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Sample records for himar1 transposon mutagenesis

  1. Phenotypic Mutants of the Intracellular Actinomycete Rhodococcus equi Created by In Vivo Himar1 Transposon Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ashour, Joseph; Hondalus, Mary K.

    2003-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised people and a major cause of pneumonia in young horses. An effective live attenuated vaccine would be extremely useful in the prevention of R. equi disease in horses. Toward that end, we have developed an efficient transposon mutagenesis system that makes use of a Himar1 minitransposon delivered by a conditionally replicating plasmid for construction of R. equi mutants. We show that Himar1 transposition in R. equi is random and needs no apparent consensus sequence beyond the required TA dinucleotide. The diversity of the transposon library was demonstrated by the ease with which we were able to screen for auxotrophs and mutants with pigmentation and capsular phenotypes. One of the pigmentation mutants contained an insertion in a gene encoding phytoene desaturase, an enzyme of carotenoid biosynthesis, the pathway necessary for production of the characteristic salmon color of R. equi. We identified an auxotrophic mutant with a transposon insertion in the gene encoding a putative dual-functioning GTP cyclohydrolase II-3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase, an enzyme essential for riboflavin biosynthesis. This mutant cannot grow in minimal medium in the absence of riboflavin supplementation. Experimental murine infection studies showed that, in contrast to wild-type R. equi, the riboflavin-requiring mutant is attenuated because it is unable to replicate in vivo. The mutagenesis methodology we have developed will allow the characterization of R. equi virulence mechanisms and the creation of other attenuated strains with vaccine potential. PMID:12670990

  2. Phenotypic mutants of the intracellular actinomycete Rhodococcus equi created by in vivo Himar1 transposon mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Ashour, Joseph; Hondalus, Mary K

    2003-04-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised people and a major cause of pneumonia in young horses. An effective live attenuated vaccine would be extremely useful in the prevention of R. equi disease in horses. Toward that end, we have developed an efficient transposon mutagenesis system that makes use of a Himar1 minitransposon delivered by a conditionally replicating plasmid for construction of R. equi mutants. We show that Himar1 transposition in R. equi is random and needs no apparent consensus sequence beyond the required TA dinucleotide. The diversity of the transposon library was demonstrated by the ease with which we were able to screen for auxotrophs and mutants with pigmentation and capsular phenotypes. One of the pigmentation mutants contained an insertion in a gene encoding phytoene desaturase, an enzyme of carotenoid biosynthesis, the pathway necessary for production of the characteristic salmon color of R. equi. We identified an auxotrophic mutant with a transposon insertion in the gene encoding a putative dual-functioning GTP cyclohydrolase II-3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase, an enzyme essential for riboflavin biosynthesis. This mutant cannot grow in minimal medium in the absence of riboflavin supplementation. Experimental murine infection studies showed that, in contrast to wild-type R. equi, the riboflavin-requiring mutant is attenuated because it is unable to replicate in vivo. The mutagenesis methodology we have developed will allow the characterization of R. equi virulence mechanisms and the creation of other attenuated strains with vaccine potential.

  3. Transposon Mutagenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Largaespada, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the functional landscape of the mammalian genome is the next big challenge of biomedical research. The completion of the first phases of the mouse and human genome projects, and expression analyses using microarray hybridization, generate critically important questions about the functional landscape and structure of the mammalian genome: how many genes, and of what type, are there; what kind of functional elements make up a properly functioning gene? One step in this process will be to create mutations in every identifiable mouse gene and analyze the resultant phenotypes. Transposons are being considered as tools to further initiatives to create a comprehensive resource of mutant mouse strains. Also, it may be possible to use transposons in true forward genetic screens in the mouse. The “Sleeping Beauty” (SB) transposon system is one such tool. Moreover, due to its tendency for local hopping, SB has been proposed as a method for regional saturation mutagenesis of the mouse genome. In this chapter, we review the tools and methods currently available to create mutant mice using in vivo, germline transposition in mice. PMID:19266336

  4. Transposon mutagenesis as an approach to improved understanding of Borrelia pathogenesis and biology

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tao; Troy, Erin B.; Hu, Linden T.; Gao, Lihui; Norris, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Transposon insertion provides a method for near-random mutation of bacterial genomes, and has been utilized extensively for the study of bacterial pathogenesis and biology. This approach is particularly useful for organisms that are relatively refractory to genetic manipulation, including Lyme disease Borrelia. In this review, progress to date in the application of transposon mutagenesis to the study of Borrelia burgdorferi is reported. An effective Himar1-based transposon vector has been developed and used to acquire a sequence-defined library of nearly 4500 mutants in the infectious, moderately transformable B. burgdorferi B31 derivative 5A18NP1. Analysis of these transposon mutants using signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) and Tn-seq approaches has begun to yield valuable information regarding the genes important in the pathogenesis and biology of this organism. PMID:24904839

  5. Comprehensive Essentiality Analysis of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genome via Saturating Transposon Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    DeJesus, Michael A.; Gerrick, Elias R.; Xu, Weizhen; Park, Sae Woong; Long, Jarukit E.; Boutte, Cara C.; Rubin, Eric J.; Schnappinger, Dirk; Ehrt, Sabine; Fortune, Sarah M.; Sassetti, Christopher M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT   For decades, identifying the regions of a bacterial chromosome that are necessary for viability has relied on mapping integration sites in libraries of random transposon mutants to find loci that are unable to sustain insertion. To date, these studies have analyzed subsaturated libraries, necessitating the application of statistical methods to estimate the likelihood that a gap in transposon coverage is the result of biological selection and not the stochasticity of insertion. As a result, the essentiality of many genomic features, particularly small ones, could not be reliably assessed. We sought to overcome this limitation by creating a completely saturated transposon library in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In assessing the composition of this highly saturated library by deep sequencing, we discovered that a previously unknown sequence bias of the Himar1 element rendered approximately 9% of potential TA dinucleotide insertion sites less permissible for insertion. We used a hidden Markov model of essentiality that accounted for this unanticipated bias, allowing us to confidently evaluate the essentiality of features that contained as few as 2 TA sites, including open reading frames (ORF), experimentally identified noncoding RNAs, methylation sites, and promoters. In addition, several essential regions that did not correspond to known features were identified, suggesting uncharacterized functions that are necessary for growth. This work provides an authoritative catalog of essential regions of the M. tuberculosis genome and a statistical framework for applying saturating mutagenesis to other bacteria. PMID:28096490

  6. New transposon delivery plasmids for insertional mutagenesis in Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Adam C.; Perego, Marta; Hoch, James A.

    2007-01-01

    Two new transposon delivery vector systems utilizing Mariner and mini-Tn10 transposons have been developed for in vivo insertional mutagenesis in Bacillus anthracis and other compatible Gram-positive species. The utility of both systems was directly demonstrated through the mutagenesis of a widely used B. anthracis strain. PMID:17931726

  7. Transposon mutagenesis in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae with a Tn10 derivative.

    PubMed Central

    Tascon, R I; Rodriguez-Ferri, E F; Gutierrez-Martin, C B; Rodriguez-Barbosa, I; Berche, P; Vazquez-Boland, J A

    1993-01-01

    A transposon mutagenesis procedure functional in the gram-negative swine pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was developed for the first time. The technique involved the use of a suicide conjugative plasmid, pLOF/Km, carrying a mini-Tn10 with an isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible transposase located outside the mobile element (M. Herrero, V. de Lorenzo, and K. N. Timmis, J. Bacteriol. 172:6557-6567, 1990). The plasmid was mobilized from Escherichia coli to A. pleuropneumoniae through the RP4-mediated broad-host-range conjugal transfer functions provided by the chromosome of the donor strain. When IPTG was present in the mating medium, A. pleuropneumoniae CM5 transposon mutants were obtained at a frequency of 10(-5), while no mutants were detected in the absence of IPTG. Since the frequency of conjugal transfer of the RP4 plasmid from E. coli to A. pleuropneumoniae CM5 was found to be as low as 10(-4), the above result indicated that the expression level of the transposase was a critical factor for obtaining a workable efficiency of transposon mutagenesis. The transposon insertions occurred at random, as determined by Southern blotting of chromosomal DNA of randomly selected mutants and by the ability to generate mutants defective for the selected phenotypes. Almost all the mutants analyzed resulted from a single insertion of the Tn10 element. About 1.2% of the mutants resulted from the cointegration of pLOF/Km into the A. pleuropneumoniae chromosome. The applicability of this transposon mutagenesis system was verified on other A. pleuropneumoniae strains of different serotypes. The usefulness of this transposon mutagenesis system in genetic studies of A. pleuropneumoniae is discussed. Images PMID:8396122

  8. Genes Necessary for Bacterial Magnetite Biomineralization Identified by Transposon Mutagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, C. Z.; Komeili, A.; Newman, D. K.; Kirschvink, J. L.

    2004-12-01

    Magnetic bacteria synthesize nanoscale crystals of magnetite in intracellular, membrane-bounded organelles (magnetosomes). These crystals are preserved in the fossil record at least as far back as the late Neoproterozoic and have been tentatively identified in much older rocks (1). This fossil record may provide deep time calibration points for molecular evolution studies once the genes involved in biologically controlled magnetic mineralization (BCMM) are known. Further, a genetic and biochemical understanding of BCMM will give insight into the depositional environment and biogeochemical cycles in which magnetic bacteria play a role. The BCMM process is not well understood, though proteins have been identified from the magnetosome membrane and genetic manipulation and biochemical characterization of these proteins are underway. Most of the proteins currently thought to be involved are encoded within the mam cluster, a large cluster of genes whose products localize to the magnetosome membrane and are conserved among magnetic bacteria (2). In an effort to identify all of the genes necessary for bacterial BCMM, we undertook a transposon mutagenesis of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1. Non-magnetic mutants (MNMs) were identified by growth in liquid culture followed by a magnetic assay. The insertion site of the transposon was identified two ways. First MNMs were screened with a PCR assay to determine if the transposon had inserted into the mam cluster. Second, the transposon was rescued from the mutant DNA and cloned for sequencing. The majority insertion sites are located within the mam cluster. Insertion sites also occur in operons which have not previously been suspected to be involved in magnetite biomineralization. None of the insertion sites have occurred within genes reported from previous transposon mutagenesis studies of AMB-1 (3, 4). Two of the non-mam cluster insertion sites occur in operons containing genes conserved particularly between MS-1 and MC-1. We

  9. Establishment of Tn5096-Based Transposon Mutagenesis in Gordonia polyisoprenivorans

    PubMed Central

    Banh, Quyen; Arenskötter, Matthias; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The transposons Tn5, Tn10, Tn611, and Tn5096 were characterized regarding transposition in Gordonia polyisoprenivorans strain VH2. No insertional mutants were obtained employing Tn5 or Tn10. The thermosensitive plasmid pCG79 harboring Tn611 integrated into the chromosome of G. polyisoprenivorans; however, the insertional mutants were fairly unstable und reverted frequently to the wild-type phenotype. In contrast, various stable mutants were obtained employing Tn5096-mediated transposon mutagenesis. Auxotrophic mutants, mutants defective or deregulated in carotenoid biosynthesis, and mutants defective in utilization of rubber and/or highly branched isoprenoid hydrocarbons were obtained by integration of plasmid pMA5096 harboring Tn5096 as a whole into the genome. From about 25,000 isolated mutants, the insertion loci of pMA5096 were subsequently mapped in 20 independent mutants in genes which could be related to the above-mentioned metabolic pathways or to putative regulation proteins. Analyses of the genotypes of pMA5096-mediated mutants defective in biodegradation of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) did not reveal homologues to recently identified genes coding for enzymes catalyzing the initial cleavage of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene). One rubber-negative mutant was disrupted in mcr, encoding an α-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase. This mutant was defective in degradation of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) and also of highly branched isoprenoid hydrocarbons. PMID:16151089

  10. The utility of transposon mutagenesis for cancer studies in the era of genome editing.

    PubMed

    DeNicola, Gina M; Karreth, Florian A; Adams, David J; Wong, Chi C

    2015-10-19

    The use of transposons as insertional mutagens to identify cancer genes in mice has generated a wealth of information over the past decade. Here, we discuss recent major advances in transposon-mediated insertional mutagenesis screens and compare this technology with other screening strategies.

  11. Generation of Enterobacter sp. YSU auxotrophs using transposon mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Caguiat, Jonathan James

    2014-10-31

    Prototrophic bacteria grow on M-9 minimal salts medium supplemented with glucose (M-9 medium), which is used as a carbon and energy source. Auxotrophs can be generated using a transposome. The commercially available, Tn5-derived transposome used in this protocol consists of a linear segment of DNA containing an R6Kγ replication origin, a gene for kanamycin resistance and two mosaic sequence ends, which serve as transposase binding sites. The transposome, provided as a DNA/transposase protein complex, is introduced by electroporation into the prototrophic strain, Enterobacter sp. YSU, and randomly incorporates itself into this host's genome. Transformants are replica plated onto Luria-Bertani agar plates containing kanamycin, (LB-kan) and onto M-9 medium agar plates containing kanamycin (M-9-kan). The transformants that grow on LB-kan plates but not on M-9-kan plates are considered to be auxotrophs. Purified genomic DNA from an auxotroph is partially digested, ligated and transformed into a pir+ Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain. The R6Kγ replication origin allows the plasmid to replicate in pir+ E. coli strains, and the kanamycin resistance marker allows for plasmid selection. Each transformant possesses a new plasmid containing the transposon flanked by the interrupted chromosomal region. Sanger sequencing and the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) suggest a putative identity of the interrupted gene. There are three advantages to using this transposome mutagenesis strategy. First, it does not rely on the expression of a transposase gene by the host. Second, the transposome is introduced into the target host by electroporation, rather than by conjugation or by transduction and therefore is more efficient. Third, the R6Kγ replication origin makes it easy to identify the mutated gene which is partially recovered in a recombinant plasmid. This technique can be used to investigate the genes involved in other characteristics of Enterobacter sp. YSU or of a

  12. Random insertion and gene disruption via transposon mutagenesis of Ureaplasma parvum using a mini-transposon plasmid.

    PubMed

    Aboklaish, Ali F; Dordet-Frisoni, Emilie; Citti, Christine; Toleman, Mark A; Glass, John I; Spiller, O Brad

    2014-11-01

    While transposon mutagenesis has been successfully used for Mycoplasma spp. to disrupt and determine non-essential genes, previous attempts with Ureaplasma spp. have been unsuccessful. Using a polyethylene glycol-transformation enhancing protocol, we were able to transform three separate serovars of Ureaplasma parvum with a Tn4001-based mini-transposon plasmid containing a gentamicin resistance selection marker. Despite the large degree of homology between Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum, all attempts to transform the latter in parallel failed, with the exception of a single clinical U. urealyticum isolate. PCR probing and sequencing were used to confirm transposon insertion into the bacterial genome and identify disrupted genes. Transformation of prototype serovar 3 consistently resulted in transfer only of sequence between the mini-transposon inverted repeats, but some strains showed additional sequence transfer. Transposon insertion occurred randomly in the genome resulting in unique disruption of genes UU047, UU390, UU440, UU450, UU520, UU526, UU582 for single clones from a panel of screened clones. An intergenic insertion between genes UU187 and UU188 was also characterised. Two phenotypic alterations were observed in the mutated strains: Disruption of a DEAD-box RNA helicase (UU582) altered growth kinetics, while the U. urealyticum strain lost resistance to serum attack coincident with disruption of gene UUR10_137 and loss of expression of a 41 kDa protein. Transposon mutagenesis was used successfully to insert single copies of a mini-transposon into the genome and disrupt genes leading to phenotypic changes in Ureaplasma parvum strains. This method can now be used to deliver exogenous genes for expression and determine essential genes for Ureaplasma parvum replication in culture and experimental models.

  13. A Plasmid-Transposon Hybrid Mutagenesis System Effective in a Broad Range of Enterobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Rita; Smith, Debra S.; Matilla, Miguel A.; Roberts, Kevin; Richardson, Elizabeth; Drew, Alison; Williamson, Neil; Ramsay, Josh; Welch, Martin; Salmond, George P. C.

    2015-01-01

    Random transposon mutagenesis is a powerful technique used to generate libraries of genetic insertions in many different bacterial strains. Here we develop a system facilitating random transposon mutagenesis in a range of different Gram-negative bacterial strains, including Pectobacterium atrosepticum, Citrobacter rodentium, Serratia sp. ATCC39006, Serratia plymuthica, Dickeya dadantii, and many more. Transposon mutagenesis was optimized in each of these strains and three studies are presented to show the efficacy of this system. Firstly, the important agricultural pathogen D. dadantii was mutagenized. Two mutants that showed reduced protease production and one mutant producing the previously cryptic pigment, indigoidine, were identified and characterized. Secondly, the enterobacterium, Serratia sp. ATCC39006 was mutagenized and mutants incapable of producing gas vesicles, proteinaceous intracellular organelles, were identified. One of these contained a β-galactosidase transcriptional fusion within the gene gvpA1, essential for gas vesicle production. Finally, the system was used to mutate the biosynthetic gene clusters of the antifungal, anti-oomycete and anticancer polyketide, oocydin A, in the plant-associated enterobacterium, Dickeya solani MK10. The mutagenesis system was developed to allow easy identification of transposon insertion sites by sequencing, after facile generation of a replicon encompassing the transposon and adjacent DNA, post-excision. Furthermore, the system can also create transcriptional fusions with either β-galactosidase or β-glucuronidase as reporters, and exploits a variety of drug resistance markers so that multiple selectable fusions can be generated in a single strain. This system of various transposons has wide utility and can be combined in many different ways. PMID:26733980

  14. A Plasmid-Transposon Hybrid Mutagenesis System Effective in a Broad Range of Enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Monson, Rita; Smith, Debra S; Matilla, Miguel A; Roberts, Kevin; Richardson, Elizabeth; Drew, Alison; Williamson, Neil; Ramsay, Josh; Welch, Martin; Salmond, George P C

    2015-01-01

    Random transposon mutagenesis is a powerful technique used to generate libraries of genetic insertions in many different bacterial strains. Here we develop a system facilitating random transposon mutagenesis in a range of different Gram-negative bacterial strains, including Pectobacterium atrosepticum, Citrobacter rodentium, Serratia sp. ATCC39006, Serratia plymuthica, Dickeya dadantii, and many more. Transposon mutagenesis was optimized in each of these strains and three studies are presented to show the efficacy of this system. Firstly, the important agricultural pathogen D. dadantii was mutagenized. Two mutants that showed reduced protease production and one mutant producing the previously cryptic pigment, indigoidine, were identified and characterized. Secondly, the enterobacterium, Serratia sp. ATCC39006 was mutagenized and mutants incapable of producing gas vesicles, proteinaceous intracellular organelles, were identified. One of these contained a β-galactosidase transcriptional fusion within the gene gvpA1, essential for gas vesicle production. Finally, the system was used to mutate the biosynthetic gene clusters of the antifungal, anti-oomycete and anticancer polyketide, oocydin A, in the plant-associated enterobacterium, Dickeya solani MK10. The mutagenesis system was developed to allow easy identification of transposon insertion sites by sequencing, after facile generation of a replicon encompassing the transposon and adjacent DNA, post-excision. Furthermore, the system can also create transcriptional fusions with either β-galactosidase or β-glucuronidase as reporters, and exploits a variety of drug resistance markers so that multiple selectable fusions can be generated in a single strain. This system of various transposons has wide utility and can be combined in many different ways.

  15. Evaluating risks of insertional mutagenesis by DNA transposons in gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Perry B; Largaespada, David A; Switzer, Kirsten C; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2013-04-01

    Investigational therapy can be successfully undertaken using viral- and nonviral-mediated ex vivo gene transfer. Indeed, recent clinical trials have established the potential for genetically modified T cells to improve and restore health. Recently, the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon/transposase system has been applied in clinical trials to stably insert a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to redirect T-cell specificity. We discuss the context in which the SB system can be harnessed for gene therapy and describe the human application of SB-modified CAR(+) T cells. We have focused on theoretical issues relating to insertional mutagenesis in the context of human genomes that are naturally subjected to remobilization of transposons and the experimental evidence over the last decade of employing SB transposons for defining genes that induce cancer. These findings are put into the context of the use of SB transposons in the treatment of human disease.

  16. Gene transfer and mutagenesis mediated by Sleeping Beauty transposon in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    He, Xiaozhen; Li, Jie; Long, Yong; Song, Guili; Zhou, Peiyong; Liu, Qiuxiang; Zhu, Zuoyan; Cui, Zongbin

    2013-10-01

    The success of gene transfer has been demonstrated in many of vertebrate species, whereas the efficiency of producing transgenic animals remains pretty low due to the random integration of foreign genes into a recipient genome. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon is able to improve the efficiency of gene transfer in zebrafish and mouse, but its activity in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) has yet to be characterized. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of using the SB transposon system as an effective tool for gene transfer and insertional mutagenesis in tilapia. A transgenic construct pT2/tiHsp70-SB11 was generated by subcloning the promoter of tilapia heat shock protein 70 (tiHsp70) gene, the SB11 transposase gene and the carp β-actin gene polyadenylation signal into the second generation of SB transposon. Transgenic tilapia was produced by microinjection of this construct with in vitro synthesized capped SB11 mRNA. SB11 transposon was detected in 28.89 % of founders, 12.9 % of F1 and 43.75 % of F2. Analysis of genomic sequences flanking integrated transposons indicates that this transgenic tilapia line carries two copies of SB transposon, which landed into two different endogenous genes. Induced expression of SB11 gene after heat shock was detected using reverse transcription PCR in F2 transgenic individuals. In addition, the Cre/loxP system was introduced to delete the SB11 cassette for stabilization of gene interruption and bio-safety. These findings suggest that the SB transposon system is active and can be used for efficient gene transfer and insertional mutagenesis in tilapia.

  17. Transposon mutagenesis identifies genes that cooperate with mutant Pten in breast cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Roberto; Lee, Song-Choon; Hon-Kim Ban, Kenneth; Guzman-Rojas, Liliana; Mann, Michael B.; Newberg, Justin Y.; McNoe, Leslie A.; Selvanesan, Luxmanan; Ward, Jerrold M.; Rust, Alistair G.; Chin, Kuan-Yew; Black, Michael A.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Copeland, Neal G.

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has the worst prognosis of any breast cancer subtype. To better understand the genetic forces driving TNBC, we performed a transposon mutagenesis screen in a phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) mutant mice and identified 12 candidate trunk drivers and a much larger number of progression genes. Validation studies identified eight TNBC tumor suppressor genes, including the GATA-like transcriptional repressor TRPS1. Down-regulation of TRPS1 in TNBC cells promoted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by deregulating multiple EMT pathway genes, in addition to increasing the expression of SERPINE1 and SERPINB2 and the subsequent migration, invasion, and metastasis of tumor cells. Transposon mutagenesis has thus provided a better understanding of the genetic forces driving TNBC and discovered genes with potential clinical importance in TNBC. PMID:27849608

  18. Random transposon mutagenesis of the Saccharopolyspora erythraea genome reveals additional genes influencing erythromycin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Fedashchin, Andrij; Cernota, William H.; Gonzalez, Melissa C.; Leach, Benjamin I.; Kwan, Noelle; Wesley, Roy K.; Weber, J. Mark

    2015-01-01

    A single cycle of strain improvement was performed in Saccharopolyspora erythraea mutB and 15 genotypes influencing erythromycin production were found. Genotypes generated by transposon mutagenesis appeared in the screen at a frequency of ∼3%. Mutations affecting central metabolism and regulatory genes were found, as well as hydrolases, peptidases, glycosyl transferases and unknown genes. Only one mutant retained high erythromycin production when scaled-up from micro-agar plug fermentations to shake flasks. This mutant had a knockout of the cwh1 gene (SACE_1598), encoding a cell-wall-associated hydrolase. The cwh1 knockout produced visible growth and morphological defects on solid medium. This study demonstrated that random transposon mutagenesis uncovers strain improvement-related genes potentially useful for strain engineering. PMID:26468041

  19. Sleeping Beauty transposon insertional mutagenesis based mouse models for cancer gene discovery.

    PubMed

    Moriarity, Branden S; Largaespada, David A

    2015-02-01

    Large-scale genomic efforts to study human cancer, such as the cancer gene atlas (TCGA), have identified numerous cancer drivers in a wide variety of tumor types. However, there are limitations to this approach, the mutations and expression or copy number changes that are identified are not always clearly functionally relevant, and only annotated genes and genetic elements are thoroughly queried. The use of complimentary, nonbiased, functional approaches to identify drivers of cancer development and progression is ideal to maximize the rate at which cancer discoveries are achieved. One such approach that has been successful is the use of the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-based mutagenesis system in mice. This system uses a conditionally expressed transposase and mutagenic transposon allele to target mutagenesis to somatic cells of a given tissue in mice to cause random mutations leading to tumor development. Analysis of tumors for transposon common insertion sites (CIS) identifies candidate cancer genes specific to that tumor type. While similar screens have been performed in mice with the PiggyBac (PB) transposon and viral approaches, we limit extensive discussion to SB. Here we discuss the basic structure of these screens, screens that have been performed, methods used to identify CIS.

  20. Sleeping Beauty transposon insertional mutagenesis based mouse models for cancer gene discovery

    PubMed Central

    Moriarity, Branden S; Largaespada, David A

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale genomic efforts to study human cancer, such as the cancer gene atlas (TCGA), have identified numerous cancer drivers in a wide variety of tumor types. However, there are limitations to this approach, the mutations and expression or copy number changes that are identified are not always clearly functionally relevant, and only annotated genes and genetic elements are thoroughly queried. The use of complimentary, nonbiased, functional approaches to identify drivers of cancer development and progression is ideal to maximize the rate at which cancer discoveries are achieved. One such approach that has been successful is the use of the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-based mutagenesis system in mice. This system uses a conditionally expressed transposase and mutagenic transposon allele to target mutagenesis to somatic cells of a given tissue in mice to cause random mutations leading to tumor development. Analysis of tumors for transposon common insertion sites (CIS) identifies candidate cancer genes specific to that tumor type. While similar screens have been performed in mice with the PiggyBac (PB) transposon and viral approaches, we limit extensive discussion to SB. Here we discuss the basic structure of these screens, screens that have been performed, methods used to identify CIS. PMID:26051241

  1. An inducible tool for random mutagenesis in Aspergillus niger based on the transposon Vader.

    PubMed

    Paun, Linda; Nitsche, Benjamin; Homan, Tim; Ram, Arthur F; Kempken, Frank

    2016-07-01

    The ascomycete Aspergillus niger is widely used in the biotechnology, for instance in producing most of the world's citric acid. It is also known as a major food and feed contaminant. While generation of gene knockouts for functional genomics has become feasible in ku70 mutants, analyzing gene functions or metabolic pathways remains a laborious task. An unbiased transposon-based mutagenesis approach may aid this process of analyzing gene functions by providing mutant libraries in a short time. The Vader transposon is a non-autonomous DNA-transposon, which is activated by the homologous tan1-transposase. However, in the most commonly used lab strain of A. niger (N400 strain and derivatives), we found that the transposase, encoded by the tan1 gene, is mutated and inactive. To establish a Vader transposon-based mutagenesis system in the N400 background, we expressed the functional transposase of A. niger strain CBS 513.88 under the control of an inducible promoter based on the Tet-on system, which is activated in the presence of the antibiotic doxycycline (DOX). Increasing amounts of doxycycline lead to higher Vader excision frequencies, whereas little to none activity of Vader was observed without addition of doxycycline. Hence, this system appears to be suitable for producing stable mutants in the A. niger N400 background.

