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Sample records for hills meghalaya india

  1. Multivariate analysis of subsurface radiometric data in Rongsohkham area, East Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya (India): implication on uranium exploration.

    PubMed

    Kukreti, B M; Pandey, Pradeep; Singh, R V

    2012-08-01

    Non-coring based exploratory drilling was under taken in the sedimentary environment of Rangsohkham block, East Khasi Hills district to examine the eastern extension of existing uranium resources located at Domiasiat and Wakhyn in the Mahadek basin of Meghalaya (India). Although radiometric survey and radiometric analysis of surface grab/channel samples in the block indicate high uranium content but the gamma ray logging results of exploratory boreholes in the block, did not obtain the expected results. To understand this abrupt discontinuity between the two sets of data (surface and subsurface) multivariate statistical analysis of primordial radioactive elements (K(40), U(238) and Th(232)) was performed using the concept of representative subsurface samples, drawn from the randomly selected 11 boreholes of this block. The study was performed to a high confidence level (99%), and results are discussed for assessing the U and Th behavior in the block. Results not only confirm the continuation of three distinct geological formations in the area but also the uranium bearing potential in the Mahadek sandstone of the eastern part of Mahadek Basin.

  2. Interpolation study on ambient gamma levels in parts of Khasi Hills, Meghalaya (India): Preliminary findings for U exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukreti, B. M.; Sharma, G. K.; Kumar, Pramod; Hamilton, Sandeep

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses an experimental approach to examine uranium exploration avenue over the geologically extended parts of Mahadek basin in Meghalaya, amid some of the environmental constraints. Study comprises periodic measurements of prevailing ambient gamma levels across 320 georeference points, in relation to the major litho units of Mahadek basin, covering 673 line km of Khasi Hills. Acquired sample data points were then analysed in geostatistical software (SurferTM) to develop analytical model of sample variogram having bearing on the uranium exploration in the area. Study findings have given encouraging surface indicators with mostly elevated gamma levels over the parts of West Khasi Hills. Delineated gamma anomalous zones are lithologically well correlated including to that of existing uranium occurrences in the basin. Identified anomalous zones over the parts of West Khasi Hills by this study work, are mainly associated with the Mahadek sandstone (Upper and Lower Mahadek) and Precambrian basement granites. Lower Mahadek sandstone is host rock for uranium mineralisation in the basin. Initial findings suggest with the closer spatial resolution (˜1 km) of sample data points, the approach adopted by the study work holds promising application in locating potential uranium exploration targets especially to the extended and inaccessible parts of the basin.

  3. 210-Polonium studies in some environmental and biological matrices of Domiasiat uranium deposit area, West Khasi Hills, Meghalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Marbaniang, Deswyn G; Poddar, Raj K; Nongkynrih, Phlis; Khathing, Darlando T

    2010-03-01

    The study was performed using a silicon surface barrier alpha spectrometer at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India. Through the study, the observed (210)Po activity in water sample from different locations in the Domiasiat area ranges from 0.04 to 0.69 Bq/l. The daily and annual intake of (210)Po through water was also estimated and the mean value of 0.72 and 263.61 Bq, respectively, were observed. It is observed that the effective doses through water were higher than the World Health Organization recommended dose of 0.05 mSv/year. The total annual effective doses through terrestrial ingestion for all the locations was studied and the mean annual effective dose was observed to be 0.315 mSv, which, when compared to the worldwide and the Indian values, was observed to be slightly higher. The mean activity in soil is found to be 124.8 +/-5.7 Bq/kg and in meat the activity is 0.43 +/-0.05 Bq/kg. In fishes, an activity of 0.48 +/-0.07 Bq/kg in Garra lamta, 0.29 +/-0.02 Bq/kg in Neolissocheilus hexaganolepis, and 3.3 +/-0.1 Bq/kg in Macrobrachium sp. is observed. Activity concentration in plant samples was analyzed and the activity ranges from 0.020 +/-0.002 to 9.69 +/-0.35 Bq/kg. Committed effective dose by the adult population of the Domiasiat area through intake of (210)Po through these food items was also determined and compared with the Indian average value and the worldwide average value.

  4. Chikungunya outbreak in Garo Hills, Meghalaya: An epidemiological perspective

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Siraj Ahmed; Dutta, Prafulla; Topno, Rashmee; Borah, Jani; Chowdhury, Purvita; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Chikungunya (CHIK) fever is a mosquito-borne disease caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Chikungunya infection was first reported from India in 1963 from Kolkata. We report the serological and molecular evidence of an outbreak of chikungunya in northeast India that occurred in Tura, a hilly and forested terrain in Garo Hills district of Meghalaya. Methods: Blood samples (3 ml) collected from hospitalized patients during the outbreak were tested for IgM antibodies against CHIKV and followed up four months later. A repeat survey was carried out in the same area after four months from where cases had been reported. Blood samples were also collected from people with history of fever and body ache in the last four months. Persons showing IgM positivity against CHIKV in the repeat survey were followed up one and a half years later. All samples were also processed by RT-PCR assay for CHIK Envelope (E) 1 gene. Immature mosquitoes were collected, link reared and identified with standard keys. Virus incrimination studies were done on Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes collected during the survey. Results: Fever, headache and joint pain were the primary clinical presentations. Twenty three (35.93 %) of 64 samples reported during the outbreak were IgM positive for CHIK. Three samples showed PCR amplification. All these were IgM positive. The sequenced E1 gene revealed that the strains belonged to East Central South African (ECSA) genotype. Interpretation & conclusions: Field survey done after four months revealed that some individuals still had joint pain associated with episodes of headache and fever. It could be inferred that these persons might have contracted infection during the CHIK outbreak four months ago or during the intervening period which caused persistence of sequelae. ECSA genotype was found to be involved in the outbreak. Aedes albopictus was the predominant mosquito species collected during the outbreak. PMID:26139776

  5. Development of experimental approach to examine U occurrence continuity over the extended area reconnoitory boreholes: Lostoin Block, West Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya (India).

    PubMed

    Kukreti, B M; Kumar, Pramod; Sharma, G K

    2015-10-01

    Exploratory drilling was undertaken in the Lostoin block, West Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya based on the geological extension to the major uranium deposit in the basin. Gamma ray logging of drilled boreholes shows considerable subsurface mineralization in the block. However, environmental and exploration related challenges such as climatic, logistic, limited core drilling and poor core recovery etc. in the block severely restricted the study of uranium exploration related index parameters for the block with a high degree confidence. The present study examines these exploration related challenges and develops an integrated approach using representative sampling of reconnoitory boreholes in the block. Experimental findings validate a similar geochemically coherent nature of radio elements (K, Ra and Th) in the Lostoin block uranium hosting environment with respect to the known block of Mahadek basin and uranium enrichment is confirmed by the lower U to Th correlation index (0.268) of hosting environment. A mineralized zone investigation in the block shows parent (refers to the actual parent uranium concentration at a location and not a secondary concentration such as the daughter elements which produce the signal from a total gamma ray measurement) favoring uranium mineralization. The confidence parameters generated under the present study have implications for the assessment of the inferred category of uranium ore in the block and setting up a road map for the systematic exploration of large uranium potential occurring over extended areas in the basin amid prevailing environmental and exploratory impediments. PMID:26164149

  6. Speleothems from Mawsmai and Krem Phyllut caves, Meghalaya, India: some evidences on biogenic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskar, Sushmitha; Baskar, R.; Lee, Natuschka; Theophilus, P. K.

    2009-05-01

    The Mawsmai cave and Krem Phyllut caves, East Khasi hills, Meghalaya, India has so far not yet attracted the attention of geomicrobiologists. Observations and hypotheses on the possible influence of identified microorganisms for speleothem formations in Meghalaya are reported for the first time. XRD studies identified calcite in speleothems and gypsum in cave wall deposits as the dominant minerals. SEM-EDAX showed interesting microfabric features showing strong resemblance with fossilised bacteria, calcified filaments, needle calcite and numerous nano scale calcite crystals, highly weathered and disintegrated crystals of calcite, that point towards a significant microbial influence in its genesis. Thin section petrography showed laminated stromatolitic features. The microorganisms identified by conventional isolation and further evaluation of isolates by molecular techniques include Bacillus cereus, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus licheniformis, Micrococcus luteus, and Actinomycetes. Microscopic observations also showed unidentifiable cocci and four unidentifiable strains of CaSO4 (gypsum) precipitating bacteria. Experimental studies confirmed that these bacteria are able to precipitate calcium minerals (calcite, gypsum, minor amounts of dolomite) in the laboratory. These results allow us to postulate that species like these may contribute to active biogenic influence in the cave formations at Meghalaya.

  7. Description of a new species of the genus Hulecoeteomyia (Diptera: Culicidae) from Meghalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, R; Rajavel, A R; Jambulingam, P

    2016-01-01

    Female and male adults, female and male genitalia, pupa and larva of Hulecoeteomyia cherrapunjiensis, a new mosquito species, are described from Meghalaya, India. Keys to separate larvae and adults are provided. PMID:27470727

  8. Sexuality and 'silence' among Khasi youth of Meghalaya, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    War, Ryntihlin Jennifer; Albert, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The importance of sex education has been well documented in the literature, but there exists a lack of research involving indigenous youth in India. This paper describes perceptions, knowledge and attitudes towards sex education, sexuality, pre-marital sex, rape and homosexuality among indigenous students from the matrilineal Khasi tribe attending a university in Meghalaya in northeast India. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected during and after reproductive health, sexuality and life skills courses. Despite the impression of sexual permissiveness of indigenous peoples that exists in India, students reported a societal silence on issues related to sexuality. Lack of appropriate words in the indigenous language potentially contributes to this silence. Although co-habitation is common and culturally acceptable, students disapproved of pre-marital sex. The influence of Christianisation was also perceived in the frequent reference to sin and guilt associated with masturbation, homosexuality, pre-marital sex and abortion. Students reported that the sex education received in school was 'childish' and inadequate for their adult needs. Many had unrealistic images of what constituted 'normal' sex and also blamed women for rape. The majority of indigenous students expressed the need for non-judgmental fora for discussions on sexual health and for sexuality education.

  9. The K-T Transition in Meghalaya, NE India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertsch, B.; Keller, G.; Adatte, T.; Garg, R.; Prasad, V.; Berner, Z.; Ateequzzaman, K.; Stueben, D.

    2008-12-01

    produced in the hypolimnion. Sedimentological, mineralogical, geochemical, biostratigraphic and paleoecological studies of the Um Sohryngkew Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) transition in the Khasi Hills of Meghalaya, India, reveal biotic and environmental changes about 800 km from the Deccan volcanic province (DVP). Upper Cretaceous sediments consist mainly of conglomerates, glauconitic sandstone, sandy shale, calcareous shale with a few shell beds and rare coal pockets, all of which indicate deposition in a shallow marine environment with high detrital influx from nearby continental terrains. High kaolinite and illite indicate high humidity and high runoff. The K-T transition is in calcareous silty shale and marked by a 1 cm thin "rust colored" layer with high anomalies in Ir (11.8 ppb), Ru (108 ppb), Rh (93 ppb) and Pd (75 pbb). In the Danian, kaolinite remains the dominant clay mineral, suggesting humid climatic conditions. In contrast, semi-arid climate conditions prevailed in the contemporaneous Deccan Traps province, which appears to be linked to "mock aridity" (Harris and Van Couvering, 1995, Khadkikar et al., 1999). Microfossil assemblages define the K-T boundary. Nannofossils are common throughout the Upper Maastrichtian interval. Assemblages dominated by Micula decussata and Watzenueria barnesae along with common Ceratolithioides kampteneri and Lithraphidites quadratus are typical of the low latitude Tethys and Micula prinsii attests to the presence of the terminal Maastrichtian. Dinoflagellate cysts are common to abundant with increased frequencies of peridiniods, terrestrial organic matter and framboidal pyrite in the uppermost Maastrichtian. This suggests high nutrient loading possibly leading to stressful eutrophic conditions. Dinogymnium and Alisogymnium species have their last occurrences at the K-T boundary. The first appearence of Danian nannofossil species Neobiscutum romeinii and Biantholithus sparsus appear at 5 cm and 15 cm above the K-T boundary

  10. Helminth parasite spectrum of fishes in Meghalaya, Northeast India: a checklist.

    PubMed

    Jyrwa, Donald B; Thapa, Sunila; Tandon, Veena

    2016-06-01

    Fish constitute a major component of diet for the people of Northeast India and they are extensively used as a protein-rich food for human consumption. The present studies incorporate the spectrum, composition and diversity of the parasitic species in freshwater fishes in Meghalaya, Northeast India, with a view to identifying the species recovered by morphological criteria based on light microscopy. The collection sites included sixteen foci from eleven districts of Meghalaya for parasites occurring in the common food fishes (Cypriniformes, Channiformes, Silurformes, Symbranchiformes and Anguilliformes). The helminth parasite spectrum recovered from the various piscine host species in the study area comprised of a total of 19 taxa: 2 monogenean, 8 trematode (4 adult and 4 metacercarial stages), 12 cestode (11 adult and a metacestode stage), 6 nematode (3 adult and 3 larval stages) and a single acanthocephalan species. A checklist of the parasite species with short remarks for each is provided herein. PMID:27413300

  11. From jhum to broom: Agricultural land-use change and food security implications on the Meghalaya Plateau, India.

    PubMed

    Behera, Rabi Narayan; Nayak, Debendra Kumar; Andersen, Peter; Måren, Inger Elisabeth

    2016-02-01

    Human population growth in the developing world drives land-use changes, impacting food security. In India, the dramatic change in demographic dynamics over the past century has reduced traditional agricultural land-use through increasing commercialization. Here, we analyze the magnitude and implications for the farming system by the introduction of cash-cropping, replacing the traditional slash and burn rotations (jhum), of the tribal people on the Meghalaya Plateau, northeast India, by means of agricultural census data and field surveys conducted in seven villages. Land-use change has brought major alterations in hill agricultural practices, enhanced cash-cropping, promoted mono-cropping, changed food consumption patterns, underpinned the emergence of a new food system, and exposed farmers and consumers to the precariousness of the market, all of which have both long- and short-term food security implications. We found dietary diversity to be higher under jhum compared to any of the cash-crop systems, and higher under traditional cash-cropping than under modern cash-cropping. PMID:26254789

  12. Daughter preference and contraceptive-use in matrilineal tribal societies in Meghalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Narzary, Pralip Kumar; Sharma, Shilpi Mishra

    2013-06-01

    Although son preference in patrilineal society is an established fact, daughter preference in matrilineal society is not thoroughly examined. Very few studies have been carried out on the issue. This paper attempts to explore the daughter preference and contraceptive-use in matrilineal tribal societies in Meghalaya, India. Data from the National Family Health Survey 1998-1999 have been used in this study because, among the large-scale surveys, only this dataset allows identification of matrilineal sample. Mean, percentage, and standard deviation are computed in the present study. Further, the data have been cross-tabulated, and logistic regression has been run through SPSS (version 15). Among the ever-married matrilineal women, 17% desired more sons than daughters but 18.2% desired more daughters than sons. About 11% of ever-married women could achieve their desired sex composition of children. However, a very striking finding suggests that, even after achieving desired sex composition of children, as high as 61.8% of women were still not using contraception mainly because of programme factors while one-fourth were still depending on temporary methods. The rest 13.2% adopted terminal method of contraception, which calls for immediate attention of planners. With the increase in the number of sons but without daughter, contraceptive-use drastically decreased. The most desired sex composition of children seems to be two daughters and a son. Absence of daughter with increase in the total number of sons increased the desire for additional children. Every woman with two or more sons but without daughter wanted the next child to be a daughter. Thus, there are ample evidences to draw the conclusion that there is, in fact, a daughter preference in the matrilineal tribal societies in Meghalaya, India. Policy-makers may, thus, target the women who have achieved fertility and should ensure that daughter preference does not lead to the negligence to sons.

  13. REE mineralization in the carbonatites of the sung valley ultramafic-alkaline-carbonatite complex, Meghalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiq, Mohd.; Ranjith, A.; Umrao, Ravi Kumar

    2014-12-01

    The Early Cretaceous Sung Valley Ultramafic-Alkaline-Carbonatite (SUAC) complex intruded the Proterozoic Shillong Group of rocks and located in the East Khasi Hills and West Jaintia Hills districts of Meghalaya. The SUAC complex is a bowl-shaped depression covering an area of about 26 km2 and is comprised serpentinised peridotite forming the core of the complex with pyroxenite rim. Alkaline rocks are dominantly ijolite and nepheline syenite, occur as ring-shaped bodies as well as dykes. Carbonatites are, the youngest intrusive phase in the complex, where they form oval-shaped bodies, small dykes and veins. During the course of large scale mapping in parts of the Sung Valley complex, eleven carbonatite bodies were delineated. These isolated carbonatite bodies have a general NW-SE and E-W trend and vary from 20-125 m long and 10-40 m wide. Calcite carbonatite is the dominant variety and comprises minor dolomite and apatite and accessory olivine, magnetite, pyrochlore and phlogopite. The REE-bearing minerals identified in the Sung Valley carbonatites are bastnäsite-(Ce), ancylite-(Ce), belovite-(Ce), britholite-(Ce) and pyrochlore that are associated with calcite and apatite. The presence of REE carbonates and phosphates associated with REE-Nb bearing pyrochlore enhances the economic potential of the Sung Valley carbonatites. Trace-element geochemistry also reveals an enrichment of LREEs in the carbonatites and average ΣREE value of 0.102% in 26 bed rock samples. Channel samples shows average ΣREE values of 0.103 wt%. Moreover, few samples from carbonatite bodies has indicated relatively higher values for Sn, Hf, Ta and U. Since the present study focuses surface evaluation of REE, therefore, detailed subsurface exploration will be of immense help to determine the REE and other associated mineralization of the Sung Valley carbonatite prospect.

  14. Ethnomedicinal plants used for diarrhea by tribals of Meghalaya, Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Laloo, Damiki; Hemalatha, Siva

    2011-01-01

    Environmental status and diarrhea is regarded as a complex and multidimensional topic. Diarrhea is one of the main water-borne diseases considered to be endemic in many regions of the world and brings the major health threats to the world populations, both in tropical and subtropical poor countries. The state Meghalaya situated in the North-Eastern India is an upland landmass bound by seven districts surrounded within by different tribes. The population is predominantly rural, with 81.41% of the population belongs merely to the scheduled tribes. The state offers a wide range of disease environments, dominated by communicable diseases (35.68%), and diarrhea is one of the water-borne diseases that alter the society of the state. Various factors like poor environmental sanitation, unavailability of safe drinking water, seasonal rainfall, infected foods, infection through fomites, flies, cockroaches, etc. are the main culprit that led to the cause of diarrhea in the state. The local people are very much closely associated with nature, and with their ethnobiological knowledge about the plants available around them, they can easily avert and cure themselves from several disease complications. In this review, the information regarding the traditional method of utilization of 58 plant species that are used to treat and cure diarrhea and dysentery are enlisted briefly. PMID:22279372

  15. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Neoproterozoic Mylliem granitoids, Meghalaya Plateau, northeastern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Jyotisankar; Saha, Abhishek; Ganguly, Sohini; Balaram, V.; Krishna, A. Keshav; Hazra, Sampa

    2011-06-01

    The Mylliem granitoids of the Meghalaya Plateau, northeastern India, represent one of the disharmonic Neoproterozoic igneous plutons, which are intrusive into low-grade Shillong Group of metasediments. Field studies indicate that the Mylliem granitoids cover an area of about 40 km2 and is characterized by development of variable attitude of primary foliations mostly marked along the margin of the pluton. Xenoliths of both Shillong Group of metasediments and mafic rocks have been found to occur within Mylliem granitoids. Structural study of the primary foliation is suggestive of funnel-shaped intrusion of Mylliem granitoids with no appreciable evidence of shearing. Petrographically, Mylliem granitoids are characterized by pink to white phenocrysts of prismatic microcline/perthite and lath-shaped plagioclase (An20-An29). Groundmass material is characterized by quartz, microcline, plagioclase, muscovite and biotite. Sphene and apatite occur as accessory minerals. Petrographically Mylliem granitoids have been discriminated as granite and granodiorite according to IUGS system of classification. Critical evaluation of geochemical data and variation trends of major oxides/trace elements suggests a significant role of fractional crystallization in the evolution of Mylliem pluton. Th/U ratios (3.22-6.77) indicate a relatively higher abundance of Th over U. Chondrite-normalized REE diagram characteristically shows an enriched LREE pattern and prominent negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 0.16-0.42) indicating the significant role of plagioclase fractionation from the parent magma. An overall strong REE fractionation pattern has been envisaged for Mylliem granitoids. The strong REE fractionation of the Mylliem granitoids is depicted by (Ce/Yb) N values, which show a range of 1.39 to 1.65. The aluminium saturation index (ASI) (ranging from 1.0 to 1.3), A/CNK ratios (ranging from 1.4 to 2.11) and A/NK ratios (ranging from 1.75 to 2.43) provide evidences for the peraluminous, S

  16. Crustacean-borne infections with microphallid metacercariae (Digenea: Microphallidae) from focal areas in Meghalaya, north-east India.

    PubMed

    Goswami, L M; Prasad, P K; Biswal, D K; Chatterjee, A; Tandon, V

    2013-06-01

    During a survey of edible Crustacea for recovery of infective stages (metacercariae) of potential helminthozoonoses of trematode origin in north-east India, the crab species Barytelphusa lugubris mansoniana, collected from suspected foci of lungfluke infection in Meghalaya and Assam, was found to harbour metacercarial cysts that were different from the earlier reported infection, in which the lungfluke Paragonimus was confirmed to be implicated. Using morphological criteria, this metacercaria was identified as Microphallus indicus Mukherjee & Ghosh, 1967 of the trematode family Microphallidae. The present study extends the previous work by providing molecular characterization of this parasite using ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions (rDNA ITS1 and ITS2) and the partial large ribosomal subunit DNA, lsr. These target regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using trematode universal primers and sequenced. In BLAST analysis the query sequences were found close to members of Microphallidae and closest to the genus Microphallus.

  17. Detection of Peste des petits ruminants virus and goatpox virus from an outbreak in goats with high mortality in Meghalaya state, India

    PubMed Central

    Karim, A.; Bhattacharjee, U.; Puro, K.; Shakuntala, I.; Sanjukta, R.; Das, S.; Ghatak, S.; Sen, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We describe a laboratory investigation carried out to confirm the etiology of the heavy mortality (37 animals died out of total 44, i.e. 84%) in goats in Ri-Bhoi district of Meghalaya, Northeast region of India in December 2015. The clinical signs observed were abortion, diarrhea, high fever (up to 104°F), pox lesion in the skin, and respiratory distress. Materials and Methods: The samples comprising whole blood, sera, and pox lesion were collected from the animals (n=7) from an outbreak for the screening of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and poxviruses. The whole blood and sera were used for screening of PPR virus (PPRV) by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and antibody by competitive ELISA as well as detection of PPRV partial N gene by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The skin lesions were used for the detection of poxvirus by PCR. Results: The results showed the presence of PPR antigens (58-80%) in the samples by sandwich ELISA and antibody in all the sera samples ranging from 9% to 41% positivity in competitive ELISA. Four samples were positive for PPRV partial N gene. The skin lesion screened for poxvirus was also found to be positive for I3L gene of goatpox virus. Conclusion: We confirm the outbreak of disease in goats with high mortality is a case of mixed infection of PPR and goatpox detected for the first time in Northeast India. PMID:27733807

  18. Zn(II) and Cu(II) removal by Nostoc muscorum: a cyanobacterium isolated from a coal mining pit in Chiehruphi, Meghalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Smita; Diengdoh, Omega L; Syiem, Mayashree B; Pakshirajan, Kannan; Kiran, Mothe Gopi

    2015-03-01

    Nostoc muscorum was isolated from a coal mining pit in Chiehruphi, Meghalaya, India, and its potential to remove Zn(II) and Cu(II) from media and the various biochemical alterations it undergoes during metal stress were studied. Metal uptake measured as a function of the ions removed by N. muscorum from media supplemented independently with 20 μmol/L ZnSO4 and CuSO4 established the ability of this cyanobacterium to remove 66% of Zn(2+) and 71% of Cu(2+) within 24 h of contact time. Metal binding on the cell surface was found to be the primary mode of uptake, followed by internalization. Within 7 days of contact, Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) mediated dissimilar effects on the organism. For instance, although chlorophyll a synthesis was increased by 12% in Zn(2+)-treated cells, it was reduced by 26% in Cu(2+)-treated cells. Total protein content remained unaltered in Zn(2+)-supplemented medium; however, a 15% reduction was noticed upon Cu(2+) exposure. Copper enhanced both photosynthesis and respiration by 15% and 19%, respectively; in contrast, photosynthesis was unchanged and respiration dropped by 11% upon Zn(2+) treatment. Inoculum age also influenced metal removal ability. Experiments in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (a photosynthetic inhibitor), carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (an uncoupler), and exogenous ATP established that metal uptake was energy dependent, and photosynthesis contributed significantly towards the energy pool required to mediate metal removals.

  19. A database on endemic plants at Tirumala hills in India

    PubMed Central

    Latheef, Shaik Abdul; Prasad, Beerkam; Bavaji, Middi; Subramanyam, Gangapatnam

    2008-01-01

    Medicinal plants play an important role in health care. The use of medicinal plants for treatment is growing in view of cost and non-compliance of modern medicine as in case of non-communicable diseases. Plants such as Boswellia, ovalifoliolata, Cycas beddomei, Pimpinella tirupatiensis, Pterocarpus santalinus, Shorea thumbuggaia, Syzygium alternifolium, Terminalia pallida are endemic to Tirumala hills of seshachalam range falling under the Eastern Ghats of India. These plants species have medicinal properties such as anti-tumorogenic, anti-microbial, purgative, hypoglycemic, abortificient, analgesic, anti-septic, anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory. We created a database named DEPTH in an attempt to communicate data of these plants to the scientific community. DEPTH contains data on scientific name, vernacular name, family name, morphological description, economic importance, known medicinal compounds and medicinal importance. Availability http://svimstpt.ap.nic.in/MedicinalPlants/mainpage.htm PMID:18317578

  20. SRTM Colored and Shaded Topography: Haro and Kas Hills, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001, the Kachchh region in western India suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. This shaded topography view of landforms northeast of the city of Bhuj depicts geologic structures that are of interest in the study the tectonic processes that may have led to that earthquake. However, preliminary field studies indicate that these structures are composed of Mesozoic rocks that are overlain by younger rocks showing little deformation. Thus these structures may be old, not actively growing, and not directly related to the recent earthquake.

    The Haro Hills are on the left and the Kas Hills are on the right. The Haro Hills are an 'anticline,' which is an upwardly convex elongated fold of layered rocks. In this view, the anticline is distinctly ringed by an erosion resistant layer of sandstone. The east-west orientation of the anticline may relate to the crustal compression that has occurred during India's northward movement toward, and collision with, Asia. In contrast, the largest of the Kas Hills appears to be a tilted (to the south) and faulted (on the north) block of layered rocks. Also seen here, the linear feature trending toward the southwest from the image center is an erosion-resistant 'dike,' which is an igneous intrusion into older 'host' rocks along a fault plane or other crack. These features are simple examples of how shaded topography can provide a direct input to geologic studies.

    In this image, colors show the elevation as measured by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Colors range from green at the lowest elevations, through yellow and red, to purple at the highest elevations. Elevations here range from near sea level to about 300 meters (about 1000 feet). Shading has been added, with illumination from the north (image top).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same

  1. SRTM Stereo Pair: Haro and Kas Hills, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001 the Kachchh region in western India suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. This stereoscopic view of landforms northeast of the city of Bhuj depicts geologic structures that are of interest in the study the tectonic processes that may have led to that earthquake. However, preliminary field studies indicate that these structures are composed of Mesozoic rocks that are overlain by younger rocks showing little deformation. Thus these structures may be old, not actively growing, and not directly related to the recent earthquake.

    The Haro Hills are on the left and the Kas Hills are on the right. The Haro Hills are an 'anticline,' which is an upwardly convex elongated fold of layered rocks. The anticline is distinctly ringed by an erosion resistant layer of sandstone. The east-west orientation of the anticline may relate to the crustal compression that has occurred during India's northward movement toward, and collision with, Asia. In contrast, the largest of the Kas Hills appears to be a tilted (to the south) and faulted (on the north) block of layered rocks. Also seen here, the curvilinear ridge trending toward the southwest from the image center is an erosion resistant 'dike,' which is an igneous intrusion into older 'host' rocks along a fault plane or other crack. The dike also appears to extend northeast from the image center as a dark line having very little topography. Its location between the tilted block and a smaller anticline to the north (directly east of the larger anticline) probably indicates that the dike fills the fault that separates these contrasting geologic structures. These features are simple examples of how digital elevation data can stereoscopically enhance satellite imagery to provide a direct input to geologic studies.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image (taken just two weeks after the earthquake) over a preliminary Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM

  2. SRTM Stereo Pair: Haro and Kas Hills, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001 the Kachchh region in western India suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. This stereoscopic view of landforms northeast of the city of Bhuj depicts geologic structures that are of interest in the study the tectonic processes that may have led to that earthquake. However, preliminary field studies indicate that these structures are composed of Mesozoic rocks that are overlain by younger rocks showing little deformation. Thus these structures may be old, not actively growing, and not directly related to the recent earthquake.

    The Haro Hills are on the left and the Kas Hills are on the right. The Haro Hills are an 'anticline,' which is an upwardly convex elongated fold of layered rocks. The anticline is distinctly ringed by an erosion resistant layer of sandstone. The east-west orientation of the anticline may relate to the crustal compression that has occurred during India's northward movement toward, and collision with, Asia. In contrast, the largest of the Kas Hills appears to be a tilted (to the south) and faulted (on the north) block of layered rocks. Also seen here, the curvilinear ridge trending toward the southwest from the image center is an erosion resistant 'dike,' which is an igneous intrusion into older 'host' rocks along a fault plane or other crack. The dike also appears to extend northeast from the image center as a dark line having very little topography. Its location between the tilted block and a smaller anticline to the north (directly east of the larger anticline) probably indicates that the dike fills the fault that separates these contrasting geologic structures. These features are simple examples of how digital elevation data can stereoscopically enhance satellite imagery to provide a direct input to geologic studies.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image (taken just two weeks after the earthquake) over a preliminary Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM

  3. A new species of pterodectine feather mites (Acarina, Analgoidea, Proctophyllodidae) from the Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra (Passeriformes, Nectariniidae) in Meghalaya, India

    PubMed Central

    Constantinescu, Ioana Cristina; Chişamera, Gabriel; Mukhim, D. Khlur B.; Adam, Costică

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The article describes a new species of the feather mite subfamily Pterodectinae from the Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra Temminck, 1826 (Passeriformes, Nectariniidae) in India. Pedanodectes angustilobus sp. n. differs from all known Pedanodectes species by having opisthosomal lobes short, at base wider than long, roughly rounded apically in males, and strongly elongated and narrowed lobar region with wide terminal appendages in females. A key to species of the genus Pedanodectes is presented. PMID:25147445

  4. Ethnoveterinary medicine of the Shervaroy Hills of Eastern Ghats, India as alternative medicine for animals

    PubMed Central

    Usha, Swaminathan; Rajasekaran, Chandrasekaran; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2015-01-01

    The Eastern Ghats of India is well known for its wealth of natural vegetation and Shervaroy is a major hill range of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Ethnomedicinal studies in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu or the Shervaroy Hills have been carried out by various researchers. However, there is not much information available on ethnoveterinary medicine in the Eastern Ghats of India. The aim of this study was to examine the potential use of folk plants as alternative medicine for cattle to cure various diseases in the Shervaroy Hills of the Eastern Ghats. Based on interactions with traditional medicine practitioners, it has been observed that a total of 21 medicinal plants belonging to 16 families are used to cure various diseases such as mastitis, enteritis, arthritis, stomatitis, salivation from the mouth, wounding, and conjunctivitis in animals. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine is now confined only among the surviving older people and a few practitioners in the tribal communities of the Shervaroy Hills. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to document and preserve this immense treasure of traditional knowledge. PMID:26870689

  5. Ethnoveterinary medicine of the Shervaroy Hills of Eastern Ghats, India as alternative medicine for animals.

    PubMed

    Usha, Swaminathan; Rajasekaran, Chandrasekaran; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    The Eastern Ghats of India is well known for its wealth of natural vegetation and Shervaroy is a major hill range of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Ethnomedicinal studies in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu or the Shervaroy Hills have been carried out by various researchers. However, there is not much information available on ethnoveterinary medicine in the Eastern Ghats of India. The aim of this study was to examine the potential use of folk plants as alternative medicine for cattle to cure various diseases in the Shervaroy Hills of the Eastern Ghats. Based on interactions with traditional medicine practitioners, it has been observed that a total of 21 medicinal plants belonging to 16 families are used to cure various diseases such as mastitis, enteritis, arthritis, stomatitis, salivation from the mouth, wounding, and conjunctivitis in animals. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine is now confined only among the surviving older people and a few practitioners in the tribal communities of the Shervaroy Hills. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to document and preserve this immense treasure of traditional knowledge.

  6. Ethnoveterinary medicine of the Shervaroy Hills of Eastern Ghats, India as alternative medicine for animals.

    PubMed

    Usha, Swaminathan; Rajasekaran, Chandrasekaran; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    The Eastern Ghats of India is well known for its wealth of natural vegetation and Shervaroy is a major hill range of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Ethnomedicinal studies in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu or the Shervaroy Hills have been carried out by various researchers. However, there is not much information available on ethnoveterinary medicine in the Eastern Ghats of India. The aim of this study was to examine the potential use of folk plants as alternative medicine for cattle to cure various diseases in the Shervaroy Hills of the Eastern Ghats. Based on interactions with traditional medicine practitioners, it has been observed that a total of 21 medicinal plants belonging to 16 families are used to cure various diseases such as mastitis, enteritis, arthritis, stomatitis, salivation from the mouth, wounding, and conjunctivitis in animals. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine is now confined only among the surviving older people and a few practitioners in the tribal communities of the Shervaroy Hills. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to document and preserve this immense treasure of traditional knowledge. PMID:26870689

  7. Entomofaunal diversity of tree hole mosquitoes in Western and Eastern Ghats hill ranges of Tamilnadu, India.

    PubMed

    Senthamarai Selvan, P; Jebanesan, A; Reetha, D

    2016-07-01

    The distribution and abundance of various mosquito vectors is important in the determination of disease prevalence in disease endemic areas. The aim of the present study was to conduct regular entomological surveillance and to determine the relative abundance of tree hole mosquito species in Tamilnadu, India. In addition to this, the impact of weather-conditions on tree hole mosquito population were evaluated between June, 2014 and May, 2015. Six hills ranges viz., Anaimalai hills, Kodaikanal hills, Sitheri hills, Kolli hills, Yercaud hills, and Megamalai were selected, the immatures collected from tree holes by the help of suction tube. Collections were made at dusk and dawn at randomly selected 15 different tree species. The collected samples were stored and morphologically identified to species level in the laboratory. Mosquito diversity was calculated by Simpson's and Shannon-Weiner diversity indicies with spatial and temporal aspects. Over 2642 mosquitoes comprising the primary vectors of dengue, chickungunya, malaria, filariasis were identified. Other species collected from the fifteen sites in each hill during the study included Christophersiomyia annularis, Christophersiomyia thomsoni, Downsiomyia albolateralis, Downsiomyia nivea and Toxorhynchites splendens, etc. Study revealed high species diversity and relative density associated with different study sites. Based on the Shannon diversity index high number of species was recorded with Aedes pseudoalbopicta (0.0829) followed by Ae. aegypti (0.0805) and least species was recorded as Anopheles elegans (0.0059). The distribution of the primary vectors of DF along the high occurrence was evident with most study sites representing proportions of this vector population. This showed the high risk level associated with the livestock movement in amplification and circulation of the virus during the outbreaks. The findings of this study, therefore, demonstrated the potential vulnerability of nomadic communities to

  8. Entomofaunal diversity of tree hole mosquitoes in Western and Eastern Ghats hill ranges of Tamilnadu, India.

    PubMed

    Senthamarai Selvan, P; Jebanesan, A; Reetha, D

    2016-07-01

    The distribution and abundance of various mosquito vectors is important in the determination of disease prevalence in disease endemic areas. The aim of the present study was to conduct regular entomological surveillance and to determine the relative abundance of tree hole mosquito species in Tamilnadu, India. In addition to this, the impact of weather-conditions on tree hole mosquito population were evaluated between June, 2014 and May, 2015. Six hills ranges viz., Anaimalai hills, Kodaikanal hills, Sitheri hills, Kolli hills, Yercaud hills, and Megamalai were selected, the immatures collected from tree holes by the help of suction tube. Collections were made at dusk and dawn at randomly selected 15 different tree species. The collected samples were stored and morphologically identified to species level in the laboratory. Mosquito diversity was calculated by Simpson's and Shannon-Weiner diversity indicies with spatial and temporal aspects. Over 2642 mosquitoes comprising the primary vectors of dengue, chickungunya, malaria, filariasis were identified. Other species collected from the fifteen sites in each hill during the study included Christophersiomyia annularis, Christophersiomyia thomsoni, Downsiomyia albolateralis, Downsiomyia nivea and Toxorhynchites splendens, etc. Study revealed high species diversity and relative density associated with different study sites. Based on the Shannon diversity index high number of species was recorded with Aedes pseudoalbopicta (0.0829) followed by Ae. aegypti (0.0805) and least species was recorded as Anopheles elegans (0.0059). The distribution of the primary vectors of DF along the high occurrence was evident with most study sites representing proportions of this vector population. This showed the high risk level associated with the livestock movement in amplification and circulation of the virus during the outbreaks. The findings of this study, therefore, demonstrated the potential vulnerability of nomadic communities to

  9. Medico-botanical study of Yercaud hills in the eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Parthipan, M; Aravindhan, V; Rajendran, A

    2011-04-01

    The study reports medicinal plant survey was conceded in Yercaud hills ranges of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The study primarily based on field surveys conducted throughout the hills, where dwellers provided information on plant species used as medicine, plant parts used to prepare the remedies and ailments to which the remedies were prescribed. The study resulted about 48- plant species belonging to 45- genera and 29- families of medicinal plants related to folk medicine used by the local people. Among them the most common plants viz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Cissus quadrangularis L., Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br., Justisia adhatoda L., Ocimum sanctum L., Phyllanthes amarus Schum. & Thonn., Piper nigrum L., Solanum nigrum L., Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, Tridax procumbens L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe which are used in their daily life to cure various ailments. PMID:22557438

  10. Consensus of the 'Malasars' traditional aboriginal knowledge of medicinal plants in the Velliangiri holy hills, India.

    PubMed

    Ragupathy, Subramanyam; Steven, Newmaster G; Maruthakkutti, Murugesan; Velusamy, Balasubramaniam; Ul-Huda, Muneer M

    2008-01-01

    There are many vanishing cultures that possess a wealth of knowledge on the medicinal utility of plants. The Malasars of Dravidian Tamils are an indigenous society occupying the forests of the Western Ghats, South India. They are known to be exceptional healers and keepers of traditional aboriginal knowledge (TAK) of the flora in the Velliangiri holy hills. In fact, their expertise is well known throughout India as evidenced by the thousands of pilgrims that go to the Velliangiri holy hills for healing every year. Our research is the first detailed study of medicinal plants in India that considers variation in TAK among informants using a quantitative consensus analysis. A total of 95 species belonging to 50 families were identified for medicinal and general health purposes. For each species the botanical name, family, local name, parts used, summary of mode of preparation, administration and curing are provided. The consensus analysis revealed a high level of agreement among the informants usage of a particular plant at a local scale. The average consensus index value of an informant was FIC > 0.71, and over 0.80 for some ailments such as respiratory and jaundice. Some of the more common problems faced by the Malasars were gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory illness, dermatological problems and simple illness such as fever, cough, cold, wounds and bites from poisonous animals. We also discovered several new ethnotaxa that have considerable medicinal utility. This study supports claims that the Malasars possess a rich TAK of medicinal plants and that many aboriginals and mainstream people (pilgrims) utilize medicinal plants of the Velliangiri holy hills. Unfortunately, the younger generation of Malasars are not embracing TAK as they tend to migrate towards lucrative jobs in more developed urban areas. Our research sheds some light on a traditional culture that believes that a healthy lifestyle is founded on a healthy environment and we suggest that TAK such as

  11. Consensus of the 'Malasars' traditional aboriginal knowledge of medicinal plants in the Velliangiri holy hills, India

    PubMed Central

    Ragupathy, Subramanyam; Steven, Newmaster G; Maruthakkutti, Murugesan; Velusamy, Balasubramaniam; Ul-Huda, Muneer M

    2008-01-01

    There are many vanishing cultures that possess a wealth of knowledge on the medicinal utility of plants. The Malasars of Dravidian Tamils are an indigenous society occupying the forests of the Western Ghats, South India. They are known to be exceptional healers and keepers of traditional aboriginal knowledge (TAK) of the flora in the Velliangiri holy hills. In fact, their expertise is well known throughout India as evidenced by the thousands of pilgrims that go to the Velliangiri holy hills for healing every year. Our research is the first detailed study of medicinal plants in India that considers variation in TAK among informants using a quantitative consensus analysis. A total of 95 species belonging to 50 families were identified for medicinal and general health purposes. For each species the botanical name, family, local name, parts used, summary of mode of preparation, administration and curing are provided. The consensus analysis revealed a high level of agreement among the informants usage of a particular plant at a local scale. The average consensus index value of an informant was FIC > 0.71, and over 0.80 for some ailments such as respiratory and jaundice. Some of the more common problems faced by the Malasars were gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory illness, dermatological problems and simple illness such as fever, cough, cold, wounds and bites from poisonous animals. We also discovered several new ethnotaxa that have considerable medicinal utility. This study supports claims that the Malasars possess a rich TAK of medicinal plants and that many aboriginals and mainstream people (pilgrims) utilize medicinal plants of the Velliangiri holy hills. Unfortunately, the younger generation of Malasars are not embracing TAK as they tend to migrate towards lucrative jobs in more developed urban areas. Our research sheds some light on a traditional culture that believes that a healthy lifestyle is founded on a healthy environment and we suggest that TAK such as

  12. Attacking Urban Poverty: The Role of the SNDT Women's University, Mumbai, India--The "Gilbert Hill Programme". Strategies of Education and Training for Disadvantaged Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamath, M.; Udipi, S. A.; Varghese, M. A.

