monitoring for silica at highway repair work sites. Results. Our findings indicate that a large population of highway workers is at risk of developing silicosis from exposure to crystalline silica. Conclusions. Exposure control methods, medical screenings, protective health standards, and safety-related contract language are necessary for preventing future occupational disease problems among highway repair workers. PMID:15117715

  11. Research in the field of drug therapy safety management

    PubMed Central

    Möller, Horst; Aly, Amin-Farid

    2013-01-01

    In August 2011, the Coordination Group for the implementation and continuation of the agenda for improving medication safety in Germany published a memorandum on the development of research in the field of drug therapy safety management (Memorandum on Drug Therapy Safety Management Research). The memorandum highlights the need for research into this field for the German health care system. It describes current research objectives, thematic priorities and the characteristics of the methodology of drug therapy safety management research. After presenting the current state of research into drug therapy safety management, suggestions are made regarding further necessary activities. PMID:24007447

  12. 77 FR 40622 - Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory Committee, National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory Committee, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (MSHRAC, NIOSH) In accordance with section..., safety culture, occupational health and safety management systems, preventing coal dust explosions, and...

  13. Human Hallucinogen Research: Guidelines for Safety

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matthew W.; Richards, William A.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2010-01-01

    There has recently been a renewal of human research with classical hallucinogens (psychedelics). This paper first briefly discusses the unique history of human hallucinogen research, and then reviews the risks of hallucinogen administration and safeguards for minimizing these risks. Although hallucinogens are relatively safe physiologically and are not considered drugs of dependence, their administration involves unique psychological risks. The most likely risk is overwhelming distress during drug action (“bad trip”), which could lead to potentially dangerous behavior such as leaving the study site. Less common are prolonged psychoses triggered by hallucinogens. Safeguards against these risks include the exclusion of volunteers with personal or family history of psychotic disorders or other severe psychiatric disorders, establishing trust and rapport between session monitors and volunteer before the session, careful volunteer preparation, a safe physical session environment, and interpersonal support from at least two study monitors during the session. Investigators should probe for the relatively rare hallucinogen persisting perception disorder in follow up contact. Persisting adverse reactions are rare when research is conducted along these guidelines. Incautious research may jeopardize participant safety and future research. However, carefully conducted research may inform the treatment of psychiatric disorders, and may lead to advances in basic science. PMID:18593734

  14. Safety: when infants and parents are research subjects.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Karen A

    2005-01-01

    Patient safety is a central concern in nursing. Unlike other areas of patient safety, safety in research is particularly important because research is not part of standard care and participation is voluntary. Issues related to safety in research are especially pertinent to high-risk infants, because of the nature of parental (or legal guardian) consent and because children are considered a vulnerable group requiring special protection from research risks. Nurses must be aware of safety in research whether independently conducting research, employed by a research project, or caring for patients who are research subjects. This article reviews safety issues and policies, processes, and ethical guidelines designed to protect infants and children who are research subjects.

  15. The Highway Safety Mass Media Youth Project: A Media Campaign Aimed at Drunk Driving and Seat Belt Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blosser, Betsy J.; And Others

    To address the issues of drunk driving and failure to use car restraints among teens and young adults, a 21-month-long media campaign has been developed especially for the 15- to 24-year-old audience to compare the effectiveness of paid advertisements and public service announcements. A formative research approach to message design will be used to…

  16. The Highway Safety Mass Media Youth Project: A Media Campaign Aimed at Drunk Driving and Seat Belt Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blosser, Betsy J.; And Others

    To address the issues of drunk driving and failure to use car restraints among teens and young adults, a 21-month-long media campaign has been developed especially for the 15- to 24-year-old audience to compare the effectiveness of paid advertisements and public service announcements. A formative research approach to message design will be used to…

  17. Biodefense research: can secrecy and safety coexist?

    PubMed

    Kahn, Laura H

    2004-01-01

    Over the next 10 years, the United States will spend 6 billion US dollars to develop countermeasures against biological and chemical weapons. Much of this research on highly virulent pathogens will be done in academic settings around the country. This article explores the challenges in ensuring secrecy to protect national security while accommodating the right of local communities to have access to safety information regarding select agents and laboratory-acquired infections. Secrecy has been defended as being vital for protecting national security. Problems with secrecy can include the misinterpretation of intentions, particularly in laboratories located in nuclear weapons design facilities, and the restricted access to information relevant to public health and safety. While federal select agent legislation requires laboratories to have emergency plans in place with first responders, these plans do not necessarily include public health professionals, who will be responsible for any future public health action, such as quarantine, surveillance, or mass vaccinations, in the unlikely event that a laboratory-acquired infection spreads into a community. Laboratory-acquired infections do occur, even with the best safety mechanisms in place; however, the epidemiology of the incidence and severity of these infections are not known since there is no national surveillance reporting system. Evidence suggests that many of these infections occur in the absence of an actual laboratory accident. The best emergency plans and surveillance systems are only as good as the participation and vigilance of the laboratory workers themselves. Thus, laboratory workers have a responsibility to themselves and others to report all laboratory accidents and spills, regardless how minor. In addition, they should have a lower threshold than normal in seeking medical attention when feeling ill, and their physicians should be aware of what pathogens they work with to reduce the risk of a delay in

  18. Trends in fusion reactor safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, J.S.; Holland, D.F.; Piet, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion has the potential to be an attractive energy source. From the safety and environmental perspective, fusion must avoid concerns about catastrophic accidents and unsolvable waste disposal. In addition, fusion must achieve an acceptable level of risk from operational accidents that result in public exposure and economic loss. Finally, fusion reactors must control routine radioactive effluent, particularly tritium. Major progress in achieving this potential rests on development of low-activation materials or alternative fuels. The safety and performance of various material choices and fuels for commercial fusion reactors can be investigated relatively inexpensively through reactor design studies. These studies bring together experts in a wide range of backgrounds and force the group to either agree on a reactor design or identify areas for further study. Fusion reactors will be complex with distributed radioactive inventories. The next generation of experiments will be critical in demonstrating that acceptable levels of safe operation can be achieved. These machines will use materials which are available today and for which a large database exists (e.g. for 316 stainless steel). Researchers have developed a good understanding of the risks associated with operation of these devices. Specifically, consequences from coolant system failures, loss of vacuum events, tritium releases, and liquid metal reactions have been studied. Recent studies go beyond next step designs and investigate commercial reactor concerns including tritium release and liquid metal reactions. 18 refs.

  19. An alternative accident prediction model for highway-rail interfaces.

    PubMed

    Austin, Ross D; Carson, Jodi L

    2002-01-01

    Safety levels at highway/rail interfaces continue to be of major concern despite an ever-increasing focus on improved design and appurtenance application practices. Despite the encouraging trend towards improved safety, accident frequencies remain high, many of which result in fatalities. More than half of these accidents occur at public crossings, where active warning devices (i.e. gates, lights, bells, etc.) are in place and functioning properly. This phenomenon speaks directly to the need to re-examine both safety evaluation (i.e. accident prediction) methods and design practices at highway-rail crossings. With respect to earlier developed accident prediction methods, the Peabody Dimmick Formula, the New Hampshire Index and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Hazard Index, all lack descriptive capabilities due to their limited number of explanatory variables. Further, each has unique limitations that are detailed in this paper. The US Department of Transportation's (USDOT) Accident Prediction Formula, which is most widely, also has limitations related to the complexity of the three-stage formula and its decline in accident prediction model accuracy over time. This investigation resulted in the development of an alternate highway-rail crossing accident prediction model, using negative binomial regression that shows great promise. The benefit to be gained through the application of this alternate model is (1) a greatly simplified, one-step estimation process; (2) comparable supporting data requirements and (3) interpretation of both the magnitude and direction of the effect of the factors found to significantly influence highway-rail crossing accident frequencies.

  20. By-product and discarded material utilization in highway construction and maintenance: A literature review. Interim research report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsucker, D.Q.; Tilley, J.

    1994-06-01

    The report summarizes the findings of an extensive literature search and review conducted to determine current attitudes relative to the use of recyclable and recoverable materials in highway construction and maintenance activities. Specifically, the literature search focused upon the engineering, economic, and performance aspects of using recyclable and recoverable materials in highway construction and maintenance projects. The literature review focused on asphalt and cement concrete pavement recycling, discarded tire recycling, reuse of paint removal wastes, fly ash, glass, alternative fuels, and other miscellaneous recycled and recovered materials as related to construction and maintenance of highways. Additionally, regulatory and policy matters associated with the use of recyclable and recoverable materials in the transportation area were investigated during the review of literature.

  1. An Assessment of the Impact of Pre-Employment Training on the Safety Experience of Miners and Off-Highway Vehicle Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, L. G.; And Others

    The purpose of the research project described in the report was to determine whether an improvement in the safety experience of miners could be identified as attributable to pre-employment training programs presented at Butte, Montana, and Casa Grande, Arizona. (NTIS)

  2. An Assessment of the Impact of Pre-Employment Training on the Safety Experience of Miners and Off-Highway Vehicle Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, L. G.; And Others

    The purpose of the research project described in the report was to determine whether an improvement in the safety experience of miners could be identified as attributable to pre-employment training programs presented at Butte, Montana, and Casa Grande, Arizona. (NTIS)

  3. 49 CFR 212.233 - Apprentice highway-rail grade crossing inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Apprentice highway-rail grade crossing inspector... Inspection Personnel § 212.233 Apprentice highway-rail grade crossing inspector. (a) An apprentice highway... Administrator for Safety leading to qualification as a highway-rail grade crossing inspector. The apprentice...

  4. 49 CFR 212.233 - Apprentice highway-rail grade crossing inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Apprentice highway-rail grade crossing inspector... Inspection Personnel § 212.233 Apprentice highway-rail grade crossing inspector. (a) An apprentice highway... Administrator for Safety leading to qualification as a highway-rail grade crossing inspector. The apprentice...

  5. 49 CFR 212.233 - Apprentice highway-rail grade crossing inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Apprentice highway-rail grade crossing inspector... Inspection Personnel § 212.233 Apprentice highway-rail grade crossing inspector. (a) An apprentice highway... Administrator for Safety leading to qualification as a highway-rail grade crossing inspector. The apprentice...

  6. The Cardiac Safety Research Consortium ECG database.

    PubMed

    Kligfield, Paul; Green, Cynthia L

    2012-01-01

    The Cardiac Safety Research Consortium (CSRC) ECG database was initiated to foster research using anonymized, XML-formatted, digitized ECGs with corresponding descriptive variables from placebo- and positive-control arms of thorough QT studies submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) by pharmaceutical sponsors. The database can be expanded to other data that are submitted directly to CSRC from other sources, and currently includes digitized ECGs from patients with genotyped varieties of congenital long-QT syndrome; this congenital long-QT database is also linked to ambulatory electrocardiograms stored in the Telemetric and Holter ECG Warehouse (THEW). Thorough QT data sets are available from CSRC for unblinded development of algorithms for analysis of repolarization and for blinded comparative testing of algorithms developed for the identification of moxifloxacin, as used as a positive control in thorough QT studies. Policies and procedures for access to these data sets are available from CSRC, which has developed tools for statistical analysis of blinded new algorithm performance. A recently approved CSRC project will create a data set for blinded analysis of automated ECG interval measurements, whose initial focus will include comparison of four of the major manufacturers of automated electrocardiographs in the United States. CSRC welcomes application for use of the ECG database for clinical investigation.

  7. 77 FR 69586 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers,...

  8. 75 FR 22317 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 23 CFR Parts 1200 and 1300 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... that specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses,...

  9. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... your vehicle be affected by this recall. Federal vehicle cybersecurity guidance issued Covers best practices for all ... designing vehicle systems and software Read More Automated Vehicles Policy announced Industry leaders, experts in the field, ...

  10. 49 CFR 27.75 - Federal Highway Administration-highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal Highway Administration-highways. 27.75... Specific Operating Administration Programs: Airports, Railroads, and Highways § 27.75 Federal Highway Administration—highways. (a) New facilities—(1) Highway rest area facilities. All such facilities that will be...

  11. 49 CFR 27.75 - Federal Highway Administration-highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Federal Highway Administration-highways. 27.75... Specific Operating Administration Programs: Airports, Railroads, and Highways § 27.75 Federal Highway Administration—highways. (a) New facilities—(1) Highway rest area facilities. All such facilities that will be...

  12. A behavior based safety approach at a Kuwait research institution.

    PubMed

    Al-Hemoud, Ali M; Al-Asfoor, May M

    2006-01-01

    Behavior based safety (BBS) initiatives are the current trend toward improving safety performance. This study outlines the framework of the BBS process and summarizes several behavioral safety approaches to accident prevention. Although most of the published research has focused on the improvement of safe behavior in industry, this study is the first to apply the current approach of behavior based safety in a research/educational setting. An experiment conducted at a research institution demonstrated the effectiveness of a well-designed behavior based safety process. A follow-up study indicated that the BBS produced a lasting effect for the experimental group. Results from this study can be the driving force to implement behavior-based safety processes into educational, research, and training organizations.

  13. Highway corridor responsibility

    Treesearch

    Bonnie L. Harper-Lore

    1998-01-01

    As highways cross the nation they provide safe travel for the vacationers, commuters, truckers, the military, farmers, congressmen, our families, and friends. Highway corridors provide safe passage for many plant invaders as well. Highway vegetation managers manage millions of acres of rights-of-way that cross your land. It is imperative that we understand each other...

  14. Safety Culture and Best Practices at Japan's Fusion Research Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rule, Keith

    2014-05-01

    The Safety Monitor Joint Working Group (JWG) is one of the magnetic fusion research collaborations between the US Department of Energy and the government of Japan. Visits by occupational safety personnel are made to participating institutions on a biennial basis. In the 2013 JWG visit of US representatives to Japan, the JWG members noted a number of good safety practices in the safety walkthroughs. These good practices and safety culture topics are discussed in this paper. The JWG hopes that these practices for worker safety can be adopted at other facilities. It is a well-known, but unquantified, safety principle that well run, safe facilities are more productive and efficient than other facilities (Rule, 2009). Worker safety, worker productivity, and high quality in facility operation all complement each other (Mottel, 1995).

  15. Safety Culture And Best Practices At Japan's Fusion Research Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rule, K.; King, M.; Takase, Y.; Oshima, Y.; Nishimura, K.; Sukegawa, A.

    2014-04-01

    The Safety Monitor Joint Working Group (JWG) is one of the magnetic fusion research collaborations between the US Department of Energy and the government of Japan. Visits by occupational safety personnel are made to participating institutions on a biennial basis. In the 2013 JWG visit of US representatives to Japan, the JWG members noted a number of good safety practices in the safety walkthroughs. These good practices and safety culture topics are discussed in this paper. The JWG hopes that these practices for worker safety can be adopted at other facilities. It is a well-known, but unquantified, safety principle that well run, safe facilities are more productive and efficient than other facilities (Rule, 2009). Worker safety, worker productivity, and high quality in facility operation all complement each other (Mottel, 1995).

  16. Reliable freestanding position-based routing in highway scenarios.

    PubMed

    Galaviz-Mosqueda, Gabriel A; Aquino-Santos, Raúl; Villarreal-Reyes, Salvador; Rivera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Villaseñor-González, Luis; Edwards, Arthur

    2012-10-24

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are considered by car manufacturers and the research community as the enabling technology to radically improve the safety, efficiency and comfort of everyday driving. However, before VANET technology can fulfill all its expected potential, several difficulties must be addressed. One key issue arising when working with VANETs is the complexity of the networking protocols compared to those used by traditional infrastructure networks. Therefore, proper design of the routing strategy becomes a main issue for the effective deployment of VANETs. In this paper, a reliable freestanding position-based routing algorithm (FPBR) for highway scenarios is proposed. For this scenario, several important issues such as the high mobility of vehicles and the propagation conditions may affect the performance of the routing strategy. These constraints have only been partially addressed in previous proposals. In contrast, the design approach used for developing FPBR considered the constraints imposed by a highway scenario and implements mechanisms to overcome them. FPBR performance is compared to one of the leading protocols for highway scenarios. Performance metrics show that FPBR yields similar results when considering freespace propagation conditions, and outperforms the leading protocol when considering a realistic highway path loss model.

  17. Reliable Freestanding Position-Based Routing in Highway Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Galaviz-Mosqueda, Gabriel A.; Aquino-Santos, Raúl; Villarreal-Reyes, Salvador; Rivera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Villaseñor-González, Luis; Edwards, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are considered by car manufacturers and the research community as the enabling technology to radically improve the safety, efficiency and comfort of everyday driving. However, before VANET technology can fulfill all its expected potential, several difficulties must be addressed. One key issue arising when working with VANETs is the complexity of the networking protocols compared to those used by traditional infrastructure networks. Therefore, proper design of the routing strategy becomes a main issue for the effective deployment of VANETs. In this paper, a reliable freestanding position-based routing algorithm (FPBR) for highway scenarios is proposed. For this scenario, several important issues such as the high mobility of vehicles and the propagation conditions may affect the performance of the routing strategy. These constraints have only been partially addressed in previous proposals. In contrast, the design approach used for developing FPBR considered the constraints imposed by a highway scenario and implements mechanisms to overcome them. FPBR performance is compared to one of the leading protocols for highway scenarios. Performance metrics show that FPBR yields similar results when considering freespace propagation conditions, and outperforms the leading protocol when considering a realistic highway path loss model. PMID:23202159

  18. The US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's activities in patient safety research.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gregg S; Battles, James; Hart, James C; Tang, Ning

    2003-12-01

    To update the international community on the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's (AHRQ) recent and current activities in improving patient safety. Review of the literature concerning the importance of patient safety as a health care quality issue, international perspectives on patient safety, a review of research solicitations, and early results of funded studies. A representative sample of patient safety studies from those currently being funded by AHRQ. In response to a growing interest in patient safety in general and a recent US Institute of Medicine report on patient safety in particular, the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality has refocused its quality research mission. In the fiscal year 2002, AHRQ spent US$55 million on patient safety research. This investment was spread across six complementary research areas: (1) health systems error reporting, analysis, and safety improvement research demonstrations; (2) Clinical Informatics to Promote Patient Safety (CLIPS); (3) Centers of Excellence for patient safety research and practice (COE); (4) Developmental Centers for Evaluation and Research in Patient Safety (DCERPS); (5) The Effect of Health Care Working Conditions on Quality of Care; and (6) Partnerships for Quality: Patient Safety Research Dissemination and Education. Internal teams of researchers at AHRQ have published studies on patient safety, such as documenting the impact of medication errors. In addition to funding research on patient safety, AHRQ is an integral partner in several national and international collaborations to form strategic synergies that build upon each member organization's strengths, reduce redundant efforts, and benefit from each other's successes. As evidence on patient safety is generated, AHRQ also serves the important mission of disseminating information to the public. The patient safety research field has undergone a period of rapid evolution. It is now incumbent upon the international health care quality

  19. Anthropology in Agricultural Health and Safety Research and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Agriculture remains a dangerous industry, even as agricultural science and technology continue to advance. Research that goes beyond technological changes to address safety culture and policy are needed to improve health and safety in agriculture. In this commentary, I consider the potential for anthropology to contribute to agricultural health and safety research by addressing three aims: (1) I briefly consider what the articles in this issue of the Journal of Agromedicine say about anthropologists in agricultural health and safety; (2) I discuss what anthropologists can add to agricultural health and safety research; and (3) I examine ways in which anthropologists can participate in agricultural health and safety research. In using their traditions of rigorous field research to understand how those working in agriculture perceive and interpret factors affecting occupational health and safety (their "emic" perspective), and translating this perspective to improve the understanding of occupational health professionals and policy makers (an "etic" perspective), anthropologists can expose myths that limit improvements in agricultural health and safety. Addressing significant questions, working with the most vulnerable agricultural communities, and being outside establishment agriculture provide anthropologists with the opportunity to improve health and safety policy and regulation in agriculture.

  20. Reactor Safety Research: Semiannual report, July-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is conducting, under USNRC sponsorship, phenomenological research related to the safety of commercial nuclear power reactors. The research includes experiments to simulate the phenomenology of the accident conditions and the development of analytical models, verified by experiment, which can be used to predict reactor and safety systems performance and behavior under abnormal conditions. The objective of this work is to provide NRC requisite data bases and analytical methods to (1) identify and define safety issues, (2) understand the progression of risk-significant accident sequences, and (3) conduct safety assessments. The collective NRC-sponsored effort at Sandia National Laboratories is directed at enhancing the tehcnology base supporting licensing decisions.

  1. 75 FR 2187 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... project, US Highway 50 between Robbins Run Sidehill to Rockwall Sidehill near Echo Summit in the County El... improving safety along the section of US Highway 50 known as Upper Meyers Grade at Echo Summit. The...

  2. A summary of state laws regulating youth operating farm tractors on highways.

    PubMed

    Doty, B C; Marlenga, B

    2006-02-01

    Driving farm tractors on highways is hazardous for youth due to the large speed differential between motor vehicles and agricultural vehicles, as well as recent increases in traffic volume on many rural roads. In 1994, the state of Wisconsin enacted legislation requiring youth who operate farm tractors on highways to complete a tractor and machinery certification course. We were interested in finding out whether other states have similar requirements. The purpose of this project was to collect and summarize state laws regulating youth who operate farm tractors on highways in the U.S. A systematic method was used that included an initial Lexis-Nexis database search followed by internet searches in combination with follow-up email and telephone communications when missing or unclear results were obtained. The findings show that 14 states have legislation addressing youth who operate farm tractors on highways. The content of these statutes varies, but includes driver's license or educational requirements, as well as regulations concerning the ages, locations, and/or times of day when youth may drive farm machinery on highways. This compilation of state laws will be useful information for agricultural safety professionals in designing effective outreach programs. A synthesis of the findings may also lead to the development of model legislation or inform future research efforts aimed at preventing youth farm tractor crashes on highways.

  3. Translation research in occupational safety and health: A proposed framework.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Paul A; Cunningham, Thomas R; Nickels, Leslie; Felknor, Sarah; Guerin, Rebecca; Blosser, Fred; Chang, Chia-Chia; Check, Pietra; Eggerth, Donald; Flynn, Michael; Forrester, Christy; Hard, David; Hudson, Heidi; Lincoln, Jennifer; McKernan, Lauralynn T; Pratap, Preethi; Stephenson, Carol M; Van Bogaert, Donna; Menger-Ogle, Lauren

    2017-10-09

    Translation research in occupational safety and health is the application of scientific investigative approaches to study how the outputs of basic and applied research can be effectively translated into practice and have an impact. This includes the study of the ways in which useful knowledge and interventions are disseminated, adopted, implemented, and institutionalized. In this paper, a 4-stage framework (Development, Testing, Institutionalization, and Evaluation) is presented. Translation research can be used to enhance the use and impact of occupational safety and health knowledge and interventions to protect workers. This type of research has not received much attention in the occupational safety and health field. However, in contemporary society, it is critical to know how to make an impact with the findings and outputs of basic and applied research. This paper provides a novel framework for consideration of how to advance and prioritize translation research for occupational safety and health. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Security Research and Safety Aspects in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinay, Juraj

    In 2004 the Slovak Republic joined the European Community. This accession called for changes in the new member state's internal and external processes, as well as the acceptance of the European Community regulatory framework and its implementation in Slovakian national legislation. Even though Slovakia had started with step-by-step integration of specific regulations during accession negotiations, final implementation was only concluded upon admission into the European Community. The process spanned the fields of occupational health and safety (Safety) and civil security (Security), notwithstanding that professionals in these areas had already been working in line with the European legislation.

  5. Produce safety and quality research at ERRC

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are many reports of disease due to consumption of fruits and vegetables that were contaminated on the surface with enteric pathogens. Therefore, the safety of fresh-cut melons and other produce available in salad-bar operations and supermarkets is a concern. Physical and chemical treatments ...

  6. Human Factors Research and Nuclear Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moray, Neville P., Ed.; Huey, Beverly M., Ed.

    The Panel on Human Factors Research Needs in Nuclear Regulatory Research was formed by the National Research Council in response to a request from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC asked the research council to conduct an 18-month study of human factors research needs for the safe operation of nuclear power plants. This report…

  7. Research on chemical characteristics of soil salt crusts with saline groundwater drip-irrigation in the Tarim Desert Highway Shelterbelt.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianguo; Xu, Xinwen; Lei, Jiaqiang; Li, Shengyu

    2013-01-01

    Soil salt crusts are special layers at soil surface which are widely distributed in the Trim Desert Highway Shelterbelt under drip-irrigation with high salinity groundwater. In order to reveal annual variation of their chemical characteristics, soil salt crusts in shelterbelt of different ages in hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert were sampled. SOM, total salt, inions and pH were analyzed. Following results were obtained. SOM of salt crusts increased with the shelterbelt ages, but increasing trend became lower gradually. Total salt, ions, and pH of salt crusts reduced gradually with the shelterbelt ages. Total salt of salt crusts in shelterbelt of different ages was much higher than shifting sandy land. Ions were higher than shifting sandy land, Cl(-), Na(+), and SO4 (2-) increased more obvious, then Mg(2+), K(+), Ca(2+) and HCO3 (-), CO3 (2-) was little and nearly had no change. pH was all alkaline, pH of salt crusts in shelterbelt of 11 years was even lower than shifting sandy land. We can include that the quality of shallow soil (0~30 cm) in the Trim Desert Highway Shelterbelt becomes better gradually.

  8. Environmental research to improve food safety

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate in a popular form how the EMFSL experimental environmental research looks and what results are expected. The research leader Dan Shelton explains the history and purpose of the research site creation. The information about the current field research group...

  9. When workplace safety depends on behavior change: topics for behavioral safety research.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Oliver; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur Oli

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive interventions that address public-health concerns invariably include behavior-change strategies. In occupational safety and health, behavioral safety is an approach designed to improve safety performance directly through peer observations of safe behaviors, goal setting, performance feedback, and celebrations or incentives for reaching safety goals. Although the basic components of behavioral safety processes have been studied and widely documented, the current safety literature reveals several gaps in knowledge. These gaps are associated mostly with wide practice variations among the common process elements and uncertainty about the influence of organizational and other external factors. A major objective of this paper was to highlight not only key topic areas that warrant further research, but also to propose a list of research questions that are tied to uncertainties about various intervention practices. If only a portion of these topic areas and research questions are addressed through systematic reviews, field interventions, surveys, and laboratory-based studies, then the knowledge gained will significantly improve the delivery and effectiveness of behavioral safety interventions and thus their impact on worker health and safety.