  2. Steady-state transposon mutagenesis in inbred maize.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Donald R; Settles, Andrew Mark; Suzuki, Masaharu; Tan, Bao Cai; Latshaw, Susan; Porch, Tim; Robin, Kevin; Baier, John; Avigne, Wayne; Lai, Jinsheng; Messing, Joachim; Koch, Karen E; Hannah, L Curtis

    2005-10-01

    We implement a novel strategy for harnessing the power of high-copy transposons for functional analysis of the maize genome, and report behavioral features of the Mutator system in a uniform inbred background. The unique UniformMu population and database facilitate high-throughput molecular analysis of Mu-tagged mutants and gene knockouts. Key features of the population include: (i) high mutation frequencies (7% independent seed mutations) and moderation of copy number (approximately 57 total Mu elements; 1-2 MuDR copies per plant) were maintained by continuous back-crossing into a phenotypically uniform inbred background; (ii) a bz1-mum9 marker enabled selection of stable lines (loss of MuDR), inhibiting further transpositions in lines selected for molecular analysis; (iii) build-up of mutation load was prevented by screening Mu-active parents to exclude plants carrying pre-existing seed mutations. To create a database of genomic sequences flanking Mu insertions, selected mutant lines were analyzed by sequencing of MuTAIL PCR clone libraries. These sequences were annotated and clustered to facilitate bioinformatic subtraction of ancestral elements and identification of insertions unique to mutant lines. New insertions targeted low-copy, gene-rich sequences, and in silico mapping revealed a random distribution of insertions over the genome. Our results indicate that Mu populations differ markedly in the occurrence of Mu insertion hotspots and the frequency of suppressible mutations. We suggest that controlled MuDR copy number in UniformMu lines is a key determinant of these differences. The public database (http://uniformmu.org; http://endosperm.info) includes pedigree and phenotypic data for over 2000 independent seed mutants selected from a population of 31 548 F2 lines and integrated with analyses of 34 255 MuTAIL sequences.

  3. Sleeping Beauty Transposon Mutagenesis of the Rat Genome in Spermatogonial Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ivics, Zoltán; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Chapman, Karen M.; Hamra, F. Kent

    2011-01-01

    Since several aspects of physiology in rats has evolved to be more similar to humans than that of mice, it is highly desirable to link the rat into the process of annotating the human genome with function. However, the lack of technology for generating defined mutants in the rat genome has hindered the identification of causative relationships between genes and disease phenotypes. As an important step towards this goal, an approach of establishing transposon-mediated insertional mutagenesis in rat spermatogonial stem cells was recently developed. Transposons can be viewed as natural DNA transfer vehicles that, similar to integrating viruses, are capable of efficient genomic insertion. The mobility of transposons can be controlled by conditionally providing the transposase component of the transposition reaction. Thus, a DNA of interest such as a mutagenic gene trap cassette cloned between the inverted repeat sequences of a transposon-based vector can be utilized for stable genomic insertion in a regulated and highly efficient manner. Gene trap transposons integrate into the genome in a random fashion, and those mutagenic insertions that occurred in expressed genes can be selected in vitro based on activation of a reporter. Selected monoclonal as well as polyclonal libraries of gene trap clones are transplanted into the testes of recipient/founder male rats allowing passage of the mutation through the germline to F1 progeny after only a single cross with wild-type females. This paradigm enables a powerful methodological pipeline for forward genetic screens for functional gene annotation in the rat, as well as other vertebrate models. This article provides a detailed description on how to culturerat spermatogonial stem cell lines, their transfection with transposon plasmids, selection of gene trap insertions with antibiotics, transplantation of genetically modified stem cells and genotyping of knockout animals. PMID:21193047

  4. Transposon mutagenesis of Campylobacter jejuni identifies a bipartite energy taxis system required for motility.

    PubMed

    Hendrixson, D R; Akerley, B J; DiRita, V J

    2001-04-01

    Campylobacter jejuni constitutes the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and a major cause of diarrhoea worldwide. Little is known about virulence mechanisms in this organism because of the scarcity of suitable genetic tools. We have developed an efficient system of in vitro transposon mutagenesis using a mariner-based transposon and purified mariner transposase. Through in vitro transposition of C. jejuni chromosomal DNA followed by natural transformation of the transposed DNA, large random transposon mutant libraries consisting of approximately 16 000 individual mutants were generated. The first genetic screen of C. jejuni using a transposon-generated mutant library identified 28 mutants defective for flagellar motility, one of the few known virulence determinants of this pathogen. We developed a second genetic system, which allows for the construction of defined chromosomal deletions in C. jejuni, and demonstrated the requirement of sigma28 and sigma54 for motility. In addition, we show that sigma28 is involved in the transcription of flaA and that sigma54 is required for transcription of three other flagellar genes, flaB and flgDE. We also identified two previously uncharacterized genes required for motility encoding proteins that we call CetA and CetB, which mediate energy taxis responses. Through our analysis of the Cet proteins, we propose a unique mechanism for sensing energy levels and mediating energy taxis in C. jejuni.

  5. Transposon Mutagenesis of Mycobacterium marinum Identifies a Locus Linking Pigmentation and Intracellular Survival

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lian-Yong; Groger, Richard; Cox, Jeffery S.; Beverley, Stephen M.; Lawson, Elise H.; Brown, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    Pathogenic mycobacteria survive and replicate within host macrophages, but the molecular mechanisms involved in this necessary step in the pathogenesis of infection are not completely understood. Mycobacterium marinum has recently been used as a model for aspects of the pathogenesis of tuberculosis because of its close genetic relationship to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and because of similarities in the pathology and course of infection caused by this organism in its natural hosts, fish and frogs, with tuberculosis in humans. In order to advance the utility of the M. marinum model, we have developed efficient transposon mutagenesis of the organism by using a Drosophila melanogaster mariner-based transposon. To determine the efficiency of transposition, we have analyzed pigmentation mutants from the transposon mutant library. In addition to insertions in four known genes in the pathway of pigment biosynthesis, two insertions in novel genes were identified in our mutant library. One of these is in a putative inhibitor of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. The second unexpected insertion is in an intergenic region between two genes homologous to Rv2603c and Rv2604c of M. tuberculosis. In addition to a pigmentation defect, this mutant showed increased susceptibility to singlet oxygen and grew poorly in murine macrophages. Complementation with M. tuberculosis genomic DNA encompassing Rv2603c to Rv2606c corrected the pigmentation and growth defects of the mutant. These data demonstrate the utility of mariner-based transposon mutagenesis of M. marinum and that M. marinum can be used to study the function of M. tuberculosis genes involved in intracellular survival and replication. PMID:12540574

  6. Transposon mutagenesis in Desulfovibrio desulfuricans: Development of a random mutagenesis tool from Tn7

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, J.D.; Murnan, T.; Argyle, J.

    1996-10-01

    The transposons Tn5, Tn7, Tn9, and Tn10 or their derivatives have been examined for transposition in the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20. Tn7 inserted with a frequency of 10{sup {minus}4} to 10{sup {minus}3} into a unique attachment site that shows strong homology with those sites identified in other gram-negative bacteria. Inactivation of the tnsD gene in Tn7, encoding the function directing insertion into the unique site, yielded a derivative that transposed essentially randomly with a frequency of ca. 10{sup {minus}6} per donor. Derivatives of Tn5, but not wild-type Tn5, were also found to undergo random transposition at a similar frequency. No evidence was obtained for transposition of Tn9 or Tn10. 34 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Sleeping Beauty Transposon Mutagenesis as a Tool for Gene Discovery in the NOD Mouse Model of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Elso, Colleen M.; Chu, Edward P. F.; Alsayb, May A.; Mackin, Leanne; Ivory, Sean T.; Ashton, Michelle P.; Bröer, Stefan; Silveira, Pablo A.; Brodnicki, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    A number of different strategies have been used to identify genes for which genetic variation contributes to type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis. Genetic studies in humans have identified >40 loci that affect the risk for developing T1D, but the underlying causative alleles are often difficult to pinpoint or have subtle biological effects. A complementary strategy to identifying “natural” alleles in the human population is to engineer “artificial” alleles within inbred mouse strains and determine their effect on T1D incidence. We describe the use of the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon mutagenesis system in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse strain, which harbors a genetic background predisposed to developing T1D. Mutagenesis in this system is random, but a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-polyA gene trap within the SB transposon enables early detection of mice harboring transposon-disrupted genes. The SB transposon also acts as a molecular tag to, without additional breeding, efficiently identify mutated genes and prioritize mutant mice for further characterization. We show here that the SB transposon is functional in NOD mice and can produce a null allele in a novel candidate gene that increases diabetes incidence. We propose that SB transposon mutagenesis could be used as a complementary strategy to traditional methods to help identify genes that, when disrupted, affect T1D pathogenesis. PMID:26438296

  8. Transposon mutagenesis identifies genes and cellular processes driving epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Takahiro; Newberg, Justin Y.; Kodama, Michiko; Rangel, Roberto; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Tien, Jean C.; Parsons, Pamela H.; Wu, Hao; Finegold, Milton J.; Copeland, Neal G.; Jenkins, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to contribute to metastasis and chemoresistance in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), leading to their poor prognosis. The genes driving EMT in HCC are not yet fully understood, however. Here, we show that mobilization of Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposons in immortalized mouse hepatoblasts induces mesenchymal liver tumors on transplantation to nude mice. These tumors show significant down-regulation of epithelial markers, along with up-regulation of mesenchymal markers and EMT-related transcription factors (EMT-TFs). Sequencing of transposon insertion sites from tumors identified 233 candidate cancer genes (CCGs) that were enriched for genes and cellular processes driving EMT. Subsequent trunk driver analysis identified 23 CCGs that are predicted to function early in tumorigenesis and whose mutation or alteration in patients with HCC is correlated with poor patient survival. Validation of the top trunk drivers identified in the screen, including MET (MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase), GRB2-associated binding protein 1 (GAB1), HECT, UBA, and WWE domain containing 1 (HUWE1), lysine-specific demethylase 6A (KDM6A), and protein-tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor-type 12 (PTPN12), showed that deregulation of these genes activates an EMT program in human HCC cells that enhances tumor cell migration. Finally, deregulation of these genes in human HCC was found to confer sorafenib resistance through apoptotic tolerance and reduced proliferation, consistent with recent studies showing that EMT contributes to the chemoresistance of tumor cells. Our unique cell-based transposon mutagenesis screen appears to be an excellent resource for discovering genes involved in EMT in human HCC and potentially for identifying new drug targets. PMID:27247392

  9. Low-copy piggyBac transposon mutagenesis in mice identifies genes driving melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ni, Thomas K; Landrette, Sean F; Bjornson, Robert D; Bosenberg, Marcus W; Xu, Tian

    2013-09-17

    Despite considerable efforts to sequence hypermutated cancers such as melanoma, distinguishing cancer-driving genes from thousands of recurrently mutated genes remains a significant challenge. To circumvent the problematic background mutation rates and identify new melanoma driver genes, we carried out a low-copy piggyBac transposon mutagenesis screen in mice. We induced eleven melanomas with mutation burdens that were 100-fold lower relative to human melanomas. Thirty-eight implicated genes, including two known drivers of human melanoma, were classified into three groups based on high, low, or background-level mutation frequencies in human melanomas, and we further explored the functional significance of genes in each group. For two genes overlooked by prevailing discovery methods, we found that loss of membrane associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain containing 2 and protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, O cooperated with the v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) recurrent V600E mutation to promote cellular transformation. Moreover, for infrequently mutated genes often disregarded by current methods, we discovered recurrent mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (Map3k1)-activating insertions in our screen, mirroring recurrent MAP3K1 up-regulation in human melanomas. Aberrant expression of Map3k1 enabled growth factor-autonomous proliferation and drove BRAF-independent ERK signaling, thus shedding light on alternative means of activating this prominent signaling pathway in melanoma. In summary, our study contributes several previously undescribed genes involved in melanoma and establishes an important proof-of-principle for the utility of the low-copy transposon mutagenesis approach for identifying cancer-driving genes, especially those masked by hypermutation.

  10. Large-Scale Mutagenesis of the Yeast Genome Using a Tn7-Derived Multipurpose Transposon

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anuj; Seringhaus, Michael; Biery, Matthew C.; Sarnovsky, Robert J.; Umansky, Lara; Piccirillo, Stacy; Heidtman, Matthew; Cheung, Kei-Hoi; Dobry, Craig J.; Gerstein, Mark B.; Craig, Nancy L.; Snyder, Michael

    2004-01-01

    We present here an unbiased and extremely versatile insertional library of yeast genomic DNA generated by in vitro mutagenesis with a multipurpose element derived from the bacterial transposon Tn7. This mini-Tn7 element has been engineered such that a single insertion can be used to generate a lacZ fusion, gene disruption, and epitope-tagged gene product. Using this transposon, we generated a plasmid-based library of ∼300,000 mutant alleles; by high-throughput screening in yeast, we identified and sequenced 9032 insertions affecting 2613 genes (45% of the genome). From analysis of 7176 insertions, we found little bias in Tn7 target-site selection in vitro. In contrast, we also sequenced 10,174 Tn3 insertions and found a markedly stronger preference for an AT-rich 5-base pair target sequence. We further screened 1327 insertion alleles in yeast for hypersensitivity to the chemotherapeutic cisplatin. Fifty-one genes were identified, including four functionally uncharacterized genes and 25 genes involved in DNA repair, replication, transcription, and chromatin structure. In total, the collection reported here constitutes the largest plasmid-based set of sequenced yeast mutant alleles to date and, as such, should be singularly useful for gene and genome-wide functional analysis. PMID:15466296

  11. Large-scale mutagenesis of the yeast genome using a Tn7-derived multipurpose transposon.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuj; Seringhaus, Michael; Biery, Matthew C; Sarnovsky, Robert J; Umansky, Lara; Piccirillo, Stacy; Heidtman, Matthew; Cheung, Kei-Hoi; Dobry, Craig J; Gerstein, Mark B; Craig, Nancy L; Snyder, Michael

    2004-10-01

    We present here an unbiased and extremely versatile insertional library of yeast genomic DNA generated by in vitro mutagenesis with a multipurpose element derived from the bacterial transposon Tn7. This mini-Tn7 element has been engineered such that a single insertion can be used to generate a lacZ fusion, gene disruption, and epitope-tagged gene product. Using this transposon, we generated a plasmid-based library of approximately 300,000 mutant alleles; by high-throughput screening in yeast, we identified and sequenced 9032 insertions affecting 2613 genes (45% of the genome). From analysis of 7176 insertions, we found little bias in Tn7 target-site selection in vitro. In contrast, we also sequenced 10,174 Tn3 insertions and found a markedly stronger preference for an AT-rich 5-base pair target sequence. We further screened 1327 insertion alleles in yeast for hypersensitivity to the chemotherapeutic cisplatin. Fifty-one genes were identified, including four functionally uncharacterized genes and 25 genes involved in DNA repair, replication, transcription, and chromatin structure. In total, the collection reported here constitutes the largest plasmid-based set of sequenced yeast mutant alleles to date and, as such, should be singularly useful for gene and genome-wide functional analysis.

  12. Transposon-directed base-exchange mutagenesis (TDEM): a novel method for multiple-nucleotide substitutions within a target gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Cheol; Lee, Hui Sun; Yoon, Sukjoon; Morrison, Sherie L

    2009-06-01

    In this report we describe transposon-directed base-exchange mutagenesis (TDEM), an efficient and controllable method for introducing a mutation into a gene. Each round of TDEM can remove up to 11 base pairs from a randomly selected site within the target gene and replace them with any length of DNA of predetermined sequence. Therefore, the number of bases to be deleted and inserted can be independently regulated providing greater versatility than existing methods of transposon-based mutagenesis. Subsequently, multiple rounds of mutagenesis will provide a diverse mutant library that contains multiple mutations throughout the gene. Additionally, we developed a simple frame-checking procedure that eliminates nonfunctional mutants containing frameshifts or stop codons. As a proof of principle, we used TDEM to generate mutant lacZalpha lacking alpha-complementation activity and recovered active revertants using a second round of TDEM. Furthermore, a single round of TDEM yielded unique, inactive mutants of ccdB.

  13. Transposon mutagenesis identifies genetic drivers of BrafV600E melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Michael B; Black, Michael A; Jones, Devin J; Ward, Jerrold M; Yew, Christopher Chin Kuan; Newberg, Justin Y; Dupuy, Adam J; Rust, Alistair G; Bosenberg, Marcus W; McMahon, Martin; Print, Cristin G; Copeland, Neal G; Jenkins, Nancy A

    2016-01-01

    Although nearly half of human melanomas harbor oncogenic BRAFV600E mutations, the genetic events that cooperate with these mutations to drive melanogenesis are still largely unknown. Here we show that Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-mediated mutagenesis drives melanoma progression in BrafV600E mutant mice and identify 1,232 recurrently mutated candidate cancer genes (CCGs) from 70 SB-driven melanomas. CCGs are enriched in Wnt, PI3K, MAPK and netrin signaling pathway components and are more highly connected to one another than predicted by chance, indicating that SB targets cooperative genetic networks in melanoma. Human orthologs of >500 CCGs are enriched for mutations in human melanoma or showed statistically significant clinical associations between RNA abundance and survival of patients with metastatic melanoma. We also functionally validate CEP350 as a new tumor-suppressor gene in human melanoma. SB mutagenesis has thus helped to catalog the cooperative molecular mechanisms driving BRAFV600E melanoma and discover new genes with potential clinical importance in human melanoma. PMID:25848750

  14. In vivo growth characteristics of leucine and methionine auxotrophic mutants of Mycobacterium bovis BCG generated by transposon mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    McAdam, R A; Weisbrod, T R; Martin, J; Scuderi, J D; Brown, A M; Cirillo, J D; Bloom, B R; Jacobs, W R

    1995-01-01

    Insertional mutagenesis in Mycobacterium bovis BCG, a member of the slow-growing M. tuberculosis complex, was accomplished with transposons engineered from the Mycobacterium smegmatis insertion element IS1096. Transposons were created by placing a kanamycin resistance gene in several different positions in IS1096, and the resulting transposons were electroporated into BCG on nonreplicating plasmids. These analyses demonstrated that only one of the two open reading frames was necessary for transposition. A library of insertions was generated. Southern analysis of 23 kanamycin-resistant clones revealed that the transposons had inserted directly, with no evidence of cointegrate formation, into different restriction fragments in each clone. Sequence analysis of nine of the clones revealed junctional direct 8-bp repeats with only a slight similarity in target sites. These results suggest that IS1096-derived transposons transposed into the BCG genome in a relatively random fashion. Three auxotrophs, two for leucine and one for methionine, were isolated from the library of transposon insertions in BCG. They were characterized by sequencing and found to be homologous to the leuD gene of Escherichia coli and a sulfate-binding protein of cyanobacteria, respectively. When inoculated intravenously into C57BL/6 mice, the leucine auxotrophs, in contrast to the parent BCG strain or the methionine auxotroph, showed an inability to grow in vivo and were cleared within 7 weeks from the lungs and spleen. PMID:7868221

  15. Transposon mutagenesis reveals cooperation of ETS family transcription factors with signaling pathways in erythro-megakaryocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jian Zhong; Carmichael, Catherine L.; Shi, Wei; Metcalf, Donald; Ng, Ashley P.; Hyland, Craig D.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Howell, Viive M.; Zhao, Zhizhuang Joe; Smyth, Gordon K.; Kile, Benjamin T.; Alexander, Warren S.

    2013-01-01

    To define genetic lesions driving leukemia, we targeted cre-dependent Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon mutagenesis to the blood-forming system using a hematopoietic-selective vav 1 oncogene (vav1) promoter. Leukemias of diverse lineages ensued, most commonly lymphoid leukemia and erythroleukemia. The inclusion of a transgenic allele of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)V617F resulted in acceleration of transposon-driven disease and strong selection for erythroleukemic pathology with transformation of bipotential erythro-megakaryocytic cells. The genes encoding the E-twenty-six (ETS) transcription factors Ets related gene (Erg) and Ets1 were the most common sites for transposon insertion in SB-induced JAK2V617F-positive erythroleukemias, present in 87.5% and 65%, respectively, of independent leukemias examined. The role of activated Erg was validated by reproducing erythroleukemic pathology in mice transplanted with fetal liver cells expressing translocated in liposarcoma (TLS)-ERG, an activated form of ERG found in human leukemia. Via application of SB mutagenesis to TLS-ERG–induced erythroid transformation, we identified multiple loci as likely collaborators with activation of Erg. Jak2 was identified as a common transposon insertion site in TLS-ERG–induced disease, strongly validating the cooperation between JAK2V617F and transposon insertion at the Erg locus in the JAK2V617F-positive leukemias. Moreover, loci expressing other regulators of signal transduction pathways were conspicuous among the common transposon insertion sites in TLS-ERG–driven leukemia, suggesting that a key mechanism in erythroleukemia may be the collaboration of lesions disturbing erythroid maturation, most notably in genes of the ETS family, with mutations that reduce dependence on exogenous signals. PMID:23533276

  16. Transposon mutagenesis reveals cooperation of ETS family transcription factors with signaling pathways in erythro-megakaryocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jian Zhong; Carmichael, Catherine L; Shi, Wei; Metcalf, Donald; Ng, Ashley P; Hyland, Craig D; Jenkins, Nancy A; Copeland, Neal G; Howell, Viive M; Zhao, Zhizhuang Joe; Smyth, Gordon K; Kile, Benjamin T; Alexander, Warren S

    2013-04-09

    To define genetic lesions driving leukemia, we targeted cre-dependent Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon mutagenesis to the blood-forming system using a hematopoietic-selective vav 1 oncogene (vav1) promoter. Leukemias of diverse lineages ensued, most commonly lymphoid leukemia and erythroleukemia. The inclusion of a transgenic allele of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)V617F resulted in acceleration of transposon-driven disease and strong selection for erythroleukemic pathology with transformation of bipotential erythro-megakaryocytic cells. The genes encoding the E-twenty-six (ETS) transcription factors Ets related gene (Erg) and Ets1 were the most common sites for transposon insertion in SB-induced JAK2V617F-positive erythroleukemias, present in 87.5% and 65%, respectively, of independent leukemias examined. The role of activated Erg was validated by reproducing erythroleukemic pathology in mice transplanted with fetal liver cells expressing translocated in liposarcoma (TLS)-ERG, an activated form of ERG found in human leukemia. Via application of SB mutagenesis to TLS-ERG-induced erythroid transformation, we identified multiple loci as likely collaborators with activation of Erg. Jak2 was identified as a common transposon insertion site in TLS-ERG-induced disease, strongly validating the cooperation between JAK2V617F and transposon insertion at the Erg locus in the JAK2V617F-positive leukemias. Moreover, loci expressing other regulators of signal transduction pathways were conspicuous among the common transposon insertion sites in TLS-ERG-driven leukemia, suggesting that a key mechanism in erythroleukemia may be the collaboration of lesions disturbing erythroid maturation, most notably in genes of the ETS family, with mutations that reduce dependence on exogenous signals.

  17. Transposon insertional mutagenesis in mice identifies human breast cancer susceptibility genes and signatures for stratification

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liming; Jenjaroenpun, Piroon; Pillai, Andrea Mun Ching; Ivshina, Anna V.; Ow, Ghim Siong; Efthimios, Motakis; Zhiqun, Tang; Lee, Song-Choon; Rogers, Keith; Ward, Jerrold M.; Mori, Seiichi; Adams, David J.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Ban, Kenneth Hon-Kim; Kuznetsov, Vladimir A.; Thiery, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    Robust prognostic gene signatures and therapeutic targets are difficult to derive from expression profiling because of the significant heterogeneity within breast cancer (BC) subtypes. Here, we performed forward genetic screening in mice using Sleeping Beauty transposon mutagenesis to identify candidate BC driver genes in an unbiased manner, using a stabilized N-terminal truncated β-catenin gene as a sensitizer. We identified 134 mouse susceptibility genes from 129 common insertion sites within 34 mammary tumors. Of these, 126 genes were orthologous to protein-coding genes in the human genome (hereafter, human BC susceptibility genes, hBCSGs), 70% of which are previously reported cancer-associated genes, and ∼16% are known BC suppressor genes. Network analysis revealed a gene hub consisting of E1A binding protein P300 (EP300), CD44 molecule (CD44), neurofibromin (NF1) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), which are linked to a significant number of mutated hBCSGs. From our survival prediction analysis of the expression of human BC genes in 2,333 BC cases, we isolated a six-gene-pair classifier that stratifies BC patients with high confidence into prognostically distinct low-, moderate-, and high-risk subgroups. Furthermore, we proposed prognostic classifiers identifying three basal and three claudin-low tumor subgroups. Intriguingly, our hBCSGs are mostly unrelated to cell cycle/mitosis genes and are distinct from the prognostic signatures currently used for stratifying BC patients. Our findings illustrate the strength and validity of integrating functional mutagenesis screens in mice with human cancer transcriptomic data to identify highly prognostic BC subtyping biomarkers. PMID:28251929

  18. Transposon insertional mutagenesis in mice identifies human breast cancer susceptibility genes and signatures for stratification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liming; Jenjaroenpun, Piroon; Pillai, Andrea Mun Ching; Ivshina, Anna V; Ow, Ghim Siong; Efthimios, Motakis; Zhiqun, Tang; Tan, Tuan Zea; Lee, Song-Choon; Rogers, Keith; Ward, Jerrold M; Mori, Seiichi; Adams, David J; Jenkins, Nancy A; Copeland, Neal G; Ban, Kenneth Hon-Kim; Kuznetsov, Vladimir A; Thiery, Jean Paul

    2017-03-14

    Robust prognostic gene signatures and therapeutic targets are difficult to derive from expression profiling because of the significant heterogeneity within breast cancer (BC) subtypes. Here, we performed forward genetic screening in mice using Sleeping Beauty transposon mutagenesis to identify candidate BC driver genes in an unbiased manner, using a stabilized N-terminal truncated β-catenin gene as a sensitizer. We identified 134 mouse susceptibility genes from 129 common insertion sites within 34 mammary tumors. Of these, 126 genes were orthologous to protein-coding genes in the human genome (hereafter, human BC susceptibility genes, hBCSGs), 70% of which are previously reported cancer-associated genes, and ∼16% are known BC suppressor genes. Network analysis revealed a gene hub consisting of E1A binding protein P300 (EP300), CD44 molecule (CD44), neurofibromin (NF1) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), which are linked to a significant number of mutated hBCSGs. From our survival prediction analysis of the expression of human BC genes in 2,333 BC cases, we isolated a six-gene-pair classifier that stratifies BC patients with high confidence into prognostically distinct low-, moderate-, and high-risk subgroups. Furthermore, we proposed prognostic classifiers identifying three basal and three claudin-low tumor subgroups. Intriguingly, our hBCSGs are mostly unrelated to cell cycle/mitosis genes and are distinct from the prognostic signatures currently used for stratifying BC patients. Our findings illustrate the strength and validity of integrating functional mutagenesis screens in mice with human cancer transcriptomic data to identify highly prognostic BC subtyping biomarkers.