    This study examined the role of the SNDT (formerly Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey) University in reducing poverty in the Gilbert Hill-Gamdevi Dongri area of Mumbai, India. The Gilbert Hill area accommodates around 1 million people, most of whom are migrants form other parts of India. The Department of Post-Graduate Studies and Research in…

  13. Ergonomic interventions in weeding operations for drudgery reduction of hill farm women of India.

    PubMed

    Kishtwaria, Jatinder; Rana, Aruna

    2012-01-01

    Weeding is an important time consuming and drudgery prone task mainly performed by hill farm women for almost all crops grown. This directs for interventions in terms of improved technologies (weeder, kutla and hoes) to relieve women from high energy demands, time spent and associated drudgery particularly for weeding activity. The study was conducted in two hill states of India viz. Himachal Pradesh (35 villages and 1500 representative samples) and Uttrakhand (10 villages and 500 representative samples). Experimental data were conducted on representative sub sample of 60 hill farm women of both states to assess physiological workload and musculo-skeletal problems both while working with traditional tools along with improved tools by employing selected parameters viz. physical fitness level, physiological parameters etc. The results showed that heart rate values were more than acceptable limits for task performed with the traditional tools as compared with improved tools. Significant reduction in the heart rate was observed while working with improved tools. Analysis of MSDs showed that the postural stress and severity of pain in various body parts was reduced by adopting new technology. Hence, the use of improved weeding tools is recommended over the existing ones for drudgery reduction. PMID:22317388

  14. Cytomorphological investigations in Oxyria digyna Hill. from the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Umer; Saggoo, M I S

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, detailed cytomorphological investigations in Oxyria digyna Hill. from Kashmir Himalaya-India have been reported for the first time. All the of 14 investigated populations of O. digyna are diploid based on x = 7. Out of these in two populations 0-2B chromosomes have been recorded for the first time while 6 populations differed significantly in their meiotic characteristics. Meiotic abnormalities during male meiosis observed include inter PMC chromatin transfer (cytomixis). Non-synchronous disjunction of some bivalents, laggards and bridges at anaphases and telophases. Consequent to these meiotic anomalies, microsporogenesis in meiocytes is abnormal resulting in to dyads, triads and polyads with or without micronuclei. The overall effect is seen in reduced pollen fertility. Unreduced pollen grains were observed in some populations, which differed significantly in their size compared to the normal (reduced) pollen grains. It is observed that a smaller frequency of pollen grains differed morphologically in Aharbal and Yosmarg populations. The remaining eight populations showed regular meiotic course, normal microsporogenesis and high percentage of pollen fertility (95.09-99.09%).

  15. Multivariate statistical analysis of heavy metal concentration in soils of Yelagiri Hills, Tamilnadu, India - Spectroscopical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekaran, A.; Ravisankar, R.; Harikrishnan, N.; Satapathy, K. K.; Prasad, M. V. R.; Kanagasabapathy, K. V.

    2015-02-01

    Anthropogenic activities increase the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil environment. Soil pollution significantly reduces environmental quality and affects the human health. In the present study soil samples were collected at different locations of Yelagiri Hills, Tamilnadu, India for heavy metal analysis. The samples were analyzed for twelve selected heavy metals (Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn) using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy. Heavy metals concentration in soil were investigated using enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF) and pollution load index (PLI) to determine metal accumulation, distribution and its pollution status. Heavy metal toxicity risk was assessed using soil quality guidelines (SQGs) given by target and intervention values of Dutch soil standards. The concentration of Ni, Co, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ti, K, Al, Mg were mainly controlled by natural sources. Multivariate statistical methods such as correlation matrix, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied for the identification of heavy metal sources (anthropogenic/natural origin). Geo-statistical methods such as kirging identified hot spots of metal contamination in road areas influenced mainly by presence of natural rocks.

  16. Connecting Ancient Land Use and Landform Histories: The Geoarchaeology of Central Karnataka's (South India) Residual Hills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, A. M.; Morrison, K.

    2011-12-01

    In India, environmental historians have promoted the view that human impact on regional environments was relatively modest prior to the advent of colonization in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. While this orthodoxy does highlight the significance of recent changes, it is based on unsupportable assumptions about human-environment relationships prior to colonization. Recent research in the southern Deccan, an area characterized by nearly-level plains punctuated with isolated granitic hills, has shown that soils and vegetation were already highly modified by the sixteenth century. We expand this work to show how Iron Age (1200-500 BCE) and Early Historic (500 BCE - CE 500) inhabitants significantly altered the morphology of the granitic inselbergs themselves as well as the distribution of soils in the region, impacting the geomorphological processes that have shaped this environment more generally. Combining archaeological excavation and survey results with multispectral remote sensing analyses of landforms, we argue that ancient agricultural and pastoral land use had environmental consequences that have significantly constrained and enabled land use in later periods.

  17. Description of a new species, Toxorhynchites (Toxorhynchites) tyagii (Diptera: Culicidae), from Nilgiri hills, Western Ghats, southern India.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, R; Munirathinam, A; Dhananjeyan, K J; Hiriyan, J; Mariappan, T; Samuel, P Philip; Venkatesh, A

    2013-01-01

    Specimens of Toxorhynchites (Toxorhynchites) tyagii, sp. n., were collected from the fringe areas of Gudaloor town, Ooty in the Nilgiri hills at an altitude of 1000 m above sea level in Western Ghats ranges in southern India during October 2011 and from Darjeeling ranges in the northern hilly region of Raymatang TG in Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal, in eastern India during February 2012. The adults, pupa and fourth-instar larva of this species are described and illustrated to distinguish it from Toxorhynchites (Tox.) splendens and Toxorhynchites (Tox.) edwardsi, which are the closest allies of Tx. (Tox.) tyagii. Besides possessing remarkable distinguishing male genital characteristics, Tx. tyagii differs from Tx. splendens also by the presence of conspicuous yellow scale-patches over the wing root that extend to the scutellum, and differs from Tx. edwardsi by having midtarsomeres 3-5 all dark whereas in Tx. edwardsi tarsomeres 3 and 4 and a larger part of 5 are white.

  18. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Manipur, one of the seven North-Eastern Hill states of India: a future danger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Singh, E. Jayantakumar; Das, Bhaskar; Shah, Babar Ali; Hossain, M. Amir; Nayak, Bishwajit; Ahamed, Sad; Singh, N. Rajmuhon

    2008-11-01

    Manipur State, with a population of 2.29 million, is one of the seven North-Eastern Hill states in India, and is severely affected by groundwater arsenic contamination. Manipur has nine districts out of which four are in Manipur Valley where 59% of the people live on 10% of the land. These four districts are all arsenic contaminated. We analysed water samples from 628 tubewells for arsenic out of an expected total 2,014 tubewells in the Manipur Valley. Analyzed samples, 63.3%, contained >10 μg/l of arsenic, 23.2% between 10 and 50 μg/l, and 40% >50 μg/l. The percentages of contaminated wells above 10 and 50 μg/l are higher than in other arsenic affected states and countries of the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra (GMB) Plain. Unlike on the GMB plains, in Manipur there is no systematic relation between arsenic concentration and the depth of tubewells. The source of arsenic in GMB Plain is sediments derived from the Himalaya and surrounding mountains. North-Eastern Hill states were formed at late phase of Himalaya orogeny, and so it will be found in the future that groundwater arsenic contamination in the valleys of other North-Eastern Hill states. Arsenic contaminated aquifers in Manipur Valley are mainly located within the Newer Alluvium. In Manipur, the high rainfall and abundant surface water resources can be exploited to avoid repeating the mass arsenic poisoning that has occurred on the GMB plains.

  19. Watershed development practices for ecorestoration in a tribal area - A case study in Attappady hills, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnudas, Subha; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Zaag, Pieter Van der

    Attappady is a rural area in Kerala, South India, that has suffered from severe land degradation and which is inhabited by a poor and predominantly tribal population. The combination of severe land degradation, poverty and a tribal population make Attappady hydrologically and socially unique. Ecological degradation and deforestation followed the gradual building up of land pressure resulting from immigration by more wealthy outsiders. The hills of Attappady were once the forest land of Kerala. Recently it was on the verge of complete degradation. This paper explains how an ecorestoration project involving soil and water conservation interventions, the introduction of agro-forestry, nutritional diversification, income generation activities and training was implemented in a participatory manner. The project had positive impacts on both the environment and the livelihoods of the people living in the watershed, but it also suffered from drawbacks. This paper reports on the successes as well as the lessons learned from this unique ecorestoration project.

  20. Epilithic diatoms as biological water quality indicators--A study in three geographically isolated hill streams in India.

    PubMed

    Paul, Shyam Sundar; Mallik, Bipul; Mandal, Manjushree; Biswas, Biswajit; Sekh, Sanoyaz; Sarkar, Neera Sen

    2016-03-01

    Epilithic diatoms from three geographically isolated hill streams of Central and Eastern India were studied and analysed to find their efficacy in determining difference in ecological conditions of aquatic systems. Three sampling sites (site-1, site-2 and site-3) shared commonness of being hill streams of forests with difference in source points. 34 diatom species were identified with species-richness of 17 at site 1, 10 at site 2 and 19 at site 3. Two sets of hypotheses-null (H01, H02 and H03) and alternative (HA1, HA2 and HA3) were framed. Null hypotheses were rejected in favour of alternative hypotheses. Diversity t-tests yielded significant 't' values: at (α < 0.0001 and < 0.002, implying differences within the sampling sites. Furthermore, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon paired-sample tests were performed to test the alternative hypotheses, of which Kruskal-Wallis yielded significant difference between the sample medians with χ² = 5.457 at p = 0.03801, and Wilcoxon paired-sample test yielded significant differences between sampling site pairs at α(2) = 0.05 and 0.10. Thus significant differences could be established based only on diversity profile study of the epilithic diatoms.

  1. Molecular characterization of cellulose-degrading Bacillus pumilus from the soil of tea garden, Darjeeling hills, India.

    PubMed

    Padaria, Jasdeep Chatrath; Sarkar, Kanishendranath; Lone, Showkat Ahmad; Srivastava, Sunita

    2014-05-01

    Bio-fuel produced from ethanol is economically and environmentally advantageous in context of changing global climate. A large number of microorganisms are capable of cellulase production but most of them cannot be utilized commercially due to their low activity. In the present study, an effiecient cellulose degrading strain of Bacillus pumilus was obtained after thorough screening for the production of extracellular cellulases. Out of a total of 144 microbes isolated from soils of Darjeeling hills of India, nineteen were found to be cellulose degrader under in vitro conditions as observed by clearing zone on CMC - agar plates. Isolate #35 had high cellulolytic activity as observed by a clearing zone of 26.83 mm diameter formed on CMC - agar plate. The isolate was characterized and identified as Bacillus pumilus. The isolate was submitted to National Agriculturally Important Microbial Culture Collection (NAIMCC), NBAIM, Mau with Accession number NAIMCC-B-01415. Transposon (Tn5) mutants of wild type isolate Bacillus pumilus NAIMCC-B-01415 were generated and screened for the absence of cellulose degradation. Of 365 B. pumilus NAIMCC-B-01415 mutants obtained, only two were unable to degrade cellulose under in vitro conditions. Inverse PCR studies with B. pumilus NAIMCC-B-01415 :: TL5, a cellulose degradation mutant of B. pumilus NAIMCC -B-01415 revealed presence of Cys B (Cystein protein regulatory) gene involved in cellulose degradation. The participation of Cys B gene in cellulase degradation is reported here.

  2. Possible detachment zone in Precambrian rocks of Kanjamalai Hills, Cauvery Suture Zone, Southern India: Implications to accretionary tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, D. P.; Chetty, T. R. K.

    2014-07-01

    Existence of a possible detachment zone at Elampillai region, NW margin of Kanjamalai Hills, located in the northern part of Cauvery Suture Zone (CSZ), Southern India, is reported here for the first time. Detailed structural mapping provides anatomy of the zone, which are rarely preserved in Precambrian high grade terranes. The detachment surface separates two distinct rock units of contrasting lithological and structural characters: the upper and lower units. The detachment zone is characterized by a variety of fold styles with the predominance of tight isoclinal folds with varied plunge directions, limb rotations and the hinge line variations often leading to lift-off fold like geometries and deformed sheath folds. Presence of parasitic folding and associated penetrative strains seem to be controlled by differences in mechanical stratigraphy, relative thicknesses of the competent and incompetent units, and the structural relief of the underlying basement. Our present study in conjunction with other available geological, geochemical and geochronological data from the region indicates that the structures of the detachment zone are genetically related to thrust tectonics forming a part of subduction-accretion-collision tectonic history of the Neoproterozoic Gondwana suture.

  3. Multivariate statistical analysis of heavy metal concentration in soils of Yelagiri Hills, Tamilnadu, India--spectroscopical approach.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, A; Ravisankar, R; Harikrishnan, N; Satapathy, K K; Prasad, M V R; Kanagasabapathy, K V

    2015-02-25

    Anthropogenic activities increase the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil environment. Soil pollution significantly reduces environmental quality and affects the human health. In the present study soil samples were collected at different locations of Yelagiri Hills, Tamilnadu, India for heavy metal analysis. The samples were analyzed for twelve selected heavy metals (Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn) using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy. Heavy metals concentration in soil were investigated using enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF) and pollution load index (PLI) to determine metal accumulation, distribution and its pollution status. Heavy metal toxicity risk was assessed using soil quality guidelines (SQGs) given by target and intervention values of Dutch soil standards. The concentration of Ni, Co, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ti, K, Al, Mg were mainly controlled by natural sources. Multivariate statistical methods such as correlation matrix, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied for the identification of heavy metal sources (anthropogenic/natural origin). Geo-statistical methods such as kirging identified hot spots of metal contamination in road areas influenced mainly by presence of natural rocks.

  4. Modern pollen rain from the Biligirirangan-Melagiri hills of southern Eastern Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Anupama; Ramesh; Bonnefille

    2000-02-01

    A total of 39 soil surface samples collected between 11 degrees 30'N 76 degrees 45'E and 12 degrees 45'N 78 degrees 15'E from the mainly deciduous forests in the Biligirirangan-Melagiri hills of the southern Eastern Ghats were analysed for their pollen content. The samples are distributed among four different deciduous and evergreen vegetation types between 210 and 1700m altitudes and fall within three distinct rainfall regimes. The aims of this paper are to provide new data on the modern pollen rain from the Southern Eastern Ghats, a region characterized by a unique and complex climate and vegetation, and to interpret these data using multivariate statistics and the diagram of pollen percentages. We could distinguish first between the deciduous and the evergreen forests and then also between different types of deciduous forest. The distinction between the evergreen and deciduous forests was based on a humidity gradient and that among the deciduous forests on a physiognomic gradient identified through correspondence analysis. The above analysis also allowed us to identify a set of 14 pollen taxa markers and 11 associated pollen taxa that help differentiate the evergreen from deciduous forests. Similarly, a set of 12 pollen taxa markers and six associated pollen taxa was demarcated to help distinguish woodland formations from scrub and thicket formations, among the deciduous vegetation. We could also differentiate amongst the four distinct vegetation types sampled, on the basis of distinct associations of both tree and herb pollen taxa according to their relative abundance in the pollen diagram as well as on the proportion of total arboreal pollen. The ground cover of grasses and other herbaceous plants in the deciduous forests is effectively demonstrated by percentages of non-arboreal pollen varying between 40 and 70%. The 1000m altitude limit reflecting a gradient of humidity and the physiognomic gradient among deciduous forests seem to be important in this region.

  5. Mammalian gastrointestinal parasites in rainforest remnants of Anamalai Hills, Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Debapriyo; Hussain, Shaik; Reddy, D Mahendar; Raut, Sachin; Tiwari, Sunil; Kumar, Vinod; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2015-06-01

    Habitat fragmentation is postulated to be a major factor influencing infectious disease dynamics in wildlife populations and may also be responsible, at least in part, for the recent spurt in the emergence, or re-emergence, of infectious diseases in humans. The mechanism behind these relationships are poorly understood due to the lack of insights into the interacting local factors and insufficient baseline data in ecological parasitology of wildlife. Here, we studied the gastrointestinal parasites of nonhuman mammalian hosts living in 10 rainforest patches of the Anamalai Tiger Reserve, India. We examined 349 faecal samples of 17 mammalian species and successfully identified 24 gastrointestinal parasite taxa including 1 protozoan, 2 trematode, 3 cestode and 18 nematode taxa. Twenty of these parasites are known parasites of humans. We also found that as much as 73% of all infected samples were infected by multiple parasites. In addition, the smallest and most fragmented forest patches recorded the highest parasite richness; the pattern across fragments, however, seemed to be less straightforward, suggesting potential interplay of local factors.

  6. Quantitative estimation of landslide risk from rapid debris slides on natural slopes in the Nilgiri hills, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, P.; van Westen, C. J.; Jetten, V.

    2011-06-01

    A quantitative procedure for estimating landslide risk to life and property is presented and applied in a mountainous area in the Nilgiri hills of southern India. Risk is estimated for elements at risk located in both initiation zones and run-out paths of potential landslides. Loss of life is expressed as individual risk and as societal risk using F-N curves, whereas the direct loss of properties is expressed in monetary terms. An inventory of 1084 landslides was prepared from historical records available for the period between 1987 and 2009. A substantially complete inventory was obtained for landslides on cut slopes (1042 landslides), while for natural slopes information on only 42 landslides was available. Most landslides were shallow translational debris slides and debris flowslides triggered by rainfall. On natural slopes most landslides occurred as first-time failures. For landslide hazard assessment the following information was derived: (1) landslides on natural slopes grouped into three landslide magnitude classes, based on landslide volumes, (2) the number of future landslides on natural slopes, obtained by establishing a relationship between the number of landslides on natural slopes and cut slopes for different return periods using a Gumbel distribution model, (3) landslide susceptible zones, obtained using a logistic regression model, and (4) distribution of landslides in the susceptible zones, obtained from the model fitting performance (success rate curve). The run-out distance of landslides was assessed empirically using landslide volumes, and the vulnerability of elements at risk was subjectively assessed based on limited historic incidents. Direct specific risk was estimated individually for tea/coffee and horticulture plantations, transport infrastructures, buildings, and people both in initiation and run-out areas. Risks were calculated by considering the minimum, average, and maximum landslide volumes in each magnitude class and the

  7. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques.

    PubMed

    Thilagavathi, N; Subramani, T; Suresh, M; Karunanidhi, D

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to introduce the remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in mapping the groundwater potential zones. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to map the groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Charnockites and fissile hornblende biotite gneiss are the major rock types in this region. Dunites and peridodites are the ultramafic rocks which cut across the foliation planes of the gneisses and are highly weathered. It comprises magnesite and chromite deposits which are excavated by five mining companies by adopting bench mining. The thickness of weathered and fracture zone varies from 2.2 to 50 m in gneissic formation and 5.8 to 55 m in charnockite. At the contacts of gneiss and charnockite, the thickness ranges from 9.0 to 90.8 m favoring good groundwater potential. The mine lease area is underlined by fractured and sheared hornblende biotite gneiss where groundwater potential is good. Water catchment tanks in this area of 5 km radius are small to moderate in size and are only seasonal. They remain dry during summer seasons. As perennial water resources are remote, the domestic and agricultural activities in this region depend mainly upon the groundwater resources. The mines are located in gently slope area, and accumulation of water is not observed except in mine pits even during the monsoon period. Therefore, it is essential to map the groundwater potential zones for proper management of the aquifer system. Satellite imageries were also used to extract lineaments, hydrogeomorphic landforms, drainage patterns, and land use, which are the major controlling factors for the occurrence of groundwater. Various thematic layers pertaining to groundwater existence such as geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, lineament, lineament density, drainage, drainage density, slope, and soil were generated using GIS tools. By integrating all the above thematic layers based on the ranks and

  8. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques.

    PubMed

    Thilagavathi, N; Subramani, T; Suresh, M; Karunanidhi, D

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to introduce the remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in mapping the groundwater potential zones. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to map the groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Charnockites and fissile hornblende biotite gneiss are the major rock types in this region. Dunites and peridodites are the ultramafic rocks which cut across the foliation planes of the gneisses and are highly weathered. It comprises magnesite and chromite deposits which are excavated by five mining companies by adopting bench mining. The thickness of weathered and fracture zone varies from 2.2 to 50 m in gneissic formation and 5.8 to 55 m in charnockite. At the contacts of gneiss and charnockite, the thickness ranges from 9.0 to 90.8 m favoring good groundwater potential. The mine lease area is underlined by fractured and sheared hornblende biotite gneiss where groundwater potential is good. Water catchment tanks in this area of 5 km radius are small to moderate in size and are only seasonal. They remain dry during summer seasons. As perennial water resources are remote, the domestic and agricultural activities in this region depend mainly upon the groundwater resources. The mines are located in gently slope area, and accumulation of water is not observed except in mine pits even during the monsoon period. Therefore, it is essential to map the groundwater potential zones for proper management of the aquifer system. Satellite imageries were also used to extract lineaments, hydrogeomorphic landforms, drainage patterns, and land use, which are the major controlling factors for the occurrence of groundwater. Various thematic layers pertaining to groundwater existence such as geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, lineament, lineament density, drainage, drainage density, slope, and soil were generated using GIS tools. By integrating all the above thematic layers based on the ranks and

  9. Mapping the crustal thickness in Shillong-Mikir Hills Plateau and its adjoining region of northeastern India using Moho reflected waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Dipok K.; Baruah, Saurabh

    2012-04-01

    In this study we have tried to detect and collect later phases associated with Moho discontinuity and used them to study the lateral variations of the crustal thickness in Shillong-Mikir Hills Plateau and its adjoining region of northeastern India. We use the inversion algorithm by Nakajima et al. (Nakajima, J., Matsuzawa, T., Hasegawa, A. 2002. Moho depth variation in the central part of northeastern Japan estimated from reflected and converted waves. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 130, 31-47), having epicentral distance ranging from 60 km to 150 km. Taking the advantage of high quality broadband data now available in northeast India, we have detected 1607 Moho reflected phases (PmP and SmS) from 300 numbers of shallow earthquake events (depth ⩽ 25 km) in Shillong-Mikir Hills Plateau and its adjoining region. Notably for PmP phase, this could be identified within 0.5-2.3 s after the first P-arrival. In case of SmS phase, the arrival times are observed within 1.0-4.2 s after the first S-arrival. We estimated the crustal thickness in the study area using travel time difference between the later phases (PmP and SmS) and the first P and S arrivals. The results shows that the Moho is thinner beneath the Shillong Plateau about 35-38 km and is the deepest beneath the Brahmaputra valley to the north about 39-41 km, deeper by 4-5 km compared to the Shillong Plateau with simultaneous observation of thinnest crust (˜33 km) in the western part of the Shillong Plateau in the Garo Hills region.

  10. Mitigation of environmental impacts due to ghat road formation in Palamalai Hills, South India, by optimizing cut and fill volumes using GPS and GIS techniques.

    PubMed

    Arulmozhi, R; Subramani, T; Sukumar, S

    2015-01-01

    Formation of new roads generally brings about adverse impact on the environment, and in the case of hill roads, the impact is diverse and effective measures are required to mitigate it. The common problems in hill road formation are tree cutting, destruction of canopies, change in land use pattern, soil erosion, slope instability, induced landslides, invasion of foreign species, and so on. Removal of trees and vegetations causes rapid soil erosion, landslides, and invasion of foreign species posing danger to the survival of weak native species. Dumping of surplus earth materials on the valley side poses a significant threat to the environment as it would cause induced landslides. Using the cut earth for filling in road formation and dumping, the surplus cut earth in safe locations will reduce environmental degradation considerably. Conventionally, hill road alignments are finalized using traditional survey methods using ghat tracer, compass, and leveling surveys which require enormous complicated field and office works. Any revision to reduce the quantum of earthwork is difficult in this method due to its complex nature. In the present study at Palamalai Hills, South India, an alignment for a length of 7.95 km was prepared by traditional methods using ghat tracer and total station instruments for survey works. The earthwork quantities were ascertained from the longitudinal profile of the alignment. A GPS survey was also conducted along the alignment to examine its utility in alignment modification. To modify the stretches, where the earthwork cutting and filling are above normal and unbalanced and result in surplus earth, repeated GPS surveys were conducted along different paths to optimize the earthwork. The earthwork quantities of the original alignment were analyzed, and its correlation with environmental effect and the usefulness of the GPS survey in this task are presented in this paper.

  11. Mitigation of environmental impacts due to ghat road formation in Palamalai Hills, South India, by optimizing cut and fill volumes using GPS and GIS techniques.

    PubMed

    Arulmozhi, R; Subramani, T; Sukumar, S

    2015-01-01

    Formation of new roads generally brings about adverse impact on the environment, and in the case of hill roads, the impact is diverse and effective measures are required to mitigate it. The common problems in hill road formation are tree cutting, destruction of canopies, change in land use pattern, soil erosion, slope instability, induced landslides, invasion of foreign species, and so on. Removal of trees and vegetations causes rapid soil erosion, landslides, and invasion of foreign species posing danger to the survival of weak native species. Dumping of surplus earth materials on the valley side poses a significant threat to the environment as it would cause induced landslides. Using the cut earth for filling in road formation and dumping, the surplus cut earth in safe locations will reduce environmental degradation considerably. Conventionally, hill road alignments are finalized using traditional survey methods using ghat tracer, compass, and leveling surveys which require enormous complicated field and office works. Any revision to reduce the quantum of earthwork is difficult in this method due to its complex nature. In the present study at Palamalai Hills, South India, an alignment for a length of 7.95 km was prepared by traditional methods using ghat tracer and total station instruments for survey works. The earthwork quantities were ascertained from the longitudinal profile of the alignment. A GPS survey was also conducted along the alignment to examine its utility in alignment modification. To modify the stretches, where the earthwork cutting and filling are above normal and unbalanced and result in surplus earth, repeated GPS surveys were conducted along different paths to optimize the earthwork. The earthwork quantities of the original alignment were analyzed, and its correlation with environmental effect and the usefulness of the GPS survey in this task are presented in this paper. PMID:25431192

  12. Complete genome sequence of mandarin decline Citrus tristeza virus of the Northeastern Himalayan hill region of India: comparative analyses determine recombinant.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Kajal K; Tarafdar, Avijit; Sharma, Susheel K

    2012-03-01

    The complete genome sequence of a mandarin (Citrus reticulata) decline CTV isolate, Kpg3, of the Darjeeling hills of the Northeastern Himalayan region of India is reported for the first time. The complete Kpg3 genome has 19253 nt, and its nucleotide sequence identity ranged from 79% with the Florida CTV isolate T36 to 94% with the Israel isolate VT, whereas its identity to B165, the other Indian isolate, was 89%. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Kpg3 genome is closely related to isolate VT and distantly to T36 and B165. Recombination analysis indicated that Kpg3 is recombinant and originated through multiple recombination events in which parts of the genome were exchanged between divergent CTV sequences.

  13. Negative effect of litter of invasive weed Lantana camara on structure and composition of vegetation in the lower Siwalik Hills, northern India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy R; Dogra, Kuldip Singh; Kaur, Shalinder; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Negi, Anjana

    2014-06-01

    Lantana camara, an aromatic shrub, native to tropical America, was introduced into India for ornamental hedging, but later escaped and became a serious invasive weed. This study assessed the quantitative and qualitative status of plant community richness and diversity in areas invaded by L. camara in the Siwalik Hills (Himachal Pradesh, India), and explored allelopathy as a possible mechanism of interference. We measured species diversity, richness and evenness of the vegetation in areas invaded and uninvaded by L. camara. Allelopathic effects of L. camara rhizosphere soil and litter were assessed against two native plants-Achyranthes aspera (a herb) and Albizia lebbeck (a tree). Density, biomass and indices of diversity, richness and evenness were reduced by L. camara, indicating a significant alteration in composition and structure of native communities. Seedling growth of the test species was reduced in L. camara rhizosphere- and litter-amended soil. The inhibitory effect was ameliorated by the addition of activated charcoal, indicating the presence of organic inhibitors (quantified as phenolics) in the soil. Lantana invasion greatly reduces the density and diversity of the vegetation in the invaded area, and chemical interference of its litter plays an important role in invasion. PMID:24477614

  14. FOLK HERBAL MEDICINE: A SURVEY ON THE PANIYA TRIBES OF MUNDAKUNNU VILLAGE OF THE NILGIRI HILLS, SOUTH INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Manikandan, P. N. Arul

    2005-01-01

    The present paper represents the results of an ethnobotanical survey conducted in Mundakunnu village of Gudalur taluk, Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu, India. It has been observed that the plant species are used to various ailments of analgesic, antidiarrhoeal, piles, antidiabetic, gynecological problems, vermifuge, antidandruff, venereal diseases, bone fracture and as vegetables. A total of 52 plants species belonging to 51 genera (33 dicot & 6 monocot) have been discussed. PMID:22557184

  15. Genetic diversity and relationships among the tribes of Meghalaya compared to other Indian and Continental populations.

    PubMed

    Langstieh, B T; Reddy, B Mohan; Thangaraj, K; Kumar, V; Singh, Lalji

    2004-08-01

    The autosomal AmpFLSTR markers validated and widely used for forensic applications are used in this study to examine the extent of diversity and genetic relationships among nine Meghalaya populations. Altogether, 932 chromosomes from 9 populations were analyzed using 9 tetrameric AmpFLSTR loci. The included populations were all seven subtribes of the Austro-Asiatic Mon-Khmer-speaking Khasi and the neighboring Tibeto-Burman Garo. The Lyngngam, which are linguistically closer to the Khasi but are culturally intermediate between the Khasi and the Garo, are also included in the study. Although most of the microsatellite loci are highly polymorphic in each of these populations, the allele distributions are fairly uniform across the Meghalaya populations, suggesting relative homogeneity among them. Concurrent with this, the coefficient of gene differentiation (G(ST)) is observed to be low (0.026+/-0.002). This is naturally reflected in the lack of clear differentiation and clustering pattern of the Meghalaya tribes based on either geographic proximity or the historical or current affiliations of these tribes. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) suggests no significant population structure. The structure analysis further suggests that, barring War-Khasi and Pnar, no other population shows any semblance of genetic identity. Even the position of the linguistically distinct Garo is not portrayed as separate from the Khasi. However, when comparable data from other Indian, Southeast Asian, and other continental populations were analyzed, the Meghalaya populations formed a compact cluster clearly separated from other populations, suggesting genetic identity of the Meghalaya populations as a whole. These results are concurrent with the hypothesis of a common and recent origin of these Meghalaya populations, whose genetic differentiation is overwhelmed by the homogenizing effect of continuous gene flow.

  16. Assessment of natural radioactivity and function of minerals in soils of Yelagiri hills, Tamilnadu, India by Gamma Ray spectroscopic and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques with statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, A; Ravisankar, R; Rajalakshmi, A; Eswaran, P; Vijayagopal, P; Venkatraman, B

    2015-02-01

    Gamma Ray and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques were used to evaluate the natural radioactivity due to natural radionuclides and mineralogical characterization in soils of Yelagiri hills, Tamilnadu, India. Various radiological parameters were calculated to assess the radiation hazards associated with the soil. The distribution pattern of activity due to natural radionuclides is explained by Kriging method of mapping. Using FTIR spectroscopic technique the minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, orthoclase feldspar, kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite, and organic carbon were identified and characterized. The extinction coefficient values were calculated to know the relative distribution of major minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, orthoclase feldspar and kaolinite. The calculated values indicate that the amount of quartz is higher than orthoclase feldspar, microcline feldspar and much higher than kaolinite. Crystallinity index was calculated to know the crystalline nature of quartz. The result indicates that the presence of disordered crystalline quartz in soils. The relation between minerals and radioactivity was assessed by multivariate statistical analysis (Pearson's correlation and cluster analysis). The statistical analysis confirms that the clay mineral kaolinite and non-clay mineral quartz is the major factor than other major minerals to induce the important radioactivity variables and concentrations of uranium and thorium.

  17. Assessment of natural radioactivity and function of minerals in soils of Yelagiri hills, Tamilnadu, India by Gamma Ray spectroscopic and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques with statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekaran, A.; Ravisankar, R.; Rajalakshmi, A.; Eswaran, P.; Vijayagopal, P.; Venkatraman, B.

    2015-02-01

    Gamma Ray and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques were used to evaluate the natural radioactivity due to natural radionuclides and mineralogical characterization in soils of Yelagiri hills, Tamilnadu, India. Various radiological parameters were calculated to assess the radiation hazards associated with the soil. The distribution pattern of activity due to natural radionuclides is explained by Kriging method of mapping. Using FTIR spectroscopic technique the minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, orthoclase feldspar, kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite, and organic carbon were identified and characterized. The extinction coefficient values were calculated to know the relative distribution of major minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, orthoclase feldspar and kaolinite. The calculated values indicate that the amount of quartz is higher than orthoclase feldspar, microcline feldspar and much higher than kaolinite. Crystallinity index was calculated to know the crystalline nature of quartz. The result indicates that the presence of disordered crystalline quartz in soils. The relation between minerals and radioactivity was assessed by multivariate statistical analysis (Pearson's correlation and cluster analysis). The statistical analysis confirms that the clay mineral kaolinite and non-clay mineral quartz is the major factor than other major minerals to induce the important radioactivity variables and concentrations of uranium and thorium.

  18. Traditional use of medicinal plants by the Jaintia tribes in North Cachar Hills district of Assam, northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Sajem, Albert L; Gosai, Kuldip

    2006-01-01

    The study of ethnobotany relating to any tribe is in itself a very intricate or convoluted process. This paper documents the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants that are in use by the indigenous Jaintia tribes residing in few isolated pockets of northeast India. The present study was done through structured questionnaires in consultations with the tribal practitioners and has resulted in the documentation of 39 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families and 35 genera. For curing diverse form of ailments, the use of aboveground plant parts was higher (76.59%) than the underground plant parts (23.41%). Of the aboveground plant parts, leaf was used in the majority of cases (23 species), followed by fruit (4). Different underground plant forms such as root, tuber, rhizome, bulb and pseudo-bulb were also found to be in use by the Jaintia tribe as a medicine. Altogether, 30 types of ailments have been reported to be cured by using these 39 medicinal plant species. The study thus underlines the potentials of the ethnobotanical research and the need for the documentation of traditional ecological knowledge pertaining to the medicinal plant utilization for the greater benefit of mankind. PMID:16899114

  19. Analysis of Reproductive Traits of Broiler Rabbits Reared in Sub-temperate Climate of Kodai Hills, Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Rajapandi, S.; Ramanathan, N.; Pourouchottamane, R.; Thiruvenkadan, A.K.; Kumar, V. Ramesh Saravana; Pankaj, P.K.; Rajendiran, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was carried out at Institute Rabbit Farm of Southern Regional Research Centre, Mannavanur, Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu, India having sub-temperate climate with winter temperature during night hours going below 0°C with an objective of finding the influence of different factors such as breed, year, season and parity on different reproductive traits of broiler rabbits in order to come out with the best strategies for improving the productivity. Materials and Methods: A total of 1793 records (946 White Giant and 847 Soviet Chinchilla) for weight at mating (WM), weight at kindling (WK), gestation length (GL), litter size at birth (LSB) and litter size at weaning (LSW), litter weight at birth (LWB), and litter weight at weaning (LWW) were collected in the period between 2000 and 2009 and the data was analyzed using general linear model option of SAS 9.2. Results: The overall mean GL, WM, WK, LSB, LSW, LWB, and LWW were 31.68±0.04 days, 3.65±0.01 kg, 3.84±0.01 kg, 6.91±0.08, 5.49±0.09, 387.62±4.07 g, and 4.66±0.07 kg, respectively. The breed has significantly influenced GL, WK, LSW, LWB, and LWW. The LSB, LSW, LWB, and LWW were 7.05±0.11, 5.76±0.13, 399.55±5.88 g, and 4.87±0.10 kg, respectively in White Giant and corresponding values for Soviet Chinchilla were 6.78±0.11, 5.22±0.12, 375.91±5.64 g, and 4.46±0.09 kg, respectively. The year of kindling had significantly affected all the reproductive traits under study and is varying over different years. The parity significantly influenced the WM, WK, and LWW. The LWW increased from first (4.16±0.21 kg) to second parity (4.86±0.19 kg) and remained in the same range from third parity onward. WM was significantly higher in spring season (3.72±0.02) than the animals in rainy (3.59±0.02) and winter season (3.65±0.02). Better reproductive performance in terms of higher LSB, LSW, LWB, and LWW as observed in the present study might be due to conducive environmental conditions prevailing in the

  20. Geodynamic evolution of a Pan-African granitoid of extended Dizo Valley in Karbi Hills, NE India: Evidence from Geochemistry and Isotope Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Dilip; Dutta, Pankhi

    2016-03-01

    The Dizo Valley is an important geological province in NW Karbi Hills of Shillong Plateau (NE India). The Karbi Hills contain profusely intruded bodies of A-type granitoids that have been attributed to a post-collision setting. The Dizo Valley magmatic suite is a bimodal association of voluminous granitoid plutons with dolerite and amphibolites (metabasalts). Our present data demonstrates that there were two episodes of A-type granitoid magmatism in this part of the craton. Studied Kathalguri granitoids (KG) of Dizo Valley represents the late phase, about 515.1 ± 3.3-515.5 + 2.7 Ma age, dated by zircon LA-ICPMS U-Pb method. The age of emplacement represent the late Pan-African (Mid-Cambrian) event of granitoid magmatism concomitant to the Gondwana continental restructuring event with the integration of East and West Gondwana held between 570 and 510 Ma. A previous granitoid emplacement episode of about 690 Ma has been referred in literature. The late phase of granitoids formation tends to be massive, occasionally show flow banding, degassing pots and amphibolite breccias with chilled margin. Its mineralogy shows abundance of accessory phases like zircon, allanite, apatite, bastnaesite, monazite, sphene and xenotime. Geochemical parameters offer metaluminous to peraluminous, non-porphyritic, shoshonitic to high potassium, calc-alkaline composition. Other chemical criteria bear the character of A2-type granitoids with high SiO2 (64.00-70.75 wt.%) and alkali (3.26-6.30 wt.%) but poor Ca and Mg content. The binary plots of Y + Nb-Rb and Y-Nb confirm their within-plate granite (WPG) character. The pluton is enriched in total REE (av. 614.64 ppm), Y and heavy REE (27.62-65.00 ppm; av. 41.87 ppm) compared to low calcium granite; Eu anomaly is moderately negative (∂Eu = 0.43). Enrichment of incompatible elements like large ion lithophile elements (LILE) of Rb, Ba and Sr and REE are consistent with the A-type granites. The behavior of Ba, Rb and Sr suggest a progressive

  1. Characterization and quantification of aerosol chemical species present below and within cloud over an eastern Himalayan high altitude hill station in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arindam; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Sarkar, Chirantan; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji

    2016-07-01

    There are two main processes through which aerosols and gases get scavenged by rain called below-cloud scavenging or "washout" and in-cloud scavenging or "rainout". The first process refers to the washout of the aerosols and gases present below the cloud during precipitation events by raindrops along their fall. The second process corresponds to the condensation of water vapor on aerosol particles during the formation of cloud droplets and incorporation of gases surrounding the droplets by aqueous-phase reactions. However, the most efficient pathway to remove the atmospheric pollutants is below cloud scavenging which is a major pointer of ecosystem, biogeochemical cycle as well as the climate change. A study has been conducted in 2014 and 2015 monsoon (June-September) in Darjeeling (27.01 ° N, 88.15 ° E), a high altitude (2200 m asl) hill station over eastern Himalaya in India. The study was focused on the below-cloud and in-cloud scavenging of various aerosol ionic species. Attempt was also made to estimate the contribution of in-cloud scavenging and below-cloud scavenging by collecting rain samples sequentially for different rain events. Sea-salt (Na+, sea-Mg2+, Cl- and sea-SO4 2-) and soil dust (non-sea Ca2+, non-sea-Mg2+) species show sharp decrease in concentration for each of the rain sample. This indicates that these species were mostly accumulated below the cloud and washed out during rain. Their concentrations were thus decreased sharply as rains progressed. On the other hand, non-SO4-2 and NH4+ showed different behavior. Their concentrations decreased sharply at the initial stage of the rain and then remained almost constant with rainfall. This explains wash out of these two species at the initial stage of the rain and their contribution from "within the cloud". NH4 + and non-sea-SO4 2- could thus act as cloud condensation nuclei over this part of Himalaya. A strong correlation between these two species indicates their association as (NH4)2SO4. Acidity

  2. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  3. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  4. India.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  5. India.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  6. Black Hills

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Drought in the Black Hills     View ... and western South Dakota remain in the midst of a severe drought. This set of images and maps from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging ... the 2000 and 2004 dates. As the vegetation faded with the drought, the  albedo  at the surface increased. Albedo measures the ...

  7. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Aromatic and Quality Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Landraces from North-Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somnath; Banerjee, Amrita; Mawkhlieng, Bandapkuper; Misra, A K; Pattanayak, A; Harish, G D; Singh, S K; Ngachan, S V; Bansal, K C

    2015-01-01

    The North-eastern (NE) India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura, possess diverse array of locally adapted non-Basmati aromatic germplasm. The germplasm collections from this region could serve as valuable resources in breeding for abiotic stress tolerance, grain yield and cooking/eating quality. To utilize such collections, however, breeders need information about the extent and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. In this study, we report the result of population genetic analysis of 107 aromatic and quality rice accessions collected from different parts of NE India, as well as classified these accessions in the context of a set of structured global rice cultivars. A total of 322 alleles were amplified by 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with an average of 8.03 alleles per locus. Average gene diversity was 0.67. Population structure analysis revealed that NE Indian aromatic rice can be subdivided into three genetically distinct population clusters: P1, joha rice accessions from Assam, tai rices from Mizoram and those from Sikkim; P2, aromatic rice accessions from Nagaland; and P3, chakhao rice germplasm from Manipur [corrected]. Pair-wise FST between three groups varied from 0.223 (P1 vs P2) to 0.453 (P2 vs P3). With reference to the global classification of rice cultivars, two major groups (Indica and Japonica) were identified in NE Indian germplasm. The aromatic accessions from Assam, Manipur and Sikkim were assigned to the Indica group, while the accessions from Nagaland exhibited close association with Japonica. The tai accessions of Mizoram along with few chakhao accessions collected from the hill districts of Manipur were identified as admixed. The results highlight the importance of regional genetic studies for understanding diversification of aromatic rice in India. The data also suggest that there is scope for exploiting the genetic diversity of aromatic and

  8. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Aromatic and Quality Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Landraces from North-Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Mawkhlieng, Bandapkuper; Misra, A. K.; Pattanayak, A.; Harish, G. D.; Singh, S. K.; Ngachan, S. V.; Bansal, K. C.

    2015-01-01

    The North-eastern (NE) India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura, possess diverse array of locally adapted non-Basmati aromatic germplasm. The germplasm collections from this region could serve as valuable resources in breeding for abiotic stress tolerance, grain yield and cooking/eating quality. To utilize such collections, however, breeders need information about the extent and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. In this study, we report the result of population genetic analysis of 107 aromatic and quality rice accessions collected from different parts of NE India, as well as classified these accessions in the context of a set of structured global rice cultivars. A total of 322 alleles were amplified by 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with an average of 8.03 alleles per locus. Average gene diversity was 0.67. Population structure analysis revealed that NE Indian aromatic rice can be subdivided into three genetically distinct population clusters: P1, joha rice accessions from Assam, tai rices from Mizoram and those from Sikkim; P2, chakhao rice germplasm from Manipur; and P3, aromatic rice accessions from Nagaland. Pair-wise FST between three groups varied from 0.223 (P1 vs P2) to 0.453 (P2 vs P3). With reference to the global classification of rice cultivars, two major groups (Indica and Japonica) were identified in NE Indian germplasm. The aromatic accessions from Assam, Manipur and Sikkim were assigned to the Indica group, while the accessions from Nagaland exhibited close association with Japonica. The tai accessions of Mizoram along with few chakhao accessions collected from the hill districts of Manipur were identified as admixed. The results highlight the importance of regional genetic studies for understanding diversification of aromatic rice in India. The data also suggest that there is scope for exploiting the genetic diversity of aromatic and quality rice

  9. India.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    In 1988, India's population stood at 817 million, 25% of which was concentrated in urban areas. The annual rate of population growth is 2.01%. Life expectancy is currently 56 years, and infant mortality is 90/1000 live births. Education is compulsory to the age of 14 years, but the adult literacy rate is only 36%. Of the work force of 300 million, 70% are engaged in agriculture, 19% are in industry and commerce, 8% work in the services and government sector, and 3% are employed in transport and communications. India's gross national product currently stands at US$246 billion, with a real growth rate of 1.8% and a per capita income of $313. Although India is a federal republic, its central government has greater power in relation to its states than is the case in the US and there is a parliamentary system. Nonetheless, some states have been revitalizing traditional village councils and introducing grassroots democracy at the village level. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and pool of skilled labor have emerged since India achieved independence, although agriculture remains the crucial economic sector. There was a surge in agricultural production in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a result of the "green revolution" that made India largely self-sufficient in grain production through the use of hybrid seeds, irrigation, and fertilizer. However, failed monsoons and severe drought conditions have created fluctuations in the output of the agricultural sector in recent years. Gradual deregulation of industry and trade is providing increased incentives for foreign trade, and the Indian Government is encouraging collaborations that involve the transfer of high technology.

