Science.gov

Sample records for hilbertian operator spaces

  1. Space Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-29

    provide ISR, PNT, weather, and communications support to the joint force, enabling precise friendly force tracking (FFT), enhancing joint force...of debris are too small to track with current sensor capabilities. Currently, the US tracks only approximately 10 percent of space objects that are...military operations. 4. Functional Capabilities SSA can be divided into four functional capabilities (Figure II-1): a. Detect/ Track /Identify (D/T/ID

  2. Space Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-06

    adversaries’ perceptions of US space capabilities and makes them less confident of success in interfering with those capabilities. DSC is built on...Responsibilities IV-17 transportation and space-based tourism , are no longer out of reach. Due to the demand for space-based products and services, the USG has...1) A well-organized missile warning system structure allows commanders to maximize detection and warning of inbound ballistic missiles, thereby

  3. Clustering of the human skeletal muscle fibers using linear programming and angular Hilbertian metrics.

    PubMed

    Neji, Radhouène; Besbes, Ahmed; Komodakis, Nikos; Deux, Jean-François; Maatouk, Mezri; Rahmouni, Alain; Bassez, Guillaume; Fleury, Gilles; Paragios, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a manifold clustering method fo the classification of fibers obtained from diffusion tensor images (DTI) of the human skeletal muscle. Using a linear programming formulation of prototype-based clustering, we propose a novel fiber classification algorithm over manifolds that circumvents the necessity to embed the data in low dimensional spaces and determines automatically the number of clusters. Furthermore, we propose the use of angular Hilbertian metrics between multivariate normal distributions to define a family of distances between tensors that we generalize to fibers. These metrics are used to approximate the geodesic distances over the fiber manifold. We also discuss the case where only geodesic distances to a reduced set of landmark fibers are available. The experimental validation of the method is done using a manually annotated significant dataset of DTI of the calf muscle for healthy and diseased subjects.

  4. Space station operations management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  5. Space Station operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    An evaluation of the success of the Space Station will be based on the service provided to the customers by the Station crew, the productivity of the crew, and the costs of operation. Attention is given to details regarding Space Station operations, a summary of operational philosophies and requirements, logistics and resupply operations, prelaunch processing and launch operations, on-orbit operations, aspects of maintainability and maintenance, habitability, and questions of medical care. A logistics module concept is considered along with a logistics module processing timeline, a habitability module concept, and a Space Station rescue mission.

  6. Einstein's Equations for Spin 2 Mass 0 from Noether's Converse Hilbertian Assertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, J. Brian

    2016-11-01

    An overlap between the general relativist and particle physicist views of Einstein gravity is uncovered. Noether's 1918 paper developed Hilbert's and Klein's reflections on the conservation laws. Energy-momentum is just a term proportional to the field equations and a 'curl' term with identically zero divergence. Noether proved a converse "Hilbertian assertion": such "improper" conservation laws imply a generally covariant action.

  7. Space Medicine Medical Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This is an overview of the Space and Clinical Operations Division whose mission is to optimize the health, fitness and well-being of flight crews, their dependents and employees of the Johnson Spac...

  8. Commercialization in NASA Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Charlene E.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with commercialization in NASA space operations are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) NASA's financial outlook; 2) Space operations; 3) Space operations technology; and 4) Strategies associated with these operations.

  9. Space Operations in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Highlights activities/accomplishments and future endeavors related to space operations. Topics discussed include the Space Shuttle, recovery/refurbishment operations, payload manipulator, upper stages operations, tracking and data relay, spacelab, space power systems, space exposure facility, space construction, and space station. (JN)

  10. Space Operations in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Highlights activities/accomplishments and future endeavors related to space operations. Topics discussed include the Space Shuttle, recovery/refurbishment operations, payload manipulator, upper stages operations, tracking and data relay, spacelab, space power systems, space exposure facility, space construction, and space station. (JN)

  11. Space Operations Learning Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, Ben; Milner, Barbara; Binebrink, Dan; Kuok, Heng

    2012-01-01

    The Space Operations Learning Center (SOLC) is a tool that provides an online learning environment where students can learn science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) through a series of training modules. SOLC is also an effective media for NASA to showcase its contributions to the general public. SOLC is a Web-based environment with a learning platform for students to understand STEM through interactive modules in various engineering topics. SOLC is unique in its approach to develop learning materials to teach schoolaged students the basic concepts of space operations. SOLC utilizes the latest Web and software technologies to present this educational content in a fun and engaging way for all grade levels. SOLC uses animations, streaming video, cartoon characters, audio narration, interactive games and more to deliver educational concepts. The Web portal organizes all of these training modules in an easily accessible way for visitors worldwide. SOLC provides multiple training modules on various topics. At the time of this reporting, seven modules have been developed: Space Communication, Flight Dynamics, Information Processing, Mission Operations, Kids Zone 1, Kids Zone 2, and Save The Forest. For the first four modules, each contains three components: Flight Training, Flight License, and Fly It! Kids Zone 1 and 2 include a number of educational videos and games designed specifically for grades K-6. Save The Forest is a space operations mission with four simulations and activities to complete, optimized for new touch screen technology. The Kids Zone 1 module has recently been ported to Facebook to attract wider audience.

  12. Hilbertian sine as an absolute measure of Bayesian inference in ISR, homeland security, medicine, and defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Wang, Wenjian; Hodelin, Juan; Forrester, Thomas; Romanov, Volodymyr; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, Bayesian Binary Sensing (BBS) is discussed as an effective tool for Bayesian Inference (BI) evaluation in interdisciplinary areas such as ISR (and, C3I), Homeland Security, QC, medicine, defense, and many others. In particular, Hilbertian Sine (HS) as an absolute measure of BI, is introduced, while avoiding relativity of decision threshold identification, as in the case of traditional measures of BI, related to false positives and false negatives.

  13. Small satellite space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss, Keith

    1994-01-01

    CTA Space Systems has played a premier role in the development of the 'lightsat' programs of the 80's and 90's. The high costs and development times associated with conventional LEO satellite design, fabrication, launch, and operations continue to motivate the development of new methodologies, techniques, and generally low cost and less stringently regulated satellites. These spacecraft employ low power 'lightsat' communications (versus TDRSS for NASA's LEO's) and typically fly missions with payload/experiment suites that can succeed, for example, without heavily redundant backup systems and large infrastructures of personnel and ground support systems. Such small yet adaptable satellites are also typified by their very short contract-to-launch times (often one to two years). This paper reflects several of the methodologies and perspectives of our successful involvement in these innovative programs and suggests how they might relieve NASA's mounting pressures to reduce the cost of both the spacecraft and their companion mission operations. It focuses on the use of adaptable, sufficiently powerful yet inexpensive PC-based ground systems for wide ranging user terminal (UT) applications and master control facilities for mission operations. These systems proved themselves in successfully controlling more than two dozen USAF, USN, and ARPA satellites at CTA/SS. UT versions have linked with both GEO and LEO satellites and functioned autonomously in relay roles often in remote parts of the world. LEO applications particularly illustrate the efficacy of these concepts since a user can easily mount a lightweight antenna, usually an omni or helix with light duty rotors and PC-based drivers. A few feet of coax connected to a small transceiver module (the size of a small PC) and a serial line to an associated PC establishes a communications link and together with the PC constitute a viable ground station. Applications included geomagnetic mapping; spaceborne solid state

  14. Space Shuttle operational logistics plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botts, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center plan for logistics to support Space Shuttle Operations and to establish the related policies, requirements, and responsibilities are described. The Directorate of Shuttle Management and Operations logistics responsibilities required by the Kennedy Organizational Manual, and the self-sufficiency contracting concept are implemented. The Space Shuttle Program Level 1 and Level 2 logistics policies and requirements applicable to KSC that are presented in HQ NASA and Johnson Space Center directives are also implemented.

  15. Joint Doctrine for Space Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    c. USSPACECOM Space Operations Center ( SPOC ). The SPOC is the focal point with USSPACECOM for obtaining space support. d. Day-to-Day Operations...notify the National Military Command Center (NMCC) and the NORAD and USSPACECOM chains of command (including the NORAD Operation Center and SPOC ), as...commanders from NORAD-USSPACECOM’s CMOC, which is backed up by the SPOC . USSPACECOM will also operate and maintain global and regional satellite

  16. Electrophoresis operations in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richman, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    Application of electrophoresis in space processing is described. Spaceborne experiments in areas such as biological products and FDA approved drugs are discussed. These experiments will be carried on shuttle payloads.

  17. Science operations with Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacconi, R.

    1982-01-01

    The operation, instrumentation, and expected contributions of the Space Telescope are discussed. Space Telescope capabilities are described. The organization and nature of the Space Telescope Science Institute are outlined, including the allocation of observing time and the data rights and data access policies of the institute.

  18. Space Toxicology: Human Health during Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T.; Tyl, ROchelle; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  19. Training and Tactical Operationally Responsive Space Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, B.; Strunce, R., Jr.

    Current space assets managed by traditional space system control resources provide communication, navigation, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities using satellites that are designed for long life and high reliability. The next generation Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) systems are aimed at providing operational space capabilities which will provide flexibility and responsiveness to the tactical battlefield commander. These capabilities do not exist today. The ORS communication, navigation, and ISR satellites are being designed to replace or supplement existing systems in order to enhance the current space force. These systems are expected to rapidly meet near term space needs of the tactical forces. The ORS concept includes new tactical satellites specifically designed to support contingency operations such as increased communication bandwidth and ISR imagery over the theater for a limited period to support air, ground, and naval force mission. The Concept of Operations (CONOPS) that exists today specifies that in addition to operational control of the satellite, the tasking and scheduling of the ORS tactical satellite for mission data collection in support of the tactical warfighter will be accomplished within the Virtual Mission Operations Center (VMOC). This is very similar to what is currently being accomplished in a fixed Mission Operations Center on existing traditional ISR satellites. The VMOC is merely a distributed environment and the CONOPS remain virtually the same. As a result, there is a significant drawback to the current ORS CONOPS that does not account for the full potential of the ORS paradigm for supporting tactical forces. Although the CONOPS approach may be appropriate for experimental Tactical Satellites (TacSat), it ignores the issues associated with the In-Theater Commander's need to own and operate his dedicated TacSat for most effective warfighting as well as the Warfighter specific CONOPS. What is needed

  20. Science Operation in Space: Lessons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This program (conceived by a group of veteran Shuttle astronauts) shows prospective experimenters how they can better design their experiments for operation onboard Shuttle flights. Shuttle astronauts Dunbar, Seddon, Hoffman, Cleave, Ross, and ChangDiaz also show how crews live and work in space.

  1. Automating Space Station operations planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemer, Kathleen A.

    1989-01-01

    The development and implementation of the operations planning processes for the Space Station are discussed. A three level planning process, consisting of strategic, tactical, and execution level planning, is being developed. The integration of the planning procedures into a tactical planning system is examined and the planning phases are illustrated.

  2. Automating Space Station operations planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemer, Kathleen A.

    1989-01-01

    The development and implementation of the operations planning processes for the Space Station are discussed. A three level planning process, consisting of strategic, tactical, and execution level planning, is being developed. The integration of the planning procedures into a tactical planning system is examined and the planning phases are illustrated.

  3. International Space Station Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is currently the leader, in conjunction with our Russian counterpart co-leads, of the Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB), the Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP), which coordinates medical system support for International Space Station (ISS) crews, and the Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB), which medically certifies all crewmembers for space flight on-board the ISS. These three organizations have representatives from NASA, RSA-IMBP (Russian Space Agency- Institute for Biomedical Problems), GCTC (Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center), ESA (European Space Agency), JAXA (Japanese Space Agency), and CSA (Canadian Space Agency). The policy and strategic coordination of ISS medical operations occurs at this level, and includes interactions with MMOP working groups in Radiation Health, Countermeasures, Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA), Informatics, Environmental Health, Behavioral Health and Performance, Nutrition, Clinical Medicine, Standards, Post-flight Activities and Rehabilitation, and Training. Each ISS Expedition has a lead Crew Surgeon from NASA and a Russian Crew Surgeon from GCTC assigned to the mission. Day-to-day issues are worked real-time by the flight surgeons and biomedical engineers (also called the Integrated Medical Group) on consoles at the MCC (Mission Control Center) in Houston and the TsUP (Center for Flight Control) in Moscow/Korolev. In the future, this may also include mission control centers in Europe and Japan, when their modules are added onto the ISS. Private medical conferences (PMCs) are conducted regularly and upon crew request with the ISS crew via private audio and video communication links from the biomedical MPSR (multipurpose support room) at MCC Houston. When issues arise in the day-to-day medical support of ISS crews, they are discussed and resolved at the SMOT (space medical operations team) meetings, which occur weekly among the International Partners. Any medical or life science issue that is not resolved at

  4. Space station operations task force summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A companion to the Space Stations Operation Task Force Panels' Reports, this document summarizes all space station program goals, operations, and the characteristics of the expected user community. Strategies for operation and recommendations for implementation are included.

  5. Space station operating system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Albert E.; Harwell, Morris C.

    1988-01-01

    The current phase of the Space Station Operating System study is based on the analysis, evaluation, and comparison of the operating systems implemented on the computer systems and workstations in the software development laboratory. Primary emphasis has been placed on the DEC MicroVMS operating system as implemented on the MicroVax II computer, with comparative analysis of the SUN UNIX system on the SUN 3/260 workstation computer, and to a limited extent, the IBM PC/AT microcomputer running PC-DOS. Some benchmark development and testing was also done for the Motorola MC68010 (VM03 system) before the system was taken from the laboratory. These systems were studied with the objective of determining their capability to support Space Station software development requirements, specifically for multi-tasking and real-time applications. The methodology utilized consisted of development, execution, and analysis of benchmark programs and test software, and the experimentation and analysis of specific features of the system or compilers in the study.

  6. Space Station Freedom operations planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Accola, Anne L.; Keith, Bryant

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom program is developing an operations planning structure which assigns responsibility for planning activities to three tiers of management. The strategic level develops the policy, goals and requirements for the program over a five-year horizon. Planning at the tactical level emphasizes program integration and planning for a two-year horizon. The tactical planning process, architecture, and products have been documented and discussed with the international partners. Tactical planning includes the assignment of user and system hardware as well as significant operational events to a time increment (the period of time from the arrival of one Shuttle to the manned base to the arrival of the next). Execution-level planning emphasizes implementation, and each organization produces detailed plans, by increment, that are specific to its function.

  7. Space Station Freedom operations planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Accola, Anne L.; Keith, Bryant

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom program is developing an operations planning structure which assigns responsibility for planning activities to three tiers of management. The strategic level develops the policy, goals and requirements for the program over a five-year horizon. Planning at the tactical level emphasizes program integration and planning for a two-year horizon. The tactical planning process, architecture, and products have been documented and discussed with the international partners. Tactical planning includes the assignment of user and system hardware as well as significant operational events to a time increment (the period of time from the arrival of one Shuttle to the manned base to the arrival of the next). Execution-level planning emphasizes implementation, and each organization produces detailed plans, by increment, that are specific to its function.

  8. Space Station overall management approach for operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paules, G.

    1986-01-01

    An Operations Management Concept developed by NASA for its Space Station Program is discussed. The operational goals, themes, and design principles established during program development are summarized. The major operations functions are described, including: space systems operations, user support operations, prelaunch/postlanding operations, logistics support operations, market research, and cost/financial management. Strategic, tactical, and execution levels of operational decision-making are defined.

  9. Space Station overall management approach for operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paules, G.

    1986-01-01

    An Operations Management Concept developed by NASA for its Space Station Program is discussed. The operational goals, themes, and design principles established during program development are summarized. The major operations functions are described, including: space systems operations, user support operations, prelaunch/postlanding operations, logistics support operations, market research, and cost/financial management. Strategic, tactical, and execution levels of operational decision-making are defined.

  10. Space Physiology and Operational Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this slide presentation are to teach a level of familiarity with: the effects of short and long duration space flight on the human body, the major medical concerns regarding future long duration missions, the environmental issues that have potential medical impact on the crew, the role and capabilities of the Space Medicine Flight Surgeon and the environmental impacts experienced by the Apollo crews. The main physiological effects of space flight on the human body reviewed in this presentation are: space motion sickness (SMS), neurovestibular, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune/hematopoietic system and behavioral/psycho-social. Some countermeasures are discussed to these effects.

  11. Advanced Space Surface Systems Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, Zachary Lynn; Mueller, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of advanced surface systems is becoming increasingly relevant in the modern age of space technology. Specifically, projects pursued by the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations (GMRO) Lab are unparalleled in the field of planetary resourcefulness. This internship opportunity involved projects that support properly utilizing natural resources from other celestial bodies. Beginning with the tele-robotic workstation, mechanical upgrades were necessary to consider for specific portions of the workstation consoles and successfully designed in concept. This would provide more means for innovation and creativity concerning advanced robotic operations. Project RASSOR is a regolith excavator robot whose primary objective is to mine, store, and dump regolith efficiently on other planetary surfaces. Mechanical adjustments were made to improve this robot's functionality, although there were some minor system changes left to perform before the opportunity ended. On the topic of excavator robots, the notes taken by the GMRO staff during the 2013 and 2014 Robotic Mining Competitions were effectively organized and analyzed for logistical purposes. Lessons learned from these annual competitions at Kennedy Space Center are greatly influential to the GMRO engineers and roboticists. Another project that GMRO staff support is Project Morpheus. Support for this project included successfully producing mathematical models of the eroded landing pad surface for the vertical testbed vehicle to predict a timeline for pad reparation. And finally, the last project this opportunity made contribution to was Project Neo, a project exterior to GMRO Lab projects, which focuses on rocket propulsion systems. Additions were successfully installed to the support structure of an original vertical testbed rocket engine, thus making progress towards futuristic test firings in which data will be analyzed by students affiliated with Rocket University. Each project will be explained in

  12. Space shuttle operations integration plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Operations Integration Plan is presented, which is to provide functional definition of the activities necessary to develop and integrate shuttle operating plans and facilities to support flight, flight control, and operations. It identifies the major tasks, the organizations responsible, their interrelationships, the sequence of activities and interfaces, and the resultant products related to operations integration.

  13. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Larry; Slack, Kelley; O'Keefe, William; Huning, Therese; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the International Space Station (ISS) Operations space flight resource management, which was adapted to the ISS from the shuttle processes. It covers crew training and behavior elements.

  14. Legacy of Operational Space Medicine During the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepaniakm, P.; Gilmore, S.; Johnston, S.; Chandler, M.; Beven, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center s Medical Science Division branches were involved in preparing astronauts for space flight during the 30 year period of the Space Shuttle Program. These branches included the Flight Medicine Clinic, Medical Operations and the Behavioral Health Program. The components of each facet of these support services were: the Flight Medicine Clinic s medical selection process and medical care; the Medical Operations equipment, training, procedures and emergency medical services; and the Behavioral Health and Performance operations. Each presenter will discuss the evolution of its operations, implementations, lessons learned and recommendations for future vehicles and short duration space missions.

  15. Operational Aspects of Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session FA4, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Solar Particle Events and the International Space Station; Radiation Environment on Mir and ISS Orbits During the Solar Cycle; New approach to Radiation Risk Assessment; An Industrial Method to Predict Major Solar Flares for a Better Protection of Human Beings in Space; Description of the Space Radiation Control System for the Russian Segment of ISS; Orbit Selection and Its Impact on Radiation Warning Architecture for a Human Mission to Mars; and Space Nuclear Power - Technology, Policy and Risk Considerations in Human Missions to Mars.

  16. Weather impacts on space operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, J.; Boyd, B.; Bauman, W.; Wyse, N.; Adams, M.

    The efforts of the 45th Weather Squadron of the USAF to provide weather support to Patrick Air Force Base, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Eastern Range, and the Kennedy Space Center are discussed. Its weather support to space vehicles, particularly the Space Shuttle, includes resource protection, ground processing, launch, and Ferry Flight, as well as consultations to the Spaceflight Meteorology Group for landing forecasts. Attention is given to prelaunch processing weather, launch support weather, Shuttle launch commit criteria, and range safety weather restrictions. Upper level wind requirements are examined. The frequency of hourly surface observations with thunderstorms at the Shuttle landing facility, and lightning downtime at the Titan launch complexes are illustrated.

  17. Operational Space Weather Activities in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas; Singer, Howard; Onsager, Terrance; Viereck, Rodney; Murtagh, William; Rutledge, Robert

    2016-07-01

    We review the current activities in the civil operational space weather forecasting enterprise of the United States. The NOAA/Space Weather Prediction Center is the nation's official source of space weather watches, warnings, and alerts, working with partners in the Air Force as well as international operational forecast services to provide predictions, data, and products on a large variety of space weather phenomena and impacts. In October 2015, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy released the National Space Weather Strategy (NSWS) and associated Space Weather Action Plan (SWAP) that define how the nation will better forecast, mitigate, and respond to an extreme space weather event. The SWAP defines actions involving multiple federal agencies and mandates coordination and collaboration with academia, the private sector, and international bodies to, among other things, develop and sustain an operational space weather observing system; develop and deploy new models of space weather impacts to critical infrastructure systems; define new mechanisms for the transition of research models to operations and to ensure that the research community is supported for, and has access to, operational model upgrade paths; and to enhance fundamental understanding of space weather through support of research models and observations. The SWAP will guide significant aspects of space weather operational and research activities for the next decade, with opportunities to revisit the strategy in the coming years through the auspices of the National Science and Technology Council.

  18. Transition to the space shuttle operations era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The tasks involved in the Space Shuttle Development Program are discussed. The ten major characteristics of an operational Shuttle are described, as well as the changes occurring in Shuttle processing, on-line operations, operations engineering, and support operations. A summary is given of tasks and goals that are being pursued in the effort to create a cost effective and efficient system.

  19. Operational Space Weather in USAF Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithtro, C.; Quigley, S.

    2006-12-01

    Most education programs offering space weather courses are understandably and traditionally heavily weighted with theoretical space physics that is the basis for most of what is researched and modeled. While understanding the theory is a good and necessary grounding for anyone working the field of space weather, few military or commercial jobs employ such theory in real-time operations. The operations sites/centers are much more geared toward use of applied theory-resultant models, tools and products. To ensure its operations centers personnel, commanders, real-time system operators and other customers affected by the space environment are educated on available and soon-to-be operational space weather models and products, the USAF has developed applicable course/lecture material taught at various institutions to include the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) and the Joint Weather Training Complex (335th/TRS/OUA). Less frequent training of operational space weather is available via other venues that will be discussed, and associated course material is also being developed for potential use at the National Security Space Institute (NSSI). This presentation provides an overview of the programs, locations, courses and material developed and/or taught by or for USAF personnel dealing with operational space weather. It also provides general information on student research project results that may be used in operational support, along with observations regarding logistical and professional benefits of teaching such non-theoretical/non-traditional material.

  20. Microchemical Analysis Of Space Operation Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, Virginia J.; Kim, Hae Soo

    1995-01-01

    Report discusses techniques used in analyzing debris relative to space shuttle operations. Debris collected from space shuttle, expendable launch vehicles, payloads carried by space shuttle, and payloads carried by expendable launch vehicles. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry, analytical electron microscopy with wavelength-dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction chosen as techniques used in examining samples of debris.

  1. Unitary Operators on the Document Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoenkamp, Eduard

    2003-01-01

    Discusses latent semantic indexing (LSI) that would allow search engines to reduce the dimension of the document space by mapping it into a space spanned by conceptual indices. Topics include vector space models; singular value decomposition (SVD); unitary operators; the Haar transform; and new algorithms. (Author/LRW)

  2. Unitary Operators on the Document Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoenkamp, Eduard

    2003-01-01

    Discusses latent semantic indexing (LSI) that would allow search engines to reduce the dimension of the document space by mapping it into a space spanned by conceptual indices. Topics include vector space models; singular value decomposition (SVD); unitary operators; the Haar transform; and new algorithms. (Author/LRW)

  3. The French Space Operations Act: Technical Regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazare, B.

    2013-12-01

    The French Space Operations Act (FSOA) [1] stipulates that one of the National Technical Regulations' prime objectives is to protect people, property, public health and the environment. Compliance with these Technical Regulations has been mandatory since 10 December, 2010 for space operations by French space operators and for space operations conducted on French territory. The space safety requirements and regulations governing procedures are based on national and international best practices and experience. A critical design review of the space system and procedures shall be carried out by applicant space operators, in order to verify compliance with the Technical Regulations. An independent technical assessment of the operation is delegated to CNES. The principles applied when drafting the Technical Regulations are as follows: requirements must, as far as possible, establish the rules according to the objective to be obtained, rather than how it is to be achieved; requirements must give preference to international standards recognised as being state of the art; requirements must take previous experience into account. The Technical Regulations are divided into three sections covering requirements common to the launch, control and return of a space object. A special section will cover specific rules to be applied at the Guiana Space Centre. The main topics addressed by the Technical Regulations are: operator safety management system; study of risks to people, property, public health and the Earth's environment; impact study on the outer space environment: space debris generated by the operation; planetary protection. The first version of the Technical Regulations [2], issued in March 2011, is dedicated to unmanned space systems.

  4. Space Documentation Services: Operations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raitt, D. I.

    A description of the system used by Space Documentation Service (SDS) to disseminate combined and accumulated knowledge, as widely as possible, throughout Europe is given. The RECON network, with the full support of NASA, has gradually been extended so that centers in Member States, may, by installing their own terminals, have direct access to the…

  5. EOS production on the Space Station. [Electrophoresis Operations/Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, F. C.; Gleason, M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses a conceptual integration of the equipment for EOS (Electrophoresis Operations/Space) on the Space Station in the early 1990s. Electrophoresis is a fluid-constituent separation technique which uses forces created by an electrical field. Aspects covered include EOS equipment and operations, and Space Station installations involving a pressurized module, a resupply module, utility provisions and umbilicals and crew involvement. Accommodation feasibility is generally established, and interfaces are defined. Space Station production of EOS-derived pharmaceuticals will constitute a significant increase in capability compared to precursor flights on the Shuttle in the 1980s.

  6. Prediction Techniques in Operational Space Weather Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    The importance of forecasting space weather conditions is steadily increasing as our society is becoming more and more dependent on advanced technologies that may be affected by disturbed space weather. Operational space weather forecasting is still a difficult task that requires the real-time availability of input data and specific prediction techniques that are reviewed in this presentation, with an emphasis on solar and interplanetary weather. Key observations that are essential for operational space weather forecasting are listed. Predictions made on the base of empirical and statistical methods, as well as physical models, are described. Their validation, accuracy, and limitations are discussed in the context of operational forecasting. Several important problems in the scientific basis of predicting space weather are described, and possible ways to overcome them are discussed, including novel space-borne observations that could be available in future.

  7. Operationally Responsive Space Launch for Space Situational Awareness Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, T.

    The United States Space Situational Awareness capability continues to be a key element in obtaining and maintaining the high ground in space. Space Situational Awareness satellites are critical enablers for integrated air, ground and sea operations, and play an essential role in fighting and winning conflicts. The United States leads the world space community in spacecraft payload systems from the component level into spacecraft and in the development of constellations of spacecraft. This position is founded upon continued government investment in research and development in space technology, which is clearly reflected in the Space Situational Awareness capabilities and the longevity of these missions. In the area of launch systems that support Space Situational Awareness, despite the recent development of small launch vehicles, the United States launch capability is dominated by unresponsive and relatively expensive launchers in the Expandable, Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELV). The EELV systems require an average of six to eight months from positioning on the launch table until liftoff. Access to space requires maintaining a robust space transportation capability, founded on a rigorous industrial and technology base. To assure access to space, the United States directed Air Force Space Command to develop the capability for operationally responsive access to space and use of space to support national security, including the ability to provide critical space capabilities in the event of a failure of launch or on-orbit capabilities. Under the Air Force Policy Directive, the Air Force will establish, organize, employ, and sustain space forces necessary to execute the mission and functions assigned including rapid response to the National Command Authorities and the conduct of military operations across the spectrum of conflict. Air Force Space Command executes the majority of spacelift operations for DoD satellites and other government and commercial agencies. The

  8. Space Situational Awareness in the Joint Space Operations Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, M.

    2011-09-01

    Flight safety of orbiting resident space objects is critical to our national interest and defense. United States Strategic Command has assigned the responsibility for Space Situational Awareness (SSA) to its Joint Functional Component Command - Space (JFCC SPACE) at Vandenberg Air Force Base. This paper will describe current SSA imperatives, new developments in SSA tools and developments in Defensive Operations. Current SSA processes are being examined to capture, and possibly improve, tasking of SSN sensors and "new" space-based sensors, "common" conjunction assessment methodology, and SSA sharing due to the growth seen over the last two years. The stand-up of a Defensive Ops Branch will highlight the need for advanced analysis and collaboration across space, weather, intelligence, and cyber specialties. New developments in SSA tools will be a description of computing hardware/software upgrades planned as well as the use of User-Defined Operating Pictures and visualization applications.

  9. NASA Now: International Space Station Payload Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    In this episode of NASA Now, you’ll hear Katie Presson of the Payload Operations Integration team at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., discuss investigations being conducte...

  10. ISS Update: SpaceX Dragon Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries talks with Lead Integration and Systems Engineer Paul Brower about SpaceX Dragon operations as the spacecraft's unberthing approaches. Questions? Ask us ...

  11. Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

  12. International Space Station Payload Operations Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanske, Elizabeth Anne

    2011-01-01

    The Payload Operations Integrator (POINT) plays an integral part in the Certification of Flight Readiness process for the Mission Operations Laboratory and the Payload Operations Integration Function that supports International Space Station Payload operations. The POINTs operate in support of the POIF Payload Operations Manager to bring together and integrate the Certification of Flight Readiness inputs from various MOL teams through maintaining an open work tracking log. The POINTs create monthly metrics for current and future payloads that the Payload Operations Integration Function supports. With these tools, the POINTs assemble the Certification of Flight Readiness package before a given flight, stating that the Mission Operations Laboratory is prepared to support it. I have prepared metrics for Increment 29/30, maintained the Open Work Tracking Logs for Flights ULF6 (STS-134) and ULF7 (STS-135), and submitted the Mission Operations Laboratory Certification of Flight Readiness package for Flight 44P to the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD/OZ).

  13. Operator algebra in the space of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celeghini, Enrico

    2017-08-01

    A consistent description of images on the disk and of their transformations is given as elements of a vector space and of an operators algebra. The vector space of images on the disk 𝔻 is the Hilbert space L 2(𝔻) that has as a basis the Zernike functions. To construct the operator algebra that transforms the images, L 2(𝔻) must be complemented and the full rigged Hilbert space RHS(𝔻) considered. Only this rigged Hilbert space allows indeed to write the operators of different cardinality we need to build the ladder operators on the Zernike functions that by inspection, belong to the representation {D}1/2+\\otimes {D}1/2+ of the algebra su(1, 1) ⊕ su(1, 1). Consequently the transformations of images are operators contained inside the universal enveloping algebra UEA[su(1, 1) ⊕ su(1, 1)]. Because of limited precision of experimental measures, physical states can be always described by vectors of the Schwartz space 𝕊(𝔻), dense in the L 2(𝔻) space where the manipulation of images is performed.

  14. SpaceX Readies Operational Flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    SpaceX is set to launch the first of a dozen operational missions for NASA to deliver more than 1,000 pounds of supplies to the International Space Station on Oct. 7. Launch time is 8:35 p.m. from ...

  15. Technology Interdependency Roadmaps for Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar

    1995-01-01

    The requirements for Space Technology are outlined in terms of NASA Strategic Plan. The national emphasis on economic revitalization is described along with the environmental changes needed for the new direction. Space Technology Interdependency (STI) is elaborated in terms of its impact on national priority on science, education, and economy. Some suggested approaches to strengthening STI are outlined. Finally, examples of Technology Roadmaps for Space Operations area are included to illustrate the value of STI for national cohesiveness and economic revitalization.

  16. Technology Interdependency Roadmaps for Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar

    1995-01-01

    The requirements for Space Technology are outlined in terms of NASA Strategic Plan. The national emphasis on economic revitalization is described along with the environmental changes needed for the new direction. Space Technology Interdependency (STI) is elaborated in terms of its impact on national priority on science, education, and economy. Some suggested approaches to strengthening STI are outlined. Finally, examples of Technology Roadmaps for Space Operations area are included to illustrate the value of STI for national cohesiveness and economic revitalization.

  17. The Bender-Dunne basis operators as Hilbert space operators

    SciTech Connect

    Bunao, Joseph; Galapon, Eric A. E-mail: eric.galapon@upd.edu.ph

    2014-02-15

    The Bender-Dunne basis operators, T{sub −m,n}=2{sup −n}∑{sub k=0}{sup n}(n/k )q{sup k}p{sup −m}q{sup n−k} where q and p are the position and momentum operators, respectively, are formal integral operators in position representation in the entire real line R for positive integers n and m. We show, by explicit construction of a dense domain, that the operators T{sub −m,n}'s are densely defined operators in the Hilbert space L{sup 2}(R)

  18. Operational modules for space station construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. R.; Moses, P. L.; Scotti, S. J.; Blosser, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Identification of an effective space construction concept is a current objective of NASA studies. One concept, described in this memorandum, consists of repetitive use of operational modules, which minimizes on-orbit stay time for the shuttle. A space station constructed of operational modules may benefit from fabrication and system checkout in ground-based facilities, and since the modules are the primary structure of the space station, a minimum of additional structure, and trips and on-orbit stay time of the shuttle are required.

  19. Space Station Freedom baseline operations concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paules, Granville

    1991-01-01

    The Baseline Operations Concept is designed to support the multiflight-multistage assembly sequence and post-Permanent Manned Configuration (PMC) era for the Space Station Freedom (SSF). Initial implementation of procedures and systems are consistent with experience gained during the operation of the Shuttle and Spacelab.

  20. Future trends in NASA space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuechsel, Charles F.

    1993-01-01

    It is a great privilege for me to address my colleagues at SpaceOps 92. Today, I would like to share with you some current directions we are pursuing in NASA's Office of Space Communications (OSC). The space agencies of the world have produced some remarkable achievements in conducting our missions. It is also true that we consume significant resources in controlling and operating our spacecraft. In these challenging economic times, the degree to which our agencies can develop new missions will depend on our ability to reduce operating costs. I believe that there are many opportunities for doing this, and I will explore some of our plans in this regard. First, I will review the business of space operations.

  1. Operability engineering in the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Belinda

    1993-01-01

    Many operability problems exist at the three Deep Space Communications Complexes (DSCC's) of the Deep Space Network (DSN). Four years ago, the position of DSN Operability Engineer was created to provide the opportunity for someone to take a system-level approach to solving these problems. Since that time, a process has been developed for personnel and development engineers and for enforcing user interface standards in software designed for the DSCC's. Plans are for the participation of operations personnel in the product life-cycle to expand in the future.

  2. Space transportation system biomedical operations support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    The shift of the Space Transportation System (STS) flight tests of the orbiter vehicle to the preparation and flight of the payloads is discussed. Part of this change is the transition of the medical and life sciences aspects of the STS flight operations to reflect the new state. The medical operations, the life sciences flight experiments support requirements and the intramural research program expected to be at KSC during the operational flight period of the STS and a future space station are analyzed. The adequacy of available facilities, plans, and resources against these future needs are compared; revisions and/or alternatives where appropriate are proposed.

  3. Space Operations Center - A concept analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-12-01

    The Space Operations Center (SOC) which is a concept for a Shuttle serviced, permanent, manned facility in low earth orbit is viewed as a major candidate for the manned space flight following the completion of an operational Shuttle. The primary objectives of SOC are: (1) the construction, checkout, and transfer to operational orbit of large, complex space systems, (2) on-orbit assembly, launch, recovery, and servicing of manned and unmanned spacecraft, (3) managing operations of co-orbiting free-flying satellites, and (4) the development of reduced dependence on earth for control and resupply. The structure of SOC, a self-contained orbital facility containing several Shuttle launched modules, includes the service, habitation, and logistics modules as well as construction, and flight support facilities. A schedule is proposed for the development of SOC over ten years and costs for the yearly programs are estimated.

  4. Space toxicology: protecting human health during space operations.

    PubMed

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T; Tyl, Rochelle; Lam, Chiu-wing

    2011-02-01

    Space toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation, and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons, and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures while in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation, continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion and other purposes. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies, in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  5. Spaceport operations for deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom is designed with the capability to cost-effectively evolve into a transportation node which can support manned lunar and Mars missions. To extend a permanent human presence to the outer planets (moon outposts) and to nearby star systems, additional orbiting space infrastructure and great advances in propulsion system and other technologies will be required. To identify primary operations and management requirements for these deep space missions, an interstellar design concept was developed and analyzed. The assembly, test, servicing, logistics resupply, and increment management techniques anticipated for lunar and Mars missions appear to provide a pattern which can be extended in an analogous manner to deep space missions. A long range, space infrastructure development plan (encompassing deep space missions) coupled with energetic, breakthrough level propulsion research should be initiated now to assist in making the best budget and schedule decisions.

  6. Space manufacturing systems and the Space Operations Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louviere, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    For the planned Space Operations Center (SOC) and envisioned space manufacturing and processes systems, the concepts of phased programs, development and operations, station-keeping orbit envelopes, propulsive harbor tugs, and aspects of servicing are discussed. The SOC three-phased program concept includes the servicing of satellites in compatible orbits and in transition to higher energy orbits. Two concepts of a free-flyer satellite are assessed, including the fuel system, and the placement of such a satellite into orbit is discussed. Finally, some services that will be provided by SOC are mentioned.

  7. Operational Implementation of Space Debris Mitigation Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gicquel, Anne-Helene; Bonaventure, Francois

    2013-08-01

    During the spacecraft lifetime, Astrium supports its customers to manage collision risks alerts from the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC). This was previously done with hot-line support and a manual operational procedure. Today, it is automated and integrated in QUARTZ, the Astrium Flight Dynamics operational tool. The algorithms and process details for this new 5- step functionality are provided in this paper. To improve this functionality, some R&D activities such as the study of dilution phenomenon and low relative velocity encounters are going on. Regarding end of life disposal, recent operational experiences as well as studies results are presented.

  8. Space Station tethered refueling facility operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefel, E. R.; Rudolph, L. K.; Fester, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    The space-based orbital transfer vehicle will require a large cryogenic fuel storage facility at the Space Station. An alternative to fuel storage onboard the Space Station, is on a tethered orbital refueling facility (TORF) which is separated from the Space Station by a sufficient distance to induce a gravity gradient to settle the propellants. Facility operations are a major concern associated with a tethered LO2/LH2 storage depot. A study was carried out to analyze these operations so as to identify the preferred TORF deployment direction (up or down) and whether the TORF should be permanently or intermittently deployed. The analyses considered safety, contamination, rendezvous, servicing, transportation rate, communication, and viewing. An upwardly, intermittently deployed facility is the preferred configuration for a tethered cryogenic fuel storage.

  9. Knowledge representation in space flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busse, Carl

    1989-01-01

    In space flight operations rapid understanding of the state of the space vehicle is essential. Representation of knowledge depicting space vehicle status in a dynamic environment presents a difficult challenge. The NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory has pursued areas of technology associated with the advancement of spacecraft operations environment. This has led to the development of several advanced mission systems which incorporate enhanced graphics capabilities. These systems include: (1) Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP); (2) Spacecraft Monitoring Environment (SME); (3) Electrical Power Data Monitor (EPDM); (4) Generic Payload Operations Control Center (GPOCC); and (5) Telemetry System Monitor Prototype (TSM). Knowledge representation in these systems provides a direct representation of the intrinsic images associated with the instrument and satellite telemetry and telecommunications systems. The man-machine interface includes easily interpreted contextual graphic displays. These interactive video displays contain multiple display screens with pop-up windows and intelligent, high resolution graphics linked through context and mouse-sensitive icons and text.

  10. Space robotic system for proximity operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnani, P. G.; Colomba, M.

    1989-01-01

    Key to an efficient accomplishment of space station servicing operations is the development of a scenario where the presence of man in space is well integrated with the capability of teleoperated and automatic robot system outside the stations. Results focusing on mission requirements, trajectory sequences, propulsion subsystem features, and manipulative kit characteristics relevant to proximity servicing during a Man Tended Free Flyers Robotic Mission (MTFF-RM) are illustrated.

  11. A space transportation system operations model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, W. Douglas; White, Nancy H.

    1987-01-01

    Presented is a description of a computer program which permits assessment of the operational support requirements of space transportation systems functioning in both a ground- and space-based environment. The scenario depicted provides for the delivery of payloads from Earth to a space station and beyond using upper stages based at the station. Model results are scenario dependent and rely on the input definitions of delivery requirements, task times, and available resources. Output is in terms of flight rate capabilities, resource requirements, and facility utilization. A general program description, program listing, input requirements, and sample output are included.

  12. Agile Development Methods for Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay; Webster, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Main stream industry software development practice has gone from a traditional waterfall process to agile iterative development that allows for fast response to customer inputs and produces higher quality software at lower cost. How can we, the space ops community, adopt state of the art software development practice, achieve greater productivity at lower cost, and maintain safe and effective space flight operations? At NASA Ames, we are developing Mission Control Technologies Software, in collaboration with Johnson Space Center (JSC) and, more recently, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

  13. NASA Space Launch System Operations Outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefner, William Keith; Matisak, Brian P.; McElyea, Mark; Kunz, Jennifer; Weber, Philip; Cummings, Nicholas; Parsons, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is working with the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program, based at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), to deliver a new safe, affordable, and sustainable capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth's orbit (BEO). Larger than the Saturn V Moon rocket, SLS will provide 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130-t configuration. The primary mission of the SLS rocket will be to launch astronauts to deep space destinations in the Orion Multi- Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), also in development and managed by the Johnson Space Center. Several high-priority science missions also may benefit from the increased payload volume and reduced trip times offered by this powerful, versatile rocket. Reducing the lifecycle costs for NASA's space transportation flagship will maximize the exploration and scientific discovery returned from the taxpayer's investment. To that end, decisions made during development of SLS and associated systems will impact the nation's space exploration capabilities for decades. This paper will provide an update to the operations strategy presented at SpaceOps 2012. It will focus on: 1) Preparations to streamline the processing flow and infrastructure needed to produce and launch the world's largest rocket (i.e., through incorporation and modification of proven, heritage systems into the vehicle and ground systems); 2) Implementation of a lean approach to reach-back support of hardware manufacturing, green-run testing, and launch site processing and activities; and 3) Partnering between the vehicle design and operations communities on state-of-the-art predictive operations analysis techniques. An example of innovation is testing the integrated vehicle at the processing facility in parallel, rather than

  14. NASA Space Launch System Operations Outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefner, William Keith; Matisak, Brian P.; McElyea, Mark; Kunz, Jennifer; Weber, Philip; Cummings, Nicholas; Parsons, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is working with the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program, based at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), to deliver a new safe, affordable, and sustainable capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth's orbit (BEO). Larger than the Saturn V Moon rocket, SLS will provide 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130-t configuration. The primary mission of the SLS rocket will be to launch astronauts to deep space destinations in the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), also in development and managed by the Johnson Space Center. Several high-priority science missions also may benefit from the increased payload volume and reduced trip times offered by this powerful, versatile rocket. Reducing the life-cycle costs for NASA's space transportation flagship will maximize the exploration and scientific discovery returned from the taxpayer's investment. To that end, decisions made during development of SLS and associated systems will impact the nation's space exploration capabilities for decades. This paper will provide an update to the operations strategy presented at SpaceOps 2012. It will focus on: 1) Preparations to streamline the processing flow and infrastructure needed to produce and launch the world's largest rocket (i.e., through incorporation and modification of proven, heritage systems into the vehicle and ground systems); 2) Implementation of a lean approach to reachback support of hardware manufacturing, green-run testing, and launch site processing and activities; and 3) Partnering between the vehicle design and operations communities on state-ofthe- art predictive operations analysis techniques. An example of innovation is testing the integrated vehicle at the processing facility in parallel, rather than

  15. A safe operating space for humanity

    Treesearch

    Johan Rockström; Will Steffen; Kevin Noone; Asa Persson; F. Stuart Chapin; Eric F. Lambin; Timothy M. Lenton; Marten Scheffer; Carl Folke; Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Björn Nykvist; Cynthia A. de Wit; Terry Hughes; Sander van der Leeuw; Henning Rodhe; Sverker Sörlin; Peter K. Snyder; Robert Costanza; Uno Svedin; Malin Falkenmark; Louise Karlberg; Robert W. Corell; Victoria J. Fabry; James Hansen; Brian Walker; Diana Liverman; Katherine Richardson; Paul Crutzen; Jonathan A. Foley

    2009-01-01

    To meet the challenge of maintaining the Holocene state, we propose a framework based on 'planetary boundaries'. These boundaries define the safe operating space for humanity with respect to the Earth system and are associated with the planet's biophysical subsystems or processes. Although Earth's complex systems sometimes respond smoothly to...

  16. Space Operations Center orbit altitude selection strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Indrikis, J.; Myers, H. L.

    1982-01-01

    The strategy for the operational altitude selection has to respond to the Space Operation Center's (SOC) maintenance requirements and the logistics demands of the missions to be supported by the SOC. Three orbit strategies are developed: two are constant altitude, and one variable altitude. In order to minimize the effect of atmospheric uncertainty the dynamic altitude method is recommended. In this approach the SOC will operate at the optimum altitude for the prevailing atmospheric conditions and logistics model, provided that mission safety constraints are not violated. Over a typical solar activity cycle this method produces significant savings in the overall logistics cost.

  17. The space mission MIR'97: operational aspects.

    PubMed

    Ewald, R; Lohn, K; Gerzer, R

    2000-12-01

    A German astronaut visited the MIR space station between 10 February and 2 March 1997. Together with his Russian colleagues, he conducted a series of scientific investigations before, during and after his stay aboard the MIR station. Research performed during this flight was part of a global space life sciences programme and focused on metabolic homeostasis, fluid balance, calcium homeostasis and cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms. The main goal of the scientific experiments was to use this mission as a milestone to establish international networks of scientific collaboration using space research as a tool for focused research in respective fields. Thus, in most cases the results obtained from the astronaut complemented a series of results obtained on ground and from other flights. In other cases, they extended previous results and opened new fields for future research. Human space flight with astronauts serving as operators and at the same time as test subjects is very complex. Many people, including mission control, a science management team, medical operations, ethics committees and a medical board, participated to harmonize the different requirements, thus making a maximal scientific outcome possible. In summary, this space mission may be seen as a model for focused long-term multidisciplinary international research, and demonstrates that space medicine is no longer adventure but science.

  18. Technical and operational assessment of molecular nanotechnology for space operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKendree, Thomas Lawrence

    2001-07-01

    This study assesses the performance of conventional technology and three levels of molecular nanotechnology (MNT) for space operations. The measures of effectiveness are technical performance parameters for five space transportation architectures, and the total logistics cost for an evaluation scenario with mining, market and factory locations on the Moon, Mars and asteroids. On these measures of effectiveness, improvements of 2--4 orders of magnitude are seen in chemical rockets, solar electric ion engines, solar sail accelerations (but not transit times), and in structural masses for planetary skyhooks and towers. Improvements in tether performance and logistics costs are nearer to 1 order of magnitude. Appendices suggest additional improvements may be possible in space mining, closed-environment life support, flexible operations, and with other space transportation architectures. In order to assess logistics cost, this research extends the facility location problem of location theory to orbital space. This extension supports optimal siting of a single facility serving circular, coplanar orbits, locations in elliptic planetary and moon orbits, and heuristic siting of multiple facilities. It focuses on conventional rocket transportation, and on high performance rockets supplying at least 1 m/s2 acceleration and 500,000 m/s exhaust velocity. Mathematica implementations are provided in appendices. Simple MNT allows diamond and buckytube construction. The main benefits are in chemical rocket performance, solar panel specific power, solar electric ion engine performance, and skyhook and tower structural masses. Complex MNT allows very small machinery, permitting large increases in solar panel specific power, which enables solar electric ion engines that are high performance rockets, and thus reduces total logistics costs an order of magnitude. Most Advance MNT allows molecular manufacturing, which enables self-repair, provides at least marginal improvements in nearly

  19. Automation of Hubble Space Telescope Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard; Goulet, Gregory; Slater, Mark; Huey, William; Bassford, Lynn; Dunham, Larry

    2012-01-01

    On June 13, 2011, after more than 21 years, 115 thousand orbits, and nearly 1 million exposures taken, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope successfully transitioned from 24x7x365 staffing to 815 staffing. This required the automation of routine mission operations including telemetry and forward link acquisition, data dumping and solid-state recorder management, stored command loading, and health and safety monitoring of both the observatory and the HST Ground System. These changes were driven by budget reductions, and required ground system and onboard spacecraft enhancements across the entire operations spectrum, from planning and scheduling systems to payload flight software. Changes in personnel and staffing were required in order to adapt to the new roles and responsibilities required in the new automated operations era. This paper will provide a high level overview of the obstacles to automating nominal HST mission operations, both technical and cultural, and how those obstacles were overcome.

