NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piran, Tsvi
1997-11-01
The concepts of negative gravitational mass and gravitational repulsion are alien to general relativity. Still, we show here that small negative fluctuations~--- small dimples in the primordial density field~--- that act as if they have an effective negative gravitational mass, play a dominant role in shaping our Universe. These initially tiny perturbations repel matter surrounding them, expand and grow to become voids in the galaxy distribution. These voids~--- regions with a diameter of $40h^{-1}$ Mpc which are almost devoid of galaxies~--- are the largest objects in the Universe.
Gravitational Repulsion and Dirac Antimatter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kowitt, Mark E.
1996-03-01
Based on an analogy with electron and hole dynamics in semiconductors, Dirac's relativistic electron equation is generalized to include a gravitational interaction using an electromagnetic-type approximation of the gravitational potential. With gravitational and inertial masses decoupled, the equation serves to extend Dirac's deduction of antimatter parameters to include the possibility of gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter. Consequences for general relativity and related “antigravity” issues are considered, including the nature and gravitational behavior of virtual photons, virtual pairs, and negative-energy particles. Basic cosmological implications of antigravity are explored—in particular, potential contributions to inflation, expansion, and the general absence of detectable antimatter. Experimental and observational tests are noted, and new ones suggested.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Hongwei
2015-08-01
We consider the gravitational effect of quantum wave packets when quantum mechanics, gravity, and thermodynamics are simultaneously considered. Under the assumption of a thermodynamic origin of gravity, we propose a general equation to describe the gravitational effect of quantum wave packets. In the classical limit, this equation agrees with Newton's law of gravitation. For quantum wave packets, however, it predicts a repulsive gravitational effect. We propose an experimental scheme using superfluid helium to test this repulsive gravitational effect. Our studies show that, with present technology such as superconducting gravimetry and cold atom interferometry, tests of the repulsive gravitational effect for superfluid helium are within experimental reach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nyambuya, Golden Gadzirayi
2010-11-01
This paper is part of a series on the Azimuthally Symmetric Theory of Gravitation (ASTG). This theory is built on Laplace-Poisson's well known equation and it has been shown that the ASTG is capable of explaining, from a purely classical physics standpoint, the precession of the perihelion of solar planets as a consequence of the azimuthal symmetry emerging from the spin of the Sun. This symmetry has and must have an influence on the emergent gravitational field. We show herein that the emergent equations from the ASTG, under some critical conditions determined by the spin, do possess repulsive gravitational fields in the polar regions of the gravitating body in question. This places the ASTG on an interesting pedestal to infer the origins of outflows as a repulsive gravitational phenomenon. Outflows are a ubiquitous phenomenon found in star forming systems and their true origin is a question yet to be settled. Given the current thinking on their origin, the direction that the present paper takes is nothing short of an asymptotic break from conventional wisdom; at the very least, it is a complete paradigm shift because gravitation is not at all associated with this process, but rather it is thought to be an all-attractive force that only tries to squash matter together onto a single point. Additionally, we show that the emergent Azimuthally Symmetric Gravitational Field from the ASTG strongly suggests a solution to the supposed Radiation Problem that is thought to be faced by massive stars in their process of formation. That is, at ~ 8-10 , radiation from the nascent star is expected to halt the accretion of matter. We show that in-falling material will fall onto the equatorial disk and from there, this material will be channeled onto the forming star via the equatorial plane, thus accretion of mass continues well past the value of ~ 8-10 , albeit via the disk. Along the equatorial plane, the net force (with the radiation force included) on any material there
Gravitational waves during inflation from a 5D large-scale repulsive gravity model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reyes, Luz M.; Moreno, Claudia; Madriz Aguilar, José Edgar; Bellini, Mauricio
2012-10-01
We investigate, in the transverse traceless (TT) gauge, the generation of the relic background of gravitational waves, generated during the early inflationary stage, on the framework of a large-scale repulsive gravity model. We calculate the spectrum of the tensor metric fluctuations of an effective 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric on cosmological scales. This metric is obtained after implementing a planar coordinate transformation on a 5D Ricci-flat metric solution, in the context of a non-compact Kaluza-Klein theory of gravity. We found that the spectrum is nearly scale invariant under certain conditions. One interesting aspect of this model is that it is possible to derive the dynamical field equations for the tensor metric fluctuations, valid not just at cosmological scales, but also at astrophysical scales, from the same theoretical model. The astrophysical and cosmological scales are determined by the gravity-antigravity radius, which is a natural length scale of the model, that indicates when gravity becomes repulsive in nature.
Gravitational repulsion within a black hole using the Stueckelberg quantum formalism
Ludwin, D. M.; Horwitz, L. P.
2011-01-15
We wish to study an application of Stueckelberg's relativistic quantum theory in the framework of general relativity. We study the form of the wave equation of a massive body in the presence of a Schwarzschild gravitational field. We treat the mathematical behavior of the wavefunction also around and beyond the horizon (r= 2M). Classically, within the horizon, the time component of the metric becomes spacelike and distance from the origin singularity becomes timelike, suggesting an inevitable propagation of all matter within the horizon to a total collapse at r=0. However, the quantum description of the wavefunction provides a different understanding of the behavior of matter within the horizon. We find that a test particle can almost never be found at the origin and is more probable to be found at the horizon. Matter outside the horizon has a very small wavelength and therefore interference effects can be found only on a very small atomic scale. However, within the horizon, matter becomes totally 'tachyonic' and is potentially 'spread' over all space. Small location uncertainties on the atomic scale become large around the horizon, and different mass components of the wavefunction can therefore interfere on a stellar scale. This interference phenomenon, where the probability of finding matter decreases as a function of the distance from the horizon, appears as an effective gravitational repulsion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qadir, Asghar
1983-12-01
It is pointed out that there was an error in the recent paper by Grøn claiming that there is no electro-gravitic repulsion in the Reissner-Nordstrom geometry. It is concluded that the earlier result of Mahajan, Qadir and Valanju still stands.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jannson, Tomasz; Wang, Wenjian; Hodelin, Juan; Forrester, Thomas; Romanov, Volodymyr; Kostrzewski, Andrew
2016-05-01
In this paper, Bayesian Binary Sensing (BBS) is discussed as an effective tool for Bayesian Inference (BI) evaluation in interdisciplinary areas such as ISR (and, C3I), Homeland Security, QC, medicine, defense, and many others. In particular, Hilbertian Sine (HS) as an absolute measure of BI, is introduced, while avoiding relativity of decision threshold identification, as in the case of traditional measures of BI, related to false positives and false negatives.
A repulsive force in the Einstein theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorkavyi, Nick; Vasilkov, Alexander
2016-09-01
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detection of gravitational waves that take away 5 per cent of the total mass of two merging black holes points out on the importance of considering varying gravitational mass of a system in the framework of the Einstein general theory of relativity. We calculate the acceleration of a particle in the non-stationary field of a quasi-spherical system composed of a large number of objects emitting gravitational waves. It is shown that reduction of the gravitational mass of the system due to emitting gravitational waves leads to a repulsive gravitational force that diminishes with time but never disappears. This repulsive force may be related to the observed expansion of the Universe.
Neji, Radhouène; Besbes, Ahmed; Komodakis, Nikos; Deux, Jean-François; Maatouk, Mezri; Rahmouni, Alain; Bassez, Guillaume; Fleury, Gilles; Paragios, Nikos
2009-01-01
In this paper, we present a manifold clustering method fo the classification of fibers obtained from diffusion tensor images (DTI) of the human skeletal muscle. Using a linear programming formulation of prototype-based clustering, we propose a novel fiber classification algorithm over manifolds that circumvents the necessity to embed the data in low dimensional spaces and determines automatically the number of clusters. Furthermore, we propose the use of angular Hilbertian metrics between multivariate normal distributions to define a family of distances between tensors that we generalize to fibers. These metrics are used to approximate the geodesic distances over the fiber manifold. We also discuss the case where only geodesic distances to a reduced set of landmark fibers are available. The experimental validation of the method is done using a manually annotated significant dataset of DTI of the calf muscle for healthy and diseased subjects. PMID:19694249
Magnetic Repulsion: An Introductory Experiment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Romer, Alfred
1973-01-01
Discusses the use of a balance assembled from standard laboratory components to conduct an experiment on the repulsion between two bar magnets. Includes an analysis of data on the two-pole and four-pole models. (CC)
Indians Repulse British With Rocket
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
During the early introduction of rockets to Europe, they were used only as weapons. Enemy troops in India repulsed the British with rockets. Later, in Britain, Sir William Congreve developed a rocket that could fire to about 9,000 feet. The British fired Congreve rockets against the United States in the War of 1812.
Repulsive Casimir force: Sufficient conditions
Rosa, Luigi; Lambrecht, Astrid
2010-09-15
In this paper the Casimir energy of two parallel plates made by materials of different penetration depth and no medium in between is derived. We study the Casimir force density and derive analytical constraints on the two penetration depths which are sufficient conditions to ensure repulsion. Compared to other methods our approach needs no specific model for dielectric or magnetic material properties and constitutes a complementary analysis.
Characterizing repulsive gravity with curvature eigenvalues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luongo, Orlando; Quevedo, Hernando
2014-10-01
Repulsive gravity has been investigated in several scenarios near compact objects by using different intuitive approaches. Here, we propose an invariant method to characterize regions of repulsive gravity, associated to black holes and naked singularities. Our method is based upon the behavior of the curvature tensor eigenvalues, and leads to an invariant definition of a repulsion radius. The repulsion radius determines a physical region, which can be interpreted as a repulsion sphere, where the effects due to repulsive gravity naturally arise. Further, we show that the use of effective masses to characterize repulsion regions can lead to coordinate-dependent results whereas, in our approach, repulsion emerges as a consequence of the spacetime geometry in a completely invariant way. Our definition is tested in the spacetime of an electrically charged Kerr naked singularity and in all its limiting cases. We show that a positive mass can generate repulsive gravity if it is equipped with an electric charge or an angular momentum. We obtain reasonable results for the spacetime regions contained inside the repulsion sphere whose size and shape depend on the value of the mass, charge and angular momentum. Consequently, we define repulsive gravity as a classical relativistic effect by using the geometry of spacetime only.
Repulsive force actuated rotary micromirror
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Siyuan; Ben Mrad, Ridha
2004-09-01
In this paper, a novel repulsive force based rotary micromirror is proposed. A repulsive force is produced in the rotary micromirror and the mirror plate is pushed up and away from the substrate. Therefore the rotation angle of the micromirror is not limited to the space underneath the mirror plate and thus the "pull-in" effect is completely circumvented. The novel rotary micromirror can achieve a large rotation angle with a large mirror plate. In addition the novel micromirror has a very simple structure and can be fabricated by standard surface micromachining technology. Numerical simulation is used to verify the working principle of the novel micromirror. A prototype of the novel rotary micromirror is fabricated by a commercially available surface microfabrication process called MUMPs. The prototype has a mirror size of 300μm x 300μm. The experimental measurements show that the prototype can achieve a mechanical rotation of 2.25 degrees (an optical angle of 4.5 degrees) at a driving voltage of 170 volts. A conventional surface micromachined attractive force based rotary micromirror of the same size can only achieve an angle of 0.1~0.2 degree.
Competition, Competitive Repulsion, and Coexistence
Darlington, P. J.
1972-01-01
This manuscript is concerned with concepts rather than abstruse details or mathematics. Discussed are: competition; extended competition, proposed for competition in the strict sense, extended and modified by all related interactions including predation, parasitism, disease, and even cooperation, all of which can be “weapons of competition”; competitive repulsion, proposed for the sum of forces that determine spacings, including ecologic spacings, of individuals and populations; Darwin (biotic) equilibriums; competitive extinction, Gause's principle, limited and limiting resources, and single-resource competition; de facto coexistence of competing species, exemplified by green plants competing for sunlight; niche competition; the two concepts of competitive exclusion; devision of resources and of their utilizers; cause and effect in real situations; and niches, niche overlap, and coexistence. Stressed is the complexity of the real world, and the confusion that can and does arise from modeling it too simply. PMID:4508308
Rheology and dynamics of repulsive clathrates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eroshenko, V. A.; Lazarev, Yu. F.
2012-01-01
The physical and thermodynamic properties of a repulsive clathrate used as a working body for the dissipation, storage, and conversion of energy in thermomechanical systems are studied. In repulsive clathrates, use is made for the first time of the molecular repulsive forces acting in large interfacial areas in a system consisting of a fluid and a capillary-porous matrix not wetted by this fluid. Based on experimental studies of a car damper with a repulsive clathrate, a rheological model of energy dissipation was developed which can be used to design compact high-performance dampers for different purposes and anti-seismic systems of new generation.
Repulsion between Oppositely Charged Planar Macroions
Jho, YongSeok; Brown, Frank L. H.; Kim, MahnWon; Pincus, Philip A.
2013-01-01
The repulsive interaction between oppositely charged macroions is investigated using Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations of an unrestricted primitive model, including the effect of inhomogeneous surface charge and its density, the depth of surface charge, the cation size, and the dielectric permittivity of solvent and macroions, and their contrast. The origin of the repulsion is a combination of osmotic pressure and ionic screening resulting from excess salt between the macroions. The excess charge over-reduces the electrostatic attraction between macroions and raises the entropic repulsion. The magnitude of the repulsion increases when the dielectric constant of the solvent is lowered (below that of water) and/or the surface charge density is increased, in good agreement with experiment. Smaller size of surface charge and the cation, their discreteness and mobility are other factors that enhance the repulsion and charge inversion phenomenons. PMID:23940518
Gauge approach to gravitation and regular Big Bang theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minkevich, A. V.
2006-03-01
Field theoretical scheme of regular Big Bang in 4-dimensional physical space-time, built in the framework of gauge approach to gravitation, is discussed. Regular bouncing character of homogeneous isotropic cosmological models is ensured by gravitational repulsion effect at extreme conditions without quantum gravitational corrections. The most general properties of regular inflationary cosmological models are examined. Developing theory is valid, if energy density of gravitating matter is positive and energy dominance condition is fulfilled.
Equivalent Activities of Repulsive Axon Guidance Receptors
Long, Hong; Yoshikawa, Shingo
2016-01-01
Receptors on the growth cone at the leading edge of elongating axons play critical guidance roles by recognizing cues via their extracellular domains and transducing signals via their intracellular domains, resulting in changes in direction of growth. An important concept to have emerged in the axon guidance field is the importance of repulsion as a major guidance mechanism. Given the number and variety of different repulsive receptors, it is generally thought that there are likely to be qualitative differences in the signals they transduce. However, the nature of these possible differences is unknown. By creating chimeras using the extracellular and intracellular domains of three different Drosophila repulsive receptors, Unc5, Roundabout (Robo), and Derailed (Drl) and expressing them in defined cells within the embryonic nervous system, we examined the responses elicited by their intracellular domains systematically. Surprisingly, we found no qualitative differences in growth cone response or axon growth, suggesting that, despite their highly diverged sequences, each intracellular domain elicits repulsion via a common pathway. In terms of the signaling pathway(s) used by the repulsive receptors, mutations in the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Trio strongly enhance the repulsive activity of all three intracellular domains, suggesting that repulsion by Unc5, Robo, and Drl, and perhaps repulsion in general, involves Trio activity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A prevailing concept that has emerged in the axon guidance field is the importance of repulsion as a guidance mechanism for steering axons to their appropriate targets. Given the number and variety of different repulsive receptors, it is generally thought that there are differences in the signals that they transduce. However, this has never been tested directly. We have used the advanced genetics of Drosophila to compare directly the outputs of different repulsive receptors. Surprisingly, we found no qualitative
Enhancing Casimir repulsion via topological insulator multilayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Ran; Chen, Liang; Nie, Wenjie; Bi, Meihua; Yang, Yaping; Zhu, Shiyao
2016-08-01
We propose to observe the enhanced Casimir repulsion between two parallel multilayer walls made of alternating layers of a topological insulator (TI) and a normal insulator. Based on the transfer matrix method, the Fresnel coefficients matrix is generalized to apply to the TI multilayer structure. The Casimir repulsion under the influence of the magnetization orientation in the magnetic coatings on TI layer surfaces, the layer thicknesses, and the topological magnetoelectric polarizability, is investigated. We show that, for the multilayer structures with parallel magnetization on the TI layer surfaces, it is possible to enhance the repulsion by increasing the TI layer number, which is due to the accumulation of the contribution to the repulsion from the polarization rotation effect occurring on each TI layer surface. Generally, in the distance region where there is Casimir attraction between semi-infinite TIs, the force may turn into repulsion in TI multilayer structure, and in the region of repulsion for semi-infinite TI, the repulsive force can be enhanced in magnitude, the enhancement tends to a maximum while the structure contains sufficiently many layers.
Repulsive Casimir force in chiral metamaterials.
Zhao, R; Zhou, J; Koschny, Th; Economou, E N; Soukoulis, C M
2009-09-01
We demonstrate theoretically that one can obtain repulsive Casimir forces and stable nanolevitations by using chiral metamaterials. By extending the Lifshitz theory to treat chiral metamaterials, we find that a repulsive force and a minimum of the interaction energy possibly exist for strong chirality, under realistic frequency dependencies and correct limiting values (for zero and infinite frequencies) of the permittivity, permeability, and chiral coefficients. PMID:19792309
Casimir Repulsion between Metallic Objects in Vacuum
Levin, Michael; McCauley, Alexander P.; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Reid, M. T. Homer; Johnson, Steven G.
2010-08-27
We give an example of a geometry in which two metallic objects in vacuum experience a repulsive Casimir force. The geometry consists of an elongated metal particle centered above a metal plate with a hole. We prove that this geometry has a repulsive regime using a symmetry argument and confirm it with numerical calculations for both perfect and realistic metals. The system does not support stable levitation, as the particle is unstable to displacements away from the symmetry axis.
Thermal fluctuations and stability of a particle levitated by a repulsive Casimir force in a liquid.
Inui, Norio; Goto, Kosuke
2013-11-01
We study the vertical Brownian motion of a gold particle levitated by a repulsive Casimir force to a silica plate immersed in bromobenzene. The time evolution of the particle distribution starting from an equilibrium position, where the Casimir force and gravitational force are balanced, is considered by solving the Langevin equation using the Monte Carlo method. When the gold particle is very close to the silica plate, the Casimir force changes from repulsive to attractive, and the particle eventually sticks to the surface. The escape rate from a metastable position is calculated by solving the Fokker-Plank equation; it agrees with the value obtained by Kramers' escape theory. The duration of levitation increases as the particle radius increases up to around 2.3 μm. As an example, we show that a 1-μm-diameter gold particle can be levitated for a significantly long time by the repulsive Casimir force at room temperature. PMID:24329240
Modified entropic gravitation in superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Matos, Clovis Jacinto
2012-01-01
Verlinde recently developed a theoretical account of gravitation in terms of an entropic force. The central element in Verlinde’s derivation is information and its relation with entropy through the holographic principle. The application of this approach to the case of superconductors requires to take into account that information associated with superconductor’s quantum vacuum energy is not stored on Planck size surface elements, but in four volume cells with Planck-Einstein size. This has profound consequences on the type of gravitational force generated by the quantum vacuum condensate in superconductors, which is closely related with the cosmological repulsive acceleration responsible for the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Remarkably this new gravitational type force depends on the level of breaking of the weak equivalence principle for cooper pairs in a given superconducting material, which was previously derived by the author starting from similar principles. It is also shown that this new gravitational force can be interpreted as a surface force. The experimental detection of this new repulsive gravitational-type force appears to be challenging.
Repulsive Casimir force between Weyl semimetals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, Justin H.; Allocca, Andrew A.; Galitski, Victor
2015-06-01
Weyl semimetals are a class of topological materials that exhibit a bulk Hall effect due to time-reversal symmetry breaking. We show that for the idealized semi-infinite case, the Casimir force between two identical Weyl semimetals is repulsive at short range and attractive at long range. Considering plates of finite thickness, we can reduce the size of the long-range attraction even making it repulsive for all distances when thin enough. In the thin-film limit, we study the appearance of an attractive Casimir force at shorter distances due to the longitudinal conductivity. Magnetic field, thickness, and chemical potential provide tunable nobs for this effect, controlling the Casimir force: whether it is attractive or repulsive, the magnitude of the effect, and the positions and existence of a trap and antitrap.
The repulsive Casimir effect in Weyl semimetals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, Justin; Allocca, Andrew; Galitski, Victor
2015-03-01
Weyl semimetals are a proposed topological material with broken time-reversal symmetry. Due to this, they experience a particular bulk Hall effect as well as a weak longitudinal conductance. In such a situation, one can see a repulsive Casimir effect between two Weyl semimetals (similar to what has been studied for topological insulators and quantum hall materials), and the effect can be tuned from attractive to repulsive with chemical potential or magnetic field. We consider, separately, a simplified bulk description and a thin film geometry taking into account the band structure. This work is supported by JQI-PFC.
Electron attraction mediated by Coulomb repulsion.
Hamo, A; Benyamini, A; Shapir, I; Khivrich, I; Waissman, J; Kaasbjerg, K; Oreg, Y; von Oppen, F; Ilani, S
2016-07-21
One of the defining properties of electrons is their mutual Coulomb repulsion. However, in solids this basic property may change; for example, in superconductors, the coupling of electrons to lattice vibrations makes the electrons attract one another, leading to the formation of bound pairs. Fifty years ago it was proposed that electrons can be made attractive even when all of the degrees of freedom in the solid are electronic, by exploiting their repulsion from other electrons. This attraction mechanism, termed 'excitonic', promised to achieve stronger and more exotic superconductivity. Yet, despite an extensive search, experimental evidence for excitonic attraction has yet to be found. Here we demonstrate this attraction by constructing, from the bottom up, the fundamental building block of the excitonic mechanism. Our experiments are based on quantum devices made from pristine carbon nanotubes, combined with cryogenic precision manipulation. Using this platform, we demonstrate that two electrons can be made to attract each other using an independent electronic system as the 'glue' that mediates attraction. Owing to its tunability, our system offers insights into the underlying physics, such as the dependence of the emergent attraction on the underlying repulsion, and the origin of the pairing energy. We also demonstrate transport signatures of excitonic pairing. This experimental demonstration of excitonic pairing paves the way for the design of exotic states of matter. PMID:27443742
Electron attraction mediated by Coulomb repulsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamo, A.; Benyamini, A.; Shapir, I.; Khivrich, I.; Waissman, J.; Kaasbjerg, K.; Oreg, Y.; von Oppen, F.; Ilani, S.
2016-07-01
One of the defining properties of electrons is their mutual Coulomb repulsion. However, in solids this basic property may change; for example, in superconductors, the coupling of electrons to lattice vibrations makes the electrons attract one another, leading to the formation of bound pairs. Fifty years ago it was proposed that electrons can be made attractive even when all of the degrees of freedom in the solid are electronic, by exploiting their repulsion from other electrons. This attraction mechanism, termed ‘excitonic’, promised to achieve stronger and more exotic superconductivity. Yet, despite an extensive search, experimental evidence for excitonic attraction has yet to be found. Here we demonstrate this attraction by constructing, from the bottom up, the fundamental building block of the excitonic mechanism. Our experiments are based on quantum devices made from pristine carbon nanotubes, combined with cryogenic precision manipulation. Using this platform, we demonstrate that two electrons can be made to attract each other using an independent electronic system as the ‘glue’ that mediates attraction. Owing to its tunability, our system offers insights into the underlying physics, such as the dependence of the emergent attraction on the underlying repulsion, and the origin of the pairing energy. We also demonstrate transport signatures of excitonic pairing. This experimental demonstration of excitonic pairing paves the way for the design of exotic states of matter.
Coulomb Repulsion in Miniature Ion Mobility Spectrometry
Xu, J.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.
1999-08-08
We have undertaken a study of ion mobility resolution in a miniature ion mobility spectrometer with a drift channel 1.7 mm in diameter and 35 mm in length. The device attained a maximum resolution of 14 in separating ions of NO, O{sub 2}, and methyl iodine. The ions were generated by pulses from a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser. Broadening due to Coulomb repulsion was modeled theoretically and shown experimentally to have a major effect on the resolution of the miniature device.
Repulsive and attractive Casimir interactions in liquids
Phan, Anh D.; Viet, N. A.
2011-12-15
The Casimir interactions in solid-liquid-solid systems as a function of separation distance have been studied by the Lifshitz theory. The dielectric permittivity functions for a wide range of materials are described by Drude, Drude-Lorentz, and oscillator models. We find that the Casimir forces between gold and silica or MgO materials are both repulsive and attractive. We also find the stable forms for the systems. Our studies would provide good guidance for future experimental studies on dispersion interactions.
Complex phase behavior induced by repulsive interactions
Velasco; Mederos; Navascues; Hemmer; Stell
2000-07-01
For a solid in which the interactions have a hard core plus a simple soft repulsive tail we show, using a perturbation theory, that the possible stable crystalline structures give rise to a rich phase behavior. We find two concomitant critical points each corresponding to phase transitions separating bcc and fcc structures, respectively, and the occurrence of a transition between fcc and bcc phases without change in density. This novel phenomenology may be relevant to the behavior of some metallic systems, colloids, and to water. PMID:10991174
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weiss, R.; Muehlner, D. J.; Benford, R. L.; Owens, D. K.; Pierre, N. A.; Rosenbluh, M.
1972-01-01
Balloon measurements were made of the far infrared background radiation. The radiometer used and its calibration are discussed. An electromagnetically coupled broadband gravitational antenna is also considered. The proposed antenna design and noise sources in the antenna are reviewed. A comparison is made between interferometric broadband and resonant bar antennas for the detection of gravitational wave pulses.
Sterically stabilized colloids with tunable repulsions.
van Gruijthuijsen, Kitty; Obiols-Rabasa, Marc; Heinen, Marco; Nägele, Gerhard; Stradner, Anna
2013-09-10
When studying tunable electrostatic repulsions in aqueous suspensions of charged colloids, irreversible colloid aggregation or gelation may occur at high salt concentrations. For many commonly used synthetic colloids, such as polystyrene and silica particles, the reason for coagulation is the presence of unbalanced, strongly attractive, and short-ranged van der Waals (VDW) forces. Here, we present an aqueous polystyrene model colloid that is sterically stabilized against VDW attractions. We show that the synthesis procedure, based on a neutral initiator couple and a nonionic surfactant, introduces surface charges that can be further increased by the addition of charged comonomer methacrylic acid. Thus, the interactions between the polystyrene spheres can be conveniently tuned from hard-sphere-like to charge-stabilized with long-ranged electrostatic repulsions described by a Yukawa-type pair potential. The particle size, grafting density, core-shell structure, and surface charge are characterized by light and neutron scattering. Using X-ray and neutron scattering in combination with an accurate analytic integral equation scheme for the colloidal static structure factor, we deduce effective particle charges for colloid volume fractions ≥0.1 and salt concentrations in the range of 1.5 to 50 mM. PMID:23937718
Cellular cooperation with shift updating and repulsion
Pavlogiannis, Andreas; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Adlam, Ben; Nowak, Martin A.
2015-01-01
Population structure can facilitate evolution of cooperation. In a structured population, cooperators can form clusters which resist exploitation by defectors. Recently, it was observed that a shift update rule is an extremely strong amplifier of cooperation in a one dimensional spatial model. For the shift update rule, an individual is chosen for reproduction proportional to fecundity; the offspring is placed next to the parent; a random individual dies. Subsequently, the population is rearranged (shifted) until all individual cells are again evenly spaced out. For large population size and a one dimensional population structure, the shift update rule favors cooperation for any benefit-to-cost ratio greater than one. But every attempt to generalize shift updating to higher dimensions while maintaining its strong effect has failed. The reason is that in two dimensions the clusters are fragmented by the movements caused by rearranging the cells. Here we introduce the natural phenomenon of a repulsive force between cells of different types. After a birth and death event, the cells are being rearranged minimizing the overall energy expenditure. If the repulsive force is sufficiently high, shift becomes a strong promoter of cooperation in two dimensions. PMID:26602306
Attraction by Repulsion: Pairing Electrons using Electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilani, Shahal
One of the fundamental properties of electrons is their mutual Columbic repulsion. If electrons are placed in a solid, however, this basic property may change. A famous example is that of superconductors, where coupling to lattice vibrations makes electrons attractive and leads to the formation of bound pairs. But what if all the degrees of freedom in the solid are electronic? Is it possible to make electrons attract each other only by their repulsion to other electrons? Such an `excitonic' mechanism for attraction was proposed fifty years ago by W. A. Little, with the hope that it could lead to better and more exotic superconductivity. Yet, despite many efforts to synthesize materials that possess this unique property, to date there is still no evidence for electronic-based attraction. In this talk I will present our recent experiments that observe this unusual electronic attraction using a different, bottom-up approach. Our experiments are based on a new generation of quantum devices made from pristine carbon nanotubes, combined with precision cryogenic manipulation. Using this setup we can now assemble the fundamental building block of the excitonic attraction and demonstrate that two electrons that naturally repel each other can be made attractive using an independent electronic system as the binding glue. I will discuss the lessons learned from these experiments on what is achievable with plain electrostatics, and on the possibility to use the observed mechanism for creating exotic states of matter.
Turbine blade cooling using Coulomb repulsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breidenthal, Robert; Colannino, Joseph; Dees, John; Goodson, David; Krichtafovitch, Igor; Prevo, Tracy
2012-11-01
Video photography and thermocouples reveal the effect of an electric field on the flow around a stationary, idealized turbine blade downstream of a combustor. The hot products of combustion naturally include positive ions. When the blade is an electrode and elevated to a positive potential, it tends to attract the free electrons and repel the positive ions. Due to their lower mass, the light electrons are rapidly swept toward the blade, while the positive ions are repelled. As they collide with the neutrals in the hot gas, the positive ions transfer their momentum so that a Coulomb body force is exerted on the hot gas. Cool, compressed air is injected out of the stationary blade near its leading edge to form a layer of film cooling. In contrast to the hot combustion products, the cool air is not ionized. At the interface between the hot gas and the cool air, the Coulomb repulsion force acts on the former but not the latter, analogous to gravity at a stratified interface. An effective Richardson number representing the ratio of potential to kinetic energy characterizes the topography of the interface. When the electric field is turned on, the repulsion of the hot gas from the idealized blade is evident in video recordings and thermocouple measurements.
Shnir, Ya. M.
2015-12-15
We construct solutions of the 3 + 1 dimensional Faddeev–Skyrme model coupled to Einstein gravity. The solutions are static and asymptotically flat. They are characterized by a topological Hopf number. We investigate the dependence of the ADM masses of gravitating Hopfions on the gravitational coupling. When gravity is coupled to flat space solutions, a branch of gravitating Hopfion solutions arises and merges at a maximal value of the coupling constant with a second branch of solutions. This upper branch has no flat space limit. Instead, in the limit of a vanishing coupling constant, it connects to either the Bartnik–McKinnon or a generalized Bartnik–McKinnon solution. We further find that in the strong-coupling limit, there is no difference between the gravitating solitons of the Skyrme model and the Faddeev–Skyrme model.
Gravitational waves from gravitational collapse
Fryer, Christopher L; New, Kimberly C
2008-01-01
Gravitational wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.
The Electron-Pair Repulsion Model for Molecular Geometry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gillespie, R. J.
1970-01-01
Describes how the electron-pair repulsion model qualitatively explains the size and shape of molecular orbitals. Briefly discusses trigonal bipyramidal molecules, three-center bonds, and transition elements. Describes cluster compounds and finishes with a discussion of the exceptions to the model and effects of ligand-ligand repulsions. (RR)
Hard-Core Repulsion and Supersolid Cluster Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boninsegni, Massimo
2016-09-01
We study the effect of a short-ranged hard-core repulsion on the stability and superfluid properties of the cluster crystal phase of two-dimensional (2D) soft-core bosons. Results of Quantum Monte Carlo simulations on a cogent test case suggest that the main physical properties of the phase remain unaltered if the range d of the inner repulsive core is sufficiently short, even if the strength of the repulsion is several orders of magnitude greater than the outer soft-core barrier. Only if d is an appreciable fraction of the size of the clusters ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] 5 %) does a sufficiently strong hard-core repulsion cause the crystal to break down into a homogeneous superfluid; a moderate inner core repulsion enhances the superfluid response of the crystalline phase.
Hard-Core Repulsion and Supersolid Cluster Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boninsegni, Massimo
2016-06-01
We study the effect of a short-ranged hard-core repulsion on the stability and superfluid properties of the cluster crystal phase of two-dimensional (2D) soft-core bosons. Results of Quantum Monte Carlo simulations on a cogent test case suggest that the main physical properties of the phase remain unaltered if the range d of the inner repulsive core is sufficiently short, even if the strength of the repulsion is several orders of magnitude greater than the outer soft-core barrier. Only if d is an appreciable fraction of the size of the clusters ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] 5 %) does a sufficiently strong hard-core repulsion cause the crystal to break down into a homogeneous superfluid; a moderate inner core repulsion enhances the superfluid response of the crystalline phase.
Directional Noncovalent Interactions: Repulsion and Dispersion.
El Kerdawy, Ahmed; Murray, Jane S; Politzer, Peter; Bleiziffer, Patrick; Heßelmann, Andreas; Görling, Andreas; Clark, Timothy
2013-05-14
The interaction energies between an argon atom and the dihalogens Br2, BrCl, and BrF have been investigated using frozen core CCSD(T)(fc)/aug-cc-pVQZ calculations as reference values for other levels of theory. The potential-energy hypersurfaces show two types of minima: (1) collinear with the dihalogen bond and (2) in a bridging position. The former represent the most stable minima for these systems, and their binding energies decrease in the order Br > Cl > F. Isotropic atom-atom potentials cannot reproduce this binding pattern. Of the other levels of theory, CCSD(T)(fc)/aug-cc-pVTZ reproduces the reference data very well, as does MP2(fc)/aug-cc-pVDZ, which performs better than MP2 with the larger basis sets (aug-cc-pVQZ and aug-cc-pvTZ). B3LYP-D3 and M06-2X reproduce the binding patterns moderately well despite the former using an isotropic dispersion potential correction. B3LYP-D3(bj) performs even better. The success of the B3LYP-D3 methods is because polar flattening of the halogens allows the argon atom to approach more closely in the direction collinear with the bond, so that the sum of dispersion potential and repulsion is still negative at shorter distances than normally possible and the minimum is deeper at the van der Waals distance. Core polarization functions in the basis set and including the core orbitals in the CCSD(T)(full) calculations lead to a uniform decrease of approximately 20% in the magnitudes of the calculated interaction energies. The EXXRPA+@EXX (exact exchange random phase approximation) orbital-dependent density functional also gives interaction energies that correlate well with the highest level of theory but are approximately 10% low. The newly developed EXXRPA+@dRPA functional represents a systematic improvement on EXXRPA+@EXX. PMID:26583720
Universal three-body repulsion suggested by neutron stars
Takatsuka, T.; Nishizaki, S.; Tamagaki, R.
2008-04-29
Because of a serious inconsistency between theory and observation for the mass of hyperon-mixed neutron stars, it is suggested that some 'extra repulsion' is needed in hypernuclear systems. A 3-body force repulsion is tested for two cases, a 2{pi}-exchange via {delta}-excitation type (2{pi}{delta}) and a string-junction model (SJM) for the quark structure of baryons. It is found that the 2{pi}{delta} model generates an increasing repulsion with increasing density but cannot produce the 'extra repulsion' in hyperon-mixed neutron stars because it does not work on a {lambda} due to the lack of {lambda}{lambda}{pi} direct coupling. It is pointed out that the 'extra repulsion' should act universally, i.e., independent of baryon species. The SJM 3-body repulsion can satisfy the condition of universality because of the flavor-independence and the {l_brace}2{pi}{delta}+SJM{r_brace} scheme is shown to be a promising candidate for the 'extra repulsion', maintaining consistency with the empirical saturation property of nuclear matter.
Axelrod models of social influence with cultural repulsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radillo-Díaz, Alejandro; Pérez, Luis A.; Del Castillo-Mussot, Marcelo
2009-12-01
Since both attractive and repulsive effects among agents are important in social systems, we present simulations of two models based on Axelrod’s homogenization mechanism that includes repulsion. These models are the repulsive model, where all individuals can repel, and the partially repulsive model where only a fraction of repelling agents are considered. In these two models, attractive dynamics is implemented for agents with the ability to repel each other only if the number of features shared by them is greater than a threshold parameter. Otherwise, repelling dynamics is used. In the repulsive model, the transition from a monocultural state to a fragmented one often occurs abruptly from one cultural-variability value to the next one and a second transition emerges. For the partially repulsive model, there are also two different transitions present: the initial one being as abrupt as the one found for the repulsive model, whereas the second one follows a less abrupt behavior and resembles that of the original Axelrod model. However, the second transition for this model occurrs from a partially fragmented state and not from a monocultural one.
Lincoln, Don
2015-06-24
In a long line of intellectual triumphs, Einstein’s theory of general relativity was his greatest and most imaginative. It tells us that what we experience as gravity can be most accurately described as the bending of space itself. This idea leads to consequences, including gravitational lensing, which is caused by light traveling in this curved space. This is works in a way analogous to a lens (and hence the name). In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains a little general relativity, a little gravitational lensing, and tells us how this phenomenon allows us to map out the matter of the entire universe, including the otherwise-invisible dark matter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, P.; Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
Gravity bends light rays in a way analogous to, but quantitatively different from, the way it bends trajectories of passing particles. If light from some bright object passes close enough to some foreground mass, that object's image will be altered. The effect is more like a piece of bathroom glass in the sky than a precision-ground and well-focused lens, but the terms `gravitational lensing' or ...
Turner, E.L.
1988-07-01
For several years astronomers have devoted considerable effort to finding and studying a class of celestial phenomena whose very existence depends on rare cosmic accidents. These are gravitational-lens events, which occur when two or more objects at different distances from the earth happen to lie along the same line of sight and so coincide in the sky. The radiation from the more distant object, typically a quasar, is bent by the gravitational field of the foreground object. The bending creates a cosmic mirage: distorted or multiple images of the background object. Such phenomena may reveal many otherwise undetectable features of the image source, of the foreground object and of the space lying between them. Such observations could help to resolve several fundamental questions in cosmology. In the past decade theoretical and observational research on gravitational lenses has grown rapidly and steadily. At this writing at least 17 candidate lens systems have been discussed in the literature. Of the 17 lens candidates reported so far in professional literature, only five are considered to have been reliably established by subsequent observations. Another three are generally regarded as weak or speculative cases with less than 50 percent chance of actually being lens systems. In the remaining nine cases the evidence is mixed or is sparse enough so that the final judgment could swing either way. As might be concluded, little of the scientific promise of gravitational lenses has yet been realized. The work has not yielded a clear value for the proportionality constant or any of the other fundamental cosmological parameter. 7 figs.
On the possibility of Casimir repulsion using metamaterials
Da Rosa, Felipe S
2008-01-01
It is well known that the Casimir force between two half-spaces is dictated by their electromagnetic properties. In particular, when one of the half-spaces is mainly metallic or dielectric and the other is mainly magnetic, it is possible to show that the force is repulsive. This has attracted lots of interest towards the study of metamaterials (MMs) in the context of Casimir effect, as their magnetic activity might help bring the idea of Casimir repulsion from the theoretical realm to experimental verification. In this paper we investigate the possibility of repulsion when the MM magnetic permeability is given not by a Drude-Lorentz behavior, but by a model put forward by Pendry et al. [16]. After introducing the model and deriving the necessary formulas, we show that it is impossible to achieve repulsion with such a model and present a qualitative discussion of why this is so.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lämmerzahl, Claus; di Virgilio, Angela
2016-06-01
100 years after the invention of General Relativity (GR) and 110 years after the development of Special Relativity (SR) we have to state that until now no single experiment or observation allows any doubt about the validity of these theories within the accuracy of the available data. Tests of GR can be divided into three categories: (i) test of the foundations of GR, (ii) tests of the consequences of GR, and (iii) test of the interplay between GR and quantum mechanics. In the first category, we have tests of the Einstein Equivalence Principle and the structure of the Newton axioms, in the second category we have effects like the gravitational redshift, light defection, gravitational time delay, the perihelion shift, the gravitomagnetic effects as the Lense-Thirring and Schiff effect, and gravitational waves. Tests of the effects of gravity on quantum systems are a first step towards experiments searching for a quantum gravity theory. In this paper, we also highlight practical applications in positioning, geodesy, and the International Atomic Time. After 100 years, GR can now definitely be regarded also as practical and applied science.
Metastable states of a composite system tunneling through repulsive barriers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gusev, A. A.; Vinitsky, S. I.; Chuluunbaatar, O.; Derbov, V. L.; Góźdź, A.; Krassovitskiy, P. M.
2016-01-01
We consider a method for solving the problem of quantum tunneling through repulsive potential barriers for a composite system consisting of several identical particles coupled via pair oscillator-type potentials in the oscillator symmetrized-coordinate representation. We confirm the efficiency of the proposed approach by calculating complex energy values and analyzing metastable states of composite systems of three, four, and five identical particles on a line, which leads to the effect of quantum transparency of the repulsive barriers.
Sparse repulsive coupling enhances synchronization in complex networks.
Leyva, I; Sendiña-Nadal, I; Almendral, J A; Sanjuán, M A F
2006-11-01
Through the last years, different strategies to enhance synchronization in complex networks have been proposed. In this work, we show that synchronization of nonidentical dynamical units that are attractively coupled in a small-world network is strongly improved by just making phase-repulsive a tiny fraction of the couplings. By a purely topological analysis that does not depend on the dynamical model, we link the emerging dynamical behavior with the structural properties of the sparsely coupled repulsive network. PMID:17279973
Repulsive Synchronization in an Array of Phase Oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsimring, L. S.; Rulkov, N. F.; Larsen, M. L.; Gabbay, M.
2005-06-01
We study the dynamics of a repulsively coupled array of phase oscillators. For an array of globally coupled identical oscillators, repulsive coupling results in a family of synchronized regimes characterized by zero mean field. If the number of oscillators is sufficiently large, phase locking among oscillators is destroyed, independently of the coupling strength, when the oscillators’ natural frequencies are not the same. In locally coupled networks, however, phase locking occurs even for nonidentical oscillators when the coupling strength is sufficiently strong.
Elastic repulsion from polymer brush layers exhibiting high protein repellency.
Inoue, Yuuki; Nakanishi, Tomoaki; Ishihara, Kazuhiko
2013-08-27
Hydrophilic poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) brush layers with different thicknesses and graft densities were prepared to construct a model surface to elucidate protein-surface interactions. In particular, we focused on the steric repulsion of hydrophilic polymer layers as one of the surface properties that strongly influence protein adsorption and employed force-versus-distance (f-d) curve measurements obtained via atomic force microscopy to quantitatively evaluate the steric repulsion force, which is also referred to as the "elastic repulsion energy." We also analyzed direct interactions between the surface and proteins via the f-d curve, because these interactions trigger the protein-adsorption phenomenon. Protein-surface interactions were extremely suppressed at surfaces with high elastic repulsion energies and highly dense polymer brush structures, which is in contrast to those at surfaces with low elastic repulsion energies and low density of the grafted polymer layers. These results indicate that the elastic repulsion from the grafted polymer layer at the surface is an important parameter for controlling protein-surface interactions and protein adsorption phenomenon. PMID:23898820
Coulomb repulsion and the electron beam directed energy weapon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Retsky, Michael W.
2004-09-01
Mutual repulsion of discrete charged particles or Coulomb repulsion is widely considered to be an ultimate hard limit in charged particle optics. It prevents the ability to finely focus high current beams into small spots at large distances from defining apertures. A classic example is the 1970s era "Star Wars" study of an electron beam directed energy weapon as an orbiting antiballistic missile device. After much analysis, it was considered physically impossible to focus a 1000-amp 1-GeV beam into a 1-cm diameter spot 1000-km from the beam generator. The main reason was that a 1-cm diameter beam would spread to 5-m diameter at 1000-km due to Coulomb repulsion. Since this could not be overcome, the idea was abandoned. But is this true? What if the rays were reversed? That is, start with a 5-m beam converging slightly with the same nonuniform angular and energy distribution as the electrons from the original problem were spreading at 1000-km distance. Could Coulomb repulsion be overcome? Looking at the terms in computational studies, some are reversible while others are not. Based on estimates, the nonreversible terms should be small - of the order of 0.1 mm. If this is true, it is possible to design a practical electron beam directed weapon not limited by Coulomb repulsion.
An anisotropic hydrogel with electrostatic repulsion between cofacially aligned nanosheets.
Liu, Mingjie; Ishida, Yasuhiro; Ebina, Yasuo; Sasaki, Takayoshi; Hikima, Takaaki; Takata, Masaki; Aida, Takuzo
2015-01-01
Machine technology frequently puts magnetic or electrostatic repulsive forces to practical use, as in maglev trains, vehicle suspensions or non-contact bearings. In contrast, materials design overwhelmingly focuses on attractive interactions, such as in the many advanced polymer-based composites, where inorganic fillers interact with a polymer matrix to improve mechanical properties. However, articular cartilage strikingly illustrates how electrostatic repulsion can be harnessed to achieve unparalleled functional efficiency: it permits virtually frictionless mechanical motion within joints, even under high compression. Here we describe a composite hydrogel with anisotropic mechanical properties dominated by electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged unilamellar titanate nanosheets embedded within it. Crucial to the behaviour of this hydrogel is the serendipitous discovery of cofacial nanosheet alignment in aqueous colloidal dispersions subjected to a strong magnetic field, which maximizes electrostatic repulsion and thereby induces a quasi-crystalline structural ordering over macroscopic length scales and with uniformly large face-to-face nanosheet separation. We fix this transiently induced structural order by transforming the dispersion into a hydrogel using light-triggered in situ vinyl polymerization. The resultant hydrogel, containing charged inorganic structures that align cofacially in a magnetic flux, deforms easily under shear forces applied parallel to the embedded nanosheets yet resists compressive forces applied orthogonally. We anticipate that the concept of embedding anisotropic repulsive electrostatics within a composite material, inspired by articular cartilage, will open up new possibilities for developing soft materials with unusual functions. PMID:25557713
Order disorder alternations in the populations of faulty repulsive agents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collet, Jacques Henri
2007-12-01
We study the spatio-temporal evolution of populations made up from a few tens to thousands of monokinetic repulsive agents moving through a two-dimensional grid. We adopt the behavioral description of agents, in which each agent executes an action following a state automaton. In the first step, the agents follow the repulsion rule of a deterministic automaton. Collective behaviors are calculated from the application of the evolution mechanisms for each individual. We show that, depending on the repulsion law and on the presence of borders, the agents become organized into a square or a condensed hexagonal stationary lattice, which maximizes the potential function of the distribution. Thus, the repulsion may force the condensation to the same site. Then, we study the collective behaviors when the agents are faulty and randomly violate the repulsion law. When the number of agents is small (say, for population involving a few tens of agents), we observe fast and random alternations between the ordered lattice phase and a strongly disorganized state. These alternations are essentially averaged and disappear in the large populations, resulting in a partially ordered homogeneous distribution.
An anisotropic hydrogel with electrostatic repulsion between cofacially aligned nanosheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Mingjie; Ishida, Yasuhiro; Ebina, Yasuo; Sasaki, Takayoshi; Hikima, Takaaki; Takata, Masaki; Aida, Takuzo
2015-01-01
Machine technology frequently puts magnetic or electrostatic repulsive forces to practical use, as in maglev trains, vehicle suspensions or non-contact bearings. In contrast, materials design overwhelmingly focuses on attractive interactions, such as in the many advanced polymer-based composites, where inorganic fillers interact with a polymer matrix to improve mechanical properties. However, articular cartilage strikingly illustrates how electrostatic repulsion can be harnessed to achieve unparalleled functional efficiency: it permits virtually frictionless mechanical motion within joints, even under high compression. Here we describe a composite hydrogel with anisotropic mechanical properties dominated by electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged unilamellar titanate nanosheets embedded within it. Crucial to the behaviour of this hydrogel is the serendipitous discovery of cofacial nanosheet alignment in aqueous colloidal dispersions subjected to a strong magnetic field, which maximizes electrostatic repulsion and thereby induces a quasi-crystalline structural ordering over macroscopic length scales and with uniformly large face-to-face nanosheet separation. We fix this transiently induced structural order by transforming the dispersion into a hydrogel using light-triggered in situ vinyl polymerization. The resultant hydrogel, containing charged inorganic structures that align cofacially in a magnetic flux, deforms easily under shear forces applied parallel to the embedded nanosheets yet resists compressive forces applied orthogonally. We anticipate that the concept of embedding anisotropic repulsive electrostatics within a composite material, inspired by articular cartilage, will open up new possibilities for developing soft materials with unusual functions.
Quasiparticle-continuum level repulsion in a quantum magnet
Plumb, K. W.; Hwang, Kyusung; Qiu, Y.; Harriger, Leland W.; Granroth, G. Â E.; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Shu, G. J.; Chou, F. C.; Rüegg, Ch.; Kim, Yong Baek; et al
2015-11-30
When the energy eigenvalues of two coupled quantum states approach each other in a certain parameter space, their energy levels repel each other and level crossing is avoided. Such level repulsion, or avoided level crossing, is commonly used to describe the dispersion relation of quasiparticles in solids. But, little is known about the level repulsion when more than two quasiparticles are present; for example, in a strongly interacting quantum system where a quasiparticle can spontaneously decay into a many-particle continuum. Here we show that even in this case level repulsion exists between a long-lived quasiparticle state and a continuum. Here,more » we observe a renormalization of the quasiparticle dispersion relation due to the presence of the continuum of multi-quasiparticle states, in our fine-resolution neutron spectroscopy study of magnetic quasiparticles in the frustrated quantum magnet BiCu2PO6.« less
Quasiparticle-continuum level repulsion in a quantum magnet
Plumb, K. W.; Hwang, Kyusung; Qiu, Y.; Harriger, Leland W.; Granroth, G. Â E.; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Shu, G. J.; Chou, F. C.; Rüegg, Ch.; Kim, Yong Baek; Kim, Young-June
2015-11-30
When the energy eigenvalues of two coupled quantum states approach each other in a certain parameter space, their energy levels repel each other and level crossing is avoided. Such level repulsion, or avoided level crossing, is commonly used to describe the dispersion relation of quasiparticles in solids. But, little is known about the level repulsion when more than two quasiparticles are present; for example, in a strongly interacting quantum system where a quasiparticle can spontaneously decay into a many-particle continuum. Here we show that even in this case level repulsion exists between a long-lived quasiparticle state and a continuum. Here, we observe a renormalization of the quasiparticle dispersion relation due to the presence of the continuum of multi-quasiparticle states, in our fine-resolution neutron spectroscopy study of magnetic quasiparticles in the frustrated quantum magnet BiCu_{2}PO_{6}.
Quasiparticle-continuum level repulsion in a quantum magnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plumb, K. W.; Hwang, Kyusung; Qiu, Y.; Harriger, Leland W.; Granroth, G. E.; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Shu, G. J.; Chou, F. C.; Rüegg, Ch.; Kim, Yong Baek; Kim, Young-June
2016-03-01
When the energy eigenvalues of two coupled quantum states approach each other in a certain parameter space, their energy levels repel each other and level crossing is avoided. Such level repulsion, or avoided level crossing, is commonly used to describe the dispersion relation of quasiparticles in solids. However, little is known about the level repulsion when more than two quasiparticles are present; for example, in a strongly interacting quantum system where a quasiparticle can spontaneously decay into a many-particle continuum. Here we show that even in this case level repulsion exists between a long-lived quasiparticle state and a continuum. In our fine-resolution neutron spectroscopy study of magnetic quasiparticles in the frustrated quantum magnet BiCu2PO6, we observe a renormalization of the quasiparticle dispersion relation due to the presence of the continuum of multi-quasiparticle states.
Schee, J.; Stuchlík, Z.; Petrásek, M. E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@fpf.slu.cz
2013-12-01
It has been recently shown that the cosmic repulsion can have a highly significant influence on the motion of Magellanic Clouds (MC) in the gravitational field of Milky Way, treated in the framework of the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) halo model. However, there is an alternative to the CDM halo explanation of the rotation curves in the periphery of spiral galaxies, based on MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). Therefore, we study the role of the cosmic repulsion in the framework of the MOND theory applied to determine the MC motion. Our results demonstrate that in the MOND framework the influence of the cosmic repulsion on the motion of both Small and Large MC is also highly significant, but it is of a different character than in the framework of the CDM halo model. Moreover, we demonstrate that the MC motion in the framework of the CDM halo and MOND models is subtantially different and can serve as a test of these fundamentally different approaches to the explanation of the phenomena related to galaxies and the motion of satellite galaxies.
Repulsive Casimir-Polder potential by a negative reflecting surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Qi-Zhang
2015-07-01
We present a scheme to generate an all-range long repulsive Casimir-Polder potential between a perfect negative reflecting surface and a ground-state atom. The repulsive potential is stable and does not decay with time. The Casimir-Polder potential is proportional to z-2 at short atom-surface distances and to z-4 at long atom-surface distances. Because of these advantages, this potential can help in building quantum reflectors, quantum levitating devices, and waveguides for matter waves.
Can Coulomb repulsion for charged particle beams be overcome?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Retsky, Michael W.
2004-01-01
Mutual repulsion of discrete charged particles or Coulomb repulsion is widely considered to be an ultimate hard limit in charged particle optics. It prevents the ability to finely focus high current beams into a small spots at large distances from the defining apertures. A classic example is the 1970s era "Star Wars" study of an electron beam directed energy weapon as an orbiting antiballistic missile device. After much analysis, it was considered physically impossible to focus a 1000-amp 1-GeV beam into a 1-cm diameter spot 1000-km from the beam generator. The main reason was that a 1-cm diameter beam would spread to 5-m diameter at 1000-km due to Coulomb repulsion. Since this could not be overcome, the idea was abandoned. But is this true? What if the rays were reversed? That is, start with a 5-m beam converging slightly with the same nonuniform angular and energy distribution as the electrons from the original problem were spreading at 1000-km distance. Could Coulomb repulsion be overcome? Looking at the terms in computational studies, some are reversible while others are not. Since the nonreversible terms should be small, it might be possible to construct an electron beam directed energy weapon.
The Pauli Principle and Electronic Repulsion in Helium
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Snow, Richard L.; Bills, James L.
1974-01-01
The authors indicate that several recent textbooks in quantum chemistry use a discussion of the excited states of the helium atom to demonstrate the importance of the Pauli principle in determining electronic repulsions. They present data suggesting "Pauli forces" do not keep electrons of parallel spins separated in space. (RH)
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in vortex systems with two repulsive lengthscales.
Curran, P J; Desoky, W M; Milosević, M V; Chaves, A; Laloë, J-B; Moodera, J S; Bending, S J
2015-01-01
Scanning Hall probe microscopy (SHPM) has been used to study vortex structures in thin epitaxial films of the superconductor MgB2. Unusual vortex patterns observed in MgB2 single crystals have previously been attributed to a competition between short-range repulsive and long-range attractive vortex-vortex interactions in this two band superconductor; the type 1.5 superconductivity scenario. Our films have much higher levels of disorder than bulk single crystals and therefore both superconducting condensates are expected to be pushed deep into the type 2 regime with purely repulsive vortex interactions. We observe broken symmetry vortex patterns at low fields in all samples after field-cooling from above Tc. These are consistent with those seen in systems with competing repulsions on disparate length scales, and remarkably similar structures are reproduced in dirty two band Ginzburg-Landau calculations, where the simulation parameters have been defined by experimental observations. This suggests that in our dirty MgB2 films, the symmetry of the vortex structures is broken by the presence of vortex repulsions with two different lengthscales, originating from the two distinct superconducting condensates. This represents an entirely new mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking in systems of superconducting vortices, with important implications for pinning phenomena and high current density applications. PMID:26492969
Electrostatic Repulsion Governs TDP-43 C-terminal Domain Aggregation.
Mompeán, Miguel; Chakrabartty, Avijit; Buratti, Emanuele; Laurents, Douglas V
2016-04-01
TDP-43 is a protein that forms aggregates implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In response to a recent study, this Formal Comment argues that the pH-dependent solubility of this protein is better explained by the mutual repulsion of charged groups than by the formation of hydrogen bonds. PMID:27096426
Electron Pairing, Repulsion, and Correlation: A Simplistic Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olsson, Lars-Fride; Kloo, Lars
2004-01-01
The interplay between a nucleus and an electron pair is explained through a basic application of an electrostatic and balanced model to determine the correlated and repulsive movements of the electron pair. The stable correlation depends on the positive charge produced by the combined force, which in turn establishes a negative potential energy.