  10. Principal component analysis of biometric traits to reveal body confirmation in local hill cattle of Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Deepak; Sankhyan, Varun; Katoch, Sanjeet; Thakur, Yash Pal

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In the present study, biometric traits (body length [BL], heart girth [HG], paunch girth (PG), forelimb length (FLL), hind limb length (HLL), face length, forehead width, forehead length, height at hump, hump length (HL), hook to hook distance, pin to pin distance, tail length (TL), TL up to switch, horn length, horn circumference, and ear length were studied in 218 adult hill cattle of Himachal Pradesh for phenotypic characterization. Materials and Methods: Morphological and biometrical observations were recorded on 218 hill cattle randomly selected from different districts within the breeding tract. Multivariate statistics and principal component analysis are used to account for the maximum portion of variation present in the original set of variables with a minimum number of composite variables through Statistical software, SAS 9.2. Result: Five components were extracted which accounted for 65.9% of variance. The first component explained general body confirmation and explained 34.7% variation. It was represented by significant loading for BL, HG, PG, FLL, and HLL. Communality estimate ranged from 0.41 (HL) to 0.88 (TL). Second, third, fourth, and fifth component had a high loading for tail characteristics, horn characteristics, facial biometrics, and rear body, respectively. Conclusion: The result of component analysis of biometric traits suggested that indigenous hill cattle of Himachal Pradesh are small and compact size cattle with a medium hump, horizontally placed short ears, and a long tail. The study also revealed that factors extracted from the present investigation could be used in breeding programs with sufficient reduction in the number of biometric traits to be recorded to explain the body confirmation. PMID:27047059

  11. Identification and characterization of a distinct banana bunchy top virus isolate of Pacific-Indian Oceans group from North-East India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Amrita; Roy, Somnath; Behere, Ganesh T; Roy, Subhra Saikat; Dutta, Sudip Kumar; Ngachan, S V

    2014-04-01

    Banana bunch top virus (BBTV) is considered to be a serious threat to banana production. A new isolate of the virus (BBTV-Umiam) was identified and characterized from local banana mats growing in mid-hills of Meghalaya in North-East India. The complete nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the presence of six full-length ssDNA components (DNA R, DNA U3, DNA S, DNA M, DNA C and DNA N) sharing major common region (CR-M) and a stem-loop common region (CR-SL). BBTV-Umiam showed a unique deletion of 20 nucleotides in the intergenic region of DNA R, the absence of predicted open reading frame (ORF) in DNA U3 and probability for a small ORF in DNA U3 expecting functional evidence at transcriptional level. Phylogenetic analysis based on 88 complete nucleotide sequence of BBTV DNA R available in GenBank generated two broad clusters of Pacific-Indian Oceans (PIO) and South-East Asian (SEA) groups including BBTV-Umiam within PIO cluster. However, BBTV-Umiam was identified as the most distinct member of the PIO group with 100% bootstrap support. This was further supported by the phylogenetic grouping of each genomic component of BBTV-Umiam at the distant end of PIO group during clustering of 21 complete BBTV sequences. BBTV-Umiam shared relatively less nucleotide identity with PIO group for each genomic component (85.0-95.4%) and corresponding ORF (93.8-97.5%) than that of earlier PIO isolates (91.5-99.6% and 96.0-99.3%, respectively). Recombination analysis revealed two intra-component and five inter-component recombination events in BBTV-Umiam, but none of them was unique. Moreover, the isolate was identified as major parental sequence for intra-component recombination event spanning the replication-associated protein encoding region in Tongan BBTV DNA R. The current study indicated differential evolution of BBTV in North-East India (Meghalaya). The natural occurrence of hybrids of Musa balbisiana and M. acuminata in this geographically isolated region could be the

  12. Study of Climate Responsive Passive Design Features in Traditional Hill Architecture of Khyah Village in Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh, India for Indoor Thermal Comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, A.

    2013-03-01

    Vernacular architecture of any settlement is characterized by architecture and construction methods developed by the wisdom of the local masons and builders, often the inhabitants themselves, to provide thermal comfort to users in extreme outdoor uncomfortable climatic conditions, by using locally available building materials and by adopting construction technology which both were more responsive to their climatic and geographic condition. This paper will highlight the climate-responsiveness in the traditional architecture of Khyah village in Hamirpur district of Himachal Pradesh, having sub-tropical climatic condition. The plan of individual house, the cluster of houses and the overall settlement itself has been evolved from a process of understanding the local geo-climatic conditions which causes discomfort in both cold winter and hot summer months. Hence, the house plans were kept compact, thick adobe bricks were used for walls, pitched roof with attic and roof-covering of slate were employed and small window openings were provided with heavy timber shutter—all as a mean to retain indoor heat during cold winter months and also to prevent excessive heat-loss and heat-gains. The paper will also attempt to bring out the adaptive synchronized dynamic interactions between the various activities of inhabitants and their spatial environment, as a response to the local climatic conditions, from the physical survey of this traditional hill settlement.

  13. Analysis of integrated animal-fish production system under subtropical hill agro ecosystem in India: growth performance of animals, total biomass production and monetary benefit.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, A; Pathak, K A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Vinod, K

    2009-03-01

    The present study assessed the benefits of integration of animals with fish production in optimizing the bio mass production from unit land in subtropical hill agro ecosystem. Hampshire pigs and Khaki Campbell ducks were integrated with composite fish culture. The pig and duck excreta were directly allowed into the pond and no supplementary feed was given to fish during the period of study. The average levels of N, P and K in dried pig and duck manure were 0.9, 0.7 and 0.6 per cent and 1.3, 0.6 and 0.5 per cent, respectively. The average body weight of pig and duck at 11 months age was 90 and 1.74 kg with an average daily weight gain of 333.33 and 6.44 g, respectively. The fish production in pig-fish and duck-fish systems were 2209 and 2964 kg/ha, respectively while the fish productivity in control pond was only 820 kg/ha. The total biomass (animal and fish) production was higher (p<0.05) in commercial feeding system compared to the traditional system, however the input/output ratio was 1:1.2 and 1:1.55 for commercial and traditional systems, respectively. It was inferred that the total biomass production per unit land was high (p<0.05) when animal and fish were integrated together.

  14. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of a hot orogen during Gondwanaland assembly: a case study from Palni hills metapelite granulite, south India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadra, S.; Nasipuri, P.

    2012-04-01

    This study deals with the tectono-metamorphic evolution of Sapphirine-cordierite-bearing metapelite granulite at Perumalmalai, south India, that occurs as enclave within deformed migmatitic enderbite gneiss of Kodaikanal massif, Madurai granulite block (MB), south India. Pre-peak mineral paragenesis is represented by an inclusion assemblage of sillimanite + plagioclase + Ti-rich biotite ±quartz in Al-rich orthopyroxene. Dehydration melting of biotite marked the onset of ultra-high temperature metamorphism (M1A, ~1000 °C, 10 Kbar). Early stage of retrograde metamorphism (M1B) is characterized by the development of type1-symplectite and corona textures. In type1-symplectite an innermost vermicular sapphirine (Spr - XMg: 0.90, Al/Si: 6.17) - cordierite (Crd) symplectite on sillimanite is followed by cordierite (XMg: 0.94) moat. A meso-perthitic layer laced the interface between cordierite moat and orthopyroxene porphyroblast, the latter showing prominent rim-ward decrease in Al2O3 (up to 3 wt%). The cordierite rim at the interface between sillimanite and orthopyroxene characterizes corona texture. Type1-symplectite and corona domains are circumnavigated by Ti-poor biotite (TiO2: ~3.2 wt%) showing shape preferred alignment, and set in a feldspar matrix showing wide compositional range. By implication, leucosome crystallization was possibly prolonged and enhanced by deformation. Type1-symplectite and corona textures were resulted from melt-solid interaction or silica-metasomatism during early stage of retrogression, Opx+Sil = Spr+Crd → Opx+Sil+melt = Crd. The retrograde metamorphism is constrained at 9 kbar and 950°C, implying an early stage of near-isothermal decompression. Late stage retrograde metamorphism (M2) is also characterized by symplectite textures, type2-symplectite, with innermost sapphirine-cordierite symplectite followed by cordierite corona. Sapphirine in type2-symplectite domain (XMg: 0.89; Al/Si: 5.92), which occurs as inclusion in Opx, is

  15. Functional nutraceutical profiling of wild edible and medicinal mushrooms consumed by ethnic tribes in India.

    PubMed

    Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R

    2015-01-01

    Wild edible mushrooms occupy an important place in the traditional food habits of the ethnic tribes of India. Specimens collected from the forests and local markets of Meghalaya, India were affiliated to ten different species. The mushroom extracts were analyzed for nutrient and mineral compositions along with phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, and lycopene. These extracts were also investigated for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. Fungal extracts were found to be rich in nutrients and minerals, and exhibited potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities under assay conditions. The nutrient profiles generated for each of these ten species revealed them to be rich sources of functional nutraceuticals.

  16. David Keynes Hill.

    PubMed

    Huxley, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    David Hill followed his father, A.V. Hill FRS, into the study of muscular contraction. Using a wide range of experimental techniques, he made several important advances of which the most important was the discovery of the 'short-range elastic component', a phenomenon which implied that even in the resting state there was an interaction between the thick (myosin) and thin (actin) filaments. He also studied physical changes in nerve when stimulated.

  17. Seismotectonic domains of northeastern India and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandy, D. R.; Dasgupta, Sujit

    Eastern Himalaya, Meghalaya plateau, upper Assam valley, northern part of the Indo-Burmese arc and the Mishmi block constitute major tectonostratigraphic domains in northeastern India. Many lineaments of faults, both parallel and oblique to the Himalayan trend, are already known. Interpretation of satellite images combined with surface geological studies suggest that many such oblique lineaments transgress the boundary of individual tectonic domains and some continue from the Tethyan Himalaya to the foredeep or cut across both Himalayan and Burmese arcs. The entire area is highly seismic; seismicity pattern, focal mechanism solutions, geological set up and fault/lineament fabric when studied together clearly defines several seismotectonic domains. In east Nepal-Sikkim, the northward push of India is accommodated through conjugate shear failure wherein seismic strike-slip movement occurs mostly along NE faults. Further east NW/WNW Kopili-Bomdila faults are associated with many large earthquakes and lateral motion along them allows a bulk southeastward movement of this segment of Himalaya towards the Burmese arc. The Mishmi block, structurally oblique to both the Himalayan and Burmese arcs, also indicates a net southeast tectonic transportation. The upper Assam valley is aseismic and arguably does not represent an area of seismic gap. Seismicity in both Meghalaya plateau and Sylhet plains is unrelated to movements along the Dauki fault.

  18. Scientific contributions of A. V. Hill: exercise physiology pioneer.

    PubMed

    Bassett, David R

    2002-11-01

    Beginning in 1910, A. V. Hill performed careful experiments on the time course of heat production in isolated frog muscle. His research paralleled that of the German biochemist Otto Meyerhof, who measured the changes in muscle glycogen and lactate during contractions and recovery. For their work in discovering the distinction between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, Hill and Meyerhof were jointly awarded the 1922 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Because of Hill's interest in athletics, he sought to apply the concepts discovered in isolated frog muscle to the exercising human. Hill and his colleagues made measurements of O(2) consumption on themselves and other subjects running around an 85-m grass track. In the process of this work, they defined the terms "maximum O(2) intake," "O(2) requirement," and "steady state of exercise." Other contributions of Hill include his discoveries of heat production in nerve, the series elastic component, and the force-velocity equation in muscle. Around the time of World War II, Hill was a leading figure in the Academic Assistance Council, which helped Jewish scientists fleeing Nazi Germany to relocate in the West. He served as a member of the British Parliament from 1940 to 1945 and as a scientific advisor to India. Hill's vision and enthusiasm attracted many scientists to the field of exercise physiology, and he pointed the way toward many of the physiological adaptations that occur with physical training.

  19. Occurrence of a new species of Letana (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae) in India.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Rajendra; Swaminathan, R

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the Oriental genus Letana, Walker (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae), proposed as Letana dentata sp. nov., collected from the North-eastern province, Meghalaya, India (Ri bhoi 90°55'15 to 91°16' latitude and 25°40' to 25°21' longitude, 993 MSL), is described together with the morphological characterization of eight reported species. Of these, Letana rubescens (Stål, 1861) collected from Shalimar, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir (India) is being reported for the first time from India. The other species of Letana include: L. atomifera, L. bulbosa, L. inflata, L. infurcata, L. pyrifera and L. rufonatata. Taxonomic and diagnostic characters with illustrations of the head, pronotum, ventral view of left tegmina to show stridulatory file teeth and the genitalia (supra-anal plate and subgenital plate) including the phallus sclerite has been given. PMID:26624719

  20. 'Scarecrow' Descends Hill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    An engineering model for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory makes its way up a hill in the Mars Yard testing area at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The model, called 'Scarecrow' because it does not include a computer brain, is used for tests of mobility and landing.

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover is in development for launch in 2009. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the mission for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  1. Nose Hill Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Vivian

    2008-01-01

    A Blackfoot woman, caught in the act of adultery, was condemned at this site to have her nose cut off as a penalty for her actions. People do not know her story. The tribe cast it on the ground. And so She, Nose Hill, was named. John Laurie Boulevard holds her mound in a circlet of asphalt, defining the map of her "terra incognita." She is a park…

  2. A Capitol Hill Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Christal

    2006-04-01

    Relatively few women receive advanced degrees in the sciences, and relatively few scientists find their way into staff positions on Capitol Hill. Yet in this staffer's experience, I count more female science Ph.D.s in my circle of colleagues than I counted female classmates in physics graduate school. Why, at least anecdotally, does it seem that women with advanced degrees in science are more likely than their male peers to leave the laboratory and join the policy lobby? My observations are based on my own work in energy and environmental policy as a staffer in both the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives.

  3. KISATCHIE HILLS WILDERNESS, LOUISIANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haley, Boyd R.; Ryan, George S.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Kisatchie Hills Wilderness, Louisiana indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There is insufficient data on oil and gas producing formations that underlie the area to evaluate the oil and gas resource potential. All the oil fields of Wilcox age are less than 40 acres in extent; therefore, closer spaced deeper wells might find additional fields in sediments of Wilcox age. Oil and natural gas have been produced from older reservoirs (Cretaceous age) to the northwest of the wilderness, and deeper wells might find oil and natural gas in sediments of Cretaceous and older age in the vicinity of the wilderness.

  4. Lost Hills, California Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This figure shows a comparison of interferograms from four different years mapping the rapid ground subsidence over the Lost Hills oil field in California. Lost Hills is located about 60 km (40 miles) northwest of Bakersfield in the San Joaquin Valley. The oil field is about 1.5 km (1mile) wide and 6 km (3.5 miles) long.

    Each interferogram was created using pairs of images taken by synthetic aperture radar that have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred in the time between when data for the two images were taken. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellites (ERS-1 and ERS-2) in two months of each year shown (1995, 1996, 1998 and 1999) and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes.

    The interferometric measurements that show the changes, primarily vertical subsidence of the surface, are rendered in color with purple indicating no motion and the brightest red showing rapid subsidence. The white areas are where the radar measurements could not be obtained, mostly in the agricultural fields around the oil fields where plant growth or plowing altered the radar properties of the surface.

    These radar data show that parts of the oil field were subsiding unusually rapidly, more than 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) a month, in 1995 and 1996. They also reveal that while the ground subsidence rate decreased in the center part of the oil field, it increased in the northern part between 1995 and 1996 and 1998 and 1999.

    Subsidence maps like these combined with records of oil and water extraction and injection will help scientist understand how the rocks within an oil field are behaving, leading to improvements in oil field operations.

  5. Lost Hills, California Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This figure shows a comparison of interferograms from four different years mapping the rapid ground subsidence over the Lost Hills oil field in California. Lost Hills is located about 60 km (40 miles) northwest of Bakersfield in the San Joaquin Valley. The oilfield is about 1.5 km (1 mile) wide and 6 km (3.5 miles) long. Each interferogram was created using pairs of images taken by synthetic aperture radar that have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred in the time between when data for the two images were taken. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellites (ERS-1 and ERS-2) in two months of each year shown (1995, 1996, 1998 and 1999) and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes. The interferometric measurements that show the changes, primarily vertical subsidence of the surface, are rendered in color with purple indicating no motion and the brightest red showing rapid subsidence. The white areas are where the radar measurements could not be obtained, mostly in the agricultural fields around the oilfields where plant growth or plowing altered the radar properties of the surface. These radar data show that parts of the oilfield were subsiding unusually rapidly, more than 3 centimenters (1.2 inches) a month, in 1995 and 1996. They also reveal that while the ground subsidence rate decreased in the center part of the oilfield, it increased in the northern part between 1995 and 1996 and 1998 and 1999. Subsidence maps like these combined with records of oil and water extraction and injection will help scientist understand how the rocks within an oilfield are behaving, leading to improvements in oilfield operations. For more information, read Radar Helps Monitor Oil Fields. Images courtesy Eric Fielding, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  6. Socio-Demographic Correlates of Women’s Infertility and Treatment Seeking Behavior in India

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sanjit; Gupta, Pallavi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility is an emergent issue in India. Until recently, very few studies have understood the patterns and consequences of infertility in India. Family planning programs in India also viewed exclusively the patterns and determinants of overfertility rather than infertility. Furthermore, there is the lack of information about treatment seeking behavior of infertile couples. Therefore, this paper aimed to examine the extent of infertility and treatment seeking behavior among infertile women in India. An attempt was also made to evaluate the effects of socio-demographic factors on treatment seeking behavior. Methods: The study used the data from the District Level Household and Facility Survey carried out in India during 2007–08. Several statistical techniques such as chi-square test, proportional hazard model and binary logistic regression model were used for the analysis. Results: Approximately, 8% of currently married women suffered from infertility in India and most of them were secondary infertile (5.8%). Within India, women’s infertility rate was the highest in west Bengal (13.9 percent) and the lowest in Meghalaya (2.5 percent). About 80% of infertile women sought treatment but a substantial proportion (33%) received non-allopathic and traditional treatment due to expensive modern treatment and lack of awareness. Conclusion: In the context of policy response, it can be said that there is a need to improve the existing services and quality of care for infertile women. Treatment for infertility should be integrated into the larger reproductive health packages. PMID:27141468

  7. 16. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking up at the trusses of the second floor - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  8. 6. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northeast, with chute building to the right - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  9. 22. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at double doors - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  10. 21. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking towards window - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  11. 18. View of the second floor of the Cherry Hill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View of the second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at door - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  12. 9. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking north, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking north, with chute building on the left - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  13. 3. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking southeast; parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking southeast; parking lot in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  14. 12. Partial view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Partial view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northwest showing office - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  15. 20. View of second floor to the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View of second floor to the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at floor area - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  16. 15. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed showing posts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed showing posts looking towards the chute building - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  17. 14. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking towards chute building - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  18. 19. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at door to stairwell - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  19. 2. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking south; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking south; chute building is in background - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  20. Alley Cropping: An Alternative to Slash and Burn in the Slopelands of the Mizo Hills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sailo, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Population pressure in the Mizo Hills, a small mountainous region in northeast India, has shortened fallow periods of slash-and-burn (S&B) plots substantially, making its practice unsustainable. Conventional farming and modern technology cannot be applied in this remote tropical region due to its topography; hence, most farmers continue practicing…

  1. Antigravity hills are visual illusions.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Paola; Garlaschelli, Luigi; Barracano, Monica

    2003-09-01

    Antigravity hills, also known as spook hills or magnetic hills, are natural places where cars put into neutral are seen to move uphill on a slightly sloping road, apparently defying the law of gravity. We show that these effects, popularly attributed to gravitational anomalies, are in fact visual illusions. We re-created all the known types of antigravity spots in our laboratory using tabletop models; the number of visible stretches of road, their slant, and the height of the visible horizon were systematically varied in four experiments. We conclude that antigravity-hill effects follow from a misperception of the eye level relative to gravity, caused by the presence of either contextual inclines or a false horizon line.

  2. Overweight and Obesity in School Children of a Hill State in North India: Is the Dichotomy Urban-Rural or Socio-Economic? Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kandpal, S. D.; Aggarwal, Pradeep; Sati, Hem Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Overweight and obesity are a public health problem in India not only in adults but also in children. The authors sought to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school-going children of 6–17 years of age and examine its demographic and dietary correlates in context of their urban-rural status and socio-economic status. Methods In this cross-sectional survey height and weight were measured in 1266 school children in government and private schools of urban and rural areas. Dietary assessment was done using single day 24-hour dietary recall method. The data were analyzed using SPSS (IBM SPSS Statistics Version 19) and WHO AnthroPlus Software. Factorial ANOVA was used for testing interaction within and between subgroups for continuous variables and Chi-square test was used for categorical variables. Results It was found that the overall prevalence of overweight was 15.6% of which 5.4% were obese, with maximum prevalence in boys attending urban private schools. The mean caloric intake in the study population with 24-hour dietary recall method was 1558.2 kilocalories (SD: 428 kilocalories). Conclusion Overweight and obesity is a significant problem in school-going children. Higher socio-economic status continues to remain an important driver of this epidemic in the younger generation and affects demographic and dietary determinants of this problem. PMID:27227780

  3. Bacillus species isolated from tungrymbai and bekang, naturally fermented soybean foods of India.

    PubMed

    Chettri, Rajen; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

    2015-03-16

    Tungrymbai and bekang are naturally fermented soybean foods commonly consumed in Meghalaya and Mizoram states of India. A total of 39 samples of tungrymbai and 43 samples of bekang were collected from different villages and markets of Meghalaya and Mizoram, respectively and were analysed for microbial load. In both tungrymbai and bekang, the average population of Bacillus spp. was 8.2±0.1 log cfu/g. A total of 428 isolates of Bacillus were isolated from tungrymbai (211) and bekang (217) for detailed identification. On the basis of a combination of phenotypic and molecular characterisation using ARDRA, ITS-PCR and RAPD-PCR techniques, species of Bacillus isolated from tungrymbai were identified as Bacillus licheniformis (25.5%), Bacillus pumilus (19.5%) and Bacillus subtilis (55%), and species of Bacillus from bekang were Bacillus brevis (2%), Bacillus circulans (7.5%), Bacillus coagulans (6.5%), B. licheniformis (16.5%), B. pumilus (9.1%), Bacillus sphaericus (4.6%), B. subtilis (51.8%), and Lysinibacillus fusiformis (2%). The most dominant bacterium in both products was B. subtilis.

  4. Reproductive disorders in dairy cattle under semi-intensive system of rearing in North-Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. H.; Manoj, K.; Pramod, S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the incidence of major reproductive problems of dairy cattle reared under a semi-intensive system by small and marginal farmers in Meghalaya province of North-Eastern India. Materials and Methods: In a 3 years study, a total of 576 crossbred dairy cattle (212 Holstein Friesian cross and 364 Jersey cross) from all districts (n=11) of Meghalaya were assessed with the survey, clinical examination, and personal observations. Results: Out of the total animal assessed, 33.85% (n=195) were found to be affected with one or more of the clinical reproductive problems. Repeat breeding (RB), anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion were found to be the major clinical reproductive problems. Out of the total animal affected with reproductive disorders, the incidence of anestrus, RB, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion was found to be 31.79% (n=62), 24.61% (n=48), 14.35% (n=28), and 11.25% (n=22), respectively. In addition, dystocia (5.12%), prolapse (1.53%), endometritis (4.61%), and pyometra (6.66%) were minor clinical reproductive problems. There was a significant difference in the incidence of reproductive disorders with respect to breed, age, and parity. Conclusion: It was revealed from this study that RB, anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and dystocia are the major clinical reproductive problems in Meghalaya. Results indicated unsatisfactory feeding, housing, and health management practices are the main cause of low fertility of dairy cows. Lack of scientific knowledge, low access to breeding, and health services further contributed to low productivity and fertility. PMID:27284229

  5. Soufriere Hills Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcano's summit.

    This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is

  6. Muscodor albus MOW12 an Endophyte of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) Collected from North East India Produces Volatile Antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debdulal; Pandey, Akhil; Jana, Maloy; Strobel, Gary

    2014-03-01

    Muscodor albus MOW12, an endophytic fungus isolated from Piper nigrum in Mawlong, Meghalaya, India, resembles some cultural and hyphal characteristics of previous isolates of Muscodor sp. In addition, it possesses about 99 % similarity in its ITS rDNA with other M. albus isolates and thus is nicely centered within the genetic tree to other Muscodor spp. This xylariaceae fungus effectively inhibits and kills certain plant pathogenic fungi by virtue of a mixture of volatile compounds that it produces. The majority of these compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as small molecular weight esters, alcohols, and acids. The main ester components of this isolate of M. albus in its volatile mixture are acetic acid, ethyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester and acetic acid, 2-methylpropyl ester. This appears to be the first report of any M. albus strain from India.

  7. Stratigraphic Relationships on Husband Hill, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, S. B.; Watters, W. A.; Squyres, S. W.

    2011-03-01

    We measure bedding plane orientations of outcrops on Cumberland Ridge in the Columbia Hills. Our measurements are consistent with the hypotheses that the outcrops (1) form a stratigraphic section, and (2) drape the Husband Hill edifice.

  8. 'Columbia Hills' Color Elevation Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Spirit's Long Journey, Sol 450

    This elevation map shows the region of the 'Columbia Hills' where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has been working since mid-2004. Areas colored blue are lower in elevation and areas colored yellow are higher in elevation. The map imagery is from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter.

    Spirit's Long Journey, Sol 450 More than 15 months after landing on Mars, NASA's Spirit rover is still going strong, having traveled a total of 4,276 meters (2.66 miles) as of martian day, or sol, 450 (April 8, 2005). This elevation map shows the traverse followed by Spirit since arriving at the 'Columbia Hills' in June, 2004. The areas colored blue are low in elevation and areas colored yellow are high in elevation. The blue area at the foot of the 'Columbia Hills' is approximately 20 meters (66 feet) higher in elevation than the site where Spirit landed in Gusev Crater. The highest peak is on the order of 80 meters (262 feet) higher still. In other words, the hills Spirit is exploring are more than 250 feet high. The map imagery is from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor.

  9. Coming Down from the Hill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Lancaster University's Department of Continuing Education has a long tradition of engagement with older learners. Its latest innovation aims to reach out to older people sometimes suspicious of the "university on the hill". This article discusses how Lancaster University develops a "Senior Learner' Programme", which is continuing as one of the…

  10. 27 CFR 9.52 - Chalk Hill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chalk Hill. 9.52 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.52 Chalk Hill. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chalk Hill.” (b) Approved...

  11. 27 CFR 9.52 - Chalk Hill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chalk Hill. 9.52 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.52 Chalk Hill. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chalk Hill.” (b) Approved...

  12. 27 CFR 9.52 - Chalk Hill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chalk Hill. 9.52 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.52 Chalk Hill. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chalk Hill.” (b) Approved...

  13. 27 CFR 9.52 - Chalk Hill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chalk Hill. 9.52 Section 9... TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.52 Chalk Hill. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chalk Hill.” (b) Approved...

  14. 27 CFR 9.52 - Chalk Hill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chalk Hill. 9.52 Section 9... TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.52 Chalk Hill. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chalk Hill.” (b) Approved...

  15. On the origin of Hill's causal criteria.

    PubMed

    Morabia, A

    1991-09-01

    The rules to assess causation formulated by the eighteenth century Scottish philosopher David Hume are compared to Sir Austin Bradford Hill's causal criteria. The strength of the analogy between Hume's rules and Hill's causal criteria suggests that, irrespective of whether Hume's work was known to Hill or Hill's predecessors, Hume's thinking expresses a point of view still widely shared by contemporary epidemiologists. The lack of systematic experimental proof to causal inferences in epidemiology may explain the analogy of Hume's and Hill's, as opposed to Popper's, logic.

  16. SRTM Anaglyph: Haro and Kas Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001 the Kachchh region in western India suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. This three-dimensional view of landforms northeast of the city of Bhuj depicts geologic structures that are of interest in the study the tectonic processes that may have led to that earthquake. However, preliminary field studies indicate that these structures are composed of Mesozoic rocks that are overlain by younger rocks showing little deformation. Thus these structures may be old, not actively growing, and not directly related to the recent earthquake.

    The Haro Hills are on the left and the Kas Hills are on the right. The Haro Hills are an 'anticline,' which is an upwardly convex elongated fold of layered rocks. The anticline is distinctly ringed by an erosion resistant layer of sandstone. The east-west orientation of the anticline may relate to the crustal compression that has occurred during India's northward movement toward, and collision with, Asia. In contrast, the largest of the Kas Hills appears to be a tilted (to the south) and faulted (on the north) block of layered rocks. Also seen here, the curvilinear ridge trending toward the southwest from the image center is an erosion resistant 'dike,' which is an igneous intrusion into older 'host' rocks along a fault plane or other crack. The dike also appears to extend northeast from the image center as a dark line having very little topography. Its location between the tilted block and a smaller anticline to the north (directly east of the larger anticline) probably indicates that the dike fills the fault that separates these contrasting geologic structures. These features are simple examples of how digital elevation data can stereoscopically enhance satellite imagery to provide a direct input to geologic studies.

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image (taken just two weeks after the earthquake) over preliminary digital elevation

  17. DNA barcoding of wild edible mushrooms consumed by the ethnic tribes of India.

    PubMed

    Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R

    2014-10-15

    Wild edible mushrooms are consumed by the tribes of Meghalaya in the North-Eastern region of India, as part of their ethnic cuisine because of their favored organoleptic characteristics and traditionally known health benefits. Majority of these mushrooms have not yet been characterized in detail and are slowly shrinking in their natural habitats owing to anthropogenic factors and climate change. In the present study, representative specimens of ten morphologically distinct groups of wild edible mushrooms available in the traditional markets and their respective forest habitats, were subjected to multi-loci molecular characterization using SSU, ITS, RPB1 and RPB2 markers. The species identities inferred for the ten mushroom types using the SSU marker matched their morphological description in the case of four morphological groups only whereas the ITS marker successfully resolved the species identity for nine out of the ten mushroom groups under study. Both the protein coding gene markers RPB1 and RPB2 successfully resolved the species identity for three out of the ten morphologically distinct groups. Finally the most likely identity of the wild edible mushrooms under study has been suggested by matching their unique morphological characteristics with the generated DNA barcoding data. The present molecular characterization reveals the ten widely consumed wild mushroom types of Meghalaya, India to be Gomphus floccosus, Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius volemus, Cantharellus cibarius, Tricholoma viridiolivaceum, Inocybe aff. sphaerospora, Laccaria vinaceoavellanea, Albatrellus ellisii, Ramaria maculatipes and Clavulina cristata. The final species identity generated by the ITS marker matched more accurately with the morphological characteristics/appearance of the specimens indicating the ITS region as a reliable barcode for identifying wild edible mushrooms.

  18. GEOCHEMISTRY OF MAJUBA HILL, NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wenrich, Karen J.; Mascarenas, Joseph F.; Silberman, Miles L.

    1984-01-01

    Majuba Hill is the erosional remnant of a mineralized volcanic complex of rhyolite porphyry stocks, dikes, sills and irregular masses of breccia intruded into Triassic(? ) argillites. Majuba Hill is best known for its Cu and Sn ore; in addition, it was mineralized with other metals of possible economic significance, most notably, Mo, Ag, and U. Although this is an intrusive complex with no evidence of any extrusive phases, it was intruded sufficiently near the surface to develop a porphyritic texture. Intense sericitic and argillic alteration affected all stages of intrusion. Fresh rocks were not available for K-Ar analyses. Several samples of feldspars and sericite from altered zones yielded K-Ar ages for the alteration of 24. 7 to 25. 5 m. y. The tight clustering of ages suggests that all stages of the complex were altered within less than 1 m. y.

  19. Rocks of the Columbia Hills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Blaney, D.L.; Clark, B. C.; Crumpler, L.; Farrand, W. H.; Gorevan, S.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hurowitz, J.; Kusack, A.; McSween, H.Y.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Ruff, S.W.; Wang, A.; Yen, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has identified five distinct rock types in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. Clovis Class rock is a poorly sorted clastic rock that has undergone substantial aqueous alteration. We interpret it to be aqueously altered ejecta deposits formed by impacts into basaltic materials. Wishstone Class rock is also a poorly sorted clastic rock that has a distinctive chemical composition that is high in Ti and P and low in Cr. Wishstone Class rock may be pyroclastic or impact in origin. Peace Class rock is a sedimentary material composed of ultramafic sand grains cemented by significant quantities of Mg- and Ca-sulfates. Peace Class rock may have formed when water briefly saturated the ultramafic sands and evaporated to allow precipitation of the sulfates. Watchtower Class rocks are similar chemically to Wishstone Class rocks and have undergone widely varying degrees of near-isochemical aqueous alteration. They may also be ejecta deposits, formed by impacts into Wishstone-rich materials and altered by small amounts of water. Backstay Class rocks are basalt/trachybasalt lavas that were emplaced in the Columbia Hills after the other rock classes were, either as impact ejecta or by localized volcanic activity. The geologic record preserved in the rocks of the Columbia Hills reveals a period very early in Martian history in which volcanic materials were widespread, impact was a dominant process, and water was commonly present. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Prevalence of peste des petits ruminants in goats in North-East India.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, V; Das, Sutopa; Raju, D S N; Chakravarty, Indirani; Nagalingam, M; Hemadri, D; Govindaraj, G; Ibotombi Singh, N; Ltu, Keduzol; Devi, Maitryee; Sharma, K; Gajendragad, M R; Rahman, H

    2014-12-01

    The present study describes prevalence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus infection in goats in various parts of North-East (NE) India by screening of suspected serum samples collected during outbreak investigation and random samples during 2013-2014 survey. A total of 391 serum samples (318 random and 73 outbreak/suspected) were collected from 28 districts in 7 states (Meghalaya, Assam, Manipur, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura and Mizoram) of NE India. Serum samples were screened for PPRV-specific antibodies by using PPR monoclonal-antibody based competitive ELISA. Analysis of 391 serum samples indicates that an overall seroprevalence of 17.90 % [CI 95 % 14.40-22.00] in goats {45.2 % in suspected [CI 95 % 34.32-56.58] and 11.63 % in random [CI 95 % 8.56-15.63] samples} in NE India. As expected prevalence was high in outbreaks vis-à-vis random samples. The random survey results (11.63 %) has specific implication in epidemiological perspectives, since it highlights the exact PPR prevalence under natural situations, where the subclinical, in apparent or nonlethal or recovery of infection was suspected in goats, as samples were collected from unvaccinated animals. It also warrants appropriate control measures against PPR in NE region to prevent spread of infection besides widespread presence of the disease in rest of India. PMID:25674627

  1. Keeping pace with Capitol Hill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, C.

    2007-01-01

    At the Capitol Hill, the legislative branch of the United States government, the work is always at pace. Working with Congress is a tough job yet, rewarding. The Congress worked hard together to serve the public interest but many big issues are one small part of what Congress does. However, many US news media do not report what the government does instead, the media report what the government argues about. The media reports the conflicts but story is always incomplete. In order for the people know what is happening to the government, contact the congressional representative to know the complete story.

  2. 7. Detail of balcony rail. August 1936. Joseph Hill, photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail of balcony rail. August 1936. Joseph Hill, photographer, copied from small photo taken by survey member. - Jansonist Colony, Steeple Building, Main & Bishop Hill Streets, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  3. 6. Detail of pilaster cap. Aug. 10, 1936. Joseph Hill, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of pilaster cap. Aug. 10, 1936. Joseph Hill, photographer, copied from small photo taken by survey member. - Jansonist Colony, Steeple Building, Main & Bishop Hill Streets, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  4. 3. West and south elevations. Joseph Hill, photographer, copied from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. West and south elevations. Joseph Hill, photographer, copied from photo lent by Evelyn S. Craig. August 1936. - Jansonist Colony, Steeple Building, Main & Bishop Hill Streets, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  5. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer August 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer August 1936 FIRST ORIGINAL STORE AND POSTOFFICE, COPY OF AN EARLY PHOTOGRAPH. LENT BY EVELYN S. CRAIG - Jansonist Colony, Colony Store & Post Office, Main & Bishop Hill Streets, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  6. The "House" in Half Hollow Hills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnilow, Sheldon

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how he initiated a systemic improvement to Half Hollow Hills school district when he became its superintendent. He relates that although he came to Half Hollow Hills with a deep understanding of the models of systemic change, he did not bring with him a specific prescriptive plan for improvement. His plan for…

  7. Counseling Uses of the Hill Interaction Matrix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Robert E.

    While the Hill Interaction Matrix was developed as a research instrument to assess interview process, it is also generally useful in any undertaking requiring the evaluation of verbal interaction and, hence, can be used as an aid in modifying communication in order to increase its therapeutic effect. The Hill Interaction Matrix with accompanying…

  8. Glaciated appalachian plateau: till shadows on hills.

    PubMed

    Coates, D R

    1966-06-17

    North slopes are twice as steep as south slopes on the hills of central New York. This asymmetry is caused by unequal till thickness-3.6 meters on north slopes and 27.6 meters on south slopes. Previous workers interpreted the hills as being of bedrock sculptured by glacial erosion, with till 0.9 to 3 meters thick.

  9. Leslie Pickney Hill's "Toussaint L'Ouverture."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ako, Edward O.

    1987-01-01

    In his 1928 play, the Harlem Renaissance writer Leslie Pickney Hill portrays Toussaint L'Ouverture, the leader of the Haitian slave rebellion, with historical accuracy. Hill's presentation was aimed at rehabilitating black pride, "A worthy literature reared upon authentic records of achievement is the present spiritual need of the race." (BJV)

  10. Colleges as Shining Cities on a Hill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Kathleen Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes that the notion of America be reintroduced as the "shining city on a hill," that abiding image from American history. The image of the shining city on a hill captures the imagination because it reflects the abiding truth that people become fully human in society, not outside of it. People need one another to…

  11. Report on the Black Hills Alliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joe

    1979-01-01

    A rally to save the Black Hills from coal- and uranium-greedy energy companies was held on July 6 and over 2,000 joined in a 15-mile walk on July 7 in Rapid City, South Dakota. The Black Hills Alliance, an Indian coalition concerned about energy development proposals in the Great Plains, sponsored the gathering. (NQ)

  12. Solar Rossby Wave 'Hills' Identified As Supergranules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, P. E.; Hathaway, David H.; Cuntz, M.

    2007-01-01

    We explore the nature of 'hills' observed on the solar surface which had previously been attributed to Rossby waves. We investigate the sol ar hills phenomenon by analyzing the output from a synthetic model ba sed solely on the observed solar photospheric convection spectrum. We show that the characteristics of these hills can be explained by the corrugation of the surface produced by the radial flows of the conve ction. The hills in our simulations are dominated by supergranules, a well-known component of solar convection. Rossby waves have been predicted to exist within the Sun and may play an important role in the d ynamics of the solar interior, including the Sun's differential rotat ion and magnetic dynamo. Our study suggests, however, that the hills observed at the solar limb do not confirm the existence of solar Ross by waves.

  13. Layered Rocks in 'Columbia Hills'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This black-and-white image shows the first layered rocks scientists have seen close up in Gusev Crater, where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit landed Jan. 4, 2004. While Spirit's twin rover, Opportunity, reached the stadium-size Endurance Crater on the other side of Mars and began exploring its many layered outcrops in early May, Spirit traveled more than 3.5 kilometers (2.2 miles) to get to this layered bedrock in the 'Columbia Hills.' Scientists are planning to conduct a study of these rocks to determine if they are volcanic or sedimentary in origin, and if they have been chemically altered. Spirit's panoramic camera took this image on sol 217 (Aug. 13, 2004).

  14. Additions to the Encyrtidae and Mymaridae (Chalcidoidea) of India with new distribution and host records for some species

    PubMed Central

    Rameshkumar, A.; V, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Encyrtidae and Mymaridae of India have not been surveyed in depth and hosts are not known for most of the species as the methods of collections used are passive and do not yield firsthand information on the hosts. Based on our ongoing surveys on the Encyrtidae and Mymaridae of India, we report here new distribution and host records for some species. New information Acmopolynema campylurum Xu and Lin, Litus cynipseus Haliday, Omyomymar glabrum Lin and Chiappini and Platystethynium Ogloblin (Mymaridae), and Rhytidothorax purpureiscutellum (Girault) (Encyrtidae) are reported for the first time from India. Anagyrus aquilonaris (Noyes and Hayat) is recorded as new to Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya. Paraphaenodiscus indicus Singh and Agarwal and Paraphaenodiscus monawari Bhuiya are recorded from south India for the first time, the latter on a new host, Pulvinaria polygonata. Chorizococcus sorghi Williams (Pseudococcidae) is reported as a host for Cryptanusia ajmerensis (Fatma & Shafee), for which no hosts are hitherto known and the male of Cryptanusia is documented for the first time. Aclerda sp. is recorded as a new host for Neastymachus axillaris Singh, Agarwal and Basha. PMID:26069438

  15. Descent from the Summit of 'Husband Hill'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Descent from the Summit of 'Husband Hill' (QTVR)

    In late November 2005 while descending 'Husband Hill,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took the most detailed panorama so far of the 'Inner Basin,' the rover's next target destination. Spirit acquired the 405 individual images that make up this 360-degree view of the surrounding terrain using five different filters on the panoramic camera. The rover took the images on Martian days, or sols, 672 to 677 (Nov. 23 to 28, 2005 -- the Thanksgiving holiday weekend).

    This image is an approximately true-color rendering using camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters. Seams between individual frames have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

    'Home Plate,' a bright, semi-circular feature scientists hope to investigate, is harder to discern in this image than in earlier views taken from higher up the hill. Spirit acquired this more oblique view, known as the 'Seminole panorama,' from about halfway down the south flank of Husband Hill, 50 meters (164 feet) or so below the summit. Near the center of the panorama, on the horizon, are 'McCool Hill' and 'Ramon Hill,' named, like Husband Hill, in honor of the fallen astronauts of the space shuttle Columbia. Husband Hill is visible behind the rover, on the right and left sides of the panorama. An arc of rover tracks made while avoiding obstacles and getting into position to examine rock outcrops can be traced over a long distance by zooming in to explore the panorama in greater detail.

    Spirit is now significantly farther downhill toward the center of this panorama, en route to Home Plate and other enigmatic soils and outcrop rocks in the quest to uncover the history of Gusev Crater and the 'Columbia Hills.'

  16. Hill-Climbing Attacks and Robust Online Signature Verification Algorithm against Hill-Climbing Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Daigo

    Attacks using hill-climbing methods have been reported as a vulnerability of biometric authentication systems. In this paper, we propose a robust online signature verification algorithm against such attacks. Specifically, the attack considered in this paper is a hill-climbing forged data attack. Artificial forgeries are generated offline by using the hill-climbing method, and the forgeries are input to a target system to be attacked. In this paper, we analyze the menace of hill-climbing forged data attacks using six types of hill-climbing forged data and propose a robust algorithm by incorporating the hill-climbing method into an online signature verification algorithm. Experiments to evaluate the proposed system were performed using a public online signature database. The proposed algorithm showed improved performance against this kind of attack.