  10. Emerging research methods and their application to road safety.

    PubMed

    Tarko, Andrew; Boyle, Linda Ng; Montella, Alfonso

    2013-12-01

    The study of road safety has seen great strides over the past few decades with advances in analytical methods and research tools that allow researchers to provide insights into the complex interactions of the driver, vehicle, and roadway. Data collection methods range from traditional traffic and roadway sensors to instrumented vehicles and driving simulators, capable of providing detailed data on both the normal driving conditions and the circumstances surrounding a safety critical event. In September 2011, the Third International Conference on Road Safety and Simulation was held in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, which was hosted by the Purdue University Center for Road Safety and sponsored by the Transportation Research Board and its three committees: ANB20 Safety Data, Analysis and Evaluation, AND30 Simulation and Measurement of Vehicle and Operator Performance, and ABJ95 Visualization in Transportation. The conference brought together two hundred researchers from all over the world demonstrating some of the latest research methods to quantify crash causality and associations, and model road safety. This special issue is a collection of 14 papers that were presented at the conference and then peer-reviewed through this journal. These papers showcase the types of analytical tools needed to examine various crash types, the use of naturalistic and on-road data to validate the use of surrogate measures of safety, and the value of driving simulators to examine high-risk situations.

  11. 75 FR 12554 - Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory Committee, National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory..., mine illumination research, mine escape and rescue, human factors research, coal dust particle size... 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...

  12. Organizing patient safety research to identify risks and hazards

    PubMed Central

    Battles, J; Lilford, R

    2003-01-01

    Patient safety has become an international priority with major research programmes being carried out in the USA, UK, and elsewhere. The challenge is how to organize research efforts that will produce the greatest yield in making health care safer for patients. Patient safety research initiatives can be considered in three different stages: (1) identification of the risks and hazards; (2) design, implementation, and evaluation of patient safety practices; and (3) maintaining vigilance to ensure that a safe environment continues and patient safety cultures remain in place. Clearly, different research methods and approaches are needed at each of the different stages of the continuum. A number of research approaches can be used at stage 1 to identify risks and hazards including the use of medical records and administrative record review, event reporting, direct observation, process mapping, focus groups, probabilistic risk assessment, and safety culture assessment. No single method can be universally applied to identify risks and hazards in patient safety. Rather, multiple approaches using combinations of these methods should be used to increase identification of risks and hazards of health care associated injury or harm to patients. PMID:14645888

  13. Materials research for aircraft fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Bricker, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of two polymeric composites currently in use and seven others being considered for use as aircraft interior panels are described. The properties studied included: (1) limiting oxygen index of the composite constituents; (2) fire containment capability of the composite; (3) smoke evolution from the composite; (4) thermogravimetric analysis; (5) composition of the volatile products of thermal degradation; and (6) relative toxicity of the volatile products of pyrolysis. The performance of high-temperature laminating resins such as bismaleimides is compared with the performance of phenolics and epoxies. The relationship of increased fire safety with the use of polymers with high anaerobic char yield is shown. Processing parameters of the state-of-the-art and the advanced bismaleimide composites are detailed.

  14. Spacecraft Fire Safety and Microgravity Combustion Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, James S.; Ferkul, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fire safety is an important concern in our daily lives and it plays a special role in the human presence in space. In a spacecraft, the outside environment is hostile and the opportunity to escape is small. Rescue missions are difficult and time consuming. As a result, we should avoid the occurrence of fires in spacecraft as much as possible. If a fire occurs, we need to keep it small and under control. This implies that the materials used on board the spacecraft should be screened carefully, all the machines and devices need to be operated without accident, and fire detectors have to function properly. Once a fire is detected, it can be extinguished quickly and the cabin can be cleaned up to restore operation and sustain life.

  15. Researching safety culture: deliberative dialogue with a restorative lens.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Elisiane; Oelke, Nelly D; Marck, Patricia Beryl; Dall'agnol, Clarice Maria

    2017-10-01

    Safety culture is a key component of patient safety. Many patient safety strategies in health care have been adapted from high-reliability organizations (HRO) such as aviation. However, to date, attempts to transform the cultures of health care settings through HRO approaches have had mixed results. We propose a methodological approach for safety culture research, which integrates the theory and practice of restoration science with the principles and methods of deliberative dialogue to support active engagement in critical reflection and collective debate. Our aim is to describe how these two innovative approaches in health services research can be used together to provide a comprehensive effective method to study and implement change in safety culture. Restorative research in health care integrates socio-ecological theory of complex adaptive systems concepts with collaborative, place-sensitive study of local practice contexts. Deliberative dialogue brings together all stakeholders to collectively develop solutions on an issue to facilitate change. Together these approaches can be used to actively engage people in the study of safety culture to gain a better understanding of its elements. More importantly, we argue that the synergistic use of these approaches offers enhanced potential to move health care professionals towards actionable strategies to improve patient safety within today's complex health care systems. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Methodological and Ethical Issues in Pediatric Medication Safety Research.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Delesha; Gonzalez, Daniel; Retsch-Bogart, George; Sleath, Betsy; Wilfond, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    In May 2016, the Eshelman School of Pharmacy at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill convened the PharmSci conference to address the topic of "methodological and ethical issues in pediatric medication safety research." A multidisciplinary group of experts representing a diverse array of perspectives, including those of the US Food and Drug Administration, children's hospitals, and academia, identified important considerations for pediatric medication safety research and opportunities to advance the field. This executive summary describes current challenges that clinicians and researchers encounter related to pediatric medication safety research and identifies innovative and ethically sound methodologies to address these challenges to improve children's health. This article addresses 5 areas: (1) pediatric drug development and drug trials; (2) conducting comparative effectiveness research in pediatric populations; (3) child and parent engagement on study teams; (4) improving communication with children and parents; and (5) assessing child-reported outcomes and adverse drug events. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Highway fuel economy study. Final report Sep 79-Mar 81

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.L.; Zub, R.W.

    1981-06-01

    In 1979, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) with support from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), convened a Task Force to develop a base of information on the effects of the 55 MPH speed limit. This report addresses the fuel consumption changes attributable to speed reduction and compliance with the 55 MPH speed limit. It also discusses the effects of vehicle size and type, and driver-controllable functions on vehicle fuel economy at highway speeds. Most of the analytical work in this report is related to passenger cars and light trucks. However, medium and heavy trucks, primarily commercial in application, have been included in the highway fuel economy analyses.

  18. Highways and Population Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Paul R.; Chi, Guangqing

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we return to an issue often discussed in the literature regarding the relationship between highway expansion and population change. Typically it simply is assumed that this relationship is well established and understood. We argue, following a thorough review of the relevant literature, that the notion that highway expansion leads to…

  19. Highways and Population Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Paul R.; Chi, Guangqing

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we return to an issue often discussed in the literature regarding the relationship between highway expansion and population change. Typically it simply is assumed that this relationship is well established and understood. We argue, following a thorough review of the relevant literature, that the notion that highway expansion leads to…

  20. Narrative review of the UK Patient Safety Research Portfolio.

    PubMed

    Waring, Justin; Rowley, Emma; Dingwall, Robert; Palmer, Cecily; Murcott, Toby

    2010-01-01

    The UK Patient Safety Research Portfolio (PSRP) commissioned 38 studies investigating the threats to patient safety in various clinical settings and evaluating safety-related service interventions. This paper reviews 27 of these studies, drawing out emergent and cross-cutting themes in terms of theory, research methods and thematic findings. Given the diversity of PSRP studies, the paper takes a narrative approach that allows for qualitative description, interpretation and synthesis of the studies and their findings. The theoretical review shows the majority of PSRP studies draw upon a patient safety 'orthodoxy', developed from the concepts and models associated with the human factors approach. The methodological review shows that a diverse range of research designs and techniques have been utilized. Although many follow in the 'scientific' tradition, interpretative, mixed and innovative methods have been integral to research. The thematic review of findings highlights significant contributions to knowledge in the areas of 'people', 'organizations', and 'technology'. As well as identifying the various sources of risk in the organization and delivery of patient care, the studies also evaluate and make recommendations about service change and improvement. The PSRP has provided the foundations for significant theoretical, methodological and empirical advances in the area of patient safety. The findings and recommendations make important contributions to policy formulation and implementation as well as professional and managerial practice. Through this body of research the PSRP has supported the formation and growth of a thriving research community across academic, policy and professional communities.

  1. Nuclear safety research collaborations between the U.S. and Russian Federation International Nuclear Safety Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D. J.; Braun, J. C.; Klickman, A. E.; Bougaenko, S. E.; Kabonov, L. P.; Kraev, A. G.

    2000-05-05

    The Russian Federation Ministry for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (USDOE) have formed International Nuclear Safety Centers to collaborate on nuclear safety research. USDOE established the US Center (ISINSC) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in October 1995. MINATOM established the Russian Center (RINSC) at the Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE) in Moscow in July 1996. In April 1998 the Russian center became a semi-independent, autonomous organization under MINATOM. The goals of the center are to: Cooperate in the development of technologies associated with nuclear safety in nuclear power engineering; Be international centers for the collection of information important for safety and technical improvements in nuclear power engineering; and Maintain a base for fundamental knowledge needed to design nuclear reactors. The strategic approach is being used to accomplish these goals is for the two centers to work together to use the resources and the talents of the scientists associated with the US Center and the Russian Center to do collaborative research to improve the safety of Russian-designed nuclear reactors. The two centers started conducting joint research and development projects in January 1997. Since that time the following ten joint projects have been initiated: INSC databases--web server and computing center; Coupled codes--Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic; Severe accident management for Soviet-designed reactors; Transient management and advanced control; Survey of relevant nuclear safety research facilities in the Russian Federation; Computer code validation for transient analysis of VVER and RBMK reactors; Advanced structural analysis; Development of a nuclear safety research and development plan for MINATOM; Properties and applications of heavy liquid metal coolants; and Material properties measurement and assessment. Currently, there is activity in eight of these projects. Details on each of these

  2. 78 FR 40743 - Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory Committee, National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... program; an update on Division of Respiratory Disease Studies research; an update on the 1 mg initiative... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory... 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  3. Subsystem fragility: Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R. P.; Campbell, R. D.; Hardy, G.; Banon, H.

    1981-10-01

    Seismic fragility levels of safety related equipment are developed for use in a seismic oriented Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) being conducted as part of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). The Zion Nuclear Power Plant is being utilized as a reference plant and fragility descriptions are developed for specific and generic safety related equipment groups in Zion. Both equipment fragilities and equipment responses are defined in probabilistic terms to be used as input to the SSMRP event tree/fault tree models of the Zion systems. 65 refs., 14 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. 49 CFR 1.85 - Delegations to the Federal Highway Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., General Provisions, except for section 322. (4) Section 409 of chapter 4, Highway Safety. (5) Chapter 5.... 84-627, 70 Stat. 374). (5) The Highway Revenue Act of 1956, as amended (Pub. L. 84-627, 70 Stat. 374..., 79 Stat. 1028, 23 U.S.C.A. 131 et seq., notes). (17) The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1982 (Pub. L....

  5. Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS). (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technology for the automation of highways to reduce congestion, energy consumption and the need for additional highways. Citations focus on communication, guidance, and traffic management systems. The citations also examine human factors, traffic modeling, and highway safety. (Contains a minimum of 144 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS). (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technology for the automation of highways to reduce congestion, energy consumption and the need for additional highways. Citations focus on communication, guidance, and traffic management systems. The citations also examine human factors, traffic modeling, and highway safety. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Intelligent vehicle highway systems (IVHS). (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technology for the automation of highways to reduce congestion, energy consumption and the need for additional highways. Citations focus on communication, guidance, and traffic management systems. The citations also examine human factors, traffic modeling, and highway safety. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This Conference Proceedings is a collection of 6 abstracts and 3 papers presented April 19-20, 2001 in Denver, CO. The conference focus was "Best Practices and Benchmarking in Collegiate and Industry Programs". Topics covered include: satellite-based aviation navigation; weather safety training; human-behavior and aircraft maintenance issues; disaster preparedness; the collegiate aviation emergency response checklist; aviation safety research; and regulatory status of maintenance resource management.

  9. Safety Research at Three Finnish Explosives Factories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    research I have used the idea of the internal control system ( Hovden and Tinmannesvik 1989), which means that the company itself works at getting a...the traditional inspection of the authorities. LITERATURE Hovden , J. and Tinmannsvik, R.K., (1989) Internal control: A strategy for Occupational

  10. Sociotechnical approaches to workplace safety: Research needs and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Michelle M.; Hettinger, Lawrence J.; Waterson, Patrick E.; Ian Noy, Y.; Dainoff, Marvin J.; Leveson, Nancy G.; Carayon, Pascale; Courtney, Theodore K.

    2015-01-01

    The sociotechnical systems perspective offers intriguing and potentially valuable insights into problems associated with workplace safety. While formal sociotechnical systems thinking originated in the 1950s, its application to the analysis and design of sustainable, safe working environments has not been fully developed. To that end, a Hopkinton Conference was organised to review and summarise the state of knowledge in the area and to identify research priorities. A group of 26 international experts produced collaborative articles for this special issue of Ergonomics, and each focused on examining a key conceptual, methodological and/or theoretical issue associated with sociotechnical systems and safety. In this concluding paper, we describe the major conference themes and recommendations. These are organised into six topic areas: (1) Concepts, definitions and frameworks, (2) defining research methodologies, (3) modelling and simulation, (4) communications and decision-making, (5) sociotechnical attributes of safe and unsafe systems and (6) potential future research directions for sociotechnical systems research. Practitioner Summary: Sociotechnical complexity, a characteristic of many contemporary work environments, presents potential safety risks that traditional approaches to workplace safety may not adequately address. In this paper, we summarise the investigations of a group of international researchers into questions associated with the application of sociotechnical systems thinking to improve worker safety. PMID:25728246

  11. Sociotechnical approaches to workplace safety: Research needs and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Michelle M; Hettinger, Lawrence J; Waterson, Patrick E; Noy, Y Ian; Dainoff, Marvin J; Leveson, Nancy G; Carayon, Pascale; Courtney, Theodore K

    2015-01-01

    The sociotechnical systems perspective offers intriguing and potentially valuable insights into problems associated with workplace safety. While formal sociotechnical systems thinking originated in the 1950s, its application to the analysis and design of sustainable, safe working environments has not been fully developed. To that end, a Hopkinton Conference was organised to review and summarise the state of knowledge in the area and to identify research priorities. A group of 26 international experts produced collaborative articles for this special issue of Ergonomics, and each focused on examining a key conceptual, methodological and/or theoretical issue associated with sociotechnical systems and safety. In this concluding paper, we describe the major conference themes and recommendations. These are organised into six topic areas: (1) Concepts, definitions and frameworks, (2) defining research methodologies, (3) modelling and simulation, (4) communications and decision-making, (5) sociotechnical attributes of safe and unsafe systems and (6) potential future research directions for sociotechnical systems research. Sociotechnical complexity, a characteristic of many contemporary work environments, presents potential safety risks that traditional approaches to workplace safety may not adequately address. In this paper, we summarise the investigations of a group of international researchers into questions associated with the application of sociotechnical systems thinking to improve worker safety.

  12. Current safety practices in nano-research laboratories in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Can; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Guoyu

    2014-06-01

    China has become a key player in the global nanotechnology field, however, no surveys have specifically examined safety practices in the Chinese nano-laboratories in depth. This study reports results of a survey of 300 professionals who work in research laboratories that handle nanomaterials in China. We recruited participants at three major nano-research laboratories (which carry out research in diverse fields such as chemistry, material science, and biology) and the nano-chemistry session of the national meeting of the Chinese Chemical Society. Results show that almost all nano-research laboratories surveyed had general safety regulations, whereas less than one third of respondents reported having nanospecific safety rules. General safety measures were in place in most surveyed nano-research laboratories, while nanospecific protective measures existed or were implemented less frequently. Several factors reported from the scientific literature including nanotoxicology knowledge gaps, technical limitations on estimating nano-exposure, and the lack of nano-occupational safety legislation may contribute to the current state of affairs. With these factors in mind and embracing the precautionary principle, we suggest strengthening or providing nanosafety training (including raising risk awareness) and establishing nanosafety guidelines in China, to better protect personnel in the nano-workplace.

  13. Conducting Clinically Based Intimate Partner Violence Research: Safety Protocol Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jocelyn C; Glass, Nancy E; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    Maintaining safety is of utmost importance during research involving participants who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Limited guidance on safety protocols to protect participants is available, particularly information related to technology-based approaches to informed consent, data collection, and contacting participants during the course of a study. The purpose of the article is to provide details on the safety protocol developed and utilized with women receiving care at an urban HIV clinic and who were taking part in an observational study of IPV, mental health symptoms, and substance abuse and their relationship to HIV treatment adherence. The protocol presents the technological strategies to promote safety and allow autonomy in participant decision-making throughout the research process, including Voice over Internet Protocol telephone numbers, and tablet-based eligibility screening and data collection. Protocols for management of participants at risk for suicide and/or intimate partner homicide that included automated high-risk messaging to participants and research staff and facilitated disclosure of risk to clinical staff based on participant preferences are discussed. Use of technology and partnership with clinic staff helped to provide an environment where research regarding IPV could be conducted without undue burden or risk to participants. Utilizing tablet-based survey administration provided multiple practical and safety benefits for participants. Most women who screened into high-risk categories for suicide or intimate partner homicide did not choose to have their results shared with their healthcare providers, indicating the importance of allowing participants control over information sharing whenever possible.

  14. Uses of recycled rubber tires in highways: A synthesis of highway practice. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Epps, J.A.; Mason, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    The synthesis on the use of recycled rubber tires in highways will be of interest to administrators and policymakers; pavement, materials, geotechnical, environmental, and traffic operations engineers; and research engineers involved with highway design and construction issues. Information is provided on the uses of rubber tires in asphalt paving materials as well as other uses, such as on fills and embankments, for erosion control and on railroad grade crossings. Specifically, information is included which identifies the highway agencies using or implementing applications for recycled rubber tires and defines the design parameters, technical and construction limitations, performance, costs, benefits, environmental limitations, specifications, and availability. This synthesis of information defines the use of recycled rubber tires in highways and is based on a review of nearly 500 references and on information recorded from state highway agency responses to a 1991 survey of practice.

  15. Mapping a Research Agenda for Home Care Safety: Perspectives from Researchers, Providers, and Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; MacDonald, Jo-Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive design was to explore the perspectives of researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers on key risks, concerns, and emerging issues related to home care safety that would inform a line of research inquiry. Defining safety specifically in this home care context has yet to be…

  16. Mapping a Research Agenda for Home Care Safety: Perspectives from Researchers, Providers, and Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; MacDonald, Jo-Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive design was to explore the perspectives of researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers on key risks, concerns, and emerging issues related to home care safety that would inform a line of research inquiry. Defining safety specifically in this home care context has yet to be…

  17. Lessons learned from LNG safety research.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Ronald P; Ermak, Donald L

    2007-02-20

    During the period from 1977 to 1989, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducted a liquefied gaseous fuels spill effects program under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Gas Research Institute and others. The goal of this program was to develop and validate tools that could be used to predict the effects of a large liquefied gas spill through the execution of large scale field experiments and the development of computer models to make predictions for conditions under which tests could not be performed. Over the course of the program, three series of LNG spill experiments were performed to study cloud formation, dispersion, combustion and rapid phase transition (RPT) explosions. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of this program, the lessons learned from 12 years of research as well as some recommendations for the future. The general conclusion from this program is that cold, dense gas related phenomena can dominate the dispersion of a large volume, high release rate spill of LNG especially under low ambient wind speed and stable atmospheric conditions, and therefore, it is necessary to include a detailed and validated description of these phenomena in computer models to adequately predict the consequences of a release. Specific conclusions include: * LNG vapor clouds are lower and wider than trace gas clouds and tend to follow the downhill slope of terrain due to dampened vertical turbulence and gravity flow within the cloud. Under low wind speed, stable atmospheric conditions, a bifurcated, two lobed structure develops. * Navier-Stokes models provide the most complete description of LNG dispersion, while more highly parameterized Lagrangian models were found to be well suited to emergency response applications. * The measured heat flux from LNG vapor cloud burns exceeded levels necessary for third degree burns and were large enough to ignite most flammable materials. * RPTs are of two

  18. Translational research in child and adolescent transportation safety.

    PubMed

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Winston, Flaura Koplin

    2006-03-01

    Motor vehicle crash (MVC)-related injury is the leading cause of death among youths age 1 to 19 years. Advances in MVC and injury prevention depend on interrelated combinations of technology, policy, and education, and research on these topics can inform policy and lead to improvement in safety. This article presents two examples of translational research in transportation injury prevention. In the first example of child passenger protection, the authors describe a program of research designed to reduce the gap between the theoretical and practical effectiveness of safety methods. In the second example of novice teen drivers, the authors examine translational research related to two complementary approaches to reducing the exposure of novice teen drivers to high-risk driving conditions-graduated driver licensing policy and parental management of novice teen drivers. The examples suggest the utility of systematic programs of research designed to improve the translation into practice of MVC and injury prevention technology and policy.

  19. Recent Upgrades at the Safety and Tritium Applied Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Merrill, Brad Johnson; Stewart, Dean Andrew; Loftus, Larry Shayne

    2016-03-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility operated by the Fusion Safety Program (FSP) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). FSP researchers use the STAR facility to carry out experiments in tritium permeation and retention in various fusion materials, including wall armor tile materials. FSP researchers also perform other experimentation as well to support safety assessment in fusion development. This lab, in its present two-building configuration, has been in operation for over ten years. The main experiments at STAR are briefly described. This paper discusses recent work to enhance personnel safety at the facility. The STAR facility is a Department of Energy less than hazard category 3 facility; the personnel safety approach calls for ventilation and tritium monitoring for radiation protection. The tritium areas of STAR have about 4 to 12 air changes per hour, with air flow being once through and then routed to the facility vent stack. Additional radiation monitoring has been installed to read the laboratory room air where experiments with tritium are conducted. These ion chambers and bubblers are used to verify that no significant tritium concentrations are present in the experiment rooms. Standby electrical power has been added to the facility exhaust blower so that proper ventilation will now operate during commercial power outages as well as the real-time tritium air monitors.

  20. Short Course in Highway Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This course guide in highway lighting includes an overview of trends in highway lighting, illustrated information on three light sources for today's luminaires, a reference guide to lamp classification, specifications for highway lighting equipment, and instructions for calculating appropriate use. Maintenance notes on highway illumination and…

  1. Clean-coal technology by-products used in a highway embankment stabilization demonstration project. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nodjomian, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Clean-coal technology by-products are used in a highway embankment demonstration project. This research chronicles the procedures used in the process and analyzes the stability of a repaired highway embankment. The reconstructed slope is analyzed using an Intelligent Discussion Support System that was developed from a slope stability program. Water quality studies are performed and an instrumentation plan is suggested. The calculated factors of safety and the observed embankment performance give indications that the field demonstration project was a success. Long-term monitoring will be the best barometer for determining embankment gross movement and the future of FGD by-products as a stabilizing material.

  2. Advanced Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, A.K.; Cerbone, R.J.; Sastre, C.

    1980-06-01

    The Advanced Reactor Safety Research Programs quarterly progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: HTGR Safety Evaluation, SSC Code Development, LMFBR Safety Experiments, and Fast Reactor Safety Code Validation.

  3. Advanced Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Advanced Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Progress Report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: HTGR safety evaluation, SSC Code Development, LMFBR Safety Experiments, and Fast Reactor Safety Code Validation.

  4. Informatics for patient safety: a nursing research perspective.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    In Crossing the Quality Chasm, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee on Quality of Health Care in America identified the critical role of information technology in designing a health system that produces care that is "safe, effective, patient-centered, timely, efficient, and equitable" (Committee on Quality of Health Care in America, 2001, p. 164). A subsequent IOM report contends that improved information systems are essential to a new health care delivery system that "both prevents errors and learns from them when they occur" (Committee on Data Standards for Patient Safety, 2004, p. 1). This review specifically highlights the role of informatics processes and information technology in promoting patient safety and summarizes relevant nursing research. First, the components of an informatics infrastructure for patient safety are described within the context of the national framework for delivering consumer-centric and information-rich health care and using the National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) (Thompson & Brailer, 2004). Second, relevant nursing research is summarized; this includes research studies that contributed to the development of selected infrastructure components as well as studies specifically focused on patient safety. Third, knowledge gaps and opportunities for nursing research are identified for each main topic. The health information technologies deployed as part of the national framework must support nursing practice in a manner that enables prevention of medical errors and promotion of patient safety and contributes to the development of practice-based nursing knowledge as well as best practices for patient safety. The seminal work that has been completed to date is necessary, but not sufficient, to achieve this objective.

  5. Exploration of Heterogeneity in Distributed Research Network Drug Safety Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Richard A.; Zeng, Peng; Ryan, Patrick; Gao, Juan; Sonawane, Kalyani; Teeter, Benjamin; Westrich, Kimberly; Dubois, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Distributed data networks representing large diverse populations are an expanding focus of drug safety research. However, interpreting results is difficult when treatment effect estimates vary across datasets (i.e., heterogeneity). In a previous study, risk estimates were generated for selected drugs and potential adverse outcomes. Analyses were…

  6. Exploration of Heterogeneity in Distributed Research Network Drug Safety Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Richard A.; Zeng, Peng; Ryan, Patrick; Gao, Juan; Sonawane, Kalyani; Teeter, Benjamin; Westrich, Kimberly; Dubois, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Distributed data networks representing large diverse populations are an expanding focus of drug safety research. However, interpreting results is difficult when treatment effect estimates vary across datasets (i.e., heterogeneity). In a previous study, risk estimates were generated for selected drugs and potential adverse outcomes. Analyses were…

  7. Farm Safety: A Tale of Translational Research and Collaboration.

    PubMed

    McClune, Amy J; Conway, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Children who live or work on farms are at a high risk for injury and death, yet few resources are available to reduce the danger of injury. Research findings establish the need for farm safety in preschool children. However, barriers to interventional research have limited the development of established strategies to help reduce the risk. For this project, Pender's Health Promotion Model served as the theoretical framework to support the prevention aspect of farm safety. Findings from two surveys of primary health care providers practicing in rural areas in Pennsylvania indicated a lack of materials to educate preschool children about farm safety. Using Woods and Magyary's translational model for research, this identified need resulted in a multidisciplinary team collaboration to develop an animated film entitled A Barnyard Story: Adventures in Farm Safety. The eight-minute film is an innovative child-centered intervention that addresses the gap in strategies to reduce farm injuries in preschool children. The development of this film illustrates the product development stage of research translation and is an example of diverse disciplines coming together for an important cause.