Teaching Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Talbot, Christopher; Neo, Choo Tong
2013-01-01
This "Science Note" looks at the way that the shapes of simple molecules can be explained in terms of the number of electron pairs in the valence shell of the central atom. This theory is formally known as valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory. The article explains the preferred shape of chlorine trifluoride (ClF3),…
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in vortex systems with two repulsive lengthscales
Curran, P. J.; Desoky, W. M.; Milos̆ević, M. V.; Chaves, A.; Laloë, J.-B.; Moodera, J. S.; Bending, S. J.
2015-01-01
Scanning Hall probe microscopy (SHPM) has been used to study vortex structures in thin epitaxial films of the superconductor MgB2. Unusual vortex patterns observed in MgB2 single crystals have previously been attributed to a competition between short-range repulsive and long-range attractive vortex-vortex interactions in this two band superconductor; the type 1.5 superconductivity scenario. Our films have much higher levels of disorder than bulk single crystals and therefore both superconducting condensates are expected to be pushed deep into the type 2 regime with purely repulsive vortex interactions. We observe broken symmetry vortex patterns at low fields in all samples after field-cooling from above Tc. These are consistent with those seen in systems with competing repulsions on disparate length scales, and remarkably similar structures are reproduced in dirty two band Ginzburg-Landau calculations, where the simulation parameters have been defined by experimental observations. This suggests that in our dirty MgB2 films, the symmetry of the vortex structures is broken by the presence of vortex repulsions with two different lengthscales, originating from the two distinct superconducting condensates. This represents an entirely new mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking in systems of superconducting vortices, with important implications for pinning phenomena and high current density applications. PMID:26492969
Gravitational lens time delays and gravitational waves
Frieman, J.A. Department of Astronomy Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 ); Harari, D.D.; Surpi, G.C. )
1994-10-15
Using Fermat's principle, we analyze the effects of very long wavelength gravitational waves upon the images of a gravitationally lensed quasar. We show that the lens equation in the presence of gravity waves is equivalent to that of a lens with a different alignment between source, deflector, and observer in the absence of gravity waves. Contrary to a recent claim, we conclude that measurements of time delays in gravitational lenses cannot serve as a method to detect or constrain a stochastic background of gravitational waves of cosmological wavelengths, because the wave-induced time delay is observationally indistinguishable from an intrinsic time delay due to the lens geometry.
Detectors of gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pizzella, G.
Gravitational waves Motion of test bodies in a g.w. field Energy carried by gravitational waves Gravitational-wave sources Spinning star Double-star systems Fall into a Schwarzschild black hole Radiation from gravitational collapse Gravitational-wave detectors The nonresonant detectors The resonant detectors Electromechnical transducers Piezoelectric ceramic The capacitor The inductor Data analysis The Brownian noise The back-action The wide-band noise, data analysis and optimization The resonant transducer The Wiener-Kolmogoroff filter The cross-section and the effective temperature The antenna bandwidth The gravitational-wave experiments in the world The laser interferometers The resonant detectors
Dynamics of chaotic systems with attractive and repulsive couplings.
Chen, Yuehua; Xiao, Jinghua; Liu, Weiqing; Li, Lixiang; Yang, Yixian
2009-10-01
Together with attractive couplings, repulsive couplings play crucial roles in determining important evolutions in natural systems, such as in learning and oscillatory processes of neural networks. The complex interactions between them have great influence on the systems. A detailed understanding of the dynamical properties under this type of couplings is of practical significance. In this paper, we propose a model to investigate the dynamics of attractive and repulsive couplings, which give rise to rich phenomena, especially for amplitude death (AD). The relationship among various dynamics and possible transitions to AD are illustrated. When the system is in the maximally stable AD, we observe the transient behavior of in-phase (high frequency) and out-of-phase (low frequency) motions. The mechanism behind the phenomenon is given. PMID:19905414
General continuum approach for dissipative systems of repulsive particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vieira, César M.; Carmona, Humberto A.; Andrade, José S.; Moreira, André A.
2016-06-01
We propose a general coarse-graining method to derive a continuity equation that describes any dissipative system of repulsive particles interacting through short-ranged potentials. In our approach, the effect of particle-particle correlations is incorporated to the overall balance of energy, and a nonlinear diffusion equation is obtained to represent the overdamped dynamics. In particular, when the repulsive interaction potential is a short-ranged power law, our approach reveals a distinctive correspondence between particle-particle energy and the generalized thermostatistics of Tsallis for any nonpositive value of the entropic index q . Our methodology can also be applied to microscopic models of superconducting vortices and complex plasma, where particle-particle correlations are pronounced at low concentrations. The resulting continuum descriptions provide elucidating and useful insights on the microdynamical behavior of these physical systems. The consistency of our approach is demonstrated by comparison with molecular dynamics simulations.
First-principles study of Casimir repulsion in metamaterials.
Yannopapas, Vassilios; Vitanov, Nikolay V
2009-09-18
We examine theoretically the Casimir effect between a metallic plate and several types of magnetic metamaterials in pursuit of Casimir repulsion, by employing a rigorous multiple-scattering theory for the Casimir effect. We first examine metamaterials in the form of two-dimensional lattices of inherently nonmagnetic spheres such as spheres made from materials possessing phonon-polariton and exciton-polariton resonances. Although such systems are magnetically active in infrared and optical regimes, the force between finite slabs of these materials and metallic slabs is plainly attractive since the effective electric permittivity is larger than the magnetic permeability for the studied spectrum. When lattices of magnetic spheres made from superparamagnetic composites are employed, we achieve not only Casimir repulsion but almost total suppression of the Casimir effect itself in the micrometer scale. PMID:19792414
Molecular evolution of hemojuvelin and the repulsive guidance molecule family.
Camus, Laura Marie; Lambert, Lisa A
2007-07-01
Repulsive guidance molecules (RGMs) are found in vertebrates and chordates and are involved in embryonic development and iron homeostasis. Members of this family are GPI-linked membrane proteins that contain an N-terminal signal peptide, a C-terminal propeptide, and a conserved RGD motif. Vertebrates are known to possess three paralogues; RGMA and RGMB (sometimes called Dragon) are expressed in the nervous system and are thought to play various roles in neural development. Hemojuvelin (HJV; also called repulsive guidance molecule c, RGMC) is the third member of this family, and mutations in this gene result in a form of juvenile hemochromatosis (type 2A). Phylogenetic analyses of 55 different RGM family sequences from 21 different species support the existence of a novel gene, found only in fish, which we have labeled RGMD. The pattern of conserved residues in each family identifies new candidates for important functional roles, including ligand binding. PMID:17593421
Modeling and strain gauging of eddy current repulsion deicing systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Samuel O.
1993-01-01
Work described in this paper confirms and extends work done by Zumwalt, et al., on a variety of in-flight deicing systems that use eddy current repulsion for repelling ice. Two such systems are known as electro-impulse deicing (EIDI) and the eddy current repulsion deicing strip (EDS). Mathematical models for these systems are discussed for their capabilities and limitations. The author duplicates a particular model of the EDS. Theoretical voltage, current, and force results are compared directly to experimental results. Dynamic strain measurements results are presented for the EDS system. Dynamic strain measurements near EDS or EIDI coils are complicated by the high magnetic fields in the vicinity of the coils. High magnetic fields induce false voltage signals out of the gages.
Synergistic effect of repulsive inhibition in synchronization of excitatory networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belykh, Igor; Reimbayev, Reimbay; Zhao, Kun
2015-06-01
We show that the addition of pairwise repulsive inhibition to excitatory networks of bursting neurons induces synchrony, in contrast to one's expectations. Through stability analysis, we reveal the mechanism underlying this purely synergistic phenomenon and demonstrate that it originates from the transition between different types of bursting, caused by excitatory-inhibitory synaptic coupling. This effect is generic and observed in different models of bursting neurons and fast synaptic interactions. We also find a universal scaling law for the synchronization stability condition for large networks in terms of the number of excitatory and inhibitory inputs each neuron receives, regardless of the network size and topology. This general law is in sharp contrast with linearly coupled networks with positive (attractive) and negative (repulsive) coupling where the placement and structure of negative connections heavily affect synchronization.
Ferromagnetism in a repulsive atomic Fermi gas with correlated disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pilati, S.; Fratini, E.
2016-05-01
We investigate the zero-temperature ferromagnetic behavior of a two-component repulsive Fermi gas in the presence of a correlated random field that represents an optical speckle pattern. The density is tuned so that the (noninteracting) Fermi energy is close to the mobility edge of the Anderson localization transition. We employ quantum Monte Carlo simulations to determine various ground-state properties, including the equation of state, the magnetic susceptibility, and the energy of an impurity immersed in a polarized Fermi gas (repulsive polaron). In the weakly interacting limit, the magnetic susceptibility is found to be suppressed by disorder. However, it rapidly increases with the interaction strength, and it diverges at a much weaker interaction strength compared to the clean gas. Both the transition from the paramagnetic phase to the partially ferromagnetic phase, and the one from the partially to the fully ferromagnetic phase, are strongly favored by disorder, indicating a case of order induced by disorder.
General continuum approach for dissipative systems of repulsive particles.
Vieira, César M; Carmona, Humberto A; Andrade, José S; Moreira, André A
2016-06-01
We propose a general coarse-graining method to derive a continuity equation that describes any dissipative system of repulsive particles interacting through short-ranged potentials. In our approach, the effect of particle-particle correlations is incorporated to the overall balance of energy, and a nonlinear diffusion equation is obtained to represent the overdamped dynamics. In particular, when the repulsive interaction potential is a short-ranged power law, our approach reveals a distinctive correspondence between particle-particle energy and the generalized thermostatistics of Tsallis for any nonpositive value of the entropic index q. Our methodology can also be applied to microscopic models of superconducting vortices and complex plasma, where particle-particle correlations are pronounced at low concentrations. The resulting continuum descriptions provide elucidating and useful insights on the microdynamical behavior of these physical systems. The consistency of our approach is demonstrated by comparison with molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:27415187
Attractive and repulsive Fermi polarons in two dimensions.
Koschorreck, Marco; Pertot, Daniel; Vogt, Enrico; Fröhlich, Bernd; Feld, Michael; Köhl, Michael
2012-05-31
The dynamics of a single impurity in an environment is a fundamental problem in many-body physics. In the solid state, a well known case is an impurity coupled to a bosonic bath (such as lattice vibrations); the impurity and its accompanying lattice distortion form a new entity, a polaron. This quasiparticle plays an important role in the spectral function of high-transition-temperature superconductors, as well as in colossal magnetoresistance in manganites. For impurities in a fermionic bath, studies have considered heavy or immobile impurities which exhibit Anderson's orthogonality catastrophe and the Kondo effect. More recently, mobile impurities have moved into the focus of research, and they have been found to form new quasiparticles known as Fermi polarons. The Fermi polaron problem constitutes the extreme, but conceptually simple, limit of two important quantum many-body problems: the crossover between a molecular Bose-Einstein condensate and a superfluid with BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) pairing with spin-imbalance for attractive interactions, and Stoner's itinerant ferromagnetism for repulsive interactions. It has been proposed that such quantum phases (and other elusive exotic states) might become realizable in Fermi gases confined to two dimensions. Their stability and observability are intimately related to the theoretically debated properties of the Fermi polaron in a two-dimensional Fermi gas. Here we create and investigate Fermi polarons in a two-dimensional, spin-imbalanced Fermi gas, measuring their spectral function using momentum-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. For attractive interactions, we find evidence for a disputed pairing transition between polarons and tightly bound dimers, which provides insight into the elementary pairing mechanism of imbalanced, strongly coupled two-dimensional Fermi gases. Additionally, for repulsive interactions, we study novel quasiparticles--repulsive polarons--the lifetime of which determines the
Phosphatidylglycerol Flip-Flop Suppression due to Headgroup Charge Repulsion.
Brown, Krystal L; Conboy, John C
2015-08-13
The kinetics and thermodynamics of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho(1'-rac-glycerol)] (DSPG) flip-flop in 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) membranes were examined by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy (SFVS). The effect of DSPG concentration in the membrane and the influence of electrolyte concentration were examined in an attempt to decipher the role the anionic PG headgroup plays in dictating the dynamics of PG flip-flop for this biologically important lipid species. DSPG flip-flop dynamics and the activation barrier to exchange were found to be directly dependent on the amount of DSPG present in the bilayer. Analysis of the activation free energy for DSPG flip-flop in mixed DSPG + DSPC bilayers reveals that charge repulsion between neighboring PG headgroups modulates the free energy barrier and subsequently, the rate of translocation. Specifically, when DSPG comprises a small portion of the bilayer, the electrostatic potential of neighboring PG lipids are effectively shielded from each other under high ionic strength conditions and little to no charge repulsion occurs. When DSPG lipids are close enough to experience charge repulsion from neighboring PG lipids, as in bilayers containing a large fraction of DSPG, or for bilayers in low ionic strength solutions, the influence of charge repulsion on the energetics of lipid flip-flop are measurable. For biological membranes, where the concentration of PG is relatively low, the neighboring PG lipids are spaced far enough apart that their anionic charges are effectively shielded, such that under physiological conditions the charged nature of the headgroup does little to modulate its lipid flip-flop energetics and corresponding rate of translocation. PMID:26202012
Effective Reduction of Coulomb Repulsion in Charged Granular Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheffler, T.; Werth, J.; Wolf, D. E.
2000-04-01
This paper is an extension to a previous article by Scheffler and Wolfs.6 We study the rate of energy dissipation due to inelastic collisions in a charged granular gas. One observes that the electrostatic repulsion of two particles is effectively reduced by nearest neighbor interactions in a dense granular gas. We study the radial distribution function for dense systems, which leads to a better expression for the reduced energy barrier.
A magnetic bearing based on eddy-current repulsion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nikolajsen, J. L.
1987-01-01
This paper describes a new type of electromagnetic bearing, called the Eddy-Current Bearing, which works by repulsion between fixed AC-electromagnets and a conducting rotor. The following advantages are expected: inherent stability, higher load carrying capacity than DC-electromagnetic bearings, simultaneous radial, angular and thrust support, motoring and generating capability, and backup mode of operation in case of primary power failure. A prototype is under construction.
Pattern formation in annular systems of repulsive particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marschler, Christian; Starke, Jens; Sørensen, Mads P.; Gaididei, Yuri B.; Christiansen, Peter L.
2016-01-01
General particle models with symmetric and asymmetric repulsion are studied and investigated for finite-range and exponential interaction in an annulus. In the symmetric case transitions from one- to multi-lane behavior including multistability are observed for varying particle density and for a varying curvature with fixed density. Hence, the system cannot be approximated by a periodic channel. In the asymmetric case, which is important in pedestrian dynamics, we reveal an inhomogeneous new phase, a traveling wave reminiscent of peristaltic motion.
When do we need attractive-repulsive intermolecular potentials?
Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy
2014-12-09
The role of attractive-repulsive interactions in direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations is studied by comparing with traditional purely repulsive interactions. The larger collision cross section of the long-range LJ potential is shown to result in a higher collision frequency and hence a lower mean free path, by at least a factor of two, for given conditions. This results in a faster relaxation to equilibrium as is shown by comparing the fourth and sixth moments of the molecular velocity distribution obtained using 0-D DSMC simulations. A 1-D Fourier-Couette flow with a large temperature and velocity difference between the walls is used to show that matching transport properties will result in identical solutions using both LJPA and VSS models in the near-continuum regime. However, flows in the transitional regime with Knudsen number, Kn ∼ 0.5 show a dependence on the intermolecular potential in spite of matching the viscosity coefficient due to differences in the collision frequency. Attractive-repulsive potentials should be used when both transport coefficients and collision frequencies should be matched.
Measured long-range repulsive Casimir–Lifshitz forces
Munday, J. N.; Capasso, Federico; Parsegian, V. Adrian
2014-01-01
Quantum fluctuations create intermolecular forces that pervade macroscopic bodies1–3. At molecular separations of a few nanometres or less, these interactions are the familiar van der Waals forces4. However, as recognized in the theories of Casimir, Polder and Lifshitz5–7, at larger distances and between macroscopic condensed media they reveal retardation effects associated with the finite speed of light. Although these long-range forces exist within all matter, only attractive interactions have so far been measured between material bodies8–11. Here we show experimentally that, in accord with theoretical prediction12, the sign of the force can be changed from attractive to repulsive by suitable choice of interacting materials immersed in a fluid. The measured repulsive interaction is found to be weaker than the attractive. However, in both cases the magnitude of the force increases with decreasing surface separation. Repulsive Casimir–Lifshitz forces could allow quantum levitation of objects in a fluid and lead to a new class of switchable nanoscale devices with ultra-low static friction13–15. PMID:19129843
TOPICAL REVIEW Gravitational lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartelmann, Matthias
2010-12-01
Gravitational lensing has developed into one of the most powerful tools for the analysis of the dark universe. This review summarizes the theory of gravitational lensing, its main current applications and representative results achieved so far. It has two parts. In the first, starting from the equation of geodesic deviation, the equations of thin and extended gravitational lensing are derived. In the second, gravitational lensing by stars and planets, galaxies, galaxy clusters and large-scale structures is discussed and summarized.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ridgely, Charles T.
2011-01-01
When two gravitating bodies reside in a material medium, Newton's law of universal gravitation must be modified to account for the presence of the medium. A modified expression of Newton's law is known in the literature, but lacks a clear connection with existing gravitational theory. Newton's law in the presence of a homogeneous material medium…
Gravitational mass of relativistic matter and antimatter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran
2015-12-01
The universality of free fall, the weak equivalence principle (WEP), is a cornerstone of the general theory of relativity, the most precise theory of gravity confirmed in all experiments up to date. The WEP states the equivalence of the inertial, m, and gravitational, mg, masses and was tested in numerous occasions with normal matter at relatively low energies. However, there is no confirmation for the matter and antimatter at high energies. For the antimatter the situation is even less clear - current direct observations of trapped antihydrogen suggest the limits - 65
Electrostatic Repulsion during Ferritin Assembly and Its Screening by Ions.
Sato, Daisuke; Takebe, Satsuki; Kurobe, Atsushi; Ohtomo, Hideaki; Fujiwara, Kazuo; Ikeguchi, Masamichi
2016-01-26
Escherichia coli non-heme-binding ferritin A (EcFtnA) is a spherical cagelike protein that is composed of 24 identical subunits. EcFtnA dissociates into 2-mers under acidic conditions and can reassemble into the native structure when the pH is increased. To understand how electrostatic interactions influence the assembly reaction, the dependence of the process on ionic strength and pH was investigated. The assembly reaction was initiated by stopped-flow mixing of the acid-dissociated EcFtnA solution and high-pH buffer solutions and monitored by time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering. The rate of assembly increased with increasing ionic strength and decreased with increasing pH from 6 to 8. These dependences were thought to originate from repulsion between assembly units (2-mer in the case of EcFtnA) with the same net charge sign; therefore, to test this assumption, mutants with different net charges (net-charge mutants) were prepared. In buffers with a low ionic strength, the rate of assembly increased with a decreasing net charge. Thus, repulsion between the assembly unit net charges was demonstrated to be an important factor determining the rate of assembly. However, the difference in the assembly rate among net-charge mutants was not significant in buffers with an ionic strength of >0.1. Notably, under such high-ionic strength conditions, the assembly rate increased with an increasing ionic strength, suggesting that local electrostatic interactions are also responsible for the ionic strength dependence of the rate of assembly and are repulsive on average. PMID:26716350
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fontana, Giorgio
2005-02-01
There is only one experimental proof that gravitational waves exist. With such a limitation, it may seem premature to suggest the possibility that gravitational waves can became a preferred space propulsion technique. The present understanding of the problem indicates that this is not the case. The emission of gravitational waves from astrophysical sources has been confirmed by observation, the respective detection at large distance from the source is difficult and actually we have no confirmation of a successful detection. Therefore the required preliminary discovery has been already made. This opinion is enforced by many different proposals for building the required powerful gravitational wave generators that have recently appeared in the literature and discussed at conferences. It is no longer reasonable to wait for additional confirmation of the existence of gravitational waves to start a program for building generators and testing their possible application to space travel. A vast literature shows that gravitational waves can be employed for space propulsion. Gravitational wave rockets have been proposed, non-linearity of Einstein equations allows the conversion of gravitational waves to a static gravitational field and ``artificial gravity assist'' may become a new way of travelling in space-time. Different approaches to gravitational wave propulsion are reviewed and compared. Gravitational wave propulsion is also compared to traditional rocket propulsion and an undeniable advantage can be demonstrated in terms of efficiency and performance. Testing the predictions will require gravitational wave generators with high power and wavelength short enough for producing high energy densities. Detectors designed for the specific application must be developed, taking into account that non-linearity effects are expected. The study and development of Gravitational wave propulsion is a very challenging endeavor, involving the most complex theories, sophisticated
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Sheng Ming
2012-10-01
In the natural world, people have discovered four kinds of forces: electromagnetic force, gravitation, weak force, and strong force. Although the gravitation has been discovered more than three hundred years, its mechanism of origin is unclear until today. While investigating the origin of gravitation, I do some experiments discover the moving photons produce gravitation. This discovery shows the origin of gravitation. Meanwhile I do some experiments discover the light interference fringes are produced by the gravitation: my discovery demonstrate light is a particle, but is not a wave-particle duality. Furthermore, applications of this discovery to other moving particles show a similar effect. In a word: the micro particle moving produce gravitation and electromagnetic force. Then I do quantity experiment get a general formula: Reveal the essence of gravitational mass and the essence of electric charge; reveal the origin of gravitation and the essence of matter wave. Along this way, I unify the gravitation and electromagnetic force. Namely I find a natural law that from atomic world to star world play in moving track. See website: https://www.lap-publishing.com/catalog/details/store/gb/book/978-3-8473-2658-8/mechanism-of-interaction-in-moving-matter
Effects of Agent's Repulsion in 2d Flocking Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moussa, Najem; Tarras, Iliass; Mazroui, M'hammed; Boughaleb, Yahya
In nature many animal groups, such as fish schools or bird flocks, clearly display structural order and appear to move as a single coherent entity. In order to understand the complex behavior of these systems, many models have been proposed and tested so far. This paper deals with an extension of the Vicsek model, by including a second zone of repulsion, where each agent attempts to maintain a minimum distance from the others. The consideration of this zone in our study seems to play an important role during the travel of agents in the two-dimensional (2D) flocking models. Our numerical investigations show that depending on the basic ingredients such as repulsion radius (R1), effect of density of agents (ρ) and noise (η), our nonequilibrium system can undergo a kinetic phase transition from no transport to finite net transport. For different values of ρ, kinetic phase diagrams in the plane (η ,R1) are found. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Semiflexible polymers under good solvent conditions interacting with repulsive walls.
Egorov, Sergei A; Milchev, Andrey; Virnau, Peter; Binder, Kurt
2016-05-01
Solutions of semiflexible polymers confined by repulsive planar walls are studied by density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulations, to clarify the competition between the chain alignment favored by the wall and the depletion caused by the monomer-wall repulsion. A coarse-grained bead-spring model with a bond bending potential is studied, varying both the contour length and the persistence length of the polymers, as well as the monomer concentration in the solution (good solvent conditions are assumed throughout, and solvent molecules are not included explicitly). The profiles of monomer density and pressure tensor components near the wall are studied, and the surface tension of the solution is obtained. While the surface tension slightly decreases with chain length for flexible polymers, it clearly increases with chain length for stiff polymers. Thus, at fixed density and fixed chain length, the surface tension also increases with increasing persistence length. Chain ends always are enriched near the wall, but this effect is much larger for stiff polymers than for flexible ones. Also the profiles of the mean square gyration radius components near the wall and the nematic order parameter are studied to clarify the conditions where wall-induced nematic order occurs. PMID:27155651
Swarming and pattern formation due to selective attraction and repulsion
Romanczuk, Pawel; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz
2012-01-01
We discuss the collective dynamics of self-propelled particles with selective attraction and repulsion interactions. Each particle, or individual, may respond differently to its neighbours depending on the sign of their relative velocity. Thus, it is able to distinguish approaching (coming closer) and retreating (moving away) individuals. This differentiation of the social response is motivated by the response to looming visual stimuli and may be seen as a generalization of the previously proposed escape and pursuit interactions motivated by empirical evidence for cannibalism as a driving force of collective migration in locusts and Mormon crickets. The model can account for different types of behaviour such as pure attraction, pure repulsion or escape and pursuit, depending on the values (signs) of the different response strengths. It provides, in the light of recent experimental results, an interesting alternative to previously proposed models of collective motion with an explicit velocity–alignment interaction. We discuss the derivation of a coarse-grained description of the system dynamics, which allows us to derive analytically the necessary condition for emergence of collective motion. Furthermore, we analyse systematically the onset of collective motion and clustering in numerical simulations of the model for varying interaction strengths. We show that collective motion arises only in a subregion of the parameter space, which is consistent with the analytical prediction and corresponds to an effective escape and/or pursuit response. PMID:24312728
Friction and Hydration Repulsion Between Hydrogen-Bonding Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Netz, Roland
2012-02-01
The dynamics and statics of polar surfaces are governed by the hydrogen-bonding network and the interfacial water layer properties. Insight can be gained from all-atomistic simulations with explicit water that reach the experimentally relevant length and time scales. Two connected lines of work will be discussed: 1) On surfaces, the friction coefficient of bound peptides is very low on hydrophobic substrates, which is traced back to the presence of a depletion layer between substrate and water that forms a lubrication layer. Conversely, friction forces on hydrophilic substrates are large. A general friction law is presented and describes the dynamics of hydrogen-bonded matter in the viscous limit. 2) The so-called hydration repulsion between polar surfaces in water is studied using a novel simulation technique that allows to efficiently determine the interaction pressure at constant water chemical potential. The hydration repulsion is shown to be caused by a mixture of water polarization effects and the desorption of interfacial water.
Semiflexible polymers under good solvent conditions interacting with repulsive walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Egorov, Sergei A.; Milchev, Andrey; Virnau, Peter; Binder, Kurt
2016-05-01
Solutions of semiflexible polymers confined by repulsive planar walls are studied by density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulations, to clarify the competition between the chain alignment favored by the wall and the depletion caused by the monomer-wall repulsion. A coarse-grained bead-spring model with a bond bending potential is studied, varying both the contour length and the persistence length of the polymers, as well as the monomer concentration in the solution (good solvent conditions are assumed throughout, and solvent molecules are not included explicitly). The profiles of monomer density and pressure tensor components near the wall are studied, and the surface tension of the solution is obtained. While the surface tension slightly decreases with chain length for flexible polymers, it clearly increases with chain length for stiff polymers. Thus, at fixed density and fixed chain length, the surface tension also increases with increasing persistence length. Chain ends always are enriched near the wall, but this effect is much larger for stiff polymers than for flexible ones. Also the profiles of the mean square gyration radius components near the wall and the nematic order parameter are studied to clarify the conditions where wall-induced nematic order occurs.
Interaction Versus Entropic Repulsion for Low Temperature Ising Polymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ioffe, Dmitry; Shlosman, Senya; Toninelli, Fabio Lucio
2015-03-01
Contours associated to many interesting low-temperature statistical mechanics models (2D Ising model, (2+1)D SOS interface model, etc) can be described as self-interacting and self-avoiding walks on . When the model is defined in a finite box, the presence of the boundary induces an interaction, that can turn out to be attractive, between the contour and the boundary of the box. On the other hand, the contour cannot cross the boundary, so it feels entropic repulsion from it. In various situations of interest (in Caputo et al. Ann. Probab., arXiv:1205.6884, J. Eur. Math. Soc., arXiv:1302.6941, arXiv:1406.1206, Ioffe and Shlosman, in preparation), a crucial technical problem is to prove that entropic repulsion prevails over the pinning interaction: in particular, the contour-boundary interaction should not modify significantly the contour partition function and the related surface tension should be unchanged. Here we prove that this is indeed the case, at least at sufficiently low temperature, in a quite general framework that applies in particular to the models of interest mentioned above.
Dissociative ionization of sodium molecules via repulsive Rydberg states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Hong
In this thesis, an investigation of two color resonance multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and fragmentation processes in Na2 has been performed in combination with Linear Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry technique. The ionization and dissociative ionizations channels in the energy range up to 2500cm -1 above the dissociative ionization threshold into Na(3s)+Na ++e have been studied. After a mild supersonic expansion from the beam source, neutral sodium dimers in the ground state have been produced. Two tunable, pulsed lasers excite Na2 molecules via the intermediate A1S+u state to a single ro-vibrational level of the second intermediate 21pig state. Following absorption of a third photon, the total energy is above the dissociation limit into Na(3s) + Na+ + e. Typically, a small portion of atomic ions is produced under our experimental conditions. By varying the total available energy below and through the doubly excited states correlating with the Na(3p)+Na(4s) atom pair, there is no evidence that the doubly excited states positioned in the ionic continuum get involved. By calculation of the expected transition probabilities for all possible channels which can decay directly and indirectly into atomic ions, I find that direct dissociative ionization via 12S+u is impossible. The transition probabilities for dissociative ionization via the repulsive Rydberg states with principal quantum numbers n from 5˜12 converging toward the 12S+u state are three to four orders of magnitude larger than those for direct ionization into the continuum of the X2S+g ground state. These repulsive Rydberg states are much more likely to play a role in the photo-ionization through the intermediate 21Pg state. A semi-classical model which was originally developed for negative ion dissociative attachment (O'MAL'67) describes how dissociative ionization occurs along the repulsive Rydberg states. Its prediction concerning the ratio of atomic to molecular ion production as a function of initial
Gravitational mass of positron from LEP synchrotron losses
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran
2016-01-01
General relativity(GR) is the current description of gravity in modern physics. One of the cornerstones of GR, as well as Newton’s theory of gravity, is the weak equivalence principle (WEP), stating that the trajectory of a freely falling test body is independent of its internal structure and composition. WEP is known to be valid for the normal matter with a high precision. However, due to the rarity of antimatter and weakness of the gravitational forces, the WEP has never been confirmed for antimatter. The current direct bounds on the ratio between the gravitational and inertial masses of the antihydrogen do not rule out a repulsive nature for the antimatter gravity. Here we establish an indirect bound of 0.13% on the difference between the gravitational and inertial masses of the positron (antielectron) from the analysis of synchrotron losses at the Large Electron-Positron collider (LEP). This serves as a confirmation of the conventional gravitational properties of antimatter without common assumptions such as, e.g., coupling of gravity to virtual particles, dynamics of distant astrophysical sources and the nature of absolute gravitational potentials. PMID:27461548
Gravitational mass of positron from LEP synchrotron losses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran
2016-07-01
General relativity(GR) is the current description of gravity in modern physics. One of the cornerstones of GR, as well as Newton’s theory of gravity, is the weak equivalence principle (WEP), stating that the trajectory of a freely falling test body is independent of its internal structure and composition. WEP is known to be valid for the normal matter with a high precision. However, due to the rarity of antimatter and weakness of the gravitational forces, the WEP has never been confirmed for antimatter. The current direct bounds on the ratio between the gravitational and inertial masses of the antihydrogen do not rule out a repulsive nature for the antimatter gravity. Here we establish an indirect bound of 0.13% on the difference between the gravitational and inertial masses of the positron (antielectron) from the analysis of synchrotron losses at the Large Electron-Positron collider (LEP). This serves as a confirmation of the conventional gravitational properties of antimatter without common assumptions such as, e.g., coupling of gravity to virtual particles, dynamics of distant astrophysical sources and the nature of absolute gravitational potentials.
Gravitational mass of positron from LEP synchrotron losses.
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran
2016-01-01
General relativity(GR) is the current description of gravity in modern physics. One of the cornerstones of GR, as well as Newton's theory of gravity, is the weak equivalence principle (WEP), stating that the trajectory of a freely falling test body is independent of its internal structure and composition. WEP is known to be valid for the normal matter with a high precision. However, due to the rarity of antimatter and weakness of the gravitational forces, the WEP has never been confirmed for antimatter. The current direct bounds on the ratio between the gravitational and inertial masses of the antihydrogen do not rule out a repulsive nature for the antimatter gravity. Here we establish an indirect bound of 0.13% on the difference between the gravitational and inertial masses of the positron (antielectron) from the analysis of synchrotron losses at the Large Electron-Positron collider (LEP). This serves as a confirmation of the conventional gravitational properties of antimatter without common assumptions such as, e.g., coupling of gravity to virtual particles, dynamics of distant astrophysical sources and the nature of absolute gravitational potentials. PMID:27461548
Astrometric detection of gravitational effects of quantum vacuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vecchiato, Alberto; Gai, Mario; Hajdukovic, Dragan
2015-08-01
In a series of recent papers it was suggested that the pairs of virtual particles-antiparticles composing the Quantum Vacuum (QV) can behave like gravitational dipoles with both attractive and repulsive interaction. If verified, this hypothesis would give raise to a series of gravitational effects at different scale length not yet considered in current gravity theories, and it may support galactic and cosmological models alternative to those involving Dark Matter and Dark Energy.Within the boundaries of the Solar System, the most promising targets for testing the gravitational QV conjecture are the binary trans-neptunian objects (TNOs). The gravitational action of the QV, in fact, would manifest itself as an external force inducing an anomalous precession, i.e. an excess shift of the longitude of the pericenter in the orbit of the TNO satellite which, e.g., for the UX25 candidate and under reasonable working hypothesis, was estimated to be about 0.23 arcsec per orbit.In this work we analyze in some detail the feasibility of testing the gravitational QV hypothesis estimating the above effect with ground-based and spaceborne astrometric observations. Several observing scenarios are explored here, including those using conventional and adaptive optics telescopes from ground, some spaceborne telescopes, and by exploring a list of possible candidates.
Superconductivity from a Long-Range Repulsive Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Onari, S.; Arita, R.; Kuroki, K.; Aoki, H.
2006-09-01
The lattice model with short-range interactions (exemplified by the Hubbard model) is known to exhibit quite different features from those in the electron gas with the long-range Coulomb interaction. In order to explore how they cross over to each other, we have studied an extended Hubbard model which includes repulsions up to the 12th neighbors with the simplified fluctuation exchange (FLEX) approximation for the square lattice. We have found that (i) in the most dilute density region, spin and charge fluctuations become comparable, and s- and p-waves superconductivity become dominant, in agreement with the result for the electron gas by Takada, while (ii) the dominant spin fluctuation and its reflection on dx2-y2 and dxy pairing, both the effect of lattice structure, persists well away (n ≳ 0.2) from the half filling. 2006 American Institute of Physics
Phantom energy mediates a long-range repulsive force.
Amendola, Luca
2004-10-29
Scalar field models with nonstandard kinetic terms have been proposed in the context of k inflation, of Born-Infeld Lagrangians, of phantom energy and, more in general, of low-energy string theory. In general, scalar fields are expected to couple to matter inducing a new interaction. In this Letter I derive the cosmological perturbation equations and the Yukawa correction to gravity for such general models. I find three interesting results: first, when the field behaves as phantom energy (equation of state less than -1), then the coupling strength is negative, inducing a long-range repulsive force; second, the dark-energy field might cluster on astrophysical scales; third, applying the formalism to a Brans-Dicke theory with a general kinetic term it is shown that its Newtonian effects depend on a single parameter that generalizes the Brans-Dicke constant. PMID:15525149
Repulsive effects of hydrophobic diamond thin films on biomolecule detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruslinda, A. Rahim; Ishiyama, Y.; Penmatsa, V.; Ibori, S.; Kawarada, H.
2015-02-01
The repulsive effect of hydrophobic diamond thin film on biomolecule detection, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 trans-activator of transcription peptide protein detection, was investigated using a mixture of a fluorine-, amine-, and hydrogen-terminated diamond surfaces. These chemical modifications lead to the formation of a surface that effectively resists the nonspecific adsorption of proteins and other biomolecules. The effect of fluorine plasma treatment on elemental composition was also investigated via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS results revealed a fluorocarbon layer on the diamond thin films. The contact angle measurement results indicated that the fluorine-treated diamond thin films were highly hydrophobic with a surface energy value of ∼25 mN/m.
Nonperturbative effects on the ferromagnetic transition in repulsive Fermi gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Lianyi; Huang, Xu-Guang
2012-04-01
It is generally believed that a dilute spin-(1)/(2) Fermi gas with repulsive interactions can undergo a ferromagnetic phase transition to a spin-polarized state at a critical gas parameter (kFa)c. Previous theoretical predictions of the ferromagnetic phase transition have been based on the perturbation theory, which treats the gas parameter as a small number. On the other hand, Belitz, Kirkpatrick, and Vojta (BKV) have argued that the phase transition in clean itinerant ferromagnets is generically of first order at low temperatures, due to the correlation effects that lead to a nonanalytic term in the free energy. The second-order perturbation theory predicts a first-order phase transition at (kFa)c=1.054, consistent with the BKV argument. However, since the critical gas parameter is expected to be of order O(1), perturbative predictions may be unreliable. In this paper we study the nonperturbative effects on the ferromagnetic phase transition by summing the particle-particle ladder diagrams to all orders in the gas parameter. We consider a universal repulsive Fermi gas where the effective range effects can be neglected, which can be realized in a two-component Fermi gas of 6Li atoms by using a nonadiabatic field switch to the upper branch of a Feshbach resonance with a positive s-wave scattering length. Our theory predicts a second-order phase transition, which indicates that ferromagnetic transition in dilute Fermi gases is possibly a counterexample to the BKV argument. The predicted critical gas parameter (kFa)c=0.858 is in good agreement with the recent quantum Monte Carlo result (kFa)c=0.86 for a nearly zero-range potential [S. Pilati , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.105.030405 105, 030405 (2010)]. We also compare the spin susceptibility with the quantum Monte Carlo result and find good agreement.
From repulsive to attractive glass: A rheological investigation.
Zhou, Zhi; Jia, Di; Hollingsworth, Javoris V; Cheng, He; Han, Charles C
2015-12-21
Linear rheological properties and yielding behavior of polystyrene core and poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) shell microgels were investigated to understand the transition from repulsive glass (RG) to attractive glass (AG) and the A3 singularity. Due to the volume phase transition of PNIPAM in aqueous solution, the microgel-microgel interaction potential gradually changes from repulsive to attractive. In temperature and frequency sweep experiments, the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) increased discontinuously when crossing the RG-to-AG transition line, while G' at low frequency exhibited a different volume fraction (Φ) dependence. By fitting the data of RG and AG, and then extrapolating to high volume fraction, the difference between RG and AG decreased and the existence of A3 singularity was verified. Dynamic strain sweep experiments were conducted to confirm these findings. RG at 25 °C exhibited one-step yielding, whereas AG at 40 °C showed a typical two-step yielding behavior; the first yielding strain remained constant and the second one gradually decreased as the volume fraction increased. By extrapolating the second yield strain to that of the first one, the predicted A3 singularity was at 0.61 ± 0.02. At 37 °C, when Φeff = 0.59, AG showed one step yielding as the length of the attractive bond increased. The consistency and agreement of the experimental results reaffirmed the existence of A3 singularity, where the yielding behavior of RG and AG became identical. PMID:26696073
Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blair, D. G.; Howell, E. J.; Ju, L.; Zhao, C.
2012-02-01
Part I. An Introduction to Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Detectors: 1. Gravitational waves D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao and E. J. Howell; 2. Sources of gravitational waves D. G. Blair and E. J. Howell; 3. Gravitational wave detectors D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao, H. Miao, E. J. Howell, and P. Barriga; 4. Gravitational wave data analysis B. S. Sathyaprakash and B. F. Schutz; 5. Network analysis L. Wen and B. F. Schutz; Part II. Current Laser Interferometer Detectors: Three Case Studies: 6. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory P. Fritschel; 7. The VIRGO detector S. Braccini; 8. GEO 600 H. Lück and H. Grote; Part III. Technology for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors: 9. Lasers for high optical power interferometers B. Willke and M. Frede; 10. Thermal noise, suspensions and test masses L. Ju, G. Harry and B. Lee; 11. Vibration isolation: Part 1. Seismic isolation for advanced LIGO B. Lantz; Part 2. Passive isolation J-C. Dumas; 12. Interferometer sensing and control P. Barriga; 13. Stabilizing interferometers against high optical power effects C. Zhao, L. Ju, S. Gras and D. G. Blair; Part IV. Technology for Third Generation Gravitational Wave Detectors: 14. Cryogenic interferometers J. Degallaix; 15. Quantum theory of laser-interferometer GW detectors H. Miao and Y. Chen; 16. ET. A third generation observatory M. Punturo and H. Lück; Index.
Those Elusive Gravitational Waves
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MOSAIC, 1976
1976-01-01
The presence of gravitational waves was predicted by Einstein in his theory of General Relativity. Since then, scientists have been attempting to develop a detector sensitive enough to measure these cosmic signals. Once the presence of gravitational waves is confirmed, scientists can directly study star interiors, galaxy cores, or quasars. (MA)
Solitary state at the edge of synchrony in ensembles with attractive and repulsive interactions.
Maistrenko, Yuri; Penkovsky, Bogdan; Rosenblum, Michael
2014-06-01
We discuss the desynchronization transition in networks of globally coupled identical oscillators with attractive and repulsive interactions. We show that, if attractive and repulsive groups act in antiphase or close to that, a solitary state emerges with a single repulsive oscillator split up from the others fully synchronized. With further increase of the repulsing strength, the synchronized cluster becomes fuzzy and the dynamics is given by a variety of stationary states with zero common forcing. Intriguingly, solitary states represent the natural link between coherence and incoherence. The phenomenon is described analytically for phase oscillators with sine coupling and demonstrated numerically for more general amplitude models. PMID:25019710
Progress in gravitational wave detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Jing-Quan; Yang, De-Hua
2005-09-01
General theory of Einstein's relativity predicts the existence of gravitational wave when mass is accelerated. However, no material has direct effect when the gravitational wave passes. Therefore, gravitational wave can only be detected indirectly. The effort in gravitational wave detection was started in the 60s of last century by using a huge cylinder of aluminum. This paper introduced all the relevant projects in the gravitational wave detection. These projects include Weber's bar, Laser interferometer Gravitational wave Detector (LGD), Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (LIGO), GEO600, VIRGO, TAMA300, Advanced LIGO, Large scale Cryogenic Gravitational wave Telescope (LCGO), and Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conklin, John
2016-03-01
With the expected direct detection of gravitational waves by Advanced LIGO and pulsar timing arrays in the near future, and with the recent launch of LISA Pathfinder this can arguably be called the decade of gravitational waves. Low frequency gravitational waves in the mHz range, which can only be observed from space, provide the richest science and complement high frequency observatories on the ground. A space-based observatory will improve our understanding of the formation and growth of massive black holes, create a census of compact binary systems in the Milky Way, test general relativity in extreme conditions, and enable searches for new physics. LISA, by far the most mature concept for detecting gravitational waves from space, has consistently ranked among the nation's top priority large science missions. In 2013, ESA selected the science theme ``The Gravitational Universe'' for its third large mission, L3, under the Cosmic Visions Program, with a planned launch date of 2034. NASA has decided to join with ESA on the L3 mission as a junior partner and has recently assembled a study team to provide advice on how NASA might contribute to the European-led mission. This talk will describe these efforts and the activities of the Gravitational Wave Science Interest Group and the L3 Study Team, which will lead to the first space-based gravitational wave observatory.
Electrostatic repulsion of charged pith balls hanging from strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mungan, Carl E.
2011-01-01
Two positively charged pith balls hang from a nail at the end of equal-length strings in Earth's surface gravitational field. The problem consists in finding each of the hanging angles when the balls do not necessarily have the same mass or charge. The solution is an excellent exercise in developing two skills: wisely choosing the coordinate axes in a free-body diagram, and correctly interpreting the roots and limits of a numerical solution. The treatment is accessible to undergraduate physics majors in their first or second year of physics courses.
Gravitational scaling dimensions
Hamber, Herbert W.
2000-06-15
A model for quantized gravitation based on simplicial lattice discretization is studied in detail using a comprehensive finite size scaling analysis combined with renormalization group methods. The results are consistent with a value for the universal critical exponent for gravitation, {nu}=1/3, and suggest a simple relationship between Newton's constant, the gravitational correlation length and the observable average space-time curvature. Some perhaps testable phenomenological implications of these results are discussed. To achieve a high numerical accuracy in the evaluation of the lattice path integral a dedicated parallel machine was assembled. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Highly Effective Photonic Cue for Repulsive Axonal Guidance
Black, Bryan J.; Gu, Ling; Mohanty, Samarendra K.
2014-01-01
In vivo nerve repair requires not only the ability to regenerate damaged axons, but most importantly, the ability to guide developing or regenerating axons along paths that will result in functional connections. Furthermore, basic studies in neuroscience and neuro-electronic interface design require the ability to construct in vitro neural circuitry. Both these applications require the development of a noninvasive, highly effective tool for axonal growth-cone guidance. To date, a myriad of technologies have been introduced based on chemical, electrical, mechanical, and hybrid approaches (such as electro-chemical, optofluidic flow and photo-chemical methods). These methods are either lacking in desired spatial and temporal selectivity or require the introduction of invasive external factors. Within the last fifteen years however, several attractive guidance cues have been developed using purely light based cues to achieve axonal guidance. Here, we report a novel, purely optical repulsive guidance technique that uses low power, near infrared light, and demonstrates the guidance of primary goldfish retinal ganglion cell axons through turns of up to 120 degrees and over distances of ∼90 µm. PMID:24717339
Kinematic Repulsions Between Inertial Systems in AN Expanding Inflationary Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savickas, D.
2013-09-01
The cosmological background radiation is observed to be isotropic only within a coordinate system that is at rest relative to its local Hubble drift. This indicates that the Hubble motion describes the recessional motion of an inertial system that is at rest relative to its local Hubble drift. It is shown that when the Hubble parameter is kinematically defined directly in terms of the positions and velocities of mass particles in the universe, it then also defines inertial systems themselves in terms of the distribution and motion of mass particles. It is independent of the velocity of photons because photons always have a speed c relative to the inertial system in which they are located. Therefore the definition of their velocity depends on the definition of the Hubble parameter itself and cannot be used to define H. The derivative of the kinematically defined Hubble parameter with respect to time is shown to always be positive and highly repulsive at the time of the origin of the universe. A model is used which describes a universe that is balanced at the time of its origin so that H approaches zero as the universe expands to infinity.
Cell adhesion. Competition between nonspecific repulsion and specific bonding.
Bell, G I; Dembo, M; Bongrand, P
1984-01-01
We develop a thermodynamic calculus for the modeling of cell adhesion. By means of this approach, we are able to compute the end results of competition between the formation of specific macromolecular bridges and nonspecific repulsion arising from electrostatic forces and osmotic (steric stabilization) forces. Using this calculus also allows us to derive in a straightforward manner the effects of cell deformability, the Young's modulus for stretching of bridges, diffusional mobility of receptors, heterogeneity of receptors, variation in receptor number, and the strength of receptor-receptor binding. The major insight that results from our analysis concerns the existence and characteristics of two phase transitions corresponding, respectively, to the onset of stable cell adhesion and to the onset of maximum cell-cell or cell-substrate contact. We are also able to make detailed predictions of the equilibrium contact area, equilibrium number of bridges, and the cell-cell or cell-substrate separation distance. We illustrate how our approach can be used to improve the analysis of experimental data, by means of two concrete examples. PMID:6743742
Solid-solid transitions induced by repulsive interactions revisited.
Navascués, G; Velasco, E; Mederos, L
2016-10-19
We revisit a problem already studied 15 years ago by us in collaboration with Stell and Hemmer: the isostructural solid-solid transitions induced by repulsive particle interactions exhibited by classical systems interacting via the Stell-Hemmer potentials. The full phase diagram in the crystal region is obtained by applying a perturbation theory for classical solids used during our collaboration with Stell. Also, the performance of such a theory is now tested by comparing the perturbative phase diagram with that obtained from computer simulations. The latter was calculated using a recently refined method to obtain the free-energy of crystals by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The perturbation theory captures the correct topology and correctly identifies the stable, fcc and bcc, phases. In addition, the theory predicts the occurrence of special points: a point where the two stable structures coexist at the same density, and two critical points terminating the corresponding isostructural phase transitions for fcc and bcc phases. The location of some of these features in the phase diagram is predicted almost quantitatively. However, phase boundaries involving the non-compact bcc phase are much less accurate, a problem that can be traced to the poor representation used for the bcc phase of the reference, hard-sphere, system. PMID:27546295
A gradient field defeats the inherent repulsion between magnetic nanorods
Gu, Yu; Burtovyy, Ruslan; Custer, John; Luzinov, Igor; Kornev, Konstantin G.
2014-01-01
When controlling the assembly of magnetic nanorods and chains of magnetic nanoparticles, it is extremely challenging to bring them together side by side while keeping a desired spacing between their axes. We show that this challenge can be successfully resolved by using a non-uniform magnetic field that defeats an inherent repulsion between nanorods. Nickel nanorods were suspended in a viscous film and a non-uniform field was used to control their placement. The in-plane movement of nanorods was tracked with a high-speed camera and a detailed image analysis was conducted to quantitatively characterize the behaviour of the nanorods. The analysis focused on the behaviour of a pair of neighbour nanorods, and a corresponding dynamic model was formulated and investigated. The complex two-dimensional dynamics of a nanorod pair was analysed analytically and numerically, and a phase portrait was constructed. Using this phase portrait, we classified the nanorod behaviour and revealed the experimental conditions in which nanorods could be placed side by side. Dependence of the distance between a pair of neighbour nanorods on physical parameters was analysed. With the aid of the proposed theory, one can build different lattices and control their spacing by applying different field gradients. PMID:26064550
Highly effective photonic cue for repulsive axonal guidance.
Black, Bryan J; Gu, Ling; Mohanty, Samarendra K
2014-01-01
In vivo nerve repair requires not only the ability to regenerate damaged axons, but most importantly, the ability to guide developing or regenerating axons along paths that will result in functional connections. Furthermore, basic studies in neuroscience and neuro-electronic interface design require the ability to construct in vitro neural circuitry. Both these applications require the development of a noninvasive, highly effective tool for axonal growth-cone guidance. To date, a myriad of technologies have been introduced based on chemical, electrical, mechanical, and hybrid approaches (such as electro-chemical, optofluidic flow and photo-chemical methods). These methods are either lacking in desired spatial and temporal selectivity or require the introduction of invasive external factors. Within the last fifteen years however, several attractive guidance cues have been developed using purely light based cues to achieve axonal guidance. Here, we report a novel, purely optical repulsive guidance technique that uses low power, near infrared light, and demonstrates the guidance of primary goldfish retinal ganglion cell axons through turns of up to 120 degrees and over distances of ∼90 µm. PMID:24717339
On long-range forces of repulsion between biological cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derjaguin, B. V.; Golovanov, M. V.
1992-05-01
We have established experimentally that when biological cells, for example, blood, are suspended in concentrated solutions of inorganic electrolytes (for instance, in a 15% solution of sodium chloride) then around some cells (leucocytes, especially tumour cells) there form haloes, i.e., circular spaces free from background cells (erythrocytes, yeast cells, colloidal particles of Indian ink). In the medium made up of erythrocytes the haloes form during 5-10 min as a result of the background cells drawing apart from the central halo-forming cell (HFC) at a distance of 10-100 μm and more. In the medium made of the Indian ink particles, the haloes form during 2-4 s and attain a thickness of about 10-20 μm. The erythrocytes and the haloes forming in their medium can be preserved for about three to five days at room temperature. It has been established that, when tumour HFCs are present at sufficient concentrations, they form hexagonal periodic structures having a mean spacing between cells of up to 60 μm. The authors put forward as one probable suggestion that the formation of haloes is largely determined by long-range repulsive forces arising from the phenomenon of diffusiophoresis generated by the diffusion currents that emerge from the surface of halo-forming cells.
Twisted toroidal vortex solitons in inhomogeneous media with repulsive nonlinearity.
Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Malomed, Boris A; Shnir, Yasha; Torner, Lluis
2014-12-31
Toroidal modes in the form of so-called Hopfions, with two independent winding numbers, a hidden one (twist s), which characterizes a circular vortex thread embedded into a three-dimensional soliton, and the vorticity around the vertical axis (m), appear in many fields, including field theory, ferromagnetics, and semi- and superconductors. Such topological states are normally generated in multicomponent systems, or as trapped quasilinear modes in toroidal potentials. We uncover that stable solitons with this structure can be created, without any linear potential, in the single-component setting with the strength of repulsive nonlinearity growing fast enough from the center to the periphery, for both steep and smooth modulation profiles. Toroidal modes with s=1 and vorticity m=0, 1, 2 are produced. They are stable for m≤1, and do not exist for s>1. An approximate analytical solution is obtained for the twisted ring with s=1, m=0. Under the application of an external torque, it rotates like a solid ring. The setting can be implemented in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) by means of the Feshbach resonance controlled by inhomogeneous magnetic fields. PMID:25615341
FLRT Structure: Balancing Repulsion and Cell Adhesion in Cortical and Vascular Development
Seiradake, Elena; del Toro, Daniel; Nagel, Daniel; Cop, Florian; Härtl, Ricarda; Ruff, Tobias; Seyit-Bremer, Gönül; Harlos, Karl; Border, Ellen Clare; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Jones, E. Yvonne; Klein, Rüdiger
2014-01-01
Summary FLRTs are broadly expressed proteins with the unique property of acting as homophilic cell adhesion molecules and as heterophilic repulsive ligands of Unc5/Netrin receptors. How these functions direct cell behavior and the molecular mechanisms involved remain largely unclear. Here we use X-ray crystallography to reveal the distinct structural bases for FLRT-mediated cell adhesion and repulsion in neurons. We apply this knowledge to elucidate FLRT functions during cortical development. We show that FLRTs regulate both the radial migration of pyramidal neurons, as well as their tangential spread. Mechanistically, radial migration is controlled by repulsive FLRT2-Unc5D interactions, while spatial organization in the tangential axis involves adhesive FLRT-FLRT interactions. Further, we show that the fundamental mechanisms of FLRT adhesion and repulsion are conserved between neurons and vascular endothelial cells. Our results reveal FLRTs as powerful guidance factors with structurally encoded repulsive and adhesive surfaces. PMID:25374360
Superfluid state of repulsively interacting three-component fermionic atoms in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suga, Sei-Ichiro; Inaba, Kensuke
2013-03-01
We investigate the superfluid state of repulsively interacting three-component (color) fermionic atoms in optical lattices using Feynman diagrammatic approaches and the dynamical mean field theory. When the anisotropy of the three repulsive interactions is strong, atoms of two of the three colors form Cooper pairs and atoms of the third color remain a Fermi liquid. This superfluid emerges close to half filling at which the Mott insulating state characteristic of the three-component repulsive fermions appears. An effective attractive interaction is induced by density fluctuations of the third-color atoms. The superfluid state is stable against the phase separation that occurs in the strongly repulsive region. We determine the phase diagrams in terms of temperature, filling, and the anisotropy of the repulsive interactions. This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) (No. 23540467) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
seyithocuk; jjeherrera; eltodesukane; GrahamRounce; rloldershaw; Beaker, Dr; Sandhu, G. S.; Ophiuchi
2016-03-01
In reply to the news article on the LIGO collaboration's groundbreaking detection of gravitational waves, first predicted by Einstein 100 years ago, from two black holes colliding (pp5, 6-7 and http://ow.ly/Ylsyt).
Observation of Gravitational Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonzalez, Gabriela
2016-06-01
On September 14 2015, the two LIGO gravitational wave detectors in Hanford, Washington and Livingston, Louisiana registered a nearly simultaneous signal with time-frequency properties consistent with gravitational-wave emission by the merger of two massive compact objects. Further analysis of the signals by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration revealed that the gravitational waves detected by LIGO came from the merger of a binary black hole (BBH) system approximately 420 Mpc distant (z=0.09) with constituent masses of 36 and 29 M_sun. I will describe the details of the observation, the status of ground-based interferometric detectors, and prospects for future observations in the new era of gravitational wave astronomy.
Relativistic theory of gravitation
Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.