  17. Inside Beacon Hill: Bertrand Russell as Schoolmaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jespersen, Shirley

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the life and theories of Bertrand Russell, founder of Beacon Hill School. Russell's educational theories centered on the personal autonomy of the student and democratization of the learning process. (CH)

  18. A perspective on Capitol Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Carroll Ann

    As the AGU Congressional Science Fellow for 1980-1981, I had a unique opportunity to witness the federal engine in action—a remarkable piece of machinery. The American Association for the Advancement of Science organized an excellent orientation program, introducing our class of science fellows (about 30) to the kinds of options available for a year's tenure on Capitol Hill. These include affiliation with a congressman's or senator's staff or with one of the hundred or so standing, select, or joint committees and subcommittees. I arranged to join the personal staff of Congressman Jim Santini (D, Nev.), largely because of his demonstrated interest in Department of Interior affairs in general and the minerals industry in particular. The position of fellow provides no guarantee of work in one's areas of expertise or inclination, however, and I found that my staff assignments included topics ranging from wild horses to peanut subsidies. My principal task involved evaluation of the Air Force proposal to deploy the MX missile in Nevada and the consequent impact of that incredible scheme on the physical and economic environments of the state and the nation, including effects on minerals exploration. I had not expected to become conversant with missile technology, but the exercise provided quite an education.

  19. The Igwisi Hills extrusive 'kimberlites'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.; Donaldson, C. H.; Dawson, J. B.; Brown, R. W.; Ridley, W. I.

    1975-01-01

    The petrography and mineral chemistry of volcanic rocks from the Igwisi Hills in Tanzania are discussed. There is considerable evidence to suggest that the Igwisi rocks are extrusive kimberlites: a two-component nature with high P-T minerals in a low P-T matrix; the presence of chrome pyrope, Al enstatite, chrome diopside, chromite and olivine; a highly oxidized, volatile-rich matrix with serpentine, calcite, magnetite, perovskite; high Sr, Zr, and Nb contents; occurrence in a narrow isolated vent within a stable shield area. The Igwisi rocks differ from kimberlite in the lack of magnesian ilmenite, the scarcity of matrix phlogopite, and the overall low alkali content. They apparently contain material from phlogopite-bearing garnet peridotites with a primary mineral assemblage indicative of equilibrium at upper mantle temperatures and pressures. This primary assemblage was brought rapidly to the surface in a gas-charged, carbonate-rich fluid. Rapid upward transport, extrusion, and rapid cooling have tended to prevent reaction between inclusions and the carbonate-rich matrix that might otherwise have yielded a more typical kimberlite.

  20. Oblique View of Columbia Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This perspective view looking toward the northeast shows part of the Columbia Hills range inside Gusev Crater. At the center is the winter campaign site of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit.

    On its 805th Martian day, or sol, (April 8, 2006), Spirit was parked on a slope tilting 11 degrees to the north to maximize sunlight on the solar panels during the southern winter season. Science observations were formulated to take advantage of the long time during which the rover was parked. The plan focused on two tasks: tracking atmospheric and surface dynamics by periodically surveying the surface and atmosphere; and extensively examining surrounding terrains, rocks and soils using the panoramic camera and the miniature thermal emission spectrometer, coupled with long duration measurements using the alpha particle X-ray and Moessbauer spectrometers of rock and soil targets. For reference, the feature known as 'Home Plate' is approximately 90 meters (295 feet) wide.

    An image from Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbital Camera, catalogued as E03_00012 and courtesy Malin Space Science Systems, was used as the base image for this figure. The perspective was generated using elevation data generated from analyses of the camera's stereo images by the U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz.

  1. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, H. M.; Santosh, M.

    2004-12-01

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, Shevroy hill and Nilgiri hill massifs are intermediate charnockites, with Pallavaram massif consisting dominantly of felsic charnockites. The charnockite massifs from northern Kerala and Cardamom hill show spatial association of intermediate and felsic charnockites, with the youngest Nagercoil massif consisting of felsic charnockites. Their igneous parentage is evident from a combination of features including field relations, mineralogy, petrography, thermobarometry, as well as distinct chemical features. The southern Indian charnockite massifs show similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids, with the tonalitic intermediate charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with low K2O/Na2O ratios, and the felsic charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with high K2O/Na2O ratios. A two-stage model is suggested for the formation of these charnockites. During the first stage there was a period of basalt underplating, with the ponding of alkaline mafic magmas. Partial melting of this mafic lower crust formed the charnockitic magmas. Here emplacement of basalt with low water content would lead to dehydration melting of the lower crust forming intermediate charnockites. Conversely, emplacement of hydrous basalt would result in melting at higher {ie565-01} favoring production of more siliceous felsic charnockites. This model is correlated with two crustal thickening phases in southern India, one related to the accretion of the older crustal blocks on to the Archaean craton to the north and the other probably related to the collision between crustal fragments of East and West Gondwana in a supercontinent framework.

  2. Drought in the Black Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Color-Coded Map

    Despite good rainfall and record-setting snowstorms in the spring of 2005, most of northeastern Wyoming, the Black Hills, and western South Dakota remain in the midst of a severe drought. This set of images and maps from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) contrast the appearance of the Black Hills region of northwestern South Dakota on July 12, 2000 (left column), with views acquired four years later, on July 14, 2004 (right column). The natural-color images along the top are from MISR's nadir (downward-looking) camera. The browning that appears in 2004 compared with 2000 indicates that the vigor of green vegetation was significantly diminished in 2004.

    The color-coded maps (along the bottom) provide a quantitative measurement of the sunlight reflected from these surfaces, and the loss of sunlight-absorbing vegetation between the 2000 and 2004 dates. As the vegetation faded with the drought, the albedo at the surface increased. Albedo measures the fraction of incident sunlight that is reflected by a surface, and can vary between zero (if all the incident sunlight is absorbed and none is reflected) and one (if all sunlight is reflected and none is absorbed). Dense forest has a low albedo; bright desert, snow and clouds, have a high albedo. Here, albedo is provided for the wavelengths of sunlight that plants use for photosynthesis (400 - 700 nanometers). This measurement is known as the albedo for Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR). Surfaces with greater absorption of PAR appear here in blue hues, whereas surfaces with lower absorption appear as green, yellow, orange or red. Black pixels indicate areas where albedo could not be derived, usually due to the presence of clouds. In July 2004, low albedo areas (blue pixels) are notably reduced in extent, and higher albedo areas (yellow, orange and red pixels) have increased.

    Because incoming sunlight is

  3. Bunker Hill Sediment Characterization Study

    SciTech Connect

    Neal A. Yancey; Debby F. Bruhn

    2009-12-01

    The long history of mineral extraction in the Coeur d’Alene Basin has left a legacy of heavy metal laden mine tailings that have accumulated along the Coeur d’Alene River and its tributaries (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001; Barton, 2002). Silver, lead and zinc were the primary metals of economic interest in the area, but the ores contained other elements that have become environmental hazards including zinc, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, and copper. The metals have contaminated the water and sediments of Lake Coeur d’Alene, and continue to be transported downstream to Spokane Washington via the Spokane River. In 1983, the EPA listed the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex on the National Priorities List. Since that time, many of the most contaminated areas have been stabilized or isolated, however metal contaminants continue to migrate through the basin. Designation as a Superfund site causes significant problems for the economically depressed communities in the area. Identification of primary sources of contamination can help set priorities for cleanup and cleanup options, which can include source removal, water treatment or no action depending on knowledge about the mobility of contaminants relative to water flow. The mobility of contaminant mobility under natural or engineered conditions depends on multiple factors including the physical and chemical state (or speciation) of metals and the range of processes, some of which can be seasonal, that cause mobilization of metals. As a result, it is particularly important to understand metal speciation (National Research Council, 2005) and the link between speciation and the rates of metal migration and the impact of natural or engineered variations in flow, biological activity or water chemistry.

  4. India: Gujarat

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Dewatering Effects from the Gujarat Earthquake     View Larger Image ... India's Republic Day is normally celebrated, a devastating earthquake hit the state of Gujarat. About 20,000 people died and millions were ...

  5. Essential oil composition of valeriana jatamansi jones from himalayan regions of India.

    PubMed

    Raina, Archana P; Negi, K S

    2015-01-01

    Valeriana jatamansi Jones germplasm collected from sub-temperate Himalayan region of Uttarakhand and North-East state of Meghalaya, India was evaluated under identical conditions at National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Bhowali, India, to study germplasm diversity based on essential oil composition. Twenty one compounds were identified in V. jatamansi root oil by GC and GC-MS. The major compounds identified were patchouli alcohol (0.4-63.7%), maaliol (2.9-53.8%), seychellene (4.1-27.4%), calarene/ß-gurjunene (3.0-20.8%), α-santalene (0.6-12.0%). Other compounds present were bornyl acetate (0.6-1.5%), α-guaiene (0.7-2.3%), α-bulnesene/δ-guaiene (0.7-6.3%), 7-epi-α-selinene (0.4-1.4%), kessane (2.1-3.3%), spathulenol (0.7-3.4%), viridiflorol (0.9-7.1%), α-patchoulene (0.8-6.6%), ß-patchoulene (0.4-0.8%). Two superior chemotypes identified in V. jatamansi oil from Uttarakhand were: patchouli alcohol rich (IC573221, 63.7%) and maaliol rich (IC573222, 53.8%; IC589096, 51.7%), while accession from north-east was patchouli alcohol rich chemotype (IC574522, 57.2%). These superior chemotypes with higher amounts of patchouli alcohol and maaliol could be used for promoting cultivation as well as for meeting need of pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26009656

  6. Serological evidences of bovine herpesvirus-1 infection in bovines of organized farms in India.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Kumar, M; Yadav, V; Chander, V

    2011-04-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) is an important pathogen of cattle causing a variety of clinical signs, including the upper respiratory tract infection, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR). Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, a highly infectious disease of cattle and buffaloes, occurs throughout the world including India. The present study based on micro-serum neutralization test reports the sero-epidemiology of BHV-1 infection in cattle and buffaloes from different parts of India. Serum samples from cattle, bulls, buffalo bulls and yaks were screened for BHV-1 antibodies. A total of 1115 serum samples were screened, and a total of 437 (39.2%) serum samples were found positive and 678 (60.8%) serum samples were found negative. Overall 168 (38.0%) cattle, 17 (85.0%) buffalo, 212 (38.6%) bulls, 8 (13.5%) buffalo bulls and 32 (71.1%) yaks were found positive for BHV-1 antibodies. State wise, Assam had highest seropositivity of 71.1% for yaks, Madhya Pradesh had 68.9% for cattle and Meghalaya was negative for the presence of antibodies to BHV-1 in cattle. PMID:21156033

  7. Essential Oil Composition of Valeriana Jatamansi Jones from Himalayan Regions of India

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Archana P.; Negi, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    Valeriana jatamansi Jones germplasm collected from sub-temperate Himalayan region of Uttarakhand and North-East state of Meghalaya, India was evaluated under identical conditions at National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Bhowali, India, to study germplasm diversity based on essential oil composition. Twenty one compounds were identified in V. jatamansi root oil by GC and GC-MS. The major compounds identified were patchouli alcohol (0.4-63.7%), maaliol (2.9-53.8%), seychellene (4.1-27.4%), calarene/ß-gurjunene (3.0-20.8%), α-santalene (0.6-12.0%). Other compounds present were bornyl acetate (0.6-1.5%), α-guaiene (0.7-2.3%), α-bulnesene/δ-guaiene (0.7-6.3%), 7-epi-α-selinene (0.4-1.4%), kessane (2.1-3.3%), spathulenol (0.7-3.4%), viridiflorol (0.9-7.1%), α-patchoulene (0.8-6.6%), ß-patchoulene (0.4-0.8%). Two superior chemotypes identified in V. jatamansi oil from Uttarakhand were: patchouli alcohol rich (IC573221, 63.7%) and maaliol rich (IC573222, 53.8%; IC589096, 51.7%), while accession from north-east was patchouli alcohol rich chemotype (IC574522, 57.2%). These superior chemotypes with higher amounts of patchouli alcohol and maaliol could be used for promoting cultivation as well as for meeting need of pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26009656

  8. Matching, maximizing, and hill-climbing

    PubMed Central

    Hinson, John M.; Staddon, J. E. R.

    1983-01-01

    In simple situations, animals consistently choose the better of two alternatives. On concurrent variable-interval variable-interval and variable-interval variable-ratio schedules, they approximately match aggregate choice and reinforcement ratios. The matching law attempts to explain the latter result but does not address the former. Hill-climbing rules such as momentary maximizing can account for both. We show that momentary maximizing constrains molar choice to approximate matching; that molar choice covaries with pigeons' momentary-maximizing estimate; and that the “generalized matching law” follows from almost any hill-climbing rule. PMID:16812350

  9. Photovoltaics - 10 years after Cherry Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, E. L.

    The status of R&D programs connected with photovoltaic (PV) systems 10 years after the Cherry Hill workshop on 'Photovoltaic Conversion of Solar Energy for Terrestrial Applications' is assessed. The five categories of research recommended by the Cherry Hill Workshop are listed in a table together with their recommended research budget allocations. The workshop categories include: single-crystal Si cells; poly-Si cells; systems and diagnostics. Categories for thin film CdS/Cu2S and CuInSe2 cells are also included. The roles of government and private utility companies in providing adequate financial support for PV research programs is emphasized.

  10. Elk Hills: still out in front

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1982-07-01

    The producing history and capacity of the Elk Hills Oil and Gas Fields in California are described. Developments in the field are discussed, including waterflooding. The field presently produces ca. 160,000 bpd of oil and 350 mmcfd of natural gas. Gas liquids production totals ca. 683,000 gal/day. Waterflooding is expected to pay an increasingly important role in the production of crude oil. Steaming techniques also are viewed with favor after analysis of results of pilot projects. Exploratory develoment in Elk Hills also continues.

  11. 3. GENERAL VIEW DOWN EAST HILLS DRIVE, BUILDING 20 (ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW DOWN EAST HILLS DRIVE, BUILDING 20 (ONE BEDROOM) AND BUILDING 21 (TWO/THREE BEDROOM); ACTIVITY CENTER IN REAR, FACING NORTHEAST. - Aluminum City Terrace, East Hill Drive, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

  12. OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP BUILDINGS, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. THE FUNCTION OF THE FLAT AREA AT CENTER RIGHT IS UNKNOWN. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  13. Hill-Burton Free and Reduced Cost Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hill-Burton Spanish Brochure (PDF - 83 KB) HHS Poverty Guidelines HHS Spanish Poverty Guidelines (PDF - 32 KB) Spanish Inquiry Letter (PDF - ... income is at or below the current HHS Poverty Guidelines . You may be eligible for Hill-Burton ...

  14. General Education at UNC-Chapel Hill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalin, Jay; Robinson, Jenna Ashley

    2013-01-01

    The general education program at UNC-Chapel Hill has abandoned the concept of a core curriculum. Instead, students choose their "required" classes from lists of thousands of courses that may be as narrow and idiosyncratic as Love, Sex and Marriage in Soviet Culture (RUSS 277) or The Gardens, Shrines and Temples of Japan (ASIA 586).…

  15. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area (27 CFR 9.69). From the beginning point, the Rattlesnake Hills viticultural area boundary line— (2) Proceeds straight eastward, crossing onto the Elephant Mountain map, to the 2,192-foot...) Yakima East Quadrangle, Washington—Yakima Co., 1953, photorevised 1985; (2) Elephant Mountain...

  16. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area (27 CFR 9.69). From the beginning point, the Rattlesnake Hills viticultural area boundary line— (2) Proceeds straight eastward, crossing onto the Elephant Mountain map, to the 2,192-foot...) Yakima East Quadrangle, Washington—Yakima Co., 1953, photorevised 1985; (2) Elephant Mountain...

  17. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area (27 CFR 9.69). From the beginning point, the Rattlesnake Hills viticultural area boundary line— (2) Proceeds straight eastward, crossing onto the Elephant Mountain map, to the 2,192-foot...) Yakima East Quadrangle, Washington—Yakima Co., 1953, photorevised 1985; (2) Elephant Mountain...

  18. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area (27 CFR 9.69). From the beginning point, the Rattlesnake Hills viticultural area boundary line— (2) Proceeds straight eastward, crossing onto the Elephant Mountain map, to the 2,192-foot...) Yakima East Quadrangle, Washington—Yakima Co., 1953, photorevised 1985; (2) Elephant Mountain...

  19. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area (27 CFR 9.69). From the beginning point, the Rattlesnake Hills viticultural area boundary line— (2) Proceeds straight eastward, crossing onto the Elephant Mountain map, to the 2,192-foot...) Yakima East Quadrangle, Washington—Yakima Co., 1953, photorevised 1985; (2) Elephant Mountain...

  20. 27 CFR 9.197 - Clements Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... area (27 CFR 9.107). The Clements Hills viticultural areas boundary is as follows— (1) The beginning...., 1968, minor revision 1993; (4) Wallace, Calif., 1962; (5) Valley Springs SW., Calif., 1962... along the San Joaquin-Amador and San Joaquin-Calaveras County lines, crossing over the Wallace map,...

  1. 27 CFR 9.197 - Clements Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... area (27 CFR 9.107). The Clements Hills viticultural areas boundary is as follows— (1) The beginning...., 1968, minor revision 1993; (4) Wallace, Calif., 1962; (5) Valley Springs SW., Calif., 1962... along the San Joaquin-Amador and San Joaquin-Calaveras County lines, crossing over the Wallace map,...

  2. 27 CFR 9.197 - Clements Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... area (27 CFR 9.107). The Clements Hills viticultural areas boundary is as follows— (1) The beginning...., 1968, minor revision 1993; (4) Wallace, Calif., 1962; (5) Valley Springs SW., Calif., 1962... along the San Joaquin-Amador and San Joaquin-Calaveras County lines, crossing over the Wallace map,...

  3. 27 CFR 9.197 - Clements Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... area (27 CFR 9.107). The Clements Hills viticultural areas boundary is as follows— (1) The beginning...., 1968, minor revision 1993; (4) Wallace, Calif., 1962; (5) Valley Springs SW., Calif., 1962... along the San Joaquin-Amador and San Joaquin-Calaveras County lines, crossing over the Wallace map,...

  4. 27 CFR 9.197 - Clements Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... area (27 CFR 9.107). The Clements Hills viticultural areas boundary is as follows— (1) The beginning...., 1968, minor revision 1993; (4) Wallace, Calif., 1962; (5) Valley Springs SW., Calif., 1962... along the San Joaquin-Amador and San Joaquin-Calaveras County lines, crossing over the Wallace map,...

  5. An Unlikely Student Hits Capitol Hill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Todd Sollar, a laid-off autoworker from Ohio who is studying for an associate degree in engineering at Sinclair Community College, in Dayton, OH, went to Capitol Hill to help educate lawmakers about the importance of including support for community colleges in the economic-stimulus bill. Mr. Sollar came to Washington with Sinclair's president, and…

  6. Numerical construction of the Hill functions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segethova, J.

    1972-01-01

    As an aid in the numerical construction of Hill functions and their derivatives, an algorithm using local coordinates and an expansion in Legendre polynomials is proposed. The algorithm is shown to possess sufficient stability, and the orthogonality of the Legendre polynomials simplifies the computation when the Ritz-Galerkin technique is used.

  7. The House on the Hill Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author suggests a classroom challenge that will engage students in designing a house on the hill. He suggests teachers ask a local builder to come to the school to discuss the kinds of concerns that must be dealt with when building homes in cold environments. The use of dioramas and cardboard scale models would be very useful…

  8. Ocean Hill-Brownsville, 40 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    Forty years ago--on May 9, 1968--the local school board in Brooklyn's black ghetto of Ocean Hill-Brownsville sent telegrams to 19 unionized educators, informing them that their employment in the district was terminated. Eighteen were white. One black teacher was mistakenly included on the list, but reinstated almost immediately after the error was…

  9. ENHANCED REMEDIATION DEMONSTRATIONS AT HILL AFB: INTRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nine enhanced aquifer remediation technologies were demonstrated side-by-side at a Hill Air Force Base Chemical Disposal Pit/Fire Training Area site. The demonstrations were performed inside 3 x 5 m cells isolated from the surrounding shallow aquifer by steel piling. The site w...

  10. Plains and Hills Explored by Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Spirit's Long Journey, Sol 450

    This view from orbit shows the region within Gusev Crater where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has been working for the past 15 months. The view is a mosaic of images from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. In the left and central portion, previously released as PIA07192, tracks made by Spirit's wheels are visible from the landing site to the edge of the 'Columbia Hills.'

    Spirit's Long Journey, Sol 450 (Full Traverse) More than 15 months after landing on Mars, NASA's Spirit rover is still going strong, having traveled a total of 4,276 meters (2.66 miles) as of martian day, or sol, 450 (April 8, 2005). This elevation map shows the traverse followed by Spirit since arriving at the 'Columbia Hills' in June, 2004. The areas colored blue are low in elevation and areas colored yellow are high in elevation. The blue area at the foot of the 'Columbia Hills' is approximately 20 meters (66 feet) higher in elevation than the site where Spirit landed in Gusev Crater. The highest peak is on the order of 80 meters (262 feet) higher still. In other words, the hills Spirit is exploring are more than 250 feet high. The map imagery is from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor.

  11. 27 CFR 9.145 - Dunnigan Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... The Dunnigan Hills viticultural area is located in Yolo County, California. The boundary is as follows... and U.S. Route 99W just south of the Colusa-Yolo county line; (2) From the beginning point, the... just north of the town of Yolo, California, on the Woodland, Calif., U.S.G.S. map; (3) The...

  12. 27 CFR 9.145 - Dunnigan Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... The Dunnigan Hills viticultural area is located in Yolo County, California. The boundary is as follows... and U.S. Route 99W just south of the Colusa-Yolo county line; (2) From the beginning point, the... just north of the town of Yolo, California, on the Woodland, Calif., U.S.G.S. map; (3) The...

  13. 27 CFR 9.145 - Dunnigan Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... The Dunnigan Hills viticultural area is located in Yolo County, California. The boundary is as follows... and U.S. Route 99W just south of the Colusa-Yolo county line; (2) From the beginning point, the... just north of the town of Yolo, California, on the Woodland, Calif., U.S.G.S. map; (3) The...

  14. 27 CFR 9.145 - Dunnigan Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... The Dunnigan Hills viticultural area is located in Yolo County, California. The boundary is as follows... and U.S. Route 99W just south of the Colusa-Yolo county line; (2) From the beginning point, the... just north of the town of Yolo, California, on the Woodland, Calif., U.S.G.S. map; (3) The...

  15. Jesse Stuart: Lessons from the Kentucky Hills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Lu

    1986-01-01

    Highlights events in the life of Jesse Stuart, who began his teaching career at the age of 17 in a remote one-room school in the Kentucky hills and went on to become widely recognized as teacher, lecturer, and significant regional writer. Emphasizes Stuart's love of teaching and his personal values. (JHZ)

  16. 75. Southeast elevation of Forest Hills station looking Northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. Southeast elevation of Forest Hills station - looking Northwest from junction of Washington and Walk Hill Streets. At left is the beginning of Section F-7 the exposed steel portion of elevated structure leading to the Forest Hills storage yard (demolished in 1985). - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  17. AERIAL VIEW, LAUREL HILL CEMETERY (LEFT) AND MOUNT PEACE CEMETERY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LAUREL HILL CEMETERY (LEFT) AND MOUNT PEACE CEMETERY (RIGHT). LOCATED ACROSS RIDGE AVENUE FROM LAUREL HILL CEMETERY, MOUNT PEACE CEMETERY WAS FOUNDED BY THE ODD FELLOWS CEMETERY COMPANY IN 1865. - Laurel Hill Cemetery, 3822 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 27 CFR 9.136 - Texas Hill Country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Texas Hill Country. 9.136... Texas Hill Country. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas Hill Country.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the “Texas...

  19. 27 CFR 9.136 - Texas Hill Country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Texas Hill Country. 9.136... Texas Hill Country. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas Hill Country.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the “Texas...

  20. 27 CFR 9.136 - Texas Hill Country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Texas Hill Country. 9.136... Texas Hill Country. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas Hill Country.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the “Texas...

  1. 27 CFR 9.136 - Texas Hill Country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Texas Hill Country. 9.136... Texas Hill Country. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas Hill Country.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the “Texas...

  2. View of south boundary of Easter Hill project site, former ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south boundary of Easter Hill project site, former right of way for Hoffman Boulevard. Note reconstructed Easter Hill Building No. 6 at rear. Looking east - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  3. 27 CFR 9.190 - Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Hill Douglas County... Areas § 9.190 Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Red...

  4. Structure, stratigraphy, and origin of Husband Hill, Columbia Hills, Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, T. J.; Sims, M.; Schmidt, M. E.; Edwards, L.; Tornabene, L. L.; Crumpler, L. S.; Cohen, B. A.; Soderblom, L. A.; Blaney, D. L.; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Rice, J. W.; Tréguier, E.; d'Uston, C.; Grant, J. A.; McSween, H. Y.; Golombek, M. P.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; de Souza, P. A.

    2008-06-01

    The strike and dip of lithologic units imaged in stereo by the Spirit rover in the Columbia Hills using three-dimensional imaging software shows that measured dips (15-32°) for bedding on the main edifice of the Columbia Hill are steeper than local topography (~8-10°). Outcrops measured on West Spur are conformable in strike with shallower dips (7-15°) than observed on Husband Hill. Dips are consistent with observed strata draping the Columbia Hills. Initial uplift was likely related either to the formation of the Gusev Crater central peak or ring or through mutual interference of overlapping crater rims. Uplift was followed by subsequent draping by a series of impact and volcaniclastic materials that experienced temporally and spatially variable aqueous infiltration, cementation, and alteration episodically during or after deposition. West Spur likely represents a spatially isolated depositional event. Erosion by a variety of processes, including mass wasting, removed tens of meters of materials and formed the Tennessee Valley primarily after deposition. This was followed by eruption of the Adirondack-class plains basalt lava flows which embayed the Columbia Hills. Minor erosion, impact, and aeolian processes have subsequently modified the Columbia Hills.

  5. Structure, stratigraphy, and origin of Husband Hill, Columbia Hills, Gusev Crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, T.J.; Sims, M.; Schmidt, M.E.; Edwards, L.; Tornabene, L.L.; Crumpler, L.S.; Cohen, B. A.; Soderblom, L.A.; Blaney, D.L.; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Rica, J.W.; Treguier, E.; d'Uston, C.; Grant, J. A.; McSween, H.Y.; Golombek, M.P.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; de Souza, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    The strike and dip of lithologic units imaged in stereo by the Spirit rover in the Columbia Hills using three-dimensional imaging software shows that measured dips (15-32??) for bedding on the main edifice of the Columbia Hill are steeper than local topography (???8-10??). Outcrops measured on West Spur are conformable in strike with shallower dips (7-15??) than observed on Husband Hill. Dips are consistent with observed strata draping the Columbia Hills. Initial uplift was likely related either to the formation of the Gusev Crater central peak or ring or through mutual interference of overlapping crater rims. Uplift was followed by subsequent draping by a series of impact and volcaniclastic materials that experienced temporally and spatially variable aqueous infiltration, cementation, and alteration episodically during or after deposition. West Spur likely represents a spatially isolated depositional event. Erosion by a variety of processes, including mass wasting, removed tens of meters of materials and formed the Tennessee Valley primarily after deposition. This was followed by eruption of the Adirondack-class plains basalt lava flows which embayed the Columbia Hills. Minor erosion, impact, and aeolian processes have subsequently modified the Columbia Hills. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Internet India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews a number of Internet sites containing information on every aspect of life in Modern India. The various sites provide information on such diverse topics as the Indian film industry, politics, the booming Indian computer industry, changing status of women, and financial and political issues. (MJP)

  7. Sonerila nairii (Melastomataceae) - a new species from the southern Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Soumya; Nair, Maya C

    2016-01-01

    The new species Sonerila nairii (Melastomataceae) is here described from Pothumala of the Nelliampathy hill ranges of Western Ghats of Kerala, India. Morphologically it most closely resembles Sonerila erecta and Sonerila pulneyensis from which differs by the form of the stem, leaves, peduncle, pedicel, inflorescence, pubescence of the stem, leaves and hypanthium, and by the form of stamens and stigma. PMID:27212878

  8. Sonerila nairii (Melastomataceae) – a new species from the southern Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Soumya; Nair, Maya C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The new species Sonerila nairii (Melastomataceae) is here described from Pothumala of the Nelliampathy hill ranges of Western Ghats of Kerala, India. Morphologically it most closely resembles Sonerila erecta and Sonerila pulneyensis from which differs by the form of the stem, leaves, peduncle, pedicel, inflorescence, pubescence of the stem, leaves and hypanthium, and by the form of stamens and stigma. PMID:27212878

  9. The association of selected sociodemographic factors and differences in patterns of substance use: a pilot study in selected areas of Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, H K; Phukan, R K; Mahanta, J

    2003-07-01

    Emergence of new addictive substances and progressive increase of 'drug abuse" has become a serious problem in many countries. Despite legal restriction and administrative control, the use of illicit drugs (like opium, heroin, proxyvan, etc.) has increased considerably in many parts of Northeast India. A sample of 1831 people (age 10 years and above) were interviewed during 1997-1998 about their drug use habits, if any, and types of substance used, in Meghalaya and upper Assam. Prevalence of substance use was 29.4% tobacco (20.5% chewers and 12.7% smokers), 12.5% alcohol, and 4.9% opium. In Meghalaya, prevalence of tobacco use was high (41.7%), which was mainly due to the large number of female chewers and male smokers. Opium and cannabis users were mainly confined in Assam close to the Arunachal Pradesh border, indicating a regional influence. Wide differences were observed in the prevalence pattern of tobacco and alcohol use across location, sex, age, education, and occupation. An association of sociodemographic factors with substance use was documented. Religion and ethnic group have significant association with tobacco use patterns but are insignificant with regard to alcohol use. Use of multiple substances and use of cannabis as a substitute for opium are the major problems indicating drug dependence. Mean ages for substance use initiation were: 18.5 years for tobacco, 21.8 years for alcohol, and 25.8 years for opium. Not with-standing the study's limitations, these findings are useful for planned prevention efforts and formulation of a specific program considering the importance of regional and sociodemographic factors. PMID:12908813

  10. Uranium series dating of Allan Hills ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1986-03-01

    Uranium-238 decay series nuclides dissolved in Antarctic ice samples were measured in areas of both high and low concentrations of volcanic glass shards. Ice from the Allan Hills site (high shard content) had high Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 activities but similarly low U-238 activities in comparison with Antarctic ice samples without shards. The Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 excesses were found to be proportional to the shard content, while the U-238 decay series results were consistent with the assumption that alpha decay products recoiled into the ice from the shards. Through this method of uranium series dating, it was learned that the Allen Hills Cul de Sac ice is approximately 325,000 years old.

  11. The planar Hill problem with oblate primary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadakis, K. E.

    2004-09-01

    The regularized equations of motion of the planar Hill problem which includes the effect of the oblateness of the larger primary body, is presented. Using the Levi-Civita coordinate transformation as well as the corresponding time transformation, we obtain a simple regularized polynomial Hamiltonian of the dynamical system that corresponds to that of two uncoupled harmonic oscillators perturbed by polynomial terms. The relations between the synodic and regularized variables are also given. The convenient numerical computations of the regularized equations of motion, allow derivation of a map of the group of families of simple-periodic orbits, free of collision cases, of both the classical and the Hill problem with oblateness. The horizontal stability of the families is calculated and we determine series of horizontally critical symmetric periodic orbits of the basic families g and g'.

  12. Uranium series dating of Allan Hills ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium-238 decay series nuclides dissolved in Antarctic ice samples were measured in areas of both high and low concentrations of volcanic glass shards. Ice from the Allan Hills site (high shard content) had high Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 activities but similarly low U-238 activities in comparison with Antarctic ice samples without shards. The Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 excesses were found to be proportional to the shard content, while the U-238 decay series results were consistent with the assumption that alpha decay products recoiled into the ice from the shards. Through this method of uranium series dating, it was learned that the Allen Hills Cul de Sac ice is approximately 325,000 years old.

  13. Segment lengths influence hill walking strategies.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Riley C; Gottschall, Jinger S

    2014-08-22

    Segment lengths are known to influence walking kinematics and muscle activity patterns. During level walking at the same speed, taller individuals take longer, slower strides than shorter individuals. Based on this, we sought to determine if segment lengths also influenced hill walking strategies. We hypothesized that individuals with longer segments would display more joint flexion going uphill and more extension going downhill as well as greater lateral gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis activity in both directions. Twenty young adults of varying heights (below 155 cm to above 188 cm) walked at 1.25 m/s on a level treadmill as well as 6° and 12° up and downhill slopes while we collected kinematic and muscle activity data. Subsequently, we ran linear regressions for each of the variables with height, leg, thigh, and shank length. Despite our population having twice the anthropometric variability, the level and hill walking patterns matched closely with previous studies. While there were significant differences between level and hill walking, there were few hill walking variables that were correlated with segment length. In support of our hypothesis, taller individuals had greater knee and ankle flexion during uphill walking. However, the majority of the correlations were between tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius activities and shank length. Contrary to our hypothesis, relative step length and muscle activity decreased with segment length, specifically shank length. In summary, it appears that individuals with shorter segments require greater propulsion and toe clearance during uphill walking as well as greater braking and stability during downhill walking. PMID:24968942

  14. Photovoltaics - 10 years after Cherry Hill

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, E.L.

    1984-05-01

    The question is, could a workshop today be effective in planning the next 10 years of development in the PV industry. Given is some insight into the Cherry Hill workshop, who was there and what was accomplished. Plans were made at workshop sessions, open panels discussed the needs, and invited papers were presented by experts in the field showing what concepts and ideas existed. The need for U.S. Government support of a 10 year PV development program was confirmed.

  15. Possible Meteorites in the Martian Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    From its winter outpost at 'Low Ridge' inside Gusev Crater, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this spectacular, color mosaic of hilly, sandy terrain and two potential iron meteorites. The two light-colored, smooth rocks about two-thirds of the way up from the bottom of the frame have been labeled 'Zhong Shan' and 'Allan Hills.'

    The two rocks' informal names are in keeping with the rover science team's campaign to nickname rocks and soils in the area after locations in Antarctica. Zhong Shang is an Antarctic base that the People's Republic of China opened on Feb. 26, 1989, at the Larsemann Hills in Prydz Bay in East Antarctica. Allan Hills is a location where researchers have found many Martian meteorites, including the controversial ALH84001, which achieved fame in 1996 when NASA scientists suggested that it might contain evidence for fossilized extraterrestrial life. Zhong Shan was the given name of Dr. Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925), known as the 'Father of Modern China.' Born to a peasant family in Guangdong, Sun moved to live with his brother in Honolulu at age 13 and later became a medical doctor. He led a series of uprisings against the Qing dynasty that began in 1894 and eventually succeeded in 1911. Sun served as the first provisional president when the Republic of China was founded in 1912.

    The Zhong Shan and Allan Hills rocks, at the left and right, respectively, have unusual morphologies and miniature thermal emission spectrometer signatures that resemble those of a rock known as 'Heat Shield' at the Meridiani site explored by Spirit's twin, Opportunity. Opportunity's analyses revealed Heat Shield to be an iron meteorite.

    Spirit acquired this approximately true-color image on the rover's 872nd Martian day, or sol (June 16, 2006), using exposures taken through three of the panoramic camera's filters, centered on wavelengths of 600 nanometers, 530 nanometers, and 480 nanometers.

  16. Flow over periodic hills: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Ch.; Manhart, M.

    2011-07-01

    Two-dimensional flow over periodically arranged hills was investigated experimentally in a water channel. Two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV) and one-dimensional laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) measurements were undertaken at four Reynolds numbers ({5,600} le Re le {37,000}). Two-dimensional PIV field measurements were thoroughly validated by means of point-by-point 1D LDA measurements at certain positions of the flow. A detailed study of the periodicity and the homogeneity was undertaken, which demonstrates that the flow can be regarded as two-dimensional and periodic for Re ge {10,000}. We found a decreasing reattachment length with increasing Reynolds number. This is connected to a higher momentum in the near-wall zone close to flow separation which comes from the velocity speed up above the obstacle. This leads to a velocity overshoot directly above the hill crest which increases with Reynolds number as the inner layer depth decreases. The flow speed up above that layer is independent of the Reynolds number which supports the assumption of inviscid flow disturbance in the outer layer usually made in asymptotic theory for flow over small hills.

  17. The Rocks of the Columbia Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Blaney, Diana L.; Clark, Benton C.; Crumpler, Larry; Farrand, William H.; Gorevan, Stephen; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Hurowitz, Joel; Kusack, Alastair; McSween, Harry Y.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Ruff, Steven W.; Wang, Alian; Yen, Albert

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has identified five distinct rock types in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. Clovis Class rock is a poorly-sorted clastic rock that has undergone substantial aqueous alteration. We interpret it to be aqueously-altered ejecta deposits formed by impacts into basaltic materials. Wishstone Class rock is also a poorly-sorted clastic rock that has a distinctive chemical composition that is high in Ti and P and low in Cr. Wishstone Class rock may be pyroclastic in origin. Peace Class rock is a sedimentary material composed of ultramafic sand grains cemented by significant quantities of Mg- and Ca-sulfates. Peace Class rock may have formed when water briefly saturated the ultramafic sands, and evaporated to allow precipitation of the sulfates. Watchtower Class rocks are similar chemically to Wishstone Class rocks, and have undergone widely varying degrees of near-isochemical aqueous alteration. They may also be ejecta deposits, formed by impacts into Wishstone-rich materials and altered by small amounts of water. Backstay Class rocks are basalt/trachybasalt lavas that were emplaced in the Columbia Hills after the other rock classes were, either as impact ejecta or by localized volcanic activity. The geologic record preserved in the rocks of the Columbia Hills reveals a period very early in martian history in which volcanic materials were widespread, impact was a dominant process, and water was commonly present.

  18. Delhi, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  19. Confidence Hills Mineralogy and Chemin Results from Base of Mt. Sharp, Pahrump Hills, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanagh, P. D.; Bish, D. L.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Achilles, C. N.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; Downs, R. T.; Morrison, S. M.; Fendrich, K. V.; Yen, A. S.; Grotzinger, J.; Crisp, J. A.; Bristow, T. F.; Sarrazin, P. C.; Farmer, J. D.; Des Marais, D. J.; Stolper, E. M.; Morookian, J. M.; Wilson, M. A.; Spanovich, N.; Anderson, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity recently completed its fourth drill sampling of sediments on Mars. The Confidence Hills (CH) sample was drilled from a rock located in the Pahrump Hills region at the base of Mt. Sharp in Gale Crater. The CheMin X-ray diffractometer completed five nights of analysis on the sample, more than previously executed for a drill sample, and the data have been analyzed using Rietveld refinement and full-pattern fitting to determine quantitative mineralogy. Confidence Hills mineralogy has several important characteristics: 1) abundant hematite and lesser magnetite; 2) a 10 angstrom phyllosilicate; 3) multiple feldspars including plagioclase and alkali feldspar; 4) mafic silicates including forsterite, orthopyroxene, and two types of clinopyroxene (Ca-rich and Ca-poor), consistent with a basaltic source; and 5) minor contributions from sulfur-bearing species including jarosite.

  20. Social capital and basic goods: the cautionary tale of drinking water in India.

    PubMed

    Motiram, Sripad; Osberg, Lars

    2010-01-01

    This study uses micro-data from the 1998-99 Indian Time Use Survey (ITUS; covering 77,593 persons in 18,591 households in Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Orissa, and Haryana) to argue that time use data provides a natural metric for measuring "social capital" building activities and for distinguishing between the relative importance of "bonding" into groups or "bridging" within communities. The study examines the correlation between inequality in landownership, caste status, measures of local social capital, and whether or not a household will have to collect water. In India, the probability that a rural household fetches water is 4.8% and 9.1% lower in communities in which the average time spent on social interaction and community-based activities at the district-level doubles, but it is 18.9% greater when the time in group-based activities doubles. Inequalities in landownership and home ownership are associated with considerably larger differences in local tap water availability.

  1. Three-dimensional potential flow over hills and oval mounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, R.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis was made of the potential flow behavior for an initially uniform flow passing over a single axisymmetric hill, an oval mound, and a combination of two hills. Small perturbation theory was used, and the resulting Laplace equation for the perturbation velocity potential was solved by using either a product solution or a Green's function. The three dimensional solution is of interest in calculating the pressure distribution around obstacles, the flow of pollutants carried by the wind, and the augmentation of wind velocity for windmill siting. The augmentation in velocity at the top of a hill was found to be proportional to the hill height relative to a characteristic width dimension of the hill. An axisymmetric hill produced about 20 percent less velocity increase than a two dimensional ridge having the same cross-sectional profile.

  2. PLANS AND SECTIONS. WEIR SPILLWAY. TEXAS HILL CANAL STA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLANS AND SECTIONS. WEIR SPILLWAY. TEXAS HILL CANAL - STA. 132+82.15. TEXAS HILL CANAL AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-3200, dated February 7, 1955, Denver, Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Relift Station, Texas Hill Canal 2.5, Northern Terminus of Avenue 51 East, approximately .5 mile south of Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  3. Bombay, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  4. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May, 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May, 1936 EAST ELEVATION - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  5. 78 FR 73187 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... entry into the building. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Scott Jacobson, Committee Coordinator, by... requests for oral comments must be sent to Scott Jacobson, Black Hills National Forest Supervisor's...

  6. Proposed Schedule for Fenton Hill Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, James N.; Brown, Donald W.

    1990-10-22

    To help in planning Fenton Hill experimental operations in concert with preparations for the Long-Term Flow Test (LTFT) next summer, the following schedule is proposed. This schedule fits some of the realities of the next few months, including the Laboratory closure during the Holidays, the seismic monitoring tests in Roswell, and the difficulties of operating during the winter months. Whenever possible, cyclic pumping operations during the colder months will be scheduled so that the pump will be on during the late evening and early morning hours to prevent freezeup.

  7. RYAN HILL ROADLESS AREA, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, C.H.; Ellis, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a geochemical survey, the Ryan Hill Roadless Area, now the Langmuir Research Site in New Mexico has both probable and substantiated resource potential for manganese deposits. The nature of the geologic terrane holds little likelihood for the occurrence of organic fuels. Additional geochemical studies of the manganese vein systems are desirable to better delineate the resource potential; mineralogical and metallurgical studies are needed to determine recoverability of potentially important byproducts, including tungsten and cobalt. Drilling into the vein system at depth would be required to test the continuity of the manganese deposits and evaluate the resource potential of the area for deeply buried base- and precious-metal resources.

  8. Spirit's View of 'Columbia Hills' (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit looked up at the 'Columbia Hills' from its location on the 265th martian day, or sol, of its mission (Sept. 30, 2004) and captured this 3-D view. This cropped mosaic image, presented here in a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction, was taken by the rover's navigation camera.

    Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  9. New type of hill-top inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvinsky, A. O.; Kamenshchik, A. Yu.; Nesterov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    We suggest a new type of hill-top inflation originating from the initial conditions in the form of the microcanonical density matrix for the cosmological model with a large number of quantum fields conformally coupled to gravity. Initial conditions for inflation are set up by cosmological instantons describing underbarrier oscillations in the vicinity of the inflaton potential maximum. These periodic oscillations of the inflaton field and cosmological scale factor are obtained within the approximation of two coupled oscillators subject to the slow roll regime in the Euclidean time. This regime is characterized by rapid oscillations of the scale factor on the background of a slowly varying inflaton, which guarantees smallness of slow roll parameters epsilon and η of the following inflation stage. A hill-like shape of the inflaton potential is shown to be generated by logarithmic loop corrections to the tree-level asymptotically shift-invariant potential in the non-minimal Higgs inflation model and R2-gravity. The solution to the problem of hierarchy between the Planckian scale and the inflation scale is discussed within the concept of conformal higher spin fields, which also suggests the mechanism bringing the model below the gravitational cutoff and, thus, protecting it from large graviton loop corrections.