  8. Data Safety and Monitoring for Research Involving Remote Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Aubrecht, Jill Ann; Dew, Mary Amanda; Myers, Brad; Dabbs, Annette DeVito

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Investigators conducting research involving human subjects are obligated to safeguard the wellbeing of the study participants. Other than requiring investigators to establish procedures for ongoing monitoring and reporting of adverse events, federal regulations do not dictate how human subject safety should be ensured. A variety of data safety monitoring (DSM) procedures may be acceptable depending on the nature, size, and complexity of the study. However, practical guidance for establishing and implementing appropriate DSM plans for such studies are lacking. In this article, we provide a review of the DSM considerations associated with monitoring health remotely and describe the Pocket Personal Assistant for Tracking Health project as an exemplar for how to develop effective DSM plans for research that captures clinical data using remote health-monitoring devices. Protecting the safety and welfare of participants is one of the most important mandates for research involving human subjects. Investigators have an ethical and scientific responsibility to monitor the safety of research participants. Investigators typically fulfill this responsibility by monitoring and reporting adverse events. PMID:21749259

  9. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program: a concluding look

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) was started in 1978 with the goal of developing tools and data bases to compute the probability of earthquake - caused radioactive release from commercial nuclear power plants. These tools and data bases were to help NRC to assess seismic safety at nuclear plants. The methodology to be used was finalized in 1982 and applied to the Zion Nuclear Power Station. The SSMRP will be completed this year with the development of a more simplified method of analysis and a demonstration of its use on Zion. This simplified method is also being applied to a boiling-water-reactor, LaSalle.

  10. The green highway forum

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    In late 2004, as part of American Coal Ash Association's (ACAA) strategic planning process, a plan was approved by its Board of Directors implementing a 'green highways' concept which emphasized use of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highways in a variety of ways including being used alone, in combination with other forms of CCPs, and combined with non ash materials. The incentives behind the developed concept were the derived advantages from beneficial technical economic and environmental impacts. Although the primary use of fly ash is concrete, other forms of CCPs could be considered for more non-traditional highway applications. For example, these might include soils stabilization, binders for in-place pavement recycling, use in flowable fills, aggregates, source materials for structural fills and embankments, components in manufactured soils, and for granular base courses beneath pavements. At this same time, unknown to ACCA, EPA Region 3 in Philadelphia was working with the Wetlands and Watershed Work Group, a non-profit organization involved in wetlands policy and management along with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on their own Green Highways initiative. These groups were planning a conference, the 'Green Highway Forum'. This was held in College Park, Maryland at the University of Maryland, Nov 8-10 2005. At the conference a draft 'roadmap' was presented as a guide to executive level participants bringing the diverse viewpoints of many agencies and interest groups together. Ten guiding principals were considered. The 'Green Highways' is a new effort to recognize the 'greenness' of many projects already completed and those to be initiated. 2 photos.

  11. EU Funded Research Activities on NPPS Operational Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Manolatos, P.; Van Goethem, G.

    2002-07-01

    The 5. framework programme (FP-5), the pluri-annual research programme of the European Union (EU), covers the period 1998-2002. Research on nuclear energy, fusion and fission, is covered by the EURATOM part of the FP-5. An overview of the Euratom's research on Nuclear Reactor Safety, managed by the DG-RTD of the European Commission (EC), is presented. This concerns 70 multi-partner projects of approximately euro 82.5 million total contract value that have been selected and co-financed during the period 1999-2001. They form the three clusters of projects dealing with the 'Operational Safety of Existing Installations'. 'Plant Life Extension and Management' (PLEM), 'Severe Accident Management' (SAM) and 'Evolutionary concepts' (EVOL). Emphasis is given here to the projects of the PLEM cluster. (authors)

  12. Overview of bureau research directed towards surface powered haulage safety

    SciTech Connect

    May, J.P.; Aldinger, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    Surface mining operations, including mills and preparation plants, employ over 260,000 people. This represents a significant contribution to our nation`s economy and an important source of skilled and well-paying jobs. As mine production has shifted from underground to surface, and with continuing advances in underground mine safety, surface mining has unfortunately become the leader in mine fatalities. In 1994 surface mining accidents accounted for 49% of all mine fatalities, followed by underground mining with 37% and mills and preparation plants with 14%. The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) has targeted surface mining as an important research priority to reduce the social and economic costs associated with fatalities and lost-work-time injuries. USBM safety research focuses on the development of technologies that can enhance productivity and reduce mining costs through a reduction in the number and severity of mining accidents. This report summarizes a number of completed and ongoing research programs directed towards surface powered haulage--the single largest category of fatalities in surface mining and a major cause of lost workdays. Research products designed for industry are highlighted and future USBM surface mining safety research is discussed.

  13. Highway Safety: Trends in Highway Fatalities 1975-1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    pattern of fatalities as the overall trend. This pattern applies to many of the general fatality statis- tics we present, and, in all cases, it serves as a...Fatalities 1975-87 Appemfx IV Vehicle-Related Statistics Figure IV.17: Vehicle Fatalities by Direction of Principal Impacto NNNumber of PddUlsils lwam 0 1975

  14. Fall Prevention Research and Practice: A Total Worker Safety Approach

    PubMed Central

    HSIAO, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    Slips, trips, and falls (STF) represent a serious hazard to workers and occupants in many industries, homes, and communities. Often, the cause of a STF incident is multifactorial, encompassing human, environmental, and task risk factors. A STF-related disability can greatly diminish the occupational capability and quality of life of individuals in both the workplace and the home. Countering STF hazards and risks both on and off the job and on all aspects of control measures is a “total worker safety” matter, a challenging yet tangible undertaking. As the federal organization responsible for conducting research for the prevention of work-related injuries in the United States, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been conducting research on STF controls for some decades. Many NIOSH research outcomes have been utilized for STF prevention in workplaces, with potential for prevention in homes as well. This paper summarizes the concept of total worker safety for STF control, NIOSH priority research goals, major activities, and accomplishments, and some emerging issues on STF. The strategic planning process for the NIOSH research goals and some identified research focuses are applicable to the development and implementation of global STF research goals. PMID:25345424

  15. Conducting medication safety research projects in a primary care physician practice-based research network.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Grace M; Steinbauer, Jeffrey R; Spann, Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    To describe a roadmap for developing a practice-based research network (PBRN) through the experience of conducting medication safety research projects in a primary care physician PBRN. Southern Primary-care Urban Research Network (SPUR-Net) in Houston, Tex., from 2000 to 2007. SPUR-Net is a partnership of six health care organizations in Houston and includes 32 clinics with 313 primary care clinicians (50% family physicians, 25% general internists, and 25% pediatricians) who provide care for approximately 1 million patient encounters annually. The pharmacist principal investigator collaborates with physicians and researchers in primary care clinics to investigate medication safety practice in SPUR-Net. (1) A roadmap for PBRN research and (2) initiation of a research program focusing on medication safety through the PBRN. A roadmap with 10 steps for conducting practice-based research is recommended: (1) form collaborative partnership, (2) develop research infrastructure, (3) formulate research questions, (4) design study methods, (5) obtain funding support, (6) develop study instruments, (7) implement the study, (8) manage and analyze data, (9) disseminate results, and (10) translate research into practice. Four research projects focusing on medication safety were conducted in SPUR-Net from 2002 to 2007. Medication outcomes include improved medication use, increased awareness for medication counseling, decreased medication errors, and identification of best practices for medication reconciliation. Practice-based research conducted in primary care settings identifies, studies, and evaluates common problems encountered in busy clinic practice. With feedback from stakeholders, best practices and improved practice can be identified and "translated" back to practice. Grant funding for research projects helps sustain PBRNs. The implementation of medication safety research projects has helped primary care clinics, clinicians, and patients increase appropriate medication

  16. Envisioning patient safety in Telehealth: a research perspective.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, José Luis; Salvador, Carlos H; Kun, Luis

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the need for research into patient safety in large-scale Telehealth systems faced with the perspective of its development extended to healthcare systems. Telehealth systems give rise to significant advantages in improving the quality of healthcare services as well as bringing about the possibility of new types of risk. A theoretical framework is proposed for patient safety for its approach as an emerging property in complex socio-technical systems (CSTS) and their modelling in layers. As regards this framework, the differential characteristic Telehealth elements of the system have been identified, with a greater emphasis on the level of Telehealth system and its typical subsystems. The bases of the analysis are based on references in the literature and the experience accumulated by the researchers in the area. In particular, a case describing an example of Telehealth to control patients undergoing treatment with oral anticoagulants is used. As a result, a series of areas of research into and topics regarding Telehealth patient safety are proposed to cover the detectable gaps. Both the theoretical and practical implications of the study are discussed and future perspectives are reflected on.

  17. Cardiovascular Safety Outcome Trials: A meeting report from the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium.

    PubMed

    Sager, Philip T; Seltzer, Jonathan; Turner, J Rick; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Hiatt, William R; Kowey, Peter; Prochaska, Judith J; Stockbridge, Norman; White, William B

    2015-04-01

    This White Paper provides a summary of presentations and discussions at a Cardiovascular Safety Outcome Trials Think Tank cosponsored by the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium, the US Food and Drug Administration, and the American College of Cardiology, held at American College of Cardiology's Heart House, Washington, DC, on February 19, 2014. Studies to assess cardiovascular (CV) risk of a new drug are sometimes requested by regulators to resolve ambiguous safety signals seen during its development or among other members of its class. Think Tank participants thought that important considerations in undertaking such studies were as follows: (1) plausibility-how likely it is that a possible signal indicating risk is real, based on strength of evidence, and/or whether a plausible mechanism of action for potential CV harm has been identified; (2) relevance-what relative and absolute CV risk would need to be excluded to determine that the drug had an acceptable benefit-to-risk balance for its use in the intended patient population; and (3) how plausibility and relevance influence the timing and approach to further safety assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  19. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  20. 75 FR 19670 - Marine Highway Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... No: 2010-8619] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Marine Highway Projects ACTION: Solicitation of applications for Marine highway projects. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is soliciting applications for Marine Highway Projects as specified in the America's Marine Highway Program...

  1. Relationship of fire protection research to plant safety. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    For several years, Sandia National Laboratories has been responsible for numerous tests of fire protection systems and concepts. Tests of fire retardant cables, cable coatings, cable tray covers, penetration seals, fire barriers, and spatial separation have been reported and summarized. Other tests involving the effectiveness of suppression systems and the vulnerability of electrical cabinets have been completed with reports in preparation. The following questions constitute the central theme of current fire research by Sandia and the NRC: under what conditions is spatial separation of redundant safety systems adequate; what are the temperature, smoke, humidity, or corrosive vapor damage thresholds of cable and safety equipment exposed to fire or suppression activities; what is the safety significance of fires involving control room cabinets or remote shutdown panels; and what is the relative importance of fire to nuclear power plant safety, as compared to other types of anticipated or postulated accidents. Evidence of why these questions seem important and a description of work being undertaken to address each question are reviewed in the following paragraphs.

  2. Mapping a research agenda for home care safety: perspectives from researchers, providers, and decision makers.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; MacDonald, Jo-Anne

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive design was to explore the perspectives of researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers on key risks, concerns, and emerging issues related to home care safety that would inform a line of research inquiry. Defining safety specifically in this home care context has yet to be described; consequently, gaining insight from various stakeholders about safety issues relevant to the home care sector is necessary in order to inform strategic directions for future research. To begin to map a research agenda, a three-part environmental scan was conducted: (a) a pilot study with home care recipients and providers; (b) key informant interviews with researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers; and (c) a review of literature in three topic areas. Only the results of the key informant interviews are reported here.

  3. The Carrot Highway [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyss, Ron

    "The Carrot Highway" is a 40-minute award-winning videotape that takes viewers on a whirlwind tour around the world to tell the story of the carrot. This videotape reveals the carrot in all its glory by cleverly integrating live-action, music, animation, videotape footage, and games. Viewers travel with a troupe of animated carrot characters to…

  4. The Information Highway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Al

    1994-01-01

    The new information marketplace is based on a network of wide, two-way highways comprised of private owners and developers, makers of information appliances (televisions, telephones, computers, and combinations of all three), information providers (local broadcasters, digital libraries, information service providers, and entrepreneurs), and…

  5. The Information Highway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Al

    1994-01-01

    The new information marketplace is based on a network of wide, two-way highways comprised of private owners and developers, makers of information appliances (televisions, telephones, computers, and combinations of all three), information providers (local broadcasters, digital libraries, information service providers, and entrepreneurs), and…

  6. The Carrot Highway [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyss, Ron

    "The Carrot Highway" is a 40-minute award-winning videotape that takes viewers on a whirlwind tour around the world to tell the story of the carrot. This videotape reveals the carrot in all its glory by cleverly integrating live-action, music, animation, videotape footage, and games. Viewers travel with a troupe of animated carrot characters to…

  7. Overcoming recruitment challenges in construction safety intervention research.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Pamela; Parshall, Mark; Wojcik, Susan; Struttmann, Tim

    2004-03-01

    Recruiting workers in small construction companies and securing their participation in voluntary safety programs or safety research poses unique challenges. Worker turnover and worksite changes contribute to difficulties in locating and enrolling participants. Economic pressures and time demands potentially threaten ongoing participation. Six simulation exercises designed to reduce back and fall injuries in small construction companies were developed based on data from focus groups of workers and company owners. Working with a workers' compensation insurer, we had access to owner-operators of general, heavy, and special trade construction companies reporting less than $10,000 in payroll expenses. Recruitment methods included a participation incentive, mailed invitations followed by phone contacts, and follow-up reminders. Despite using recruitment methods recommended in the literature, participation rates were low over a 2-year intervention period. Because of these difficulties, factors affecting participation or nonparticipation became an additional research focus. Owners' perceptions of already having a good safety record and of the time demands of participation were the most commonly cited reasons for not participating. Literature on recruitment emphasizes processes and procedures under investigator control rather than understanding potential participants' judgments about the adequacy of their existing practices and the potential benefits of intervention participation relative to potential time and productivity trade-offs. Greater attention to such judgments may enhance recruitment and participation in under-studied and difficult to access populations. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. The North-South information highway: case studies of publication access among health researchers in resource-poor countries

    PubMed Central

    Adcock, Joanna; Fottrell, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Background Less than 2% of scientific publications originate in low-income countries. Transfer of information from South to North and from South to South is grossly limited and hinders understanding of global health, while Northern-generated information fails to adequately address the needs of a Southern readership. Methods A survey of a new generation of health researchers from nine low-income countries was conducted using a combination of email questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. Data were gathered on personal experiences, use and aspirations regarding access and contribution to published research. Results A total of 23 individuals from 9 countries responded. Preference for journal use over textbooks was apparent, however a preference for print over online formats was described among African respondents compared to respondents from other areas. Almost all respondents (96%) described ambition to publish in international journals, but cited English language as a significant barrier. Conclusion The desire to contribute to and utilise contemporary scientific debate appears to be strong among study respondents. However, longstanding barriers remain in place and innovative thinking and new publishing models are required to overcome them. PMID:20027241

  9. General aviation crash safety program at Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the crash safety program is to support development of the technology to define and demonstrate new structural concepts for improved crash safety and occupant survivability in general aviation aircraft. The program involves three basic areas of research: full-scale crash simulation testing, nonlinear structural analyses necessary to predict failure modes and collapse mechanisms of the vehicle, and evaluation of energy absorption concepts for specific component design. Both analytical and experimental methods are being used to develop expertise in these areas. Analyses include both simplified procedures for estimating energy absorption capabilities and more complex computer programs for analysis of general airframe response. Full-scale tests of typical structures as well as tests on structural components are being used to verify the analyses and to demonstrate improved design concepts.

  10. Equipment fragility data base. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cover, L.E.

    1983-01-10

    Part of the effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has been directed at generating a fragility data base for equipment used in control and safety systems in commercial nuclear power plants. Component fragility data have been compiled in various forms, depending on their content, intended use, and level of reduction. The data are stored in a relational data base on the LLNL CEC 7600 computers; this provides easy accessibility for LLNL computer users. This report describes the present structure of the data base and presents its contents through the use of tables. This report is a revision of an earlier one of the same name and numbers (NUREG/CR-2680) and (UCRL-53038). Additional data have been included and the presentation has been revised to enhance its usability.

  11. Engineered nanomaterials: toward effective safety management in research laboratories.

    PubMed

    Groso, Amela; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Hofmann, Heinrich; Meyer, Thierry

    2016-03-15

    It is still unknown which types of nanomaterials and associated doses represent an actual danger to humans and environment. Meanwhile, there is consensus on applying the precautionary principle to these novel materials until more information is available. To deal with the rapid evolution of research, including the fast turnover of collaborators, a user-friendly and easy-to-apply risk assessment tool offering adequate preventive and protective measures has to be provided. Based on new information concerning the hazards of engineered nanomaterials, we improved a previously developed risk assessment tool by following a simple scheme to gain in efficiency. In the first step, using a logical decision tree, one of the three hazard levels, from H1 to H3, is assigned to the nanomaterial. Using a combination of decision trees and matrices, the second step links the hazard with the emission and exposure potential to assign one of the three nanorisk levels (Nano 3 highest risk; Nano 1 lowest risk) to the activity. These operations are repeated at each process step, leading to the laboratory classification. The third step provides detailed preventive and protective measures for the determined level of nanorisk. We developed an adapted simple and intuitive method for nanomaterial risk management in research laboratories. It allows classifying the nanoactivities into three levels, additionally proposing concrete preventive and protective measures and associated actions. This method is a valuable tool for all the participants in nanomaterial safety. The users experience an essential learning opportunity and increase their safety awareness. Laboratory managers have a reliable tool to obtain an overview of the operations involving nanomaterials in their laboratories; this is essential, as they are responsible for the employee safety, but are sometimes unaware of the works performed. Bringing this risk to a three-band scale (like other types of risks such as biological, radiation

  12. A research agenda on patient safety in primary care. Recommendations by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Verstappen, Wim; Gaal, Sander; Bowie, Paul; Parker, Diane; Lainer, Miriam; Valderas, Jose M.; Wensing, Michel; Esmail, Aneez

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Healthcare can cause avoidable serious harm to patients. Primary care is not an exception, and the relative lack of research in this area lends urgency to a better understanding of patient safety, the future research agenda and the development of primary care oriented safety programmes. Objective: To outline a research agenda for patient safety improvement in primary care in Europe and beyond. Methods: The LINNEAUS collaboration partners analysed existing research on epidemiology and classification of errors, diagnostic and medication errors, safety culture, and learning for and improving patient safety. We discussed ideas for future research in several meetings, workshops and congresses with LINNEAUS collaboration partners, practising GPs, researchers in this field, and policy makers. Results: This paper summarizes and integrates the outcomes of the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care. It proposes a research agenda on improvement strategies for patient safety in primary care. In addition, it provides background information to help to connect research in this field with practicing GPs and other healthcare workers in primary care. Conclusion: Future research studies should target specific primary care domains, using prospective methods and innovative methods such as patient involvement. PMID:26339841

  13. Highway bridge seismic design: Summary of FHWA/MCEER project on seismic vulnerability of new highway construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedland, Ian M.; Buckle, Ian G.; Lee, George C.

    2002-06-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) sponsored a large, multi-year project conducted by the Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (MCEER) titled “Seismic Vulnerability of New Highway Construction” (MCEER Project 112), which was completed in 1998. MCEER coordinated the work of many researchers, who performed studies on the seismic design and vulnerability analysis of highway bridges, tunnels, and retaining structures. Extensive research was conducted to provide revisions and improvements to current design and detailing approaches and national design specifications for highway bridges. The program included both analytical and experimental studies, and addressed seismic hazard exposure and ground motion input for the U.S. highway system; foundation design and soil behavior; structural importance, analysis, and response; structural design issues and details; and structural design criteria.

  14. Benefits to rare plants and highway safety from annual population reductions of a "native invader," white-tailed deer, in a Chicago-area woodland.

    PubMed

    Engeman, Richard M; Guerrant, Travis; Dunn, Glen; Beckerman, Scott F; Anchor, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Overabundant white-tailed deer are one of the most serious threats to woodland plant communities in the Chicago area. Moreover, the abundant deer in a highly populated area causes economic harm and poses hazards to human safety through collisions with vehicles. The artificial conditions causing the overabundance and resulting consequences qualify the white-tailed deer in the Chicago area to be considered as "native invaders". We examined the benefits of culling deer at a Chicago-area woodland preserve by comparing browse rates on four endangered plant species from years before culling began with years with culling. We also examined deer-vehicle collision and traffic flow rates on area roads from years before culling began and years with culling to assess whether population reductions may have benefited road safety in the area. All four endangered plant species (three orchid species and sweet fern) had lower browse rates in years with culls, although the decreased browsing rates were statistically distinguishable for only two of the species (grass pink orchid and sweet fern). After first verifying that traffic flow rates did not decrease from pre-cull years to years with culls, we analyzed the Illinois Department of Transportation data from area roads based on deer-vehicle collisions causing >US$500 in damage and showed a one-third reduction in deer-vehicle collisions. An economic analysis showed a cost savings during the cull years of US$0.6 million for reducing browsing to just these four monitored plant species and the reduction in deer-vehicle collisions.

  15. Module 13: Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway

    SciTech Connect

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program provides participating United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites with a basic, yet comprehensive, hazardous materials transportation training program for use onsite. This program may be used to assist individual program entities to satisfy the general awareness, safety training, and function specific training requirements addressed in Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 49, Part 172, Subpart H -- ``Training.`` Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway is a supplement to the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop. Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway focuses on bulk shipments of hazardous materials by highway mode, which have additional or unique requirements beyond those addressed in the ten module core program. Attendance in this course of instruction should be limited to those individuals with work experience in transporting hazardous materials utilizing bulk packagings and who have completed the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop or an equivalent. Participants will become familiar with the rules and regulations governing the transportation by highway of hazardous materials in bulk packagings and will demonstrate the application of these requirements through work projects and examination.

  16. Accident prediction model for railway-highway interfaces.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jutaek; Washington, Simon P; Nam, Doohee

    2006-03-01

    Considerable past research has explored relationships between vehicle accidents and geometric design and operation of road sections, but relatively little research has examined factors that contribute to accidents at railway-highway crossings. Between 1998 and 2002 in Korea, about 95% of railway accidents occurred at highway-rail grade crossings, resulting in 402 accidents, of which about 20% resulted in fatalities. These statistics suggest that efforts to reduce crashes at these locations may significantly reduce crash costs. The objective of this paper is to examine factors associated with railroad crossing crashes. Various statistical models are used to examine the relationships between crossing accidents and features of crossings. The paper also compares accident models developed in the United States and the safety effects of crossing elements obtained using Korea data. Crashes were observed to increase with total traffic volume and average daily train volumes. The proximity of crossings to commercial areas and the distance of the train detector from crossings are associated with larger numbers of accidents, as is the time duration between the activation of warning signals and gates. The unique contributions of the paper are the application of the gamma probability model to deal with underdispersion and the insights obtained regarding railroad crossing related vehicle crashes.

  17. A probabilistic safety analysis of incidents in nuclear research reactors.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Valdir Maciel; Agostinho Angelo Sordi, Gian Maria; Moralles, Mauricio; Filho, Tufic Madi

    2012-06-01

    This work aims to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in nuclear research reactors. For its development, two databases of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were used: the Research Reactor Data Base (RRDB) and the Incident Report System for Research Reactor (IRSRR). For this study, the probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) was used. To obtain the result of the probability calculations for PSA, the theory and equations in the paper IAEA TECDOC-636 were used. A specific program to analyse the probabilities was developed within the main program, Scilab 5.1.1. for two distributions, Fischer and chi-square, both with the confidence level of 90 %. Using Sordi equations, the maximum admissible doses to compare with the risk limits established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were obtained. All results achieved with this probability analysis led to the conclusion that the incidents which occurred had radiation doses within the stochastic effects reference interval established by the ICRP-64.

  18. HTGR Dust Safety Issues and Needs for Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Paul W. Humrickhouse

    2011-06-01

    This report presents a summary of high temperature gas-cooled reactor dust safety issues. It draws upon a literature review and the proceedings of the Very High Temperature Reactor Dust Assessment Meeting held in Rockville, MD in March 2011 to identify and prioritize the phenomena and issues that characterize the effect of carbonaceous dust on high temperature reactor safety. It reflects the work and input of approximately 40 participants from the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Labs, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, industry, academia, and international nuclear research organizations on the topics of dust generation and characterization, transport, fission product interactions, and chemical reactions. The meeting was organized by the Idaho National Laboratory under the auspices of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project, with support from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Information gleaned from the report and related meetings will be used to enhance the fuel, graphite, and methods technical program plans that guide research and development under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. Based on meeting discussions and presentations, major research and development needs include: generating adsorption isotherms for fission products that display an affinity for dust, investigating the formation and properties of carbonaceous crust on the inside of high temperature reactor coolant pipes, and confirming the predominant source of dust as abrasion between fuel spheres and the fuel handling system.

  19. Criticality safety research at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, H.L.

    1997-06-01

    A list of seven research projects in nuclear criticality safety being conducted at the University of Tennessee is given. One of the projects is very briefly described. The study of space-dependent kinetics analysis of a hypothetical criticality accident involving an array of bottles containing UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} is being conducted for the US DOE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, K-25 plant. Preliminary results for power versus time are presented, which indicate that space-time effects are significant after approximately 70 seconds. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Overview of Predictive Microbiology Research in the Microbial Food Safety Research Unit at the USDA-Eastern Regional Research Center

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Microbial Food Safety Research Unit (MFSRU) maintains a commitment to high quality basic and applied research on pathogenic bacteria and virus to ensure a safe food supply. Their research addresses high priority U.S. national needs by developing technical information and technologies needed by F...