1986-01-01
In the present paper a relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) is unambiguously constructed on the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle. In this a gravitational field is treated as the Faraday--Maxwell spin-2 and spin-0 physical field possessing energy and momentum. The source of a gravitational field is the total conserved energy-momentum tensor of matter and of a gravitational field in Minkowski space. In the RTG the conservation laws are strictly fulfilled for the energy-moment and for the angular momentum of matter and a gravitational field. The theory explains the whole available set of experiments on gravity. By virtue of the geometrization principle, the Riemannian space in our theory is of field origin, since it appears as an effective force space due to the action of a gravitational field on matter. The RTG leads to an exceptionally strong prediction: The universe is not closed but just ''flat.'' This suggests that in the universe a ''missing mass'' should exist in a form of matter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finn, Lee Samuel
2012-03-01
If two black holes collide in a vacuum, can they be observed? Until recently, the answer would have to be "no." After all, how would we observe them? Black holes are "naked" mass: pure mass, simple mass, mass devoid of any matter whose interactions might lead to the emission of photons or neutrinos, or any electromagnetic fields that might accelerate cosmic rays or leave some other signature that we could observe in our most sensitive astronomical instruments. Still, black holes do have mass. As such, they interact—like all mass—gravitationally. And the influence of gravity, like all influences, propagates no faster than that universal speed we first came to know as the speed of light. The effort to detect that propagating influence, which we term as gravitational radiation or gravitational waves, was initiated just over 50 years ago with the pioneering work of Joe Weber [1] and has been the object of increasingly intense experimental effort ever since. Have we, as yet, detected gravitational waves? The answer is still "no." Nevertheless, the accumulation of the experimental efforts begun fifty years ago has brought us to the point where we can confidently say that gravitational waves will soon be detected and, with that first detection, the era of gravitational wave astronomy—the observational use of gravitational waves, emitted by heavenly bodies—will begin. Data analysis for gravitational wave astronomy is, today, in its infancy and its practitioners have much to learn from allied fields, including machine learning. Machine learning tools and techniques have not yet been applied in any extensive or substantial way to the study or analysis of gravitational wave data. It is fair to say that this owes principally to the fields relative youth and not to any intrinsic unsuitability of machine learning tools to the analysis problems the field faces. Indeed, the nature of many of the analysis problems faced by the field today cry-out for the application of
Water anomalous thermodynamics, attraction, repulsion, and hydrophobic hydration.
Cerdeiriña, Claudio A; Debenedetti, Pablo G
2016-04-28
A model composed of van der Waals-like and hydrogen bonding contributions that simulates the low-temperature anomalous thermodynamics of pure water while exhibiting a second, liquid-liquid critical point [P. H. Poole et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1632 (1994)] is extended to dilute solutions of nonionic species. Critical lines emanating from such second critical point are calculated. While one infers that the smallness of the water molecule may be a relevant factor for those critical lines to move towards experimentally accessible regions, attention is mainly focused on the picture our model draws for the hydration thermodynamics of purely hydrophobic and amphiphilic non-electrolyte solutes. We first focus on differentiating solvation at constant volume from the corresponding isobaric process. Both processes provide the same viewpoint for the low solubility of hydrophobic solutes: it originates from the combination of weak solute-solvent attractive interactions and the specific excluded-volume effects associated with the small molecular size of water. However, a sharp distinction is found when exploring the temperature dependence of hydration phenomena since, in contrast to the situation for the constant-V process, the properties of pure water play a crucial role at isobaric conditions. Specifically, the solubility minimum as well as enthalpy and entropy convergence phenomena, exclusively ascribed to isobaric solvation, are closely related to water's density maximum. Furthermore, the behavior of the partial molecular volume and the partial molecular isobaric heat capacity highlights the interplay between water anomalies, attraction, and repulsion. The overall picture presented here is supported by experimental observations, simulations, and previous theoretical results. PMID:27131551
Water anomalous thermodynamics, attraction, repulsion, and hydrophobic hydration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerdeiriña, Claudio A.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.
2016-04-01
A model composed of van der Waals-like and hydrogen bonding contributions that simulates the low-temperature anomalous thermodynamics of pure water while exhibiting a second, liquid-liquid critical point [P. H. Poole et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1632 (1994)] is extended to dilute solutions of nonionic species. Critical lines emanating from such second critical point are calculated. While one infers that the smallness of the water molecule may be a relevant factor for those critical lines to move towards experimentally accessible regions, attention is mainly focused on the picture our model draws for the hydration thermodynamics of purely hydrophobic and amphiphilic non-electrolyte solutes. We first focus on differentiating solvation at constant volume from the corresponding isobaric process. Both processes provide the same viewpoint for the low solubility of hydrophobic solutes: it originates from the combination of weak solute-solvent attractive interactions and the specific excluded-volume effects associated with the small molecular size of water. However, a sharp distinction is found when exploring the temperature dependence of hydration phenomena since, in contrast to the situation for the constant-V process, the properties of pure water play a crucial role at isobaric conditions. Specifically, the solubility minimum as well as enthalpy and entropy convergence phenomena, exclusively ascribed to isobaric solvation, are closely related to water's density maximum. Furthermore, the behavior of the partial molecular volume and the partial molecular isobaric heat capacity highlights the interplay between water anomalies, attraction, and repulsion. The overall picture presented here is supported by experimental observations, simulations, and previous theoretical results.
Repulsive interactions in quantum Hall systems as a pairing problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortiz, G.; Nussinov, Z.; Dukelsky, J.; Seidel, A.
2013-10-01
A subtle relation between quantum Hall physics and the phenomenon of pairing is unveiled. By use of second quantization, we establish a connection between (i) a broad class of rotationally symmetric two-body interactions within the lowest Landau level and (ii) integrable hyperbolic Richardson-Gaudin-type Hamiltonians that arise in (px+ipy) superconductivity. Specifically, we show that general Haldane pseudopotentials (and their sums) can be expressed as a sum of repulsive noncommuting (px+ipy)-type pairing Hamiltonians. The determination of the spectrum and individual null spaces of each of these noncommuting Richardson-Gaudin-type Hamiltonians is nontrivial yet is Bethe ansatz solvable. For the Laughlin sequence, it is observed that this problem is frustration free and zero-energy ground states lie in the common null space of all of these noncommuting Hamiltonians. This property allows for the use of a new truncated basis of pairing configurations in which to express Laughlin states at general filling factors. We prove separability of arbitrary Haldane pseudopotentials, providing explicit expressions for their second quantized forms, and further show by explicit construction how to exploit the topological equivalence between different geometries (disk, cylinder, and sphere) sharing the same topological genus number, in the second quantized formalism, through similarity transformations. As an application of the second quantized approach, we establish a “squeezing principle” that applies to the zero modes of a general class of Hamiltonians, which includes but is not limited to Haldane pseudopotentials. We also show how one may establish (bounds on) “incompressible filling factors” for those Hamiltonians. By invoking properties of symmetric polynomials, we provide explicit second quantized quasihole generators; the generators that we find directly relate to bosonic chiral edge modes and further make aspects of dimensional reduction in the quantum Hall systems
Sources of gravitational waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schutz, Bernard F.
1989-01-01
Sources of low frequency gravitational radiation are reviewed from an astrophysical point of view. Cosmological sources include the formation of massive black holes in galactic nuclei, the capture by such holes of neutron stars, the coalescence of orbiting pairs of giant black holes, and various means of producing a stochastic background of gravitational waves in the early universe. Sources local to our Galaxy include various kinds of close binaries and coalescing binaries. Gravitational wave astronomy can provide information that no other form of observing can supply; in particular, the positive identification of a cosmological background originating in the early universe would be an event as significant as was the detection of the cosmic microwave background.
Gravitational signatures of antiparticles:a cosmic perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al Dallal, Shawqi
The gravitational signature of antimatter has received growing interest during the past few decades. Much of the theoretical work in ordinary tensor gravity rules out any difference in the gravitational interaction of matter and antimatter. In field theories the exchange of even-spin bosons, such as the spin-2 graviton or its spin-0 partner, generates attractive forces, while the exchange of odd bosons, such as the photon or the postulated spin-1 graviton generates repulsive forces. The CPT theorem is at the origin of the argument that the exchange of even-spin bosons produces a universally attractive force field. So far, it has been impossible to construct a CPT-violating theory in flat spacetime. However, in curved spacetime, no generalization of the CPT theorem has been unequivocally demonstrated and its validity is open to question. Recently, experiments at the LEAR (Low Energy Accumulating Ring) at CERN have shown a surprising result for a fraction (3%) of antiprotons annihilated by protons of He3 nuclei. The annihilation process was retarded by as much as 10 to the power 8 times the value derived from theoretical calculations of Enrico Fermi and Edward Teller. These results are in good agreement with a formula introduced earlier by certain authors describing the time annihilation of anti-atoms by atoms. The motivation for investigating this problem is that a repulsive field between matter and antimatter may have drastic consequences on certain cosmic issues, such as the early phase of the Big Bang, Hawking radiation, and virtual particle production and annihilation. In the first part of this work we discuss the various theoretical arguments supporting or refuting the gravitational attraction between matter and antimatter, with emphasis on the CPT theorem. In the second part, we address the consequences of certain cosmic issues that arise from this problem. Finally, we propose an experimental test to clarify the nature of matter-antimatter interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mottola, Emil
2016-03-01
General Relativity receives quantum corrections relevant at macroscopic distance scales and near event horizons. These arise from the conformal scalar degree of freedom in the extended effective field theory (EFT) of gravity generated by the trace anomaly of massless quantum fields in curved space. Linearized around flat space this quantum scalar degree of freedom combines with the conformal part of the metric and predicts the existence of scalar spin-0 ``breather'' propagating gravitational waves in addition to the transverse tensor spin-2 waves of classical General Relativity. Estimates of the expected strength of scalar gravitational radiation from compact astrophysical sources are given.
Gravitation: Foundations and Frontiers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padmanabhan, T.
2010-01-01
1. Special relativity; 2. Scalar and electromagnetic fields in special relativity; 3. Gravity and spacetime geometry: the inescapable connection; 4. Metric tensor, geodesics and covariant derivative; 5. Curvature of spacetime; 6. Einstein's field equations and gravitational dynamics; 7. Spherically symmetric geometry; 8. Black holes; 9. Gravitational waves; 10. Relativistic cosmology; 11. Differential forms and exterior calculus; 12. Hamiltonian structure of general relativity; 13. Evolution of cosmological perturbations; 14. Quantum field theory in curved spacetime; 15. Gravity in higher and lower dimensions; 16. Gravity as an emergent phenomenon; Notes; Index.
Supersymmetry and gravitational duality
Argurio, Riccardo; Dehouck, Francois; Houart, Laurent
2009-06-15
We study how the supersymmetry algebra copes with gravitational duality. As a playground, we consider a charged Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino(NUT) solution of D=4, N=2 supergravity. We find explicitly its Killing spinors, and the projection they obey provides evidence that the dual magnetic momenta necessarily have to appear in the supersymmetry algebra. The existence of such a modification is further supported using an approach based on the Nester form. In the process, we find new expressions for the dual magnetic momenta, including the NUT charge. The same expressions are then rederived using gravitational duality.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelly, Bernard J.
2010-01-01
Einstein's General Theory of Relativity is our best classical description of gravity, and informs modern astronomy and astrophysics at all scales: stellar, galactic, and cosmological. Among its surprising predictions is the existence of gravitational waves -- ripples in space-time that carry energy and momentum away from strongly interacting gravitating sources. In my talk, I will give an overview of the properties of this radiation, recent breakthroughs in computational physics allowing us to calculate the waveforms from galactic mergers, and the prospect of direct observation with interferometric detectors such as LIGO and LISA.
Pioneering in gravitational physiology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Soffen, G. A.
1983-01-01
Gravity affects biology at almost all levels above that of the cell organelle. Attention is presently given to progress made in the understanding of gravitational effects through studies employing centrifuges, clinostats, inverted preparations, linear devices, water immersion, free fall, and short- and long-term spaceflight. The cardiovascular changes which cause malaise and illness during the first few days of extended space missions are the direct result of fluid translocation from the lower extremities. Upon reentry, there is hypovolumnia and a cardiovascular deconditioning that can include tachycardia, changes in arterial blood pressure, narrow pulse pressure, and syncope. Attention is also given to NASA's gravitational physiology reseach program.
Level repulsion of GHz phononic surface waves in quartz substrate with finite-depth holes.
Yeh, Sih-Ling; Lin, Yu-Ching; Tsai, Yao-Chuan; Ono, Takahito; Wu, Tsung-Tsong
2016-09-01
This paper presents numerical and experimental results on the level repulsion of gigahertz surface acoustic waves in an air/ST-cut quartz phononic structure with finite-depth holes. The colorful dispersion with the parameter of the in-plane (sagittal plane) ratio of polarization was adopted to determine the Rayleigh wave bandgap induced by the level repulsion. The results of numerical analyses showed that the frequency and width of the bandgap induced by the level repulsion strongly depend on the geometry of the air holes in the phononic structure. In the experiment, a pair of slanted interdigital transducers with frequency in the gigahertz range was designed and fabricated to generate and receive broadband Rayleigh waves, whereas the reactive ion etching process with electron-beam lithography was used to fabricate submicrometer phononic structures. The measured results of the bandgap induced by the level repulsion agreed favorably with the numerical prediction. PMID:27300272
Gravitational Waves: The Evidence Mounts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wick, Gerald L.
1970-01-01
Reviews the work of Weber and his colleagues in their attempts at detecting extraterrestial gravitational waves. Coincidence events recorded by special detectors provide the evidence for the existence of gravitational waves. Bibliography. (LC)
Research on gravitational physiology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, A. H.; Dahl, A. O.
1974-01-01
The topic of gravitational plant physiology was studied through aspects of plant development (in ARABIDOPSIS) and of behavior (in HELIANTHUS) as these were affected by altered g experience. The effect of increased g levels on stem polarity (in COLEUS) was also examined.
Probing gravitational dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Jing; He, Hong-Jian
2015-03-01
So far all evidences of dark matter (DM) come from astrophysical and cosmological observations, due to the gravitational interactions of DM. It is possible that the true DM particle in the universe joins gravitational interactions only, but nothing else. Such a Gravitational DM (GDM) may act as a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP), which is conceptually simple and attractive. In this work, we explore this direction by constructing the simplest scalar GDM particle χs. It is a Bbb Z2 odd singlet under the standard model (SM) gauge group, and naturally joins the unique dimension-4 interaction with Ricci curvature, ξsχs2Script R, where ξs is the dimensionless nonminimal coupling. We demonstrate that this gravitational interaction ξsχs2Script R, together with Higgs-curvature nonminimal coupling term ξhH†HScript R, induces effective couplings between χs2 and SM fields, and can account for the observed DM thermal relic abundance. We analyze the annihilation cross sections of GDM particles and derive the viable parameter space for realizing the DM thermal relic density. We further study the direct/indirect detections and the collider signatures of such a scalar GDM. These turn out to be highly predictive and testable.
New Perspectives on Gravitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yikun
2003-04-01
Based on radiation mechanics, a new rational mechanics proposed by the author, we can prove Newton's gravitational law and its conditions of validity. The gravitational coefficient is not a universal constant, but affected by many factors and can be both positive and negative. It is further shown how the gravitational coefficients are different for the planets in the solar system. The new rational mechanics expounds that the force causing an apple falling from a tree is not the same force causing the Earth revolving about the Sun. The gravitational force is the combining effect of shielding and shooting of gravitons between the Sun and Earth, whereas a dropped apple falling from a tree is due to the surface adsorption of Earth, called the blowing force. From this, we can rigorously prove that all electrically neutral bodies must fall with the same acceleration. However, any electrically charged bodies fall with different accelerations. It is also deduced that the weight of a magnet and its acceleration of falling depend on its orientation. So we have to distinguish weight and gravity. Moreover, the weight of a body may not be a conservative force on a planet.
Probing gravitational dark matter
Ren, Jing; He, Hong-Jian
2015-03-27
So far all evidences of dark matter (DM) come from astrophysical and cosmological observations, due to the gravitational interactions of DM. It is possible that the true DM particle in the universe joins gravitational interactions only, but nothing else. Such a Gravitational DM (GDM) may act as a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP), which is conceptually simple and attractive. In this work, we explore this direction by constructing the simplest scalar GDM particle χ{sub s}. It is a ℤ{sub 2} odd singlet under the standard model (SM) gauge group, and naturally joins the unique dimension-4 interaction with Ricci curvature, ξ{sub s}χ{sub s}{sup 2}R, where ξ{sub s} is the dimensionless nonminimal coupling. We demonstrate that this gravitational interaction ξ{sub s}χ{sub s}{sup 2}R, together with Higgs-curvature nonminimal coupling term ξ{sub h}H{sup †}HR, induces effective couplings between χ{sub s}{sup 2} and SM fields, and can account for the observed DM thermal relic abundance. We analyze the annihilation cross sections of GDM particles and derive the viable parameter space for realizing the DM thermal relic density. We further study the direct/indirect detections and the collider signatures of such a scalar GDM. These turn out to be highly predictive and testable.
Extragalactic Gravitational Collapse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rees, Martin J.
After some introductory "numerology", routes towards black hole formation are briefly reviewed; some properties of black holes relevant to theories for active galactic nuclei are then described. Applications are considered to specific models for energy generation and the production of relativistic beams. The paper concludes with a discussion of extragalactic sources of gravitational waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pires, Sandrine; Starck, Jean-Luc; Leonard, Adrienne; Réfrégier, Alexandre
2012-03-01
This chapter reviews the data mining methods recently developed to solve standard data problems in weak gravitational lensing. We detail the different steps of the weak lensing data analysis along with the different techniques dedicated to these applications. An overview of the different techniques currently used will be given along with future prospects. Until about 30 years ago, astronomers thought that the Universe was composed almost entirely of ordinary matter: protons, neutrons, electrons, and atoms. The field of weak lensing has been motivated by the observations made in the last decades showing that visible matter represents only about 4-5% of the Universe (see Figure 14.1). Currently, the majority of the Universe is thought to be dark, that is, does not emit electromagnetic radiation. The Universe is thought to be mostly composed of an invisible, pressure less matter - potentially relic from higher energy theories - called "dark matter" (20-21%) and by an even more mysterious term, described in Einstein equations as a vacuum energy density, called "dark energy" (70%). This "dark" Universe is not well described or even understood; its presence is inferred indirectly from its gravitational effects, both on the motions of astronomical objects and on light propagation. So this point could be the next breakthrough in cosmology. Today's cosmology is based on a cosmological model that contains various parameters that need to be determined precisely, such as the matter density parameter Omega_m or the dark energy density parameter Omega_lambda. Weak gravitational lensing is believed to be the most promising tool to understand the nature of dark matter and to constrain the cosmological parameters used to describe the Universe because it provides a method to directly map the distribution of dark matter (see [1,6,60,63,70]). From this dark matter distribution, the nature of dark matter can be better understood and better constraints can be placed on dark energy
Gravitational wave astronomy and cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hughes, Scott A.
2014-09-01
The first direct observation of gravitational waves' action upon matter has recently been reported by the BICEP2 experiment. Advanced ground-based gravitational-wave detectors are being installed. They will soon be commissioned, and then begin searches for high-frequency gravitational waves at a sensitivity level that is widely expected to reach events involving compact objects like stellar mass black holes and neutron stars. Pulsar timing arrays continue to improve the bounds on gravitational waves at nanohertz frequencies, and may detect a signal on roughly the same timescale as ground-based detectors. The science case for space-based interferometers targeting millihertz sources is very strong. The decade of gravitational-wave discovery is poised to begin. In this writeup of a talk given at the 2013 TAUP conference, we will briefly review the physics of gravitational waves and gravitational-wave detectors, and then discuss the promise of these measurements for making cosmological measurements in the near future.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cook, Paul P.; Fleming, Michael
2014-07-01
The algebra A {/D - 3 + + +} dimensionally reduces to the E D-1 symmetry algebra of (12 - D)-dimensional supergravity. An infinite set of five-dimensional gravitational objects embedded in D-dimensions is constructed by identifying the null geodesic motion on cosets embedded in the generalised Kac-Moody algebra A {/D - 3 + + +}. By analogy with super-gravity these are bound states of dual gravitons. The metric interpolates continuously between exotic gravitational solutions generated by the action of an affine sub-group. We investigate mixed-symmetry fields in the brane sigma model, identify actions for the full interpolating bound state and investigate the dualisation of the bound state to a solution of the Einstein-Hilbert action via the Hodge dual on multiforms. We conclude that the Hodge dual is insufficient to reconstruct solutions to the Einstein-Hilbert action from mixed-symmetry tensors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finn, L. S.
Astronomers rely on a multiplicity of observational perspectives in order to infer the nature of the Universe. Progress in astronomy has historically been associated with new or improved observational perspectives. Gravitational wave detectors now under construction will provide us with a perspective on the Universe fundamentally different from any we have come to know. With this new perspective comes the hope of new insights and understanding, not just of exotic astrophysical processes, but of "bread-and-butter" astrophysics: e.g., stars and stellar evolution, galaxy formation and evolution, neutron star structure, and cosmology. In this report the author discusses briefly a small subset of the areas of conventional, "bread-and-butter" astrophysics where we can reasonably hope that gravitational wave observations will provide us with valuable new insights and understandings.
The gravitational wave experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bertotti, B.; Ambrosini, R.; Asmar, S. W.; Brenkle, J. P.; Comoretto, G.; Giampieri, G.; Less, L.; Messeri, A.; Wahlquist, H. D.
1992-01-01
Since the optimum size of a gravitational wave detector is the wave length, interplanetary dimensions are needed for the mHz band of interest. Doppler tracking of Ulysses will provide the most sensitive attempt to date at the detection of gravitational waves in the low frequency band. The driving noise source is the fluctuations in the refractive index of interplanetary plasma. This dictates the timing of the experiment to be near solar opposition and sets the target accuracy for the fractional frequency change at 3.0 x 10 exp -14 for integration times of the order of 1000 sec. The instrumentation utilized by the experiment is distributed between the radio systems on the spacecraft and the seven participating ground stations of the Deep Space Network and Medicina. Preliminary analysis is available of the measurements taken during the Ulysses first opposition test.
Towers of Gravitational Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.
In this essay, we introduce a theoretical framework designed to describe black hole dynamics. The difficulties in understanding such dynamics stems from the proliferation of scales involved when one attempts to simultaneously describe all of the relevant dynamical degrees of freedom. These range from the modes that describe the black hole horizon, which are responsible for dissipative effects, to the long wavelength gravitational radiation that drains mechanical energy from macroscopic black hole bound states. We approach the problem from a Wilsonian point of view, by building a tower of theories of gravity each of which is valid at different scales. The methodology leads to multiple new results in diverse topics including phase transitions of Kaluza-Klein black holes and the interactions of spinning black hole in non-relativistic orbits. Moreover, our methods tie together speculative ideas regarding dualities for black hole horizons to real physical measurements in gravitational wave detectors.
Towers of gravitational theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.
2006-11-01
In this essay we introduce a theoretical framework designed to describe black hole dynamics. The difficulties in understanding such dynamics stems from the proliferation of scales involved when one attempts to simultaneously describe all of the relevant dynamical degrees of freedom. These range from the modes that describe the black hole horizon, which are responsible for dissipative effects, to the long wavelength gravitational radiation that drains mechanical energy from macroscopic black hole bound states. We approach the problem from a Wilsonian point of view, by building a tower of theories of gravity each of which is valid at different scales. The methodology leads to multiple new results in diverse topics including phase transitions of Kaluza-Klein black holes and the interactions of spinning black hole in non-relativistic orbits. Moreover, our methods tie together speculative ideas regarding dualities for black hole horizons to real physical measurements in gravitational wave detectors.
Gravitational properties of antimatter
Goldman, T.; Nieto, M.M.
1985-01-01
Quantum gravity is at the forefront of modern particle physics, yet there are no direct tests, for antimatter, of even the principle of equivalence. We note that modern descriptions of gravity, such as fibre bundles and higher dimensional spacetimes, allow violations of the commonly stated form of the principle of equivalence, and of CPT. We review both indirect arguments and experimental tests of the expected gravitational properties of CPT-conjugate states. We conclude that a direct experimental test of the gravitational properties of antimatter, at the 1% (or better) level, would be of great value. We identify some experimental reasons which make the antiproton a prime candidate for this test, and we strongly urge that such an experiment be done at LEAR. 21 references.
Gravitational lensing by gravastars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubo, Tomohiro; Sakai, Nobuyuki
2016-04-01
As a possible method to detect gravastars (gravitational-vacuum-star), which was originally proposed by Mazur and Mottola, we study their gravitational lensing effects. Specifically, we adopt a spherical thin-shell model of a gravastar developed by Visser and Wiltshire, which connects interior de Sitter geometry and exterior Schwarzschild geometry, and assume that its surface is optically transparent. We calculate the image of a companion which rotates around the gravastar; we find that some characteristic images appear, depending on whether the gravastar possess unstable circular orbits of photons (Model 1) or not (Model 2). For Model 2, we calculate the total luminosity change, which is called microlensing effects; the maximal luminosity could be considerably larger than the black hole with the same mass.
Gravitationally induced quantum transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landry, A.; Paranjape, M. B.
2016-06-01
In this paper, we calculate the probability for resonantly inducing transitions in quantum states due to time-dependent gravitational perturbations. Contrary to common wisdom, the probability of inducing transitions is not infinitesimally small. We consider a system of ultracold neutrons, which are organized according to the energy levels of the Schrödinger equation in the presence of the Earth's gravitational field. Transitions between energy levels are induced by an oscillating driving force of frequency ω . The driving force is created by oscillating a macroscopic mass in the neighborhood of the system of neutrons. The neutron lifetime is approximately 880 sec while the probability of transitions increases as t2. Hence, the optimal strategy is to drive the system for two lifetimes. The transition amplitude then is of the order of 1.06 ×10-5, and hence with a million ultracold neutrons, one should be able to observe transitions.
Linked Gravitational Radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, Amy; Swearngin, Joseph; Wickes, Alexander; Willem Dalhuisen, Jan; Bouwmeester, Dirk
2013-04-01
The electromagnetic knot is a topologically nontrivial solution to the vacuum Maxwell equations with the property that any two field lines belonging to either the electric, magnetic, or Poynting vector fields are closed and linked exactly once [1]. The relationship between the vacuum Maxwell and linearized Einstein equations, as expressed in the form of the spin-N massless field equations, suggests that gravitational radiation possesses analogous topologically nontrivial field configurations. Using twistor methods we find the analogous spin-2 solutions of Petrov types N, D, and III. Aided by the concept of tendex and vortex lines as recently developed for the physical interpretation of solutions in general relativity [2], we investigate the physical properties of these knotted gravitational fields by characterizing the topology of their associated tendex and vortex lines.[4pt] [1] Ranada, A. F. and Trueba, J. L., Mod. Nonlinear Opt. III, 119, 197 (2002).[2] Nichols, D. A., et al., Phys. Rev. D, 84 (2011).
Gravitational vacuum condensate stars
Mazur, Pawel O.; Mottola, Emil
2004-01-01
A new final state of gravitational collapse is proposed. By extending the concept of Bose–Einstein condensation to gravitational systems, a cold, dark, compact object with an interior de Sitter condensate pv = -ρv and an exterior Schwarzschild geometry of arbitrary total mass M is constructed. These regions are separated by a shell with a small but finite proper thickness ℓ of fluid with equation of state p = +ρ, replacing both the Schwarzschild and de Sitter classical horizons. The new solution has no singularities, no event horizons, and a global time. Its entropy is maximized under small fluctuations and is given by the standard hydrodynamic entropy of the thin shell, which is of the order kBℓMc/, instead of the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy formula, SBH = 4πkBGM2/c. Hence, unlike black holes, the new solution is thermodynamically stable and has no information paradox. PMID:15210982
Gravitational Condensate Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazur, P.; Mottola, E.
The issue of the final state of the gravitational collapse will be addressed. Ishall present physical arguments to the effect that the remnant of the gravitationalcollapse of super-massive stars is a cold and dark super-dense object which isthermodynamically and dynamically stable: a Gravitational Condensate Star orQuasi Black Hole (QBH). A QBH is characterized by a huge, but not an infinite,surface redshift. This surface redshift depends universally on the total mass of aQBH and the proper thickness of a thin shell of an exotic matter described bythe Zel'dovich equation of state p = c2 . The velocity of sound in a thin shell isequal to the velocity of light. Hence, this thin shell replaces the event horizon of amathematical black hole ( = 0). Inside a thin shell the zero entropy gravitationalcondensate characterized by the cosmological equation of state p = -c2 resides.A QBH is described by a new static and spherically symmetric solution of Ein-stein's equations supplemented with the proper boundary conditions based on mi-crophysics considerations. The new solution has no singularities and no eventhorizons. Its entropy is maximized under small fluctuations and is given by thestandard hydrodynamic entropy of the thin shell which is proportional to the to-tal mass instead of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy which is proportional to thesquare of the total mass. This resolves the paradox of an excessively high en-tropy of black holes as compared to their progenitors. The formation of such acold gravitational condensate stellar remnant very likely would require a violentcollapse process with an explosive output of energy. Some observational conse-quences of the formation of gravitational condensate stars will be described.
Interatomic repulsion softness directly controls the fragility of supercooled metallic melts.
Krausser, Johannes; Samwer, Konrad H; Zaccone, Alessio
2015-11-10
We present an analytic scheme to connect the fragility and viscoelasticity of metallic glasses to the effective ion-ion interaction in the metal. This is achieved by an approximation of the short-range repulsive part of the interaction, combined with nonaffine lattice dynamics to obtain analytical expressions for the shear modulus, viscosity, and fragility in terms of the ion-ion interaction. By fitting the theoretical model to experimental data, we are able to link the steepness of the interionic repulsion to the Thomas-Fermi screened Coulomb repulsion and to the Born-Mayer valence electron overlap repulsion for various alloys. The result is a simple closed-form expression for the fragility of the supercooled liquid metal in terms of few crucial atomic-scale interaction and anharmonicity parameters. In particular, a linear relationship is found between the fragility and the energy scales of both the screened Coulomb and the electron overlap repulsions. This relationship opens up opportunities to fabricate alloys with tailored thermoelasticity and fragility by rationally tuning the chemical composition of the alloy according to general principles. The analysis presented here brings a new way of looking at the link between the outer shell electronic structure of metals and metalloids and the viscoelasticity and fragility thereof. PMID:26504208
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruppa, Tobias; Neuhaus, Tim; Messina, René; Löwen, Hartmut
2012-04-01
A binary mixture of particles interacting via long-ranged repulsive forces is studied in gravity by computer simulation and theory. The more repulsive A-particles create a depletion zone of less repulsive B-particles around them reminiscent to a bubble. Applying Archimedes' principle effectively to this bubble, an A-particle can be lifted in a fluid background of B-particles. This "depletion bubble" mechanism explains and predicts a brazil-nut effect where the heavier A-particles float on top of the lighter B-particles. It also implies an effective attraction of an A-particle towards a hard container bottom wall which leads to boundary layering of A-particles. Additionally, we have studied a periodic inversion of gravity causing perpetuous mutual penetration of the mixture in a slit geometry. In this nonequilibrium case of time-dependent gravity, the boundary layering persists. Our results are based on computer simulations and density functional theory of a two-dimensional binary mixture of colloidal repulsive dipoles. The predicted effects also occur for other long-ranged repulsive interactions and in three spatial dimensions. They are therefore verifiable in settling experiments on dipolar or charged colloidal mixtures as well as in charged granulates and dusty plasmas.
Two-dimensional colloidal mixtures in magnetic and gravitational fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Löwen, H.; Horn, T.; Neuhaus, T.; ten Hagen, B.
2013-11-01
This mini-review is concerned with two-dimensional colloidal mixtures exposed to various kinds of external fields. By a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane, dipole moments are induced in paramagnetic particles which give rise to repulsive interactions leading to complex crystalline alloys in the composition-asymmetry diagram. A quench in the magnetic field induces complex crystal nucleation scenarios. If exposed to a gravitational field, these mixtures exhibit a brazil-nut effect and show a boundary layering which is explained in terms of a depletion bubble picture. The latter persists for time-dependent gravity ("colloidal shaking"). Finally, we summarize crystallization effects when the second species is frozen in a disordered matrix which provides obstacles for the crystallizing component.
Relativistic Transverse Gravitational Redshift
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayer, A. F.
2012-12-01
The parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism is a tool for quantitative analysis of the weak gravitational field based on the field equations of general relativity. This formalism and its ten parameters provide the practical theoretical foundation for the evaluation of empirical data produced by space-based missions designed to map and better understand the gravitational field (e.g., GRAIL, GRACE, GOCE). Accordingly, mission data is interpreted in the context of the canonical PPN formalism; unexpected, anomalous data are explained as similarly unexpected but apparently real physical phenomena, which may be characterized as ``gravitational anomalies," or by various sources contributing to the total error budget. Another possibility, which is typically not considered, is a small modeling error in canonical general relativity. The concept of the idealized point-mass spherical equipotential surface, which originates with Newton's law of gravity, is preserved in Einstein's synthesis of special relativity with accelerated reference frames in the form of the field equations. It was not previously realized that the fundamental principles of relativity invalidate this concept and with it the idea that the gravitational field is conservative (i.e., zero net work is done on any closed path). The ideal radial free fall of a material body from arbitrarily-large range to a point on such an equipotential surface (S) determines a unique escape-velocity vector of magnitude v collinear to the acceleration vector of magnitude g at this point. For two such points on S separated by angle dφ , the Equivalence Principle implies distinct reference frames experiencing inertial acceleration of identical magnitude g in different directions in space. The complete equivalence of these inertially-accelerated frames to their analogous frames at rest on S requires evaluation at instantaneous velocity v relative to a local inertial observer. Because these velocity vectors are not parallel, a
Quantum vacuum photon modes and repulsive Lifshitz-van der Waals interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dellieu, Louis; Deparis, Olivier; Muller, Jérôme; Kolaric, Branko; Sarrazin, Michaël
2015-12-01
The bridge between quantum vacuum photon modes and properties of patterned surfaces is currently being established on solid theoretical grounds. Based on these foundations, the manipulation of quantum vacuum photon modes in a nanostructured cavity is theoretically shown to be able to change the Lifshitz-van der Waals forces from attractive to repulsive regime. Since this concept relies on surface nanopatterning instead of chemical composition changes, it drastically relaxes the usual conditions for achieving repulsive Lifshitz-van der Waals forces. As a case study, the potential interaction energy between a nanopatterned polyethylene slab and a flat polyethylene slab with water as the intervening medium is calculated. Extremely small corrugation heights (<10 nm) are shown to be able to change the Lifshitz-van der Waals force from attractive to repulsive, the interaction strength being controlled by the corrugation height. This new approach could lead to various applications in surface science.
Contact repulsion controls the dispersion and final distribution of Cajal-Retzius cells
Villar-Cerviño, Verona; Molano-Mazón, Manuel; Catchpole, Timothy; Valdeolmillos, Miguel; Henkemeyer, Mark; Martínez, Luis M.; Borrell, Víctor; Marín, Oscar
2012-01-01
Summary Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells play a fundamental role in the development of the mammalian cerebral cortex. They control the formation of cortical layers by regulating the migration of pyramidal cells through the release of Reelin. The function of CR cells critically depends on their regular distribution throughout the surface of the cortex, but little is known about the events controlling this phenomenon. Using time-lapse video microscopy in vivo and in vitro, we found that movement of CR cells is regulated by repulsive interactions, which leads to their random dispersion throughout the cortical surface. Mathematical modeling reveals that contact repulsion is both necessary and sufficient for this process, which demonstrates that complex neuronal assemblies may emerge during development through stochastic events. At the molecular level, we found that contact repulsion is mediated by Eph/ephrin interactions. Our observations reveal a novel mechanism that controls the even distribution of neurons in the developing brain. PMID:23395373
Slow relaxation mode in concentrated oil-in-water microemulsions consisting of repulsive droplets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hattori, Y.; Ushiki, H.; Courbin, L.; Panizza, P.
2007-02-01
The present contribution reports on the observation of two diffusive relaxation modes in a concentrated microemulsion made of repulsive droplets. These two modes can be interpreted in the frame of Weissman’s and Pusey’s theoretical pioneering works. The fast mode is associated to the collective diffusion of droplets whereas the slow one corresponds to the relaxation of droplet concentration fluctuations associated with composition and/or size. We show that (i) repulsive interactions considerably slow down the latter and (ii) a generalized Stokes Einstein relationship between its coefficient of diffusion and the Newtonian viscosity of the solutions, similar to the Walden’s rule for electrolytes, holds for concentrated microemulsion systems made of repulsive droplets.
Concentration Fluctuations of a Semidilute Polymer Solution in Good Solvent Near a Repulsive Surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yeh, Catherine; Pincus, Philip; Zidovska, Alexandra
2012-02-01
The concentration profile of a semidilute polymer solution in good solvent near a repulsive surface has been previously calculated.ootnotetextJ. F. Joanny, L. Leibler, P.-G. de Gennes, J. Polym. Sci. 17, 1073 (1979) In this work we consider fluctuation corrections to the mean field concentration profile in the presence of a repulsive surface using the Cahn-Hilliard square-gradient approach extended to polymer interfaces. Our results predict that at strongly repulsive surfaces, a polymer in good solvent exhibits concentration fluctuations associated with the surface in addition to fluctuations of the bulk polymer solution. We compare our predictions with current experiments which have measured fluctuations in the concentration of interphase chromatin (DNA with its associated proteins) inside the nucleus of mammalian cells in vivo using ultrafast high space resolution spinning disc confocal microscopy.
Emergence of amplitude death scenario in a network of oscillators under repulsive delay interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bera, Bidesh K.; Hens, Chittaranjan; Ghosh, Dibakar
2016-07-01
We report the existence of amplitude death in a network of identical oscillators under repulsive mean coupling. Amplitude death appears in a globally coupled network of identical oscillators with instantaneous repulsive mean coupling only when the number of oscillators is more than two. We further investigate that, amplitude death may emerge even in two coupled oscillators as well as network of oscillators if we introduce delay time in the repulsive mean coupling. We have analytically derived the region of amplitude death island and find out how strength of delay controls the death regime in two coupled or a large network of coupled oscillators. We have verified our results on network of delayed Mackey-Glass systems where parameters are set in hyperchaotic regime. We have also tested our coupling approach in two paradigmatic limit cycle oscillators: Stuart-Landau and Van der Pol oscillators.
Müller, Thomas; Trommer, Isabel; Muhlack, Siegfried; Mueller, Bernhard K
2016-04-01
Exposure to free radicals influences synthesis, degradation and function of proteins, such as repulsive guidance molecule A. Decay of this protein is essential for neuronal maintenance and recovery. Levodopa elevates oxidative stress. Therefore levodopa may impact repulsive guidance molecule A metabolism. Objectives were to investigate plasma concentrations of repulsive guidance molecule A, levodopa, cysteine and cysteinyl-glycine before and 1 h after levodopa application in patients with Parkinson's disease. Cysteine and cysteinyl-glycine as biomarkers for oxidative stress exposure decreased, repulsive guidance molecule A and levodopa rose. Repulsive guidance molecule A remained unchanged in levodopa naïve patients, but particularly went up in patients on a prior chronic levodopa regimen. Decay of cysteine specifically cysteinyl-glycine results from an elevated glutathione generation with rising cysteine consumption respectively from the alternative glutathione transformation to its oxidized form glutathione disulfide after free radical scavenging. Repulsive guidance molecule A rise may inhibit physiologic mechanisms for neuronal survival. PMID:26880022
Recent Developments in Gravitation - Proceedings of the Relativity Meeting - 89
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verdaguer, E.; Garriga, J.; Céspedes, J.
1990-10-01
The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Foreword * I. INVITED LECTURES * Low Energy Effects of Quantum Gravity * Rigid Motion lnvariance of Newtonian and Einatein's Theories of General Relativity * General Relativity and the Early Universe * Computer Algebra and Exact Solutions of the Einstein Equations * Gravitational Waves * II. REVIEW TALKS * Classical Relativistic Particles with Spin * Testing Flux Conservative Methods in Numerical Relativity * Symmetries in General Relativity and the Problem of Symmetry Inheritance * Clifford Algebra Approach to Gravitation: Applications to Symmetries and to Twisting, Type-N Fields * Unusual Frames of the Space-Time * Massive Photon Modes in Q.E.D. and Abnormal e+ e- Pair Production * Repulsive Gravity: A Current State of Understanding * Physics versus Metaphysics in Collision between Plane Gravitational Waves * Primordial Black Holes and FRW Cosmology * What Does Morphological Segregation of Galaxies Tell Us about Galaxy Formation? * III. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS * A Demianski Cavity with Small Rotation Parameter in a Dust Universe with Cosmological Constant * Relation between Quasirigidity and Weak Rigidity in Weak Fields * Almost-Product Structures in Relativity * On the Solutions of Quantum Field Equations in Curved Space-Time * Perturbative Methods for Type D Space-Time * The Energy-Momentum Tensor of Two Perfect Fluids * Two Fluids Solutions of Einstein Equations * Gravitational Wave Detection: The Problem of Estimating a Signal's Arrival Time * Quantum Particles Produced during Cosmic String Formation * Electric Neutrality and the Jordan-Thiry Scalar Field * Why Do Spinors Appear in Relativity? * Variational Principles and Quantum Gravity * A Nelson Like Approach to Quantum Mechanics on a Maximally Symmetric Manifold * A Note on the Scalar Product in Relativistic Quantum Mechanics * On the Tolman Bondi Solution of Einstein's Equations. Numerical Applications * The Dirac Equation in Two Rectilinear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Sang-Rock; Choi, Seung-Hyun; Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Bok
2015-02-01
This paper proposes a novel technique for predicting a repulsive force in a haptic interface. The goal of many haptic systems is to reflect a desired repulsive force to an operator. However, there is no way of describing a repulsive force mathematically. This means that the force-reflection performance of haptic systems cannot be simulated at the design process. Even though reflecting a repulsive force to an operator is the purpose of the systems, many haptic systems have been designed without knowing how an operator perceives a repulsive force during manipulation. Such design process unavoidably entails a lot of trials and errors and increases development time and costs. Here we show that the repulsive force can be predicted by establishing an optimal controller. 1-Degree of freedom lever system is designed with light and heavy inertia in order to reflect inertial variation. The dynamics of the system is derived and an optimal controller is established based on the system dynamics. The optimal controller predicts the repulsive forces under three different position trajectories. After manufacturing the lever system, actual repulsive force data is collected under the same position trajectories. The predicted repulsive forces are then compared with the actual repulsive forces. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a correlation coefficient between the predicted repulsive force and the actual one is presented. In addition, the mean value and standard deviation of the force error are provided. After showing that a repulsive force can be predicted by an optimal controller, a steering-wheel simulator is designed and manufactured to show that the proposed method is applicable to a haptic system’s design as well.
Repulsive Casimir forces between solid materials with high-refractive-index intervening liquids
Zwol, P. J. van; Palasantzas, G.
2010-06-15
In order to explore repulsive Casimir or van der Waals forces between solid materials with liquid as the intervening medium, we analyze dielectric data for a wide range of materials as, for example, (p)olytetrafluoroethylene, polystyrene, silica, and more than 20 liquids. Although significant variation in the dielectric data from different sources exists, we provide a scheme based on measured static dielectric constants, refractive indices, and applying Kramers-Kronig consistency to dielectric data to create accurate dielectric functions at imaginary frequencies. The latter is necessary for more accurate force calculations via the Lifshitz theory, thereby allowing reliable predictions of repulsive Casimir forces.
Phase behavior of a simple lattice model with a two-scale repulsive interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Høye, J. S.; Lomba, E.
2008-07-01
The properties of a simple one-dimensional lattice model with two repulsive ranges are studied in terms of its analytic solution. Its phase behavior is characterized by the presence of a disorder-order-disorder transition (or a fluid-solid-fluid transition in lattice gas language). A similar situation was discussed by Hemmer and Stell [Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 1284 (1970)] when considering the purely repulsive version of their ramp potential. The melting of the solid phase, when pressure is increased along an isotherm, is a feature common to both models and one of the characteristic features of water.
Quantum Emulation of Gravitational Waves
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Cirio, Mauro; Büse, Alexander; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel
2015-01-01
Gravitational waves, as predicted by Einstein’s general relativity theory, appear as ripples in the fabric of spacetime traveling at the speed of light. We prove that the propagation of small amplitude gravitational waves in a curved spacetime is equivalent to the propagation of a subspace of electromagnetic states. We use this result to propose the use of entangled photons to emulate the evolution of gravitational waves in curved spacetimes by means of experimental electromagnetic setups featuring metamaterials. PMID:26169801
Quantum Emulation of Gravitational Waves.
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Cirio, Mauro; Büse, Alexander; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel
2015-01-01
Gravitational waves, as predicted by Einstein's general relativity theory, appear as ripples in the fabric of spacetime traveling at the speed of light. We prove that the propagation of small amplitude gravitational waves in a curved spacetime is equivalent to the propagation of a subspace of electromagnetic states. We use this result to propose the use of entangled photons to emulate the evolution of gravitational waves in curved spacetimes by means of experimental electromagnetic setups featuring metamaterials. PMID:26169801
Gravitational collapse of Vaidya spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vertogradov, Vitalii
2016-03-01
The gravitational collapse of generalized Vaidya spacetime is considered. It is known that the endstate of gravitational collapse, as to whether a black hole or a naked singularity is formed, depends on the mass function M(v,r). Here we give conditions for the mass function which corresponds to the equation of the state P = αρ where α ∈ (0, 1 3] and according to these conditions we obtain either a black hole or a naked singularity at the endstate of gravitational collapse. Also we give conditions for the mass function when the singularity is gravitationally strong.
Gravitational Physics Research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, S. T.
2000-01-01
Gravitational physics research at ISPAE is connected with NASA's Relativity Mission (Gravity Probe B (GP-B)) which will perform a test of Einstein's General Relativity Theory. GP-B will measure the geodetic and motional effect predicted by General Relativity Theory with extremely stable and sensitive gyroscopes in an earth orbiting satellite. Both effects cause a very small precession of the gyroscope spin axis. The goal of the GP-B experiment is the measurement of the gyroscope precession with very high precision. GP-B is being developed by a team at Stanford University and is scheduled for launch in the year 2001. The related UAH research is a collaboration with Stanford University and MSFC. This research is focussed primarily on the error analysis and data reduction methods of the experiment but includes other topics concerned with experiment systems and their performance affecting the science measurements. The hydrogen maser is the most accurate and stable clock available. It will be used in future gravitational physics missions to measure relativistic effects such as the second order Doppler effect. The HMC experiment, currently under development at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), will test the performance and capability of the hydrogen maser clock for gravitational physics measurements. UAH in collaboration with the SAO science team will study methods to evaluate the behavior and performance of the HMC. The GP-B data analysis developed by the Stanford group involves complicated mathematical operations. This situation led to the idea to investigate alternate and possibly simpler mathematical procedures to extract the GP-B measurements form the data stream. Comparison of different methods would increase the confidence in the selected scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Chao Yuan
2012-05-01
Anomalous decelerations of spacecraft Pioneer-10,11,etc could be interpreted as signal delay effect between speed of gravity and that of light as reflected in virtual scale, similar to covarying virtual scale effect in relative motion (http://arxiv.org/html/math-ph/0001019v5).A finite speed of gravity faster than light could be inferred (http://arXiv.org/html/physics/0001034v2). Measurements of gravitational variations by paraconical pendulum during a total solar eclipse infer the same(http://arXiv.org/html/physics/0001034v9). A finite Superluminal speed of gravity is the necessary condition to imply that there exists gravitational horizon (GH). Such "GH" of our Universe would stretch far beyond the cosmic event horizon of light. Dark energy may be owing to mutually interactive gravitational horizons of cousin universes. Sufficient condition for the conjecture is that the dark energy would be increasing with age of our Universe since accelerated expansion started about 5 Gyr ago, since more and more arrivals of "GH" of distant cousin universes would interact with "GH" of our Universe. The history of dark energy variations between then and now would be desirable(http://arXiv.org/html/physics/0001034). In "GH" conjecture, the neighborhood of cousin universes would be likely boundless in 4D-space-time without begining or end. The dark energy would keep all universes in continually accelerated expansion to eventual fragmentation. Fragments would crash and merge into bangs, big or small, to form another generation of cousin universes. These scenarios might offer a clue to what was before the big bang.
Octonic Gravitational Field Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demir, Süleyman; Tanişli, Murat; Tolan, Tülay
2013-08-01
Generalized field equations of linear gravity are formulated on the basis of octons. When compared to the other eight-component noncommutative hypercomplex number systems, it is demonstrated that associative octons with scalar, pseudoscalar, pseudovector and vector values present a convenient and capable tool to describe the Maxwell-Proca-like field equations of gravitoelectromagnetism in a compact and simple way. Introducing massive graviton and gravitomagnetic monopole terms, the generalized gravitational wave equation and Klein-Gordon equation for linear gravity are also developed.
Regular gravitational lagrangians
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dragon, Norbert
1992-02-01
The Einstein action with vanishing cosmological constant is for appropriate field content the unique local action which is regular at the fixed point of affine coordinate transformations. Imposing this regularity requirement one excludes also Wess-Zumino counterterms which trade gravitational anomalies for Lorentz anomalies. One has to expect dilatational and SL (D) anomalies. If these anomalies are absent and if the regularity of the quantum vertex functional can be controlled then Einstein gravity is renormalizable. On leave of absence from Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hannover, W-3000 Hannover 1, FRG.
Gravitational lens observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burke, B. F.; Roberts, D. H.; Hewitt, J. N.; Greenfield, P. E.; Dupree, A. K.
1983-06-01
The structure of the gravitational lens 0957 + 561 provides strong constraints on allowable lens models. Here, the modeling constraints for the lens are summarized, and it is shown that, for the foreground cluster, mass-to-luminosity ratio with a well-defined locus can be given. Constraints on other images in the radio map are then discussed, and it is concluded that a third quasar image has not yet been identified convincingly, but perturbations of the B quasar image are consistent with the partial jet image predicted by Greenfield (1981). Finally, polarization studies of the A and B images are reported.
Gravitational vacuum condensate stars.
Mazur, Pawel O; Mottola, Emil
2004-06-29
A new final state of gravitational collapse is proposed. By extending the concept of Bose-Einstein condensation to gravitational systems, a cold, dark, compact object with an interior de Sitter condensate p(v) = -rho(v) and an exterior Schwarzschild geometry of arbitrary total mass M is constructed. These regions are separated by a shell with a small but finite proper thickness l of fluid with equation of state p = +rho, replacing both the Schwarzschild and de Sitter classical horizons. The new solution has no singularities, no event horizons, and a global time. Its entropy is maximized under small fluctuations and is given by the standard hydrodynamic entropy of the thin shell, which is of the order k(B)lMc/Planck's over 2 pi, instead of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula, S(BH) = 4 pi k(B)GM(2)/Planck's over 2 pi c. Hence, unlike black holes, the new solution is thermodynamically stable and has no information paradox. PMID:15210982
Burinskii, A.
2015-08-15
The Kerr–Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr’s gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring–string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag–string–quark system.
General Relativity and Gravitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashtekar, Abhay; Berger, Beverly; Isenberg, James; MacCallum, Malcolm
2015-07-01
Part I. Einstein's Triumph: 1. 100 years of general relativity George F. R. Ellis; 2. Was Einstein right? Clifford M. Will; 3. Cosmology David Wands, Misao Sasaki, Eiichiro Komatsu, Roy Maartens and Malcolm A. H. MacCallum; 4. Relativistic astrophysics Peter Schneider, Ramesh Narayan, Jeffrey E. McClintock, Peter Mészáros and Martin J. Rees; Part II. New Window on the Universe: 5. Receiving gravitational waves Beverly K. Berger, Karsten Danzmann, Gabriela Gonzalez, Andrea Lommen, Guido Mueller, Albrecht Rüdiger and William Joseph Weber; 6. Sources of gravitational waves. Theory and observations Alessandra Buonanno and B. S. Sathyaprakash; Part III. Gravity is Geometry, After All: 7. Probing strong field gravity through numerical simulations Frans Pretorius, Matthew W. Choptuik and Luis Lehner; 8. The initial value problem of general relativity and its implications Gregory J. Galloway, Pengzi Miao and Richard Schoen; 9. Global behavior of solutions to Einstein's equations Stefanos Aretakis, James Isenberg, Vincent Moncrief and Igor Rodnianski; Part IV. Beyond Einstein: 10. Quantum fields in curved space-times Stefan Hollands and Robert M. Wald; 11. From general relativity to quantum gravity Abhay Ashtekar, Martin Reuter and Carlo Rovelli; 12. Quantum gravity via unification Henriette Elvang and Gary T. Horowitz.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burinskii, A.
2015-08-01
The Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr's gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring-string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag-string-quark system.
Mass, Energy, Space And Time Systemic Theory ---MEST--- repulsion and gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Dayong
2009-10-01
Things have their physical system of the mass, energy, space and time of themselves-MEST. Sun can give the planets the repulsion and the gravity. It decided the relationship between the mass-energy and space-time of the planets. The repulsion of the planets ``equal'' its gravity. So them get a balanceable system and a inertial system. The planets lie in the wave like the boat being in the water. When sun radiate light, it can produce the repulsion. It decided the relationship between the mass-energy and space-time of the radiate light. When the radiate light condense to the condensed light (gravity wave), and it come back to the sun. It can produce the gravity. It decided the relationship between the mass-energy and space-time of the gravity wave. Both of the radiate light and the gravity wave act on the planets. There are their physical model which is about their mass-energy relation and their mass-energy wave equation. In the solar system, there are a lot of the dark matter-energy (wave) which is from the black hole. The dark matter-energy would go into the solar system and could give the sun the press force like the gravity. In sun, sun's nuclear fusion can produce repulsion. Sun is control nuclear fusion. It is controlled by the dark matter-energy.
Discontinuous nature of the repulsive-to-attractive colloidal glass transition
van de Laar, T.; Higler, R.; Schroën, K.; Sprakel, J.
2016-01-01
In purely repulsive colloidal systems a glass transition can be reached by increasing the particle volume fraction beyond a certain threshold. The resulting glassy state is governed by configurational cages which confine particles and restrict their motion. A colloidal glass may also be formed by inducing attractive interactions between the particles. When attraction is turned on in a repulsive colloidal glass a re-entrant solidification ensues. Initially, the repulsive glass melts as free volume in the system increases. As the attraction strength is increased further, this weakened configurational glass gives way to an attractive glass in which motion is hindered by the formation of physical bonds between neighboring particles. In this paper, we study the transition from repulsive-to-attractive glasses using three-dimensional imaging at the single-particle level. We show how the onset of cage weakening and bond formation is signalled by subtle changes in local structure. We then demonstrate the discontinuous nature of the solid-solid transition, which is marked by a critical onset at a threshold bonding energy. Finally, we highlight how the interplay between bonding and caging leads to complex and heterogeneous dynamics at the microscale. PMID:26940737
Polymer Brushes that Mimic Repulsive Properties of the Boundary Lubricant Glycoprotein Lubricin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torres, Jahn; Jay, Gregory; Ni, Qian; Bello, David; Bothun, Geoffrey; Kim, Kyung-Suk
2011-03-01
This is a report on the design of tailored functional groups which mimic the repulsive forces at work in the natural-joint boundary lubricant known as lubricin. Lubricin, an amphiphilic polyelectrolyte biomolecule, decreases friction and cellular adhesion by exhibiting surface force fields based on steric hindrance, Debye electrostatic double layer repulsion and hydration repulsive forces. We have identified a physically and chemically stable candidate polymers for anti-fouling coatings that will mimic lubricin's repulsive properties. Synthetic polymer brushes mimicking lubricin have been produced using these polymers grafted onto a glass surfaces. The average adhesive forces for the polymer brushes measured through atomic force microscopy are as low (56.796 +/- 0.796 mN/m), similar to those exhibited by lubricin coated surfaces and on the same order of magnitude as superhydrophobic surfaces. This work was supported by the Coatings/Biofouling Program and the Maritime Sensing Program of the Office of Naval Research as well as the ILIR Program of the Naval Undersea Warfare Center DIVNPT.
Electronic Structure in Pi Systems: Part I. Huckel Theory with Electron Repulsion.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fox, Marye Anne; Matsen, F. A.