  19. Sleeping Beauty transposon mutagenesis identifies genes that cooperate with mutant Smad4 in gastric cancer development.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Haruna; Rust, Alistair G; Ward, Jerrold M; Yew, Christopher Chin Kuan; Jenkins, Nancy A; Copeland, Neal G

    2016-04-05

    Mutations in SMAD4 predispose to the development of gastrointestinal cancer, which is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths. To identify genes driving gastric cancer (GC) development, we performed a Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon mutagenesis screen in the stomach of Smad4(+/-) mutant mice. This screen identified 59 candidate GC trunk drivers and a much larger number of candidate GC progression genes. Strikingly, 22 SB-identified trunk drivers are known or candidate cancer genes, whereas four SB-identified trunk drivers, including PTEN, SMAD4, RNF43, and NF1, are known human GC trunk drivers. Similar to human GC, pathway analyses identified WNT, TGF-β, and PI3K-PTEN signaling, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, adherens junctions, and RNA degradation in addition to genes involved in chromatin modification and organization as highly deregulated pathways in GC. Comparative oncogenomic filtering of the complete list of SB-identified genes showed that they are highly enriched for genes mutated in human GC and identified many candidate human GC genes. Finally, by comparing our complete list of SB-identified genes against the list of mutated genes identified in five large-scale human GC sequencing studies, we identified LDL receptor-related protein 1B (LRP1B) as a previously unidentified human candidate GC tumor suppressor gene. In LRP1B, 129 mutations were found in 462 human GC samples sequenced, and LRP1B is one of the top 10 most deleted genes identified in a panel of 3,312 human cancers. SB mutagenesis has, thus, helped to catalog the cooperative molecular mechanisms driving SMAD4-induced GC growth and discover genes with potential clinical importance in human GC.

  20. Sleeping Beauty transposon mutagenesis identifies genes that cooperate with mutant Smad4 in gastric cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Haruna; Rust, Alistair G.; Ward, Jerrold M.; Yew, Christopher Chin Kuan; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Copeland, Neal G.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in SMAD4 predispose to the development of gastrointestinal cancer, which is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths. To identify genes driving gastric cancer (GC) development, we performed a Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon mutagenesis screen in the stomach of Smad4+/− mutant mice. This screen identified 59 candidate GC trunk drivers and a much larger number of candidate GC progression genes. Strikingly, 22 SB-identified trunk drivers are known or candidate cancer genes, whereas four SB-identified trunk drivers, including PTEN, SMAD4, RNF43, and NF1, are known human GC trunk drivers. Similar to human GC, pathway analyses identified WNT, TGF-β, and PI3K-PTEN signaling, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, adherens junctions, and RNA degradation in addition to genes involved in chromatin modification and organization as highly deregulated pathways in GC. Comparative oncogenomic filtering of the complete list of SB-identified genes showed that they are highly enriched for genes mutated in human GC and identified many candidate human GC genes. Finally, by comparing our complete list of SB-identified genes against the list of mutated genes identified in five large-scale human GC sequencing studies, we identified LDL receptor-related protein 1B (LRP1B) as a previously unidentified human candidate GC tumor suppressor gene. In LRP1B, 129 mutations were found in 462 human GC samples sequenced, and LRP1B is one of the top 10 most deleted genes identified in a panel of 3,312 human cancers. SB mutagenesis has, thus, helped to catalog the cooperative molecular mechanisms driving SMAD4-induced GC growth and discover genes with potential clinical importance in human GC. PMID:27006499

  1. Functional characterization of the Sindbis virus E2 glycoprotein by transposon linker-insertion mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Navaratnarajah, Chanakha K.; Kuhn, Richard J. . E-mail: kuhnr@purdue.edu

    2007-06-20

    The glycoprotein envelope of alphaviruses consists of two proteins, E1 and E2. E1 is responsible for fusion and E2 is responsible for receptor binding. An atomic structure is available for E1, but one for E2 has not been reported. In this study, transposon linker-insertion mutagenesis was used to probe the function of different domains of E2. A library of mutants, containing 19 amino acid insertions in the E2 glycoprotein sequence of the prototype alphavirus, Sindbis virus (SINV), was generated. Fifty-seven independent E2 insertions were characterized, of which more than half (67%) gave rise to viable virus. The wild-type-like mutants identify regions that accommodate insertions without perturbing virus production and can be used to insert targeting moieties to direct SINV to specific receptors. The defective and lethal mutants give insight into regions of E2 important for protein stability, transport to the cell membrane, E1-E2 contacts, and receptor binding.

  2. Characterization and Transposon Mutagenesis of the Maize (Zea mays) Pho1 Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Vidal, M. Nancy; Acosta-Segovia, Edith; Sánchez-León, Nidia; Ahern, Kevin R.; Brutnell, Thomas P.; Sawers, Ruairidh J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for all plants, but also one of the least mobile, and consequently least available, in the soil. Plants have evolved a series of molecular, metabolic and developmental adaptations to increase the acquisition of phosphorus and to maximize the efficiency of use within the plant. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the AtPHO1 protein regulates and facilitates the distribution of phosphorus. To investigate the role of PHO1 proteins in maize (Zea mays), the B73 reference genome was searched for homologous sequences, and four genes identified that were designated ZmPho1;1, ZmPho1;2a, ZmPho1;2b and ZmPho1;3. ZmPho1;2a and ZmPho1;2b are the most similar to AtPHO1, and represent candidate co-orthologs that we hypothesize to have been retained following whole genome duplication. Evidence was obtained for the production of natural anti-sense transcripts associated with both ZmPho1;2a and ZmPho1;2b, suggesting the possibility of regulatory crosstalk between paralogs. To characterize functional divergence between ZmPho1;2a and ZmPho1;2b, a program of transposon mutagenesis was initiated using the Ac/Ds system, and, here, we report the generation of novel alleles of ZmPho1;2a and ZmPho1;2b. PMID:27648940

  3. Characterization and Transposon Mutagenesis of the Maize (Zea mays) Pho1 Gene Family.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Vidal, M Nancy; Acosta-Segovia, Edith; Sánchez-León, Nidia; Ahern, Kevin R; Brutnell, Thomas P; Sawers, Ruairidh J H

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for all plants, but also one of the least mobile, and consequently least available, in the soil. Plants have evolved a series of molecular, metabolic and developmental adaptations to increase the acquisition of phosphorus and to maximize the efficiency of use within the plant. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the AtPHO1 protein regulates and facilitates the distribution of phosphorus. To investigate the role of PHO1 proteins in maize (Zea mays), the B73 reference genome was searched for homologous sequences, and four genes identified that were designated ZmPho1;1, ZmPho1;2a, ZmPho1;2b and ZmPho1;3. ZmPho1;2a and ZmPho1;2b are the most similar to AtPHO1, and represent candidate co-orthologs that we hypothesize to have been retained following whole genome duplication. Evidence was obtained for the production of natural anti-sense transcripts associated with both ZmPho1;2a and ZmPho1;2b, suggesting the possibility of regulatory crosstalk between paralogs. To characterize functional divergence between ZmPho1;2a and ZmPho1;2b, a program of transposon mutagenesis was initiated using the Ac/Ds system, and, here, we report the generation of novel alleles of ZmPho1;2a and ZmPho1;2b.

  4. A two-component enhancer-inhibitor transposon mutagenesis system for functional analysis of the Arabidopsis genome.

    PubMed Central

    Speulman, E; Metz, P L; van Arkel, G; te Lintel Hekkert, B; Stiekema, W J; Pereira, A

    1999-01-01

    A modified Enhancer-Inhibitor transposon system was used to generate a series of mutant lines by single-seed descent such that multiple I insertions occurred per plant. The distribution of original insertions in the population was assessed by isolating transposon-flanking DNA, and a database of insertion sites was created. Approximately three-quarters of the identified insertion sites show similarity to sequences stored in public databases, which demonstrates the power of this regimen of insertional mutagenesis. To isolate insertions in specific genes, we developed three-dimensional pooling and polymerase chain reaction strategies that we then validated by identifying mutants for the regulator genes APETALA1 and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS. The system then was used to identify inserts in a class of uncharacterized genes involved in lipid biosynthesis; one such insertion conferred a fiddlehead mutant phenotype. PMID:10521517

  5. Mutagenesis of dimeric plasmids by the transposon. gamma. delta. (Tn1000)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.; Berg, C.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The Escherichia coli F factor mediates conjugal transfer of a plasmid such as pBR322 primarily by replicative transposition of transposon {gamma}{delta} (Tn1000) from F to that plasmid to form a cointegrate intermediate. Although resolution of this cointegrate always yields a plasmid containing a single {gamma}{delta} insertion, the occasional recovery of transposon-free plasmids after connuugal transfer has led to alternative hypotheses for F mobilization. The authors show here that {gamma}{delta}-free plasmids are found after F-mediated conjugal transfer only when the donor plasmid is a dimer and the recipient is Rec{sup +}.

  6. Use of a mariner-based transposon mutagenesis system to isolate Clostridium perfringens mutants deficient in gliding motility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hualan; Bouillaut, Laurent; Sonenshein, Abraham L; Melville, Stephen B

    2013-02-01

    Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic Gram-positive pathogen that causes many human and animal diseases, including food poisoning and gas gangrene. C. perfringens lacks flagella but possesses type IV pili (TFP). We have previously shown that C. perfringens can glide across an agar surface in long filaments composed of individual bacteria attached end to end and that two TFP-associated proteins, PilT and PilC, are needed for this. To discover additional gene products that play a role in gliding, we developed a plasmid-based mariner transposon mutagenesis system that works effectively in C. perfringens. More than 10,000 clones were screened for mutants that lacked the ability to move away from the edge of a colony. Twenty-four mutants (0.24%) were identified that fit the criteria. The genes containing insertions that affected gliding motility fell into nine different categories. One gene, CPE0278, which encodes a homolog of the SagA cell wall-dependent endopeptidase, acquired distinct transposon insertions in two independent mutants. sagA mutants were unable to form filaments due to a complete lack of end-to-end connections essential for gliding motility. Complementation of the sagA mutants with a wild-type copy of the gene restored gliding motility. We constructed an in-frame deletion mutation in the sagA gene and found that this mutant had a phenotype similar to those of the transposon mutants. We hypothesize that the sagA mutant strains are unable to form the molecular complexes which are needed to keep the cells in an end-to-end orientation, leading to separation of daughter cells and the inability to carry out gliding motility.

  7. TRANSIT--A Software Tool for Himar1 TnSeq Analysis.

    PubMed

    DeJesus, Michael A; Ambadipudi, Chaitra; Baker, Richard; Sassetti, Christopher; Ioerger, Thomas R

    2015-10-01

    TnSeq has become a popular technique for determining the essentiality of genomic regions in bacterial organisms. Several methods have been developed to analyze the wealth of data that has been obtained through TnSeq experiments. We developed a tool for analyzing Himar1 TnSeq data called TRANSIT. TRANSIT provides a graphical interface to three different statistical methods for analyzing TnSeq data. These methods cover a variety of approaches capable of identifying essential genes in individual datasets as well as comparative analysis between conditions. We demonstrate the utility of this software by analyzing TnSeq datasets of M. tuberculosis grown on glycerol and cholesterol. We show that TRANSIT can be used to discover genes which have been previously implicated for growth on these carbon sources. TRANSIT is written in Python, and thus can be run on Windows, OSX and Linux platforms. The source code is distributed under the GNU GPL v3 license and can be obtained from the following GitHub repository: https://github.com/mad-lab/transit.

  8. A transposon toolkit for gene transfer and mutagenesis in protozoan parasites

    PubMed Central

    Damasceno, Jeziel D.; Beverley, Stephen M.; Tosi, Luiz R. O.

    2009-01-01

    Protozoan parasites affect millions of people around the world. Treatment and control of these diseases are complicated partly due to the intricate biology of these organisms. The interactions of species of Plasmodium, Leishmania and trypanosomes with their hosts are mediated by an unusual control of gene expression that is not fully understood. The availability of the genome sequence of these protozoa sets the stage for using more comprehensive, genome-wide strategies to study gene function. Transposons are effective tools for the systematic introduction of genetic alterations and different transposition systems have been adapted to study gene function in these human pathogens. A mariner transposon toolkit for use in vivo or in vitro in Leishmania parasites has been developed and can be used in a variety of applications. These modified mariner elements not only permit the inactivation of genes, but also mediate the rescue of translational gene fusions, bringing a major contribution to the investigation of Leishmania gene function. The piggyBac and Tn5 transposons have also been shown to mobilize across Plasmodium spp. genomes circumventing the current limitations in the genetic manipulation of these organisms. PMID:19763844

  9. Scanning the Escherichia coli chromosome by random transposon mutagenesis and multiple phenotypic screening.

    PubMed

    Serina, Stefania; Nozza, Francesca; Nicastro, Giovanna; Faggioni, Federico; Mottl, Harald; Dehò, Gianni; Polissi, Alessandra

    2004-10-01

    Analysis of the complete DNA sequences of many microbial genomes available reveals a fair number of putative ORFs without an identified function. A systematic scan of the Escherichia coli chromosome was achieved by random transposition with a newly developed Tn5 minitransposon derivative carrying the arabinose-inducible araP(BAD) promoter oriented outward at one end (Tn5-araP(BAD)). The transposon insertion mutants obtained were assayed for conditional lethal phenotypes (arabinose dependence or sensitivity), for growth at two temperatures (37 and 15 degrees C) and in different media (rich and minimal medium). The Tn5-araP(BAD)-tagged genes were identified by sequencing the transposon insertion points. In this way we found a new essential gene cluster (yhbN-yhbG), produced conditional lethal (arabinose-dependent) mutations in already known essential genes (folD, frr, plsC, thiL, serS, thrS, and trpS) and provided a new phenotype (cold sensitivity) to other known genes (holD, ahpC, and tolA). Moreover, we identified eight putative ORFs (kch, ycaM, ycbQ, yddA, yddB, ydeK, ydeX, and yliF) that appear to be required in optimum growth conditions (rich medium at 37 degrees C) but not in the cold and in minimal medium.

  10. A single-copy Sleeping Beauty transposon mutagenesis screen identifies new PTEN-cooperating tumor suppressor genes.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa, Jorge; Weber, Julia; Friedrich, Mathias Josef; Li, Yilong; Rad, Lena; Ponstingl, Hannes; Liang, Qi; de Quirós, Sandra Bernaldo; Noorani, Imran; Metzakopian, Emmanouil; Strong, Alexander; Li, Meng Amy; Astudillo, Aurora; Fernández-García, María Teresa; Fernández-García, María Soledad; Hoffman, Gary J; Fuente, Rocío; Vassiliou, George S; Rad, Roland; López-Otín, Carlos; Bradley, Allan; Cadiñanos, Juan

    2017-03-20

    The overwhelming number of genetic alterations identified through cancer genome sequencing requires complementary approaches to interpret their significance and interactions. Here we developed a novel whole-body insertional mutagenesis screen in mice, which was designed for the discovery of Pten-cooperating tumor suppressors. Toward this aim, we coupled mobilization of a single-copy inactivating Sleeping Beauty transposon to Pten disruption within the same genome. The analysis of 278 transposition-induced prostate, breast and skin tumors detected tissue-specific and shared data sets of known and candidate genes involved in cancer. We validated ZBTB20, CELF2, PARD3, AKAP13 and WAC, which were identified by our screens in multiple cancer types, as new tumor suppressor genes in prostate cancer. We demonstrated their synergy with PTEN in preventing invasion in vitro and confirmed their clinical relevance. Further characterization of Wac in vivo showed obligate haploinsufficiency for this gene (which encodes an autophagy-regulating factor) in a Pten-deficient context. Our study identified complex PTEN-cooperating tumor suppressor networks in different cancer types, with potential clinical implications.

  11. Transposon Mutagenesis Paired with Deep Sequencing of Caulobacter crescentus under Uranium Stress Reveals Genes Essential for Detoxification and Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Yung, Mimi C.; Park, Dan M.; Overton, K. Wesley; Blow, Matthew J.; Hoover, Cindi A.; Smit, John; Murray, Sean R.; Ricci, Dante P.; Christen, Beat; Bowman, Grant R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ubiquitous aquatic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus is highly resistant to uranium (U) and facilitates U biomineralization and thus holds promise as an agent of U bioremediation. To gain an understanding of how C. crescentus tolerates U, we employed transposon (Tn) mutagenesis paired with deep sequencing (Tn-seq) in a global screen for genomic elements required for U resistance. Of the 3,879 annotated genes in the C. crescentus genome, 37 were found to be specifically associated with fitness under U stress, 15 of which were subsequently tested through mutational analysis. Systematic deletion analysis revealed that mutants lacking outer membrane transporters (rsaFa and rsaFb), a stress-responsive transcription factor (cztR), or a ppGpp synthetase/hydrolase (spoT) exhibited a significantly lower survival rate under U stress. RsaFa and RsaFb, which are homologues of TolC in Escherichia coli, have previously been shown to mediate S-layer export. Transcriptional analysis revealed upregulation of rsaFa and rsaFb by 4- and 10-fold, respectively, in the presence of U. We additionally show that rsaFa mutants accumulated higher levels of U than the wild type, with no significant increase in oxidative stress levels. Our results suggest a function for RsaFa and RsaFb in U efflux and/or maintenance of membrane integrity during U stress. In addition, we present data implicating CztR and SpoT in resistance to U stress. Together, our findings reveal novel gene targets that are key to understanding the molecular mechanisms of U resistance in C. crescentus. IMPORTANCE Caulobacter crescentus is an aerobic bacterium that is highly resistant to uranium (U) and has great potential to be used in U bioremediation, but its mechanisms of U resistance are poorly understood. We conducted a Tn-seq screen to identify genes specifically required for U resistance in C. crescentus. The genes that we identified have previously remained elusive using other omics approaches and thus

  12. Detection of a Putative TetR-Like Gene Related to Mycobacterium bovis BCG Growth in Cholesterol Using a gfp-Transposon Mutagenesis System

    PubMed Central

    Otal, Isabel; Pérez-Herrán, Esther; Garcia-Morales, Lazaro; Menéndez, María C.; Gonzalez-y-Merchand, Jorge A.; Martín, Carlos; García, María J.

    2017-01-01

    In vitro transposition is a powerful genetic tool for identifying mycobacterial virulence genes and studying virulence factors in relation to the host. Transposon shuttle mutagenesis is a method for constructing stable insertions in the genome of different microorganisms including mycobacteria. Using an IS1096 derivative, we have constructed the Tngfp, a transposon containing a promoterless green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene. This transposon was able to transpose randomly in Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Bacteria with a single copy of the gfp gene per chromosome from an M. bovis BCG::Tngfp library were analyzed and cells exhibiting high levels of fluorescence were detected by flow cytometry. Application of this approach allowed for the selection of a mutant, BCG_2177c::Tngfp (BCG-Tn), on the basis of high level of long-standing fluorescence at stationary phase. This BCG-Tn mutant showed some particular phenotypic features compared to the wild type strain, mainly during stationary phase, when cholesterol was used as a sole carbon source, thus supporting the relationships of the targeted gene with the regulation of cholesterol metabolism in this bacteria. This approach showed that Tngfp is a potentially useful tool for studying the involvement of the targeted loci in metabolic pathways of mycobacteria. PMID:28321208

  13. Random mutagenesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 using an IS6100-based transposon vector identified the last unknown gene in the histidine biosynthesis pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mormann, Sascha; Lömker, Alexander; Rückert, Christian; Gaigalat, Lars; Tauch, Andreas; Pühler, Alfred; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2006-01-01

    Background Corynebacterium glutamicum, a Gram-positive bacterium of the class Actinobacteria, is an industrially relevant producer of amino acids. Several methods for the targeted genetic manipulation of this organism and rational strain improvement have been developed. An efficient transposon mutagenesis system for the completely sequenced type strain ATCC 13032 would significantly advance functional genome analysis in this bacterium. Results A comprehensive transposon mutant library comprising 10,080 independent clones was constructed by electrotransformation of the restriction-deficient derivative of strain ATCC 13032, C. glutamicum RES167, with an IS6100-containing non-replicative plasmid. Transposon mutants had stable cointegrates between the transposon vector and the chromosome. Altogether 172 transposon integration sites have been determined by sequencing of the chromosomal inserts, revealing that each integration occurred at a different locus. Statistical target site analyses revealed an apparent absence of a target site preference. From the library, auxotrophic mutants were obtained with a frequency of 2.9%. By auxanography analyses nearly two thirds of the auxotrophs were further characterized, including mutants with single, double and alternative nutritional requirements. In most cases the nutritional requirement observed could be correlated to the annotation of the mutated gene involved in the biosynthesis of an amino acid, a nucleotide or a vitamin. One notable exception was a clone mutagenized by transposition into the gene cg0910, which exhibited an auxotrophy for histidine. The protein sequence deduced from cg0910 showed high sequence similarities to inositol-1(or 4)-monophosphatases (EC 3.1.3.25). Subsequent genetic deletion of cg0910 delivered the same histidine-auxotrophic phenotype. Genetic complementation of the mutants as well as supplementation by histidinol suggests that cg0910 encodes the hitherto unknown essential L

  14. Resistance mechanisms to TP53-MDM2 inhibition identified by in vivo piggyBac transposon mutagenesis screen in an Arf(-/-) mouse model.

    PubMed

    Chapeau, Emilie A; Gembarska, Agnieszka; Durand, Eric Y; Mandon, Emeline; Estadieu, Claire; Romanet, Vincent; Wiesmann, Marion; Tiedt, Ralph; Lehar, Joseph; de Weck, Antoine; Rad, Roland; Barys, Louise; Jeay, Sebastien; Ferretti, Stephane; Kauffmann, Audrey; Sutter, Esther; Grevot, Armelle; Moulin, Pierre; Murakami, Masato; Sellers, William R; Hofmann, Francesco; Jensen, Michael Rugaard

    2017-03-21

    Inhibitors of double minute 2 protein (MDM2)-tumor protein 53 (TP53) interaction are predicted to be effective in tumors in which the TP53 gene is wild type, by preventing TP53 protein degradation. One such setting is represented by the frequent CDKN2A deletion in human cancer that, through inactivation of p14ARF, activates MDM2 protein, which in turn degrades TP53 tumor suppressor. Here we used piggyBac (PB) transposon insertional mutagenesis to anticipate resistance mechanisms occurring during treatment with the MDM2-TP53 inhibitor HDM201. Constitutive PB mutagenesis in Arf(-/-) mice provided a collection of spontaneous tumors with characterized insertional genetic landscapes. Tumors were allografted in large cohorts of mice to assess the pharmacologic effects of HDM201. Sixteen out of 21 allograft models were sensitive to HDM201 but ultimately relapsed under treatment. A comparison of tumors with acquired resistance to HDM201 and untreated tumors identified 87 genes that were differentially and significantly targeted by the PB transposon. Resistant tumors displayed a complex clonality pattern suggesting the emergence of several resistant subclones. Among the most frequent alterations conferring resistance, we observed somatic and insertional loss-of-function mutations in transformation-related protein 53 (Trp53) in 54% of tumors and transposon-mediated gain-of-function alterations in B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL), Mdm4, and two TP53 family members, resulting in expression of the TP53 dominant negative truncations ΔNTrp63 and ΔNTrp73. Enhanced BCL-xL and MDM4 protein expression was confirmed in resistant tumors, as well as in HDM201-resistant patient-derived tumor xenografts. Interestingly, concomitant inhibition of MDM2 and BCL-xL demonstrated significant synergy in p53 wild-type cell lines in vitro. Collectively, our findings identify several potential mechanisms by which TP53 wild-type tumors may escape MDM2-targeted therapy.