  1. 78 FR 70560 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Morgridge Institute for Research PSO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Morgridge Institute for.... SUMMARY: The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 (Patient Safety Act), Public Law 109-41, 42 U.S.C. 299b-21-b-26, provides for the formation of Patient Safety Organizations (PSOs),...

  2. 76 FR 72888 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... 571.131 School bus pedestrian safety devices. 571.217 Bus emergency exits and window retention and... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration...

  3. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Liese Dallbauman

    2004-06-30

    During this reporting period, kickoff and planning meetings were held. Subcontracted experimental and modeling tasks were defined. Efforts to address the numerical stability problems that hamper FEM3A's applicability to low wind speed, stable atmospheric conditions were initiated. A detailed review of FEM3A code and its execution, required for development of an accessible user interface, was also begun. A one-day workshop on LNG safety models has been scheduled for September 2004. The goals of this project are to develop a national focal point for LNG safety research and technical dissemination and to develop the FEM3A dispersion model for application to general scenarios involving dispersion problems with obstacle and terrain features of realistic complexity. During this reporting period, the objectives and scope of the project and its constituent tasks were discussed at a project kickoff meeting in Morgantown. Details of the subcontracted experimental and modeling tasks were further defined at a separate meeting at the University of Arkansas. Researchers at the university have begun to modify the turbulence closure model used in FEM3A to insure numerical stability during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable atmospheric conditions. The university's wind tunnel is being prepared for upcoming experimental studies. GTI has begun a detailed review of the FEM3A code and its execution that will provide guidance during development of an accessible user interface. Plans were made for a one day workshop on LNG safety models that will be held at the end of September and will provide an introduction to currently available and pending software tools.

  4. Determining the drivers' acceptance of EFTCD in highway work zones.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yong; Li, Yingfeng

    2011-05-01

    Traffic safety is a major concern in the temporary one-lane, two-way highway work zones due to the increasing of construction and maintenance operations. To prevent rear-end crashes and to mitigate the severity of these crashes caused by the inattentive driving, the utilization of the Emergency Flasher Traffic Control Device (EFTCD) was under consideration by government agencies, in addition to existing temporary traffic control devices installed in the one-lane, two-way highway work zones. The EFTCD was a newly proposed traffic warning device implemented through the use of vehicles' hazard warning flashers. The primary objective of the research project was to investigate the drivers' acceptance of the proposed EFTCD by measuring the mean speed changes of vehicles with and without EFTCD and by evaluating the drivers' opinions of the EFTCD using the survey method. Field experimental results revealed that the EFTCD effectively reduced the mean vehicle speeds in the upstream of two work zones. A slow speed is more likely to reduce the severity of a crash in work zones. In addition, survey results indicated that 60% of the drivers thought the EFTCD signified a need for speed reduction and 82% of drivers recommended the implementation of the EFTCD in one-lane, two-way work zones. These results provide the necessary scientific justifications for the government agencies to decide if the EFTCD should be implemented in the one-lane, two-way highway work zones to prevent rear-end crashes and to mitigate the severity of these crashes.

  5. Nuclear reactor safety research since Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    Mynatt, F.R.

    1982-04-09

    The Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident has resulted in redirection of reactor safety research priorities. The small release to the environment of radioactive iodine-13 to 17 curies in a total radioactivity release of 2.4 million to 13 million curies-has led to a new emphasis on the physical chemistry of fission product behavior in accidents; the fact that the nuclear core was severely damaged but did not melt down has opened a new accident regime-that of the degraded core; the role of the operators in the progression and severity of the accident has shifted emphasis from equipment reliability to human reliability. As research progresses in these areas, the technical base for regulation and risk analysis will change substantially.

  6. Nuclear reactor safety research since three mile island.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, F R

    1982-04-09

    The Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident has resulted in redirection of reactor safety research priorities. The small release to the environment of radioactive iodine-13 to 17 curies in a total radioactivity release of 2.4 million to 13 million curies-has led to a new emphasis on the physical chemistry of fission product behavior in accidents; the fact that the nuclear core was severely damaged but did not melt down has opened a new accident regime-that of the degraded core; the role of the operators in the progression and severity of the accident has shifted emphasis from equipment reliability to human reliability. As research progresses in these areas, the technical base for regulation and risk analysis will change substantially.

  7. Organising a manuscript reporting quality improvement or patient safety research.

    PubMed

    Holzmueller, Christine G; Pronovost, Peter J

    2013-09-01

    Peer-reviewed publication plays important roles in disseminating research findings, developing generalisable knowledge and garnering recognition for authors and institutions. Nonetheless, many bemoan the whole manuscript writing process, intimidated by the arbitrary and somewhat opaque conventions. This paper offers practical advice about organising and writing a manuscript reporting quality improvement or patient safety research for submission to a peer-reviewed journal. Each section of the paper discusses a specific manuscript component-from title, abstract and each section of the manuscript body, through to reference list and tables and figures-explaining key principles, offering content organisation tips and providing an example of how this section may read. The paper also offers a checklist of common mistakes to avoid in a manuscript.

  8. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume II.

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewig, H.; Powers, D. A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A.; Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R.; Clement, B.; Garner, Frank; Walters, Leon; Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J.; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Ohno, S.; Miyhara, S.; Yacout, Abdellatif; Farmer, M.; Wade, D.; Grandy, C.; Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R.; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Serre, Frederic; Natesan, Ken; Carbajo, Juan J.; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Wigeland, Roald; Corradini, Michael; Thomas, Justin; Wei, Tom; Sofu, Tanju; Flanagan, George F.; Bari, R.; Porter D.; Lambert, J.; Hayes, S.; Sackett, J.; Denman, Matthew R.

    2012-05-01

    Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

  9. Empirical assessment of the impact of highway design exceptions on the frequency and severity of vehicle accidents.

    PubMed

    Malyshkina, Nataliya V; Mannering, Fred L

    2010-01-01

    Compliance to standardized highway design criteria is considered essential to ensure roadway safety. However, for a variety of reasons, situations arise where exceptions to standard-design criteria are requested and accepted after review. This research explores the impact that such design exceptions have on the frequency and severity of highway accidents in Indiana. Data on accidents at carefully selected roadway sites with and without design exceptions are used to estimate appropriate statistical models of the frequency and severity of accidents at these sites using recent statistical advances with mixing distributions. The results of the modeling process show that presence of approved design exceptions has not had a statistically significant effect on the average frequency or severity of accidents - suggesting that current procedures for granting design exceptions have been sufficiently rigorous to avoid adverse safety impacts. However, the findings do suggest that the process that determines the frequency of accidents does vary between roadway sites with design exceptions and those without.

  10. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Brent, Ed.

    This document contains four papers concerning collegiate aviation research and education solutions to critical safety issues. "Panel Proposal Titled Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues for the Tim Forte Collegiate Aviation Safety Symposium" (Brent Bowen) presents proposals for panels on the…

  11. Highway deaths: false PR on the effects of PR.

    PubMed

    Robertson, L S

    1994-01-01

    In June, 1988, the Department of Public Safety (DPS) in South Carolina launched a media campaign, called "Highways or Dieways?", in an attempt to reduce motor vehicle fatalities. Deaths per vehicle mile declined during the succeeding years and the DPS attributed all of the reduction to the campaign, gleaning some 62 awards in the process. This research indicates that the DPS took credit for a decline in fatalities that resulted from other factors. Fatality rates in South Carolina were actually higher during the campaign than would have been expected from the historic association of South Carolina's rates with the national rate or those of other states in the region. The campaign actually illustrates the principle that ad campaigns alone are often ineffective in changing public health.

  12. Rechanneling the cardiac proarrhythmia safety paradigm: a meeting report from the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium.

    PubMed

    Sager, Philip T; Gintant, Gary; Turner, J Rick; Pettit, Syril; Stockbridge, Norman

    2014-03-01

    This white paper provides a summary of a scientific proposal presented at a Cardiac Safety Research Consortium/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute/Food and Drug Administration-sponsored Think Tank, held at Food and Drug Administration's White Oak facilities, Silver Spring, MD, on July 23, 2013, with the intention of moving toward consensus on defining a new paradigm in the field of cardiac safety in which proarrhythmic risk would be primarily assessed using nonclinical in vitro human models based on solid mechanistic considerations of torsades de pointes proarrhythmia. This new paradigm would shift the emphasis from the present approach that strongly relies on QTc prolongation (a surrogate marker of proarrhythmia) and could obviate the clinical Thorough QT study during later drug development. These discussions represent current thinking and suggestions for furthering our knowledge and understanding of the public health case for adopting a new, integrated nonclinical in vitro/in silico paradigm, the Comprehensive In Vitro Proarrhythmia Assay, for the assessment of a candidate drug's proarrhythmic liability, and for developing a public-private collaborative program to characterize the data content, quality, and approaches required to assess proarrhythmic risk in the absence of a Thorough QT study. This paper seeks to encourage multistakeholder input regarding this initiative and does not represent regulatory guidance. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Conversion Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the NIST Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, D. J.; Baek, J. S.; Hanson, A. L.; Cheng, L-Y; Brown, N.; Cuadra, A.

    2015-01-30

    The NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) is a reactor-laboratory complex providing the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the nation with a world-class facility for the performance of neutron-based research. The heart of this facility is the NIST research reactor (aka NBSR); a heavy water moderated and cooled reactor operating at 20 MW. It is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel elements. A Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program is underway to convert the reactor to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This program includes the qualification of the proposed fuel, uranium and molybdenum alloy foil clad in an aluminum alloy, and the development of the fabrication techniques. This report is a preliminary version of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) that would be submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for approval prior to conversion. The report follows the recommended format and content from the NRC codified in NUREG-1537, “Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-power Reactors,” Chapter 18, “Highly Enriched to Low-Enriched Uranium Conversions.” The emphasis in any conversion SAR is to explain the differences between the LEU and HEU cores and to show the acceptability of the new design; there is no need to repeat information regarding the current reactor that will not change upon conversion. Hence, as seen in the report, the bulk of the SAR is devoted to Chapter 4, Reactor Description, and Chapter 13, Safety Analysis.

  14. Assessment of Contributions to Patient Safety Knowledge by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality-Funded Patient Safety Projects

    PubMed Central

    Sorbero, Melony E S; Ricci, Karen A; Lovejoy, Susan; Haviland, Amelia M; Smith, Linda; Bradley, Lily A; Hiatt, Liisa; Farley, Donna O

    2009-01-01

    Objective To characterize the activities of projects funded in Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)' patient safety portfolio and assess their aggregate potential to contribute to knowledge development. Data Sources Information abstracted from proposals for projects funded in AHRQ' patient safety portfolio, information on safety practices from the AHRQ Evidence Report on Patient Safety Practices, and products produced by the projects. Study Design This represented one part of the process evaluation conducted as part of a longitudinal evaluation based on the Context–Input–Process–Product model. Principal Findings The 234 projects funded through AHRQ' patient safety portfolio examined a wide variety of patient safety issues and extended their work beyond the hospital setting to less studied parts of the health care system. Many of the projects implemented and tested practices for which the patient safety evidence report identified a need for additional evidence. The funded projects also generated a substantial body of new patient safety knowledge through a growing number of journal articles and other products. Conclusions The projects funded in AHRQ' patient safety portfolio have the potential to make substantial contributions to the knowledge base on patient safety. The full value of this new knowledge remains to be confirmed through the synthesis of results. PMID:21456108

  15. Assessment of contributions to patient safety knowledge by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality-funded patient safety projects.

    PubMed

    Sorbero, Melony E S; Ricci, Karen A; Lovejoy, Susan; Haviland, Amelia M; Smith, Linda; Bradley, Lily A; Hiatt, Liisa; Farley, Donna O

    2009-04-01

    To characterize the activities of projects funded in Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)'s patient safety portfolio and assess their aggregate potential to contribute to knowledge development. Information abstracted from proposals for projects funded in AHRQ's patient safety portfolio, information on safety practices from the AHRQ Evidence Report on Patient Safety Practices, and products produced by the projects. This represented one part of the process evaluation conducted as part of a longitudinal evaluation based on the Context–Input–Process–Product model. The 234 projects funded through AHRQ's patient safety portfolio examined a wide variety of patient safety issues and extended their work beyond the hospital setting to less studied parts of the health care system. Many of the projects implemented and tested practices for which the patient safety evidence report identified a need for additional evidence. The funded projects also generated a substantial body of new patient safety knowledge through a growing number of journal articles and other products. The projects funded in AHRQ's patient safety portfolio have the potential to make substantial contributions to the knowledge base on patient safety. The full value of this new knowledge remains to be confirmed through the synthesis of results

  16. The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility: Status-2004*

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Anderl; G. R. Longhurst; R. J. Pawelko; J. P. Sharpe; S. T. Schuetz; D. A. Petti

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the current status of the development of the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Designated a National User Facility by the US DOE, the primary mission of STAR is to provide laboratory infrastructure to study tritium science and technology issues associated with the development of safe and environmentally friendly fusion energy. Both tritium and non-tritium fusion safety research is pursued along three key thrust areas: (1) plasma-material interactions of plasma-facing component (PFC) materials exposed to energetic tritium and deuterium ions, (2) fusion safety concerns related to PFC material chemical reactivity and dust/debris generation, activation product mobilization, and tritium behavior in fusion systems, and (3) molten salts and fusion liquids for tritium breeder and coolant applications. STAR comprises a multi-room complex with operations segregated to permit both tritium and non-tritium activities in separately ventilated rooms. Tritium inventory in STAR is limited to 15,000 Ci to maintain its classification as a Radiological Facility. Experiments with tritium are typically conducted in glovebox environments. Key components of the tritium infrastructure have been installed and tested. This includes the following subsystems: (1) a tritium Storage and Assay System (SAS) that uses two 50-g depleted uranium beds for tritium storage and PVT/beta-scintillation analyses for tritium accountability measurements, (2) a Tritium Cleanup System (TCS) that uses catalytic oxidation and molecular sieve water absorption to remove tritiated species from glovebox atmosphere gases and gaseous effluents from experiment and process systems, and (3) tritium monitoring instrumentation for room air, glovebox atmosphere and stack effluent tritium concentration measurements. Integration of the tritium infrastructure subsystems with the experimental and

  17. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) Technical Advisory Committee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-29

    0576 N5-97-3 Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) Technical Advisory Committee U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CARDEROCK DIVISION, NAVAL...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Shipbuilding Research Program, Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) Technical Support

  18. Dollars for lives: the effect of highway capital investments on traffic fatalities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong; Yeung, Ryan

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the effect of highway capital investments on highway fatalities. We used state-level data from the 48 contiguous states in the United States from 1968 through 2010 to estimate the effects on highway fatalities of capital expenditures and highway capital stock. We estimated these effects by controlling for a set of control variables together with state and year dummy variables and state-specific linear time trends. We found that capital expenditures and capital stock had significant and negative effects on highway fatalities. States faced with declines in gas tax revenues have already cut back drastically on spending on roads including on maintenance and capital outlay. If this trend continues, it may undermine traffic safety. While states and local governments are currently fiscally strained, it is important for them to continue investments in roadways to enhance traffic safety and, more significantly, to save lives. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 76 FR 6690 - Highway Systems; Technical Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 470 RIN 2125-AF35 Highway Systems; Technical Correction... on the National Highway System and the Dwight D. Eisenhower System of Interstate and Defense Highways... agreement as future Interstate routes must be constructed to meet Interstate Highway System standards...

  20. 49 CFR 356.13 - Redesignated highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Redesignated highways. 356.13 Section 356.13... REGULATIONS § 356.13 Redesignated highways. Where a highway over which a regular route motor common carrier of... designation, the points between which the highway is redesignated, and each place where the highway is...

  1. 49 CFR 356.13 - Redesignated highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Redesignated highways. 356.13 Section 356.13... REGULATIONS § 356.13 Redesignated highways. Where a highway over which a regular route motor common carrier of... designation, the points between which the highway is redesignated, and each place where the highway is...

  2. 49 CFR 356.13 - Redesignated highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Redesignated highways. 356.13 Section 356.13... REGULATIONS § 356.13 Redesignated highways. Where a highway over which a regular route motor common carrier of... designation, the points between which the highway is redesignated, and each place where the highway is...

  3. 49 CFR 356.13 - Redesignated highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Redesignated highways. 356.13 Section 356.13... REGULATIONS § 356.13 Redesignated highways. Where a highway over which a regular route motor common carrier of... designation, the points between which the highway is redesignated, and each place where the highway is...

  4. 49 CFR 356.13 - Redesignated highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Redesignated highways. 356.13 Section 356.13... REGULATIONS § 356.13 Redesignated highways. Where a highway over which a regular route motor common carrier of... designation, the points between which the highway is redesignated, and each place where the highway is...

  5. Alternative Techniques for Testing A Highway Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mast, Truman; Mast, Truman

    1974-01-01

    The highway transport system as contrasted with other modes of transportation is quite unique in that the users of the system are responsible for the guidance and control functions of the vehicle. Research has shown that improved forms of motorist information, such as highway signs and markings, can enhance the predictability and reliability of the driving task. Test and evaluation of promising new concepts in motorist information must preceed widespread endorsement and implementation on our highway system. This paper reviews the merits and limitations of presently available human factor research techniques--laboratory, instrumented vehicle and traffic performance studies on operational facilities--for evaluating the efficacy of motorist information concepts. Specific examples are given to demonstrate the utility and the interrelationships of the alternative research techniques and there is a discussion of the most pressing immediate and future needs for improved highway signing and road marking research methodology.

  6. Alternative Techniques for Testing A Highway Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mast, Truman; Mast, Truman

    1974-01-01

    The highway transport system as contrasted with other modes of transportation is quite unique in that the users of the system are responsible for the guidance and control functions of the vehicle. Research has shown that improved forms of motorist information, such as highway signs and markings, can enhance the predictability and reliability of the driving task. Test and evaluation of promising new concepts in motorist information must preceed widespread endorsement and implementation on our highway system. This paper reviews the merits and limitations of presently available human factor research techniques--laboratory, instrumented vehicle and traffic performance studies on operational facilities--for evaluating the efficacy of motorist information concepts. Specific examples are given to demonstrate the utility and the interrelationships of the alternative research techniques and there is a discussion of the most pressing immediate and future needs for improved highway signing and road marking research methodology.

  7. Bicycle injuries and safety helmets in children. Review of research.

    PubMed

    Coffman, Sherrilyn

    2003-01-01

    Bicycle injuries are the most common cause of serious head injury in children, and most of these injuries are preventable. The protective effect of bicycle helmets is well documented, but many child bicyclists do not wear them. This article summarizes the current state of research on bicycle injuries and helmet use and examines the effectiveness of legislation and injury-prevention strategies. Current studies indicate that children who wear helmets experience fewer head injuries and decreased severity of injury. Community-wide helmet-promotion campaigns combined with legislation are most successful in increasing helmet use and decreasing injury. Nurses can participate both at the institutional level and in community advocacy groups to promote bicycle safety for children.

  8. Highways of hope

    SciTech Connect

    2007-08-15

    It is hoped that through public-private partnerships between Alpha Natural Resources and Pioneer Group and Virginia Department of Transportation, and between one of these coal companies and Buchanan County, Virginia, Industrial Development Authority a four-lane 'highway of hope' between Lovers Gap and Poplar Gap will be paved and a ridge top connector route will eventually be completed to Bull Gap where it will intersect with the Coalfields Expressway and US 460. The town of Grundy is also looking into strip mining coal from beneath the small mountaintop airport at Lovers Gap and turning it into a regional airport. The article discusses these plans. 4 photos.

  9. Highways for National Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    system needs reports (RCS MTMC -74). • 2–4, page 7 Section II ACCESS ROAD NEEDS, page 8 General. • 2–5, page 8 Impact on highway construction or improvement...9 Access road needs report (RCS MTMC -75). • 2–10, page 9 ii AR 55–80/OPNAVINST 11210.1B/AFR 75–88/MCO 11210.2C/DLAR 4500.19 • 15 December 1982...and funding. • 2–17, page 12 Chapter 3 MANEUVER-AREA ROADS, page 12 Maneuver-area road condition report (RCS MTMC -76). • 3–1, page 12 Who will prepare

  10. Solar powered highway sign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, R. L.; Hutter, W.

    1980-09-01

    A roadside sign was equipped with lights powered by photovoltaic solar panels to improve nighttime visibility and evaluate equipment performance and needs. The photovoltaic panels were found to be reliable and effective for powering flashing lights on a highway warning sign. Cost of the panels is high so their use should be limited to locations where commercial electrical power is not available. Solar electric systems should be carefully designed to minimize costs and produce a reliable system. Sufficient prediction for the solar panels should be provided in areas where theft or vandalism might be a problem.

  11. Aviation safety and operation problems research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.; Strickle, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Aircraft operating problems are described for aviation safety. It is shown that as aircraft technology improves, the knowledge and understanding of operating problems must also improve for economics, reliability and safety.

  12. Aviation safety and operation problems research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.; Strickle, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Aircraft operating problems are described for aviation safety. It is shown that as aircraft technology improves, the knowledge and understanding of operating problems must also improve for economics, reliability and safety.

  13. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume I.

    SciTech Connect

    Sofu, Tanju; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Bari, R.; Wigeland, Roald; Denman, Matthew R.; Flanagan, George F.

    2012-05-01

    This report proposes potential research priorities for the Department of Energy (DOE) with the intent of improving the licensability of the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). In support of this project, five panels were tasked with identifying potential safety-related gaps in available information, data, and models needed to support the licensing of a SFR. The areas examined were sodium technology, accident sequences and initiators, source term characterization, codes and methods, and fuels and materials. It is the intent of this report to utilize a structured and transparent process that incorporates feedback from all interested stakeholders to suggest future funding priorities for the SFR research and development. While numerous gaps were identified, two cross-cutting gaps related to knowledge preservation were agreed upon by all panels and should be addressed in the near future. The first gap is a need to re-evaluate the current procedures for removing the Applied Technology designation from old documents. The second cross-cutting gap is the need for a robust Knowledge Management and Preservation system in all SFR research areas. Closure of these and the other identified gaps will require both a reprioritization of funding within DOE as well as a re-evaluation of existing bureaucratic procedures within the DOE associated with Applied Technology and Knowledge Management.

  14. 49 CFR 212.233 - Apprentice highway-rail grade crossing inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Administrator for Safety leading to qualification as a highway-rail grade crossing inspector. The apprentice...) The ability to use electrical test equipment in direct current and alternating current circuits; and (3) A basic knowledge of highway-rail grade crossing inspection and maintenance methods...

  15. 49 CFR 212.233 - Apprentice highway-rail grade crossing inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Administrator for Safety leading to qualification as a highway-rail grade crossing inspector. The apprentice...) The ability to use electrical test equipment in direct current and alternating current circuits; and (3) A basic knowledge of highway-rail grade crossing inspection and maintenance methods...

  16. 49 CFR 234.11 - State highway-rail grade crossing action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false State highway-rail grade crossing action plans... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS... grade crossing action plans. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to reduce collisions at highway...

  17. 38. LANDSCAPE HIGHWAY VIEW, OREGON STATE HIGHWAY 199. JOSPHINE COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. LANDSCAPE HIGHWAY VIEW, OREGON STATE HIGHWAY 199. JOSPHINE COUNTY, OREGON. REEVES CREEK (WHERE ROAD WIDENS) 4 MILES NE OF CAVE JUNCTION. LOOKING S. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  18. TU-EF-BRD-04: Summing It Up: The Future of Quality and Safety Research

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, E.

    2015-06-15

    Research related to quality and safety has been a staple of medical physics academic activities for a long time. From very early on, medical physicists have developed new radiation measurement equipment and analysis techniques, created ever increasingly accurate dose calculation models, and have vastly improved imaging, planning, and delivery techniques. These and other areas of interest have improved the quality and safety of radiotherapy for our patients. With the advent of TG-100, quality and safety is an area that will garner even more research interest in the future. As medical physicists pursue quality and safety research in greater numbers, it is worthwhile to consider what actually constitutes research on quality and safety. For example, should the development of algorithms for real-time EPID-based in-vivo dosimetry be defined as “quality and safety” research? How about the clinical implementation of such as system? Surely the application of failure modes and effects analysis to a clinical process would be considered quality and safety research, but is this type of research that should be included in the medical physics peer-reviewed literature? The answers to such questions are of critical importance to set researchers in a direction that will provide the greatest benefit to our field and the patients we serve. The purpose of this symposium is to consider what constitutes research in the arena of quality and safety and differentiate it from other research directions. The key distinction here is developing the tool itself (e.g. algorithms for EPID dosimetry) vs. studying the impact of the tool with some quantitative metric. Only the latter would I call quality and safety research. Issues of ‘basic’ versus ‘applied’ quality and safety research will be covered as well as how the research results should be structured to provide increasing levels of support that a quality and safety intervention is effective and sustainable. Examples from existing

  19. TU-EF-BRD-01: Topics in Quality and Safety Research and Level of Evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlicki, T.

    2015-06-15

    Research related to quality and safety has been a staple of medical physics academic activities for a long time. From very early on, medical physicists have developed new radiation measurement equipment and analysis techniques, created ever increasingly accurate dose calculation models, and have vastly improved imaging, planning, and delivery techniques. These and other areas of interest have improved the quality and safety of radiotherapy for our patients. With the advent of TG-100, quality and safety is an area that will garner even more research interest in the future. As medical physicists pursue quality and safety research in greater numbers, it is worthwhile to consider what actually constitutes research on quality and safety. For example, should the development of algorithms for real-time EPID-based in-vivo dosimetry be defined as “quality and safety” research? How about the clinical implementation of such as system? Surely the application of failure modes and effects analysis to a clinical process would be considered quality and safety research, but is this type of research that should be included in the medical physics peer-reviewed literature? The answers to such questions are of critical importance to set researchers in a direction that will provide the greatest benefit to our field and the patients we serve. The purpose of this symposium is to consider what constitutes research in the arena of quality and safety and differentiate it from other research directions. The key distinction here is developing the tool itself (e.g. algorithms for EPID dosimetry) vs. studying the impact of the tool with some quantitative metric. Only the latter would I call quality and safety research. Issues of ‘basic’ versus ‘applied’ quality and safety research will be covered as well as how the research results should be structured to provide increasing levels of support that a quality and safety intervention is effective and sustainable. Examples from existing

  20. PHYSICS AND SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR THE NIST RESEARCH REACTOR.

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, L.; Diamond, D.; Xu, J.; Carew, J.; Rorer, D.