1985-01-01
Pi-CI theory is a simple, semi-empirical procedure which (like Huckel theory) treats pi and pseudo-pi orbitals; in addition, electron repulsion is explicitly included and molecular configurations are mixed. Results obtained from application of pi-CI to ethylene are superior to either the Huckel molecular orbital or valence bond theories. (JN)
Regardless-of-Speed Superconducting LSM Controlled-Repulsive MAGLEV Vehicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoshida, Kinjiro; Egashira, Tatsuya; Hirai, Ryuichi
1996-01-01
This paper proposes a new repulsive Maglev vehicle which a superconducting linear synchronous motor (LSM) can levitate and propel simultaneously, independently of the vehicle speeds. The combined levitation and propulsion control is carried out by controlling mechanical-load angle and armature-current. Dynamic simulations show successful operations with good ride-quality by using a compact control method proposed here.
Discontinuous nature of the repulsive-to-attractive colloidal glass transition.
van de Laar, T; Higler, R; Schroën, K; Sprakel, J
2016-01-01
In purely repulsive colloidal systems a glass transition can be reached by increasing the particle volume fraction beyond a certain threshold. The resulting glassy state is governed by configurational cages which confine particles and restrict their motion. A colloidal glass may also be formed by inducing attractive interactions between the particles. When attraction is turned on in a repulsive colloidal glass a re-entrant solidification ensues. Initially, the repulsive glass melts as free volume in the system increases. As the attraction strength is increased further, this weakened configurational glass gives way to an attractive glass in which motion is hindered by the formation of physical bonds between neighboring particles. In this paper, we study the transition from repulsive-to-attractive glasses using three-dimensional imaging at the single-particle level. We show how the onset of cage weakening and bond formation is signalled by subtle changes in local structure. We then demonstrate the discontinuous nature of the solid-solid transition, which is marked by a critical onset at a threshold bonding energy. Finally, we highlight how the interplay between bonding and caging leads to complex and heterogeneous dynamics at the microscale. PMID:26940737
Discontinuous nature of the repulsive-to-attractive colloidal glass transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van de Laar, T.; Higler, R.; Schroën, K.; Sprakel, J.
2016-03-01
In purely repulsive colloidal systems a glass transition can be reached by increasing the particle volume fraction beyond a certain threshold. The resulting glassy state is governed by configurational cages which confine particles and restrict their motion. A colloidal glass may also be formed by inducing attractive interactions between the particles. When attraction is turned on in a repulsive colloidal glass a re-entrant solidification ensues. Initially, the repulsive glass melts as free volume in the system increases. As the attraction strength is increased further, this weakened configurational glass gives way to an attractive glass in which motion is hindered by the formation of physical bonds between neighboring particles. In this paper, we study the transition from repulsive-to-attractive glasses using three-dimensional imaging at the single-particle level. We show how the onset of cage weakening and bond formation is signalled by subtle changes in local structure. We then demonstrate the discontinuous nature of the solid-solid transition, which is marked by a critical onset at a threshold bonding energy. Finally, we highlight how the interplay between bonding and caging leads to complex and heterogeneous dynamics at the microscale.
Singh, R; Ho, S Y
2000-06-01
Dissimilarity and similarity between attitudes of the participants and a stranger were manipulated across two sets of issues to test the attraction, repulsion and similarity-dissimilarity asymmetry hypotheses. Participants (N = 192) judged social (liking, enjoyment of company) and intellectual (intelligence, general knowledge) attractiveness of the stranger. The similarity in the first set of attitudes x similarity in the second set of attitudes effect emerged in social attraction, but not in intellectual attraction. Stated simply, dissimilarity had a greater weight than similarity in social attraction, but equal weight in intellectual attraction. These results support the similarity-dissimilarity asymmetry hypothesis that predicts dissimilarity-repulsion to be stronger than similarity-attraction. However, they reject (1) the attraction hypothesis that dissimilarity and similarity produce equal and opposite effects on social attraction; and (2) the repulsion hypothesis that only dissimilar attitudes affect social attraction by leading to repulsion. An equal weighting of dissimilarity and similarity in intellectual attraction further suggested that the similarity-dissimilarity asymmetry on social attraction is reflective of a stronger avoidance response in the Darwinian sense. PMID:10907095
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Speight, Suzette L.; Vera, Elizabeth M.
1997-01-01
Summarizes issues relevant to empirical investigations of client and counselor preferences. Explores the effects of similarity and difference on relationship development and focuses on the attraction and repulsion hypotheses' applicability to multicultural counseling research and theory. It is hoped that differences between counseling and social…
The gravitational properties of antimatter
Goldman, T.; Hughes, R.J.; Nieto, M.M.
1986-09-01
It is argued that a determination of the gravitational acceleration of antimatter towards the earth is capable of imposing powerful constraints on modern quantum gravity theories. Theoretical reasons to expect non-Newtonian non-Einsteinian effects of gravitational strength and experimental suggestions of such effects are reviewed. 41 refs. (LEW)
Shh signaling guides spatial pathfinding of raphespinal tract axons by multidirectional repulsion
Song, Lijuan; Liu, Yuehui; Yu, Yang; Duan, Xin; Qi, Shening; Liu, Yaobo
2012-01-01
Relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying spatial pathfinding in the descending serotonergic raphespinal tract (RST) in the developing spinal cord, one of the most important nerve pathways for pain, sensory and motor functions. We provide evidence that ventral floor plate-secreted Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is responsible for the establishment of decreasing gradients in both the anterior-to-posterior (A-P) and the medial-to-lateral (M-L) directions in the ventral spinal cord during serotonergic RST axon projection. Downstream components of the Shh pathway, Patched 1 (Ptch1) and Smoothened (Smo), were expressed in the serotonergic caudal raphe nuclei and enriched in the descending serotonergic RST axons. Diffusible Shh repulsion of serotonergic RST axons was shown to be mediated by Shh-Ptch1 interactions and derepression of Smo. Using a co-culture assay, we showed that A-P graded repulsion mediated by Shh signaling pushed the serotonergic axons caudally through the ventral spinal cord and M-L graded repulsion mediated by Shh signaling simultaneously restricted the serotonergic axons to the ventral and ventral-lateral funiculus. Prominent pathfinding errors of serotonergic RST axons were observed in various Shh, Ptch1 and Smo mutants. We conclude that Shh signaling-mediated multidirectional repulsion is required to push descending serotonergic RST axons in the A-P direction, and to restrict these axons to the ventral and ventral-lateral funiculus in the M-L direction. This is the first demonstration that Shh signaling-mediated multidirectional repulsion of serotonergic RST axons maintains spatial axon pathfinding in the developing spinal cord. PMID:22064698
Gravitational correction to vacuum polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jentschura, U. D.
2015-02-01
We consider the gravitational correction to (electronic) vacuum polarization in the presence of a gravitational background field. The Dirac propagators for the virtual fermions are modified to include the leading gravitational correction (potential term) which corresponds to a coordinate-dependent fermion mass. The mass term is assumed to be uniform over a length scale commensurate with the virtual electron-positron pair. The on-mass shell renormalization condition ensures that the gravitational correction vanishes on the mass shell of the photon, i.e., the speed of light is unaffected by the quantum field theoretical loop correction, in full agreement with the equivalence principle. Nontrivial corrections are obtained for off-shell, virtual photons. We compare our findings to other works on generalized Lorentz transformations and combined quantum-electrodynamic gravitational corrections to the speed of light which have recently appeared in the literature.
Boutros, C P; Koenig, J B
2001-04-01
The 3rd maxillary molar is a difficult tooth to remove by extraction or repulsion. A combined frontal and maxillary approach provides good exposure for repulsion of this tooth, debridement of the sinuses, and placement of an alveolar seal. The improved exposure should minimize operative difficulties and postoperative complications. PMID:11326631
Gravitational mass and Newton's universal gravitational law under relativistic conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vayenas, Constantinos G.; Fokas, Athanasios; Grigoriou, Dimitrios
2015-09-01
We discuss the predictions of Newton's universal gravitational law when using the gravitational, mg, rather than the rest masses, mo, of the attracting particles. According to the equivalence principle, the gravitational mass equals the inertial mass, mi, and the latter which can be directly computed from special relativity, is an increasing function of the Lorentz factor, γ, and thus of the particle velocity. We consider gravitationally bound rotating composite states, and we show that the ratio of the gravitational force for gravitationally bound rotational states to the force corresponding to low (γ ≈ 1) particle velocities is of the order of (mPl/mo)2 where mpi is the Planck mass (ħc/G)1/2. We also obtain a similar result, within a factor of two, by employing the derivative of the effective potential of the Schwarzschild geodesics of GR. Finally, we show that for certain macroscopic systems, such as the perihelion precession of planets, the predictions of this relativistic Newtonian gravitational law differ again by only a factor of two from the predictions of GR.
Frontiers in gravitational physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta, Koushik
In this thesis we present three research projects in classical General Relativity and Cosmology. In the first part of the thesis we investigate the definition of gravitational charge corresponding to the asymptotic boost symmetry of a spacetime and derive its role in the first law of black hole thermodynamics. In the cosmology part, we investigate the role of a scalar field in the early and late time evolution of the Universe. We find out observational constraints on the pseudo Nambu Goldstone Boson quintessence model using the latest supernova and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data. In an attempt to explain a particular anomaly in the latest CMB data, we propose a modification to the standard single field inflation based on the initial kinetic energy domination with anisotropic initial conditions. Predictions of this mechanism can be tested in future data analysis.
Gravitational adaptation of animals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, A. H.; Burton, R. R.
1982-01-01
The effect of gravitational adaptation is studied in a group of five Leghorn cocks which had become physiologically adapted to 2 G after 162 days of centrifugation. After this period of adaptation, they are periodically exposed to a 2 G field, accompanied by five previously unexposed hatch-mates, and the degree of retained acceleration adaptation is estimated from the decrease in lymphocyte frequency after 24 hr at 2 G. Results show that the previously adapted birds exhibit an 84% greater lymphopenia than the unexposed birds, and that the lymphocyte frequency does not decrease to a level below that found at the end of 162 days at 2 G. In addition, the capacity for adaptation to chronic acceleration is found to be highly heritable. An acceleration tolerant strain of birds shows lesser mortality during chronic acceleration, particularly in intermediate fields, although the result of acceleration selection is largely quantitative (a greater number of survivors) rather than qualitative (behavioral or physiological changes).
Atomic and gravitational clocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canuto, V. M.; Goldman, I.
1982-01-01
Atomic and gravitational clocks are governed by the laws of electrodynamics and gravity, respectively. While the strong equivalence principle (SEP) assumes that the two clocks have been synchronous at all times, recent planetary data seem to suggest a possible violation of the SEP. Past analysis of the implications of an SEP violation on different physical phenomena revealed no disagreement. However, these studies assumed that the two different clocks can be consistently constructed within the framework. The concept of scale invariance, and the physical meaning of different systems of units, are now reviewed and the construction of two clocks that do not remain synchronous - whose rates are related by a non-constant function beta sub a - is demonstrated. The cosmological character of beta sub a is also discussed.
Earth Gravitational Model 2020
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnes, D.; Factor, J. K.; Holmes, S. A.; Ingalls, S.; Presicci, M. R.; Beale, J.; Fecher, T.
2015-12-01
The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency [NGA], in conjunction with its U.S. and international partners, has begun preliminary work on its next Earth Gravitational Model, to replace EGM2008. The new 'Earth Gravitational Model 2020' [EGM2020] has an expected public release date of 2020, and will likely retain the same harmonic basis and resolution as EGM2008. As such, EGM2020 will be essentially an ellipsoidal harmonic model up to degree (n) and order (m) 2159, but will be released as a spherical harmonic model to degree 2190 and order 2159. EGM2020 will benefit from new data sources and procedures. Updated satellite gravity information from the GOCE and GRACE mission, will better support the lower harmonics, globally. Multiple new acquisitions (terrestrial, airborne and shipborne) of gravimetric data over specific geographical areas, will provide improved global coverage and resolution over the land, as well as for coastal and some ocean areas. Ongoing accumulation of satellite altimetry data as well as improvements in the treatment of this data, will better define the marine gravity field, most notably in polar and near-coastal regions. NGA and partners are evaluating different approaches for optimally combining the new GOCE/GRACE satellite gravity models with the terrestrial data. These include the latest methods employing a full covariance adjustment. NGA is also working to assess systematically the quality of its entire gravimetry database, towards correcting biases and other egregious errors where possible, and generating improved error models that will inform the final combination with the latest satellite gravity models. Outdated data gridding procedures have been replaced with improved approaches. For EGM2020, NGA intends to extract maximum value from the proprietary data that overlaps geographically with unrestricted data, whilst also making sure to respect and honor its proprietary agreements with its data-sharing partners.
Weight, gravitation, inertia, and tides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pujol, Olivier; Lagoute, Christophe; Pérez, José-Philippe
2015-11-01
This paper deals with the factors that influence the weight of an object near the Earth's surface. They are: (1) the Earth's gravitational force, (2) the centrifugal force due to the Earth's diurnal rotation, and (3) tidal forces due to the gravitational field of the Moon and Sun, and other solar system bodies to a lesser extent. Each of these three contributions is discussed and expressions are derived. The relationship between weight and gravitation is thus established in a direct and pedagogical manner readily understandable by undergraduate students. The analysis applies to the Newtonian limit of gravitation. The derivation is based on an experimental (or operational) definition of weight, and it is shown that it coincides with the Earth’s gravitational force modified by diurnal rotation around a polar axis and non-uniformity of external gravitational bodies (tidal term). Two examples illustrate and quantify these modifications, respectively the Eötvös effect and the oceanic tides; tidal forces due to differential gravitation on a spacecraft and an asteroid are also proposed as examples. Considerations about inertia are also given and some comments are made about a widespread, yet confusing, explanation of tides based on a centrifugal force. Finally, the expression of the potential energy of the tide-generating force is established rigorously in the appendix.
Gravitational lensing of gravitational waves from merging neutron star binaries
Wang, Yun; Stebbins, Albert; Turner, Edwin L.
1996-05-01
We discuss the gravitational lensing of gravitational waves from merging neutron star binaries, in the context of advanced LIGO type gravitational wave detectors. We consider properties of the expected observational data with cut on the signal-to-noise ratio \\rho, i.e., \\rho>\\rho_0. An advanced LIGO should see unlensed inspiral events with a redshift distribution with cut-off at a redshift z_{\\rm max} < 1 for h \\leq 0.8. Any inspiral events detected at z>z_{\\rm max} should be lensed. We compute the expected total number of events which are present due to gravitational lensing and their redshift distribution for an advanced LIGO in a flat Universe. If the matter fraction in compact lenses is close to 10\\%, an advanced LIGO should see a few strongly lensed events per year with \\rho >5.
An overview of gravitational physiology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miquel, Jaime; Souza, Kenneth A.
1991-01-01
The focus of this review is on the response of humans and animals to the effects of the near weightless condition occurring aboard orbiting spacecraft. Gravity is an omnipresent force that has been a constant part of our lives and of the evolution of all living species. Emphasis is placed on the general mechanisms of adaptation to altered gravitational fields and vectors, i.e., both hypo- and hypergravity. A broad literature review of gravitational biology was conducted and the general state of our knowledge in this area is discussed. The review is specifically targeted at newcomers to the exciting and relatively new area of space and gravitational biology.
Gravitation. [Book on general relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Misner, C. W.; Thorne, K. S.; Wheeler, J. A.
1973-01-01
This textbook on gravitation physics (Einstein's general relativity or geometrodynamics) is designed for a rigorous full-year course at the graduate level. The material is presented in two parallel tracks in an attempt to divide key physical ideas from more complex enrichment material to be selected at the discretion of the reader or teacher. The full book is intended to provide competence relative to the laws of physics in flat space-time, Einstein's geometric framework for physics, applications with pulsars and neutron stars, cosmology, the Schwarzschild geometry and gravitational collapse, gravitational waves, experimental tests of Einstein's theory, and mathematical concepts of differential geometry.
Gravitational radiation quadrupole formula is valid for gravitationally interacting systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, M.; Will, C. M.
1980-01-01
An argument is presented for the validity of the quadrupole formula for gravitational radiation energy loss in the far field of nearly Newtonian (e.g., binary stellar) systems. This argument differs from earlier ones in that it determines beforehand the formal accuracy of approximation required to describe gravitationally self-interacting systems, uses the corresponding approximate equation of motion explicitly, and evaluates the appropriate asymptotic quantities by matching along the correct space-time light cones.
Gravitational Stokes parameters. [for electromagnetic and gravitational radiation in relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anile, A. M.; Breuer, R. A.
1974-01-01
The electromagnetic and gravitational Stokes parameters are defined in the general theory of relativity. The general-relativistic equation of radiative transfer for polarized radiation is then derived in terms of the Stokes parameters for both high-frequency electromagnetic and gravitational waves. The concept of Stokes parameters is generalized for the most general class of metric theories of gravity, where six (instead of two) independent states of polarization are present.
Dipole gravitational radiation in the nonsymmetric gravitational theory of Moffat
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krisher, Timothy P.
1985-07-01
The generation of gravitational radiation in the nonsymmetric gravitational theory (NGT) of Moffat is analyzed. It is shown that the theory predicts the emission of dipole gravitational radiation from a binary system. The source of the dipole radiation is a vector density S postulated to be proportional to the number density of fermion particles in the components of the system. This radiation is shown to result in a secular decrease in the orbital period of a binary system in addition to that predicted by general relativity. The size of the effect is proportional to the reduced mass of the system and to the square of the difference in l2/[mass] between the two components of the system, where l is a parameter having units of [length] that is related to the number of fermion particles in each component. As part of the analysis, the stress-energy pseudotensor of the NGT, expanded to quadratic order in the gravitational fields, and the NGT gravitational-wave luminosity formula are derived for the first time. With a perfect-fluid model of matter, results are also given for the post-Newtonian expansions of the source densities of the gravitational fields. The results of this analysis are then applied to the binary pulsar system PSR 1913+16 which contains a pulsar orbiting an unobserved companion. With gravitational radiation attributed as the cause of the observed secular decrease in the orbital period, this system provides a test of the prediction by the NGT of dipole gravitational radiation. It is shown that the NGT can only fit the observations of this system provided the l parameter of the unseen companion is <~350 km.
Dissipation of modified entropic gravitational energy through gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Matos, Clovis Jacinto
2012-01-01
The phenomenological nature of a new gravitational type interaction between two different bodies derived from Verlinde's entropic approach to gravitation in combination with Sorkin's definition of Universe's quantum information content, is investigated. Assuming that the energy stored in this entropic gravitational field is dissipated under the form of gravitational waves and that the Heisenberg principle holds for this system, one calculates a possible value for an absolute minimum time scale in nature tau=15/16 Λ^{1/2}hbar G/c4˜9.27×10^{-105} seconds, which is much smaller than the Planck time t P =( ħG/ c 5)1/2˜5.38×10-44 seconds. This appears together with an absolute possible maximum value for Newtonian gravitational forces generated by matter Fg=32/30c7/Λ hbar G2˜ 3.84× 10^{165} Newtons, which is much higher than the gravitational field between two Planck masses separated by the Planck length F gP = c 4/ G˜1.21×1044 Newtons.
Quantum Opportunities in Gravitational Wave Detectors
Mavalvala, Negris
2012-03-14
Direct observation of gravitational waves should open a new window into the Universe. Gravitational wave detectors are the most sensitive position meters ever constructed. The quantum limit in gravitational wave detectors opens up a whole new field of study. Quantum opportunities in gravitational wave detectors include applications of quantum optics techniques and new tools for quantum measurement on truly macroscopic (human) scales.
Gravitation toward Walls among Human Subjects
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dabbs, James M., Jr.; Wheeler, Patricia A.
1976-01-01
In two studies, college students (N=34) in a classroom corridor who walked near the wall ("gravitators") were contrasted with those who walked near the center ("non-gravitators"). Gravitators were lower than non-gravitators on Autonomy and Defendence and appeared to be less responsive to other persons. (Author)
Testing local Lorentz invariance with gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostelecký, V. Alan; Mewes, Matthew
2016-06-01
The effects of local Lorentz violation on dispersion and birefringence of gravitational waves are investigated. The covariant dispersion relation for gravitational waves involving gauge-invariant Lorentz-violating operators of arbitrary mass dimension is constructed. The chirp signal from the gravitational-wave event GW150914 is used to place numerous first constraints on gravitational Lorentz violation.
Classical and quantum analysis of repulsive singularities in four-dimensional extended supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaida, I.; Hollmann, H. R.; Stewart, J. M.
1999-07-01
Non-minimal repulsive singularities (`repulsons') in extended supergravity theories are investigated. The short-distance antigravity properties of the repulsons are tested at the classical and the quantum level by a scalar test-particle. Using a partial wave expansion it is shown that the particle is totally reflected at the origin. A high-frequency incoming particle undergoes a phase shift of icons/Journals/Common/pi" ALT="pi" ALIGN="TOP"/>/2. However, the phase shift for a low-frequency particle depends upon the physical data of the repulson. The curvature singularity at a finite distance rh turns out to be transparent for the scalar test-particle and the coordinate singularity at the origin serves as the repulsive barrier to bounce back the particles.
Effect of interdots electronic repulsion in the Majorana signature for a double dot interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ricco, L. S.; Marques, Y.; Dessotti, F. A.; de Souza, M.; Seridonio, A. C.
2016-04-01
We investigate theoretically the features of the Majorana hallmark in the presence of Coulomb repulsion between two quantum dots describing a spinless double dot interferometer, where one of the dots is strongly coupled to a Kitaev wire within the topological phase. Such a system has been originally proposed without Coulomb interaction in Dessotti et al. (2014 [16]) . Our findings reveal that for dots in resonance, the ratio between the strength of Coulomb repulsion and the dot-wire coupling changes the width of the Majorana zero-bias peak for both Fano regimes studied, indicating thus that the electronic interdots correlation influences the Majorana state lifetime in the dot hybridized with the wire. Moreover, for the off-resonance case, the swap between the energy levels of the dots also modifies the width of the Majorana peak, which does not happen for the noninteracting case. The results obtained here can guide experimentalists that pursuit a way of revealing Majorana signatures.
Ground-state densities of repulsive two-component Fermi gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trappe, Martin-Isbjörn; Grochowski, Piotr; Brewczyk, Mirosław; Rzążewski, Kazimierz
2016-02-01
We investigate separations of trapped balanced two-component atomic Fermi gases with repulsive contact interaction. Candidates for ground-state densities are obtained from the imaginary-time evolution of a nonlinear pseudo-Schrödinger equation in three dimensions, rather than from the cumbersome variational equations of the underlying energy density functional. With the employed hydrodynamical approach, gradient corrections to the Thomas-Fermi approximation are conveniently included and are shown to be vital for reliable density profiles. We provide critical repulsion strengths that mark the onset of phase transitions in a harmonic trap. We present transitions from identical density profiles of the two fermion species towards isotropic and anisotropic separations for various confinements, including harmonic and double-well-type traps. Our proposed method is suited for arbitrary trap geometries and can be straightforwardly extended to study dynamics in the light of ongoing experiments on degenerate Fermi gases.
Development of a simple 2.45 GHz microwave plasma with a repulsive double hexapole configuration.
Arciaga, Marko; Tumlos, Roy; Ulano, April; Lee, Henry; Lledo, Rumar; Ramos, Henry
2008-09-01
A simple and inexpensive 2.45 GHz microwave plasma source with a repulsive double hexapole configuration is described and characterized. In this work, the operation of the source is shown to be flexible in terms of electron density, electron temperature, and plasma uniformity even at low-pressures (approximately millitorr). It allows for easy control of the electron temperature (2-3.8 eV) and density ( approximately 10(9)-10(10) cm(-3)) by removing either of the two hexapoles or by varying the separation distance between the two hexapoles. Characterization was done via information gathered from the usual Langmuir probe measurements for electron temperature and density. The source makes a resonant surface with its repulsive double hexapole magnetic configuration providing an additional longitudinal confinement near the walls midway between the two hexapoles. Magnetic field maps are presented for varying double hexapole distances. Power delivery for various settings is also presented. PMID:19044416
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Peng-Fei; Ruan, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Zhong-Bin; Fu, Xin
2015-11-01
The Hong-Strogatz (HS) model of globally coupled phase oscillators with attractive and repulsive interactions reflects the fact that each individual (oscillator) has its own attitude (attractive or repulsive) to the same environment (mean field). Previous studies on HS model focused mainly on the stable states on Ott-Antonsen (OA) manifold. In this paper, the eigenvalues of the Jacobi matrix of each fixed point in HS model are explicitly derived, with the aim to understand the local dynamics around each fixed point. Phase transitions are described according to relative population and coupling strength. Besides, the dynamics off OA manifold is studied. Supported by the National Basic Research Program of China under Grant No. 2015CB057301, the Applied Research Project of Public Welfare Technology of Zhejiang Province under Grant No. 201SC31109 and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant No. 2014M560483
Development of a simple 2.45 GHz microwave plasma with a repulsive double hexapole configuration
Arciaga, Marko; Ulano, April; Lee, Henry Jr.; Lledo, Rumar; Ramos, Henry; Tumlos, Roy
2008-09-15
A simple and inexpensive 2.45 GHz microwave plasma source with a repulsive double hexapole configuration is described and characterized. In this work, the operation of the source is shown to be flexible in terms of electron density, electron temperature, and plasma uniformity even at low-pressures (approximately millitorr). It allows for easy control of the electron temperature (2-3.8 eV) and density ({approx}10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}) by removing either of the two hexapoles or by varying the separation distance between the two hexapoles. Characterization was done via information gathered from the usual Langmuir probe measurements for electron temperature and density. The source makes a resonant surface with its repulsive double hexapole magnetic configuration providing an additional longitudinal confinement near the walls midway between the two hexapoles. Magnetic field maps are presented for varying double hexapole distances. Power delivery for various settings is also presented.
Hydration Repulsion between Carbohydrate Surfaces Mediated by Temperature and Specific Ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Hsieh; Cox, Jason R.; Ow, Hooisweng; Shi, Rena; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.
2016-06-01
Stabilizing colloids or nanoparticles in solution involves a fine balance between surface charges, steric repulsion of coating molecules, and hydration forces against van der Waals attractions. At high temperature and electrolyte concentrations, the colloidal stability of suspensions usually decreases rapidly. Here, we report a new experimental and simulation discovery that the polysaccharide (dextran) coated nanoparticles show ion-specific colloidal stability at high temperature, where we observed enhanced colloidal stability of nanoparticles in CaCl2 solution but rapid nanoparticle-nanoparticle aggregation in MgCl2 solution. The microscopic mechanism was unveiled in atomistic simulations. The presence of surface bound Ca2+ ions increases the carbohydrate hydration and induces strongly polarized repulsive water structures beyond at least three hydration shells which is farther-reaching than previously assumed. We believe leveraging the binding of strongly hydrated ions to macromolecular surfaces represents a new paradigm in achieving absolute hydration and colloidal stability for a variety of materials, particularly under extreme conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoon, Kyung-Beom; Park, Won-Hee
2015-04-01
The convective heat transfer coefficient and surface emissivity before and after flame occurrence on a wood specimen surface and the flame heat flux were estimated using the repulsive particle swarm optimization algorithm and cone heater test results. The cone heater specified in the ISO 5660 standards was used, and six cone heater heat fluxes were tested. Preservative-treated Douglas fir 21 mm in thickness was used as the wood specimen in the tests. This study confirmed that the surface temperature of the specimen, which was calculated using the convective heat transfer coefficient, surface emissivity and flame heat flux on the wood specimen by a repulsive particle swarm optimization algorithm, was consistent with the measured temperature. Considering the measurement errors in the surface temperature of the specimen, the applicability of the optimization method considered in this study was evaluated.
Long-range repulsion of colloids driven by ion exchange and diffusiophoresis
Florea, Daniel; Musa, Sami; Huyghe, Jacques M. R.; Wyss, Hans M.
2014-01-01
Interactions between surfaces and particles in aqueous suspension are usually limited to distances smaller than 1 μm. However, in a range of studies from different disciplines, repulsion of particles has been observed over distances of up to hundreds of micrometers, in the absence of any additional external fields. Although a range of hypotheses have been suggested to account for such behavior, the physical mechanisms responsible for the phenomenon still remain unclear. To identify and isolate these mechanisms, we perform detailed experiments on a well-defined experimental system, using a setup that minimizes the effects of gravity and convection. Our experiments clearly indicate that the observed long-range repulsion is driven by a combination of ion exchange, ion diffusion, and diffusiophoresis. We develop a simple model that accounts for our data; this description is expected to be directly applicable to a wide range of systems exhibiting similar long-range forces. PMID:24748113
Ferromagnetism of a repulsive atomic Fermi gas in an optical lattice: a quantum Monte Carlo study.
Pilati, S; Zintchenko, I; Troyer, M
2014-01-10
Using continuous-space quantum Monte Carlo methods, we investigate the zero-temperature ferromagnetic behavior of a two-component repulsive Fermi gas under the influence of periodic potentials that describe the effect of a simple-cubic optical lattice. Simulations are performed with balanced and with imbalanced components, including the case of a single impurity immersed in a polarized Fermi sea (repulsive polaron). For an intermediate density below half filling, we locate the transitions between the paramagnetic, and the partially and fully ferromagnetic phases. As the intensity of the optical lattice increases, the ferromagnetic instability takes place at weaker interactions, indicating a possible route to observe ferromagnetism in experiments performed with ultracold atoms. We compare our findings with previous predictions based on the standard computational method used in material science, namely density functional theory, and with results based on tight-binding models. PMID:24483906
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeon, Hyungkook; Lee, Horim; Kang, Kwan Hyoung; Lim, Geunbae
2013-12-01
We proposed a novel separation method, which is the first report using ion concentration polarization (ICP) to separate particles continuously. We analyzed the electrical forces that cause the repulsion of particles in the depletion region formed by ICP. Using the electrical repulsion, micro- and nano-sized particles were separated based on their electrophoretic mobilities. Because the separation of particles was performed using a strong electric field in the depletion region without the use of internal electrodes, it offers the advantages of simple, low-cost device fabrication and bubble-free operation compared with conventional continuous electrophoretic separation methods, such as miniaturizing free-flow electrophoresis (μ-FFE). This separation device is expected to be a useful tool for separating various biochemical samples, including cells, proteins, DNAs and even ions.
Synchronization and beam forming in an array of repulsively coupled oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rulkov, N. F.; Tsimring, L.; Larsen, M. L.; Gabbay, M.
2006-11-01
We study the dynamics of an array of Stuart-Landau oscillators with repulsive coupling. Autonomous network with global repulsive coupling settles on one from a continuum of synchronized regimes characterized by zero mean field. Driving this array by an external oscillatory signal produces a nonzero mean field that follows the driving signal even when the oscillators are not locked to the external signal. At sufficiently large amplitude the external signal synchronizes the oscillators and locks the phases of the array oscillations. Application of this system as a beam-forming element of a phase array antenna is considered. The phase dynamics of the oscillator array synchronization is used to reshape the phases of signals received from the phase array antenna and improve its beam pattern characteristics.
Monomolecular adsorption on nanoparticles with repulsive interactions: a Monte Carlo study.
Pinto, O A; López de Mishima, B A; Leiva, E P M; Oviedo, O A
2016-06-01
In the present work, we study the adsorption of different monomolecular species on nanoparticles with different sizes and geometries using a grand canonical Monte Carlo method. These species are characterized by repulsive lateral interactions between themselves, as takes place in the case of the adsorption of partially charged atoms or molecules. Nanosize effects are analyzed in terms of adsorption on edge and facet sites. The energy minimization in these systems comes out as a complex conjugation of the repulsive lateral interactions between the adsorbates and the attractive interactions of the adsorbates with the nanoparticle. The phenomenon is analyzed as a function of the occurrence of different ordered structures being formed on the surface of the nanoparticle. We find that layers with different structures may coexist on different facets of the nanoparticle. Finally, a discussion of deposition on flat surfaces and in finite systems is given. PMID:27181601
Residual entropy and waterlike anomalies in the repulsive one dimensional lattice gas
Silva, Fernando Barbosa V. da; Oliveira, Fernando Albuquerque; Barbosa, Marco Aurélio A.
2015-04-14
The thermodynamics and kinetics of the one dimensional lattice gas with repulsive interaction are investigated using transfer matrix technique and Monte Carlo simulations. This simple model is shown to exhibit waterlike anomalies in density, thermal expansion coefficient, and self-diffusion. An unified description for the thermodynamic anomalies in this model is achieved based on the ground state residual entropy which appears in the model due to mixing entropy in a ground state phase transition.
Pioneer midbrain longitudinal axons navigate using a balance of Netrin attraction and Slit repulsion
2014-01-01
Background Longitudinal axons grow parallel to the embryonic midline to connect distant regions of the central nervous system. Previous studies suggested that repulsive midline signals guide pioneer longitudinal axons by blocking their entry into the floor plate; however, the role of midline attractants, and whether attractant signals may cooperate with repulsive signals, remains unclear. In this study we investigated the navigation of a set of pioneer longitudinal axons, the medial longitudinal fasciculus, in mouse embryos mutant for the Netrin/Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) attractants, and for Slit repellents, as well as the responses of explanted longitudinal axons in vitro. Results In mutants for Netrin1 chemoattractant or DCC receptor signaling, longitudinal axons shifted away from the ventral midline, suggesting that Netrin1/DCC signals act attractively to pull axons ventrally. Analysis of mutants in the three Slit genes, including Slit1/2/3 triple mutants, suggest that concurrent repulsive Slit/Robo signals push pioneer axons away from the ventral midline. Combinations of mutations between the Netrin and Slit guidance systems provided genetic evidence that the attractive and repulsive signals balance against each other. This balance is demonstrated in vitro using explant culture, finding that the cues can act directly on longitudinal axons. The explants also reveal an unexpected synergy of Netrin1 and Slit2 that promotes outgrowth. Conclusions These results support a mechanism in which longitudinal trajectories are positioned by a push-pull balance between opposing Netrin and Slit signals. Our evidence suggests that longitudinal axons respond directly and simultaneously to both attractants and repellents, and that the combined signals constrain axons to grow longitudinally. PMID:25056828
Gravitational quantum states of Antihydrogen
Voronin, A. Yu.; Froelich, P.; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.
2011-03-15
We present a theoretical study of the motion of the antihydrogen atom (H) in the gravitational field of Earth above a material surface. We predict that the H atom, falling in the gravitational field of Earth above a material surface, would settle into long-lived quantum states. We point out a method of measuring the difference in the energy of H in such states. The method allows for spectroscopy of gravitational levels based on atom-interferometric principles. We analyze the general feasibility of performing experiments of this kind. We point out that such experiments provide a method of measuring the gravitational force (Mg) acting on H and that they might be of interest in the context of testing the weak equivalence principle for antimatter.
Gravitational Many-Body Problem
Makino, J.
2008-04-29
In this paper, we briefly review some aspects of the gravitational many-body problem, which is one of the oldest problems in the modern mathematical science. Then we review our GRAPE project to design computers specialized to this problem.
Tidal radiation. [relativistic gravitational effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mashhoon, B.
1977-01-01
The general theory of tides is developed within the framework of Einstein's theory of gravitation. It is based on the concept of Fermi frame and the associated notion of tidal frame along an open curve in spacetime. Following the previous work of the author an approximate scheme for the evaluation of tidal gravitational radiation is presented which is valid for weak gravitational fields. The emission of gravitational radiation from a body in the field of a black hole is discussed, and for some cases of astrophysical interest estimates are given for the contributions of radiation due to center-of-mass motion, purely tidal deformation, and the interference between the center of mass and tidal motions.
Relativistic Gravitational Experiments in Space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hellings, Ronald W. (Editor)
1989-01-01
The results are summarized of a workshop on future gravitational physics space missions. The purpose of the workshop was to define generic technological requirements for such missions. NASA will use the results to direct its program of advanced technology development.
Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.
1980-01-01
The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.
Bera, Mrinal K.; Qiao, Baofu; Seifert, Soenke; Burton-Pye, Benjamin P.; Monica Olvera de la Cruz; Antonio, Mark R.
2015-12-15
Charged colloids and proteins in aqueous solutions interact via short-range attractions and long-range repulsions (SALR) and exhibit complex structural phases. These include homogeneously dispersed monomers, percolated monomers, clusters, and percolated clusters. We report the structural architectures of simple charged systems in the form of spherical, Keggin-type heteropolyanions (HPAs) by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Structure factors obtained from the SAXS measurements show that the HPAs interact via SALR. Concentration and temperature dependences of the structure factors for HPAs with –3e (e is the charge of an electron) charge are consistent with a mixture of nonassociated monomersmore » and associated randomly percolated monomers, whereas those for HPAs with –4e and –5e charges exhibit only nonassociated monomers in aqueous solutions. Our experiments show that the increase in magnitude of the charge of the HPAs increases their repulsive interactions and inhibits their aggregation in aqueous solutions. MD simulations were done to reveal the atomistic scale origins of SALR between HPAs. As a result, the short-range attractions result from water or proton-mediated hydrogen bonds between neighboring HPAs, whereas the long-range repulsions are due to the distributions of ions surrounding the HPAs.« less
Bera, Mrinal K.; Qiao, Baofu; Seifert, Soenke; Burton-Pye, Benjamin P.; Monica Olvera de la Cruz; Antonio, Mark R.
2015-12-15
Charged colloids and proteins in aqueous solutions interact via short-range attractions and long-range repulsions (SALR) and exhibit complex structural phases. These include homogeneously dispersed monomers, percolated monomers, clusters, and percolated clusters. We report the structural architectures of simple charged systems in the form of spherical, Keggin-type heteropolyanions (HPAs) by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Structure factors obtained from the SAXS measurements show that the HPAs interact via SALR. Concentration and temperature dependences of the structure factors for HPAs with –3e (e is the charge of an electron) charge are consistent with a mixture of nonassociated monomers and associated randomly percolated monomers, whereas those for HPAs with –4e and –5e charges exhibit only nonassociated monomers in aqueous solutions. Our experiments show that the increase in magnitude of the charge of the HPAs increases their repulsive interactions and inhibits their aggregation in aqueous solutions. MD simulations were done to reveal the atomistic scale origins of SALR between HPAs. As a result, the short-range attractions result from water or proton-mediated hydrogen bonds between neighboring HPAs, whereas the long-range repulsions are due to the distributions of ions surrounding the HPAs.
From hydration repulsion to dry adhesion between asymmetric hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces
Kanduč, Matej; Netz, Roland R.
2015-01-01
Using all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at constant water chemical potential in combination with basic theoretical arguments, we study hydration-induced interactions between two overall charge-neutral yet polar planar surfaces with different wetting properties. Whether the water film between the two surfaces becomes unstable below a threshold separation and cavitation gives rise to long-range attraction, depends on the sum of the two individual surface contact angles. Consequently, cavitation-induced attraction also occurs for a mildly hydrophilic surface interacting with a very hydrophobic surface. If both surfaces are very hydrophilic, hydration repulsion dominates at small separations and direct attractive force contribution can—if strong enough—give rise to wet adhesion in this case. In between the regimes of cavitation-induced attraction and hydration repulsion we find a narrow range of contact angle combinations where the surfaces adhere at contact in the absence of cavitation. This dry adhesion regime is driven by direct surface–surface interactions. We derive simple laws for the cavitation transition as well as for the transition between hydration repulsion and dry adhesion, which favorably compare with simulation results in a generic adhesion state diagram as a function of the two surface contact angles. PMID:26392526
Steric repulsions, rotation barriers, and stereoelectronic effects: a real space perspective.
Pendás, A Martín; Blanco, M A; Francisco, E
2009-01-15
Widely used chemical concepts like Pauli repulsion or hyperconjugation, and their role in determining rotation barriers or stereoelectronic effects, are analyzed from the real space perspective of the interacting quantum atoms approach (IQA). IQA emerges from the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), but is free from the equilibrium geometry constraint of the former. A framework with both electronically unrelaxed and relaxed wavefunctions is presented that leads to an approximate correspondence between the IQA concepts and those used in the EDA (energy decomposition analysis) or NBO (natural bond orbital) procedures. We show that no net force acts upon the electrons in an electronically relaxed system, so that any reasonable definition of Pauli repulsion must involve unrelaxed state functions. Using antisymmetrized fragments clarifies that Pauli repulsions are energetically connected to the IQA deformation energies, leaving footprints in the finally relaxed states. Similarly, EDA or NBO hyperconjugative stabilizations are found to be naturally related to the IQA electron delocalization patterns. Applications to the rotation barrier of ethane and other simple systems are presented, and the very often forgotten role of electrostatic contributions in determining preferred conformations is highlighted. PMID:18536054
Mueller, Bernhard K; Yamashita, Toshihide; Schaffar, Gregor; Mueller, Reinhold
2006-01-01
During the development of the nervous system, outgrowing axons often have to travel long distances to reach their target neurons. In this process, outgrowing neurites tipped with motile growth cones rely on guidance cues present in their local environment. These cues are detected by specific receptors expressed on growth cones and neurites and influence the trajectory of the growing fibres. Neurite growth, guidance, target innervation and synapse formation and maturation are the processes that occur predominantly but not exclusively during embryonic or early post-natal development in vertebrates. As a result, a functional neural network is established, which is usually remarkably stable. However, the stability of the neural network in higher vertebrates comes at an expensive price, i.e. the loss of any significant ability to regenerate injured or damaged neuronal connections in their central nervous system (CNS). Most importantly, neurite growth inhibitors prevent any regenerative growth of injured nerve fibres. Some of these inhibitors are associated with CNS myelin, others are found at the lesion site and in the scar tissue. Traumatic injuries in brain and spinal cord of mammals induce upregulation of embryonic inhibitory or repulsive guidance cues and their receptors on the neurites. An example for embryonic repulsive directional cues re-expressed at lesion sites in both the rat and human CNS is provided with repulsive guidance molecules, a new family of directional guidance cues. PMID:16939972
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koyama, Tomonori; Kaiho, Katsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Iwao; Yanabu, Satoru
Using a high-temperature superconductor, we constructed and tested a model superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL). The superconductor and vacuum interrupter as the commutation switch were connected in parallel using a bypass coil. When the fault current flows in this equipment, the superconductor is quenched and the current is then transferred to the parallel coil due to the voltage drop in the superconductor. This large current in the parallel coil actuates the magnetic repulsion mechanism of the vacuum interrupter and the current in the superconductor is broken. Using this equipment, the current flow time in the superconductor can be easily minimized. On the other hand, the fault current is also easily limited by large reactance of the parallel coil. This system has many merits. So, we introduced to electromagnetic repulsion switch. There is duty of high speed re-closing after interrupting fault current in the electrical power system. So the SFCL should be recovered to superconducting state before high speed re-closing. But, superconductor generated heat at the time of quench. It takes time to recover superconducting state. Therefore it is a matter of recovery time. In this paper, we studied recovery time of superconductor. Also, we proposed electromagnetic repulsion switch with reclosing system.
Hemmerle, Arnaud; Malaquin, Linda; Charitat, Thierry; Lecuyer, Sigolène; Fragneto, Giovanna; Daillant, Jean
2012-01-01
Understanding interactions between membranes requires measurements on well-controlled systems close to natural conditions, in which fluctuations play an important role. We have determined, by grazing incidence X-ray scattering, the interaction potential between two lipid bilayers, one adsorbed on a solid surface and the other floating close by. We find that interactions in this highly hydrated model system are two orders of magnitude softer than in previously reported work on multilayer stacks. This is attributed to the weak electrostatic repulsion due to the small fraction of ionized lipids in supported bilayers with a lower number of defects. Our data are consistent with the Poisson–Boltzmann theory, in the regime where repulsion is dominated by the entropy of counter ions. We also have unique access to very weak entropic repulsion potentials, which allowed us to discriminate between the various models proposed in the literature. We further demonstrate that the interaction potential between supported bilayers can be tuned at will by applying osmotic pressure, providing a way to manipulate these model membranes, thus considerably enlarging the range of biological or physical problems that can be addressed. PMID:23169650
Tuning the Formation and Rupture of Single Ligand-Receptor Bonds by Hyaluronan-Induced Repulsion
Robert, Philippe; Sengupta, Kheya; Puech, Pierre-Henri; Bongrand, Pierre; Limozin, Laurent
2008-01-01
We used a combination of laminar flow chamber and reflection interference microscopy to study the formation and rupture of single bonds formed between Fc-ICAM-1 attached to a substrate and anti-ICAM-1 carried by micrometric beads in the presence of a repulsive hyaluronan (HA) layer adsorbed onto the substrate. The absolute distance between the colloids and the surface was measured under flow with an accuracy of a few nanometers. We could verify the long-term prediction of classical lubrication theory for the movement of a sphere near a wall in a shear flow. The HA polymer layer exerted long-range repulsive steric force on the beads and the hydrodynamics at the boundary remained more or less unchanged. By incubating HA at various concentrations, the thickness of the layer, as estimated by beads most probable height, was tuned in the range 20–200 nm. Frequency of bond formation was decreased by more than one order of magnitude by increasing the thickness of the repulsive layer, while the lifetime of individual bonds was not affected. This study opens the way for further quantitative studies of the effect of molecular environment and separation distance on ligand-receptor association and dissociation. PMID:18599637
Mechanism of vibration-induced repulsion force on a particle in a viscous fluid cell.
Saadatmand, Mehrrad; Kawaji, Masahiro
2013-08-01
Space platforms such as the Space Shuttle and International Space Station have been considered an ideal environment for production of protein and semiconductor crystals of superior quality due to the negligible gravity-induced convection. Although it was believed that under microgravity environment diffusive mass transport would dominate the growth of the crystals, some related experiments have not shown satisfactory results possibly due to the movement of the growing crystals in fluid cells caused by small vibrations present in the space platforms called g-jitter. In ground-based experiments, there have been clear observations of attraction and repulsion of a solid particle with respect to a nearby wall of the fluid cell due to small vibrations. The present work is a numerical investigation on the physical mechanisms responsible for the repulsion force, which has been predicted to increase with the cell vibration frequency and amplitude, as well as the fluid viscosity. Moreover, the simulations have revealed that the repulsion force occurs mostly due to the increased pressure in the narrow gap between the particle and the nearest wall. PMID:24032936
Mechanism of vibration-induced repulsion force on a particle in a viscous fluid cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saadatmand, Mehrrad; Kawaji, Masahiro
2013-08-01
Space platforms such as the Space Shuttle and International Space Station have been considered an ideal environment for production of protein and semiconductor crystals of superior quality due to the negligible gravity-induced convection. Although it was believed that under microgravity environment diffusive mass transport would dominate the growth of the crystals, some related experiments have not shown satisfactory results possibly due to the movement of the growing crystals in fluid cells caused by small vibrations present in the space platforms called g-jitter. In ground-based experiments, there have been clear observations of attraction and repulsion of a solid particle with respect to a nearby wall of the fluid cell due to small vibrations. The present work is a numerical investigation on the physical mechanisms responsible for the repulsion force, which has been predicted to increase with the cell vibration frequency and amplitude, as well as the fluid viscosity. Moreover, the simulations have revealed that the repulsion force occurs mostly due to the increased pressure in the narrow gap between the particle and the nearest wall.
Construction of exchange repulsion in terms of the wave functions at QM/MM boundary region
Takahashi, Hideaki Umino, Satoru; Morita, Akihiro
2015-08-28
We developed a simple method to calculate exchange repulsion between a quantum mechanical (QM) solute and a molecular mechanical (MM) molecule in the QM/MM approach. In our method, the size parameter in the Buckingham type potential for the QM solute is directly determined in terms of the one-electron wave functions of the solute. The point of the method lies in the introduction of the exchange core function (ECF) defined as a Slater function which mimics the behavior of the exterior electron density at the QM/MM boundary region. In the present paper, the ECF was constructed in terms of the Becke-Roussel (BR) exchange hole function. It was demonstrated that the ECF yielded by the BR procedure can faithfully reproduce the radial behavior of the electron density of a QM solute. The size parameter of the solute as well as the exchange repulsion are, then, obtained using the overlap model without any fitting procedure. To examine the efficiency of the method, it was applied to calculation of the exchange repulsions for minimal QM/MM systems, hydrogen-bonded water dimer, and H{sub 3}O{sup +}–H{sub 2}O. We found that our approach is able to reproduce the potential energy curves for these systems showing reasonable agreements with those given by accurate full quantum chemical calculations.
Quantum liquid of repulsively bound pairs of particles in a lattice
Petrosyan, David; Schmidt, Bernd; Anglin, James R.; Fleischhauer, Michael
2007-09-15
Repulsively interacting particles in a periodic potential can form bound composite objects, whose dissociation is suppressed by a band gap. Nearly pure samples of such repulsively bound pairs of cold atoms--'dimers'--have recently been prepared by Winkler et al. [Nature (London) 441, 853 (2006)]. We here derive an effective Hamiltonian for a lattice loaded with dimers only and discuss its implications for the many-body dynamics of the system. We find that the dimer-dimer interaction includes strong on-site repulsion and nearest-neighbor attraction which always dominates over the dimer kinetic energy at low temperatures. The dimers then form incompressible, minimal-surface 'droplets' of a quantum lattice liquid. For low lattice filling, the effective Hamiltonian can be mapped onto the spin-1/2 XXZ model with fixed total magnetization which exhibits a first-order phase transition from the droplet to a gas phase. This opens the door to studying first-order phase transitions using highly controllable ultracold atoms.
Diamagnetic repulsion--a versatile tool for label-free particle handling in microfluidic devices.
Peyman, Sally A; Kwan, Er Yee; Margarson, Oliver; Iles, Alexander; Pamme, Nicole
2009-12-25
We report the exploration of diamagnetic repulsion forces for the selective manipulation of microparticles inside microfluidic devices. Diamagnetic materials such as polymers are repelled from magnetic fields, an effect greatly enhanced by suspending a diamagnetic object in a paramagnetic Mn(2+) solution. The versatility of diamagnetic repulsion is demonstrated for the trapping, focussing and deflection of polystyrene particles for three example applications. Firstly, magnet pairs with unlike poles facing each other were arranged along a microcapillary to trap plugs of differently functionalised particles for a simultaneous surface-based assay in which biotin was selectively bound to a plug of streptavidin coated particles utilising only 22nL of reagent. Secondly, by slightly modifying the magnetic field design, the rapid focussing of particles into a narrow central stream at a flow rate of 650microms(-1) was accomplished for particle pre-concentration. In a third application, 5 and 10microm polystyrene particles were separated from each other in continuous flow by passing the particle mixture through a microfluidic chamber with a perpendicular magnetic field, a method termed diamagnetophoresis. The separation was investigated between flow rates of 20-100microL h(-1), with full resolution of the particle populations being achieved at 20microL h(-1). These experiments show the potential of diamagnetic repulsion for simple, label-free manipulation of particles and other diamagnetic objects such as cells for a range of bioanalytical techniques. PMID:19592004
Construction of exchange repulsion in terms of the wave functions at QM/MM boundary region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Hideaki; Umino, Satoru; Morita, Akihiro
2015-08-01
We developed a simple method to calculate exchange repulsion between a quantum mechanical (QM) solute and a molecular mechanical (MM) molecule in the QM/MM approach. In our method, the size parameter in the Buckingham type potential for the QM solute is directly determined in terms of the one-electron wave functions of the solute. The point of the method lies in the introduction of the exchange core function (ECF) defined as a Slater function which mimics the behavior of the exterior electron density at the QM/MM boundary region. In the present paper, the ECF was constructed in terms of the Becke-Roussel (BR) exchange hole function. It was demonstrated that the ECF yielded by the BR procedure can faithfully reproduce the radial behavior of the electron density of a QM solute. The size parameter of the solute as well as the exchange repulsion are, then, obtained using the overlap model without any fitting procedure. To examine the efficiency of the method, it was applied to calculation of the exchange repulsions for minimal QM/MM systems, hydrogen-bonded water dimer, and H3O+-H2O. We found that our approach is able to reproduce the potential energy curves for these systems showing reasonable agreements with those given by accurate full quantum chemical calculations.
Gravitational-wave sensitivity curves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, C. J.; Cole, R. H.; Berry, C. P. L.
2015-01-01
There are several common conventions in use by the gravitational-wave community to describe the amplitude of sources and the sensitivity of detectors. These are frequently confused. We outline the merits of and differences between the various quantities used for parameterizing noise curves and characterizing gravitational-wave amplitudes. We conclude by producing plots that consistently compare different detectors. Similar figures can be generated on-line for general use at http://rhcole.com/apps/GWplotter.
Constructing gravitational dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwartz, Matthew
2003-07-01
It would be extremely useful to know whether a particular low energy effective theory might have come from a compactification of a higher dimensional space. Here, this problem is approached from the ground up by considering theories with multiple interacting massive gravitons. It is actually very difficult to construct discrete gravitational dimensions which have a local continuum limit. In fact, any model with only nearest neighbor interactions is doomed. If we could find a non-linear extension for the Fierz-Pauli Lagrangian for a graviton of mass mg, which does not break down until the scale Λ2=(mgMPl), this could be used to construct a large class of models whose continuum limit is local in the extra dimension. But this is shown to be impossible: a theory with a single graviton must break down by Λ3=(m2gMPl)1/3. Next, we look at how the discretization prescribed by the truncation of the Kaluza-Klein tower of an honest extra dimension raises the scale of strong coupling. It dictates an intricate set of interactions among various fields which conspire to soften the strongest scattering amplitudes and allow for a local continuum limit, at least at the tree level. A number of candidate symmetries associated with locality in the discretized dimension are also discussed.
Shearfree cylindrical gravitational collapse
Di Prisco, A.; Herrera, L.; MacCallum, M. A. H.; Santos, N. O.
2009-09-15
We consider diagonal cylindrically symmetric metrics, with an interior representing a general nonrotating fluid with anisotropic pressures. An exterior vacuum Einstein-Rosen spacetime is matched to this using Darmois matching conditions. We show that the matching conditions can be explicitly solved for the boundary values of metric components and their derivatives, either for the interior or exterior. Specializing to shearfree interiors, a static exterior can only be matched to a static interior, and the evolution in the nonstatic case is found to be given in general by an elliptic function of time. For a collapsing shearfree isotropic fluid, only a Robertson-Walker dust interior is possible, and we show that all such cases were included in Cocke's discussion. For these metrics, Nolan and Nolan have shown that the matching breaks down before collapse is complete, and Tod and Mena have shown that the spacetime is not asymptotically flat in the sense of Berger, Chrusciel, and Moncrief. The issues about energy that then arise are revisited, and it is shown that the exterior is not in an intrinsic gravitational or superenergy radiative state at the boundary.
Nuclear Quantum Gravitation - The Correct Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotas, Ronald
2016-03-01
Nuclear Quantum Gravitation provides a clear, definitive Scientific explanation of Gravity and Gravitation. It is harmonious with Newtonian and Quantum Mechanics, and with distinct Scientific Logic. Nuclear Quantum Gravitation has 10 certain, Scientific proofs and 21 more good indications. With this theory the Physical Forces are obviously Unified. See: OBSCURANTISM ON EINSTEIN GRAVITATION? http://www.santilli- Foundation.org/inconsistencies-gravitation.php and Einstein's Theory of Relativity versus Classical Mechanics http://www.newtonphysics.on.ca/einstein/
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preston, Howard G.; Potter, Franklin
2006-03-01
We report a new theory of celestial mechanics for gravitationally bound systems based upon a gravitational wave equation derived from the general relativistic Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The single ad hoc assumption is that the large-scale physical properties depend only on the ratio of the bound system's total angular momentum to its total mass. The theory predicts quantization states for the Solar System and for galaxies. The galactic quantization determines the energy and angular momentum eigenstates without requiring dark matter, and predicts expressions for the galactic disk rotation velocity, the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation, the MOND acceleration parameter, the large-angle gravitational lensing, and the shape, stability and number of arms in spiral galaxies. Applied to the universe, the theory has a repulsive effective gravitational potential that predicts a new Hubble relation and explains the observed apparent acceleration of distant supernovae with the matter/energy density of the universe at the critical density with only about 5% matter content. We suggest a laboratory experiment with a torsion bar near a rotating mass. This theory is not quantum gravity.