  15. Targeted and random mutagenesis of Ehrlichia chaffeensis for the identification of genes required for in vivo infection.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chuanmin; Nair, Arathy D S; Indukuri, Vijaya V; Gong, Shanzhong; Felsheim, Roderick F; Jaworski, Deborah; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Ganta, Roman R

    2013-02-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis is a tick transmitted pathogen responsible for the disease human monocytic ehrlichiosis. Research to elucidate gene function in rickettsial pathogens is limited by the lack of genetic manipulation methods. Mutational analysis was performed, targeting to specific and random insertion sites within the bacterium's genome. Targeted mutagenesis at six genomic locations by homologous recombination and mobile group II intron-based methods led to the consistent identification of mutants in two genes and in one intergenic site; the mutants persisted in culture for 8 days. Three independent experiments using Himar1 transposon mutagenesis of E. chaffeensis resulted in the identification of multiple mutants; these mutants grew continuously in macrophage and tick cell lines. Nine mutations were confirmed by sequence analysis. Six insertions were located within non-coding regions and three were present in the coding regions of three transcriptionally active genes. The intragenic mutations prevented transcription of all three genes. Transposon mutants containing a pool of five different insertions were assessed for their ability to infect deer and subsequent acquisition by Amblyomma americanum ticks, the natural reservoir and vector, respectively. Three of the five mutants with insertions into non-coding regions grew well in deer. Transposition into a differentially expressed hypothetical gene, Ech_0379, and at 18 nucleotides downstream to Ech_0230 gene coding sequence resulted in the inhibition of growth in deer, which is further evidenced by their failed acquisition by ticks. Similarly, a mutation into the coding region of ECH_0660 gene inhibited the in vivo growth in deer. This is the first study evaluating targeted and random mutagenesis in E. chaffeensis, and the first to report the generation of stable mutants in this obligate intracellular bacterium. We further demonstrate that in vitro mutagenesis coupled with in vivo infection assessment is a

  16. Identification of genes involved in Mycoplasma gallisepticum biofilm formation using mini-Tn4001-SGM transposon mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Yi, Li; Zhang, Fanqing; Qiu, Xusheng; Tan, Lei; Yu, Shengqing; Cheng, Xiangchao; Ding, Chan

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is an important pathogen that can cause chronic respiratory disease in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys. MG has the ability to form biofilms. The molecular mechanisms underlying MG biofilm formation are complex and poorly understood. To better understand the mechanisms involved in biofilm formation, mini-Tn4001-SGM, a novel transposon vector containing the gentamicin gene was constructed and electroporated into MG strain Rlow. Of the 738 mutants obtained, 12 had significantly reduced capacity to form biofilms in a polystyrene microtiter-plate biofilm assay. Ten different genes were identified as disrupted in these mutants using genomic walking from the transposon insertion sites and Southern bolt hybridization with a transposon-based probe. Four genes were associated with cellular processes, especially synthesis of extracellular polysaccharide and several lipoproteins encoded. Other genes were associated with translation, metabolism and gene regulation, and one had unknown function. Seven genes identified in this study have been previously associated with biofilm formation in MG or other bacterial species. The other three have not been previously reported to play a role in biofilm formation in MG. In conclusion, a new transposon vector was shown to be a powerful tool for future studies of MG pathogenesis. This study adds to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in MG biofilm formation and may shed light on the persistence of MG infections.

  17. Transposon mutagenesis identified chromosomal and plasmid genes essential for adaptation of the marine bacterium Dinoroseobacter shibae to anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Matthias; Laaß, Sebastian; Burghartz, Melanie; Petersen, Jörn; Koßmehl, Sebastian; Wöhlbrand, Lars; Rabus, Ralf; Wittmann, Christoph; Tielen, Petra; Jahn, Dieter

    2013-10-01

    Anaerobic growth and survival are integral parts of the life cycle of many marine bacteria. To identify genes essential for the anoxic life of Dinoroseobacter shibae, a transposon library was screened for strains impaired in anaerobic denitrifying growth. Transposon insertions in 35 chromosomal and 18 plasmid genes were detected. The essential contribution of plasmid genes to anaerobic growth was confirmed with plasmid-cured D. shibae strains. A combined transcriptome and proteome approach identified oxygen tension-regulated genes. Transposon insertion sites of a total of 1,527 mutants without an anaerobic growth phenotype were determined to identify anaerobically induced but not essential genes. A surprisingly small overlap of only three genes (napA, phaA, and the Na(+)/Pi antiporter gene Dshi_0543) between anaerobically essential and induced genes was found. Interestingly, transposon mutations in genes involved in dissimilatory and assimilatory nitrate reduction (napA, nasA) and corresponding cofactor biosynthesis (genomic moaB, moeB, and dsbC and plasmid-carried dsbD and ccmH) were found to cause anaerobic growth defects. In contrast, mutation of anaerobically induced genes encoding proteins required for the later denitrification steps (nirS, nirJ, nosD), dimethyl sulfoxide reduction (dmsA1), and fermentation (pdhB1, arcA, aceE, pta, acs) did not result in decreased anaerobic growth under the conditions tested. Additional essential components (ferredoxin, cccA) of the anaerobic electron transfer chain and central metabolism (pdhB) were identified. Another surprise was the importance of sodium gradient-dependent membrane processes and genomic rearrangements via viruses, transposons, and insertion sequence elements for anaerobic growth. These processes and the observed contributions of cell envelope restructuring (lysM, mipA, fadK), C4-dicarboxylate transport (dctM1, dctM3), and protease functions to anaerobic growth require further investigation to unravel the

  18. Genetic Transformation of Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum for the Development of a Transposon-Based Insertional Mutagenesis System.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, Marie-Josée; Kaur, Rajvinder; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-10-01

    Domestication and intensive selective breeding of plants has triggered erosion of genetic diversity of important stress-related alleles. Researchers highlight the potential of using wild accessions as a gene source for improvement of cereals such as barley, which has major economic and social importance worldwide. Previously, we have successfully introduced the maize Ac/Ds transposon system for gene identification in cultivated barley. The objective of current research was to investigate the response of Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum wild barley accessions in tissue culture to standardize parameters for introduction of Ac/Ds transposons through genetic transformation. We investigated the response of ten wild barley genotypes for callus induction, regenerative green callus induction and regeneration of fertile plants. The activity of exogenous Ac/Ds elements was observed through a transient assay on immature wild barley embryos/callus whereby transformed embryos/calli were identified by the expression of GUS. Transient Ds expression bombardment experiments were performed on 352 pieces of callus (3-5 mm each) or immature embryos in 4 genotypes of wild barley. The transformation frequency of putative transgenic callus lines based on transient GUS expression ranged between 72 and100 % in wild barley genotypes. This is the first report of a transformation system in H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum.

  19. Transposon mutagenesis of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis identifies genes that contribute to invasiveness in human and chicken cells and survival in egg albumen.

    PubMed

    Shah, Devendra H; Zhou, Xiaohui; Kim, Hye-Young; Call, Douglas R; Guard, Jean

    2012-12-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is an important food-borne pathogen, and chickens are a primary reservoir of human infection. While most knowledge about Salmonella pathogenesis is based on research conducted on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis is known to have pathobiology specific to chickens that impacts epidemiology in humans. Therefore, more information is needed about S. Enteritidis pathobiology in comparison to that of S. Typhimurium. We used transposon mutagenesis to identify S. Enteritidis virulence genes by assay of invasiveness in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells and chicken liver (LMH) cells and survival within chicken (HD-11) macrophages as a surrogate marker for virulence. A total of 4,330 transposon insertion mutants of an invasive G1 Nal(r) strain were screened using Caco-2 cells. This led to the identification of attenuating mutations in a total of 33 different loci, many of which include genes previously known to contribute to enteric infection (e.g., Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 [SPI-1], SPI-4, SPI-5, CS54, fliH, fljB, csgB, spvR, and rfbMN) in S. Enteritidis and other Salmonella serovars. Several genes or genomic islands that have not been reported previously (e.g., SPI-14, ksgA, SEN0034, SEN2278, and SEN3503) or that are absent in S. Typhimurium or in most other Salmonella serovars (e.g., pegD, SEN1152, SEN1393, and SEN1966) were also identified. Most mutants with reduced Caco-2 cell invasiveness also showed significantly reduced invasiveness in chicken liver cells and impaired survival in chicken macrophages and in egg albumen. Consequently, these genes may play an important role during infection of the chicken host and also contribute to successful egg contamination by S. Enteritidis.

  20. Silent Mischief: Bacteriophage Mu Insertions Contaminate Products of Escherichia coli Random Mutagenesis Performed Using Suicidal Transposon Delivery Plasmids Mobilized by Broad-Host-Range RP4 Conjugative Machinery ▿

    PubMed Central

    Ferrières, Lionel; Hémery, Gaëlle; Nham, Toan; Guérout, Anne-Marie; Mazel, Didier; Beloin, Christophe; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    Random transposon mutagenesis is the strategy of choice for associating a phenotype with its unknown genetic determinants. It is generally performed by mobilization of a conditionally replicating vector delivering transposons to recipient cells using broad-host-range RP4 conjugative machinery carried by the donor strain. In the present study, we demonstrate that bacteriophage Mu, which was deliberately introduced during the original construction of the widely used donor strains SM10 λpir and S17-1 λpir, is silently transferred to Escherichia coli recipient cells at high frequency, both by hfr and by release of Mu particles by the donor strain. Our findings suggest that bacteriophage Mu could have contaminated many random-mutagenesis experiments performed on Mu-sensitive species with these popular donor strains, leading to potential misinterpretation of the transposon mutant phenotype and therefore perturbing analysis of mutant screens. To circumvent this problem, we precisely mapped Mu insertions in SM10 λpir and S17-1 λpir and constructed a new Mu-free donor strain, MFDpir, harboring stable hfr-deficient RP4 conjugative functions and sustaining replication of Π-dependent suicide vectors. This strain can therefore be used with most of the available transposon-delivering plasmids and should enable more efficient and easy-to-analyze mutant hunts in E. coli and other Mu-sensitive RP4 host bacteria. PMID:20935093

  1. Modification of nitrogen remobilization, grain fill and leaf senescence in maize (Zea mays) by transposon insertional mutagenesis in a protease gene.

    PubMed

    Donnison, Iain S; Gay, Alan P; Thomas, Howard; Edwards, Keith J; Edwards, David; James, Caron L; Thomas, Ann M; Ougham, Helen J

    2007-01-01

    A maize (Zea mays) senescence-associated legumain gene, See2beta, was characterized at the physiological and molecular levels to determine its role in senescence and resource allocation. A reverse-genetics screen of a maize Mutator (Mu) population identified a Mu insertion in See2beta. Maize plants homozygous for the insertion were produced. These See2 mutant and sibling wild-type plants were grown under high or low quantities of nitrogen (N). The early development of both genotypes was similar; however, tassel tip and collar emergence occurred earlier in the mutant. Senescence of the mutant leaves followed a similar pattern to that of wild-type leaves, but at later sampling points mutant plants contained more chlorophyll than wild-type plants and showed a small extension in photosynthetic activity. Total plant weight was higher in the wild-type than in the mutant, and there was a genotype x N interaction. Mutant plants under low N maintained cob weight, in contrast to wild-type plants under the same treatment. It is concluded, on the basis of transposon mutagenesis, that See2beta has an important role in N-use and resource allocation under N-limited conditions, and a minor but significant function in the later stages of senescence.

  2. Large-scale transposon mutagenesis of Photobacterium profundum SS9 reveals new genetic loci important for growth at low temperature and high pressure.

    PubMed

    Lauro, Federico M; Tran, Khiem; Vezzi, Alessandro; Vitulo, Nicola; Valle, Giorgio; Bartlett, Douglas H

    2008-03-01

    Microorganisms adapted to piezopsychrophilic growth dominate the majority of the biosphere that is at relatively constant low temperatures and high pressures, but the genetic bases for the adaptations are largely unknown. Here we report the use of transposon mutagenesis with the deep-sea bacterium Photobacterium profundum strain SS9 to isolate dozens of mutant strains whose growth is impaired at low temperature and/or whose growth is altered as a function of hydrostatic pressure. In many cases the gene mutation-growth phenotype relationship was verified by complementation analysis. The largest fraction of loci associated with temperature sensitivity were involved in the biosynthesis of the cell envelope, in particular the biosynthesis of extracellular polysaccharide. The largest fraction of loci associated with pressure sensitivity were involved in chromosomal structure and function. Genes for ribosome assembly and function were found to be important for both low-temperature and high-pressure growth. Likewise, both adaptation to temperature and adaptation to pressure were affected by mutations in a number of sensory and regulatory loci, suggesting the importance of signal transduction mechanisms in adaptation to either physical parameter. These analyses were the first global analyses of genes conditionally required for low-temperature or high-pressure growth in a deep-sea microorganism.

  3. Transposon Mutagenesis of the Plant-Associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum FZB42 Revealed That the nfrA and RBAM17410 Genes Are Involved in Plant-Microbe-Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Dietel, Kristin; Beator, Barbara; Dolgova, Olga; Fan, Ben; Bleiss, Wilfrid; Ziegler, Jörg; Schmid, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Borriss, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum FZB42 represents the prototype of Gram-positive plant growth promoting and biocontrol bacteria. In this study, we applied transposon mutagenesis to generate a transposon library, which was screened for genes involved in multicellular behavior and biofilm formation on roots as a prerequisite of plant growth promoting activity. Transposon insertion sites were determined by rescue-cloning followed by DNA sequencing. As in B. subtilis, the global transcriptional regulator DegU was identified as an activator of genes necessary for swarming and biofilm formation, and the DegU-mutant of FZB42 was found impaired in efficient root colonization. Direct screening of 3,000 transposon insertion mutants for plant-growth-promotion revealed the gene products of nfrA and RBAM_017140 to be essential for beneficial effects exerted by FZB42 on plants. We analyzed the performance of GFP-labeled wild-type and transposon mutants in the colonization of lettuce roots using confocal laser scanning microscopy. While the wild-type strain heavily colonized root surfaces, the nfrA mutant did not colonize lettuce roots, although it was not impaired in growth in laboratory cultures, biofilm formation and swarming motility on agar plates. The RBAM17410 gene, occurring in only a few members of the B. subtilis species complex, was directly involved in plant growth promotion. None of the mutant strains were affected in producing the plant growth hormone auxin. We hypothesize that the nfrA gene product is essential for overcoming the stress caused by plant response towards bacterial root colonization. PMID:24847778

  4. Mutator and MULE Transposons.

    PubMed

    Lisch, Damon

    2015-04-01

    The Mutator system of transposable elements (TEs) is a highly mutagenic family of transposons in maize. Because they transpose at high rates and target genic regions, these transposons can rapidly generate large numbers of new mutants, which has made the Mutator system a favored tool for both forward and reverse mutagenesis in maize. Low copy number versions of this system have also proved to be excellent models for understanding the regulation and behavior of Class II transposons in plants. Notably, the availability of a naturally occurring locus that can heritably silence autonomous Mutator elements has provided insights into the means by which otherwise active transposons are recognized and silenced. This chapter will provide a review of the biology, regulation, evolution and uses of this remarkable transposon system, with an emphasis on recent developments in our understanding of the ways in which this TE system is recognized and epigenetically silenced as well as recent evidence that Mu-like elements (MULEs) have had a significant impact on the evolution of plant genomes.

  5. Transposon mutagenesis of probiotic Lactobacillus casei identifies asnH, an asparagine synthetase gene involved in its immune-activating capacity.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masahiro; Kim, Yun-Gi; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Takuya; Kiwaki, Mayumi; Nomoto, Koji; Danbara, Hirofumi; Okada, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei ATCC 27139 enhances host innate immunity, and the J1 phage-resistant mutants of this strain lose the activity. A transposon insertion mutant library of L. casei ATCC 27139 was constructed, and nine J1 phage-resistant mutants out of them were obtained. Cloning and sequencing analyses identified three independent genes that were disrupted by insertion of the transposon element: asnH, encoding asparagine synthetase, and dnaJ and dnaK, encoding the molecular chaperones DnaJ and DnaK, respectively. Using an in vivo mouse model of Listeria infection, only asnH mutant showed deficiency in their ability to enhance host innate immunity, and complementation of the mutation by introduction of the wild-type asnH in the mutant strain recovered the immuno-augmenting activity. AsnH protein exhibited asparagine synthetase activity when the lysozyme-treated cell wall extracts of L. casei ATCC 27139 was added as substrate. The asnH mutants lost the thick and rigid peptidoglycan features that are characteristic to the wild-type cells, indicating that AsnH of L. casei is involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. These results indicate that asnH is required for the construction of the peptidoglycan composition involved in the immune-activating capacity of L. casei ATCC 27139.

  6. Multipurpose Transposon-Insertion Libraries in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuj

    2016-06-01

    Libraries of transposon-insertion alleles constitute powerful and versatile tools for large-scale analysis of yeast gene function. Transposon-insertion libraries are constructed most simply through mutagenesis of a plasmid-based genomic DNA library; modification of the mutagenizing transposon by incorporation of yeast selectable markers, recombination sites, and an epitope tag enables the application of insertion alleles for phenotypic screening and protein localization. In particular, yeast genomic DNA libraries have been mutagenized with modified bacterial transposons carrying the URA3 marker, lox recombination sites, and sequence encoding multiple copies of the hemagglutinin (HA) epitope. Mutagenesis with these transposons has yielded a large resource of insertion alleles affecting nearly 4000 yeast genes in total. Through well-established protocols, these insertion libraries can be introduced into the desired strain backgrounds and the resulting insertional mutants can be screened or systematically analyzed. Relative to alternative methods of UV irradiation or chemical mutagenesis, transposon-insertion alleles can be easily identified by PCR-based approaches or high-throughput sequencing. Transposon-insertion libraries also provide a cost-effective alternative to targeted deletion approaches, although, in contrast to start-codon to stop-codon deletions, insertion alleles might not represent true null-mutants. For protein-localization studies, transposon-insertion alleles can provide encoded epitope tags in-frame with internal codons; in many cases, these transposon-encoded epitope tags can provide a more accurate localization for proteins in which terminal sequences are crucial for intracellular targeting. Thus, overall, transposon-insertion libraries can be used quickly and economically and have a particular utility in screening for desired phenotypes and localization patterns in nonstandard genetic backgrounds.

  7. Characterization of the Pathogenicity of Streptococcus intermedius TYG1620 Isolated from a Human Brain Abscess Based on the Complete Genome Sequence with Transcriptome Analysis and Transposon Mutagenesis in a Murine Subcutaneous Abscess Model.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Noriko; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Sugi, Yutaka; Kawakami, Nobuhiro; Ogasawara, Yumiko; Kato, Kengo; Yamashita, Akifumi; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Makoto

    2017-02-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is known to cause periodontitis and pyogenic infections in the brain and liver. Here we report the complete genome sequence of strain TYG1620 (genome size, 2,006,877 bp; GC content, 37.6%; 2,020 predicted open reading frames [ORFs]) isolated from a brain abscess in an infant. Comparative analysis of S. intermedius genome sequences suggested that TYG1620 carries a notable type VII secretion system (T7SS), two long repeat regions, and 19 ORFs for cell wall-anchored proteins (CWAPs). To elucidate the genes responsible for the pathogenicity of TYG1620, transcriptome analysis was performed in a murine subcutaneous abscess model. The results suggest that the levels of expression of small hypothetical proteins similar to phenol-soluble modulin β1 (PSMβ1), a staphylococcal virulence factor, significantly increased in the abscess model. In addition, an experiment in a murine subcutaneous abscess model with random transposon (Tn) mutant attenuation suggested that Tn mutants with mutations in 212 ORFs in the Tn mutant library were attenuated in the murine abscess model (629 ORFs were disrupted in total); the 212 ORFs are putatively essential for abscess formation. Transcriptome analysis identified 37 ORFs, including paralogs of the T7SS and a putative glucan-binding CWAP in long repeat regions, to be upregulated and attenuated in vivo This study provides a comprehensive characterization of S. intermedius pathogenicity based on the complete genome sequence and a murine subcutaneous abscess model with transcriptome and Tn mutagenesis, leading to the identification of pivotal targets for vaccines or antimicrobial agents for the control of S. intermedius infections.

  8. Tol2 transposon-mediated transgenesis in Xenopus tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Hamlet, Michelle R Johnson; Yergeau, Donald A; Kuliyev, Emin; Takeda, Masatoshi; Taira, Masanori; Kawakami, Koichi; Mead, Paul E

    2006-09-01

    The diploid frog Xenopus tropicalis is becoming a powerful developmental genetic model system. Sequencing of the X. tropicalis genome is nearing completion and several labs are embarking on mutagenesis screens. We are interested in developing insertional mutagenesis strategies in X. tropicalis. Transposon-mediated insertional mutagenesis, once used exclusively in plants and invertebrate systems, is now more widely applicable to vertebrates. The first step in developing transposons as tools for mutagenesis is to demonstrate that these mobile elements function efficiently in the target organism. Here, we show that the Medaka fish transposon, Tol2, is able to stably integrate into the X. tropicalis genome and will serve as a powerful tool for insertional mutagenesis strategies in the frog.

  9. Transposon tools: worldwide landscape of intellectual property and technological developments.

    PubMed

    Palazzoli, Fabien; Testu, François-Xavier; Merly, Franck; Bigot, Yves

    2010-03-01

    DNA transposons are considered to be good candidates for developing tools for genome engineering, insertional mutagenesis and gene delivery for therapeutic purposes, as illustrated by the recent first clinical trial of a transposon. In this article we set out to highlight the interest of patent information, and to develop a strategy for the technological development of transposon tools, similar to what has been done in many other fields. We propose a patent landscape for transposon tools, including the changes in international patent applications, and review the leading inventors and applicants. We also provide an overview of the potential patent portfolio for the prokaryotic and eukaryotic transposons that are exploited by spin-off companies. Finally, we discuss the difficulties involved in tracing relevant state-of-the-art of articles and patent documents, based on the example of one of the most promising transposon systems, including all the impacts on the technological development of transposon tools.

  10. Fighting an old war with a new weapon--silencing transposons by Piwi-interacting RNA.

    PubMed

    Guo, Manhong; Wu, Yuliang

    2013-09-01

    Discovered six decades ago, transposons are known to selfishly multiply within and between chromosomes. Although they may play a creative role in building new functional parts of the genome, transposons usually cause insertional mutagenesis and/or turn nearby genes on or off. To maintain genome integrity, cells use a variety of strategies to defend against the proliferation of transposons. A class of small noncoding RNA, discovered seven years ago and called piRNA, is a new player in the war to silence transposons. piRNA is made via two biogenesis pathways: the primary processing pathway and the ping-pong amplification loop. These pathways are critically involved in transposon RNA degradation, DNA methylation, and histone modification machinery that represses transposons. In this review, we briefly introduce transposon-caused genomic instability and summarize our current understanding of the piRNA pathway, focusing on its key function in transposon silencing.

  11. DNA transposons: nature and applications in genomics.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-López, Martín; García-Pérez, José L

    2010-04-01

    Repeated DNA makes up a large fraction of a typical mammalian genome, and some repetitive elements are able to move within the genome (transposons and retrotransposons). DNA transposons move from one genomic location to another by a cut-and-paste mechanism. They are powerful forces of genetic change and have played a significant role in the evolution of many genomes. As genetic tools, DNA transposons can be used to introduce a piece of foreign DNA into a genome. Indeed, they have been used for transgenesis and insertional mutagenesis in different organisms, since these elements are not generally dependent on host factors to mediate their mobility. Thus, DNA transposons are useful tools to analyze the regulatory genome, study embryonic development, identify genes and pathways implicated in disease or pathogenesis of pathogens, and even contribute to gene therapy. In this review, we will describe the nature of these elements and discuss recent advances in this field of research, as well as our evolving knowledge of the DNA transposons most widely used in these studies.

  12. Transformation frequency of a mariner-based transposon in Rickettsia rickettsii.

    PubMed

    Clark, Tina R; Lackey, Amanda M; Kleba, Betsy; Driskell, Lonnie O; Lutter, Erika I; Martens, Craig; Wood, David O; Hackstadt, Ted

    2011-09-01

    Transformation frequencies of a mariner-based transposon system in Rickettsia rickettsii were determined using a plaque assay system for enumeration and isolation of mutants. Sequence analysis of insertion sites in both R. rickettsii and R. prowazekii indicated that insertions were random. Transposon mutagenesis provides a useful tool for rickettsial research.

  13. Using Yeast Transposon-Insertion Libraries for Phenotypic Screening and Protein Localization.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuj

    2016-06-01

    This protocol details how to use a transposon-insertion library for phenotypic screening and protein localization. The insertion library was generated by mutagenesis of a plasmid-based yeast genomic DNA library by using a multipurpose transposon; the transposon produces gene disruptions, and, by Cre-mediated recombination at lox sites incorporated within the transposon, alleles with an in-frame insertion can be truncated to a residual transposon encoding multiple copies of the hemagglutinin epitope. Insertions are generated in yeast by shuttle mutagenesis. Yeast genomic DNA containing a transposon insertion is released from the library, and the mutagenized DNA sequences are introduced into a desired strain of yeast, where the insertion alleles replace native loci by homologous recombination. The insertion mutants can be screened for phenotypes, and the site of transposon insertion can subsequently be identified in selected mutants by inverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In-frame insertions within genes of interest can be truncated to an epitope-tagged allele by Cre-lox recombination, and the subcellular localization of the encoded protein product can be identified by standard methods of indirect immunofluorescence. In summary, the transposon-insertion libraries represent an informative resource for large-scale mutagenesis, presenting a straightforward alternative to labor-intensive targeted approaches for the construction of deletion alleles and fluorescent protein fusions.

  14. Transposons in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Bessereau, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-18

    Transposons are discrete segments of DNA capable of moving through the genome of their host via an RNA intermediate in the case of class I retrotransposon or via a "cut-and-paste" mechanism for class II DNA transposons. Since transposons take advantage of their host's cellular machinery to proliferate in the genome and enter new hosts, transposable elements can be viewed as parasitic or "selfish DNA". However, transposons may have been beneficial for their hosts as genome evolution drivers, thus providing an example of molecular mutualism. Interactions between transposon and C. elegans research were undoubtedly mutualistic, leading to the advent of needed genomic tools to drive C. elegans research while providing insights into the transposition field. Tc1, the first C. elegans transposon to be identified, turned out to be the founding member of a widespread family of mobile elements: the Tc1/mariner superfamily. The investigation into transposition regulation in C. elegans has uncovered an unforeseen link between transposition, genome surveillance and RNA interference. Conversely, transposons were utilized soon after their identification to inactivate and clone genes, providing some of the first molecular identities of C. elegans genes. Recent results suggest that transposons might provide a means to engineer site-directed mutations into the C. elegans genome. This article describes the different transposons present in the C. elegans genome with a specific emphasis on the ones that proved to be mobile under laboratory conditions. Mechanisms and control of transposition are discussed briefly. Some tools based on the use of transposons for C. elegans research are presented at the end of this review.