  20. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Operational Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benefield, Philip; Bradley, Doug

    2010-01-01

    Through the years of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) program the engine has evolved and operational capabilities have been demonstrated beyond the original Shuttle requirements. In an effort to enhance flight safety and demonstrate safety features and margins, engines have been analyzed and tested at many different operating points. Various studies through the years evaluating the SSME for different applications both as a boost stage and upper stage have also added insight into the overall operational characteristics of the engine and have further defined safety margins for the Shuttle application. This paper will summarize the operational characteristics of the SSME from the original design requirements to the expanded capabilities demonstrated through analysis, lab testing and especially "off-nominal" engine testing leading to an increased understanding of the engine operational characteristics and safety margins. Basic engine characteristics such as thrust, mixture ratio, propellant inlet conditions, system redundancy, etc. will be examined.

  1. Centaur operations at the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, J.; Thompson, W.; Bennett, F.; Holdridge, J.

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted on the feasibility of using a Centaur vehicle as a testbed to demonstrate critical OTV technologies at the Space Station. Two Technology Demonstration Missions (TDMs) were identified: (1) Accommodations, and (2) Operations. The Accommodations TDM contained: (1) berthing, (2) checkout, maintenance and safing, and (3) payload integration missions. The Operations TDM contained: (1) a cryogenic propellant resupply mission, and (2) Centaur deployment activities. A modified Space Station Co-Orbiting Platform (COP) was selected as the optimum refueling and launch node due to safety and operational considerations. After completion of the TDMs, the fueled Centaur would carry out a mission to actually test deployment and help offset TDM costs. From the Station, the Centaur could carry a single payload in excess of 20,000 pounds to geosynchronous orbit or multiple payloads.

  2. NASA Deep Space Network operating control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisman, W. D.

    1982-01-01

    The primary function of the Deep Space Network (DSN) is to provide effective and reliable tracking and data acquisition for planetary and interplanetary space flight missions. This involves providing data to flight project mission operations, accepting commands from mission operations and transmitting the commands to stations and spacecraft, and providing a record of telemetry and command data to mission operations. Also included are network performance monitoring, the generation of predictions for antenna pointing and signal acquisition, network scheduling, and network validation tests. Descriptions are given of the three facilities and six systems of the DSN. Also described are interfaces, automation and standardized procedures, and discrepancy reporting. It is pointed out that the greatest challenge facing the DSN is the implementation of NASA's Network Consolidation Program, which is scheduled to be completed in 1986. The objectives of this program are enumerated.

  3. Legal issues inherent in Space Shuttle operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mossinghoff, G. J.; Sloup, G. P.

    1978-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (NASAct) is discussed with reference to its relevance to the operation of the Space Shuttle. The law is interpreted as giving NASA authority to regulate specific Shuttle missions, as well as authority to decide how much space aboard the Shuttle gets rented to whom. The Shuttle will not, however, be considered a 'common carrier' either in terms of NASAct or FAA regulations, because it will not be held available to the public-at-large, as are the flag carriers of various national airlines, e.g., Lufthansa, Air France, Aeroflot, etc. It is noted that the Launch Policy of 1972, which ensures satellite launch assistance to other countries or international organizations, shall not be interpreted as conferring common carrier status on the Space Shuttle.

  4. Phase-space contraction and quantum operations

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Mata, Ignacio; Spina, Maria Elena; Saraceno, Marcos; Carlo, Gabriel

    2005-12-15

    We give a criterion to differentiate between dissipative and diffusive quantum operations. It is based on the classical idea that dissipative processes contract volumes in phase space. We define a quantity that can be regarded as 'quantum phase space contraction rate' and which is related to a fundamental property of quantum channels: nonunitality. We relate it to other properties of the channel and also show a simple example of dissipative noise composed with a chaotic map. The emergence of attractor-like structures is displayed.

  5. Space station proximity operations and window design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    On-orbit proximity operations (PROX-OPS) consist of all extravehicular activity (EVA) within 1 km of the space station. Because of the potentially large variety of PROX-OPS, very careful planning for space station windows is called for and must consider a great many human factors. The following topics are discussed: (1) basic window design philosophy and assumptions; (2) the concept of the local horizontal - local vertical on-orbit; (3) window linear dimensions; (4) selected anthropomorphic considerations; (5) displays and controls relative to windows; and (6) full window assembly replacement.

  6. Operations Data Files, driving force behind International Space Station operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Tom; Ferra, Lionel; Markus, Michael; Wolff, Mikael

    2017-09-01

    Almost all tasks performed by the astronauts on-board the International Space Station (ISS) and by ground controllers in Mission Control Centre, from operation and maintenance of station systems to the execution of scientific experiments or high risk visiting vehicles docking manoeuvres, would not be possible without Operations Data Files (ODF). ODFs are the User Manuals of the Space Station and have multiple faces, going from traditional step-by-step procedures, scripts, cue cards, over displays, to software which guides the crew through the execution of certain tasks. Those key operational documents are standardized as they are used on-board the Space Station by an international crew constantly changing every 3 months. Furthermore this harmonization effort is paramount for consistency as the crew moves from one element to another in a matter of seconds, and from one activity to another. On ground, a significant large group of experts from all International Partners drafts, prepares reviews and approves on a daily basis all Operations Data Files, ensuring their timely availability on-board the ISS for all activities. Unavailability of these operational documents will halt the conduct of experiments or cancel milestone events. This paper will give an insight in the ground preparation work for the ODFs (with a focus on ESA ODF processes) and will present an overview on ODF formats and their usage within the ISS environment today and show how vital they are. Furthermore the focus will be on the recently implemented ODF features, which significantly ease the use of this documentation and improve the efficiency of the astronauts performing the tasks. Examples are short video demonstrations, interactive 3D animations, Execute Tailored Procedures (XTP-versions), tablet products, etc.

  7. Space time neural networks for tether operations in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Villarreal, James A.; Jani, Yashvant; Copeland, Charles

    1993-01-01

    A space shuttle flight scheduled for 1992 will attempt to prove the feasibility of operating tethered payloads in earth orbit. due to the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and current pulsing through the tether, the tethered system may exhibit a circular transverse oscillation referred to as the 'skiprope' phenomenon. Effective damping of skiprope motion depends on rapid and accurate detection of skiprope magnitude and phase. Because of non-linear dynamic coupling, the satellite attitude behavior has characteristic oscillations during the skiprope motion. Since the satellite attitude motion has many other perturbations, the relationship between the skiprope parameters and attitude time history is very involved and non-linear. We propose a Space-Time Neural Network implementation for filtering satellite rate gyro data to rapidly detect and predict skiprope magnitude and phase. Training and testing of the skiprope detection system will be performed using a validated Orbital Operations Simulator and Space-Time Neural Network software developed in the Software Technology Branch at NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center.

  8. A distributed telerobotics system for space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, James D.; Ciscon, Lawrence A.; Graves, Sean

    1992-01-01

    Robotic systems for space operations will require a combination of teleoperation, closely supervised autonomy, and loosely supervised autonomy. They may involve multiple robots, multiple controlling sites, and long communication delays. We have constructed a distributed telerobotics system as a framework for studying these problems. Our system is based on a modular interconnection scheme which allows the components of either manual or autonomous control systems to communicate and share information. It uses a wide area network to connect robots and operators at several different sites. This presentation will describe the structure of our system, the components used in our configurations, and results of some of our teleoperation experiments.

  9. Space Operations Center: Shuttle interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The implication of using the Shuttle with the Space Operation Center (SOC), including constraints that the Shuttle will place upon the SOC design. The study identifies the considerations involved in the use of the Shuttle as a part of the SOC concept, and also identifies the constraints to the SOC imposed by the Shuttle in its interactions with the SOC, and on the design or technical solutions which allow satisfactory accomplishment of the interactions.

  10. Space flight operations communications phraseology and techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noneman, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    Communications are a critical link in space flight operations. Specific communications phraseology and techniques have been developed to allow rapid and clear transfer of information. Communications will be clear and brief through the use of procedural words and phrases. Communications protocols standardize the required information transferred. The voicing of letters and numbers is discussed. The protocols used in air-to-ground communications are given. A glossary of communications terminology is presented in the appendix.

  11. NASA Space Launch System Operations Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Joan A.; Cook, Jerry R.; Singer, Christer E.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is charged with delivering a new capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth orbit (BEO). The SLS may also provide backup crew and cargo services to the International Space Station, where astronauts have been training for long-duration voyages to destinations such as asteroids and Mars. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V, providing 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130-t configuration. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability. This paper will provide an overview of its operations strategy, which includes initiatives to reduce both development and fixed costs by using existing hardware and infrastructure assets to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat using competitively selected advanced technologies that offer appropriate return on investment. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. A series of design reference missions has informed the SLS operations concept, including launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on an autonomous demonstration mission in a lunar flyby scenario in 2017, and the first flight of a crew on Orion for a lunar flyby in 2021. Additional concepts address the processing of very large payloads, using a series of modular fairings and adapters to flexibly configure the rocket for the mission. This paper will describe how the SLS, Orion, and Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) programs are working together to create streamlined, affordable operations for sustainable exploration for decades to come.

  12. Cryogenic Electronics Being Developed for Space Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Gerber, Scott S.

    2002-01-01

    Planetary exploration missions and deep space probes require electrical power management and control systems that can operate efficiently and reliably in very low temperature environments. Presently, spacecraft operating in the cold environment of deep space carry a large number of radioisotope heating units to maintain the surrounding temperature of the onboard electronics at approximately 20 C. Electronics capable of operation at cryogenic temperatures would not only tolerate the hostile environment of deep space but also reduce system size and weight by eliminating or reducing the radioisotope heating units and their associate structures. Thereby, such electronics would reduce system development as well as launch costs. In addition, power electronic circuits designed for operation at low temperatures are expected to result in more efficient systems than those at room temperature. This improvement results because semiconductor and dielectric materials have better behavior and tolerance in their electrical and thermal properties at low temperatures. The Low Temperature Electronics Program at the NASA Glenn Research Center is focusing on the research and development of electrical components, circuits, and systems suitable for applications in the aerospace environment and in deep space exploration missions. Research is being conducted on devices and systems for reliable use down to cryogenic temperatures. Some of the commercial off-the-shelf as well as developed components that are being characterized include semiconductor switching devices, resistors, magnetics, and capacitors. Semiconductor devices and integrated circuits including digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters, dc-dc converters, operational amplifiers, and oscillators are also being investigated for potential use in low-temperature applications. For example, the output response of an advanced oscillator at room temperature and at -190 C is shown. Most oscillators can operate at temperatures

  13. Operational space support to tactical forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Owen E.

    The use of military spacecraft for supporting strategic forces is discussed emphasizing the requirements of ground mobile forces and the availability of space-based resources. Specific attention is given to the incompatibility of the Milsatcom communications network and military needs for combat situations. The need for assured access to tactical communications free of electronic jammers is identified, and the characteristics of tactical user equipment are set forth. The idea of a 'Space Hummer' is proposed which receives and processes multifrequency data in a high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle. The proposed vehicle is described in terms of existing and deficient technologies required for its implementation, and scenarios for its use in covert and other operations are reviewed. Important technological challenges for the use of space support include reduced antenna sizes, data fusion, and wideband connectivity, and some of these areas are currently being investigated.

  14. Space Operation of the MOLA Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afzal, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    Interest in lasers for space applications such as active remote sensing in Earth orbit, planetary science, and inter-satellite laser communications is growing. These instruments typically use diode-pumped solid state lasers for the laser transmitter. The mission specifications and constraints of space qualification, place strict requirements on the design and operation of the laser. Although a laser can be built in the laboratory to meet performance specifications relatively routinely, tile mission constraints demand unique options and compromises in the materials used, and design to ensure the success of the mission. Presently, the best laser architecture for a light weight, rugged, high peak power and efficient transmitter is a diode laser pumped ND:YAG laser. Diode lasers can often obviate the need for water cooling, reduce the size and weight of the laser, increase the electrical to optical efficiency, system reliability, and lifetime. This paper describes the in-space operation and performance of the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) laser transmitter, representing the current state-of-the-art in space-based solid- state lasers.

  15. Security aspects of space operations data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Stefan

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with data security. It identifies security threats to European Space Agency's (ESA) In Orbit Infrastructure Ground Segment (IOI GS) and proposes a method of dealing with its complex data structures from the security point of view. It is part of the 'Analysis of Failure Modes, Effects Hazards and Risks of the IOI GS for Operations, including Backup Facilities and Functions' carried out on behalf of the European Space Operations Center (ESOC). The security part of this analysis has been prepared with the following aspects in mind: ESA's large decentralized ground facilities for operations, the multiple organizations/users involved in the operations and the developments of ground data systems, and the large heterogeneous network structure enabling access to (sensitive) data which does involve crossing organizational boundaries. An IOI GS data objects classification is introduced to determine the extent of the necessary protection mechanisms. The proposal of security countermeasures is oriented towards the European 'Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria (ITSEC)' whose hierarchically organized requirements can be directly mapped to the security sensitivity classification.

  16. SPACE MEDICINE and Medical Operations Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dervay, Joe

    2009-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the function of the work of the Space Medicine & Health Care Systems Office. The objective of the medical operations is to ensure the health, safety and well being of the astronaut corps and ground support team during all phases of space flight. There are many issues that impact the health of the astronauts. Some of them are physiological, and others relate to behavior, psychological issues and issues of the environment of space itself. Reviews of the medical events that have affected both Russian, and Americans while in space are included. Some views of shuttle liftoff, and ascent, the medical training aboard NASA's KC-135 and training in weightlessness, the Shuttle Orbiter Medical system (SOMS), and some of the medical equipment are included. Also included are a graphs showing Fluid loading countermeasures, and vertical pursuit tracking with head and eye. The final views are representations of the future crew exploration vehicle (CEV) approaching the International Space Station, and the moon, and a series of perspective representations of the earth in comparison to the other planets and the Sun, the Sun in relation to other stars, and a view of where in the galaxy the Sun is.

  17. International Space Station Increment Operations Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, Horst; Sielaff, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The Industrial Operator (IO) has defined End-to-End services to perform efficiently all required operations tasks for the Manned Space Program (MSP) as agreed during the Ministerial Council in Edinburgh in November 2001. Those services are the result of a detailed task analysis based on the operations processes as derived from the Space Station Program Implementation Plans (SPIP) and defined in the Operations Processes Documents (OPD). These services are related to ISS Increment Operations and ATV Mission Operations. Each of these End-to-End services is typically characterised by the following properties: It has a clearly defined starting point, where all requirements on the end-product are fixed and associated performance metrics of the customer are well defined. It has a clearly defined ending point, when the product or service is delivered to the customer and accepted by him, according to the performance metrics defined at the start point. The implementation of the process might be restricted by external boundary conditions and constraints mutually agreed with the customer. As far as those are respected the IO has the free choice to select methods and means of implementation. The ISS Increment Operations Service (IOS) activities required for the MSP Exploitation program cover the complete increment specific cycle starting with the support to strategic planning and ending with the post increment evaluation. These activities are divided into sub-services including the following tasks: - ISS Planning Support covering the support to strategic and tactical planning up to the generation - Development &Payload Integration Support - ISS Increment Preparation - ISS Increment Execution These processes are tight together by the Increment Integration Management, which provides the planning and scheduling of all activities as well as the technical management of the overall process . The paper describes the entire End-to-End ISS Increment Operations service and the

  18. 75 FR 39974 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  19. 76 FR 20717 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  20. 75 FR 16197 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  1. 76 FR 3673 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  2. 75 FR 5630 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  3. NASA Space Launch System Operations Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Joan A.; Cook, Jerry R.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth orbit. The SLS also will provide backup crew and cargo services to the International Space Station, where astronauts have been training for long-duration voyages to destinations such as asteroids and Mars. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V, providing 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130 t configuration. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability. This paper will provide an overview of its operations strategy, which includes initiatives to reduce both development and fixed costs by using existing hardware and infrastructure assets to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat using competitively selected advanced technologies that offer appropriate return on investment. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. A series of design reference missions has informed the SLS operations concept, including launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle on an autonomous demonstration mission in a lunar flyby scenario in 2017, and the first flight of a crew on Orion for a lunar flyby in 2021. Additional concepts address the processing of very large payloads, using a series of modular fairings and adapters to flexibly configure the rocket for the mission. This paper will describe how the SLS, Orion, and 21st Century Ground Systems programs are working together to create streamlined, affordable operations for sustainable exploration.

  4. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Lacey L.; Slack, Kelley; Holland, Albert; Huning, Therese; O'Keefe, William; Sipes, Walter E.

    2010-01-01

    Although the astronaut training flow for the International Space Station (ISS) spans 2 years, each astronaut or cosmonaut often spends most of their training alone. Rarely is it operationally feasible for all six ISS crewmembers to train together, even more unlikely that crewmembers can practice living together before launch. Likewise, ISS Flight Controller training spans 18 months of learning to manage incredibly complex systems remotely in plug-and-play ground teams that have little to no exposure to crewmembers before a mission. How then do all of these people quickly become a team - a team that must respond flexibly yet decisively to a variety of situations? The answer implemented at NASA is Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), the so-called "soft skills" or team performance skills. Based on Crew Resource Management, SFRM was developed first for shuttle astronauts and focused on managing human errors during time-critical events (Rogers, et al. 2002). Given the nature of life on ISS, the scope of SFRM for ISS broadened to include teamwork during prolonged and routine operations (O'Keefe, 2008). The ISS SFRM model resembles a star with one competency for each point: Communication, Cross-Culture, Teamwork, Decision Making, Team Care, Leadership/Followership, Conflict Management, and Situation Awareness. These eight competencies were developed with international participation by the Human Behavior and Performance Training Working Group. Over the last two years, these competencies have been used to build a multi-modal SFRM training flow for astronaut candidates and flight controllers that integrates team performance skills into the practice of technical skills. Preliminary results show trainee skill increases as the flow progresses; and participants find the training invaluable to performing well and staying healthy during ISS operations. Future development of SFRM training will aim to help support indirect handovers as ISS operations evolve further with the

  5. Space-based Science Operations Grid Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Robert N.; Welch, Clara L.; Redman, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Grid technology is the up and coming technology that is enabling widely disparate services to be offered to users that is very economical, easy to use and not available on a wide basis. Under the Grid concept disparate organizations generally defined as "virtual organizations" can share services i.e. sharing discipline specific computer applications, required to accomplish the specific scientific and engineering organizational goals and objectives. Grids are emerging as the new technology of the future. Grid technology has been enabled by the evolution of increasingly high speed networking. Without the evolution of high speed networking Grid technology would not have emerged. NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Flight Projects Directorate, Ground Systems Department is developing a Space-based Science Operations Grid prototype to provide to scientists and engineers the tools necessary to operate space-based science payloads/experiments and for scientists to conduct public and educational outreach. In addition Grid technology can provide new services not currently available to users. These services include mission voice and video, application sharing, telemetry management and display, payload and experiment commanding, data mining, high order data processing, discipline specific application sharing and data storage, all from a single grid portal. The Prototype will provide most of these services in a first step demonstration of integrated Grid and space-based science operations technologies. It will initially be based on the International Space Station science operational services located at the Payload Operations Integration Center at MSFC, but can be applied to many NASA projects including free flying satellites and future projects. The Prototype will use the Internet2 Abilene Research and Education Network that is currently a 10 Gb backbone network to reach the University of Alabama at Huntsville and several other, as yet unidentified, Space Station based

  6. Space-based Science Operations Grid Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Robert N.; Welch, Clara L.; Redman, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Grid technology is the up and coming technology that is enabling widely disparate services to be offered to users that is very economical, easy to use and not available on a wide basis. Under the Grid concept disparate organizations generally defined as "virtual organizations" can share services i.e. sharing discipline specific computer applications, required to accomplish the specific scientific and engineering organizational goals and objectives. Grids are emerging as the new technology of the future. Grid technology has been enabled by the evolution of increasingly high speed networking. Without the evolution of high speed networking Grid technology would not have emerged. NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Flight Projects Directorate, Ground Systems Department is developing a Space-based Science Operations Grid prototype to provide to scientists and engineers the tools necessary to operate space-based science payloads/experiments and for scientists to conduct public and educational outreach. In addition Grid technology can provide new services not currently available to users. These services include mission voice and video, application sharing, telemetry management and display, payload and experiment commanding, data mining, high order data processing, discipline specific application sharing and data storage, all from a single grid portal. The Prototype will provide most of these services in a first step demonstration of integrated Grid and space-based science operations technologies. It will initially be based on the International Space Station science operational services located at the Payload Operations Integration Center at MSFC, but can be applied to many NASA projects including free flying satellites and future projects. The Prototype will use the Internet2 Abilene Research and Education Network that is currently a 10 Gb backbone network to reach the University of Alabama at Huntsville and several other, as yet unidentified, Space Station based

  7. Space-based Operations Grid Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Robert N.; Welch, Clara L.

    2003-01-01

    The Space based Operations Grid is intended to integrate the "high end" network services and compute resources that a remote payload investigator needs. This includes integrating and enhancing existing services such as access to telemetry, payload commanding, payload planning and internet voice distribution as well as the addition of services such as video conferencing, collaborative design, modeling or visualization, text messaging, application sharing, and access to existing compute or data grids. Grid technology addresses some of the greatest challenges and opportunities presented by the current trends in technology, i.e. how to take advantage of ever increasing bandwidth, how to manage virtual organizations and how to deal with the increasing threats to information technology security. We will discuss the pros and cons of using grid technology in space-based operations and share current plans for the prototype. It is hoped that early on the prototype can incorporate many of the existing as well as future services that are discussed in the first paragraph above to cooperating International Space Station Principle Investigators both nationally and internationally.

  8. Space-based Operations Grid Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Robert N.; Welch, Clara L.

    2003-01-01

    The Space based Operations Grid is intended to integrate the "high end" network services and compute resources that a remote payload investigator needs. This includes integrating and enhancing existing services such as access to telemetry, payload commanding, payload planning and internet voice distribution as well as the addition of services such as video conferencing, collaborative design, modeling or visualization, text messaging, application sharing, and access to existing compute or data grids. Grid technology addresses some of the greatest challenges and opportunities presented by the current trends in technology, i.e. how to take advantage of ever increasing bandwidth, how to manage virtual organizations and how to deal with the increasing threats to information technology security. We will discuss the pros and cons of using grid technology in space-based operations and share current plans for the prototype. It is hoped that early on the prototype can incorporate many of the existing as well as future services that are discussed in the first paragraph above to cooperating International Space Station Principle Investigators both nationally and internationally.

  9. Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELV) for Operationally Responsive Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-12

    35 Jeff Foust , “Operationally Responsive Space: A Solution Seeking a Problem”, The Space Review, 13 October 2003, 2. http...www.globalsecurity.org/org/news/2001/010127-space2.htm Foust , Jeff. “Operationally Responsive Space: A Solution Seeking a Problem”. The Space Review, 13

  10. Space Flight Operations Center local area network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Ross V.

    1988-01-01

    The existing Mission Control and Computer Center at JPL will be replaced by the Space Flight Operations Center (SFOC). One part of the SFOC is the LAN-based distribution system. The purpose of the LAN is to distribute the processed data among the various elements of the SFOC. The SFOC LAN will provide a robust subsystem that will support the Magellan launch configuration and future project adaptation. Its capabilities include (1) a proven cable medium as the backbone for the entire network; (2) hardware components that are reliable, varied, and follow OSI standards; (3) accurate and detailed documentation for fault isolation and future expansion; and (4) proven monitoring and maintenance tools.

  11. Transitioning NASA Space Operations to Commercial Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Charlene E.

    1998-01-01

    Major considerations associated with "Transitioning NASA Space Operations to Commercial Services" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Government use of commercial frequencies vs. commercial use of commercial frequencies for government use; 2) Commercial use of government frequencies; 3) Government vs commercial: Access techniques, data formats, and modulation and coding; 4) Government need for multiple sources: backup and competition; 5) Government in perceived competition with commercial service providers if TDRSS is used for commercial purposes; and 6) Coordination required among plans for CSOC, NSCP, and satellite industry.

  12. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope's Operational Mission Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert K.; Scott, Charles P.

    2006-01-01

    New Generation of Detector Arrays(100 to 10,000 Gain in Capability over Previous Infrared Space Missions). IRAC: 256 x 256 pixel arrays operating at 3.6 microns, 4.5 microns, 5.8 microns, 8.0 microns. MIPS: Photometer with 3 sets of arrays operating at 24 microns, 70 microns and 160 microns. 128 x 128; 32 x 32 and 2 x 20 arrays. Spectrometer with 50-100 micron capabilities. IRS: 4 Array (128x128 pixel) Spectrograph, 4 -40 microns. Warm Launch Architecture: All other Infrared Missions launched with both the telescope and scientific instrument payload within the cryostat or Dewar. Passive cooling used to cool outer shell to approx.40 K. Cryogenic Boil-off then cools telescope to required 5.5K. Earth Trailing Heliocentric Orbit: Increased observing efficiency, simplification of observation planning, removes earth as heat source.

  13. International Space Station Water Balance Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Barry; Garr, John D., II; Erne, Meghan

    2011-01-01

    In November 2008, the Water Regenerative System racks were launched aboard Space Shuttle flight, STS-126 (ULF2) and installed and activated on the International Space Station (ISS). These racks, consisting of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), completed the installation of the Regenerative (Regen) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS), which includes the Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) that was launched 2 years prior. With the onset of active water management on the US segment of the ISS, a new operational concept was required, that of water balance . In November of 2010, the Sabatier system, which converts H2 and CO2 into water and methane, was brought on line. The Regen ECLSS systems accept condensation from the atmosphere, urine from crew, and processes that fluid via various means into potable water, which is used for crew drinking, building up skip-cycle water inventory, and water for electrolysis to produce oxygen. Specification (spec) rates of crew urine output, condensate output, O2 requirements, toilet flush water, and drinking needs are well documented and used as the best guess planning rates when Regen ECLSS came online. Spec rates are useful in long term planning, however, daily or weekly rates are dependent upon a number of variables. The constantly changing rates created a new challenge for the ECLSS flight controllers, who are responsible for operating the ECLSS systems onboard ISS from Mission Control in Houston. This paper reviews the various inputs to water planning, rate changes, and dynamic events, including but not limited to: crew personnel makeup, Regen ECLSS system operability, vehicle traffic, water storage availability, and Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA), Sabatier, and OGA capability. Along with the inputs that change the various rates, the paper will review the different systems, their constraints, and finally the operational challenges and means by which flight controllers

  14. Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

  15. Solar thematic maps for space weather operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigler, E. Joshua; Hill, Steven M.; Reinard, Alysha A.; Steenburgh, Robert A.

    2012-08-01

    Thematic maps are arrays of labels, or "themes," associated with discrete locations in space and time. Borrowing heavily from the terrestrial remote sensing discipline, a numerical technique based on Bayes' theorem captures operational expertise in the form of trained theme statistics, then uses this to automatically assign labels to solar image pixels. Ultimately, regular thematic maps of the solar corona will be generated from high-cadence, high-resolution SUVI images, the solar ultraviolet imager slated to fly on NOAA's next-generation GOES-R series of satellites starting ˜2016. These thematic maps will not only provide quicker, more consistent synoptic views of the sun for space weather forecasters, but digital thematic pixel masks (e.g., coronal hole, active region, flare, etc.), necessary for a new generation of operational solar data products, will be generated. This paper presents the mathematical underpinnings of our thematic mapper, as well as some practical algorithmic considerations. Then, using images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Advanced Imaging Array (AIA) as test data, it presents results from validation experiments designed to ascertain the robustness of the technique with respect to differing expert opinions and changing solar conditions.

  16. Solar thematic maps for space weather operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rigler, E. Joshua; Hill, Steven M.; Reinard, Alysha A.; Steenburgh, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Thematic maps are arrays of labels, or "themes", associated with discrete locations in space and time. Borrowing heavily from the terrestrial remote sensing discipline, a numerical technique based on Bayes' theorem captures operational expertise in the form of trained theme statistics, then uses this to automatically assign labels to solar image pixels. Ultimately, regular thematic maps of the solar corona will be generated from high-cadence, high-resolution SUVI images, the solar ultraviolet imager slated to fly on NOAA's next-generation GOES-R series of satellites starting ~2016. These thematic maps will not only provide quicker, more consistent synoptic views of the sun for space weather forecasters, but digital thematic pixel masks (e.g., coronal hole, active region, flare, etc.), necessary for a new generation of operational solar data products, will be generated. This paper presents the mathematical underpinnings of our thematic mapper, as well as some practical algorithmic considerations. Then, using images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Advanced Imaging Array (AIA) as test data, it presents results from validation experiments designed to ascertain the robustness of the technique with respect to differing expert opinions and changing solar conditions.

  17. Robotic vision techniques for space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar

    1994-01-01

    Automation and robotics for space applications are being pursued for increased productivity, enhanced reliability, increased flexibility, higher safety, and for the automation of time-consuming tasks and those activities which are beyond the capacity of the crew. One of the key functional elements of an automated robotic system is sensing and perception. As the robotics era dawns in space, vision systems will be required to provide the key sensory data needed for multifaceted intelligent operations. In general, the three-dimensional scene/object description, along with location, orientation, and motion parameters will be needed. In space, the absence of diffused lighting due to a lack of atmosphere gives rise to: (a) high dynamic range (10(exp 8)) of scattered sunlight intensities, resulting in very high contrast between shadowed and specular portions of the scene; (b) intense specular reflections causing target/scene bloom; and (c) loss of portions of the image due to shadowing and presence of stars, Earth, Moon, and other space objects in the scene. In this work, developments for combating the adverse effects described earlier and for enhancing scene definition are discussed. Both active and passive sensors are used. The algorithm for selecting appropriate wavelength, polarization, look angle of vision sensors is based on environmental factors as well as the properties of the target/scene which are to be perceived. The environment is characterized on the basis of sunlight and other illumination incident on the target/scene and the temperature profiles estimated on the basis of the incident illumination. The unknown geometrical and physical parameters are then derived from the fusion of the active and passive microwave, infrared, laser, and optical data.

  18. Space Technology 5 Launch and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, James R.; Concha, Marco A.; Morrissey, James R.; Placanica, Samuel J.; Russo, Angela M.; Tsai, Dean C.

    2007-01-01

    The three spacecraft that made up the Space Technology 5 (ST5) mission were successfully launched and deployed from their Pegasus launch vehicle on March 22, 2006. Final contact with the spacecraft occurred on June 30, 2006, with all Level 1 requirements met. By the end of the mission, all ST5 technologies had been validated, all on-board attitude control system (ACS) modes had been successfully demonstrated, and the desired constellation configurations had been achieved to demonstrate the ability of small spacecraft to take quality science measurements, However, during those 100 days (ST5 was planned to be a 90-day mission), there were a number of anomalies that made achieving the mission goals very challenging. This paper will discuss: the chronology of the ST5 launch and early operations, work performed to diagnose and work-around a sun sensor anomaly, spacecraft tests devised to demonstrate correct operation of all onboard ACS modes, the maneuver plan performed to achieve the desired constellation, investigations performed by members of the ST5 GN&C and Science teams of an anomalous spin down condition, and the end-of-life orbit and passivating operations performed on the three spacecraft.

  19. Space Debris and the Cost of Space Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ailor, William; Womack, James; Peterson, Glenn; Murrell, Elisha

    2010-09-01

    The increased costs due to space debris of maintaining satellite constellations in sun-synchronous orbits at 850 km from 2010 to 2030 were examined for 1) a small constellation of government-owned satellites, 2) a medium-sized constellation of commercial satellites, and 3) large constellation of commercial satellites. Impacts of debris of 1mm diameter were assumed to degrade solar panel performance, 1cm objects damaged solar panels or terminated the satellite, and impact of a 10cm or larger object would terminate the satellite’s operation. Flux density projections were used to estimate the number of times a satellite would be impacted by objects of each size. The study determined the number of launches required to maintain each constellation for the 20-year period. The cost of maintaining the constellations increased by between 5%(government) and 26%(large commercial).

  20. Institutional environmental impact statement (space shuttle development and operations) amendment no. 1. [space shuttle operations at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Data are presented to support the environmental impact statement on space shuttle actions at Kennedy Space Center. Studies indicate that land use to accommodate space shuttle operations may have the most significant impact. The impacts on air, water and noise quality are predicted to be less on the on-site environment. Considerations of operating modes indicate that long and short term land use will not affect wildlife productivity. The potential for adverse environmental impact is small and such impacts will be local, short in duration, controllable, and environmentally acceptable.

  1. Emergency Operations Center at Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caylor, Gary C.

    1997-01-01

    In June 1966, at the start of the Gulf Coast hurricane season, the Johnson Space Center (JSC) celebrated the opening of its new 4,000-square foot, state-of-the-art Emergency Operations Center (EOC). The new EOC has been upgraded and enhanced to support a wide spectrum of emergencies affecting JSC and neighboring communities. One of the main features of the EOC is its premier computerized dispatch center. The new system unites many of JSC's critical emergency functions into one integrated network. It automatically monitors fire alarms, security entrances, and external cameras. It contains the JSC inventory of hazardous materials, by building and room, and can call up Material Safety Data Sheets for most of the generic hazardous materials used on-site. The EOC is available for community use during area emergencies such as hurricanes and is a welcome addition to the Clear Lake/Galveston Bay Area communities' emergency response resources.

  2. Emergency Operations Center at Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caylor, Gary C.

    1997-01-01

    In June 1966, at the start of the Gulf Coast hurricane season, the Johnson Space Center (JSC) celebrated the opening of its new 4,000-square foot, state-of-the-art Emergency Operations Center (EOC). The new EOC has been upgraded and enhanced to support a wide spectrum of emergencies affecting JSC and neighboring communities. One of the main features of the EOC is its premier computerized dispatch center. The new system unites many of JSC's critical emergency functions into one integrated network. It automatically monitors fire alarms, security entrances, and external cameras. It contains the JSC inventory of hazardous materials, by building and room, and can call up Material Safety Data Sheets for most of the generic hazardous materials used on-site. The EOC is available for community use during area emergencies such as hurricanes and is a welcome addition to the Clear Lake/Galveston Bay Area communities' emergency response resources.

  3. Seitz notation for symmetry operations of space groups.

    PubMed

    Litvin, Daniel B; Kopský, Vojtěch

    2011-07-01

    Space-group symmetry operations are given a geometric description and a short-hand matrix notation in International Tables for Crystallography, Volume A, Space-Group Symmetry. We give here the space-group symmetry operations subtables with the corresponding Seitz (R∣t) notation for each included symmetry operation.

  4. JPL Space Telecommunications Radio System Operating Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, James P.; Lang, Minh; Peters, Kenneth J.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Duncan, Courtney B.; Orozco, David S.; Stern, Ryan A.; Ahten, Earl R.; Girard, Mike

    2013-01-01

    A flight-qualified implementation of a Software Defined Radio (SDR) Operating Environment for the JPL-SDR built for the CoNNeCT Project has been developed. It is compliant with the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Standard, and provides the software infrastructure for STRS compliant waveform applications. This software provides a standards-compliant abstracted view of the JPL-SDR hardware platform. It uses industry standard POSIX interfaces for most functions, as well as exposing the STRS API (Application Programming In terface) required by the standard. This software includes a standardized interface for IP components instantiated within a Xilinx FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). The software provides a standardized abstracted interface to platform resources such as data converters, file system, etc., which can be used by STRS standards conformant waveform applications. It provides a generic SDR operating environment with a much smaller resource footprint than similar products such as SCA (Software Communications Architecture) compliant implementations, or the DoD Joint Tactical Radio Systems (JTRS).

  5. Operationally Responsive Space: Creating Responsive Space for America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-20

    space technologies and space programs. Responsive Acquisition – Within the Department of Space • Priority of Effort determined by cost and time...Department of Space, would be a reality. This is another way in which Tier 3 programs could prove more responsive than todays construct in developing new

  6. Integrating Air, Space, and Cyberspace: Towards Cross-Domain Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-16

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY INTEGRATING AIR , SPACE, AND CYBERSPACE: TOWARDS CROSS -DOMAIN OPERATIONS by Matthew C. Harris, Lt Col...The Way Forward: A Cross -domain Operations Construct Since air , space and cyberspace are inextricably linked both operationally and technically, the...requirements for cross - domain operations might reflect the following. Capability To balance the air , space, cyberspace “triad,” further develop cyber

  7. Proximity operations for space stations and platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lineberry, E. C., Jr.

    1984-10-01

    The present study is concerned with concepts, techniques, and system requirements which would permit 'automated' proximity operations utilizing an unmanned vehicle such as the proposed Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). Attention is given to proximity operations mission phases, tethered operations, operational control zones, operation control zone objectives, operational control zone definition, aspects of monitoring and tracking, the departure zone, the rendezvous zone, and coorbiting satellite zones.

  8. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Transportation Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Ready for transportation to the Kennedy Space Center, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is pictured onboard the strongback dolly at the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF) at the Lockheed assembly plant upon completion of final testing and verification.

  9. Reusable Space Vehicle Ground Operations Baseline Conceptual Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    REUSABLE SPACE VEHICLE GROUND OPERATIONS BASELINE CONCEPTUAL MODEL THESIS DENNIS R...United States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United States Government. AFIT/GLM/ENS/04-12 REUSABLE SPACE VEHICLE GROUND...for the next launch. v AFIT/GLM/ENS/04-12 REUSABLE SPACE VEHICLE GROUND OPERATIONS BASELINE CONCEPTUAL MODEL DENNIS R. MAYNARD

  10. Human roles in future space operations.

    PubMed

    Criswell, D R

    1981-01-01

    Mankind has evolved in the biosphere from essentially another animal to the level that his industries and societies are powerful components of the life-cycles of Earth. Terrestrial industrial experience can be extended to the use of matter from the Moon and other non-terrestrial sources to create permanent habitats and industry in space. Space stations in low Earth orbit and small bases on the Moon can be the foci of early space industries for learning how to grow in space with local resources. Several near term and long range research topics appropriate to permanent human occupancy of space are reviewed.

  11. Semigroups of Operators on Hardy Spaces and Cocycles of Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    has used the correspondence between one-parameter flows on the disk and their infinitesimal generators to prove the subnormality of the Cesaro oper...ator on Hardy spaces of the unit disk. Siskakis [S1] has studied weighted Cesaro operators on Hardy and Bergman spaces. Finally, Berkson and Porta [BP...Subnormality of the Cesaro operator and a semigroup of composition operators, Indiana Univ. Math. J., 33 (1984), 305-318. [CM] C. C. Cowen and B. D

  12. Economic consequences of commercial space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Wood, Peter W.

    1990-01-01

    The potential economic benefits generated from increased industry involvement and investment in space activities and the subsequent cost implications are discussed. A historical overview of commercial industry involvement in space is given and sources of new economic growth in space are discussed. These include communications satellites, small satellites, positioning and navigation services, space transportation and infrastructure, remote sensing, and materials processing in space such as the manufacturing of protein crystals and zeolites. Macroeconomic trends and principles such as limits on technology trade, eased restrictions on international joint ventures, foreign investments in U.S. firms, and increased foreign competition are discussed. Earth observations and mapping are considered. Opportunities for private sector involvement in building space infrastructure and space transportation are highlighted.

  13. Economic consequences of commercial space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Wood, Peter W.

    1990-01-01

    The potential economic benefits generated from increased industry involvement and investment in space activities and the subsequent cost implications are discussed. A historical overview of commercial industry involvement in space is given and sources of new economic growth in space are discussed. These include communications satellites, small satellites, positioning and navigation services, space transportation and infrastructure, remote sensing, and materials processing in space such as the manufacturing of protein crystals and zeolites. Macroeconomic trends and principles such as limits on technology trade, eased restrictions on international joint ventures, foreign investments in U.S. firms, and increased foreign competition are discussed. Earth observations and mapping are considered. Opportunities for private sector involvement in building space infrastructure and space transportation are highlighted.

  14. 75 FR 51853 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a meeting of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC) Space Operations Committee.

  15. Weighted Multilinear Hardy Operators on Herz Type Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bolin

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the bounds of weighted multilinear Hardy operators on the product Herz spaces and the product Morrey-Herz spaces, respectively. We present a sufficient condition on the weight function that guarantees weighted multilinear Hardy operators to be bounded on the product Herz spaces. And the condition is necessary under certain assumptions. Finally, we extend the obtained results to the product Morrey-Herz spaces. PMID:24511285

  16. Space operations and the human factor.

    PubMed

    Brody, A R

    1993-10-01

    The effects of human error on aviation and space flight are discussed and the role of human factor engineering in aviation and aerospace safety is examined. Specific areas discussed are docking and extravehicular activity; quantification of human capacity for space station design; and measurement of habitability, workload, and task analysis.

  17. Space Operations Learning Center Facebook Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, Ben; Milner, Barbara; Binebrink, Dan; Kuok, Heng

    2012-01-01

    The proposed Space Operations Learning Center (SOLC) Facebook module, initially code-named Spaceville, is intended to be an educational online game utilizing the latest social networking technology to reach a broad audience base and inspire young audiences to be interested in math, science, and engineering. Spaceville will be a Facebook application/ game with the goal of combining learning with a fun game and social environment. The mission of the game is to build a scientific outpost on the Moon or Mars and expand the colony. Game activities include collecting resources, trading resources, completing simple science experiments, and building architectures such as laboratories, habitats, greenhouses, machine shops, etc. The player is awarded with points and achievement levels. The player s ability increases as his/her points and levels increase. A player can interact with other players using multiplayer Facebook functionality. As a result, a player can discover unexpected treasures through scientific missions, engineering, and working with others. The player creates his/her own avatar with his/her selection of its unique appearance, and names the character. The player controls the avatar to perform activities such as collecting oxygen molecules or building a habitat. From observations of other successful social online games such as Farmville and Restaurant City, a common element of these games is having eye-catching and cartoonish characters, and interesting animations for all activities. This will create a fun, educational, and rewarding environment. The player needs to accumulate points in order to be awarded special items needed for advancing to higher levels. Trophies will be awarded to the player when certain goals are reached or tasks are completed. In order to acquire some special items needed for advancement in the game, the player will need to visit his/her neighboring towns to discover the items. This is the social aspect of the game that requires the

  18. Space Operations Center System Analysis: Requirements for a Space Operations Center, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    The system and program requirements for a space operations center as defined by systems analysis studies are presented as a guide for future study and systems definition. Topics covered include general requirements for safety, maintainability, and reliability, service and habitat modules, the health maintenance facility; logistics modules; the docking tunnel; and subsystem requirements (structures, electrical power, environmental control/life support; extravehicular activity; data management; communications and tracking; docking/berthing; flight control/propulsion; and crew support). Facilities for flight support, construction, satellite and mission servicing, and fluid storage are included as well as general purpose support equipment.

  19. Analysis of Space Station Operations in the Space Debris Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology Air University In Partial Fulfillment of the...The 1983 TRW Space Log listed fourteen nations involved in sponsoring launches (32:120). As nations develop their technology , it is logical that...incentives to develop technology , forming a positive loop as indicated by the causal diagram. Again, the American and Russian space programs verify this

  20. Critical Function Models for Operation of the International Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, William Roy; Bagian, T. M.

    2000-11-01

    Long duration and exploration class space missions will place new requirements on human performance when compared to current space shuttle missions. Specifically, assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) will place significant new demands on the crew. For example, maintenance of systems that provide habitability will become an ongoing activity for the international flight crews. Tasks for maintaining space station habitability will need to be integrated with tasks associated with scientific research. In addition, tasks and resources will need to be prioritized and allocated dynamically in response to changing operational conditions and unplanned system breakdowns. This paper describes an ongoing program to develop a habitability index (HI) for space operations based on the critical function approach. This pilot project focuses on adaptation of the critical function approach to develop a habitability index specifically tailored for space operations. Further work will then be needed to expand and validate the habitability index for application in the ISS operational environment.

  1. Performance Support Tools for Space Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, Vicky; Schmid, Josef; Barshi, Immanuel

    2010-01-01

    Early Constellation space missions are expected to have medical capabilities similar to those currently on board the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS). Flight surgeons on the ground in Mission Control will direct the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) during medical situations. If the crew is unable to communicate with the ground, the CMO will carry out medical procedures without the aid of a flight surgeon. In these situations, use of performance support tools can reduce errors and time to perform emergency medical tasks. The research presented here is part of the Human Factors in Training Directed Research Project of the Space Human Factors Engineering Project under the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element of the Human Research Program. This is a joint project consisting of human factors teams from the Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the Ames Research Center (ARC). Work on medical training has been conducted in collaboration with the Medical Training Group at JSC and with Wyle that provides medical training to crew members, biomedical engineers (BMEs), and flight surgeons under the Bioastronautics contract. Human factors personnel at Johnson Space Center have investigated medical performance support tools for CMOs and flight surgeons.

  2. Space Shuttle Propulsion Materials, Manufacturing, and Operational Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, James; Welzyn, Ken; Vanhooser, Katherine; Moore, Dennis; Wood, David

    2011-01-01

    Presentations in this session include: (1) External Tank (ET) Materials, Manufacturing, and Operational Challenges; (2) Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Materials, Manufacturing, and Operational Challenges,(3) Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Materials, Manufacturing, and Operational Challenges and (4) Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Materials, Manufacturing, and Operational Challenges.

  3. A distributed planning concept for Space Station payload operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, Jeff; Maxwell, Theresa; Reed, Tracey

    1994-01-01

    The complex and diverse nature of the payload operations to be performed on the Space Station requires a robust and flexible planning approach. The planning approach for Space Station payload operations must support the phased development of the Space Station, as well as the geographically distributed users of the Space Station. To date, the planning approach for manned operations in space has been one of centralized planning to the n-th degree of detail. This approach, while valid for short duration flights, incurs high operations costs and is not conducive to long duration Space Station operations. The Space Station payload operations planning concept must reduce operations costs, accommodate phased station development, support distributed users, and provide flexibility. One way to meet these objectives is to distribute the planning functions across a hierarchy of payload planning organizations based on their particular needs and expertise. This paper presents a planning concept which satisfies all phases of the development of the Space Station (manned Shuttle flights, unmanned Station operations, and permanent manned operations), and the migration from centralized to distributed planning functions. Identified in this paper are the payload planning functions which can be distributed and the process by which these functions are performed.

  4. Operational Aspects of Space Radiation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weyland, M. D.; Johnson, A. S.; Semones, E. J.; Shelfer, T.; Dardano, C.; Lin, T.; Zapp, N. E.; Rutledge, R.; George, T.

    2005-01-01

    Minimizing astronaut's short and long-term medical risks arising from exposure to ionizing radiation during space missions is a major concern for NASA's manned spaceflight program, particularly exploration missions. For ethical and legal reasons, NASA follows the "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) principal in managing astronaut's radiation exposures. One implementation of ALARA is the response to space weather events. Of particular concern are energetic solar particle events, and in low Earth orbit (LEO), electron belt enhancements. To properly respond to these events, NASA's Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG), in partnership with the NOAA Space Environment Center (SEC), provides continuous flight support during U.S. manned missions. In this partnership, SEC compiles space weather data from numerous ground and space based assets and makes it available in near real-time to SRAG (along with alerts and forecasts), who in turn uses these data as input to models to calculate estimates of the resulting exposure to astronauts. These calculations and vehicle instrument data form the basis for real-time recommendations to flight management. It is also important to implement ALARA during the design phase. In order to appropriately weigh the risks associated with various shielding and vehicle configuration concepts, the expected environment must be adequately characterized for nominal and worst case scenarios for that portion of the solar cycle and point in space. Even with the best shielding concepts and materials in place (unlikely), there will be numerous occasions where the crew is at greater risk due to being in a lower shielded environment (short term transit or lower shielded vehicles, EVAs), so that accurate space weather forecasts and nowcasts, of particles at the relevant energies, will be crucial to protecting crew health and safety.

  5. Multi-National Cooperation in Space Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    8 Figure 3 Sea Launch System (From: Energia ) .................................................................9 Figure 4 Primary...some lessons may still be drawn. Sea Launch is a joint effort between Boeing (U.S.), RSC Energia (Russia), SDO Yuzhnoye/PO Yuzhmash (Ukraine...operations, and home port management. RSC Energia provides the Block DM upper stage, launch vehicle integration, ground systems and launch operations. SDO

  6. An Open Specification for Space Project Mission Operations Control Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, A.; Heuser, W. R.

    1995-01-01

    An 'open specification' for Space Project Mission Operations Control Architectures is under development in the Spacecraft Control Working Group of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astro- nautics. This architecture identifies 5 basic elements incorporated in the design of similar operations systems: Data, System Management, Control Interface, Decision Support Engine, & Space Messaging Service.

  7. Littlewood-Paley operators on Morrey spaces with variable exponent.

    PubMed

    Tao, Shuangping; Wang, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    By applying the vector-valued inequalities for the Littlewood-Paley operators and their commutators on Lebesgue spaces with variable exponent, the boundedness of the Littlewood-Paley operators, including the Lusin area integrals, the Littlewood-Paley g-functions and g μ *-functions, and their commutators generated by BMO functions, is obtained on the Morrey spaces with variable exponent.