Multibaseline gravitational wave radiometry
Talukder, Dipongkar; Bose, Sukanta; Mitra, Sanjit
2011-03-15
We present a statistic for the detection of stochastic gravitational wave backgrounds (SGWBs) using radiometry with a network of multiple baselines. We also quantitatively compare the sensitivities of existing baselines and their network to SGWBs. We assess how the measurement accuracy of signal parameters, e.g., the sky position of a localized source, can improve when using a network of baselines, as compared to any of the single participating baselines. The search statistic itself is derived from the likelihood ratio of the cross correlation of the data across all possible baselines in a detector network and is optimal in Gaussian noise. Specifically, it is the likelihood ratio maximized over the strength of the SGWB and is called the maximized-likelihood ratio (MLR). One of the main advantages of using the MLR over past search strategies for inferring the presence or absence of a signal is that the former does not require the deconvolution of the cross correlation statistic. Therefore, it does not suffer from errors inherent to the deconvolution procedure and is especially useful for detecting weak sources. In the limit of a single baseline, it reduces to the detection statistic studied by Ballmer [Classical Quantum Gravity 23, S179 (2006).] and Mitra et al.[Phys. Rev. D 77, 042002 (2008).]. Unlike past studies, here the MLR statistic enables us to compare quantitatively the performances of a variety of baselines searching for a SGWB signal in (simulated) data. Although we use simulated noise and SGWB signals for making these comparisons, our method can be straightforwardly applied on real data.
Spherically Symmetric Gravitational Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vargas Moniz, P.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the quantum vacua directly implied by the wave function of a gravitational configuration characterized by the presence of an apparent horizon, namely the Vaidya space-time solution. Spherical symmetry is a main feature of this configuration, with a scalar field constituting a source [a Klein-Gordon geon or Berger-Chitre-Moncrief-Nutku (BCMN) type model]. The subsequent analysis requires solving a Wheeler-DeWitt equation near the apparent horizon (following the guidelinesintroduced by A. Tomimatsu,18; M. Pollock, 19 and developed by A. Hosoya and I. Oda20,21) with the scalar field herein expanded in terms of S2 spherical harmonics: midisuperspace quantization. The main results present in this paper are as follows. It is found that the mass function characteristic of the Vaidya metric is positive definite within this quantum approach. Furthermore, the inhomogeneous matter sector determines a descrip-tion in terms of open quantum (sub)systems, namely in the form of an harmonic oscillator whose frequency depends on the mass function. For this open (sub)system, a twofold approach is employed. On the one hand, an exact invariant observable is obtained from the effective Hamiltonian for the inhomogeneous matter modes. It is shown that this invariant admits a set of discrete eigenvalues which depend on the mass function. The corresponding set of eigenstates is constructed from a particular vacuum state. On the other hand, exact solutions are found for the Schrädinger equation associated with the inhomogeneous matter modes. This paper is concluded with a discussion, where two other issues are raised: (i) the possible application to realistic black hole dynamics of the results obtained for a simplified (BCMN) model and (ii) whether such vacuum states could be related with others defined instead within scalar field theories constructed in classical backgrounds.
Strong gravitational lensing of gravitational waves in Einstein Telescope
Piórkowska, Aleksandra; Biesiada, Marek; Zhu, Zong-Hong E-mail: marek.biesiada@us.edu.pl
2013-10-01
Gravitational wave experiments have entered a new stage which gets us closer to the opening a new observational window on the Universe. In particular, the Einstein Telescope (ET) is designed to have a fantastic sensitivity that will provide with tens or hundreds of thousand NS-NS inspiral events per year up to the redshift z = 2. Some of such events should be gravitationally lensed by intervening galaxies. We explore the prospects of observing gravitationally lensed inspiral NS-NS events in the Einstein telescope. Being conservative we consider the lens population of elliptical galaxies. It turns out that depending on the local insipral rate ET should detect from one per decade detection in the pessimistic case to a tens of detections per year for the most optimistic case. The detection of gravitationally lensed source in gravitational wave detectors would be an invaluable source of information concerning cosmography, complementary to standard ones (like supernovae or BAO) independent of the local cosmic distance ladder calibrations.
How To Measure Gravitational Aberration?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krizek, M.; Solcova, A.
2007-08-01
In 1905, Henri Poincaré predicted the existence of gravitational waves and assumed that their speed c[g] would be that of the speed of light c. If the gravitational aberration would also have the same magnitude as the aberration of light, we would observe several paradoxical phenomena. For instance, the orbit of two bodies of equal mass would be unstable, since two attractive forces arise that are not in line and hence form a couple. This tends to increase the angular momentum, period, and total energy of the system. This can be modelled by a system of ordinary differential equations with delay. A big advantage of computer simulation is that we can easily perform many test for various possible values of the speed of gravity [1]. In [2], Carlip showed that gravitational aberration in general relativity is almost cancelled out by velocity-dependent interactions. This means that rays of sunlight are not parallel to the attractive gravitational force of the Sun, i.e., we do not see the Sun in the direction of its attractive force, but slightly shifted about an angle less than 20``. We show how the actual value of the gravitational aberration can be obtained by measurement of a single angle at a suitable time instant T corresponding to the perihelion of an elliptic orbit. We also derive an a priori error estimate that expresses how acurately T has to be determined to attain the gravitational aberration to a prescribed tolerance. [1] M. Křížek: Numerical experience with the finite speed of gravitational interaction, Math. Comput. Simulation 50 (1999), 237-245. [2] S. Carlip: Aberration and the speed of gravity, Phys. Lett. A 267 (2000), 81-87.
General Relativity and Gravitation, 1989
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashby, Neil; Bartlett, David F.; Wyss, Walker
2005-10-01
Part I. Classical Relativity and Gravitation Theory: 1. Global properties of exact solutions H. Friedrich; 2. Numerical relativity T. Nakamura; 3. How fast can a pulsar spin? J. L. Friedman; 4. Colliding waves in general relativity V. Ferrari; Part II. Relativistic Astrophysics, Early Universe, and Classical Cosmology: 5. Observations of cosmic microwave radiation R. B. Partridge; 6. Cosmic microwave background radiation (theory) M. Panek; 7. Inflation and quantum cosmology A. D. Linde; 8. Observations of lensing B. Fort; 9. Gravitational lenses: theory and interpretation R. Blandford; Part III. Experimental Gravitation and Gravitational Waves: 10. Solar system tests of GR: recent results and present plans I. Shapiro; 11. Laser interferometer detectors R. Weiss; 12. Resonant bar gravitational wave experiments G. Pizzella; 13. A non-inverse square law test E. Adelberger; Part IV. Quantum Gravity, Superstrings, Quantum Cosmology: 14. Cosmic strings B. Unruh; 15. String theory as a quantum theory of gravity G. Horowitz; 16. Progress in quantum cosmology J. B. Hartle; 17. Self-duality, quantum gravity, Wilson loops and all that A. V. Ashtekar; Part V. Summary Talk: 18. GR-12 Conference summary J. Ehlers II; Part VI. Reports on Workshops/Symposia: 19. Exact solutions and exact properties of Einstein equations V. Moncrieff; 20. Spinors, twistors and complex methods N. Woodhouse; 21. Alternative gravity theories M. Francaviglia; 22. Asymptotia, singularities and global structure B. G. Schmidt; 23. Radiative spacetimes and approximation methods T. Damour; 24. Algebraic computing M. MacCallum; 25. Numerical relativity J. Centrella; 26. Mathematical cosmology J. Wainwright; 27. The early universe M. Turner; 28. Relativistic astrophysics M. Abramowitz; 29. Astrophysical and observational cosmology B. Carr; 30. Solar system and pulsar tests of gravitation R. Hellings; 31. Earth-based gravitational experiments J. Faller; 32. Resonant bar and microwave gravitational wave
General Relativity and Gravitation, 1989
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashby, Neil; Bartlett, David F.; Wyss, Walker
1990-11-01
Part I. Classical Relativity and Gravitation Theory: 1. Global properties of exact solutions H. Friedrich; 2. Numerical relativity T. Nakamura; 3. How fast can a pulsar spin? J. L. Friedman; 4. Colliding waves in general relativity V. Ferrari; Part II. Relativistic Astrophysics, Early Universe, and Classical Cosmology: 5. Observations of cosmic microwave radiation R. B. Partridge; 6. Cosmic microwave background radiation (theory) M. Panek; 7. Inflation and quantum cosmology A. D. Linde; 8. Observations of lensing B. Fort; 9. Gravitational lenses: theory and interpretation R. Blandford; Part III. Experimental Gravitation and Gravitational Waves: 10. Solar system tests of GR: recent results and present plans I. Shapiro; 11. Laser interferometer detectors R. Weiss; 12. Resonant bar gravitational wave experiments G. Pizzella; 13. A non-inverse square law test E. Adelberger; Part IV. Quantum Gravity, Superstrings, Quantum Cosmology: 14. Cosmic strings B. Unruh; 15. String theory as a quantum theory of gravity G. Horowitz; 16. Progress in quantum cosmology J. B. Hartle; 17. Self-duality, quantum gravity, Wilson loops and all that A. V. Ashtekar; Part V. Summary Talk: 18. GR-12 Conference summary J. Ehlers II; Part VI. Reports on Workshops/Symposia: 19. Exact solutions and exact properties of Einstein equations V. Moncrieff; 20. Spinors, twistors and complex methods N. Woodhouse; 21. Alternative gravity theories M. Francaviglia; 22. Asymptotia, singularities and global structure B. G. Schmidt; 23. Radiative spacetimes and approximation methods T. Damour; 24. Algebraic computing M. MacCallum; 25. Numerical relativity J. Centrella; 26. Mathematical cosmology J. Wainwright; 27. The early universe M. Turner; 28. Relativistic astrophysics M. Abramowitz; 29. Astrophysical and observational cosmology B. Carr; 30. Solar system and pulsar tests of gravitation R. Hellings; 31. Earth-based gravitational experiments J. Faller; 32. Resonant bar and microwave gravitational wave
Gravitational Effects on Signal Transduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sytkowski, Arthur J.
1999-01-01
An understanding of the mechanisms by which individual cells perceive gravity and how these cells transduce and respond to gravitational stimuli is critical for the development of long-term manned space flight experiments. We now propose to use a well-characterized model erythroid cell system and to investigate gravitational perturbations of its erythropoietin (Epo) signaling pathway and gene regulation. Cells will be grown at 1-G and in simulated microgravity in the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel bioreactor (RWV). Cell growth and differentiation, the Epo-receptor, the protein kinase C pathway to the c-myc gene, and the protein phosphatase pathway to the c-myb gene will be studied and evaluated as reporters of gravitational stimuli. The results of these experiments will have impact on the problems of 1) gravitational sensing by individual cells, and 2) the anemia of space flight. This ground-based study also will serve as a Space Station Development Study in gravitational effects on intracellular signal transduction.
Gravitational Waves from Neutron Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kokkotas, Konstantinos
2016-03-01
Neutron stars are the densest objects in the present Universe, attaining physical conditions of matter that cannot be replicated on Earth. These unique and irreproducible laboratories allow us to study physics in some of its most extreme regimes. More importantly, however, neutron stars allow us to formulate a number of fundamental questions that explore, in an intricate manner, the boundaries of our understanding of physics and of the Universe. The multifaceted nature of neutron stars involves a delicate interplay among astrophysics, gravitational physics, and nuclear physics. The research in the physics and astrophysics of neutron stars is expected to flourish and thrive in the next decade. The imminent direct detection of gravitational waves will turn gravitational physics into an observational science, and will provide us with a unique opportunity to make major breakthroughs in gravitational physics, in particle and high-energy astrophysics. These waves, which represent a basic prediction of Einstein's theory of general relativity but have yet to be detected directly, are produced in copious amounts, for instance, by tight binary neutron star and black hole systems, supernovae explosions, non-axisymmetric or unstable spinning neutron stars. The focus of the talk will be on the neutron star instabilities induced by rotation and the magnetic field. The conditions for the onset of these instabilities and their efficiency in gravitational waves will be presented. Finally, the dependence of the results and their impact on astrophysics and especially nuclear physics will be discussed.
The Detection of Gravitational Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braccini, Stefano; Fidecaro, Francesco
The detection of gravitational waves is challenging researchers since half a century. The relative precision required, 10^{-21}, is difficult to imagine, this is 10^{-5} the diameter of a proton over several kilometres, using masses of tens of kilograms, or picometres over millions of kilometres. A theoretical description of gravitational radiation and its effects on matter, all consequence of the general theory of relativity, is given. Then the astrophysical phenomena that are candidates of gravitational wave emission are discussed, considering also amplitudes and rates. The binary neutron star system PSR1913+16, which provided the first evidence for energy loss by gravitational radiation in 1975, is briefly discussed. Then comes a description of the experimental developments, starting with ground-based interferometers, their working principles and their most important sources of noise. The earth-wide network that is being built describes how these instruments will be used in the observation era. Several other detection techniques, such as space interferometry, pulsar timing arrays and resonant detectors, covering different bands of the gravitational wave frequency spectrum complete these lectures.
Multiparameter investigation of gravitational slip
Daniel, Scott F.; Caldwell, Robert R.; Cooray, Asantha; Serra, Paolo; Melchiorri, Alessandro
2009-07-15
A detailed analysis of gravitational slip, a new post-general relativity cosmological parameter characterizing the degree of departure of the laws of gravitation from general relativity on cosmological scales, is presented. This phenomenological approach assumes that cosmic acceleration is due to new gravitational effects; the amount of spacetime curvature produced per unit mass is changed in such a way that a universe containing only matter and radiation begins to accelerate as if under the influence of a cosmological constant. Changes in the law of gravitation are further manifest in the behavior of the inhomogeneous gravitational field, as reflected in the cosmic microwave background, weak lensing, and evolution of large-scale structure. The new parameter {pi}{sub 0} is naively expected to be of order unity. However, a multiparameter analysis, allowing for variation of all of the standard cosmological parameters, finds that {pi}{sub 0}=0.09{sub -0.59}{sup +0.74}(2{sigma}), where {pi}{sub 0}=0 corresponds to a cosmological constant plus cold dark matter universe under general relativity. Future probes of the cosmic microwave background (Planck) and large-scale structure (Euclid) may improve the limits by a factor of 4.
Vapor-liquid equilibria for copolymer+solvent systems: Effect of intramolecular repulsion
Gupta, R.B.; Prausnitz, J.M.
1995-03-01
Role of intramolecular interactions in blend miscibility is well documented for polymer+copolymer mixtures. Some copolymer+polymer mixtures are miscible although their corresponding homopolymers are not miscible; for example, over a range of acrylonitrile content, styrene/acrylonitrile copolymers are miscible with poly(methyl methacrylate) but neither polystyrene nor polyacrylonitrile is miscible with poly(methyl methacrylate). Similarly, over a composition range, butadiene/acrylonitrile copolymers are miscible with poly(vinyl chloride) while none of the binary combinations of the homopolymers [polybutadiene, polyacrylonitrile, and poly(vinyl chloride)] are miscible. This behavior has been attributed to ``intramolecular repulsion`` between unlike copolymer segments. We have observed similar behavior in vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) of copolymer+solvent systems. We find that acrylonitrile/butadiene copolymers have higher affinity for acetonitrile solvent than do polyacrylonitrile or polybutadiene. We attribute this non-intuitive behavior to ``intramolecular repulsion`` between unlike segments of the copolymer. This repulsive interaction is weakened when acetonitrile molecules are in the vicinity of unlike copolymer segments, favoring copolymer+solvent miscibility. We find similar behavior when acetonitrile is replaced by methyl ethyl ketone. To best knowledge, this effect has not been reported previously for VLE. We have obtained VLE data for mixtures containing a solvent and a copolymer as a function of copolymer composition. It appears that, at a given solvent partial pressure, there may be copolymer composition that yields maximum absorption of the solvent. This highly non-ideal VLE phase behavior may be useful for optimum design of a membrane for a separation process.
Large attractive depletion interactions in soft repulsive-sphere binary mixtures.
Cinacchi, Giorgio; Martínez-Ratón, Yuri; Mederos, Luis; Navascués, Guillermo; Tani, Alessandro; Velasco, Enrique
2007-12-01
We consider binary mixtures of soft repulsive spherical particles and calculate the depletion interaction between two big spheres mediated by the fluid of small spheres, using different theoretical and simulation methods. The validity of the theoretical approach, a virial expansion in terms of the density of the small spheres, is checked against simulation results. Attention is given to the approach toward the hard-sphere limit and to the effect of density and temperature on the strength of the depletion potential. Our results indicate, surprisingly, that even a modest degree of softness in the pair potential governing the direct interactions between the particles may lead to a significantly more attractive total effective potential for the big spheres than in the hard-sphere case. This might lead to significant differences in phase behavior, structure, and dynamics of a binary mixture of soft repulsive spheres. In particular, a perturbative scheme is applied to predict the phase diagram of an effective system of big spheres interacting via depletion forces for a size ratio of small and big spheres of 0.2; this diagram includes the usual fluid-solid transition but, in the soft-sphere case, the metastable fluid-fluid transition, which is probably absent in hard-sphere mixtures, is close to being stable with respect to direct fluid-solid coexistence. From these results, the interesting possibility arises that, for sufficiently soft repulsive particles, this phase transition could become stable. Possible implications for the phase behavior of real colloidal dispersions are discussed. PMID:18067358
Universal low-energy physics in 1D strongly repulsive multi-component Fermi gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Yuzhu; He, Peng; Guan, Xi-Wen
2016-04-01
It has been shown (Yang and You 2011 Chin. Phys. Lett. 28 020503) that at zero temperature the ground state of the one-dimensional (1D) w-component Fermi gas coincides with that of the spinless Bose gas in the limit ω \\to ∞ . This behavior was experimentally evidenced through quasi-1D tightly trapping ultracold 173Yb atoms in a recent paper (Pagano et al 2014 Nat. Phys. 10 198). However, understanding of low-temperature behavior of Fermi gases with a repulsive interaction requires spin-charge separated conformal field theories of an effective Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid and an antiferromagnetic SU(w) Heisenberg spin chain. Here we analytically derive universal thermodynamics of 1D strongly repulsive fermionic gases with SU(w) symmetry via the Yang-Yang thermodynamic Bethe ansatz method. The analytical free energy and magnetic properties of the systems at low temperature in a weak magnetic field are obtained through the Wiener-Hopf method. In particular, the free energy essentially manifests the spin-charge separated conformal field theories for high-symmetry systems with arbitrary repulsive interaction strength. We also find that the sound velocity of the Fermi gases in the large w limit coincides with that for the spinless Bose gas, whereas the spin velocity vanishes quickly as w becomes large. This indicates strong suppression of the Fermi exclusion statistics by the commutativity feature among the w-component fermions with different spin states in the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid phase. Moreover, the equations of state and critical behavior of physical quantities at finite temperature are analytically derived in terms of the polylogarithm functions in the quantum critical region.
The Optimal Gravitational Lens Telescope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Surdej, J.; Delacroix, C.; Coleman, P.; Dominik, M.; Habraken, S.; Hanot, C.; Le Coroller, H.; Mawet, D.; Quintana, H.; Sadibekova, T.; Sluse, D.
2010-05-01
Given an observed gravitational lens mirage produced by a foreground deflector (cf. galaxy, quasar, cluster, ...), it is possible via numerical lens inversion to retrieve the real source image, taking full advantage of the magnifying power of the cosmic lens. This has been achieved in the past for several remarkable gravitational lens systems. Instead, we propose here to invert an observed multiply imaged source directly at the telescope using an ad hoc optical instrument which is described in the present paper. Compared to the previous method, this should allow one to detect fainter source features as well as to use such an optimal gravitational lens telescope to explore even fainter objects located behind and near the lens. Laboratory and numerical experiments illustrate this new approach.
Gravitational waves and multimessenger astronomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ricci, Fulvio
2016-07-01
It is widely expected that in the coming quinquennium the first gravitational wave signal will be directly detected. The ground-based advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors are being upgraded to a sensitivity level such that we expect to be measure a significant binary merger rate. Gravitational waves events are likely to be accompanied by electromagnetic counterparts and neutrino emission carrying complementary information to those associated to the gravitational signals. If it becomes possible to measure all these forms of radiation in concert, we will end up an impressive increase in the comprehension of the whole phenomenon. In the following we summarize the scientific outcome of the interferometric detectors in the past configuration. Then we focus on some of the potentialities of the advanced detectors once used in the new context of the multimessenger astronomy.
Chirality and gravitational parity violation.
Bargueño, Pedro
2015-06-01
In this review, parity-violating gravitational potentials are presented as possible sources of both true and false chirality. In particular, whereas phenomenological long-range spin-dependent gravitational potentials contain both truly and falsely chiral terms, it is shown that there are models that extend general relativity including also coupling of fermionic degrees of freedom to gravity in the presence of torsion, which give place to short-range truly chiral interactions similar to that usually considered in molecular physics. Physical mechanisms which give place to gravitational parity violation together with the expected size of the effects and their experimental constraints are discussed. Finally, the possible role of parity-violating gravity in the origin of homochirality and a road map for future research works in quantum chemistry is presented. PMID:25919812
Cardiovascular Adjustments to Gravitational Stress
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blomqvist, C. Gunnar; Stone, H. Lowell
1991-01-01
The effects of gravity on the cardiovascular system must be taken into account whenever a hemodynamic assessment is made. All intravascular pressure have a gravity-dependent hydrostatic component. The interaction between the gravitational field, the position of the body, and the functional characteristics of the blood vessels determines the distribution of intravascular volume. In turn this distribution largely determines cardiac pump function. Multiple control mechanisms are activated to preserve optimal tissue perfusion when the magnitude of the gravitational field or its direction relative to the body changes. Humans are particularly sensitive to such changes because of the combination of their normally erect posture and the large body mass and blood volume below the level of the heart. Current aerospace technology also exposes human subjects to extreme variations in the gravitational forces that range from zero during space travel to as much an nine-times normal during operation of high-performance military aircraft. This chapter therefore emphasizes human physiology.
THE OPTIMAL GRAVITATIONAL LENS TELESCOPE
Surdej, J.; Hanot, C.; Sadibekova, T.; Delacroix, C.; Habraken, S.; Coleman, P.; Dominik, M.; Le Coroller, H.; Mawet, D.; Quintana, H.; Sluse, D.
2010-05-15
Given an observed gravitational lens mirage produced by a foreground deflector (cf. galaxy, quasar, cluster, ...), it is possible via numerical lens inversion to retrieve the real source image, taking full advantage of the magnifying power of the cosmic lens. This has been achieved in the past for several remarkable gravitational lens systems. Instead, we propose here to invert an observed multiply imaged source directly at the telescope using an ad hoc optical instrument which is described in the present paper. Compared to the previous method, this should allow one to detect fainter source features as well as to use such an optimal gravitational lens telescope to explore even fainter objects located behind and near the lens. Laboratory and numerical experiments illustrate this new approach.
Highlights in gravitation and cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iyer, B. R.; Vishveshwara, C. V.; Narlikar, Jayant V.; Kembhavi, Ajit K.
1988-01-01
Theoretical and observational studies in gravitation and cosmology are discussed in reviews and reports presented at the international conference held in Goa, India on December 14-19, 1987. Sections are devoted to classical relativity, quantum gravity, black holes and compact objects, and gravitational-radiation and gravity experiments. Particular attention is given to exact solutions of the Einstein equations and their classification, the asymptotic structure of isolated systems, the physical properties and parameters of radiative space-times, canonical quantization of generally covariant systems, field theories of quantum gravity, observational and theoretical aspects of dark matter, gravitational lenses, cosmic strings and galaxy formation, black-hole thermodynamics, the general relativity of compact objects, the general-relativistic problem of motion and binary pulsars, and relativity and fifth-force experiments.
Gravitational baryogenesis after anisotropic inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Mizuno, Shuntaro; Maeda, Kei-ichi
2016-05-01
The gravitational baryogensis may not generate a sufficient baryon asymmetry in the standard thermal history of the Universe when we take into account the gravitino problem. Hence, it has been suggested that anisotropy of the Universe can enhance the generation of the baryon asymmetry through the increase of the time change of the Ricci scalar curvature. We study the gravitational baryogenesis in the presence of anisotropy, which is produced at the end of an anisotropic inflation. Although we confirm that the generated baryon asymmetry is enhanced compared with the original isotropic cosmological model, taking into account the constraint on the anisotropy by the recent CMB observations, we find that it is still difficult to obtain the observed baryon asymmetry only through the gravitational baryogenesis without suffering from the gravitino problem.
Electromagnetic-gravitational energy systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schatten, K. H.
1981-01-01
Two methods are considered to 'tap' the earth's rotational energy. This ancient 'collapsed gravitational energy' exceeds the earth-lunar binding energy. One involves an orbiting 'electromagnetic-gravitational' coupling system whereby the earth's rotation, with its nonuniform mass distribution, first uses gravity to add orbital energy to a satellite, similar to a planetary 'flyby'. The second stage involves enhanced satellite 'drag' as current-carrying coils withdraw the added orbital energy as they pass through the earth's nonuniform magnetic field. A second more direct method couples the earth's rotational motion using conducting wires moving through the noncorotating part (ionospheric current systems) of the geomagnetic field. These methods, although not immediately feasible, are considerably more efficient than using pure gravitational coupling to earth-moon tides.
Bridge function of the repulsive Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA) fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomazic, Daniel; Hoffgaard, Franziska; Kast, Stefan M.
2014-01-01
The bridge function of a simple liquid is calculated for the repulsive part of the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA) separation of the Lennard-Jones potential. We employ explicit molecular dynamics simulations of the potential of mean force between constrained dimers in order to extract bridge data near zero separation and illustrate the difference to full Lennard-Jones results. We compare direct, reciprocal space and iterative, real space inversions of the Ornstein-Zernike equation. Bridge functions for various thermodynamic states are analyzed as to their parametric dependence on the renormalized indirect correlation function, which has consequences for the analytic representation of the free energy functional.
Field-driven crossover from attractive-to-repulsive Casimir-like force in smectic films.
de Oliveira, I N; Lyra, M L
2004-11-01
External fields have a profound effect on the fluctuations of strongly correlated fluids, such as a liquid crystal. Within a harmonic functional integral approach, we compute the fluctuation-induced force between the surfaces of a smectic liquid-crystal film under the presence of an ordering field. In particular, we show that for asymmetrically anchored films, the thermal Casimir interaction energy can be collapsed into a universal form crossing over from a repulsive to an attractive interaction as the film thickness is increased. We discuss the possible relevance of this field effect in nematic-smectic wetting transitions. PMID:15600581
Ferromagnetism of the repulsive atomic Fermi gas: three-body recombination and domain formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zintchenko, Ilia; Wang, Lei; Troyer, Matthias
2016-08-01
The simplest model for itinerant ferromagnetism, the Stoner model, has so far eluded experimental observation in repulsive ultracold fermions due to rapid three-body recombination at large scattering lengths. Here we show that a ferromagnetic phase can be stabilised by imposing a moderate optical lattice. The reduced kinetic energy drop upon formation of a polarized phase in an optical lattice extends the ferromagnetic phase to smaller scattering lengths where three-body recombination is small enough to permit experimental detection of the phase. We also show, using time dependent density functional theory, that in such a setup ferromagnetic domains emerge rapidly from a paramagnetic initial state.
Flux quantization in rings for Hubbard (attractive and repulsive) and t - J -like Hamiltonians
Ferretti, A. ); Kulik, I.O. ); Lami, A. )
1992-03-01
The ground-state energy of rings with 10 or 16 sites and 2 or 4 fermions (holes or electrons) is computed as a function of the flux {Phi} created by a vector potential constant along the ring (Aharonov-Bohm setup) for three different model Hamiltonians: the attractive ({ital U}{lt}0) and repulsive ({ital U}{gt}0) Hubbard and a {ital t}-{ital J}-like Hamiltonian. In all cases the flux is found to be quantized in units {ital hc}/2{ital e}, showing that the charge carriers are pairs. The possible role of phonon fluctuations in discriminating among the different models is also investigated.
Topological Phase Transitions in the Repulsively Interacting Haldane-Hubbard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanhala, Tuomas I.; Siro, Topi; Liang, Long; Troyer, Matthias; Harju, Ari; Törmä, Päivi
2016-06-01
Using dynamical mean-field theory and exact diagonalization we study the phase diagram of the repulsive Haldane-Hubbard model, varying the interaction strength and the sublattice potential difference. In addition to the quantum Hall phase with Chern number C =2 and the band insulator with C =0 present already in the noninteracting model, the system also exhibits a C =0 Mott insulating phase, and a C =1 quantum Hall phase. We explain the latter phase by a spontaneous symmetry breaking where one of the spin components is in the Hall state and the other in the band insulating state.
Toyoda, Masayuki; Ozaki, Taisuke
2009-03-28
A numerical method to calculate the four-center electron-repulsion integrals for strictly localized pseudoatomic orbital basis sets has been developed. Compared to the conventional Gaussian expansion method, this method has an advantage in the ease of combination with O(N) density functional calculations. Additional mathematical derivations are also presented including the analytic derivatives of the integrals with respect to atomic positions and spatial damping of the Coulomb interaction due to the screening effect. In the numerical test for a simple molecule, the convergence up to 10(-5) hartree in energy is successfully obtained with a feasible cost of computation. PMID:19334815
Structural ordering and glass forming of soft spherical particles with harmonic repulsions
Sun, Bin; Sun, Zhiwei; Ouyang, Wenze Xu, Shenghua
2014-04-07
We carry out dissipative particle dynamics simulations to investigate the dynamic process of phase transformation in the system with harmonic repulsion particles. Just below the melting point, the system undergoes liquid state, face-centered cubic crystallization, body-centered cubic crystallization, and reentrant melting phase transition upon compression, which is in good agreement with the phase diagram constructed previously via thermodynamic integration. However, when the temperature is decreased sufficiently, the system is trapped into an amorphous and frustrated glass state in the region of intermediate density, where the solid phase and crystal structure should be thermodynamically most stable.
Interplay between electron-phonon interaction and Hubbard repulsion: Bipolaron formation
Nath, S.; Mondal, N. S.; Ghosh, N. K.
2015-06-24
In the weak coupling limit, the 2D Hubbard model extended by on-site (local) and inter-site (long range) electron-phonon (EP) interaction has been investigated within Lanczos method of exact diagonalization (ED). On-site (S0) bipolaron formation has been favored by on-site EP interaction induced effective attraction between electrons. But, inter-site phonon mediated interaction between electrons helps to form both S0 and neighboring site (S1) bipolaron. It is further observed that both types of bipolaron formation are suppressed by on-site Hubbard repulsion.
Dalvit, Diego A1; Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Munday, J N; Joannopoulos, J D
2008-01-01
Using accurate numerical methods for finite-size nonplanar objects, we demonstrate a stable mechanical suspension of a silica cylinder within a metallic cylinder separated by ethanol, via a repulsive Casimir force between the silica and the metal. We investigate cylinders with both circular and square cross sections, and show that the latter exhibit a stable orientation as well as a stable position, employing a new method to accurately compute Casimir torques for finite objects. Furthermore, the stable orientation of the square cylinder is shown to undergo an unusual 45 transition as a function of the separation lengthscale, and this transition is explained as a consequence of material dispersion.
Suppression of the quantum-mechanical collapse by repulsive interactions in a quantum gas
Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Malomed, Boris A.
2011-01-15
The quantum-mechanical collapse (alias fall onto the center of particles attracted by potential -r{sup -2}) is a well-known issue in quantum theory. It is closely related to the quantum anomaly, i.e., breaking of the scaling invariance of the respective Hamiltonian by quantization. We demonstrate that the mean-field repulsive nonlinearity prevents the collapse and thus puts forward a solution to the quantum-anomaly problem that differs from that previously developed in the framework of the linear quantum-field theory. This solution may be realized in the 3D or 2D gas of dipolar bosons attracted by a central charge and in the 2D gas of magnetic dipoles attracted by a current filament. In the 3D setting, the dipole-dipole interactions are also taken into regard, in the mean-field approximation, resulting in a redefinition of the scattering length which accounts for the contact repulsion between the bosons. In lieu of the collapse, the cubic nonlinearity creates a 3D ground state (GS), which does not exist in the respective linear Schroedinger equation. The addition of the harmonic trap gives rise to a tristability, in the case when the Schroedinger equation still does not lead to the collapse. In the 2D setting, the cubic nonlinearity is not strong enough to prevent the collapse; however, the quintic term does it, creating the GS, as well as its counterparts carrying the angular momentum (vorticity). Counterintuitively, such self-trapped 2D modes exist even in the case of a weakly repulsive potential r{sup -2}. The 2D vortical modes avoid the phase singularity at the pivot (r=0) by having the amplitude diverging at r{yields}0 instead of the usual situation with the amplitude of the vortical mode vanishing at r{yields}0 (the norm of the mode converges despite of the singularity of the amplitude at r{yields}0). In the presence of the harmonic trap, the 2D quintic model with a weakly repulsive central potential r{sup -2} gives rise to three confined modes, the middle
Zharnikov, T V; Syresin, D E
2015-06-01
In this letter repulsion of phase-velocity dispersion curves of quasidipole eigenmodes of waveguides with non-circular cross section in non-axisymmetric anisotropic medium is studied by the semi-analytical finite element technique. Borehole waveguide is used as an example. The modeling helps in clarifying the nature of this phenomenon, which is accompanied by the rotation of the orientation of two quasidipole modes with frequency and by the exchange of their behavior at near-crossover point. The dispersion curves cross only in the presence of exact symmetry. Such a scenario is the alternative to the stress-induced anisotropy crossing of dispersion curves. PMID:26093446
Enhanced atomic corrugation in dynamic force microscopy—The role of repulsive forces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lichtenstein, L.; Büchner, C.; Stuckenholz, S.; Heyde, M.; Freund, H.-J.
2012-03-01
Full range two dimensional (2D) force mapping was performed by means of low temperature dynamic force microscopy (DFM) on a highly complex surface structure. For this purpose, we used a thin film of vitreous silica on a Ru(0001)-support, which is a 2D structural equivalent to silica glass. The 2D spectroscopy shows that the contrast generating shift in vertical distance between two sites on the surface is twice as large on the repulsive branch of the frequency shift-distance curve as compared to the attractive branch. The results give insight into the origin of the formation of atomic resolution in DFM.
Oscillator death induced by amplitude-dependent coupling in repulsively coupled oscillators.
Liu, Weiqing; Xiao, Guibao; Zhu, Yun; Zhan, Meng; Xiao, Jinghua; Kurths, Jürgen
2015-05-01
The effects of amplitude-dependent coupling on oscillator death (OD) are investigated for two repulsively coupled Lorenz oscillators. Based on numerical simulations, it is shown that as constraint strengths on the amplitude-dependent coupling change, an oscillatory state may undergo a transition to an OD state. The parameter regimes of the OD domain are theoretically determined, which coincide well with the numerical results. An electronic circuit is set up to exhibit the transition process to the OD state with an amplitude-dependent coupling. These findings may have practical importance on chaos control and oscillation depression. PMID:26066224
An efficient algorithm for electron repulsion integrals over contracted Gaussian-type functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ten-no, Seiichiro
1993-08-01
An efficient new algorithm for two-electron repulsion integrals (ERIs) over contracted Cartesian Gaussian-type functions has been proposed, making use of the contracted recurrence relation (CRR) derived here. The CRR, which is obtained by extending the auxiliary function-based methodologies, enables us to remove all the transformations to increment angular momentum of ERIs from the contraction loops. The new scheme turns out to be very suitable for contracted ERIs. Explicit flop (floating point operation) counts indicate about 60% reduction of computational work in the innermost contraction loop for (pp|pp) and (sp) 4 ERI classes, compared to the recent scheme of Gill, Head-Gordon and Pople.
Auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo calculations for systems with long-range repulsive interactions
Silvestrelli, P.L.; Baroni, S.; Car, R. Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati , via Beirut 2/4, I-34014 Trieste Institut Romand de Recherche Numerique en Physique des Materiaux , PHB Ecublens, CH-1015 Lausanne )
1993-08-23
We report on the first successful attempt to apply the auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo technique to the calculation of ground-state properties of systems of many electrons interacting via a Coulomb potential. We have been able to substantially reduce the huge statistical fluctuations arising from the repulsive, long-range character of the interactions, which had so far hindered the application of this method to [ital realistic] Hamiltonians for atoms, molecules, and solids. Our technique is demonstrated with calculations of ground-state properties of the simplest molecular and solid-state systems, i.e., the H[sub 2] molecule and the homogeneous electron gas.
Gravitational lensing in quasar samples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Claeskens, Jean-François; Surdej, Jean
The first cosmic mirage was discovered approximately 20 years ago as the double optical counterpart of a radio source. This phenomenon had been predicted some 70 years earlier as a consequence of General Relativity. We present here a summary of what we have learnt since. The applications are so numerous that we had to concentrate on a few selected aspects of this new field of research. This review is focused on strong gravitational lensing, i.e. the formation of multiple images, in QSO samples. It is intended to give the reader an up-to-date status of the observations and to present an overview of its most interesting potential applications in cosmology and astrophysics, as well as numerous important results achieved so far. The first section follows an intuitive approach to the basics of gravitational lensing and is developed in view of our interest in multiply imaged quasars. The astrophysical and cosmological applications of gravitational lensing are outlined in Sect. 2 and the most important results are presented in Sect. 5. Sections 3 and 4 are devoted to the observations. Finally, conclusions are summarized in the last section. We have tried to avoid duplication with existing (and excellent) introductions to the field of gravitational lensing. For this reason, we did not concentrate on the individual properties of specific lens models, as these are already well presented in Narayan and Bartelmann (1996) and on a more intuitive ground in Refsdal and Surdej (1994). Wambsganss (1998) proposes a broad view on gravitational lensing in astronomy; the reviews by Fort and Mellier (1994) and Hattori et al. (1999) deal with lensing by galaxy clusters; microlensing in the Galaxy and the local group is reviewed by Paczynski (1996) and a general panorama on weak lensing is given by Bartelmann and Schneider (1999) and Mellier (1999). The monograph on the theory of gravitational lensing by Schneider, Ehlers and Falco (1992) also remains a reference in the field.
Testing the gravitational instability hypothesis?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Babul, Arif; Weinberg, David H.; Dekel, Avishai; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.
1994-01-01
We challenge a widely accepted assumption of observational cosmology: that successful reconstruction of observed galaxy density fields from measured galaxy velocity fields (or vice versa), using the methods of gravitational instability theory, implies that the observed large-scale structures and large-scale flows were produced by the action of gravity. This assumption is false, in that there exist nongravitational theories that pass the reconstruction tests and gravitational theories with certain forms of biased galaxy formation that fail them. Gravitational instability theory predicts specific correlations between large-scale velocity and mass density fields, but the same correlations arise in any model where (a) structures in the galaxy distribution grow from homogeneous initial conditions in a way that satisfies the continuity equation, and (b) the present-day velocity field is irrotational and proportional to the time-averaged velocity field. We demonstrate these assertions using analytical arguments and N-body simulations. If large-scale structure is formed by gravitational instability, then the ratio of the galaxy density contrast to the divergence of the velocity field yields an estimate of the density parameter Omega (or, more generally, an estimate of beta identically equal to Omega(exp 0.6)/b, where b is an assumed constant of proportionality between galaxy and mass density fluctuations. In nongravitational scenarios, the values of Omega or beta estimated in this way may fail to represent the true cosmological values. However, even if nongravitational forces initiate and shape the growth of structure, gravitationally induced accelerations can dominate the velocity field at late times, long after the action of any nongravitational impulses. The estimated beta approaches the true value in such cases, and in our numerical simulations the estimated beta values are reasonably accurate for both gravitational and nongravitational models. Reconstruction tests
GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM STELLAR COLLAPSE
C. L. FRYER
2001-01-01
Stellar core-collapse plays an important role in nearly all facets of astronomy: cosmology (as standard candles), formation of compact objects, nucleosynthesis and energy deposition in galaxies. In addition, they release energy in powerful explosions of light over a range of energies, neutrinos, and the subject of this meeting, gravitational waves. Because of this broad range of importance, astronomers have discovered a number of constraints which can be used to help them understand the importance of stellar core-collapse as gravitational wave sources.
Cosmologies with variable gravitational constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narlikar, J. V.
1983-03-01
In 1937 Dirac presented an argument, based on the socalled large dimensionless numbers, which led him to the conclusion that the Newtonian gravitational constant G changes with epoch. Towards the end of the last century Ernst Mach had given plausible arguments to link the property of inertia of matter to the large scale structure of the universe. Mach's principle also leads to cosmological models with a variable gravitational constant. Three cosmologies which predict a variable G are discussed in this paper both from theoretical and observational points of view.
Dynamics of dissipative gravitational collapse
Herrera, L.; Santos, N.O.
2004-10-15
The Misner and Sharp approach to the study of gravitational collapse is extended to the dissipative case in, both, the streaming out and the diffusion approximations. The role of different terms in the dynamical equation are analyzed in detail. The dynamical equation is then coupled to a causal transport equation in the context of Israel-Stewart theory. The decreasing of the inertial mass density of the fluid, by a factor which depends on its internal thermodynamics state, is reobtained, at any time scale. In accordance with the equivalence principle, the same decreasing factor is obtained for the gravitational force term. Prospective applications of this result to some astrophysical scenarios are discussed.
SXS Catalog of Gravitational Waveforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hemberger, Daniel; SXS Collaboration
2015-04-01
Many aspects of gravitational-wave astronomy rely on numerical relativity for accurate models of gravitational waveforms. In recent years, several numerical relativity groups have built catalogs of numerical waveforms from binary black hole systems. I will report on the status of the Simulating Extreme Spacetimes (SXS) waveform catalog, which comprises simulations performed with the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC). I will describe our approach for assessing numerical errors and convergence. Finally, I will discuss future plans to increase parameter space coverage of the catalog and to improve waveform accuracy.
Gravitational waves carrying orbital angular momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; Bialynicka-Birula, Zofia
2016-02-01
Spinorial formalism is used to map every electromagnetic wave into the gravitational wave (within the linearized gravity). In this way we can obtain the gravitational counterparts of Bessel, Laguerre-Gauss, and other light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.
Gravitational Wave Astrophysics: Opening the New Frontier
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2011-01-01
The gravitational wave window onto the universe is expected to open in 5 years, when ground-based detectors make the first detections in the high-frequency regime. Gravitational waves are ripples in spacetime produced by the motions of massive objects such as black holes and neutron stars. Since the universe is nearly transparent to gravitational waves, these signals carry direct information about their sources such as masses, spins, luminosity distances, and orbital parameters through dense, obscured regions across cosmic time. This article explores gravitational waves as cosmic messengers, highlighting key sources, detection methods, and the astrophysical payoffs across the gravitational wave spectrum. Keywords: Gravitational wave astrophysics; gravitational radiation; gravitational wave detectors; black holes.
Theory and detection of gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pizzella, G.
The role of gravitational waves in general relativity is examined. It is found that the gravitational waves are a particular solution of the Einstein equations. The computation of the energy flux emitted by moving bodies as gravitational waves is very similar to that for electromagnetic waves. A description of gravitational wave sources is presented, taking into account a spinning star, double star systems, the fall into a Schwarzschild black hole, and radiation from gravitational collapse. Questions regarding the interaction of gravitational waves with matter are explored, and the interaction of a gravitational wave with oscillators and an elastic cylinder is considered. Electromechanical transducers are discussed, giving attention to the piezoelectric ceramic, the capacitor, the inductor, the Brownian noise of the bar, the backreaction, the wide band noise, and data analysis. The design of a gravitational wave antenna is also described.
Merging Black Holes and Gravitational Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2009-01-01
This talk will focus on simulations of binary black hole mergers and the gravitational wave signals they produce. Applications to gravitational wave detection with LISA, and electronagnetic counterparts, will be highlighted.
The Gravitational Landscape of the Solar System
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van den Berg, Willem H.
2008-01-01
The Sun's gravitational influence is of course much greater than that of any of the planets. Just how much greater can be dramatically illustrated by plotting their combined gravitational potential on the same graph.
Gravitation and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chamblin, Andrew; Erlich, Joshua
Just as gravitons can carry energy, they can also be used to transmit information. It follows that an entropy should be associated with gravitational degrees of freedom, independent of the presence or absence of black holes. In this essay, we discuss how one might count gravitational entropy given a classical gravitational field. Our suggestion is motivated by a derivation of the covariant entropy bound in which a gravitational term appears naturally.
A Simple Gravitational Lens Model for Cosmic Voids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bin; Kantowski, Ronald; Dai, Xinyu
2015-05-01
We present a simple gravitational lens model to illustrate the ease of using the embedded lensing theory when studying cosmic voids. It confirms the previously used repulsive lensing models for deep voids. We start by estimating magnitude fluctuations and weak-lensing shears of background sources lensed by large voids. We find that sources behind large (˜90 Mpc) and deep voids (density contrast about -0.9) can be magnified or demagnified with magnitude fluctuations of up to ˜0.05 mag and that the weak-lensing shear can be up to the ˜10-2 level in the outer regions of large voids. Smaller or shallower voids produce proportionally smaller effects. We investigate the “wiggling” of the primary cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies caused by intervening cosmic voids. The void-wiggling of primary CMB temperature gradients is of the opposite sign to that caused by galaxy clusters. Only extremely large and deep voids can produce wiggling amplitudes similar to galaxy clusters, ˜15 μK by a large void of radius ˜4° and central density contrast -0.9 at redshift 0.5 assuming a CMB background gradient of ˜10 μK arcmin-1. The dipole signal is spread over the entire void area, and not concentrated at the lens center as it is for clusters. Finally, we use our model to simulate CMB sky maps lensed by large cosmic voids. Our embedded theory can easily be applied to more complicated void models and used to study gravitational lensing of the CMB, to probe dark matter profiles, to reduce the lensing-induced systematics in supernova Hubble diagrams, and to study the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect.
Lee, Beom-Chan; Sienko, Kathleen H
2011-01-01
The Mobile Instrument for Motion Instruction and Correction (MIMIC) enables an expert (i.e., physical therapist) to map his/her movements to a trainee (i.e., patient) in a hands-free fashion. MIMIC comprises an Expert Module (EM) and a Trainee Module (TM); both modules include six-degree-of-freedom inertial measurement units, microcontrollers, and batteries. The TM also includes actuators that provide the trainee with vibrotactile instructional cues. The estimated expert body motion information is transmitted wirelessly to the trainee; based on the computed difference between the motions of the expert and trainee, directional instructions are displayed to the trainee's skin via vibrotactile stimulation. This study examined anterior-posterior trunk movements using a simplified version of the MIMIC system in which only two actuators were used to provide feedback and pre-recorded target trajectories were used to represent ideal expert movements. The study was designed to investigate the effects of attractive versus repulsive vibrotactile instructional cues when the motion speed and task complexity were varied. Preliminary results (n = 12) suggest that repulsive vibrotactile instructional cues lead to the greatest correlation between expert and subject motion, the least time delay, and the least tilt error. PMID:22255102
Hydration Repulsion between Carbohydrate Surfaces Mediated by Temperature and Specific Ions.
Chen, Hsieh; Cox, Jason R; Ow, Hooisweng; Shi, Rena; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z
2016-01-01
Stabilizing colloids or nanoparticles in solution involves a fine balance between surface charges, steric repulsion of coating molecules, and hydration forces against van der Waals attractions. At high temperature and electrolyte concentrations, the colloidal stability of suspensions usually decreases rapidly. Here, we report a new experimental and simulation discovery that the polysaccharide (dextran) coated nanoparticles show ion-specific colloidal stability at high temperature, where we observed enhanced colloidal stability of nanoparticles in CaCl2 solution but rapid nanoparticle-nanoparticle aggregation in MgCl2 solution. The microscopic mechanism was unveiled in atomistic simulations. The presence of surface bound Ca(2+) ions increases the carbohydrate hydration and induces strongly polarized repulsive water structures beyond at least three hydration shells which is farther-reaching than previously assumed. We believe leveraging the binding of strongly hydrated ions to macromolecular surfaces represents a new paradigm in achieving absolute hydration and colloidal stability for a variety of materials, particularly under extreme conditions. PMID:27334145
Segment Self-Repulsion is the Major Driving Force of Influenza Genome Packaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venev, Sergey V.; Zeldovich, Konstantin B.
2013-03-01
The genome of influenza A virus consists of eight separate RNA segments, which are selectively packaged into virions prior to virus budding. The microscopic mechanism of highly selective packaging involves molecular interactions between packaging signals in the genome segments and remains poorly understood. We propose that the condition of proper packaging can be formulated as a large gap between RNA-RNA interaction energies in the viable virion with eight unique segments and in improperly packed assemblages lacking the complete genome. We then demonstrate that selective packaging of eight unique segments into an infective influenza virion can be achieved by self-repulsion of identical segments at the virion assembly stage, rather than by previously hypothesized intricate molecular recognition of particular segments. Using Monte Carlo simulations to maximize the energy gap, without any other assumptions, we generated model eight-segment virions, which all display specific packaging, strong self-repulsion of the segments, and reassortment patterns similar to natural influenza. The model provides a biophysical foundation of influenza genome packaging and reassortment and serves as an important step towards robust sequence-driven prediction of reassortment patterns of the influenza virus.
Synergy of cell–cell repulsion and vacuolation in a computational model of lumen formation
Boas, Sonja E. M.; Merks, Roeland M. H.
2014-01-01
A key step in blood vessel development (angiogenesis) is lumen formation: the hollowing of vessels for blood perfusion. Two alternative lumen formation mechanisms are suggested to function in different types of blood vessels. The vacuolation mechanism is suggested for lumen formation in small vessels by coalescence of intracellular vacuoles, a view that was extended to extracellular lumen formation by exocytosis of vacuoles. The cell–cell repulsion mechanism is suggested to initiate extracellular lumen formation in large vessels by active repulsion of adjacent cells, and active cell shape changes extend the lumen. We used an agent-based computer model, based on the cellular Potts model, to compare and study both mechanisms separately and combined. An extensive sensitivity analysis shows that each of the mechanisms on its own can produce lumens in a narrow region of parameter space. However, combining both mechanisms makes lumen formation much more robust to the values of the parameters, suggesting that the mechanisms may work synergistically and operate in parallel, rather than in different vessel types. PMID:24430123
Effect of the repulsive force in the HTSC-permanent magnet hybrid bearing system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohashi, S.; Kobayashi, S.
2009-10-01
Magnetic levitation using the pinning force of the YBaCuO high- Tc bulk superconductor (HTSC) materials has an advantage to achieve stable levitation without control. To increase levitation force, the HTSC-permanent magnet hybrid magnetic bearing system is introduced. A circular shaped three phase Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet is installed on the rotor, and HTSC bulk superconductor is set on the stator. The additional permanent magnet is installed under the HTSC. Repulsive force of the permanent magnet is used for levitation, and pinning force between the HTSC and permanent magnet is used for guidance force of the bearing. In this system, relationship between permanent magnet and the HTSC is important. When repulsive force of the permanent magnet is large, pinning force of superconductor is used to keep the rotor position. As a result, stability for the lateral direction is decreased with hybrid system. For levitation force, effect of the hybrid system is not observed with column HTSC. Compared with the ring HTSC results, the following thing is considered. Because there is no space that flux of one permanent magnet acts on the other one with the column HTSC configuration, interaction between two permanent magnets becomes small.
Kralchevsky, Peter A; Danov, Krassimir D; Petkov, Plamen V
2016-07-28
Non-densely packed interfacial monolayers from charged micrometre-sized colloid particles find applications for producing micropatterned surfaces. The soft electrostatic repulsion between the particles in a monolayer on an air/water (or oil/water) interface is mediated by the non-polar fluid, where Debye screening is absent and the distances between the particles are considerably greater than their diameters. Surface pressure versus area isotherms were measured at the air/water interface. The experiments show that asymptotically the surface pressure is inversely proportional to the third power of the interparticle distance. A theoretical model is developed that predicts not only the aforementioned asymptotic law but also the whole surface pressure versus area dependence. An increase in the surface pressure upon aggregation of charged particles in the interfacial monolayers is experimentally established. This effect is explained by the developed theoretical model, which predicts that the surface pressure should linearly increase with the square root of the particle mean aggregation number. The effect of added electrolyte on the aggregation is also investigated. The data lead to the conclusion that 'limited aggregation' exists in the monolayers of charged particles. In brief, the stronger electrostatic repulsion between the bigger aggregates leads to a higher barrier to their coalescence that, in turn, prevents any further aggregation, i.e. negative feedback is present.This article is part of the themed issue 'Soft interfacial materials: from fundamentals to formulation'. PMID:27298437
Hydration Repulsion between Carbohydrate Surfaces Mediated by Temperature and Specific Ions
Chen, Hsieh; Cox, Jason R.; Ow, Hooisweng; Shi, Rena; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.
2016-01-01
Stabilizing colloids or nanoparticles in solution involves a fine balance between surface charges, steric repulsion of coating molecules, and hydration forces against van der Waals attractions. At high temperature and electrolyte concentrations, the colloidal stability of suspensions usually decreases rapidly. Here, we report a new experimental and simulation discovery that the polysaccharide (dextran) coated nanoparticles show ion-specific colloidal stability at high temperature, where we observed enhanced colloidal stability of nanoparticles in CaCl2 solution but rapid nanoparticle-nanoparticle aggregation in MgCl2 solution. The microscopic mechanism was unveiled in atomistic simulations. The presence of surface bound Ca2+ ions increases the carbohydrate hydration and induces strongly polarized repulsive water structures beyond at least three hydration shells which is farther-reaching than previously assumed. We believe leveraging the binding of strongly hydrated ions to macromolecular surfaces represents a new paradigm in achieving absolute hydration and colloidal stability for a variety of materials, particularly under extreme conditions. PMID:27334145
Aggregation Pattern Transitions by Slightly Varying the Attractive/Repulsive Function
Cheng, Zhao; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Chen, Michael Z. Q.; Zhou, Tao; Valeyev, Najl V.
2011-01-01
Among collective behaviors of biological swarms and flocks, the attractive/repulsive (A/R) functional links between particles play an important role. By slightly changing the cutoff distance of the A/R function, a drastic transition between two distinct aggregation patterns is observed. More precisely, a large cutoff distance yields a liquid-like aggregation pattern where the particle density decreases monotonously from the inside to the outwards within each aggregated cluster. Conversely, a small cutoff distance produces a crystal-like aggregation pattern where the distance between each pair of neighboring particles remains constant. Significantly, there is an obvious spinodal in the variance curve of the inter-particle distances along the increasing cutoff distances, implying a legible transition pattern between the liquid-like and crystal-like aggregations. This work bridges the aggregation phenomena of physical particles and swarming of organisms in nature upon revealing some common mechanism behind them by slightly varying their inter-individual attractive/repulsive functions, and may find its potential engineering applications, for example, in the formation design of multi-robot systems and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). PMID:21799776
Quantum bright solitons in the Bose-Hubbard model with site-dependent repulsive interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbiero, L.; Malomed, B. A.; Salasnich, L.
2014-12-01
We introduce a one-dimensional spatially inhomogeneous Bose-Hubbard model (BHM) with the strength of the onsite repulsive interactions growing, with the discrete coordinate zj, as | zj|α with α >0 . Recently, the analysis of the mean-field (MF) counterpart of this system has demonstrated self-trapping of robust unstaggered discrete solitons, under the condition α >1 . By using the numerically implemented method of the density matrix renormalization group, we demonstrate that, in a certain range of the interaction, the BHM also features self-trapping of the ground state into a soliton-like configuration, at α >1 , and remains weakly localized at α <1 . An essential quantum feature found in the BHM is a residual quasi-constant density of the background surrounding the soliton-like peak in the ground state, while in the MF limit the finite-density background is absent. Very strong onsite repulsion eventually destroys soliton-like states, driving the system, at integer densities, into the Mott phase with a spatially uniform density.
Effects of interaction on thermodynamics of a repulsive Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharyya, Satadal; Das, Tapan Kumar; Chakrabarti, Barnali
2013-11-01
We report the effects of interaction on thermodynamic properties of a repulsive Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a harmonic trap by using the correlated potential harmonics expansion method. This many-body technique permits the use of a realistic interactomic interaction, which gives rise to the effective long-range interaction of the condensate in terms of the s-wave scattering length. We have computed temperature (T) dependence of the chemical potential, specific heat, condensate fraction, entropy, pressure, and the average energy per particle of a system containing a large number (A) of 87Rb atoms in the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (JILA) trap. The repulsion among the interacting bosons results in a small but measurable drop of condensate fraction and critical temperature (Tc), compared to those of a noninteracting condensate. These are in agreement with the experiment. Although all thermodynamic quantities have a strong dependence on A and to a smaller extent on the interatomic interaction, our numerical calculation appears to show that a thermodynamic quantity per particle follows a universal behavior as a function of T/Tc. This shows the importance of Tc for all thermodynamic properties of the condensate. As expected, for T>Tc, these properties follow those of a trapped noncondensed Bose gas.