  10. Spirit's Express Route to 'Columbia Hills'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This map illustrates the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's position as of sol 112 (April 26, 2004), near the crater called 'Missoula.' Like a train on a tight schedule, Spirit will make regular stops along the way to its ultimate destination, the 'Columbia Hills.' At each stop, or 'station,' the rover will briefly analyze the area's rocks and soils. Each tick mark on the rover's route represents one sol's worth of travel, or about 60 to 70 meters (200 to 230 feet). Rover planners estimate that Spirit will reach the hills around mid-June. Presently, the rover is stopped at a site called 'Plains Station.'

    The color thermal data show how well different surface features hold onto heat. Red indicates warmth; blue indicates coolness. Areas with higher temperatures are more likely to be rocky, as rocks absorb heat. Lower temperatures denote small particles and fewer rocks. During its traverse, Spirit will document the causes of these temperature variations.

    The map comprises data from the camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter and the thermal emission imaging system on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter.

  11. Spirit's Express Route to 'Columbia Hills'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This map illustrates the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's position as of sol 112 (April 26, 2004), near the crater called 'Missoula.' Like a train on a tight schedule, Spirit will make regular stops along the way to its ultimate destination, the 'Columbia Hills.' At each stop, or 'station,' the rover will briefly analyze the area's rocks and soils. Each tick mark on the rover's route represents one sol's worth of travel, or about 60 to 70 meters (200 to 230 feet). Rover planners estimate that Spirit will reach the hills around mid-June. Presently, the rover is stopped at a site called 'Plains Station.'

    The color thermal data show how well different surface features hold onto heat. Red indicates a higher thermal inertia associated with rocky terrain (cooler in the day, warmer at night); blue indicates a lower thermal inertia associated with smaller particles and fewer rocks (warmer at night, cooler in the day). During its traverse, Spirit will document the causes of these thermal variations.

    The map comprises data from the camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter and the thermal emission imaging system on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter.

  12. Hill crossing during preheating after hilltop inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antusch, Stefan; Nolde, David; Orani, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    In ``hilltop inflation'', inflation takes place when the inflaton field slowly rolls from close to a maximum of its potential (i.e. the ``hilltop'') towards its minimum. When the inflaton potential is associated with a phase transition, possible topological defects produced during this phase transition, such as domain walls, are efficiently diluted during inflation. It is typically assumed that they also do not reform after inflation, i.e. that the inflaton field stays on its side of the ``hill'', finally performing damped oscillations around the minimum of the potential. In this paper we study the linear and the non-linear phases of preheating after hilltop inflation. We find that the fluctuations of the inflaton field during the tachyonic oscillation phase grow strong enough to allow the inflaton field to form regions in position space where it crosses ``over the top of the hill'' towards the ``wrong vacuum''. We investigate the formation and behaviour of these overshooting regions using lattice simulations: rather than durable domain walls, these regions form oscillon-like structures (i.e. localized bubbles that oscillate between the two vacua) which should be included in a careful study of preheating in hilltop inflation.

  13. New type of hill-top inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Barvinsky, A.O.; Nesterov, D.V.; Kamenshchik, A.Yu. E-mail: Alexander.Kamenshchik@bo.infn.it

    2016-01-01

    We suggest a new type of hill-top inflation originating from the initial conditions in the form of the microcanonical density matrix for the cosmological model with a large number of quantum fields conformally coupled to gravity. Initial conditions for inflation are set up by cosmological instantons describing underbarrier oscillations in the vicinity of the inflaton potential maximum. These periodic oscillations of the inflaton field and cosmological scale factor are obtained within the approximation of two coupled oscillators subject to the slow roll regime in the Euclidean time. This regime is characterized by rapid oscillations of the scale factor on the background of a slowly varying inflaton, which guarantees smallness of slow roll parameters ε and η of the following inflation stage. A hill-like shape of the inflaton potential is shown to be generated by logarithmic loop corrections to the tree-level asymptotically shift-invariant potential in the non-minimal Higgs inflation model and R{sup 2}-gravity. The solution to the problem of hierarchy between the Planckian scale and the inflation scale is discussed within the concept of conformal higher spin fields, which also suggests the mechanism bringing the model below the gravitational cutoff and, thus, protecting it from large graviton loop corrections.

  14. Informal household water market and determinants of price: Evidence from an Indian hill city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Manoranjan; De, Utpal Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Pricing of water in the hill cities in India is different from that of plain lands, because water is a scarce resource in most of the hill cities. The supply of water by the municipalities is inadequate. The private vendors come into picture and they put the prices according to the difficulties faced in supplying to the specific locations. Thus prices become variables and are also based on the economic demand-supply mechanism in which the households try to maximise their satisfaction subject to budget and other constraints, while the vendors try to extract as much benefit as possible from the buyers. This paper tries to examine the pricing of household water use in Shillong urban area, India and the impact of various factors including income, house rent, seasonal scarcity of water, capacity of municipal supply, household size on the price-quantity determination. The analysis is made in terms of a simultaneous equation framework and the model is applied to a data collected by stratified random sampling technique across the municipal wards and non-municipal segments of greater Shillong urban Agglomeration. The result of three stage least squares reveals significant positive impacts of income, scarcity of water on the demand price while significantly negative impacts of quantity purchased, extent of municipal supply, house rent paid on the demand price. But the household size does not have any significant impact on the demand price though large household is expected to require more water. The supply of water on the other hand is not significantly affected by price, extent of municipal supply and deficiency though the coefficients are in the expected line.

  15. Intervention of gender friendly land preparation technologies for drudgery reduction of hill farm women.

    PubMed

    Kishtwaria, Jatinder; Rana, Aruna

    2012-01-01

    Inventory of all agricultural tasks depicted land preparation by women farmers as one of the most drudgery prone task with high energy cost, thereby, making it amenable to ergonomic interventions in terms of improved technologies (clod breaker, improved plough/'danella') to relieve women from high energy demands, time spent and associated drudgery. The study was conducted in two hill states of India viz. Himachal Pradesh (35 villages and 900 representative samples) and Uttrakhand (10 villages and 900 representative samples). Experimental data were conducted on representative sub sample of 60 hill farm women of both the states to assess physiological workload and musculo-skeletal problems both while working with traditional tools along with improved tools by employing selected parameters viz. physical fitness level, physiological parameters etc. The results showed that heart rate values were more than acceptable limits for task performed with the traditional tools as compared with improved tools. Significant reduction in the heart rate was observed while working with improved tools. Analysis of MSDs showed that the postural stress and severity of pain in various body parts was reduced by adopting new technology. Hence, the use of improved land preparation tools is recommended over the existing ones for drudgery reduction.

  16. Service with Style: Corinne Hill--Denton Public Library, TX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Although a librarian for only eight years, Corinne Hill is already known in Dallas and Denton, TX, for turning dull, little-used branches into vibrant community centers. A stylish woman with a zest for shopping, Hill loves developing new collections and showing them off. She sees no reason why a library should not be as attractive as any good…

  17. Accounting for imperfect detection in Hill numbers for biodiversity studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broms, Kristin M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Fitzpatrick, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    The occupancy-based Hill number estimators are always at their asymptotic values (i.e. as if an infinite number of samples have been taken for the study region), therefore making it easy to compare biodiversity between different assemblages. In addition, the Hill numbers are computed as derived quantities within a Bayesian hierarchical model, allowing for straightforward inference.

  18. View of sports field and Easter Hill at west side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of sports field and Easter Hill at west side of project site. Looking west - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  19. View of sports field from Easter Hill looking at intersection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of sports field from Easter Hill looking at intersection of South Twenty-Sixth Street and Foothill Avenue at left center rear. Buildings No. 36, 35, 25, 27, and 29, from left to right. Looking northeast - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  20. View of sports field and Easter Hill at west side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of sports field and Easter Hill at west side of project site. Looking southwest - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  1. 78 FR 76100 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board (Board) will... Committee Act of 1972 (5 U.S.C. App. II), the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of...

  2. AmeriFlux US-Blk Black Hills

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Tilden

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Blk Black Hills. Site Description - The Black Hills tower was established by the Institute for Atmospheric Studies of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology.

  3. Is "Home" Still in the Hills? Staff Paper 153.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eldon D.

    Although there was expectation that the current recession would bring a new wave of Appalachian Kentuckians back to their homeland hills, as had previous recessions, no great "return to the hills" (or even to other areas of the state) has materialized. Unemployment insurance claims by people formerly employed in other states have not increased in…

  4. OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WHITE PINE TALC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WHITE PINE TALC MINE LOOKING EAST. THE OPENING TO THE TALC MINE IS IN THE DARK AREA AT CENTER LEFT EDGE. WARM SPRINGS CAMP IS OUT OF FRAME TO THE RIGHT. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  5. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST TOWARD QUARTERMASTER BUILDINGS GROUP AND RESERVOIR HILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO SOUTHEAST TOWARD QUARTERMASTER BUILDINGS GROUP AND RESERVOIR HILL, FROM AMMUNITION (IGLOO) HILL. (Part 2 of a 3 view panorama; see also CA-2398-J-1 and CA-2398-16.) - Hamilton Field, East of Nave Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  6. "This Delightfull Garden": "Rabbit Hill" and the Pastoral Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Contends that Robert Lawson's children's book "Rabbit Hill" (1944) falls within the genre of pastoral literature, in the tradition of Edmund Spenser's "Faerie Queen." Examines the history of the genre and finds reasons for classifying Lawson's book as pastoral. Cites classic elements in "Rabbit Hill." Gives five questions for stimulating student…

  7. 83. GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTH END OF GUN HILL PLATFORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTH END OF GUN HILL PLATFORM OF 3RD AVENUE EL SHOWING THE SOUTHBOUND TRACK APPROACH INTO GUN HILL STATION. 7TH AVENUE EXPRESS EL ABOVE. - Interborough Rapid Transit Company, Third Avenue Elevated Line, Borough of the Bronx, New York County, NY

  8. 78 FR 64471 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... Fifth Street, Custer, SD. Please call ahead to Scott Jacobson, ] Committee Management Officer, at 605...: Scott Jacobson, Committee Management Officer, Black Hills National Forest Supervisor's Office, 605-673... comments must be sent to Scott Jacobson, Supervisor's Office, Black Hills National Forest, 1019 North...

  9. 78 FR 59337 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... Fifth Street, Custer, SD. Please call ahead to Scott Jacobson, ] Committee Management Officer, at 605...: Scott Jacobson, Committee Management Officer, Black Hills National Forest Supervisor's Office, 605-673... comments must be sent to Scott Jacobson, Supervisor's Office, Black Hills National Forest, 1019 North...

  10. 2. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CIA TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CIA TO THE SOUTH. IN FOREGROUND, PLANT DRY, SLAG FUMING PLANT, BLAST FURNACE, SMELTER OFFICE, LEAD AND SILVER REFINERIES ARE VISIBLE, L. TO R. HIGH VELOCITY FLUE LEADS FROM LOWER PLANT TO BAG HOUSE AND STACKS AT TOP OF SMELTING FACILITY. - Bunker Hill Lead Smelter, Bradley Rail Siding, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  11. 3. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CIA TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CIA TO THE SOUTHWEST. BUILDINGS NOTED IN ID-29-2 APPEAR, IN ADDITION TO DRY ORE PLANT AND BONNOT COAL PULVERIZING EQUIPMENT BUILDING ON THE RIGHT. - Bunker Hill Lead Smelter, Bradley Rail Siding, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  12. 1. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CENTRAL IMPOUNDMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CENTRAL IMPOUNDMENT AREA LOOKING SOUTH. PLANT DRY IS IN CENTER FOREGROUND, SLAG FUMING PLANT IS IN RIGHT FOREGROUND, AND BAG HOUSE IS IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. VARIOUS PLANT STACKS ARE ALSO VISIBLE. - Bunker Hill Lead Smelter, Bradley Rail Siding, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  13. View of south boundary of Easter Hill project site for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south boundary of Easter Hill project site for right of way for Hoffman Boulevard. Buildings No. 11 and 14 at right in trees. Looking west - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  14. 77 FR 22755 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... approval of the Board's re-charter package submitted to the Secretary, U.S. Department of Agriculture...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board AGENCY: USDA Forest Service. ACTION: Notice of cancellation of meetings of the Black Hills National Forest Advisory...

  15. VIEW LOOKING WEST TOWARD RESERVOIR HILL. THE SPRR HOTEL WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING WEST TOWARD RESERVOIR HILL. THE SPRR HOTEL WAS LOCATED IN THE STRIPED AREA AT THE BOTTOM OF THE IMAGE, AND THE TRACK RAN BETWEEN THE HILL AND THE HOTEL. - Southern Pacific Railroad Water Settling Reservoir, Yuma Crossing, south bank of Colorado River at foot of Madison Avenue, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  16. 27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Horse Heaven Hills. 9.188... Horse Heaven Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Horse Heaven Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Horse Heaven Hills” and “Horse Heaven” are...

  17. 27 CFR 9.162 - Sta. Rita Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sta. Rita Hills. 9.162.... Rita Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sta. Rita Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Sta. Rita Hills” is a term of viticultural significance....

  18. 27 CFR 9.162 - Sta. Rita Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sta. Rita Hills. 9.162.... Rita Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sta. Rita Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Sta. Rita Hills” is a term of viticultural significance....

  19. 27 CFR 9.162 - Sta. Rita Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sta. Rita Hills. 9.162.... Rita Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sta. Rita Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Sta. Rita Hills” is a term of viticultural significance....

  20. Three new species of horned frogs, Megophrys (Amphibia: Megophryidae), from northeast India, with a resolution to the identity of Megophrys boettgeri populations reported from the region.

    PubMed

    Mahony, Stephen; Teeling, Emma C; Biju, S D

    2013-01-01

    Northeast India is a well-established region of biological importance but remains poorly understood with regards to the species level identifications of many of its extant amphibians. In this study we examined small sized frogs from the genus Megophrys recently collected from remote and suburban forests in the northeast Indian states of Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh, from which we have identified three new species. Megophrys vegrandis sp. nov., Megophrys ancrae sp. nov. and Megophrys oropedion sp. nov. are compared with all known congeners from India and surrounding regions from which they differ based primarily on a combination of morphological characters. Megophrys boettgeri is removed, and Megophrys minor added to the Indian amphibian checklist, through critical review of all literature pertaining to the former species, and the discovery of an overlooked historical report of the latter species. Two of the new species, Megophrys ancrae sp. nov. and Megophrys vegrandis sp. nov. are known from low and mid elevations within two large protected forests in Arunachal Pradesh, both with poorly studied amphibian fauna. Contrastingly, Megophrys oropedion sp. nov. is currently known only from small forested areas on the upper reaches of the Shillong Plateau. The importance of the Shillong Plateau as an area of known high amphibian endemicity is highlighted in the light of the miniscule proportion of its land area afforded government protection, raising concerns about the future conservation of its still poorly known species.

  1. Comparisons of calculated and measured helicopter noise near instrument hill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, Henry E.; You, Chulsoo

    1993-01-01

    The polar parabolic equation (POPE) method solves for the diffraction of sound by a curved surface including a realistic sound speed profile. POPE is outlined briefly to describe diffraction which propagates the field over a hill. Experimental data are compared with POPE predictions using the measured sound speed profile and ground impedance. Two trial cases are considered for the comparisons: the helicopter located at the base of the hill and far away from the base of the hill, respectively. The physical mechanisms for sound propagation over a hill are examined with and of POPE calculations and experimental data. The shedding of rays from the hillside gives an interference effect with a wave along the flat surface beyond the base of a hill.

  2. Decay of isolated hills and saddles on Si(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschbaum, Pierre; Brendel, Lothar; Roos, Kelly R.; Horn-von Hoegen, Michael; Heringdorf, Frank-J. Meyer zu

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the high temperature decay of isolated hills and saddle points on Si(001). Using in situ dark-field imaging in low energy electron microscopy, we track the movement of individual steps during high temperature annealing. We find different temperature dependent decay rates for the top of the hill compared to a saddle point with low step density that is present in the vicinity of the hill. The decay rate of the hill is always higher than the decay rate at the saddle. The two rates converge with increasing temperature and become equal at temperatures above 1060 °C. We also report an alternating fast and low decay rate for the layer-by-layer decay of the hills. This surprising finding is independent of temperature and is explained by macroscopic strain in the sample.

  3. Seeing mountains in mole hills: geographical-slant perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proffitt, D. R.; Creem, S. H.; Zosh, W. D.; Kaiser, M. K. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    When observers face directly toward the incline of a hill, their awareness of the slant of the hill is greatly overestimated, but motoric estimates are much more accurate. The present study examined whether similar results would be found when observers were allowed to view the side of a hill. Observers viewed the cross-sections of hills in real (Experiment 1) and virtual (Experiment 2) environments and estimated the inclines with verbal estimates, by adjusting the cross-section of a disk, and by adjusting a board with their unseen hand to match the inclines. We found that the results for cross-section viewing replicated those found when observers directly face the incline. Even though the angles of hills are directly evident when viewed from the side, slant perceptions are still grossly overestimated.

  4. AGU climate scientists visit Capitol Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, Erik

    2012-02-01

    On 1 February 2012, AGU teamed with 11 other scientific societies to bring 29 scientists researching various aspects of climate change to Washington, D. C., for the second annual Climate Science Day on Capitol Hill. The participants represented a wide range of expertise, from meteorology to agriculture, paleoclimatology to statistics, but all spoke to the reality of climate change as demonstrated in their scientific research. With Congress debating environmental regulations and energy policy amid tight fiscal pressures, it is critical that lawmakers have access to the best climate science to help guide policy decisions. The scientists met with legislators and their staff to discuss the importance of climate science for their districts and the nation and offered their expertise as an ongoing resource to the legislators.

  5. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  6. Meteorological analysis for Fenton Hill, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.; Wilson, S.K.

    1981-01-01

    Three years of meteorological data have been collected at the Fenton Hill site to establish a local climatic baseline, transport and diffusion climatology, and an initial site for an eventual Valles Caldera meteorological network. Tower-based wind and temperature data at 15 m above ground were supplemented during 1979 with precipitation, humidity and pressure measurements, and a limited program of upper winds. Preliminary analysis of the data has been made to identify major topographic and meteorological driving forces affecting the local climatic variations on diurnal and seasonal time scales. The site is quite high and exposed enough tht external influences such as gradient wind flow and thunderstorms tend to dominate over purely local driving forces in determining climate. Locally generated wind circulations are identifiable at night but tend to be weak and sporadic. The presence of topographic obstacles on the 10- to 100-km scale is observed in the winds.

  7. Ash and Steam, Soufriere Hills Volcano, Monserrat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    International Space Station crew members are regularly alerted to dynamic events on the Earth's surface. On request from scientists on the ground, the ISS crew observed and recorded activity from the summit of Soufriere Hills on March 20, 2002. These two images provide a context view of the island (bottom) and a detailed view of the summit plume (top). When the images were taken, the eastern side of the summit region experienced continued lava growth, and reports posted on the Smithsonian Institution's Weekly Volcanic Activity Report indicate that 'large (50-70 m high), fast-growing, spines developed on the dome's summit. These spines periodically collapsed, producing pyroclastic flows down the volcano's east flank that sometimes reached the Tar River fan. Small ash clouds produced from these events reached roughly 1 km above the volcano and drifted westward over Plymouth and Richmond Hill. Ash predominately fell into the sea. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remained high. Theodolite measurements of the dome taken on March 20 yielded a dome height of 1,039 m.' Other photographs by astronauts of Montserrat have been posted on the Earth Observatory: digital photograph number ISS002-E-9309, taken on July 9, 2001; and a recolored and reprojected version of the same image. Digital photograph numbers ISS004-E-8972 and 8973 were taken 20 March, 2002 from Space Station Alpha and were provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  8. Quantifying the role of mitigation hills in reducing tsunami runup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marras, S.; Suckale, J.; Lunghino, B.; Giraldo, F.; Hood, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal communities around the world are being encouraged to plant or restore vegetation along their shores for the purpose of mitigating tsunami damage. A common setup for these projects is to develop 'mitigation hills' - an ensemble of vegetated hills along the coast - instead of one continuous stretch of vegetation. The rationale behind a staggered-hill setup is to give tree roots more space to grow and deepen. From a fluid-dynamical point of view, however, staggered mitigation hills may have significant drawbacks such as diverting the flow into the low-lying areas of the park, which could entail strong currents in the narrow channels between the hills and lead to erosion of the hills from the sides. The goal of this study is to quantify how mitigation hills affect tsunami runup and to provide constraints on the design of mitigation hills that mitigate tsunami damage using numerical simulations. Our computations of tsunami runup are based on the non-linear shallow water equation solved through a fully implicit, high-order, discontinuous Galerkin method. The adaptive computational grid is fitted to the hill topography to capture geometric effects accurately. A new dynamic subgrid-scale eddy viscosity originally designed for large eddy simulation of compressible flows is used for stabilization and to capture the obstacle-generated turbulence. We have carefully benchmarked our model in 1D and 2D against classical test cases. The included figure shows an example run of tsunami runup through coastal mitigation hills. In the interest of providing generalizable results, we perform a detailed scaling analysis of our model runs. We find that the protective value of mitigation hills depends sensitively on the non-linearity of the incoming wave and the relative height of the wave to the hills. Our simulations also suggest that the assumed initial condition is consequential and we hence consider a range of incoming waves ranging from a simple soliton to a more realistic N

  9. Wheel Tracks from Landing Site to Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

    Wheel tracks left by the NASA rover Spirit's 3-kilometer (2-mile) trek from its landing site to the 'Columbia Hills' are visible in this orbital view from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. Spirit's rover track shows up nicely from orbit because the surfaces disrupted and churned by the wheels are darker than the surrounding, dust-coated plain. North is up.

    The largest crater in the view, dubbed 'Bonneville Crater,' is about 210 meters (230 yards) in diameter. The picture is a composite of Mars Orbiter Camera image R15-02643, taken on March 30, 2004, when Spirit was near the south rim of Bonneville Crater, and image R20-01024, taken Aug. 18, 2004, when Spirit was climbing the hills' western spur, seen in the picture's bottom right corner.

    New Dark Streak Near Spirit In figure 1, frames taken from orbit 20 weeks apart (top pair) and by the NASA rover Spirit at ground level (bottom) show the formation of a new dark streak on the ground in the area where Spirit was driving inside Mars' Gusev Crater in April 2004. The new dark streak and other dark streaks in the area are believed to result from dust devils removing brighter dust from the surface.

    The upper frames were taken by the Mars Orbiter Camera aboard NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. They are from the same pair of images combined to create the orbital view of the NASA rover Spirit's trail from the rover's landing site to the 'Columbia Hills.' The orbiter took the upper-left picture on March 30, 2004 (Spirit's 85th martian day, or sol). It took the upper-right picture on Aug. 18, 2004 (Spirit's sol 223). A dark streak occurs in the larger crater in the lower right quarter of the August image. This streak was not present when the March image was obtained. Inspection of the lower image, which was taken by Spirit's navigation camera when the rover was at

  10. HIV testing in India.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Srikanth; Pereira, Michael; Tripathy, Sriram Prasad

    2012-06-01

    The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) has initiated programs for HIV/AIDS control in India. Algorithms for HIV testing have been developed for India. NACO programs have resulted in HIV situation improving over the last decade.

  11. Crustal structure variations in northeast India from converted phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M. Ravi; Raju, P. Solomon; Devi, E. Uma; Saul, J.; Ramesh, D. S.

    2004-09-01

    Teleseismic receiver functions from a ten station network deployed in northeast India region sampling the Shillong plateau, Mikir Hills, Himalayan foredeep and the Himalayan convergence zone, are analyzed to obtain the crustal structure in this seismically active but less studied region. The Shillong plateau and Mikir hills, away from the convergent margins, reveal remarkably simple crust with thickness (~35 km) and Poisson's ratio (~0.25), akin to the Indian shield values. A surprisingly thin crust for the uplifted Shillong plateau may be explained invoking presence of an uncompensated crust that popped up in response to tectonic forces. In contrast, crustal signatures from Assam valley suggest a thicker crust and higher Poisson's ratio with evidences for a dipping Moho. Predictably, the crust is much thicker and complicated in the eastern Himalaya further north, with values in excess of 50 km.

  12. The India Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  13. Descent from the Summit of 'Husband Hill' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    In late November 2005 while descending 'Husband Hill,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took the most detailed panorama so far of the 'Inner Basin,' the rover's next target destination. Spirit acquired the 405 individual images that make up this 360-degree view of the surrounding terrain using five different filters on the panoramic camera. The rover took the images on Martian days, or sols, 672 to 677 (Nov. 23 to 28, 2005 -- the Thanksgiving holiday weekend).

    This image is a false-color rendering using camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters, emphasizing some colors more than others to enhance striking but subtle color differences among rocks, soils, hills, and plains.

    'Home Plate,' a bright, semi-circular feature scientists hope to investigate, is harder to discern in this image than in earlier views taken from higher up the hill. Spirit acquired this more oblique view, known as the 'Seminole panorama,' from about halfway down the south flank of Husband Hill, 50 meters (164 feet) or so below the summit. Near the center of the panorama, on the horizon, are 'McCool Hill' and 'Ramon Hill,' named, like Husband Hill, in honor of the fallen astronauts of the space shuttle Columbia. Husband Hill is visible behind the rover, on the right and left sides of the panorama. An arc of rover tracks made while avoiding obstacles and getting into position to examine rock outcrops can be traced over a long distance by zooming in to explore the panorama in greater detail.

    Spirit is now significantly farther downhill toward the center of this panorama, en route to Home Plate and other enigmatic soils and outcrop rocks in the quest to uncover the history of Gusev Crater and the 'Columbia Hills.'

  14. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of rice germplasm from north-eastern region of India and development of a core germplasm set.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Debjani; Singh, Nivedita; Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Sundeep; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Tyagi, R K; Ahmad, Altaf; Singh, N K; Singh, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    The North-Eastern region (NER) of India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, is a hot spot for genetic diversity and the most probable origin of rice. North-east rice collections are known to possess various agronomically important traits like biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, unique grain and cooking quality. The genetic diversity and associated population structure of 6,984 rice accessions, originating from NER, were assessed using 36 genome wide unlinked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the 12 rice chromosomes. All of the 36 SNP loci were polymorphic and bi-allelic, contained five types of base substitutions and together produced nine types of alleles. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.004 for Tripura to 0.375 for Manipur and major allele frequency ranged from 0.50 for Assam to 0.99 for Tripura. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.002 in Nagaland to 0.42 in Mizoram and gene diversity ranged from 0.006 in Arunachal Pradesh to 0.50 in Manipur. The genetic relatedness among the rice accessions was evaluated using an unrooted phylogenetic tree analysis, which grouped all accessions into three major clusters. For determining population structure, populations K = 1 to K = 20 were tested and population K = 3 was present in all the states, with the exception of Meghalaya and Manipur where, K = 5 and K = 4 populations were present, respectively. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) showed that accessions were distributed according to their population structure. AMOVA analysis showed that, maximum diversity was partitioned at the individual accession level (73% for Nagaland, 58% for Arunachal Pradesh and 57% for Tripura). Using POWERCORE software, a core set of 701 accessions was obtained, which accounted for approximately 10% of the total NE India collections, representing 99.9% of the allelic diversity. The rice core set developed will be a

  15. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Rice Germplasm from North-Eastern Region of India and Development of a Core Germplasm Set

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Sundeep; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Tyagi, R. K.; Ahmad, Altaf; Singh, N. K.; Singh, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    The North-Eastern region (NER) of India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, is a hot spot for genetic diversity and the most probable origin of rice. North-east rice collections are known to possess various agronomically important traits like biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, unique grain and cooking quality. The genetic diversity and associated population structure of 6,984 rice accessions, originating from NER, were assessed using 36 genome wide unlinked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the 12 rice chromosomes. All of the 36 SNP loci were polymorphic and bi-allelic, contained five types of base substitutions and together produced nine types of alleles. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.004 for Tripura to 0.375 for Manipur and major allele frequency ranged from 0.50 for Assam to 0.99 for Tripura. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.002 in Nagaland to 0.42 in Mizoram and gene diversity ranged from 0.006 in Arunachal Pradesh to 0.50 in Manipur. The genetic relatedness among the rice accessions was evaluated using an unrooted phylogenetic tree analysis, which grouped all accessions into three major clusters. For determining population structure, populations K = 1 to K = 20 were tested and population K = 3 was present in all the states, with the exception of Meghalaya and Manipur where, K = 5 and K = 4 populations were present, respectively. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) showed that accessions were distributed according to their population structure. AMOVA analysis showed that, maximum diversity was partitioned at the individual accession level (73% for Nagaland, 58% for Arunachal Pradesh and 57% for Tripura). Using POWERCORE software, a core set of 701 accessions was obtained, which accounted for approximately 10% of the total NE India collections, representing 99.9% of the allelic diversity. The rice core set developed will be a

  16. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of rice germplasm from north-eastern region of India and development of a core germplasm set.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Debjani; Singh, Nivedita; Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Sundeep; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Tyagi, R K; Ahmad, Altaf; Singh, N K; Singh, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    The North-Eastern region (NER) of India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, is a hot spot for genetic diversity and the most probable origin of rice. North-east rice collections are known to possess various agronomically important traits like biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, unique grain and cooking quality. The genetic diversity and associated population structure of 6,984 rice accessions, originating from NER, were assessed using 36 genome wide unlinked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the 12 rice chromosomes. All of the 36 SNP loci were polymorphic and bi-allelic, contained five types of base substitutions and together produced nine types of alleles. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.004 for Tripura to 0.375 for Manipur and major allele frequency ranged from 0.50 for Assam to 0.99 for Tripura. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.002 in Nagaland to 0.42 in Mizoram and gene diversity ranged from 0.006 in Arunachal Pradesh to 0.50 in Manipur. The genetic relatedness among the rice accessions was evaluated using an unrooted phylogenetic tree analysis, which grouped all accessions into three major clusters. For determining population structure, populations K = 1 to K = 20 were tested and population K = 3 was present in all the states, with the exception of Meghalaya and Manipur where, K = 5 and K = 4 populations were present, respectively. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) showed that accessions were distributed according to their population structure. AMOVA analysis showed that, maximum diversity was partitioned at the individual accession level (73% for Nagaland, 58% for Arunachal Pradesh and 57% for Tripura). Using POWERCORE software, a core set of 701 accessions was obtained, which accounted for approximately 10% of the total NE India collections, representing 99.9% of the allelic diversity. The rice core set developed will be a

  17. Evolution of the Puente Hills Thrust Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergen, K. J.; Shaw, J. H.; Dolan, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to assess the evolution of the blind Puente Hills thrust fault system (PHT) by determining its age of initiation, lateral propagation history, and changes in slip rate over time. The PHT presents one of the largest seismic hazards in the United States, given its location beneath downtown Los Angeles. The PHT is comprised of three fault segments: the Los Angeles (LA), Santa Fe Springs (SFS), and Coyote Hills (CH). The LA and SFS segments are characterized by growth stratigraphy where folds formed by uplift on the fault segments have been continually buried by sediment from the Los Angeles and San Gabriel rivers. The CH segment has developed topography and is characterized by onlapping growth stratigraphy. This depositional setting gives us the unique opportunity to measure uplift on the LA and SFS fault segments, and minimum uplift on the CH fault segment, as the difference in sediment thicknesses across the buried folds. We utilize depth converted oil industry seismic reflection data to image the fold geometries. Identifying time-correlative stratigraphic markers for slip rate determination in the basin has been a problem for researchers in the past, however, as the faunal assemblages observed in wells are time-transgressive by nature. To overcome this, we utilize the sequence stratigraphic model and well picks of Ponti et al. (2007) as a basis for mapping time-correlative sequence boundaries throughout our industry seismic reflection data from the present to the Pleistocene. From the Pleistocene to Miocene we identify additional sequence boundaries in our seismic reflection data from imaged sequence geometries and by correlating industry well formation tops. The sequence and formation top picks are then used to build 3-dimensional surfaces in the modeling program Gocad. From these surfaces we measure the change in thicknesses across the folds to obtain uplift rates between each sequence boundary. Our results show three distinct phases of

  18. 123. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK OFF-RAMP DESCENDING TO FREMONT STREET, WITH TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP BEHIND, FACING NORTH. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. EXTERIOR, A view looking northwest from far hill toward the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR, A view looking northwest from far hill toward the Mounds complex and the HH Building - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Hydrolysis House Building (HH Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  20. Directional Site Amplification Effect on Tarzana Hill, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graizer, V.; Shakal, A.

    2003-12-01

    Significantly amplified ground accelerations at the Tarzana Hill station were recorded during the 1987 Mw 5.9 Whittier Narrows and the 1994 Mw 6.7 Northridge earthquakes. Peak horizontal ground acceleration at the Tarzana station during the 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine earthquake was almost twice as large as the accelerations recorded at nearby stations. The Tarzana site was drilled to a depth of 100 m. A low shear-wave velocity near the surface of 100 m/sec increasing to near 750 m/sec at 100 m depth was measured. The 20 m high hill was found to be well drained with a water table near 17 m. Modelo formation (extremely weathered at the surface to fresh at depth) underlies the hill. The subsurface geology and velocities obtained allow classification of this location as a soft-rock site. After the Northridge earthquake the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program significantly increased instrumentation at Tarzana to study the unusual site amplification effect. Current instrumentation at Tarzana consists of an accelerograph at the top of Tarzana hill (Tarzana - Cedar Hill B), a downhole instrument at 60 m depth, and an accelerograph at the foot of the hill (Tarzana - Clubhouse), 180 m from the Cedar Hill B station. The original station, Tarzana - Cedar Hill Nursery A, was lost in 1999 due to construction. More than twenty events, including the Hector Mine earthquake, were recorded by all these instruments at Tarzana. Comparison of recordings and response spectra demonstrates strong directional resonance on the top of the hill in a direction perpendicular to the strike of the hill in the period range from 0.04 to 0.8 sec (1.2 to 25 Hz). There is practically no amplification from the bottom to the top of the hill for the component parallel to the strike of the hill. In contrast to accelerations recorded during the Hector Mine earthquake (high frequency part of seismic signal), displacements (relatively low frequency part of seismic signal) demonstrate almost no site

  1. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer July 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer July 10, 1936 SOUTH ELEVATION (Copied from student's drawing, Dept. of Architecture, Armour Institute of Technology. Chicago) - Keating House, U.S. Highway 430, Fayville, Alexander County, IL

  2. 23. CUESTA TUNNEL, PORTAL STRUCTURES. Leeds, Hill, Barnard & Jewett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. CUESTA TUNNEL, PORTAL STRUCTURES. Leeds, Hill, Barnard & Jewett drawing, no number, revised 10/10/41. - Salinas River Project, Cuesta Tunnel, Southeast of U.S. 101, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  3. 22. TRANSMISSION MAIN, PLAN AND PROFILE, INDEX SHEET. Leeds, Hill, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. TRANSMISSION MAIN, PLAN AND PROFILE, INDEX SHEET. Leeds, Hill, Barnard & Jewett drawing, no date, no number. - Salinas River Project, Cuesta Tunnel, Southeast of U.S. 101, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  4. 265. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF TENSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    265. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF TENSION EYE BARS AT CANTILEVER TRUSS, FACING SOUTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. 266. Dennis Hill, Photographer June 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF TENSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    266. Dennis Hill, Photographer June 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF TENSION EYE BARS AND COMPRESSION MEMBERS ABOVE UPPER DECK, FACING SOUTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. Inwood Hill Park underpass, below Henry Hudson Parkway southbound, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Inwood Hill Park underpass, below Henry Hudson Parkway southbound, looking southeast. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  7. 234. Dennis Hill, Photographer July 1998 VIEW OF BUS STOP, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    234. Dennis Hill, Photographer July 1998 VIEW OF BUS STOP, UPPER DECK OF YERBA BUENA EAST VIADUCT, FACING WEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. 24. VIEW FORM NORTHWEST, WHERE HOUSE RECEDES INTO HILL, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW FORM NORTHWEST, WHERE HOUSE RECEDES INTO HILL, SHOWING ROOF, CHIMNEY AND OCTAGONAL SKYLIGHT TO KITCHEN IN CENTER - Isaac N. Hagan House, Kentuck Knob, U.S. Route 40 vicinity (Stewart Township), Chalkhill, Fayette County, PA

  9. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 10, 1936 CAST IRON GATE AT 1352 W. Washington Blvd., Chicago - Chicago Ironwork, William M. Strong Estate (Cast Iron House & Gate), 1352 West Washington Boulevard, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  10. 46. LINED SECTION OF AQUEDUCT LOOKING NORTH TO ALABAMA HILLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. LINED SECTION OF AQUEDUCT LOOKING NORTH TO ALABAMA HILLS - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer Spring 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer Spring 1937 DETAIL OF CORNICE AND SECOND FLOOR WINDOW TRIM. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  12. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 PRESENT WEST + SOUTH ELEVATIONS - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  13. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, 1936 NORTH ELEVATION - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  14. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 FRONT HALL, INTERIOR DETAIL - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  15. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, 1936 TYPICAL WINDOW, EXTERIOR - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  16. 17. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 LIVING ROOM FIREPLACE (RESTORED) - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  17. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 COPY OF OLD PHOTOGRAPH FURNISHED BY THE COMMANDANT, DATE UNKNOWN - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  18. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, 1936 MAIN ENTRANCE - EXTERIOR - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  19. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, 1936 FIREPLACE IN DINING ROOM, The Davenport House, Rock Island Arsenal - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  20. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, 1936 NORTH ELEVATION - DETAIL OF PORTICO - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  1. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 COPY OF OLD PHOTOGRAPH LOANED BY THE COMMANDANT, EARLY PHOTO OF HOUSE DATE UNKNOWN. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  2. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, 1936 TYPICAL WINDOW, INTERIOR - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  3. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer COL. DAVENPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer COL. DAVENPORT Copy of an old photograph loaned by the commandant. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  4. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 COPY OF OLD PHOTOGRAPH LOANED BY THE COMMANDANT. DATE UNKNOWN - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  5. 203. Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 VIEW OF LOWER DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    203. Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 VIEW OF LOWER DECK AT CENTER ANCHORAGE, FACING NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer October 1936 #12 EARLY RED BRICK HOUSE, Elk and Prospect Sts., Galena, Illinois - Galena Doorways, Red Brick House, Elk & Prospect Streets, Galena, Jo Daviess County, IL

  7. Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF WINDOW AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF WINDOW AT TORPEDO ASSEMBLY BUILDING, FACING SOUTHEAST - Torpedo Assembly Building, Eastern end of Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF FRONT OF SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF FRONT OF SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE FIREHOUSE, FACING SOUTHWEST - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge Firehouse, Adjacent to north side of bridge on Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. 2. Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 INTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 INTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF STERLING STREET SUBSTATION COMPRESSIVE PANELS, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Sterling Street Substation, Near corner of Harrison & Second Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. Hill Stability in the Finite Density N-Body Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2016-05-01

    A Celestial Mechanics system is Hill Stable if its components cannot escape from each other. Such stability is difficult to prove for general Celestial Mechanics problems with N ≥ 3 bodies interacting with each other. This is in part due to the ability of two bodies to come arbitrarily close to each other, freeing kinetic energy that can be used for an additional body to escape. When considering bodies with finite density, meaning that they have finite sizes and their mass centers cannot come arbitrarily close to each other, this pathway to escape has specific limits that make the determination of Hill Stability feasible. This opens up new definitions of Hill Stability that can be used to determine energetic thresholds at which a rubble pile body with sufficient angular momentum can shed mass components of various sizes. This talk will review recent advances in Hill Stability with direct application to the interaction of self-gravitating rubble pile bodies.

  11. 28. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM CREST OF HILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM CREST OF HILL ABOVE EAST TOWER. NOTE SWAY CABLES ON EACH SIDE OF THE WALKWAY. March 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. View looking east over coal tipple toward Friendship Hill, home ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking east over coal tipple toward Friendship Hill, home of Albert Gallatin, in right background behine bridge. - Monongahela Railroad, New Geneva Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River, South of Lock & Dam No. 7, New Geneva, Fayette County, PA

  13. 233. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF LOWER DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    233. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF LOWER DECK AND KEY SYSTEM STATION CANOPY, YERBA BUENA EAST VIADUCT, FACING NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 215. Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF STRAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    215. Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF STRAND SHOES AND STORM CABLE EYE BARS IN YERBA BUENA ANCHORAGE, FACING EAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 184. Dennis Hill, Photographer June 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    184. Dennis Hill, Photographer June 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER DECK EXPANSION JOINT AT PIER W-2, FACING WEST-SOUTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 12. VIEW FROM PARKWAY MEDIAN TO SPORT HILL ROAD BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW FROM PARKWAY MEDIAN TO SPORT HILL ROAD BRIDGE, Copy of photograph ca. 1940. Collection Connecticut Department of Transportation. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  17. Boothby Hill Road Bridge. Aberdeen, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Boothby Hill Road Bridge. Aberdeen, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. 1201, MP 66.88. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  18. Context view looking west from hill with tree in foreground. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context view looking west from hill with tree in foreground. Entist Mountains are in distance. - Badger Mountain Lookout, .125 mile northwest of Badger Mountain summit, East Wenatchee, Douglas County, WA

  19. 170. Credit SHS. Northern California Power Company substation, Bully Hill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    170. Credit SHS. Northern California Power Company substation, Bully Hill Mine area. Note lack of vegetation, caused by nearby copper smelting works. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  20. 81. VIEW NORTH ON WEST SIDE OF GUN HILL PLATFORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. VIEW NORTH ON WEST SIDE OF GUN HILL PLATFORM SHOWING LAMP STANDARDS FOR NIGHT LIGHTNING. - Interborough Rapid Transit Company, Third Avenue Elevated Line, Borough of the Bronx, New York County, NY

  1. After runaway: The trans-Hill stage of planetesimal growth

    SciTech Connect

    Lithwick, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    When planetesimals begin to grow by coagulation, they first enter an epoch of runaway, during which the biggest bodies grow faster than all the others. The questions of how runaway ends and what comes next have not been answered satisfactorily. We show that runaway is followed by a new stage—the 'trans-Hill stage'—that commences when the bodies that dominate viscous stirring ('big bodies') become trans-Hill, i.e., when their Hill velocity matches the random speed of the small bodies they accrete. Subsequently, the small bodies' random speed grows in lockstep with the big bodies' sizes, such that the system remains in the trans-Hill state. Trans-Hill growth is crucial for determining the efficiency of growing big bodies, as well as their growth timescale and size spectrum. Trans-Hill growth has two sub-stages. In the earlier one, which occurs while the stirring bodies remain sufficiently small, the evolution is collisionless, i.e., collisional cooling among all bodies is irrelevant. The efficiency of forming big bodies in this collisionless sub-stage is very low, ∼10α << 1, where α ∼ 0.005(a/AU){sup –1} is the ratio between the physical size of a body and its Hill radius. Furthermore, the size spectrum is flat (equal mass per size decade, i.e., q = 4). This collisionless trans-Hill solution explains results from previous coagulation simulations for both the Kuiper Belt and the asteroid belt. The second trans-Hill sub-stage commences once the stirring bodies grow big enough (>α{sup –1} × the size of the accreted small bodies). After that time, collisional cooling among small bodies controls the evolution. The efficiency of forming big bodies rises and the size spectrum becomes more top heavy. Trans-Hill growth can terminate in one of two ways, depending on the sizes of the small bodies. First, mutual accretion of big bodies can become significant and conglomeration proceeds until half of the total mass is converted into big bodies. This mode of growth

  2. After Runaway: The Trans-Hill Stage of Planetesimal Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lithwick, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    When planetesimals begin to grow by coagulation, they first enter an epoch of runaway, during which the biggest bodies grow faster than all the others. The questions of how runaway ends and what comes next have not been answered satisfactorily. We show that runaway is followed by a new stage—the "trans-Hill stage"—that commences when the bodies that dominate viscous stirring ("big bodies") become trans-Hill, i.e., when their Hill velocity matches the random speed of the small bodies they accrete. Subsequently, the small bodies' random speed grows in lockstep with the big bodies' sizes, such that the system remains in the trans-Hill state. Trans-Hill growth is crucial for determining the efficiency of growing big bodies, as well as their growth timescale and size spectrum. Trans-Hill growth has two sub-stages. In the earlier one, which occurs while the stirring bodies remain sufficiently small, the evolution is collisionless, i.e., collisional cooling among all bodies is irrelevant. The efficiency of forming big bodies in this collisionless sub-stage is very low, ~10α Lt 1, where α ~ 0.005(a/AU)-1 is the ratio between the physical size of a body and its Hill radius. Furthermore, the size spectrum is flat (equal mass per size decade, i.e., q = 4). This collisionless trans-Hill solution explains results from previous coagulation simulations for both the Kuiper Belt and the asteroid belt. The second trans-Hill sub-stage commences once the stirring bodies grow big enough (>α-1 × the size of the accreted small bodies). After that time, collisional cooling among small bodies controls the evolution. The efficiency of forming big bodies rises and the size spectrum becomes more top heavy. Trans-Hill growth can terminate in one of two ways, depending on the sizes of the small bodies. First, mutual accretion of big bodies can become significant and conglomeration proceeds until half of the total mass is converted into big bodies. This mode of growth may explain the

  3. Steamboat Hills exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, F.D.; Hickox, C.E.; Eaton, R.R.

    1994-10-01

    During July-September, 1993, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Far West Capital, drilled a 4000 feet exploratory slimhole (3.9 inch diameter) in the Steamboat Hills geothermal field near Reno, Nevada. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed four series of production and injection tests while taking downhole (pressure-temperature-spinner) and surface (wellhead pressure and temperature, flow rate) data. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: continuous core (with detailed log); borehole televiewer images of the wellbore`s upper 500 feet; daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; numerous temperature logs; and comparative data from production and injection wells in the same field. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  4. Bunker Hill Superfund site: Ecological restoration program

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.; Chaney, R.; Henry, C.L.; Compton, H.