  15. Insertional mutagenesis and illegitimate recombination in mycobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Kalpana, G V; Bloom, B R; Jacobs, W R

    1991-01-01

    Mycobacteria, particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, and Mycobacterium avium, are major pathogens of man. Although insertional mutagenesis has been an invaluable genetic tool for analyzing the mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis, it has not yet been possible to apply it to the mycobacteria. To overcome intrinsic difficulties in directly manipulating the genetics of slow-growing mycobacteria, including M. tuberculosis and bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine strains, we developed a system for random shuttle mutagenesis. A genomic library of Mycobacterium smegmatis was subjected to transposon mutagenesis with Tn5 seq1, a derivative of Tn5, in Escherichia coli and these transposon-containing recombinant plasmids were reintroduced into mycobacterial chromosomes by homologous recombination. This system has allowed us to isolate several random auxotrophic mutants of M. smegmatis. To extend this strategy to M. tuberculosis and BCG, targeted mutagenesis was performed using a cloned BCG methionine gene that was subjected to Tn5 seq1 mutagenesis in E. coli and reintroduced into the mycobacteria. Surprisingly for prokaryotes, both BCG and M. tuberculosis were found to incorporate linear DNA fragments into illegitimate sites throughout the mycobacterial genomes at a frequency of 10(-5) to 10(-4) relative to the number of transformants obtained with autonomously replicating vectors. Thus the efficient illegitimate recombination of linear DNA fragments provides the basis for an insertional mutagenesis system for M. tuberculosis and BCG. Images PMID:2052623

  16. Phylogenetic and Functional Characterization of the hAT Transposon Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Arensburger, Peter; Hice, Robert H.; Zhou, Liqin; Smith, Ryan C.; Tom, Ariane C.; Wright, Jennifer A.; Knapp, Joshua; O'Brochta, David A.; Craig, Nancy L.; Atkinson, Peter W.

    2011-01-01

    Transposons are found in virtually all organisms and play fundamental roles in genome evolution. They can also acquire new functions in the host organism and some have been developed as incisive genetic tools for transformation and mutagenesis. The hAT transposon superfamily contains members from the plant and animal kingdoms, some of which are active when introduced into new host organisms. We have identified two new active hAT transposons, AeBuster1, from the mosquito Aedes aegypti and TcBuster from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Activity of both transposons is illustrated by excision and transposition assays performed in Drosophila melanogaster and Ae. aegypti and by in vitro strand transfer assays. These two active insect transposons are more closely related to the Buster sequences identified in humans than they are to the previously identified active hAT transposons, Ac, Tam3, Tol2, hobo, and Hermes. We therefore reexamined the structural and functional relationships of hAT and hAT-like transposase sequences extracted from genome databases and found that the hAT superfamily is divided into at least two families. This division is supported by a difference in target-site selections generated by active transposons of each family. We name these families the Ac and Buster families after the first identified transposon or transposon-like sequence in each. We find that the recently discovered SPIN transposons of mammals are located within the family of Buster elements. PMID:21368277

  17. Evolution of complex resistance transposons from an ancestral mercury transposon.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Yamamoto, T; Sawai, T

    1983-03-01

    The molecular interrelationship of a transposon family which confers multiple antibiotic resistance and is assumed to have been generated from an ancestral mercury transposon was analyzed. Initially, the transposons Tn2613 (7.2 kilobases), encoding mercury resistance, and Tn2608 (13.5 kilobases), encoding mercury, streptomycin, and sulfonamide resistances, were isolated and their structures were analyzed. Next, the following transposons were compared with respect to their genetic and physical maps: Tn2613 and Tn501, encoding mercury resistance; Tn2608 and Tn21, encoding mercury, streptomycin, and sulfonamide resistance; Tn2607 and Tn4, encoding streptomycin, sulfonamide, and ampicillin resistance; and Tn2603, encoding mercury, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and ampicillin resistance. The results suggest that the transposons encoding multiple resistance were evolved from an ancestral mercury transposon.

  18. Transposon facilitated DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, D.E.; Berg, C.M.; Huang, H.V.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate and develop methods that exploit the power of bacterial transposable elements for large scale DNA sequencing: Our premise is that the use of transposons to put primer binding sites randomly in target DNAs should provide access to all portions of large DNA fragments, without the inefficiencies of methods involving random subcloning and attendant repetitive sequencing, or of sequential synthesis of many oligonucleotide primers that are used to match systematically along a DNA molecule. Two unrelated bacterial transposons, Tn5 and {gamma}{delta}, are being used because they have both proven useful for molecular analyses, and because they differ sufficiently in mechanism and specificity of transposition to merit parallel development.

  19. Dissection of Filamentous Growth by Transposon Mutagenesis in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Mosch, H. U.; Fink, G. R.

    1997-01-01

    Diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains starved for nitrogen undergo a developmental transition from growth as single yeast form (YF) cells to a multicellular form consisting of filaments of pseudohyphal (PH) cells. Filamentous growth is regulated by an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that includes the small GTP-binding proteins Ras2p and Cdc42p, the protein kinases Ste20p, Ste11p and Ste7p, and the transcription factor Ste12p. Here, we designed a genetic screen for mutant strains defective for filamentous growth (dfg) to identify novel targets of the filamentation signaling pathway, and we thereby identified 16 different genes, CDC39, STE12, TEC1, WHI3, NAB1, DBR1, CDC55, SRV2, TPM1, SPA2, BNI1, DFG5, DFG9, DFG10, BUD8 and DFG16, mutations that block filamentous growth. Phenotypic analysis of dfg mutant strains genetically dissects filamentous growth into the cellular processes of signal transduction, bud site selection, cell morphogenesis and invasive growth. Epistasis tests between dfg mutant alleles and dominant activated alleles of the RAS2 and STE11 genes, RAS2(Val19) and STE11-4, respectively, identify putative targets for the filamentation signaling pathway. Several of the genes described here have homologues in filamentous fungi, where they also regulate fungal development. PMID:9055077

  20. Xenopus transgenics: methods using transposons.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Clair M; Yergeau, Donald A; Zhu, Haiqing; Kuliyev, Emin; Mead, Paul E

    2012-01-01

    The generation of transgenic animals is an essential tool for many genetic strategies. DNA "cut-and-paste" transposon systems can be used to efficiently modify the Xenopus genome. The DNA transposon substrate, harbored on a circularized plasmid, is co-injected into fertilized Xenopus embryos at the one-cell stage together with mRNA encoding the cognate transposase enzyme. The cellular machinery rapidly translates the exogenous mRNA to produce active transposase enzyme that catalyzes excision of the transposon substrate from the plasmid and stable integration into the genomic DNA.

  1. Defining essential genes and identifying virulence factors of Porphyromonas gingivalis by massively-parallel sequencing of transposon libraries (Tn-seq)

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Brian A.; Duncan, Margaret J.; Hu, Linden T.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen in the development and progression of periodontal disease. Obstacles to the development of saturated transposon libraries have previously limited transposon mutant-based screens as well as essential gene studies. We have developed a system for efficient transposon mutagenesis of P. gingivalis using a modified mariner transposon. Tn-seq is a technique that allows for quantitative assessment of individual mutants within a transposon mutant library by sequencing the transposon-genome junctions and then compiling mutant presence by mapping to a base genome. Using Tn-seq, it is possible to quickly define all the insertional mutants in a library and thus identify non-essential genes under the conditions in which the library was produced. Identification of fitness of individual mutants under specific conditions can be performed by exposing the library to selective pressures. PMID:25636611

  2. Transposon tagging of disease resistance genes

    SciTech Connect

    Michelmore, R.W. . Dept. of Physics)

    1989-01-01

    We are developing a transposon mutagenesis system for lettuce to clone genes for resistance to the fungal pathogen, Bremia lactucae. Activity of heterologous transposons is being studied in transgenic plants. Southern analysis of T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} plants containing Tam3 from Antirrhinum provided ambiguous results. Multiple endonuclease digests indicated that transposition had occurred; however, in no plant were all endonuclease digests consistent with a simple excision event. Southern or PCR analysis of over 50 plans containing Ac from maize have also failed to reveal clear evidence of transposition; this is contrast to experiments by others with the same constructs who have observed high rates of Ac excision in other plant species. Nearly all of 65 T{sub 2} families containing Ac interrupting a chimeric streptomycin resistance gene (Courtesy J. Jones, Sainsbury Lab., UK) clearly segregated for streptomycin resistance. Southern analyses, however, showed no evidence of transposition, indicating restoration of a functional message by other mechanisms, possibly mRNA processing. Transgenic plants have also been generated containing CaMV 35S or hsp70 promoters fused to transposase coding sequences or a Ds element interrupting a chimeric GUS gene (Courtesy M. Lassner, UC Davis). F{sub 1} plants containing both constructs were analyzed for transposition. Only two plants containing both constructs were obtained from 48 progeny, far fewer than expected, and neither showed evidence of transposition in Southerns and GUS assays. We are currently constructing further chimeric transposase fusions. To test for the stability of the targeted disease resistance genes, 50,000 F{sub 1} plants heterozygous for three resistance genes were generated; no mutants have been identified in the 5000 so far screened.

  3. Transposon tagging and the study of root development in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsugeki, R.; Olson, M. L.; Fedoroff, N. V.

    1998-01-01

    The maize Ac-Ds transposable element family has been used as the basis of transposon mutagenesis systems that function in a variety of plants, including Arabidopsis. We have developed modified transposons and methods which simplify the detection, cloning and analysis of insertion mutations. We have identified and are analyzing two plant lines in which genes expressed either in the root cap cells or in the quiescent cells, cortex/endodermal initial cells and columella cells of the root cap have been tagged with a transposon carrying a reporter gene. A gene expressed in root cap cells tagged with an enhancer-trap Ds was isolated and its corresponding EST cDNA was identified. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the gene show no significant similarity to other genes in the database. Genetic ablation experiments have been done by fusing a root cap-specific promoter to the diphtheria toxin A-chain gene and introducing the fusion construct into Arabidopsis plants. We find that in addition to eliminating gravitropism, root cap ablation inhibits elongation of roots by lowering root meristematic activities.

  4. Modified mariner transposons for random inducible-expression insertions and transcriptional reporter fusion insertions in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Pozsgai, Eric R; Blair, Kris M; Kearns, Daniel B

    2012-02-01

    Transposons are mobile genetic elements bounded by insertion sequences that are recognized by a specific mobilizing transposase enzyme. The transposase may mobilize not only the insertion sequences but also intervening DNA. mariner is a particularly efficient transposon for the random chromosomal integration of genes and insertional mutagenesis. Here, we modify an existing mariner transposon, TnYLB, such that it can easily be genetically manipulated and introduced into Bacillus subtilis. We generate a series of three new mariner derivatives that mobilize spectinomycin, chloramphenicol, and kanamycin antibiotic resistance cassettes. Furthermore, we generate a series of transposons with a strong, outward-oriented, optionally isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible promoter for the random overexpression of neighboring genes and a series of transposons with a promoterless lacZ gene for the random generation of transcriptional reporter fusions. We note that the modification of the base transposon is not restricted to B. subtilis and should be applicable to any mariner-compatible host organism, provided that in vitro mutagenesis or an in vivo species-specific delivery vector is employed.

  5. Genomic landscape of human, bat, and ex vivo DNA transposon integrations.

    PubMed

    Campos-Sánchez, Rebeca; Kapusta, Aurélie; Feschotte, Cédric; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Makova, Kateryna D

    2014-07-01

    The integration and fixation preferences of DNA transposons, one of the major classes of eukaryotic transposable elements, have never been evaluated comprehensively on a genome-wide scale. Here, we present a detailed study of the distribution of DNA transposons in the human and bat genomes. We studied three groups of DNA transposons that integrated at different evolutionary times: 1) ancient (>40 My) and currently inactive human elements, 2) younger (<40 My) bat elements, and 3) ex vivo integrations of piggyBat and Sleeping Beauty elements in HeLa cells. Although the distribution of ex vivo elements reflected integration preferences, the distribution of human and (to a lesser extent) bat elements was also affected by selection. We used regression techniques (linear, negative binomial, and logistic regression models with multiple predictors) applied to 20-kb and 1-Mb windows to investigate how the genomic landscape in the vicinity of DNA transposons contributes to their integration and fixation. Our models indicate that genomic landscape explains 16-79% of variability in DNA transposon genome-wide distribution. Importantly, we not only confirmed previously identified predictors (e.g., DNA conformation and recombination hotspots) but also identified several novel predictors (e.g., signatures of double-strand breaks and telomere hexamer). Ex vivo integrations showed a bias toward actively transcribed regions. Older DNA transposons were located in genomic regions scarce in most conserved elements-likely reflecting purifying selection. Our study highlights how DNA transposons are integral to the evolution of bat and human genomes, and has implications for the development of DNA transposon assays for gene therapy and mutagenesis applications.

  6. Size matters: versatile use of PiggyBac transposons as a genetic manipulation tool.

    PubMed

    Kim, Adele; Pyykko, Ilmari

    2011-08-01

    Transposons have been promising elements for gene integration, and the Sleeping Beauty (SB) system has been the major one for many years, although there have been several other transposon systems available, for example, Tol2. However, recently another system known as PiggyBac (PB) has been introduced and developed for fulfilling the same purposes, for example, mutagenesis, transgenesis and gene therapy and in some cases with improved transposition efficiency and advantages over the Sleeping Beauty transposon system, although improved hyperactive transposase has highly increased the transposition efficacy for SB. The PB systems have been used in many different scientific research fields; therefore, the purpose of this review is to describe some of these versatile uses of the PiggyBac system to give readers an overview on the usage of PiggyBac system.

  7. Transposon tagging of disease resistance genes. Final report, May 1, 1988--April 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Michelmore, R.

    1994-09-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a transposon mutagenesis system for lettuce and to clone and characterize disease resistance genes by transposon tagging. The majority of studies were conducted with the Ac/Ds System. Researchers made and tested several constructs as well as utilized constructions shown to be functional in other plant species. Researchers demonstrated movement of Ac and DS in lettuce; however, they transposed at much lower frequencies in lettuce than in other plant species. Therefore, further manipulation of the system, particularly for flower specific expression of transposase, is required before a routine transposon system is available for lettuce. Populations of lettuce were generated and screened to test for the stability of resistance genes and several spontaneous mutations were isolated. Researchers also identified a resistance gene mutant in plants transformed with a Ds element and chimeric transposase gene. This is currently being characterized in detail.

  8. Genome-scale metabolic network validation of Shewanella oneidensis using transposon insertion frequency analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Krumholz, Elias W; Brutinel, Evan D; Palani, Nagendra P; Sadowsky, Michael J; Odlyzko, Andrew M; Gralnick, Jeffrey A; Libourel, Igor G L

    2014-09-01

    Transposon mutagenesis, in combination with parallel sequencing, is becoming a powerful tool for en-masse mutant analysis. A probability generating function was used to explain observed miniHimar transposon insertion patterns, and gene essentiality calls were made by transposon insertion frequency analysis (TIFA). TIFA incorporated the observed genome and sequence motif bias of the miniHimar transposon. The gene essentiality calls were compared to: 1) previous genome-wide direct gene-essentiality assignments; and, 2) flux balance analysis (FBA) predictions from an existing genome-scale metabolic model of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. A three-way comparison between FBA, TIFA, and the direct essentiality calls was made to validate the TIFA approach. The refinement in the interpretation of observed transposon insertions demonstrated that genes without insertions are not necessarily essential, and that genes that contain insertions are not always nonessential. The TIFA calls were in reasonable agreement with direct essentiality calls for S. oneidensis, but agreed more closely with E. coli essentiality calls for orthologs. The TIFA gene essentiality calls were in good agreement with the MR-1 FBA essentiality predictions, and the agreement between TIFA and FBA predictions was substantially better than between the FBA and the direct gene essentiality predictions.

  9. Genome-Scale Metabolic Network Validation of Shewanella oneidensis Using Transposon Insertion Frequency Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hong; Krumholz, Elias W.; Brutinel, Evan D.; Palani, Nagendra P.; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Odlyzko, Andrew M.; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.; Libourel, Igor G. L.

    2014-01-01

    Transposon mutagenesis, in combination with parallel sequencing, is becoming a powerful tool for en-masse mutant analysis. A probability generating function was used to explain observed miniHimar transposon insertion patterns, and gene essentiality calls were made by transposon insertion frequency analysis (TIFA). TIFA incorporated the observed genome and sequence motif bias of the miniHimar transposon. The gene essentiality calls were compared to: 1) previous genome-wide direct gene-essentiality assignments; and, 2) flux balance analysis (FBA) predictions from an existing genome-scale metabolic model of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. A three-way comparison between FBA, TIFA, and the direct essentiality calls was made to validate the TIFA approach. The refinement in the interpretation of observed transposon insertions demonstrated that genes without insertions are not necessarily essential, and that genes that contain insertions are not always nonessential. The TIFA calls were in reasonable agreement with direct essentiality calls for S. oneidensis, but agreed more closely with E. coli essentiality calls for orthologs. The TIFA gene essentiality calls were in good agreement with the MR-1 FBA essentiality predictions, and the agreement between TIFA and FBA predictions was substantially better than between the FBA and the direct gene essentiality predictions. PMID:25233219

  10. The expanding universe of transposon technologies for gene and cell engineering.

    PubMed

    Ivics, Zoltán; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

    2010-12-07

    Transposable elements can be viewed as natural DNA transfer vehicles that, similar to integrating viruses, are capable of efficient genomic insertion. The mobility of class II transposable elements (DNA transposons) can be controlled by conditionally providing the transposase component of the transposition reaction. Thus, a DNA of interest (be it a fluorescent marker, a small hairpin (sh)RNA expression cassette, a mutagenic gene trap or a therapeutic gene construct) cloned between the inverted repeat sequences of a transposon-based vector can be used for stable genomic insertion in a regulated and highly efficient manner. This methodological paradigm opened up a number of avenues for genome manipulations in vertebrates, including transgenesis for the generation of transgenic cells in tissue culture, the production of germline transgenic animals for basic and applied research, forward genetic screens for functional gene annotation in model species, and therapy of genetic disorders in humans. Sleeping Beauty (SB) was the first transposon shown to be capable of gene transfer in vertebrate cells, and recent results confirm that SB supports a full spectrum of genetic engineering including transgenesis, insertional mutagenesis, and therapeutic somatic gene transfer both ex vivo and in vivo. The first clinical application of the SB system will help to validate both the safety and efficacy of this approach. In this review, we describe the major transposon systems currently available (with special emphasis on SB), discuss the various parameters and considerations pertinent to their experimental use, and highlight the state of the art in transposon technology in diverse genetic applications.

  11. Construction of a large-scale Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 transposon mutant library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Yee-Chin; Pain, Arnab; Nathan, Sheila

    2014-09-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia, a pathogenic member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), has emerged as a significant threat towards cystic fibrosis patients, where infection often leads to the fatal clinical manifestation known as cepacia syndrome. Many studies have investigated the pathogenicity of B. cenocepacia as well as its ability to become highly resistant towards many of the antibiotics currently in use. In addition, studies have also been undertaken to understand the pathogen's capacity to adapt and survive in a broad range of environments. Transposon based mutagenesis has been widely used in creating insertional knock-out mutants and coupled with recent advances in sequencing technology, robust tools to study gene function in a genome-wide manner have been developed based on the assembly of saturated transposon mutant libraries. In this study, we describe the construction of a large-scale library of B. cenocepacia transposon mutants. To create transposon mutants of B. cenocepacia strain J2315, electrocompetent bacteria were electrotransformed with the EZ-Tn5 transposome. Tetracyline resistant colonies were harvested off selective agar and pooled. Mutants were generated in multiple batches with each batch consisting of ˜20,000 to 40,000 mutants. Transposon insertion was validated by PCR amplification of the transposon region. In conclusion, a saturated B. cenocepacia J2315 transposon mutant library with an estimated total number of 500,000 mutants was successfully constructed. This mutant library can now be further exploited as a genetic tool to assess the function of every gene in the genome, facilitating the discovery of genes important for bacterial survival and adaptation, as well as virulence.

  12. Signature tagged mutagenesis in the functional genetic analysis of gastrointestinal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Joanne; Gahan, Cormac G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Signature tagged mutagenesis is a genetic approach that was developed to identify novel bacterial virulence factors. It is a negative selection method in which unique identification tags allow analysis of pools of mutants in mixed populations. The approach is particularly well suited to functional genetic analysis of the gastrointestinal phase of infection in foodborne pathogens and has the capacity to guide the development of novel vaccines and therapeutics. In this review we outline the technical principles underpinning signature-tagged mutagenesis as well as novel sequencing-based approaches for transposon mutant identification such as TraDIS (transposon directed insertion-site sequencing). We also provide an analysis of screens that have been performed in gastrointestinal pathogens which are a global health concern (Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Helicobacter pylori, Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella enterica). The identification of key virulence loci through the use of signature tagged mutagenesis in mice and relevant larger animal models is discussed. PMID:22555467

  13. Tyrosine Recombinase Retrotransposons and Transposons.

    PubMed

    Poulter, Russell T M; Butler, Margi I

    2015-04-01

    Retrotransposons carrying tyrosine recombinases (YR) are widespread in eukaryotes. The first described tyrosine recombinase mobile element, DIRS1, is a retroelement from the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The YR elements are bordered by terminal repeats related to their replication via free circular dsDNA intermediates. Site-specific recombination is believed to integrate the circle without creating duplications of the target sites. Recently a large number of YR retrotransposons have been described, including elements from fungi (mucorales and basidiomycetes), plants (green algae) and a wide range of animals including nematodes, insects, sea urchins, fish, amphibia and reptiles. YR retrotransposons can be divided into three major groups: the DIRS elements, PAT-like and the Ngaro elements. The three groups form distinct clades on phylogenetic trees based on alignments of reverse transcriptase/ribonuclease H (RT/RH) and YR sequences, and also having some structural distinctions. A group of eukaryote DNA transposons, cryptons, also carry tyrosine recombinases. These DNA transposons do not encode a reverse transcriptase. They have been detected in several pathogenic fungi and oomycetes. Sequence comparisons suggest that the crypton YRs are related to those of the YR retrotransposons. We suggest that the YR retrotransposons arose from the combination of a crypton-like YR DNA transposon and the RT/RH encoding sequence of a retrotransposon. This acquisition must have occurred at a very early point in the evolution of eukaryotes.

  14. Transposon tagging of disease resistance genes. Progress report, May 1, 1988--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Michelmore, R.

    1994-06-01

    Our goal is to clone genes in lettuce determining resistance to downy mildew. One approach involves the mobilization of transposons into resistance genes to mutate and tag the target gene. Because transposons have yet to be isolated and characterized from lettuce, the majority of our experiments have involved Ac from corn as this is increasingly the best characterized transposon. Over the past several years, various labs have contributed to a detailed understanding of the biology of Ac in corn and heterologous plant species. We have collaborated closely with several of these labs, exchanged materials and incorporated their advances into our analysis of transposition in lettuce. The original proposal described the development of a transposon mutagenesis system for lettuce and its subsequent use to tag disease resistance genes. The development phase involved characterization and manipulation of Ac transposition, identification of suitable whole plant selectable markers for the construction of chimeric non-autonomous elements, and investigation of the stability of resistance genes. Investigation of Ac transposition in lettuce has received the majority of our attention. Initially, we made a simple construct with wildtype Ac and introduced it into lettuce. No transposition was observed; although other labs demonstrated that the same construct was functional in tomato. We then focused on assaying for Ac transposition with constructs of increasing sophistication that had been demonstrated by others to be functional in other species. The latest constructs for transposon mutagenesis clearly demonstrated transposition in lettuce. This allowed us to generate seed stocks that we will start to screen for insertional inactivation of resistance genes this year.

  15. Signature-tagged mutagenesis of Vibrio vulnificus

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, Mai; KASHIMOTO, Takashige; TONG, Ping; XIAO, Jianbo; SUGIYAMA, Michiko; INOUE, Miyuki; MATSUNAGA, Rie; HOSOHARA, Kohei; NAKATA, Kazue; YOKOTA, Kenji; OGUMA, Keiji; YAMAMOTO, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is the causative agent of primary septicemia, wound infection and gastroenteritis in immunocompromised people. In this study, signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) was applied to identify the virulence genes of V. vulnificus. Using STM, 6,480 mutants in total were constructed and divided into 81 sets (INPUT pools); each mutant in a set was assigned a different tag. Each INPUT pool was intraperitoneally injected into iron-overloaded mice, and in vivo surviving mutants were collected from blood samples from the heart (OUTPUT pools). From the genomic DNA of mixed INPUT or OUTPUT pools, digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes against the tagged region were prepared and used for dot hybridization. Thirty tentatively attenuated mutants, which were hybridized clearly with INPUT probes but barely with OUTPUT probes, were negatively selected. Lethal doses of 11 of the 30 mutants were reduced to more than 1/100; of these, the lethal doses of 2 were reduced to as low as 1/100,000. Transposon-inserted genes in the 11 attenuated mutants were those for IMP dehydrogenase, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase, aspartokinase, phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine cyclo-ligase, malate Na (+) symporter and hypothetical protein. When mice were immunized with an attenuated mutant strain into which IMP dehydrogenase had been inserted with a transposon, they were protected against V. vulnificus infection. In this study, we demonstrated that the STM method can be used to search for the virulence genes of V. vulnificus. PMID:25755021

  16. Massive parallel insertion site sequencing of an arrayed Sinorhizobium meliloti signature-tagged mini-Tn 5 transposon mutant library.

    PubMed

    Serrania, Javier; Johner, Tobias; Rupp, Oliver; Goesmann, Alexander; Becker, Anke

    2017-02-21

    Transposon mutagenesis in conjunction with identification of genomic transposon insertion sites is a powerful tool for gene function studies. We have implemented a protocol for parallel determination of transposon insertion sites by Illumina sequencing involving a hierarchical barcoding method that allowed for tracking back insertion sites to individual clones of an arrayed signature-tagged transposon mutant library. This protocol was applied to further characterize a signature-tagged mini-Tn 5 mutant library comprising about 12,000 mutants of the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing alphaproteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti (Pobigaylo et al., 2006; Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72, 4329-4337). Previously, insertion sites have been determined for 5000 mutants of this library. Combining an adapter-free, inverse PCR method for sequencing library preparation with next generation sequencing, we identified 4473 novel insertion sites, increasing the total number of transposon mutants with known insertion site to 9562. The number of protein-coding genes that were hit at least once by a transposon increased by 1231 to a total number of 3673 disrupted genes, which represents 59% of the predicted protein-coding genes in S. meliloti.