Repulsive Casimir effect from extra dimensions and Robin boundary conditions: From branes to pistons
Elizalde, E.; Odintsov, S. D.; Saharian, A. A.
2009-03-15
We evaluate the Casimir energy and force for a massive scalar field with general curvature coupling parameter, subject to Robin boundary conditions on two codimension-one parallel plates, located on a (D+1)-dimensional background spacetime with an arbitrary internal space. The most general case of different Robin coefficients on the two separate plates is considered. With independence of the geometry of the internal space, the Casimir forces are seen to be attractive for special cases of Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on both plates and repulsive for Dirichlet boundary conditions on one plate and Neumann boundary conditions on the other. For Robin boundary conditions, the Casimir forces can be either attractive or repulsive, depending on the Robin coefficients and the separation between the plates, what is actually remarkable and useful. Indeed, we demonstrate the existence of an equilibrium point for the interplate distance, which is stabilized due to the Casimir force, and show that stability is enhanced by the presence of the extra dimensions. Applications of these properties in braneworld models are discussed. Finally, the corresponding results are generalized to the geometry of a piston of arbitrary cross section.
A new model of repulsive force in eddy current separation for recovering waste toner cartridges.
Ruan, Jujun; Xu, Zhenming
2011-08-15
Eddy current separation (ECS) is an efficient method for separating aluminum from plastic in crushed waste toner cartridge (TCs). However, in China, ECS quality of aluminum from plastic is rather low in production practice. Repeating separation even manual sorting is required in the production. Improving separation quality of aluminum has been the pressing problem in the recovery of waste TCs. Furthermore, improving ECS quality can reduce the secondary-pollution (furan and dioxin) brought by plastic in later smelting process for the purification of recovered aluminum. Thus, a new model of repulsive force containing impact factors (machine: B(r), k, R, S(m), B(m); material: S(p), V, γ; and operation: ω(m), v, δ) of the separation process was constructed for guiding the ECS process of waste TCs recovering in this paper. For testing whether the model of repulsive force was suitable to guide the ECS, calculation and experiment of detachment angle of aluminum flake were studied. The calculation results of the detachment angles were agreed with the testing experiment. It indicates that the model is suitable for guiding the ECS of waste TCs recovering. PMID:21632177
Baird, Nathan J.; Gong, Haipeng; Zaheer, Syed S.; Freed, Karl F.; Pan, Tao; Sosnick, Tobin R.
2010-05-25
RNA folding occurs via a series of transitions between metastable intermediate states for Mg{sup 2+} concentrations below those needed to fold the native structure. In general, these folding intermediates are considerably less compact than their respective native states. Our previous work demonstrates that the major equilibrium intermediate of the 154-residue specificity domain (S-domain) of the Bacillus subtilis RNase P RNA is more extended than its native structure. We now investigate two models with falsifiable predictions regarding the origins of the extended intermediate structures in the S-domains of the B. subtilis and the Escherichia coli RNase P RNA that belong to different classes of P RNA and have distinct native structures. The first model explores the contribution of electrostatic repulsion, while the second model probes specific interactions in the core of the folding intermediate. Using small-angle X-ray scattering and Langevin dynamics simulations, we show that electrostatics plays only a minor role, whereas specific interactions largely account for the extended nature of the intermediate. Structural contacts in the core, including a nonnative base pair, help to stabilize the intermediate conformation. We conclude that RNA folding intermediates adopt extended conformations due to short-range, nonnative interactions rather than generic electrostatic repulsion of helical domains. These principles apply to other ribozymes and riboswitches that undergo functionally relevant conformational changes.
How to test gravitation theories by means of gravitational-wave measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thorne, K. S.
1974-01-01
Gravitational-wave experiments are a potentially powerful tool for testing gravitation theories. Most theories in the literature predict rather different polarization properties for gravitational waves than are predicted by general relativity; and many theories predict anomalies in the propagation speeds of gravitational waves.
Gravitational Lenses in the Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ros, Rosa M.
2008-01-01
It is not common to introduce current astronomy in school lessons. This article presents a set of experiments about gravitational lenses. It is normal to simulate them by means of computers, but it is very simple to simulate similar effects using a drinking glass full of liquid or using only the glass base. These are, of course, cheap and easy…
Caution: Strong Gravitational Field Present
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reif, Marc
2014-01-01
I came up with a new way to introduce the concept of a constant gravitational field near the surface of the Earth. I made "g-field detectors" (see Fig. 1 ) and suspended them by strings from the ceiling in a regular spacing. The detectors are cardstock arrows with a hole punched out of them and the letter "g" in the center.
Normalization of Gravitational Acceleration Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eckman, Randy A.; Brown, Aaron J.; Adamo, Daniel R.
2011-01-01
Unlike the uniform density spherical shell approximations of Newton, the con- sequence of spaceflight in the real universe is that gravitational fields are sensitive to the nonsphericity of their generating central bodies. The gravitational potential of a nonspherical central body is typically resolved using spherical harmonic approximations. However, attempting to directly calculate the spherical harmonic approximations results in at least two singularities which must be removed in order to generalize the method and solve for any possible orbit, including polar orbits. Three unique algorithms have been developed to eliminate these singularities by Samuel Pines [1], Bill Lear [2], and Robert Gottlieb [3]. This paper documents the methodical normalization of two1 of the three known formulations for singularity-free gravitational acceleration (namely, the Lear [2] and Gottlieb [3] algorithms) and formulates a general method for defining normalization parameters used to generate normalized Legendre Polynomials and ALFs for any algorithm. A treatment of the conventional formulation of the gravitational potential and acceleration is also provided, in addition to a brief overview of the philosophical differences between the three known singularity-free algorithms.
Gravitational lensing in plasmic medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.; Tsupko, O. Yu.
2015-07-01
The influence of plasma on different effects of gravitational lensing is reviewed. Using the Hamiltonian approach for geometrical optics in a medium in the presence of gravity, an exact formula for the photon deflection angle by a black hole (or another body with a Schwarzschild metric) embedded in plasma with a spherically symmetric density distribution is derived. The deflection angle in this case is determined by the mutual combination of different factors: gravity, dispersion, and refraction. While the effects of deflection by the gravity in vacuum and the refractive deflection in a nonhomogeneous medium are well known, the new effect is that, in the case of a homogeneous plasma, in the absence of refractive deflection, the gravitational deflection differs from the vacuum deflection and depends on the photon frequency. In the presence of a plasma nonhomogeneity, the chromatic refractive deflection also occurs, so the presence of plasma always makes gravitational lensing chromatic. In particular, the presence of plasma leads to different angular positions of the same image if it is observed at different wavelengths. It is discussed in detail how to apply the presented formulas for the calculation of the deflection angle in different situations. Gravitational lensing in plasma beyond the weak deflection approximation is also considered.
Counteracting Gravitation In Dielectric Liquids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Israelsson, Ulf E.; Jackson, Henry W.; Strayer, Donald M.
1993-01-01
Force of gravity in variety of dielectric liquids counteracted by imposing suitably contoured electric fields. Technique makes possible to perform, on Earth, variety of experiments previously performed only in outer space and at great cost. Also used similarly in outer space to generate sort of artificial gravitation.
Gravitational lensing in plasmic medium
Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S. Tsupko, O. Yu.
2015-07-15
The influence of plasma on different effects of gravitational lensing is reviewed. Using the Hamiltonian approach for geometrical optics in a medium in the presence of gravity, an exact formula for the photon deflection angle by a black hole (or another body with a Schwarzschild metric) embedded in plasma with a spherically symmetric density distribution is derived. The deflection angle in this case is determined by the mutual combination of different factors: gravity, dispersion, and refraction. While the effects of deflection by the gravity in vacuum and the refractive deflection in a nonhomogeneous medium are well known, the new effect is that, in the case of a homogeneous plasma, in the absence of refractive deflection, the gravitational deflection differs from the vacuum deflection and depends on the photon frequency. In the presence of a plasma nonhomogeneity, the chromatic refractive deflection also occurs, so the presence of plasma always makes gravitational lensing chromatic. In particular, the presence of plasma leads to different angular positions of the same image if it is observed at different wavelengths. It is discussed in detail how to apply the presented formulas for the calculation of the deflection angle in different situations. Gravitational lensing in plasma beyond the weak deflection approximation is also considered.
Gravitational Lensing: Einstein's unfinished symphony
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Treu, Tommaso; Ellis, Richard S.
2015-01-01
Gravitational lensing - the deflection of light rays by gravitating matter - has become a major tool in the armoury of the modern cosmologist. Proposed nearly a hundred years ago as a key feature of Einstein's theory of general relativity, we trace the historical development since its verification at a solar eclipse in 1919. Einstein was apparently cautious about its practical utility and the subject lay dormant observationally for nearly 60 years. Nonetheless there has been rapid progress over the past twenty years. The technique allows astronomers to chart the distribution of dark matter on large and small scales thereby testing predictions of the standard cosmological model which assumes dark matter comprises a massive weakly-interacting particle. By measuring the distances and tracing the growth of dark matter structure over cosmic time, gravitational lensing also holds great promise in determining whether the dark energy, postulated to explain the accelerated cosmic expansion, is a vacuum energy density or a failure of general relativity on large scales. We illustrate the wide range of applications which harness the power of gravitational lensing, from searches for the earliest galaxies magnified by massive clusters to those for extrasolar planets which temporarily brighten a background star. We summarise the future prospects with dedicated ground and space-based facilities designed to exploit this remarkable physical phenomenon.
Hunting gravitational waves using pulsars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayor, Louise
2014-10-01
With the first direct detection of gravitational waves at the top of many physicists' wish list, Louise Mayor describes how radio astronomers are hoping to reveal these ripples in space-time by pointing their telescopes at an array of distant pulsars.
Problems of Global Networks of Gravitational Detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuchik, E. K.; Rudenko, V. N.
We describe the network of gravitational wave detectors which now exist in the world: Stanford-Louisiana-Pert-Geneva-Moscow. A computer simulation of a gravitational wave detection is performed. Proposals for the creation of a global observational gravitational wave service are made.
Gravitational Lensing in TeVe S
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiu, Mu-Chen; Ko, Chung-Ming; Tian, Yong
Gravitational Lensing is an important tool to understand the "missing mass" problem, especially for Modified Gravity. Recently, Bekenstein proposed a relativistic gravitation theory for Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) paradigm which resolves the "missing mass" problem well on abnormal dynamical behaviors in extragalactic region. Our work follow Bekenstein's approach to investigating gravitational lensing to get theoretical prediction.
Spinor approach to gravitational motion and precession
Hestenes, D.
1986-06-01
The translational and rotational equations of motion for a small rigid body in a gravitational field are combined in a single spinor equation. Besides its computational advantages, this unifies the description of gravitational interaction in classical and quantum theory. Explicit expressions for gravitational precession rates are derived.
Anatomy of gravitationally deformed slopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chigira, Masahiro; Yamasaki, Shintaro; Hariyama, Takehiro
2010-05-01
Deep-seated gravitational slope deformation is the deformation of rocks as well as slope surfaces, but the internal structures have not been well observed and described before. This is mainly due to the difficulty in obtaining undisturbed samples from underground. We analyzed the internal deformational structures of gravitationally deformed slopes by using high quality drilled cores obtained by hybrid drilling technique, which has been recently developed and can recover very fragile materials that could not be taken by the conventional drilling techniques. Investigated slopes were gravitationally deformed out-facing slopes of pelitic schist and shale. The slope surfaces showed deformational features of small steps, depressions, knobs, and linear depressions, but had no major main scarp and landslide body with well-defined outline. This is indicative of slow, deep-seated gravitational deformation. Most of these small deformational features are hidden by vegetations, but they are detected by using airborne laser scanner. Drilled cores showed that the internal deformation is dominated by the slip and tearing off along foliations. Slippage along foliations is conspicuous in pelitic schist: Pelitic schist is sheared, particularly along black layers, which are rich in graphite and pyrite. Graphite is known to be a solid lubricant in material sciences, which seems to be why shearing occurs along the black layers. Rock mass between two slip layers is sheared, rotated, fractured, and pulverized; undulation of bedding or schistosity could be the nucleation points of fracturing. Tearing off along foliations is also the major deformation mode, which forms jagged morphology of rock fragments within shear zones. Rock fragments with jagged surface are commonly observed in "gouge", which is very different from tectonic gouge. This probably reflects the low confining pressures during their formation. Microscopic to mesoscopic openings along fractures are commonly observed with
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitra, Abhas
2013-04-01
It is widely believed that though pressure resists gravitational collapse in Newtonian gravity, it aids the same in general relativity (GR) so that GR collapse should eventually be similar to the monotonous free fall case. But we show that, even in the context of radiationless adiabatic collapse of a perfect fluid, pressure tends to resist GR collapse in a manner which is more pronounced than the corresponding Newtonian case and formation of trapped surfaces is inhibited. In fact there are many works which show such collapse to rebound or become oscillatory implying a tug of war between attractive gravity and repulsive pressure gradient. Furthermore, for an imperfect fluid, the resistive effect of pressure could be significant due to likely dramatic increase of tangential pressure beyond the "photon sphere." Indeed, with inclusion of tangential pressure, in principle, there can be static objects with surface gravitational redshift z → ∞. Therefore, pressure can certainly oppose gravitational contraction in GR in a significant manner in contradiction to the idea of Roger Penrose that GR continued collapse must be unstoppable.
Gravitational lensing by straight cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotvytskiy, A. T.
2015-07-01
We consider effects due to gravitational lensing by hypothetical cosmic strings. We briefly review facts concerning infinite straight strings, obtain the equation for a gravitational lens produced by an infinite string in the classical form, and analyze features of the gravitational lensing for a given object in detail. We consider a finite straight string. We present caustics and critical curves for strings with different lengths and also some images produced by the considered gravitational lens. We propose a method for constructing brightness curves numerically. As an example of the working capacity of this method, we construct a concrete brightness curve for certain gravitational lens parameters.
Constructing black hole entropy from gravitational collapse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acquaviva, Giovanni; Ellis, George F. R.; Goswami, Rituparno; Hamid, Aymen I. M.
2015-03-01
Based on a recent proposal for the gravitational entropy of free gravitational fields, we investigate the thermodynamic properties of black hole formation through gravitational collapse in the framework of the semitetrad 1 +1 +2 covariant formalism. In the simplest case of an Oppenheimer-Snyder-Datt collapse, we prove that the change in gravitational entropy outside a collapsing body is related to the variation of the surface area of the body itself, even before the formation of horizons. As a result, we are able to relate the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the black hole end state to the variation of the vacuum gravitational entropy outside the collapsing body.
Gravitational Wave Astrophysics: Opening the New Frontier
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2011-01-01
The gravitational wave window onto the universe is expected to open in approximately 5 years, when ground-based detectors make the first detections in the high-frequency regime. Gravitational waves are ripples in spacetime produced by the motions of massive objects such as black holes and neutron stars. Since the universe is nearly transparent to gravitational waves, these signals carry direct information about their sources - such as masses, spins, luminosity distances, and orbital parameters through dense, obscured regions across cosmic time. This talk will explore gravitational waves as cosmic messengers, highlighting key sources, detection methods, and the astrophysical payoffs across the gravitational wave spectrum.
The Japanese space gravitational wave antenna - DECIGO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawamura, S.; Ando, M.; Nakamura, T.; Tsubono, K.; Tanaka, T.; Funaki, I.; Seto, N.; Numata, K.; Sato, S.; Ioka, K.; Kanda, N.; Takashima, T.; Agatsuma, K.; Akutsu, T.; Akutsu, T.; Aoyanagi, Koh-Suke; Arai, K.; Arase, Y.; Araya, A.; Asada, H.; Aso, Y.; Chiba, T.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Enoki, M.; Eriguchi, Y.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fujita, R.; Fukushima, M.; Futamase, T.; Ganzu, K.; Harada, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayama, K.; Hikida, W.; Himemoto, Y.; Hirabayashi, H.; Hiramatsu, T.; Hong, F.-L.; Horisawa, H.; Hosokawa, M.; Ichiki, K.; Ikegami, T.; Inoue, K. T.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishihara, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Ishizaki, H.; Ito, H.; Itoh, Y.; Kamagasako, S.; Kawashima, N.; Kawazoe, F.; Kirihara, H.; Kishimoto, N.; Kiuchi, K.; Kobayashi, S.; Kohri, K.; Koizumi, H.; Kojima, Y.; Kokeyama, K.; Kokuyama, W.; Kotake, K.; Kozai, Y.; Kudoh, H.; Kunimori, H.; Kuninaka, H.; Kuroda, K.; Maeda, K.-i.; Matsuhara, H.; Mino, Y.; Miyakawa, O.; Miyoki, S.; Morimoto, M. Y.; Morioka, T.; Morisawa, T.; Moriwaki, S.; Mukohyama, S.; Musha, M.; Nagano, S.; Naito, I.; Nakagawa, N.; Nakamura, K.; Nakano, H.; Nakao, K.; Nakasuka, S.; Nakayama, Y.; Nishida, E.; Nishiyama, K.; Nishizawa, A.; Niwa, Y.; Ohashi, M.; Ohishi, N.; Ohkawa, M.; Okutomi, A.; Onozato, K.; Oohara, K.; Sago, N.; Saijo, M.; Sakagami, M.; Sakai, S.-i.; Sakata, S.; Sasaki, M.; Sato, T.; Shibata, M.; Shinkai, H.; Somiya, K.; Sotani, H.; Sugiyama, N.; Suwa, Y.; Tagoshi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Takahashi, K.; Takahashi, T.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, R.; Takahashi, R.; Takamori, A.; Takano, T.; Taniguchi, K.; Taruya, A.; Tashiro, H.; Tokuda, M.; Tokunari, M.; Toyoshima, M.; Tsujikawa, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Ueda, K.-i.; Utashima, M.; Yamakawa, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamazaki, T.; Yokoyama, J.; Yoo, C.-M.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshino, T.
2008-07-01
DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO) is the future Japanese space gravitational wave antenna. The goal of DECIGO is to detect gravitational waves from various kinds of sources mainly between 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz and thus to open a new window of observation for gravitational wave astronomy. DECIGO will consist of three drag-free spacecraft, 1000 km apart from each other, whose relative displacements are measured by a Fabry—Perot Michelson interferometer. We plan to launch DECIGO pathfinder first to demonstrate the technologies required to realize DECIGO and, if possible, to detect gravitational waves from our galaxy or nearby galaxies.
Gravitational Wave Astrophysics: Opening the New Frontier
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2011-01-01
The gravitational wave window onto the universe is expected to open in approx. 5 years, when ground-based detectors make the first detections in the high-frequency regime. Gravitational waves are ripples in spacetime produced by the motions of massive objects such as black holes and neutron stars. Since the universe is nearly transparent to gravitational waves, these signals carry direct information about their sources - such as masses, spins, luminosity distances, and orbital parameters, through dense, obscured regions across cosmic time. This article explores gravitational waves as cosmic messengers, highlighting key sources, detection methods, and the astrophysical payoffs across the gravitational wave spectrum.
Gravitational Waves from Neutron Stars: A Review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lasky, Paul D.
2015-09-01
Neutron stars are excellent emitters of gravitational waves. Squeezing matter beyond nuclear densities invites exotic physical processes, many of which violently transfer large amounts of mass at relativistic velocities, disrupting spacetime and generating copious quantities of gravitational radiation. I review mechanisms for generating gravitational waves with neutron stars. This includes gravitational waves from radio and millisecond pulsars, magnetars, accreting systems, and newly born neutron stars, with mechanisms including magnetic and thermoelastic deformations, various stellar oscillation modes, and core superfluid turbulence. I also focus on what physics can be learnt from a gravitational wave detection, and where additional research is required to fully understand the dominant physical processes at play.
Gravitational Waves in Effective Quantum Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calmet, Xavier; Kuntz, Iberê; Mohapatra, Sonali
2016-08-01
In this short paper we investigate quantum gravitational effects on Einstein's equations using Effective Field Theory techniques. We consider the leading order quantum gravitational correction to the wave equation. Besides the usual massless mode, we find a pair of modes with complex masses. These massive particles have a width and could thus lead to a damping of gravitational waves if excited in violent astrophysical processes producing gravitational waves such as e.g. black hole mergers. We discuss the consequences for gravitational wave events such as GW 150914 recently observed by the Advanced LIGO collaboration.
Possibility of gravitational quantization under the teleparallel theory of gravitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ming, Kian; Triyanta, Kosasih, J. S.
2016-03-01
Teleparallel gravity (TG) or tele-equivalent general relativity (TEGR) is an alternative gauge theory for gravity. In TG tetrad fields are defined to express gravitational fields and act like gauge potentials in standard gauge theory. The lagrangians for the gravitational field in TG and for the Yang-Mills field in standard gauge theory differ due to different indices that stick on the components of the corresponding fields: two external indices for tetrad field and internal and external indices for the Yang-Mills field. Different types of indices lead to different possible contractions and thus lead to different expression of the lagrangian for the Yang Mills field and for the tetrad field. As TG is a gauge theory it is then natural to quantize gravity in TG by applying the same procedure of quantization as in the standard gauge theory. Here we will discuss on the possibility to quantize gravity, canonically and functionally, under the framework of TG theory.
In vitro investigations of repulsion during laser lithotripsy using a pendulum set-up.
Sroka, Ronald; Haseke, Nicolas; Pongratz, Thomas; Hecht, Volkmar; Tilki, Derya; Stief, Christian G; Bader, Markus Jürgen
2012-05-01
Ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy is a commonly used technique to treat ureteral calculi.The type of energy source used is one of the main influences of retrograd calculi propulsion. Using a momentum pendulum under-water set-up the induced momentum and the initial velocity were investigated. Pulsed laser light from three different clinically available laser systems, including a Ho:YAG laser, a frequency-doubled double-pulse (second harmonic generation, SHG) Nd:YAG laser and a flash-lamp pumped dye (FLPD) laser, were transmitted via flexible fibres of different core diameter to the front of the pendulum sinker. Single pulses at variable pulse energy, according to the clinical laser parameter settings, were applied to the target sinker, thus causing a repulsion-induced deflection which was documented by video recording. The maximum deflection was determined. Solving the differential equation of a pendulum gives the initial velocity, the laser-induced momentum and the efficiency of momentum transfer. The induced deflection as well as the starting velocity of the two short-duration pulsed laser systems (SHG Nd:YAG, FLPD) were similar (s (max) = 2-3.6 cm and v (0) = 150-200 mm/s, respectively), whereas both values were lower using the Ho:YAG laser with a long pulse duration (s (max) = 0.9--1.6 cm and v (0) = 60-105 mm/s, respectively). The momentum I induced by the Ho:YAG laser was only 50% and its transfer efficacy η (Repuls) was reduced to less than 5% of the values of the two short-pulsed laser systems. This investigation clearly showed the variable parts and amounts of repulsion using different pulsed lasers in an objective and reproducible manner. The momentum transfer efficiency could be determined without any physical friction problems. Further investigations are needed to compare stone fragmentation techniques with respect to laser repulsion and its clinical impact. PMID:22011742
Spherical gravitational curvature boundary-value problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Šprlák, Michal; Novák, Pavel
2016-08-01
Values of scalar, vector and second-order tensor parameters of the Earth's gravitational field have been collected by various sensors in geodesy and geophysics. Such observables have been widely exploited in different parametrization methods for the gravitational field modelling. Moreover, theoretical aspects of these quantities have extensively been studied and well understood. On the other hand, new sensors for observing gravitational curvatures, i.e., components of the third-order gravitational tensor, are currently under development. As the gravitational curvatures represent new types of observables, their exploitation for modelling of the Earth's gravitational field is a subject of this study. Firstly, the gravitational curvature tensor is decomposed into six parts which are expanded in terms of third-order tensor spherical harmonics. Secondly, gravitational curvature boundary-value problems defined for four combinations of the gravitational curvatures are formulated and solved in spectral and spatial domains. Thirdly, properties of the corresponding sub-integral kernels are investigated. The presented mathematical formulations reveal some important properties of the gravitational curvatures and extend the so-called Meissl scheme, i.e., an important theoretical framework that relates various parameters of the Earth's gravitational field.
Spherical gravitational curvature boundary-value problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Šprlák, Michal; Novák, Pavel
2016-05-01
Values of scalar, vector and second-order tensor parameters of the Earth's gravitational field have been collected by various sensors in geodesy and geophysics. Such observables have been widely exploited in different parametrization methods for the gravitational field modelling. Moreover, theoretical aspects of these quantities have extensively been studied and well understood. On the other hand, new sensors for observing gravitational curvatures, i.e., components of the third-order gravitational tensor, are currently under development. As the gravitational curvatures represent new types of observables, their exploitation for modelling of the Earth's gravitational field is a subject of this study. Firstly, the gravitational curvature tensor is decomposed into six parts which are expanded in terms of third-order tensor spherical harmonics. Secondly, gravitational curvature boundary-value problems defined for four combinations of the gravitational curvatures are formulated and solved in spectral and spatial domains. Thirdly, properties of the corresponding sub-integral kernels are investigated. The presented mathematical formulations reveal some important properties of the gravitational curvatures and extend the so-called Meissl scheme, i.e., an important theoretical framework that relates various parameters of the Earth's gravitational field.
Yip, Zhiqi Candice; Heiman, Maxwell G
2016-06-01
Simple cell-cell interactions can give rise to complex cellular patterns. For example, neurons of the same type can interact to create a complex patchwork of non-overlapping dendrite arbors, a pattern known as dendrite tiling. Dendrite tiling often involves mutual repulsion between neighboring neurons. While dendrite tiling is found across nervous systems, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has a relatively simple nervous system with few opportunities for tiling. Here, we show that genetic duplication of a single neuron, PVD, is sufficient to create dendrite tiling among the resulting ectopic neurons. We use laser ablation to show that this tiling is mediated by mutual repulsion between neighbors. Furthermore, we find that tiling requires a repulsion signal (UNC-6/Netrin and its receptors UNC-40/DCC and UNC-5) that normally patterns the PVD dendrite arbor. These results demonstrate that an apparently complex cellular pattern can emerge in a simple nervous system merely by increasing neuron number. PMID:27239028
Influence of repulsion zone in the directional alignment of self-propelled particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cambui, Dorilson
2014-04-01
Collective behavior in animal groups such as schools of fish, swarms of insects or flocks of birds, although a phenomenon widely studied in biological systems, is subject of great interdisciplinary interest. An important tool to describe the dynamics of collective motion and ordered live organisms is the concept of self-propelled particles. Proposed by Vicsek and collaborators, it was considered in this model only as an (single) interaction rule, set as alignment, where particles align to motion the nearest neighbors. In this paper, we have considered a variant of this model by adding a second rule called repulsion zone, where particles repel each other at short distances, in order to investigate the influence of this zone on directional order of the particles.
Repulsively bound exciton-biexciton states in high-spin fermions in optical lattices
Argueelles, A.; Santos, L.
2011-03-15
We show that the interplay between spin-changing collisions and quadratic Zeeman coupling provides a mechanism for the formation of repulsively bound composites in high-spin fermions, which we illustrate by considering spin flips in an initially polarized hard-core one-dimensional Mott insulator of spin-3/2 fermions. We show that after the flips the dynamics is characterized by the creation of two types of exciton-biexciton composites. We analyze the conditions for the existence of these bound states and discuss their intriguing properties. In particular we show that the effective mass and stability of the composites depends nontrivially on spin-changing collisions, on the quadratic Zeeman effect, and on the initial exciton localization. Finally, we show that the composites may remain stable against inelastic collisions, opening the possibility of interesting quantum composite phases.
Designing convex repulsive pair potentials that favor assembly of kagome and snub square lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piñeros, William D.; Baldea, Michael; Truskett, Thomas M.
2016-08-01
Building on a recently introduced inverse strategy, isotropic and convex repulsive pair potentials were designed that favor assembly of particles into kagome and equilateral snub square lattices. The former interactions were obtained by a numerical solution of a variational problem that maximizes the range of density for which the ground state of the potential is the kagome lattice. Similar optimizations targeting the snub square lattice were also carried out, employing a constraint that required a minimum chemical potential advantage of the target over select competing structures. This constraint helped to discover isotropic interactions that meaningfully favored the snub square lattice as the ground state structure despite the asymmetric spatial distribution of particles in its coordination shells and the presence of tightly competing structures. Consistent with earlier published results [W. Piñeros et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 084502 (2016)], enforcement of greater chemical potential advantages for the target lattice in the interaction optimization led to assemblies with enhanced thermal stability.
Knorr, Anne; Ludwig, Ralf
2015-01-01
Direct spectroscopic evidence for H-bonding between like-charged ions is reported for the ionic liquid, 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate. New infrared bands in the OH frequency range appear at low temperatures indicating the formation of H-bonded cation-cation clusters similar to those known for water and alcohols. Supported by DFT calculations, these vibrational bands can be assigned to attractive interaction between the hydroxyl groups of the cations. The repulsive Coulomb interaction is overcome by cooperative hydrogen bonding between ions of like charge. The transition energy from purely cation-anion interacting configurations to those including cation-cation H-bonds is determined to be 3–4 kJmol−1. The experimental findings and DFT calculations strongly support the concept of anti-electrostatic hydrogen bonds (AEHBs) as recently suggested by Weinhold and Klein. The like-charge configurations are kinetically stabilized with decreasing temperatures. PMID:26626928
Zero-temperature equation of state and phase diagram of repulsive fermionic mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fratini, E.; Pilati, S.
2014-08-01
We compute the zero-temperature equation of state of a mixture of two fermionic atomic species with repulsive interspecies interactions using second-order perturbation theory. We vary the interaction strength, the population, and the mass imbalance, and we analyze the competition between different states: homogeneous, partially separated, and fully separated. The canonical phase diagrams are determined for various mass ratios, including the experimentally relevant case of the Li6-K40 mixture. We find substantial differences with respect to the equal-mass case: phase separation occurs at weaker interaction strength, and the partially separated state can be stable even in the limit of a large majority of heavy atoms. We highlight the effects due to correlations by making comparisons with previous mean-field results.
Phase diagram of softly repulsive systems: the Gaussian and inverse-power-law potentials.
Prestipino, Santi; Saija, Franz; Giaquinta, Paolo V
2005-10-01
We redraw, using state-of-the-art methods for free-energy calculations, the phase diagrams of two reference models for the liquid state: the Gaussian and inverse-power-law repulsive potentials. Notwithstanding the different behaviors of the two potentials for vanishing interparticle distances, their thermodynamic properties are similar in a range of densities and temperatures, being ruled by the competition between the body-centered-cubic (bcc) and face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystalline structures and the fluid phase. We confirm the existence of a reentrant bcc phase in the phase diagram of the Gaussian-core model, just above the triple point. We also trace the bcc-fcc coexistence line of the inverse-power-law model as a function of the power exponent n and relate the common features in the phase diagrams of such systems to the softness degree of the interaction. PMID:16238377
Elution of human granulocytes from nylon fibers by means of repulsive van der Waals forces.
Absolom, D R; van Oss, C J; Neumann, A W
1981-01-01
A novel method for the isolation of granulocytes from nylon fibers is described. It is modification of filtration leukapheresis based on cellular surface thermodynamics. The system takes into account both electrical and van der Waals forces. The elution buffer contains a chelating agent and a surface active agent which lowers the surface tension of the liquid to a value intermediate between that of the surface tensions of the nylon fibers and of the granulocytes. Thus, the attractive van der Waals interaction between the fibers and the granulocytes becomes a repulsion. This results in a two- to threefold increase in cell yield. Phagocytosis, candicidal activity, and oxygen consumption did not appear to be affected through the isolation procedure. By both light and transmission electron microscopy the isolated granulocytes appeared to be morphologically intact. PMID:7314214
Skyrmion-skyrmion and skyrmion-edge repulsions in skyrmion-based racetrack memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xichao; Zhao, G. P.; Fangohr, Hans; Liu, J. Ping; Xia, W. X.; Xia, J.; Morvan, F. J.
2015-01-01
Magnetic skyrmions are promising for building next-generation magnetic memories and spintronic devices due to their stability, small size and the extremely low currents needed to move them. In particular, skyrmion-based racetrack memory is attractive for information technology, where skyrmions are used to store information as data bits instead of traditional domain walls. Here we numerically demonstrate the impacts of skyrmion-skyrmion and skyrmion-edge repulsions on the feasibility of skyrmion-based racetrack memory. The reliable and practicable spacing between consecutive skyrmionic bits on the racetrack as well as the ability to adjust it are investigated. Clogging of skyrmionic bits is found at the end of the racetrack, leading to the reduction of skyrmion size. Further, we demonstrate an effective and simple method to avoid the clogging of skyrmionic bits, which ensures the elimination of skyrmionic bits beyond the reading element. Our results give guidance for the design and development of future skyrmion-based racetrack memory.
Ievtushenko, Oleksii V; Eroshenko, Valentin A; Grosu, Yaroslav G; Nedelec, Jean-Marie; Grolier, Jean-Pierre E
2013-03-28
Recently {lyophobic porous powders + liquid} systems were proposed to be used for nontraditional energy storage and conversion purposes. This article reports the experimental study of the mechanical behavior, within the pressure-volume (PV) diagram, of the {hydrophobic silicalite-1 + water} system in the temperature range 10-80 °C. Repeated recordings of PV-isotherms and thermal effects of the repulsive clathrate during successive compression-decompression runs were performed using scanning transitiometry. An unexpected steady decline in the intrusion-extrusion pressure and volume of embedded water was found during the forced (repeated) intrusion of water into the pores of silicalite-1 and its spontaneous extrusion at constant temperature. A discussion of possible reasons of unconventional behavior of these heterogeneous systems as well as a thermodynamic analysis is presented. PMID:23407667
Equation satisfied by the energy-density functional for electron-electron mutual Coulomb repulsion
Joubert, Daniel P.
2011-10-15
It is shown that the electron-electron mutual Coulomb repulsion energy-density functional V{sub ee}{sup {gamma}}[{rho}] satisfies the equationV{sub ee}{sup {gamma}}[{rho}{sub N}{sup 1}]-V{sub ee}{sup {gamma}}[{rho}{sub N-1}{sup {gamma}}]={integral}d{sup 3}r({delta}V{sub ee}{sup {gamma}}[{rho}{sub N}{sup 1}]/{delta}{rho}{sub N}{sup 1}(r))[{rho}{sub N}{sup 1}(r)-{rho}{sub N-1}{sup {gamma}}(r)], where {rho}{sub N}{sup 1}(r) and {rho}{sub N-1}{sup {gamma}}(r) are N-electron and (N-1)-electron densities determined from the same adiabatic scaled external potential of the N-electron system at coupling strength {gamma}.
Structure of the Repulsive Guidance Molecule (RGM)—Neogenin Signaling Hub
Bell, Christian H.; Bishop, Benjamin; Tang, Chenxiang; Gilbert, Robert J.C.; Aricescu, A. Radu; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen; Siebold, Christian
2016-01-01
Repulsive guidance molecule family members (RGMs) control fundamental and diverse cellular processes, including motility and adhesion, immune cell regulation, and systemic iron metabolism. However, it is not known how RGMs initiate signaling through their common cell-surface receptor, neogenin (NEO1). Here, we present crystal structures of the NEO1 RGM-binding region and its complex with human RGMB (also called dragon). The RGMB structure reveals a previously unknown protein fold and a functionally important autocatalytic cleavage mechanism and provides a framework to explain numerous disease-linked mutations in RGMs. In the complex, two RGMB ectodomains conformationally stabilize the juxtamembrane regions of two NEO1 receptors in a pH-dependent manner. We demonstrate that all RGM-NEO1 complexes share this architecture, which therefore represents the core of multiple signaling pathways. PMID:23744777
Surface Plasmon Induced Zero-Point Image Repulsion at the Nanoscale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherqui, Charles; Dunlap, Dave; Piryatinski, Andrei
2012-10-01
Quantum corrections to the classical image potential of a charge moving towards a metal surface has a long history of interest in physics. This has lead to some interesting effects, namely the existence of electron recoil at the surface of a planar interface. We present a new approach of dealing with the problem and in particular examine the correction to the classical image force for the case of a charge moving towards a metal sphere. We analyze the problem classically to show that this effect can be interpreted as the well known ponderomtive repulsive force for a charge in an fast oscillating field. Quantum mechanically the effect is present, even in the ground state of the parametrically displaced plasmon oscillator (i.e., plasmon coherent state). Based on this observation we propose a new type of field effect transistor based on a carbon nanotube-metal nanoparticle hybrid system.
Sonawane, Abhijeet R
2010-05-01
We study a lattice model where the coupling stochastically switches between repulsive (subtractive) and attractive (additive) at each site with probability p at every time instant. We observe that such a kind of coupling stabilizes the local fixed point of a circle map, with the resultant globally stable attractor providing a unique absorbing state. Interestingly, a continuous phase transition is observed from the absorbing state to spatiotemporal chaos via spatiotemporal intermittency for a range of values of p . It is interesting to note that the transition falls in class of directed percolation. Static and spreading exponents along with relevant scaling laws are found to be obeyed confirming the directed percolation universality class in spatiotemporal intermittency regime. PMID:20866306
Demicheva, Elena; Cui, Yi-Fang; Bardwell, Philip; Barghorn, Stefan; Kron, Martina; Meyer, Axel H; Schmidt, Martin; Gerlach, Björn; Leddy, Mary; Barlow, Eve; O'Connor, Elizabeth; Choi, Chee-Ho; Huang, Lili; Veldman, Geertruida M; Rus, Horea; Shabanzadeh, Alireza P; Tassew, Nardos G; Monnier, Philippe P; Müller, Thomas; Calabresi, Peter A; Schoemaker, Hans; Mueller, Bernhard K
2015-03-24
Repulsive guidance molecule A (RGMa) is a potent inhibitor of neuronal regeneration and a regulator of cell death, and it plays a role in multiple sclerosis (MS). In autopsy material from progressive MS patients, RGMa was found in active and chronic lesions, as well as in normal-appearing gray and white matter, and was expressed by cellular meningeal infiltrates. Levels of soluble RGMa in the cerebrospinal fluid were decreased in progressive MS patients successfully treated with intrathecal corticosteroid triamcinolone acetonide (TCA), showing functional improvements. In vitro, RGMa monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) reversed RGMa-mediated neurite outgrowth inhibition and chemorepulsion. In animal models of CNS damage and MS, RGMa antibody stimulated regeneration and remyelination of damaged nerve fibers, accelerated functional recovery, and protected the retinal nerve fiber layer as measured by clinically relevant optic coherence tomography. These data suggest that targeting RGMa is a promising strategy to improve functional recovery in MS patients. PMID:25801027
Classical diamagnetism, magnetic interaction energies, and repulsive forces in magnetized plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Essén, H.
2011-05-01
The Bohr-van Leeuwen theorem is often summarized as saying that there is no classical magnetic susceptibility, in particular no diamagnetism. This is seriously misleading. The theorem assumes position-dependent interactions but this is not required by classical physics. Since the work of Darwin in 1920 it has been known that the magnetism due to classical charged point particles can only be described by allowing velocity-dependent interactions in the Lagrangian. Legendre transformation to an approximate Hamiltonian can give an estimate of the Darwin diamagnetism for a system of charged point particles. Comparison with experiment, however, requires knowledge of the number of classically behaving electrons in the sample. A new repulsive effective many-body force, which should be relevant in plasmas, is predicted by the Hamiltonian.
Phase diagram of Rydberg atoms with repulsive van der Waals interaction
Osychenko, O. N.; Astrakharchik, G. E.; Boronat, J.; Lutsyshyn, Y.; Lozovik, Yu. E.
2011-12-15
We report a quantum Monte Carlo calculation of the phase diagram of bosons interacting with a repulsive inverse sixth power pair potential, a model for assemblies of Rydberg atoms in the local van der Waals blockade regime. The model can be parametrized in terms of just two parameters, the reduced density and temperature. Solidification happens to the fcc phase. At zero temperature, the transition density is found with the diffusion Monte Carlo method at density {rho}=3.9 (({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sup 2}/mC{sub 6}){sup 3/4}, where C{sub 6} is the strength of the interaction. The solidification curve at nonzero temperature is studied with the path-integral Monte Carlo approach and is compared with transitions in corresponding harmonic and classical crystals. Relaxation mechanisms are considered in relation to present experiments.
Structural and dynamical anomalies of soft particles interacting through harmonic repulsions.
Ouyang, Wenze; Sun, Bin; Sun, Zhiwei; Xu, Shenghua
2015-02-28
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to investigate the structural and dynamical anomalies in the core-softened fluid with harmonic repulsions. At sufficiently low temperature and densities, a general scaling relation between the Rosenfeld diffusivity DR and excess entropy Sex holds true because the ultrasoft particles tend to avoid overlapping and behave like effective hard spheres. When the temperature is increased high enough, the system acts as a weakly correlated mean-field fluid so that an alternative scaling relation between temperature scaled diffusion DT and Sex does work. Interestingly, the plots of DRversus two-body excess entropy S2 approximately collapse onto a single master curve despite the structural and dynamical anomalies, which has also been observed in other core-softened fluids with bounded potential. PMID:25622850
Effects of Coulomb Repulsion on the Phase Diagram of the Asakura-Oosawa Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haaga, Jason; Pemberton, Elizabeth; Gunton, James; Rickman, Jeffrey
We investigate the effect of adding a screened Coulomb charge to a model colloidal system interacting via the Asakura-Oosawa depletion potential. This model has previously been used to study the early stages of amelogenin self-assembly, a crucial process in the formation of dental enamel, by Li et al (BiophysicalJournal 101, 2502 (2011). By employing Monte Carlo simulations, we explore the role of interaction strengths and ranges on phase behavior. We find that charge strength and range have a strong influence on the stable, in the case of long range depletion potential, or metastable, in the case of short range depletion, fluid-fluid phase separation. Coulomb repulsion narrows and flattens the coexistence curve with increasing charge. This talk will also discuss solid-solid transitions present for certain interaction ranges. This work is supported by the G. Harold and Leila Y. Mathers Foundation.
Ferromagnetism of a Repulsive Atomic Fermi Gas in an Optical Lattice: A Quantum Monte Carlo Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pilati, Sebastiano; Zintchenko, Ilia; Troyer, Matthias
2015-05-01
We investigate the ferromagnetic behavior of a two-component repulsive Fermi gas under the influence of a periodic potential that describes the effect of a 3D optical lattice, using continuous-space quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We find that a shallow optical lattice below half-filling strongly favors the ferromagnetic instability compared to the homogeneous Fermi gas. Instead, in the regime of deep optical lattices and weak interactions, where the conventional description in terms of single-band tight-binding models is reliable, our results indicate that the paramagnetic state is stable, in agreement with previous quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the Hubbard model. Our findings shed light on the important role played by multi-band effects and by interaction-induced hopping in the physics of atomic gases trapped in optical lattices.
Miao, Yipu; Merz, Kenneth M
2013-02-12
Electron repulsion integral (ERI) calculation on graphical processing units (GPUs) can significantly accelerate quantum chemical calculations. Herein, the ab initio self-consistent-field (SCF) calculation is implemented on GPUs using recurrence relations, which is one of the fastest ERI evaluation algorithms currently available. A direct-SCF scheme to assemble the Fock matrix efficiently is presented, wherein ERIs are evaluated on-the-fly to avoid CPU-GPU data transfer, a well-known architectural bottleneck in GPU specific computation. Realized speedups on GPUs reach 10-100 times relative to traditional CPU nodes, with accuracies of better than 1 × 10(-7) for systems with more than 4000 basis functions. PMID:26588740
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramdas, Tirath; Egan, Gregory K.; Abramson, David; Baldridge, Kim K.
2008-06-01
Future computer architectures are likely to feature greater reliance on single instruction multiple data (SIMD) processing for high throughput processing of data-intensive workloads. For algorithms that rely heavily on electron repulsion integrals (ERIs), exploitation of SIMD processing requires extrinsic vectorization, i.e. the sorting of ERIs into sets with equivalent class that may be computed with an identical instruction stream. Such sorting is incongruous with the commonly exploited shell structure whereby ERI are generated over shells such that initialization/bootstrap values may be reused, yielding significant savings in ERI evaluation time. In this work, we discuss how extrinsic vectorization may be unified with shell structure through the exploitation of memory access locality.
Time Development of Explosion of Stochastic Process with Repulsive Drift of Polynomial Growth
Nakamura, Toru; Ezawa, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Keiji
2008-06-18
For a diffusion process X(t) representing the momentum of a particle subject to an external force f(x) and a random force dB(t)/dt in one-dimensional space, almost all sample paths explode to infinity in finite times if f(x) grows repulsively to infinity faster than linear as |x|{yields}{infinity}, so that the survival probability P(t) of the particle by time t decreases to zero as time passes. It is shown that P(t) decays at least exponentially in time and the rate of the exponential decay is strictly positive and equal to the lowest eigenvalue of a Hamiltonian of an imaginary-time Schroedinger equation.
Time delay induced different synchronization patterns in repulsively coupled chaotic oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Chenggui; Yi, Ming; Shuai, Jianwei
2013-09-01
Time delayed coupling plays a crucial role in determining the system's dynamics. We here report that the time delay induces transition from the asynchronous state to the complete synchronization (CS) state in the repulsively coupled chaotic oscillators. In particular, by changing the coupling strength or time delay, various types of synchronous patterns, including CS, antiphase CS, antiphase synchronization (ANS), and phase synchronization, can be generated. In the transition regions between different synchronous patterns, bistable synchronous oscillators can be observed. Furthermore, we show that the time-delay-induced phase flip bifurcation is of key importance for the emergence of CS. All these findings may light on our understanding of neuronal synchronization and information processing in the brain.
Cioslowski, Jerzy
2015-03-21
Highly accurate Coulomb, exchange, and correlation components of the electron-electron repulsion energies of the three-electron harmonium atoms in the (2)P- and (4)P+ states are obtained for 19 values of the confinement strength ω ranging from 10(-3) to 10(3). The computed data are consistent with their ω → 0 and ω → ∞ asymptotics that are given by closed-form algebraic expressions. Robust approximants that accurately reproduce the actual values of the energy components while strictly conforming to these limits are constructed, opening an avenue to stringent tests capable of predicting the performance of electronic structure methods for systems with varying extents of the dynamical and nondynamical electron correlation. The values of the correlation components, paired with the computed 1-matrices are expected to be particularly useful in the context of benchmarking of approximate density matrix functionals. PMID:25796229
Cioslowski, Jerzy
2015-03-21
Highly accurate Coulomb, exchange, and correlation components of the electron-electron repulsion energies of the three-electron harmonium atoms in the {sup 2}P{sub −} and {sup 4}P{sub +} states are obtained for 19 values of the confinement strength ω ranging from 10{sup −3} to 10{sup 3}. The computed data are consistent with their ω → 0 and ω → ∞ asymptotics that are given by closed-form algebraic expressions. Robust approximants that accurately reproduce the actual values of the energy components while strictly conforming to these limits are constructed, opening an avenue to stringent tests capable of predicting the performance of electronic structure methods for systems with varying extents of the dynamical and nondynamical electron correlation. The values of the correlation components, paired with the computed 1-matrices are expected to be particularly useful in the context of benchmarking of approximate density matrix functionals.
Repulsive parallel MCMC algorithm for discovering diverse motifs from large sequence sets
Ikebata, Hisaki; Yoshida, Ryo
2015-01-01
Motivation: The motif discovery problem consists of finding recurring patterns of short strings in a set of nucleotide sequences. This classical problem is receiving renewed attention as most early motif discovery methods lack the ability to handle large data of recent genome-wide ChIP studies. New ChIP-tailored methods focus on reducing computation time and pay little regard to the accuracy of motif detection. Unlike such methods, our method focuses on increasing the detection accuracy while maintaining the computation efficiency at an acceptable level. The major advantage of our method is that it can mine diverse multiple motifs undetectable by current methods. Results: The repulsive parallel Markov chain Monte Carlo (RPMCMC) algorithm that we propose is a parallel version of the widely used Gibbs motif sampler. RPMCMC is run on parallel interacting motif samplers. A repulsive force is generated when different motifs produced by different samplers near each other. Thus, different samplers explore different motifs. In this way, we can detect much more diverse motifs than conventional methods can. Through application to 228 transcription factor ChIP-seq datasets of the ENCODE project, we show that the RPMCMC algorithm can find many reliable cofactor interacting motifs that existing methods are unable to discover. Availability and implementation: A C++ implementation of RPMCMC and discovered cofactor motifs for the 228 ENCODE ChIP-seq datasets are available from http://daweb.ism.ac.jp/yoshidalab/motif. Contact: ikebata.hisaki@ism.ac.jp, yoshidar@ism.ac.jp Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available from Bioinformatics online. PMID:25583120
Repulsive interatomic potentials for noble gas bombardment of Cu and Ni targets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karolewski, M. A.
2006-01-01
Interatomic potentials that are relevant for noble gas bombardment of Cu and Ni targets have been calculated in the energy region below 10 keV. Potentials are calculated for the diatomic species: NeCu, ArCu, KrCu, Cu2, ArNi, Ni2 and NiCu. The calculations primarily employ density functional theory (with the B3LYP exchange-correlation functional). Potential curves derived from Hartree-Fock theory calculations are also discussed. Scalar relativistic effects have been included via the second-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH2) method. On the basis of a variational argument, it can be shown that the predicted potential curves represent an upper limit to the true potential curves. The potentials provide a basis for assessing corrections required to the ZBL and Molière screened Coulombic potentials, which are typically found to be too repulsive below 1-2 keV. These corrections significantly improve the accuracy of the sputter yield predicted by molecular dynamics for Ni(1 0 0), whereas the sputter yield predicted for Cu(1 0 0) is negligibly affected. The validity of the pair potential approximation in the repulsive region of the potential is tested by direct calculation of the potentials arising from the interaction of either an Ar or Cu atom with a Cu3 cluster. The pairwise approximation represents the Ar-Cu3 potential energy function with an error <3 eV at all Ar-Cu3 separations. For Cu-Cu3, the pairwise approximation underestimates the potential by ca. 10 eV when the interstitial atom is located near the centre of the cluster.
Effect of long-range repulsive Coulomb interactions on packing structure of adhesive particles.
Chen, Sheng; Li, Shuiqing; Liu, Wenwei; Makse, Hernán A
2016-02-14
The packing of charged micron-sized particles is investigated using discrete element simulations based on adhesive contact dynamic model. The formation process and the final obtained structures of ballistic packings are studied to show the effect of interparticle Coulomb force. It is found that increasing the charge on particles causes a remarkable decrease of the packing volume fraction ϕ and the average coordination number 〈Z〉, indicating a looser and chainlike structure. Force-scaling analysis shows that the long-range Coulomb interaction changes packing structures through its influence on particle inertia before they are bonded into the force networks. Once contact networks are formed, the expansion effect caused by repulsive Coulomb forces are dominated by short-range adhesion. Based on abundant results from simulations, a dimensionless adhesion parameter Ad*, which combines the effects of the particle inertia, the short-range adhesion and the long-range Coulomb interaction, is proposed and successfully scales the packing results for micron-sized particles within the latest derived adhesive loose packing (ALP) regime. The structural properties of our packings follow well the recent theoretical prediction which is described by an ensemble approach based on a coarse-grained volume function, indicating some kind of universality in the low packing density regime of the phase diagram regardless of adhesion or particle charge. Based on the comprehensive consideration of the complicated inter-particle interactions, our findings provide insight into the roles of short-range adhesion and repulsive Coulomb force during packing formation and should be useful for further design of packings. PMID:26677107
Gravitational waves from perturbed stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrari, V.
2011-12-01
Non radial oscillations of neutron stars are associated with the emission of gravitational waves. The characteristic frequencies of these oscillations can be computed using the theory of stellar perturbations, and they are shown to carry detailed information on the internal structure of the emitting source. Moreover, they appear to be encoded in various radiative processes, as for instance, in the tail of the giant flares of Soft Gamma Repeaters. Thus, their determination is central to the theory of stellar perturbation. A viable approach to the problem consists in formulating this theory as a problem of resonant scattering of gravitational waves incident on the potential barrier generated by the spacetime curvature. This approach discloses some unexpected correspondences between the theory of stellar perturbations and the theory of quantum mechanics, and allows us to predict new relativistic effects.
Gravitational waves from perturbed stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrari, V.
2011-03-01
Non radial oscillations of neutron stars are associated with the emission of gravitational waves. The characteristic frequencies of these oscillations can be computed using the theory of stellar perturbations, and they are shown to carry detailed information on the internal structure of the emitting source. Moreover, they appear to be encoded in various radiative processes, as for instance in the tail of the giant flares of Soft Gamma Repeaters. Thus, their determination is central to the theory of stellar perturbation. A viable approach to the problem consists in formulating this theory as a problem of resonant scattering of gravitational waves incident on the potential barrier generated by the spacetime curvature. This approach discloses some unexpected correspondences between the theory of stellar perturbations and the theory of quantum mechanics, and allows us to predict new relativistic effects.
Gravitational wave science from space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gair, Jonathan R.
2016-05-01
The rich millihertz gravitational wave band can only be accessed with a space- based detector. The technology for such a detector will be demonstrated by the LISA Pathfinder satellite that is due to launch this year and ESA has selected gravitational wave detection from space as the science theme to be addressed by the L3 large mission to be launched around 2034. In this article we will discuss the sources that such an instrument will observe, and how the numbers of events and precision of parameter determination are affected by modifications to the, as yet not finalised, mission design. We will also describe some of the exciting scientific applications of these observations, to astrophysics, fundamental physics and cosmology.
A gravitating electroweak bag model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burinskii, Alexander
2016-02-01
Gravitational and electromagnetic (EM) field of electron is described by the Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole solution with a topological defect. Regularization of this defect by the Higgs field leads to the smooth source which shares much in common with the known MIT- and SLAC- bag models, but has the advantage, of matching gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the electron. This model is flexible, and the rotating KN bag takes the shape of a thin disk with a circular string positioned on the sharp border of the disk. We consider the lowest excitations of the KN solution and the corresponding deformations of the bag surface, setting a preliminary correspondence with electroweak sector of the SM.
Gravitating multidefects from higher dimensions
Giovannini, Massimo
2007-03-15
Warped configurations admitting pairs of gravitating defects are analyzed. After devising a general method for the construction of multidefects, specific examples are presented in the case of higher-dimensional Einstein-Hilbert gravity. The obtained profiles describe diverse physical situations such as (topological) kink-antikink systems, pairs of nontopological solitons, and bound configurations of a kink and of a nontopological soliton. In all the mentioned cases the geometry is always well behaved (all relevant curvature invariants are regular) and tends to five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space-time for large asymptotic values of the bulk coordinate. Particular classes of solutions can be generalized to the framework where the gravity part of the action includes, as a correction, the Euler-Gauss-Bonnet combination. After scrutinizing the structure of the zero modes, the obtained results are compared with conventional gravitating configurations containing a single topological defect.
Nonadiabatic charged spherical gravitational collapse
Di Prisco, A.; Herrera, L.; Le Denmat, G.; MacCallum, M. A. H.; Santos, N. O.
2007-09-15
We present a complete set of the equations and matching conditions required for the description of physically meaningful charged, dissipative, spherically symmetric gravitational collapse with shear. Dissipation is described with both free-streaming and diffusion approximations. The effects of viscosity are also taken into account. The roles of different terms in the dynamical equation are analyzed in detail. The dynamical equation is coupled to a causal transport equation in the context of Israel-Stewart theory. The decrease of the inertial mass density of the fluid, by a factor which depends on its internal thermodynamic state, is reobtained, with the viscosity terms included. In accordance with the equivalence principle, the same decrease factor is obtained for the gravitational force term. The effect of the electric charge on the relation between the Weyl tensor and the inhomogeneity of the energy density is discussed.
Post-Newtonian gravitational bremsstrahlung
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turner, M.; Will, C. M.
1977-01-01
Formulae and numerical results are presented for the gravitational radiation emitted during a low-deflection encounter between two massive bodies. Results are valid through post-Newtonian order within general relativity. The gravitational waveform, the total luminosity and total emitted energy, the angular distribution of emitted energy, and the frequency spectrum are discussed in detail. A method boosting the accuracy of these quantities to post Newtonian order is also presented. A numerical comparison of results with those of Peters, and of Kovacs and Thorne shows that the post Newtonian method is reliable to better than 0.1 percent at v = 0.1 c, to a few percent at v = 0.35 c, and to 10 to 20 percent at v = 0.5 c.