    2004-03-31

    Detailed reactor physics and safety analyses have been performed for the 20 MW D{sub 2}O moderated research reactor (NBSR) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The analyses provide an update to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and employ state-of-the-art calculational methods. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport calculations were performed with the MCNP code to determine the safety parameters for the NBSR. The core depletion and determination of the fuel compositions were performed with MONTEBURNS. MCNP calculations were performed to determine the beginning, middle, and end-of-cycle power distributions, moderator temperature coefficient, and shim safety arm, beam tube and void reactivity worths. The calculational model included a plate-by-plate description of each fuel assembly, axial mid-plane water gap, beam tubes and the tubular geometry of the shim safety arms. The time-dependent analysis of the primary loop was determined with a RELAP5 transient analysis model that includes the pump, heat exchanger, fuel element geometry, and flow channels for both the six inner and twenty-four outer fuel elements. The statistical analysis used to assure protection from critical heat flux (CHF) was performed using a Monte Carlo simulation of the uncertainties contributing to the CHF calculation. The power distributions used to determine the local fuel conditions and margin to CHF were determined with MCNP. Evaluations were performed for the following accidents: (1) the control rod withdrawal startup accident, (2) the maximum reactivity insertion accident, (3) loss-of-flow resulting from loss of electrical power, (4) loss-of-flow resulting from a primary pump seizure, (5) loss-of-flow resulting from inadvertent throttling of a flow control valve, (6) loss-of-flow resulting from failure of both shutdown cooling pumps and (7) misloading of a fuel element. In both the startup and maximum reactivity insertion accidents, the

  1. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Bicycle Safety, Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains ten lessons on bicycles for use in grade 2. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing communication methods for highway users,…

  2. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Bicycle Safety, Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains ten lessons on bicycles for use in grade 2. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing communication methods for highway users,…

  3. School Bus Safety Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This publication provides a summary and update of school bus-safety activities conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). This report discusses Congressional mandates and NHTSA's actions to improve school-bus safety (which include programs that affect human behavior and motor-vehicle safety performance), the magnitude…

  4. Child Safety on the Information Highway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Gary P.

    1995-01-01

    Most people who use online services have mainly positive experiences. But, like an endeavor, there are some risks. Children and teenagers get a lot of benefit from being online, but they can also be targets of crime and exploitation in this as in any other environment. Trusting, curious, and anxious to explore this new world and the relationships it brings, children and teenagers need parental supervision and common sense advice on how to be sure that their experiences in cyberspace are happy, healthy, and productive.

  5. Child Safety on the Information Highway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Gary P.

    1995-01-01

    Most people who use online services have mainly positive experiences. But, like an endeavor, there are some risks. Children and teenagers get a lot of benefit from being online, but they can also be targets of crime and exploitation in this as in any other environment. Trusting, curious, and anxious to explore this new world and the relationships it brings, children and teenagers need parental supervision and common sense advice on how to be sure that their experiences in cyberspace are happy, healthy, and productive.

  6. 75 FR 18014 - Federal Highway Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...: Federal Highway Administration, Kentucky Division: Mr. Greg Rawlings, Transportation Specialist, 330 West...

  7. Geospatial and machine learning techniques for wicked social science problems: analysis of crash severity on a regional highway corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Effati, Meysam; Thill, Jean-Claude; Shabani, Shahin

    2015-04-01

    The contention of this paper is that many social science research problems are too "wicked" to be suitably studied using conventional statistical and regression-based methods of data analysis. This paper argues that an integrated geospatial approach based on methods of machine learning is well suited to this purpose. Recognizing the intrinsic wickedness of traffic safety issues, such approach is used to unravel the complexity of traffic crash severity on highway corridors as an example of such problems. The support vector machine (SVM) and coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) algorithms are tested as inferential engines to predict crash severity and uncover spatial and non-spatial factors that systematically relate to crash severity, while a sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the relative influence of crash severity factors. Different specifications of the two methods are implemented, trained, and evaluated against crash events recorded over a 4-year period on a regional highway corridor in Northern Iran. Overall, the SVM model outperforms CANFIS by a notable margin. The combined use of spatial analysis and artificial intelligence is effective at identifying leading factors of crash severity, while explicitly accounting for spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity effects. Thanks to the demonstrated effectiveness of a sensitivity analysis, this approach produces comprehensive results that are consistent with existing traffic safety theories and supports the prioritization of effective safety measures that are geographically targeted and behaviorally sound on regional highway corridors.

  8. 77 FR 36606 - Pipeline Safety: Government/Industry Pipeline Research and Development Forum, Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Government/Industry Pipeline... a Government/Industry Pipeline Research and Development (R&D) Forum. The R&D Forums are held... pipeline safety and with protecting the environment. The forum allows public, government and...

  9. Research Needs in Fire Safety for the Human Exploration and Utilization of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on developments in spacecraft fire safety research. The presentation includes an overview of the previous Spacecraft Fire Safety Workshop, from 1986, and the influences since then of bioastronautics on combustion science and fire safety. The presentation then gives of overview of the current conference, stating goals and giving a schedule.

  10. Comparative Qualitative Research Distinguishing Safety Features Among Aviation Safety Action Programs in the United States Airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilakalapudi, Naga Swathi Kiran

    Over the years, aviation safety has been influenced by continuous implementations of both proactive and reactive policies by both regulatory boards and also, aviation service providers. This achievement has been possible mainly because of the safety management tools like the Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) which derives its roots from the much earlier Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) provides guidelines and procedures for installation and development of an ASAP, for every airline in the United States. In this study, how different United States air carriers apply ASAP in their organizations is investigated.

  11. Driver speed selection on high-speed two-lane highways: Comparing speed profiles between uniform and differential speed limits.

    PubMed

    Russo, Brendan J; Savolainen, Peter T; Gates, Timothy J; Kay, Jonathan J; Frazier, Sterling

    2017-07-04

    Although a considerable amount of prior research has investigated the impacts of speed limits on traffic safety and operations, much of this research, and nearly all of the research related to differential speed limits, has been specific to limited access freeways. The unique safety and operational issues on highways without access control create difficulty relating the conclusions from prior freeway-related speed limit research to 2-lane highways, particularly research on differential limits due to passing limitations and subsequent queuing. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess differences in driver speed selection with respect to the posted speed limit on rural 2-lane highways, with a particular emphasis on the differences between uniform and differential speed limits. Data were collected from nearly 59,000 vehicles across 320 sites in Montana and 4 neighboring states. Differences in mean speeds, 85th percentile speeds, and the standard deviation in speeds for free-flowing vehicles were examined across these sites using ordinary least squares regression models. Ultimately, the results of the analysis show that the mean speed, 85th percentile speed, and variability in travel speeds for free-flowing vehicles on 2-lane highways are generally lower at locations with uniform 65 mph speed limits, compared to locations with differential limits of 70 mph for cars and 60 mph for trucks. In addition to posted speed limits, several site characteristics were shown to influence speed selection including shoulder widths, frequency of horizontal curves, percentage of the segment that included no passing zones, and hourly volumes. Differences in vehicle speed characteristics were also observed between states, indicating that speed selection may also be influenced by local factors, such as driver population or enforcement.

  12. Program of Instruction for Highway Collision Investigation Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell Aeronautical Lab., Inc., Buffalo, NY.

    This program of instruction, reviewed and accepted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, was prepared for Multidisciplinary Accident Investigation teams and others. It is intended to provide background information, a working knowledge of all of the pertinent factors, investigative techniques, tools, data requirements, and field…

  13. Highway Maintenance Equipment Operator: Basic Core. Training Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perky, Sandra Dutreau; And Others

    This basic core curriculum is part of a three-part series of instructional guides designed for use in teaching a course in highway maintenance equipment operation. Addressed in the individual units of the curriculum, after an orientation unit, are safety; basic math; basic hand tools; procedures for loading. lashing, and unloading equipment;…

  14. Program of Instruction for Highway Collision Investigation Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell Aeronautical Lab., Inc., Buffalo, NY.

    This program of instruction, reviewed and accepted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, was prepared for Multidisciplinary Accident Investigation teams and others. It is intended to provide background information, a working knowledge of all of the pertinent factors, investigative techniques, tools, data requirements, and field…

  15. Basic Course in Highway Traffic Records; Course Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    The twelve-part course is structured on a modular basis to allow the various topical areas and units of instruction to satisfy differing training requirements of state and local agencies which vary from state to state. It is specifically designed to provide guidence to state highway safety program management personnel, traffic records…

  16. 49 CFR 800.25 - Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation... Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of Highway Safety, Office of Marine Safety... Offices of Aviation, Railroad, Highway, Marine, and Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety, the...

  17. 49 CFR 800.25 - Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation... Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of Highway Safety, Office of Marine Safety... Offices of Aviation, Railroad, Highway, Marine, and Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety, the...

  18. 49 CFR 800.25 - Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation... Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of Highway Safety, Office of Marine Safety... Offices of Aviation, Railroad, Highway, Marine, and Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety, the...

  19. 49 CFR 800.25 - Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation... Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of Highway Safety, Office of Marine Safety... Offices of Aviation, Railroad, Highway, Marine, and Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety, the...

  20. Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Report April -June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Edler, S. K.

    1980-11-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from April 1 through June 30, 1980, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission {NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining structural graphite strength, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the remaining integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Test assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR Test Reactor Program, Ispra, Italy; blowdown and reflood tests in the test facility at Cadarache, France; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  1. Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Report October - December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Edler, S K

    1981-04-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from October 1 through December 31, 1980, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining structural graphite strength, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NOE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the remaining integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Test assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR Test Reactor Program, Ispra, Italy; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  2. Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Report January - March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, C. M

    1980-10-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory from January 1 through March 31, 1980, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Evaluation of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibilty of determining structural graphite strength, evaluating the feasibilty of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the remaining integrity of pressurized water reactor steam generator tubes where serviceinduced degradation has been indicated. Test assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include the loss-of-coolant accident simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; the fuel rod deformation and post-accident coolability tests for the ESSOR Test Reactor Program, Ispra, Italy; the blowdown and reflood tests in the test facility at Cadarache, France; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and the experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  3. Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Report July- September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Edler, S. K.

    1980-12-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from April 1 through June 30, 1980, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission {NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining structural graphite strength, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the remaining integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Test assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR Test Reactor Program, Ispra, Italy; blowdown and reflood tests in the test facility at Cadarache, France; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  4. Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Report April- June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Edler, S. K.

    1981-09-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest laboratory (PNL} from April1 through June 30, 1981, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision-making regarding pipe-to-pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Core thermal models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation, severe fuel damage, and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR reactor Super Sara Test Program, lspra, Italy; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory {INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  5. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Salehi, Iraj A.; Havens, Jerry; Spicer, Tom

    2006-12-22

    The initial scope of work for this project included: 1) Improving the FEM3A advanced turbulence closure module, 2) Adaptation of FEM3A for more general applications, and 3) Verification of dispersion over rough surfaces, with and without obstacle using the advanced turbulence closure module. These work elements were to be performed by Chemical Hazards Research Center (CHRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas as a subcontractor to Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The tasks for GTI included establishment of the scientific support base for standardization of the FEM3A model, project management, technology transfer, and project administration. Later in the course of the project, the scope of work was modified by the National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) to remove the emphasis on FEM3A model and instead, develop data in support of NETL’s FLUENT modeling. With this change, GTI was also instructed to cease activities relative to FEM3A model. GTI’s technical activities through this project included the initial verification of FEM3A model, provision of technical inputs to CHRC researchers regarding the structure of the final product, and participation in technical discussion sessions with CHRC and NETL technical staff. GTI also began the development of a Windows-based front end for the model but the work was stopped due to the change in scope of work. In the meantime, GTI organized a workshop on LNG safety in Houston, Texas. The workshop was very successful and 75 people from various industries participated. All technical objectives were met satisfactorily by Dr. Jerry Havens and Dr. Tom Spicer of CHRC and results are presented in a stand-alone report included as Appendix A to this report.

  6. LNG SAFETY RESEARCH: FEM3A MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Havens; Iraj A. Salehi

    2005-02-21

    This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from October 1, 2004 to December 31, 2004. On December 9, 2004 a meeting was held in Morgantown to rescope the LNG safety modeling project such that the work would complement the DOE's efforts relative to the development of the intended LNG-Fluent model. It was noted and discussed at the December 9th meeting that the fundamental research being performed on surface to cloud heat transfer and low wind speed issues will be relevant to the development of the DOE LNG/Fluent Model. In general, it was decided that all research to be performed from December 9th through the remainder of the contract is to be focused on the development of the DOE LNG/Fluent model. In addition, all GTI activities for dissemination and transfer of FEM3A will cease and dissemination activities will focus on the new DOE LNG/Fluent model. The proposed new scope of work is presented in section 4 of this report. The work reported in the present document relates to the original scope of work which was in effect during the reporting period. The future work will be re-scoped to meet the requirements of the new scope of work. During the report period work was underway to address numerical problems present during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 and 2 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report are complete and steps 3 and 4 are in progress. During this quarter, the University of Arkansas has been investigating the effect upon numerical stability of the heat transfer model used to predict the surface-to-cloud heat transfer, which can be important for LNG vapor dispersion. Previously, no consideration has been given to ground cooling as a result of heat transfer to the colder gas cloud in FEM3A.

  7. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A. Salehi; Jerry Havens; Tom Spicer

    2006-09-30

    The initial scope of work for this project included: (1) Improving the FEM3A advanced turbulence closure module, (2) Adaptation of FEM3A for more general applications, and (3) Verification of dispersion over rough surfaces, with and without obstacle using the advanced turbulence closure module. These work elements were to be performed by Chemical Hazards Research Center (CHRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas as a subcontractor to Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The tasks for GTI included establishment of the scientific support base for standardization of the FEM3A model, project management, technology transfer, and project administration. Later in the course of the project, the scope of work was modified by the National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) to remove the emphasis on FEM3A model and instead, develop data in support of NETL's FLUENT modeling. With this change, GTI was also instructed to cease activities relative to FEM3A model. GTI's technical activities through this project included the initial verification of FEM3A model, provision of technical inputs to CHRC researchers regarding the structure of the final product, and participation in technical discussion sessions with CHRC and NETL technical staff. GTI also began the development of a Windows-based front end for the model but the work was stopped due to the change in scope of work. In the meantime, GTI organized a workshop on LNG safety in Houston, Texas. The workshop was very successful and 75 people from various industries participated. All technical objectives were met satisfactorily by Dr. Jerry Havens and Dr. Tom Spicer of CHRC and results are presented in a stand-alone report included as Appendix A to this report.

  8. Activity and emissions associated with highway construction projects: Case studies in Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas. Research report September 1996--February 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, J.A.

    1998-04-01

    An assessment of highway construction project emissions was performed at five study sites in Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas. Four large scale, multi-year construction projects and one small pavement maintenance project were observed. Several types of information were collected from field trucks, materials trucks, and construction equipment. Vehicles were classified according to MOBILE definitions, and the remaining equipment was classified according to AP-42 definitions. Engine starts and stops were recorded from field trucks, as well as the fuel type used and the initial odometer reading. Materials trucks and construction equipment were observed and their activities recorded. The activity measures recorded were engine starts, operating hours, and the frequency and duration of throttles (transient events). Activity from field trucks, materials trucks, and construction equipment was used to estimate the emissions produced at each study site. These emissions estimates were then placed in perspective by comparing their equivalent vehicle miles of travel (VMT) for the general vehicle fleet in the region. An additional comparison was made by expanding the highway construction activity and resulting emissions over the two-county region and comparing this to the emissions generated from on-road mobile sources.

  9. PHYSICS AND SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR THE NIST RESEARCH REACTOR.

    SciTech Connect

    Carew, J.; Hanson, A.; Xu, J.; Rorer, D.; Diamond, D.

    2003-08-26

    Detailed reactor physics and safety analyses have been performed for the 20 MW D{sub 2}O moderated research reactor (NBSR) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The analyses provide an update to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and employ state-of-the-art calculational methods. Three-dimensional MCNP Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport calculations were performed to determine the safety parameters for the NBSR. The core depletion and determination of the fuel compositions were performed with MONTEBURNS. MCNP calculations were performed to determine the beginning, middle, and end-of-cycle power distributions, moderator temperature coefficient, and shim arm, beam tube and void reactivity worths. The calculational model included a plate-by-plate description of each fuel assembly, axial mid-plane water gap, beam tubes and the tubular geometry of the shim arms. The time-dependent analysis of the primary loop was determined with a RELAP5 transient analysis model including the pump, heat exchanger, fuel element geometry, and flow channels for both the six inner and twenty-four outer fuel elements. The statistical analysis used to assure protection from critical heat flux (CHF) was performed using a Monte Carlo simulation of the uncertainties contributing to the CHF calculation. The power distributions used to determine the local fuel conditions and margin to CHF were determined with MCNP. Evaluations were performed for the following accidents: (1) the control rod withdrawal startup accident, (2) the maximum reactivity insertion accident, (3) loss-of-flow resulting from loss of electrical power, (4) loss-of-flow resulting from a primary pump seizure, (5) loss-of-flow resulting from inadvertent throttling of a flow control valve, (6) loss-of-flow resulting from failure of both shutdown cooling pumps and (7) misloading of a fuel element. In both the startup and maximum reactivity insertion accidents, the core power transient is terminated

  10. The development of an ecological approach to manage the pollution risk from highway runoff.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, B; Dempsey, P; Johnson, I; Whitehead, M

    2009-01-01

    In the UK, the Highways Agency is responsible for operating, maintaining and improving the strategic road network in England. One focus of the Highways Agency's ongoing research into the nature and impact of highway runoff is aimed at ensuring that the Highways Agency will meet the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive. A research programme, undertaken in partnership with the Environment Agency, is in progress to develop a better understanding of pollutants in highway runoff and their ecological impact. The paper presents the outcome of a study to: (1) monitor pollutants in highway runoff under different climate and traffic conditions; (2) develop standards to assess potential ecological risks from soluble pollutants in highway runoff; and (3) develop a model to predict pollutant concentrations in highway runoff. The model has been embedded in a design tool incorporating risk assessment procedures and receiving water standards for soluble and insoluble pollutants--the latter has been developed elsewhere in another project within the research programme. The design tool will be used to support improved guidance on where, and to what level, treatment of runoff is required for highway designers to manage the risk of ecological impact from highway runoff.

  11. A field study on the effects of digital billboards on glance behavior during highway driving.

    PubMed

    Belyusar, Daniel; Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; Coughlin, Joseph F

    2016-03-01

    Developments in lighting technologies have allowed more dynamic digital billboards in locations visible from the roadway. Decades of laboratory research have shown that rapidly changing or moving stimuli presented in peripheral vision tends to 'capture' covert attention. We report naturalistic glance and driving behavior of a large sample of drivers who were exposed to two digital billboards on a segment of highway largely free from extraneous signage. Results show a significant shift in the number and length of glances toward the billboards and an increased percentage of time glancing off road in their presence. Findings were particularly evident at the time the billboards transitioned between advertisements. Since rapidly changing stimuli are difficult to ignore, the planned increase in episodically changing digital displays near the roadway may be argued to be a potential safety concern. The impact of digital billboards on driver safety and the need for continued research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 76 FR 17808 - Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2011-2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... NHTSA Vehicle Safety and Fuel Economy Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2011-2013 (Priority Plan) in... Final NHTSA Vehicle Safety and Fuel Economy Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2011-2013. This plan... economy that must meet Congressional mandates or Secretarial commitments. Since these are expected to...

  13. Water Reactor Safety Research Division quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, A.J.

    1980-06-01

    The Water Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: LWR Thermal Hydraulic Development, Advanced Code Evaluation, TRAC Code Assessment, and Stress Corrosion Cracking of PWR Steam Generator Tubing.

  14. Water Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Abuaf, N.; Levine, M.M.; Saha, P.; van Rooyen, D.

    1980-08-01

    The Water Reactor Safety Research Programs quarterly report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: LWR Thermal Hydraulic Development, Advanced Code Evlauation, TRAC Code Assessment, and Stress Corrosion Cracking of PWR Steam Generator Tubing.

  15. Case studies of patient safety research classics to build research capacity in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Andermann, Anne; Wu, Albert W; Lashoher, Angela; Norton, Peter; Arora, Narendra Kumar; Bates, David W; Larizgoitia, Itziar

    2013-12-01

    Strengthening research capacity is a key priority and rate-limiting step for conducting patient safety research, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, but also in other settings where such research is currently limited. Case studies of classic publications in patient safety research were therefore developed as part of a larger strategy aimed at increasing the knowledge base and building the research capacity required for making health care safer and reducing harm to patients. A multistep method was used to develop the case studies, which involved developing a theoretical framework for classifying patient safety research articles; purposively selecting articles to illustrate a range of research methods and study designs; and involving the articles' lead authors to provide context, review the summaries, and offer advice to future patient safety researchers. The series of patient safety research case studies used 17 examples to illustrate how different research methods and study designs can be used to answer different types of research questions across five stages of the research cycle: (1) measuring harm, (2) understanding causes, (3) identifying solutions, (4) evaluating impact, and (5) translating evidence into safer care. No single study design or research method is better in all circumstances. Choosing the most appropriate method and study design depends on the stage in the research cycle, the objectives, the research question, the subject area, the setting, and the resources available. Beyond serving as didactic tools in assisting future leaders in patient safety research to build up their own competencies, the case studies help to illuminate the burgeoning field of patient safety research as a an important vehicle for reducing patient harm and improving health outcomes worldwide.

  16. Safety of investigative bronchoscopy in the Severe Asthma Research Program.

    PubMed

    Moore, Wendy C; Evans, Michael D; Bleecker, Eugene R; Busse, William W; Calhoun, William J; Castro, Mario; Chung, Kian Fan; Erzurum, Serpil C; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Dweik, Raed A; Gaston, Benjamin; Hew, Mark; Israel, Elliot; Mayse, Martin L; Pascual, Rodolfo M; Peters, Stephen P; Silveira, Lori; Wenzel, Sally E; Jarjour, Nizar N

    2011-08-01

    Investigative bronchoscopy was performed in a subset of participants in the Severe Asthma Research Program to gain insights into the pathobiology of severe disease. We evaluated the safety aspects of this procedure in this cohort with specific focus on patients with severe asthma. To evaluate prospectively changes in lung function and the frequency of adverse events related to investigative bronchoscopy. Bronchoscopy was performed by using a common manual of procedures. A subset of very severe asthma was defined by severe airflow obstruction, chronic oral corticosteroid use, and recent asthma exacerbations. Subjects were monitored for changes in lung function and contacted by telephone for 3 days after the procedure. A total of 436 subjects underwent bronchoscopy (97 normal, 196 not severe, 102 severe, and 41 very severe asthma). Nine subjects were evaluated in hospital settings after bronchoscopy; 7 of these were respiratory-related events. Recent emergency department visits, chronic oral corticosteroid use, and a history of pneumonia were more frequent in subjects who had asthma exacerbations after bronchoscopy. The fall in FEV₁ after bronchoscopy was similar in the severe and milder asthma groups. Prebronchodilator FEV₁ was the strongest predictor of change in FEV₁ after bronchoscopy with larger decreases observed in subjects with better lung function. Bronchoscopy in subjects with severe asthma was well tolerated. Asthma exacerbations were rare, and reduction in pulmonary function after the procedure was similar to that in subjects with less severe asthma. With proper precautions, investigative bronchoscopy can be performed safely in severe asthma. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term electrocardiographic safety monitoring in clinical drug development: A report from the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium.

    PubMed

    Piccini, Jonathan P; Clark, Richard L; Kowey, Peter R; Mittal, Suneet; Dunnmon, Preston; Stockbridge, Norman; Reiffel, James A; Turakhia, Mintu P; Ziegler, Paul D; Kleiman, Robert B; Ismat, Fraz; Sager, Philip

    2017-05-01

    This white paper, prepared by members of the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium (CSRC), discusses important issues regarding scientific and clinical aspects of long-term electrocardiographic safety monitoring during clinical drug development. To promote multistakeholder discussion of this topic, a Cardiac Safety Research Consortium-sponsored Think Tank was held on 2 December 2015 at the American College of Cardiology's Heart House in Washington, DC. The goal of the Think Tank was to explore how and under what circumstances new and evolving ambulatory monitoring technologies could be used to improve and streamline drug development. This paper provides a detailed summary of discussions at the Think Tank: it does not represent regulatory guidance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 76 FR 10771 - Hazardous Materials: Limiting the Use of Electronic Devices by Highway

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ..., Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 1200 New Jersey... of Hazardous Materials Safety is the Federal safety authority for the transportation of hazardous materials by air, rail, highway, and water. Under the Federal hazardous materials transportation...

  19. Education for Highway Engineering and Highway Transport. Bulletin, 1920, No. 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1921

    1921-01-01

    On May 14-15, in Washington, a Conference on Education for Highway Engineering and Highway Transport was held. This was attended by about 75 highway engineers, deans and supervisors of engineering in colleges, universities, and technical schools, National, State, and County highway commissioners, and men interested in highway and automotive…

  20. Rehabilitating asphalt highways

    SciTech Connect

    Butalia, T.S.

    2007-07-01

    Coal fly ash has been used on two Ohio full-depth reclamation projects in Delaware and Warren. The object of the project carried out with the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science at Ohio State University is to demonstrate the effective use of Class fly ash in combination with lime or lime kiln dust in the full depth reclamation of asphalt pavements. The article describes the mixes used for the highway reconstruction of part of Section Line Road Delaware County and of a road in Warren County. During construction the pavement sections were instrumented with several structural and environmental monitoring devices and data is being collected on a quarterly basis. Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) tests to measure load defection behaviour, resilient of pavement layers and soil and base structural layer coefficient are being carried out twice a year. It was shown that use of fly ash increased the elastic modulus of base layers. This article first appeared in the Feb/May 2007 issue of Asphalt Contractor. 4 photos.

  1. Safety Grooving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Safety grooving, the cutting of grooves in concrete to increase traction and prevent injury, was first developed to reduce aircraft accidents on wet runways. Represented by the International Grooving and Grinding Association (IG&GA), the industry expanded into highway and pedestrian applications. The technique originated at Langley, which assisted in testing the grooving at airports and on highways. Skidding was reduced, stopping distance decreased, and a vehicle's cornering ability on curves was increased. The process has been extended to animal holding pens, steps, parking lots and other potentially slippery surfaces.