  8. Space Station - An integrated approach to operational logistics support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosmer, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    Development of an efficient and cost effective operational logistics system for the Space Station will require logistics planning early in the program's design and development phase. This paper will focus on Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) Program techniques and their application to the Space Station program design, production and deployment phases to assure the development of an effective and cost efficient operational logistics system. The paper will provide the methodology and time-phased programmatic steps required to establish a Space Station ILS Program that will provide an operational logistics system based on planned Space Station program logistics support.

  9. Statistical porcess control in Deep Space Network operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodder, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes how the Deep Space Mission System (DSMS) Operations Program Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (EL) uses Statistical Process Control (SPC) to monitor performance and evaluate initiatives for improving processes on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Deep Space Network (DSN).

  10. Statistical porcess control in Deep Space Network operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodder, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes how the Deep Space Mission System (DSMS) Operations Program Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (EL) uses Statistical Process Control (SPC) to monitor performance and evaluate initiatives for improving processes on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Deep Space Network (DSN).

  11. Space System Applications to Tactical Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    have computers in your offices -- or even at home. Over the past 25 years, we have witnessed an explosion in computer technology with processing speeds... process of placing small computers at operational units to aid in routine tasks such as mission planning. These capabilities exist today largely because of...Programs to develop very high speed integrated circuits, of VHSIC, will push computer processing speeds beyond 30 million operations per second, will

  12. Revitalizing Space Operations through Total Quality Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baylis, William T.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the reader what total quality management (TQM) is and how to apply TQM in the space systems and management arena. TQM is easily understood, can be implemented in any type of business organization, and works.

  13. An Operationally Responsive Space Architecture for 2025

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-22

    Airships - Fusion of data into one information grid contributing to consolidated ISR products - Protection schemes factored into spacecraft design...spacecraft supports routing - Minimum of terabyte level of processing and BW. - Space based energy concentration / transmission devices to support mW...Narrowband. - Ubiquitous RFID tagging for tracking of products, components, and humans throughout the network. - Very large scale data storage

  14. Revitalizing Space Operations through Total Quality Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baylis, William T.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the reader what total quality management (TQM) is and how to apply TQM in the space systems and management arena. TQM is easily understood, can be implemented in any type of business organization, and works.

  15. Operational Space Weather Needs - Perspectives from SEASONS 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comberiate, J.; Kelly, M. A.; Paxton, L. J.; Schaefer, R. K.; Bust, G. S.; Sotirelis, T.; Fox, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    A key challenge for the operational space weather community is the gap between the latest scientific data, models, methods, and indices and those that are currently used in operational systems. The November 2014 SEASONS (Space Environment Applications, Systems, and Operations for National Security) Workshop at JHU/APL in Laurel, Maryland, brings together representatives from the operational and scientific communities. The theme of SEASONS 2014 is "Beyond Climatology," with a focus on how space weather events threaten operational assets and disrupt missions. Here we present perspectives from SEASONS 2014 on new observations, models in development, and forecasting methods that are of interest to the operational space weather community. Highlighted topics include ionospheric data assimilation and forecasting models, HF propagation models, radiation belt observations, and energetic particle modeling. The SEASONS 2014 web site can be found at https://secwww.jhuapl.edu/SEASONS/

  16. Operations planning for Space Station Freedom - And beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Stephen S.; Martin, Thomas E.; Durham, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    The potential of automated planning and electronic execution systems for enhancing operations on board Space Station Freedom (SSF) are discussed. To exploit this potential the Operations Planning and Scheduling Subsystem is being developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Such systems may also make valuable contributions to the operation of resource-constrained, long-duration space habitats of the future. Points that should be considered during the design of future long-duration manned space missions are discussed. Early development of a detailed operations concept as an end-to-end mission description offers a basis for iterative design evaluation, refinement, and option comparison, particularly when used with an advanced operations planning system capable of modeling the operations and resource constraints of the proposed designs.

  17. Expert systems and advanced automation for space missions operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Sajjad H.; Perkins, Dorothy C.; Carlton, P. Douglas

    1990-10-01

    Increased complexity of space missions during the 1980s led to the introduction of expert systems and advanced automation techniques in mission operations. This paper describes several technologies in operational use or under development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center. Several expert systems are described that diagnose faults, analyze spacecraft operations and onboard subsystem performance (in conjunction with neural networks), and perform data quality and data accounting functions. The design of customized user interfaces is discussed, with examples of their application to space missions. Displays, which allow mission operators to see the spacecraft position, orientation, and configuration under a variety of operating conditions, are described. Automated systems for scheduling are discussed, and a testbed that allows tests and demonstrations of the associated architectures, interface protocols, and operations concepts is described. Lessons learned are summarized.

  18. Space station operations task force. Panel 4 report: Management integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Management Integration Panel of the Space Station Operations Task Force was chartered to provide a structure and ground rules for integrating the efforts of the other three panels and to address a number of cross cutting issues that affect all areas of space station operations. Issues addressed include operations concept implementation, alternatives development and integration process, strategic policy issues and options, and program management emphasis areas.

  19. Semigroups of Operators on Hardy Spaces and Cocycles of Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    used the correspondence between one-parameter flows on the disk and their infinitesimal generators to prove the subnormality of the Cesaro op- erator...on Hardy spaces of the unit disk. Siskakis [?] has studied weighted Cesaro operators on Hardy and Bergman spaces. Finally, Berkson and Porta [?], who...Math. Soc. 265 (1981), 69-95. [C2] C. C. Cowen, Subnormality of the Cesaro operator and a semigroup of composition operators, Indiana Univ. Math. J

  20. Fire safety concerns in space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in fire control techniques and identifies important issues for continuing research, technology, and standards. For the future permanent orbiting facility, the space station, fire prevention and control calls for not only more stringent fire safety due to the long-term and complex missions, but also for simplified and flexible safety rules to accommodate the variety of users. Future research must address a better understanding of the microgravity space environment as it influences fire propagation and extinction and the application of the technology of fire detection, extinguishment, and material assessment. Spacecraft fire safety should also consider the adaptation of methods and concepts derived from aircraft and undersea experience.

  1. Water sprays in space retrieval operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freesland, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in a ground based vacuum chamber to determine physical properties of water-ice in a space-like environment. Additional ices, alcohol and ammonia, were also studied. An analytical analysis based on the conservation of angular momentum, resulted in despin performance parameters, i.e., total water mass requirements and despin times. The despin and retrieval of a disabled spacecraft was considered to illustrate a potential application of the water spray technique.

  2. Logistics: An integral part of cost efficient space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Ann D.

    1996-01-01

    The logistics of space programs and its history within NASA are discussed, with emphasis on manned space flight and the Space Shuttle program. The lessons learned and the experience gained during these programs are reported on. Key elements of logistics are highlighted, and the problems and issues that can be expected to arise in relation to the support of long-term space operations and future space programs, are discussed. Such missions include the International Space Station program and the reusable launch vehicle. Possible solutions to the problems identified are outlined.

  3. Cross support overview and operations concept for future space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallings, William; Kaufeler, Jean-Francois

    1994-01-01

    Ground networks must respond to the requirements of future missions, which include smaller sizes, tighter budgets, increased numbers, and shorter development schedules. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is meeting these challenges by developing a general cross support concept, reference model, and service specifications for Space Link Extension services for space missions involving cross support among Space Agencies. This paper identifies and bounds the problem, describes the need to extend Space Link services, gives an overview of the operations concept, and introduces complimentary CCSDS work on standardizing Space Link Extension services.

  4. Applying Operational Art in the Space Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    decisive. An army general in a disadvantageous 15 I am grateful to Dr. Robert M. Epstein , author of...16 Robert M. Epstein , Napoleon’s Last Victory and the Emergence of Modern War (Lawrence, KS: University Press Of Kansas, 1995), pp. 9-10. 10...the 17 Epstein , Napolean’s Last Victory, 11. 18 Robert A. Doughty, “French Operational Art

  5. Ground operation of robotics on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojcik, Z. Alex; Hunter, David G.; Cantin, Marc R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reflects work carried out on Ground Operated Telerobotics (GOT) in 1992 to refine further the ideas, procedures, and technologies needed to test the procedures in a high latency environment, and to integrate GOT into Space Station Freedom operations. Space Station Freedom (SSF) will be in operation for 30 years, and will depend on robots to carry out a significant part of the assembly, maintenance, and utilization workload. Current plans call for on-orbit robotics to be operated by on-board crew members. This approach implies that on-orbit robotics operations use up considerable crew time, and that these operations cannot be carried out when SSF is unmanned. GOT will allow robotic operations to be operated from the ground, with on-orbit crew interventions only when absolutely required. The paper reviews how GOT would be implemented, how GOT operations would be planned and supported, and reviews GOT issues, critical success factors, and benefits.

  6. Space operations center: Shuttle interaction study extension, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Space Operations Center (SOC) is conceived as a permanent facility in low Earth orbit incorporating capabilities for space systems construction; space vehicle assembly, launching, recovery and servicing; and the servicing of co-orbiting satellites. The Shuttle Transportation System is an integral element of the SOC concept. It will transport the various elements of the SOC into space and support the assembly operation. Subsequently, it will regularly service the SOC with crew rotations, crew supplies, construction materials, construction equipment and components, space vehicle elements, and propellants and spare parts. The implications to the SOC as a consequence of the Shuttle supporting operations are analyzed. Programmatic influences associated with propellant deliveries, spacecraft servicing, and total shuttle flight operations are addressed.

  7. Development of operational models for space weather prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Siqing; Gong, Jiancun

    Since space weather prediction is currently at the stage of transition from human experience to objective forecasting methods, developing operational forecasting models becomes an important way to improve the capabilities of space weather service. As the existing theoretical models are not fully operational when it comes to space weather prediction, we carried out researches on developing operational models, considering the user needs for prediction of key elements in space environment, which have vital impacts on space assets security. We focused on solar activities, geomagnetic activities, high-energy particles, atmospheric density, plasma environment and so forth. Great progresses have been made in developing 3D dynamic asymmetric magnetopause model, plasma sheet energetic electron flux forecasting model and 400km-atmospheric density forecasting model, and also in the prediction of high-speed solar-wind streams from coronal holes and geomagnetic AE indices. Some of these models have already been running in the operational system of Space Environment Prediction Center, National Space Science Center (SEPC/NSSC). This presentation will introduce the research plans for space weather prediction in China, and current progresses of developing operational models and their applications in daily space weather services in SEPC/NSSC.

  8. Performance Support Tools for Space Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, Vicky E.; Schmidt, Josef; Barshi, Immanuel

    2009-01-01

    The early Constellation space missions are expected to have medical capabilities very similar to those currently on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS). For Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) missions to ISS, medical equipment will be located on ISS, and carried into CEV in the event of an emergency. Flight Surgeons (FS) on the ground in Mission Control will be expected to direct the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) during medical situations. If there is a loss of signal and the crew is unable to communicate with the ground, a CMO would be expected to carry out medical procedures without the aid of a FS. In these situations, performance support tools can be used to reduce errors and time to perform emergency medical tasks. Human factors personnel at Johnson Space Center have recently investigated medical performance support tools for CMOs on-orbit, and FSs on the ground. This area of research involved the feasibility of Just-in-time (JIT) training techniques and concepts for real-time medical procedures. In Phase 1, preliminary feasibility data was gathered for two types of prototype display technologies: a hand-held PDA, and a Head Mounted Display (HMD). The PDA and HMD were compared while performing a simulated medical procedure using ISS flight-like medical equipment. Based on the outcome of Phase 1, including data on user preferences, further testing was completed using the PDA only. Phase 2 explored a wrist-mounted PDA, and compared it to a paper cue card. For each phase, time to complete procedures, errors, and user satisfaction were captured. Information needed by the FS during ISS mission support, especially for an emergency situation (e.g. fire onboard ISS), may be located in many different places around the FS s console. A performance support tool prototype is being developed to address this issue by bringing all of the relevant information together in one place. The tool is designed to include procedures and other information needed by a FS

  9. Operational Space Weather Forecasting: Requirements and Future Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henley, E.; Gibbs, M.; Jackson, D.; Marsh, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Met Office has over 150 years' experience in providing operational forecasting to meet the UK's terrestrial weather needs, and is developing a similar capability in space weather. Since April 2014 the Met Office Space Weather Operations Centre (MOSWOC) has issued 24/7 operational forecasts, alerts and warnings on space weather which can have impacts on electricity grids, radio communications and satellite electronics. In this talk we will summarise the current requirements and future needs for operational space weather forecasting. We will review what the terrestrial weather community considers as operational forecasts, and use MOSWOC as an example of the underpinning research, IT and collaborations required to accomplish this. We will also discuss the policy, science evidence base and user support requirements needed to obtain sufficient long-term funding for operational activities, illustrating this with the UK's national risk register, Royal Academy of Engineering report, and the forthcoming IPSP economic study, as well as work done with users to ensure services match their needs. These are similar activities to those being undertaken in SWORM and the COSPAR/ILWS Space Weather Shield to Society Roadmap. Future needs will also be considered, considering the need for operational observations, particularly focussing on the role an L5 mission could play; a chain of coupled operational models covering the Sun, Earth, and intervening space; and how these observations and models can be integrated via data assimilation.

  10. TAMU: A New Space Mission Operations Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila; Ruszkowski, James; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Granvil A.; Hogle, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a model-centric System of System (SoS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically diverse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes for a broad range of mission operations. Further, TAMU FPP envisions the simulation, automatic execution and re-planning of orchestrated workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the vision for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This includes a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that result in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during any flight production process. A flight production process is the process of developing all products that are necessary for flight.

  11. Space Station crew workload - Station operations and customer accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinkle, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The features of the Space Station which permit crew members to utilize work time for payload operations are discussed. The user orientation, modular design, nonstressful flight regime, in space construction, on board control, automation and robotics, and maintenance and servicing of the Space Station are examined. The proposed crew size, skills, and functions as station operator and mission specialists are described. Mission objectives and crew functions, which include performing material processing, life science and astronomy experiments, satellite and payload equipment servicing, systems monitoring and control, maintenance and repair, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and Mobile Remote Manipulator System operations, on board planning, housekeeping, and health maintenance and recreation, are studied.

  12. A permanent space reactor operations, training, and planning facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.E.; Dutt, D.S. )

    1991-01-10

    This paper is an overview of how future deployment of space reactors would be supported by an operating space reactor ground facility. Such a facility would be used to train ground controllers, mission planners, and flight crews. Operating procedures, planning for off-normal contingencies, and in-flight reprogramming would be generated at such a facility. To avoid communication time delays, reactor operating trends would be established to allow ground controllers to spot a potential problem. The ongoing efforts at the Hanford Ground Engineering System Test Site could play an important supporting role in establishing a permanent space reactor facility.

  13. Space Station crew workload - Station operations and customer accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinkle, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The features of the Space Station which permit crew members to utilize work time for payload operations are discussed. The user orientation, modular design, nonstressful flight regime, in space construction, on board control, automation and robotics, and maintenance and servicing of the Space Station are examined. The proposed crew size, skills, and functions as station operator and mission specialists are described. Mission objectives and crew functions, which include performing material processing, life science and astronomy experiments, satellite and payload equipment servicing, systems monitoring and control, maintenance and repair, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and Mobile Remote Manipulator System operations, on board planning, housekeeping, and health maintenance and recreation, are studied.

  14. NASA deep space network operations planning and preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, W. N.

    1982-01-01

    The responsibilities and structural organization of the Operations Planning Group of NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) Operations are outlined. The Operations Planning group establishes an early interface with a user's planning organization to educate the user on DSN capabilities and limitations for deep space tracking support. A team of one or two individuals works through all phases of the spacecraft launch and also provides planning and preparation for specific events such as planetary encounters. Coordinating interface is also provided for nonflight projects such as radio astronomy and VLBI experiments. The group is divided into a Long Range Support Planning element and a Near Term Operations Coordination element.

  15. Ground operation of space-based telerobots will enhance productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schober, Wayne R.

    1988-01-01

    Due to the limited human resources which will be available on the U.S. Space Station, automation and robotics technologies are being developed to enhance the productivity on the Space Station. The need for space telerobots which can be operated from the ground is explored, taking into consideration the resulting time delay, the technology involved, and some currently planned experiments. The proposed experiments include a remote link with the Kennedy Space Center robotics laboratory and the Telerobot Intelligent Interface Flight Experiment (TRIIFEX). It is concluded that there is a need to develop and implement ground-remote telerobotics technology which can effectively operate in the time-delay environment. This capability will enable servicing operations in polar and geosynchronous orbits and assist EVA astronauts on the Space Station.

  16. Engineering, construction, and operations in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W. (Editor); Wetzel, John P. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The century-old Mond process for carbonyl extraction of metals from ore shows great promise as an efficient low energy scheme for producing high-purity Fe, Ni, Cr, Mn, and Co from lunar or asteroidal feedstocks. Scenarios for winning oxygen from the lunar regolith can be enhanced by carbonyl processing of the metallic alloy by-products of such operations. The native metal content of asteroidal regoliths is even more suitable to carbonyl processing. High-purity, corrosion resistant Fe and Ni can be extracted from asteroidial feedstocks along with a Co-rich residue containing 0.5 percent platinum-group metals. The resulting gaseous metal carbonyl can produce a variety of end products using efficient vapor forming techniques.

  17. Space Shuttle Proximity Operation Sensor Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, C. L.; Alem, W. K.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of the Kuband radar was analyzed in detail, and the performance was updated and summarized. In so doing, two different radar design philosophies were described, and the corresponding differences in losses were enumerated. The resulting design margins were determined for both design philosophies and for both the designated and nondesignated range modes of operation. In some cases, the design margin was about zero, and in other cases it was significantly less than zero. With the point of view described above, the recommended solution is to allow more scan time but at the present scan rate. With no other changes in the present configuration, the radar met design detection specifications for all design philosophies at a range of 11.3 nautical miles.

  18. Astronaut John Glenn dons space suit during preflight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Astronaut John Glenn dons space suit during preflight operations at Cape Canaveral, February 20, 1962, the day he flew his Mercury-Atlas 6 spacecraft, Friendship 7, into orbital flight around the Earth.

  19. How Long Can the Hubble Space Telescope Operate Reliably?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, M. A.; Stauffer, C.; Jordan, T.; Poivey, C.; Lum, G.; Haskins, D. N.; Pergosky, A. M.; Smith, D. C.; LaBel, K. A.

    2014-01-01

    Total ionizing dose exposure of electronic parts in the Hubble Space Telescope is analyzed using 3-D ray trace and Monte Carlo simulations. Results are discussed along with other potential failure mechanisms for science operations.

  20. Kennedy Space Center Medical Operations and Medical Kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpa, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the emergency medical operations at Kennedy Space center, the KSC launch and landing contingency modes, the triage site, the medical kit, and the medications available.

  1. The right inverse of Dirac operator in octonionic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiyan; Bian, Xiaoli

    2017-09-01

    The octonion Dirac equation also called wave equation is an important equation which formulates the localization spaces for subluminal and superluminal particles. The purpose of this paper is to look for the right inverse operator of octonion Dirac operator in Hölder space. However, some difficulties will arise in noncommutative and nonassociative setting. We note that the associator is available to overcome the difficulties.

  2. Statistical Approach to the Operational Testing of Space Fence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    size of satellite tracks needed to estimate metric accuracy for individual TEARR parameters, which we calculate via chi - square hypothesis tests on...decisions. Index Terms— Analysis of variance, Operational testing , Least squares methods, Phased array radar, Satellite tracking, SATCAT, Space...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S Statistical Approach to the Operational Testing of Space Fence Daniel L. Pechkis Nelson S

  3. Communications satellite systems operations with the space station, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, K.; Dixon, J.; Weyandt, C.

    1987-01-01

    A financial model was developed which described quantitatively the economics of the space segment of communication satellite systems. The model describes the economics of the space system throughout the lifetime of the satellite. The expected state-of-the-art status of communications satellite systems and operations beginning service in 1995 were assessed and described. New or enhanced space-based activities and associated satellite system designs that have the potential to achieve future communications satellite operations in geostationary orbit with improved economic performance were postulated and defined. Three scenarios using combinations of space-based activities were analyzed: a spin stabilized satellite, a three axis satellite, and assembly at the Space Station and GEO servicing. Functional and technical requirements placed on the Space Station by the scenarios were detailed. Requirements on the satellite were also listed.

  4. How the Station will operate. [operation, management, and maintenance in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, John T.

    1988-01-01

    Aspects of the upcoming operational phase of the Space Station (SS) are examined. What the crew members will do with their time in their specialized roles is addressed. SS maintenance and servicing and the interaction of the SS Control Center with Johnson Space Center is discussed. The planning of payload operations and strategic planning for the SS are examined.

  5. The real-time operations of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during rendezvous and proximity operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, Andrew; Meyer, Chris

    1991-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter is the only U.S. spacecraft in operation today that routinely performs an orbital rendezvous with another spacecraft. The trajectory planning and training of both flight crews and ground operations personnel required to achieve a 100 percent success rate is considerable. The preflight planning and training can be reduced through very simple design considerations of a new space vehicle.

  6. Concepts of Operations for a Reusable Launch Space Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    a Reusable Launch Space Vehicle Contract or Grant Number Program Element Number Authors Rampino, Michael A. Project Number Task Number Work Unit...of Operations for a Reusable Launch Space Vehicle by Michael A. Rampino A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIR POWER STUDIES

  7. The Capitol College Space Operations Institute: A Partnership with NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, M. G.; Walters, A.; Dolan, K.

    2011-09-01

    This article describes and provides an update on the Capitol College Space Operations Institute (SOI) partnership with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the real-world learning experiences provided to college students. The partnership with NASA works to directly encourage and support students to enter careers in the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines and advance the cause of improving science literacy.

  8. OSHA confined-space reg interpreted for storage tank operations

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, P.E. )

    1994-07-01

    A description of OSHA's recent confined-space regulation explains its requirements and implications for aboveground storage tank operations. These regulations require employers to set up at all facilities a comprehensive program that includes, among other things, identification, testing, permitting, training, emergency response, and rescue. A flow diagram helps determine which spaces qualify for regulation under the rule.

  9. Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator in generalized grand Lebesgue spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umarkhadzhiev, Salaudin M.

    2014-12-01

    We obtain sufficient conditions and necessary conditions for the maximal operator to be bounded in the generalized grand Lebesgue space on an open set Ω ∈ Rn which is not necessarily bounded. The sufficient conditions coincide with necessary conditions for instance in the case where Ω is bounded and the standard definition of the grand space is used.

  10. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Systems Operation Overview and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benefield, Philip A.; Kan, Kenneth C.

    2010-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is a large thrust class, reusable, staged combustion cycle rocket engine employing liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants. A cluster of three SSMEs is used on every space shuttle mission to propel the space shuttle orbiter vehicle into low earth orbit. Development of the SSME began in the early 70's and the first flight of the space shuttle occurred in 1981. Today, the SSME has accrued over one million seconds of ground test and flight operational time, launching 129 space shuttle missions. The systems operation of the SSME was developed and evolved to support the specific requirements of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP). This paper provides a systems operation overview of the SSME, including: engine cycle, propellant flowpaths, and major components; control system; operations during pre-start, start, mainstage, and shutdown phases; launch commit criteria (LCCs) and operational redlines. Furthermore, this paper will discuss how changes to the SSME over its history have impacted systems operations.

  11. Space Operations Cop "It’s Only Logical"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    you to, the SPace Operations Common opera- tional picture, or ( SPOC ). The 8th Army Space Support Element, with the approval of the U.S. Army Space...support of the FWC Models and Simulations Division in Huntsville, Ala., developed the SPOC . 8th Army uses SPOC as a replacement for multiple systems... SPOC takes multiple data feeds that are normal- ly processed by different systems and merges it into one display that can be filtered. (See Figure 1

  12. Near Real Time Data for Operational Space Weather Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, T. E.

    2014-12-01

    Space weather operations presents unique challenges for data systems and providers. Space weather events evolve more quickly than terrestrial weather events. While terrestrial weather occurs on timescales of minutes to hours, space weather storms evolve on timescales of seconds to minutes. For example, the degradation of the High Frequency Radio communications between the ground and commercial airlines is nearly instantaneous when a solar flare occurs. Thus the customer is observing impacts at the same time that the operational forecast center is seeing the event unfold. The diversity and spatial scale of the space weather system is such that no single observation can capture the salient features. The vast space that encompasses space weather and the scarcity of observations further exacerbates the situation and make each observation even more valuable. The physics of interplanetary space, through which many major storms propagate, is very different from the physics of the ionosphere where most of the impacts are felt. And while some observations can be made from ground-based observatories, many of the most critical data comes from satellites, often in unique orbits far from Earth. In this presentation, I will describe some of the more important sources and types of data that feed into the operational alerts, watches, and warnings of space weather storms. Included will be a discussion of some of the new space weather forecast models and the data challenges that they bring forward.

  13. The First Results of the Russian EVA Space Suits Operation in the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, I. P.; Albats, E. A.; Glazov, G. M.

    The year of 2001 saw the first EVAs of the International Space Station (ISS) crews using the Russian "Orlan-M" space suits. This marked the beginning of a new stage of activities on putting into operation of the next ISS modules. The paper reviews the results of the Russian space suits' operation in the course of extravehicular activity (EVA) by the crews of the first ISS expeditions. The paper also reviews differences in operation of the "Orlan-M" in the ISS and "Mir" orbiting station resulting from space suit (SS) systems design, peculiarities of the station airlocks and EVA performance methods. The paper presents data on EVA results and comments on space suit systems' operation. The paper gives diagrams for main parameters of the space suits' life support systems (LSS) and comments about them. In conclusion the paper reviews the "Orlan-M" improvements being performed and prospects of "Orlan-M" usage in the ISS.

  14. Characteristics of Operational Space Weather Forecasting: Observations and Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas; Viereck, Rodney; Singer, Howard; Onsager, Terry; Biesecker, Doug; Rutledge, Robert; Hill, Steven; Akmaev, Rashid; Milward, George; Fuller-Rowell, Tim

    2015-04-01

    In contrast to research observations, models and ground support systems, operational systems are characterized by real-time data streams and run schedules, with redundant backup systems for most elements of the system. We review the characteristics of operational space weather forecasting, concentrating on the key aspects of ground- and space-based observations that feed models of the coupled Sun-Earth system at the NOAA/Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC). Building on the infrastructure of the National Weather Service, SWPC is working toward a fully operational system based on the GOES weather satellite system (constant real-time operation with back-up satellites), the newly launched DSCOVR satellite at L1 (constant real-time data network with AFSCN backup), and operational models of the heliosphere, magnetosphere, and ionosphere/thermosphere/mesophere systems run on the Weather and Climate Operational Super-computing System (WCOSS), one of the worlds largest and fastest operational computer systems that will be upgraded to a dual 2.5 Pflop system in 2016. We review plans for further operational space weather observing platforms being developed in the context of the Space Weather Operations Research and Mitigation (SWORM) task force in the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) at the White House. We also review the current operational model developments at SWPC, concentrating on the differences between the research codes and the modified real-time versions that must run with zero fault tolerance on the WCOSS systems. Understanding the characteristics and needs of the operational forecasting community is key to producing research into the coupled Sun-Earth system with maximal societal benefit.

  15. Survey on nonlocal games and operator space theory

    SciTech Connect

    Palazuelos, Carlos; Vidick, Thomas

    2016-01-15

    This review article is concerned with a recently uncovered connection between operator spaces, a noncommutative extension of Banach spaces, and quantum nonlocality, a striking phenomenon which underlies many of the applications of quantum mechanics to information theory, cryptography, and algorithms. Using the framework of nonlocal games, we relate measures of the nonlocality of quantum mechanics to certain norms in the Banach and operator space categories. We survey recent results that exploit this connection to derive large violations of Bell inequalities, study the complexity of the classical and quantum values of games and their relation to Grothendieck inequalities, and quantify the nonlocality of different classes of entangled states.

  16. Transportation and operations aspects of space energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1989-07-01

    A brief comparative analysis was made for three concepts of supplying large-scale electrical energy to Earth from space. The concepts were: (1) mining helium-3 on the Moon and returning it to Earth; (2) constructing solar power satellites in geosynchronous orbit from lunar materials (the energy is beamed by microwave to receivers on Earth); and (3) constructing power collection and beaming systems on the Moon itself and transmitting the energy to Earth by microwave. This analysis concerned mainly space transportation and operations, but each of the systems is briefly characterized to provide a basis for space transportation and operations analysis.

  17. Lights Out Operations of a Space, Ground, Sensorweb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Johnston, Mark; Davies, Ashley Gerard; Castano, Rebecca; Rabideau, Gregg; Cichy, Benjamin; Doubleday, Joshua; Pieri, David; Scharenbroich, Lucas; Kedar, Sharon; Chao, Yi; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Song, WenZhan; Kyle, Philip; LaHusen, Rick; Cappelaere, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    We have been operating an autonomous, integrated sensorweb linking numerous space and ground sensors in 24/7 operations since 2004. This sensorweb includes elements of space data acquisition (MODIS, GOES, and EO-1), space asset retasking (EO-1), integration of data acquired from ground sensor networks with on-demand ground processing of data into science products. These assets are being integrated using web service standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium. Future plans include extension to fixed and mobile surface and subsurface sea assets as part of the NSF's ORION Program.

  18. Transportation and operations aspects of space energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1989-01-01

    A brief comparative analysis was made for three concepts of supplying large-scale electrical energy to Earth from space. The concepts were: (1) mining helium-3 on the Moon and returning it to Earth; (2) constructing solar power satellites in geosynchronous orbit from lunar materials (the energy is beamed by microwave to receivers on Earth); and (3) constructing power collection and beaming systems on the Moon itself and transmitting the energy to Earth by microwave. This analysis concerned mainly space transportation and operations, but each of the systems is briefly characterized to provide a basis for space transportation and operations analysis.

  19. Survey on nonlocal games and operator space theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazuelos, Carlos; Vidick, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This review article is concerned with a recently uncovered connection between operator spaces, a noncommutative extension of Banach spaces, and quantum nonlocality, a striking phenomenon which underlies many of the applications of quantum mechanics to information theory, cryptography, and algorithms. Using the framework of nonlocal games, we relate measures of the nonlocality of quantum mechanics to certain norms in the Banach and operator space categories. We survey recent results that exploit this connection to derive large violations of Bell inequalities, study the complexity of the classical and quantum values of games and their relation to Grothendieck inequalities, and quantify the nonlocality of different classes of entangled states.

  20. Integrating Space Systems Operations at the Marine Expeditionary Force Level

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Corps Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Enterprise MEF Marine Expeditionary Force METOC Meteorological and Oceanographic MEU Marine...SYSTEMS OPERATIONS AT THE MARINE EXPEDITIONARY FORCE LEVEL by Robert R. Garcia June 2015 Thesis Advisor: Charles Racoosin Second Reader...AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INTEGRATING SPACE SYSTEMS OPERATIONS AT THE MARINE EXPEDITIONARY FORCE LEVEL 5. FUNDING

  1. Space station operations task force. Panel 2 report: Ground operations and support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Ground Operations Concept embodied in this report provides for safe multi-user utilization of the Space Station, eases user integration, and gives users autonomy and flexibility. It provides for meaningful multi-national participation while protecting U.S. interests. The concept also supports continued space operations technology development by maintaining NASA expertise and enabling technology evolution. Given attention here are pre/post flight operations, logistics, sustaining engineering/configuration management, transportation services/rescue, and information systems and communication.

  2. Space Transportation Operations: Assessment of Methodologies and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joglekar, Prafulla

    2002-01-01

    The systems design process for future space transportation involves understanding multiple variables and their effect on lifecycle metrics. Variables such as technology readiness or potential environmental impact are qualitative, while variables such as reliability, operations costs or flight rates are quantitative. In deciding what new design concepts to fund, NASA needs a methodology that would assess the sum total of all relevant qualitative and quantitative lifecycle metrics resulting from each proposed concept. The objective of this research was to review the state of operations assessment methodologies and models used to evaluate proposed space transportation systems and to develop recommendations for improving them. It was found that, compared to the models available from other sources, the operations assessment methodology recently developed at Kennedy Space Center has the potential to produce a decision support tool that will serve as the industry standard. Towards that goal, a number of areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center's methodology are identified.

  3. Space Transportation Operations: Assessment of Methodologies and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joglekar, Prafulla

    2001-01-01

    The systems design process for future space transportation involves understanding multiple variables and their effect on lifecycle metrics. Variables such as technology readiness or potential environmental impact are qualitative, while variables such as reliability, operations costs or flight rates are quantitative. In deciding what new design concepts to fund, NASA needs a methodology that would assess the sum total of all relevant qualitative and quantitative lifecycle metrics resulting from each proposed concept. The objective of this research was to review the state of operations assessment methodologies and models used to evaluate proposed space transportation systems and to develop recommendations for improving them. It was found that, compared to the models available from other sources, the operations assessment methodology recently developed at Kennedy Space Center has the potential to produce a decision support tool that will serve as the industry standard. Towards that goal, a number of areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center's methodology are identified.

  4. Space rescue operations in the early 1980's.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wild, J. W.; Schaefer, H.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of planning requirements for space rescue missions in connection with an emergency situation involving a manned satellite with a small crew. A space rescue mission may be divided basically into three major operational phases including the response time phase, the phase concerned with the rescue operations, and the final phase which begins with the casting-off operation from the rendezvous position with the distressed vehicle. The types of possible emergency situations are discussed together with the space rescue equipment, a pressurized emergency module, an unpressurized emergency module, a portable airlock, an attachable docking fixture, a fluid jet type detumble system, a stick-on rocket type detumble system, and an antitumbling space vehicle.

  5. Space Transportation Operations: Assessment of Methodologies and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joglekar, Prafulla

    2001-01-01

    The systems design process for future space transportation involves understanding multiple variables and their effect on lifecycle metrics. Variables such as technology readiness or potential environmental impact are qualitative, while variables such as reliability, operations costs or flight rates are quantitative. In deciding what new design concepts to fund, NASA needs a methodology that would assess the sum total of all relevant qualitative and quantitative lifecycle metrics resulting from each proposed concept. The objective of this research was to review the state of operations assessment methodologies and models used to evaluate proposed space transportation systems and to develop recommendations for improving them. It was found that, compared to the models available from other sources, the operations assessment methodology recently developed at Kennedy Space Center has the potential to produce a decision support tool that will serve as the industry standard. Towards that goal, a number of areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center's methodology are identified.

  6. Space Transportation Operations: Assessment of Methodologies and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joglekar, Prafulla

    2002-01-01

    The systems design process for future space transportation involves understanding multiple variables and their effect on lifecycle metrics. Variables such as technology readiness or potential environmental impact are qualitative, while variables such as reliability, operations costs or flight rates are quantitative. In deciding what new design concepts to fund, NASA needs a methodology that would assess the sum total of all relevant qualitative and quantitative lifecycle metrics resulting from each proposed concept. The objective of this research was to review the state of operations assessment methodologies and models used to evaluate proposed space transportation systems and to develop recommendations for improving them. It was found that, compared to the models available from other sources, the operations assessment methodology recently developed at Kennedy Space Center has the potential to produce a decision support tool that will serve as the industry standard. Towards that goal, a number of areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center's methodology are identified.

  7. A gap analysis of meteorological requirements for commercial space operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapleton, Nicholas James

    Commercial space companies will soon be the primary method of launching people and supplies into orbit. Among the critical aspects of space launches are the meteorological concerns. Laws and regulations pertaining to meteorological considerations have been created to ensure the safety of the space industry and those living around spaceports; but, are they adequate? Perhaps the commercial space industry can turn to the commercial aviation industry to help answer that question. Throughout its history, the aviation industry has dealt with lessons learned from mishaps due to failures in understanding the significance of weather impacts on operations. Using lessons from the aviation industry, the commercial space industry can preempt such accidents and maintain viability as an industry. Using Lanicci's Strategic Planning Model, this study identified the weather needs of the commercial space industry by conducting three gap analyses. First, a comparative analysis was done between laws and regulations in commercial aviation and those in the commercial space industry pertaining to meteorological support, finding a "legislative gap" between the two industries, as no legal guarantee is in place to ensure weather products remain available to the commercial space industry. A second analysis was conducted between the meteorological services provided for the commercial aviation industry and commercial space industry, finding a gap at facilities not located at an established launch facility or airport. At such facilities, many weather observational technologies would not be present, and would need to be purchased by the company operating the spaceport facility. A third analysis was conducted between the meteorological products and regulations that are currently in existence, and those needed for safe operations within the commercial space industry, finding gaps in predicting lightning, electric field charge, and space weather. Recommendations to address these deficiencies have

  8. Centaur operations at the space station: Cost and transportation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to expand on the results of an initial study entitled Centaur Operations at the Space Station. The previous study developed technology demonstration missions (TDMs) that utilized the Centaur G-prime upper stage to advance OTV technologies required for accomodations and operations at the Space Station. An initial evaluation was performed of the cost to NASA for TDM implementation. Due to the potential for commercial communication satellite operation utilizing the TDM hardware, an evaluation of the Centaur's transportation potential was also performed.

  9. Development of a Space Station Operations Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandli, A. E.; Mccandless, W. T.

    1988-01-01

    To enhance the productivity of operations aboard the Space Station, a means must be provided to augment, and frequently to supplant, human effort in support of mission operations and management, both on the ground and onboard. The Operations Management System (OMS), under development at the Johnson Space Center, is one such means. OMS comprises the tools and procedures to facilitate automation of station monitoring, control, and mission planning tasks. OMS mechanizes, and hence rationalizes, execution of tasks traditionally performed by mission planners, the mission control center team, onboard System Management software, and the flight crew.

  10. A Space Data System Standard for Telerobotic Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittman, David S.; Martinez, Lindolfo

    2014-01-01

    The Telerobotics Working Group of the Mission Operations and Information Management Services Area of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems is drafting a document that will help bound the scope of an eventual international standard for telerobotic operations services. This paper will present the work in progress and provide background for how the international community is beginning to define standards in telerobotic operations that will help ensure the success of complex missions to explore beyond Earth orbit.

  11. A Space Data System Standard for Telerobotic Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittman, David S.; Martinez, Lindolfo

    2014-01-01

    The Telerobotics Working Group of the Mission Operations and Information Management Services Area of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems is drafting a document that will help bound the scope of an eventual international standard for telerobotic operations services. This paper will present the work in progress and provide background for how the international community is beginning to define standards in telerobotic operations that will help ensure the success of complex missions to explore beyond Earth orbit.

  12. APL experience with space weather modeling and transition to operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanetti, L. J.; Wing, S.

    2009-12-01

    In response to the growing space weather needs, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) developed and delivered twenty two state of the art space weather products under the auspice of the University Partnering in Operational Support program, initiated in 1998. These products offer nowcasts and forecasts for the region spanning from the Sun to the Earth. Some of these products have been transitioned to the Air Force Weather Agency and other space weather centers. The transition process is quite different from research modeling, requiring additional staff with different sets of expertise. Recently, APL has developed a space weather web page to serve these products to the research and user community. For the initial stage, we have chosen ten of these products to be served from our website, which is presently still under construction. APL’s experience, lessons learned, and successes from developing space weather models, the transition to operations process and the webpage access will be shared and discussed

  13. IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 3: Space tug operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop space tug operational concepts and baseline operations plan, and to provide cost estimates for space tug operations. Background data and study results are presented along with a transition phase analysis (the transition from interim upper state to tug operations). A summary is given of the tug operational and interface requirements with emphasis on the on-orbit checkout requirements, external interface operational requirements, safety requirements, and system operational interface requirements. Other topics discussed include reference missions baselined for the tug and details for the mission functional flows and timelines derived for the tug mission, tug subsystems, tug on-orbit operations prior to the tug first burn, spacecraft deployment and retrieval by the tug, operations centers, mission planning, potential problem areas, and cost data.

  14. International Space Station Alpha user payload operations concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Crysel, William B.; Duncan, Elaine F.; Rider, James W.

    1994-01-01

    International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) will accommodate a variety of user payloads investigating diverse scientific and technology disciplines on behalf of five international partners: Canada, Europe, Japan, Russia, and the United States. A combination of crew, automated systems, and ground operations teams will control payload operations that require complementary on-board and ground systems. This paper presents the current planning for the ISSA U.S. user payload operations concept and the functional architecture supporting the concept. It describes various NASA payload operations facilities, their interfaces, user facility flight support, the payload planning system, the onboard and ground data management system, and payload operations crew and ground personnel training. This paper summarizes the payload operations infrastructure and architecture developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to prepare and conduct ISSA on-orbit payload operations from the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC), and from various user operations locations. The authors pay particular attention to user data management, which includes interfaces with both the onboard data management system and the ground data system. Discussion covers the functional disciplines that define and support POIC payload operations: Planning, Operations Control, Data Management, and Training. The paper describes potential interfaces between users and the POIC disciplines, from the U.S. user perspective.

  15. Design Criteria for Shipboard Dental Spaces: Operation Room (General, Compact); Operating Room (Oral Surgery); Operating Room (Radial Concept).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Design Criteria for Shipboard Dental Spaces, August 1973, present in drawings and text the functional design requirements of the Bureau of...Medicine and Surgery for the following types of shipboard dental spaces: dental operating room (general, compact); dental operating room (oral surgery... dental operating room (radial concept). These design criteria are intended to assist the Naval Ship Systems Command in designing and building shipboard

  16. Remote manual operator for space station intermodule ventilation valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guyaux, James R.

    1996-01-01

    The Remote Manual Operator (RMO) is a mechanism used for manual operation of the Space Station Intermodule Ventilation (IMV) valve and for visual indication of valve position. The IMV is a butterfly-type valve, located in the ventilation or air circulation ducts of the Space Station, and is used to interconnect or isolate the various compartments. The IMV valve is normally operated by an electric motor-driven actuator under computer or astronaut control, but it can also be operated manually with the RMO. The IMV valve RMO consists of a handle with a deployment linkage, a gear-driven flexible shaft, and a linkage to disengage the electric motor actuator during manual operation. It also provides visual indication of valve position. The IMV valve RMO is currently being prepared for qualification testing.

  17. Distributed networks enable advances in US space weather operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, S. Dave

    2011-06-01

    Space weather, the shorter-term variable impact of the Sun’s photons, solar wind particles, and interplanetary magnetic field upon the Earth’s environment, adversely affects our technological systems. These technological systems, including their space component, are increasingly being seen as a way to help solve 21st Century problems such as climate change, energy access, fresh water availability, and transportation coordination. Thus, the effects of space weather on space systems and assets must be mitigated and operational space weather using automated distributed networks has emerged as a common operations methodology. The evolution of space weather operations is described and the description of distributed network architectures is provided, including their use of tiers, data objects, redundancy, and time domain definitions. There are several existing distributed networks now providing space weather information and the lessons learned in developing those networks are discussed along with the details of examples for the Solar Irradiance Platform (SIP), Communication Alert and Prediction System (CAPS), GEO Alert and Prediction System (GAPS), LEO Alert and Prediction System (LAPS), Radiation Alert and Prediction System (RAPS), and Magnetosphere Alert and Prediction System (MAPS).

  18. Analysis of remote operating systems for space-based servicing operations, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A two phase study was conducted to analyze and develop the requirements for remote operating systems as applied to space based operations for the servicing, maintenance, and repair of satellites. Phase one consisted of the development of servicing requirements to establish design criteria for remote operating systems. Phase two defined preferred system concepts and development plans which met the requirements established in phase one. The specific tasks in phase two were to: (1) identify desirable operational and conceptual approaches for selected mission scenarios; (2) examine the potential impact of remote operating systems incorporated into the design of the space station; (3) address remote operating systems design issues, such as mobility, which are effected by the space station configuration; and (4) define the programmatic approaches for technology development, testing, simulation, and flight demonstration.

  19. Predicting Space Weather: Challenges for Research and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, H. J.; Onsager, T. G.; Rutledge, R.; Viereck, R. A.; Kunches, J.

    2013-12-01

    Society's growing dependence on technologies and infrastructure susceptible to the consequences of space weather has given rise to increased attention at the highest levels of government as well as inspired the need for both research and improved space weather services. In part, for these reasons, the number one goal of the recent National Research Council report on a Decadal Strategy for Solar and Space Physics is to 'Determine the origins of the Sun's activity and predict the variations in the space environment.' Prediction of conditions in our space environment is clearly a challenge for both research and operations, and we require the near-term development and validation of models that have sufficient accuracy and lead time to be useful to those impacted by space weather. In this presentation, we will provide new scientific results of space weather conditions that have challenged space weather forecasters, and identify specific areas of research that can lead to improved capabilities. In addition, we will examine examples of customer impacts and requirements as well as the challenges to the operations community to establish metrics that enable the selection and transition of models and observations that can provide the greatest economic and societal benefit.

  20. International Space Station Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ijames, Gayleen N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives and Goals: Maintain and operate the POIC and support integrated Space Station command and control functions. Provide software and hardware systems to support ISS payloads and Shuttle for the POIF cadre, Payload Developers and International Partners. Provide design, development, independent verification &validation, configuration, operational product/system deliveries and maintenance of those systems for telemetry, commanding, database and planning. Provide Backup Control Center for MCC-H in case of shutdown. Provide certified personnel and systems to support 24x7 facility operations per ISS Program. Payloads CoFR Implementation Plan (SSP 52054) and MSFC Payload Operations CoFR Implementation Plan (POIF-1006).

  1. Application of System Operational Effectiveness Methodology to Space Launch Vehicle Development and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Kelley, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) defined System Operational Effectiveness (SOE) model provides an exceptional framework for an affordable approach to the development and operation of space launch vehicles and their supporting infrastructure. The SOE model provides a focal point from which to direct and measure technical effectiveness and process efficiencies of space launch vehicles. The application of the SOE model to a space launch vehicle's development and operation effort leads to very specific approaches and measures that require consideration during the design phase. This paper provides a mapping of the SOE model to the development of space launch vehicles for human exploration by addressing the SOE model key points of measurement including System Performance, System Availability, Technical Effectiveness, Process Efficiency, System Effectiveness, Life Cycle Cost, and Affordable Operational Effectiveness. In addition, the application of the SOE model to the launch vehicle development process is defined providing the unique aspects of space launch vehicle production and operations in lieu of the traditional broader SOE context that examines large quantities of fielded systems. The tailoring and application of the SOE model to space launch vehicles provides some key insights into the operational design drivers, capability phasing, and operational support systems.

  2. Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azbell, James A.

    2011-01-01

    In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA s other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Mercury, Gemini, Apollo - through Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and our Exploration initiatives, MOD and its predecessors have pioneered ops concepts and emphasized a history of mission leadership which has added value, maximized mission success, and built on continual improvement of the capabilities to become more efficient and effective. MOD s focus on building and contributing value with diverse teams has been key to their successes both with the US space industry and the broader international community. Since their beginning, MOD has consistently demonstrated their ability to evolve and respond to an ever changing environment, effectively prepare for the expected and successfully respond to the unexpected, and develop leaders, expertise, and a culture that has led to mission and Program success.

  3. Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azbell, Jim

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA's other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Mercury, Gemini, Apollo - through Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and our Exploration initiatives, MOD and its predecessors have pioneered ops concepts and emphasized a history of mission leadership which has added value, maximized mission success, and built on continual improvement of the capabilities to become more efficient and effective. MOD's focus on building and contributing value with diverse teams has been key to their successes both with the US space industry and the broader international community. Since their beginning, MOD has consistently demonstrated their ability to evolve and respond to an ever changing environment, effectively prepare for the expected and successfully respond to the unexpected, and develop leaders, expertise, and a culture that has led to mission and Program success.

  4. Defining Operational Space Suit Requirements for Commercial Orbital Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alpert, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    As the commercial spaceflight industry transitions from suborbital brevity to orbital outposts, spacewalking will become a major consideration for tourists, scientists, and hardware providers. The challenge exists to develop a space suit designed for the orbital commercial spaceflight industry. The unique needs and requirements of this industry will drive space suit designs and costs that are unlike any existing product. Commercial space tourists will pay for the experience of a lifetime, while scientists may not be able to rely on robotics for all operations and external hardware repairs. This study was aimed at defining space suit operational and functional needs across the spectrum of spacewalk elements, identifying technical design drivers and establishing appropriate options. Recommendations from the analysis are offered for consideration

  5. Characteristics and requirements of robotic manipulators for space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andary, James F.; Hewitt, Dennis R.; Spidaliere, Peter D.; Lambeck, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    A robotic manipulator, DTF-1, developed as part of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) project at Goddard Space Flight Center is discussed focusing on the technical, operational, and safety requirements. The DTF-1 system design, which is based on the manipulator, gripper, cameras, computer, and an operator control station incorporates the fundamental building blocks of the original FTS, the end product of which was to have been a light-weight, dexterous telerobotic device. For the first time in the history of NASA, space technology and robotics were combined to find new and unique solutions to the demanding requirements of flying a sophisticated robotic manipulator in space. DTF-1 is considered to be the prototype for all future development in space robotics.