Gravitating dyons in Vaidya geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tripathi, Buddhi Vallabh; Nandan, Hemwati; Dehnen, Heinz; Purohit, K. D.
2014-03-01
Gravitating monopoles and dyons in Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) or Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs (EYMH) systems have been extensively studied for various curved space-times, including those of black holes. We construct dyonic solutions of the EYMH theory in Vaidya space-time using a set of generalized Julia-Zee ansatz for the fields. It is found that the dyonic charge is static in nature and it does not contribute to the energy of the null dust.
Gravitational decoherence for mesoscopic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adler, Stephen L.; Bassi, Angelo
2016-01-01
We extend the recent gravitational decoherence analysis of Pikovski et al. to an individual mesoscopic system with internal state characterized by a coherent superposition of energy eigenstates. We express the Pikovski et al. effect directly in terms of the energy variance, and show that the interferometric visibility is bounded from below. Hence unlike collisional decoherence, the visibility does not approach zero at large times, although for a large system it can become very small.
Equivalence Principle and Gravitational Redshift
Hohensee, Michael A.; Chu, Steven; Mueller, Holger; Peters, Achim
2011-04-15
We investigate leading order deviations from general relativity that violate the Einstein equivalence principle in the gravitational standard model extension. We show that redshift experiments based on matter waves and clock comparisons are equivalent to one another. Consideration of torsion balance tests, along with matter-wave, microwave, optical, and Moessbauer clock tests, yields comprehensive limits on spin-independent Einstein equivalence principle-violating standard model extension terms at the 10{sup -6} level.
Conformal Gravity and Gravitational Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabbri, Luca; Paranjape, M. B.
We consider monochromatic, plane gravitational waves in a conformally invariant theory of general relativity. We show that the simple, standard ansatz for the metric, usually that which is taken for the linearized theory of these waves, is reducible to the metric of Minkowski spacetime via a sequence of conformal and coordinate transformations. This implies that we have in fact, exact plane wave solutions. However they are simply coordinate/conformal artifacts. As a consequence, they carry no energy.
Mansouri-Chang gravitation theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pavelle, R.
1978-01-01
The gauge theory of gravitation introduced by Mansouri and Chang (1976) is investigated; a symbolic manipulation computer system generates the Mansouri-Chang field equations in various coordinate systems. It is found that all vacuum Einstein spaces are vacuum Mansouri-Chang spaces in four dimensions, though for higher dimensions an Einstein vacuum space is not generally a Mansouri-Chang solution. The possibility that no solutions of the Mansouri-Chang equations are not Einstein vacuum spaces is discussed.
Finite mass gravitating Yang monopoles
Cebeci, Hakan; Sarioglu, Oezguer; Tekin, Bayram
2008-12-15
We show that gravity cures the infrared divergence of the Yang monopole when a proper definition of conserved quantities in curved backgrounds is used, i.e. the gravitating Yang monopole in cosmological Einstein theory has a finite mass in generic even dimensions (including time). In addition, we find exact Yang-monopole type solutions in the cosmological Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-Yang-Mills theory and briefly discuss their properties.
Quantum vacuum, inertia and gravitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaekel, Marc-Thierry; Lambrecht, Astrid; Reynaud, Serge
2002-11-01
Since the early developments of quantum theory, vacuum has been recognized to be filled with irreducible zero-point field fluctuations. The corresponding very large energy density, as predicted by quantum theory, conflicts however, with observation of gravitational phenomena on macroscopic scales, a paradox also associated with the cosmological constant problem. This vacuum catastrophe has led to the common view that vacuum fluctuations should not be taken into account as a source of inertia or gravitation. Vacuum fluctuations however, produce observable mechanical effects, like Casimir forces, which are now accurately measured and agree with theoretical predictions. Vacuum fluctuations can also be shown, within the standard framework of quantum theory, to induce effects on motion in vacuum, and to lead to a contribution of Casimir energy to inertia, in conformity with the principles of relativity. Here, we advocate that paradoxes which emerge in an acute way when confronting quantum and relativity theories should rather be considered as positive hints, as they allow to raise questions about relativity of motion in quantum vacuum amenable to experimental confrontation, and also to reconsider the role of vacuum with respect to gravitation.
Gravitational Instability in Planetesimal Disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolin, Bryce T.; Lithwick, Yoram; Pan, Margaret; Rein, Hanno; Wu, Yanqin
2014-11-01
Gravitational instability (GI) has been proposed as a method of forming giant gas planets enhanced by disk thermodynamics in a protoplanetary disk (Boss, 1997, Science 276; Durisen et al., 2007, Protostars and Planets V) and as a method of forming planetesimals through the focusing of boulders by the interaction between solids and gases in a turbulent circumstellar disk (Johansen et al., 2007, Nature 448; Youdin & Goodman, 2005, Astrophys. J. 620). GI is mediated through a gaseous circumstellar disk in each each of these scenarios. We explore the possibility of GI occurring in a planetesimal disk devoid of gas. In this regime, mutual collisions between planetesimals are required to dissipate their orbital shear and velocity dispersion enough for collapse to occur as described by the Toomre stability criterion (Toomre, 1964, Astrophys. J. 139; Toomre, 1981, Structure and Evolution of Normal Galaxies). How frequent must collisions be between planetesimals in a gravitationally stable planetesimal disk for GI to occur? Are there collisional rates where GI is postponed indefinitely in an equilibrium state between gravitational stirring and collisional cooling? We present 3D shearing sheet simulations using the REBOUND N-body code with the symplectic epicyclic integrator (Rein & Liu, 2011, A&A 537; Rein & Tremaine, 2011, MNRAS 415) in which the candidate collision rates are within a few orders of magnitude of the disk dynamical lifetime. Our simulations suggest that collisions rate directly controls disk cooling. The shape of the disk cooling curve is independent of the collision rate when scaled to the collision time.
Measuring Gravitation Using Polarization Spectroscopy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matsko, Andrey; Yu, Nan; Maleki, Lute
2004-01-01
A proposed method of measuring gravitational acceleration would involve the application of polarization spectroscopy to an ultracold, vertically moving cloud of atoms (an atomic fountain). A related proposed method involving measurements of absorption of light pulses like those used in conventional atomic interferometry would yield an estimate of the number of atoms participating in the interferometric interaction. The basis of the first-mentioned proposed method is that the rotation of polarization of light is affected by the acceleration of atoms along the path of propagation of the light. The rotation of polarization is associated with a phase shift: When an atom moving in a laboratory reference interacts with an electromagnetic wave, the energy levels of the atom are Doppler-shifted, relative to where they would be if the atom were stationary. The Doppler shift gives rise to changes in the detuning of the light from the corresponding atomic transitions. This detuning, in turn, causes the electromagnetic wave to undergo a phase shift that can be measured by conventional means. One would infer the gravitational acceleration and/or the gradient of the gravitational acceleration from the phase measurements.
The final stage of gravitational collapse for high density fluid medium
Souza, R. G.; De Campos, M.
2013-03-25
The High density high density fluids can be represented by a stiff matter state equation P={rho} and also by the Hagedorn state equation. The first is constructed using a lagrangian that allows bare nucleons to interact attractively via scalar meson exchange, and repulsively by a more massive vector meson exchange; the second consider that for large mass the spectrum of hadrons grows exponentially, namely {rho}(m) {approx}exp(m/T{sub H}), where T{sub H} is the Hagedorn temperature, resulting the state equation P = P{sub 0}+{rho}{sub 0}ln({rho}/{rho}{sub 0}). We study the gravitational collapse for a high density fluid, considering a Hagedorn state equation in a presence of a vacuum component.
Gravitaton Wave and Gravitational-Photon Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khasanov, Kholmurad
2013-06-01
Gravitation waves and gravitational-photon interaction with high energy photons emission is found experimentally. Super-compressibility phenomenon was studied. Spectral investigations of supersonic jets and incandescent nichrome thread and wolfram spiral were studied. The shifting of the emission spectrum was detected depending on vector of gravity. The increasing frequency of light emitted against gravity vector is measured. Uneven along the spectrum character of intensity increasing is found. Generation of short-wavelength component of the spectrum is observed in case of more power of heating. The measurements show that presented interactions have resonance nature. Our experiments demonstrate the existence resonance nature. Our experiments demonstrate the gravitation wave and generation and existence of gravitational-photon interactions. From left to right: Fig. 1-2. Visualization of the gravitation wave. Fig. 3-5. Gravitational-photon interaction in HF field.
Fuentes-Herrera, M; Moreno-Razo, J A; Guzmán, O; López-Lemus, J; Ibarra-Tandi, B
2016-06-01
Molecular simulations in the canonical and isothermal-isobaric ensembles were performed to study the effect of varying the shape of the intermolecular potential on the phase diagram, critical, and interfacial properties of model fluids. The molecular interactions were modeled by the Approximate Non-Conformal (ANC) theory potentials. Unlike the Lennard-Jones or Morse potentials, the ANC interactions incorporate parameters (called softnesses) that modulate the steepness of the potential in their repulsive and attractive parts independently. This feature allowed us to separate unambiguously the role of each region of the potential on setting the thermophysical properties. In particular, we found positive linear correlation between all critical coordinates and the attractive and repulsive softness, except for the critical density and the attractive softness which are negatively correlated. Moreover, we found that the physical properties related to phase coexistence (such as span of the liquid phase between the critical and triple points, variations in the P-T vaporization curve, interface width, and surface tension) are more sensitive to changes in the attractive softness than to the repulsive one. Understanding the different roles of attractive and repulsive forces on phase coexistence may contribute to developing more accurate models of liquids and their mixtures. PMID:27276958
Chance, Rebecca K.; Bashaw, Greg J.
2015-01-01
Understanding how axon guidance receptors are activated by their extracellular ligands to regulate growth cone motility is critical to learning how proper wiring is established during development. Roundabout (Robo) is one such guidance receptor that mediates repulsion from its ligand Slit in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Here we show that endocytic trafficking of the Robo receptor in response to Slit-binding is necessary for its repulsive signaling output. Dose-dependent genetic interactions and in vitro Robo activation assays support a role for Clathrin-dependent endocytosis, and entry into both the early and late endosomes as positive regulators of Slit-Robo signaling. We identify two conserved motifs in Robo’s cytoplasmic domain that are required for its Clathrin-dependent endocytosis and activation in vitro; gain of function and genetic rescue experiments provide strong evidence that these trafficking events are required for Robo repulsive guidance activity in vivo. Our data support a model in which Robo’s ligand-dependent internalization from the cell surface to the late endosome is essential for receptor activation and proper repulsive guidance at the midline by allowing recruitment of the downstream effector Son of Sevenless in a spatially constrained endocytic trafficking compartment. PMID:26335920
Noraz, Nelly; Jaaoini, Iness; Charoy, Camille; Watrin, Chantal; Chounlamountri, Naura; Benon, Aurélien; Malleval, Céline; Boudin, Hélène; Honnorat, Jérôme; Castellani, Valérie; Pellier-Monnin, Véronique
2016-06-15
In the hematopoietic system, Syk family tyrosine kinases are essential components of immunoreceptor ITAM-based signaling. While there is increasing data indicating the involvement of immunoreceptors in neural functions, the contribution of Syk kinases remains obscure. Previously, we identified phosphorylated forms of Syk kinases in specialized populations of migrating neurons or projecting axons. Moreover, we identified ephrin/Eph as guidance molecules utilizing the ITAM-bearing CD3zeta (Cd247) and associated Syk kinases for the growth cone collapse response induced in vitro Here, we show that in the developing spinal cord, Syk is phosphorylated in navigating commissural axons. By analyzing axon trajectories in open-book preparations of Syk(-/-); Zap70(-/-) mouse embryos, we show that Syk kinases are dispensable for attraction towards the midline but confer growth cone responsiveness to repulsive signals that expel commissural axons from the midline. Known to serve a repulsive function at the midline, ephrin B3/EphB2 are obvious candidates for driving the Syk-dependent repulsive response. Indeed, Syk kinases were found to be required for ephrin B3-induced growth cone collapse in cultured commissural neurons. In fragments of commissural neuron-enriched tissues, Syk is in a constitutively phosphorylated state and ephrin B3 decreased its level of phosphorylation. Direct pharmacological inhibition of Syk kinase activity was sufficient to induce growth cone collapse. In conclusion, Syk kinases act as a molecular switch of growth cone adhesive and repulsive responses. PMID:27122172
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuentes-Herrera, M.; Moreno-Razo, J. A.; Guzmán, O.; López-Lemus, J.; Ibarra-Tandi, B.
2016-06-01
Molecular simulations in the canonical and isothermal-isobaric ensembles were performed to study the effect of varying the shape of the intermolecular potential on the phase diagram, critical, and interfacial properties of model fluids. The molecular interactions were modeled by the Approximate Non-Conformal (ANC) theory potentials. Unlike the Lennard-Jones or Morse potentials, the ANC interactions incorporate parameters (called softnesses) that modulate the steepness of the potential in their repulsive and attractive parts independently. This feature allowed us to separate unambiguously the role of each region of the potential on setting the thermophysical properties. In particular, we found positive linear correlation between all critical coordinates and the attractive and repulsive softness, except for the critical density and the attractive softness which are negatively correlated. Moreover, we found that the physical properties related to phase coexistence (such as span of the liquid phase between the critical and triple points, variations in the P-T vaporization curve, interface width, and surface tension) are more sensitive to changes in the attractive softness than to the repulsive one. Understanding the different roles of attractive and repulsive forces on phase coexistence may contribute to developing more accurate models of liquids and their mixtures.
Suppression of the Primordial Gravitational Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tumurtushaa, Gansukh; Koh, Seoktae; Lee, Bum-Hoon
2016-07-01
We study the primordial gravitational waves induced by space-space condensate inflation model. For modes that cross the comoving horizon during matter dominated era, we calculate the energy spectrum of gravitational waves. The energy spectrum of gravitational waves for our model has significantly suppressed in the low frequency range. The suppression occurs due to the phase transition during the early evolution of the Universe and depends on model parameter.
Classical underpinnings of gravitationally induced quantum interference
Mannheim, P.D.
1998-02-01
We show that the gravitational modification of the phase of a neutron beam [the Colella-Overhauser-Werner (COW) experiment] has a classical origin, being due to the time delay that classical particles experience in traversing a background gravitational field. Similarly, we show that classical light waves also undergo a phase shift in traversing a gravitational field. We show that the COW experiment respects the equivalence principle even in the presence of quantum mechanics. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Long-range repulsive charged colloids in and out of equilibrium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van der Linden, M. N.
2013-04-01
The research described in this thesis focusses on the behaviour of charged colloidal particles with long-range repulsive interactions. The experimental model system we used consisted of sterically stabilised charged poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) colloids suspended in cyclohexyl bromide (CHB). In this low-polar solvent very low ionic concentrations can be achieved, resulting in a large Debye screening length (on the order of the particle diameter), i.e. long-range interactions. The pair interaction in these systems is often modelled by the hard-core repulsive Yukawa (or screened Coulomb) potential, which we used for our computer simulations. In Monte Carlo simulations we investigated the effect of size polydispersity on the crystal-fluid transition. We observed a shift to higher volume fraction of the crystal-fluid transition upon increasing the polydispersity. At high polydispersities parts of the higher charged systems that were initially crystalline became amorphous. The amorphous parts had a higher polydispersity than the crystalline parts, indicating the presence of a terminal polydispersity beyond which the homogeneous crystal phase was no longer stable. We investigated the slow dynamics close to the glass transition as a function of the range of the potential, also in simulations. We determined the long-time structural relaxation time and long-time self-diffusion coefficient, which could be well fitted by a power law predicted by mode-coupling theory (MCT) and by the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation. In experiments we used confocal microscopy to study the system quantitatively in 3D on a single-particle level. We performed micro-electrophoresis measurements to determine the surface potential and charge of the PMMA particles at a volume fraction around 0.02. The surface potential was roughly independent of the diameter of the particle and was found to be lower for unlocked particles (steric stabiliser adsorbed to surface) than for locked particles
Gravitational Wave Astrophysics: Opening the New Frontier
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2011-01-01
A new era in time-domain astronomy will begin when the gravitational wave window onto the universe opens in approx. 5 years, as ground-based detectors make the first detections in the high-frequency regime. Since the universe is nearly transparent to gravitational waves, these signals carry direct information about their sources - such as masses, spins, luminosity distances, and orbital parameters through dense, obscured regions across cosmic time. This talk will explore gravitational waves as cosmic messengers, highlighting key sources and opportunities for multimessenger astronomy across the gravitational wave spectrum.
Gravitational Wave Astrophysics: Opening the New Frontier
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
A new era in astronomy will begin when the gravitational wave window onto the universe opens in approx. 5 years, as ground-based detectors make the first detections in the high-frequency regime. Since the universe is nearly transparent to gravitational waves, these signals carry direct information about their sources - such as masses, spins, luminosity distances, and orbital parameters - through dense, obscured regions across cosmic time. This talk will explore gravitational waves as cosmic messengers, highlighting key sources and opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy across the gravitational wave spectrum.
Gravitational Wave Astrophysics: Opening the New Frontier
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2011-01-01
A new era in astronomy will begin when the gravitational wave window onto the universe opens in approx. 5 years) as ground-based detectors make the first detections in the high-frequency regime. Since the universe is nearly transparent to gravitational waves) these signals carry direct information about their sources - such as masses) spins) luminosity distances) and orbital parameters - through dense) obscured regions across cosmic time. This talk will explore gravitational waves as cosmic messengers) highlighting key sources and opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy across the gravitational wave spectrum.
Gravitational forces and moments on spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kane, T. R.; Likins, P. W.
1975-01-01
The solution of problems of attitude dynamics of spacecraft and the influence of gravitational forces and moments is examined. Arguments are presented based on Newton's law of gravitation, and employing the methods of Newtonian (vectorial) mechanics, with minimal recourse to the classical concepts of potential theory. The necessary ideas were developed and relationships were established to permit the representation of gravitational forces and moments exerted on bodies in space by other bodies, both in terms involving the mass distribution properties of the bodies, and in terms of vector operations on those scalar functions classically described as gravitational potential functions.
Feasibility analysis of gravitational experiments in space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Everitt, C. W. F.
1977-01-01
Experiments on gravitation and general relativity suggested by different workers in the past ten or more years are reviewed, their feasibility examined, and the advantages of performing them in space were studied. The experiments include: (1) the gyro relativity experiment; (2) experiments to test the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass; (3) an experiment to look for nongeodesic motion of spinning bodies in orbit around the earth; (4) experiments to look for changes of the gravitational constant G with time; (5) a variety of suggestions; laboratory tests of experimental gravity; and (6) gravitational wave experiments.
The second-order gravitational red shift
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaffe, J.
1973-01-01
The direct measurement of the nonlinear term of the gravitational field equations by using very stable clocks is discussed along with measuring the perhelion advance of a planet or satellite. These are considered measurements of the second-order gravitational red shift. The exact expression for the frequency shift of light in a gravitational field is derived. Other topics discussed include: The Doppler-cancelling technique; the second-order red shift in a spherically symmetric gravitational field; finite signal transit time; and the reality and interpretation of coordinates in the second-order red shift experiment.
Mahendran, V; Philip, John
2014-09-01
This paper reports results on the effect of interaction of Ag(+) on 1D droplet array spacing and the repulsive forces between stimuli-responsive nanoemulsion droplets, stabilized with an anionic surfactant--sodium dodecyl sulfate--and a diblock polymer--poly(vinyl alcohol)-vinyl acetate. The repulsive interaction is probed by measuring the in-situ equilibrium force-distance in the presence of Ag(+) using the magnetic chaining technique. At a constant static magnetic field, emulsion droplets form 1D array that diffract visible light. A large blue-shift in the diffracted light is observed in the presence of interacting Ag(+) because of the reduction in the interdroplet spacing within the 1D array. The in-situ equilibrium force-distance measurement results show that the onset of repulsions and magnitude of repulsive forces are strongly influenced by the presence of Ag(+) in ppb levels. This suggests that the Ag(+) ions screen the surface charges through the formation of both Stern and diffuse electric double layer and produces a dramatic blue-shift in surfactant-stabilized emulsion, whereas a dramatic conformational change in the adsorbed polymer layer causes a reduction in the 1D array spacing in the diblock polymer stabilized emulsion. The force-distance results are compared with the predictions of electrical double-layer and repulsive steric forces. The droplet array shows an excellent selectivity to Ag(+) due to the strong interaction of Ag(+) with the stabilizing moieties at the oil-water interface. The possible mechanisms of interaction of Ag(+) with surfactant and polymer are discussed. The dramatic decrease in the 1D array spacing in the presence of Ag(+) may find promising practical applications in the development of optical sensors for selective detection of cations with ultrahigh sensitivity. PMID:25105903
Bischoff, Felix; Seufert, Knud; Auwärter, Willi; Joshi, Sushobhan; Vijayaraghavan, Saranyan; Écija, David; Diller, Katharina; Papageorgiou, Anthoula C; Fischer, Sybille; Allegretti, Francesco; Duncan, David A; Klappenberger, Florian; Blobner, Florian; Han, Runyuan; Barth, Johannes V
2013-04-23
We investigated the surface bonding and ordering of free-base porphine (2H-P), the parent compound of all porphyrins, on a smooth noble metal support. Our multitechnique investigation reveals a surprisingly rich and complex behavior, including intramolecular proton switching, repulsive intermolecular interactions, and density-driven phase transformations. For small concentrations, molecular-level observations using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy clearly show the operation of repulsive interactions between 2H-P molecules in direct contact with the employed Ag(111) surface, preventing the formation of islands. An increase of the molecular coverage results in a continuous decrease of the average intermolecular distance, correlated with multiple phase transformations: the system evolves from an isotropic, gas-like configuration via a fluid-like phase to a crystalline structure, which finally gives way to a disordered layer. Herein, considerable site-specific molecule-substrate interactions, favoring an exclusive adsorption on bridge positions of the Ag(111) lattice, play an important role. Accordingly, the 2D assembly of 2H-P/Ag(111) layers is dictated by the balance between adsorption energy maximization while retaining a single adsorption site counteracted by the repulsive molecule-molecule interactions. The long-range repulsion is associated with a charge redistribution at the 2H-P/Ag(111) interface comprising a partial filling of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, resulting in long-range electrostatic interactions between the adsorbates. Indeed, 2H-P molecules in the second layer that are electronically only weakly coupled to the Ag substrate show no repulsive behavior, but form dense-packed islands. PMID:23521075
Lattuada, Marco; Morbidelli, Massimo
2011-03-01
In this work, we have performed a systematic investigation of the effect of electrostatic repulsive interactions on the aggregation rate of colloidal nanoparticles to from doublets in the presence of a convective transport mechanism. The aggregation rate has been computed by solving numerically the Fuchs-Smoluchowski diffusion-convection equation. Two convective transport mechanisms have been considered: extensional flow field and gravity-induced relative sedimentation. A broad range of conditions commonly encountered in the applications of colloidal dispersions has been analyzed. The relative importance of convective to diffusive contributions has been quantified by using the Peclet number Pe. The simulation results indicate that, in the presence of repulsive interactions, the evolution of the aggregation rate as a function of Pe can always be divided into three distinct regimes, no matter which convective mechanism is considered. At low Pe values the rate of aggregation is independent of convection and is dominated by repulsive interactions. At high Pe values, the rate of aggregation is dominated by convection, and independent of repulsive interactions. At intermediate Pe values, a sharp transition between these two regimes occurs. During this transition, which occurs usually over a 10-100-fold increase in Pe values, the aggregation rate can change by several orders of magnitude. The interval of Pe values where this transition occurs depends upon the nature of the convective transport mechanism, as well as on the height and characteristic lengthscale of the repulsive barrier. A simplified model has been proposed that is capable of quantitatively accounting for the simulations results. The obtained results reveal unexpected features of the effect of ionic strength and particle size on the stability of colloidal suspensions under shear or sedimentation, which have relevant consequences in industrial applications. PMID:21193203
Primordial gravitational waves and cosmology.
Krauss, Lawrence M; Dodelson, Scott; Meyer, Stephan
2010-05-21
The observation of primordial gravitational waves could provide a new and unique window on the earliest moments in the history of the universe and on possible new physics at energies many orders of magnitude beyond those accessible at particle accelerators. Such waves might be detectable soon, in current or planned satellite experiments that will probe for characteristic imprints in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background, or later with direct space-based interferometers. A positive detection could provide definitive evidence for inflation in the early universe and would constrain new physics from the grand unification scale to the Planck scale. PMID:20489015
Combustion at reduced gravitational conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berlad, A. L.; Wang, L. S.; Joshi, N.; Pai, C. I.
1980-01-01
The theoretical structures needed for the predictive analyses and interpretations for flame propagation and extinction for clouds of porous particulates are presented. Related combustion theories of significance to reduced gravitational studies of combustible media are presented. Nonadiabatic boundaries are required for both autoignition theory and for extinction theory. Processes that were considered include, pyrolysis and vaporization of particulates, heterogeneous and homogeneous chemical kinetics, molecular transport of heat and mass, radiative coupling of the medium to its environment, and radiative coupling among particles and volume elements of the combustible medium.
Gravitational effects on inflaton decay
Ema, Yohei; Jinno, Ryusuke; Mukaida, Kyohei; Nakayama, Kazunori
2015-05-22
We point out that the inflaton inevitably couples to all non-conformally coupled matters gravitationally through an oscillation in the Hubble parameter or the cosmic scale factor. It leads to particle production during the inflaton oscillation regime, which is most efficient just after inflation. Moreover, the analysis is extended to the model with non-minimal inflaton couplings to gravity, in which the Hubble parameter oscillates more violently. We apply our results to the graviton production by the inflaton: gravitons are also produced just after inflation, but the non-minimal coupling does not induce inflaton decay into the graviton pair.
Gravitational influence on eutectic solidification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sokolowski, Robert S.; Glicksman, Martin E.
1992-01-01
The effect of gravity on eutectic solidification was investigated experimentally for Pb-Sn binary eutectic alloys. It is found that the separation of the primary crystals of the binary system from the coupled eutectic occurs over a wide range of cooling rates and gravitational fields (100-100,000 g). The separation is strongly influenced by the nucleation behavior of the particular alloy system. A mechanism for the strong phase separation is postulated on the basis of cloud convection models in atmospheric convection.
Atom gravimeters and gravitational redshift.
Wolf, Peter; Blanchet, Luc; Bordé, Christian J; Reynaud, Serge; Salomon, Christophe; Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude
2010-09-01
In ref. 1 the authors present a re-interpretation of atom interferometry experiments published a decade ago. They now consider the atom interferometry experiments as a measurement of the gravitational redshift on the quantum clock operating at the Compton frequency omega(C) = mc(2)/ approximately 2pi x 3.0 x 10(25) Hz, where m is the caesium (Cs) atom rest mass. They then argue that this redshift measurement compares favourably with existing as well as projected clock tests. Here we show that this interpretation is incorrect. PMID:20811407
Towards an alternative gravitational theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nieto, J. A.; Beltrán, L. A.
2015-03-01
In 1680, Cassini proposed oval curves as alternative trajectories for the visible planets around the sun. The Cassini ovals were of course overshadowed by the Kepler's first law (1609), namely the planets move around the sun describing conic orbits. Here, we describe the possibility that the Cassini's idea works at larger or smaller scales. Indeed, we consider the Spiric curves (which are a generalization of the Cassini oval) and present the first steps towards a Spiric gravitational theory. We show that from our formalism an ellipse associated with a planet can be obtained as a particular case.
Gravitational entropy and global structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawking, S. W.; Hunter, C. J.
1999-02-01
The underlying reason for the existence of gravitational entropy is traced to the impossibility of foliating topologically non-trivial Euclidean spacetimes with a time function to give a unitary Hamiltonian evolution. In d dimensions the entropy can be expressed in terms of the d-2 obstructions to foliation, bolts and Misner strings, by a universal formula. We illustrate with a number of examples including spaces with nut charge. In these cases, the entropy is not just a quarter the area of the bolt, as it is for black holes.
Gravitational asymmetries in gaseous disks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Junqueira, S.; Combes, F.
1997-12-01
The authors report preliminary results of self-gravitating simulations of spiral galaxies modeled by two components, stellar and gaseous disks. One of the objectives of this work is to study asymmetries in the distribution of the gas, features observed for a number of spiral galaxies. The gas disk is simulated by the Beam-Scheme method, where the gas is considered as a fluid. The results suggest that very concentrated galactic disks can be unstable to the one-armed (m = 1) spiral perturbation, which may explain the asymmetric patterns observed in isolated galaxies.
Gravitational polarizability of black holes
Damour, Thibault; Lecian, Orchidea Maria
2009-08-15
The gravitational polarizability properties of black holes are compared and contrasted with their electromagnetic polarizability properties. The 'shape' or 'height' multipolar Love numbers h{sub l} of a black hole are defined and computed. They are then compared to their electromagnetic analogs h{sub l}{sup EM}. The Love numbers h{sub l} give the height of the lth multipolar 'tidal bulge' raised on the horizon of a black hole by faraway masses. We also discuss the shape of the tidal bulge raised by a test-mass m, in the limit where m gets very close to the horizon.
A VLA gravitational lens survey
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hewitt, J. N.; Turner, E. L.; Burke, B. F.; Lawrence, C. R.; Bennett, C. L.
1987-01-01
A VLA survey designed to detect gravitational lensing on sub-arc second and arc second scales is described, and preliminary results of radio data are presented. In particular, it is found that the density of matter in the form of a uniform comoving number density of 10 to the 11th - 10 to the 12th solar mass compact objects, luminous or dark, must be substantially less than the critical density. Data obtained for the radio source 1042+178 are briefly examined.
Gravitational Lensing Extends SETI Range
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Factor, Richard
Microwave SETI (The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) focuses on two primary strategies, the "Targeted Search" and the "All-Sky Survey." Although the goal of both strategies is the unequivocal discovery of a signal transmitted by intelligent species outside our solar system, they pursue the strategies in very different manners and have vastly different requirements. This chapter introduces Gravitational Lensing SETI (GL-SETI), a third strategy. Its goal is the unequivocal discovery of an extraterrestrial signal, with equipment and data processing requirements that are substantially different from the commonly-used strategies. This strategy is particularly suitable for use with smaller radio telescopes and has budgetary requirements suitable for individual researchers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pitoňák, Martin; Šprlák, Michal; Hamáčková, Eliška; Novák, Pavel
2016-04-01
Regional recovery of the disturbing gravitational potential in the area of Central Europe from satellite gravitational gradients data is discussed in this contribution. The disturbing gravitational potential is obtained by inverting surface integral formulas which transform the disturbing gravitational potential onto disturbing gravitational gradients in the spherical local north-oriented frame. Two numerical approaches that solve the inverse problem are considered. In the first approach, the integral formulas are rigorously decomposed into two parts, that is, the effects of the gradient data within near and distant zones. While the effect of the near zone data is sought as an inverse problem, the effect of the distant zone data is synthesized from the global gravitational model GGM05S using spectral weights given by truncation error coefficients up to the degree 150. In the second approach, a reference gravitational field up to the degree 180 is applied to reduce and smooth measured gravitational gradients. In both cases we recovered the disturbing gravitational potential from each of the four well-measured gravitational gradients of the GOCE satellite separately as well as from their combination. Obtained results are compared with the EGM2008, DIR-r2, TIM-r2 and SPW-r2 global gravitational models. The best fit was achieved for EGM2008 and the second approach combining all four well-measured gravitational gradients with rms of 1.231 m2 s-2.
Designing convex repulsive pair potentials that favor assembly of kagome and snub square lattices.
Piñeros, William D; Baldea, Michael; Truskett, Thomas M
2016-08-01
Building on a recently introduced inverse strategy, isotropic and convex repulsive pair potentials were designed that favor assembly of particles into kagome and equilateral snub square lattices. The former interactions were obtained by a numerical solution of a variational problem that maximizes the range of density for which the ground state of the potential is the kagome lattice. Similar optimizations targeting the snub square lattice were also carried out, employing a constraint that required a minimum chemical potential advantage of the target over select competing structures. This constraint helped to discover isotropic interactions that meaningfully favored the snub square lattice as the ground state structure despite the asymmetric spatial distribution of particles in its coordination shells and the presence of tightly competing structures. Consistent with earlier published results [W. Piñeros et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 084502 (2016)], enforcement of greater chemical potential advantages for the target lattice in the interaction optimization led to assemblies with enhanced thermal stability. PMID:27497576
Skyrmion-skyrmion and skyrmion-edge repulsions in skyrmion-based racetrack memory
Zhang, Xichao; Zhao, G. P.; Fangohr, Hans; Liu, J. Ping; Xia, W. X.; Xia, J.; Morvan, F. J.
2015-01-01
Magnetic skyrmions are promising for building next-generation magnetic memories and spintronic devices due to their stability, small size and the extremely low currents needed to move them. In particular, skyrmion-based racetrack memory is attractive for information technology, where skyrmions are used to store information as data bits instead of traditional domain walls. Here we numerically demonstrate the impacts of skyrmion-skyrmion and skyrmion-edge repulsions on the feasibility of skyrmion-based racetrack memory. The reliable and practicable spacing between consecutive skyrmionic bits on the racetrack as well as the ability to adjust it are investigated. Clogging of skyrmionic bits is found at the end of the racetrack, leading to the reduction of skyrmion size. Further, we demonstrate an effective and simple method to avoid the clogging of skyrmionic bits, which ensures the elimination of skyrmionic bits beyond the reading element. Our results give guidance for the design and development of future skyrmion-based racetrack memory. PMID:25560935
Beyond Born-Mayer: Improved Models for Short-Range Repulsion in ab Initio Force Fields.
Van Vleet, Mary J; Misquitta, Alston J; Stone, Anthony J; Schmidt, J R
2016-08-01
Short-range repulsion within intermolecular force fields is conventionally described by either Lennard-Jones (A/r(12)) or Born-Mayer (A exp(-Br)) forms. Despite their widespread use, these simple functional forms are often unable to describe the interaction energy accurately over a broad range of intermolecular distances, thus creating challenges in the development of ab initio force fields and potentially leading to decreased accuracy and transferability. Herein, we derive a novel short-range functional form based on a simple Slater-like model of overlapping atomic densities and an iterated stockholder atom (ISA) partitioning of the molecular electron density. We demonstrate that this Slater-ISA methodology yields a more accurate, transferable, and robust description of the short-range interactions at minimal additional computational cost compared to standard Lennard-Jones or Born-Mayer approaches. Finally, we show how this methodology can be adapted to yield the standard Born-Mayer functional form while still retaining many of the advantages of the Slater-ISA approach. PMID:27337546
Meng, Long-Yue; Park, Soo-Jin
2012-02-15
A facile chemical process is described to produce graphene oxide utilizing a zwitterions amino acid intermediate from graphite oxide sheets. 11-aminoundecanoic acid molecules were protonated to intercalate molecules into the graphite oxide sheets to achieve ion exchange, and the carboxyl groups were then ionized in a NaOH solution to exfoliate the graphite oxide sheets. In this way, the produced graphene oxide nanosheets were stably dispersed in water. The delaminated graphene nanosheets were confirmed by XRD, AFM, and TEM. XRD patterns indicated the d{sub 002}-spacing of the graphite greatly increased from 0.380 nm and 0.870 nm. AFM and TEM images showed that the ordered graphite crystal structure of graphene nanosheets was effectively exfoliated by this method. The prepared graphene nanosheets films showed 87.1% transmittance and a sheet resistance of 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} {Omega}/square. - Graphical abstract: A stable graphene oxide suspension could be quickly prepared by exfoliating a graphite oxide suspension by a host-guest electrostatic repulsion in aqueous solution. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Graphene nanosheets were prepared by a zwitterions amino acid intermediate from graphite oxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 11-aminoundecanoic acid was protonated to intercalate molecules into the graphene oxide to achieve ion exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The d{sub 002}-spacing of the graphite oxide greatly increased from 0.330 nm to 0.415 nm after 11-aminoundecanoic acid treatment.
Negative-mass mitigation of Coulomb repulsion for terahertz undulator radiation of electron bunches
Balal, N.; Magory, E.; Bandurkin, I. V.; Bratman, V. L.; Savilov, A. V.
2015-10-19
It is proposed to utilize the effect of negative mass for stabilization of the effective axial size of very dense and short electron bunches produced by photo-injector guns by using combined undulator and strong uniform magnetic fields. It has been shown that in the “abnormal” regime, an increase in the electron energy leads to a decrease in the axial velocity of the electron; due to the negative-mass effect, the Coulomb repulsion of electrons leads to their attraction and formation of a fairly stable and compact bunch “nucleus.” An undulator with a strong uniform magnetic field providing the negative-mass effect is designed for an experimental source of terahertz radiation. The use of the negative-mass regime in this experiment should result in a long-pulse coherent spontaneous undulator emission from a short dense moderately relativistic (5.5 MeV) photo-injector electron bunch with a high (up to 20%) efficiency and a narrow frequency spectrum.
Beyond Born-Mayer: Improved models for short-range repulsion in ab initio force fields
Van Vleet, Mary J.; Misquitta, Alston J.; Stone, Anthony J.; Schmidt, Jordan R.
2016-06-23
Short-range repulsion within inter-molecular force fields is conventionally described by either Lennard-Jones or Born-Mayer forms. Despite their widespread use, these simple functional forms are often unable to describe the interaction energy accurately over a broad range of inter-molecular distances, thus creating challenges in the development of ab initio force fields and potentially leading to decreased accuracy and transferability. Herein, we derive a novel short-range functional form based on a simple Slater-like model of overlapping atomic densities and an iterated stockholder atom (ISA) partitioning of the molecular electron density. We demonstrate that this Slater-ISA methodology yields a more accurate, transferable, andmore » robust description of the short-range interactions at minimal additional computational cost compared to standard Lennard-Jones or Born-Mayer approaches. Lastly, we show how this methodology can be adapted to yield the standard Born-Mayer functional form while still retaining many of the advantages of the Slater-ISA approach.« less
Three-dimensional electrospun alginate nanofiber mats via tailored charge repulsions.
Bonino, Christopher A; Efimenko, Kirill; Jeong, Sung In; Krebs, Melissa D; Alsberg, Eben; Khan, Saad A
2012-06-25
The formation of 3D electrospun mat structures from alginate-polyethylene oxide (PEO) solution blends is reported. These unique architectures expand the capabilities of traditional electrospun mats for applications such as regenerative medicine, where a scaffold can help to promote tissue growth in three dimensions. The mat structures extend off the surface of the flat collector plate without the need of any modifications in the electrospinning apparatus, are self-supported when the electric field is removed, and are composed of bundles of nanofibers. A mechanism for the unique formations is proposed, based on the fiber-fiber repulsions from surface charges on the negatively charged alginate. Furthermore, the role of the electric field in the distribution of alginate within the nanofibers is discussed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to analyze the surface composition of the electrospun nanofiber mats and the data is related to cast films made in the absence of the electric field. Further techniques to tailor the 3D architecture and nanofiber morphology by changing the surface tension and relative humidity are also discussed. PMID:22461238
Repulsive Guidance Molecule is a structural bridge between Neogenin and Bone Morphogenetic Protein
Healey, Eleanor G.; Bishop, Benjamin; Elegheert, Jonathan; Bell, Christian H.; Padilla-Parra, Sergi; Siebold, Christian
2015-01-01
Repulsive guidance molecules (RGMs) control crucial processes spanning cell motility, adhesion, immune cell regulation and systemic iron metabolism. RGMs signal via two fundamental signaling cascades: the Neogenin (NEO1) and the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathways. Here, we report crystal structures of the N-terminal domains of all human RGM family members in complex with the BMP ligand BMP2, revealing a novel protein fold and a conserved BMP-binding mode. Our structural and functional data suggest a pH-linked mechanism for RGM-activated BMP signaling and offer a rationale for RGM mutations causing juvenile hemochromatosis. We also determined the ternary BMP2–RGM–NEO1 complex crystal structure, which combined with solution scattering and live-cell super-resolution fluorescence microscopy, indicates BMP-induced clustering of the RGM–NEO1 complex. Our results show how RGM acts as the central hub linking BMP and NEO1 and physically connecting these fundamental signaling pathways. PMID:25938661
Exchange repulsive potential adaptable for electronic structure changes during chemical reactions
Yokogawa, D.
2015-04-28
Hybrid methods combining quantum mechanical (QM) and classical calculations are becoming important tools in chemistry. The popular approach to calculate the interaction between QM and classical calculations employs interatomic potentials. In most cases, the interatomic potential is constructed of an electrostatic (ES) potential and a non-ES potential. Because QM treatment is employed in the calculation of the ES potential, the electronic change can be considered in this ES potential. However, QM treatment of the non-ES potential is difficult because of high computational cost. To overcome this difficulty of evaluating the non-ES potential, we proposed an exchange repulsive potential as the main part of the non-ES potential on the basis of a QM approach. This potential is independent of empirical parameters and adaptable for electronic structure. We combined this potential with the reference interaction site model self-consistent field explicitly including spatial electron density distribution and successfully applied it to the chemical reactions in aqueous phase.
Self-Organized Collective Crystal-Like Formations of the Attractive/repulsive Swarming System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Wen-Qiang; Gao, Dan; Wang, Ying-Guan
2014-01-01
In this paper, an adaptive attractive/repulsive (A/R) swarming model is proposed to explore the role of self-organized formation in swarming systems. By defining the adjustable A/R range γi, which is affected by the localized steady state of agents, the standard collective crystal-like swarming formations are straightforwardly unfolded in different scale. Meanwhile, with numerical simulations and analyses, the results show that the adaptive A/R swarming model provides an effective solution to the current existing dilemma of the collective liquid-like formation with unexpected neighbor distances and the split crystal-like formation. The actual neighbor distance of the adaptive A/R model could converge to the expected neighbor distance as planned, based on the different settings of the expected neighbor distance and the A/R range. Moreover, such adjustable A/R swarming formations may find their potential applications such as the formation of self-organized multi-robots and unmanned aerial vehicles, the automatic networking of sensors, etc.
Thermodynamics, contact, and density profiles of the repulsive Gaudin-Yang model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
PâÅ£u, Ovidiu I.; Klümper, Andreas
2016-03-01
We address the problem of computing the thermodynamic properties of the repulsive one-dimensional two-component Fermi gas with contact interaction, also known as the Gaudin-Yang model. Using a specific lattice embedding and the quantum transfer matrix we derive an exact system of only two nonlinear integral equations for the thermodynamics of the homogeneous model which is valid for all temperatures and values of the chemical potential, magnetic field, and coupling strength. This system allows for an easy and extremely accurate calculation of thermodynamic properties circumventing the difficulties associated with the truncation of the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz system of equations. We present extensive results for the densities, polarization, magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, interaction energy, Tan contact, and local correlation function of opposite spins. Our results show that at low and intermediate temperatures the experimentally accessible contact is a nonmonotonic function of the coupling strength. As a function of the temperature the contact presents a pronounced local minimum in the Tonks-Girardeau regime which signals an abrupt change of the momentum distribution in a small interval of temperature. The density profiles of the system in the presence of a harmonic trapping potential are computed using the exact solution of the homogeneous model coupled with the local density approximation. We find that at finite temperature the density profile presents a double shell structure (partially polarized center and fully polarized wings) only when the polarization in the center of the trap is above a critical value which is monotonically increasing with temperature.
Observation of Attractive and Repulsive Polarons in a Bose-Einstein Condensate.
Jørgensen, Nils B; Wacker, Lars; Skalmstang, Kristoffer T; Parish, Meera M; Levinsen, Jesper; Christensen, Rasmus S; Bruun, Georg M; Arlt, Jan J
2016-07-29
The problem of an impurity particle moving through a bosonic medium plays a fundamental role in physics. However, the canonical scenario of a mobile impurity immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) has not yet been realized. Here, we use radio frequency spectroscopy of ultracold bosonic ^{39}K atoms to experimentally demonstrate the existence of a well-defined quasiparticle state of an impurity interacting with a BEC. We measure the energy of the impurity both for attractive and repulsive interactions, and find excellent agreement with theories that incorporate three-body correlations, both in the weak-coupling limits and across unitarity. The spectral response consists of a well-defined quasiparticle peak at weak coupling, while for increasing interaction strength, the spectrum is strongly broadened and becomes dominated by the many-body continuum of excited states. Crucially, no significant effects of three-body decay are observed. Our results open up exciting prospects for studying mobile impurities in a bosonic environment and strongly interacting Bose systems in general. PMID:27517777
Observation of a ferromagnetic instability in repulsively interacting Fermi gases of 6 Li
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scazza, Francesco; Valtolina, Giacomo; Amico, Andrea; Burchianti, Alessia; Fort, Chiara; Zaccanti, Matteo; Inguscio, Massimo; Roati, Giacomo
2016-05-01
The fine control of interaction strengths and optical trapping potentials in ultracold atomic ensembles provide unique opportunities to explore strongly correlated fermion phenomena, such as superfluidity and magnetism. In our setup, we produce 6 Li quantum gases in the vicinity of a broad Feshbach resonance and we subsequently superimpose to the samples a thin optical barrier to engineer either a Josephson weak link or a ferromagnetic domain wall. This technique recently enabled the experimental study of the Josephson dynamics of superfluid Fermi gases flowing through an insulating barrier, spanning a wide range of interaction strengths across the BEC-BCS crossover. On the other hand, by preparing adjacent and fully spin-polarized domains, we are able to experimentally address the upper branch of a repulsively interacting Fermi gas and its magnetic properties. Here, we report on the investigation of the onset and the stability of the ferromagnetic state. Measurements of spin diffusion dynamics in the system reveal a total suppression of spin conductance above a critical interaction strength, accompanied by a softening of the collective spin-dipole mode, indicating the existence of a ferromagnetic instability.
gdnf activates midline repulsion by Semaphorin3B via NCAM during commissural axon guidance.
Charoy, Camille; Nawabi, Homaira; Reynaud, Florie; Derrington, Edmund; Bozon, Muriel; Wright, Kevin; Falk, Julien; Helmbacher, Françoise; Kindbeiter, Karine; Castellani, Valérie
2012-09-20
The Neurotrophic factor gdnf plays diverse developmental roles, supporting survival and also acting as a chemoattractant for axon and cell migration. We report that in the developing spinal cord, a focal source of gdnf is present in the floor plate (FP) where commissural axons cross the midline. Gdnf has no direct guidance properties but switches on the responsiveness of crossing commissural growth cones to the midline repellent Semaphorin3B by suppressing calpain-mediated processing of the Sema3B signaling coreceptor Plexin-A1. Analysis of single and double mutant mouse models indicates that although gdnf is the principal trigger of Sema3B midline repulsion, it acts with another FP cue, NrCAM. Finally, genetic and in vitro experiments provide evidence that this gdnf effect is RET independent and mediated by NCAM/GFRα1 signaling. This study identifies a regulator of midline crossing and reveals interplays between Semaphorin and gdnf signaling during axon guidance. PMID:22998873
A repulsion mechanism explains magnesium permeation and selectivity in CorA.
Dalmas, Olivier; Sandtner, Walter; Medovoy, David; Frezza, Ludivine; Bezanilla, Francisco; Perozo, Eduardo
2014-02-25
Magnesium (Mg(2+)) plays a central role in biology, regulating the activity of many enzymes and stabilizing the structure of key macromolecules. In bacteria, CorA is the primary source of Mg(2+) uptake and is self-regulated by intracellular Mg(2+). Using a gating mutant at the divalent ion binding site, we were able to characterize CorA selectivity and permeation properties to both monovalent and divalent cations under perfused two-electrode voltage clamp. The present data demonstrate that under physiological conditions, CorA is a multioccupancy Mg(2+)-selective channel, fully excluding monovalent cations, and Ca(2+), whereas in absence of Mg(2+), CorA is essentially nonselective, displaying only mild preference against other divalents (Ca(2+) > Mn(2+) > Co(2+) > Mg(2+) > Ni(2)(+)). Selectivity against monovalent cations takes place via Mg(2+) binding at a high-affinity site, formed by the Gly-Met-Asn signature sequence (Gly312 and Asn314) at the extracellular side of the pore. This mechanism is reminiscent of repulsion models proposed for Ca(2+) channel selectivity despite differences in sequence and overall structure. PMID:24516146
Delocalization effect of the Hubbard repulsion in two dimensions and exact terms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gulacsi, Zsolt
2009-03-01
The physical reasons explaining the delocalization effect of the Hubbard repulsion U leading in 2D to an insulator to metal transition are analyzed. The study is made in exact terms by deducing exact ground states and ground state expectation values of interest based on a positive semidefinite operator technique [1]. First it is shown that always when this effect is observed, U acts on the background of a macroscopic degeneracy present in a multiband type of system. After this step I demonstrate that acting in such conditions, by strongly diminishing the double occupancy, U spreads out the contributions in the ground state wave function, hence strongly increases the one-particle localization length, and consequently extends the one-particle behavior producing conditions for a delocalization effect [2]. [3pt] References: [1] Z. Gulacsi, D. Vollhardt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91,186401(2003); Z. Gulacsi, A. Kampf, D. Vollhardt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,026404(2007). [2] Z. Gulacsi, Phys. Rev. B77,245113(2008).
Negative-mass mitigation of Coulomb repulsion for terahertz undulator radiation of electron bunches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balal, N.; Bandurkin, I. V.; Bratman, V. L.; Magory, E.; Savilov, A. V.
2015-10-01
It is proposed to utilize the effect of negative mass for stabilization of the effective axial size of very dense and short electron bunches produced by photo-injector guns by using combined undulator and strong uniform magnetic fields. It has been shown that in the "abnormal" regime, an increase in the electron energy leads to a decrease in the axial velocity of the electron; due to the negative-mass effect, the Coulomb repulsion of electrons leads to their attraction and formation of a fairly stable and compact bunch "nucleus." An undulator with a strong uniform magnetic field providing the negative-mass effect is designed for an experimental source of terahertz radiation. The use of the negative-mass regime in this experiment should result in a long-pulse coherent spontaneous undulator emission from a short dense moderately relativistic (5.5 MeV) photo-injector electron bunch with a high (up to 20%) efficiency and a narrow frequency spectrum.
Dragon (repulsive guidance molecule b, RGMb) is a novel gene that promotes colorectal cancer growth
Shi, Ying; Chen, Guo-Bin; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Xiao, Chuan-Xing; Wang, Huan-Huan; Li, Ye-Sen; Zhang, Jin-Fang; Li, Shao; Xia, Yin; Ren, Jian-Lin; Guleng, Bayasi
2015-01-01
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and a major cause of cancer death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CRC initiation, growth and metastasis are poorly understood. Dragon (RGMb), a member of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, has been recently identified as a co-receptor for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, but the role of Dragon in CRC development is undefined. Here, we show that Dragon expression was increased in colon cancer tissues compared to control tissues in CAC mouse model and in human patients. Dragon promoted proliferation of CT26.WT and CMT93 colon cancer cells and accelerated tumor growth in the xenograft mouse model. Dragon's action on colon cancer development was mediated via the BMP4-Smad1/5/8 and Erk1/2 pathways. Therefore, our results have revealed that Dragon is a novel gene that promotes CRC growth through the BMP pathway. Dragon may be exploited as a potential therapeutic target for CRC treatment. PMID:26029998
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romero-García, V.; Vasseur, J. O.; Garcia-Raffi, L. M.; Hladky-Hennion, A. C.
2012-02-01
The complex band structures calculated using the extended plane wave expansion (EPWE) reveal the presence of evanescent modes in periodic systems, never predicted by the classical \\omega(\\vec {k}) methods, providing novel interpretations of several phenomena as well as a complete picture of the system. In this work, we theoretically and experimentally observe that in the ranges of frequencies where a deaf band is traditionally predicted, an evanescent mode with excitable symmetry appears, changing drastically the interpretation of the transmission properties. On the other hand, the simplicity of the sonic crystals in which only the longitudinal polarization can be excited is used to interpret, without loss of generality, the level repulsion between symmetric and antisymmetric bands in sonic crystals as the presence of an evanescent mode connecting both repelled bands. These evanescent modes, obtained using EPWE, explain both the attenuation produced in this range of frequencies and the transfer of symmetry from one band to the other in good agreement with both experimental results and multiple scattering predictions. Thus, the evanescent properties of the periodic system have been revealed to be necessary for the design of new acoustic and electromagnetic applications based on periodicity.
Fermionic superfluidity with repulsive alkaline-earth atoms in optical superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isaev, Leonid; Rey, Ana Maria
2016-05-01
We propose a novel route to superfluidity in fermionic alkaline-earth atoms with repulsive interactions, that uses local kinetic-energy fluctuations as a ``pairing glue'' between the fermions. We exploit different polarizabilities of electronic 1S0 (g) and 3P0 (e) states of the atoms to confine the e- and g- species in different optical superlattices. For example, in a one-dimensional case the e-lattice can be implemented as an array of weakly-coupled double-wells (DWs) with large intra-DW tunneling, and contain one localized e-atom in each DW to avoid losses due to e- e collisions. On the contrary, the shallow g-lattice has a large bandwidth and an arbitrary filling. We consider a nuclear-spin polarized system and demonstrate how kinetic-energy fluctuations of the localized e-atoms mediate an attractive interaction between the g-fermions, thus leading to a p-wave superfluid. We derive a low-energy model and determine the stability of this state against charge-density wave formation and phase separation. Our results can be tested with Yb or Sr fermionic atoms and have a direct relevance for the physics of high-temperature superconductor materials. Work supported by NSF (PIF-1211914 and PFC-1125844), AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI, NIST and ARO individual investigator awards.
Observation of Attractive and Repulsive Polarons in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jørgensen, Nils B.; Wacker, Lars; Skalmstang, Kristoffer T.; Parish, Meera M.; Levinsen, Jesper; Christensen, Rasmus S.; Bruun, Georg M.; Arlt, Jan J.
2016-07-01
The problem of an impurity particle moving through a bosonic medium plays a fundamental role in physics. However, the canonical scenario of a mobile impurity immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) has not yet been realized. Here, we use radio frequency spectroscopy of ultracold bosonic 39K atoms to experimentally demonstrate the existence of a well-defined quasiparticle state of an impurity interacting with a BEC. We measure the energy of the impurity both for attractive and repulsive interactions, and find excellent agreement with theories that incorporate three-body correlations, both in the weak-coupling limits and across unitarity. The spectral response consists of a well-defined quasiparticle peak at weak coupling, while for increasing interaction strength, the spectrum is strongly broadened and becomes dominated by the many-body continuum of excited states. Crucially, no significant effects of three-body decay are observed. Our results open up exciting prospects for studying mobile impurities in a bosonic environment and strongly interacting Bose systems in general.
Miao, Yipu; Merz, Kenneth M
2015-04-14
We present an efficient implementation of ab initio self-consistent field (SCF) energy and gradient calculations that run on Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) enabled graphical processing units (GPUs) using recurrence relations. We first discuss the machine-generated code that calculates the electron-repulsion integrals (ERIs) for different ERI types. Next we describe the porting of the SCF gradient calculation to GPUs, which results in an acceleration of the computation of the first-order derivative of the ERIs. However, only s, p, and d ERIs and s and p derivatives could be executed simultaneously on GPUs using the current version of CUDA and generation of NVidia GPUs using a previously described algorithm [Miao and Merz J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2013, 9, 965-976.]. Hence, we developed an algorithm to compute f type ERIs and d type ERI derivatives on GPUs. Our benchmarks shows the performance GPU enable ERI and ERI derivative computation yielded speedups of 10-18 times relative to traditional CPU execution. An accuracy analysis using double-precision calculations demonstrates that the overall accuracy is satisfactory for most applications. PMID:26574356
Magnetic field corrections to the repulsive Casimir effect at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erdas, Andrea
2016-02-01
I investigate the finite temperature Casimir effect for a charged and massless scalar field satisfying mixed (Dirichlet-Neumann) boundary conditions on a pair of plane parallel plates of infinite size. The effect of a uniform magnetic field, perpendicular to the plates, on the Helmholtz free energy and Casimir pressure is studied. The ζ-function regularization technique is used to obtain finite results. Simple analytic expressions are obtained for the zeta function and the free energy, in the limits of small plate distance, high temperature and strong magnetic field. The Casimir pressure is obtained in each of the three limits and the situation of a magnetic field present between and outside the plates, as well as that of a magnetic field present only between the plates is examined. It is discovered that, in the small plate distance and high temperature limits, the repulsive pressure is less when the magnetic field is present between the plates but not outside, than it is when the magnetic field is present between and outside the plates.