  2. Establishing research priorities for patient safety in emergency medicine: a multidisciplinary consensus panel.

    PubMed

    Plint, Amy C; Stang, Antonia S; Calder, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Patient safety in the context of emergency medicine is a relatively new field of study. To date, no broad research agenda for patient safety in emergency medicine has been established. The objective of this study was to establish patient safety-related research priorities for emergency medicine. These priorities would provide a foundation for high-quality research, important direction to both researchers and health-care funders, and an essential step in improving health-care safety and patient outcomes in the high-risk emergency department (ED) setting. A four-phase consensus procedure with a multidisciplinary expert panel was organized to identify, assess, and agree on research priorities for patient safety in emergency medicine. The 19-member panel consisted of clinicians, administrators, and researchers from adult and pediatric emergency medicine, patient safety, pharmacy, and mental health; as well as representatives from patient safety organizations. In phase 1, we developed an initial list of potential research priorities by electronically surveying a purposeful and convenience sample of patient safety experts, ED clinicians, administrators, and researchers from across North America using contact lists from multiple organizations. We used simple content analysis to remove duplication and categorize the research priorities identified by survey respondents. Our expert panel reached consensus on a final list of research priorities through an in-person meeting (phase 3) and two rounds of a modified Delphi process (phases 2 and 4). After phases 1 and 2, 66 unique research priorities were identified for expert panel review. At the end of phase 4, consensus was reached for 15 research priorities. These priorities represent four themes: (1) methods to identify patient safety issues (five priorities), (2) understanding human and environmental factors related to patient safety (four priorities), (3) the patient perspective (one priority), and (4) interventions for

  3. Bridging the divide between fire safety research and fighting fire safely: How do we convey research innovation to contribute more effectively to wildland firefighter safety?

    Treesearch

    Theodore Ted Adams; Bret W. Butler; Sara Brown; Vita Wright; Anne Black

    2017-01-01

    Creating a safe workplace for wildland firefighters has long been at the centre of discussion for researchers and practitioners. The goal of wildland fire safety research has been to protect operational firefighters, yet its contributions often fall short of potential because much is getting lost in the translation of peer-reviewed results to potential and intended...

  4. Research Lasers and Air Traffic Safety: Issues, Concerns and Responsibilities of the Research Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nessler, Phillip J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The subject of outdoor use of lasers relative to air traffic has become a diverse and dynamic topic. During the past several decades, the use of lasers in outdoor research activities have increased significantly. Increases in the outdoor use of lasers and increases in air traffic densities have changed the levels of risk involved. To date there have been no documented incidents of air traffic interference from research lasers; however, incidents involving display lasers have shown a marked increase. As a result of the national response to these incidents, new concerns over lasers have arisen. Through the efforts of the SAE G-10T Laser Safety Hazards Subcommittee and the ANSI Z136.6 development committee, potential detrimental effects to air traffic beyond the traditional eye damage concerns have been identified. An increased emphasis from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Center for Devices and Radiological Hazards (CDRH), and the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) along with increased concern by the public have resulted in focused scrutiny of potential hazards presented by lasers. The research community needs to rethink the traditional methods of risk evaluation and application of protective measures. The best current approach to assure adequate protection of air traffic is the application of viable hazard and risk analysis and the use of validated protective measures. Standards making efforts and regulatory development must be supported by the research community to assure that reasonable measures are developed. Without input, standards and regulations can be developed that are not compatible with the needs of the research community. Finally, support is needed for the continued development and validation of protective measures.

  5. National Safety Council

    MedlinePlus

    ... Introduction Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Journey to Safety Excellence Join the ... Safety Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Journey to Safety Excellence Join the ...

  6. 23 CFR 752.5 - Safety rest areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Safety rest areas. 752.5 Section 752.5 Highways FEDERAL... DEVELOPMENT § 752.5 Safety rest areas. (a) Safety rest areas should provide facilities reasonably necessary... may be provided in conjunction with a safety rest area at such locations where accommodations are...

  7. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  8. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  9. The Clinical Practice Research Datalink for drug safety in pregnancy research: an overview.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Rachel; Snowball, Julia; Sammon, Cormac; de Vries, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    Medicine use during pregnancy is common; however the safety of medicine use during pregnancy is largely unknown when a medicine comes to market. Electronic healthcare databases, including the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), are increasingly being used for post-marketing surveillance in this field. The CPRD contains anonymised, longitudinal medical records routinely collected in primary care. Using CPRD data it is possible to identify medical records indicative of pregnancy, including pregnancy losses. Data on prescriptions issued can be used to determine maternal exposure and for about 80% of pregnancies it is possible to link the mother's medical record to the medical record of the child. Data in the medical records of the mother and child can then be used to identify adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital malformations. This paper describes some of the complexities involved in using CPRD data for pregnancy related research and discusses some of its strengths and limitations.

  10. Proceedings of the twenty-sixth annual Institute on Mining Health, Safety and Research

    SciTech Connect

    Tinney, G.R.; Bacho, A.; Karmis, M.

    1995-12-31

    The proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Institute on Mining Health, Safety and Research are presented. The Conference was held in Blacksburg, Virginia on August 28-30, 1995 and covered such topics as themes of change, miner`s safety, personal and corporate liability, behavioral changes and positive reinforcement, and meeting health and safety objectives in mining operations. A separate abstract was prepared for the thirteen papers for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. From Driver Safety to Lifelong Learning: Some Early Research Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapper, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Although Arthur Cropley is best known today for his work on creativity and education, in the early part of his career he made substantial contributions to the understanding of driving behavior and traffic safety that had important implications for public policy and legislation. He also helped develop an approach to attitude measurement, combining…

  12. Safety in Science Classrooms: What Research and Best Practice Say.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Sandra S.; Westerlund, Julie F.; Stephenson, Amanda L.; Nelson, Nancy C.; Nyland, Cynthia K.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the National Science Education Standards for science classrooms and gives examples of practice in the following areas: overcrowding, class size, individual workspaces and workstations, teacher preparation, discipline, hiring practices, scheduling, safety audits, and facilities and equipment. (Contains 44 references.) (SK)

  13. From Driver Safety to Lifelong Learning: Some Early Research Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapper, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Although Arthur Cropley is best known today for his work on creativity and education, in the early part of his career he made substantial contributions to the understanding of driving behavior and traffic safety that had important implications for public policy and legislation. He also helped develop an approach to attitude measurement, combining…

  14. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A. Salehi

    2004-09-30

    This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from July 1, 2004 to September 30, 2004. Activity during this period included preparation of a CD containing the FEM3a FORTRAN code for distribution and organization of an LNG safety workshop. Contract negotiation between GTI and University of Arkansas continued.

  15. Assuring safety without animal testing: Unilever's ongoing research programme to deliver novel ways to assure consumer safety.

    PubMed

    Westmoreland, Carl; Carmichael, Paul; Dent, Matt; Fentem, Julia; MacKay, Cameron; Maxwell, Gavin; Pease, Camilla; Reynolds, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Assuring consumer safety without the generation of new animal data is currently a considerable challenge. However, through the application of new technologies and the further development of risk-based approaches for safety assessment, we remain confident it is ultimately achievable. For many complex, multi-organ consumer safety endpoints, the development, evaluation and application of new, non-animal approaches is hampered by a lack of biological understanding of the underlying mechanistic processes involved. The enormity of this scientific challenge should not be underestimated. To tackle this challenge a substantial research programme was initiated by Unilever in 2004 to critically evaluate the feasibility of a new conceptual approach based upon the following key components: 1.Developing new, exposure-driven risk assessment approaches. 2.Developing new biological (in vitro) and computer-based (in silico) predictive models. 3.Evaluating the applicability of new technologies for generating data (e.g. "omics", informatics) and for integrating new types of data (e.g. systems approaches) for risk-based safety assessment. Our research efforts are focussed in the priority areas of skin allergy, cancer and general toxicity (including inhaled toxicity). In all of these areas, a long-term investment is essential to increase the scientific understanding of the underlying biology and molecular mechanisms that we believe will ultimately form a sound basis for novel risk assessment approaches. Our research programme in these priority areas consists of in-house research as well as Unilever-sponsored academic research, involvement in EU-funded projects (e.g. Sens-it-iv, Carcinogenomics), participation in cross-industry collaborative research (e.g. Colipa, EPAA) and ongoing involvement with other scientific initiatives on non-animal approaches to risk assessment (e.g. UK NC3Rs, US "Human Toxicology Project" consortium).

  16. Highways and habitat: managing habitat connectivity and landscape permeability for wildlife.

    Treesearch

    Jonathan. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    Millions of miles of highway crisscross the United States . Highways fragment the landscape, affecting the distribution of animal populations and limiting the ability of individuals to disperse between those populations. Moreover, animal-vehicle collisions are a serious hazard to wildlife, not to mention people.Researchers at the PNW Research Station in...

  17. 23 CFR 970.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 970.212 Section 970.212 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems §...

  18. An observational study of safety belt use among taxi drivers in Boston.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, William G; Park, Johnny Lee; Olshaker, Jonathan

    2005-06-01

    Although safety belt legislation exists for drivers in Massachusetts, there is an exemption for taxicab drivers. According to the most recent data from the Governor's Highway Safety Bureau, the observed safety belt use rate of drivers in Massachusetts is 64%. However, the safety belt use among taxicab drivers in Boston is unknown. An observational study was conducted to assess the prevalence of safety belt use among taxicab drivers in Boston. We compared our findings with state-level data obtained from the Governor's Highway Safety Bureau. Research staff made observations of taxicabs arriving at various sites within Boston (Logan Airport, Back Bay subway entrance, Government Center, and a hospital in Boston). The methodology used in this study was adapted from MASS-Safe, the Traffic Safety Research Program of the Governor's Highway Safety Bureau. In brief, research staff assessed the use of shoulder safety belts worn by taxicab drivers in Boston. Researchers observed traffic flow coming from a single direction at each observation site. These observers were instructed to include only taxicabs in motion, approaching in the nearest lane to the sidewalk. Two hundred fifty taxicabs were observed during the study period. Of these, 247 taxicab drivers were men (98.9%), whereas 3 were women (1.2%). Overall, 17 of 250 taxicab drivers (6.8%; 95% confidence interval 3.9% to 9.7%) wore safety belts, whereas 233 (93.2%) did not. The safety belt use among taxicab drivers in Boston is 6.8%, markedly lower than the state-level safety belt use of other drivers in Massachusetts. Stronger safety belt use legislation in Massachusetts may help to improve safety belt use among taxi drivers in Boston.

  19. A research agenda for increasing safety belt use in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, James; Preusser, David F; Shults, Ruth A

    2004-01-01

    On November 13-14, 2003, a symposium on high-visibility safety belt use enforcement in Raleigh, NC: (a) celebrated the 10th anniversary of North Carolina's Click It or Ticket program; (b) documented current knowledge regarding safety belt use; (c) proposed strategies to increase use further; and (d) discussed research to support these strategies.

  20. Report to NASA Committee on Aircraft Operating Problems Relative to Aviation Safety Engineering and Research Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The following report highlights some of the work accomplished by the Aviation Safety Engineering and Research Division of the Flight Safety Foundations since the last report to the NASA Committee on Aircraft Operating Problems on 22 May 1963. The information presented is in summary form. Additional details may be provided upon request of the reports themselves may be obtained from AvSER.

  1. Risks, designs, and research for fire safety in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Urban, David

    1991-01-01

    Current fire protection for spacecraft relies mainly on fire prevention through the use of nonflammable materials and strict storage controls of other materials. The Shuttle also has smoke detectors and fire extinguishers, using technology similar to aircraft practices. While experience has shown that the current fire protection is adequate, future improvements in fire safety technology to meet the challenges of long duration space missions, such as the Space Station Freedom, are essential. All spacecraft fire protection systems, however, must deal with the unusual combustion characteristics and operational problems in the low gravity environment. The features of low gravity combustion that affect spacecraft fire safety, and the issues in fire protection for Freedom that must be addressed eventually to provide effective and conservative fire protection systems are discussed.

  2. New research opportunities for roadside safety barriers improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantisani, Giuseppe; Di Mascio, Paola; Polidori, Carlo

    2017-09-01

    Among the major topics regarding the protection of roads, restraint systems still represent a big opportunity in order to increase safety performances. When accidents happen, in fact, the infrastructure can substantially contribute to the reduction of consequences if its marginal spaces are well designed and/or effective restraint systems are installed there. Nevertheless, basic concepts and technology of road safety barriers have not significantly changed for the last two decades. The paper proposes a new approach to the study aimed to define possible enhancements of restraint safety systems performances, by using new materials and defining innovative design principles. In particular, roadside systems can be developed with regard to vehicle-barrier interaction, vehicle-oriented design (included low-mass and extremely low-mass vehicles), traffic suitability, user protection, working width reduction. In addition, thanks to sensors embedded into the barriers, it is also expected to deal with new challenges related to the guidance of automatic vehicles and I2V communication.

  3. [Research on infrared safety protection system for machine tool].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuan-Ji; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Yan, Hui-Ying; Wang, Song-De

    2008-04-01

    In order to ensure personal safety and prevent injury accident in machine tool operation, an infrared machine tool safety system was designed with infrared transmitting-receiving module, memory self-locked relay and voice recording-playing module. When the operator does not enter the danger area, the system has no response. Once the operator's whole or part of body enters the danger area and shades the infrared beam, the system will alarm and output an control signal to the machine tool executive element, and at the same time, the system makes the machine tool emergency stop to prevent equipment damaged and person injured. The system has a module framework, and has many advantages including safety, reliability, common use, circuit simplicity, maintenance convenience, low power consumption, low costs, working stability, easy debugging, vibration resistance and interference resistance. It is suitable for being installed and used in different machine tools such as punch machine, pour plastic machine, digital control machine, armor plate cutting machine, pipe bending machine, oil pressure machine etc.

  4. Research Priorities in the Field of Patient Safety in Iran: Results of a Delphi Study.

    PubMed

    Ravaghi, Hamid; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat

    2015-06-12

    There is inadequate evidence to direct and support patient safety practice. Therefore, identifying research priorities in this field is relevant for many stakeholders. This study, which was built on the World Health Organization work, aimed to identify and prioritize research topics for patient safety in Iran. A 3-round Modified Delphi process was used. We purposefully recruited a panel of 45 policy makers, planners, health care managers and staff, and academic members with experience or expertise in patient safety research. A review of the literature was used to develop the first questionnaire, including 24 research topics. Respondents were asked to rate their agreement with each research topic and propose new topics. Based on the results of round 1, the second questionnaire was developed and the respondents were requested to rate 45 research topics and also put similar research topics in the same groups. Given the responses of round 2, the third questionnaire including a list of 45 research priorities categorized in 4 groups was developed. Respondents were asked to reflect their opinions. Content analysis was used to analyze round 1 data and descriptive statistics for round 2 and round 3 data. Forty-five identified research topics in round 1 prioritized and grouped in subsequent rounds. Among 4 research groups, the extent and epidemiology threatening patient safety group received the highest priority; and among research topics, adverse drug events and its epidemiology were the top-ranked research priorities. In addition to the priorities identified in previous work, more research priorities that reflect important and needed issue related to patient safety, especially in Iran, were recognized. This priority research list, which most stakeholders agree with it, can serve as a blueprint for patient safety research.

  5. Posted and free-flow speeds for rural multilane highways in Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.K.; Wu, C.H.; Sarasua, W.; Daniel, J.

    1999-12-01

    The National Highway System Designation Act of 1995 repealed the national maximum speed limit. As a result, approximately 70% of the US has increased posted speed limits to 104.7 km/h (65 mi/h) for select multilane highways. This study evaluates the application of the Highway Capacity Manual multilane highway rules-of-thumb for free-flow speed to both an 88.6 and a 104.7 km/h (55 and 65 mi/h) posted speed limit condition. The paper further quantifies the observed relationship between the posted speed limit and observed free-flow speed on rural multilane highways in Georgia. Specific issues evaluated include heavy vehicle influence, traffic volumes, access point density, and vertical grade. The research indicates that the current Highway Capacity Manual rule-of-thumb free-flow estimation technique based on posted speed limit does not adequately estimate free-flow speed for the higher speed limit condition.

  6. Safety and science at sea: connecting science research settings to the classroom through live video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, E.; Peart, L. W.

    2011-12-01

    Many science teachers start the year off with classroom safety topics. Annual repetition helps with mastery of this important and basic knowledge, while helping schools to meet their legal obligations for safe lab science. Although these lessons are necessary, they are often topical, rarely authentic and relatively dull. Interesting connections can, however, be drawn between the importance of safety in science classrooms and the importance of safety in academic laboratories, fieldwork, shipboard research, and commercial research. Teachers can leverage these connections through live video interactions with scientists in the field, thereby creating an authentic learning environment. During the School of Rock 2009, a professional teacher research experience aboard the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program's research vessel JOIDES Resolution, safety and nature-of-science curricula were created to help address this need. By experimenting with various topics and locations on the ship that were accessible and applicable to middle school learning, 43 highly visual "safety signs" and activities were identified and presented "live" by graduate students, teachers, scientists; the ship's mates, doctor and technical staff. Students were exposed to realistic science process skills along with safety content from the world's only riserless, deep-sea drilling research vessel. The once-in-a-lifetime experience caused the students' eyes to brighten behind their safety glasses, especially as they recognized the same eye wash station and safety gear they have to wear and attended a ship's fire and safety drill along side scientists in hard hats and personal floatation devices. This collaborative and replicable live vide approach will connect basic safety content and nature-of-science process skills for a memorable and authentic learning experience for students.

  7. Safety Analysis Report: X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gmuer, N.F.; Thomlinson, W.

    1990-02-01

    This report contains a safety analysis for the X17B2 beamline synchrotron medical research facility. Health hazards, risk assessment and building systems are discussed. Reference is made to transvenous coronary angiography. (LSP)

  8. 78 FR 36192 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Traumatic Injury Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... CONTACT: Dawn Castillo, NIOSH, Division of Safety Research, Mailstop H-1900, 1095 Willowdale Road, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505-2888. Ms. Castillo may be contacted at (304) 285- 5894 or Email at DCastillo...

  9. Light-water-reactor safety research program. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, W.E.; Kyger, J.A.

    1980-08-01

    This progress report summarizes the Argonne National Laboratory work performed during January, February, and March 1980 on water-reactor-safety problems. The research and development area covered is Transient Fuel Response and Fission-Product Release.

  10. 78 FR 75924 - Request for Nominations of Candidates To Serve on the Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... on the Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory Committee (MSHRAC), National Institute for... Health Research Advisory Committee (MSHRAC), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH... committee advises the NIOSH Director on mining safety and health research and prevention programs. The...

  11. Environment Health & Safety Research Program. Organization and 1979-1980 Publications

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    This document was prepared to assist readers in understanding the organization of Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and the organization and functions of the Environment, Health and Safety Research Program Office. Telephone numbers of the principal management staff are provided. Also included is a list of 1979 and 1980 publications reporting on work performed in the Environment, Health and Safety Research Program, as well as a list of papers submitted for publication.

  12. Impacts of new highways and subsequent landscape urbanization on stream habitat and biota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, A.P.; Angermeier, P.L.; Rosenberger, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    New highways are pervasive, pernicious threats to stream ecosystems because of their short- and long-term physical, chemical, and biological impacts. Unfortunately, standard environmental impact statements (EISs) and environmental assessments (EAs) focus narrowly on the initial direct impacts of construction and ignore other long-term indirect impacts. More thorough consideration of highway impacts, and, ultimately, better land use decisions may be facilitated by conceptualizing highway development in three stages: initial highway construction, highway presence, and eventual landscape urbanization. Highway construction is characterized by localized physical disturbances, which generally subside through time. In contrast, highway presence and landscape urbanization are characterized by physical and chemical impacts that are temporally persistent. Although the impacts of highway presence and landscape urbanization are of similar natures, the impacts are of a greater magnitude and more widespread in the urbanization phase. Our review reveals that the landscape urbanization stage is clearly the greatest threat to stream habitat and biota, as stream ecosystems are sensitive to even low levels (<10%) of watershed urban development. Although highway construction is ongoing, pervasive, and has severe biological consequences, we found few published investigations of its impacts on streams. Researchers know little about the occurrence, loading rates, and biotic responses to specific contaminants in highway runoff. Also needed is a detailed understanding of how highway crossings, especially culverts, affect fish populations via constraints on movement and how highway networks alter natural regimes (e.g., streamflow, temperature). Urbanization research topics that may yield especially useful results include a) the relative importance and biological effects of specific components of urban development - e.g., commercial or residential; b) the scenarios under which impacts are

  13. Quantitative Assessment of Statistical Reviews of Patient Safety Research Articles.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Jeffrey R; Dexter, Franklin; Espy, Jennifer L; Brull, Sorin J

    2017-06-06

    For 8.5 consecutive years, all patient safety articles of a journal underwent statistical review before publication. We sought to establish the prevalence of statistical themes in the statistical reviews, consideration of contemporary statistical methods, and their associations with time to journal receipt of authors' revision. An initial set of statistical themes was created using the statistical editor's notes. For example, for the statistical theme of "CONSORT checklist," the search term needed was "CONSORT." A complete (exhaustive) list of additional themes was obtained inductively. Among the 273 subsequent reviews for manuscripts that were ultimately accepted, the number of paragraphs that included a theme of a statistical method was only weakly associated with longer revision times (Kendall τ = 0.139 ± 0.039, P = 0.0004). Among the total 3274 paragraphs of statistical reviews, 72.2% did not include a theme of a statistical method (e.g., the editor instead asked the authors to clarify what statistical method had been used) (95% confidence interval [CI] = 70.6%-73.7%, P < 0.0001 versus 50%).Among the 207 manuscripts with a review that included a statistical method, 47.3% included a contemporary topic (e.g., generalized pivotal methods) (95% CI = 40.4%-54.4%). However, among the 911 corresponding paragraphs of statistical review comments, only 16.0% included a contemporary theme (95% CI = 13.7%-18.6%). The revised versions of patient safety articles, which are eventually to be accepted for publication, have many statistical limitations especially in the reporting (writing) of basic statistical methods and results. The results suggest a need for education of patient safety investigators to include statistical writing.

  14. Research requirements to improve safety of civil helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, K. T.

    1977-01-01

    Helicopter and fixed-wing accident data were reviewed and major accident causal factors were established. The impact of accidents on insurance rates was examined and the differences in fixed-wing and helicopter accident costs discussed. The state of the art in civil helicopter safety was compared to military helicopters. Goals were established based on incorporation of known technology and achievable improvements that require development, as well as administrative-type changes such as the impact of improved operational planning, training, and human factors effects. Specific R and D recommendations are provided with an estimation of the payoffs, timing, and development costs.

  15. 49 CFR 27.75 - Federal Highway Administration-highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... wheelchairs, pursuant to section 228 of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1973 (23 U.S.C. 402(b)(1)(F)). (3... wheelchair users, within a three-year period after the effective date of this part. Other rest...

  16. 49 CFR 27.75 - Federal Highway Administration-highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... wheelchairs, pursuant to section 228 of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1973 (23 U.S.C. 402(b)(1)(F)). (3... wheelchair users, within a three-year period after the effective date of this part. Other rest...

  17. 49 CFR 27.75 - Federal Highway Administration-highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... wheelchairs, pursuant to section 228 of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1973 (23 U.S.C. 402(b)(1)(F)). (3... wheelchair users, within a three-year period after the effective date of this part. Other rest...

  18. Active transportation: do current traffic safety policies protect non-motorists?

    PubMed

    Mader, Emily M; Zick, Cathleen D

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the impact that state traffic safety regulations have on non-motorist fatality rates. Data obtained from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) were analyzed through a pooled time series cross-sectional model using fixed effects regression for all 50 states from 1999 to 2009. Two dependent variables were used in separate models measuring annual state non-motorist fatalities per million population, and the natural log of state non-motorist fatalities. Independent variables measuring traffic policies included state expenditures for highway law enforcement and safety per capita; driver cell phone use regulations; graduated driver license regulations; driver blood alcohol concentration regulations; bike helmet regulations; and seat belt regulations. Other control variables included percent of all vehicle miles driven that are urban and mean per capita alcohol consumption per year. Non-motorist traffic safety was positively impacted by state highway law enforcement and safety expenditures per capita, with a decrease in non-motorist fatalities occurring with increased spending. Per capita consumption of alcohol also influenced non-motorist fatalities, with higher non-motorist fatalities occurring with higher per capita consumption of alcohol. Other traffic safety covariates did not appear to have a significant impact on non-motorist fatality rates in the models. Our research suggests that increased expenditures on state highway and traffic safety and the initiation/expansion of programs targeted at curbing both driver and non-motorist intoxication are a starting point for the implementation of traffic safety policies that reduce risks for non-motorists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Proceedings of Twenty-Seventh Annual Institute on Mining Health, Safety and Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bockosh, G.R.; Langton, J.; Karmis, M.

    1996-12-31

    This Proceedings contains the presentations made during the program of the Twenty-Seventh Annual Institute on Mining Health, Safety and Research held at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, on August 26-28, 1996. The Twenty-Seventh Annual Institute on Mining, Health, Safety and Research was the latest in a series of conferences held at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, cosponsored by the Mine Safety and Health Administration, United States Department of Labor, and the Pittsburgh Research Center, United States Department of Energy (formerly part of the Bureau of Mines, U. S. Department of Interior). The Institute provides an information forum for mine operators, managers, superintendents, safety directors, engineers, inspectors, researchers, teachers, state agency officials, and others with a responsible interest in the important field of mining health, safety and research. In particular, the Institute is designed to help mine operating personnel gain a broader knowledge and understanding of the various aspects of mining health and safety, and to present them with methods of control and solutions developed through research. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  20. Light water reactor safety research program. Volume 12: quarterly report, Apr-Jun 79

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Light Water Reactor Safety Research Program during the 2nd quarter of 1979. Specifically, the report summarizes progress in five major areas of research. They are: (1) the molten core/concrete interactions study; (2) steam explosion research phenomena; (3) statistical LOCA analysis; (4) UHI model development; (5) two-phase jet loads.