  6. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Dual Docked Operations (DDO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sills, Joel W., Jr.; Bruno, Erica E.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the concept definition, studies, and analysis results generated by the Space Shuttle Program (SSP), International Space Station (ISS) Program (ISSP), and Mission Operations Directorate for implementing Dual Docked Operations (DDO) during mated Orbiter/ISS missions. This work was performed over a number of years. Due to the ever increasing visiting vehicle traffic to and from the ISS, it became apparent to both the ISSP and the SSP that there would arise occasions where conflicts between a visiting vehicle docking and/or undocking could overlap with a planned Space Shuttle launch and/or during docked operations. This potential conflict provided the genesis for evaluating risk mitigations to gain maximum flexibility for managing potential visiting vehicle traffic to and from the ISS and to maximize launch and landing opportunities for all visiting vehicles.

  7. Operational Concepts for a Generic Space Exploration Communication Network Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Vaden, Karl R.; Jones, Robert E.; Roberts, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    This document is one of three. It describes the Operational Concept (OpsCon) for a generic space exploration communication architecture. The purpose of this particular document is to identify communication flows and data types. Two other documents accompany this document, a security policy profile and a communication architecture document. The operational concepts should be read first followed by the security policy profile and then the architecture document. The overall goal is to design a generic space exploration communication network architecture that is affordable, deployable, maintainable, securable, evolvable, reliable, and adaptable. The architecture should also require limited reconfiguration throughout system development and deployment. System deployment includes: subsystem development in a factory setting, system integration in a laboratory setting, launch preparation, launch, and deployment and operation in space.

  8. Progress in space weather modeling in an operational environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsagouri, Ioanna; Belehaki, Anna; Bergeot, Nicolas; Cid, Consuelo; Delouille, Véronique; Egorova, Tatiana; Jakowski, Norbert; Kutiev, Ivan; Mikhailov, Andrei; Núñez, Marlon; Pietrella, Marco; Potapov, Alexander; Qahwaji, Rami; Tulunay, Yurdanur; Velinov, Peter; Viljanen, Ari

    2013-04-01

    This paper aims at providing an overview of latest advances in space weather modeling in an operational environment in Europe, including both the introduction of new models and improvements to existing codes and algorithms that address the broad range of space weather's prediction requirements from the Sun to the Earth. For each case, we consider the model's input data, the output parameters, products or services, its operational status, and whether it is supported by validation results, in order to build a solid basis for future developments. This work is the output of the Sub Group 1.3 "Improvement of operational models" of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action ES0803 "Developing Space Weather Products and services in Europe" and therefore this review focuses on the progress achieved by European research teams involved in the action.

  9. The Index of Dirac Operators on Incomplete Edge Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, Pierre; Gell-Redman, Jesse

    2016-09-01

    We derive a formula for the index of a Dirac operator on a compact, even-dimensional incomplete edge space satisfying a ''geometric Witt condition''. We accomplish this by cutting off to a smooth manifold with boundary, applying the Atiyah-Patodi-Singer index theorem, and taking a limit. We deduce corollaries related to the existence of positive scalar curvature metrics on incomplete edge spaces.

  10. System security in the space flight operations center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Flight Operations Center is a networked system of workstation-class computers that will provide ground support for NASA's next generation of deep-space missions. The author recounts the development of the SFOC system security policy and discusses the various management and technology issues involved. Particular attention is given to risk assessment, security plan development, security implications of design requirements, automatic safeguards, and procedural safeguards.

  11. System security in the space flight operations center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Flight Operations Center is a networked system of workstation-class computers that will provide ground support for NASA's next generation of deep-space missions. The author recounts the development of the SFOC system security policy and discusses the various management and technology issues involved. Particular attention is given to risk assessment, security plan development, security implications of design requirements, automatic safeguards, and procedural safeguards.

  12. Space system operations and support cost analysis using Markov chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit; Dean, Edwin B.; Moore, Arlene A.; Fairbairn, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the use of Markov chain process in probabilistic life cycle cost analysis and suggests further uses of the process as a design aid tool. A methodology is developed for estimating operations and support cost and expected life for reusable space transportation systems. Application of the methodology is demonstrated for the case of a hypothetical space transportation vehicle. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to explore the effects of uncertainty in key model inputs.

  13. NOAA Operational Space Environmental Monitoring - Current Capabilities and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denig, William; Redmon, Rob; Mulligan, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    During the next few years the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) will field new operational capabilities for monitoring the near-earth space environment in addition to maintaining continued measurements in geostationary orbit. The most exciting new capability will be transitioning routine solar wind and magnetic field measurements at L1 (240 Re) from the NASA Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite to the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) which will be launched in early 2015 with a projected on-orbit readiness in mid-2015. Also under consideration is a solar-sail demonstration mission, called SUNJAMMER, for acquiring plasma and field measurements at twice the L1 location. Both DSCOVR and SUNJAMMER will provide a near-term advanced warning of impending space weather events that can adversely affect communications, satellite operations, GPS positioning and commercial air transportation. NESDIS has also supported the development of a Compact Coronagraph (CCOR) which could provide a several day warning of space weather when coupled with an interplanetary disturbance propagation model like ENLIL. Routine monitoring of the ionosphere will be provided by the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) II as a system which is a partnership among the Taiwan's National Space Organization, the U.S. Air Force and NOAA. The new operational capabilities provided by DSCOVR, SUNJAMMER, CCOR and COSMIC II are provided against the backdrop of continued space environmental measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) which, in the near future, will transition to the GOES-R series of advanced space weather sensors. Continued space environmental measurements in polar low earth orbit (LEO) will continue to be provided by the remaining Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the European MetOp satellites. Instrument specialists at the National Geophysical Data Center

  14. Airborne Precision Spacing for Dependent Parallel Operations Interface Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Paul M.; Takallu, M. A.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Weiser, Jarold; Turner, Dexter

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a usability study of proposed cockpit interfaces to support Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) operations for aircraft performing dependent parallel approaches (DPA). NASA has proposed an airborne system called Pair Dependent Speed (PDS) which uses their Airborne Spacing for Terminal Arrival Routes (ASTAR) algorithm to manage spacing intervals. Interface elements were designed to facilitate the input of APS-DPA spacing parameters to ASTAR, and to convey PDS system information to the crew deemed necessary and/or helpful to conduct the operation, including: target speed, guidance mode, target aircraft depiction, and spacing trend indication. In the study, subject pilots observed recorded simulations using the proposed interface elements in which the ownship managed assigned spacing intervals from two other arriving aircraft. Simulations were recorded using the Aircraft Simulation for Traffic Operations Research (ASTOR) platform, a medium-fidelity simulator based on a modern Boeing commercial glass cockpit. Various combinations of the interface elements were presented to subject pilots, and feedback was collected via structured questionnaires. The results of subject pilot evaluations show that the proposed design elements were acceptable, and that preferable combinations exist within this set of elements. The results also point to potential improvements to be considered for implementation in future experiments.

  15. Boundedness of generalized Cesaro averaging operators on certain function spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, M. R.; Howlett, P. G.; Lucas, S. K.; Naik, S.; Ponnusamy, S.

    2005-08-01

    We define a two-parameter family of Cesaro averaging operators , where , is analytic on the unit disc [Delta], and F(a,b;c;z) is the classical hypergeometric function. In the present article the boundedness of , , on various function spaces such as Hardy, BMOA and a-Bloch spaces is proved. In the special case b=1+[alpha] and c=1, becomes the [alpha]-Cesaro operator , . Thus, our results connect the special functions in a natural way and extend and improve several well-known results of Hardy-Littlewood, Miao, Stempak and Xiao.

  16. Mapping an operator's perception of a parameter space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pew, R. W.; Jagacinski, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Operators monitored the output of two versions of the crossover model having a common random input. Their task was to make discrete, real-time adjustments of the parameters k and tau of one of the models to make its output time history converge to that of the other, fixed model. A plot was obtained of the direction of parameter change as a function of position in the (tau, k) parameter space relative to the nominal value. The plot has a great deal of structure and serves as one form of representation of the operator's perception of the parameter space.

  17. 76 FR 41307 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee and Exploration Committee; Joint Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee and Exploration Committee; Joint... and Space Administration announces a joint meeting of the Space Operations Committee and Exploration... CONTACT: Dr. Bette Siegel, Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, National Aeronautics and...

  18. Space station proximity operations windows: Human factors design guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1987-01-01

    Proximity operations refers to all activities outside the Space Station which take place within a 1-km radius. Since there will be a large number of different operations involving manned and unmanned vehicles, single- and multiperson crews, automated and manually controlled flight, a wide variety of cargo, and construction/repair activities, accurate and continuous human monitoring of these operations from a specially designed control station on Space Station will be required. Total situational awareness will be required. This paper presents numerous human factors design guidelines and related background information for control windows which will support proximity operations. Separate sections deal with natural and artificial illumination geometry; all basic rendezvous vector approaches; window field-of-view requirements; window size; shape and placement criteria; window optical characteristics as they relate to human perception; maintenance and protection issues; and a comprehensive review of windows installed on U.S. and U.S.S.R. manned vehicles.

  19. Illumination requirements for operating a space remote manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandlee, George O.; Smith, Randy L.; Wheelwright, Charles D.

    1993-01-01

    Critical issues and requirements involved in illuminating remote manipulator operations in space help establish engineering designs for these manipulators. A remote manipulator is defined as any mechanical device that is controlled indirectly or from a distance by a human operator for the purpose of performing potentially dangerous or hazardous tasks to increase safety, reliability, and efficiency. Future space flights will rely on remote manipulators for a variety of tasks including satellite repair and servicing, structural assembly, data collection and analysis, and performance of contingency tasks. Carefully designed illumination of these manipulators will assure that these tasks will be completed efficiently and successfully. Studies concerning the influence of illumination on operation of a remote manipulator are few. Available results show that illumination can influence how successfully a human operates a remote manipulator. The intent of this study was to more fully examine this topic.

  20. Remotely Manned Systems for operation and exploration in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, E.

    1973-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of Remotely Manned Systems with emphasis on their use as tools for exploration and operation in space. Remotely Manned Systems missions and functions in space are described and classified in relation to other existing or planned space systems. Problem areas of large-scale man-machine systems are identified based on experience in the Surveyor program, the Mariner 9 Mars orbiter project and the Apollo program. The effects of communication time delay on system performance are investigated using the average velocity of a Martian rover as performance indicator. A substantial performance increase can be achieved by providing certain autonomous capabilities to the remote system.

  1. Technology for a NASA Space-Based Science Operations Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Robert N.; Redman, Sandra H.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph representation presents an overview of a proposal to develop a space-based operations grid in support of space-based science experiments. The development of such a grid would provide a dynamic, secure and scalable architecture based on standards and next-generation reusable software and would enable greater science collaboration and productivity through the use of shared resources and distributed computing. The authors propose developing this concept for use on payload experiments carried aboard the International Space Station. Topics covered include: grid definitions, portals, grid development and coordination, grid technology and potential uses of such a grid.

  2. Technology for a NASA Space-Based Science Operations Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Robert N.; Redman, Sandra H.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph representation presents an overview of a proposal to develop a space-based operations grid in support of space-based science experiments. The development of such a grid would provide a dynamic, secure and scalable architecture based on standards and next-generation reusable software and would enable greater science collaboration and productivity through the use of shared resources and distributed computing. The authors propose developing this concept for use on payload experiments carried aboard the International Space Station. Topics covered include: grid definitions, portals, grid development and coordination, grid technology and potential uses of such a grid.

  3. The Triangle of the Space Launch System Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayolle, Eric

    2010-09-01

    Firemen know it as “fire triangle”, mathematicians know it as “golden triangle”, sailormen know it as “Bermuda triangle”, politicians know it as “Weimar triangle”… This article aims to present a new aspect of that shape geometry in the space launch system world: “the triangle of the space launch system operations”. This triangle is composed of these three following topics, which have to be taken into account for any space launch system operation processing: design, safety and operational use. Design performance is of course taking into account since the early preliminary phase of a system development. This design performance is matured all along the development phases, thanks to consecutives iterations in order to respect the financial and timing constraints imposed to the development of the system. This process leads to a detailed and precise design to assess the required performance. Then, the operational use phase brings its batch of constraints during the use of the system. This phase is conducted by specific procedures for each operation. Each procedure has sequences for each sub-system, which have to be conducted in a very precise chronological way. These procedures can be processed by automatic way or manual way, with the necessity or not of the implication of operators, and in a determined environment. Safeguard aims to verify the respect of the specific constraints imposed to guarantee the safety of persons and property, the protection of public health and the environment. Safeguard has to be taken into account above the operational constraints of any space operation, without forgetting the highest safety level for the operators of the space operation, and of course without damaging the facilities or without disturbing the external environment. All space operations are the result of a “win-win” compromise between these three topics. Contrary to the fire triangle where one of the topics has to be suppressed in order to avoid the

  4. Is Operationally Responsive Space the Future of Access to Space for the US Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Air & Space Power Journal Summer 2006 To order the complete compilation report, use: ADA503800 The component part is provided here to allow users access...Air and Space Power lournal’s ?Mege" articles present contending ideas. Riade can draw their own conclnsions orjoin the inteletnal batte- space. Pase...within hours to conduct missions with special operations forces. Such a systen would provide the theater commander unprecedented flexibility and

  5. Why advanced computing? The key to space-based operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phister, Paul W., Jr.; Plonisch, Igor; Mineo, Jack

    2000-11-01

    The 'what is the requirement?' aspect of advanced computing and how it relates to and supports Air Force space-based operations is a key issue. In support of the Air Force Space Command's five major mission areas (space control, force enhancement, force applications, space support and mission support), two-fifths of the requirements have associated stringent computing/size implications. The Air Force Research Laboratory's 'migration to space' concept will eventually shift Science and Technology (S&T) dollars from predominantly airborne systems to airborne-and-space related S&T areas. One challenging 'space' area is in the development of sophisticated on-board computing processes for the next generation smaller, cheaper satellite systems. These new space systems (called microsats or nanosats) could be as small as a softball, yet perform functions that are currently being done by large, vulnerable ground-based assets. The Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) concept will be used to manage the overall process of space applications coupled with advancements in computing. The JBI can be defined as a globally interoperable information 'space' which aggregates, integrates, fuses, and intelligently disseminates all relevant battlespace knowledge to support effective decision-making at all echelons of a Joint Task Force (JTF). This paper explores a single theme -- on-board processing is the best avenue to take advantage of advancements in high-performance computing, high-density memories, communications, and re-programmable architecture technologies. The goal is to break away from 'no changes after launch' design to a more flexible design environment that can take advantage of changing space requirements and needs while the space vehicle is 'on orbit.'

  6. Modular Software Interfaces for Revolutionary Flexibility in Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian; Braham, Stephen; Pollack, Jay

    2005-01-01

    To make revolutionary improvements in exploration, space systems need to be flexible, realtime reconfigurable, and able to trade data transparently among themselves and mission operations. Onboard operations systems, space assembly coordination and EVA systems in exploration and construction all require real-time modular reconfigurability and data sharing. But NASA's current exploration systems are still largely legacies from hastily-developed, one-off Apollo-era practices. Today's rovers, vehicles, spacesuits, space stations, and instruments are not able to plug-and-play, Lego-like: into different combinations. Point-to-point dominates - individual suit to individual vehicle, individual instrument to rover. All are locally optimized, all unique, each of the data interfaces has been recoded for each possible combination. This will be an operations and maintenance nightmare in the much larger Project Constellation system of systems. This legacy approach does not scale to the hundreds of networked space components needed for space construction and for new, space-based approaches to Earth-Moon operations. By comparison, battlefield information management systems, which are considered critical to military force projection, have long since abandoned a point-to-point approach to systems integration. From a system-of-systems viewpoint, a clean-sheet redesign of the interfaces of all exploration systems is a necessary prerequisite before designing the interfaces of the individual exploration systems. Existing communications and Global Information Grid and middleware technologies are probably sufficient for command and control and information interfaces, with some hardware and time-delay modifications for space environments. NASA's future advanced space operations must also be information and data compatible with aerospace operations and surveillance systems being developed by other US Government agencies such as the Department of Homeland Security, Federal Aviation

  7. Modular Software Interfaces for Revolutionary Flexibility in Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian; Braham, Stephen; Pollack, Jay

    2005-01-01

    To make revolutionary improvements in exploration, space systems need to be flexible, realtime reconfigurable, and able to trade data transparently among themselves and mission operations. Onboard operations systems, space assembly coordination and EVA systems in exploration and construction all require real-time modular reconfigurability and data sharing. But NASA's current exploration systems are still largely legacies from hastily-developed, one-off Apollo-era practices. Today's rovers, vehicles, spacesuits, space stations, and instruments are not able to plug-and-play, Lego-like: into different combinations. Point-to-point dominates - individual suit to individual vehicle, individual instrument to rover. All are locally optimized, all unique, each of the data interfaces has been recoded for each possible combination. This will be an operations and maintenance nightmare in the much larger Project Constellation system of systems. This legacy approach does not scale to the hundreds of networked space components needed for space construction and for new, space-based approaches to Earth-Moon operations. By comparison, battlefield information management systems, which are considered critical to military force projection, have long since abandoned a point-to-point approach to systems integration. From a system-of-systems viewpoint, a clean-sheet redesign of the interfaces of all exploration systems is a necessary prerequisite before designing the interfaces of the individual exploration systems. Existing communications and Global Information Grid and middleware technologies are probably sufficient for command and control and information interfaces, with some hardware and time-delay modifications for space environments. NASA's future advanced space operations must also be information and data compatible with aerospace operations and surveillance systems being developed by other US Government agencies such as the Department of Homeland Security, Federal Aviation

  8. Applications of triggered lightning to space vehicle operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jafferis, William; Sanicandro, Rocco; Rompalla, John; Wohlman, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the USAF Eastern Space Missile Center (ESMC) covering an area of 25 x 40 km are frequently called America's Spaceport. This title is earned through the integration, by labor and management, of many skills in a wide variety of engineering fields to solve many technical problems that occur during the launch processing of space vehicles. Weather is one of these problems, and although less frequent in time and duration when compared to engineering type problems, has caused costly and life threatening situations. This sensitivity to weather, especially lightning, was recognized in the very early pioneer days of space operations. The need to protect the many v\\facilities, space flight hardware, and personnel from electrified clouds capable of producing lightning was a critical element in improving launch operations. A KSC lightning committee was formed and directed to improve lightning protection, detection, and measuring systems and required that all theoretical studies be confirmed by KSC field data. Over the years, there have been several lightning incidents involving flight vehicles during ground processing as well as launch. Subsequent investigations revealed the need to improve these systems as well as the knowledge of the electrical atmosphere and its effects on operations in regard to cost and safety. Presented here is how, KSC Atmospheric Science Field Laboratory (AFSL), in particular Rocket Triggered Lightning, is being used to solve these problems.

  9. Applications of triggered lightning to space vehicle operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafferis, William; Sanicandro, Rocco; Rompalla, John; Wohlman, Richard

    1992-11-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the USAF Eastern Space Missile Center (ESMC) covering an area of 25 x 40 km are frequently called America's Spaceport. This title is earned through the integration, by labor and management, of many skills in a wide variety of engineering fields to solve many technical problems that occur during the launch processing of space vehicles. Weather is one of these problems, and although less frequent in time and duration when compared to engineering type problems, has caused costly and life threatening situations. This sensitivity to weather, especially lightning, was recognized in the very early pioneer days of space operations. The need to protect the many v\\facilities, space flight hardware, and personnel from electrified clouds capable of producing lightning was a critical element in improving launch operations. A KSC lightning committee was formed and directed to improve lightning protection, detection, and measuring systems and required that all theoretical studies be confirmed by KSC field data. Over the years, there have been several lightning incidents involving flight vehicles during ground processing as well as launch. Subsequent investigations revealed the need to improve these systems as well as the knowledge of the electrical atmosphere and its effects on operations in regard to cost and safety. Presented here is how, KSC Atmospheric Science Field Laboratory (AFSL), in particular Rocket Triggered Lightning, is being used to solve these problems.

  10. Operationally efficient propulsion system study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 6; Space Transfer Propulsion Operational Efficiency Study Task of OEPSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Timothy J.

    1992-01-01

    This document is the final report for the Space Transfer Propulsion Operational Efficiency Study Task of the Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) conducted by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International. This Study task studied, evaluated and identified design concepts and technologies which minimized launch and in-space operations and optimized in-space vehicle propulsion system operability.

  11. Space Resilience and the Contested, Degraded, and Operationally Limited Environment: The Gaps in Tactical Space Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    difference between correctly attributing commanding anoma- lies to environmental perturbations caused by heightened solar activity, for example, as...activities. 23. As the Air Force Weather Agency’s environmental characterization status tracker , the space environment global situational awareness chart...events include solar , charged particle, and geomagnetic activity. They are characterized generically as quiet, active, or very active. The probable

  12. Generalized ψρ-operations on double fuzzy topological spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Fatimah. M.; Noorani, M. S. M.; Ghareeb, A.

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce and characterize the concepts of ψ-operations in double fuzzy topological spaces. Also, we use them to study (r,s)-generalized fuzzy ψρ-closed sets and (r,s)-generalized fuzzy ψρ-open sets. Some characterizations and properties for these concepts are discussed.

  13. Space Station Freedom technology payload user operations facility concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henning, Gary N.; Avery, Don E.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a concept for a User Operations Facility (UOF) for payloads sponsored by the NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST). The UOF can be located at any OAST sponsored center; however, for planning purposes, it is assumed that the center will be located at Langley Research Center (LaRC).

  14. Payload Operations Center (POC) for the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Payload Operations Center (POC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is the world's primary science command post for the International Space Station (ISS), the most ambitious space research facility in human history. The Payload Operations team is responsible for managing all science research experiments aboard the Station. The center is also home for coordination of the mission-plarning work of variety of international sources, all science payload deliveries and retrieval, and payload training and safety programs for the Station crew and all ground personnel. Within the POC, critical payload information from the ISS is displayed on a dedicated workstation, reading both S-band (low data rate) and Ku-band (high data rate) signals from a variety of experiments and procedures operated by the ISS crew and their colleagues on Earth. The POC is the focal point for incorporating research and experiment requirements from all international partners into an integrated ISS payload mission plan. This photograph is an overall view of the MSFC Payload Operations Center displaying the flags of the countries participating the ISS. The flags at the left portray The United States, Canada, France, Switzerland, Netherlands, Japan, Brazil, and Sweden. The flags at the right portray The Russian Federation, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Spain, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Norway.

  15. Payload Operations Center (POC) for the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Payload Operations Center (POC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is the world's primary science command post for the International Space Station (ISS), the most ambitious space research facility in human history. The Payload Operations team is responsible for managing all science research experiments aboard the Station. The center is also home for coordination of the mission-plarning work of variety of international sources, all science payload deliveries and retrieval, and payload training and safety programs for the Station crew and all ground personnel. Within the POC, critical payload information from the ISS is displayed on a dedicated workstation, reading both S-band (low data rate) and Ku-band (high data rate) signals from a variety of experiments and procedures operated by the ISS crew and their colleagues on Earth. The POC is the focal point for incorporating research and experiment requirements from all international partners into an integrated ISS payload mission plan. This photograph is an overall view of the MSFC Payload Operations Center displaying the flags of the countries participating the ISS. The flags at the left portray The United States, Canada, France, Switzerland, Netherlands, Japan, Brazil, and Sweden. The flags at the right portray The Russian Federation, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Spain, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Norway.

  16. Initiating Sustainable Operations at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Daniel E.; Orrell, Josh

    2003-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a preliminary sustainability assessment to identify sustainable projects for potential implementation at its facility in Huntsville, Alabama. This presentation will discuss the results of that assessment, highlighting current and future initiatives aimed at integrating sustainability into daily operations.

  17. Assessment of Emerging Networks to Support Future NASA Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younes, Badri; Chang, Susan; Berman, Ted; Burns, Mark; LaFontaine, Richard; Lease, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with assessing emerging networks to support future NASA space operations are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Emerging commercial satellite systems; 2) NASA LEO satellite support through commercial systems; 3) Communications coverage, user terminal assessment and regulatory assessment; 4) NASA LEO missions overview; and 5) Simulation assumptions and results.

  18. National facilities study. Volume 4: Space operations facilities task group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The principal objectives of the National Facilities Study (NFS) were to: (1) determine where U.S. facilities do not meet national aerospace needs; (2) define new facilities required to make U.S. capabilities 'world class' where such improvements are in the national interest; (3) define where consolidation and phase-out of existing facilities is appropriate; and (4) develop a long-term national plan for world-class facility acquisition and shared usage. The Space Operations Facilities Task Group defined discrete tasks to accomplish the above objectives within the scope of the study. An assessment of national space operations facilities was conducted to determine the nation's capability to meet the requirements of space operations during the next 30 years. The mission model used in the study to define facility requirements is described in Volume 3. Based on this model, the major focus of the Task Group was to identify any substantive overlap or underutilization of space operations facilities and to identify any facility shortfalls that would necessitate facility upgrades or new facilities. The focus of this initial study was directed toward facility recommendations related to consolidations, closures, enhancements, and upgrades considered necessary to efficiently and effectively support the baseline requirements model. Activities related to identifying facility needs or recommendations for enhancing U.S. international competitiveness and achieving world-class capability, where appropriate, were deferred to a subsequent study phase.

  19. Initiating Sustainable Operations at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Daniel E.; Orrell, Josh

    2003-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a preliminary sustainability assessment to identify sustainable projects for potential implementation at its facility in Huntsville, Alabama. This presentation will discuss the results of that assessment, highlighting current and future initiatives aimed at integrating sustainability into daily operations.

  20. Design reuse experience of space and hazardous operations robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneil, P. Graham

    1994-01-01

    A comparison of design drivers for space and hazardous nuclear waste operating robots details similarities and differences in operations, performance and environmental parameters for these critical environments. The similarities are exploited to provide low risk system components based on reuse principles and design knowledge. Risk reduction techniques are used for bridging areas of significant differences. As an example, risk reduction of a new sensor design for nuclear environment operations is employed to provide upgradeable replacement units in a reusable architecture for significantly higher levels of radiation.

  1. First Commerical Operations on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nall, Mark E.; Robinson, Robert K.; Henderson, Robin N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As part of NASA's mission of furthering the commercial development of space, the Space Product Development Office has sponsored the flight of seven commercial payloads to the International Space Station (ISS) during calendar year 2001. Most of these payloads, which are among the first users of this new laboratory, build upon successful commercial investigations that previously were restricted to the limited flight duration of the Space Shuttle. These commercial operations range from multi-media, in the form of Dreamtime, to biotechnology such as in Advanced Astroculture, to advanced materials such as Zeolite Crystal Growth. Industry investment in the commercial program has continued to remain high, while awaiting long term access to space, which the ISS provides. While the majority of early commercial use of the ISS is in the area of biotechnology, there is a significant shift towards commercial materials research over the next two years. In order to take fall advantage of the ISS, much of the commercial hardware is designed to be left on Station, while the Shuttle brings samples up and down. This not only makes good use of this valuable space resource, it has the added benefit of having commercial hardware available on the ISS for scientific users. In order to provide benefit to the entire NASA microgravity program, the scientific community on a space available basis can use a variety of commercial apparatus at very low cost. In addition to the solution crystal growth capability of Creosote Crystal Growth, in 2002 containerless processing will be available in the form of Space-DRUMS, and in 2003, thermophysical properties research can be performed in the Vulcan furnace. The first commercial operations on the ISS provides not only a much needed capability to the commercial development of space program, it also has the potential to augment the science program as well.

  2. First Commerical Operations on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nall, Mark E.; Robinson, Robert K.; Henderson, Robin N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As part of NASA's mission of furthering the commercial development of space, the Space Product Development Office has sponsored the flight of seven commercial payloads to the International Space Station (ISS) during calendar year 2001. Most of these payloads, which are among the first users of this new laboratory, build upon successful commercial investigations that previously were restricted to the limited flight duration of the Space Shuttle. These commercial operations range from multi-media, in the form of Dreamtime, to biotechnology such as in Advanced Astroculture, to advanced materials such as Zeolite Crystal Growth. Industry investment in the commercial program has continued to remain high, while awaiting long term access to space, which the ISS provides. While the majority of early commercial use of the ISS is in the area of biotechnology, there is a significant shift towards commercial materials research over the next two years. In order to take fall advantage of the ISS, much of the commercial hardware is designed to be left on Station, while the Shuttle brings samples up and down. This not only makes good use of this valuable space resource, it has the added benefit of having commercial hardware available on the ISS for scientific users. In order to provide benefit to the entire NASA microgravity program, the scientific community on a space available basis can use a variety of commercial apparatus at very low cost. In addition to the solution crystal growth capability of Creosote Crystal Growth, in 2002 containerless processing will be available in the form of Space-DRUMS, and in 2003, thermophysical properties research can be performed in the Vulcan furnace. The first commercial operations on the ISS provides not only a much needed capability to the commercial development of space program, it also has the potential to augment the science program as well.

  3. Asynchronous Message Service for Deep Space Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2006-01-01

    While the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) provides internationally standardized file transfer functionality that can offer significant benefits for deep space mission operations, not all spacecraft communication requirements are necessarily best met by file transfer. In particular, continuous event-driven asynchronous message exchange may also be useful for communications with, among, and aboard spacecraft. CCSDS has therefore undertaken the development of a new Asynchronous Message Service (AMS) standard, designed to provide common functionality over a wide variety of underlying transport services, ranging from shared memory message queues to CCSDS telemetry systems. The present paper discusses the design concepts of AMS, their applicability to deep space mission operations problems, and the results of preliminary performance testing obtained from exercise of a prototype implementation.

  4. Space station automation and robotics study. Operator-systems interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This is the final report of a Space Station Automation and Robotics Planning Study, which was a joint project of the Boeing Aerospace Company, Boeing Commercial Airplane Company, and Boeing Computer Services Company. The study is in support of the Advanced Technology Advisory Committee established by NASA in accordance with a mandate by the U.S. Congress. Boeing support complements that provided to the NASA Contractor study team by four aerospace contractors, the Stanford Research Institute (SRI), and the California Space Institute. This study identifies automation and robotics (A&R) technologies that can be advanced by requirements levied by the Space Station Program. The methodology used in the study is to establish functional requirements for the operator system interface (OSI), establish the technologies needed to meet these requirements, and to forecast the availability of these technologies. The OSI would perform path planning, tracking and control, object recognition, fault detection and correction, and plan modifications in connection with extravehicular (EV) robot operations.

  5. Orbital Debris: the Growing Threat to Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2010-01-01

    For nearly 50 years the amount of man-made debris in Earth orbit steadily grew, accounting for about 95% of all cataloged space objects over the past few decades. The Chinese anti-satellite test in January 2007 and the accidental collision of two spacecraft in February 2009 created more than 4000 new cataloged debris, representing an increase of 40% of the official U.S. Satellite Catalog. The frequency of collision avoidance maneuvers for both human space flight and robotic operations is increasing along with the orbital debris population. However, the principal threat to space operations is driven by the smaller and much more numerous uncataloged debris. Although the U.S. and the international aerospace communities have made significant progress in recognizing the hazards of orbital debris and in reducing or eliminating the potential for the creation of new debris, the future environment is expected to worsen without additional corrective measures.

  6. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration for Responsive Space Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Robert G.; Notardonato, William U.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program has a three year project to develop and demonstrate technologies to fundamentally change the way ground servicing activities support future access to space architectures. The AES Integrated Ground Operation Demonstration Units (IGODU) project has created two test beds for investigating and maturing two key elements of spaceport processing activities. The first is the GODU Integrated Refrigeration and Storage test bed that is demonstrating zero-loss storage of liquid hydrogen propellants and studying the storage and transfer of densified propellants. The second activity is the GODU Autonomous Control test bed that is implementing health management technologies and autonomous control capability of the propellant loading process to reduce the standing army of experts historically needed to ensure safe propellant loading operations. This presentation will give an overview of the activities at the Kennedy Space Center on these two test beds and its potential impact on future access to space programs.

  7. Future operational plans for the National Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubauer, C. H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    In March 1985, the NASA/DOD Space Transportation System Master Plan was published. This document establishes objectives and plans for operating the Space Transportation System (STS) for the next decade. In the present paper, some key points are discussed, and the significance of the weather forecasting capability is indicated. The STS is to become fully operational by the later 1980's and is to support fully the national needs into the mid-1990's. Attention is given to NASA/DOD STS coordination, NASA/DOD STS Master Plan Traffic Models, the Orbiter Launch-Rate Capability, Launch-Rate Capabilities for Shuttle Processing Facilities at Kennedy Space Center, and Launch-Rate Capabilities for Shuttle Processing Facilities at Vandenberg Air Force Base.

  8. Space Support Fully Integrated into All Phases of a Conflict: Ensuring Space Dominance for the Operational Commander

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-23

    Missions & Operational Functions 6 Campaign Phases and Space Mission Correlation 10 Conclusion 16 Selected Bibliography...maintained throughout a conflict for the operational commander. This paper addresses emerging threats, the Space Mission Areas and Operational...purchase those capabilities – sometimes from our own allies. Space Missions and Operational Functions In order to understand the campaign

  9. Implementing Distributed Operations: A Comparison of Two Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishkin, Andrew; Larsen, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Two very different deep space exploration missions--Mars Exploration Rover and Cassini--have made use of distributed operations for their science teams. In the case of MER, the distributed operations capability was implemented only after the prime mission was completed, as the rovers continued to operate well in excess of their expected mission lifetimes; Cassini, designed for a mission of more than ten years, had planned for distributed operations from its inception. The rapid command turnaround timeline of MER, as well as many of the operations features implemented to support it, have proven to be conducive to distributed operations. These features include: a single science team leader during the tactical operations timeline, highly integrated science and engineering teams, processes and file structures designed to permit multiple team members to work in parallel to deliver sequencing products, web-based spacecraft status and planning reports for team-wide access, and near-elimination of paper products from the operations process. Additionally, MER has benefited from the initial co-location of its entire operations team, and from having a single Principal Investigator, while Cassini operations have had to reconcile multiple science teams distributed from before launch. Cassini has faced greater challenges in implementing effective distributed operations. Because extensive early planning is required to capture science opportunities on its tour and because sequence development takes significantly longer than sequence execution, multiple teams are contributing to multiple sequences concurrently. The complexity of integrating inputs from multiple teams is exacerbated by spacecraft operability issues and resource contention among the teams, each of which has their own Principal Investigator. Finally, much of the technology that MER has exploited to facilitate distributed operations was not available when the Cassini ground system was designed, although later adoption

  10. Operational training for the mission operations at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozenfeld, Pawel

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the selection and training process of satellite controllers and data network operators performed at INPE's Satellite Tracking and Control Center in order to prepare them for the mission operations of the INPE's first (SCD1) satellite. An overview of the ground control system and SCD1 architecture and mission is given. Different training phases are described, taking into account that the applicants had no previous knowledge of space operations requiring, therefore, a training which started from the basics.

  11. Expanding Remote Science Operations Capabilities Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruzen, Craig A.; Dyer, Steven V.; Gibbs, Richard E., III; Cech, John G.

    2004-01-01

    EXPRESS Racks have been supporting payload science operations onboard the International Space Station (ISS) since April of 2001. EXPRESS is an acronym that stands for "EXpedite the PRocessing of Experiments to Space Station." This name reflects NASA's focus to simplify the process of manifesting experiments and maximizing scientific research capabilities by providing a robust, remotely operated payload support platform. The EXPRESS Rack System was developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and built by The Boeing Company in Huntsville, Alabama. Eight EXPRESS racks were built and five are currently onboard the ISS supporting science operations. The design and development of the EXPRESS Rack System is a long story that has been documented in previous publications. This paper briefly describes the facilities used to develop and verify flight software, test operational capabilities. It then traces the advancements made in the operational capabilities of the EXPRESS Racks from the time they were launched on STS-100 through the present. The paper concludes with a description of potential enhancements that will make the EXPRESS racks one of the most advanced and capable remote science platforms ever developed.

  12. On the Riemann Curvature Operators in Randers Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafie-Rad, M.

    2013-05-01

    The Riemann curvature in Riemann-Finsler geometry can be regarded as a collection of linear operators on the tangent spaces. The algebraic properties of these operators may be linked to the geometry and the topology of the underlying space. The principal curvatures of a Finsler space (M, F) at a point x are the eigenvalues of the Riemann curvature operator at x. They are real functions κ on the slit tangent manifold TM0. A principal curvature κ(x, y) is said to be isotropic (respectively, quadratic) if κ(x, y)/F(x, y) is a function of x only (respectively, κ(x, y) is quadratic with respect to y). On the other hand, the Randers metrics are the most popular and prominent metrics in pure and applied disciplines. Here, it is proved that if a Randers metric admits an isotropic principal curvature, then F is of isotropic S-curvature. The same result is also established for F to admit a quadratic principal curvature. These results extend Shen's verbal results about Randers metrics of scalar flag curvature K = K(x) as well as those Randers metrics with quadratic Riemann curvature operator. The Riemann curvature Rik may be broken into two operators Rik and Jik. The isotropic and quadratic principal curvature are characterized in terms of the eigenvalues of R and J.

  13. Autonomous Payload Operations Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, Howard K.; Deitsch, David K.; Cruzen, Craig A.; Haddock, Angie T.

    2007-01-01

    Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves many complex crew tended, ground operated and combined systems. Over the life of the ISS program, it has become evident that by having automated and autonomous systems on board, more can be accomplished and at the same time reduce the workload of the crew and ground operators. Engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville Alabama, working in collaboration with The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory have developed an autonomous software system that uses the Timeliner User Interface Language and expert logic to continuously monitor ISS payload systems, issue commands and signal ground operators as required. This paper describes the development history of the system, its concept of operation and components. The paper also discusses the testing process as well as the facilities used to develop the system. The paper concludes with a description of future enhancement plans for use on the ISS as well as potential applications to Lunar and Mars exploration systems.

  14. Microbiology operations and facilities aboard restructured Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cioletti, Louis A.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1992-01-01

    With the restructure and funding changes for Space Station Freedom, the Environmental Health System (EHS)/Microbiology Subsystem revised its scheduling and operational requirements for component hardware. The function of the Microbiology Subsystem is to monitor the environmental quality of air, water, and internal surfaces and, in part, crew health on board Space Station. Its critical role shall be the identification of microbial contaminants in the environment that may cause system degradation, produce unsanitary or pathogenic conditions, or reduce crew and mission effectiveness. EHS/Microbiology operations and equipment shall be introduced in concert with a phased assembly sequence, from Man Tended Capability (MTC) through Permanently Manned Capability (PMC). Effective Microbiology operations and subsystem components will assure a safe, habitable, and useful spacecraft environment for life sciences research and long-term manned exploration.

  15. Challenges in building intelligent systems for space mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    The purpose here is to provide a top-level look at the stewardship functions performed in space operations, and to identify the major issues and challenges that must be addressed to build intelligent systems that can realistically support operations functions. The focus is on decision support activities involving monitoring, state assessment, goal generation, plan generation, and plan execution. The bottom line is that problem solving in the space operations domain is a very complex process. A variety of knowledge constructs, representations, and reasoning processes are necessary to support effective human problem solving. Emulating these kinds of capabilities in intelligent systems offers major technical challenges that the artificial intelligence community is only beginning to address.

  16. On Volterra quadratic stochastic operators with continual state space

    SciTech Connect

    Ganikhodjaev, Nasir; Hamzah, Nur Zatul Akmar

    2015-05-15

    Let (X,F) be a measurable space, and S(X,F) be the set of all probability measures on (X,F) where X is a state space and F is σ - algebraon X. We consider a nonlinear transformation (quadratic stochastic operator) defined by (Vλ)(A) = ∫{sub X}∫{sub X}P(x,y,A)dλ(x)dλ(y), where P(x, y, A) is regarded as a function of two variables x and y with fixed A ∈ F . A quadratic stochastic operator V is called a regular, if for any initial measure the strong limit lim{sub n→∞} V{sup n }(λ) is exists. In this paper, we construct a family of quadratic stochastic operators defined on the segment X = [0,1] with Borel σ - algebra F on X , prove their regularity and show that the limit measure is a Dirac measure.

  17. Flare forecasting at the Met Office Space Weather Operations Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, S. A.; Bingham, S.; Sharpe, M.; Jackson, D. R.

    2017-04-01

    The Met Office Space Weather Operations Centre produces 24/7/365 space weather guidance, alerts, and forecasts to a wide range of government and commercial end-users across the United Kingdom. Solar flare forecasts are one of its products, which are issued multiple times a day in two forms: forecasts for each active region on the solar disk over the next 24 h and full-disk forecasts for the next 4 days. Here the forecasting process is described in detail, as well as first verification of archived forecasts using methods commonly used in operational weather prediction. Real-time verification available for operational flare forecasting use is also described. The influence of human forecasters is highlighted, with human-edited forecasts outperforming original model results and forecasting skill decreasing over longer forecast lead times.

  18. Generalized space and linear momentum operators in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, Bruno G. da

    2014-06-15

    We propose a modification of a recently introduced generalized translation operator, by including a q-exponential factor, which implies in the definition of a Hermitian deformed linear momentum operator p{sup ^}{sub q}, and its canonically conjugate deformed position operator x{sup ^}{sub q}. A canonical transformation leads the Hamiltonian of a position-dependent mass particle to another Hamiltonian of a particle with constant mass in a conservative force field of a deformed phase space. The equation of motion for the classical phase space may be expressed in terms of the generalized dual q-derivative. A position-dependent mass confined in an infinite square potential well is shown as an instance. Uncertainty and correspondence principles are analyzed.

  19. Modeling and simulation for space medicine operations: preliminary requirements considered.

    PubMed

    Dawson, D L; Billica, R D; McDonald, P V

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Space Medicine program is now developing plans for more extensive use of high-fidelity medical simulation systems. The use of simulation is seen as means to more effectively use the limited time available for astronaut medical training. Training systems should be adaptable for use in a variety of training environments, including classrooms or laboratories, space vehicle mockups, analog environments, and in microgravity. Modeling and simulation can also provide the space medicine development program a mechanism for evaluation of other medical technologies under operationally realistic conditions. Systems and procedures need preflight verification with ground-based testing. Traditionally, component testing has been accomplished, but practical means for "human in the loop" verification of patient care systems have been lacking. Medical modeling and simulation technology offer potential means to accomplish such validation work. Initial considerations in the development of functional requirements and design standards for simulation systems for space medicine are discussed.

  20. Modeling and simulation for space medicine operations: preliminary requirements considered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, D. L.; Billica, R. D.; McDonald, P. V.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Space Medicine program is now developing plans for more extensive use of high-fidelity medical simulation systems. The use of simulation is seen as means to more effectively use the limited time available for astronaut medical training. Training systems should be adaptable for use in a variety of training environments, including classrooms or laboratories, space vehicle mockups, analog environments, and in microgravity. Modeling and simulation can also provide the space medicine development program a mechanism for evaluation of other medical technologies under operationally realistic conditions. Systems and procedures need preflight verification with ground-based testing. Traditionally, component testing has been accomplished, but practical means for "human in the loop" verification of patient care systems have been lacking. Medical modeling and simulation technology offer potential means to accomplish such validation work. Initial considerations in the development of functional requirements and design standards for simulation systems for space medicine are discussed.

  1. Space Mission Operations Ground Systems Integration Customer Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The facility, which is now the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, has provided continuous space mission and related services for the space industry since 1961, from Mercury Redstone through the International Space Station (ISS). Throughout the long history of the facility and mission support teams, the HOSC has developed a stellar customer support and service process. In this era, of cost cutting, and providing more capability and results with fewer resources, space missions are looking for the most efficient way to accomplish their objectives. One of the first services provided by the facility was fax transmission of documents to, then, Cape Canaveral in Florida. The headline in the Marshall Star, the newspaper for the newly formed Marshall Space Flight Center, read "Exact copies of Documents sent to Cape in 4 minutes." The customer was Dr. Wernher von Braun. Currently at the HOSC we are supporting, or have recently supported, missions ranging from simple ISS payloads requiring little more than "bentpipe" telemetry access, to a low cost free-flyer Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT), to a full service ISS payload Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer 2 (AMS2) supporting 24/7 operations at three operations centers around the world with an investment of over 2 billion dollars. The HOSC has more need and desire than ever to provide fast and efficient customer service to support these missions. Here we will outline how our customer-centric service approach reduces the cost of providing services, makes it faster and easier than ever for new customers to get started with HOSC services, and show what the future holds for our space mission operations customers. We will discuss our philosophy concerning our responsibility and accessibility to a mission customer as well as how we deal with the following issues: initial contact with a customer, reducing customer cost, changing regulations and security

  2. Space Test and Operations Port for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has from its inception included plans to support the testing of exploration vehicle/systems technology, the assembly of space transport vehicles, and a variety of operations support (communications, crew transfer, cargo handling, etc). Despite the fact that the ISS has gone through several re-designs and reductions in size and capabilities over the past 20 years, it still has the key capabilities, truss structure, docking nodes, etc required to support these exploration mission activities. ISS is much like a frontier outpost in the Old West, which may not have been in optimum location (orbit) for assisting travelers on their way to California (the Moon and Mars), but nevertheless because it had supplies and other support services (regular logistics from Earth, crewmembers, robotics, and technology test and assembly support capabilities) was regularly used as a stopover and next trip phase preparation site by all kinds of travelers. This paper will describe some of the ISS capabilities which are being used currently, and are being planned for use, by various payload sponsors, developers and Principal Investigators, sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Flight (Code M ISS Research Program Office - Department of Defense (DoD), NASA Hqs Office of Space Communications, Italian Space Agency, etc.). Initial ideas and concepts for payloads and technology testing which are being planned, or which are being investigated, for use in support of advanced space technology development and verification and exploration mission activities will be summarized. Some of the future ISS payloads and test activities already identified include materials and system component space environment testing, laser space communication system demonstrations (leading to the possible development of an ISS deep space communication node), and an advanced space propulsion testbed and ISS based, free-flying platform.

  3. Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, M.; Roberts, T.

    2011-09-01

    US space capabilities benefit the economy, national security, international relationships, scientific discovery, and our quality of life. Realizing these space responsibilities is challenging not only because the space domain is increasingly congested, contested, and competitive but is further complicated by the legacy space situational awareness (SSA) systems approaching end of life and inability to provide the breadth of SSA and command and control (C2) of space forces in this challenging domain. JMS will provide the capabilities to effectively employ space forces in this challenging domain. Requirements for JMS were developed based on regular, on-going engagement with the warfighter. The use of DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF) products facilitated requirements scoping and understanding and transferred directly to defining and documenting the requirements in the approved Capability Development Document (CDD). As part of the risk reduction efforts, the Electronic System Center (ESC) JMS System Program Office (SPO) fielded JMS Capability Package (CP) 0 which includes an initial service oriented architecture (SOA) and user defined operational picture (UDOP) along with force status, sensor management, and analysis tools. Development efforts are planned to leverage and integrate prototypes and other research projects from Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Air Force Research Laboratories, Space Innovation and Development Center, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Lincoln Laboratories. JMS provides a number of benefits to the space community: a reduction in operational “transaction time” to accomplish key activities and processes; ability to process the increased volume of metric observations from new sensors (e.g., SBSS, SST, Space Fence), as well as owner/operator ephemerides thus enhancing the high accuracy near-real-time catalog, and greater automation of SSA data sharing supporting collaboration with government, civil, commercial, and foreign

  4. Operational Capabilities and Legal Implications of a Military Space Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charania, A.

    2002-01-01

    The potential challenges for the United States military in this upcoming century may require new types of capabilities only achievable through the application of new technologies. One of these potential capabilities includes a Military Space Plane (MSP). An MSP is a concept to use reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technologies in a system to provide the military global access and reach in a timely fashion that could be operational within a decade. New awareness is evident from both recent federal commission reports and activities in Afghanistan of the military's possible use of such capabilities to provide asymmetric advantages. The MSP may eventually become part of a new spaceforce that coordinates the broad range of defensive and offensive space assets. In addition, a new emphasis is being placed upon NASA and the U.S. Air Force to coordinate activity on such a space plane/RLV development. The interaction of civilian and defense agencies for such a program has ramifications, not just in terms of the requirements on a final operational vehicle, but also on the legal charters of both entities. This examination presents operational scenarios for a military space plane in order to derive various legal implications.

  5. Activity of Science and Operational Research of NICT Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Mamoru; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Watari, Shinichi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Tsugawa, Takuya; Kubo, Yuki

    Operational space weather forecast is for contribution to social infrastructure than for academic interests. These user need will determine the target of research, e.g., the precision level, spatial and temporal resolution and/or required lead time. We, NICT, aim two target in the present mid-term strategic plan, which are (1) forecast of ionospheric disturbance influencing to satellite positioning, and (2) forecast of disturbance in radiation belt influencing to satellite operation. We have our own observation network and develop empirical and numerical models for achieving each target. However in actual situation, it is much difficult to know the user needs quantitatively. Most of space weather phenomena makes the performance of social infrastructure poor, for example disconnect of HF communication, increase of GNSS error. Most of organizations related to these operation are negative to open these information. We have personal interviews to solve this issue. In this interview, we try to collect incident information related to space weather in each field, and to retrieve which space weather information is necessary for users. In this presentation we will introduce our research and corresponding new service, in addition to our recent scientific results.