    1998-12-31

    Bunker Hill ID was the site of mining and smelting activities for many decades. As a result of these activities, soils on the hillsides adjacent to the site became contaminated with Pb, Zn, and Cd. In addition to metal contamination, pH of the soils became highly acidic. Native vegetation has died off and the soils have become highly erosive. An application of municipal biosolids in combination with wood ash and log yard wood waste was made to test the potential of this remediation mixture to reduce erosion, correct soil pH, and support a self sustaining vegetative cover. Biosolids improve soil physical properties and provide macro and micro nutrients. Wood ash serves as a lime substitute and a source of nutrients. Log yard waste improves physical properties and has a high C:N ratio that reduces the potential for N leaching. Initial results are promising. A healthy stand of grasses and legumes has been established. In addition, the application mixture has proven itself to be highly resistant to erosion.

  5. Robert I. Hill (1953-1992)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Geoff

    Robert I. Hill of the Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, died suddenly on July 25 at age 38. Robert was a warm and generous person, a scientist with substantial accomplishments already to his credit, and a skilled lobbyist for and communicator of science. He had great potential as a scientist and as a leader of science.Robert obtained a first-class honors degree from the ANU Geology Department in 1976 and a Ph.D. from Caltech in 1984. He went on to become a research associate at Cambridge, a research fellow at RSES, and finally, a Queen Elizabeth II Fellow there. His Ph.D. research was a field-based study of the dynamic processes involved in the intrusion of magma into the crust. Later, he studied the sources of deep crustal fluids using helium isotopes, the geological setting of ore bodies with a variety of geochemical and geochronological methods, the occurrence of oil and gas deposits, and the processes that formed and modified the continental crust.

  6. SOUTH ELEVATION OF GOLD HILL MILL, LOOKING NORTH. THE PRIMARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH ELEVATION OF GOLD HILL MILL, LOOKING NORTH. THE PRIMARY ORE BIN IS A CENTER, WITH A JAW CRUSHER JUST TO THE RIGHT. A CONVEYOR (MISSING) WAS USED TO CARRY CRUSHED ORE UP AND INTO THE SECONDARY ORE BIN. THE STONE RAMP TO THE LEFT OF THE ORE BIN WAS USED TO DRIVE TRUCKS UP TO DUMPING LEVEL. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  7. 4. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM RIDGE ABOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM RIDGE ABOVE GOVERNMENT GULCH LOOKING TO THE EAST. IN THE RIGHT MID GROUND, CARPENTER SHOP BUILDINGS AND FRAMING SHEDS ARE VISIBLE. THE BACKGROUND FACILITIES VISIBLE FROM L. TO R. ARE: SMELTER OFFICE, REFINERIES, SLAG FUMING STACKS, HIGH VELOCITY FLUE, BAG HOUSE, 200-FOOT STACK, AND 715-FOOT STACK. - Bunker Hill Lead Smelter, Bradley Rail Siding, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  8. 3. General view of Fort Hill Farm, view looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view of Fort Hill Farm, view looking west from (B) two-story hall-and-parlor house. Buildings visible, from left to right, are (B) parlor house porch; (E) one-room cabin; (D) center chimney four-room cabin; (J) hay barn; (I) log tobacco barn; (A) mansion, obscured by trees; (M) stable; (K) small barn. - Fort Hill Farm, West of Staunton (Roanoke) River between Turkey & Caesar's Runs, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  9. 2. General view of Fort Hill Farm, view looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General view of Fort Hill Farm, view looking north from (F) two-room cabin. From left to right, buildings visible are (I) log tobacco barn; (H and D) shed and center chimney four-room cabin; (E and (A) one-room cabin in front of mansion; (J) hay barn. - Fort Hill Farm, West of Staunton (Roanoke) River between Turkey & Caesar's Runs, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  10. 1. General view of Fort Hill Farm, view looking southsoutheast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of Fort Hill Farm, view looking south-southeast. From left to right, buildings visible are (B) two-story hall-and-parlor house; (k) small barn; (A) mansion' (G( shed; (H) shed; (I) log tobacco barn; (H and D) shed and center chimney four-room cabin; (E and (A) one-room cabin in front of mansion; (J) hay barn. - Fort Hill Farm, West of Staunton (Roanoke) River between Turkey & Caesar's Runs, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  11. Stormwater Management Plan for the Arden Hills Army Training Site, Arden Hills, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Adrianne E.; Wuthrich, Kelsey K.; Ziech, Angela M.; Bowen, Esther E.; Quinn, John

    2013-03-01

    This stormwater management plan focuses on the cantonment and training areas of the Arden Hills Army Training Site (AHATS). The plan relates the site stormwater to the regulatory framework, and it summarizes best management practices to aide site managers in promoting clean site runoff. It includes documentation for a newly developed, detailed model of stormwater flow retention for the entire AHATS property and adjacent upgradient areas. The model relies on established modeling codes integrated in a U.S. Department of Defense-sponsored software tool, the Watershed Modeling System (WMS), and it can be updated with data on changes in land use or with monitoring data.

  12. Geologic and paleoecologic studies of the Nebraska Sand Hills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.; Fryberger, S.G.; Hanley, John H.; Bradbury, J. Platt

    1980-01-01

    PART A: The Nebraska Sand Hills are an inactive, late Quaternary, most probably Holocene, dune field (covering 57,000 km 2 ) that have been eroded along streams and in blowouts, resulting in excellent lateral and vertical exposures of the stratification of dune and interdune sediments. This paper presents new data on the geometry, primary sedimentary structures, modification of sedimentary structures, direction of sand movement, and petrography of these eolian deposits. Eolian deposits of the Sand Hills occur as relatively thin (9-24 m) 'blanket' sands, composed of a complex of dune and discontinuous, diachronous interdune deposits unconformably overlying fluviolacustrine sediments. The internal stratification of large dunes in the Sand Hills (as high as 100 m), is similar to the internal stratification of smaller dunes of the same type in the Sand Hills, differing only in scale. Studies of laminae orientation in the Sand Hills indicate that transverse, barchan, and blowout dunes can be differentiated in rocks of eolian origin using both the mean dip angle of laminae and the mean angular deviation of dip direction. A variety of secondary structures modify or replace primary eolian stratification in the Sand Hills, the more common of which are dissipation structures and bioturbation. Dissipation structures in the Sand Hills may develop when infiltrating water deposits clay adjacent to less permeable layers in the sand, or along the upper margins of frozen layers that form in the sands during winter. Cross-bed measurements from dunes of the Nebraska Sand Hills necessitate a new interpretation of the past sand transport directions. The data from these measurements indicate a general northwest-to-southeast drift of sand, with a more southerly drift in the southeast part of the Sand Hills. A large area of small dunes < 100 m high) described by Smith (1965) as linear or seif in the central part of the Sand Hills was interpreted by him on the basis of morphology only. We

  13. Stargazing at 'Husband Hill Observatory' on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit continues to take advantage of extra solar energy by occasionally turning its cameras upward for night sky observations. Most recently, Spirit made a series of observations of bright star fields from the summit of 'Husband Hill' in Gusev Crater on Mars. Scientists use the images to assess the cameras' sensitivity and to search for evidence of nighttime clouds or haze. The image on the left is a computer simulation of the stars in the constellation Orion. The next three images are actual views of Orion captured with Spirit's panoramic camera during exposures of 10, 30, and 60 seconds.

    Because Spirit is in the southern hemisphere of Mars, Orion appears upside down compared to how it would appear to viewers in the Northern Hemisphere of Earth. 'Star trails' in the longer exposures are a result of the planet's rotation. The faintest stars visible in the 60-second exposure are about as bright as the faintest stars visible with the naked eye from Earth (about magnitude 6 in astronomical terms). The Orion Nebula, famous as a nursery of newly forming stars, is also visible in these images. Bright streaks in some parts of the images aren't stars or meteors or unidentified flying objects, but are caused by solar and galactic cosmic rays striking the camera's detector. Spirit acquired these images with the panoramic camera on Martian day, or sol, 632 (Oct. 13, 2005) at around 45 minutes past midnight local time, using the camera's broadband filter (wavelengths of 739 nanometers plus or minus 338 nanometers).

  14. Quantum theory of rotational isomerism and Hill equation

    SciTech Connect

    Ugulava, A.; Toklikishvili, Z.; Chkhaidze, S.; Abramishvili, R.; Chotorlishvili, L.

    2012-06-15

    The process of rotational isomerism of linear triatomic molecules is described by the potential with two different-depth minima and one barrier between them. The corresponding quantum-mechanical equation is represented in the form that is a special case of the Hill equation. It is shown that the Hill-Schroedinger equation has a Klein's quadratic group symmetry which, in its turn, contains three invariant subgroups. The presence of these subgroups makes it possible to create a picture of energy spectrum which depends on a parameter and has many merging and branch points. The parameter-dependent energy spectrum of the Hill-Schroedinger equation, like Mathieu-characteristics, contains branch points from the left and from the right of the demarcation line. However, compared to the Mathieu-characteristics, in the Hill-Schroedinger equation spectrum the 'right' points are moved away even further for some distance that is the bigger, the bigger is the less deep well. The asymptotic wave functions of the Hill-Schroedinger equation for the energy values near the potential minimum contain two isolated sharp peaks indicating a possibility of the presence of two stable isomers. At high energy values near the potential maximum, the height of two peaks decreases, and between them there appear chaotic oscillations. This form of the wave functions corresponds to the process of isomerization.

  15. On reconstructing Giraffa sivalensis, an extinct giraffid from the Siwalik Hills, India.

    PubMed

    van Sittert, Sybrand J; Mitchell, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Giraffa sivalensis occurred during the Plio-Pleistocene period and probably represents the terminal species of the genus in Southern Asia. The holotype is an almost perfectly preserved cervical vertebra of disputed anatomical location. Although there is also uncertainty regarding this animal's size, other specimens that have been assigned to this species include fragments of two humeri, a radius, metacarpi and teeth. Here we estimate neck length, leg length and body mass using interspecific and, unusually, ontogenetic allometry of extant giraffe skeletal parameters. The appropriateness of each equation to estimate body mass was evaluated by calculating the prediction error incurred in both extant giraffes (G. camelopardalis) and okapis (Okapia johnstoni). It followed that the equations with the lowest prediction error in both species were considered robust enough to use in G. sivalensis. The size of G. sivalensis, based on the holotype, is proposed as 400 kg (range 228 kg-575 kg), with a neck length of approximately 147 cm and a height of 390 cm. The molar lengths of tooth specimens considered agree with this size estimate. The humerus was the most appropriate long bone to establish body mass, which estimates a heavier animal of ca 790 kg. The discrepancy with the vertebral body weight estimate might indicate sexual dimorphism. Radial and metacarpal specimens estimate G. sivalensis to be as heavy as extant giraffes. This may indicate that the radius and metacarpus are unsuitable for body mass predictions in Giraffa spp. Alternatively, certain long bones may have belonged to another long legged giraffid that occurred during the same period and locality as G. sivalensis. We have concluded that if sexual dimorphism was present then males would have been about twice the size of females. If sexual dimorphism was not present and all bones were correctly attributed to this species, then G. sivalensis had a slender neck with a relatively stocky body.

  16. Snakebite profile from a medical college in rural setting in the hills of Himachal Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Sujeet; Raina, Sunil; Kaul, Rashmi; Chander, Vishav; Jaryal, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the following study is to assess the clinical profiles and manifestations of snakebite patients in the rural hilly setting of Shivalik and the Lesser Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A hospital record-based retrospective descriptive study was carried out that included details on demography, clinical profile, treatment and outcome among 200 patients over a period of 2 years. The data was analyzed using Chi-square test for comparison. Results: 142 (71%) patients were young (age group of 16-45 years) and the number of male patients was 118 (59%) and female patients were 82 (41%). All the cases recorded presented in the months of April to November. Not a single case was recorded from December to March. The most frequently bitten sites were the lower limbs particularly the feet. 86 (43%) of the patients presented without any features of envenomation. Neuroparalysis was the commonest presentation in 53 (46%) patients followed by hemotoxicity in 36 (31%) among symptomatic patients. Early morning neuroparalysis syndrome was the presentation in 26.4% patients. Allergic reactions in the form of early anaphylaxis were noted in 7% patients. Conclusion: Snake bite is a neglected tropical disease affecting poor villagers in rural areas. Future research focusing on understanding epidemiological determinants of snake bite is desired. PMID:24701062

  17. Eriocaulon madayiparense (Eriocaulaceae) - A new species from the foot hills of the Western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Swapna, M M; Rajesh, K P; Manju, C N; Prakashkumar, R

    2012-01-01

    Eriocaulon madayiparense Swapna, Rajesh, Manju & Prakashkumar, sp. nov. is described and illustrated from the Madayipara, a lateritic hillock in the midland of Kannur District of Kerala. The species is allied to Eriocaulon eurypeplon Koernicke, in its two free male and female sepals, female sepals being keeled and acute and not exceeding the floral bracts, acuminate leaf apex and setiform seed appendages appearing in vertical rows, but differs mainly in having yellow seeds with solitary appendage arising from transverse radial walls, curved and connate with the adjacent ones of the same vertical row forming longitudinal parallel ribs on the surface of the seeds. PMID:22461729

  18. On reconstructing Giraffa sivalensis, an extinct giraffid from the Siwalik Hills, India.

    PubMed

    van Sittert, Sybrand J; Mitchell, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Giraffa sivalensis occurred during the Plio-Pleistocene period and probably represents the terminal species of the genus in Southern Asia. The holotype is an almost perfectly preserved cervical vertebra of disputed anatomical location. Although there is also uncertainty regarding this animal's size, other specimens that have been assigned to this species include fragments of two humeri, a radius, metacarpi and teeth. Here we estimate neck length, leg length and body mass using interspecific and, unusually, ontogenetic allometry of extant giraffe skeletal parameters. The appropriateness of each equation to estimate body mass was evaluated by calculating the prediction error incurred in both extant giraffes (G. camelopardalis) and okapis (Okapia johnstoni). It followed that the equations with the lowest prediction error in both species were considered robust enough to use in G. sivalensis. The size of G. sivalensis, based on the holotype, is proposed as 400 kg (range 228 kg-575 kg), with a neck length of approximately 147 cm and a height of 390 cm. The molar lengths of tooth specimens considered agree with this size estimate. The humerus was the most appropriate long bone to establish body mass, which estimates a heavier animal of ca 790 kg. The discrepancy with the vertebral body weight estimate might indicate sexual dimorphism. Radial and metacarpal specimens estimate G. sivalensis to be as heavy as extant giraffes. This may indicate that the radius and metacarpus are unsuitable for body mass predictions in Giraffa spp. Alternatively, certain long bones may have belonged to another long legged giraffid that occurred during the same period and locality as G. sivalensis. We have concluded that if sexual dimorphism was present then males would have been about twice the size of females. If sexual dimorphism was not present and all bones were correctly attributed to this species, then G. sivalensis had a slender neck with a relatively stocky body. PMID:26290791

  19. Reaching out beyond the hills: HIV prevention among injecting drug users in Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Hangzo, C; Chatterjee, A; Sarkar, S; Zomi, G T; Deb, B C; Abdul-Quader, A S

    1997-07-01

    Outreach interventions using ex-IDUs to inform and educate their peers about HIV/AIDS prevention measures have been found to be effective in the United States and other developed countries. While HIV/AIDS prevention programmes targeting IDUs have also been implemented in a number of developing countries, very little information is available on the process of implementation of these programmes. This paper attempts to document some of this knowledge by describing the implementation process of an outreach intervention targeting IDUs in a small town--Churachandpur--with high injection drug use and high HIV infection rates, in the north-eastern state of Manipur. The paper describes the barriers encountered in implementing the outreach and how these barriers were minimized. In conclusion, the paper makes the case for targeting outreach to the larger community before targeting the IDUs.

  20. Eriocaulon madayiparense (Eriocaulaceae) - A new species from the foot hills of the Western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Swapna, M M; Rajesh, K P; Manju, C N; Prakashkumar, R

    2012-01-01

    Eriocaulon madayiparense Swapna, Rajesh, Manju & Prakashkumar, sp. nov. is described and illustrated from the Madayipara, a lateritic hillock in the midland of Kannur District of Kerala. The species is allied to Eriocaulon eurypeplon Koernicke, in its two free male and female sepals, female sepals being keeled and acute and not exceeding the floral bracts, acuminate leaf apex and setiform seed appendages appearing in vertical rows, but differs mainly in having yellow seeds with solitary appendage arising from transverse radial walls, curved and connate with the adjacent ones of the same vertical row forming longitudinal parallel ribs on the surface of the seeds.

  1. On reconstructing Giraffa sivalensis, an extinct giraffid from the Siwalik Hills, India

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Giraffa sivalensis occurred during the Plio-Pleistocene period and probably represents the terminal species of the genus in Southern Asia. The holotype is an almost perfectly preserved cervical vertebra of disputed anatomical location. Although there is also uncertainty regarding this animal’s size, other specimens that have been assigned to this species include fragments of two humeri, a radius, metacarpi and teeth. Here we estimate neck length, leg length and body mass using interspecific and, unusually, ontogenetic allometry of extant giraffe skeletal parameters. The appropriateness of each equation to estimate body mass was evaluated by calculating the prediction error incurred in both extant giraffes (G. camelopardalis) and okapis (Okapia johnstoni). It followed that the equations with the lowest prediction error in both species were considered robust enough to use in G. sivalensis. The size of G. sivalensis, based on the holotype, is proposed as 400 kg (range 228 kg–575 kg), with a neck length of approximately 147 cm and a height of 390 cm. The molar lengths of tooth specimens considered agree with this size estimate. The humerus was the most appropriate long bone to establish body mass, which estimates a heavier animal of ca 790 kg. The discrepancy with the vertebral body weight estimate might indicate sexual dimorphism. Radial and metacarpal specimens estimate G. sivalensis to be as heavy as extant giraffes. This may indicate that the radius and metacarpus are unsuitable for body mass predictions in Giraffa spp. Alternatively, certain long bones may have belonged to another long legged giraffid that occurred during the same period and locality as G. sivalensis. We have concluded that if sexual dimorphism was present then males would have been about twice the size of females. If sexual dimorphism was not present and all bones were correctly attributed to this species, then G. sivalensis had a slender neck with a relatively stocky body. PMID:26290791

  2. Prehistoric human colonization of India.

    PubMed

    Misra, V N

    2001-11-01

    Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation. Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar-Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500-1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers. With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide and

  3. Prehistoric human colonization of India.

    PubMed

    Misra, V N

    2001-11-01

    Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation. Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar-Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500-1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers. With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide and

  4. Suitable gamma energy for gamma-spectrometric determination of (238)U in surface soil samples of a high rainfall area in India.

    PubMed

    Lenka, P; Jha, S K; Gothankar, S; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

    2009-06-01

    The paper presents a systematic study on suitability of various gamma lines for monitoring of (238)U activity in soil samples around a uranium mineralized zone of Kylleng Pyndengsohiong Mawthabah (Domiasiat), Meghalaya in India. The area lies in a plateau region which recieves the highest average annual rainfall (12,000mm) in the world. The geochemical behaviour of the uranium and its daughter products at such wet climatic conditions imposes restrictions to assess (238)U through gamma lines of radon decay products. Soil samples were collected from nine locations around the uranium mineralization zone for analysis. The ratio of the concentration of uranium obtained from gamma energies of radium daughter products to the 63.29keV of (234)Th was found to vary from 1.01 to 2.07, which indicates a pronounced disequilibrium between uranium and radium daughters. The results obtained from various gamma energies were validated from the data generated by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) technique. The (238)U activities from the two analytical methods show a well fitted regression line with correlation coefficient 0.99 which validates the reliability of 63.29keV energy for estimation of uranium in such conditions. PMID:19375833

  5. Plastic media blasting activities at Hill Air Force Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, J. D.

    1993-03-01

    Hill Air Force Base in Utah developed plastic media blasting (PMB) paint removal process for removing paint from Air Force aircraft. The development of the process involved extensive testing of various abrasives and subsequent parameters to end up with an approved production process. Hill AFB has been using PMB in a production mode since 1985, and completely discontinued chemical stripping of airframes in 1989. We have recently installed and began operating a fully automated PMB facility that utilizes two nine-axis robots to strip an aircraft. This system has enabled us to further reduce the manhours required to strip an aircraft, and also allowed us to remove the employee from the blasting atmosphere into a control room. We have, and will continue to realize, significant environmental and economic savings by using PMB. Hill is also actively involved with the development of future paint stripping technologies.

  6. Supergranules -- The True Nature of Solar Rossby Hills?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Peter; Cuntz, Manfred; Hathaway, David

    2006-10-01

    Supergranulation is a well established component of solar convection and visible on the solar surface as cellular structures. The convective upflow within a supergranule cell overshoots the equilibrium solar surface creating a corrugated surface. The hills associated with these upflows have been detected as they pass over the solar limb. Their discovery was initially attributed to Rossby waves, arising from r-mode oscillations in the Sun where the Coriolis force acts as a restoring force on internal gravity waves. We analyze these hills by producing an artificial height map derived from the radial component of supergranule Doppler velocity data constructed from the spectral components of a synthetic photospheric convection spectrum. We are able to show that the observed signals leading to the detection of these solar hills can be modeled by applying the same methods that lead to the Rossby wave `discovery', prompting the conclusion that the corrugation has its origins in supergranulation.

  7. India: Degree Verification Fees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Grady

    2004-01-01

    According to the USEFI (United States Education Foundation in India) Web site, (www.fulbright-india.org/eas/eas-general.htm), there are currently 74,603 Indian students in the United States. This immense cultural and educational exchange brings with it both rewards and difficulties for the students and the institutions who enroll them. One of the…

  8. The Myths of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Frederick A.

    1988-01-01

    Stating that superficial stereotypes hinder the understanding of people and places, Day presents several well-known over-generalizations about India. Attempts to update readers about recent changes within the country while dispelling some popular myths. Discusses India's large population, poverty, economic growth, women's roles, and culture, along…

  9. Mars Exploration Rover APXS Results from Matijevic Hill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Clark, B. C.; Gellert, R.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Schrader, C. M.; Schroeder, C.; Yen, A. S.; Economou, T.; deSouza, P.; Jolliff, B. L.; Arvidson, R. A.; Squyres, S. W.

    2013-01-01

    Correlation analysis of APXS results on the eastern slope rocks indicate that the Matijevic Hill rocks are overall compositionally distinct from the Shoemaker Formation rocks [6]. Compared to the Shoemaker impactites, Matijevic Hill rocks are higher in Al, Si, and Ni, and lower in Ti, Fe, and Zn. No significant variation is evident in the APXS analyses that indicate the presence of a smectite or other phyllosilicate, as opposed to basaltic rocks. However, APXS data cannot in themselves rule out phyllosilicates. If indeed this material contains smectite, as seen from orbit, it implies that the rock has been isochemically altered to create the phyllosilicate content. The Cl content of the Cape York rocks is relatively high, and whereas the S/Cl ratio in the Burns Formation is 4x higher than in soil, in the Cape York rocks it is lower than in soil. These trends indicate that the alteration processes and types of aqueous salt loads were different between Cape York and Meridiani. In addition, significant deviations from the Martian Mn/Fe ratio are observed in Whitewater Lake coatings and the altered Grasford/Deadwood rocks (Fig. 3). These variations indicate that the redox/pH conditions during alteration of the Shoemaker Formation rocks and the Matijevic Hill rocks were similar, but that the Deadwood/Grasberg unit may have undergone alteration under different conditions, possibly at a later time. The Matijevic Hill outcrops appear to share a common genetic origin. It is not yet clear whether both the Shoemaker impactites and Matijevic Hill rocks are related to the formation of Endeavour Crater, or whether the Matijevic Hill suite represents a prior episode of Martian impact or volcanism. Opportunity continues to investigate both hypotheses.

  10. Power quality in India

    SciTech Connect

    Deodar, P.S.

    1995-12-01

    This article is a summary of a Faraday Memorial Lecture on the state of power quality and reliability and its impact on the pace of India`s industrial growth and development. Poor quality is hurting industrial competitiveness and therefore their efforts to become a global supplier of goods. In this information age, there is a fast growth of computer usage in industry, commerce, business, trade, finance, healthcare, etc. These sensitive electronic products need clean and consistent power from the utility, and India`s State Electricity Board and other utilities simply cannot deliver it. The users, however, are ultimately response for the health and the safe operation of their equipment. Bad power quality available in India and the clean power requirement of the Informatic infrastructure are the two unfortunate realities of today`s electronic age.

  11. Analysis of Subsidence Data for the Big Hill Site, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Stephen J.

    1999-06-01

    The elevation change data measured at the Big Hill SPR site over the last 10 years has been studied and a model utilized to project elevation changes into the future. The subsidence rate at Big Hill is low in comparison with other Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites and has decreased with time due to the maintenance of higher operating pressures and the normal decrease in creep closure rate of caverns with time. However, the subsidence at the site is projected to continue. A model was developed to project subsidence values 20 years into the future; no subsidence related issues are apparent from these projections.

  12. 2013 strategic petroleum reserve big hill well integrity grading report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, David L.; Roberts, Barry L.; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Park, Byoung Yoon; Rudeen, David Keith; Eldredge, Lisa; Wynn, Karen; Checkai, Dean; Perry, James Thomas

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in developing a framework for the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. This framework was then applied to all 28 wells at the Big Hill site with each well receiving a grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading framework including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The framework was developed in a way as to be applicable to all four of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites.

  13. Scientific progress on the Fenton Hill HDR project since 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.W.; Duchane, D.V.

    1998-02-01

    The modern HDR concept originated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and was first demonstrated at Fenton Hill, NM. Experience gained during the development of the deeper HDR reservoir at Fenton Hill clearly showed that HDR reservoirs are formed by opening pre-existing, but sealed, multiply connected joint sets. Subsequent flow testing indicated that sustained operation of HDR systems under steady state conditions is feasible. The most significant remaining HDR issues are related to economics and locational flexibility. Additional field test sites are needed to advance the understanding of HDR technology so that the vast potential of this resource can be economically realized around the world.

  14. NORTH ELEVATION OF GOLD HILL MILL, LOOKING SOUTH. AT LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH ELEVATION OF GOLD HILL MILL, LOOKING SOUTH. AT LEFT EDGE IS THE SINGLE CYLINDER “HOT SHOT” ENGINE THAT PROVIDED POWER FOR THE MILL. JUST IN FRONT OF IT IS AN ARRASTRA. AT CENTER IS THE BALL MILL AND SECONDARY ORE BIN. JUST TO THE RIGHT OF THE BALL MILL IS A RAKE CLASSIFIER, AND TO THE RIGHT ARE THE CONCENTRATION TABLES. WARM SPRINGS CAMP IS IN THE DISTANCE. SEE CA-292-4 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  15. NORTH ELEVATION OF GOLD HILL MILL, LOOKING SOUTH. AT LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH ELEVATION OF GOLD HILL MILL, LOOKING SOUTH. AT LEFT EDGE IS THE SINGLE CYLINDER “HOT SHOT” ENGINE THAT PROVIDED POWER FOR THE MILL. JUST IN FRONT OF IT IS AN ARRASTRA. AT CENTER IS THE BALL MILL AND SECONDARY ORE BIN. JUST TO THE RIGHT OF THE BALL MILL IS A RAKE CLASSIFIER, AND TO THE RIGHT ARE THE CONCENTRATION TABLES. WARM SPRINGS CAMP IS IN THE DISTANCE. SEE CA-292-17 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  16. Reconstructed Paleo-topography of the Columbia Hills, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, S. B.; Watters, W. A.; Aron, F.; Squyres, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    From June 2004 through March 2010, the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit conducted a detailed campaign examining the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater. In addition to mineralogical and chemical investigations, Spirit's stereo panoramic (Pancam) and navigation (Navcam) cameras obtained over 7,000 images of geologic targets along the West Spur of the Columbia Hills and Husband Hill, the highest peak. We have analyzed the entirety of this dataset, which includes stereo coverage of several outcrop exposures with apparent bedding. We have measured the bedding plane orientations of hundreds of fine-scale (~1-100cm) features on all of the potentially in-place outcrops using Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) derived from the rover's Pancam stereo image data, and mapped these orientations on a regional HiRISE image and DTM. Assuming that the bedding material was deposited conformably on the topography at the time of emplacement, we reconstruct the paleo-topography of the Columbia Hills. Our reconstructed paleo-topography is similar to the modern shape of Husband Hill, but with steeper slopes, consistent with a substantial amount of erosion since deposition. The Columbia Hills are an irregular, nearly-triangular edifice of uncertain origin, situated near the center of the 160km-diameter crater and hypothesized to be either the remnant of a central peak structure, or overlapping crater rims. They span ~6.6 km in the northerly direction by ~3.6 km in the easterly direction, and rise 90m above the basaltic plains that fill the floor of Gusev Crater and embay the Hills. The topography is as irregular as the perimeter, and is cut by numerous valleys of varying lengths, widths, and directional trends. Along the traverse, Spirit examined several rock classes as defined by elemental abundances from the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and identified remotely by the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES). Unlike the Gusev Plains, the rocks of the Columbia Hills show

  17. Imperial landscapes of health: place, plants and people between India and Australia, 1800s-1900s.

    PubMed

    Beattie, James

    2012-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, place bore immediately and urgently on questions of imperialism, race, and health. This article considers European strategies to control local environments and improve healthiness through the exchange of people, plants, ideas and garden designs between India and Australia. Migration removed Europeans from unhealthy environments, either permanently (to Australia and elsewhere) or temporarily (to hill stations in India). Trees like the eucalyptus were introduced into India to enhance European health, based on belief they drained sources of disease. I argue a crucial new understanding of the intersection between health and place in the nineteenth-century British Empire can be provided by tracing the networks through which people, plants, and ideas moved to consider the broader imperial frameworks. PMID:23066604

  18. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer August 10th, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer August 10th, 1936 (Copied from small photo taken by survey members) OLD APARTMENT HOUSE - Jansonist Colony, Old Apartment House, Main Street, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  19. 77 FR 6110 - Bishop Hill Interconnection LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bishop Hill Interconnection LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Bishop Hill Interconnection LLC's application for...

  20. 7. General view of substructure of bridge, taken from hills ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. General view of substructure of bridge, taken from hills to northeast of bridge. Note old stone abutment under existing bridge, detailing of arch and abutments. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  1. 4. Elevation looking southwest from adjacent hills on northeast side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Elevation looking southwest from adjacent hills on northeast side of bridge, taken from river level. Note entire east side and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  2. Dynamics of liquefaction during the 1987 Superstition Hills, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.; Youd, T.L.; Hanks, T.C.

    1989-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of seismically induced pore-water pressure changes and surface and subsurface accelerations at a site undergoing liquefaction caused by the Superstition Hills, California, earthquake (24 November 1987; M = 6.6) reveal that total pore pressures approached lithostatic conditions, but, unexpectedly, after most of the strong motion ceased. Excess pore pressures were generated once horizontal acceleration exceeded a threshold value.

  3. Lost Hills Field Trial - incorporating new technology for resevoir management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, E. J.; Brink, J. L.; Patzek, T. W.; Silin, D. B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper will discuss how Chevron U.S.A. Production Company is implementing a field trial that will use Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)on injection wells, in conjunction with satellite images to measure ground elevation changes, to perform real-time resevoir management in the Lost Hills Field.

  4. CH2M Hill cleared in tunnel explosion case

    SciTech Connect

    Krizan, W.G.; Bradford, H.; Schriener, J.

    1993-09-06

    One of the most critical issues in industry is whether architects and engineers should be held responsible for construction safety on jobsites. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration says yes under certain conditions. But the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission has overturned one application of that view on appeal in a controversial case. It involves a unit of Denver-based CH2M Hill Cos.'s role as program manager for the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) on its $2.2-billion water pollution abatement program. On May 5, 1989, OSHA cited CH2M Hill Central Inc. for 46 willful safety violations in connection with a 1988 methane tunnel explosion that killed three supervisors of contractor S.A. Healy Co., Chicago, Healy was charged with 68 violations. Healy encountered methane while boring CT-7, a two-mile crosstown tunnel. It evacuated the site, but didn't follow the evacuation plan. It failed to shut down all nonessential equipment and the supervisors returned after waiting only 17 minutes instead of the one hour minimum. CH2M Hill's citations and proposed $460,000 fine for violating OSHA's construction standards were for having 45 pieces of unapproved electrical equipment in the tunnel and improper ventilation equipment. CH2M Hill claimed the standards did not apply to it because the firm did not engage in construction work, exercise substantial supervision over the construction work performed by the contractor or create or control the hazardous condition.

  5. Using the Hill Cipher to Teach Cryptographic Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Alasdair

    2008-01-01

    The Hill cipher is the simplest example of a "block cipher," which takes a block of plaintext as input, and returns a block of ciphertext as output. Although it is insecure by modern standards, its simplicity means that it is well suited for the teaching of such concepts as encryption modes, and properties of cryptographic hash functions. Although…

  6. Ancient Granite Gneiss in the Black Hills, South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Zartman, R E; Norton, J J; Stern, T W

    1964-07-31

    Granite gneiss, with an age of approximately 2.5 billion years, in the Black Hills, South Dakota, provides a link between ancient rocks in western Wyoming and Montana and in eastern North and South Dakota and Minnesota. The discovery suggests that early Precambrian rocks covered an extensive area in northcentral United States and were not restricted to several small nuclei.

  7. 64. VIEW OF EAST LORING LAKE LOOKING WEST FROM HILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. VIEW OF EAST LORING LAKE LOOKING WEST FROM HILL BEHIND BUILDING 345 (ENTRY CONTROL BUILDING) IN STORAGE AREA, WITH BUILDING 1026 (BASE SPARES AREA WATER TOWER) IN DISTANCE. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  8. Managing the Theatre Facility at Smoky Hill High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the management of a school theater facility. Discusses the role of the theater manager at Smoky Hill High School. Discusses the creation of the plan to oversee the operation and scheduling of the theater facility. Includes a copy of the contract form for using the theater. (SR)

  9. Mineralogy of the Pahrump Hills Region, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Chipera, S. J.; Morris, R. V.; Bish, D. L.; Cavanagh, P. D.; Achilles, C. N.; Bristow, T. F.; Morrison, S. M.; Treiman, A. H.; Downs, R. T.; Farmer, J. D.; Crisp, J. A.; Fendrich, K.; Morookian, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Pahrump Hills region of Gale crater is a approximately 12 millimeter thick section of sedimentary rocks in the Murray formation, interpreted as the basal geological unit of Mount Sharp. The Mars Science Laboratory, Curiosity, arrived at the Pahrump Hills in September, 2014, and performed a detailed six-month investigation of the sedimentary structures, geochemistry, and mineralogy of the area. During the campaign, Curiosity drilled and delivered three rock samples to its internal instruments, including the CheMin XRD/XRF. The three targets, Confidence Hills, Mojave 2, and Telegraph Peak, contain variable amounts of plagioclase, pyroxene, iron oxides, jarosite, phyllosilicates, and X-ray amorphous material. Hematite was predicted at the base of Mount Sharp from orbital visible/near-IR spectroscopy, and CheMin confirmed this detection. The presence of jarosite throughout Pahrump Hills suggests the sediments experienced acid-sulfate alteration, either in-situ or within the source region of the sediments. This acidic leaching environment is in stark contrast to the environment preserved within the Sheepbed mudstone on the plains of Gale crater. The minerals within Sheepbed, including Fe-saponite, indicate these sediments were deposited in a shallow lake with circumneutral pH that may have been habitable.

  10. Blue Hills Regional Grad Fulfills Dream, Becomes Astronaut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Judy

    2012-01-01

    This article features Scott D. Tingle, a former career and technical education (CTE) student who always aimed high. November 4, 2011 marked the official culmination of a cherished, virtually lifelong dream of his--becoming an astronaut. It was a goal he had in mind even when he was a high school student in the 1980s at Blue Hills Regional…

  11. Rock Hill Business, Education, and Community Online Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broyles, Alan

    The Business, Education & Community On-line Network (BEACON) is designed to support development and implementation of demonstration applications operating in an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) fiber optic network environment. Initial origination and destination sites include high schools and universities around Rock Hill (South Carolina). The…

  12. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer March 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer March 10, 1936 CAST IRON BALCONY RAIL AND WROUGHT IRON WINDOW RAILING 945 NORTH DEARBORN STREET, CHICAGO - Chicago Ironwork, Judge Carpenter House (Cast Iron Balcony Railing), 945 North Dearborn Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  13. SummerHill Homes, San Francisco Bay Area, Fremont, California

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-01

    Building America fact sheet on SummerHill Homes of Northern California. The Villa Savona Homes in Fremont, California were built using 15% fly ash in concrete, engineered lumber for floors, high efficiency windows with Low-emissivity (Low-E) glass, and fi

  14. Ancient granite gneiss in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zartman, R.E.; Norton, J.J.; Stern, T.W.

    1964-01-01

    Granite gneiss, with an age of approximately 2.5 billion years, in the Black Hills, South Dakota , provides a link betweeen ancient rocks in western Wyoming and Montana and in eastern North and South Dakota and Minnesota. The discovery suggests that early Precambrian rocks covered an extensive area in northcentral United States and were not restricted to several small nuclei.

  15. SMITH FARM FROM CEMETERY HILL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. (This image shows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SMITH FARM FROM CEMETERY HILL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. (This image shows the Smith Farm in the center of Ebey’s Prairie. Ebey’s Landing and the Puget Sound can be seen on the right. Farmers from the Sherman-Bishop Dairy are visible at the bottom left, cutting hay.) - Smith Farm, 399 Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  16. 77 FR 17402 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ..., Black Hills National Forest, in the wake of increasingly severe and intense wild fires and mountain pine... forest issues such as forest plan revisions or amendments, forest health including fire management and... Plan, a priority following the major fires including the 86,000 acre Jasper Fire in 2000; 2. A...

  17. 77 FR 8214 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... increasingly severe and intense wild fires and mountain pine beetle epidemics. The purpose of the Board is to... forest issues such as forest plan revisions or amendments, forest health including fire management and... 2004 report on the Black Hills Fuels Reduction Plan, a priority following the major fires including...

  18. The petrology of the Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province, southern Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Späth, A.; Le Roex, A. P.; Opiyo-Akech, N.

    2000-08-01

    The Quaternary Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province is located more than 100 km east of the Kenya Rift Valley. It consists of a large number of free-standing and coalesced volcanoes and cinder cones and numerous lava flows ranging in composition from nepheline-normative nephelinites, basanites, alkali basalts and hawaiites to orthopyroxene-normative subalkali basalts. In this paper, the authors briefly outline the geological setting of the Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province, present a classification scheme for its lavas and describe their petrography. Mineral chemistry data for selected olivine and clinopyroxene phenocrysts are presented together with the bulk rock major element compositions of selected samples. The petrography, phenocryst chemistry and bulk rock composition of the typically primitive Chyulu Hills lavas are consistent with a differentiation history dominated by olivine control. A process of delayed olivine fractionation, combined with limited mantle olivine accumulation, is proposed to explain the considerable compositional variability observed among olivine phenocryst cores. A trend of decreasing degree of silica-undersaturation from the oldest lavas, erupted in the northern Chyulu Hills, to progressively younger lavas in the southern part of the province is explained as a result of an age progressive decrease in the depth of melt generation and a coincident increase in the degree of melting.

  19. 78 FR 26410 - Beverly Hills Bancorp Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... COMMISSION Beverly Hills Bancorp Inc.; Notice of Application April 30, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (the ``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of application for an order under sections 6(c) and 6(e) of... thereunder, modified as discussed in the application. SUMMARY: Summary of Application: The requested...

  20. Conceptualizing Family Stress: A Systemic Revision of Hill's ABCX Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Alberta Y.

    This report offers a theoretical approach to the study of family adaptation to stress. Major works pertaining to family theory, research, and stress, published since 1979, are explored as a theoretical framework, and three conclusions are drawn from these sources: (1) Hill's ABCX model of family stress still influences family stress research; (2)…

  1. Hills for the Head. Art across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2000-01-01

    Provides information on Maltby Sykes, the painter, addressing issues such as his assignment during World War II, being an apprentice to Diego Rivera, and his relationship with George C. Miller. Discusses both the painting and the sketch titled "Hills." Includes activities in geography, visual art, history, and mathematics. (CMK)

  2. 78 FR 65962 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Hills National Forest Advisory Board (Board), due to the Federal Government furlough which began on... Federal Register, Volume 78, Number 187, Thursday, September 26, 2013, pages 59337-59338. ] FOR...