  1. Policy Research and Child Passenger Safety Legislation: A Case Study and Experimental Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Stephen B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Research findings have been used by states to formulate legislation to increase child passenger safety. Case studies from Kansas and Illinois are presented. The process is most successful when researchers are sensitive to the policy making process. The implications for the use of psychological research findings are discussed. (VM)

  2. 77 FR 60042 - Safety Zone; Research Vessel SIKULIAQ Launch, Marinette, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Research Vessel SIKULIAQ Launch, Marinette... vessels from a portion of Menominee River during the launching of the Research vessel SIKULIAQ, on October... the hazards associated with the launching of this 261 foot, research vessel. DATES: This rule will...

  3. The moral imperative of designating patient safety and quality care as a national nursing research priority.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, research studies conducted respectively in the USA, UK and Australia have found that between 4 and 16.6 per cent of patients suffer from some kind of harm (including permanent disability and death) as a result of human errors and adverse events while in hospital. It has been further estimated that approximately 50 per cent of these human errors/adverse events resulting in harm could have been prevented. In response to the significant financial, social, and political implications of these figures, a range of processes have been put in place in an attempt to improve patient safety and quality care in Australia. Nonetheless, it is evident that more can be done to improve the status quo. One process that warrants consideration is that of peak health professional groups and organisations providing active leadership in the promotion of patient safety, such as by making a visible and recognisable commitment to patient safety as a strategic research priority area. In this paper it is contended that, given the moral importance of patient safety and quality care in nursing and related health care domains, the inseparable link between nursing practice and patient safety, and the central role that research has to play in driving safety improvements in these domains, it is morally imperative that the nursing profession gives sustained and focussed public attention to patient safety and quality care as a national research priority.

  4. Evaluation of a radar-based proximity warning system for off-highway dump trucks.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Todd

    2006-01-01

    A radar-based proximity warning system was evaluated by researchers at the Spokane Research Laboratory of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to determine if the system would be effective in detecting objects in the blind spots of an off-highway dump truck. An average of five fatalities occur each year in surface mines as a result of an equipment operator not being aware of a smaller vehicle, person or change in terrain near the equipment. Sensor technology that can detect such obstacles and that also is designed for surface mining applications is rare. Researchers worked closely with the radar system manufacturer to test and modify the system on large, off-highway dump trucks at a surface mine over a period of 2 years. The final system was thoroughly evaluated by recording video images from a camera on the rear of the truck and by recording all alarms from the rear-mounted radar. Data show that the system reliably detected small vehicles, berms, people and other equipment. However, alarms from objects that posed no immediate danger were common, supporting the assertion that sensor-based systems for proximity warning should be used in combination with other devices, such as cameras, that would allow the operator to check the source of any alarm.

  5. Safety Issues at the DOE Test and Research Reactors. A Report to the U.S. Department of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.

    This report provides an assessment of safety issues at the Department of Energy (DOE) test and research reactors. Part A identifies six safety issues of the reactors. These issues include the safety design philosophy, the conduct of safety reviews, the performance of probabilistic risk assessments, the reliance on reactor operators, the fragmented…

  6. 75 FR 50958 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcoach Definition; Occupant Crash Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK56 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcoach Definition; Occupant Crash Protection AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...: In accordance with NHTSA's 2007 Motorcoach Safety Plan and DOT's 2009 Departmental Motorcoach Safety...

  7. The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire: psychometric properties, benchmarking data, and emerging research

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, John B; Helmreich, Robert L; Neilands, Torsten B; Rowan, Kathy; Vella, Keryn; Boyden, James; Roberts, Peter R; Thomas, Eric J

    2006-01-01

    Background There is widespread interest in measuring healthcare provider attitudes about issues relevant to patient safety (often called safety climate or safety culture). Here we report the psychometric properties, establish benchmarking data, and discuss emerging areas of research with the University of Texas Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. Methods Six cross-sectional surveys of health care providers (n = 10,843) in 203 clinical areas (including critical care units, operating rooms, inpatient settings, and ambulatory clinics) in three countries (USA, UK, New Zealand). Multilevel factor analyses yielded results at the clinical area level and the respondent nested within clinical area level. We report scale reliability, floor/ceiling effects, item factor loadings, inter-factor correlations, and percentage of respondents who agree with each item and scale. Results A six factor model of provider attitudes fit to the data at both the clinical area and respondent nested within clinical area levels. The factors were: Teamwork Climate, Safety Climate, Perceptions of Management, Job Satisfaction, Working Conditions, and Stress Recognition. Scale reliability was 0.9. Provider attitudes varied greatly both within and among organizations. Results are presented to allow benchmarking among organizations and emerging research is discussed. Conclusion The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire demonstrated good psychometric properties. Healthcare organizations can use the survey to measure caregiver attitudes about six patient safety-related domains, to compare themselves with other organizations, to prompt interventions to improve safety attitudes and to measure the effectiveness of these interventions. PMID:16584553

  8. The Armstrong Institute: An Academic Institute for Patient Safety and Quality Improvement, Research, Training, and Practice.

    PubMed

    Pronovost, Peter J; Holzmueller, Christine G; Molello, Nancy E; Paine, Lori; Winner, Laura; Marsteller, Jill A; Berenholtz, Sean M; Aboumatar, Hanan J; Demski, Renee; Armstrong, C Michael

    2015-10-01

    Academic medical centers (AMCs) could advance the science of health care delivery, improve patient safety and quality improvement, and enhance value, but many centers have fragmented efforts with little accountability. Johns Hopkins Medicine, the AMC under which the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the Johns Hopkins Health System are organized, experienced similar challenges, with operational patient safety and quality leadership separate from safety and quality-related research efforts. To unite efforts and establish accountability, the Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality was created in 2011.The authors describe the development, purpose, governance, function, and challenges of the institute to help other AMCs replicate it and accelerate safety and quality improvement. The purpose is to partner with patients, their loved ones, and all interested parties to end preventable harm, continuously improve patient outcomes and experience, and eliminate waste in health care. A governance structure was created, with care mapped into seven categories, to oversee the quality and safety of all patients treated at a Johns Hopkins Medicine entity. The governance has a Patient Safety and Quality Board Committee that sets strategic goals, and the institute communicates these goals throughout the health system and supports personnel in meeting these goals. The institute is organized into 13 functional councils reflecting their behaviors and purpose. The institute works daily to build the capacity of clinicians trained in safety and quality through established programs, advance improvement science, and implement and evaluate interventions to improve the quality of care and safety of patients.

  9. Temporary Losses of Highway Capacity and Impacts on Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, S.M.

    2002-07-31

    Traffic congestion and its impacts significantly affect the nation's economic performance and the public's quality of life. In most urban areas, travel demand routinely exceeds highway capacity during peak periods. In addition, events such as crashes, vehicle breakdowns, work zones, adverse weather, and suboptimal signal timing cause temporary capacity losses, often worsening the conditions on already congested highway networks. The impacts of these temporary capacity losses include delay, reduced mobility, and reduced reliability of the highway system. They can also cause drivers to re-route or reschedule trips. Prior to this study, no nationwide estimates of temporary losses of highway capacity had been made by type of capacity-reducing event. Such information is vital to formulating sound public policies for the highway infrastructure and its operation. This study is an initial attempt to provide nationwide estimates of the capacity losses and delay caused by temporary capacity-reducing events. The objective of this study was to develop and implement methods for producing national-level estimates of the loss of capacity on the nation's highway facilities due to temporary phenomena as well as estimates of the impacts of such losses. The estimates produced by this study roughly indicate the magnitude of problems that are likely be addressed by the Congress during the next re-authorization of the Surface Transportation Programs. The scope of the study includes all urban and rural freeways and principal arterials in the nation's highway system for 1999. Specifically, this study attempts to quantify the extent of temporary capacity losses due to crashes, breakdowns, work zones, weather, and sub-optimal signal timing. These events can cause impacts such as capacity reduction, delays, trip rescheduling, rerouting, reduced mobility, and reduced reliability. This study focuses on the reduction of capacity and resulting delays caused by the temporary events mentioned

  10. NOAC monitoring, reversal agents, and post-approval safety and effectiveness evaluation: A cardiac safety research consortium think tank.

    PubMed

    Reiffel, James A; Weitz, Jeffrey I; Reilly, Paul; Kaminskas, Edvardas; Sarich, Troy; Sager, Philip; Seltzer, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    Four non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban) have been approved in the United States for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) and venous thromboembolic disease. They have been as or more effective than the prior standards of care, with less fatal or intracranial bleeding, fewer drug and dietary interactions, and greater patient convenience. Nonetheless, the absence of the ability for clinicians to assess compliance or washout with a simple laboratory test (or to adjust dosing with a similar assessment) and the absence of an antidote to rapidly stop major hemorrhage or to enhance safety in the setting of emergent or urgent surgery/procedures have been limitations to greater non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant usage and better thromboembolic prevention. Accordingly, a Cardiac Research Safety Consortium "think tank" meeting was held in February 2015 to address these concerns. This manuscript reports on the discussions held and the conclusions reached at that meeting.

  11. 78 FR 9771 - Federal Highway Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Action on Proposed Transportation Project in Illinois and Indiana AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of limitation on..., Federal Highway Administration, 3250 Executive Park Drive, Springfield, Illinois 62703, Phone: (217) 492...

  12. 25 CFR 169.28 - Public highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Public highways. 169.28 Section 169.28 Indians BUREAU OF... highways. (a) The appropriate State or local authorities may apply under the regulations in this part 169 for authority to open public highways across tribal and individually owned lands in accordance with...

  13. 32 CFR 644.421 - Highway purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Highway purposes. 644.421 Section 644.421... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.421 Highway... highway adjacent to a Government installation. If, within a period of four months after such application...

  14. 25 CFR 169.28 - Public highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public highways. 169.28 Section 169.28 Indians BUREAU OF... highways. (a) The appropriate State or local authorities may apply under the regulations in this part 169 for authority to open public highways across tribal and individually owned lands in accordance with...

  15. 32 CFR 644.421 - Highway purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Highway purposes. 644.421 Section 644.421... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.421 Highway... highway adjacent to a Government installation. If, within a period of four months after such application...

  16. 25 CFR 169.28 - Public highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Public highways. 169.28 Section 169.28 Indians BUREAU OF... highways. (a) The appropriate State or local authorities may apply under the regulations in this part 169 for authority to open public highways across tribal and individually owned lands in accordance with...

  17. 32 CFR 644.421 - Highway purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Highway purposes. 644.421 Section 644.421... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.421 Highway... highway adjacent to a Government installation. If, within a period of four months after such application...

  18. 25 CFR 169.28 - Public highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Public highways. 169.28 Section 169.28 Indians BUREAU OF... highways. (a) The appropriate State or local authorities may apply under the regulations in this part 169 for authority to open public highways across tribal and individually owned lands in accordance with...

  19. 25 CFR 169.28 - Public highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Public highways. 169.28 Section 169.28 Indians BUREAU OF... highways. (a) The appropriate State or local authorities may apply under the regulations in this part 169 for authority to open public highways across tribal and individually owned lands in accordance with...

  20. 32 CFR 644.421 - Highway purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Highway purposes. 644.421 Section 644.421... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.421 Highway... highway adjacent to a Government installation. If, within a period of four months after such application...

  1. Construction safety research in the United States: targeting the Hispanic workforce

    PubMed Central

    Brunette, M

    2004-01-01

    While it is known that Hispanics have a continuous growing participation in the construction workforce and that their fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries are higher than any other ethnic group, very little construction safety and health research has been conducted in the United States. Research that focuses on safety and health of Hispanic workers employed in the construction industry might prove beneficial in reducing injuries and promoting safe and decent workplaces for all. The purpose of this article was twofold. First, to propose a research agenda where topics such as surveillance, intervention research on high risk occupations, intervention effectiveness evaluation, design and development of effective and appropriate safety training and educational materials, and the socioeconomic impact of injuries and illnesses, are investigated among the Hispanic construction workforce. Second, to present relevant aspects inherent to this particular population that need to be incorporated into the design and development stages of any safety and health research initiative. They include the occupational, social, economic, and cultural background of Hispanic workers; use of a participatory approach, proper selection and use of translation methods; and conducting collaborative research. Certain limitations and challenges related to the availability of resources for conducting safety and health research on Hispanic workers are further discussed. PMID:15314054

  2. Construction safety research in the United States: targeting the Hispanic workforce.

    PubMed

    Brunette, M J

    2004-08-01

    While it is known that Hispanics have a continuous growing participation in the construction workforce and that their fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries are higher than any other ethnic group, very little construction safety and health research has been conducted in the United States. Research that focuses on safety and health of Hispanic workers employed in the construction industry might prove beneficial in reducing injuries and promoting safe and decent workplaces for all. The purpose of this article was twofold. First, to propose a research agenda where topics such as surveillance, intervention research on high risk occupations, intervention effectiveness evaluation, design and development of effective and appropriate safety training and educational materials, and the socioeconomic impact of injuries and illnesses, are investigated among the Hispanic construction workforce. Second, to present relevant aspects inherent to this particular population that need to be incorporated into the design and development stages of any safety and health research initiative. They include the occupational, social, economic, and cultural background of Hispanic workers; use of a participatory approach, proper selection and use of translation methods; and conducting collaborative research. Certain limitations and challenges related to the availability of resources for conducting safety and health research on Hispanic workers are further discussed.

  3. Highway runoff quality in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Berhanu Desta, Mesfin; Bruen, Michael; Higgins, Neil; Johnston, Paul

    2007-04-01

    Highway runoff has been identified as a significant source of contaminants that impact on the receiving aquatic environment. Several studies have been completed documenting the characteristics of highway runoff and its implication to the receiving water in the UK and elsewhere. However, very little information is available for Ireland. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of highway runoff from major Irish roads under the current road drainage design and maintenance practice. Four sites were selected from the M4 and the M7 motorways outside Dublin. Automatic samplers and continuous monitoring devices were deployed to sample and monitor the runoff quality and quantity. More than 42 storm events were sampled and analysed for the heavy metals Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, 16 US EPA specified PAHs, volatile organic compounds including MTBE, and a number of conventional pollutants. All samples were analysed based on the Standard Methods. Significant quantities of solids and heavy metals were detected at all sites. PAHs were not detected very often, but when detected the values were different from quantities observed in UK highways. The heavy metal concentrations were strongly related to the total suspended solids concentrations, which has a useful implication for runoff management strategies. No strong relationship was discovered between pollutant concentrations and event characteristics such as rainfall intensity, antecedent dry days (ADD), or rainfall depth (volume). This study has demonstrated that runoff from Irish motorways was not any cleaner than in the UK although the traffic volume at the monitored sites was relatively smaller. This calls for a site specific investigation of highway runoff quality before adopting a given management strategy.

  4. 23 CFR 752.5 - Safety rest areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Safety rest areas. 752.5 Section 752.5 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE... design year. Expansion and modernization of older existing rest areas that do not provide adequate...

  5. The Oak Ridge Research Reactor: safety analysis: Volume 2, supplement 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, S.S.

    1986-11-01

    The Oak Ridge Research Reactor Safety Analysis was last updated via ORNL-4169, Vol. 2, Supplement 1, in May of 1978. Since that date, several changes have been effected through the change-memo system described below. While these changes have involved the cooling system, the electrical system, and the reactor instrumentation and controls, they have not, for the most part, presented new or unreviewed safety questions. However, some of the changes have been based on questions or recommendations stemming from safety reviews or from reactor events at other sites. This paper discusses those changes which were judged to be safety related and which include revisions to the syphon-break system and changes related to seismic considerations which were very recently completed. The maximum hypothetical accident postulated in the original safety analysis requires dynamic containment and filtered flow for compliance with 10CFR100 limits at the site boundary.

  6. Make safety awareness a priority: Use a login software in your research facility

    DOE PAGES

    Camino, Fernando E.

    2017-01-21

    We report on a facility login software, whose objective is to improve safety in multi-user research facilities. Its most important safety features are: 1) blocks users from entering the lab after being absent for more than a predetermined number of days; 2) gives users a random safety quiz question, which they need to answer satisfactorily in order to use the facility; 3) blocks unauthorized users from using the facility afterhours; and 4) displays the current users in the facility. Besides restricting access to unauthorized users, the software keeps users mindful of key safety concepts. In addition, integration of the softwaremore » with a door controller system can convert it into an effective physical safety mechanism. Depending on DOE approval, the code may be available as open source.« less

  7. Cultural safety, diversity and the servicer user and carer movement in mental health research.

    PubMed

    Cox, Leonie G; Simpson, Alan

    2015-12-01

    This study will be of interest to anyone concerned with a critical appraisal of mental health service users' and carers' participation in research collaboration and with the potential of the postcolonial paradigm of cultural safety to contribute to the service user research (SUR) movement. The history and nature of the mental health field and its relationship to colonial processes provokes a consideration of whether cultural safety could focus attention on diversity, power imbalance, cultural dominance and structural inequality, identified as barriers and tensions in SUR. We consider these issues in the context of state-driven approaches towards SUR in planning and evaluation and the concurrent rise of the SUR movement in the UK and Australia, societies with an intimate involvement in processes of colonisation. We consider the principles and motivations underlying cultural safety and SUR in the context of the policy agenda informing SUR. We conclude that while both cultural safety and SUR are underpinned by social constructionism constituting similarities in principles and intent, cultural safety has additional dimensions. Hence, we call on researchers to use the explicitly political and self-reflective process of cultural safety to think about and address issues of diversity, power and social justice in research collaboration.

  8. Engaging policy makers in road safety research in Malaysia: a theoretical and contextual analysis.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nhan T; Hyder, Adnan A; Kulanthayan, Subramaniam; Singh, Suret; Umar, R S Radin

    2009-04-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a growing public health problem that must be addressed through evidence-based interventions including policy-level changes such as the enactment of legislation to mandate specific behaviors and practices. Policy makers need to be engaged in road safety research to ensure that road safety policies are grounded in scientific evidence. This paper examines the strategies used to engage policy makers and other stakeholder groups and discusses the challenges that result from a multi-disciplinary, inter-sectoral collaboration. A framework for engaging policy makers in research was developed and applied to describe an example of collective road safety research in Malaysia. Key components of this framework include readiness, assessment, planning, implementation/evaluation, and policy development/sustainability. The case study of a collaborative intervention trial for the prevention of motorcycle crashes and deaths in Malaysia serves as a model for policy engagement by road safety and injury researchers. The analytic description of this research process in Malaysia demonstrates that the framework, through its five stages, can be used as a tool to guide the integration of needed research evidence into policy for road safety and injury prevention.

  9. 23 CFR 635.108 - Health and safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Health and safety. 635.108 Section 635.108 Highways... CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.108 Health and safety. Contracts for projects shall... laws governing safety, health and sanitation; and (b) To require that the contractor shall provide all...

  10. 23 CFR 635.108 - Health and safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health and safety. 635.108 Section 635.108 Highways... CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.108 Health and safety. Contracts for projects shall... laws governing safety, health and sanitation; and (b) To require that the contractor shall provide all...

  11. 23 CFR 635.108 - Health and safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and safety. 635.108 Section 635.108 Highways... CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.108 Health and safety. Contracts for projects shall... laws governing safety, health and sanitation; and (b) To require that the contractor shall provide...

  12. 23 CFR 635.108 - Health and safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Health and safety. 635.108 Section 635.108 Highways... CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.108 Health and safety. Contracts for projects shall... laws governing safety, health and sanitation; and (b) To require that the contractor shall provide...

  13. 23 CFR 635.108 - Health and safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health and safety. 635.108 Section 635.108 Highways... CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.108 Health and safety. Contracts for projects shall... laws governing safety, health and sanitation; and (b) To require that the contractor shall provide...

  14. 76 FR 74723 - New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 575 RIN 2127-AK51 New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of...

  15. Investigation on the role of traffic volume in accidents on urban highways.

    PubMed

    Ayati, Esmaeel; Abbasi, Ehsan

    2011-06-01

    Roadway safety is a major concern for the general public and public agencies, as roadway crashes claim many lives and cause substantial economic loss each year. In Iran, a large number of vehicles are involved in road accidents each year, which cause many deaths and extensive property damage; such accidents are among the major causes of death and disability in the country. To reduce roadway accidents, the factors that affect the occurrence and severity of accidents should be scrutinized to prevent or reduce their effect. The method that many researchers have adopted to determine the effective parameters surrounding road accidents in recent years is through statistical modeling of accidents. In this article, the role of different kinds of vehicles in traffic flow are investigated separately in terms of the likelihood of crashes on urban highways, and the vehicles are divided into three groups: passenger cars, heavy vehicles, and light non-passenger car vehicles. Poisson and negative binomial (NB) regression models were applied to model the accidents in this research, which were categorized into two groups: no injury (property damage only) accidents and more severe (injury and fatal) accidents. Ultimately, we conclude that light non-passenger car vehicles (i.e., taxis and motorcycles) play the largest role in the occurrence of crashes on urban highways for both types of accidents. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. 40 CFR 1051.640 - What special provisions apply for custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway motorcycles? 1051.640 Section 1051.640... apply for custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway motorcycles? You may ask to exempt custom-designed off-highway motorcycles that are substantially similar to highway motorcycles under the...

  17. 40 CFR 1051.640 - What special provisions apply for custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway motorcycles? 1051.640 Section 1051.640... apply for custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway motorcycles? You may ask to exempt custom-designed off-highway motorcycles that are substantially similar to highway motorcycles under the...

  18. 40 CFR 1051.640 - What special provisions apply for custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway motorcycles? 1051.640 Section 1051.640... apply for custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway motorcycles? You may ask to exempt custom-designed off-highway motorcycles that are substantially similar to highway motorcycles under the...

  19. 40 CFR 1051.640 - What special provisions apply for custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway motorcycles? 1051.640 Section 1051.640... apply for custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway motorcycles? You may ask to exempt custom-designed off-highway motorcycles that are substantially similar to highway motorcycles under the...

  20. 40 CFR 1051.640 - What special provisions apply for custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway motorcycles? 1051.640 Section 1051.640... apply for custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway motorcycles? You may ask to exempt custom-designed off-highway motorcycles that are substantially similar to highway motorcycles under the...

  1. Participants' safety versus confidentiality: A case study of HIV research.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Moral, Juan Manuel; Feijoo-Cid, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Background When conducting qualitative research, participants usually share lots of personal and private information with the researcher. As researchers, we must preserve participants' identity and confidentiality of the data. Objective To critically analyze an ethical conflict encountered regarding confidentiality when doing qualitative research. Research design Case study. Findings and discussion one of the participants in a study aiming to explain the meaning of living with HIV verbalized his imminent intention to commit suicide because of stigma of other social problems arising from living with HIV. Given the life-threatening situation, the commitment related to not disclosing the participant's identity and/or the content of the interview had to be broken. To avoid or prevent suicide, the therapist in charge of the case was properly informed about the participant's intentions. One important question arises from this case: was it ethically appropriate to break the confidentiality commitment? Conclusion confidentiality could be broken if a life-threatening event is identified during data collection and participants must know that. This has to be clearly stated in the informed consent form.

  2. The advantages of creating a positive radiation safety culture in the higher education and research sectors.

    PubMed

    Coldwell, T; Cole, P; Edwards, C; Makepeace, J; Murdock, C; Odams, H; Whitcher, R; Willis, S; Yates, L

    2015-12-01

    The safety culture of any organisation plays a critical role in setting the tone for both effective delivery of service and high standards of performance. By embedding safety at a cultural level, organisations are able to influence the attitudes and behaviours of stakeholders. To achieve this requires the ongoing commitment of heads of organisations and also individuals to prioritise safety no less than other competing goals (e.g. in universities, recruitment and retention are key) to ensure the protection of both people and the environment. The concept of culture is the same whatever the sector, e.g. medical, nuclear, industry, education, and research, but the higher education and research sectors within the UK are a unique challenge in developing a strong safety culture. This report provides an overview of the challenges presented by the sector, the current status of radiation protection culture, case studies to demonstrate good and bad practice in the sector and the practical methods to influence change.

  3. Impulsive choice and workplace safety: A new area of inquiry for research in occupational settings

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Brady; Schiffbauer, Ryan M.

    2004-01-01

    A conceptual argument is presented for the relevance of behavior-analytic research on impulsive choice to issues of occupational safety and health. Impulsive choice is defined in terms of discounting, which is the tendency for the value of a commodity to decrease as a function of various parameters (e.g., having to wait or expend energy to receive the commodity). A high degree of discounting is often considered an index of impulsivity. We argue that for workers, possible negative consequences (e.g., injury or disease) are often disregarded, or discounted, in choices about workplace safety because such consequences are typically delayed and uncertain. Furthermore, some evidence suggests that certain environmental conditions, such as those that lead to stress or sleep deprivation, may increase discounting. Increased discounting, by extension, leads to a further devaluation of safety practices and their benefits. A call is made for research aimed at more clearly delineating the relation between impulsive choice and workplace safety. PMID:22478432

  4. Ethical Issues in Patient Safety Research: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Whicher, Danielle M; Kass, Nancy E; Audera-Lopez, Carmen; Butt, Mobasher; Jauregui, Iciar Larizgoitia; Harris, Kendra; Knoche, Jonathan; Saxena, Abha

    2015-09-01

    As many as 1 in 10 patients is harmed while receiving hospital care in wealthy countries. The risk of health care-associated infection in some developing countries is as much as 20 times higher. In response, in many global regions, increased attention has turned to the implementation of a broad program of safety research, encompassing a variety of methods. Although important international ethical guidelines for research exist, literature has been emerging in the last 20 years that begins to apply such guidelines to patient safety research specifically. This paper provides a review of the literature related to ethics, oversight, and patient safety research; identifies issues highlighted in articles as being of ethical relevance; describes areas of consensus regarding how to respond to these ethical issues; and highlights areas where additional ethical analysis and discussion are needed to provide guidance to those in the field.

  5. Research priorities for coordinating management of food safety and water quality.

    PubMed

    Crohn, David M; Bianchi, Mary L

    2008-01-01

    Efforts to exclude disease organisms from farms growing irrigated lettuce and leafy vegetables on California's central coast are conflicting with traditionally accepted strategies to protect surface water quality. To begin resolving this dilemma, over 100 officials, researchers, and industry representatives gathered in April 2007 to set research priorities that could lead to effective co-management of both food safety and water quality. Following the meeting, research priorities were refined and ordered by way of a Delphi process completed by 35 meeting participants. Although water quality and food safety experts conceptualized the issues differently, there were no deep disagreements with respect to research needs. Top priority was given to investigating the fate of pathogens potentially present on farms. Intermediate priorities included characterizing the influence of specific farm management practices on food safety and improving our understanding of vector processes. A scientific subdiscipline focusing on competing risks is needed to characterize and resolve conflicts between human and environmental health.