  17. Maize-targeted mutagenesis: A knockout resource for maize.

    PubMed

    May, Bruce P; Liu, Hong; Vollbrecht, Erik; Senior, Lynn; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Roh, Donna; Pan, Xiaokang; Stein, Lincoln; Freeling, Mike; Alexander, Danny; Martienssen, Rob

    2003-09-30

    We describe an efficient system for site-selected transposon mutagenesis in maize. A total of 43,776 F1 plants were generated by using Robertson's Mutator (Mu) pollen parents and self-pollinated to establish a library of transposon-mutagenized seed. The frequency of new seed mutants was between 10-4 and 10-5 per F1 plant. As a service to the maize community, maize-targeted mutagenesis selects insertions in genes of interest from this library by using the PCR. Pedigree, knockout, sequence, phenotype, and other information is stored in a powerful interactive database (maize-targeted mutagenesis database) that enables analysis of the entire population and the handling of knockout requests. By inhibiting Mu activity in most F1 plants, we sought to reduce somatic insertions that may cause false positives selected from pooled tissue. By monitoring the remaining Mu activity in the F2, however, we demonstrate that seed phenotypes depend on it, and false positives occur in lines that appear to lack it. We conclude that more than half of all mutations arising in this population are suppressed on losing Mu activity. These results have implications for epigenetic models of inbreeding and for functional genomics.

  18. Generation of an inducible and optimized piggyBac transposon system†

    PubMed Central

    Cadiñanos, Juan; Bradley, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Genomic studies in the mouse have been slowed by the lack of transposon-mediated mutagenesis. However, since the resurrection of Sleeping Beauty (SB), the possibility of performing forward genetics in mice has been reinforced. Recently, piggyBac (PB), a functional transposon from insects, was also described to work in mammals. As the activity of PB is higher than that of SB11 and SB12, two hyperactive SB transposases, we have characterized and improved the PB system in mouse ES cells. We have generated a mouse codon-optimized version of the PB transposase coding sequence (CDS) which provides transposition levels greater than the original. We have also found that the promoter sequence predicted in the 5′-terminal repeat of the PB transposon is active in the mammalian context. Finally, we have engineered inducible versions of the optimized piggyBac transposase fused with ERT2. One of them, when induced, provides higher levels of transposition than the native piggyBac CDS, whereas in the absence of induction its activity is indistinguishable from background. We expect that these tools, adaptable to perform mouse-germline mutagenesis, will facilitate the identification of genes involved in pathological and physiological processes, such as cancer or ES cell differentiation. PMID:17576687

  19. Chemical mutagens, transposons, and transgenes to interrogate gene function in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Venken, Koen J T; Bellen, Hugo J

    2014-06-15

    The study of genetics, genes, and chromosomal inheritance was initiated by Thomas Morgan in 1910, when the first visible mutations were identified in fruit flies. The field expanded upon the work initiated by Herman Muller in 1926 when he used X-rays to develop the first balancer chromosomes. Today, balancers are still invaluable to maintain mutations and transgenes but the arsenal of tools has expanded vastly and numerous new methods have been developed, many relying on the availability of the genome sequence and transposable elements. Forward genetic screens based on chemical mutagenesis or transposable elements have resulted in the unbiased identification of many novel players involved in processes probed by specific phenotypic assays. Reverse genetic approaches have relied on the availability of a carefully selected set of transposon insertions spread throughout the genome to allow the manipulation of the region in the vicinity of each insertion. Lastly, the ability to transform Drosophila with single copy transgenes using transposons or site-specific integration using the ΦC31 integrase has allowed numerous manipulations, including the ability to create and integrate genomic rescue constructs, generate duplications, RNAi knock-out technology, binary expression systems like the GAL4/UAS system as well as other methods. Here, we will discuss the most useful methodologies to interrogate the fruit fly genome in vivo focusing on chemical mutagenesis, transposons and transgenes. Genome engineering approaches based on nucleases and RNAi technology are discussed in following chapters.

  20. Chemical Mutagens, Transposons, and Transgenes to Interrogate Gene Function in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Venken, Koen J.T.; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2014-01-01

    The study of genetics, genes, and chromosomal inheritance was initiated by Thomas Morgan in when the first visible mutations were identified in fruit flies. The field expanded upon the work initiated by Herman Muller in 1926 when he used X-rays to develop the first balancer chromosomes. Today, balancers are still invaluable to maintain mutations and transgenes but the arsenal of tools has expanded vastly and numerous new methods have been developed, many relying on the availability of the genome sequence and transposable elements. Forward genetic screens based on chemical mutagenesis or transposable elements have resulted in the unbiased identification of many novel players involved in processes probed by specific phenotypic assays. Reverse genetic approaches have relied on the availability of a carefully selected set of transposon insertions spread throughout the genome to allow the manipulation of the region in the vicinity of each insertion. Lastly, the ability to transform Drosophila with single copy transgenes using transposons or site-specific integration using the ΦC31 integrase has allowed numerous manipulations, including the ability to create and integrate genomic rescue constructs, generate duplications, RNAi knock-out technology, binary expression systems like the GAL4/UAS system as well as other methods. Here, we will discuss the most useful methodologies to interrogate the fruit fly genome in vivo focusing on chemical mutagenesis, transposons and transgenes. Genome engineering approaches based on nucleases and RNAi technology are discussed in following chapters. PMID:24583113

  1. Random mutagenesis of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus using in vitro mariner transposition and natural transformation

    PubMed Central

    Guschinskaya, Natalia; Brunel, Romain; Tourte, Maxime; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Oger, Philippe; Charpentier, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Transposition mutagenesis is a powerful tool to identify the function of genes, reveal essential genes and generally to unravel the genetic basis of living organisms. However, transposon-mediated mutagenesis has only been successfully applied to a limited number of archaeal species and has never been reported in Thermococcales. Here, we report random insertion mutagenesis in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The strategy takes advantage of the natural transformability of derivatives of the P. furiosus COM1 strain and of in vitro Mariner-based transposition. A transposon bearing a genetic marker is randomly transposed in vitro in genomic DNA that is then used for natural transformation of P. furiosus. A small-scale transposition reaction routinely generates several hundred and up to two thousands transformants. Southern analysis and sequencing showed that the obtained mutants contain a single and random genomic insertion. Polyploidy has been reported in Thermococcales and P. furiosus is suspected of being polyploid. Yet, about half of the mutants obtained on the first selection are homozygous for the transposon insertion. Two rounds of isolation on selective medium were sufficient to obtain gene conversion in initially heterozygous mutants. This transposition mutagenesis strategy will greatly facilitate functional exploration of the Thermococcales genomes. PMID:27824140

  2. Generation of non-viral, transgene-free hepatocyte like cells with piggyBac transposon

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Hokahiro; Yasuchika, Kentaro; Miyauchi, Yuya; Kojima, Hidenobu; Yamaoka, Ryoya; Kawai, Takayuki; Yukie Yoshitoshi, Elena; Ogiso, Satoshi; Kita, Sadahiko; Yasuda, Katsutaro; Sasaki, Naoya; Fukumitsu, Ken; Komori, Junji; Ishii, Takamichi; Uemoto, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced hepatocyte-like cells (iHeps) by overexpressing certain defined factors in direct reprogramming techniques. Of the various methods to deliver genes into cells, typically used genome-integrating viral vectors are associated with integration-related adverse events such as mutagenesis, whereas non-integrating viral vectors have low efficiency, making viral vectors unsuitable for clinical application. Therefore, we focused on developing a transposon system to establish a non-viral reprogramming method. Transposons are unique DNA elements that can be integrated into and removed from chromosomes. PiggyBac, a type of transposon, has high transduction efficiency and cargo capacity, and the integrated transgene can be precisely excised in the presence of transposase. This feature enables the piggyBac vector to achieve efficient transgene expression and a transgene-free state, thus making it a promising method for cell reprogramming. Here, we attempted to utilize the piggyBac transposon system to generate iHeps by integrating a transgene consisting of Hnf4a and Foxa3, and successfully obtained functional iHeps. We then demonstrated removal of the transgene to obtain transgene-free iHeps, which still maintained hepatocyte functions. This non-viral, transgene-free reprogramming method using the piggyBac vector may facilitate clinical applications of iHeps in upcoming cell therapy. PMID:28295042

  3. High-Throughput Parallel Sequencing to Measure Fitness of Leptospira interrogans Transposon Insertion Mutants during Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, James; Haake, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic species of Leptospira are the causative agents of leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease that causes mortality and morbidity worldwide. The understanding of the virulence mechanisms of Leptospira spp is still at an early stage due to the limited number of genetic tools available for this microorganism. The development of random transposon mutagenesis in pathogenic strains a decade ago has contributed to the identification of several virulence factors. In this study, we used the transposon sequencing (Tn-Seq) technique, which combines transposon mutagenesis with massive parallel sequencing, to study the in vivo fitness of a pool of Leptospira interrogans mutants. We infected hamsters with a pool of 42 mutants (input pool), which included control mutants with insertions in four genes previously analyzed by virulence testing (loa22, ligB, flaA1, and lic20111) and 23 mutants with disrupted signal transduction genes. We quantified the mutants in different tissues (blood, kidney and liver) at 4 days post-challenge by high-throughput sequencing and compared the frequencies of mutants recovered from tissues to their frequencies in the input pool. Control mutants that were less fit in the Tn-Seq experiment were attenuated for virulence when tested separately in the hamster model of lethal leptospirosis. Control mutants with unaltered fitness were as virulent as the wild-type strain. We identified two mutants with the transposon inserted in the same putative adenylate/guanylate cyclase gene (lic12327) that had reduced in vivo fitness in blood, kidney and liver. Both lic12327 mutants were attenuated for virulence when tested individually in hamsters. Growth of the control mutants and lic12327 mutants in culture medium were similar to that of the wild-type strain. These results demonstrate the feasibility of screening large pools of L. interrogans transposon mutants for those with altered fitness, and potentially attenuated virulence, by transposon sequencing. PMID

  4. High-Throughput Parallel Sequencing to Measure Fitness of Leptospira interrogans Transposon Insertion Mutants during Acute Infection.

    PubMed

    Lourdault, Kristel; Matsunaga, James; Haake, David A

    2016-11-01

    Pathogenic species of Leptospira are the causative agents of leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease that causes mortality and morbidity worldwide. The understanding of the virulence mechanisms of Leptospira spp is still at an early stage due to the limited number of genetic tools available for this microorganism. The development of random transposon mutagenesis in pathogenic strains a decade ago has contributed to the identification of several virulence factors. In this study, we used the transposon sequencing (Tn-Seq) technique, which combines transposon mutagenesis with massive parallel sequencing, to study the in vivo fitness of a pool of Leptospira interrogans mutants. We infected hamsters with a pool of 42 mutants (input pool), which included control mutants with insertions in four genes previously analyzed by virulence testing (loa22, ligB, flaA1, and lic20111) and 23 mutants with disrupted signal transduction genes. We quantified the mutants in different tissues (blood, kidney and liver) at 4 days post-challenge by high-throughput sequencing and compared the frequencies of mutants recovered from tissues to their frequencies in the input pool. Control mutants that were less fit in the Tn-Seq experiment were attenuated for virulence when tested separately in the hamster model of lethal leptospirosis. Control mutants with unaltered fitness were as virulent as the wild-type strain. We identified two mutants with the transposon inserted in the same putative adenylate/guanylate cyclase gene (lic12327) that had reduced in vivo fitness in blood, kidney and liver. Both lic12327 mutants were attenuated for virulence when tested individually in hamsters. Growth of the control mutants and lic12327 mutants in culture medium were similar to that of the wild-type strain. These results demonstrate the feasibility of screening large pools of L. interrogans transposon mutants for those with altered fitness, and potentially attenuated virulence, by transposon sequencing.

  5. p53 in the game of transposons.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Annika; Jones, Amanda E; Abrams, John M

    2016-11-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom, p53 genes function to restrain mobile elements and recent observations indicate that transposons become derepressed in human cancers. Together, these emerging lines of evidence suggest that cancers driven by p53 mutations could represent "transpospoathies," i.e. disease states linked to eruptions of mobile elements. The transposopathy hypothesis predicts that p53 acts through conserved mechanisms to contain transposon movement, and in this way, prevents tumor formation. How transposon eruptions provoke neoplasias is not well understood but, from a broader perspective, this hypothesis also provides an attractive framework to explore unrestrained mobile elements as inciters of late-onset idiopathic disease. Also see the video abstract here.

  6. Generation of a Tn5 transposon library in Haemophilus parasuis and analysis by transposon-directed insertion-site sequencing (TraDIS).

    PubMed

    Luan, Shi-Lu; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Peters, Sarah E; Mayho, Matthew; Weinert, Lucy A; Crowther, Sarah A; Wang, Jinhong; Langford, Paul R; Rycroft, Andrew; Wren, Brendan W; Tucker, Alexander W; Maskell, Duncan J

    2013-10-25

    Haemophilus parasuis is an important respiratory tract pathogen of swine and the etiological agent of Glässer's disease. The molecular pathogenesis of H. parasuis is not well studied, mainly due to the lack of efficient tools for genetic manipulation of this bacterium. In this study we describe a Tn5-based random mutagenesis method for use in H. parasuis. A novel chloramphenicol-resistant Tn5 transposome was electroporated into the virulent H. parasuis serovar 5 strain 29755. High transposition efficiency of Tn5, up to 10(4) transformants/μg of transposon DNA, was obtained by modification of the Tn5 DNA in the H. parasuis strain HS071 and establishment of optimal electrotransformation conditions, and a library of approximately 10,500 mutants was constructed. Analysis of the library using transposon-directed insertion-site sequencing (TraDIS) revealed that the insertion of Tn5 was evenly distributed throughout the genome. 10,001 individual mutants were identified, with 1561 genes being disrupted (69.4% of the genome). This newly-developed, efficient mutagenesis approach will be a powerful tool for genetic manipulation of H. parasuis in order to study its physiology and pathogenesis.

  7. Rapid quantification of mutant fitness in diverse bacteria by sequencing randomly bar-coded transposons

    SciTech Connect

    Wetmore, Kelly M.; Price, Morgan N.; Waters, Robert J.; Lamson, Jacob S.; He, Jennifer; Hoover, Cindi A.; Blow, Matthew J.; Bristow, James; Butland, Gareth; Arkin, Adam P.; Deutschbauer, Adam

    2015-05-12

    Transposon mutagenesis with next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful approach to annotate gene function in bacteria, but existing protocols for TnSeq require laborious preparation of every sample before sequencing. Thus, the existing protocols are not amenable to the throughput necessary to identify phenotypes and functions for the majority of genes in diverse bacteria. Here, we present a method, random bar code transposon-site sequencing (RB-TnSeq), which increases the throughput of mutant fitness profiling by incorporating random DNA bar codes into Tn5 and mariner transposons and by using bar code sequencing (BarSeq) to assay mutant fitness. RB-TnSeq can be used with any transposon, and TnSeq is performed once per organism instead of once per sample. Each BarSeq assay requires only a simple PCR, and 48 to 96 samples can be sequenced on one lane of an Illumina HiSeq system. We demonstrate the reproducibility and biological significance of RB-TnSeq with Escherichia coli, Phaeobacter inhibens, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Shewanella amazonensis, and Shewanella oneidensis. To demonstrate the increased throughput of RB-TnSeq, we performed 387 successful genome-wide mutant fitness assays representing 130 different bacterium-carbon source combinations and identified 5,196 genes with significant phenotypes across the five bacteria. In P. inhibens, we used our mutant fitness data to identify genes important for the utilization of diverse carbon substrates, including a putative D-mannose isomerase that is required for mannitol catabolism. RB-TnSeq will enable the cost-effective functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness profiling. A large challenge in microbiology is the functional assessment of the millions of uncharacterized genes identified by genome sequencing. Transposon mutagenesis coupled to next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful approach to assign phenotypes and functions to genes

  8. Rapid quantification of mutant fitness in diverse bacteria by sequencing randomly bar-coded transposons

    DOE PAGES

    Wetmore, Kelly M.; Price, Morgan N.; Waters, Robert J.; ...

    2015-05-12

    Transposon mutagenesis with next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful approach to annotate gene function in bacteria, but existing protocols for TnSeq require laborious preparation of every sample before sequencing. Thus, the existing protocols are not amenable to the throughput necessary to identify phenotypes and functions for the majority of genes in diverse bacteria. Here, we present a method, random bar code transposon-site sequencing (RB-TnSeq), which increases the throughput of mutant fitness profiling by incorporating random DNA bar codes into Tn5 and mariner transposons and by using bar code sequencing (BarSeq) to assay mutant fitness. RB-TnSeq can be used with anymore » transposon, and TnSeq is performed once per organism instead of once per sample. Each BarSeq assay requires only a simple PCR, and 48 to 96 samples can be sequenced on one lane of an Illumina HiSeq system. We demonstrate the reproducibility and biological significance of RB-TnSeq with Escherichia coli, Phaeobacter inhibens, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Shewanella amazonensis, and Shewanella oneidensis. To demonstrate the increased throughput of RB-TnSeq, we performed 387 successful genome-wide mutant fitness assays representing 130 different bacterium-carbon source combinations and identified 5,196 genes with significant phenotypes across the five bacteria. In P. inhibens, we used our mutant fitness data to identify genes important for the utilization of diverse carbon substrates, including a putative D-mannose isomerase that is required for mannitol catabolism. RB-TnSeq will enable the cost-effective functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness profiling. A large challenge in microbiology is the functional assessment of the millions of uncharacterized genes identified by genome sequencing. Transposon mutagenesis coupled to next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful approach to assign phenotypes and functions to genes. However, the current strategies for TnSeq are

  9. Computer Simulation of Mutagenesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, J. C.; Dent, M. T.

    1978-01-01

    A FORTRAN program is described which simulates point-substitution mutations in the DNA strands of typical organisms. Its objective is to help students to understand the significance and structure of the genetic code, and the mechanisms and effect of mutagenesis. (Author/BB)

  10. 2004 Mutagenesis Gordon Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Sue Jinks-Robertson

    2005-09-16

    Mutations are genetic alterations that drive biological evolution and cause many, if not all, human diseases. Mutation originates via two distinct mechanisms: ''vertical'' variation is de novo change of one or few bases, whereas ''horizontal'' variation occurs by genetic recombination, which creates new mosaics of pre-existing sequences. The Mutagenesis Conference has traditionally focused on the generation of mutagenic intermediates during normal DNA synthesis or in response to environmental insults, as well as the diverse repair mechanisms that prevent the fixation of such intermediates as permanent mutations. While the 2004 Conference will continue to focus on the molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis, there will be increased emphasis on the biological consequences of mutations, both in terms of evolutionary processes and in terms of human disease. The meeting will open with two historical accounts of mutation research that recapitulate the intellectual framework of this field and thereby place the current research paradigms into perspective. The two introductory keynote lectures will be followed by sessions on: (1) mutagenic systems, (2) hypermutable sequences, (3) mechanisms of mutation, (4) mutation avoidance systems, (5) mutation in human hereditary and infectious diseases, (6) mutation rates in evolution and genotype-phenotype relationships, (7) ecology, mutagenesis and the modeling of evolution and (8) genetic diversity of the human population and models for human mutagenesis. The Conference will end with a synthesis of the meeting as the keynote closing lecture.

  11. Mechanism of proflavin mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Sarabhai, A; Lamfrom, H

    1969-08-01

    The mutagenic action of proflavin on bacteriophage T4 is greater in the presence of defective T4 ligase than in the presence of normal T4 ligase. This suggests that the persistence of single-strand breaks in DNA enhances proflavin mutagenesis.

  12. Development of a mariner-Based Transposon and Identification of Listeria monocytogenes Determinants, Including the Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase PrsA2, That Contribute to Its Hemolytic Phenotype▿

    PubMed Central

    Zemansky, Jason; Kline, Benjamin C.; Woodward, Joshua J.; Leber, Jess H.; Marquis, Hélène; Portnoy, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    Listeriolysin O (LLO) is a pore-forming toxin that mediates phagosomal escape and cell-to-cell spread of the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. In order to identify factors that control the production, activity, or secretion of this essential virulence factor, we constructed a Himar1 mariner transposon delivery system and screened 50,000 mutants for a hypohemolytic phenotype on blood agar plates. Approximately 200 hypohemolytic mutants were identified, and the 51 most prominent mutants were screened ex vivo for intracellular growth defects. Eight mutants with a phenotype were identified, and they contained insertions in the following genes: lmo0964 (similar to yjbH), lmo1268 (clpX), lmo1401 (similar to ymdB), lmo1575 (similar to ytqI), lmo1695 (mprF), lmo1821 (similar to prpC), lmo2219 (prsA2), and lmo2460 (similar to cggR). Some of these genes are involved in previously unexplored areas of research with L. monocytogenes: the genes yjbH and clpX regulate the disulfide stress response in Bacillus subtilis, and the prpC phosphatase has been implicated in virulence in other gram-positive pathogens. Here we demonstrate that prsA2, an extracytoplasmic peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase, is critical for virulence and contributes to the folding of LLO and to the activity of another virulence factor, the broad-range phospholipase C (PC-PLC). Furthermore, although it has been shown that prsA2 expression is linked to PrfA, the master virulence transcription factor in L. monocytogenes pathogenesis, we demonstrate that prsA2 is not directly controlled by PrfA. Finally, we show that PrsA2 is involved in flagellum-based motility, indicating that this factor likely serves a broad physiological role. PMID:19376879

  13. Development of a mariner-based transposon and identification of Listeria monocytogenes determinants, including the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase PrsA2, that contribute to its hemolytic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Zemansky, Jason; Kline, Benjamin C; Woodward, Joshua J; Leber, Jess H; Marquis, Hélène; Portnoy, Daniel A

    2009-06-01

    Listeriolysin O (LLO) is a pore-forming toxin that mediates phagosomal escape and cell-to-cell spread of the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. In order to identify factors that control the production, activity, or secretion of this essential virulence factor, we constructed a Himar1 mariner transposon delivery system and screened 50,000 mutants for a hypohemolytic phenotype on blood agar plates. Approximately 200 hypohemolytic mutants were identified, and the 51 most prominent mutants were screened ex vivo for intracellular growth defects. Eight mutants with a phenotype were identified, and they contained insertions in the following genes: lmo0964 (similar to yjbH), lmo1268 (clpX), lmo1401 (similar to ymdB), lmo1575 (similar to ytqI), lmo1695 (mprF), lmo1821 (similar to prpC), lmo2219 (prsA2), and lmo2460 (similar to cggR). Some of these genes are involved in previously unexplored areas of research with L. monocytogenes: the genes yjbH and clpX regulate the disulfide stress response in Bacillus subtilis, and the prpC phosphatase has been implicated in virulence in other gram-positive pathogens. Here we demonstrate that prsA2, an extracytoplasmic peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase, is critical for virulence and contributes to the folding of LLO and to the activity of another virulence factor, the broad-range phospholipase C (PC-PLC). Furthermore, although it has been shown that prsA2 expression is linked to PrfA, the master virulence transcription factor in L. monocytogenes pathogenesis, we demonstrate that prsA2 is not directly controlled by PrfA. Finally, we show that PrsA2 is involved in flagellum-based motility, indicating that this factor likely serves a broad physiological role.

  14. Indy gene variation in natural populations confers fitness advantage and life span extension through transposon insertion.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chen-Tseh; Chang, Chengyi; Reenan, Robert A; Helfand, Stephen L

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection acts to maximize reproductive fitness. However, antagonism between life span and reproductive success frequently poses a dilemma pitting the cost of fecundity against longevity. Here, we show that natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster harbor a Hoppel transposon insertion variant in the longevity gene Indy (I'm not dead yet), which confers both increased reproduction and longevity through metabolic changes. Heterozygosity for this natural long-lived variant has been maintained in isolates despite long-term inbreeding under laboratory conditions and advantageously confers increased fecundity. DNA sequences of variant chromosome isolates show evidence of selective sweep acting on the advantageous allele, suggesting that natural selection acts to maintain this variant. The transposon insertion also regulates Indy expression level, which has experimentally been shown to affect life span and fecundity. Thus, in the wild, evolution reaffirms that the mechanism of heterozygote advantage has acted upon the Indy gene to assure increased reproductive fitness and, coincidentally, longer life span through regulatory transposon mutagenesis.

  15. Genetic Signature of Histiocytic Sarcoma Revealed by a Sleeping Beauty Transposon Genetic Screen in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Been, Raha A.; Linden, Michael A.; Hager, Courtney J.; DeCoursin, Krista J.; Abrahante, Juan E.; Landman, Sean R.; Steinbach, Michael; Sarver, Aaron L.; Largaespada, David A.; Starr, Timothy K.

    2014-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare, aggressive neoplasm that responds poorly to therapy. Histiocytic sarcoma is thought to arise from macrophage precursor cells via genetic changes that are largely undefined. To improve our understanding of the etiology of histiocytic sarcoma we conducted a forward genetic screen in mice using the Sleeping Beauty transposon as a mutagen to identify genetic drivers of histiocytic sarcoma. Sleeping Beauty mutagenesis was targeted to myeloid lineage cells using the Lysozyme2 promoter. Mice with activated Sleeping Beauty mutagenesis had significantly shortened lifespan and the majority of these mice developed tumors resembling human histiocytic sarcoma. Analysis of transposon insertions identified 27 common insertion sites containing 28 candidate cancer genes. Several of these genes are known drivers of hematological neoplasms, like Raf1, Fli1, and Mitf, while others are well-known cancer genes, including Nf1, Myc, Jak2, and Pten. Importantly, several new potential drivers of histiocytic sarcoma were identified and could serve as targets for therapy for histiocytic sarcoma patients. PMID:24827933

  16. Rolling-circle transposons in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Kapitonov, V V; Jurka, J

    2001-07-17

    All eukaryotic DNA transposons reported so far belong to a single category of elements transposed by the so-called "cut-and-paste" mechanism. Here, we report a previously unknown category of eukaryotic DNA transposons, Helitron, which transpose by rolling-circle replication. Autonomous Helitrons encode a 5'-to-3' DNA helicase and nuclease/ligase similar to those encoded by known rolling-circle replicons. Helitron-like transposons have conservative 5'-TC and CTRR-3' termini and do not have terminal inverted repeats. They contain 16- to 20-bp hairpins separated by 10--12 nucleotides from the 3'-end and transpose precisely between the 5'-A and T-3', with no modifications of the AT target sites. Together with their multiple diverged nonautonomous descendants, Helitrons constitute approximately 2% of both the Arabidopsis thaliana and Caenorhabditis elegans genomes and also colonize the Oriza sativa genome. Sequence conservation suggests that Helitrons continue to be transposed.