A review of dynamic stability of repulsive-force maglev suspension systems
Cai, Y.; Rote, D.M.
1998-07-01
Vehicle dynamics and the need to satisfy ride quality requirements have long been recognized as crucial to the commercial success of passenger-carrying transportation systems. Design concepts for maglev systems are no exception. Early maglev investigators and designers were well aware of the importance of ride quality and took care to ensure that their designs would meet acceptable ride quality standards. In contrast, the dynamic stability of electrodynamic suspension (EDS) systems, which has obvious implications for system safety and cost as well as for ride quality, has not received nearly as much attention. Because of the well-known under-damped nature of EDS suspension systems and the observation of instabilities in laboratory-scale model systems, it is prudent to develop a better understanding of vehicle stability characteristics. The work reported in this was undertaken with the intention of summarizing information that has been accumulated worldwide and that is relevant to dynamic stability of repulsive-force maglev suspension systems, assimilating that information, and gaining an understanding of the factors that influence that stability. Included in the paper is a discussion and comparison of results acquired from some representative tests of large-scale vehicles on linear test tracks, together with analytical and laboratory-scale investigations of stability and dynamics of EDS systems. This paper will also summarize the R and D activities at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) since 1991 to study the nature of the forces that are operative in an EDS system and the dynamic stability of such systems.
Gravitational waves in bimetric MOND
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milgrom, Mordehai
2014-01-01
I consider the weak-field limit (WFL) of the bimetric, relativistic formulation of the modified Newtonian dynamics (BIMOND)—the lowest order in the small departures hμν=gμν-ημν, h stretchy="false">^μν=g stretchy="false">^μν-ημν from double Minkowski space-time. In particular, I look at propagating solutions, for a favorite subclass of BIMOND. The WFL splits into two sectors for two linear combinations, hμν±, of hμν and h stretchy="false">^μν. The hμν+ sector is equivalent to the WFL of general relativity (GR), with its gauge freedom, and has the same vacuum gravitational waves. The hμν- sector is fully nonlinear even for the weakest hμν-, and inherits none of the coordinate gauge freedom. The equations of motion are scale invariant in the deep-MOND limit of purely gravitational systems. In these last two regards, the BIMOND WFL is greatly different from that of other bimetric theories studied to date. Despite the strong nonlinearity, an arbitrary pair of harmonic GR wave packets of hμν and h stretchy="false">^μν moving in the same direction, is a solution of the (vacuum) BIMOND WFL.
Dyadosphere formed in gravitational collapse
Ruffini, Remo; Xue Shesheng
2008-10-10
We first recall the concept of Dyadosphere (electron-positron-photon plasma around a formed black holes) and its motivation, and recall on (i) the Dirac process: annihilation of electron-positron pairs to photons; (ii) the Breit-Wheeler process: production of electron-positron pairs by photons with the energy larger than electron-positron mass threshold; the Sauter-Euler-Heisenberg effective Lagrangian and rate for the process of electron-positron production in a constant electric field. We present a general formula for the pair-production rate in the semi-classical treatment of quantum mechanical tunneling. We also present in the Quantum Electro-Dynamics framework, the calculations of the Schwinger rate and effective Lagrangian for constant electromagnetic fields. We give a review on the electron-positron plasma oscillation in constant electric fields, and its interaction with photons leading to energy and number equipartition of photons, electrons and positrons. The possibility of creating an overcritical field in astrophysical condition is pointed out. We present the discussions and calculations on (i) energy extraction from gravitational collapse; (ii) the formation of Dyadosphere in gravitational collapsing process, and (iii) its hydrodynamical expansion in Reissner Nordstroem geometry. We calculate the spectrum and flux of photon radiation at the point of transparency, and make predictions for short Gamma-Ray Bursts.
Confusion in Cosmology and Gravitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corda, C.; Katebi, R.; Schmidt, N. O.
2016-06-01
In a series of papers, Santilli and collaborators released various strong statements against the general theory of relativity (GTR) and the standard ΛCDM model of cosmology. In this paper we show that such claims are due to misunderstandings of basic concepts of gravitation and cosmology. In particular, we show that Santilli and collaborators demonstrated neither that the GTR is wrong, nor that the Universe is not expanding. We also show that the so-called iso-gravitation theory (IGT) of Santilli is in macroscopic contrast with geodesic motion and, in turn, with the Equivalence Principle (EP) and must therefore be ultimately rejected. Finally, we show that, although the so called iso-redshift could represent an interesting alternative (similar to the tired light theory historically proposed by Zwicky) to the Universe expansion from a qualitative point of view, it must be rejected from a quantitative point of view because the effect of iso-redshift is 10-6 smaller than the effect requested to achieve the cosmological redshift.
Gravitational energy of conical defects
Maluf, J.W.; Kneip, A.
1997-01-01
The energy density {epsilon}{sub g} of asymptotically flat gravitational fields can be calculated from a simple expression involving the trace of the torsion tensor. The integral of this energy density over the whole space yields the Arnowitt{endash}Deser{endash}Misner (ADM) energy. Such energy expression can be justified within the framework of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity, which is an alternative geometrical formulation of Einstein{close_quote}s general relativity. In this paper we apply {epsilon}{sub g} to the evaluation of the energy per unit length of a class of conical defects of topological nature, which include disclinations and dislocations (in the terminology of crystallography). Disclinations correspond to cosmic strings, and for a space{endash}time endowed with only such a defect the well known expression of energy per unit length is obtained precisely. However for a pure space{endash}time dislocation the total gravitational energy is zero. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Gravitational-wave Mission Study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcnamara, Paul; Jennrich, Oliver; Stebbins, Robin T.
2014-01-01
In November 2013, ESA selected the science theme, the "Gravitational Universe," for its third large mission opportunity, known as L3, under its Cosmic Vision Programme. The planned launch date is 2034. ESA is considering a 20% participation by an international partner, and NASA's Astrophysics Division has indicated an interest in participating. We have studied the design consequences of a NASA contribution, evaluated the science benefits and identified the technology requirements for hardware that could be delivered by NASA. The European community proposed a strawman mission concept, called eLISA, having two measurement arms, derived from the well studied LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) concept. The US community is promoting a mission concept known as SGO Mid (Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory Mid-sized), a three arm LISA-like concept. If NASA were to partner with ESA, the eLISA concept could be transformed to SGO Mid by the addition of a third arm, augmenting science, reducing risk and reducing non-recurring engineering costs. The characteristics of the mission concepts and the relative science performance of eLISA, SGO Mid and LISA are described. Note that all results are based on models, methods and assumptions used in NASA studies
Gravitational effects on biological systems.
Boncinelli, P; Vanni, P
1998-10-01
The possible effects of the earth's gravitational field on biological systems have been studied from a quantitative point of view, focusing the attention to a very simple system, a solution containing proteins, which biochemists might use in experiments. Gravity has been compared with other forces which are known to influence protein activity, including thermic agitation, weak electrostatic interactions, Van der Waals forces and viscous dissipation. Comparisons have been described in terms of the energy of the interaction per mole, referring to some physically simple cases and substances of biological interest. From this study it is evident that the earth's gravitational energy should be taken into account when considering the chemical behaviour of solutions containing substances that have high molecular weight, such as a typical protein, since its value is comparable to other weak interactions. Moreover, since solutions represent the basis of much more complex biological processes taking place inside cells, the influence of gravity should extend also to cellular biochemical behaviour, especially in presence of altered gravity, both in microgravity (such as on satellites orbiting around the earth), and in macrogravity (such as in a centrifugating biological system). PMID:11541902
Testing Gravitational Physics with Space-based Gravitational-wave Observations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.
2011-01-01
Gravitational wave observations provide exceptional and unique opportunities for precision tests of gravitational physics, as predicted by general relativity (GR). Space-based gravitational wave measurements, with high signal-to-noise ratios and large numbers of observed events may provide the best-suited gravitational-wave observations for testing GR with unprecedented precision. These observations will be especially useful in testing the properties of gravitational waves and strong-field aspects of the theory which are less relevant in other observations. We review the proposed GR test based on observations of massive black hole mergers, extreme mass ratio inspirals, and galactic binary systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jentschura, U. D.; Noble, J. H.
2013-08-01
We investigate the nonrelativistic limit of the gravitationally coupled Dirac equation via a Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. The relativistic correction terms have immediate and obvious physical interpretations in terms of a gravitational Zitterbewegung and a gravitational spin-orbit coupling. We find no direct coupling of the spin vector to the gravitational force, which would otherwise violate parity. The particle-antiparticle symmetry described recently by one of us [Jentschura, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.87.032101 87, 032101 (2013)] is verified on the level of the perturbative corrections accessed by the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. The gravitational corrections to the electromagnetic transition current are calculated.
A report on the gravitational redshift test for non-metric theories of gravitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1980-01-01
The frequencies of two atomic hydrogen masers and of three superconducting cavity stabilized oscillators were compared as the ensemble of oscillators was moved in the Sun's gravitational field by the rotation and orbital motion of the Earth. Metric gravitation theories predict that the gravitational redshifts of the two types of oscillators are identical, and that there should be no relative frequency shift between the oscillators; nonmetric theories, in contrast, predict a frequency shift between masers and SCSOs that is proportional to the change in solar gravitational potential experienced by the oscillators. The results are consistent with metric theories of gravitation at a level of 2%.
Gravitational consequences of modern field theories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horowitz, Gary T.
1989-01-01
Some gravitational consequences of certain extensions of Einstein's general theory of relativity are discussed. These theories are not alternative theories of gravity in the usual sense. It is assumed that general relativity is the appropriate description of all gravitational phenomena which were observed to date.
Gravitational potential: real-life results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mungan, Carl E.
2016-01-01
The equilibrium surface of a large body of water is a gravitational equipotential. However, that does not imply that in a local region of increased gravitational field g the height h of the water surface will be lower to keep the potential gh constant, in contrast to a recent claim to that effect.
A low temperature gravitational radiation detector
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamilton, W. O.
1971-01-01
The beginning design of an experiment is discussed for studying gravitational radiation by using massive detectors which are cooled to ultralow temperatures in order to improve the signal to noise ratios and the effective range and stability of the detectors. The gravitational detector, a low detection system, a cooled detector, magnetic support, superconducting shielding, and superconducting accelerometer detector are described.
Onthe static and spherically symmetric gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gottlieb, Ioan; Maftei, Gheorghe; Mociutchi, Cleopatra
Starting from a generalization of Einstein 's theory of gravitation, proposed by one of the authors (Cleopatra Mociutchi), the authors study a particular spherical symmetric case. Among other one obtain the compatibility conditions for the existence of the static and spherically symmetruic gravitational filed in the case of extended Einstein equation.
Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 9, Universal Gravitation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.
As the ninth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials relating to universal gravitation are presented in this study guide. The subject is concerned with the quantitative meaning of the law of universal gravitation and its applications in astronomy. The content is arranged in scrambled form, and the use of matrix…
How Spherical Is a Cube (Gravitationally)?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sanny, Jeff; Smith, David
2015-01-01
An important concept that is presented in the discussion of Newton's law of universal gravitation is that the gravitational effect external to a spherically symmetric mass distribution is the same as if all of the mass of the distribution were concentrated at the center. By integrating over ring elements of a spherical shell, we show that the…
Optics in a nonlinear gravitational plane wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harte, Abraham I.
2015-09-01
Gravitational waves can act like gravitational lenses, affecting the observed positions, brightnesses, and redshifts of distant objects. Exact expressions for such effects are derived here in general relativity, allowing for arbitrarily-moving sources and observers in the presence of plane-symmetric gravitational waves. At least for freely falling sources and observers, it is shown that the commonly-used predictions of linear perturbation theory can be generically overshadowed by nonlinear effects; even for very weak gravitational waves, higher-order perturbative corrections involve secularly-growing terms which cannot necessarily be neglected when considering observations of sufficiently distant sources. Even on more moderate scales where linear effects remain at least marginally dominant, nonlinear corrections are qualitatively different from their linear counterparts. There is a sense in which they can, for example, mimic the existence of a third type of gravitational wave polarization.
Theory and experiment in gravitational physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Will, C. M.
1981-01-01
New technological advances have made it feasible to conduct measurements with precision levels which are suitable for experimental tests of the theory of general relativity. This book has been designed to fill a new need for a complete treatment of techniques for analyzing gravitation theory and experience. The Einstein equivalence principle and the foundations of gravitation theory are considered, taking into account the Dicke framework, basic criteria for the viability of a gravitation theory, experimental tests of the Einstein equivalence principle, Schiff's conjecture, and a model theory devised by Lightman and Lee (1973). Gravitation as a geometric phenomenon is considered along with the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism, the classical tests, tests of the strong equivalence principle, gravitational radiation as a tool for testing relativistic gravity, the binary pulsar, and cosmological tests.
Gravitational wave emission from oscillating millisecond pulsars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alford, Mark G.; Schwenzer, Kai
2015-02-01
Neutron stars undergoing r-mode oscillation emit gravitational radiation that might be detected on the Earth. For known millisecond pulsars the observed spin-down rate imposes an upper limit on the possible gravitational wave signal of these sources. Taking into account the physics of r-mode evolution, we show that only sources spinning at frequencies above a few hundred Hertz can be unstable to r-modes, and we derive a more stringent universal r-mode spin-down limit on their gravitational wave signal. We find that this refined bound limits the gravitational wave strain from millisecond pulsars to values below the detection sensitivity of next generation detectors. Young sources are therefore a more promising option for the detection of gravitational waves emitted by r-modes and to probe the interior composition of compact stars in the near future.
Comparing numerical and analytic approximate gravitational waveforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afshari, Nousha; Lovelace, Geoffrey; SXS Collaboration
2016-03-01
A direct observation of gravitational waves will test Einstein's theory of general relativity under the most extreme conditions. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, or LIGO, began searching for gravitational waves in September 2015 with three times the sensitivity of initial LIGO. To help Advanced LIGO detect as many gravitational waves as possible, a major research effort is underway to accurately predict the expected waves. In this poster, I will explore how the gravitational waveform produced by a long binary-black-hole inspiral, merger, and ringdown is affected by how fast the larger black hole spins. In particular, I will present results from simulations of merging black holes, completed using the Spectral Einstein Code (black-holes.org/SpEC.html), including some new, long simulations designed to mimic black hole-neutron star mergers. I will present comparisons of the numerical waveforms with analytic approximations.
Guo, Shuang; Zhu, Chenqi; Gao-Yang, Yaya; Qiu, Bailing; Wu, Di; Liang, Qihui; He, Jiayuan; Han, Nanyin
2016-02-01
Gravitational field-flow fractionation is the simplest field-flow fractionation technique in terms of principle and operation. The earth' s gravity is its external field. Different sized particles are injected into a thin channel and carried by carrier fluid. The different velocities of the carrier liquid in different places results in a size-based separation. A gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF) instrument was designed and constructed. Two kinds of polystyrene (PS) particles with different sizes (20 µm and 6 µm) were chosen as model particles. In this work, the separation of the sample was achieved by changing the concentration of NaN3, the percentage of mixed surfactant in the carrier liquid and the flow rate of carrier liquid. Six levels were set for each factor. The effects of these three factors on the retention ratio (R) and plate height (H) of the PS particles were investigated. It was found that R increased and H decreased with increasing particle size. On the other hand, the R and H increased with increasing flow rate. The R and H also increased with increasing NaN3 concentration. The reason was that the electrostatic repulsive force between the particles and the glass channel wall increased. The force allowed the samples approach closer to the channel wall. The results showed that the resolution and retention time can be improved by adjusting the experimental conditions. These results can provide important values to the further applications of GrFFF technique. PMID:27382718
Dielectrophoretic sphere-wall repulsion due to a uniform electric field.
Yariv, Ehud
2016-07-20
When a zero-net-charge particle is placed under a uniform electric field, the decay of the Maxwell stress with the third power of distance ensures a nil electric force. A nonzero force may nonetheless be generated in the presence of a planar wall due to a mechanism which resembles conventional dielectrophoresis under nonuniform fields. In the prototypical case of a spherical particle this force acts perpendicular to the wall; its magnitude depends upon the pertinent boundary conditions governing the electric potential. When a particle is suspended in an electrolyte solution, where the double-layer structure ensures zero net charge, these conditions are electrokinetic in nature; they involve a balance between bulk conduction and diffusion, represented by normal derivatives, and an effective surface-conduction mechanism, represented by surface-Laplacian terms whose magnitude is quantified by appropriate Dukhin numbers. The dimensionless force depends upon the particle and wall Dukhin numbers as well as the ratio λ of the size of the particle to its distance from the wall. The remote-particle limit λ ≪ 1 is addressed using successive reflections. Calculation of the first few terms in the asymptotic expansion of the force only requires the evaluation of a single reflection from the wall. The leading-order term, scaling as λ(4), is repulsive, with a magnitude that varies non-monotonically with the particle Dukhin number and is independent of the wall Dukhin number. Surface conditions on the wall enter only at the O(λ(5)) leading-order correction. PMID:27384257
GABA-mediated repulsive coupling between circadian clock neurons in the SCN encodes seasonal time
Myung, Jihwan; Hong, Sungho; DeWoskin, Daniel; De Schutter, Erik; Forger, Daniel B.; Takumi, Toru
2015-01-01
The mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) forms not only the master circadian clock but also a seasonal clock. This neural network of ∼10,000 circadian oscillators encodes season-dependent day-length changes through a largely unknown mechanism. We show that region-intrinsic changes in the SCN fine-tune the degree of network synchrony and reorganize the phase relationship among circadian oscillators to represent day length. We measure oscillations of the clock gene Bmal1, at single-cell and regional levels in cultured SCN explanted from animals raised under short or long days. Coupling estimation using the Kuramoto framework reveals that the network has couplings that can be both phase-attractive (synchronizing) and -repulsive (desynchronizing). The phase gap between the dorsal and ventral regions increases and the overall period of the SCN shortens with longer day length. We find that one of the underlying physiological mechanisms is the modulation of the intracellular chloride concentration, which can adjust the strength and polarity of the ionotropic GABAA-mediated synaptic input. We show that increasing day-length changes the pattern of chloride transporter expression, yielding more excitatory GABA synaptic input, and that blocking GABAA signaling or the chloride transporter disrupts the unique phase and period organization induced by the day length. We test the consequences of this tunable GABA coupling in the context of excitation–inhibition balance through detailed realistic modeling. These results indicate that the network encoding of seasonal time is controlled by modulation of intracellular chloride, which determines the phase relationship among and period difference between the dorsal and ventral SCN. PMID:26130804
Time-dependent annealing and deposition on substrates with repulsive interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venables, J. A.; Degraffenreid, J.; Kay, D.; Yang, P.
2006-08-01
In models of nucleation and growth of crystals on surfaces, it is often assumed that the energy surface of the substrate is flat, that diffusion is isotropic, and that capture numbers can be calculated in the diffusion-controlled limit. We lift these restrictions and formulate the general time-dependent problem in a two-dimensional (2D) potential field. We utilize the master equation discretization (MED) method to solve the 2D time-dependent diffusion field of adparticles on general nonuniform (rectangular grid) substrates, and compare it against competing algorithms, including the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and hybrid-FFT methods previously introduced, for periodic boundary conditions. The physical context is set by the importance of repulsive interactions in the nucleation and growth of many nanostructures, e.g., metal nanoclusters, hut clusters, and nanowires. The programs, realized in MATLAB®6.5 , are used to obtain quantitative capture numbers, aspect and direct impingement ratios, and other island growth quantities in the presence of potential fields, when particular surface processes are included. The case of no corner rounding is studied in detail. Strongly anisotropic potentials favor wire growth, which can be considerably influenced by alternate deposition and annealing, and the location of neighboring islands. Physical examples are given based on Ge/Si(001) material parameters. Essentially similar programs, differing only in outputs, are used to visualize the diffusion field and to produce realistic movies of crystal growth. Examples given here are linear deterministic calculations, but the framework allows for inclusion of nonlinear and statistical effects for particular applications.
Verma, Anurag; Ford, David M
2011-05-01
The free-energy difference between coexisting solid and liquid phases is studied in the context of classical density functional theory (DFT). A bridge function is used to represent the higher-order (n>2) terms in the perturbative expansion of the excess Helmholtz free energy, and the values of this bridge function within the solid lattice are determined by inversion using literature Monte Carlo simulation results. Four potential models, specifically hard-sphere and inverse twelfth-, sixth-, and fourth-power repulsive, are studied. The face-centered cubic (fcc) solid is considered for the hard-sphere and inverse twelfth- and sixth-power potentials, while the body-centered cubic (bcc) solid is considered for the inverse sixth- and fourth-power potentials. For a given solid structure there is a remarkable similarity among the bridge functions for different potentials that is analogous to the universality in the sum of elementary diagrams, or bridge functions, of liquid-state theory as originally observed by Rosenfeld and Ashcroft [Phys. Rev. A 20, 1208 (1979)]. In further analogy with liquid-state theory, the bridge functions in the present problem are plotted as functionals of the second-order convolution term in the perturbative expansion. In each case, the plot indicates a unique functionality in the dense regions of the solid near the lattice sites but a scattered and nonunique behavior in the void regions. Interestingly, knowledge of the functional relationship in the unique region near the lattice sites seems to be sufficient to quantitatively model the solid-fluid phase transition. These qualitative observations are true for both fcc and bcc solid phases, although there are some quantitative differences between them. The findings suggest that pursuit of a closure-based DFT of solid-fluid transitions may be profitable. PMID:21728493
Invariant sums of random matrices and the onset of level repulsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burda, Zdzisław; Livan, Giacomo; Vivo, Pierpaolo
2015-06-01
We compute analytically the joint probability density of eigenvalues and the level spacing statistics for an ensemble of random matrices with interesting features. It is invariant under the standard symmetry groups (orthogonal and unitary) and yet the interaction between eigenvalues is not Vandermondian. The ensemble contains real symmetric or complex Hermitian matrices S of the form {S}=\\sumi=1M < {O}i {D}_i{O}_iT> or {S}=\\sumi=1M < {U}i {D}_i{U}_i^\\dagger> respectively. The diagonal matrices {D}_i=diag\\{λ_1(i),\\ldots,λ_N(i)\\} are constructed from real eigenvalues drawn independently from distributions p(i)(x), while the matrices Oi and Ui are all orthogonal or unitary. The average <·> is simultaneously performed over the symmetry group and the joint distribution of \\{λ_j(i)\\} . We focus on the limits (i.) N → ∞ and (ii.) M → ∞, with N = 2. In the limit (i.), the resulting sum S develops level repulsion even though the original matrices do not feature it, and classical RMT universality is restored asymptotically. In the limit (ii.) the spacing distribution attains scaling forms that are computed exactly: for the orthogonal case, we recover the β = 1 Wigner's surmise, while for the unitary case an entirely new universal distribution is obtained. Our results allow to probe analytically the microscopic statistics of the sum of random matrices that become asymptotically free. We also give an interpretation of this model in terms of radial random walks in a matrix space. The analytical results are corroborated by numerical simulations.
Riemannian geometry of thermodynamics and systems with repulsive power-law interactions.
Ruppeiner, George
2005-07-01
A Riemannian geometric theory of thermodynamics based on the postulate that the curvature scalar R is proportional to the inverse free energy density is used to investigate three-dimensional fluid systems of identical classical point particles interacting with each other via a power-law potential energy gamma r(-alpha) . Such systems are useful in modeling melting transitions. The limit alpha-->infinity corresponds to the hard sphere gas. A thermodynamic limit exists only for short-range (alpha>3) and repulsive (gamma>0) interactions. The geometric theory solutions for given alpha>3 , gamma>0 , and any constant temperature T have the following properties: (1) the thermodynamics follows from a single function b (rho T(-3/alpha) ) , where rho is the density; (2) all solutions are equivalent up to a single scaling constant for rho T(-3/alpha) , related to gamma via the virial theorem; (3) at low density, solutions correspond to the ideal gas; (4) at high density there are solutions with pressure and energy depending on density as expected from solid state physics, though not with a Dulong-Petit heat capacity limit; (5) for 3
Repulsive particles under a general external potential: Thermodynamics by neglecting thermal noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ribeiro, Mauricio S.; Nobre, Fernando D.
2016-08-01
A recent proposal of an effective temperature θ , conjugated to a generalized entropy sq, typical of nonextensive statistical mechanics, has led to a consistent thermodynamic framework in the case q =2 . The proposal was explored for repulsively interacting vortices, currently used for modeling type-II superconductors. In these systems, the variable θ presents values much higher than those of typical room temperatures T , so that the thermal noise can be neglected (T /θ ≃0 ). The whole procedure was developed for an equilibrium state obtained after a sufficiently long-time evolution, associated with a nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation and approached due to a confining external harmonic potential, ϕ (x ) =α x2/2 (α >0 ). Herein, the thermodynamic framework is extended to a quite general confining potential, namely ϕ (x ) =α|x | z/z (z >1 ). It is shown that the main results of the previous analyses hold for any z >1 : (i) The definition of the effective temperature θ conjugated to the entropy s2. (ii) The construction of a Carnot cycle, whose efficiency is shown to be η =1 -(θ2/θ1) , where θ1 and θ2 are the effective temperatures associated with two isothermal transformations, with θ1>θ2 . The special character of the Carnot cycle is indicated by analyzing another cycle that presents an efficiency depending on z . (iii) Applying Legendre transformations for a distinct pair of variables, different thermodynamic potentials are obtained, and furthermore, Maxwell relations and response functions are derived. The present approach shows a consistent thermodynamic framework, suggesting that these results should hold for a general confining potential ϕ (x ) , increasing the possibility of experimental verifications.
Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan E-mail: jan.schee@fpf.slu.cz
2011-09-01
Using the pseudo-Newtonian (PN) potential reflecting properties of the Schwarz-schild-de Sitter spacetime, we estimate the influence of the repulsive cosmological constant Λ ∼ 1.3 × 10{sup −56}cm{sup −2} implied by recent cosmological tests onto the motion of both Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC and LMC) in the gravitational field of the Milky Way. Considering detailed modelling of the gravitational field of the Galaxy disc, bulge and cold dark matter halo, the trajectories of SMC and LMC constructed for the PN potential with the cosmological constant are confronted to those given for Λ = 0. In the realistic model of the extended cold dark matter halo its edge and related total mass are taken at typical values reflecting recent diversity in the total Galaxy mass estimates. In all cases, strong influence of the cosmological constant, on 10% level or higher, has been found for motion of both SMC and LMC. Inside the halo, the Newtonian part of the PN potential is exact enough, while outside the halo the PN potential can give relevant relativistic corrections. The role of the cosmological constant is most conspicuous when binding mass is estimated for the satellite galaxies. We have found a strong influence of cosmic repulsion on the total binding mass for both galaxies. For SMC there is the binding mass M{sub SMC}{sup Λ=0} = 7.07 × 10{sup 11}M{sub ⨀} and M{sub SMC}{sup Λ>0} = 8.61 × 10{sup 11}M{sub ⨀}, while even much higher increase is found for LMC, where M{sub LMC}{sup Λ=0} = 1.50 × 10{sup 12}M{sub ⨀} and M{sub LMC}{sup Λ} {sup >0} = 2.21 × 10{sup 12}M{sub ⨀}, putting serious doubts on the possibility that the LMC is bounded by the Milky Way. However, the estimates of binding masses are strongly influenced by initial velocity of SMC and LMC; we took the values inferred for the IAU MW rotation velocity ∼ 220 km/s. Our results indicate very important role of the cosmic repulsion in the motion of interacting galaxies, clearly
Gravitational microlensing results from MACHO
Alcock, C.; MACHO Collaboration
1996-09-01
The MACHO project is searching for dark qter inthe form of massive compact haio objects (Machos), by monitoring the brightness of millions of stars in the Magellanic Clouds to search for gravitational microlensing events. Analysis of our 1st 2.3 years of data for 8.5 million stars in the LMC yields 8 candidate microlensing events, well in excess of the {approx} 1 event expected from lensing by known low-mass stars. The event timescales range from 34 to 145 days, and the estimated optical depth is N 2x10{sup -7}, about half of that expected from a `standard` halo. Likelihood analysis indicates the typical lens mass is 0.5{sup +0.3}{sub -0.2}M{sub {circle_dot}}, suggesting they may be old white dwarfs.
Gauss-Bonnet gravitational baryogenesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.
2016-09-01
In this letter we study some variant forms of gravitational baryogenesis by using higher order terms containing the partial derivative of the Gauss-Bonnet scalar coupled to the baryonic current. This scenario extends the well known theory that uses a similar coupling between the Ricci scalar and the baryonic current. One appealing feature of the scenario we study is that the predicted baryon asymmetry during a radiation domination era is non-zero. We calculate the baryon to entropy ratio for the Gauss-Bonnet term and by using the observational constraints we investigate which are the allowed forms of the R + F (G) gravity controlling the evolution. Also we briefly discuss some alternative higher order terms that can generate a non-zero baryon asymmetry, even in the conformal invariance limit.
CHAOTIC ZONES AROUND GRAVITATING BINARIES
Shevchenko, Ivan I.
2015-01-20
The extent of the continuous zone of chaotic orbits of a small-mass tertiary around a system of two gravitationally bound primaries of comparable masses (a binary star, a binary black hole, a binary asteroid, etc.) is estimated analytically, as a function of the tertiary's orbital eccentricity. The separatrix map theory is used to demonstrate that the central continuous chaos zone emerges (above a threshold in the primaries' mass ratio) due to overlapping of the orbital resonances corresponding to the integer ratios p:1 between the tertiary and the central binary periods. In this zone, the unlimited chaotic orbital diffusion of the tertiary takes place, up to its ejection from the system. The primaries' mass ratio, above which such a chaotic zone is universally present at all initial eccentricities of the tertiary, is estimated. The diversity of the observed orbital configurations of biplanetary and circumbinary exosystems is shown to be in accord with the existence of the primaries' mass parameter threshold.
Gravitational microlensing searches and results
Alcock, C.
1997-05-08
Baryonic matter, in the form of Machos (MAssive Compact Halo Objects), might be a significant constituent of the dark matter that dominates the Milky Way. This article describes how surveys for Machos exploit the gravitational microlens magnification of extragalactic stars. The experimental searches for this effect monitor millions of stars, in some cases every night, looking for magnification events. The early results of these surveys indicate that Machos make up a significant fraction of the dark matter in the Milky Way, and that these objects have stellar masses. Truly substellar objects do not contribute much to the total. Additionally, the relatively high event rate towards the Galactic bulge seems to require that the bulge be elongated, and massive.
Centrifuges in gravitational physiology research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ballard, Rodney W.; Davies, Phil; Fuller, Charles A.
1993-01-01
Data from space flight and ground based experiments have clearly demonstrated the importance of Earth gravity for normal physiological function in man and animals. Gravitational Physiology is concerned with the role and influence of gravity on physiological systems. Research in this field examines how we perceive and respond to gravity and the mechanisms underlying these responses. Inherent in our search for answers to these questions is the ability to alter gravity, which is not physically possible without leaving Earth. However, useful experimental paradigms have been to modify the perceived force of gravity by changing either the orientation of subjects to the gravity vector (i.e., postural changes) or by applying inertial forces to augment the magnitude of the gravity vector. The later technique has commonly been used by applying centripetal force via centrifugation.
Gravitational effects on electrochemical batteries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meredith, R. E.; Juvinall, G. L.; Uchiyama, A. A.
1972-01-01
The existing work on gravitational effects on electrochemical batteries is summarized, certain conclusions are drawn, and recommendations are made for future activities in this field. The effects of sustained high-G environments on cycle silver-zinc and nickel-cadmium cells have been evaluated over four complete cycles in the region of 10 to 75 G. Although no effects on high current discharge performances or on ampere-hour capacity were noted, severe zinc migration and sloughing of active material from the zinc electrode were observed. This latter effect constitutes real damage, and over a long period of time would result in loss of capacity. It is recommended that a zero-G battery experiment be implemented. Both an orbiting satellite and a sounding rocket approach are being considered.
Exploring gravitational theories beyond Horndeski
Gleyzes, Jérôme; Vernizzi, Filippo; Langlois, David; Piazza, Federico E-mail: langlois@apc.univ-partis7.fr E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr
2015-02-01
We have recently proposed a new class of gravitational scalar-tensor theories free from Ostrogradski instabilities, in ref. [1]. As they generalize Horndeski theories, or ''generalized'' galileons, we call them G{sup 3}. These theories possess a simple formulation when the time hypersurfaces are chosen to coincide with the uniform scalar field hypersurfaces. We confirm that they contain only three propagating degrees of freedom by presenting the details of the Hamiltonian formulation. We examine the coupling between these theories and matter. Moreover, we investigate how they transform under a disformal redefinition of the metric. Remarkably, these theories are preserved by disformal transformations that depend on the scalar field gradient, which also allow to map subfamilies of G{sup 3} into Horndeski theories.
Gravitational entropy of cosmic expansion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sussman , R. A.
2014-09-01
We apply a recent proposal to define ``gravitational entropy'' to the expansion of cosmic voids within the framework of non-perturbative General Relativity. By considering CDM void configurations compatible with basic observational constraints, we show that this entropy grows from post-inflationary conditions towards a final asymptotic value in a late time fully non-linear regime described by the Lemaître- Tolman-Bondi (LTB) dust models. A qualitatively analogous behavior occurs if we assume a positive cosmological constant consistent with a Λ-CDM background model. However, the Λ term introduces a significant suppression of entropy growth with the terminal equilibrium value reached at a much faster rate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inui, Norio
2014-06-01
By counteracting gravity, the repulsive Casimir force enables stable levitation of a perfectly conducting particle near a liquid-air interface if the particle exists inside the liquid. In the present study, we examine the levitation of a gold particle near a bromobenzene-air interface and calculate the levitation height using the scattering-matrix formulation. In addition, we consider the Casimir force acting on a gold sphere near the interface between bromobenzene and water. At asymptotically large separations, the Casimir force is attractive because of the large static dielectric permittivity of water. However, the Casimir force changes from attractive to repulsive as the separation decreases. We also found that the gold particle can be levitated in bromobenzene above water.
An SCC-DFTB Repulsive Potential for Various ZnO Polymorphs and the ZnO–Water System
2013-01-01
We have developed an efficient scheme for the generation of accurate repulsive potentials for self-consistent charge density-functional-based tight-binding calculations, which involves energy-volume scans of bulk polymorphs with different coordination numbers. The scheme was used to generate an optimized parameter set for various ZnO polymorphs. The new potential was subsequently tested for ZnO bulk, surface, and nanowire systems as well as for water adsorption on the low-index wurtzite (101̅0) and (112̅0) surfaces. By comparison to results obtained at the density functional level of theory, we show that the newly generated repulsive potential is highly transferable and capable of capturing most of the relevant chemistry of ZnO and the ZnO/water interface. PMID:23991228
Radouani, A.
2003-10-01
We numerically solve the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) that describes the evolution of an elongated dilute repulsive atomic Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a one-dimensional (1D) nonharmonic potential. We find that the gray solitons, which are propagative solutions of the 1D GPE, traveling at an initial constant velocity, smaller than the speed of sound, oscillate through the trapped condensate, but that this oscillatory motion is accompanied by a spontaneous emission of small sound waves. By examining the gray soliton trajectory and its velocity in the trapped repulsive Bose-Einstein condensate, we show that the oscillatory motion is uniform and nondissipative except at the returning points of the gray soliton, where it exhibits a slight radiative acceleration (antidamping). Our numerical results are in good agreement with previous theoretical predictions, but show the need to take radiation emission into account.
Chauveteau, G.; Tirrell, M.; Omari, A.
1984-07-01
Polymer solutions are demonstrated to have apparent viscosities in small pores which depend on pore diameter (or the mean diameter of pore throats in irregular porous media) and which, therefore, can be considerably different from the viscosity of the same solution in an unbounded medium. The apparent viscosities in the pores can be greater or less than in bulk depending upon whether the pore wall is attractive or repulsive for the polymer. Specifically, if there is no adsorption (repulsive wall) we find that the solution viscosity is always less inside the pore than in bulk. On the other hand if the wall is attractive the apparent solution viscosity inside the pore may be greater or less, depending on the concentration of the flowing polymer solution. Data representing these effects are presented for aqueous solutions of hydrolyzed polyacrylamide and xanthan polysaccharide. The data are organized as suggested by a model recently proposed by Chauveteau for polymer solution flow in small pores. 47 references.
Ferromagnetism of a Repulsive Atomic Fermi Gas in an Optical Lattice: A Quantum MonteÂ Carlo Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pilati, S.; Zintchenko, I.; Troyer, M.
2014-01-01
Using continuous-space quantum Monte Carlo methods, we investigate the zero-temperature ferromagnetic behavior of a two-component repulsive Fermi gas under the influence of periodic potentials that describe the effect of a simple-cubic optical lattice. Simulations are performed with balanced and with imbalanced components, including the case of a single impurity immersed in a polarized Fermi sea (repulsive polaron). For an intermediate density below half filling, we locate the transitions between the paramagnetic, and the partially and fully ferromagnetic phases. As the intensity of the optical lattice increases, the ferromagnetic instability takes place at weaker interactions, indicating a possible route to observe ferromagnetism in experiments performed with ultracold atoms. We compare our findings with previous predictions based on the standard computational method used in material science, namely density functional theory, and with results based on tight-binding models.
Gravitational Effects on Human Physiology.
Atomi, Yoriko
2015-01-01
Physical working capacity decreases with age and also in microgravity. Regardless of age, increased physical activity can always improve the physical adaptability of the body, although the mechanisms of this adaptability are unknown. Physical exercise produces various mechanical stimuli in the body, and these stimuli may be essential for cell survival in organisms. The cytoskeleton plays an important role in maintaining cell shape and tension development, and in various molecular and/or cellular organelles involved in cellular trafficking. Both intra and extracellular stimuli send signals through the cytoskeleton to the nucleus and modulate gene expression via an intrinsic property, namely the "dynamic instability" of cytoskeletal proteins. αB-crystallin is an important chaperone for cytoskeletal proteins in muscle cells. Decreases in the levels of αB-crystallin are specifically associated with a marked decrease in muscle mass (atrophy) in a rat hindlimb suspension model that mimics muscle and bone atrophy that occurs in space and increases with passive stretch. Moreover, immunofluorescence data show complete co-localization of αB-crystallin and the tubulin/microtubule system in myoblast cells. This association was further confirmed in biochemical experiments carried out in vitro showing that αB-crystallin acts as a chaperone for heat-denatured tubulin and prevents microtubule disassembly induced by calcium. Physical activity induces the constitutive expression of αB-crystallin, which helps to maintain the homeostasis of cytoskeleton dynamics in response to gravitational forces. This relationship between chaperone expression levels and regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics observed in slow anti-gravitational muscles as well as in mammalian striated muscles, such as those in the heart, diaphragm and tongue, may have been especially essential for human evolution in particular. Elucidation of the intrinsic properties of the tubulin/microtubule and chaperone
Nelyubina, Yulia V; Lyssenko, Konstantin A
2012-10-01
Anion-anion interactions in an eggshell: experimental electron density analysis for two polymorphs of calcium carbonate revealed why the less stable form, aragonite, has higher density than the most stable form, calcite. Although believed to be exclusively repulsive, the interactions between anions cause them to bind more tightly in a crystal and thus make the aragonite phase denser than its calcite counterpart. PMID:22915456
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuadros, F.; Mulero, A.; Faundez, C. A.
The Lennard-Jones attractive and repulsive contributions of intermolecular forces (as separated in the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA) theory) to the pressure and chemical potential of coexisting vapour and liquid phases are obtained by using an equation of state recently proposed by us. Some comments are given about the computer simulation results obtained by Plackov and Sadus (1997, Fluid Phase Equilib., 134, 77) using the McQuarrie-Katz separation of the intermolecular potential.
Li, Li; Fothergill, Thomas; Hutchins, B Ian; Dent, Erik W; Kali, Katherine
2014-01-01
Wnt5a guides cortical axons in vivo by repulsion and in vitro evokes cortical axon outgrowth and repulsion by calcium signaling pathways. Here we examined the role of microtubule (MT) reorganization and dynamics in mediating effects of Wnt5a. Inhibiting MT dynamics with nocodazole and taxol abolished Wnt5a evoked axon outgrowth and repulsion of cultured hamster cortical neurons. EGFP-EB3 labeled dynamic MTs visualized in live cell imaging revealed that growth cone MTs align with the nascent axon. Wnt5a increased axon outgrowth by reorganization of dynamic MTs from a splayed to a bundled array oriented in the direction of axon extension, and Wnt5a gradients induced asymmetric redistribution of dynamic MTs toward the far side of the growth cone. Wnt5a gradients also evoked calcium transients that were highest on the far side of the growth cone. Calcium signaling and the reorganization of dynamic MTs could be linked by tau, a MT associated protein that stabilizes MTs. Tau is phosphorylated at the Ser 262 MT binding site by CaMKII, and is required for Wnt5a induced axon outgrowth and repulsive turning. Phosphorylation of tau at Ser262 is known to detach tau from MTs to increase their dynamics. Using transfection with tau constructs mutated at Ser262, we found that this site is required for the growth and guidance effects of Wnt5a by mediating reorganization of dynamic MTs in cortical growth cones. Moreover, CaMKII inhibition also prevents MT reorganization required for Wnt5a induced axon outgrowth, thus linking Wnt/calcium signaling to tau mediated MT reorganization during growth cone behaviors. © 2013 The Authors. Developmental Neurobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Develop Neurobiol 74: 797–817, 2014 PMID:23818454
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Ya-Jie; Li, Ning; He, Jing; Kou, Su-Peng
2016-03-01
In this paper, based on mean-field approach and random-phase-approximation, we study the magnetic properties of the repulsive Haldane-Hubbard model on a square lattice. We find antiferromagnetic order driven topological spin density waves beyond Landau’s symmetry-breaking paradigm, for which the effective low energy physics is determined by Chern-Simons-Hopf gauge field theories with different K matrices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ambrosetti, A.; Lombardi, G.; Salasnich, L.; Silvestrelli, P. L.; Toigo, F.
2014-10-01
Motivated by the remarkable experimental control of synthetic gauge fields in ultracold atomic systems, we investigate the effect of an artificial Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the spin polarization of a two-dimensional repulsive Fermi gas. By using a variational many-body wave function, based on a suitable spinorial structure, we find that the polarization properties of the system are indeed controlled by the interplay between spin-orbit coupling and repulsive interaction. In particular, two main effects are found: (1) The Rashba coupling determines a gradual increase of the degree of polarization beyond the critical repulsive interaction strength, at variance with conventional two-dimensional Stoner instability. (2) The critical interaction strength, above which finite polarization is developed, shows a dependence on the Rashba coupling, i.e., it is enhanced in case the Rashba coupling exceeds a critical value. A simple analytic expression for the critical interaction strength is further derived in the context of our variational formulation, which allows for a straightforward and insightful analysis of the present problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Großmann, R.; Schimansky-Geier, L.; Romanczuk, P.
2013-08-01
In this work we derive and analyse coarse-grained descriptions of self-propelled particles with selective attraction-repulsion interaction, where individuals may respond differently to their neighbours depending on their relative state of motion (approach versus movement away). Based on the formulation of a nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation, we derive a kinetic description of the system dynamics in terms of equations for the Fourier modes of the one-particle density function. This approach allows effective numerical investigation of the stability of solutions of the nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation. Further on, we also derive a hydrodynamic theory by performing a closure at the level of the second Fourier mode of the one-particle density function. We show that the general form of equations is in agreement with the theory formulated by Toner and Tu. The stability of spatially homogeneous solutions is analysed and the range of validity of the hydrodynamic equations is quantified. Finally, we compare our analytical predictions on the stability of the homogeneous solutions with results of individual-based simulations. They show good agreement for sufficiently large densities and non-negligible short-ranged repulsion. The results of the kinetic theory for weak short-ranged repulsion reveal the existence of a previously unknown phase of the model consisting of dense, nematically aligned filaments, which cannot be accounted for by the present hydrodynamics theory of the Toner and Tu type for polar active matter.
Zhang, Yuanwei; Fan, Jingtao; Liang, J-Q; Ma, Jie; Chen, Gang; Jia, Suotang; Nori, Franco
2015-01-01
The realization of strong coherent interactions between individual photons is a long-standing goal in science and engineering. In this report, based on recent experimental setups, we derive a strong photon long-range repulsive interaction, by controlling the van der Waals repulsive force between Cesium Rydberg atoms located inside different cavities in extended Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard lattices. We also find novel quantum phases induced by this photon long-range repulsive interaction. For example, without photon hopping, a photon Devil's staircase, induced by the breaking of long-range translation symmetry, can emerge. If photon hopping occurs, we predict a photon-floating solid phase, due to the motion of particle- and hole-like defects. More importantly, for a large chemical potential in the resonant case, the photon hopping can be frozen even if the hopping term exists. We call this new phase the photon-frozen solid phase. In experiments, these predicted phases could be detected by measuring the number of polaritons via resonance fluorescence. PMID:26108705
Radouani, Abdelaziz
2004-07-01
We use the one-dimensional (1D) Gross-Pitaevskii equation to investigate the dynamical evolution of a dilute repulsive Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) confined in an elongated static nonharmonic trap and stirred by an oscillating Gaussian obstacle moving at uniform speed in alternate direction. Direct numerical solutions of this equation show that above a critical obstacle velocity, the motion of the obstacle creates gray solitons and phonons. At first, when the velocity of the obstacle increases, the dissipation also increases. But the dissipation reaches a maximal value and then decreases dramatically and vanishes at high obstacle velocities. Our results at low obstacle velocities are similar to those previously obtained experimentally and by simulations in the case of vortice and phonon production in 3D and 2D trapped repulsive BEC's. But at high obstacle velocities, we show that the quasi-1D trapped repulsive BEC behaves as a quasisuperfluid medium with disappearance of gray soliton and phonon excitations. This extends previous results and provides the main dependence of the phenomenon on the obstacle characteristics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yuanwei; Fan, Jingtao; Liang, J.-Q.; Ma, Jie; Chen, Gang; Jia, Suotang; Nori, Franco
2015-06-01
The realization of strong coherent interactions between individual photons is a long-standing goal in science and engineering. In this report, based on recent experimental setups, we derive a strong photon long-range repulsive interaction, by controlling the van der Waals repulsive force between Cesium Rydberg atoms located inside different cavities in extended Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard lattices. We also find novel quantum phases induced by this photon long-range repulsive interaction. For example, without photon hopping, a photon Devil’s staircase, induced by the breaking of long-range translation symmetry, can emerge. If photon hopping occurs, we predict a photon-floating solid phase, due to the motion of particle- and hole-like defects. More importantly, for a large chemical potential in the resonant case, the photon hopping can be frozen even if the hopping term exists. We call this new phase the photon-frozen solid phase. In experiments, these predicted phases could be detected by measuring the number of polaritons via resonance fluorescence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Ying-Hsiu; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Lin, Deng-Sung
2015-11-01
Dissociative adsorption of H2O, NH3, CH3OH and CH3NH2 polar molecules on the Si(100) surface results in a 1:1 mixture of two adsorbates (H and multi-atomic fragment A = OH, NH2, CH3O, CH3NH, respectively) on the surface. By using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the adsorption geometry, the total energies and the charge densities for various possible ordered structures of the mixed adsorbate layer have been found. Analyzing the systematic trends in the total energies unveils concurrently the nearest-neighbor interactions ENN and the next nearest-neighbor interactions ENNN between two polar adsorbates A. In going from small to large polar adsorbates, ENN's exhibit an attractive-to-repulsive crossover behavior, indicating that they include competing attractive and repulsive contributions. Exploration of the charge density distributions allows the estimation of the degree of charge overlapping between immediately neighboring A's, the resulting contribution of the steric repulsions, and that of the attractive interactions to the corresponding ENN's. The attractive contributions to nearest neighboring adsorbate-adsorbate interactions between the polar adsorbates under study are shown to result from hydrogen bonds or dipole-dipole interactions.
Zhang, Yuanwei; Fan, Jingtao; Liang, J.-Q.; Ma, Jie; Chen, Gang; Jia, Suotang; Nori, Franco
2015-01-01
The realization of strong coherent interactions between individual photons is a long-standing goal in science and engineering. In this report, based on recent experimental setups, we derive a strong photon long-range repulsive interaction, by controlling the van der Waals repulsive force between Cesium Rydberg atoms located inside different cavities in extended Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard lattices. We also find novel quantum phases induced by this photon long-range repulsive interaction. For example, without photon hopping, a photon Devil’s staircase, induced by the breaking of long-range translation symmetry, can emerge. If photon hopping occurs, we predict a photon-floating solid phase, due to the motion of particle- and hole-like defects. More importantly, for a large chemical potential in the resonant case, the photon hopping can be frozen even if the hopping term exists. We call this new phase the photon-frozen solid phase. In experiments, these predicted phases could be detected by measuring the number of polaritons via resonance fluorescence. PMID:26108705
Transient multimessenger astronomy with gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Márka, S.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration
2011-06-01
Comprehensive multimessenger astronomy with gravitational waves is a pioneering field bringing us interesting results and presenting us with exciting challenges for the future. During the era of the operation of advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors, we will have the opportunity to investigate sources of gravitational waves that are also expected to be observable through other messengers, such as gamma rays, x-rays, optical, radio, and/or neutrino emission. Multimessenger searches for gravitational waves with the LIGO-GEO600-Virgo interferometer network have already produced insights on cosmic events and it is expected that the simultaneous observation of electromagnetic or neutrino emission could be a crucial aspect for the first direct detection of gravitational waves in the future. Trigger time, direction and expected frequency range enhances our ability to search for gravitational wave signatures with amplitudes closer to the noise floor of the detector. Furthermore, multimessenger observations will enable the extraction of otherwise unaccessible scientific insight. We summarize the status of transient multimessenger detection efforts as well as mention some of the open questions that might be resolved by advanced or third generation gravitational wave detector networks.
Astrophysically Triggered Searches for Gravitational Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marka, Zsuzsa
2010-02-01
Many expected sources of gravitational waves are observable in more traditional channels, via gamma rays, X-rays, optical, radio, or neutrino emission. Some of these channels are already being used in searches for gravitational waves with the LIGO-GEO600-Virgo interferometer network, and others are currently being incorporated into new or planned searches. Astrophysical targets include gamma-ray bursts, soft-gamma repeaters, supernovae, and glitching pulsars. The observation of electromagnetic or neutrino emission simultaneously with gravitational waves could be crucial for the first direct detection of gravitational waves. Information on the progenitor, such as trigger time, direction and expected frequency range, can enhance our ability to identify gravitational wave signatures with amplitude close to the noise floor of the detector. Furthermore, combining gravitational waves with electromagnetic and neutrino observations will enable the extraction of scientific insight that was hidden from us before. We will discuss the status for astrophysically triggered searches with the LIGO-GEO600-Virgo network and the science goals and outlook for the second and third generation gravitational wave detector era. )
Modification of the characteristic gravitational constants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vujičić, V. A.
2006-08-01
In the educational and scientific literature the numerical values of gravitational constants are seen as only approximately correct. The numerical values are different in work by various researchers, as also are the formulae and definitions of constants employed. In this paper, on the basis of Newton’s laws and Kepler’s laws we prove that it is necessary to modify the characteristic gravitational constants and their definitions. The formula for the geocentric gravitational constant of the satellites Kosmos N and the Moon are calculated.
Induced gravitation in nonlinear field models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernitskii, Alexander A.
2016-03-01
The description of gravitation in the framework of soliton interaction is considered for two nonlinear field models. These models are Born — Infeld nonlinear electrodynamics and so-called Born — Infeld type scalar field model. The last model can also be called the extremal space-time film one because of the specific form of the appropriate variational principle. Gravitational interaction is considered in the context of unification for all interactions of material particles. It is shown that long-range interaction of solitons of the models appears as force one and metrical one. The force interaction can be interpreted as electromagnetic one. The metrical interaction can be interpreted as gravitational one.
The Japanese space gravitational wave antenna; DECIGO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawamura, S.; Ando, M.; Nakamura, T.; Tsubono, K.; Tanaka, T.; Funaki, I.; Seto, N.; Numata, K.; Sato, S.; Ioka, K.; Kanda, N.; Takashima, T.; Agatsuma, K.; Akutsu, T.; Akutsu, T.; Aoyanagi, K.-s.; Arai, K.; Arase, Y.; Araya, A.; Asada, H.; Aso, Y.; Chiba, T.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Enoki, M.; Eriguchi, Y.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fujita, R.; Fukushima, M.; Futamase, T.; Ganzu, K.; Harada, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayama, K.; Hikida, W.; Himemoto, Y.; Hirabayashi, H.; Hiramatsu, T.; Hong, F.-L.; Horisawa, H.; Hosokawa, M.; Ichiki, K.; Ikegami, T.; Inoue, K. T.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishihara, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Ishizaki, H.; Ito, H.; Itoh, Y.; Kamagasako, S.; Kawashima, N.; Kawazoe, F.; Kirihara, H.; Kishimoto, N.; Kiuchi, K.; Kobayashi, S.; Kohri, K.; Koizumi, H.; Kojima, Y.; Kokeyama, K.; Kokuyama, W.; Kotake, K.; Kozai, Y.; Kudoh, H.; Kunimori, H.; Kuninaka, H.; Kuroda, K.; Maeda, K.-i.; Matsuhara, H.; Mino, Y.; Miyakawa, O.; Miyoki, S.; Morimoto, M. Y.; Morioka, T.; Morisawa, T.; Moriwaki, S.; Mukohyama, S.; Musha, M.; Nagano, S.; Naito, I.; Nakagawa, N.; Nakamura, K.; Nakano, H.; Nakao, K.; Nakasuka, S.; Nakayama, Y.; Nishida, E.; Nishiyama, K.; Nishizawa, A.; Niwa, Y.; Ohashi, M.; Ohishi, N.; Ohkawa, M.; Okutomi, A.; Onozato, K.; Oohara, K.; Sago, N.; Saijo, M.; Sakagami, M.; Sakai, S.-i.; Sakata, S.; Sasaki, M.; Sato, T.; Shibata, M.; Shinkai, H.; Somiya, K.; Sotani, H.; Sugiyama, N.; Suwa, Y.; Tagoshi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Takahashi, K.; Takahashi, T.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, R.; Takahashi, R.; Takamori, A.; Takano, T.; Taniguchi, K.; Taruya, A.; Tashiro, H.; Tokuda, M.; Tokunari, M.; Toyoshima, M.; Tsujikawa, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Ueda, K.-i.; Utashima, M.; Yamakawa, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamazaki, T.; Yokoyama, J.; Yoo, C.-M.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshino, T.
2008-07-01
DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO) is the future Japanese space gravitational wave antenna. DECIGO is expected to open a new window of observation for gravitational wave astronomy especially between 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz, revealing various mysteries of the universe such as dark energy, formation mechanism of supermassive black holes, and inflation of the universe. The pre-conceptual design of DECIGO consists of three drag-free spacecraft, whose relative displacements are measured by a differential Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer. We plan to launch two missions, DECIGO pathfinder and pre-DECIGO first and finally DECIGO in 2024.
Relic Gravitational Waves and Their Detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grishchuk, Leonid P.
The range of expected amplitudes and spectral slopes of relic (squeezed) gravitational waves, predicted by theory and partially supported by observations, is within the reach of sensitive gravity-wave detectors. In the most favorable case, the detection of relic gravitational waves can be achieved by the cross-correlation of outputs of the initial laser interferometers in LIGO, VIRGO, GEO600. In the more realistic case, the sensitivity of advanced ground-based and space-based laser interferometers will be needed. The specific statistical signature of relic gravitational waves, associated with the phenomenon of squeezing, is a potential reserve for further improvement of the signal to noise ratio.
Inhomogeneous cosmology: Gravitational radiation in Bianchi backgrounds
Adams, P.J.; Hellings, R.W.; Zimmerman, R.L.; Farhoosh, H.; Levine, D.I.; Zeldich, S.
1982-02-01
An exact formalism is developed for describing cosmological models with strong, long wavelength gravitational waves of general polarization propagating over backgrounds corresponding to Bianchi types I through VII. We introduce and discuss a new metric which exhibits the appropriate symmetries of two equivalent independent polarizations of gravitational waves. The formalism is applied to an empty type I cosmology, and it is shown how the original z-dependent chaotic singularity structure transforms itself into gravitational radiation propagating along the z-axis in a Bianchi I background.