  6. Development of shearography for nondestructive testing of highway structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Y. Y.; Hovanesian, J. D.

    1984-06-01

    Testing methodologies which may lead to early detection of impending structural failures are developed. The research is aimed at a laboratory feasibility study of an optical technique known as SHEAROGRAPHY for nondestructive testing of highway structural members. Laboratory samples representing typical highway structural members with programmed defects are tested with shearography. These samples include tubular member with an internal crack, butt weld joint with an imperfection in the weld, riveted joint with a loosened rivet, steel reinforced concrete slab with a broken internal reinforcement rod, and cord reinforced composite plate with the delaminations. All the programmed defects are detectable by shearography.

  7. Extended Editorial: Research and Education in Reliability, Maintenance, Quality Control, Risk and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramalhoto, M. F.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a special theme journal issue on research and education in quality control, maintenance, reliability, risk analysis, and safety. Discusses each of these theme concepts and their applications to naval architecture, marine engineering, and industrial engineering. Considers the effects of the rapid transfer of research results through…

  8. Extended Editorial: Research and Education in Reliability, Maintenance, Quality Control, Risk and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramalhoto, M. F.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a special theme journal issue on research and education in quality control, maintenance, reliability, risk analysis, and safety. Discusses each of these theme concepts and their applications to naval architecture, marine engineering, and industrial engineering. Considers the effects of the rapid transfer of research results through…

  9. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains the results in summary form.

  10. [Safety research in Chinese medicines based on application of data mining].

    PubMed

    Tong, Yuanyuan; Yang, Jinsheng; Li, Changhong; He, Wei

    2011-11-01

    The current status of the application of data mining in Chinese medicine (TCM) safety research are analyzed in this paper, and the future development trend are discussed, which include: to establish ADR (adverse drug reaction) signal detection and automatic warning system based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) adverse reaction database, to explore the characteristics and influencing factors of TCM safety problems, to devise appropriate new algorithm, and to develop TCM adverse reaction literature mining.

  11. Radiology Research in Quality and Safety: Current Trends and Future Needs.

    PubMed

    Zygmont, Matthew E; Itri, Jason N; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Mankowski Gettle, Lori; Mendiratta-Lala, Mishal; Scali, Elena P; Winokur, Ronald S; Probyn, Linda; Kung, Justin W; Bakow, Eric; Kadom, Nadja

    2017-03-01

    Promoting quality and safety research is now essential for radiology as reimbursement is increasingly tied to measures of quality, patient safety, efficiency, and appropriateness of imaging. This article provides an overview of key features necessary to promote successful quality improvement efforts in radiology. Emphasis is given to current trends and future opportunities for directing research. Establishing and maintaining a culture of safety is paramount to organizations wishing to improve patient care. The correct culture must be in place to support quality initiatives and create accountability for patient care. Focused educational curricula are necessary to teach quality and safety-related skills and behaviors to trainees, staff members, and physicians. The increasingly complex healthcare landscape requires that organizations build effective data infrastructures to support quality and safety research. Incident reporting systems designed specifically for medical imaging will benefit quality improvement initiatives by identifying and learning from system errors, enhancing knowledge about safety, and creating safer systems through the implementation of standardized practices and standards. Finally, validated performance measures must be developed to accurately reflect the value of the care we provide for our patients and referring providers. Common metrics used in radiology are reviewed with focus on current and future opportunities for investigation. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. To establish a body of evidence on safety for postmarketing Chinese medicine: A new research paradigm.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xing; Xie, Yan-Ming; Robinson, Nicola; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2017-03-01

    The issue of safety evaluation on postmarketing Chinese medicines has become a hot topic in mainland China recently. Researchers and decision-makers can obtain a variety of evidence resources about safety in order to evaluate the safety profile for postmarketing Chinese medicines. A registry study on ten Chinese medicine injections for postmarketing surveillance has come to the end. From such a study observing more than 300,000 patients for more than 4 years, a theoretical research question emerges, that is, how to identify and evaluate safety evidence systematically. We put forward a brand new research paradigm on the theory level, which is to establish a body of evidence on safety evaluation for postmarketing Chinese medicine. Therefore, multiple information sources were explored and extracted from preclinical experiments for toxicity, postmarketing clinical trials for effificacy and safety evaluation, registry study for surveillance, retrospective data analysis from hospital information system and spontaneous response system, and case reports and systematic review from literature. Greater efforts for this idea and cooperation with experts in this fifield both in China and abroad are urgently needed.

  13. Pendulum impact tests of wooden and steel highway guardrail posts

    Treesearch

    Charles J. Gatchell; Jarvis D. Michie

    1974-01-01

    Impact strength characteristics of southern pine, red oak, and steel highway guardrail posts were evaluated in destructive impact testing with a 4,000-pound pendulum at the Southwest Research Institute. Effects were recorded with high-speed motion-picture equipment. Comparisons were based on reactions to the point of major post failure. Major comparisons of 6x6-inch...

  14. 46 CFR 393.4 - Marine Highway Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... transportation system research, data, and analysis used to develop or support the business model. (vii) Proposed.... Designated Marine Highway Projects may receive support from the Department as described in this section. (b... congestion-related impacts. (2) Identify proposed water transportation services that represent the greatest...

  15. Efficacy of virtual reality in pedestrian safety research.

    PubMed

    Deb, Shuchisnigdha; Carruth, Daniel W; Sween, Richard; Strawderman, Lesley; Garrison, Teena M

    2017-03-16

    Advances in virtual reality technology present new opportunities for human factors research in areas that are dangerous, difficult, or expensive to study in the real world. The authors developed a new pedestrian simulator using the HTC Vive head mounted display and Unity software. Pedestrian head position and orientation were tracked as participants attempted to safely cross a virtual signalized intersection (5.5 m). In 10% of 60 trials, a vehicle violated the traffic signal and in 10.84% of these trials, a collision between the vehicle and the pedestrian was observed. Approximately 11% of the participants experienced simulator sickness and withdrew from the study. Objective measures, including the average walking speed, indicate that participant behavior in VR matches published real world norms. Subjective responses indicate that the virtual environment was realistic and engaging. Overall, the study results confirm the effectiveness of the new virtual reality technology for research on full motion tasks.

  16. Strategy for Nanotechnology-Related Environmenta, Health, and Safety Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    should begin right away. Also needed in the near term are evaluations of nanomaterials with respect to solubility in lipids and aqueous environments, in... lipids with carbon nanotubes, of nuclear delivery of biomolecular-nanogold complexes, of nanostructured membranes with the intestinal tract, and of the...cells using chromosomal breaks and the molecules of xenobiotic metabolism and DNA repair. The additional projects under this research need are

  17. What do primary care physicians and researchers consider the most important patient safety improvement strategies?

    PubMed

    Gaal, Sander; Verstappen, Wim; Wensing, Michel

    2011-05-16

    Although it has been increasingly recognised that patient safety in primary care is important, little is known about the feasibility and effectiveness of different strategies to improve patient safety in primary care. In this study, we aimed to identify the most important strategies by consulting an international panel of primary care physicians and researchers. A web-based survey was undertaken in an international panel of 58 individuals from eight countries with a strong primary care system. The questionnaire consisted of 38 strategies to improve patient safety. We asked the respondents whether these strategies were currently used in their own country, and whether they felt them to be important. Most of the 38 presented strategies were seen as important by a majority of the participants, but the use of strategies in daily practice varied widely. Strategies that yielded the highest scores (>70%) regarding importance included a good medical record system (82% felt this was very important, while 83% said it was implemented in more than half of the practices), good telephone access (71% importance, 83% implementation), standards for record keeping (75% importance, 62% implementation), learning culture (74% importance, 10% implementation), vocational training on patient safety for GPs (81% importance, 24% implementation) and the presence of a patient safety guideline (81% importance, 15% implementation). An international panel of primary care physicians and researchers felt that many different strategies to improve patient safety were important. Highly important strategies with poor implementation included a culture that is positive for patient safety, education on patient safety for physicians, and the presence of a patient safety guideline.

  18. Health information technology and hospital patient safety: a conceptual model to guide research.

    PubMed

    Paez, Kathryn; Roper, Rebecca A; Andrews, Roxanne M

    2013-09-01

    The literature indicates that health information technology (IT) use may lead to some gains in the quality and safety of care in some situations but provides little insight into this variability in the results that has been found. The inconsistent findings point to the need for a conceptual model that will guide research in sorting out the complex relationships between health IT and the quality and safety of care. A conceptual model was developed that describes how specific health IT functions could affect different types of inpatient safety errors and that include contextual factors that influence successful health IT implementation. The model was applied to a readily available patient safety measure and nationwide data (2009 AHA Annual Survey Information Technology Supplement and 2009 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases). The model was difficult to operationalize because (1) available health IT adoption data did not characterize health IT features and extent of usage, and (2) patient safety measures did not elucidate the process failures leading to safety-related outcomes. The sample patient safety measure--Postoperative Physiologic and Metabolic Derangement Rate--was not significantly related to self-reported health IT capabilities when adjusted for hospital structural characteristics. These findings illustrate the critical need for collecting data that are germane to health IT and the possible mechanisms by which health IT may affect inpatient safety. Well-defined and sufficiently granular measures of provider's correct use of health IT functions, the contextual factors surrounding health IT use, and patient safety errors leading to health care-associated conditions are needed to illuminate the impact of health IT on patient safety.

  19. Highway accident severities and the mixed logit model: an exploratory empirical analysis.

    PubMed

    Milton, John C; Shankar, Venky N; Mannering, Fred L

    2008-01-01

    Many transportation agencies use accident frequencies, and statistical models of accidents frequencies, as a basis for prioritizing highway safety improvements. However, the use of accident severities in safety programming has been often been limited to the locational assessment of accident fatalities, with little or no emphasis being placed on the full severity distribution of accidents (property damage only, possible injury, injury)-which is needed to fully assess the benefits of competing safety-improvement projects. In this paper we demonstrate a modeling approach that can be used to better understand the injury-severity distributions of accidents on highway segments, and the effect that traffic, highway and weather characteristics have on these distributions. The approach we use allows for the possibility that estimated model parameters can vary randomly across roadway segments to account for unobserved effects potentially relating to roadway characteristics, environmental factors, and driver behavior. Using highway-injury data from Washington State, a mixed (random parameters) logit model is estimated. Estimation findings indicate that volume-related variables such as average daily traffic per lane, average daily truck traffic, truck percentage, interchanges per mile and weather effects such as snowfall are best modeled as random-parameters-while roadway characteristics such as the number of horizontal curves, number of grade breaks per mile and pavement friction are best modeled as fixed parameters. Our results show that the mixed logit model has considerable promise as a methodological tool in highway safety programming.

  20. Summary of ORNL work on NRC-sponsored HTGR safety research, July 1974-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, S.J.; Cleveland, J.C.; Conklin, J.C.; Delene, J.G.; Harrington, R.M.; Hatta, M.; Hedrick, R.A.; Johnson, L.G.; Sanders, J.P.

    1982-03-01

    A summary is presented of the major accomplishments of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) research program on High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) safety. This report is intended to help the nuclear Regulatory Commission establish goals for future research by comparing the status of the work here (as well as at other laboratories) with the perceived safety needs of the large HTGR. The ORNL program includes extensive work on dynamics-related safety code development, use of codes for studying postulated accident sequences, and use of experimental data for code verification. Cooperative efforts with other programs are also described. Suggestions for near-term and long-term research are presented.

  1. A risk characterization of safety research areas for Integral Fast Reactor program planning

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, C.J.; Cahalan, J.E.; Hill, D.J.; Kramer, J.M.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Pedersen, D.R.; Sevy, R.H.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wei, T.Y.; Wright, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper characterizes the areas of Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) safety research in terms of their importance in addressing the risk of core disruption sequences for innovative designs. Such sequences have traditionally been determined to constitute the primary risk to public health and safety. All core disruption sequences are folded into four fault categories: classic unprotected (unscrammed) events; loss of decay heat; local fault propagation; and failure of critical reactor structures. Event trees are used to describe these sequences and the areas in the IFR Safety and related Base Technology research programs are discussed with respect to their relevance in addressing the key issues in preventing or delimiting core disruptive sequences. Thus a measure of potential for risk reduction is obtained for guidance in establishing research priorites.

  2. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Pedestrian Safety, Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains eight lessons on pedestrian safety for use in grade 2. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing communication methods for…

  3. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Pedestrian Safety, Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains eight lessons on pedestrian safety for use in grade 2. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing communication methods for…

  4. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-3. Pedestrian Safety, Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains nine lessons on pedestrian safety for use in grade 3. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing communication methods for…

  5. Qualitative Research for Patient Safety Using ICTs: Methodological Considerations in the Technological Age.

    PubMed

    Yee, Kwang Chien; Wong, Ming Chao; Turner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Considerable effort and resources have been dedicated to improving the quality and safety of patient care through health information systems, but there is still significant scope for improvement. One contributing factor to the lack of progress in patient safety improvement especially where technology has been deployed relates to an over-reliance on purely objective, quantitative, positivist research paradigms as the basis for generating and validating evidence of improvement. This paper argues the need for greater recognition and accommodation of evidence of improvement generated through more subjective, qualitative and pragmatic research paradigms to aid patient safety especially where technology is deployed. This paper discusses how acknowledging the role and value of more subjective ontologies and pragmatist epistemologies can support improvement science research. This paper illustrates some challenges and benefits from adopting qualitative research methods in patient safety improvement projects, particularly focusing challenges in the technological era. While adopting methods that can more readily capture, analyse and interpret direct user experiences, attitudes, insights and behaviours in their contextual settings, patient safety can be enhanced 'on the ground' and errors reduced and/or mitigated, challenges of using these methods with the younger "technologically-centred" healthcare professionals and patients needs to recognised.

  6. [Establish research model of post-marketing clinical safety evaluation for Chinese patent medicine].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wen-ke; Liu, Zhi; Lei, Xiang; Tian, Ran; Zheng, Rui; Li, Nan; Ren, Jing-tian; Du, Xiao-xi; Shang, Hong-cai

    2015-09-01

    The safety of Chinese patent medicine has become a focus of social. It is necessary to carry out work on post-marketing clinical safety evaluation for Chinese patent medicine. However, there have no criterions to guide the related research, it is urgent to set up a model and method to guide the practice for related research. According to a series of clinical research, we put forward some views, which contained clear and definite the objective and content of clinical safety evaluation, the work flow should be determined, make a list of items for safety evaluation project, and put forward the three level classification of risk control. We set up a model of post-marketing clinical safety evaluation for Chinese patent medicine. Based this model, the list of items can be used for ranking medicine risks, and then take steps for different risks, aims to lower the app:ds:risksrisk level. At last, the medicine can be managed by five steps in sequence. The five steps are, collect risk signal, risk recognition, risk assessment, risk management, and aftereffect assessment. We hope to provide new ideas for the future research.

  7. Mortality among California highway workers.

    PubMed

    Maizlish, N; Beaumont, J; Singleton, J

    1988-01-01

    Standardized proportional mortality ratios (PMR) were computed for a population of highway workers. Hazards of highway maintenance work include exposure to solvents, herbicides, asphalt and welding fumes, diesel and auto exhaust, asbestos, abrasive dusts, hazardous material spills, and moving motor vehicles. Underlying cause of death was obtained for 1,570 workers who separated from the California Department of Transportation between 1970 and 1983, and who died in California between 1970 and 1983 (inclusive). Among 1,260 white males, the major findings were statistically significant excesses of cancers of digestive organs (PMR = 128), skin (PMR = 218), lymphopoietic cancer (PMR = 157), benign neoplasms (PMR = 343), motor vehicle accidents (PMR = 141), and suicide (PMR = 154). Black males (N = 66) experienced nonsignificant excesses of cancer of the digestive organs (PMR = 191) and arteriosclerotic heart disease (PMR = 143). Among 168 white females, deaths from lung cancer (PMR = 189) and suicide (PMR = 215) were elevated. White male retirees, a subgroup with 5 or more years of service, experienced excess mortality due to cancers of the colon (PMR = 245), skin (PMR = 738), brain (PMR = 556), and lymphosarcomas and reticulosarcomas (PMR = 514). Deaths from external causes (PMR = 135) and cirrhosis of the liver (PMR = 229) were elevated among white males with a last job in landscape maintenance. White males whose last job was highway maintenance experienced a deficit in mortality from circulatory diseases (PMR = 83) and excess mortality from emphysema (PMR = 250) and motor vehicle accidents (PMR = 196). Further epidemiologic and industrial hygiene studies are needed to confirm the apparent excess mortality and to quantify occupational and nonoccupational exposures. However, reduction of recognized hazards among highway maintenance workers is a prudent precautionary measure.

  8. Healthcare quality and safety: a review of policy, practice and research.

    PubMed

    Waring, Justin; Allen, Davina; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Sandall, Jane

    2016-02-01

    Over the last two decades healthcare quality and safety have risen to the fore of health policy and research. This has largely been informed by theoretical and empirical ideas found in the fields of ergonomics and human factors. These have enabled significant advances in our understanding and management of quality and safety. However, a parallel and at time neglected sociological literature on clinical quality and safety is presented as offering additional, complementary, and at times critical insights on the problems of quality and safety. This review explores the development and contributions of both the mainstream and more sociological approaches to safety. It shows that where mainstream approaches often focus on the influence of human and local environment factors in shaping quality, a sociological perspective can deepen knowledge of the wider social, cultural and political factors that contextualise the clinical micro-system. It suggests these different perspectives can easily complement one another, offering a more developed and layered understanding of quality and safety. It also suggests that the sociological literature can bring to light important questions about the limits of the more mainstream approaches and ask critical questions about the role of social inequality, power and control in the framing of quality and safety.

  9. Lead Isotopes in Highway Runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, M.; Lau, S.; Green, P. G.; Stenstrom, M. K.

    2011-12-01

    Lead (Pb) isotopes have been used extensively to study the provenance of lead pollution on air, water, and sediments. In this study, we measured Pb isotopes and Pb aqueous concentration in highway runoff in three west Los Angeles sites. Those three sites, part of a long-term study sponsored by the California Department of Transportation, represent small catchment areas, and host heavy traffic. In addition, there were no inputs of sand or salt to the highway because the sites are almost completely impervious and also due to the lack of snow to be controlled. Highway runoff from the three sites was collected for 7 storms during the 2004-2005 Winter. Grab samples were collected every 15 minutes during the first hour, and hourly afterwards. A total of 202 samples were collected and filtered into five size fractions (<0.45μm, 0.45-8μm, 8-20μm, 20-100μm, >100μm). Aqueous concentration of Pb range from 0.08μg/L to 46.95μg/L (7.98±10.89μg/L) and it is not correlated with any of the lead isotope ratios. The 208Pb/206Pb ratio ranges from 1.983 to 2.075 (2.024±0.026) and there is no statistical difference for the mean value of the 208Pb/206Pb ratio for the four particulate size fractions (0.45-8μm, 8-20μm, 20-100μm, >100μm). However, the 208Pb/206Pb ratio of nearby soils yield 2.060±0.021 and it is statistically different from the ratios obtained for the highway runoff. This hints that the lead present in highway runoff does not come from local soils. The 207Pb/206Pb ratio ranges from 0.804 to 0.847 (0.827±0.011) and there is no statistical difference for the mean value of the 207Pb/206Pb ratio for the four particulate size fractions (0.45-8μm, 8-20μm, 20-100μm, >100μm). Surprisingly, there is also no statistical difference with the 207Pb/206Pb ratio of nearby soils (0.833±0.009).

  10. An overview of criticality safety research at the All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kuvshinov, M.I.; Voinov, A.M.; Yuferev, V.I.

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents a summary of experimental and calculational activities conducted at VNIIEF from the late 1940s to now to study the critical conditions of systems as part of a nuclear safety program. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  11. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A. Salehi; Jerry Havens; Tom Spicer

    2005-10-01

    Work has continued to address numerical problems experienced with simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 through 8 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report have been satisfied. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have all indications that the important problems related to stability of the simulations at regulatory conditions of low wind speed and stable atmospheric conditions have been resolved. This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from July 1, 2005 to September 31, 2005. GTI's activities during the report quarter were limited to administrative work. The work at the University of Arkansas continued in line with the initial scope of work and identified the questions regarding surface to cloud heat transfer as being largely responsible for the instability problems previously encountered. A brief summary of results is included in this section and the complete report from University of Arkansas is attached as Appendix A.

  12. Validation of a bicycle simulator for road safety research.

    PubMed

    O'Hern, Steve; Oxley, Jennie; Stevenson, Mark

    2017-03-01

    The study's aim was to assess the behavioural validity of participants using of a newly developed bicycle simulator with respect to a range of cycling performance measures collected both using the cycling simulator and on-road. The validation study consisted of a within-subjects study design comparing participants riding on-road with riding in the simulator. The study recruited 26 participants ranging in age from 18 to 35 years (M=25.0, SD=4.8). Absolute validity was established for measures of spatial positioning including average lane position, deviation in lane position and average passing distance from kerbside parked cars. Relative validity was established for the average speed of cyclists and their speed reduction on approach to intersections and a degree of validity was established for aspects of the participants head movements on approach to intersections. The study found evidence to suggest that aspects of cyclist behaviour can be investigated using the bicycle simulator, however further validation research may be required in order to more comprehensively validate looking behaviours, more complex performance measures and for a wider age range of cyclists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A Salehi; Jerry Havens; Tom Spicer

    2006-05-01

    Work continued to address numerical problems experienced with simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 through 8 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report have been completed successfully for the FEM3A model utilizing the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) turbulence closure model. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have solved the problems related to stability of the simulations at regulatory conditions of low wind speed and stable atmospheric conditions with FEM3A using the PBL model, and are continuing our program to verify the operation of the model using an updated, verified, version of the k-epsilon turbulence closure model which has been modified to handle dense gas dispersion effects. This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from January 1, 2006 to March 31, 2006. GTI's activities during the report quarter were limited to administrative work. The work at the University of Arkansas continued in line with the initial scope of work and the identified questions regarding surface to cloud heat transfer as being largely responsible for the instability problems previously encountered. A brief summary of results is discussed in this section and the complete report from University of Arkansas is attached.

  14. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, January 1--June 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J W; Boccio, J L; Diamond, D; Fitzpatrick, R; Ginsberg, T; Greene, G A; Guppy, J G; Hall, R E; Higgins, J C; Weiss, A J

    1988-12-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through December 31, 1987.

  15. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, January 1--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A.J.

    1989-08-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through December 31, 1988.

  16. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, October 1--December 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A J; Azarm, A; Baum, J W; Boccio, J L; Carew, J; Diamond, D J; Fitzpatrick, R; Ginsberg, T; Greene, G A; Guppy, J G; Haber, S B

    1989-07-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through September 30, 1988.

  17. 76 FR 55829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL02 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... changes to a new Federal motor vehicle safety standard requiring light vehicles to be equipped with...

  18. 75 FR 37343 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards... rulemaking submitted by Public Citizen and Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety, to amend the Federal motor... systems that are regulated by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 208, ``Occupant...

  19. The impact of regulations, safety considerations and physical limitations on research progress at maximum biocontainment.

    PubMed

    Shurtleff, Amy C; Garza, Nicole; Lackemeyer, Matthew; Carrion, Ricardo; Griffiths, Anthony; Patterson, Jean; Edwin, Samuel S; Bavari, Sina

    2012-12-01

    We describe herein, limitations on research at biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment laboratories, with regard to biosecurity regulations, safety considerations, research space limitations, and physical constraints in executing experimental procedures. These limitations can severely impact the number of collaborations and size of research projects investigating microbial pathogens of biodefense concern. Acquisition, use, storage, and transfer of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) are highly regulated due to their potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. All federal, state, city, and local regulations must be followed to obtain and maintain registration for the institution to conduct research involving BSAT. These include initial screening and continuous monitoring of personnel, controlled access to containment laboratories, accurate and current BSAT inventory records. Safety considerations are paramount in BSL-4 containment laboratories while considering the types of research tools, workflow and time required for conducting both in vivo and in vitro experiments in limited space. Required use of a positive-pressure encapsulating suit imposes tremendous physical limitations on the researcher. Successful mitigation of these constraints requires additional time, effort, good communication, and creative solutions. Test and evaluation of novel vaccines and therapeutics conducted under good laboratory practice (GLP) conditions for FDA approval are prioritized and frequently share the same physical space with important ongoing basic research studies. The possibilities and limitations of biomedical research involving microbial pathogens of biodefense concern in BSL-4 containment laboratories are explored in this review.

  20. The Impact of Regulations, Safety Considerations and Physical Limitations on Research Progress at Maximum Biocontainment

    PubMed Central

    Shurtleff, Amy C.; Garza, Nicole; Lackemeyer, Matthew; Carrion, Ricardo; Griffiths, Anthony; Patterson, Jean; Edwin, Samuel S.; Bavari, Sina

    2012-01-01

    We describe herein, limitations on research at biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment laboratories, with regard to biosecurity regulations, safety considerations, research space limitations, and physical constraints in executing experimental procedures. These limitations can severely impact the number of collaborations and size of research projects investigating microbial pathogens of biodefense concern. Acquisition, use, storage, and transfer of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) are highly regulated due to their potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. All federal, state, city, and local regulations must be followed to obtain and maintain registration for the institution to conduct research involving BSAT. These include initial screening and continuous monitoring of personnel, controlled access to containment laboratories, accurate and current BSAT inventory records. Safety considerations are paramount in BSL-4 containment laboratories while considering the types of research tools, workflow and time required for conducting both in vivo and in vitro experiments in limited space. Required use of a positive-pressure encapsulating suit imposes tremendous physical limitations on the researcher. Successful mitigation of these constraints requires additional time, effort, good communication, and creative solutions. Test and evaluation of novel vaccines and therapeutics conducted under good laboratory practice (GLP) conditions for FDA approval are prioritized and frequently share the same physical space with important ongoing basic research studies. The possibilities and limitations of biomedical research involving microbial pathogens of biodefense concern in BSL-4 containment laboratories are explored in this review. PMID:23342380