  17. The autoregulation of a eukaryotic DNA transposon

    PubMed Central

    Claeys Bouuaert, Corentin; Lipkow, Karen; Andrews, Steven S; Liu, Danxu; Chalmers, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    How do DNA transposons live in harmony with their hosts? Bacteria provide the only documented mechanisms for autoregulation, but these are incompatible with eukaryotic cell biology. Here we show that autoregulation of Hsmar1 operates during assembly of the transpososome and arises from the multimeric state of the transposase, mediated by a competition for binding sites. We explore the dynamics of a genomic invasion using a computer model, supported by in vitro and in vivo experiments, and show that amplification accelerates at first but then achieves a constant rate. The rate is proportional to the genome size and inversely proportional to transposase expression and its affinity for the transposon ends. Mariner transposons may therefore resist post-transcriptional silencing. Because regulation is an emergent property of the reaction it is resistant to selfish exploitation. The behavior of distantly related eukaryotic transposons is consistent with the same mechanism, which may therefore be widely applicable. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00668.001 PMID:23795293

  18. A shuttle mutagenesis system for tagging genes in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Neuvéglise, C; Nicauda, J M; Ross-Macdonald, P; Gaillardin, C

    1998-06-15

    A shuttle mutagenesis system was developed for the dimorphic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. This system combines transposon insertions generated in Escherichia coli with the transformation of yeast with the Tn-mutagenized DNA. The mini-transposon mTn-3xHA/GFP, used in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for producing stable insertions, was adapted for use in the yeast Y. lipolytica. The mTnYl1 transposon (for mini-Tn of Y. lipolytica) confers resistance to tetracycline in E. coli. It also contains the Y. lipolytica URA3 gene for selection of yeast transformants, and the coding sequence for the S65T mutant form of GFP. The rare cutter endonuclease, I-SceI, restriction site, which enables identification of the chromosomal localization of mutagenized genes, was also incorporated. mTnYl1 was first tested on the ACO1 gene, which encodes an Acyl CoA oxidase isozyme. The mutagenesis system was further validated on a Y. lipolytica genomic DNA library constructed in a pHSS6 derivative vector. Mutants with a particular morphology or defective for alkane, fatty acids and oil degradation were obtained.

  19. Identification of Listeria monocytogenes Determinants Required for Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Regeimbal, James M.; Regan, Patrick M.; Higgins, Darren E.

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, food-borne pathogen of humans and animals. L. monocytogenes is considered to be a potential public health risk by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as this bacterium can easily contaminate ready-to-eat (RTE) foods and cause an invasive, life-threatening disease (listeriosis). Bacteria can adhere and grow on multiple surfaces and persist within biofilms in food processing plants, providing resistance to sanitizers and other antimicrobial agents. While whole genome sequencing has led to the identification of biofilm synthesis gene clusters in many bacterial species, bioinformatics has not identified the biofilm synthesis genes within the L. monocytogenes genome. To identify genes necessary for L. monocytogenes biofilm formation, we performed a transposon mutagenesis library screen using a recently constructed Himar1 mariner transposon. Approximately 10,000 transposon mutants within L. monocytogenes strain 10403S were screened for biofilm formation in 96-well polyvinyl chloride (PVC) microtiter plates with 70 Himar1 insertion mutants identified that produced significantly less biofilms. DNA sequencing of the transposon insertion sites within the isolated mutants revealed transposon insertions within 38 distinct genetic loci. The identification of mutants bearing insertions within several flagellar motility genes previously known to be required for the initial stages of biofilm formation validated the ability of the mutagenesis screen to identify L. monocytogenes biofilm-defective mutants. Two newly identified genetic loci, dltABCD and phoPR, were selected for deletion analysis and both ΔdltABCD and ΔphoPR bacterial strains displayed biofilm formation defects in the PVC microtiter plate assay, confirming these loci contribute to biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes. PMID:25517120

  20. Knockout of an outer membrane protein operon of anaplasma marginale by transposon mutagenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large amounts of data generated by genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics technologies have increased our understanding of the biology of Anaplasma marginale. However, these data have also led to new assumptions that require testing, ideally through classic genetic mutation. One example is the def...

  1. Establishment of a soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) transposon-based mutagenesis repository

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is a major crop species providing valuable feedstock for food, feed and biofuel. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in developing genomic resources for soybean, including on-going efforts to sequence the genome. These efforts have identified a large number of soybean genes...

  2. Mariner and the ITm Superfamily of Transposons.

    PubMed

    Tellier, Michael; Bouuaert, Corentin Claeys; Chalmers, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    The IS630-Tc1-mariner (ITm) family of transposons is one of the most widespread in nature. The phylogenetic distribution of its members shows that they do not persist for long in a given lineage, but rely on frequent horizontal transfer to new hosts. Although they are primarily selfish genomic-parasites, ITm transposons contribute to the evolution of their hosts because they generate variation and contribute protein domains and regulatory regions. Here we review the molecular mechanism of ITm transposition and its regulation. We focus mostly on the mariner elements, which are understood in the greatest detail owing to in vitro reconstitution and structural analysis. Nevertheless, the most important characteristics are probably shared across the grouping. Members of the ITm family are mobilized by a cut-and-paste mechanism and integrate at 5'-TA dinucleotide target sites. The elements encode a single transposase protein with an N-terminal DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain. The phosphoryl-transferase reactions during the DNA-strand breaking and joining reactions are performed by the two metal-ion mechanism. The metal ions are coordinated by three or four acidic amino acid residues located within an RNase H-like structural fold. Although all of the strand breaking and joining events at a given transposon end are performed by a single molecule of transposase, the reaction is coordinated by close communication between transpososome components. During transpososome assembly, transposase dimers compete for free transposon ends. This helps to protect the host by dampening an otherwise exponential increase in the rate of transposition as the copy number increases.

  3. MMTS, a new subfamily of Tc1-like transposons.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sang Jung; Kim, Moo-Sang; Jang, Jae Ho; Lim, Sang Uk; Lee, Hyung Ho

    2008-10-31

    A novel Tc1-like transposable element has been identified as a new DNA transposon in the mud loach, Misgurnus mizolepis. The M. mizolepis Tc1-like transposon (MMTS) is comprised of inverted terminal repeats and a single gene that codes Tc1-like transposase. The deduced amino acid sequence of the transposase-encoding region of MMTS transposon contains motifs including DDE motif, which was previously recognized in other Tc1-like transposons. However, putative MMTS transposase has only 34-37% identity with well-known Tc1, PPTN, and S elements at the amino acid level. In dot-hybridization analysis used to measure the copy numbers of the MMTS transposon in genomes of the mud loach, it was shown that the MMTS transposon is present at about 3.36 x 104 copies per 2 x 109 bp, and accounts for approximately 0.027% of the mud loach genome. Here, we also describe novel MMTS-like transposons from the genomes of carp-like fishes, flatfish species, and cichlid fishes, which bear conserved inverted repeats flanking an apparently intact transposase gene. Additionally, BLAST searches and phylogenetic analysis indicated that MMTS-like transposons evolved uniquely in fishes, and comprise a new subfamily of Tc1-like transposons, with only modest similarity to Drosophila melanogaster (foldback element FB4, HB2, HB1), Xenopus laevis, Xenopus tropicalis, and Anopheles gambiae (Frisky).

  4. The BDGP gene disruption project: single transposon insertions associated with 40% of Drosophila genes.

    PubMed Central

    Bellen, Hugo J; Levis, Robert W; Liao, Guochun; He, Yuchun; Carlson, Joseph W; Tsang, Garson; Evans-Holm, Martha; Hiesinger, P Robin; Schulze, Karen L; Rubin, Gerald M; Hoskins, Roger A; Spradling, Allan C

    2004-01-01

    The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) strives to disrupt each Drosophila gene by the insertion of a single transposable element. As part of this effort, transposons in >30,000 fly strains were localized and analyzed relative to predicted Drosophila gene structures. Approximately 6300 lines that maximize genomic coverage were selected to be sent to the Bloomington Stock Center for public distribution, bringing the size of the BDGP gene disruption collection to 7140 lines. It now includes individual lines predicted to disrupt 5362 of the 13,666 currently annotated Drosophila genes (39%). Other lines contain an insertion at least 2 kb from others in the collection and likely mutate additional incompletely annotated or uncharacterized genes and chromosomal regulatory elements. The remaining strains contain insertions likely to disrupt alternative gene promoters or to allow gene misexpression. The expanded BDGP gene disruption collection provides a public resource that will facilitate the application of Drosophila genetics to diverse biological problems. Finally, the project reveals new insight into how transposons interact with a eukaryotic genome and helps define optimal strategies for using insertional mutagenesis as a genomic tool. PMID:15238527

  5. Transposon insertions in the Flavobacterium johnsoniae ftsX gene disrupt gliding motility and cell division.

    PubMed

    Kempf, M J; McBride, M J

    2000-03-01

    Flavobacterium johnsoniae is a gram-negative bacterium that exhibits gliding motility. To determine the mechanism of flavobacterial gliding motility, we isolated 33 nongliding mutants by Tn4351 mutagenesis. Seventeen of these mutants exhibited filamentous cell morphology. The region of DNA surrounding the transposon insertion in the filamentous mutant CJ101-207 was cloned and sequenced. The transposon was inserted in a gene that was similar to Escherichia coli ftsX. Two of the remaining 16 filamentous mutants also carried insertions in ftsX. Introduction of the wild-type F. johnsoniae ftsX gene restored motility and normal cell morphology to each of the three ftsX mutants. CJ101-207 appears to be blocked at a late stage of cell division, since the filaments produced cross walls but cells failed to separate. In E. coli, FtsX is thought to function with FtsE in translocating proteins involved in potassium transport, and perhaps proteins involved in cell division, into the cytoplasmic membrane. Mutations in F. johnsoniae ftsX may prevent translocation of proteins involved in cell division and proteins involved in gliding motility into the cytoplasmic membrane, thus resulting in defects in both processes. Alternatively, the loss of gliding motility may be an indirect result of the defect in cell division. The inability to complete cell division may alter the cell architecture and disrupt gliding motility by preventing the synthesis, assembly, or functioning of the motility apparatus.

  6. The BDGP gene disruption project: Single transposon insertions associated with 40 percent of Drosophila genes

    SciTech Connect

    Bellen, Hugo J.; Levis, Robert W.; Liao, Guochun; He, Yuchun; Carlson, Joseph W.; Tsang, Garson; Evans-Holm, Martha; Hiesinger, P. Robin; Schulze, Karen L.; Rubin, Gerald M.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Spradling, Allan C.

    2004-01-13

    The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) strives to disrupt each Drosophila gene by the insertion of a single transposable element. As part of this effort, transposons in more than 30,000 fly strains were localized and analyzed relative to predicted Drosophila gene structures. Approximately 6,300 lines that maximize genomic coverage were selected to be sent to the Bloomington Stock Center for public distribution, bringing the size of the BDGP gene disruption collection to 7,140 lines. It now includes individual lines predicted to disrupt 5,362 of the 13,666 currently annotated Drosophila genes (39 percent). Other lines contain an insertion at least 2 kb from others in the collection and likely mutate additional incompletely annotated or uncharacterized genes and chromosomal regulatory elements. The remaining strains contain insertions likely to disrupt alternative gene promoters or to allow gene mis-expression. The expanded BDGP gene disruption collection provides a public resource that will facilitate the application of Drosophila genetics to diverse biological problems. Finally, the project reveals new insight into how transposons interact with a eukaryotic genome and helps define optimal strategies for using insertional mutagenesis as a genomic tool.

  7. Identification of genes potentially involved in solute stress response in Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 by transposon mutant recovery

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, Edith; Roggo, Clémence; van der Meer, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    The term water stress refers to the effects of low water availability on microbial growth and physiology. Water availability has been proposed as a major constraint for the use of microorganisms in contaminated sites with the purpose of bioremediation. Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 is a bacterium capable of degrading the xenobiotic compounds dibenzofuran and dibenzo-p-dioxin, and has potential to be used for targeted bioremediation. The aim of the current work was to identify genes implicated in water stress in RW1 by means of transposon mutagenesis and mutant growth experiments. Conditions of low water potential were mimicked by adding NaCl to the growth media. Three different mutant selection or separation method were tested which, however recovered different mutants. Recovered transposon mutants with poorer growth under salt-induced water stress carried insertions in genes involved in proline and glutamate biosynthesis, and further in a gene putatively involved in aromatic compound catabolism. Transposon mutants growing poorer on medium with lowered water potential also included ones that had insertions in genes involved in more general functions such as transcriptional regulation, elongation factor, cell division protein, RNA polymerase β or an aconitase. PMID:25408691

  8. Mechanism of integration and excision in conjugative transposons.

    PubMed

    Mullany, P; Roberts, A P; Wang, H

    2002-12-01

    Translocation of conjugative transposons proceeds via excision of the element to generate a circular molecule that can then integrate into a new site, which can be in the same or a different cell. This review summarises some of the different mechanisms used for excision and integration of conjugative transposons.

  9. Comprehensive transposon mutant library of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Michael A.; Alwood, Ashley; Thaipisuttikul, Iyarit; Spencer, David; Haugen, Eric; Ernst, Stephen; Will, Oliver; Kaul, Rajinder; Raymond, Christopher; Levy, Ruth; Chun-Rong, Liu; Guenthner, Donald; Bovee, Donald; Olson, Maynard V.; Manoil, Colin

    2003-01-01

    We have developed technologies for creating saturating libraries of sequence-defined transposon insertion mutants in which each strain is maintained. Phenotypic analysis of such libraries should provide a virtually complete identification of nonessential genes required for any process for which a suitable screen can be devised. The approach was applied to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen with a 6.3-Mbp genome. The library that was generated consists of 30,100 sequence-defined mutants, corresponding to an average of five insertions per gene. About 12% of the predicted genes of this organism lacked insertions; many of these genes are likely to be essential for growth on rich media. Based on statistical analyses and bioinformatic comparison to known essential genes in E. coli, we estimate that the actual number of essential genes is 300-400. Screening the collection for strains defective in two defined multigenic processes (twitching motility and prototrophic growth) identified mutants corresponding to nearly all genes expected from earlier studies. Thus, phenotypic analysis of the collection may produce essentially complete lists of genes required for diverse biological activities. The transposons used to generate the mutant collection have added features that should facilitate downstream studies of gene expression, protein localization, epistasis, and chromosome engineering. PMID:14617778

  10. Comprehensive transposon mutant library of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Michael A; Alwood, Ashley; Thaipisuttikul, Iyarit; Spencer, David; Haugen, Eric; Ernst, Stephen; Will, Oliver; Kaul, Rajinder; Raymond, Christopher; Levy, Ruth; Chun-Rong, Liu; Guenthner, Donald; Bovee, Donald; Olson, Maynard V; Manoil, Colin

    2003-11-25

    We have developed technologies for creating saturating libraries of sequence-defined transposon insertion mutants in which each strain is maintained. Phenotypic analysis of such libraries should provide a virtually complete identification of nonessential genes required for any process for which a suitable screen can be devised. The approach was applied to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen with a 6.3-Mbp genome. The library that was generated consists of 30,100 sequence-defined mutants, corresponding to an average of five insertions per gene. About 12% of the predicted genes of this organism lacked insertions; many of these genes are likely to be essential for growth on rich media. Based on statistical analyses and bioinformatic comparison to known essential genes in E. coli, we estimate that the actual number of essential genes is 300-400. Screening the collection for strains defective in two defined multigenic processes (twitching motility and prototrophic growth) identified mutants corresponding to nearly all genes expected from earlier studies. Thus, phenotypic analysis of the collection may produce essentially complete lists of genes required for diverse biological activities. The transposons used to generate the mutant collection have added features that should facilitate downstream studies of gene expression, protein localization, epistasis, and chromosome engineering.

  11. The Tn3-family of Replicative Transposons.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Emilien; Lambin, Michael; Dandoy, Damien; Galloy, Christine; Nguyen, Nathan; Oger, Cédric A; Hallet, Bernard

    2015-08-01

    Transposons of the Tn3 family form a widespread and remarkably homogeneous group of bacterial transposable elements in terms of transposition functions and an extremely versatile system for mediating gene reassortment and genomic plasticity owing to their modular organization. They have made major contributions to antimicrobial drug resistance dissemination or to endowing environmental bacteria with novel catabolic capacities. Here, we discuss the dynamic aspects inherent to the diversity and mosaic structure of Tn3-family transposons and their derivatives. We also provide an overview of current knowledge of the replicative transposition mechanism of the family, emphasizing most recent work aimed at understanding this mechanism at the biochemical level. Previous and recent data are put in perspective with those obtained for other transposable elements to build up a tentative model linking the activities of the Tn3-family transposase protein with the cellular process of DNA replication, suggesting new lines for further investigation. Finally, we summarize our current view of the DNA site-specific recombination mechanisms responsible for converting replicative transposition intermediates into final products, comparing paradigm systems using a serine recombinase with more recently characterized systems that use a tyrosine recombinase.

  12. Transposons Tn10 and Tn5.

    PubMed

    Haniford, David B; Ellis, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    The study of the bacterial transposons Tn10 and Tn5 has provided a wealth of information regarding steps in nonreplicative DNA transposition, transpososome dynamics and structure, as well as mechanisms employed to regulate transposition. The focus of ongoing research on these transposons is mainly on host regulation and the use of the Tn10 antisense system as a platform to develop riboregulators for applications in synthetic biology. Over the past decade two new regulators of both Tn10 and Tn5 transposition have been identified, namely H-NS and Hfq proteins. These are both global regulators of gene expression in enteric bacteria with functions linked to stress-response pathways and virulence and potentially could link the Tn10 and Tn5 systems (and thus the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes) to environmental cues. Work summarized here is consistent with the H-NS protein working directly on transposition complexes to upregulate both Tn10 and Tn5 transposition. In contrast, evidence is discussed that is consistent with Hfq working at the level of transposase expression to downregulate both systems. With regard to Tn10 and synthetic biology, some recent work that incorporates the Tn10 antisense RNA into both transcriptional and translational riboswitches is summarized.

  13. IS30-related transposon mediated insertional inactivation of bile salt hydrolase (bsh1) gene of Lactobacillus plantarum strain Lp20.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Grover, Sunita; Kaushik, Jai K; Batish, Virender Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a flexible and versatile microorganism that inhabits a variety of niches, and its genome may express up to four bsh genes to maximize its survival in the mammalian gut. However, the ecological significance of multiple bsh genes in L. plantarum is still not clearly understood. Hence, this study demonstrated the disruption of bile salt hydrolase (bsh1) gene due to the insertion of a transposable element in L. plantarum Lp20 - a wild strain of human fecal origin. Surprisingly, L. plantarum strain Lp20 produced a ∼2.0 kb bsh1 amplicon against the normal size (∼1.0 kb) bsh1 amplicon of Bsh(+)L. plantarum Lp21. Strain Lp20 exhibited minimal Bsh activity in spite of having intact bsh2, bsh3 and bsh4 genes in its genome and hence had a Bsh(-) phenotype. Cloning and sequence characterization of Lp20 bsh1 gene predicted four individual open reading frames (ORFs) within this region. BLAST analysis of ORF1 and ORF2 revealed significant sequence similarity to the L. plantarum bsh1 gene while ORF3 and ORF4 showed high sequence homology to IS30-family transposases. Since, IS30-related transposon element was inserted within Lp20 bsh1 gene in reverse orientation (3'-5'), it introduced several stop codons and disrupted the protein reading frames of both Bsh1 and transposase. Inverted terminal repeats (GGCAGATTG) of transposon, mediated its insertion at 255-263 nt and 1301-1309 nt positions of Lp20 bsh1 gene. In conclusion, insertion of IS30 related-transposon within the bsh1 gene sequence of L. plantarum strain Lp20 demolished the integrity and functionality of Bsh1 enzyme. Additionally, this transposon DNA sequence remains active among various Lactobacillus spp. and hence harbors the potential to be explored in the development of efficient insertion mutagenesis system.

  14. Mechanism for DNA transposons to generate introns on genomic scales.

    PubMed

    Huff, Jason T; Zilberman, Daniel; Roy, Scott W

    2016-10-27

    The discovery of introns four decades ago was one of the most unexpected findings in molecular biology. Introns are sequences interrupting genes that must be removed as part of messenger RNA production. Genome sequencing projects have shown that most eukaryotic genes contain at least one intron, and frequently many. Comparison of these genomes reveals a history of long evolutionary periods during which few introns were gained, punctuated by episodes of rapid, extensive gain. However, although several detailed mechanisms for such episodic intron generation have been proposed, none has been empirically supported on a genomic scale. Here we show how short, non-autonomous DNA transposons independently generated hundreds to thousands of introns in the prasinophyte Micromonas pusilla and the pelagophyte Aureococcus anophagefferens. Each transposon carries one splice site. The other splice site is co-opted from the gene sequence that is duplicated upon transposon insertion, allowing perfect splicing out of the RNA. The distributions of sequences that can be co-opted are biased with respect to codons, and phasing of transposon-generated introns is similarly biased. These transposons insert between pre-existing nucleosomes, so that multiple nearby insertions generate nucleosome-sized intervening segments. Thus, transposon insertion and sequence co-option may explain the intron phase biases and prevalence of nucleosome-sized exons observed in eukaryotes. Overall, the two independent examples of proliferating elements illustrate a general DNA transposon mechanism that can plausibly account for episodes of rapid, extensive intron gain during eukaryotic evolution.

  15. Analyzing Maize Anther Development Using Transposons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S.

    2011-12-01

    Over the summer, we tackled two projects in studying more about transposons (moving/jumping genes) such as Mutator genes in corn for this project, and how the plants switch from the stages of mitosis to meiosis without a germ line. We use a transgenic corn line containing RescueMu (an artificial Mutator containing a plasmid in it), so we can keep track of the insertion events. This is a long term project so we haven't come to any final conclusions or results with tracking what happens in Mutator transposition during different stages of corn development but our process shows to work so we continue with what we've been doing.

  16. Gene-specific cell labeling using MiMIC transposons

    PubMed Central

    Gnerer, Joshua P.; Venken, Koen J. T.; Dierick, Herman A.

    2015-01-01

    Binary expression systems such as GAL4/UAS, LexA/LexAop and QF/QUAS have greatly enhanced the power of Drosophila as a model organism by allowing spatio-temporal manipulation of gene function as well as cell and neural circuit function. Tissue-specific expression of these heterologous transcription factors relies on random transposon integration near enhancers or promoters that drive the binary transcription factor embedded in the transposon. Alternatively, gene-specific promoter elements are directly fused to the binary factor within the transposon followed by random or site-specific integration. However, such insertions do not consistently recapitulate endogenous expression. We used Minos-Mediated Integration Cassette (MiMIC) transposons to convert host loci into reliable gene-specific binary effectors. MiMIC transposons allow recombinase-mediated cassette exchange to modify the transposon content. We developed novel exchange cassettes to convert coding intronic MiMIC insertions into gene-specific binary factor protein-traps. In addition, we expanded the set of binary factor exchange cassettes available for non-coding intronic MiMIC insertions. We show that binary factor conversions of different insertions in the same locus have indistinguishable expression patterns, suggesting that they reliably reflect endogenous gene expression. We show the efficacy and broad applicability of these new tools by dissecting the cellular expression patterns of the Drosophila serotonin receptor gene family. PMID:25712101

  17. New superfamilies of eukaryotic DNA transposons and their internal divisions.

    PubMed

    Bao, Weidong; Jurka, Matthew G; Kapitonov, Vladimir V; Jurka, Jerzy

    2009-05-01

    Despite their enormous diversity and abundance, all currently known eukaryotic DNA transposons belong to only 15 superfamilies. Here, we report two new superfamilies of DNA transposons, named Sola and Zator. Sola transposons encode DDD-transposases (transposase, TPase) and are flanked by 4-bp target site duplications (TSD). Elements from the Sola superfamily are distributed in a variety of species including bacteria, protists, plants, and metazoans. They can be divided into three distinct groups of elements named Sola1, Sola2, and Sola3. The elements from each group have extremely low sequence identity to each other, different termini, and different target site preferences. However, all three groups belong to a single superfamily based on significant PSI-Blast identities between their TPases. The DDD TPase sequences encoded by Sola transposons are not similar to any known TPases. The second superfamily named Zator is characterized by 3-bp TSD. The Zator superfamily is relatively rare in eukaryotic species, and it evolved from a bacterial transposon encoding a TPase belonging to the "transposase 36" family (Pfam07592). These transposons are named TP36 elements (abbreviated from transposase 36).

  18. Small RNAs and regulation of transposons in plants.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hidetaka

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference is now a well-recognized post-transcriptional mechanism for regulation of gene expression in both animals and plants. In this process, microRNAs (miRNAs) direct silencing complexes to complementary RNA sequences, leading to either degradation or repression of translation. Plants also contain another type of small RNA, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), that play a role in gene silencing by directing cytosine methylation activities of complementary DNA sequences and thus, differ from miRNAs. This nuclear regulation system is referred to as RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). In plant genomes, transposable elements were initially thought to be regulated by DNA methylation alone. However, several recent reports have revealed that siRNAs and RdDM also play crucial roles in silencing of transposons and endogenous repeats. It is also becoming apparent that transposons are subjected to different levels of regulation in response to developmental and environmental cues. Transposons are tightly regulated in germ cells to protect the host genome from transgenerational mutagenic activity. In plants, transposons are also activated by biotic and abiotic stress. The regulation of transposons in these different situations has been associated with both the DNA methylation and siRNA-mediated regulation systems, suggesting that plants likely evolved "multi-lock" systems for transposon regulation to ensure tight control during the developmental phase and environmental changes.

  19. Gene-specific cell labeling using MiMIC transposons.

    PubMed

    Gnerer, Joshua P; Venken, Koen J T; Dierick, Herman A

    2015-04-30

    Binary expression systems such as GAL4/UAS, LexA/LexAop and QF/QUAS have greatly enhanced the power of Drosophila as a model organism by allowing spatio-temporal manipulation of gene function as well as cell and neural circuit function. Tissue-specific expression of these heterologous transcription factors relies on random transposon integration near enhancers or promoters that drive the binary transcription factor embedded in the transposon. Alternatively, gene-specific promoter elements are directly fused to the binary factor within the transposon followed by random or site-specific integration. However, such insertions do not consistently recapitulate endogenous expression. We used Minos-Mediated Integration Cassette (MiMIC) transposons to convert host loci into reliable gene-specific binary effectors. MiMIC transposons allow recombinase-mediated cassette exchange to modify the transposon content. We developed novel exchange cassettes to convert coding intronic MiMIC insertions into gene-specific binary factor protein-traps. In addition, we expanded the set of binary factor exchange cassettes available for non-coding intronic MiMIC insertions. We show that binary factor conversions of different insertions in the same locus have indistinguishable expression patterns, suggesting that they reliably reflect endogenous gene expression. We show the efficacy and broad applicability of these new tools by dissecting the cellular expression patterns of the Drosophila serotonin receptor gene family.