  6. Analysis on singular spaces: Lie manifolds and operator algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nistor, Victor

    2016-07-01

    We discuss and develop some connections between analysis on singular spaces and operator algebras, as presented in my sequence of four lectures at the conference Noncommutative geometry and applications, Frascati, Italy, June 16-21, 2014. Therefore this paper is mostly a survey paper, but the presentation is new, and there are included some new results as well. In particular, Sections 3 and 4 provide a complete short introduction to analysis on noncompact manifolds that is geared towards a class of manifolds-called ;Lie manifolds; -that often appears in practice. Our interest in Lie manifolds is due to the fact that they provide the link between analysis on singular spaces and operator algebras. The groupoids integrating Lie manifolds play an important background role in establishing this link because they provide operator algebras whose structure is often well understood. The initial motivation for the work surveyed here-work that spans over close to two decades-was to develop the index theory of stratified singular spaces. Meanwhile, several other applications have emerged as well, including applications to Partial Differential Equations and Numerical Methods. These will be mentioned only briefly, however, due to the lack of space. Instead, we shall concentrate on the applications to Index theory.

  7. The European Astronaut Centre prepares for International Space Station operations.

    PubMed

    Messerschmid, E; Haignere, J P; Damian, K; Damann, V

    2004-04-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) contribution to the International Space Station (ISS) goes much beyond the delivery of hardware like the Columbus Laboratory, its payloads and the Automated Transfer Vehicles. ESA Astronauts will be members of the ISS crew. ESA, according to its commitments as ISS international partner, will be responsible to provide training on its elements and payloads to all ISS crewmembers and medical support for ESA astronauts. The European Astronaut Centre (EAC) in Cologne has developed over more than a decade into the centre of expertise for manned space activities within ESA by contributing to a number of important co-operative spaceflight missions. This role will be significantly extended for ISS manned operations. Apart from its support to ESA astronauts and their onboard operations, EAC will have a key role in training all ISS astronauts on ESA elements and payloads. The medical support of ISS crew, in particular of ESA astronauts has already started. This paper provides an overview on status and further plans in building up this homebase function for ESA astronauts and on the preparation towards Training Readiness for ISS crew training at EAC, Cologne. Copyright 2001 by the European Space Agency. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., with permission. Released to IAF/IAA/AIAA to publish in all forms.

  8. Extending the International Space Station Life and Operability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Andrew J.; Pitts, R. Lee; Sparks, Ray N.; Wickline, Thomas W.; Zoller, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is in an operational configuration with final assembly complete. To fully utilize ISS and extend the operational life, it became necessary to upgrade and extend the onboard systems with the Obsolescence Driven Avionics Redesign (ODAR) project. ODAR enabled a joint project between the Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) focused on upgrading the onboard payload and Ku-Band systems, expanding the voice and video capabilities, and including more modern protocols allowing unprecedented access for payload investigators to their on-orbit payloads. The MSFC Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) was tasked with developing a high-rate enhanced Functionally Distributed Processor (eFDP) to handle 300Mbps Return Link data, double the legacy rate, and incorporate a Line Outage Recorder (LOR). The eFDP also provides a 25Mbps uplink transmission rate with a Space Link Extension (SLE) interface. HOSC also updated the Payload Data Services System (PDSS) to incorporate the latest Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) protocols, most notably the use of the Internet Protocol (IP) Encapsulation, in addition to the legacy capabilities. The Central Command Processor was also updated to interact with the new onboard and ground capabilities of Mission Control Center -- Houston (MCC-H) for the uplink functionality. The architecture, implementation, and lessons learned, including integration and incorporation of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) hardware and software into the operational mission of the ISS, is described herein. The applicability of this new technology provides new benefits to ISS payload users and ensures better utilization of the ISS by the science community

  9. Constraint and Flight Rule Management for Space Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barreiro, J.; Chachere, J.; Frank, J.; Bertels, C.; Crocker, A.

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et al, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et al., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et al, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on some of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

  10. Application of human error analysis to aviation and space operations

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.

    1998-03-01

    For the past several years at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) the authors have been working to apply methods of human error analysis to the design of complex systems. They have focused on adapting human reliability analysis (HRA) methods that were developed for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for application to system design. They are developing methods so that human errors can be systematically identified during system design, the potential consequences of each error can be assessed, and potential corrective actions (e.g. changes to system design or procedures) can be identified. The primary vehicle the authors have used to develop and apply these methods has been a series of projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to apply human error analysis to aviation operations. They are currently adapting their methods and tools of human error analysis to the domain of air traffic management (ATM) systems. Under the NASA-sponsored Advanced Air Traffic Technologies (AATT) program they are working to address issues of human reliability in the design of ATM systems to support the development of a free flight environment for commercial air traffic in the US. They are also currently testing the application of their human error analysis approach for space flight operations. They have developed a simplified model of the critical habitability functions for the space station Mir, and have used this model to assess the affects of system failures and human errors that have occurred in the wake of the collision incident last year. They are developing an approach so that lessons learned from Mir operations can be systematically applied to design and operation of long-term space missions such as the International Space Station (ISS) and the manned Mars mission.

  11. Maintaining US Space Weather Capabilities after DMSP: Research to Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machuzak, J. S.; Gentile, L. C.; Burke, W. J.; Holeman, E. G.; Ober, D. M.; Wilson, G. R.

    2012-12-01

    The first Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft was launched in 1972; the last is scheduled to fly in 2020. Presently, there is no replacement for the space-weather monitoring sensors that now fly on DMSP. The present suite has provided comprehensive, long-term records that constitute a critical component of the US space weather corporate memory. Evolving operational needs and research accomplishments justify continued collection of space environmental data. Examples include measurements to: (1) Monitor the Dst index in real time as a driver of next-generation satellite drag models; (2) Quantify electromagnetic energy fluxes from deep space to the ionosphere/ thermosphere that heat neutrals, drive disturbance-dynamo winds and degrade precise orbit determinations; (3) Determine strengths of stormtime electric fields at high and low latitudes that lead to severe blackouts and spacecraft anomalies; (4) Specify variability of plasma density irregularities, equatorial plasma bubbles, and the Appleton anomaly to improve reliability of communication, navigation and surveillance links; (5) Characterize energetic particle fluxes responsible for auroral clutter and radar degradation; (6) Map regions of L-Band scintillation for robust GPS applications; and (7) Update the World Magnetic Field Model needed to maintain guidance system superiority. These examples illustrate the utility of continued space environment awareness. Comprehensive assessments of both operational requirements and research advances are needed to make informed selections of sensors and spacecraft that support future capabilities. A proposed sensor set and satellite constellation to provide the needed measurement capabilities will be presented.

  12. Space Operations Analysis Using the Synergistic Engineering Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angster, Scott; Brewer, Laura

    2002-01-01

    The Synergistic Engineering Environment has been under development at the NASA Langley Research Center to aid in the understanding of the operations of spacecraft. This is accomplished through the integration of multiple data sets, analysis tools, spacecraft geometric models, and a visualization environment to create an interactive virtual simulation of the spacecraft. Initially designed to support the needs of the International Space Station, the SEE has broadened the scope to include spacecraft ranging from low-earth orbit to deep space missions. Analysis capabilities within the SEE include rigid body dynamics, kinematics, orbital mechanics, and payload operations. This provides the user the ability to perform real-time interactive engineering analyses in areas including flight attitudes and maneuvers, visiting vehicle docking scenarios, robotic operations, plume impingement, field of view obscuration, and alternative assembly configurations. The SEE has been used to aid in the understanding of several operational procedures related to the International Space Station. This paper will address the capabilities of the first build of the SEE, present several use cases of the SEE, and discuss the next build of the SEE.

  13. Payload Operations Center (POC) for the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Payload Operations Center (POC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is the world's primary science command post for the (ISS), the most ambitious space research facility in human history. The Payload Operations team is responsible for managing all science research experiments aboard the Station. The center is also home for coordination of the mission-plarning work of variety of international sources, all science payload deliveries and retrieval, and payload training and safety programs for the Station crew and all ground personnel. Within the POC, critical payload information from the ISS is displayed on a dedicated workstation, reading both S-band (low data rate) and Ku-band (high data rate) signals from a variety of experiments and procedures operated by the ISS crew and their colleagues on Earth. The POC is the focal point for incorporating research and experiment requirements from all international partners into an integrated ISS payload mission plan. This photograph is an overall view of the MSFC Payload Operations Center displaying the flags of the countries participating in the ISS. The flags at the left portray The United States, Canada, France, Switzerland, Netherlands, Japan, Brazil, and Sweden. The flags at the right portray The Russian Federation, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Spain, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Norway.

  14. Payload Operations Center (POC) for the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Payload Operations Center (POC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is the world's primary science command post for the (ISS), the most ambitious space research facility in human history. The Payload Operations team is responsible for managing all science research experiments aboard the Station. The center is also home for coordination of the mission-plarning work of variety of international sources, all science payload deliveries and retrieval, and payload training and safety programs for the Station crew and all ground personnel. Within the POC, critical payload information from the ISS is displayed on a dedicated workstation, reading both S-band (low data rate) and Ku-band (high data rate) signals from a variety of experiments and procedures operated by the ISS crew and their colleagues on Earth. The POC is the focal point for incorporating research and experiment requirements from all international partners into an integrated ISS payload mission plan. This photograph is an overall view of the MSFC Payload Operations Center displaying the flags of the countries participating in the ISS. The flags at the left portray The United States, Canada, France, Switzerland, Netherlands, Japan, Brazil, and Sweden. The flags at the right portray The Russian Federation, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Spain, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Norway.

  15. Command and control displays for space vehicle operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Zetocha, Paul; Aleva, Denise

    2010-04-01

    This paper shall examine several command and control facility display architectures supporting space vehicle operations, to include TacSat 2, TacSat 3, STPSat 2, and Communications Navigation Outage Forecasting System (CNOFS), located within the Research Development Test & Evaluation Support Complex (RSC) Satellite Operations Center 97 (SOC-97) at Kirtland Air Force Base. A principal focus is to provide an understanding for the general design class of displays currently supporting space vehicle command and control, e.g., custom, commercial-off-the-shelf, or ruggedized commercial-off-the-shelf, and more specifically, what manner of display performance capabilities, e.g., active area, resolution, luminance, contrast ratio, frame/refresh rate, temperature range, shock/vibration, etc., are needed for particular aspects of space vehicle command and control. Another focus shall be to address the types of command and control functions performed for each of these systems, to include how operators interact with the displays, e.g., joystick, trackball, keyboard/mouse, as well as the kinds of information needed or displayed for each function. [Comparison with other known command and control facilities, such as Cheyenne Mountain and NORAD Operations Center, shall be made.] Future, anticipated display systems shall be discussed.

  16. A Simulation Based Investigation of High Latency Space Systems Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zu Qun; Crues, Edwin Z.; Bielski, Paul; Moore, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study was the first in a series of planned tests to use physics-based subsystem simulations to investigate the interactions between a spacecraft's crew and a ground-based mission control center for vehicle subsystem operations across long communication delays. The simulation models the life support system of a deep space habitat. It contains models of an environmental control and life support system, an electrical power system, an active thermal control system, and crew metabolic functions. The simulation has three interfaces: 1) a real-time crew interface that can be use to monitor and control the subsystems; 2) a mission control center interface with data transport delays up to 15 minute each way; and 3) a real-time simulation test conductor interface used to insert subsystem malfunctions and observe the interactions between the crew, ground, and simulated vehicle. The study was conducted at the 21st NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) mission. The NEEMO crew and ground support team performed a number of relevant deep space mission scenarios that included both nominal activities and activities with system malfunctions. While this initial test sequence was focused on test infrastructure and procedures development, the data collected in the study already indicate that long communication delays have notable impacts on the operation of deep space systems. For future human missions beyond cis-lunar, NASA will need to design systems and support tools to meet these challenges. These will be used to train the crew to handle critical malfunctions on their own, to predict malfunctions, and to assist with vehicle operations. Subsequent more detailed and involved studies will be conducted to continue advancing NASA's understanding of space systems operations across long communications delays.

  17. A Simulation Based Investigation of High Latency Space Systems Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zu Qun; Moore, Michael; Bielski, Paul; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2017-01-01

    This study was the first in a series of planned tests to use physics-based subsystem simulations to investigate the interactions between a spacecraft's crew and a ground-based mission control center for vehicle subsystem operations across long communication delays. The simulation models the life support system of a deep space habitat. It contains models of an environmental control and life support system, an electrical power system, an active thermal control systems, and crew metabolic functions. The simulation has three interfaces: 1) a real-time crew interface that can be use to monitor and control the subsystems; 2) a mission control center interface with data transport delays up to 15 minute each way; and 3) a real-time simulation test conductor interface used to insert subsystem malfunctions and observe the interactions between the crew, ground, and simulated vehicle. The study was conducted at the 21st NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) mission. The NEEMO crew and ground support team performed a number of relevant deep space mission scenarios that included both nominal activities and activities with system malfunctions. While this initial test sequence was focused on test infrastructure and procedures development, the data collected in the study already indicate that long communication delays have notable impacts on the operation of deep space systems. For future human missions beyond cis-lunar, NASA will need to design systems and support tools to meet these challenges. These will be used to train the crew to handle critical malfunctions on their own, to predict malfunctions and assist with vehicle operations. Subsequent more detailed and involved studies will be conducted to continue advancing NASA's understanding of space systems operations across long communications delays.

  18. Robust operative diagnosis as problem solving in a hypothesis space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Kathy H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an approach that formulates diagnosis of physical systems in operation as problem solving in a hypothesis space. Such a formulation increases robustness by: (1) incremental hypotheses construction via dynamic inputs, (2) reasoning at a higher level of abstraction to construct hypotheses, and (3) partitioning the space by grouping fault hypotheses according to the type of physical system representation and problem solving techniques used in their construction. It was implemented for a turbofan engine and hydraulic subsystem. Evaluation of the implementation on eight actual aircraft accident cases involving engine faults provided very promising results.

  19. Information prioritization for control and automation of space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Asock; Joshi, Suresh M.; Whitney, Cynthia K.; Jow, Hong N.

    1987-01-01

    The applicability of a real-time information prioritization technique to the development of a decision support system for control and automation of Space Station operations is considered. The steps involved in the technique are described, including the definition of abnormal scenarios and of attributes, measures of individual attributes, formulation and optimization of a cost function, simulation of test cases on the basis of the cost function, and examination of the simulation scenerios. A list is given comparing the intrinsic importances of various Space Station information data.

  20. International Space Station ECLSS Operations Status - Increment OA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamczyk, Philip C.; Cobb, Carey T. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) operations to date for preflight planning, international partner coordination and mission plan execution of the International Space Station (ISS). The focus is on the activities involved with the STS-88(2A) Space Shuttle Endeavor flight, the first delivery of the US segment of the ISS, which consists of the Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA)/and Node 1 elements, and the delivery of the first Russian segment of the ISS, the FGB, a US-financed and Russian- built module.

  1. Robust operative diagnosis as problem solving in a hypothesis space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Kathy H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an approach that formulates diagnosis of physical systems in operation as problem solving in a hypothesis space. Such a formulation increases robustness by: (1) incremental hypotheses construction via dynamic inputs, (2) reasoning at a higher level of abstraction to construct hypotheses, and (3) partitioning the space by grouping fault hypotheses according to the type of physical system representation and problem solving techniques used in their construction. It was implemented for a turbofan engine and hydraulic subsystem. Evaluation of the implementation on eight actual aircraft accident cases involving engine faults provided very promising results.

  2. Operations Concepts for Deep-Space Missions: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Historically, manned spacecraft missions have relied heavily on real-time communication links between crewmembers and ground control for generating crew activity schedules and working time-critical off-nominal situations. On crewed missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, speed-of-light limitations will render this ground-centered concept of operations obsolete. A new, more distributed concept of operations will have to be developed in which the crew takes on more responsibility for real-time anomaly diagnosis and resolution, activity planning and replanning, and flight operations. I will discuss the innovative information technologies, human-machine interfaces, and simulation capabilities that must be developed in order to develop, test, and validate deep-space mission operations

  3. Mission Control Center operations for the Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    Orbital flight tests of the Space Shuttle Program involved three types of activities, including classic flight testing of the vehicle hardware and software, operational procedures evaluation and development, and performance of payload mission operations. This combination of activities required a capability of the Mission Control Center (MCC) to provide thorough support to the Orbiter and its crew across a broad spectrum of activities. Attention is given to MCC organization, the general functions performed by the MCC teams, a flight support description, the motivation for a change in MCC operations, support elements, orbit phase functions, and dynamic flight phase functions. It is pointed out that the MCC facilities for the operational mode of support will not be fully implemented until 1984.

  4. Spitzer Space Telescope Sequencing Operations Software, Strategies, and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, David A.

    2006-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) was launched in August, 2003, and renamed to the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2004. Two years of observing the universe in the wavelength range from 3 to 180 microns has yielded enormous scientific discoveries. Since this magnificent observatory has a limited lifetime, maximizing science viewing efficiency (ie, maximizing time spent executing activities directly related to science observations) was the key operational objective. The strategy employed for maximizing science viewing efficiency was to optimize spacecraft flexibility, adaptability, and use of observation time. The selected approach involved implementation of a multi-engine sequencing architecture coupled with nondeterministic spacecraft and science execution times. This approach, though effective, added much complexity to uplink operations and sequence development. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) manages Spitzer s operations. As part of the uplink process, Spitzer s Mission Sequence Team (MST) was tasked with processing observatory inputs from the Spitzer Science Center (SSC) into efficiently integrated, constraint-checked, and modeled review and command products which accommodated the complexity of non-deterministic spacecraft and science event executions without increasing operations costs. The MST developed processes, scripts, and participated in the adaptation of multi-mission core software to enable rapid processing of complex sequences. The MST was also tasked with developing a Downlink Keyword File (DKF) which could instruct Deep Space Network (DSN) stations on how and when to configure themselves to receive Spitzer science data. As MST and uplink operations developed, important lessons were learned that should be applied to future missions, especially those missions which employ command-intensive operations via a multi-engine sequence architecture.

  5. A Hybrid Cadre Concept for International Space Station (ISS) Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, Jeff; Mears, Teri

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a continuously operating on-orbit facility, with a ten to fifteen year lifetime. The staffing and rotation concepts defined and implemented for the ISS program must take into account the unique aspects associated with long duration mission operations. Innovative approaches to mission design and operations support must be developed and explored which address these unique aspects. Previous National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) man-based space programs, with the exception of Skylab, dealt primarily with short duration missions with some amount of down time between missions; e.g., Shuttle, Spacelab, and Spacehab programs. The ISS Program on the other hand requires continuous support, with no down time between missions. ISS operations start with the first element launch and continue through the end of the program. It is this key difference between short and long duration missions that needs to be addressed by the participants in the ISS Program in effectively and efficiently staffing the positions responsible for mission design and operations. The primary drivers considered in the development of staffing and rotation concepts for the ISS Program are budget and responsiveness to change. However, the long duration aspects of the program necessitate that personal and social aspects also be considered when defining staffing concepts. To satisfy these needs, a Hybrid Cadre concept has been developed and implemented in the area of mission design and operations. The basic premise of the Hybrid Cadre concept is the definition of Increment-Independent and Increment-Dependent cadre personnel. This paper provides: definitions of the positions required to implement the concept, the rotation scheme that is applied to the individual positions, and a summary of the benefits and challenges associated with implementing the Hybrid Cadre concept.

  6. Spitzer Space Telescope Sequencing Operations Software, Strategies, and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, David A.

    2006-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) was launched in August, 2003, and renamed to the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2004. Two years of observing the universe in the wavelength range from 3 to 180 microns has yielded enormous scientific discoveries. Since this magnificent observatory has a limited lifetime, maximizing science viewing efficiency (ie, maximizing time spent executing activities directly related to science observations) was the key operational objective. The strategy employed for maximizing science viewing efficiency was to optimize spacecraft flexibility, adaptability, and use of observation time. The selected approach involved implementation of a multi-engine sequencing architecture coupled with nondeterministic spacecraft and science execution times. This approach, though effective, added much complexity to uplink operations and sequence development. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) manages Spitzer s operations. As part of the uplink process, Spitzer s Mission Sequence Team (MST) was tasked with processing observatory inputs from the Spitzer Science Center (SSC) into efficiently integrated, constraint-checked, and modeled review and command products which accommodated the complexity of non-deterministic spacecraft and science event executions without increasing operations costs. The MST developed processes, scripts, and participated in the adaptation of multi-mission core software to enable rapid processing of complex sequences. The MST was also tasked with developing a Downlink Keyword File (DKF) which could instruct Deep Space Network (DSN) stations on how and when to configure themselves to receive Spitzer science data. As MST and uplink operations developed, important lessons were learned that should be applied to future missions, especially those missions which employ command-intensive operations via a multi-engine sequence architecture.

  7. Enabling CSPA Operations Through Pilot Involvement in Longitudinal Approach Spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battiste, Vernol (Technical Monitor); Pritchett, Amy

    2003-01-01

    Several major airports around the United States have, or plan to have, closely-spaced parallel runways. This project complemented current and previous research by examining the pilots ability to control their position longitudinally within their approach stream.This project s results considered spacing for separation from potential positions of wake vortices from the parallel approach. This preventive function could enable CSPA operations to very closely spaced runways. This work also considered how pilot involvement in longitudinal spacing could allow for more efficient traffic flow, by allowing pilots to keep their aircraft within tighter arrival slots then air traffic control (ATC) might be able to establish, and by maintaining space within the arrival stream for corresponding departure slots. To this end, this project conducted several research studies providing an analytic and computational basis for calculating appropriate aircraft spacings, experimental results from a piloted flight simulator test, and an experimental testbed for future simulator tests. The following sections summarize the results of these three efforts.

  8. Behavioral Health and Performance Operations During the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beven, G.; Holland, A.; Moomaw, R.; Sipes, W.; Vander Ark, S.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the Columbia STS 107 disaster in 2003, the Johnson Space Center s Behavioral Health and Performance Group (BHP) became involved in Space Shuttle Operations on an as needed basis, occasionally acting as a consultant and primarily addressing crew-crew personality conflicts. The BHP group also assisted with astronaut selection at every selection cycle beginning in 1991. Following STS 107, an event that spawned an increased need of behavioral health support to STS crew members and their dependents, BHP services to the Space Shuttle Program were enhanced beginning with the STS 114 Return to Flight mission in 2005. These services included the presence of BHP personnel at STS launches and landings for contingency support, a BHP briefing to the entire STS crew at L-11 months, a private preflight meeting with the STS Commander at L-9 months, and the presence of a BHP consultant at the L-1.5 month Family Support Office briefing to crew and family members. The later development of an annual behavioral health assessment of all active astronauts also augmented BHP s Space Shuttle Program specific services, allowing for private meetings with all STS crew members before and after each mission. The components of each facet of these BHP Space Shuttle Program support services will be presented, along with valuable lessons learned, and with recommendations for BHP involvement in future short duration space missions

  9. Space Operations, This document complements Joint Pub 3-56.1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    maintenance of on-orbit space assets. USSPACECOM uses the Space Operations Center ( SPOC ) to publish mission-type orders in the format of operations...operations forces SPACEAF Air Force Space Component [14 AF] SPOC Space Operations Center SPOT Satellite Probatore d’Observation de la Terre SRBM short

  10. Assessment of possible environmental effects of space shuttle operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicerone, R. J.; Stedman, D. H.; Stolarski, R. S.; Dingle, A. N.; Cellarius, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The potential of shuttle operations to contribute to atmospheric pollution is investigated. Presented in this interim report are results of the study to date on rocket exhaust inventory, exhaust interactions, dispersion of the ground cloud, detection and measurement of hydrochloric acid and aluminum oxide, environmental effects of hydrochloric acid and aluminum oxide, stratospheric effects of shuttle effluents, and mesospheric and ionospheric effects of orbiter reentry. The results indicate space shuttle operation will not result in adverse environmental effects if appropriate launch constraints are met.

  11. Operational complexities of real tether systems in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Jeffrey A.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the major operational concerns that have to be addressed in planning a real tether mission, such as the TTS-1 mission, which is due to fly on the Space Shuttle in the early 1990's, are discussed. Specifically, several operational hazards, such as the tether reel overtorque and the loss of tether system control, are considered from the viewpoint of flight crew, who must be able to detect the presence of a problem and to determine the corrective action to be taken. Various safety measures are discussed.

  12. FIESTA: An operational decision aid for space network fault isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Dawn; Quillin, Bob; Matteson, Nadine; Wilkinson, Bill; Miksell, Steve

    1987-01-01

    The Fault Tolerance Expert System for Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Applications (FIESTA) is a fault detection and fault diagnosis expert system being developed as a decision aid to support operations in the Network Control Center (NCC) for NASA's Space Network. The operational objectives which influenced FIESTA development are presented and an overview of the architecture used to achieve these goals are provided. The approach to the knowledge engineering effort and the methodology employed are also presented and illustrated with examples drawn from the FIESTA domain.

  13. Non-perturbative renormalization of lattice operators in coordinate space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez, V.; Giusti, L.; Guerriero, S.; Lubicz, V.; Martinelli, G.; Petrarca, S.; Reyes, J.; Taglienti, B.; Trevigne, E.

    2004-09-01

    We present the first numerical implementation of a non-perturbative renormalization method for lattice operators, based on the study of correlation functions in coordinate space at short Euclidean distance. The method is applied to compute the renormalization constants of bilinear quark operators for the non-perturbative O (a)-improved Wilson action in the quenched approximation. The matching with perturbative schemes, such as MS bar, is computed at the next-to-leading order in continuum perturbation theory. A feasibility study of this technique with Neuberger fermions is also presented.

  14. Minimal Coordinate Formulation of Contact Dynamics in Operational Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Crean, Cory; Ku, Calvin; Myint, Steven; vonBremen, Hubertus

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, complementarity techniques have been developed for modeling non-smooth contact and collision dynamics problems for multi-link robotic systems. Normally, in this approach, a linear complementarity problem (LCP) is set up using 6n non-minimal coordinates for a system with n links together with all the unilateral constraints and inter-link bilateral constraints on the system. In this paper, we use operational space dynamics to develop a complementarity formulation for contact and collision dynamics that uses minimal coordinates. The use of such non-redundant coordinates results in much smaller size LCP problems and the automatic enforcement of the inter-link bilateral constraints. Furthermore, we exploit operational space low-order computational algorithms to overcome some of the bottlenecks in using minimal coordinates.

  15. Rendezvous and Proximity Operations of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.

    2005-01-01

    Space Shuttle rendezous missions presented unique challenges that were not fully recognized when the Shuttle was designed. Rendezvous targets could be passive (i.e., no lights or transponders), and not designed to facilitate Shuttle rendezvous, proximity operations and retrieval. Shuttle reaction control system jet plume impingement on target spacecraft presented induced dynamics, structural loading and contamination concerns. These issues, along with limited forward reaction control system propellant, drove a change from the Gemimi/Apollo coelliptic profile heritage to a stable orbit profile, and the development of new proximity operations techniques. Multiple scientific and on-orbit servicing missions and crew exchange, assembly and replinishment flights to Mir and to the International Space Station drove further profile and piloting technique changes, including new relative navigation sensors and new computer generated piloting cues.

  16. Automated space vehicle control for rendezvous proximity operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.

    1988-01-01

    Rendezvous during the unmanned space exploration missions, such as a Mars Rover/Sample Return will require a completely automatic system from liftoff to docking. A conceptual design of an automated rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking system is being implemented and validated at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). The emphasis is on the progress of the development and testing of a prototype system for control of the rendezvous vehicle during proximity operations that is currently being developed at JSC. Fuzzy sets are used to model the human capability of common sense reasoning in decision-making tasks and such models are integrated with the expert systems and engineering control system technology to create a system that performs comparably to a manned system.

  17. International Space Station operations: New dimensions - October 13, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paules, Granville E.; Lyman, Peter; Shelley, Carl B.

    1987-01-01

    One of the principal goals of the participants in the International Space Station program is to provide a management support structure which is equitable and fair to all participants, responsive to the needs of users, responsible to other partners, and mutually supportive to the participation of other partners. Shared-utilization, shared-cost, and shared-operations policies considerations are discussed. Special attention is given to the methodology for identifying costs and benefits of this program, in which each partner should be provided with benefits in proportion to his contribution, and no partner would be forced to share in cost the inefficiencies introduced by other partners. The Space Station hierarchy of operations functions are identified, and the recommended framework planning and control hierarchy is presented.

  18. International Space Station operations: New dimensions - October 13, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paules, Granville E.; Lyman, Peter; Shelley, Carl B.

    1987-01-01

    One of the principal goals of the participants in the International Space Station program is to provide a management support structure which is equitable and fair to all participants, responsive to the needs of users, responsible to other partners, and mutually supportive to the participation of other partners. Shared-utilization, shared-cost, and shared-operations policies considerations are discussed. Special attention is given to the methodology for identifying costs and benefits of this program, in which each partner should be provided with benefits in proportion to his contribution, and no partner would be forced to share in cost the inefficiencies introduced by other partners. The Space Station hierarchy of operations functions are identified, and the recommended framework planning and control hierarchy is presented.

  19. Risk management in international manned space program operations.

    PubMed

    Seastrom, J W; Peercy, R L; Johnson, G W; Sotnikov, B J; Brukhanov, N

    2004-02-01

    New, innovative joint safety policies and requirements were developed in support of the Shuttle/Mir program, which is the first phase of the International Space Station program. This work has resulted in a joint multinational analysis culminating in joint certification for mission readiness. For these planning and development efforts, each nation's risk programs and individual safety practices had to be integrated into a comprehensive and compatible system that reflects the joint nature of the endeavor. This paper highlights the major incremental steps involved in planning and program integration during development of the Shuttle/Mir program. It traces the transition from early development to operational status and highlights the valuable lessons learned that apply to the International Space Station program (Phase 2). Also examined are external and extraneous factors that affected mission operations and the corresponding solutions to ensure safe and effective Shuttle/Mir missions.

  20. Issues associated with establishing control zones for international space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nader, Blair A.; Krishen, Kumar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative missions in Earth orbit can be facilitated by developing a strategy to regulate the manner in which vehicles interact in orbit. One means of implementing such a strategy is to utilize a control zones technique that assigns different types of orbital operations to specific regions of space surrounding a vehicle. Considered here are issues associated with developing a control zones technique to regulate the interactions of spacecraft in proximity to a manned vehicle. Technical and planning issues, flight hardware and software issues, mission management parameter, and other constraints are discussed. Also covered are manned and unmanned vehicle operations, and manual versus automated flight control. A review of the strategies utilized by the Apollo Soyuz Test Project and the Space Station Freedom Program is also presented.

  1. Methods for Determining Operation Lifetime of Space Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schriener, Timothy M.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2007-01-01

    Space fission reactors can provide reliable, high power levels for periods of more than 10 years to support human outposts and for space travel to the farthest planets in the solar system. The operation lifetimes of these reactors depend on many factors chief among which are the hot-clean excess reactivity and the fuel burnup rate (or operation power) and the accumulation and decay of fission products. Other important parameters are the fuel average temperature and fissile inventory and the Doppler reactivity effect. Determining the operation lifetime for space reactors is a critical input to mission planning, requiring the use of sophisticated fuel burnup and criticality computational tools and benchmarking the results against actual data, if readily available. This paper performs parametric and comparative studies using widely used codes and a simplified approach for determining the operation lifetimes of two space reactors: the Sectored, Compact Reactor (SCoRe) that is liquid metal cooled, and the Submersion-Subcritical, Safe Space (S∧4) reactor that is cooled by a He-Xe binary gas mixture. The codes investigated against experimental data from a LWR are: (a) Monteburns 2.0, coupling MCNP5 1.30 to Origen2.2, (b) MCNPX 2.6b's internal burn package incorporating CINDER90, and (c) TRITON a code in the SCALE5 package using NEWT and Origen-S. From the results Monteburns and MCNPX performed the best, and are selected to compare their predictions of the lifetimes of the two space reactors with those of a simplified method. This method couples MCNP5 to a burnup analysis model in Simulink® considering only the 10 most probable low Z and 10 most probable high Z elements of the fission yield peaks plus 149Sm. Results show that the predicted operational lifetimes using the simplified method are within -6.6 to 12.8% of those calculated using the widely used Monteburns 2.0 and MCNPX 2.6bc1 codes.

  2. Methods for Determining Operation Lifetime of Space Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Schriener, Timothy M.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2007-01-30

    Space fission reactors can provide reliable, high power levels for periods of more than 10 years to support human outposts and for space travel to the farthest planets in the solar system. The operation lifetimes of these reactors depend on many factors chief among which are the hot-clean excess reactivity and the fuel burnup rate (or operation power) and the accumulation and decay of fission products. Other important parameters are the fuel average temperature and fissile inventory and the Doppler reactivity effect. Determining the operation lifetime for space reactors is a critical input to mission planning, requiring the use of sophisticated fuel burnup and criticality computational tools and benchmarking the results against actual data, if readily available. This paper performs parametric and comparative studies using widely used codes and a simplified approach for determining the operation lifetimes of two space reactors: the Sectored, Compact Reactor (SCoRe) that is liquid metal cooled, and the Submersion-Subcritical, Safe Space (S and 4) reactor that is cooled by a He-Xe binary gas mixture. The codes investigated against experimental data from a LWR are: (a) Monteburns 2.0, coupling MCNP5 1.30 to Origen2.2, (b) MCNPX 2.6b's internal burn package incorporating CINDER90, and (c) TRITON a code in the SCALE5 package using NEWT and Origen-S. From the results Monteburns and MCNPX performed the best, and are selected to compare their predictions of the lifetimes of the two space reactors with those of a simplified method. This method couples MCNP5 to a burnup analysis model in Simulink registered considering only the 10 most probable low Z and 10 most probable high Z elements of the fission yield peaks plus 149Sm. Results show that the predicted operational lifetimes using the simplified method are within -6.6 to 12.8% of those calculated using the widely used Monteburns 2.0 and MCNPX 2.6bc1 codes.

  3. The Race Toward Becoming Operationally Responsive in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, J.; Hernandez, V.; Strunce, R.

    The US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is currently supporting the joint Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) program with two aggressive research space programs. The goal of the ORS program is to improve the responsiveness of space capabilities to meet national security requirements. ORS systems aim to provide operational space capabilities as well as flexibility and responsiveness to the theater that do not exist today. ORS communication, navigation, and Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) satellites are being designed to rapidly meet near term space needs of in-theater tactical forces by supporting contingency operations, such as increased communication bandwidth, and ISR imagery over the theater for a limited period to support air, ground, and naval force missions. This paper will discuss how AFRL/RHA is supporting the ORS effort and describe the hardware and software being developed with a particular focus on the Satellite Design Tool for plug-n-play satellites (SDT). AFRLs Space Vehicles Directorate together with the Scientific Simulation, Inc. was the first to create the Plug-and-play (PnP) satellite design for rapid construction through modular components that encompass the structural panels, as well as the guidance and health/status components. Expansion of the PnP technology is currently being led by AFRL's Human Effectiveness Directorate and Star Technologies Corp. by pushing the boundaries of mobile hardware and software technology through the development of the teams "Training and Tactical ORS Operations (TATOO) Laboratory located in Great Falls, VA. The TATOO Laboratory provides a computer-based simulation environment directed at improving Warfighters space capability responsiveness by delivering the means to create and exercise methods of in-theater tactical satellite tasking for and by the Warfighter. In an effort to further support the evolution of ORS technologies with Warfighters involvement, Star recently started

  4. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System Real-Time Planning Engine Design and Operations Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, Howard; Watson, Michael D.; Shaughnessy, Ray

    2012-01-01

    In support of future deep space manned missions, an autonomous/automated vehicle, providing crew autonomy and an autonomous response planning system, will be required due to the light time delays in communication. Vehicle capabilities as a whole must provide for tactical response to vehicle system failures and space environmental effects induced failures, for risk mitigation of permanent loss of communication with Earth, and for assured crew return capabilities. The complexity of human rated space systems and the limited crew sizes and crew skills mix drive the need for a robust autonomous capability on-board the vehicle. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System[2] designed for such missions and space craft includes the first distributed real-time planning / re-planning system. This paper will detail the software architecture of the multiple planning engine system, and the interface design for plan changes, approval and implementation that is performed autonomously. Operations scenarios will be defined for analysis of the planning engines operations and its requirements for nominal / off nominal activities. An assessment of the distributed realtime re-planning system, in the defined operations environment, will be provided as well as findings as it pertains to the vehicle, crew, and mission control requirements needed for implementation.

  5. NASA's Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles -- Effective Space Operations Through Efficient Ground Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Singer, Christopher E.; Onken, Jay F.

    2008-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) plans to return to the Moon by 2020, with the development of a new human-rated space transportation system to replace the Space Shuttle, which is due for retirement in 2010 after it completes its missions of building the International Space Station and servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Powering the future of space-based scientific exploration will be the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, which will transport the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle to orbit where it will rendezvous with the Lunar Lander. which will be delivered by the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle. This new transportation infrastructure, developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), will allow astronauts to leave low-Earth orbit for extended lunar exploration and preparation for the first footprint on Mars. All space-based operations begin and are controlled from Earth. NASA's philosophy is to deliver safe, reliable, and cost-effective solutions to sustain a multi-billion-dollar program across several decades. Leveraging 50 years of lessons learned, NASA is partnering with private industry, while building on proven hardware experience. This paper will discuss how the Engineering Directorate at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is working with the Ares Projects Office to streamline ground operations concepts and reduce costs. Currently, NASA's budget is around $17 billion, which is less than 1 percent of the U.S. Federal budget. Of this amount, NASA invests approximately $4.5 billion each year in Space Shuttle operations, regardless of whether the spacecraft is flying or not. The affordability requirement is for the Ares I to reduce this expense by 50 percent, in order to allow NASA to invest more in space-based scientific operations. Focusing on this metric, the Engineering Directorate provides several solutions-oriented approaches, including Lean/Six Sigma practices and streamlined hardware testing and integration, such as assembling major hardware

  6. NASA's Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles -- Effective Space Operations Through Efficient Ground Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Singer, Christopher E.; Onken, Jay F.

    2008-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) plans to return to the Moon by 2020, with the development of a new human-rated space transportation system to replace the Space Shuttle, which is due for retirement in 2010 after it completes its missions of building the International Space Station and servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Powering the future of space-based scientific exploration will be the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, which will transport the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle to orbit where it will rendezvous with the Lunar Lander. which will be delivered by the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle. This new transportation infrastructure, developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), will allow astronauts to leave low-Earth orbit for extended lunar exploration and preparation for the first footprint on Mars. All space-based operations begin and are controlled from Earth. NASA's philosophy is to deliver safe, reliable, and cost-effective solutions to sustain a multi-billion-dollar program across several decades. Leveraging 50 years of lessons learned, NASA is partnering with private industry, while building on proven hardware experience. This paper will discuss how the Engineering Directorate at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is working with the Ares Projects Office to streamline ground operations concepts and reduce costs. Currently, NASA's budget is around $17 billion, which is less than 1 percent of the U.S. Federal budget. Of this amount, NASA invests approximately $4.5 billion each year in Space Shuttle operations, regardless of whether the spacecraft is flying or not. The affordability requirement is for the Ares I to reduce this expense by 50 percent, in order to allow NASA to invest more in space-based scientific operations. Focusing on this metric, the Engineering Directorate provides several solutions-oriented approaches, including Lean/Six Sigma practices and streamlined hardware testing and integration, such as assembling major hardware

  7. Deep Space Habitat Concept of Operations for Transit Mission Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has begun evaluating various mission and system components of possible implementations of what the U.S. Human Spaceflight Plans Committee (also known as the Augustine Committee) has named the flexible path (Anon., 2009). As human spaceflight missions expand further into deep space, the duration of these missions increases to the point where a dedicated crew habitat element appears necessary. There are several destinations included in this flexible path a near Earth asteroid (NEA) mission, a Phobos/Deimos (Ph/D) mission, and a Mars surface exploration mission that all include at least a portion of the total mission in which the crew spends significant periods of time (measured in months) in the deep space environment and are thus candidates for a dedicated habitat element. As one facet of a number of studies being conducted by the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) a workshop was conducted to consider how best to define and quantify habitable volume for these future deep space missions. One conclusion reached during this workshop was the need for a description of the scope and scale of these missions and the intended uses of a habitat element. A group was set up to prepare a concept of operations document to address this need. This document describes a concept of operations for a habitat element used for these deep space missions. Although it may eventually be determined that there is significant overlap with this concept of operations and that of a habitat destined for use on planetary surfaces, such as the Moon and Mars, no such presumption is made in this document.

  8. NASA's Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles--Effective Space Operations Through Efficient Ground Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Christopher E.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Lyles, Gary M.; Onken, Jay F.

    2008-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) is charting a renewed course for lunar exploration, with the fielding of a new human-rated space transportation system to replace the venerable Space Shuttle, which will be retired after it completes its missions of building the International Space Station (ISS) and servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Powering the future of space-based scientific exploration will be the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, which will transport the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle to orbit where it will rendezvous with the Altair Lunar Lander, which will be delivered by the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (fig. 1). This configuration will empower rekindled investigation of Earth's natural satellite in the not too distant future. This new exploration infrastructure, developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), will allow astronauts to leave low-Earth orbit (LEO) for extended lunar missions and preparation for the first long-distance journeys to Mars. All space-based operations - to LEO and beyond - are controlled from Earth. NASA's philosophy is to deliver safe, reliable, and cost-effective architecture solutions to sustain this multi-billion-dollar program across several decades. Leveraging SO years of lessons learned, NASA is partnering with private industry and academia, while building on proven hardware experience. This paper outlines a few ways that the Engineering Directorate at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is working with the Constellation Program and its project offices to streamline ground operations concepts by designing for operability, which reduces lifecycle costs and promotes sustainable space exploration.

  9. Assessment of Space Station design and operation through bioastronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, K. E.; Wegmann, H. M.; Bluth, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    The main elements which affect human well-being and productivity during a mission on the Space Station are reviewed. These include: the physical environment, the nature of operations the crew is required to perform, man's physiological response to microgravity, and the psychological and social conditions. The individual components of each of these elements are presented, and special design and support needs are identified. Particular attention is given to noise pollution, ionizing radiation, and behavioral factors.

  10. Probable Impacts of Space Operations on Air Force Civil Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    University, Air Command and Staff College, Research Report). Bierling , James R ., Space Operations Professional Development Guide, Maxwell AFB, Alabama, April...basing containerized payloads self ferry Table S. NASP Technical Challenges and Confidence Factors4 1986 1988 1990 Airframe Structures and Materials R ...Y B Thermal Management Y G B Flight Vehicle Integration R G G Inlet/Nozzle Performane R Y 6 Slush Hydrogen Y Y 6 Propulsion Ramjet Y 6 B Scramjet

  11. Request and Requirements Development Process for Operationally Responsive Space Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Army Forces Strategic Command (USASMDC/ARSTRAT) Joint Capability Technology Demonstrations (JCTDs) nanosatellite (small satellite) initiative. Space...and Missile Defense Command Nanosatellite Project (SNaP) is a USASMDC/ARSTRAT, Technical Center’s JCTD. The mission of SNaP is to launch and...operate three communications nanosatellites into low earth orbit to provide United States Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM) with satellite communications and

  12. Applying AI tools to operational space environmental analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krajnak, Mike; Jesse, Lisa; Mucks, John

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force and National Oceanic Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) space environmental operations centers are facing increasingly complex challenges meeting the needs of their growing user community. These centers provide current space environmental information and short term forecasts of geomagnetic activity. Recent advances in modeling and data access have provided sophisticated tools for making accurate and timely forecasts, but have introduced new problems associated with handling and analyzing large quantities of complex data. AI (Artificial Intelligence) techniques have been considered as potential solutions to some of these problems. Fielding AI systems has proven more difficult than expected, in part because of operational constraints. Using systems which have been demonstrated successfully in the operational environment will provide a basis for a useful data fusion and analysis capability. Our approach uses a general purpose AI system already in operational use within the military intelligence community, called the Temporal Analysis System (TAS). TAS is an operational suite of tools supporting data processing, data visualization, historical analysis, situation assessment and predictive analysis. TAS includes expert system tools to analyze incoming events for indications of particular situations and predicts future activity. The expert system operates on a knowledge base of temporal patterns encoded using a knowledge representation called Temporal Transition Models (TTM's) and an event database maintained by the other TAS tools. The system also includes a robust knowledge acquisition and maintenance tool for creating TTM's using a graphical specification language. The ability to manipulate TTM's in a graphical format gives non-computer specialists an intuitive way of accessing and editing the knowledge base. To support space environmental analyses, we used TAS's ability to define domain specific event analysis abstractions. The prototype system defines

  13. Operability driven space system concept with high leverage technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, H.H.

    1997-01-01

    One of the common objectives of future launch and space transfer systems is to achieve low-cost and effective operational capability by automating processes from pre-launch to the end of mission. Hierarchical and integrated mission management, system management, autonomous GN&C, and integrated micro-nano avionics technologies are critical to extend or revitalize the exploitation of space. Essential to space transfer, orbital systems, Earth-To-Orbit (ETO), commercial and military aviation, and planetary systems are these high leverage hardware and software technologies. This paper covers the driving issues, goals, and requirements definition supported with typical concepts and utilization of multi-use technologies. The approach and method results in a practical system architecture and lower level design concepts. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Operability driven space system concept with high leverage technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Henry H.

    1997-01-01

    One of the common objectives of future launch and space transfer systems is to achieve low-cost and effective operational capability by automating processes from pre-launch to the end of mission. Hierarchical and integrated mission management, system management, autonomous GN&C, and integrated micro-nano avionics technologies are critical to extend or revitalize the exploitation of space. Essential to space transfer, orbital systems, Earth-To-Orbit (ETO), commercial and military aviation, and planetary systems are these high leverage hardware and software technologies. This paper covers the driving issues, goals, and requirements definition supported with typical concepts and utilization of multi-use technologies. The approach and method results in a practical system architecture and lower level design concepts.

  15. Challenges of space medical operations and life sciences management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, S. G.

    1992-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has been the premier launch and landing site for America's space program since the early 1960s. Visitors are cognizant of space vehicles, processing facilities and launch pads which are treasured national resources. However, most are unaware of the unique organization which supports launch and landing activities and manages the center's occupational medicine, environmental health, ecological and environmental monitoring functions, as well as human and plant research programs. Management of this multifaceted organization can be complex because funding its different functions comes from a number of sources. Additionally the diverse disciplines of personnel present a special challenge in maintaining professional competencies while assuring efficiency in cyclical operations. This article explains the organization's structure and reviews some of its accomplishments.

  16. An Engineering Look at Space Shuttle and ISS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Jose M.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation, in Spanish, is an overview of NASA's Space Shuttle operations and preparations for serving the International Space Station. There is information and or views of the shuttle's design, the propulsion system, the external tanks, the foam insulation, the reusable solid rocket motors, the vehicle assembly building (VAB), the mobile launcher platform being moved from the VAB to the launch pad. There is a presentation of some of the current issues with the space shuttle: cracks in the LH2 flow lines, corrosion and pitting, the thermal protection system, and inspection of the thermal protection system while in orbit. The shuttle system has served for more than 20 years, it is still a challenge to re-certify the vehicles for flight. Materials and material science remain as chief concerns for the shuttle,

  17. Challenges of space medical operations and life sciences management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, S. G.

    1992-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has been the premier launch and landing site for America's space program since the early 1960s. Visitors are cognizant of space vehicles, processing facilities and launch pads which are treasured national resources. However, most are unaware of the unique organization which supports launch and landing activities and manages the center's occupational medicine, environmental health, ecological and environmental monitoring functions, as well as human and plant research programs. Management of this multifaceted organization can be complex because funding its different functions comes from a number of sources. Additionally the diverse disciplines of personnel present a special challenge in maintaining professional competencies while assuring efficiency in cyclical operations. This article explains the organization's structure and reviews some of its accomplishments.

  18. Space Station Freedom ground data system: Design and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, Richard A., Jr.; Knops, Frederick W., III; Fishkind, Stanley A.; Pasciuto, Michael P.

    1993-01-01

    Over the previous year the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Program (SSFP) ground data distribution system has become independent of a number of data systems that were to have been provided by other National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs. Consequently, the SSFP has outlined the basic architecture of a new data system dedicated to supporting SSF requirements. This has been accomplished through a complete redesign of the ground network and a reallocation of selected functions. There are a number of aspects of the new ground data distribution system that are unique among NASA programs. These considerations make SSF ground data distribution one of the most extensive and complex data management challenges encountered in the arena of Space Operations. A description of this system comprises the main focus of the paper.