  3. Developing Independent Learners: The Box Hill School Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavey, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Box Hill School is an independent school in Surrey, England. In 2008 the English curriculum was abandoned in favour of the International Baccalaureate Diploma (IBD). A library is a statutory requirement of the International Baccalaureate Organisation (IBO) endorsement who also recommend this be managed by a qualified teacher-librarian. In May…

  4. Project Hill-Climb: Drafting and Design in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowl, William F.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the Hill-Climb project of a second level Computer-Aided Drafting and Design (CADD) class. The author primarily designed the activity to increase student understanding of the assembly drawing process and its components. The emphasis on problem solving adds a dimension that can aid students in their other classes as well. By…

  5. Possible Late Quaternary faulting in the Benton Hills, southeastern Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, J.R.; Hoffman, D. . Dept. of Natural Resources)

    1993-03-01

    Geologic mapping in the 1930's by Dan Stewart and Lyle McManamy identified numerous faults in the Thebes Gap area of the Benton Hills, including two post-late Quaternary faults (max. of 10 m displacement) along the southeastern escarpment. Recent geologic mapping (Richard Harrison, pers. comm.) suggests dextral strike-slip displacement on most of these faults; some deformation post-dates the Pliocene-Pleistocene Mounds gravel. Small historical earthquake epicenters have been recorded in the Benton Hills area. Review of these data and analysis of the geologic and structural relationships to small- and large-scale drainage and alluvial features suggest tectonic control of the southeastern escarpment of the Benton Hills. The authors propose the coincidence of geologic structures and landforms resembles tectonically active alluvial basin margins, with the Benton Hills southeastern margin representing a fault block uplift escarpment. Future seismic reflection, drilling and trenching studies are planned to determine if the escarpment is fault controlled and of recent origin.

  6. 77 FR 75120 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    .... Please call ahead to Scott Jacobson, Committee Management Officer, at 605-673- 9216, to facilitate entry into the building to view comments. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Scott Jacobson, Committee... sent to Scott Jacobson, Supervisor's Office, Black Hills National Forest, 1019 North Fifth...

  7. Bunker Hill Community College: A Common Experience for Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smutek, Malinda M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the design, implementation, and assessment of the general education program at Bunker Hill Community College, in Boston, Massachusetts. Indicates that the program is designed to serve as an academic commons where students from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds can come together and share common intellectual experiences. (MAB)

  8. On the oscillation of Hill's equations under periodic forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Man Kam; Wong, James S. W.

    2006-08-01

    We use the Floquet theory of the Hill's equation to prove the conjecture that all solutions of the second order forced linear differential equation y''+c(sint)y=cost, are oscillatory on [0,[infinity]) for all c[not equal to]0.

  9. Evaluation of a Variable Rate Irrigating Hill-Seeder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variable rate irrigating hill-seeder is a drought-alleviating and water-saving agricultural machine that can adjust water application automatically according to the soil moisture content and realize the synchronization between water and seeds through photoelectric-detecting technology. The objecti...

  10. 14. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, FOOTING PLAN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, FOOTING PLAN AND LEG DETAILS. Photocopy of drawing (original in Connecticut Department of Transportation, Wethersfield); Connecticut State Highway Department, Approved February 1936. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  11. 114. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK OFF-RAMP AND LOWER DECK ON-RAMP FROM TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP, WITH SAN FRANCISCO VIADUCT IN BACKGROUND AT RIGHT, FACING EAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. 113. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK OFF-RAMP WITH LOWER DECK ON-RAMP FROM TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP IN FOREGROUND, FACING WEST-NORTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. 228. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF YERBA BUENA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    228. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF YERBA BUENA EAST VIADUCT, SOUTH SIDE, AT LOWER DECK OFF-RAMP (LEFT) AND ON-RAMP (RIGHT), FACING NORTH NORTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 112. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO VIADUCT (RIGHT), UPPER DECK OFF-RAMP (LEFT), AND LOWER DECK ON-RAMP FROM TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP, FACING NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 222. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF YERBA BUENA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    222. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF YERBA BUENA LOWER DECK OFF-RAMP WITH UPPER DECK ON-RAMP AND WEST PORTAL IN BACKGROUND, FACING EAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 16. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, RAILING AND PYLON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, RAILING AND PYLON DETAILS. Photocopy of drawing (original in Connecticut Department of Transportation, Wethersfield); Connecticut State Highway Department, Approved February 1936. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  17. 15. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, FRAME AND WING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, FRAME AND WING WALL DETAILS. Photocopy of drawing (original in Connecticut Department of Transportation, Wethersfield); Connecticut State Highway Department, Approved February 1936. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  18. 13. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, GENERAL PLAN. Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, GENERAL PLAN. Photocopy of drawing (original in Connecticut Department of Transportation, Wethersfield); Connecticut State Highway Department, Approved February 1936. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  19. 17. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, GRADE SEPARATION. Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, GRADE SEPARATION. Photocopy of drawing (original in Connecticut Department of Transportation, Wethersfield); Connecticut State Highway Department, Approved February 1936. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  20. 27 CFR 9.169 - Red Hills Lake County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Hills Lake County. 9.169 Section 9.169 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  1. 27 CFR 9.169 - Red Hills Lake County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Hills Lake County. 9.169 Section 9.169 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  2. 27 CFR 9.169 - Red Hills Lake County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Hills Lake County. 9.169 Section 9.169 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  3. 27 CFR 9.169 - Red Hills Lake County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Hills Lake County. 9.169 Section 9.169 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  4. 27 CFR 9.169 - Red Hills Lake County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red Hills Lake County. 9.169 Section 9.169 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  5. 75 FR 63465 - Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing October 7, 2010. Take notice that on September 30, 2010, Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC (Hill-Lake) filed a revised Statement of Operating Conditions (SOC) for its Storage Services, proposing substantive revisions to its tariff...

  6. The Hill equation: a review of its capabilities in pharmacological modelling.

    PubMed

    Goutelle, Sylvain; Maurin, Michel; Rougier, Florent; Barbaut, Xavier; Bourguignon, Laurent; Ducher, Michel; Maire, Pascal

    2008-12-01

    The Hill equation was first introduced by A.V. Hill to describe the equilibrium relationship between oxygen tension and the saturation of haemoglobin. In pharmacology, the Hill equation has been extensively used to analyse quantitative drug-receptor relationships. Many pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models have used the Hill equation to describe nonlinear drug dose-response relationships. Although the Hill equation is widely used, its many properties are not all well known. This article aims at reviewing the various properties of the Hill equation. The descriptive aspects of the Hill equation, in particular mathematical and graphical properties, are examined, and related to Hill's original work. The mechanistic aspect of the Hill equation, involving a strong connection with the Guldberg and Waage law of mass action, is also described. Finally, a probabilistic view of the Hill equation is examined. Here, we provide some new calculation results, such as Fisher information and Shannon entropy, and we introduce multivariate probabilistic Hill equations. The main features and potential applications of this probabilistic approach are also discussed. Thus, within the same formalism, the Hill equation has many different properties which can be of great interest for those interested in mathematical modelling in pharmacology and biosciences.

  7. 33 CFR 80.145 - Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.145 Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill... and Rhode Island from Race Point to Watch Hill. (b) A line drawn from Nobska Point Light to...

  8. 33 CFR 80.145 - Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.145 Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill... and Rhode Island from Race Point to Watch Hill. (b) A line drawn from Nobska Point Light to...

  9. 33 CFR 80.145 - Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.145 Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill... and Rhode Island from Race Point to Watch Hill. (b) A line drawn from Nobska Point Light to...

  10. 33 CFR 80.145 - Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.145 Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill... and Rhode Island from Race Point to Watch Hill. (b) A line drawn from Nobska Point Light to...

  11. 33 CFR 80.145 - Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.145 Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill... and Rhode Island from Race Point to Watch Hill. (b) A line drawn from Nobska Point Light to...

  12. 76 FR 28766 - Flint Hills Resources Alaska, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Flint Hills Resources Alaska, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order... Procedure of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (18 CFR 385.207(a)(2)(2010)), Flint Hills Resources Alaska, LLC (Flint Hills) filed a petition for an order declaring that an as- yet unfiled,...

  13. 75 FR 52461 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Pocomoke River, Snow Hill, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Pocomoke River, Snow Hill, MD AGENCY... the S12 ] Bridge across the Pocomoke River, mile 29.9, at Snow Hill, MD. The deviation restricts the... hours advance notice is given. The S12 Bridge across Pocomoke River, mile 29.9 at Snow Hill MD, has...

  14. [Programs of the Shawnee Hills Community Mental Health/Mental Retardation Center, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawnee Hills Community Mental Health/Mental Retardation Center, Inc., Charleston, WV.

    Descriptions of several programs of the Shawnee Hills Community Mental Health/Mental Retardation Center, Inc. (Charleston, West Virginia) are presented. Included in this document are: (1) a description of the Shawnee Hills Day Training Center, a cooperative program of Shawnee Hills and several county school boards for severely/profoundly impaired…

  15. Clinical trials in India.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Rituparna; M, Raghavendra

    2007-07-01

    The concept of outsourcing for the development and global studies on new drugs has become widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry due to its cost and uncertainty. India is going to be the most preferred location for contract pharma research and development due to its huge treatment naïve population, human resources, technical skills, adoption/amendment/implementation of rules/laws by regulatory authorities, and changing economic environment. But still 'miles to go' to fulfill the pre-requisites to ensure India's success. In spite of all the pitfalls, the country is ambitious and optimist to attract multinational pharmaceutical companies to conduct their clinical trials in India.

  16. Topographic effects on the hill of Nocera Umbra, central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pischiutta, Marta; Cultrera, Giovanna; Caserta, Arrigo; Luzi, Lucia; Rovelli, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    During the MW 5.7 and 6.0 Umbria-Marche earthquakes of 1997 September 26, the historical centre of Nocera Umbra suffered MCS intensity VII-VIII. The zone is located on the top of a hill, a condition potentially favourable to ground motion amplification. However, also vulnerability is higher on the hill because of the ancient age of buildings. A temporary array of eight seismological stations was installed across the hill to quantify the amplification effect due to topography. Waveforms of 14 aftershocks (2.6 < ML < 4.1) are selected for the analysis. During each earthquake the largest amplitudes are observed on the hilltop, spectral ratios are computed using rotated horizontal components to search for directional effects. Amplifications are found in two separate frequency bands: one in the range 2-4 Hz, where the increase of amplitude is moderate (never exceeding a factor of 4) and the polarization is transversal to the hill major axis; the second above 10 Hz, where amplifications are larger and reach values as high as 25 Hz. High-frequency polarization varies for different sites and frequencies suggesting that smaller-scale complexities control the high frequency response. Synthetic seismograms of 2-D models confirm the occurrence of amplification, although not all details are fit by numerical simulations and the agreement between observations and models is significant only in terms of the fundamental resonance frequency, around 3 Hz. In the models, amplifications are much smaller than the observed ones. We conclude that topography could have been responsible for a small increase of damage in the hill zone but the most significant role on damage was played by the locally higher vulnerability.

  17. True 3-D View of 'Columbia Hills' from an Angle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This mosaic of images from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows a panorama of the 'Columbia Hills' without any adjustment for rover tilt. When viewed through 3-D glasses, depth is much more dramatic and easier to see, compared with a tilt-adjusted version. This is because stereo views are created by producing two images, one corresponding to the view from the panoramic camera's left-eye camera, the other corresponding to the view from the panoramic camera's right-eye camera. The brain processes the visual input more accurately when the two images do not have any vertical offset. In this view, the vertical alignment is nearly perfect, but the horizon appears to curve because of the rover's tilt (because the rover was parked on a steep slope, it was tilted approximately 22 degrees to the west-northwest). Spirit took the images for this 360-degree panorama while en route to higher ground in the 'Columbia Hills.'

    The highest point visible in the hills is 'Husband Hill,' named for space shuttle Columbia Commander Rick Husband. To the right are the rover's tracks through the soil, where it stopped to perform maintenance on its right front wheel in July. In the distance, below the hills, is the floor of Gusev Crater, where Spirit landed Jan. 3, 2004, before traveling more than 3 kilometers (1.8 miles) to reach this point. This vista comprises 188 images taken by Spirit's panoramic camera from its 213th day, or sol, on Mars to its 223rd sol (Aug. 9 to 19, 2004). Team members at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Cornell University spent several weeks processing images and producing geometric maps to stitch all the images together in this mosaic. The 360-degree view is presented in a cylindrical-perspective map projection with geometric seam correction.

  18. History of Nuclear India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  19. Nitrate leakage from deciduous forest soils into streams on Kureha Hill, Japan.

    PubMed

    Honoki, H; Kawakami, T; Yasuda, H; Maehara, I

    2001-11-21

    Nitrate leakage from deciduous forest soils into streams was investigated for two adjacent hills. Many of the streams on Kureha Hill, located in Toyama City, Japan, have extremely high nitrate concentrations. The nitrate concentration of Hyakumakidani, one of the streams on Kureha Hill, averaged 158 microeq l(-1) and reached 470 microeq l(-1) during an episodic event. In contrast, the streams on Imizu Hill, adjacent to Kureha Hill, had low concentrations, below 15 microeq l(-1). Even during an episode, the nitrate concentrations increased to no more than 75 microeq l(-1). Both areas have similar blown forest soils, C/N ratios in O horizons, and vegetation consisting primarily of deciduous trees. However, soil incubation experiments, which lasted for 4 weeks, revealed that the nitrification rates in the surface soils of Kureha Hill were much higher than in the soils of Imizu Hill.

  20. India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickler, Paul

    This curriculum packet on politics and international relations in India contains an essay, three lessons and a variety of charts, maps, and additional readings to support the unit. The essay is entitled "India 1994: The Peacock and the Vulture." The lessons include: (1) "The Kashmir Dispute"; (2) "India: Domestic Order and International Affairs, A…

  1. Diversity of sickle cell trait in Jharkhand state in India: Is it the zone of contact between two geographically and ethnically distinct populations in India?

    PubMed

    Nagar, Rachana; Raman, Rajiva

    2015-09-01

    Incidence of sickle cell trait in India is high in peninsular south, south-eastern, central and south-western India, while in north and north-eastern India, it is absent. Unicentric origin of SCD in the tribals of nilgiri hills in southern India has been proposed. The present study on the frequency of HbS trait and beta-globin gene haplotypes was conducted in the tribal-rich states of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand to get an insight into the uneven distribution of HbS in India. Jharkhand borders with the HbS-high Odisha and Chhattisgarh, and HbS-low UP, Bihar and Bengal. Cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis was performed on the collected blood samples, to detect sickle haemoglobin (HbS) followed by DNA analysis. HbS associated beta-gene haplotype was constructed for the samples positive for HbS and all the tribals by PCR-RFLP. Out of 805 (Chhattisgarh - 261, Jharkhand - 544; greater than 36 percent tribals) samples analysed HbS frequency was 13 percent in Chhattisgarh and 3.3 percent in Jharkhand. Within Jharkhand, frequencies varied considerably from 10 percent in Tatanagar to nil in Sahibganj. The Arab-India (AI) haplotype of beta-globin cluster occurred in low frequency, confined mainly to Chhattisgarh. The most abundant haplotype in all the populations was the East Asian, + - - - - - +, rare in HbS, mainly in Sahibganj in east Jharkhand, which lacked AI. Our results indicate that besides the heterozygote advantage againstmalaria, the uneven regional distribution of HbS trait is because of restricted movement of two different populations, Dravidian from the south and Tibeto-Burman from the east into the Indianmainland which failed tomeet, we conjecture, due to severe climatic conditions (deserts and heat) prevailing through parts of central India. Apparently, Jharkhand became a zone of contact between them in recent times.

  2. Study finds Chapel Hill, NC, soup kitchen serves nutritious meals.

    PubMed

    Eppich, Simone; Fernandez, Claudia Plaisted

    2004-08-01

    Soup kitchens attempt to improve the food security of low-income individuals, but the results of their efforts are rarely researched. We focused our study on the Inter-Faith Council Soup Kitchen (IFC) near the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill (UNC) in Chapel Hill, NC. The IFC uses no centralized nutrition planning and relies heavily on volunteer cooks, yet we found their meals to be highly nutrient-dense when averaged over a 1-month time frame and compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) and the Daily Reference Values (DRVs). In fact, the only nutrients needing improvement were vitamin D, folate, and calcium. The number of servings per meal was also substantially more than one third of the US Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid recommendations, except for dairy at all meals, vegetables at breakfast, and fruit at dinner. PMID:15281049

  3. Light-toned Rocks First, 'Columbia Hills' Later

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover's panoramic camera on sol 91 (April 5, 2004) shows the rover's ultimate destination - the eastern-lying 'Columbia Hills.' The rover will head toward the hills in coming sols, while stopping to investigate rocks and soils along the way. Of particular interest is the light-toned coating seen here on the low-lying rocks. Scientists intend to find out if this coating is the same as that observed on the well-studied rock dubbed 'Mazatzal.' They believe Mazatzal's coating may have formed by cementation of airborne dust, perhaps in a slightly wetter, past environment. The scientists also plan to determine if the soil here is the same as the somewhat cohesive soil seen near the rover's lander. Like the coatings, this soil may have formed in past moist environments. This image was taken with the panoramic camera's infrared (750 nanometer) filter.

  4. Water professionals and water policy in the Black Hills region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, T.A.; Driscoll, D.G.; Erickson, J.W.; Kenner, S.J.; Sawyer, J.F.; Kendy, Eloise

    1999-01-01

    A case study approach based on examples from the Black Hills region is used to evaluate the role of water professionals in developing feasible and fair public policy involving water resources. Examples presented include a long-term hydrologic investigation in the Black Hills, a local wellhead protection program, issues being addressed by a local flood management commission, coordination of definitions of beneficial stream uses by two state agencies, water-quality problems related to rapid population increase in a rural area, and impacts of potential climate change on water resources. In some of these examples, the hydrologic work was separated from policy making to ensure neutrality. In other examples, involvement of the hydrologists and water resource engineers directly benefited policy development. Opportunities for increased effectiveness were observed in most of the examples.

  5. SILL HILL, HAUSER, AND CALIENTE ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Victoria R.; Peters, Thomas J.

    1984-01-01

    Probable resource potential for metallic minerals and gemstones was identified during mineral-resource surveys in the Sill Hill, Hauser, and Caliente Roadless Areas, California. Parts of the Sill Hill Roadless Area have a probable potential for gold, tungsten, and nickel and by-product copper. Part of the Caliente Roadless Area has a probable potential for tourmaline, beryl, quartz, and possibly other specimen minerals and gemstones. No mineral-resource potential was identified in the Hauser Roadless Area, although potash feldspar is abundant as a rock-forming constituent in two parts of the area. The Caliente Roadless Area lies less than 1 mi from an area of hot springs activity which may be part of a low-grade geothermal resource area, but no geothermal resource potential was identified in this or any of the other areas. No resource potential for nuclear energy was identified in this study and the geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of hydrocarbon resources.

  6. Environmental protection and regulatory compliance at the Elk Hills Field

    SciTech Connect

    Chappelle, H.H.; Donahoe, R.L.; Kato, T.T.; Ordway, H.E.

    1991-12-31

    Environmental protection has played an integral role in the development and operation of the Elk Hills field since production at the maximum efficient rate was authorized in 1976. The field is located in a non-attainment area for California and National Ambient Air Quality Standards for two criteria pollutants and their associated precursors, is home to four endangered species, and operates within the California regulatory framework. Environmental protection and regulatory compliance is a multi-faceted program carried out through a substantial commitment of resources and workforce involvement. This paper describes the actions taken and resources employed to protect the environment, specific technologies and projects implement, and the ongoing nature of these efforts at Elk Hills.

  7. Environmental protection and regulatory compliance at the Elk Hills Field

    SciTech Connect

    Chappelle, H.H. ); Donahoe, R.L. ); Kato, T.T. ); Ordway, H.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Environmental protection has played an integral role in the development and operation of the Elk Hills field since production at the maximum efficient rate was authorized in 1976. The field is located in a non-attainment area for California and National Ambient Air Quality Standards for two criteria pollutants and their associated precursors, is home to four endangered species, and operates within the California regulatory framework. Environmental protection and regulatory compliance is a multi-faceted program carried out through a substantial commitment of resources and workforce involvement. This paper describes the actions taken and resources employed to protect the environment, specific technologies and projects implement, and the ongoing nature of these efforts at Elk Hills.

  8. Exposure and terrestrial ages of four Allan Hills Antarctic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsten, T.; Ries, D.; Fireman, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Terrestrial ages of meteorites are based on the amount of cosmic-ray-produced radioactivity in the sample and the number of observed falls that have similar cosmic-ray exposure histories. The cosmic-ray exposures are obtained from the stable noble gas isotopes. Noble gas isotopes are measured by high-sensitivity mass spectrometry. In the present study, the noble gas contents were measured in four Allan Hill meteorites (No. 5, No. 6, No. 7, and No. 8), whose C-14, Al-26, and Mn-53 radioactivities are known. These meteorites are of particular interest because they belong to a large assemblage of distinct meteorites that lie exposed on a small (110 sq km) area of ice near the Allan Hills.

  9. Carbon-14 ages of Allan Hills meteorites and ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.; Norris, T.

    1982-01-01

    Allan Hills is a blue ice region of approximately 100 sq km area in Antarctica where many meteorites have been found exposed on the ice. The terrestrial ages of the Allan Hills meteorites, which are obtained from their cosmogenic nuclide abundances are important time markers which can reflect the history of ice movement to the site. The principal purpose in studying the terrestrial ages of ALHA meteorites is to locate samples of ancient ice and analyze their trapped gas contents. Attention is given to the C-14 and Ar-39 terrestrial ages of ALHA meteorites, and C-14 ages and trapped gas compositions in ice samples. On the basis of the obtained C-14 terrestrial ages, and Cl-36 and Al-26 results reported by others, it is concluded that most ALHA meteorites fell between 20,000 and 200,000 years ago.

  10. Flow characteristics above a very low and gently sloping hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedman, Ann-Sofi; Bergström, Hans

    1984-05-01

    Tower measurements of wind and turbulence in near neutral conditions at the top of a very low and gently sloping hill (height ~ 20 m, with a length scale ~ 1000 m) are analysed in terms of current flow-over-hill theory. Measurements of wind maximum height and the change of the variances of the three wind components from the inner to the outer region are found to be in agreement with predictions from the theory. Spectra of the longitudinal and vertical wind components in the inner region, scaled according to Panofsky et al. (1982), come close to the corresponding Kansas curves in the high frequency range. They have higher energy in the low frequency region, probably a spectral lag effect caused by rougher upwind terrain. In the outer region, the spectra coincide with the corresponding Kansas curves if normalized by their respective variances and plotted against f/f m.

  11. Periglacial features in Patriot Hills, Ellsworth Mountains, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Rosemary; Hinata, Sumirê; da Rosa, Kátia Kellem; Zilberstein, Sérgio; Simoes, Jefferson Cardia

    2012-06-01

    This work describes periglacial features identified at Patriot Hills, at the southernmost part of Ellsworth Mountains, Antarctica, during the 2008/2009 Brazilian Antarctic Expedition, and discusses their morphogenetic environment. Identified periglacial features were classified into: (a) rock glacier-like landform; (b) slightly creeping debris-mantled slopes; (c) steep debris-mantled slopes; and (d) rock falls. Results obtained from sediment sample analysis suggest activity and passive movement of a rock glacier-like landform, albeit minimal. Wind seems to play an important role in Patriot Hills local geomorphology. Periglacial features such as slightly creeping debris-mantled slope appear to have preferred slope orientation. They are commonly found onto slopes where the katabatic wind flows down. Slopewash and groundwater movement processes may be limited or non-existent since most snow disappears through sublimation

  12. Parameter Calibration of Mini-LEO Hill Slope Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, H.

    2015-12-01

    The mini-LEO hill slope, located at Biosphere 2, is a small-scale catchment model that is used to study the ways landscapes change in response to biological, chemical, and hydrological processes. Previous experiments have shown that soil heterogeneity can develop as a result of groundwater flow; changing the characteristics of the landscape. To determine whether or not flow has caused heterogeneity within the mini-LEO hill slope, numerical models were used to simulate the observed seepage flow, water table height, and storativity. To begin a numerical model of the hill slope was created using CATchment Hydrology (CATHY). The model was then brought to an initial steady state by applying a rainfall event of 5mm/day for 180 days. Then a specific rainfall experiment of alternating intensities was applied to the model. Next, a parameter calibration was conducted, to fit the model to the observed data, by changing soil parameters individually. The parameters of the best fitting calibration were taken to be the most representative of those present within the mini-LEO hill slope. Our model concluded that heterogeneities had indeed arisen as a result of the rainfall event, resulting in a lower hydraulic conductivity downslope. The lower hydraulic conductivity downslope in turn caused in an increased storage of water and a decrease in seepage flow compared to homogeneous models. This shows that the hydraulic processes acting within a landscape can change the very characteristics of the landscape itself, namely the permeability and conductivity of the soil. In the future results from the excavation of soil in mini-LEO can be compared to the models results to improve the model and validate its findings.

  13. Cryogenic powderization of Triassic dolostones in the Buda Hills, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poros, Zsófia; Machel, Hans G.; Mindszenty, Andrea; Molnár, Ferenc

    2013-07-01

    Disintegration of dolostones to dolomite powder (powderization) was a widespread phenomenon in Triassic dolostones of the Buda Hills, where the areal extent of powdered dolostones is large compared to similar occurrences elsewhere in the world. In the Buda Hills, dolostone disintegration proceeded in four stages that correspond to a gradual decrease in particle size, that is, from the parent dolostone to (1) crackle breccia; via (2) mosaic breccia (diameter <2 cm); via (3) mosaic breccia blocks `floating' in dolomite powder; to (4) dolomite powder (diameter 100-300 μm). Stable isotope ratios and trace element compositions of dolomite remained constant throughout these stages, and there are no indications of dissolution in most locations, suggesting that disintegration was predominantly a mechanical process. Combining these findings with the geological history of the region, and supported by a simple freezing/thawing experiment and pertinent experimental studies on weathering of building stones, it appears that powderization in the Buda Hills was caused by repeated freeze-thaw cycles during and/or after the Pleistocene glaciations. Subaerial exposure under cold climate conditions involves multiple freeze-thaw cycles that create mechanical stresses in the rock framework related to the opposing thermal expansion of rock and water that freezes and of ice that liquefies. This process is herewith called `cryogenic powderization'. Our data further suggest that the synergy of four factors promoted dolostone powderization in the Buda Hills: (1) tectonics, which created a pervasive fracture network; (2) intercrystalline porosity of the dolostone; (3) relatively high water saturation; and (4) subaerial exposure under cold climate conditions.

  14. Amateur and professional astronomers meet at Mill Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poyner, G.

    2000-12-01

    Nearly forty professional and amateur astronomers from around the UK converged on the Mill Hill Observatory of University College, London, on Saturday September 16, for a meeting set up by the Royal Astronomical Society and The Astronomer to promote and exchange ideas on professional?amateur collaboration in astronomy. Fields discussed included variable star research, gamma ray bursters, supernova searching, spectroscopy and minor planet and meteor work.

  15. Violin bridge-hill to radiation: The energy trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bissinger, George

    2005-09-01

    Simultaneous experimental modal and acoustical analysis in an anechoic chamber was used to track energy flow through quality-rated violins to clarify the link between the mechanical motions at a driving point on the G-corner of the bridge, and subsequent radiation from the violin. The 0-4-kHz range covered included a broad hump near 2.4 kHz in driving point mobility generally labeled the bridge-hill and thought to be related to violin quality and radiativity (and sound). The bridge-hill enhancement showed up successively in the averaged mobility of the bridge, at the bridge feet, and over the corpus; a corresponding peak was also seen in the radiativity, indicating that enhanced radiation accompanied enhanced bridge motion. All bridge motions except low-frequency rigid-body motions were complex, and generally showed some semblance of rocking motion at higher frequencies. No evidence was observed for any bridge resonance separate from string or corpus resonances, although most bridges showed a complex squat mode near 0.8 kHz (not accompanied by enhanced radiation) that is likely an out-of-plane bending mode falling far below the rocking mode. Bridge-hill magnitude was not found to correlate well with violin quality, or averaged corpus mobility, or averaged radiativity.

  16. Evolution of optimal Hill coefficients in nonlinear public goods games.

    PubMed

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István

    2016-10-01

    In evolutionary game theory, the effect of public goods like diffusible molecules has been modelled using linear, concave, sigmoid and step functions. The observation that biological systems are often sigmoid input-output functions, as described by the Hill equation, suggests that a sigmoid function is more realistic. The Michaelis-Menten model of enzyme kinetics, however, predicts a concave function, and while mechanistic explanations of sigmoid kinetics exist, we lack an adaptive explanation: what is the evolutionary advantage of a sigmoid benefit function? We analyse public goods games in which the shape of the benefit function can evolve, in order to determine the optimal and evolutionarily stable Hill coefficients. We find that, while the dynamics depends on whether output is controlled at the level of the individual or the population, intermediate or high Hill coefficients often evolve, leading to sigmoid input-output functions that for some parameters are so steep to resemble a step function (an on-off switch). Our results suggest that, even when the shape of the benefit function is unknown, biological public goods should be modelled using a sigmoid or step function rather than a linear or concave function.

  17. Three dimensional simulation for Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR).

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Lee, Moo Yul

    2005-07-01

    3-D finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of caverns located at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's Big Hill site. State-of-art analyses simulated the current site configuration and considered additional caverns. The addition of 5 caverns to account for a full site and a full dome containing 31 caverns were modeled. Operations including both normal and cavern workover pressures and cavern enlargement due to leaching were modeled to account for as many as 5 future oil drawdowns. Under the modeled conditions, caverns were placed very close to the edge of the salt dome. The web of salt separating the caverns and the web of salt between the caverns and edge of the salt dome were reduced due to leaching. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence and infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified. The analyses included recently derived damage criterion obtained from testing of Big Hill salt cores. The results show that from a structural view point, many additional caverns can be safely added to Big Hill.

  18. Evolution of optimal Hill coefficients in nonlinear public goods games.

    PubMed

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István

    2016-10-01

    In evolutionary game theory, the effect of public goods like diffusible molecules has been modelled using linear, concave, sigmoid and step functions. The observation that biological systems are often sigmoid input-output functions, as described by the Hill equation, suggests that a sigmoid function is more realistic. The Michaelis-Menten model of enzyme kinetics, however, predicts a concave function, and while mechanistic explanations of sigmoid kinetics exist, we lack an adaptive explanation: what is the evolutionary advantage of a sigmoid benefit function? We analyse public goods games in which the shape of the benefit function can evolve, in order to determine the optimal and evolutionarily stable Hill coefficients. We find that, while the dynamics depends on whether output is controlled at the level of the individual or the population, intermediate or high Hill coefficients often evolve, leading to sigmoid input-output functions that for some parameters are so steep to resemble a step function (an on-off switch). Our results suggest that, even when the shape of the benefit function is unknown, biological public goods should be modelled using a sigmoid or step function rather than a linear or concave function. PMID:27343626

  19. Geologic map of the Bodie Hills, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; du Bray, Edward A.; Box, Stephen E.; Vikre, Peter G.; Rytuba, James J.; Fleck, Robert J.; Moring, Barry C.

    2015-01-01

    The Bodie Hills covers about 1,200 km2 straddling the California-Nevada state boundary just north of Mono Lake in the western part of the Basin and Range Province, about 20 km east of the central Sierra Nevada. The area is mostly underlain by the partly overlapping, middle to late Miocene Bodie Hills volcanic field and Pliocene to late Pleistocene Aurora volcanic field (John and others, 2012). Upper Miocene to Pliocene sedimentary deposits, mostly basin-filling sediments, gravel deposits, and fanglomerates, lap onto the west, north, and east sides of the Bodie Hills, where they cover older Miocene volcanic rocks. Quaternary surficial deposits, including extensive colluvial, fluvial, glacial, and lacustrine deposits, locally cover all older rocks. Miocene and younger rocks are tilted ≤30° in variable directions. These rocks are cut by several sets of high-angle faults that exhibit a temporal change from conjugate northeast-striking left-lateral and north-striking right-lateral oblique-slip faults in rocks older than about 9 Ma to north- and northwest-striking dip-slip faults in late Miocene rocks. The youngest faults are north-striking normal and northeast-striking left-lateral oblique-slip faults that cut Pliocene-Pleistocene rocks. Numerous hydrothermal systems were active during Miocene magmatism and formed extensive zones of hydrothermally altered rocks and several large mineral deposits, including gold- and silver-rich veins in the Bodie and Aurora mining districts (Vikre and others, in press).

  20. DOE to accept bids for Elk Hills crude

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-04

    This paper reports that the Department of Energy will accept bids in a reoffering sale covering 53,400 b/d of Elk Hills field oil but later may exercise an option to cut sales volumes and ship 20,000 b/d to Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites in Texas. DOE rejected all 19 bids submitted in an earlier semiannual sale of crude oil from the California naval petroleum reserve, saying they were too low. DOE the, The unique combination of federal and state government policies affecting the movement of oil into and out of the California market has contributed to a situation in which it apparently is very difficult for the government to receive a price for Elk Hills oil that satisfies the minimum price tests that govern the sale of Elk Hills oil. The 12 winning bids in the reoffering sale averaged $13.58/bbl, with bids for the higher quality Stevens zone crude averaging $13.92/bbl, about 67 cents/bbl higher than bids rejected last month. DOE the 20,000 b/d is all local pipelines can ship to the interstate All-American pipeline for transfer to Texas beginning in June.

  1. Hadean diamonds in zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Menneken, Martina; Nemchin, Alexander A; Geisler, Thorsten; Pidgeon, Robert T; Wilde, Simon A

    2007-08-23

    Detrital zircons more than 4 billion years old from the Jack Hills metasedimentary belt, Yilgarn craton, Western Australia, are the oldest identified fragments of the Earth's crust and are unique in preserving information on the earliest evolution of the Earth. Inclusions of quartz, K-feldspar and monazite in the zircons, in combination with an enrichment of light rare-earth elements and an estimated low zircon crystallization temperature, have previously been used as evidence for early recycling of continental crust, leading to the production of granitic melts in the Hadean era. Here we present the discovery of microdiamond inclusions in Jack Hills zircons with an age range from 3,058 +/- 7 to 4,252 +/- 7 million years. These include the oldest known diamonds found in terrestrial rocks, and introduce a new dimension to the debate on the origin of these zircons and the evolution of the early Earth. The spread of ages indicates that either conditions required for diamond formation were repeated several times during early Earth history or that there was significant recycling of ancient diamond. Mineralogical features of the Jack Hills diamonds-such as their occurrence in zircon, their association with graphite and their Raman spectroscopic characteristics-resemble those of diamonds formed during ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism and, unless conditions on the early Earth were unique, imply a relatively thick continental lithosphere and crust-mantle interaction at least 4,250 million years ago. PMID:17713532

  2. VENEREOLOGY IN INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Sivaranjini, Ramassamy

    2011-01-01

    Venereology-the study of venereal diseases or more recently, the sexually transmitted infections (STI) includes a variety of pathogens namely viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa for which the common factor is the mode of transmission and acquisition: Sexual relations between human beings. Medical and other historians have often suggested that well-known diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid and lymphogranuloma venereum have existed since earliest times. However, it is difficult to identify modern disease entities based on written historical record. Studying the origin of STIs helps us to learn the political, economic and moral conditions that led to the disease. Effective management of STI rests on three pillars of diagnosis, prevention and treatment. For most of past 50 years in India, the diagnostic pillar has been the least well-supported. Until well into present century, diagnosis of STI in India was clinical. Treatment of STIs in India followed the methods used in England. Of course in the 19th century, in many parts of the world, only a few had access to modern methods of treatment; in India, there was extensive use of Ayurvedic treatment with traditional medicines. This article thus gives just an overview and evolution of venereology in India with regard to venereal diseases (now more often known as STIs/disease), control measures, academic, association and journal development and finally future perspective. PMID:21965840

  3. Critical care in India.

    PubMed

    Udwadia, F E; Guntupalli, K K; Vidyasagar, D

    1997-04-01

    India is a vast democracy of nearly one billion people. Before the British rule ended in 1947, the life span of an Indian was a mere 21 years. Within a short span of 50 years, it increased to an impressive 63 years, largely due to public health measures initiated by the government. This created a pool of more than 300 million middle class Indians who could afford the benefits of modern and specialized care when needed. Critical care medicine, as practiced in the West, is still confined to large Metropolitan areas. A large pool of expatriate Indian physicians from all over the world are helping bridge the resource gap between the West and India by transfer of technology and providing appropriate training to physicians and paramedical personnel. This article describes the history and current status of development of critical care medicine in India. PMID:9107510

  4. The paleoposition of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Hotton, Nicholas

    In most of the plate tectonic models of paleocontinental assembly, the supercontinent Pangea has been disassociated into independent Laurasia and Gondwana, separated by a vast oceanic Tethys. The position of India remains problematical, but geological and geophysical data support a Pangea reconstruction. Traditionally India has always been regarded as a part of Gondwana as it shares two unique geologic features with other southern continents. These are the Upper Paleozoic glacial strata and the Glossopteris flora. However, neither line of evidence definitely proves continuity of land; together they indicate zonation of cold climates. The recent discovery of Upper Paleozoic glacial strata in the U.S.S.R., southern Tibet, Saudi Arabia, Oman, China, Malaya, Thailand, and Burma demonstrates that the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation was far more extensive beyond the Gondwana limit than is usually thought. Similarly the Glossopteris flora has been found farther north of the Indian Peninsula, in the Himalaya, Kashmir and Tibet. Moreover the floral similarities are explained easily by wind and insect dispersal. On the other hand, the distribution of large terrestrial tetrapods is strongly influenced by the distribution of continents. To terrestrial tetrapods, sea constitutes a barrier. In consequence, they are more reliable indicators of past land connections than are plants, invertebrates and fishes. The postulated separation of India from Antarctica, its northward journey, and its subsequent union with Asia, as suggested by the plate tectonic models, require that during some part of the Mesozoic or Early Tertiary India must have been an island continent. The lack of endemism in the Indian terrestrial tetrapods during this period is clearly inconsistent with the island continent hypothesis. On the contrary, Indian Mesozoic and Tertiary vertebrates show closest similarities to those of Laurasia, indicating that India was never far from Asia. The correlation of faunal

  5. Biosimilars in India.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Anurag S

    2015-09-01

    Biosimilars have been defined as biotech drugs that have been shown to have comparable quality, safety and efficacy to the original product. The past decade has seen a significant increase in interest in these products from the biotech industry. Major developments have occurred with respect to establishing a regulatory path for approval of these products as well as in our understanding of how the different quality attributes of a biosimilar impact its safety and efficacy. India is globally regarded to have great potential to become a significant player in development and commercialization of biosimilars. This short communication aims to provide a brief discussion on where India is with respect to development and commercialization of biosimilars, major challenges it faces, and finally the significant role that proteomics can play in establishing analytical comparability of biosimilars.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India.

  6. India Through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Teaching India. Part I: India Through the Ancient Classics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald; Johnson, Jean

    The past and the present interweave in contemporary India. To understand India, one must know of the traditional stories. Two short pocket books make them accessible and acceptable to students: 1) The Dance of Shiva and Other Tales from India by Oroon Ghosh, published by the New American Library in New York; and, 2) Gods, Demons, and Others by R.…

  7. Urology in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sakti

    2007-01-01

    The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

  8. PV opportunities in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Jack L.; Ullal, Harin S.

    1996-01-01

    The growing middle class in India, coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing. The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today's opportunities timely indeed.

  9. Ethno- medico - botanical studies of Badaga population In the Nilgiri district of Tamilnadu, South India

    PubMed Central

    Manikandan, P. N. Arul

    2008-01-01

    The study grains to explore ethno-medicobotany of Badaga population in the Nilgiri hills of Tamilnadu, South India. Ethno botanical field survey and personal discussion methods have been adopted in the collection of data. A list of 71 flowering plants belonging to 42 families, 67 genera and 70 species are employed by the Badaga popu-lation in their native system of medicine for therapeutic purposes. In reviewing ethnomedical information, data on folk herbal remedies and their various methods of applications for treating a wide range of ailments have been furnished. A brief description of plants, their habitat, family and local Badaga names are outlined here. PMID:22557279

  10. On the covering of a Hill's region by solutions in the restricted three-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Valery; Polekhin, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    We consider two classical celestial-mechanical systems: the planar restricted circular three-body problem and its simplification, the Hill's problem. Numerical and analytical analyses of the covering of a Hill's region by solutions starting with zero velocity at its boundary are presented. We show that, in all considered cases, there always exists an area inside a Hill's region that is uncovered by the solutions.

  11. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT AND OUTLINE. T.H. 2.5 PUMPING PLANT. TEXAS HILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL ARRANGEMENT AND OUTLINE. T.H. 2.5 PUMPING PLANT. TEXAS HILL CANAL - STA. 132+00. TEXAS HILL CANAL AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-3187, dated January 10, 1955, Denver, Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Relift Station, Texas Hill Canal 2.5, Northern Terminus of Avenue 51 East, approximately .5 mile south of Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  12. LOCATION PLAN. T.H. 2.5 PUMPING PLANT. TEXAS HILL CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOCATION PLAN. T.H. 2.5 PUMPING PLANT. TEXAS HILL CANAL - STA. 132+00. TEXAS HILL CANAL AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-3186, dated January 25, 1955, Denver, Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Relift Station, Texas Hill Canal 2.5, Northern Terminus of Avenue 51 East, approximately .5 mile south of Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  13. India's Cities in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryjak, George J.

    1984-01-01

    Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)

  14. Can India's "Literate" Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method…

  15. Planting Trees in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, James M.

    Reforestation is desperately needed in India. Three-fourths of the country's ground surface is experiencing desertification, and primitive forests are being destroyed. Reforestation would help moderate temperatures, increase ground water levels, improve soil fertility, and alleviate a wood shortage. In the past, people from the United States, such…

  16. Women's Work in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devi, D. Radha; Ravindran, M.

    1983-01-01

    The proportion of women in paid employment in India is very low, and working women tend to be concentrated in low-wage, low-status, unskilled jobs, especially in agriculture. Even for the few women working in the modern sector, discrimination is pervasive, and change seems unlikely to occur soon. (IS)

  17. Vocationalising Education in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacheti, A. K.; Ray, S.

    Since India gained its independence in 1947, three important commissions have examined the issue of educational reform. The first (in 1948) recommended a vocational emphasis in the intermediate (predegree) courses without sacrificing emphasis on preparation for university education. In 1954, the Secondary Education Commission resulted in the…

  18. Medical biotechnology in India.

    PubMed

    Lohray, Braj B

    2003-01-01

    The potential of biotechnology has just began to emerge in the 20th century. After the full knowledge of human genomes is available, biotechnology is going to play a major role in shaping the concept of future drug discovery, drug delivery, diagnostic methodology, clinical trials, and to a great extent the major lifestyle of the human society. This article is a comprehensive review of the major impact of biotechnology in diagnostics, antibiotics, r-proteins, vaccines, and antibodies production. It also highlights the future aspects of gene therapy in the management of healthcare. A comprehensive list of biotech products in healthcare management has been given. Also, the growth of biotechnology throughout the world at large and in the Indian industries in particular has been highlighted. Constraints, concerns and difficulties in biotechnology in India have been addressed mainly related to human resources, training institutions in India, funding in biotechnology, patent-related issues and regulatory hurdles. Like in information technology, India has great potential in bioinformatics as well. Some of the recent information on bioinformatics centers in India has been summarized. Indian biotechnology industries have the potential to use the modern discoveries in life sciences to reach an enviable position in the world of biotechnology.

  19. Marius Hills: Surface Roughness from LROC and Mini-RF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, S.; Hawke, B. R.; Bussey, B.; Stopar, J. D.; Denevi, B.; Robinson, M.; Tran, T.

    2010-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Team is collecting hundreds of high-resolution (0.5 m/pixel) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images of lunar volcanic constructs (domes, “cones”, and associated features) [1,2]. Marius Hills represents the largest concentration of volcanic features on the Moon and is a high-priority target for future exploration [3,4]. NAC images of this region provide new insights into the morphology and geology of specific features at the meter scale, including lava flow fronts, tectonic features, layers, and topography (using LROC stereo imagery) [2]. Here, we report initial results from Mini-RF and LROC collaborative studies of the Marius Hills. Mini-RF uses a hybrid polarimetric architecture to measure surface backscatter characteristics and can acquire data in one of two radar bands, S (12 cm) or X (4 cm) [5]. The spatial resolution of Mini-RF (15 m/pixel) enables correlation of features observed in NAC images to Mini-RF data. Mini-RF S-Band zoom-mode data and daughter products, such as circular polarization ratio (CPR), were directly compared to NAC images. Mini-RF S-Band radar images reveal enhanced radar backscatter associated with volcanic constructs in the Marius Hills region. Mini-RF data show that Marius Hills volcanic constructs have enhanced average CPR values (0.5-0.7) compared to the CPR values of the surrounding mare (~0.4). This result is consistent with the conclusions of [6], and implies that the lava flows comprising the domes in this region are blocky. To quantify the surface roughness [e.g., 6,7] block populations associated with specific geologic features in the Marius Hills region are being digitized from NAC images. Only blocks that can be unambiguously identified (>1 m diameter) are included in the digitization process, producing counts and size estimates of the block population. High block abundances occur mainly at the distal ends of lava flows. The average size of these blocks is 9 m, and 50% of observed

  20. Hill stability of the satellites in coplanar four-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Shengping; Liu, Chao

    2016-10-01

    We consider a four-body system, where three bodies, constituting a subsystem, orbit around a larger body. This paper is devoted to study the Hill stability of the subsystem using a coplanar four-body problem. Starting from the equation of zero-velocity surface for the general coplanar four-body problem, we derive two criteria of Hill stability, one of which is similar to the criterion of Hill stability in the three-body problem. These criteria are used to judge the Hill stability of the Sun-Jupiter-Ganymede-Callisto system.

  1. Glacial History of the Pirrit Hills, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spector, P. E.; Stone, J. O.

    2014-12-01

    We present new ice-thickness constraints from the Pirrit Hills, a small, far-flung group of nunataks located in the Weddell Sector. At the Pirrit Hills, fresh glacial erratics indicate ice levels ~350-450 m above present during the last ice age. The highest erratics have preliminary 10Be exposure ages of ~16 ka, and the ages generally decrease with decreasing elevation, recording the thinning of the ice in the region. Despite the evidence of thicker ice, weathered bedrock extends down to the present ice level, implying prolonged subaerial weathering prior to the last ice age. These features, and the lack of evidence for wet-based glacial erosion, indicate cold-based and non-erosive ice cover. Over the elevation range in which we found glacial erratics, bedrock 10Be, 26Al, and 21Ne concentrations are consistent with modest ice cover, and have exposure ages ranging from ~0.3-1.5 Myr. Around 450 m above the present ice level, bedrock 10Be, 26Al, and 21Ne concentrations increase by a factor of ~4-5 and do not indicate past ice cover. This height coincides with a break in the otherwise steep slopes of the Pirrit Hills, and the bedrock above is more weathered than the bedrock below. This transition marks the height above which ice cover, if it has occurred in the past few million years, has been very rare, brief, and cold-based. This feature may relate to the trimline imprinted on ridges in the Ellsworth Mountains. In both cases, alpine landscapes have been preserved by a polar climate and glacial highstands rising only partway up the mountain flanks.

  2. Geology of Tompkins Hill gas field, Humboldt County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.

    1988-03-01

    The Tompkins Hill gas field, located in Humboldt County, California, is the only producing field in the Eel River basin. The field is an anticlinal flexure on the north limb of the Eel River syncline in the central onshore portion of the basin. The Tompkins Hill anticline is doubly plunging and trends east-west. Stratigraphic units present in the field include the Yager, Eel River, and Rio Dell Formations and Scotia Bluffs Sandstone. The Yager occurs below a major unconformity, and forms economic basement. Strata overlying the Eel River, Rio Dell, and Scotia Bluffs represent a progradational basin-fill sequence, including submarine fan, slope, shelf, and littoral deposits. The primary productive interval in the field is within the middle of the Rio Dell and consists of interbedded fine sandstone and mudrock. Portions of the Eel River and upper Rio Dell Formations are also productive. The Tompkins Hill gas field was discovered by the Texas Company in 1937 with the drilling of Eureka 2 in Sec. 22, T3N, R1W. The play was probably based on outcrop mapping and the presence of gas seeps in the area. The primary trapping mechanism in the field is structural, although stratigraphy may have been a factor in constraining gas. To date, 39 producing wells have been drilled and 87.4 bcf of gas, consisting of 98% methane, has been produced. Very minor amounts of condensate are also produced. The source rocks for the gas are uncertain, but both the Yager Formation and strata of the lower Wildcat Group may have contributed.

  3. Female feticide in India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  4. Chirality induced tilted-hill giant Nernst signal.

    PubMed

    Kotetes, P; Varelogiannis, G

    2010-03-12

    We reveal a novel source of a giant Nernst response exhibiting strong nonlinear temperature and magnetic field dependence, including the mysterious tilted-hill temperature profile observed in a pleiad of materials. The phenomenon results directly from the formation of a chiral ground state, e.g., a chiral d-density wave, which is compatible with the eventual observation of diamagnetism and is distinctly different from the usual quasiparticle and vortex Nernst mechanisms. Our picture provides a unified understanding of the anomalous thermoelectricity observed in materials as diverse as the hole-doped cuprates and heavy-fermion compounds like URu(2)Si(2). PMID:20366442

  5. Stream piracy in the Black Hills: A geomorphology lab exercise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaprowski, B.J.; Evenson, E.B.; Epstein, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    The Black Hills of South Dakota exhibits many fine examples of stream piracy that are very suitable for teaching geomorphology lab exercises. This lab goes beyond standard topographic map interpretation by using geologic maps, well logs, gravel provenance and other types of data to teach students about stream piracy. Using a step-by-step method in which the lab exercises ramp up in difficulty, students hone their skills in deductive reasoning and data assimilation. The first exercises deal with the identification of stream piracy at a variety of spatial scales and the lab culminates with an exercise on landscape evolution and drainage rearrangement.

  6. AmeriFlux US-LPH Little Prospect Hill

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Julian

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-LPH Little Prospect Hill. Site Description - The site was cleared for pasture, but not deeply plowed or planted, in the 18th and 19th centuries. Agriculture on the site was abandoned near the end of the 19th century. The forest within 200 to 300 m of the eddy covariance tower to the NW, W, SW, and S burned in an intense fire in 1957, which left few or no surviving trees.

  7. Possible Meteorites in the Martian Hills (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    From its winter outpost at 'Low Ridge' inside Gusev Crater, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this spectacular, color mosaic of hilly, sandy terrain and two potential iron meteorites. The two light-colored, smooth rocks about two-thirds of the way up from the bottom of the frame have been labeled 'Zhong Shan' and 'Allan Hills.'

    The two rocks' informal names are in keeping with the rover science team's campaign to nickname rocks and soils in the area after locations in Antarctica. Zhong Shang is an Antarctic base that the People's Republic of China opened on Feb. 26, 1989, at the Larsemann Hills in Prydz Bay in East Antarctica. Allan Hills is a location where researchers have found many Martian meteorites, including the controversial ALH84001, which achieved fame in 1996 when NASA scientists suggested that it might contain evidence for fossilized extraterrestrial life. Zhong Shan was the given name of Dr. Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925), known as the 'Father of Modern China.' Born to a peasant family in Guangdong, Sun moved to live with his brother in Honolulu at age 13 and later became a medical doctor. He led a series of uprisings against the Qing dynasty that began in 1894 and eventually succeeded in 1911. Sun served as the first provisional president when the Republic of China was founded in 1912.

    The Zhong Shan and Allan Hills rocks, at the left and right, respectively, have unusual morphologies and miniature thermal emission spectrometer signatures that resemble those of a rock known as 'Heat Shield' at the Meridiani site explored by Spirit's twin, Opportunity. Opportunity's analyses revealed Heat Shield to be an iron meteorite.

    Spirit acquired this false-color image on the rover's 872nd Martian day, or sol (June 16, 2006), using exposures taken through three of the panoramic camera's filters, centered on wavelengths of 750 nanometers, 530 nanometers, and 430 nanometers. The image is presented in false color to emphasize differences among

  8. Rosemary Hill Observatory lunar occultation summary for 1983-1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Glenn; Anderson, Chris

    1993-04-01

    The results from photometric observations of 21 previously unreported occultation disappearances obtained during the period from March 24, 1983 through March 12, 1984, with the University of Florida's Rosemary Hill Observatory 76-cm reflecting telescope are presented. Statistically significant determinations of stellar diameters are indicated for two stars: 32 Librae (12.2 mas) and BD + 22 deg 1032 (5.45 mas). Diameter measurements of marginal statistical significance are noted for two other stars (9 Cancri and 37 Capricorni). New duplicity determinations are reported for five stellar systems in this sample.

  9. Gas Analysis of Core Samples from Fenton Hill

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, A. William

    1983-07-15

    Among the suggested sources of the CO2 produced by the deep wells at Fenton Hill are secondary fluid inclusions produced during formation of the magma chamber related to the Valles event. If this hypothesis were correct, the number of fluid inclusions and the amount of CO2 in them should increase with depth in the well bore, particularly since EE-2 was deviated toward the caldera. Twenty core samples and two surface gneiss samples from Guadalupe Box were decrepitated to open these inclusions and the gases analyzed by mass spectrometry by MIDECO of Salt Lake City.

  10. Early cercopithecid monkeys from the Tugen Hills, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Rossie, James B.; Gilbert, Christopher C.; Hill, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The modern Old World Monkeys (Superfamily Cercopithecoidea, Family Cercopithecidae) can be traced back into the late Miocene, but their origin and subsequent diversification is obscured by the scarcity of terrestrial fossil sites in Africa between 15 and 6 Ma. Here, we document the presence of cercopithecids at 12.5 Ma in the Tugen Hills of Kenya. These fossils add 3 My to the known antiquity of crown Cercopithecidae. The two specimens represent one or possibly two species of early colobine, and their morphology suggests that they were less folivorous than their modern relatives. PMID:23509250

  11. Soils of wet valleys in the Larsemann Hills and Vestfold Hills oases (Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergelov, N. S.

    2014-09-01

    The properties and spatial distribution of soils and soil-like bodies in valleys of the coastal Larsemann Hills and Vestfold Hills oases—poorly investigated in terms of the soil areas of East Antarctica—are discussed. In contrast to Dry Valleys—large continental oases of Western Antarctica—the studied territory is characterized by the presence of temporarily waterlogged sites in the valleys. It is argued that the deficit of water rather than the low temperature is the major limiting factor for the development of living organisms and the pedogenesis on loose substrates. The moisture gradients in the surface soil horizons explain the spatial distribution of the different soils and biotic complexes within the studied valleys. Despite the permanent water-logging of the deep suprapermafrost horizons of most of the soils in the valleys, no gley features have been identified in them. The soils of the wet valleys in the Larsemann Hills oasis do not contain carbonates. They have a slightly acid or neutral reaction. The organic carbon and nitrogen contents are mainly controlled by the amount of living and dead biomass rather than by the humic substances proper. The larger part of the biomass is concentrated inside the mineral soil matrix rather than on the soil surface. The stresses caused by surface drying, strong winds, and ultraviolet radiation prevent the development of organisms on the surface of the soil and necessitate the search for shelter within the soil fine earth material (endoedaphic niche) or under the gravelly pavement (hypolithic niche). In the absence of higher plants, humified products of their decomposition, and rainwater that can wash the soil profile and upon the low content of silt and clay particles in the soil material, "classical" soil horizons are not developed. The most distinct (and, often, the only diagnosed) products of pedogenesis in these soils are represented by organomineral films on the surface of mineral particles.

  12. Polymorphic Alu Insertion/Deletion in Different Caste and Tribal Populations from South India

    PubMed Central

    Chinniah, Rathika; Vijayan, Murali; Thirunavukkarasu, Manikandan; Mani, Dhivakar; Raju, Kamaraj; Ravi, Padma Malini; Sivanadham, Ramgopal; C, Kandeepan; N, Mahalakshmi; Karuppiah, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Seven human-specific Alu markers were studied in 574 unrelated individuals from 10 endogamous groups and 2 hill tribes of Tamil Nadu and Kerala states. DNA was isolated, amplified by PCR-SSP, and subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis, and genotypes were assigned for various Alu loci. Average heterozygosity among caste populations was in the range of 0.292–0.468. Among tribes, the average heterozygosity was higher for Paliyan (0.3759) than for Kani (0.2915). Frequency differences were prominent in all loci studied except Alu CD4. For Alu CD4, the frequency was 0.0363 in Yadavas, a traditional pastoral and herd maintaining population, and 0.2439 in Narikuravars, a nomadic gypsy population. The overall genetic difference (Gst) of 12 populations (castes and tribes) studied was 3.6%, which corresponds to the Gst values of 3.6% recorded earlier for Western Asian populations. Thus, our study confirms the genetic similarities between West Asian populations and South Indian castes and tribes and supported the large scale coastal migrations from Africa into India through West Asia. However, the average genetic difference (Gst) of Kani and Paliyan tribes with other South Indian tribes studied earlier was 8.3%. The average Gst of combined South and North Indian Tribes (CSNIT) was 9.5%. Neighbor joining tree constructed showed close proximity of Kani and Paliyan tribal groups to the other two South Indian tribes, Toda and Irula of Nilgiri hills studied earlier. Further, the analysis revealed the affinities among populations and confirmed the presence of North and South India specific lineages. Our findings have documented the highly diverse (micro differentiated) nature of South Indian tribes, predominantly due to isolation, than the endogamous population groups of South India. Thus, our study firmly established the genetic relationship of South Indian castes and tribes and supported the proposed large scale ancestral migrations from Africa, particularly into South India

  13. Impact craters as biospheric microenvironments, Lawn Hill Structure, Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, John; Brasier, Martin

    2006-04-01

    Impact craters on Mars act as traps for eolian sediment and in the past may have provided suitable microenvironments that could have supported and preserved a stressed biosphere. If this is so, terrestrial impact structures such as the 18-km-diameter Lawn Hill Structure, in northern Australia, may prove useful as martian analogs. We sampled outcrop and drill core from the carbonate fill of the Lawn Hill Structure and recorded its gamma-log signature. Facies data along with whole rock geochemistry and stable isotope signatures show that the crater fill is an outlier of the Georgina Basin and was formed by impact at, or shortly before, approximately 509-506 million years ago. Subsequently, it was rapidly engulfed by the Middle Cambrian marine transgression, which filled it with shallow marine carbonates and evaporites. The crater formed a protected but restricted microenvironment in which sediments four times the thickness of the nearby basinal succession accumulated. Similar structures, common on the martian surface, may well have acted as biospheric refuges as the planet's water resources declined. Low-pH aqueous environments on Earth similar to those on Mars, while extreme, support diverse ecologies. The architecture of the eolian crater fill would have been defined by long-term ground water cycles resulting from intermittent precipitation in an extremely arid climate. Nutrient recycling, critical to a closed lacustrine sub-ice biosphere, could be provided by eolian transport onto the frozen water surface.

  14. Woods and Russell, Hill, and the emergence of medical statistics

    PubMed Central

    Farewell, Vern; Johnson, Tony

    2010-01-01

    In 1937, Austin Bradford Hill wrote Principles of Medical Statistics (Lancet: London, 1937) that became renowned throughout the world and is widely associated with the birth of modern medical statistics. Some 6 years earlier Hilda Mary Woods and William Thomas Russell, colleagues of Hill at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, wrote a similar book An Introduction to Medical Statistics (PS King and Son: London, 1931) that is little known today. We trace the origins of these two books from the foundations of early demography and vital statistics, and make a detailed examination of some of their chapters. It is clear that these texts mark a watershed in the history of medical statistics that demarcates the vital statistics of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries from the modern discipline. Moreover, we consider that the book by Woods and Russell is of some importance in the development of medical statistics and we describe and acknowledge their place in the history of this discipline. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:20535761

  15. Observations and Modelling of Convective Rolls Over Low Hills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, W.; Parker, D. J.; Kilburn, C. A. D.

    Radar and satellite images provide observations of convective rolls and other struc- tures in the convective boundary layer (CBL), but numerical modelling is a neces- sary complement to the observations, to investigate the temporal and spatial evolu- tion of convective rolls. Numerical simulations have been performed to investigate observed convective rolls over the south of England, using BLASIUS, a relatively simple boundary layer code for flow over topography. The principal features of the convective structures can be successfully reproduced by the model, notably the roll orientation and spacing and the basic features of the cloud field. These features are in good agreement for two case studies, one with distinct rolls and the other with more dispersed convective structures and a time-dependent basic state. The presence of low topography (with maximum height of order 30% of the CBL depth) does not significantly change the orientation and spacing, nor the time of initial occurrence of modelled rolls, but local flow anomalies can be related to the hills. These anomalies are related to coherent patterns in the diagnosed cloud fields, with a tendency for more cloud cover upstream and over hills, and cloud clearing in the lee as a result of descent suppressing convective eddies. This kind of control of the shallow convection by the topography is evident in the satellite imagery.

  16. Observations of Enhanced Radar Backscatter (ERB) from Millstone Hill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.

    1991-01-01

    Intense enhancements of the incoherent radar backscatter spectrum from the topside ionosphere were observed with the Millstone Hill UHF radar. Enhancements occurring at the local ion acoustic frequency causing large asymmetries in the measured ion line may be produced by current driven instabilities. These enhancements pose a practical problem for space surveillance systems because their cross section and spectral width are characteristic of satellites. Conversely, their hard target signature complicates the study of naturally occurring ERB events; it is nearly impossible to distinguish them from satellites based on a single measurement. Statistical comparisons of observed coherent echo distributions with predictions from a satellite catalog were used to broadly identify periods of ERB activity. A series of experiments using multiple diagnostics, including satellite instruments, for simultaneous observations have established the association of ERB with large fluxes of soft suprathermal electrons carrying field aligned currents. Zenith data are also presented which show the asymmetric growth of ion acoustic waves directly above Millstone Hill. Details of these results are presented.

  17. Alkaline volcanic rocks from the Columbia Hills, Gusev crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, H. Y.; Ruff, S. W.; Morris, R. V.; Bell, J. F.; Herkenhoff, K.; Gellert, R.; Stockstill, K. R.; Tornabene, L. L.; Squyres, S. W.; Crisp, J. A.; Christensen, P. R.; McCoy, T. J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Schmidt, M.

    2006-09-01

    Irvine, Backstay, and Wishstone are the type specimens for three classes of fine-grained or fragmental, relatively unaltered rocks with distinctive thermal emission spectra, found as float on the flanks of the Columbia Hills. Chemical analyses indicate that these rocks are mildly alkaline basalt, trachybasalt, and tephrite, respectively. Their mineralogy consists of Na- and K-rich feldspar(s), low- and high-Ca pyroxenes, ferroan olivine, Fe-Ti (and possibly Cr) oxides, phosphate, and possibly glass. The texture of Wishstone is consistent with a pyroclastic origin, whereas Irvine and Backstay are lavas or possibly dike rocks. Chemical compositions of these rocks plot on or near liquid lines of descent for most elements calculated for Adirondack class rocks (olivine-rich basalts from the Gusev plains) at various pressures from 0.1 to 1.0 GPa. We infer that Wishstone-, Backstay-, and Irvine-class magmas may have formed by fractionation of primitive, oxidized basaltic magma similar to Adirondack-class rocks. The compositions of all these rocks reveal that the Gusev magmatic province is alkaline, distinct from the subalkaline volcanic rocks thought to dominate most of the planet's surface. The fact that differentiated volcanic rocks were not encountered on the plains prior to ascending Husband Hill may suggest a local magma source for volcanism beneath Gusev crater.

  18. Sand-Strewn Summit of 'Husband Hill' on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Undulating bands of dark and light sand, sloping dunes, and scattered cobbles form an apron around a ridge of light-colored rock that stands in bold relief against distant plains, as viewed by NASA's 'Spirit' rover from the top of 'Husband Hill' on Mars. 'The view of the summit is spectacular where we are right now,' said geologist Larry Crumpler, with the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque.

    From here, Spirit is looking north-northeast en route to examining more of the local geology of the 'Columbia Hills' in Gusev Crater. A few days after taking this picture, Spirit investigated the small, sinuous drifts on the left, located north-northeast of the rover's position in this image. The last previous time Spirit examined a drift was on the rim of 'Bonneville Crater' almost 500 martian days, or sols, ago, in March 2004.

    The largest light-colored rock in the foreground is nicknamed 'Whittaker.' The cliff beyond it and slightly to the left is nicknamed 'Tenzing.' The highest rock on the ridge ahead has been dubbed 'Hillary.' Science team members selected the nicknames in honor of the earliest climbers to scale Mount Everest on Earth. This view covers approximately 50 degrees of the compass from left to right. It is a mosaic assembled from frames Spirit took with the panoramic camera on sol 603 (Sept. 13, 2005). It was taken through a blue (430-nanometer) filter and is presented as a cylindrical projection.

  19. Alkaline volcanic rocks from the Columbia Hills, Gusev crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSween, H.Y.; Ruff, S.W.; Morris, R.V.; Bell, J.F.; Herkenhoff, K.; Gellert, Ralf; Stockstill, K.R.; Tornabene, L.L.; Squyres, S. W.; Crisp, J.A.; Christensen, P.R.; McCoy, T.J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Schmidt, M.

    2006-01-01

    Irvine, Backstay, and Wishstone are the type specimens for three classes of fine-grained or fragmental, relatively unaltered rocks with distinctive thermal emission spectra, found as float on the flanks of the Columbia Hills. Chemical analyses indicate that these rocks are mildly alkaline basalt, trachybasalt, and tephrite, respectively. Their mineralogy consists of Na- and K-rich feldspar(s), low- and high-Ca pyroxenes, ferroan olivine, Fe-Ti (and possibly Cr) oxides, phosphate, and possibly glass. The texture of Wishstone is consistent with a pyroclastic origin, whereas Irvine and Backstay are lavas or possibly dike rocks. Chemical compositions of these rocks plot on or near liquid lines of descent for most elements calculated for Adirondack class rocks (olivine-rich basalts from the Gusev plains) at various pressures from 0.1 to 1.0 GPa. We infer that Wishstone-, Backstay-, and Irvine-class magmas may have formed by fractionation of primitive, oxidized basaltic magma similar to Adirondack-class rocks. The compositions of all these rocks reveal that the Gusev magmatic province is alkaline, distinct from the subalkaline volcanic rocks thought to dominate most of the planet's surface. The fact that differentiated volcanic rocks were not encountered on the plains prior to ascending Husband Hill may suggest a local magma source for volcanism beneath Gusev crater. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Impact Craters as Biospheric Microenvironments, Lawn Hill Structure, Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, John; Brasier, Martin

    2006-04-01

    Impact craters on Mars act as traps for eolian sediment and in the past may have provided suitable microenvironments that could have supported and preserved a stressed biosphere. If this is so, terrestrial impact structures such as the 18-km-diameter Lawn Hill Structure, in northern Australia, may prove useful as martian analogs. We sampled outcrop and drill core from the carbonate fill of the Lawn Hill Structure and recorded its gamma-log signature. Facies data along with whole rock geochemistry and stable isotope signatures show that the crater fill is an outlier of the Georgina Basin and was formed by impact at, or shortly before, approximately 509-506 million years ago. Subsequently, it was rapidly engulfed by the Middle Cambrian marine transgression, which filled it with shallow marine carbonates and evaporites. The crater formed a protected but restricted microenvironment in which sediments four times the thickness of the nearby basinal succession accumulated. Similar structures, common on the martian surface, may well have acted as biospheric refuges as the planet's water resources declined. Low-pH aqueous environments on Earth similar to those on Mars, while extreme, support diverse ecologies. The architecture of the eolian crater fill would have been defined by long-term ground water cycles resulting from intermittent precipitation in an extremely arid climate. Nutrient recycling, critical to a closed lacustrine sub-ice biosphere, could be provided by eolian transport onto the frozen water surface.

  1. Simulation of depth-integrated flow over a hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramenko, Anna; Agafonova, Oxana; Sorvari, Joonas; Haario, Heikki

    2016-06-01

    This paper details work conducted using the commercial CFD software package ANSYS Fluent to investigate the depth-integrated flow over a hill. The calculation of wake development is really important for the design of the layout and the operation of a wind farm. Simulating a wind farm with more than one fully detailed wind turbines and possibly complex terrain geometry requires significant computational power and time. For this reason the depth-integrated flow equations derived by integrating the original 3D flow equations over the depth are presented. The complex 3D geometry need not be modelled or discretized in the pre-processing state: instead, the geometry of the terrain is only described with source terms in the depth-integrated equations, which are then solved in a very simple and fixed 2D domain. This approach reduces the equations from 3D to 2D and decreases the elapsed time of CFD simulations from hours to minutes. Thus, it is very practicable modelling method in real time optimization work. 2D CFD simulations of flow over a hill with depth-integrated governing equations are compared with full 3D models. The depth-integrated model will be used in future to find the optimal position of wind turbines in the wind park.

  2. Impact craters as biospheric microenvironments, Lawn Hill Structure, Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, John; Brasier, Martin

    2006-04-01

    Impact craters on Mars act as traps for eolian sediment and in the past may have provided suitable microenvironments that could have supported and preserved a stressed biosphere. If this is so, terrestrial impact structures such as the 18-km-diameter Lawn Hill Structure, in northern Australia, may prove useful as martian analogs. We sampled outcrop and drill core from the carbonate fill of the Lawn Hill Structure and recorded its gamma-log signature. Facies data along with whole rock geochemistry and stable isotope signatures show that the crater fill is an outlier of the Georgina Basin and was formed by impact at, or shortly before, approximately 509-506 million years ago. Subsequently, it was rapidly engulfed by the Middle Cambrian marine transgression, which filled it with shallow marine carbonates and evaporites. The crater formed a protected but restricted microenvironment in which sediments four times the thickness of the nearby basinal succession accumulated. Similar structures, common on the martian surface, may well have acted as biospheric refuges as the planet's water resources declined. Low-pH aqueous environments on Earth similar to those on Mars, while extreme, support diverse ecologies. The architecture of the eolian crater fill would have been defined by long-term ground water cycles resulting from intermittent precipitation in an extremely arid climate. Nutrient recycling, critical to a closed lacustrine sub-ice biosphere, could be provided by eolian transport onto the frozen water surface. PMID:16689651

  3. Epilepsy surgery in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, V P

    2011-10-01

    Modern epilepsy started in India in 1995 at Sri Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Science and Technology, Trivandrum and at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. At both centres the attempt was to get the program going with patients having surgically remediable epilepsy syndromes -who could be evaluated with non invasive investigations. The mainstay of the evaluation was a good quality epilepsy specific MRI and video EEG coupled with a SPECT study and a neuropsychological evaluation. Concordance of the focus on all investigations was critical to a good outcome. There were several problems on the way - but they were managed keeping in consideration our local needs and requirements. Intraoperative electocorticography was done and good outcomes attained. The critical determinants of success were the formation of a team with various interdisciplinary specialists and a strong will to succeed. PMID:22069424

  4. Severe Flooding in India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

  5. Mass spectrometry in India.

    PubMed

    Vairamani, M; Prabhakar, S

    2012-01-01

    This review emphasizes the mass spectrometry research being performed at academic and established research institutions in India. It consists of three main parts covering the work done in organic, atomic and biological mass spectrometry. The review reveals that the use of mass spectrometry techniques started in the middle of the 20th century and was applied to research in the fields of organic, nuclear, geographical and atomic chemistry. Later, with the advent of soft and atmospheric ionization techniques it has been applied to pharmaceutical and biological research. In due course, several research centers with advanced mass spectrometry facilities have been established for specific areas of research such as gas-phase ion chemistry, ion-molecule reactions, proscribed chemicals, pesticide residues, pharmacokinetics, protein/peptide chemistry, nuclear chemistry, geochronological studies, archeology, petroleum industry, proteomics, lipidomics and metabolomics. Day-by-day the mass spectrometry centers/facilities in India have attracted young students for their doctoral research and other advanced research applications.

  6. Precipitation Across India's Ghats Mountains (IMERG)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of precipitation rates across India and surrounding countries. Notice the heavy rains throughout the Ghats Mountain range which resulted in devastating landslides along India's west coast...

  7. Nano-mineralogical investigation of coal and fly ashes from coal-based captive power plant (India): an introduction of occupational health hazards.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcos L S; Marostega, Fabiane; Taffarel, Silvio R; Saikia, Binoy K; Waanders, Frans B; DaBoit, Kátia; Baruah, Bimala P; Silva, Luis F O

    2014-01-15

    Coal derived nano-particles has been received much concern recently around the world for their adverse effects on human health and the environment during their utilization. In this investigation the mineral matter present in some industrially important Indian coals and their ash samples are addressed. Coal and fly ash samples from the coal-based captive power plant in Meghalaya (India) were collected for different characterization and nano-mineralogy studies. An integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/(Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) EDS/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM)/EDS analysis, and Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to know their extent of risks to the human health when present in coal and fly ash. The study has revealed that the coals contain mainly clay minerals, whilst glass fragments, spinel, quartz, and other minerals in lesser quantities were found to be present in the coal fly ash. Fly ash carbons were present as chars. Indian coal fly ash also found to contain nanominerals and ultrafine particles. The coal-fired power plants are observed to be the largest anthropogenic source of Hg emitted to the atmosphere and expected to increase its production in near future years. The Multi Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes (MWCNTs) are detected in our fly ashes, which contains residual carbonaceous matter responsible for the Hg capture/encapsulation. This detailed investigation on the inter-relationship between the minerals present in the samples and their ash components will also be useful for fulfilling the clean coal technology principles.

  8. "Getting the water-carrier to light the lamps": Discrepant role perceptions of traditional, complementary, and alternative medical practitioners in government health facilities in India.

    PubMed

    Josyula, K Lakshmi; Sheikh, Kabir; Nambiar, Devaki; Narayan, Venkatesh V; Sathyanarayana, T N; Porter, John D H

    2016-10-01

    The government of India has, over the past decade, implemented the "integration" of traditional, complementary and alternative medical (TCAM) practitioners, specifically practitioners of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, Sowa-rigpa, and Homoeopathy (collectively known by the acronym AYUSH), in government health services. A range of operational and ethical challenges has manifested during this process of large health system reform. We explored the practices and perceptions of health system actors, in relation to AYUSH providers' roles in government health services in three Indian states - Kerala, Meghalaya, and Delhi. Research methods included 196 in-depth interviews with a range of health policy and system actors and beneficiaries, between February and October 2012, and review of national, state, and district-level policy documents relating to AYUSH integration. The thematic 'framework' approach was applied to analyze data from the interviews, and systematic content analysis performed on policy documents. We found that the roles of AYUSH providers are frequently ambiguously stated and variably interpreted, in relation to various aspects of their practice, such as outpatient care, prescribing rights, emergency duties, obstetric services, night duties, and referrals across systems of medicine. Work sharing is variously interpreted by different health system actors as complementing allopathic practice with AYUSH practice, or allopathic practice, by AYUSH providers to supplement the work of allopathic practitioners. Interactions among AYUSH practitioners and their health system colleagues frequently take place in a context of partial information, preconceived notions, power imbalances, and mistrust. In some notable instances, collegial relationships and apt divisions of responsibilities are observed. Widespread normative ambivalence around the roles of AYUSH providers, complicated by the logistical constraints prevalent in poorly resourced systems, has the

  9. "Getting the water-carrier to light the lamps": Discrepant role perceptions of traditional, complementary, and alternative medical practitioners in government health facilities in India.

    PubMed

    Josyula, K Lakshmi; Sheikh, Kabir; Nambiar, Devaki; Narayan, Venkatesh V; Sathyanarayana, T N; Porter, John D H

    2016-10-01

    The government of India has, over the past decade, implemented the "integration" of traditional, complementary and alternative medical (TCAM) practitioners, specifically practitioners of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, Sowa-rigpa, and Homoeopathy (collectively known by the acronym AYUSH), in government health services. A range of operational and ethical challenges has manifested during this process of large health system reform. We explored the practices and perceptions of health system actors, in relation to AYUSH providers' roles in government health services in three Indian states - Kerala, Meghalaya, and Delhi. Research methods included 196 in-depth interviews with a range of health policy and system actors and beneficiaries, between February and October 2012, and review of national, state, and district-level policy documents relating to AYUSH integration. The thematic 'framework' approach was applied to analyze data from the interviews, and systematic content analysis performed on policy documents. We found that the roles of AYUSH providers are frequently ambiguously stated and variably interpreted, in relation to various aspects of their practice, such as outpatient care, prescribing rights, emergency duties, obstetric services, night duties, and referrals across systems of medicine. Work sharing is variously interpreted by different health system actors as complementing allopathic practice with AYUSH practice, or allopathic practice, by AYUSH providers to supplement the work of allopathic practitioners. Interactions among AYUSH practitioners and their health system colleagues frequently take place in a context of partial information, preconceived notions, power imbalances, and mistrust. In some notable instances, collegial relationships and apt divisions of responsibilities are observed. Widespread normative ambivalence around the roles of AYUSH providers, complicated by the logistical constraints prevalent in poorly resourced systems, has the

  10. 76 FR 6457 - Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filings January 31, 2011. Take notice that on January 28, 2011, Hill-Lake submitted a revised baseline filing of their...

  11. 76 FR 7186 - Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filings February 2, 2011. Take notice that on February 1, 2011, Hill-Lake submitted a revised baseline filing of their...

  12. Five New Records of Terrestrial and Lithophytic Orchids (Orchidaceae) from Penang Hill, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Yeu, Nga Shi; Nordin, Farah Alia; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman

    2016-01-01

    Five new records of terrestrial and lithophytic orchid species were gathered from Penang Hill, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia namely Bulbophyllum depressum, Goodyera pusilla, Peristylus monticola, Podochilus microphyllus, and Zeuxine gracilis. Checklist of each species is provided and their distribution in Penang Hill is discussed. PMID:27688854

  13. 77 FR 9889 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board Public Meeting Dates Announced

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board Public Meeting Dates Announced AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board (NFAB... meeting, limited to three (3) minutes per person for oral comments. Meeting dates are the third...

  14. AmeriFlux US-SdH Nebraska SandHills Dry Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Arkebauer, Tim J.; Billesbach, Dave

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SdH Nebraska SandHills Dry Valley. Site Description - The Nebraska SandHills Dry Valley tower is located on public land owned by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The site is on a research cattle ranch where grazing primarily takes place.

  15. Drawing entitled "Planting Plan Pine Hills, Gd. Sta. U.S. Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Drawing entitled "Planting Plan Pine Hills, Gd. Sta. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Region 5. L. Glenn Hall, landscape engineer. 11-5-35. - Pine Hills Station, Barracks, West Side of Boulder Creek Road at Engineers Road, Julian, San Diego County, CA

  16. Evidence for late tertiary volcanic activity in the northern black hills, South dakota.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, J G

    1977-05-27

    Rhyolitic volcanic rock in the northern Black Hills has a potassium-argon isotopic age of 10.5 +/- 1.5 million years. This is considerably younger than any previously reported igneous activity in this or adjacent areas and indicates that the renewed uplift of the Black Hills, which occurred after the Oligocene epoch, was also accompanied by some volcanism. PMID:17778711

  17. Rare Plants and Animals of the Texas Hill Country: Educator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    Texas Hill Country is a land of fresh water springs, stony hills, and steep canyons and home to many rare plants and animals. Six activities for grades 3-5 and six activities for grades 6-12 are contained in this guide. Elementary activity highlights include using "The Lorax" by Dr. Seuss to stimulate critical thinking about environmental problems…

  18. 75 FR 20774 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Fort A.P. Hill, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... final rule with a request for comments in the Federal Register on December 7, 2009 (74 FR 63974), Docket... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Fort A.P. Hill, VA... Register December 7, 2009 that establishes Class E airspace at Fort A.P. Hill, VA. DATES: Effective...

  19. Case Study on Education Opportunities for Hill Tribes in Northern Thailand: Implications for Sustainable Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujioka, Rika

    This research analyzes the impact of the Thai government's activities to promote educational opportunities for people of the northern hill tribes. In addition to interviews with government and nongovernmental organization staff, field surveys were conducted in hill tribe villages. The introductory chapter provides background information on the…

  20. 78 FR 6783 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Flint Hills Resources...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... Hills Resources Pine Bend AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... State Implementation Plan for Flint Hills Resources Pine Bend, LLC, in Dakota County. This oil refinery... direct final rule without prior proposal because the Agency views this as a noncontroversial...

  1. 76 FR 48120 - Black Hills National Forest, Custer, SD-Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest, Custer, SD--Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project AGENCY...: This project proposes to treat areas newly infested by mountain pine beetles on approximately 325,000...-rocky-mountain-black-hills@fs.fed.us , with ``MPB Response Project'' in the subject line....

  2. 33 CFR 110.47 - Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Little Narragansett Bay, Watch... SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.47 Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I. All of the navigable waters of Watch Hill Cove southeasterly of a line beginning at...

  3. 33 CFR 110.47 - Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Little Narragansett Bay, Watch... SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.47 Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I. All of the navigable waters of Watch Hill Cove southeasterly of a line beginning at...

  4. 33 CFR 110.47 - Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Little Narragansett Bay, Watch... SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.47 Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I. All of the navigable waters of Watch Hill Cove southeasterly of a line beginning at...

  5. 33 CFR 110.47 - Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Little Narragansett Bay, Watch... SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.47 Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I. All of the navigable waters of Watch Hill Cove southeasterly of a line beginning at...

  6. 33 CFR 110.47 - Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Little Narragansett Bay, Watch... SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.47 Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I. All of the navigable waters of Watch Hill Cove southeasterly of a line beginning at...

  7. Race, Ruralism, and Reformation: William J. Edwards and Snow Hill Institute, 1894-1915.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Arnold

    This article examines the Snow Hill Institute, one of several 19th-century industrial schools founded for rural Southern black students, following the model of Booker T. Washington's Tuskegee Institute. This case study provides a sketch of William J. Edwards, an early Tuskegee alumnus and founder of the Snow Hill Institute in Wilcox County,…

  8. Anita Hill/Clarence Thomas Revisited: Emotionality as a Necessary Component of Credibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigal, Janet; And Others

    In the years since the Anita Hill/Clarence Thomas Senate Confirmation hearings, it is apparent that this event has had some far-reaching consequences. Although the immediate outcome of the Senate hearings was not positive for Professor Hill, the effect of her testimony seems to have been to encourage more discussion of sexual harassment. The…

  9. View of South TwentySixth Street entrance to Easter Hill housing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of South Twenty-Sixth Street entrance to Easter Hill housing project at intersection with Cutting Boulevard, looking south - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  10. Sharing the Gift of Jazz: An Interview with Willie L. Hill Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Brad

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Willie L. Hill Jr., founder and director of the Society for Jazz Education. Currently a professor of music education at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst and the director of the UMass Fine Arts Center, Hill has served as director of education for the Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz. He is a past…

  11. Hospital/Health Facilities and the Hill-Burton Obligations: A Secret from the Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Mitchell F.

    1986-01-01

    Uncompensated/free care and community service obligations under the Hill-Burton Act can assist substantially in providing needed health care services to the Black community. Blacks, however, must become knowledgeable about these obligations, develop monitoring projects, and be prepared to take legal steps to bring Hill-Burton facilities into…

  12. 40 CFR 81.214 - Black Hills-Rapid City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Black Hills-Rapid City Intrastate Air... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.214 Black Hills-Rapid City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  13. 40 CFR 81.214 - Black Hills-Rapid City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Black Hills-Rapid City Intrastate Air... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.214 Black Hills-Rapid City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  14. 40 CFR 81.214 - Black Hills-Rapid City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Hills-Rapid City Intrastate Air... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.214 Black Hills-Rapid City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  15. Patty Smith Hill, Gifted Early Childhood Educator of the Progressive Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudnitski, Rose A.

    1995-01-01

    This article chronicles the development of Patty Smith Hill, eminent educator of the Progressive Era. Hill was largely responsible for adding kindergarten to the elementary school curriculum, was the author of the "Happy Birthday" song, and a member of the Woman's Suffrage Movement. (DB)

  16. 76 FR 16296 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Pocomoke River, Snow Hill, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Pocomoke River, Snow Hill, MD AGENCY... the S12 Bridge across Pocomoke River, mile 29.9, at Snow Hill, MD. The deviation restricts the... least five hours advance notice is given. The S12 Bridge across Pocomoke River, mile 29.9 at Snow...

  17. Hume, Mill, Hill, and the Sui Generis Epidemiologic Approach to Causal Inference

    PubMed Central

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiologic approach to causal inference (i.e., Hill's viewpoints) consists of evaluating potential causes from the following 2, noncumulative angles: 1) established results from comparative, observational, or experimental epidemiologic studies; and 2) reviews of nonepidemiologic evidence. It does not involve statements of statistical significance. The philosophical roots of Hill's viewpoints are unknown. Superficially, they seem to descend from the ideas of Hume and Mill. Hill's viewpoints, however, use a different kind of evidence and have different purposes than do Hume's rules or Mill's system of logic. In a nutshell, Hume ignores comparative evidence central to Hill's viewpoints. Mill's logic disqualifies as invalid nonexperimental evidence, which forms the bulk of epidemiologic findings reviewed from Hill's viewpoints. The approaches by Hume and Mill cannot corroborate successful implementations of Hill's viewpoints. Besides Hume and Mill, the epidemiologic literature is clueless about a plausible, pre-1965 philosophical origin of Hill's viewpoints. Thus, Hill's viewpoints may be philosophically novel, sui generis, still waiting to be validated and justified. PMID:24071010

  18. Hume, Mill, Hill, and the sui generis epidemiologic approach to causal inference.

    PubMed

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2013-11-15

    The epidemiologic approach to causal inference (i.e., Hill's viewpoints) consists of evaluating potential causes from the following 2, noncumulative angles: 1) established results from comparative, observational, or experimental epidemiologic studies; and 2) reviews of nonepidemiologic evidence. It does not involve statements of statistical significance. The philosophical roots of Hill's viewpoints are unknown. Superficially, they seem to descend from the ideas of Hume and Mill. Hill's viewpoints, however, use a different kind of evidence and have different purposes than do Hume's rules or Mill's system of logic. In a nutshell, Hume ignores comparative evidence central to Hill's viewpoints. Mill's logic disqualifies as invalid nonexperimental evidence, which forms the bulk of epidemiologic findings reviewed from Hill's viewpoints. The approaches by Hume and Mill cannot corroborate successful implementations of Hill's viewpoints. Besides Hume and Mill, the epidemiologic literature is clueless about a plausible, pre-1965 philosophical origin of Hill's viewpoints. Thus, Hill's viewpoints may be philosophically novel, sui generis, still waiting to be validated and justified.

  19. Five New Records of Terrestrial and Lithophytic Orchids (Orchidaceae) from Penang Hill, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yeu, Nga Shi; Nordin, Farah Alia; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman

    2016-08-01

    Five new records of terrestrial and lithophytic orchid species were gathered from Penang Hill, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia namely Bulbophyllum depressum, Goodyera pusilla, Peristylus monticola, Podochilus microphyllus, and Zeuxine gracilis. Checklist of each species is provided and their distribution in Penang Hill is discussed.

  20. Five New Records of Terrestrial and Lithophytic Orchids (Orchidaceae) from Penang Hill, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Yeu, Nga Shi; Nordin, Farah Alia; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman

    2016-01-01

    Five new records of terrestrial and lithophytic orchid species were gathered from Penang Hill, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia namely Bulbophyllum depressum, Goodyera pusilla, Peristylus monticola, Podochilus microphyllus, and Zeuxine gracilis. Checklist of each species is provided and their distribution in Penang Hill is discussed.