  19. Advanced operator/system interface concepts for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, C. M.; Lin, P. S. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Concepts and data developed as part of the Preliminary Space Station Automation and Robotics Plan are reviewed as well as candidate selection criteria, technology assessments, and preliminary candidate recommendations. A need for development of advanced operator/systems interface (OSI) concepts to support future Space Station automation and robotics applications is identified. Four candidate applications, illustrating the potential benefits of an advanced OSI, are described. These include: (1) a conversational OSI system, (2) a laboratory experiment manipulator system, (3) a module safety advisor, and (4) an integrated maintenance/training system. These specific automation and robotics applications are expected to occur relatively early in the growth of the Space Station and to provide significant commercial and station benefits throughout the life of the station.

  20. Solar absorptance measurements in space on operational spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babel, Hank W.; Jones, Cherie A.; Wilkes, Donald R.; Linton, Roger C.

    1995-07-01

    Spacecraft hardware such as radiators requires the maintenance of solar absorptance within tight bounds for their design life. Such hardware is sized in part based on the beginning- and end-of-life absorptance. It has been difficult to make accurate end-of-life determinations based on either ground based data or flight data. The synergistic effect of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, and contamination has made it difficult to duplicate space exposures in the laboratory. The absorptance of flight exposed samples brought back to earth are not representative of the conditions in space because of changes brought about by exposure to air. This paper proposes to augment the current in-space monitoring techniques with periodic, in- space, direct measurements of the solar absorptance on operational hardware. NASA funded AZ Technology to develop a portable, space-rated device similar to the LPSR-200 portable spectroreflectometer, a space portable spectroreflectometer (SPSR). This instrument is robotically compatible and can be run using spacecraft power or batteries. The instrument also has measurement storage capacity for later retrieval and evaluation. Although extensive development work has already been completed, authorization to build a unit for a flight experiment has not been received. The Russians have expressed an interest in having absorptance measurements made on their MIR I Space Station as part of the NASA/MIR flight experiments. Proposals are currently being made to obtain authorization for the construction and use of SPSR on NASA/MIR flight experiments, to help mitigate potential problems for the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA).

  1. Operationalizing safe operating space for regional social-ecological systems.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Sarwar; Dearing, John A; Eigenbrod, Felix; Johnson, Fiifi Amoako

    2017-04-15

    This study makes a first attempt to operationalize the safe operating space concept at a regional scale by considering the complex dynamics (e.g. non-linearity, feedbacks, and interactions) within a systems dynamic model (SD). We employ the model to explore eight 'what if' scenarios based on well-known challenges (e.g. climate change) and current policy debates (e.g. subsidy withdrawal). The findings show that the social-ecological system in the Bangladesh delta may move beyond a safe operating space when a withdrawal of a 50% subsidy for agriculture is combined with the effects of a 2°C temperature increase and sea level rise. Further reductions in upstream river discharge in the Ganges would push the system towards a dangerous zone once a 3.5°C temperature increase was reached. The social-ecological system in Bangladesh delta may be operated within a safe space by: 1) managing feedback (e.g. by reducing production costs) and the slow biophysical variables (e.g. temperature, rainfall) to increase the long-term resilience, 2) negotiating for transboundary water resources, and 3) revising global policies (e.g. withdrawal of subsidy) that negatively impact at regional scales. This study demonstrates how the concepts of tipping points, limits to adaptations, and boundaries for sustainable development may be defined in real world social-ecological systems. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Transitioning Space Weather Models Into Operations: The Basic Building Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo-Pradere, Eduardo A.

    2009-10-01

    New and improved space weather models that provide real-time or near-real time operational awareness to the long list of customers that the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) serves are critically needed. Recognizing this, SWPC recently established a Developmental Testbed Center (DTC [see Kumar, 2009]) at which models will be vetted for operational use. What characteristics should models have if they are to survive this transition? The difficulties around the implementation of real-time models are many. From the stability of the data input (frequently coming from third parties) to the elevated information technology (IT) security atmosphere present everywhere, scientists and developers are confronting a series of challenges in the implementation of their models. Quinn et al. [2009] noted that “the transition challenges are numerous and require ongoing interaction between model developers and users.” However, the 2006 Report of the Assessment Committee for the National Space Weather Program (NSWP; see http://www.nswp.gov/nswp_acreport0706.pdf) found that “there is an absence of suitable connection[s] for ‘academia-to-operations’ knowledge transfer and for the transition of research to operations in general.”

  3. Research Of Airborne Precision Spacing to Improve Airport Arrival Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Baxley, Brian T.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In September 2004, the European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) and the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation to mutually develop, modify, test, and evaluate systems, procedures, facilities, and devices to meet the need for safe and efficient air navigation and air traffic control in the future. In the United States and Europe, these efforts are defined within the architectures of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Program and Single European Sky Air Traffic Management Research (SESAR) Program respectively. Both programs have identified Airborne Spacing as a critical component, with Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) as a key enabler. Increased interest in reducing airport community noise and the escalating cost of aviation fuel has led to the use of Continuous Descent Arrival (CDA) procedures to reduce noise, emissions, and fuel usage compared to current procedures. To provide these operational enhancements, arrival flight paths into terminal areas are planned around continuous vertical descents that are closer to an optimum trajectory than those in use today. The profiles are designed to be near-idle descents from cruise altitude to the Final Approach Fix (FAF) and are typically without any level segments. By staying higher and faster than conventional arrivals, CDAs also save flight time for the aircraft operator. The drawback is that the variation of optimized trajectories for different types and weights of aircraft requires the Air Traffic Controller to provide more airspace around an aircraft on a CDA than on a conventional arrival procedure. This additional space decreases the throughput rate of the destination airport. Airborne self-spacing concepts have been developed to increase the throughput at high-demand airports by managing the inter-arrival spacing to be more precise and consistent using on-board guidance. It has been proposed that the

  4. Low Cost Missions Operations on NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. J.; Kusnierkiewicz, D. J.; Bowman, A.; Harvey, R.; Ossing, D.; Eichstedt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to lower mission operations costs on any long duration mission depends on a number of factors; the opportunities for science, the flight trajectory, and the cruise phase environment, among others. Many deep space missions employ long cruises to their final destination with minimal science activities along the way; others may perform science observations on a near-continuous basis. This paper discusses approaches employed by two NASA missions implemented by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to minimize mission operations costs without compromising mission success: the New Horizons mission to Pluto, and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories (STEREO). The New Horizons spacecraft launched in January 2006 for an encounter with the Pluto system.The spacecraft trajectory required no deterministic on-board delta-V, and so the mission ops team then settled in for the rest of its 9.5-year cruise. The spacecraft has spent much of its cruise phase in a "hibernation" mode, which has enabled the spacecraft to be maintained with a small operations team, and minimized the contact time required from the NASA Deep Space Network. The STEREO mission is comprised of two three-axis stabilized sun-staring spacecraft in heliocentric orbit at a distance of 1 AU from the sun. The spacecraft were launched in October 2006. The STEREO instruments operate in a "decoupled" mode from the spacecraft, and from each other. Since STEREO operations are largely routine, unattended ground station contact operations were implemented early in the mission. Commands flow from the MOC to be uplinked, and the data recorded on-board is downlinked and relayed back to the MOC. Tools run in the MOC to assess the health and performance of ground system components. Alerts are generated and personnel are notified of any problems. Spacecraft telemetry is similarly monitored and alarmed, thus ensuring safe, reliable, low cost operations.

  5. Space Operations for a New Era of Exploration Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Stephen A.; Vanhooser, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program is depending on the Ares Projects to deliver the crew and cargo launch capabilities needed to send human explorers to the Moon and beyond. Ares I and V will provide the core space launch capabilities needed to continue providing crew and cargo access to the International Space Station (ISS), and to build upon the U.S. history of human space exploration. Since 2005, Ares has made substantial progress on designing, developing, and testing the Ares I crew launch vehicle and has continued its in-depth studies of the Ares V cargo launch vehicles. The combined Ares I/Ares V architecture has been designed to reduce the complexity and labor intensity of ground operations for America's next journeys beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). A deliberate effort is being made to ensure a high level of system operability to significantly increase safety and system availability as well as reduce recurring costs for this new launch vehicle. The Ares Projects goal is to instill operability as part of the vehicles requirements development, design, and operations. This simplicity will come from using simpler, proven engine designs, as in the case of the J-2X upper stage engine and RS-68 engine; improving existing hardware, as in the case of the Shuttle-heritage 5-segment solid rocket motor; and using common propulsion and instrument unit elements between Ares I and Ares V. Furthermore, lessons learned while developing Ares I will be applied directly to Ares V operations. In 2009, the Ares Projects plan to conduct the first flight test of Ares I, designated Ares I-X. Ares I-X preparations have already prompted changes to the vehicle stacking and launch infrastructure at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), including removing Shuttle-specific fixtures from the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) to accommodate Ares I-style stacking operations, new firing room computers and infrastructure in the VAB Launch Control Center, and new lightning protection system towers at Launch

  6. Space Operations for a New Era of Exploration Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Stephen A.; Vanhooser, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program is depending on the Ares Projects to deliver the crew and cargo launch capabilities needed to send human explorers to the Moon and beyond. Ares I and V will provide the core space launch capabilities needed to continue providing crew and cargo access to the International Space Station (ISS), and to build upon the U.S. history of human space exploration. Since 2005, Ares has made substantial progress on designing, developing, and testing the Ares I crew launch vehicle and has continued its in-depth studies of the Ares V cargo launch vehicles. The combined Ares I/Ares V architecture has been designed to reduce the complexity and labor intensity of ground operations for America's next journeys beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). A deliberate effort is being made to ensure a high level of system operability to significantly increase safety and system availability as well as reduce recurring costs for this new launch vehicle. The Ares Projects goal is to instill operability as part of the vehicles requirements development, design, and operations. This simplicity will come from using simpler, proven engine designs, as in the case of the J-2X upper stage engine and RS-68 engine; improving existing hardware, as in the case of the Shuttle-heritage 5-segment solid rocket motor; and using common propulsion and instrument unit elements between Ares I and Ares V. Furthermore, lessons learned while developing Ares I will be applied directly to Ares V operations. In 2009, the Ares Projects plan to conduct the first flight test of Ares I, designated Ares I-X. Ares I-X preparations have already prompted changes to the vehicle stacking and launch infrastructure at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), including removing Shuttle-specific fixtures from the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) to accommodate Ares I-style stacking operations, new firing room computers and infrastructure in the VAB Launch Control Center, and new lightning protection system towers at Launch

  7. Development of Space Shuttle Rescue and Recovery Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Michael

    2011-01-01

    As the first Space Shuttle launch was still in our future, many from NASA, the Department of Defense (DoD) and NASA contractors were busy planning for not only a nominal launch and return, but contingency operations at the launch pad and landing sites. Prior to the first launch, detailed coordination, planning and simulations were conducted at all three locations and internal rescue procedures were taught at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Later in the Program, the Transoceanic Abort Landing (TAL) sites were added in Europe and Africa. For the 51L mission a new TAL site was brought on line in Morocco. However, upon launch, the Shuttle Program experienced it's first lost. During the following months a complete review of all contingency operations (launch and landing) was completed. Many enhancements were made based on the reviews following. A Mode VIII water rescue was developed for NASA by the DoD before the STS-26 launch. Different concepts were explored and being debated by NASA. Training of the contingency forces was required before final decisions were made forcing the teaching of two different sets of procedures. To assist with training, a video was developed for the fire/crash/rescue personnel. This accompanied the detailed extraction procedures that were developed by a combination of KSC and DoD firemen. Training for the fire/crash/rescue personnel at Vandenberg AFB was also being planned before the accident happen. The fire/crash/rescue mockup that was being built at Chanute AFB was diverted to Edwards AFB. Educational Objectives: With the emphasis on Commercial Crew Programs for Space flight it is important that all involved understand what is required to prepare for contingencies. Cost effective means of being prepared for contingencies are needed. Questions: 1. When should planning for nominal and contingency operations begin? 2. What type of training aids are needed for contingency operations? 3. Who were the major contributors to Shuttle contingency

  8. A step towards space-station user operations - An operational test-bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biddis, G. T.; Cornett, K. G.; Frimout, D. D.; Richards, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    A joint ESA/NASA project for researching and evaluating various remote payload operations for Space Station Freedom, using the ATLAS-1 Solar Constant (SOLCON) experiment as a representative payload and the MSFC Payload Operations Center (POCC) command and telemetry system as the base operations system, is described. A basic remote-user-center capability is to be implemented within the Columbus Crew Workstation facility at ESTEC in Noordwijk (NL), to demonstrate the ability to monitor real-time payload operations remotely and allow some command and control functions through the MSFC POCC. After the test-bed system is demonstrated for SOLCON, it is proposed to improve the capability and make it a standard service for Spacelab operations. This paper discusses POCC telemetry, command, and operations issues, NASA communications issues, SOLCON experiment-specific issues, NASA/ESA procedural issues, and system verification issues relating to the project.

  9. A step towards space-station user operations - An operational test-bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddis, G. T.; Cornett, K. G.; Frimout, D. D.; Richards, M. L.

    A joint ESA/NASA project for researching and evaluating various remote payload operations for Space Station Freedom, using the ATLAS-1 Solar Constant (SOLCON) experiment as a representative payload and the MSFC Payload Operations Center (POCC) command and telemetry system as the base operations system, is described. A basic remote-user-center capability is to be implemented within the Columbus Crew Workstation facility at ESTEC in Noordwijk (NL), to demonstrate the ability to monitor real-time payload operations remotely and allow some command and control functions through the MSFC POCC. After the test-bed system is demonstrated for SOLCON, it is proposed to improve the capability and make it a standard service for Spacelab operations. This paper discusses POCC telemetry, command, and operations issues, NASA communications issues, SOLCON experiment-specific issues, NASA/ESA procedural issues, and system verification issues relating to the project.

  10. Space shuttle operations at the NASA Kennedy Space Center: the role of emergency medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodenberg, H.; Myers, K. J.

    1995-01-01

    The Division of Emergency Medicine at the University of Florida coordinates a unique program with the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to provide emergency medical support (EMS) for the United States Space Transportation System. This report outlines the organization of the KSC EMS system, training received by physicians providing medical support, logistic and operational aspects of the mission, and experiences of team members. The participation of emergency physicians in support of manned space flight represents another way that emergency physicians provide leadership in prehospital care and disaster management.

  11. Space shuttle operations at the NASA Kennedy Space Center: the role of emergency medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodenberg, H.; Myers, K. J.

    1995-01-01

    The Division of Emergency Medicine at the University of Florida coordinates a unique program with the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to provide emergency medical support (EMS) for the United States Space Transportation System. This report outlines the organization of the KSC EMS system, training received by physicians providing medical support, logistic and operational aspects of the mission, and experiences of team members. The participation of emergency physicians in support of manned space flight represents another way that emergency physicians provide leadership in prehospital care and disaster management.

  12. Educational Applications of Astronomy & Space Flight Operations at the Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, L. K.

    1999-09-01

    Within two years, the Kennedy Space Center will complete a total redesign of NASA's busiest Visitor's Center. Three million visitors per year will be witness to a new program focused on expanding the interests of the younger public in NASA's major space programs, in space operations, and in astronomy. This project, being developed through the Visitor's Center director, a NASA faculty fellow, and the Visitor's Center contractor, is centered on the interaction between NASA programs, the visiting youth, and their parents. The goal of the Center's program is to provide an appealing learning experience for teens and pre teens using stimulating displays and interactive exhibits that are also educational.

  13. Space shuttle operations at the NASA Kennedy Space Center: the role of emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Rodenberg, H; Myers, K J

    1995-01-01

    The Division of Emergency Medicine at the University of Florida coordinates a unique program with the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to provide emergency medical support (EMS) for the United States Space Transportation System. This report outlines the organization of the KSC EMS system, training received by physicians providing medical support, logistic and operational aspects of the mission, and experiences of team members. The participation of emergency physicians in support of manned space flight represents another way that emergency physicians provide leadership in prehospital care and disaster management.

  14. Contingency Operations Support to NASA Johnson Space Center Medical Operations Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepaniak, Philip; Patlach, Bob; Swann, Mark; Adams, Adrien

    2005-01-01

    The Wyle Laboratories Contingency Operations Group provides support to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Medical Operations Division in the event of a space flight vehicle accident or JSC mishap. Support includes development of Emergency Medical System (EMS) requirements, procedures, training briefings and real-time support of mishap investigations. The Contingency Operations Group is compliant with NASA documentation that provides guidance in these areas and maintains contact with the United States Department of Defense (DOD) to remain current on military plans to support NASA. The contingency group also participates in Space Operations Medical Support Training Courses (SOMSTC) and represents the NASA JSC Medical Operations Division at contingency exercises conducted worldwide by the DOD or NASA. The events of September 11, 2001 have changed how this country prepares and protects itself from possible terrorist attacks on high-profile targets. As a result, JSC is now considered a high-profile target and thus, must prepare for and develop a response to a Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) incident. The Wyle Laboratories Contingency Operations Group supports this plan, specifically the medical response, by providing expertise and manpower.

  15. Sol-Terra - AN Operational Space Weather Forecasting Model Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisi, M. M.; Lawrence, G.; Pidgeon, A.; Reid, S.; Hapgood, M. A.; Bogdanova, Y.; Byrne, J.; Marsh, M. S.; Jackson, D.; Gibbs, M.

    2015-12-01

    The SOL-TERRA project is a collaboration between RHEA Tech, the Met Office, and RAL Space funded by the UK Space Agency. The goal of the SOL-TERRA project is to produce a Roadmap for a future coupled Sun-to-Earth operational space weather forecasting system covering domains from the Sun down to the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere and neutral atmosphere. The first stage of SOL-TERRA is underway and involves reviewing current models that could potentially contribute to such a system. Within a given domain, the various space weather models will be assessed how they could contribute to such a coupled system. This will be done both by reviewing peer reviewed papers, and via direct input from the model developers to provide further insight. Once the models have been reviewed then the optimal set of models for use in support of forecast-based SWE modelling will be selected, and a Roadmap for the implementation of an operational forecast-based SWE modelling framework will be prepared. The Roadmap will address the current modelling capability, knowledge gaps and further work required, and also the implementation and maintenance of the overall architecture and environment that the models will operate within. The SOL-TERRA project will engage with external stakeholders in order to ensure independently that the project remains on track to meet its original objectives. A group of key external stakeholders have been invited to provide their domain-specific expertise in reviewing the SOL-TERRA project at critical stages of Roadmap preparation; namely at the Mid-Term Review, and prior to submission of the Final Report. This stakeholder input will ensure that the SOL-TERRA Roadmap will be enhanced directly through the input of modellers and end-users. The overall goal of the SOL-TERRA project is to develop a Roadmap for an operational forecast-based SWE modelling framework with can be implemented within a larger subsequent activity. The SOL-TERRA project is supported within

  16. International Cooperation of Payload Operations on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Tina; Onken, Jay

    2003-01-01

    One of the primary goals of the International Space Station (ISS) is to provide an orbiting laboratory to be used to conduct scientific research and commercial products utilizing the unique environment of space. The ISS Program has united multiple nations into a coalition with the objective of developing and outfitting this orbiting laboratory and sharing in the utilization of the resources available. The primary objectives of the real- time integration of ISS payload operations are to ensure safe operations of payloads, to avoid mutual interference between payloads and onboard systems, to monitor the use of integrated station resources and to increase the total effectiveness of ISS. The ISS organizational architecture has provided for the distribution of operations planning and execution functions to the organizations with expertise to perform each function. Each IPP is responsible for the integration and operations of their payloads within their resource allocations and the safety requirements defined by the joint program. Another area of international cooperation is the sharing in the development and on- orbit utilization of unique payload facilities. An example of this cooperation is the Microgravity Science Glovebox. The hardware was developed by ESA and provided to NASA as part of a barter arrangement.

  17. International Cooperation of Payload Operations on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Tina; Onken, Jay

    2003-01-01

    One of the primary goals of the International Space Station (ISS) is to provide an orbiting laboratory to be used to conduct scientific research and commercial products utilizing the unique environment of space. The ISS Program has united multiple nations into a coalition with the objective of developing and outfitting this orbiting laboratory and sharing in the utilization of the resources available. The primary objectives of the real- time integration of ISS payload operations are to ensure safe operations of payloads, to avoid mutual interference between payloads and onboard systems, to monitor the use of integrated station resources and to increase the total effectiveness of ISS. The ISS organizational architecture has provided for the distribution of operations planning and execution functions to the organizations with expertise to perform each function. Each IPP is responsible for the integration and operations of their payloads within their resource allocations and the safety requirements defined by the joint program. Another area of international cooperation is the sharing in the development and on- orbit utilization of unique payload facilities. An example of this cooperation is the Microgravity Science Glovebox. The hardware was developed by ESA and provided to NASA as part of a barter arrangement.

  18. Rendezvous and Proximity Operations of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.

    2005-01-01

    Space Shuttle rendezvous missions present unique challenges that were not fully recognized when the Shuttle was designed. Rendezvous targets could be passive (i.e., no lights or transponders), and not designed to facilitate Shuttle rendezvous, proximity operations, and retrieval. Shuttle reaction control system jet plume impingement on target spacecraft presented induced dynamics, structural loading, and contamination concerns. These issues, along with limited reaction control system propellant in the Shuttle nose, drove a change from the legacy Gemini/Apollo coelliptic profile to a stable orbit profile, and the development of new proximity operations techniques. Multiple scientific and on-orbit servicing missions, and crew exchange, assembly and replenishment flights to Mir and to the International Space Station drove further profile and piloting technique changes. These changes included new proximity operations, relative navigation sensors, and new computer generated piloting cues. However, the Shuttle's baseline rendezvous navigation system has not required modification to place the Shuttle at the proximity operations initiation point for all rendezvous missions flown.

  19. Deep Space Network Revitalization: Operations for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, Joseph I.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) supports unmanned space missions through a Deep Space Network (DSN) that is developed and operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL and its subcontractors. The DSN capabilities have been incrementally upgraded since its establishment in the late '50s and are delivered from three Deep Space Communications Complexes (DSCC's) near Goldstone, California, Madrid, Spain, and Canberra, Australia. At present each DSCC includes large antennas with diameters from 11 meters to 70 meters, that operate largely in S-band and X-band frequencies. In addition each DSCC includes all the associated electronics to receive and process the low-level telemetry signals, and radiate the necessary command with high-power transmitters. To accommodate support of the rapidly increasing number of missions by NASA and other space agencies, and to facilitate maintaining and increasing the level of service in a shrinking budget environment, JPL has initiated a bold road map with three key components: 1. A Network Simplification Project (NSP) to upgrade aging electronics, replacing them with modem commercially based components. NSP and related replacement tasks are projected to reduce the cost of operating the DSN by 50% relative to the 1997 levels. 2. Upgrade of all 34-m and 70-m antennas to provision of Ka-Band telemetry downlink capability, complemented by an existing X-band uplink capability. This will increase the effective telemetry downlink capacity by a factor of 4, without building any new antennas. 3. Establishment of an optical communications network to support for high data rate unmanned missions that cannot be accommodated with radiofrequency (RF) communications, as well as establish a path toward support of manned missions at Mars. In this paper we present the mission loading projected for 1998-2008 and the elements of the JPL road map that will enable supporting it with a reduced budget. Particular emphasis will be on

  20. A Simulation Base Investigation of High Latency Space Systems Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zu Qun; Crues, Edwin Z.; Bielski, Paul; Moore, Michael

    2017-01-01

    NASA's human space program has developed considerable experience with near Earth space operations. Although NASA has experience with deep space robotic missions, NASA has little substantive experience with human deep space operations. Even in the Apollo program, the missions lasted only a few weeks and the communication latencies were on the order of seconds. Human missions beyond the relatively close confines of the Earth-Moon system will involve missions with durations measured in months and communications latencies measured in minutes. To minimize crew risk and to maximize mission success, NASA needs to develop a better understanding of the implications of these types of mission durations and communication latencies on vehicle design, mission design and flight controller interaction with the crew. To begin to address these needs, NASA performed a study using a physics-based subsystem simulation to investigate the interactions between spacecraft crew and a ground-based mission control center for vehicle subsystem operations across long communication delays. The simulation, built with a subsystem modeling tool developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center, models the life support system of a Mars transit vehicle. The simulation contains models of the cabin atmosphere and pressure control system, electrical power system, drinking and waste water systems, internal and external thermal control systems, and crew metabolic functions. The simulation has three interfaces: 1) a real-time crew interface that can be use to monitor and control the vehicle subsystems; 2) a mission control center interface with data transport delays up to 15 minutes each way; 3) a real-time simulation test conductor interface that can be use to insert subsystem malfunctions and observe the interactions between the crew, ground, and simulated vehicle. The study was conducted at the 21st NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) mission between July 18th and Aug 3rd of year 2016. The NEEMO

  1. Physics of Colloids in Space: Flight Hardware Operations on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.; Bailey, Arthur E.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Lorik, Tibor

    2002-01-01

    The Physics of Colloids in Space (PCS) experiment was launched on Space Shuttle STS-100 in April 2001 and integrated into EXpedite the PRocess of Experiments to Space Station Rack 2 on the International Space Station (ISS). This microgravity fluid physics investigation is being conducted in the ISS U.S. Lab 'Destiny' Module over a period of approximately thirteen months during the ISS assembly period from flight 6A through flight 9A. PCS is gathering data on the basic physical properties of simple colloidal suspensions by studying the structures that form. A colloid is a micron or submicron particle, be it solid, liquid, or gas. A colloidal suspension consists of these fine particles suspended in another medium. Common colloidal suspensions include paints, milk, salad dressings, cosmetics, and aerosols. Though these products are routinely produced and used, we still have much to learn about their behavior as well as the underlying properties of colloids in general. The long-term goal of the PCS investigation is to learn how to steer the growth of colloidal structures to create new materials. This experiment is the first part of a two-stage investigation conceived by Professor David Weitz of Harvard University (the Principal Investigator) along with Professor Peter Pusey of the University of Edinburgh (the Co-Investigator). This paper describes the flight hardware, experiment operations, and initial science findings of the first fluid physics payload to be conducted on ISS: The Physics of Colloids in Space.

  2. "Smart" Magnetic Fluids Experiment Operated on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.; Lekan, Jack F.

    2004-01-01

    InSPACE is a microgravity fluid physics experiment that was operated on the International Space Station (ISS) in the Microgravity Science Glovebox from late March 2003 through early July 2003. (InSPACE is an acronym for Investigating the Structure of Paramagnetic Aggregates From Colloidal Emulsions.) The purpose of the experiment is to obtain fundamental data of the complex properties of an exciting class of smart materials termed magnetorheological (MR) fluids. MR fluids are suspensions, or colloids, comprised of small (micrometer-sized) superparamagnetic particles in a nonmagnetic medium. Colloids are suspensions of very small particles suspended in a liquid. (Examples of other colloids are blood, milk, and paint.) These controllable fluids can quickly transition into a nearly solid state when exposed to a magnetic field and return to their original liquid state when the magnetic field is removed. Controlling the strength of the magnetic field can control the relative stiffness of these fluids. MR fluids can be used to improve or develop new seat suspensions, robotics, clutches, airplane landing gear, and vibration damping systems. The principal investigator for InSPACE is Professor Alice P. Gast of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The InSPACE hardware was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The InSPACE samples were delivered to the ISS in November 2002, on the Space Shuttle Endeavour, on Space Station Utilization Flight UF-2/STS113. Operations began on March 31, 2003, with the processing of three different particle size samples at multiple test parameters. This investigation focused on determining the structural organization of MR colloidal aggregates when exposed to a pulsing magnetic field. On Earth, the aggregates take the shape of footballs with spiky tips. This characteristic shape may be influenced by the pull of gravity, which causes most particles initially suspended in the fluid to sediment, (i.e., settle and collect at the

  3. Forecasting the Economic Impact of Future Space Station Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summer, R. A.; Smolensky, S. M.; Muir, A. H.

    1967-01-01

    Recent manned and unmanned Earth-orbital operations have suggested great promise of improved knowledge and of substantial economic and associated benefits to be derived from services offered by a space station. Proposed application areas include agriculture, forestry, hydrology, public health, oceanography, natural disaster warning, and search/rescue operations. The need for reliable estimates of economic and related Earth-oriented benefits to be realized from Earth-orbital operations is discussed and recent work in this area is reviewed. Emphasis is given to those services based on remote sensing. Requirements for a uniform, comprehensive and flexible methodology are discussed. A brief review of the suggested methodology is presented. This methodology will be exercised through five case studies which were chosen from a gross inventory of almost 400 user candidates. The relationship of case study results to benefits in broader application areas is discussed, Some management implications of possible future program implementation are included.

  4. Forecasting the Economic Impact of Future Space Station Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summer, R. A.; Smolensky, S. M.; Muir, A. H.

    1967-01-01

    Recent manned and unmanned Earth-orbital operations have suggested great promise of improved knowledge and of substantial economic and associated benefits to be derived from services offered by a space station. Proposed application areas include agriculture, forestry, hydrology, public health, oceanography, natural disaster warning, and search/rescue operations. The need for reliable estimates of economic and related Earth-oriented benefits to be realized from Earth-orbital operations is discussed and recent work in this area is reviewed. Emphasis is given to those services based on remote sensing. Requirements for a uniform, comprehensive and flexible methodology are discussed. A brief review of the suggested methodology is presented. This methodology will be exercised through five case studies which were chosen from a gross inventory of almost 400 user candidates. The relationship of case study results to benefits in broader application areas is discussed, Some management implications of possible future program implementation are included.

  5. Interactive intelligent remote operations: application to space robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Erick; Gillett, G. R.; Boulanger, Pierre; Edwards, Eric; Lipsett, Michael G.

    1999-11-01

    A set of tolls addressing the problems specific to the control and monitoring of remote robotic systems from extreme distances has been developed. The tools include the capability to model and visualize the remote environment, to generate and edit complex task scripts, to execute the scripts to supervisory control mode and to monitor and diagnostic equipment from multiple remote locations. Two prototype systems are implemented for demonstration. The first demonstration, using a prototype joint design called Dexter, shows the applicability of the approach to space robotic operation in low Earth orbit. The second demonstration uses a remotely controlled excavator in an operational open-pit tar sand mine. This demonstrates that the tools developed can also be used for planetary exploration operations as well as for terrestrial mining applications.

  6. How the Space Data Center Is Improving Safety of Space Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, T. S.

    2010-09-01

    In an effort to mitigate the risks associated with satellite close approaches in the geostationary belt, satellite operators began to come together in early 2008 to establish a prototype GEO data center. That prototype provided a framework for operators to share orbital data for their fleets to be used to perform conjunction analysis and provide automated notifications of close approaches via the SOCRATES-GEO service. That service was extended to LEO operations in mid-2009 and, as of early 2010, the prototype was supporting 20 operators from over a dozen countries by automatically screening 300 satellites for close approaches twice each day. In April 2010, the prototype data center operated by the Center for Space Standards & Innovation (CSSI) was a key reason AGI was selected by the Space Data Association (SDA) to develop the SDA’s new Space Data Center (SDC). This paper will address how the SDC will use a service-oriented architecture (SOA) to support orbital operations by increasing the efficiency of analysis to mitigate the risk of conjunctions and radio frequency interference, thereby enhancing overall safety of flight.

  7. Verification and operation of adaptive materials in space.

    SciTech Connect

    Dargaville, Tim Richard; Elliott, Julie M.; Jones, Gary D.; Celina, Mathias C.

    2006-12-01

    Piezoelectric polymers based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) are of interest as smart materials for novel space-based telescope applications. Dimensional adjustments of adaptive thin polymer films are achieved via controlled charge deposition. Predicting their long-term performance requires a detailed understanding of the piezoelectric property changes that develop during space environmental exposure. The overall materials performance is governed by a combination of chemical and physical degradation processes occurring in low Earth orbit as established by our past laboratory-based materials performance experiments (see report SAND 2005-6846). Molecular changes are primarily induced via radiative damage, and physical damage from temperature and atomic oxygen exposure is evident as depoling, loss of orientation and surface erosion. The current project extension has allowed us to design and fabricate small experimental units to be exposed to low Earth orbit environments as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiments program. The space exposure of these piezoelectric polymers will verify the observed trends and their degradation pathways, and provide feedback on using piezoelectric polymer films in space. This will be the first time that PVDF-based adaptive polymer films will be operated and exposed to combined atomic oxygen, solar UV and temperature variations in an actual space environment. The experiments are designed to be fully autonomous, involving cyclic application of excitation voltages, sensitive film position sensors and remote data logging. This mission will provide critically needed feedback on the long-term performance and degradation of such materials, and ultimately the feasibility of large adaptive and low weight optical systems utilizing these polymers in space.

  8. Ground controlled robotic assembly operations for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Joseph C.

    1991-01-01

    A number of dextrous robotic systems and associated positioning and transportation devices are available on Space Station Freedom (SSF) to perform assembly tasks that would otherwise need to be performed by extravehicular activity (EVA) crewmembers. The currently planned operating mode for these robotic systems during the assembly phase is teleoperation by intravehicular activity (IVA) crewmembers. While this operating mode is less hazardous and expensive than manned EVA operations, and has insignificant control loop time delays, the amount of IVA time available to support telerobotic operations is much less than the anticipated requirements. Some alternative is needed to allow the robotic systems to perform useful tasks without exhausting the available IVA resources; ground control is one such alternative. The issues associated with ground control of SSF robotic systems to alleviate onboard crew time availability constraints are investigated. Key technical issues include the effect of communication time delays, the need for safe, reliable execution of remote operations, and required modifications to the SSF ground and flight system architecture. Time delay compensation techniques such as predictive displays and world model-based force reflection are addressed and collision detection and avoidance strategies to ensure the safety of the on-orbit crew, Orbiter, and SSF are described. Although more time consuming and difficult than IVA controlled teleoperations or manned EVA, ground controlled telerobotic operations offer significant benefits during the SSF assembly phase, and should be considered in assembly planning activities.

  9. CO2 on the International Space Station: An Operations Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, Jennifer; Alexander, David

    2016-01-01

    PROBLEM STATEMENT: We describe CO2 symptoms that have been reported recently by crewmembers on the International Space Station and our continuing efforts to control CO2 to lower levels than historically accepted. BACKGROUND: Throughout the International Space Station (ISS) program, anecdotal reports have suggested that crewmembers develop CO2-related symptoms at lower CO2 levels than would be expected terrestrially. Since 2010, operational limits have controlled the 24-hour average CO2 to 4.0 mm Hg, or below as driven by crew symptomatology. In recent years, largely due to increasing awareness by crew and ground team, there have been increased reports of crew symptoms. The aim of this presentation is to discuss recent observations and operational impacts to lower CO2 levels on the ISS. CASE PRESENTATION: Crewmembers are routinely asked about CO2 symptoms in their weekly private medical conferences with their crew surgeons. In recent ISS expeditions, crewmembers have noted symptoms attributable to CO2 starting at 2.3 mmHg. Between 2.3 - 2.7 mm Hg, fatigue and full-headedness have been reported. Between 2.7 - 3.0 mm Hg, there have been self-reports of procedure missed steps or procedures going long. Above 3.0 - 3.4 mm Hg, headaches have been reported. A wide range of inter- and intra-individual variability in sensitivity to CO2 have been noted. OPERATIONAL / CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These preliminary data provide semi-quantitative ranges that have been used to inform a new operational limit of 3.0 mmHg as a compromise between systems capabilities and the recognition that there are human health and performance impacts at recent ISS CO2 levels. Current evidence would suggest that an operational limit between 0.5 and 2.0 mm Hg may maintain health and performance. Future work is needed to establish long-term ISS and future vehicle operational limits.

  10. Electronics for Low-Temperature Space Operation Being Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2001-01-01

    Electronic components and systems capable of low-temperature operation are needed for many future NASA missions where it is desirable to have smaller, lighter, and cheaper (unheated) spacecraft. These missions include Mars (-20 to -120 C) orbiters, landers, and rovers; Europa (-150 C) oceanic exploratory probes and instrumentation; Saturn (-183 C) and Pluto (-229 C) interplanetary probes. At the present, most electronic equipment can operate down to only -55 C. It would be very desirable to have electronic components that expand the operating temperature range down to -233 C. The successful development of these low-temperature components will eventually allow space probes and onboard electronics to operate in very cold environments (out as far as the planet Pluto). As a result, radioisotope heating units, which are used presently to keep space electronics near room temperature, will be reduced in number or eliminated. The new cold electronics will make spacecraft design and operation simpler, more flexible, more reliable, lighter, and cheaper. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center are evaluating potential commercial off-the- shelf devices and are developing new electronic components that will tolerate operation at low temperatures down to -233 C. This work is being carried out mainly inhouse and also through university grants and commercial contracts. The components include analog-to-digital converters, semiconductor switches, capacitors, dielectric and packaging material, and batteries. For example, the effect of low temperature on the capacitance of three different types of capacitors is shown in the graph. Using these advanced components, system products will be developed, including dc/dc converters, battery charge/discharge management systems, digital control electronics, transducers, and sensor instrumentation.

  11. Space Environment NanoSat Experiment (SENSE) - A New Frontier in Operational Space Environmental Monitoring (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalamaroff, K. I.; Thompson, D. C.; Cooke, D. L.; Gentile, L. C.; Bonito, N. A.; La Tour, P.; Sondecker, G.; Bishop, R. L.; Nicholas, A. C.; Doe, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Space Environmental NanoSat Experiment (SENSE) program is a rapid development effort of the USAF Space and Missiles Center Development Planning Directorate (SMC/XR) which will demonstrate the capability of NanoSats to perform space missions in an affordable and resilient manner. The three primary objectives for the SENSE mission are: 1) to develop best practices for operational CubeSat/NanoSat procurement, development, test, and operations; 2) to mature CubeSat bus and sensor component technology readiness levels; and 3) to demonstrate the operational utility of CubeSat measurements by flowing validated, low-latency data into operational space weather models. SENSE consists of two 3-U CubeSats built by Boeing Phantom Works. Both satellites are 3-axis stabilized with star cameras for attitude determination and are equipped with a Compact Total Electron Density Sensor (CTECS) to provide radio occultation measurements of total electron content and L-band scintillation. One satellite has a Cubesat Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (CTIP) monitoring 135.6 nm photons produced by the recombination of O+ ions and electrons. The other satellite has a Wind Ion Neutral Composite Suite (WINCS) to acquire simultaneous co-located, in situ measurements of atmospheric and ionospheric density, composition, temperature and winds/drifts. Mission data will be used to improve current and future space weather models and demonstrate the utility of data from CubeSats for operational weather requirements. Launch is scheduled for November 2013, and we will discuss the first 30 days of on-orbit operations.

  12. EVA 2010: Preparing for International Space Station EVA Operations Post-Space Shuttle Retirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; West, William W.

    2010-01-01

    The expected retirement of the NASA Space Transportation System (also known as the Space Shuttle ) by 2011 will pose a significant challenge to Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) on-board the International Space Station (ISS). The EVA hardware currently used to assemble and maintain the ISS was designed assuming that it would be returned to Earth on the Space Shuttle for refurbishment, or if necessary for failure investigation. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, a new concept of operations was developed to enable EVA hardware (Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), Airlock Systems, EVA tools, and associated support hardware and consumables) to perform ISS EVAs until 2015, and possibly beyond to 2020. Shortly after the decision to retire the Space Shuttle was announced, the EVA 2010 Project was jointly initiated by NASA and the OneEVA contractor team. The challenges addressed were to extend the operating life and certification of EVA hardware, to secure the capability to launch EVA hardware safely on alternate launch vehicles, to protect for EMU hardware operability on-orbit, and to determine the source of high water purity to support recharge of PLSSs (no longer available via Shuttle). EVA 2010 Project includes the following tasks: the development of a launch fixture that would allow the EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) to be launched on-board alternate vehicles; extension of the EMU hardware maintenance interval from 3 years (current certification) to a minimum of 6 years (to extend to 2015); testing of recycled ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) water for use in the EMU cooling system in lieu of water resupplied by International Partner (IP) vehicles; development of techniques to remove & replace critical components in the PLSS on-orbit (not routine); extension of on-orbit certification of EVA tools; and development of an EVA hardware logistical plan to support the ISS without the Space Shuttle. Assumptions for the EVA 2010 Project included no more than

  13. EVA 2010: Preparing for International Space Station EVA Operations Post-Space Shuttle Retirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; West, William W.

    2010-01-01

    The expected retirement of the NASA Space Transportation System (also known as the Space Shuttle ) by 2011 will pose a significant challenge to Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) on-board the International Space Station (ISS). The EVA hardware currently used to assemble and maintain the ISS was designed assuming that it would be returned to Earth on the Space Shuttle for refurbishment, or if necessary for failure investigation. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, a new concept of operations was developed to enable EVA hardware (Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), Airlock Systems, EVA tools, and associated support hardware and consumables) to perform ISS EVAs until 2015, and possibly beyond to 2020. Shortly after the decision to retire the Space Shuttle was announced, the EVA 2010 Project was jointly initiated by NASA and the OneEVA contractor team. The challenges addressed were to extend the operating life and certification of EVA hardware, to secure the capability to launch EVA hardware safely on alternate launch vehicles, to protect for EMU hardware operability on-orbit, and to determine the source of high water purity to support recharge of PLSSs (no longer available via Shuttle). EVA 2010 Project includes the following tasks: the development of a launch fixture that would allow the EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) to be launched on-board alternate vehicles; extension of the EMU hardware maintenance interval from 3 years (current certification) to a minimum of 6 years (to extend to 2015); testing of recycled ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) water for use in the EMU cooling system in lieu of water resupplied by International Partner (IP) vehicles; development of techniques to remove & replace critical components in the PLSS on-orbit (not routine); extension of on-orbit certification of EVA tools; and development of an EVA hardware logistical plan to support the ISS without the Space Shuttle. Assumptions for the EVA 2010 Project included no more than

  14. Cryogenic Fluid Technologies for Long Duration In-Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Susan M.; Tramel, Terri L.

    2008-01-01

    Reliable knowledge of low-gravity cryogenic fluid management behavior is lacking and yet is critical in the areas of storage, distribution, and low-gravity propellant management. The Vision for Space Exploration mission objectives will require the use of high performance cryogenic propellants (hydrogen, oxygen, and methane). Additionally, lunar missions will require success in storing and transferring liquid and gas commodities on the surface. The fundamental challenges associated with the in-space use of cryogens are their susceptibility to environmental heat, their complex thermodynamic and fluid dynamic behavior in low gravity and the uncertainty of the position of the liquid-vapor interface if the propellants are not settled. The Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) project is addressing these issues through ground testing and analytical model development, and has crosscutting applications and benefits to virtually all missions requiring in-space operations with cryogens. Such knowledge can significantly reduce or even eliminate tank fluid boil-off losses for long term missions, reduce propellant launch mass and on-orbit margins, and simplify vehicle operations. The Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) Project is conducting testing and performing analytical evaluation of several areas to enable NASA s Exploration Vision. This paper discusses the content and progress of the technology focus areas within CFM.

  15. Space Environment Information System - SPENVIS: Applicability for Mission Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, G.; Reid, S.; Kruglanski, M.; Parmentier, N.

    2009-12-01

    ESA's Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS) is a system of models of the space environment and its effects on material (e.g. spacecraft). It covers the natural radiation belts, solar energetic particles, cosmic rays, plasmas, and micro-particles. SPENVIS currently integrates 35 distinct models, with new ones being added regularly. The underlying models arise from many years of research, supported by national and international space agencies, resulting in a variety of tools to investigate the Sun-Earth connection and near-earth environment. SPENVIS was originally developed as a browser-based research tool that collects these tools together, being capable of recreating the full range of conditions in most of the solar system. In recent years SPENVIS has been further developed into an Operational System. In addition to enhancing the modeling capabilities, this required an enhancement to the customer perspective, i.e. ease-of-use, consistency, stability, runtime, support, etc. SPENVIS is now available as a web-based or standalone application. This paper will present the result of the latest development project, along with user case studies that will have particular significance for the satellite operations community

  16. Development of the Space Operations Incident Reporting Tool (SOIRT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, Jacquie

    1997-01-01

    The space operations incident reporting tool (SOIRT) is an instrument used to record information about an anomaly occurring during flight which may have been due to insufficient and/or inappropriate application of human factors knowledge. We originally developed the SOIRT form after researching other incident reporting systems of this type. We modified the form after performing several in-house reviews and a pilot test to access usability. Finally, crew members from Space Shuttle flights participated in a usability test of the tool after their missions. Since the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) currently has no system for continuous collection of this type of information, the SOIRT was developed to report issues such as reach envelope constraints, control operation difficulties, and vision impairments. However, if the SOIRT were to become a formal NASA process, information from crew members could be collected in a database and made available to individuals responsible for improving in-flight safety and productivity. Potential benefits include documentation to justify the redesign or development of new equipment/systems, provide the mission planners with a method for identifying past incidents, justify the development of timelines and mission scenarios, and require the creation of more appropriate work/rest cycles.

  17. Space facilities: Meeting future needs for research, development, and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The National Facilities Study (NFS) represents an interagency effort to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for world-class aeronautical and space facilities that meet current and projected needs for commercial and government aerospace research and development and space operations. At the request of NASA and the DOD, the National Research Council's Committee on Space Facilities has reviewed the space related findings of the NFS. The inventory of more than 2800 facilities will be an important resource, especially if it continues to be updated and maintained as the NFS report recommends. The data in the inventory provide the basis for a much better understanding of the resources available in the national facilities infrastructure, as well as extensive information on which to base rational decisions about current and future facilities needs. The working groups have used the inventory data and other information to make a set of recommendations that include estimates of cast savings and steps for implementation. While it is natural that the NFS focused on cost reduction and consolidations, such a study is most useful to future planning if it gives equal weight to guiding the direction of future facilities needed to satisfy legitimate national aspirations. Even in the context of cost reduction through facilities closures and consolidations, the study is timid about recognizing and proposing program changes and realignments of roles and missions to capture what could be significant savings and increased effectiveness. The recommendations of the Committee on Space Facilities are driven by the clear need to be more realistic and precise both in recognizing current incentives and disincentives in the aerospace industry and in forecasting future conditions for U.S. space activities.

  18. Operator vision aids for space teleoperation assembly and servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thurston L.; Ince, Ilhan; Lee, Greg

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates concepts for visual operator aids required for effective telerobotic control. Operator visual aids, as defined here, mean any operational enhancement that improves man-machine control through the visual system. These concepts were derived as part of a study of vision issues for space teleoperation. Extensive literature on teleoperation, robotics, and human factors was surveyed to definitively specify appropriate requirements. This paper presents these visual aids in three general categories of camera/lighting functions, display enhancements, and operator cues. In the area of camera/lighting functions concepts are discussed for: (1) automatic end effector or task tracking; (2) novel camera designs; (3) computer-generated virtual camera views; (4) computer assisted camera/lighting placement; and (5) voice control. In the technology area of display aids, concepts are presented for: (1) zone displays, such as imminent collision or indexing limits; (2) predictive displays for temporal and spatial location; (3) stimulus-response reconciliation displays; (4) graphical display of depth cues such as 2-D symbolic depth, virtual views, and perspective depth; and (5) view enhancements through image processing and symbolic representations. Finally, operator visual cues (e.g., targets) that help identify size, distance, shape, orientation and location are discussed.

  19. Soldier-Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Benny; Huebner, Larry; Kuhns, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Soldier-Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space (SWORDS) project was a joint project between the U.S. Army Space & Missile Defense Command (SMDC) and NASA. The effort, lead by SMDC, was intended to develop a three-stage liquid bipropellant (liquid oxygen/liquid methane), pressure-fed launch vehicle capable of inserting a payload of at least 25 kg to a 750-km circular orbit. The vehicle design was driven by low cost instead of high performance. SWORDS leveraged commercial industry standards to utilize standard hardware and technologies over customized unique aerospace designs. SWORDS identified broadly based global industries that have achieved adequate levels of quality control and reliability in their products and then designed around their expertise and business motivations.

  20. A sensitive geomagnetic activity index for space weather operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, D.; Xu, W. Y.; Zhao, M. X.; Chen, B.; Lu, J. Y.; Yang, G. L.

    2010-12-01

    There is an ongoing demand for real-time geomagnetic indices in space services. The traditional 3 h K index and K-derived planetary indices cannot issue alters promptly during large storms, and the 3 h interval is much larger than the time scales of ionospheric responses. To overcome these difficulties, we define a new consecutive and linear geomagnetic activity index, the range of hourly H component index (rH) with 1 min resolution, and develop a local rH index nowcast system for space weather operation, which can issue geomagnetic storm alerts quickly. We also derive Kp/Ap indices conveniently from a single station data to describe the global geomagnetic activity. Then we make a statistic comparison between rH and other definite index values during storm and find that rH is sensitive to the geomagnetic disturbance and can reflect the geomagnetic activity more delicately.

  1. Generalized Browder's and Weyl's theorems for Banach space operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curto, Raúl E.; Han, Young Min

    2007-12-01

    We find necessary and sufficient conditions for a Banach space operator T to satisfy the generalized Browder's theorem. We also prove that the spectral mapping theorem holds for the Drazin spectrum and for analytic functions on an open neighborhood of [sigma](T). As applications, we show that if T is algebraically M-hyponormal, or if T is algebraically paranormal, then the generalized Weyl's theorem holds for f(T), where f[set membership, variant]H((T)), the space of functions analytic on an open neighborhood of [sigma](T). We also show that if T is reduced by each of its eigenspaces, then the generalized Browder's theorem holds for f(T), for each f[set membership, variant]H([sigma](T)).

  2. 14 CFR 460.45 - Operator informing space flight participant of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Operator informing space flight participant... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space Flight participant § 460.45 Operator informing space flight participant of risk....

  3. 14 CFR 460.45 - Operator informing space flight participant of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Operator informing space flight participant... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space Flight participant § 460.45 Operator informing space flight participant of risk....

  4. 14 CFR 460.45 - Operator informing space flight participant of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operator informing space flight participant... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space Flight participant § 460.45 Operator informing space flight participant of risk....

  5. 14 CFR 460.45 - Operator informing space flight participant of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operator informing space flight participant... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space Flight participant § 460.45 Operator informing space flight participant of risk....

  6. 14 CFR 460.45 - Operator informing space flight participant of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operator informing space flight participant... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space Flight participant § 460.45 Operator informing space flight participant of risk....

  7. Linked space physics models for operational ionospheric forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W.; Bouwer, D.; Forbes, J.; Frahm, R.; Fry, C.; Hagan, M.; Hajj, G.; Hsu, T.; Knipp, D.; Mannucci, A.; Papitashvili, V.; Pi, X.; Sharber, J.; Storz, M.; Wang, C.; Wilson, B.

    2003-12-01

    The shorter-term variable impact of the Sun's photons, solar wind particles, and interplanetary magnetic field upon the Earth's environment that can adversely affect technological systems is colloquially known as space weather. It includes, for example, the effects of solar coronal mass ejections, solar flares and irradiances, solar and galactic energetic particles, as well as the solar wind, all of which affect Earth's magnetospheric particles and fields, geomagnetic and electrodynamical conditions, radiation belts, aurorae, ionosphere, and the neutral thermosphere and mesosphere. These combined effects create risks to space and ground systems from electric field disturbances, irregularities, and scintillation, for example, where these ionospheric perturbations are a direct result of space weather. A major challenge exists to improve our understanding of ionospheric space weather processes and then translate that knowledge into operational systems. Ionospheric perturbed conditions can be recognized and specified in real-time or predicted through linkages of models and data streams. Linked systems must be based upon multi-spectral observations of the Sun, solar wind measurements by satellites between the Earth and Sun, as well as by measurements from radar and GPS/TEC networks. Models of the solar wind, solar irradiances, the neutral thermosphere, thermospheric winds, joule heating, particle precipitation, substorms, the electric field, and the ionosphere provide climatological best estimates of non-measured current and forecast parameters. We report on a team effort that is developing a prototype operational ionospheric forecast system to detect and predict the conditions leading to dynamic ionospheric changes. The system will provide global-to-local specifications of recent history, current epoch, and 72-hour forecast ionospheric and neutral density profiles, TEC, plasma drifts, neutral winds, and temperatures. Geophysical changes will be captured and

  8. The Application of Range Space Operations to Color Images

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, C; Duchaineau, M

    2002-03-26

    The knowledge gained from scientific observation, experiment, and simulation is linked to the ability to analyze, understand, and manage the generated results. These abilities are increasingly at odds with the current, and future, capabilities to generate enormous quantities of raw scientific and engineering data from instruments, sensors, and computers. Many researchers are currently engaged in activities that seek to create new and novel methods for analyzing, understanding, and managing these vast collections of data. In this work, we present some of our research in addressing a particular type of problem in this broad undertaking. Much the scientific data of interest is in the form of observed, measured, or computed multivariate or multi-component vector field data--with either as physical or color data values. We are currently researching methods and techniques for working with this type of vector data through the use of a novel analysis technique. Our basic approach is to work with the vector field data in its natural physical or color space. When the data is viewed as a functional mapping of a domain, usually an index space, to a range, the physical or color values, potentially interesting characteristics of the data present themselves. These characteristics are useful in analyzing the vector fields based on quantities and qualities of the physical or color data values themselves. We will present the basic development of the idea of range space operations and detail the information we are interested in and some of the issues involved in its computation. The data we are first interested in, and discuss exclusively in this work, is color image data from scientific observations and simulations. Some of the operations on the range space representation that are of interest to this color image data are colormap construction, segmentation, color modeling, and compression. We will show some how some of the operations can be implemented in range space, what analysis

  9. Overview of Carbon Dioxide Control Issues During International Space Station/Space Shuttle Joint Docked Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Christopher M.; Hayley, Elizabeth P.

    2009-01-01

    Manned space vehicles have a common requirement to remove the Carbon Dioxide (CO2) created by the metabolic processes of the crew. The Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) each have systems in place to allow control and removal of CO2 from the habitable cabin environment. During periods where the Space Shuttle is docked to ISS, known as joint docked operations, the Space Shuttle and ISS share a common atmosphere environment. During this period there is an elevated production of CO2 caused by the combined metabolic activity of the Space Shuttle and ISS crew. This elevated CO2 production, combined with the large effective atmosphere created by the collective volumes of the docked vehicles, creates a unique set of requirements for CO2 removal. This paper will describe the individual CO2 control plans implemented by the Space Shuttle and ISS engineering teams, as well as the integrated plans used when both vehicles are docked. In addition, the paper will discuss some of the issues and anomalies experienced by both engineering teams.

  10. Analysis of space tug operating techniques. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design requirements for space tug systems and cost analysis of the refurbishment phases are discussed. The vehicle is an integral propulsion stage using liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen as propellants and is capable of operating either as a fully or a partially autonomous vehicle. Structural features are an integral liquid hydrogen tank, a liquid oxygen tank, a meteoroid shield, an aft conical docking and structural support ring, and a staged combustion main engine. The vehicle is constructed of major modules for ease of maintenance. Line drawings and block diagrams are included to explain the maintenance requirements for the subsystems.

  11. Operational considerations for the Space Station Life Science Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Daryl N.; Bosley, John J.; Vogelsong, Kristofer; Schnepp, Tery A.; Phillips, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Laboratory (USL) module on Space Station will house a biological research facility for multidisciplinary research using living plant and animal specimens. Environmentally closed chambers isolate the specimen habitats, but specimens must be removed from these chambers during research procedures as well as while the chambers are being cleaned. An enclosed, sealed Life Science Glovebox (LSG) is the only locale in the USL where specimens can be accessed by crew members. This paper discusses the key science, engineering and operational considerations and constraints involving the LSG, such as bioisolation, accessibility, and functional versatility.

  12. Evaluating Space Network (SN) scheduling operations concepts through statistical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwadrat, Carl; Happell, Nadine

    1994-01-01

    The Network Control Center (NCC) currently uses the NCC Data System (NCCDS) to schedule customer spacecraft communication requests for the Space Network (SN). The NCC/Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (NCC/ROSE), which implements an operational concept called flexible scheduling, is being tested as a potential replacement for the NCCDS scheduler in an effort to increase the efficiency of the NCC scheduling operations. This paper describes the high fidelity benchmark tests being conducted on NCC/ROSE, the evaluation techniques used to compare schedules, and the results of the tests. This testing will verify the increases in efficiency and productivity that can help the NCC meet the anticipated scheduling loads well into the next century.

  13. Magnetic tape recorder for long operating life in space.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahm, E. J.; Hoffman, J. K.

    1971-01-01

    Magnetic tape recorders have long been used on satellites and spacecraft for onboard storage of large quantities of data. As satellites enter into commercial service, long operating life at high reliability becomes important. Also, the presently planned long-duration space flights to the outer planets require long-life tape recorders. Past satellite tape recorders have achieved a less than satisfactory performance record and the operating life of other spacecraft tape recorders has been relatively short and unpredictable. Most failures have resulted from malfunctions of the mechanical tape transport. Recent advances in electric motors and static memories have allowed the development of a new tape recorder which uses a very simple tape transport with few possible failure modes. It consists only of two brushless dc motors, two tape guides, and the recording heads. Relatively low tape tension, wide torque capability, and precise speed control facilitate design for mechanical reliability to match that of tape-recorder electronics.

  14. Space ultra-vacuum facility and method of operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A wake shield space processing facility (10) for maintaining ultra-high levels of vacuum is described. The wake shield (12) is a truncated hemispherical section having a convex side (14) and a concave side (24). Material samples (68) to be processed are located on the convex side of the shield, which faces in the wake direction in operation in orbit. Necessary processing fixtures (20) and (22) are also located on the convex side. Support equipment including power supplies (40, 42), CMG package (46) and electronic control package (44) are located on the convex side (24) of the shield facing the ram direction. Prior to operation in orbit the wake shield is oriented in reverse with the convex side facing the ram direction to provide cleaning by exposure to ambient atomic oxygen. The shield is then baked-out by being pointed directed at the sun to obtain heating for a suitable period.

  15. Magnetic tape recorder for long operating life in space.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahm, E. J.; Hoffman, J. K.

    1971-01-01

    Magnetic tape recorders have long been used on satellites and spacecraft for onboard storage of large quantities of data. As satellites enter into commercial service, long operating life at high reliability becomes important. Also, the presently planned long-duration space flights to the outer planets require long-life tape recorders. Past satellite tape recorders have achieved a less than satisfactory performance record and the operating life of other spacecraft tape recorders has been relatively short and unpredictable. Most failures have resulted from malfunctions of the mechanical tape transport. Recent advances in electric motors and static memories have allowed the development of a new tape recorder which uses a very simple tape transport with few possible failure modes. It consists only of two brushless dc motors, two tape guides, and the recording heads. Relatively low tape tension, wide torque capability, and precise speed control facilitate design for mechanical reliability to match that of tape-recorder electronics.

  16. A review of recent American military space operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Dwayne A.

    1993-12-01

    The United States (US) Department of Defense (DOD) has launched a large number of satellites into Earth orbit during the past five and a half years. These range from highly classified signals intelligence and imaging satellites to more mundane scientific and experimental microsats. This period saw a dramatic overhaul in operations due to the Challenger and other launch disasters. Many of these resources were used during the war in the Persian Gulf, which highlighted some of the limitations of current systems. A significant amount of new information has emerged in recent years due to the changing political situation, leading to this general overview of American military satellite programs during this period using unclassified and declassified sources as well as informed specculation. It is primarily a review of space operations and technical developments rather than the policy and doctrine that drives them.

  17. Manned Space-laboratories Control Center (MSCC) operations concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kehr, Joachim

    1993-01-01

    The initiation of the (German-) nationally funded control center for manned spaceflight operations triggered by the invitation of President Reagan to ESA, Japan, and Canada in 1984 to join the International Space Station Freedom Program is recalled. The requirements for a Manned Space-Laboratories Control Center (MSCC) as defined at the beginning of the planning and construction process in 1987 and the resulting modifications during the various programmatic scenario changes on NASA and ESA side between 1987 and now are presented. The validity of the original requirements with respect to the current scenario, which asks for a logical evolution from the execution of the D-2 mission in January 1993 via the European Columbus Precursor flights (in particular the E-1 mission) towards Columbus Attached Laboratory (APM)-operations by the end of this century are discussed. The resulting tasks of the MSCC for the various missions, the current configuration, and the ensuing operations concept leading from a more centralized concept for D-2 towards a decentralized payload operations concept for the APM and the implications with respect to European and International interfaces are presented. The planned Columbus MSCC facility architecture and its expected modifications introduced by the ESA Ministerial Conference in Munich (Nov. 1991) and follow-on discussions are briefly addressed. The last chapter outlines the planned services to be provided by the MSCC to the decentralized User (experimenter) community. Issues like decentralized mission planning on executional level, command validation, data flow coordination, archiving services, and telescience capabilities are highlighted from a MSCC point of view.

  18. New developments in SOLAR2000 for space research and operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, S. Dave

    The SOLAR2000 (S2K) project provides solar spectral irradiances and integrated solar irradiance proxies for space researchers as well as ground- and space-based operational users. The S2K model currently represents empirical solar irradiances and integrated irradiance proxies covering the spectral range from the X-rays through the far infrared and has evolved through 23 version releases since October 1999. Variability is provided for time frames ranging from 1947 to 2052. The combination of variability through multiple time periods with spectral formats ranging from resolved emission lines through integrated irradiance proxies is a unique feature that provides researchers and operational users the same solar energy for a given day but in formats suitable for their distinctly different applications. We report on new developments in the SOLAR2000 version 2.24 model. There are several models and reference spectra now included in SOLAR2000 including the S2K extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance model provided by Tobiska (S2K: 1 121 nm), the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) model provided by Woods (VUV2002: 1 420 nm), and the ASTM-E490 reference spectrum (122 1,000,000 nm). Improved model accuracy in the XUV EUV spectral regions is obtained with the inclusion of the new TIMED SEE version 7 dataset. We report on integrated irradiance products including some revisions to previously reported proxies, E10.7, QEUV, Peuv, T∞, RSN, and S, and an introduction to seven new integrated irradiance proxies. They include E1_40, XE10.7, Xb10, Xhf, X10.7, ESRC, and ESRB. The Schatten solar dynamo model output is included in the S2K Operational Grade model and provides forecast proxies out to five solar cycles. The SOLAR2000 Research Grade (RG) model provides historical irradiances and proxies for space research and is freely available, via web download, to users of any platform through the use of an IDL virtual machine (VM) graphic user interface (GUI) application. The SOLAR2000 Professional

  19. Changes of Space Debris Orbits After LDR Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wnuk, E.; Golebiewska, J.; Jacquelard, C.; Haag, H.

    2013-09-01

    A lot of technical studies are currently developing concepts of active removal of space debris to protect space assets from on orbit collision. For small objects, such concepts include the use of ground-based lasers to remove or reduce the momentum of the objects thereby lowering their orbit in order to facilitate their decay by re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere. The concept of the Laser Debris Removal (LDR) system is the main subject of the CLEANSPACE project. One of the CLEANSPACE objectives is to define a global architecture (including surveillance, identification and tracking) for an innovative ground-based laser solution, which can remove hazardous medium debris around selected space assets. The CLEANSPACE project is realized by a European consortium in the frame of the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), Space topic. The use of sequence of laser operations to remove space debris, needs very precise predictions of future space debris orbital positions, on a level even better than 1 meter. Orbit determination, tracking (radar, optical and laser) and orbit prediction have to be performed with accuracy much better than so far. For that, the applied prediction tools have to take into account all perturbation factors that influence object orbit. The expected object's trajectory after the LDR operation is a lowering of its perigee. To prevent the debris with this new trajectory to collide with another object, a precise trajectory prediction after the LDR sequence is therefore the main task allowing also to estimate re-entry parameters. The LDR laser pulses change the debris object velocity v. The future orbit and re-entry parameters of the space debris after the LDR engagement can be calculated if the resulting ?v vector is known with the sufficient accuracy. The value of the ?v may be estimated from the parameters of the LDR station and from the characteristics of the orbital debris. However, usually due to the poor knowledge of the debris

  20. Operations and support cost modeling of conceptual space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, Charles

    1994-01-01

    The University of Dayton is pleased to submit this annual report to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center which documents the development of an operations and support (O&S) cost model as part of a larger life cycle cost (LCC) structure. It is intended for use during the conceptual design of new launch vehicles and spacecraft. This research is being conducted under NASA Research Grant NAG-1-1327. This research effort changes the focus from that of the first two years in which a reliability and maintainability model was developed to the initial development of an operations and support life cycle cost model. Cost categories were initially patterned after NASA's three axis work breakdown structure consisting of a configuration axis (vehicle), a function axis, and a cost axis. A revised cost element structure (CES), which is currently under study by NASA, was used to established the basic cost elements used in the model. While the focus of the effort was on operations and maintenance costs and other recurring costs, the computerized model allowed for other cost categories such as RDT&E and production costs to be addressed. Secondary tasks performed concurrent with the development of the costing model included support and upgrades to the reliability and maintainability (R&M) model. The primary result of the current research has been a methodology and a computer implementation of the methodology to provide for timely operations and support cost analysis during the conceptual design activities.

  1. Rapid Turnaround of Costing/Designing of Space Missions Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudrle, Paul D.; Welz, Gregory A.; Basilio, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    The Ground Segment Team (GST), at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, provides high-level mission operations concepts and cost estimates for projects that are in the formulation phase. GST has developed a tool to track costs, assumptions, and mission requirements, and to rapidly turnaround estimates for mission operations, ground data systems, and tracking for deep space and near Earth missions. Estimates that would often take several weeks to generate are now generated in minutes through the use of an integrated suite of cost models. The models were developed through interviews with domain experts in areas of Mission Operations, including but not limited to: systems engineering, payload operations, tracking resources, mission planning, navigation, telemetry and command, and ground network infrastructure. Data collected during interviews were converted into parametric cost models and integrated into one tool suite. The tool has been used on a wide range of missions from small Earth orbiters, to flagship missions like Cassini. The tool is an aid to project managers and mission planners as they consider different scenarios during the proposal and early development stages of their missions. The tool is also used for gathering cost related requirements and assumptions and for conducting integrated analysis of multiple missions.

  2. Toward an embedded training tool for Deep Space Network operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Randall W., Jr.; Sturdevant, Kathryn F.; Johnson, W. L.

    1993-01-01

    There are three issues to consider when building an embedded training system for a task domain involving the operation of complex equipment: (1) how skill is acquired in the task domain; (2) how the training system should be designed to assist in the acquisition of the skill, and more specifically, how an intelligent tutor could aid in learning; and (3) whether it is feasible to incorporate the resulting training system into the operational environment. This paper describes how these issues have been addressed in a prototype training system that was developed for operations in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN). The first two issues were addressed by building an executable cognitive model of problem solving and skill acquisition of the task domain and then using the model to design an intelligent tutor. The cognitive model was developed in Soar for the DSN's Link Monitor and Control (LMC) system; it led to several insights about learning in the task domain that were used to design an intelligent tutor called REACT that implements a method called 'impasse-driven tutoring'. REACT is one component of the LMC training system, which also includes a communications link simulator and a graphical user interface. A pilot study of the LMC training system indicates that REACT shows promise as an effective way for helping operators to quickly acquire expert skills.

  3. Toward an embedded training tool for Deep Space Network operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Randall W., Jr.; Sturdevant, Kathryn F.; Johnson, W. L.

    1993-01-01

    There are three issues to consider when building an embedded training system for a task domain involving the operation of complex equipment: (1) how skill is acquired in the task domain; (2) how the training system should be designed to assist in the acquisition of the skill, and more specifically, how an intelligent tutor could aid in learning; and (3) whether it is feasible to incorporate the resulting training system into the operational environment. This paper describes how these issues have been addressed in a prototype training system that was developed for operations in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN). The first two issues were addressed by building an executable cognitive model of problem solving and skill acquisition of the task domain and then using the model to design an intelligent tutor. The cognitive model was developed in Soar for the DSN's Link Monitor and Control (LMC) system; it led to several insights about learning in the task domain that were used to design an intelligent tutor called REACT that implements a method called 'impasse-driven tutoring'. REACT is one component of the LMC training system, which also includes a communications link simulator and a graphical user interface. A pilot study of the LMC training system indicates that REACT shows promise as an effective way for helping operators to quickly acquire expert skills.

  4. A Space Operations Network Alternative: Using the Globally Connected Research and Education Networks for Space-based Science Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Robert N.

    2006-01-01

    Earth based networking in support of various space agency projects has been based on leased service/circuits which has a high associated cost. This cost is almost always taken from the science side resulting in less science. This is a proposal to use Research and Education Networks (RENs) worldwide to support space flight operations in general and space-based science operations in particular. The RENs were developed to support scientific and educational endeavors. They do not provide support for general Internet traffic. The connectivity and performance of the research and education networks is superb. The connectivity at Layer 3 (IP) virtually encompasses the globe. Most third world countries and all developed countries have their own research and education networks, which are connected globally. Performance of the RENs especially in the developed countries is exceptional. Bandwidth capacity currently exists and future expansion promises that this capacity will continue. REN performance statistics has always exceeded minimum requirements for spaceflight support. Research and Education networks are more loosely managed than a corporate network but are highly managed when compared to the commodity Internet. Management of RENs on an international level is accomplished by the International Network Operations Center at Indiana University at Indianapolis. With few exceptions, each regional and national REN has its own network ops center. The acceptable use policies (AUP), although differing by country, allows any scientific program or project the use of their networks. Once in compliance with the first RENs AUP, all others will accept that specific traffic including regional and transoceanic networks. RENs can support spaceflight related scientific programs and projects. Getting the science to the researcher is obviously key to any scientific project. RENs provide a pathway to virtually any college or university in the world, as well as many governmental institutes and

  5. Engineering, construction, and operations in space; Proceedings of the Space '88 Conference, Albuquerque, NM, Aug. 29-31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.W.; Wetzel, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    The broad topics considered are extraterrestrial basing, the Space Station and orbiting structures, and areas of special interest. The section on extraterrestrial basing considers the processing of lunar soils, lunar surface construction and operations, lunar base design, and Martian basing. The section on the Space Station and orbiting structures considers the mechanics of space structures and materials, space environmental effects, robotic construction and planning, and maintenance and operations associated with the Space Station. Areas of special interest include space power, life support systems, human factors, astronomy, education, and management and planning of systems for space facilities.

  6. Operational environments for electrical power wiring on NASA space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stavnes, Mark W.; Hammoud, Ahmad N.; Bercaw, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical wiring systems are used extensively on NASA space systems for power management and distribution, control and command, and data transmission. The reliability of these systems when exposed to the harsh environments of space is very critical to mission success and crew safety. Failures have been reported both on the ground and in flight due to arc tracking in the wiring harnesses, made possible by insulation degradation. This report was written as part of a NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (Code Q) program to identify and characterize wiring systems in terms of their potential use in aerospace vehicles. The goal of the program is to provide the information and guidance needed to develop and qualify reliable, safe, lightweight wiring systems, which are resistant to arc tracking and suitable for use in space power applications. This report identifies the environments in which NASA spacecraft will operate, and determines the specific NASA testing requirements. A summary of related test programs is also given in this report. This data will be valuable to spacecraft designers in determining the best wiring constructions for the various NASA applications.

  7. TAMU: Blueprint for A New Space Mission Operations System Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruszkowski, James T.; Meshkat, Leila; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Al; Hogle, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a System of System (SOS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically disperse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes of products for a broad range of flight projects. Further, TAMU FPP provides for the automatic execution and re-planning of the workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the blueprint for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This blueprint presents a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that results in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during the flight production process. Based on the many years of experience with the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS), the currently cancelled Constellation Program which aimed on returning humans to the moon as a starting point, has been building a modern model-based Systems Engineering infrastructure to Re-engineer the FPP. This infrastructure uses a structured modeling and architecture development approach to optimize the system design thereby reducing the sustaining costs and increasing system efficiency, reliability, robustness and maintainability metrics. With the advent of the new vision for human space exploration, it is now necessary to further generalize this framework to take into consideration a broad range of missions and the participation of multiple organizations outside of the MOD; hence the Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) concept.

  8. Operational environments for electrical power wiring on NASA space systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavnes, Mark W.; Hammoud, Ahmad N.; Bercaw, Robert W.

    1994-06-01

    Electrical wiring systems are used extensively on NASA space systems for power management and distribution, control and command, and data transmission. The reliability of these systems when exposed to the harsh environments of space is very critical to mission success and crew safety. Failures have been reported both on the ground and in flight due to arc tracking in the wiring harnesses, made possible by insulation degradation. This report was written as part of a NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (Code Q) program to identify and characterize wiring systems in terms of their potential use in aerospace vehicles. The goal of the program is to provide the information and guidance needed to develop and qualify reliable, safe, lightweight wiring systems, which are resistant to arc tracking and suitable for use in space power applications. This report identifies the environments in which NASA spacecraft will operate, and determines the specific NASA testing requirements. A summary of related test programs is also given in this report. This data will be valuable to spacecraft designers in determining the best wiring constructions for the various NASA applications.

  9. Overview of Carbon Dioxide Control Issues During International Space Station/Space Shuttle Joint Docked Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Crewed space vehicles have a common requirement to remove the carbon dioxide (CO2) created by the metabolic processes of the crew. The space shuttle [Space Transportation System (STS)] and International Space Station (ISS) each have systems in place that allow control and removal of CO2 from the habitable cabin environment. During periods in which the space shuttle is docked to the ISS, known as "joint docked operations," the space shuttle and ISS share a common atmosphere environment. During this period, an elevated amount of CO2 is produced through the combined metabolic activity of the STS and ISS crews. This elevated CO2 production, together with the large effective atmosphere created by collective volumes of the docked vehicles, creates a unique set of requirements for CO2 removal. This paper will describe individual CO2 control plans implemented by STS and ISS engineering teams, as well as the integrated plans used when both vehicles are docked. The paper will also discuss some of the issues and anomalies experienced by both engineering teams.

  10. Aviation & Space Weather Policy Research: Integrating Space Weather Observations & Forecasts into Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, G.; Jones, B.

    2006-12-01

    The American Meteorological Society and SolarMetrics Limited are conducting a policy research project leading to recommendations that will increase the safety, reliability, and efficiency of the nation's airline operations through more effective use of space weather forecasts and information. This study, which is funded by a 3-year National Science Foundation grant, also has the support of the Federal Aviation Administration and the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) who is planning the Next Generation Air Transportation System. A major component involves interviewing and bringing together key people in the aviation industry who deal with space weather information. This research also examines public and industrial strategies and plans to respond to space weather information. The focus is to examine policy issues in implementing effective application of space weather services to the management of the nation's aviation system. The results from this project will provide government and industry leaders with additional tools and information to make effective decisions with respect to investments in space weather research and services. While space weather can impact the entire aviation industry, and this project will address national and international issues, the primary focus will be on developing a U.S. perspective for the airlines.

  11. Flight Dynamics Operations: Methods and Lessons Learned from Space Shuttle Orbit Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutri-Kohart, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Officer is responsible for trajectory maintenance of the Space Shuttle. This paper will cover high level operational considerations, methodology, procedures, and lessons learned involved in performing the functions of orbit and rendezvous Flight Dynamics Officer and leading the team of flight dynamics specialists during different phases of flight. The primary functions that will be address are: onboard state vector maintenance, ground ephemeris maintenance, calculation of ground and spacecraft acquisitions, collision avoidance, burn targeting for the primary mission, rendezvous, deorbit and contingencies, separation sequences, emergency deorbit preparation, mass properties coordination, payload deployment planning, coordination with the International Space Station, and coordination with worldwide trajectory customers. Each of these tasks require the Flight Dynamics Officer to have cognizance of the current trajectory state as well as the impact of future events on the trajectory plan in order to properly analyze and react to real-time changes. Additionally, considerations are made to prepare flexible alternative trajectory plans in the case timeline changes or a systems failure impact the primary plan. The evolution of the methodology, procedures, and techniques used by the Flight Dynamics Officer to perform these tasks will be discussed. Particular attention will be given to how specific Space Shuttle mission and training simulation experiences, particularly off-nominal or unexpected events such as shortened mission durations, tank failures, contingency deorbit, navigation errors, conjunctions, and unexpected payload deployments, have influenced the operational procedures and training for performing Space Shuttle flight dynamics operations over the history of the program. These lessons learned can then be extended to future vehicle trajectory operations.

  12. Command and Telemetry Latency Effects on Operator Performance during International Space Station Robotics Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Nancy J.; Rochlis, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) operations will require the on-board crew to perform numerous robotic-assisted assembly, maintenance, and inspection activities. Current estimates for some robotically performed maintenance timelines are disproportionate and potentially exceed crew availability and duty times. Ground-based control of the ISS robotic manipulators, specifically the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), is being examined as one potential solution to alleviate the excessive amounts of crew time required for extravehicular robotic maintenance and inspection tasks.

  13. Conditional stability versus ill-posedness for operator equations with monotone operators in Hilbert space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioan Boţ, Radu; Hofmann, Bernd

    2016-12-01

    In the literature on singular perturbation (Lavrentiev regularization) for the stable approximate solution of operator equations with monotone operators in the Hilbert space the phenomena of conditional stability and local well-posedness or ill-posedness are rarely investigated. Our goal is to present some studies which try to bridge this gap. So we present new results on the impact of conditional stability on error estimates and convergence rates for the Lavrentiev regularization and distinguish for linear problems well-posedness and ill-posedness in a specific manner motivated by a saturation result. Taking into account that the behavior of the bias (regularization error in the noise-free case) is crucial, general convergence rates, including logarithmic rates, are derived for linear operator equations by means of the method of approximate source conditions. This allows us to extend well-known convergence rate results for the Lavrentiev regularization that were based on general source conditions to the case of non-selfadjoint linear monotone forward operators for which general source conditions fail. Examples presenting the self-adjoint multiplication operator as well as the non-selfadjoint fractional integral operator and Cesàro operator illustrate the theoretical results. Extensions to the nonlinear case under specific conditions on the nonlinearity structure complete the paper.

  14. Application of space-time neural networks to detect tether skiprope phenomenon in space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Villarreal, James A.; Jani, Yashvant; Copeland, Charles

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of operating tethered payloads in earth orbit will be studied during a space shuttle flight scheduled for 1992. Tethered systems may exhibit a circular transverse oscillation or skiprope phenomenon due to interaction between the earth's magnetic field and current pulsing through the tether. Effective damping of this skiprope motion depends on rapid and accurate detection of its magnitude and phase. Satellite attitude motion has characteristic oscillations as well as many other perturbations and therefore the relationship between skiprope parameters and attitude time history is very complex and nonlinear. A space-time neural network (STNN) for filtering satellite rate gyro data is proposed for rapid detection and prediction of skiprope magnitude and phase. A validated orbital operations simulator and STNN software will be used for training and testing of this skiprope detection system. The advantages of STNNs are discussed and STNN configurations and preliminary results are presented.

  15. Hubble Space Telescope First Servicing Mission Prelaunch Mission Operation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a high-performance astronomical telescope system designed to operate in low-Earth orbit. It is approximately 43 feet long, with a diameter of 10 feet at the forward end and 14 feet at the aft end. Weight at launch was approximately 25,000 pounds. In principle, it is no different than the reflecting telescopes in ground-based astronomical observatories. Like ground-based telescopes, the HST was designed as a general-purpose instrument, capable of using a wide variety of scientific instruments at its focal plane. This multi-purpose characteristic allows the HST to be used as a national facility, capable of supporting the astronomical needs of an international user community. The telescope s planned useful operational lifetime is 15 years, during which it will make observations in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared portions of the spectrum. The extended operational life of the HST is possible by using the capabilities of the Space Transportation System to periodically visit the HST on-orbit to replace failed or degraded components, install instruments with improved capabilities, re-boost the HST to higher altitudes compensating for gravitational effects, and to bring the HST back to Earth when the mission is terminated. The largest ground-based observatories, such as the 200-inch aperture Hale telescope at Palomar Mountain, California, can recognize detail in individual galaxies several billion light years away. However, like all earthbound devices, the Hale telescope is limited because of the blurring effect of the Earth s atmosphere. Further, the wavelength region observable from the Earth s surface is limited by the atmosphere to the visible part of the spectrum. The very important ultraviolet portion of the spectrum is lost. The HST uses a 2.4-meter reflective optics system designed to capture data over a wavelength region that reaches far into the ultraviolet and infrared portions of the spectrum.

  16. The space exploration initiative. Operational efficiency panel space-basing technology requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pena, Luis R.

    1991-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: (1) space basing technology requirements sources; (2) orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) processing heritage; (3) ground processing progression to space processing; (4) technology requirements for space based OTV servicing and maintenance; (5) design and development schedule for OTV's and OTV accommodations/ support hardware; (6) cryogenic technology test program development; (7) cryogenic propellant transfer, storage, and reliquefaction management summary; (8) propellant transfer technology analysis and ground testing; (8) OTV propellant storage depot development critical scaling relationships; (9) flight experiment options; (10) OTV maintenance; (11) automated fault detection/ isolation and system checkout summary; (12) engine replacement; (13) alternative docking operation; (14) OTV/payload integration; and (15) technology criticality and capability assessment. This document is presented in viewgraph form.

  17. Solar and space weather phenomenological forecasting using pattern recognition operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, R.; Ramos, F.; Vijaykumar, N.; Andrade, M.; Fernandes, F.; Cecatto, J.; Sharma, A.; Sawant, H.

    Yohkoh, SOHO and HESSI satellites have shown morphological change of the coronal magnetic structures in several scales. Particularly, the soft X ray images- have revealed the existence of dynamic structures with magnetic field configuration varying from regular to complex patterns. In order to characterize the spatio- temporal evolution of such structures, a methodology is proposed in terms of matrix computational operators to quantify the amount of symmetry breaking along the gradient field evolution of the sequence of images. Characterization of symmetry breaking in the gradient field of the energy envelope has been an useful tool to understand complex plasma regimes. In this paper we introduce the application of the Gradient Pattern Analysis (GPA) technique as a new matrix computational operator for spatio-temporal plasma gradient field analysis. This operator yields a measure of the symmetry breaking and phase disorder parameters responding to the active region plasma regimes. In order to characterize the GPA performance into the context of solar physics, we apply this technique on X-ray emission measurement from solar coronal plasma observed by means of Yohkoh satellite. The preliminary results and interpretations suggest a new phenomenological approach for the spatio- temporal evolution of soft X ray active regions, mainly those whose morphology- goes from a regular to a complex magnetic configuration a companied by thec increase of the dissipated energy. We discuss the importance of this semi-empirical modelling for space weather forecasting into the context of solar-terrestrial relationship.

  18. New Factorization Techniques and Fast Serial and Parrallel Algorithms for Operational Space Control of Robot Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir; Djouani, Karim; Fried, George; Pontnau, Jean

    1997-01-01

    In this paper a new factorization technique for computation of inverse of mass matrix, and the operational space mass matrix, as arising in implementation of the operational space control scheme, is presented.

  19. Exploring predictions of safe operating spaces for human water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwakkel, J. H.; Timmermans, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    In the Nature article 'A safe operating space for humanity', Rockström et al. (2009) introduce the idea of a safe space for human activities that will not push the planet out of the 'Holocene state'. Rockström et al. have identified nine earth-system processes and associated thresholds which, if crossed, are expected to generate unacceptable environmental change. Rockström et al. (2009) focus on the scientific prediction of these thresholds. Concerning the use of these boundaries for public policy, these authors limit their efforts to concluding that the evidence so far suggests that, as long as the thresholds are not crossed, humanity has the freedom to pursue long-term social and economic development. The approach advocated by Rockström et al. (2009) is plagued by two related problems: uncertainty and dynamic complexity (Molden, 2009; Brewer, 2009). The latter problem addresses the reductionist approach of Rockström et al and argues, in opposition, that the limits on each of the nine earth-system processes are co-depended and thus the safe operating space constitutes a single multi-dimensional space that can only be identified holistically. The first problem is that our current scientific knowledge and understanding of the earth system is incomplete and partly contested. A majority of the authors reacting on the global limit concept do however emphasize their relevance as "targets for policy makers". However, the two problems imply that the establishment of predicted global limits as a substantive base for public policy is meaningless. Still, the presence of scientific uncertainty and dynamic complexity and thus the omnipresence of unpredictability need not be used as an excuse to ignore the importance of a substantive grounding of these policies. In this paper, we argue and show how despite dynamic complexity and irreducible uncertainty, policies can be designed, tested, and shown to be effective in reaching broad social goals related to social and economic

  20. A radiological assessment of space nuclear power operations near Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Steve

    1990-01-01

    In order to accomplish NASA's more ambitious exploration goals, nuclear reactors may be used in the vicinity of Space Station Freedom (SSF) either as power sources for coorbiting platforms or as part of the propulsion system for departing and returning personnel or cargo vehicles. This study identifies ranges of operational parameters, such as parking distances and reactor cooldown times, which would reasonably guarantee that doses to the SSF crew from all radiation sources would be below guidelines recently recommended by the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements. The specific scenarios considered include: (1) the launch and return of a nuclear electric propulsion vehicle, (2) the launch and return of a nuclear thermal rocket vehicle, (3) the operation of an SP-100 class reactor on a coorbiting platform, (4) the activation of materials near operating reactors, (5) the storage and handling of radioisotope thermal generator units, and (6) the storage and handling of fresh and previously operated reactors. Portable reactor shield concepts were examined for relaxing the operational constraints imposed by unshielded (for human proximity operations) reactors and that might also be used to provide additional SSF crew protection from natural background radiation.

  1. 14 CFR 91.143 - Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. 91.143 Section 91.143 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Flight Rules General § 91.143 Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. When...

  2. 14 CFR 91.143 - Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. 91.143 Section 91.143 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Flight Rules General § 91.143 Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. When...

  3. 14 CFR 91.143 - Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. 91.143 Section 91.143 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Flight Rules General § 91.143 Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations....

  4. 14 CFR 91.143 - Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. 91.143 Section 91.143 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Flight Rules General § 91.143 Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations....

  5. 14 CFR 91.143 - Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. 91.143 Section 91.143 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Flight Rules General § 91.143 Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations....

  6. Space Operations Center, shuttle interaction study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of the shuttle remote manipulator system (SRMS)-aided space operations center (SOC)/orbiter berthing was evaluated to determine: (1) whether the initial rates between the SOC and the orbiter can be removed by the arm; (2) what is the best strategy to be used; (3) whether the post-capture and maneuvering loads are within the capability of the SRMS; (4) can the SOC berthing port be brought in the immediate proximity of the orbiter berthing port; and (5) what is the best way to remove the residual relative motions. Various notational conventions are established and various important locations on the orbiter and SOC structures are defined. Reference frames are defined together with the mass properties of both the SOC and the orbiter.

  7. Enhancement of KSTAR plasma control for expanding operational space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Sang-Hee; Jeon, Y. M.; Han, H.; Ahn, H. S.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Joung, M.; Woo, M. H.; Mueller, D.; Eidietis, N. W.; Lanctot, M.; Humphreys, D. A.; Hyatt, A. W.; Welander, A. S.; Walker, M. L.; Kolemen, E.; Park, Y. S.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    In order to expand the operational space with stationary high performances, new approaches on the magnetic control design are necessary. A few examples on recent achievements at KSTAr are presented here: The Introduction of the in-vessel radial control (IRC) provides a fundamental change on baseline axisymmetric magnetic controls. Analysis on dedicated simulations/experiments for the vertical stabilization control margin gave an insight for improvement of the vertical position control. In order to enhance flexibility on the non-axisymmetric 3D field physics studies, the KSTAR RMP coil systems have been upgraded in 2015 provide more variety on the available 3D field profile. Integration of real-time heating device control enabled more elaborate kinetic controls since 2013. Real-time TM suppression is introduced as an example of the integrated control, which will be linked to stability control in the high-beta regime relevant to ITER success.

  8. Natural environment support guidelines for space shuttle tests and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, E. A.; Brown, S. C.

    1974-01-01

    All space shuttle events from launch through solid rocket booster recovery and orbiter landing are considered in terms of constraints placed on those operations by the natural environment. Thunderstorm activity is discussed as an example of a possible hazard. The activities most likely to require advanced detection and monitoring techniques are identified as those from deorbit decision to Orbiter landing. The inflexible flight plan will require the transmission of real time wind profile information below 24 km and warnings of thunderstorms or turbulence in the Orbiter flight path. Extensive aerial reconnaissance and communication facilities and procedures to permit immediate transmission of aircraft reports to the mission control authority and to the Orbiter will also be required.

  9. Fermion wave-mechanical operators in curved space-time

    SciTech Connect

    Cocke, W.J.; Lloyd-Hart, M. )

    1990-09-15

    In the context of a general wave-mechanical formalism, we derive explicit forms for the Hamiltonian, kinetic energy, and momentum operators for a massive fermion in curved space-time. In the two-spinor representation, the scalar products of state vectors are conserved under the Dirac equation, but the time-development Hamiltonian is in general not Hermitian for a nonstatic metric. A geodesic normal coordinate system provides an economical framework in which to interpret the results. We apply the formalism to a closed Robertson-Walker metric, for which we find the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the kinetic energy density. The angular momentum parts turn out to be simpler than in the usual four-spinor representation, and the radial parts involve Jacobi polynomials.

  10. Space Station assembly sequence planning - An engineering and operational challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaidy, James T.; Bastedo, William G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the Space Station assembly sequence planning and development process. It presents the planning methodologies from both historial and current perspectives. It is shown that planning the assembly sequence is a new and unique challenge and its solution requires the simultaneous satisfaction of many diverse variables and constants. The considerations which influence the development of the assembly sequence include launch vehicle integration and lift capabilities, on-orbit assembly flight operations, vehicle flight dynamics, spacecraft system capabilities and resource availability. Many of these considerations are described in this paper. In addition, the examples presented demonstrate the current process for assembly sequence planning and show many of the complex trade-offs that must be performed.

  11. The National Space Science Data Center: An operational perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blitstein, Ronald; Green, James L.

    1991-01-01

    The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) manages over 110,000 data tapes with over 4,000 data sets. The size of the digital archive is approximately 6,000 GBytes and is expected to grow to more than 28,000 GBytes by 1995. The NSSDC is involved in several initiatives to better serve the scientific community and improve the management of current and future data holdings. These initiatives address the need to manage data to ensure ready access by the user and manage the media to ensure continuing accessibility and integrity of the data. An operational view of the NSSDC, outlining current policies and procedures that have been implemented to ensure the effective use of available resources to support service and mission goals, and maintain compliance with prescribed data management directives is presented.

  12. The National Space Science Data Center: An operational perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blitstein, Ronald; Green, James L.

    1992-01-01

    The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) manages over 110,000 data tapes with over 4,000 data sets. The size of the digital archive is approximately 6,000 GBytes and is expected to grow to more than 28,000 GBytes by 1995. The NSSDC is involved in several initiatives to better serve the scientific community and improve the management of current and future data holdings. These initiatives address the need to manage data to ensure ready access by the user and manage the media to ensure continuing accessibility and integrity of the data. This paper will present an operational view of the NSSDC, outlining current policies and procedures that were implemented to ensure the effective use of available resources to support service and mission goals, and maintain compliance with prescribed data management directives.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 3A Rendezvous Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Connor, C.; Moy, E.; Smith, D.; Myslinski, M.; Markley, L.; Vernacchio, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) hardware complement includes six gas bearing, pulse rebalanced rate integrating gyros, any three of which are sufficient to conduct the science mission. After the loss of three gyros between April 1997 and April 1999 due to a known corrosion mechanism, NASA decided to split the third HST servicing mission into SM3A, accelerated to October 1999, and SM3B, scheduled for November 2001. SM3A was developed as a quick turnaround 'Launch on Need' mission to replace all six gyros. Loss of a fourth gyro in November 1999 caused HST to enter Zero Gyro Sunpoint (ZGSP) safemode, which uses sun sensors and magnetometers for attitude determination and momentum bias to maintain attitude stability during orbit night. Several instances of large attitude excursions during orbit night were observed, but ZGSP performance was adequate to provide power-positive sun pointing and to support low gain antenna communications. Body rates in ZGSP were estimated to exceed the nominal 0.1 deg/sec rendezvous limit, so rendezvous operations were restructured to utilize coarse, limited life, Retrieval Mode Gyros (RMGs) under Hardware Sunpoint (HWSP) safemode. Contingency procedures were developed to conduct the rendezvous in ZGSP in the event of RMGA or HWSP computer failure. Space Shuttle Mission STS-103 launched on December 19, 1999 after a series of weather and Shuttle-related delays. After successful rendezvous and grapple under HWSP/RMGA, the crew changed out all six gyros. Following deploy and systems checkout, HST returned to full science operations.

  14. Information for Lateral Aircraft Spacing Enabling Closely-Spaced Runway Operations During Instrument-Weather Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrush, Trent; Pritchett, Amy; Johnson, Eric; Hansman, R. John; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to increase airport capacity, the U.S. plans on investing nearly $6 billion a year to properly maintain and improve the nation's major airports. Current FAA standards however, require a reduction in terminal operations during instrument-weather conditions at many airports, causing delays and reducing airport capacity. NASA, in cooperation with the FAA, has developed the Terminal Area Productivity Program to achieve clear-weather capacity in instrument- weather conditions for all phases of flight. This paper describes a series of experiments planned to investigate the conceptual design of different systems that provide information to flight crews regarding nearby traffic during the approach phase of flight. The purpose of this investigation is to identify and evaluate different display and auditory interfaces to the crew for use in closely-spaced parallel runway operations. Three separate experiments are planned for the investigation. The first two experiments will be conducted using part-task flight simulators located at the MIT Aeronautical Systems Laboratory and at NASA Ames. The third experiment will be conducted in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator, a generic "glass-cockpit" simulator at NASA Ames. Subjects for each experiment will be current glass-cockpit pilots from major U.S. air carriers. Subject crews will fly several experimental scenarios in which pseudo-aircraft are "blundered" into the subject aircraft simulation. Runway spacing, longitudinal aircraft separation, aircraft performance and traffic information will be varied. Analyses of the subject reaction times in evading the blundering aircraft and the resulting closest points of approach will be conducted. This paper presents a preliminary examination of the data recorded during the part-task experiments. The impact of traffic information on closely-spaced parallel runway operations is discussed, cockpit displays to aid these operations are examined, and topics for future research

  15. SpaceDock: A Performance Task Platform for Spaceflight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshburn, Thomas H.; Strangman, Gary E.; Strauss, Monica S.; Sutton, Jeffrey P.

    2003-01-01

    Preliminary evidence during both short- and long-duration spaceflight indicates that perceptual-motor coordination changes occur and persist in-flight. However, there is presently no in-flight method for evaluating astronaut performance on mission-critical tasks such as docking. We present a portable platform we have developed for attempting and evaluating docking, and describe the results of a pilot study wherein flight novices learned the docking task. Methods: A dual-joystick, six degrees of freedom platform-called SpaceDock-was developed to enable portable, adaptable performance testing in a spaceflight operations setting. Upon this platform, a simplified docking task was created, involving a constant rate of approach towards a docking target and requiring the user to correct translation in two dimensions and attitude orientation along one dimension (either pitch or roll). Ten flight naive subjects performed the task over a 45 min period and all joystick inputs and timings were collected, from which we could successfully reconstruct travel paths, input profiles and relative target displacements. Results: Subjects exhibited significant improvements in docking over the course of the experiment. Learning to compensate for roll-alterations was robust, whereas compensation for pitch-alterations was not in evidence in this population and relatively short training period. Conclusion: The SpaceDock platform can provide a novel method for training and testing subjects, on a spaceflight-relevant task, and can be used to examine behavioral learning, strategy use, and has been adapted for use in brain imaging experiments.

  16. The Capitol College Space Operations Institute: A Partnership with NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation describes the Capitol College Space Operations Institute (SOI) partnership with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the real-world learning experiences provided to college students. The education and public outreach (EPO) partnership works to directly encourage and support students to enter careers in the science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines and advance the cause of improving science literacy. The Capitol College SOI serves as a back-up control center for two NASA missions. The first is the Tropical Rainforest Measurement Mission (TRMM), which is a research satellite designed to help our understanding of the water cycle in the current climate system. By covering the tropical and semi-tropical regions of the Earth, TRMM provides much needed data on rainfall and the heat release associated with rainfall. The second is the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission that is providing a vast storehouse of knowledge about the solar system, the Milky Way, and the Universe. The session provides both an update regarding the SOI and provides new information regarding the SOI work with the two NASA missions. Emerging best practices from the learning experiences the SOI provides college students in serving as a real-life back-up control center will also be shared.

  17. Operating Deflection Shapes for the Space Shuttle Partial Stack Rollout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Kappus, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    In November of 2003 a rollout test was performed to gain a better understanding of the dynamic environment for the Space Shuttle during transportation from the Vehicle Assembly Building to the launch pad. This was part of a study evaluating the methodology for including the rollout dynamic loads in the Space Shuttle fatigue life predictions. The rollout test was conducted with a partial stack consisting of the Crawler Transporter, Mobile Launch Platform, and the Solid Rocket Boosters with an interconnecting crossbeam. Instrumentation included over 100 accelerometers. Data was recorded for steady state speeds, start-ups and stops, and ambient wind excitations with the vehicle at idle. This paper will describe the operating deflection shape analysis performed using the measured acceleration response data. The response data for the steady state speed runs were dominated by harmonics of the forcing frequencies, which were proportional to the vehicle speed. Assuming a broadband excitation for the wind, analyses of the data sets with the vehicle at idle were used to estimate the natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes. Comparisons of the measured modal properties with numerical predictions are presented.

  18. In-space operations for lunar and Mars space transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raper, James L., Sr.; Vargo, Rick C.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the in-space operations required to process the lunar and Mars mission vehicles envisioned for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Recent studies, which have examined the degree to which on-orbit operations change as a function of the Earth-to-orbit (ETO) launch vehicle size, identified a common set of on-orbit vehicle processing tasks, and generated functional requirements for in-space processing nodes are summarized in this paper. Timelines for on-orbit processing of two different lunar transfer vehicles (LTV's) were developed to compare a 'current practice,' labor-intensive EVA approach to ones utilizing telerobotics and advanced automation. LTV aerobrake concepts ranging from simple deployment to considerable assembly are compared. Similar timelines for the on-orbit processing of a nuclear Mars transfer vehicle (MTV) are also presented. Aerobrakes can be processed in a timely manner and should not be ruled out for SEI missions. The 'tall pole' time interval for on-orbit vehicle initial processing is the delivery of elements to orbit, not the processing tasks.

  19. General Purpose Data-Driven Monitoring for Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.; Martin, Rodney A.; Schwabacher, Mark A.; Spirkovska, Liljana; Taylor, William McCaa; Castle, Joseph P.; Mackey, Ryan M.

    2009-01-01

    As modern space propulsion and exploration systems improve in capability and efficiency, their designs are becoming increasingly sophisticated and complex. Determining the health state of these systems, using traditional parameter limit checking, model-based, or rule-based methods, is becoming more difficult as the number of sensors and component interactions grow. Data-driven monitoring techniques have been developed to address these issues by analyzing system operations data to automatically characterize normal system behavior. System health can be monitored by comparing real-time operating data with these nominal characterizations, providing detection of anomalous data signatures indicative of system faults or failures. The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) is a data-driven system health monitoring software tool that has been successfully applied to several aerospace applications. IMS uses a data mining technique called clustering to analyze archived system data and characterize normal interactions between parameters. The scope of IMS based data-driven monitoring applications continues to expand with current development activities. Successful IMS deployment in the International Space Station (ISS) flight control room to monitor ISS attitude control systems has led to applications in other ISS flight control disciplines, such as thermal control. It has also generated interest in data-driven monitoring capability for Constellation, NASA's program to replace the Space Shuttle with new launch vehicles and spacecraft capable of returning astronauts to the moon, and then on to Mars. Several projects are currently underway to evaluate and mature the IMS technology and complementary tools for use in the Constellation program. These include an experiment on board the Air Force TacSat-3 satellite, and ground systems monitoring for NASA's Ares I-X and Ares I launch vehicles. The TacSat-3 Vehicle System Management (TVSM) project is a software experiment to integrate fault

  20. Assessing the Operationality of Ship Detection from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greidanus, H.

    2005-03-01

    Since the launch of ERS-1 in 1991, a decade and a half of research has been devoted to automatic detection of ships in satellite radar imagery. However, it is only quite recently that this capability is operationally used; at present primarily in the fields of fisheries control and defence. The key has been the combination of remote sensing data with vessel position data from other sources. In contrast to detection, classification of ships in satellite radar imagery is much less developed, and will likely remain difficult in the near future. Concerning optical imagery, the recent high-resolution systems can readily detect ships from space, and their classification power is much higher than that of radar. However, much less effort has been devoted to development of automatic systems for optical, mostly because these sensors suffer more from the weather and are less suited for wide area surveillance. Nevertheless, there has been a recent catching up, and the first operational systems for automatic ship detection and classification in optical satellite images are starting to appear.

  1. Fire monitoring from space: from research to operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pergola, Nicola; Filizzola, Carolina; Corrado, Rosita; Coviello, Irina; lacava, Teodosio; Marchese, Francesco; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Paciello, Rossana; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2013-04-01

    Each summer fires rage through European forests, burning hundreds of thousands of hectares per year, as a result of the many (up to 60000) forest fires that usually occur annually in Europe. Fires can threaten public health and safety, destroy property and cause economic damages. Despite of their medium extension (the average burnt area is less than 6 ha), much smaller if compared with other regions like the USA and Canada, the number of simultaneous active fires in Europe can be very high, fomented by weather conditions that, especially in summer times and for countries of South Europe, are particularly favourable to a rapid and dramatic development of flames. Fires still are not only a social problem, but also an environmental emergency, producing a continuous impoverishment of forests and possibly indirectly triggering other natural hazards (e.g. making slopes, without the trees action, more prone to landslides). Additionally, there is a general concern about the loss of biodiversity and the contribution to land degradation that fires may cause. Earth Observation satellite systems have been largely tested for fire detection and monitoring from space. Their spectral capability, synoptic view and revisit times can offer an added value in the operational use not only in real time, during fires fighting activities, but also in near-real or delay time during the phases of risk management and mitigation. However, the practice of an actual operational use of satellite products by end-users is still not usual at European level. This work is based on the experience carried out jointly by CNR-IMAA and the National Civil Protection Department (DPC), in the framework of a five-year agreement in which the operational use of an Earth observation satellite system for fires spotting and monitoring is tested. Satellite-based products, developed not only for detecting fires but also for continuously monitoring their evolution in time domain, have been provided to Civil Protection

  2. Anomaly Detection for Next-Generation Space Launch Ground Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Iverson, David L.; Hall, David R.; Taylor, William M.; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Brown, Barbara; Ferrell, Bob A.; Waterman, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing new capabilities that will enable future human exploration missions while reducing mission risk and cost. The Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR) project aims to demonstrate the utility of integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) tools in the domain of ground support equipment (GSE) to be used for the next generation launch vehicles. In addition to demonstrating the utility of IVHM tools for GSE, FDIR aims to mature promising tools for use on future missions and document the level of effort - and hence cost - required to implement an application with each selected tool. One of the FDIR capabilities is anomaly detection, i.e., detecting off-nominal behavior. The tool we selected for this task uses a data-driven approach. Unlike rule-based and model-based systems that require manual extraction of system knowledge, data-driven systems take a radically different approach to reasoning. At the basic level, they start with data that represent nominal functioning of the system and automatically learn expected system behavior. The behavior is encoded in a knowledge base that represents "in-family" system operations. During real-time system monitoring or during post-flight analysis, incoming data is compared to that nominal system operating behavior knowledge base; a distance representing deviation from nominal is computed, providing a measure of how far "out of family" current behavior is. We describe the selected tool for FDIR anomaly detection - Inductive Monitoring System (IMS), how it fits into the FDIR architecture, the operations concept for the GSE anomaly monitoring, and some preliminary results of applying IMS to a Space Shuttle GSE anomaly.

  3. Carbon Dioxide Removal Troubleshooting aboard the International Space Station (ISS) during Space Shuttle (STS) Docked Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Christopher M.; Cover, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) represents a largely closed-system habitable volume which requires active control of atmospheric constituents, including removal of exhaled Carbon Dioxide (CO2). The ISS provides a unique opportunity to observe system requirements for (CO2) removal. CO2 removal is managed by the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) aboard the US segment of ISS and by Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH) aboard the Space Shuttle (STS). While the ISS and STS are docked, various methods are used to balance the CO2 levels between the two vehicles, including mechanical air handling and management of general crew locations. Over the course of ISS operation, several unexpected anomalies have occurred which have required troubleshooting, including possible compromised performance of the CDRA and LiOH systems, and possible imbalance in CO2 levels between the ISS and STS while docked. This paper will cover efforts to troubleshoot the CO2 removal systems aboard the ISS and docked STS.

  4. The Future of Army Space Forces: A Vision to Optimize Tactical and Operational Space Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    variety of satellite communications capabilities. 5. Expand Army Space Support Team Role in Headquarters Without Space Support Elements. The...Space capabilities, improving Space technical training, modifying FA40 manpower allocations, expanding Army Space Support Team roles in headquar

  5. Kennedy Space Center Orion Processing Team Planning for Ground Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Topics in this presentation are: Constellation Ares I/Orion/Ground Ops Elements Orion Ground Operations Flow Orion Operations Planning Process and Toolset Overview, including: 1 Orion Concept of Operations by Phase 2 Ops Analysis Capabilities Overview 3 Operations Planning Evolution 4 Functional Flow Block Diagrams 5 Operations Timeline Development 6 Discrete Event Simulation (DES) Modeling 7 Ground Operations Planning Document Database (GOPDb) Using Operations Planning Tools for Operability Improvements includes: 1 Kaizen/Lean Events 2 Mockups 3 Human Factors Analysis

  6. Analysis of remote operating systems for space-based servicing operations. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The developments in automation and robotics have increased the importance of applications for space based servicing using remotely operated systems. A study on three basic remote operating systems (teleoperation, telepresence and robotics) was performed in two phases. In phase one, requirements development, which consisted of one three-month task, a group of ten missions were selected. These included the servicing of user equipment on the station and the servicing of the station itself. In phase two, concepts development, which consisted of three tasks, overall system concepts were developed for the selected missions. These concepts, which include worksite servicing equipment, a carrier system, and payload handling equipment, were evaluated relative to the configurations of the overall worksite. It is found that the robotic/teleoperator concepts are appropriate for relatively simple structured tasks, while the telepresence/teleoperator concepts are applicable for missions that are complex, unstructured tasks.

  7. Cesàro operators on Hardy spaces in the unit ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoqin; Ren, Guangbin

    2008-03-01

    This article establishes the boundedness of the generalized Cesàro operator on holomorphic Hardy spaces in the unit ball. The approach consists in writing the generalized Cesàro operator as a composition of certain integral operators.

  8. On a product-type operator from weighted Bergman-Orlicz space to some weighted type spaces.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-Jie

    2015-04-01

    Let [Formula: see text] be the open unit disk, [Formula: see text] an analytic self-map of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] an analytic function on [Formula: see text]. Let D be the differentiation operator and [Formula: see text] the weighted composition operator. The boundedness and compactness of the product-type operator [Formula: see text] from the weighted Bergman-Orlicz space to the Bers type space, weighted Bloch space and weighted Zygmund space on [Formula: see text] are characterized.

  9. DORIS processing at the European Space Operations Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, Michiel; Flohrer, Claudia; Springer, Tim; Dow, John

    2010-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the DORIS related activities at the Navigation Support Office of the European Space Operations Centre. The DORIS activities were started in 2002 because of the launch of the Envisat satellite where ESOC is responsible for the validation of the Envisat Precise Orbits and a brief overview of the key Envisat activities at ESOC is given. Typical orbit comparison RMS values between the CNES POE (GDR-C) and the ESOC POD solution is 6.5, 18.8 and 23.1 mm in radial-, along- and cross-track direction. In the framework of the generation of the ITRF2008 ESOC participated in the reprocessing of all three space geodetic techniques; DORIS, SLR, and GPS. Here the main results of our DORIS reprocessing, in the framework of the International DORIS Service (IDS), are given. The WRMS of the weekly ESOC solution (esawd03) for the 2004-2009 period compared to the IDS-1 combined solution is of the order of 12 mm. Based on the long time series of homogeneously processed data a closer look is taken at the estimated solar radiation pressure parameters of the different satellites used in this DORIS analysis. The main aim being the stabilization of the Z-component of the geocentre estimates. We conclude that the ESOC participation to the IDS ITRF2008 contribution has been beneficial for both ESOC and the IDS. ESOC has profited significantly from the very open and direct communications and comparisons that took place within the IDS during the reprocessing campaign.

  10. Space station operations task force. Panel 3 report: User development and integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The User Development and Integration Panel of the Space Station Operations Task Force was chartered to develop concepts relating to the operations of the Space Station manned base and the platforms, user accommodation and integration activities. The needs of the user community are addressed in the context with the mature operations phase of the Space Station. Issues addressed include space station pricing options, marketing strategies, payload selection and resource allocation options, and manifesting techniques.

  11. Space Shuttle Day-of-Launch Trajectory Design Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    A top priority of any launch vehicle is to insert as much mass into the desired orbit as possible. This requirement must be traded against vehicle capability in terms of dynamic control, thermal constraints, and structural margins. The vehicle is certified to specific structural limits which will yield certain performance characteristics of mass to orbit. Some limits cannot be certified generically and must be checked with each mission design. The most sensitive limits require an assessment on the day-of-launch. To further minimize vehicle loads while maximizing vehicle performance, a day-of-launch trajectory can be designed. This design is optimized according to that day s wind and atmospheric conditions, which increase the probability of launch. The day-of-launch trajectory design and verification process is critical to the vehicle s safety. The Day-Of-Launch I-Load Update (DOLILU) is the process by which the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Shuttle Program tailors the vehicle steering commands to fit that day s environmental conditions and then rigorously verifies the integrated vehicle trajectory s loads, controls, and performance. This process has been successfully used for almost twenty years and shares many of the same elements with other launch vehicles that execute a day-of-launch trajectory design or day-of-launch trajectory verification. Weather balloon data is gathered at the launch site and transmitted to the Johnson Space Center s Mission Control. The vehicle s first stage trajectory is then adjusted to the measured wind and atmosphere data. The resultant trajectory must satisfy loads and controls constraints. Additionally, these assessments statistically protect for non-observed dispersions. One such dispersion is the change in the wind from the last measured balloon to launch time. This process is started in the hours before launch and is repeated several times as the launch count proceeds. Should the trajectory design

  12. U.S. operational space program for climate observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, H. W.

    Satellites provide two important characteristics to earth climate studies not available from other, conventional sources: (1) full global coverage, and (2) consistency within the data set. This latter arises from the fact that the satellite data are usually derived from one instrument (or at least from a small number) whereas other sources involve large numbers of separate instruments and hence exhibit a substantial standard deviation. Satellite data, of course, are more subject to bias and must therefore be carefully validated, usually via ground truth. The ISCCP and ISLSCP are examples of the increasing reliance on satellite data for climate studies. In addition to the multispectral images, quantitative products of importance are: (1) atmospheric temperature structure, (2) snow cover, (3) precipitation, (4) vegetation index, (5) maximum/minimum temperature, (6) insolation, and (7) earth radiation balance. The U.S. civil space program is presently committed to its current geostationary (GOES) and polar (NOAA) programs through this decade and to continue both programs into the next decade with spacecraft carrying improved and augmented instrumentation. GOES VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) data, presently in research status and available only for special observation periods, will become available operationally in 1987 from the current spacecraft series. GOES-Next will provide additional spectral channels, simultaneous imaging, atmospheric soundings, and possibly increased resolution starting in 1990. The NOAA follow-on spacecraft, in the same time frame, is expected to provide additional spectral channels, improved passive microwave radiometry, and possibly increased spatial resolution. The Landsat program is expected to be continued by a commercial operator following the useful life of Landsat-5. All three follow-on programs are presently at various stages of definition and procurement. Final definition may not be completed until late in 1984. However, their status

  13. Space Operations Center system analysis study extension. Volume 4, book 2: SOC system analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Space Operations Center (SOC) orbital space station research missions integration, crew requirements, SOC operations, and configurations are analyzed. Potential research and applications missions and their requirements are described. The capabilities of SOC are compared with user requirements. The SOC/space shuttle and shuttle-derived vehicle flight support operations and SOC orbital operations are described. Module configurations and systems options, SOC/external tank configurations, and configurations for geostationary orbits are described. Crew and systems safety configurations are summarized.

  14. Manned maneuvering unit simulations on the Space Operations Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, C.; Cwynar, D.; Ray, L.

    1984-01-01

    Details of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) and its use is discussed. MMU simulations in the Space Operations Simulator (SOS) use two major devices. The first is a six-degree-of-freedom moving base carriage that allows the trainee freedom to fly the MMU in a large room and to match rates and dock with full scale targets. The second device is a large screen television display that provides the trainee with accurate views of tumbling targets from any point in a surrounding sphere up to 300 meters (1000 feet) in diameter. Astronauts used the SOS to train for the Solar Max repair mission and are now using it to train for a mission to recover the Palapa-B communications satellite. Subjective comparisons by astronauts of an orbit MMU performance to simulated MMU performance in the SOS indicate that the simulations are very realistic. Data from the Solar Max mission have resulted in two software upgrades that increase SOS fidelity for the next MMU mission: a model of contact dynamics between the MMU and a target spacecraft, and a model of MMU plume impingement forces during docking.

  15. Operational Impact of Improved Space Tracking on Collision Avoidance in the Future LEO Space Debris Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibert, D.; Borgeson, D.; Peterson, G.; Jenkin, A.; Sorge, M.

    2010-09-01

    Even if global space policy successfully curtails on orbit explosions and ASAT demonstrations, studies indicate that the number of debris objects in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) will continue to grow solely from debris on debris collisions and debris generated from new launches. This study examines the threat posed by this growing space debris population over the next 30 years and how improvements in our space tracking capabilities can reduce the number of Collision Avoidance (COLA) maneuvers required keep the risk of operational satellite loss within tolerable limits. Particular focus is given to satellites operated by the Department of Defense (DoD) and Intelligence Community (IC) in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The following debris field and space tracking performance parameters were varied parametrically in the experiment to study the impact on the number of collision avoidance maneuvers required: - Debris Field Density (by year 2009, 2019, 2029, and 2039) - Quality of Track Update (starting 1 sigma error ellipsoid) - Future Propagator Accuracy (error ellipsoid growth rates - Special Perturbations in 3 axes) - Track Update Rate for Debris (stochastic) - Track Update Rate for Payloads (stochastic) Baseline values matching present day tracking performance for quality of track update, propagator accuracy, and track update rate were derived by analyzing updates to the unclassified Satellite Catalog (SatCat). Track update rates varied significantly for active payloads and debris and as such we used different models for the track update rates for military payloads and debris. The analysis was conducted using the System Effectiveness Analysis Simulation (SEAS) an agent based model developed by the United States Air Force Space Command’s Space and Missile Systems Center to evaluate the military utility of space systems. The future debris field was modeled by The Aerospace Corporation using a tool chain which models the growth of the 10cm+ debris field using high fidelity

  16. Operationally Responsive Space and the Joint Force Commander

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-31

    17 Loring Wirbel, Star Wars: US Tools of Space Supremacy (London: Pluto Books, 2004), 144-145. 8...Working paper, ORS Office, 10 October 2007. Wirbel, Loring. Star Wars: US Tools of Space Supremacy. London: Pluto Press, 2004.

  17. ISS Space-Based Science Operations Grid for the Ground Systems Architecture Workshop (GSAW)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Clara; Bradford, Bob

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following:What is grid? Benefits of a grid to space-based science operations. Our approach. Score of prototype grid. The security question. Short term objectives. Long term objectives. Space-based services required for operations. The prototype. Score of prototype grid. Prototype service layout. Space-based science grid service components.

  18. Deep Space Network equipment performance, reliability, and operations management information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, T.; Lin, J.; Chatillon, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Deep Space Mission System (DSMS) Operations Program Office and the DeepSpace Network (DSN) facilities utilize the Discrepancy Reporting Management System (DRMS) to collect, process, communicate and manage data discrepancies, equipment resets, physical equipment status, and to maintain an internal Station Log. A collaborative effort development between JPL and the Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex delivered a system to support DSN Operations.

  19. Deep Space Network equipment performance, reliability, and operations management information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, T.; Lin, J.; Chatillon, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Deep Space Mission System (DSMS) Operations Program Office and the DeepSpace Network (DSN) facilities utilize the Discrepancy Reporting Management System (DRMS) to collect, process, communicate and manage data discrepancies, equipment resets, physical equipment status, and to maintain an internal Station Log. A collaborative effort development between JPL and the Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex delivered a system to support DSN Operations.

  20. Self-refueling space propulsion system and operating method

    SciTech Connect

    Minovitch, M.A.

    1988-07-05

    A propulsion system is described for generating decelerating retro thrust on a space vehicle moving in the vicinity of a celestial body having an atmosphere comprising: a hypervelocity diffuser mounted on the space vehicle for ingesting atmospheric gas at orbital velocities thereby converting the directed kinetic energy of the incoming atmospheric gas stream relative to the space vehicle into thermal energy and generating decelerating retro thrust; and means for cooling the ingested gas by radiative heat transfer into space.

  1. Operational Space Weather Models: Trials, Tribulations and Rewards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunk, R. W.; Scherliess, L.; Sojka, J. J.; Thompson, D. C.; Zhu, L.

    2009-12-01

    There are many empirical, physics-based, and data assimilation models that can probably be used for space weather applications and the models cover the entire domain from the surface of the Sun to the Earth’s surface. At Utah State University we developed two physics-based data assimilation models of the terrestrial ionosphere as part of a program called Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements (GAIM). One of the data assimilation models is now in operational use at the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) in Omaha, Nebraska. This model is a Gauss-Markov Kalman Filter (GAIM-GM) model, and it uses a physics-based model of the ionosphere and a Kalman filter as a basis for assimilating a diverse set of real-time (or near real-time) measurements. The physics-based model is the Ionosphere Forecast Model (IFM), which is global and covers the E-region, F-region, and topside ionosphere from 90 to 1400 km. It takes account of five ion species (NO+, O2+, N2+, O+, H+), but the main output of the model is a 3-dimensional electron density distribution at user specified times. The second data assimilation model uses a physics-based Ionosphere-Plasmasphere Model (IPM) and an ensemble Kalman filter technique as a basis for assimilating a diverse set of real-time (or near real-time) measurements. This Full Physics model (GAIM-FP) is global, covers the altitude range from 90 to 30,000 km, includes six ions (NO+, O2+, N2+, O+, H+, He+), and calculates the self-consistent ionospheric drivers (electric fields and neutral winds). The GAIM-FP model is scheduled for delivery in 2012. Both of these GAIM models assimilate bottom-side Ne profiles from a variable number of ionosondes, slant TEC from a variable number of ground GPS/TEC stations, in situ Ne from four DMSP satellites, line-of-sight UV emissions measured by satellites, and occultation data. Quality control algorithms for all of the data types are provided as an integral part of the GAIM models and these models take account of

  2. Leadership and Cultural Challenges in Operating the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. L.; Ritsher, J. B.; Saylor, S. A.; Kanas, N.

    2006-01-01

    Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves an indefinite, continuous series of long-duration international missions, and this requires an unprecedented degree of cooperation across multiple sites, organizations, and nations. ISS flight controllers have had to find ways to maintain effective team performance in this challenging new context. The goal of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate the major leadership and cultural challenges faces by ISS flight controllers, and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount these challenges. We conducted a qualitative survey using a semi-structured interview. Subjects included 14 senior NASA flight controllers who were chosen on the basis of having had substantial experience working with international partners. Data were content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. To further explore the meaning of the interview findings, we also conducted some new analyses of data from a previous questionnaire study of Russian and American ISS mission control personnel. The interview data showed that respondents had substantial consensus on several leadership and cultural challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Surprisingly few respondents offered strategies for addressing the challenge of working with team members whose native language is not American English. The questionnaire data showed that Americans think it is more important than Russians that mission control personnel speak the same dialect of one shared common language. Although specific to the ISS program, our results are consistent with recent management, cultural, and aerospace research. We aim to use our results to improve training for current and future ISS flight controllers.

  3. Leadership and Cultural Challenges in Operating the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. L.; Ritsher, J. B.; Saylor, S. A.; Kanas, N.

    2006-01-01

    Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves an indefinite, continuous series of long-duration international missions, and this requires an unprecedented degree of cooperation across multiple sites, organizations, and nations. ISS flight controllers have had to find ways to maintain effective team performance in this challenging new context. The goal of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate the major leadership and cultural challenges faces by ISS flight controllers, and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount these challenges. We conducted a qualitative survey using a semi-structured interview. Subjects included 14 senior NASA flight controllers who were chosen on the basis of having had substantial experience working with international partners. Data were content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. To further explore the meaning of the interview findings, we also conducted some new analyses of data from a previous questionnaire study of Russian and American ISS mission control personnel. The interview data showed that respondents had substantial consensus on several leadership and cultural challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Surprisingly few respondents offered strategies for addressing the challenge of working with team members whose native language is not American English. The questionnaire data showed that Americans think it is more important than Russians that mission control personnel speak the same dialect of one shared common language. Although specific to the ISS program, our results are consistent with recent management, cultural, and aerospace research. We aim to use our results to improve training for current and future ISS flight controllers.

  4. Modified Hardy and Hardy-Littlewood operators and their behaviour in various spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volosivets, Sergei S.

    2011-02-01

    We study the behaviour of modified Hardy and Hardy-Littlewood operators in \\mathbf P-adic Herz and Hölder-Besov spaces and in spaces close to \\mathbf P-adic Hardy spaces and {BMO}. We also establish a Titchmarsh-type equation for distributions and obtain an estimate for the multiplicative Fourier transform in \\mathbf P-adic Hardy spaces.

  5. Milestones Towards Hot CMC Structures for Operational Space Rentry Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hald, H.; Weihs, H.; Reimer, T.

    2002-01-01

    Hot structures made of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) for space reentry vehicles play a key role regarding feasibility of advanced and reusable future space transportation systems. Thus realization of applicable flight hardware concerning hot primary structures like a nose cap or body flaps and thermal protection systems (TPS) requires system competence w.r.t. sophisticated know how in material processing, manufacturing and qualification of structural components and in all aspects from process control, use of NDI techniques, arc jet testing, hot structure testing to flight concept validation. This goal has been achieved so far by DLR while following a dedicated development road map since more than a decade culminating at present in the supply of the nose cap system for NASA's X-38; the flight hardware has been installed successfully in October 2001. A number of unique hardware development milestones had to be achieved in the past to finally reach this level of system competence. It is the intention of this paper to highlight the most important technical issues and achievements from the essential projects and developments to finally provide a comprehensive insight into DLR's past and future development road map w.r.t. CMC hot structures for space reentry vehicles. Based on DLR's C/C-SiC material which is produced with the inhouse developed liquid silicon infiltration process (LSI) the development strategy first concentrated on basic material properties evaluation in various arc jet testing facilities. As soon as a basic understanding of oxidation and erosion mechanisms had been achieved further efforts concentrated on inflight verification of both materials and design concepts for hot structures. Consequently coated and uncoated C/C-SiC specimens were integrated into the ablative heat shield of Russian FOTON capsules and they were tested during two missions in 1992 and 1994. Following on, a hot structure experiment called CETEX which principally was a kind of a

  6. ISS And Space Environment Interactions Without Operating Plasma Contactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Ferguson, Dale; Suggs,Rob; McCollum, Matt

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will be the largest, highest power spacecraft placed in orbit. Because of this the design of the electrical power system diverged markedly from previous systems. The solar arrays will operate at 160 V and the power distribution voltage will be 120 V. The structure is grounded to the negative side of the solar arrays so under the right circumstances it is possible to drive the ISS potential very negative. A plasma contactor has been added to the ISS to provide control of the ISS structure potential relative to the ambient plasma. The ISS requirement is that the ISS structure not be greater than 40 V positive or negative of local plasma. What are the ramifications of operating large structures with such high voltage power systems? The application of a plasma contactor on ISS controls the potential between the structure and the local plasma, preventing degrading effects. It is conceivable that there can be situations where the plasma contactor might be non-functional. This might be due to lack of power, the need to turn it off during some of the build-up sequences, the loss of functionality for both plasma contactors before a replacement can be installed, similar circumstances. A study was undertaken to understand how important it is to have the contactor functioning and how long it might be off before unacceptable degradation to ISS could occur. The details of interaction effects on spacecraft have not been addressed until driven by design. This was true for ISS. If the structure is allowed to float highly negative impinging ions can sputter exposed conductors which can degrade the primary surface and also generate contamination due to the sputtered material. Arcing has been known to occur on solar arrays that float negative of the ambient plasma. This can also generate electromagnetic interference and voltage transients. Much of the ISS structure and pressure module surfaces exposed to space is anodized aluminum. The anodization

  7. ISS And Space Environment Interactions Without Operating Plasma Contactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Ferguson, Dale; Suggs,Rob; McCollum, Matt

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will be the largest, highest power spacecraft placed in orbit. Because of this the design of the electrical power system diverged markedly from previous systems. The solar arrays will operate at 160 V and the power distribution voltage will be 120 V. The structure is grounded to the negative side of the solar arrays so under the right circumstances it is possible to drive the ISS potential very negative. A plasma contactor has been added to the ISS to provide control of the ISS structure potential relative to the ambient plasma. The ISS requirement is that the ISS structure not be greater than 40 V positive or negative of local plasma. What are the ramifications of operating large structures with such high voltage power systems? The application of a plasma contactor on ISS controls the potential between the structure and the local plasma, preventing degrading effects. It is conceivable that there can be situations where the plasma contactor might be non-functional. This might be due to lack of power, the need to turn it off during some of the build-up sequences, the loss of functionality for both plasma contactors before a replacement can be installed, similar circumstances. A study was undertaken to understand how important it is to have the contactor functioning and how long it might be off before unacceptable degradation to ISS could occur. The details of interaction effects on spacecraft have not been addressed until driven by design. This was true for ISS. If the structure is allowed to float highly negative impinging ions can sputter exposed conductors which can degrade the primary surface and also generate contamination due to the sputtered material. Arcing has been known to occur on solar arrays that float negative of the ambient plasma. This can also generate electromagnetic interference and voltage transients. Much of the ISS structure and pressure module surfaces exposed to space is anodized aluminum. The anodization

  8. Space adaptation syndrome: Incidence and operational implications for the space transportation system program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homick, J. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Vanderploeg, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Better methods for the prediction, prevention, and treatment of the space adaptation syndome (SAS) were developed. A systematic, long range program of operationally oriented data collection on all individuals flying space shuttle missions was initiated. Preflight activities include the use of a motion experience questionnaire, laboratory tests of susceptibility to motion sickness induced by Coriolis stimuli and determinations of antimotion sickness drug efficacy and side effects. During flight, each crewmember is required to provide a daily report of symptom status, use of medications, and other vestibular related sensations. Additional data are obtained postflight. During the first nine shuttle missions, the reported incidence of SAS has been48%. Self-induced head motions and unusual visual orientation attitudes appear to be the principal triggering stimuli. Antimotion sickness medication, was of limited therapeutic value. Complete recovery from symptoms occurred by mission day three or four. Also of relevance is the lack of a statistically significant correlation between the ground based Coriolis test and SAS. The episodes of SAS have resulted in no impact to shuttle mission objectives and, no significant impact to mission timelines.

  9. Offensive Counter Space Operations: Capabilities, Command, and Considerations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-10

    The opponent also does not have to be a superpower who can afford the technology of complex space systems . Even an adversary with no...economic standpoint as well as militarily. The Ptolemaic nature of space demonstrates that so much depends on maintaining access to it; without it we...whatever vulnerability we might have.”4 What one may not realize is how important access to and the use of space systems are to the enemy. Not only

  10. NASA Headquarters Space Operations Center: Providing Situational Awareness for Spaceflight Contingency Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, Theresa G.; Bihner, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the NASA Headquarters mishap response process for the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs, and how the process has evolved based on lessons learned from the Space Shuttle Challenger and Columbia accidents. It also describes the NASA Headquarters Space Operations Center (SOC) and its special role in facilitating senior management's overall situational awareness of critical spaceflight operations, before, during, and after a mishap, to ensure a timely and effective contingency response.

  11. Applying real-time operations to integrate and evaluate Space Station Freedom design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George; Winkler, David

    1990-01-01

    During its 30 year lifetime, Space Station Freedom will provide unique opportunities for a variety of research, commercial and space exploration activities. The diversity of Freedom's on-orbit operations and the partitioning of the spacecraft's flight elements and systems requires consideration of operations early in the design development. This paper presents a method for defining a structured relationship between Space Station Freedom real-time operations and system functionality, and discusses how this relationship can be used when evaluating the spacecraft design.

  12. Discrete analogue of generalized Hardy spaces and multiplication operators on homogenous trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukumar, Perumal; Ponnusamy, Saminathan

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we define discrete analogue of generalized Hardy spaces and its separable subspace on a homogenous rooted tree and study some of its properties such as completeness, inclusion relations with other spaces, separability, growth estimate for functions in these spaces and their consequences. Equivalent conditions for multiplication operators to be bounded and compact are also obtained. Furthermore, we discuss about point spectrum, approximate point spectrum and spectrum of multiplication operators and discuss when a multiplication operator is an isometry.

  13. Communications satellite systems operations with the space station. Volume 3: Supplementary technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, K. M.; Russell, P.; Weyandt, C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA space station has the potential to provide significant economic benefits to commercial communications satellite operators. The initial reports qunatified the benefits of space-based activities and assessed the impacts on the satellite design and the space station. Results are given for the following additional tasks: quantify the value of satellite retrievability operations and define its operational aspects; evaluate the use of expendable launch vehicles for transportation of satellites from the Earth to the space station; and quantify the economic value of modular satellites that are assembled and serviced in space.

  14. Glenn's Telescience Support Center Provided Around-the-Clock Operations Support for Space Experiments on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malarik, Diane C.

    2005-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center s Telescience Support Center (TSC) allows researchers on Earth to operate experiments onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and the space shuttles. NASA s continuing investment in the required software, systems, and networks provides distributed ISS ground operations that enable payload developers and scientists to monitor and control their experiments from the Glenn TSC. The quality of scientific and engineering data is enhanced while the long-term operational costs of experiments are reduced because principal investigators and engineering teams can operate their payloads from their home institutions.

  15. Medical operations and life sciences activities on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C. (Editor); Mason, J. A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Space station health maintenance facilities, habitability, personnel, and research in the medical sciences and in biology are discussed. It is assumed that the space station structure will consist of several modules, each being consistent with Orbiter payload bay limits in size, weight, and center of gravity.

  16. The role of robotics in space system operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meissinger, H. F.; Spector, V. A.

    1985-01-01

    The role of automation and robotics in support of man's activities in space is discussed, with emphasis given to satellite servicing functions on board the NASA Space Station (SS) or at remote locations. Consideration is given to four satellite servicing mission scenarios, including: low-earth-orbit (LEO) servicing of satellite in situ or on the Space Station following orbital transfer by means of an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV); in situ servicing of a free-flying coorbiting materials processing platform; repair/refurbishment of Space Station payloads of substations; an in situ servicing of geostationary satellites by means of an Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). The potential applications of three different automation technologies are examined, including: teleoperation; robotics; and artificial intelligence. Consideration is also given to the potential applications of the Space Station data system in support of servicing activities. A list of the more common terms of automation technology is provided.

  17. The role of robotics in space system operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meissinger, H. F.; Spector, V. A.

    1985-01-01

    The role of automation and robotics in support of man's activities in space is discussed, with emphasis given to satellite servicing functions on board the NASA Space Station (SS) or at remote locations. Consideration is given to four satellite servicing mission scenarios, including: low-earth-orbit (LEO) servicing of satellite in situ or on the Space Station following orbital transfer by means of an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV); in situ servicing of a free-flying coorbiting materials processing platform; repair/refurbishment of Space Station payloads of substations; an in situ servicing of geostationary satellites by means of an Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). The potential applications of three different automation technologies are examined, including: teleoperation; robotics; and artificial intelligence. Consideration is also given to the potential applications of the Space Station data system in support of servicing activities. A list of the more common terms of automation technology is provided.

  18. Towards a Decision Support System for Space Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila; Hogle, Charles; Ruszkowski, James

    2013-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) has put in place a Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) technological framework for the development and execution of the Flight Production Process (FPP). This framework has provided much added value and return on investment to date. This paper describes a vision for a model based Decision Support System (DSS) for the development and execution of the FPP and its design and development process. The envisioned system extends the existing MBSE methodology and technological framework which is currently in use. The MBSE technological framework currently in place enables the systematic collection and integration of data required for building an FPP model for a diverse set of missions. This framework includes the technology, people and processes required for rapid development of architectural artifacts. It is used to build a feasible FPP model for the first flight of spacecraft and for recurrent flights throughout the life of the program. This model greatly enhances our ability to effectively engage with a new customer. It provides a preliminary work breakdown structure, data flow information and a master schedule based on its existing knowledge base. These artifacts are then refined and iterated upon with the customer for the development of a robust end-to-end, high-level integrated master schedule and its associated dependencies. The vision is to enhance this framework to enable its application for uncertainty management, decision support and optimization of the design and execution of the FPP by the program. Furthermore, this enhanced framework will enable the agile response and redesign of the FPP based on observed system behavior. The discrepancy of the anticipated system behavior and the observed behavior may be due to the processing of tasks internally, or due to external factors such as changes in program requirements or conditions associated with other organizations that are outside of

  19. Characterization of Metering, Merging and Spacing Requirements for Future Trajectory-Based Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally

    2017-01-01

    Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO) is one of the essential paradigm shifts in the NextGen transformation of the National Airspace System. Under TBO, aircraft are managed by 4-dimensional trajectories, and airborne and ground-based metering, merging, and spacing operations are key to managing those trajectories. This paper presents the results of a study of potential metering, merging, and spacing operations within a future TBO environment. A number of operational scenarios for tactical and strategic uses of metering, merging, and spacing are described, and interdependencies between concurrent tactical and strategic operations are identified.

  20. Space Operations Center system analysis. Volume 3, book 2: SOC system definition report, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Space Operations Center (SOC) orbital space station program operations are described. A work breakdown structure for the general purpose support equipment, construction and transportation support, and resupply and logistics support systems is given. The basis for the design of each element is presented, and a mass estimate for each element supplied. The SOC build-up operation, construction, flight support, and satellite servicing operations are described. Detailed programmatics and cost analysis are presented.

  1. Overview and Results of ISS Space Medicine Operations Team (SMOT) Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. Magee; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Armstrong, Cheryl; McDonald, P. Vernon; Duncan, James M.; Bogomolov, V. V.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Medicine Operations Team (SMOT) was created to integrate International Space Station (ISS) Medical Operations, promote awareness of all Partners, provide emergency response capability and management, provide operational input from all Partners for medically relevant concerns, and provide a source of medical input to ISS Mission Management. The viewgraph presentation provides an overview of educational objectives, purpose, operations, products, statistics, and its use in off-nominal situations.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) shipping container test operations at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Ground crews look on as a crane lifts the 11,500 pound aluminum cap from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) shipping container in front of the Multiuse Mission Support Equipment (MMSE) Building at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). KSC workers continue to test and checkout the container which will be used to transport the 43 foot long, 14 foot diameter telescope from Lockheed in Sunnyvale, California to KSC next year. The telescope is scheduled for launch aboard the space shuttle in November 1988. View provided by KSC with alternate KSC number KSC-87PC-502.

  3. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) shipping container test operations at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Ground crews look on as a crane lifts the 11,500 pound aluminum cap from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) shipping container in front of the Multiuse Mission Support Equipment (MMSE) Building at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). KSC workers continue to test and checkout the container which will be used to transport the 43 foot long, 14 foot diameter telescope from Lockheed in Sunnyvale, California to KSC next year. The telescope is scheduled for launch aboard the space shuttle in November 1988. View provided by KSC with alternate KSC number KSC-87PC-502.

  4. Planning assembly/disassembly operations for space telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanderson, Arthur C.; Homem De Mello, Luiz

    1987-01-01

    Space telerobotic systems will perform complex tasks of assembly, disassembly, and repair of space-based equipment. Planning such tasks requires reasoning about the functional, physical, and geometrical properties of the equipment, as well as a representation of the characteristics and capabilities of the manipulators and sensors available for the task. The And/Or graph is a useful approach to representation of feasible assembly/disassembly sequences and provides the basis for search among alternative strategies. The paper describes the use of parts entropy measures as evaluation criteria for search in the And/Or graph space. This approach leads to candidate task plans which minimize the complexity of intermediate geometrical states.

  5. Spectrum of the Wilson Dirac operator at finite lattice spacings

    SciTech Connect

    Akemann, G.; Damgaard, P. H.; Splittorff, K.; Verbaarschot, J. J. M.

    2011-04-15

    We consider the effect of discretization errors on the microscopic spectrum of the Wilson Dirac operator using both chiral perturbation theory and chiral random matrix theory. A graded chiral Lagrangian is used to evaluate the microscopic spectral density of the Hermitian Wilson Dirac operator as well as the distribution of the chirality over the real eigenvalues of the Wilson Dirac operator. It is shown that a chiral random matrix theory for the Wilson Dirac operator reproduces the leading zero-momentum terms of Wilson chiral perturbation theory. All results are obtained for a fixed index of the Wilson Dirac operator. The low-energy constants of Wilson chiral perturbation theory are shown to be constrained by the Hermiticity properties of the Wilson Dirac operator.

  6. SEI in-space operations and support challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Ronald

    A modeling and assessment process used to integrate SEI operations and support (OAS) planning processes with the systems engineering design, and system integration disciplines. Four areas of the OAS activity require the development of large infrastructures to maintain an operational capability: earth, orbital, transorbital, and lunar/Martian surface locations. An analytical process that can be used to develop OAS requirements is illustrated. Relationships of manufacturing, prelaunch operations, and orbital operations when deriving requirements are shown. If a concurrent engineering process is used, a more operationally efficient design can be defined early in the program to support all functions. Challenges associated with SEI logistics, the necessity for using functional analyses in the development of system requirements, some candidate operational lunar or Mars systems, and analytical modeling results on the candidate designs are discussed.

  7. The derivative and tangent operators of a motion in Lorentzian space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durmaz, Olgun; Aktaş, Buşra; Gündoğan, Hali˙t

    In this paper, by using Lorentzian matrix multiplication, L-Tangent operator is obtained in Lorentzian space. The L-Tangent operators related with planar, spherical and spatial motion are computed via special matrix groups. L-Tangent operators are related to vectors. Some illustrative examples for applications of L-Tangent operators are also presented.

  8. In-Space Assembly and Construction Technology Project Summary: Infrastructure Operations Area of the Operations Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Harold

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs describing the in-space assembly and construction technology project of the infrastructure operations area of the operation technology program are presented. Th objective of the project is to develop and demonstrate an in-space assembly and construction capability for large and/or massive spacecraft. The in-space assembly and construction technology program will support the need to build, in orbit, the full range of spacecraft required for the missions to and from planet Earth, including: earth-orbiting platforms, lunar transfer vehicles, and Mars transfer vehicles.

  9. Adaption of space station technology for lunar operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garvey, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Space Station Freedom technology will have the potential for numerous applications in an early lunar base program. The benefits of utilizing station technology in such a fashion include reduced development and facility costs for lunar base systems, shorter schedules, and verification of such technology through space station experience. This paper presents an assessment of opportunities for using station technology in a lunar base program, particularly in the lander/ascent vehicles and surface modules.

  10. Towards Improved Operational Command and Control of Space Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-10

    extend a special thanks to CDR J . Scott McPherson for providing the inspiration to explore this particular topic, as well as for aiding in the final...25. Lambeth, Benjamin S. Mastering the Ultimate High Ground: Next Steps in the Military Uses of Space. Arlington, VA: RAND, 2003. McPherson, J ... Scott . “The Utility of Space-Based Weapons.” Research paper, Newport, RI: Salve Regina University, Humanities Department, 2006. Scott, William B

  11. Space shuttle/payload interface analysis. Volume 4: Business Risk and Value of Operations in Space (BRAVO). Part 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Background information is provided which emphasizes the philosophy behind analytical techniques used in the business risk and value of operations in space (BRAVO) study. The focus of the summary is on the general approach, operation of the procedures, and the status of the study. For Vol. 1, see N74-12493; for Vol. 2, see N74-14530.

  12. Automation and Robotics for space operation and planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montemerlo, Melvin D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective of Automation and Robotics (A&R) research and developments at NASA in terms of its history, its current status, and its future. It covers artificial intelligence, telerobotics and planetary rovers, and it encompasses ground operations, operations in earth orbit, and planetary exploration.

  13. Automation and Robotics for space operation and planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montemerlo, Melvin D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective of Automation and Robotics (A&R) research and developments at NASA in terms of its history, its current status, and its future. It covers artificial intelligence, telerobotics and planetary rovers, and it encompasses ground operations, operations in earth orbit, and planetary exploration.

  14. Operational radiological support for the US manned space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golightly, Michael J.; Hardy, Alva C.; Atwell, William; Weyland, Mark D.; Kern, John; Cash, Bernard L.

    1993-01-01

    Radiological support for the manned space program is provided by the Space Radiation Analysis Group at NASA/JSC. This support ensures crew safety through mission design analysis, real-time space environment monitoring, and crew exposure measurements. Preflight crew exposure calculations using mission design information are used to ensure that crew exposures will remain within established limits. During missions, space environment conditions are continuously monitored from within the Mission Control Center. In the event of a radiation environment enhancement, the impact to crew exposure is assessed and recommendations are provided to flight management. Radiation dosimeters are placed throughout the spacecraft and provided to each crewmember. During a radiation contingency, the crew could be requested to provide dosimeter readings. This information would be used for projecting crew dose enhancements. New instrumentation and computer technology are being developed to improve the support. Improved instruments include tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC)-based dosimeters and charged particle telescopes. Data from these instruments will be telemetered and will provide flight controllers with unprecedented information regarding the radiation environment in and around the spacecraft. New software is being acquired and developed to provide 'smart' space environmental data displays for use by flight controllers.

  15. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration for Responsive Space Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Robert G.; Notardonato, William U.

    2013-01-01

    Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units (IGODU) project developed to mature, integrate and demonstrate advancements in cryogenics, system health management and command and control technologies. Two Distinct Testing Environments: a) GODU Integrated Refrigeration and Storage - GODU LH2; b) GODU Autonomous Control - GODU LO2. Scope: I. GODU LH2: a) Investigate alternative storage and distribution architecture for future cryogenic propellant operations. b) Demonstrate advanced cryogenic propellant handling operations (liquefaction, storage and distribution) of normal boiling point and sub-cooled cryogenic propellants. II. GODU L02: a) Develop and demonstrate advanced control and health management technologies and techniques to autonomously control cryogenic propellant servicing operations. b) Investigate modern COTS hardware and control systems in an effort to reduce the "standing army" of engineers associated with maintaining and operating ground systems through the use of health management and autonomous control technologies. Goals: a) Raise Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) and Integration Readiness Levels (IRL) of several key technology development areas. b) Reduce operations lifecycle costs of future test programs and launch complexes. c) Demonstrate technologies for future exploration beyond low earth orbit. d) Serve as test environments for extraterrestrial surface operations.

  16. Space Shuttle utilization characteristics with special emphasis on payload design, economy of operation and effective space exploitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, D. N.

    1981-01-01

    The reusable manned Space Shuttle has made new and innovative payload planning a reality and opened the door to a variety of payload concepts formerly unavailable in routine space operations. In order to define the payload characteristics and program strategies, current Shuttle-oriented programs are presented: NASA's Space Telescope, the Long Duration Exposure Facility, the West German Shuttle Pallet Satellite, and the Goddard Space Flight Center's Multimission Modular Spacecraft. Commonality of spacecraft design and adaptation for specific mission roles minimizes payload program development and STS integration costs. Commonality of airborne support equipment assures the possibility of multiple program space operations with the Shuttle. On-orbit maintenance and repair was suggested for the module and system levels. Program savings from 13 to over 50% were found obtainable by the Shuttle over expendable launch systems, and savings from 17 to 45% were achievable by introducing reuse into the Shuttle-oriented programs.

  17. Space Shuttle utilization characteristics with special emphasis on payload design, economy of operation and effective space exploitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, D. N.

    1981-01-01

    The reusable manned Space Shuttle has made new and innovative payload planning a reality and opened the door to a variety of payload concepts formerly unavailable in routine space operations. In order to define the payload characteristics and program strategies, current Shuttle-oriented programs are presented: NASA's Space Telescope, the Long Duration Exposure Facility, the West German Shuttle Pallet Satellite, and the Goddard Space Flight Center's Multimission Modular Spacecraft. Commonality of spacecraft design and adaptation for specific mission roles minimizes payload program development and STS integration costs. Commonality of airborne support equipment assures the possibility of multiple program space operations with the Shuttle. On-orbit maintenance and repair was suggested for the module and system levels. Program savings from 13 to over 50% were found obtainable by the Shuttle over expendable launch systems, and savings from 17 to 45% were achievable by introducing reuse into the Shuttle-oriented programs.

  18. Operability of Space Station Freedom's meteoroid/debris protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahl, Maggie S.; Stokes, Jack W.

    1992-01-01

    The design of Space Station Freedom's external structure must not only protect the spacecraft from the hazardous environment, but also must be compatible with the extra vehicular activity system for assembly and maintenance. The external procedures for module support are utility connections, external orbital replaceable unit changeout, and maintenance of the meteoroid/debris shields and multilayer insulation. All of these interfaces require proper man-machine engineering to be compatible with the extra vehicular activity and manipulator systems. This paper discusses design solutions, including those provided for human interface, to the Space Station Freedom meteoroid/debris protection system. The system advantages and current access capabilities are illustrated through analysis of its configuration over the Space Station Freedom resource nodes and common modules, with emphasis on the cylindrical sections and endcones.

  19. Operational design factors for advanced space transportation vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehair, C. L.; Hickman, R. A.; Adams, J. D.; Wolfe, M. G.

    1992-08-01

    The tools and techniques needed to provide design decision-makers with balanced quantitative assessments of the potential operability consequences of their decisions are addressed. The factors controlling operability are identified, and a methodology to predict the impact of these factors on a specific launch vehicle is developed. Requirements to control these factors are established, and analytical tools developed specifically for performing detailed simulations to verify specific operability characteristics are described. An approach to collect, store, organize, and access high-quality historical, current, and future launch system data for the benefit of the USAF and the U.S. launch system community at large is outlined.

  20. Legal Issues inherent in space shuttle operations. [reviewed by NASA Deputy General Counsel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The legal issues inherent in NASA's proceeding into the day-to-day operations of the space shuttle and other elements of the Space Transportation System are considered in light of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958. Based on this review, it was concluded that there is no immediate need for substantive amendments to that legislation.