  20. Conserved themes in small-RNA-mediated transposon control

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Angélique; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotes are engaged in a constant struggle against transposable elements, which have invaded and profoundly shaped their genomes. Over the past decade, a growing body of evidence has pointed to a role for small RNAs in transposon defense. Although the strategies used in different organisms vary in their details, they have strikingly similar general properties. Basically, all mechanisms consist of three components. First, transposon detection prompts the production of small RNAs, which are Piwi-interacting RNAs in some organisms and small interfering RNAs in others. Second, the population of small RNAs targeting active transposons is amplified through an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-based or Slicer-based mechanism. Third, small RNAs are incorporated into Argonaute- or Piwi-containing effector complexes, which target transposon transcripts for post-transcriptional silencing and/or target transposon DNA for repressive chromatin modification and DNA methylation. These properties produce robust systems that limit the catastrophic consequences of transposon mobilization, which can result in the accumulation of deleterious mutations, changes in gene expression patterns, and conditions such as gonadal hypotrophy and sterility. PMID:18282709

  1. Transposon-Derived Brucella abortus Rough Mutants Are Attenuated and Exhibit Reduced Intracellular Survival

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Chris A.; Adams, L. Garry; Ficht, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    The O antigen of Brucella abortus has been described as a major virulence determinant based on the attenuated survival of fortuitously isolated rough variants. However, the lack of genetic definition of these mutants and the virulence of naturally occurring rough species, Brucella ovis and Brucella canis, has confused interpretation. To better characterize the role of O antigen in virulence and survival, transposon mutagenesis was used to generate B. abortus rough mutants defective in O-antigen presentation. Sequence analysis of DNA flanking the site of Tn5 insertion was used to verify insertion in genes encoding lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthetic functions. Not surprisingly, each of the rough mutants was attenuated for survival in mice, but unexpected differences among the mutants were observed. In an effort to define the basis for the observed differences, the structure of the rough LPS and the sensitivity of these mutants to individual killing mechanisms were examined in vitro. All of the B. abortus rough mutants exhibited a 4- to 5-log-unit increase, compared to the smooth parental strain, in sensitivity to complement-mediated lysis. Little change was evident in the sensitivity of these organisms to hydrogen peroxide, consistent with an inability of O antigen to exclude relatively small molecules. Sensitivity to polymyxin B, which was employed as a model cationic, amphipathic peptide similar to defensins found in phagocytic cells, revealed survival differences among the rough mutants similar to those observed in the mouse. One mutant in particular exhibited hypersensitivity to polymyxin B and reduced survival in mice. This mutant was characterized by a truncated rough LPS. DNA sequence analysis of this mutant revealed a transposon interruption in the gene encoding phosphomannomutase (pmm), suggesting that this activity may be required for the synthesis of a full-length core polysaccharide in addition to O antigen. B. abortus O antigen appears to be essential

  2. Toluene transposons Tn4651 and Tn4653 are class II transposons

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuda, Masataka; Minegishi, Koh-ichi; Iino, Tetsuo )

    1989-03-01

    The toluene degradative transposon Tn4651 is included within another transposon, Tn4653, and both of these elements are members of the Tn3 family. The tnpA gene product of each element mediates formation of cointegrates as intermediate products of transposition, and the tnpS and tnpT gene products encoded by Tn4651 take part in resolution of both Tn4651- and Tn4653-mediated cointegrates. Sequence analysis demonstrated that Tn4651 and Tn4653 have 46- and 38-base-pair terminal inverted repeats, respectively, and that both elements generate 5-base-pair duplication of the target sequence upon transposition. Complementation test of the Tn4651 - and Tn4653-encoded transposition functions with those of Tn3, Tn21, and Tn1721 showed that (i) the trans-acting transposition functions encoded by Tn4651 were not interchangeable with those encoded by the four other transposons, (ii) the Tn4653 tnpA function was interchangeable with the Tn1721 function, and (iii) Tn4653 coded for a resolvase (tnpR gene product) that complemented the tnpr mutations of Tn21 and Tn1721. The Tn4653 tnpR gene was located just 5{prime} upstream of the tnpA gene sheared extensive sequence homology with the Tn1721 tnpR gene. The res region was located adjacent to the tnpR gene, and sequence analysis indicated that failure of the Tn4653 tnpR product to resolve the Tn4653-mediated cointegrates is ascribed to an incomplete structure of the res region.

  3. Heterochromatic histone modifications at transposons in Xenopus tropicalis embryos.

    PubMed

    van Kruijsbergen, Ila; Hontelez, Saartje; Elurbe, Dei M; van Heeringen, Simon J; Huynen, Martijn A; Veenstra, Gert Jan C

    2016-09-14

    Transposable elements are parasitic genomic elements that can be deleterious for host gene function and genome integrity. Heterochromatic histone modifications are involved in the repression of transposons. However, it remains unknown how these histone modifications mark different types of transposons during embryonic development. Here we document the variety of heterochromatic epigenetic signatures at parasitic elements during development in Xenopus tropicalis, using genome-wide ChIP-sequencing data and ChIP-qPCR analysis. We show that specific subsets of transposons in various families and subfamilies are marked by different combinations of the heterochromatic histone modifications H4K20me3, H3K9me2/3 and H3K27me3. Many DNA transposons are marked at the blastula stage already, whereas at retrotransposons the histone modifications generally accumulate at the gastrula stage or later. Furthermore, transposons marked by H3K9me3 and H4K20me3 are more prominent in gene deserts. Using intra-subfamily divergence as a proxy for age, we show that relatively young DNA transposons are preferentially marked by early embryonic H4K20me3 and H3K27me3. In contrast, relatively young retrotransposons are marked by increasing H3K9me3 and H4K20me3 during development, and are also linked to piRNA-sized small non-coding RNAs. Our results implicate distinct repression mechanisms that operate in a transposon-selective and developmental stage-specific fashion.

  4. Large scale screen for transposon insertions into cloned genes.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, B A; Palazzolo, M J; Chang, J H; VijayRaghavan, K; Mayeda, C A; Whitney, M A; Meyerowitz, E M

    1991-01-01

    We describe a method of screening for transposon insertions in or near Drosophila loci that correspond to cloned DNA sequences. We mobilize a modified P element transposon that carries a bacterial plasmid origin of replication and a drug-resistance marker. The genomic sequences flanking each transposon insertion site can then be rescued as a plasmid in Escherichia coli. Libraries of such plasmids, representing pools of transposon-mutagenized individuals, are used as hybridization probes against cloned sequences to determine whether a transposon has inserted next to a particular site in the genome. The number of loci that can be screened simultaneously by this procedure is quite large. We have screened an array of cDNA clones representing almost 700 distinct loci against libraries representing 760 mutagenized flies, and we obtained hybridization signals to 7 different cDNAs. Three of these events have been analyzed in detail and represent genuine insertions near genomic sequences that correspond to the cDNAs. Images PMID:1849274

  5. Probe mapping to facilitate transposon-based DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Strausbaugh, L.D.; Bourke, M.T.; Sommer, M.T.; Coon, M.E.; Berg, C.M. )

    1990-08-01

    A promising strategy for DNA sequencing exploits transposons to provide mobile sites for the binding of sequencing primers. For such a strategy to be maximally efficient, the location and orientation of the transposon must be readily determined and the insertion sites should be randomly distributed. The authors demonstrate an efficient probe-based method for the localization and orientation of transposon-borne primer sites, which is adaptable to large-scale sequencing strategies. This approach requires no prior restriction enzyme mapping or knowledge of the cloned sequence and eliminates the inefficiency inherent in totally random sequencing methods. To test the efficiency of probe mapping, 49 insertions of the transposon {gamma}{delta} (Tn1000) in a cloned fragment of Drosophila melanogaster DNA were mapped and oriented. In addition, oligonucleotide primers specific for unique subterminal {gamma}{delta} segments were used to prime dideoxynucleotide double-stranded sequencing. These data provided an opportunity to rigorously examine {gamma}{delta} insertion sites. The insertions were quire randomly distributed, even though the target DNA fragment had both A+T-rich and G+C-rich regions; in G+C-rich DNA, the insertions were found in A+T-rich valleys. These data demonstrate that {gamma}{delta} is an excellent choice for supplying mobile primer binding sites to cloned DNA and that transposon-based probe mapping permits the sequences of large cloned segments to be determined without any subcloning.

  6. A superfamily of DNA transposons targeting multicopy small RNA genes.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kenji K; Jurka, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Target-specific integration of transposable elements for multicopy genes, such as ribosomal RNA and small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes, is of great interest because of the relatively harmless nature, stable inheritance and possible application for targeted gene delivery of target-specific transposable elements. To date, such strict target specificity has been observed only among non-LTR retrotransposons. We here report a new superfamily of sequence-specific DNA transposons, designated Dada. Dada encodes a DDE-type transposase that shows a distant similarity to transposases encoded by eukaryotic MuDR, hAT, P and Kolobok transposons, as well as the prokaryotic IS256 insertion element. Dada generates 6-7 bp target site duplications upon insertion. One family of Dada DNA transposons targets a specific site inside the U6 snRNA genes and are found in various fish species, water flea, oyster and polycheate worm. Other target sequences of the Dada transposons are U1 snRNA genes and different tRNA genes. The targets are well conserved in multicopy genes, indicating that copy number and sequence conservation are the primary constraints on the target choice of Dada transposons. Dada also opens a new frontier for target-specific gene delivery application.

  7. Evolutionary perspectives on multiresistance beta-lactamase transposons.

    PubMed Central

    Lafond, M; Couture, F; Vézina, G; Levesque, R C

    1989-01-01

    A series of intragenic DNA probes, encoding the major part of the transposase resolvase and inverted repeats of transposons Tn3, Tn21, and Tn2501, were used in hybridization assays for homologous DNA sequences in 18 transposons studied. The tnpA and tnpR probes detected extensive homology with Tn3-like and Tn21-like elements for 11 transposons. This high degree of homology was confirmed with the 38- and 48-base-pair inverted-repeat oligonucleotide probes of Tn3, Tn21, and Tn2501. The Southern-type gel hybridization experiments localized the tnpA-homologous sequences on the physical DNA maps constructed. The genetic and physical maps of the transposons were compared, as were their nucleic acid sequence homologies. These comparisons suggested a subfamily of mobile elements distinct from but related to the Tn21 group. Based on these results, an evolutionary model is proposed and a pedigree is presented for the genesis of multiresistance beta-lactamase transposons. Images PMID:2556363

  8. An Ac transposon system based on maize chromosome 4S for isolating long-distance-transposed Ac tags in the maize genome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Li, Zhaoying; Fan, Jun; Li, Pengfei; Hu, Wei; Wang, Gang; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2010-12-01

    Transposon tagging is an important tool for gene isolation and functional studies. In maize, several transposon-tagging systems have been developed, mostly using Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) and Mutator systems. Here, we establish another Ac-based transposon system with the donor Ac tightly linked with sugary1 (su1) on maize chromosome 4S. Newly transposed Ac (tr-Acs) were detected based on a negative dosage effect, and long-distance-transposed Ac events were identified and isolated from the donor Ac by a simple backcross scheme. In this study, we identified 208 independent long-distance-transposed Ac lines. Thirty-one flanking sequences of these tr-Acs were isolated and localized in the maize genome. As found in previous studies, the tr-Acs preferentially inserted into genic sequences. The distribution of tr-Acs is not random. In our study, the tr-Acs preferentially transposed into chromosomes 1, 2, 9 and 10. We discuss the preferential distribution of tr-Acs from Ac systems. Our system is complementary to two other Ac-based regional-mutagenesis systems in maize, and the combined use of these systems will achieve an even and high-density distribution of Ac elements throughout the maize genome for functional-genomics studies.

  9. Control of hemA Expression in Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1: Effect of a Transposon Insertion in the hbdA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Fales, Linda; Kryszak, Luiza; Zeilstra-Ryalls, Jill

    2001-01-01

    The common precursor to all tetrapyrroles is 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), and in Rhodobacter sphaeroides its formation occurs via the Shemin pathway. ALA synthase activity is encoded by two differentially regulated genes in R. sphaeroides 2.4.1: hemA and hemT. In our investigations of hemA regulation, we applied transposon mutagenesis under aerobic conditions, followed by a selection that identified transposon insertion mutants in which hemA expression is elevated. One of these mutants has been characterized previously (J. Zeilstra-Ryalls and S. Kaplan, J. Bacteriol. 178:985–993, 1996), and here we describe our analysis of a second mutant strain. The transposon inserted into the coding sequences of hbdA, coding for S-(+)-β-hydroxybutyryl–coenzyme A dehydrogenase and catalyzing an NAD-dependent reaction. We provide evidence that the hbdA gene product participates in polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) metabolism and, based on our findings, we discuss possibilities as to how defective PHB metabolism might alter the level of hemA expression. PMID:11160087

  10. A virophage at the origin of large DNA transposons.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Matthias G; Suttle, Curtis A

    2011-04-08

    DNA transposons are mobile genetic elements that have shaped the genomes of eukaryotes for millions of years, yet their origins remain obscure. We discovered a virophage that, on the basis of genetic homology, likely represents an evolutionary link between double-stranded DNA viruses and Maverick/Polinton eukaryotic DNA transposons. The Mavirus virophage parasitizes the giant Cafeteria roenbergensis virus and encodes 20 predicted proteins, including a retroviral integrase and a protein-primed DNA polymerase B. On the basis of our data, we conclude that Maverick/Polinton transposons may have originated from ancient relatives of Mavirus, and thereby influenced the evolution of eukaryotic genomes, although we cannot rule out alternative evolutionary scenarios.

  11. Retroviral vectors and transposons for stable gene therapy: advances, current challenges and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vargas, José Eduardo; Chicaybam, Leonardo; Stein, Renato Tetelbom; Tanuri, Amilcar; Delgado-Cañedo, Andrés; Bonamino, Martin H

    2016-10-12

    Gene therapy protocols require robust and long-term gene expression. For two decades, retrovirus family vectors have offered several attractive properties as stable gene-delivery vehicles. These vectors represent a technology with widespread use in basic biology and translational studies that require persistent gene expression for treatment of several monogenic diseases. Immunogenicity and insertional mutagenesis represent the main obstacles to a wider clinical use of these vectors. Efficient and safe non-viral vectors are emerging as a promising alternative and facilitate clinical gene therapy studies. Here, we present an updated review for beginners and expert readers on retro and lentiviruses and the latest generation of transposon vectors (sleeping beauty and piggyBac) used in stable gene transfer and gene therapy clinical trials. We discuss the potential advantages and disadvantages of these systems such as cellular responses (immunogenicity or genome modification of the target cell) following exogenous DNA integration. Additionally, we discuss potential implications of these genome modification tools in gene therapy and other basic and applied science contexts.

  12. Multiple independent defective suppressor-mutator transposon insertions in Arabidopsis: a tool for functional genomics.

    PubMed Central

    Tissier, A F; Marillonnet, S; Klimyuk, V; Patel, K; Torres, M A; Murphy, G; Jones, J D

    1999-01-01

    A new system for insertional mutagenesis based on the maize Enhancer/Suppressor-mutator (En/Spm) element was introduced into Arabidopsis. A single T-DNA construct carried a nonautonomous defective Spm (dSpm) element with a phosphinothricin herbicide resistance (BAR) gene, a transposase expression cassette, and a counterselectable gene. This construct was used to select for stable dSpm transpositions. Treatments for both positive (BAR) and negative selection markers were applicable to soil-grown plants, allowing the recovery of new transpositions on a large scale. To date, a total of 48,000 lines in pools of 50 have been recovered, of which approximately 80% result from independent insertion events. DNA extracted from these pools was used in reverse genetic screens, either by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers from the transposon and the targeted gene or by the display of insertions whereby inverse PCR products of insertions from the DNA pools are spotted on a membrane that is then hybridized with the probe of interest. By sequencing PCR-amplified fragments adjacent to insertion sites, we established a sequenced insertion-site database of 1200 sequences. This database permitted a comparison of the chromosomal distribution of transpositions from various T-DNA locations. PMID:10521516

  13. Polintons: a hotbed of eukaryotic virus, transposon and plasmid evolution.

    PubMed

    Krupovic, Mart; Koonin, Eugene V

    2015-02-01

    Polintons (also known as Mavericks) are large DNA transposons that are widespread in the genomes of eukaryotes. We have recently shown that Polintons encode virus capsid proteins, which suggests that these transposons might form virions, at least under some conditions. In this Opinion article, we delineate the evolutionary relationships among bacterial tectiviruses, Polintons, adenoviruses, virophages, large and giant DNA viruses of eukaryotes of the proposed order 'Megavirales', and linear mitochondrial and cytoplasmic plasmids. We hypothesize that Polintons were the first group of eukaryotic double-stranded DNA viruses to evolve from bacteriophages and that they gave rise to most large DNA viruses of eukaryotes and various other selfish genetic elements.

  14. Transposon-facilitated recombination in classical biotypes of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed Central

    Sublett, R D; Romig, W R

    1981-01-01

    Transposon-facilitated recombination (Tfr) donors of classical Vibrio cholerae strain 162 were constructed by introducing the ampicillin transposon Tn1 into the P conjugative plasmid and the bacterial chromosome. The improved donors mediated high-frequency, polarized transfer of chromosomal genes from origins to confirm the gene orders of the previous classical strain 162 genetic map and to establish its circularity. Significant transfer of linked genes from E1 Tor Tfr donors to classical recipients was demonstrated, and other evidence for genetic relatedness of these two V. cholerae biotypes is discussed. PMID:6265372

  15. In vitro models of mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Strauss, B S; Larson, K; Sagher, D; Rabkin, S; Shenkar, R; Sahm, J

    1985-01-01

    The bypass of lesions in DNA with insertion of nucleotides opposite damaged bases has been studied as a model for mutagenesis in an in vitro system. Lesions introduced by dimethyl sulfate at adenines and by ultraviolet light at pyrimidine dimers act as termination sites on both double- and single-stranded DNA templates. Base selection opposite noninformational lesions is, in part, a property of the polymerases: different polymerases have different selectivities although all polymerases tested seem to prefer purines. The ability to insert "incorrect" bases is determined in part by the sequence 5' to the lesion on the template strand. The hypothesis that damaged purines tend to result in transversions can be applied to published data on activation of the c-ras oncogene.

  16. IS26-Mediated Formation of Transposons Carrying Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The IS26 transposase, Tnp26, catalyzes IS26 movement to a new site and deletion or inversion of adjacent DNA via a replicative route. The intramolecular deletion reaction produces a circular molecule consisting of a DNA segment and a single IS26, which we call a translocatable unit or TU. Recently, Tnp26 was shown to catalyze an additional intermolecular, conservative reaction between two preexisting copies of IS26 in different plasmids. Here, we have investigated the relative contributions of homologous recombination and Tnp26-catalyzed reactions to the generation of a transposon from a TU. Circular TUs containing the aphA1a kanamycin and neomycin resistance gene or the tet(D) tetracycline resistance determinant were generated in vitro and transformed into Escherichia coli recA cells carrying R388::IS26. The TU incorporated next to the IS26 in R388::IS26 forms a transposon with the insertion sequence (IS) in direct orientation. Introduction of a second TU produced regions containing both the aphA1a gene and the tet(D) determinant in either order but with only three copies of IS26. The integration reaction, which required a preexisting IS26, was precise and conservative and was 50-fold more efficient when both IS26 copies could produce an active Tnp26. When both ISs were inactivated by a frameshift in tnp26, TU incorporation was not detected in E. coli recA cells, but it did occur in E. coli recA+ cells. However, the Tnp-catalyzed reaction was 100-fold more efficient than RecA-dependent homologous recombination. The ability of Tnp26 to function in either a replicative or conservative mode is likely to explain the prominence of IS26-bounded transposons in the resistance regions found in Gram-negative bacteria. IMPORTANCE In Gram-negative bacteria, IS26 recruits antibiotic resistance genes into the mobile gene pool by forming transposons carrying many different resistance genes. In addition to replicative transposition, IS26 was recently shown to use a

  17. IS26-Mediated Formation of Transposons Carrying Antibiotic Resistance Genes.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Christopher J; Hall, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    The IS26 transposase, Tnp26, catalyzes IS26 movement to a new site and deletion or inversion of adjacent DNA via a replicative route. The intramolecular deletion reaction produces a circular molecule consisting of a DNA segment and a single IS26, which we call a translocatable unit or TU. Recently, Tnp26 was shown to catalyze an additional intermolecular, conservative reaction between two preexisting copies of IS26 in different plasmids. Here, we have investigated the relative contributions of homologous recombination and Tnp26-catalyzed reactions to the generation of a transposon from a TU. Circular TUs containing the aphA1a kanamycin and neomycin resistance gene or the tet(D) tetracycline resistance determinant were generated in vitro and transformed into Escherichia coli recA cells carrying R388::IS26. The TU incorporated next to the IS26 in R388::IS26 forms a transposon with the insertion sequence (IS) in direct orientation. Introduction of a second TU produced regions containing both the aphA1a gene and the tet(D) determinant in either order but with only three copies of IS26. The integration reaction, which required a preexisting IS26, was precise and conservative and was 50-fold more efficient when both IS26 copies could produce an active Tnp26. When both ISs were inactivated by a frameshift in tnp26, TU incorporation was not detected in E. coli recA cells, but it did occur in E. coli recA (+) cells. However, the Tnp-catalyzed reaction was 100-fold more efficient than RecA-dependent homologous recombination. The ability of Tnp26 to function in either a replicative or conservative mode is likely to explain the prominence of IS26-bounded transposons in the resistance regions found in Gram-negative bacteria. IMPORTANCE In Gram-negative bacteria, IS26 recruits antibiotic resistance genes into the mobile gene pool by forming transposons carrying many different resistance genes. In addition to replicative transposition, IS26 was recently shown to use a novel

  18. Structure and evolution of the hAT transposon superfamily.

    PubMed

    Rubin, E; Lithwick, G; Levy, A A

    2001-07-01

    The maize transposon Activator (Ac) was the first mobile DNA element to be discovered. Since then, other elements were found that share similarity to Ac, suggesting that it belongs to a transposon superfamily named hAT after hobo from Drosophila, Ac from maize, and Tam3 from snapdragon. We addressed the structure and evolution of hAT elements by developing new tools for transposon mining and searching the public sequence databases for the hallmarks of hAT elements, namely the transposase and short terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) flanked by 8-bp host duplications. We found 147 hAT-related sequences in plants, animals, and fungi. Six conserved blocks could be identified in the transposase of most hAT elements. A total of 41 hAT sequences were flanked by TIRs and 8-bp host duplications and, out of these, 34 sequences had TIRs similar to the consensus determined in this work, suggesting that they are active or recently active transposons. Phylogenetic analysis and clustering of hAT sequences suggest that the hAT superfamily is very ancient, probably predating the plant-fungi-animal separation, and that, unlike previously proposed, there is no evidence that horizontal gene transfer was involved in the evolution of hAT elements.

  19. Mercury resistance transposons in Bacilli strains from different geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Yoshinami, Satoshi; Narita, Masaru; Chien, Mei-Fang; Phung, Le T; Silver, Simon; Endo, Ginro

    2016-03-01

    A total of 65 spore-forming mercury-resistant bacteria were isolated from natural environments worldwide in order to understand the acquisition of additional genes by and dissemination of mercury resistance transposons across related Bacilli genera by horizontal gene movement. PCR amplification using a single primer complementary to the inverted repeat sequence of TnMERI1-like transposons showed that 12 of 65 isolates had a transposon-like structure. There were four types of amplified fragments: Tn5084, Tn5085, Tn(d)MER3 (a newly identified deleted transposon-like fragment) and Tn6294 (a newly identified transposon). Tn(d)MER3 is a 3.5-kb sequence that carries a merRETPA operon with no merB or transposase genes. It is related to the mer operon of Bacillus licheniformis strain FA6-12 from Russia. DNA homology analysis shows that Tn6294 is an 8.5-kb sequence that is possibly derived from Tn(d)MER3 by integration of a TnMERI1-type transposase and resolvase genes and in addition the merR2 and merB1 genes. Bacteria harboring Tn6294 exhibited broad-spectrum mercury resistance to organomercurial compounds, although Tn6294 had only merB1 and did not have the merB2 and merB3 sequences for organomercurial lyases found in Tn5084 of B. cereus strain RC607. Strains with Tn6294 encode mercuric reductase (MerA) of less than 600 amino acids in length with a single N-terminal mercury-binding domain, whereas MerA encoded by strains MB1 and RC607 has two tandem domains. Thus, Tn(d)MER3 and Tn6294 are shorter prototypes for TnMERI1-like transposons. Identification of Tn6294 in Bacillus sp. from Taiwan and in Paenibacillus sp. from Antarctica indicates the wide horizontal dissemination of TnMERI1-like transposons across bacterial species and geographical barriers.

  20. Identification of Genes Involved in Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 Strain Using Transposon Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Elisete P.; Soares, Cleiton de Paula; Galvão, Patrícia G.; Imada, Eddie L.; Simões-Araújo, Jean L.; Rouws, Luc F. M.; de Oliveira, André L. M.; Vidal, Márcia S.; Baldani, José I.

    2016-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a beneficial nitrogen-fixing endophyte found in association with sugarcane plants and other important crops. Beneficial effects of G. diazotrophicus on sugarcane growth and productivity have been attributed to biological nitrogen fixation process and production of phytohormones especially indole-3-acetic acid (IAA); however, information about the biosynthesis and function of IAA in G. diazotrophicus is still scarce. Therefore, the aim of this work was to identify genes and pathways involved in IAA biosynthesis in this bacterium. In our study, the screening of two independent Tn5 mutant libraries of PAL5T strain using the Salkowski colorimetric assay revealed two mutants (Gdiaa34 and Gdiaa01), which exhibited 95% less indolic compounds than the parental strain when grown in LGIP medium supplemented with L-tryptophan. HPLC chromatograms of the wild-type strain revealed the presence of IAA and of the biosynthetic intermediates indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) and indole-3-lactate (ILA). In contrast, the HPLC profiles of both mutants showed no IAA but only a large peak of non-metabolized tryptophan and low levels of IPyA and ILA were detected. Molecular characterization revealed that Gdiaa01 and Gdiaa34 mutants had unique Tn5 insertions at different sites within the GDI2456 open read frame, which is predicted to encode a L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO). GDI2456 (lao gene) forms a cluster with GDI2455 and GDI2454 ORFs, which are predicted to encode a cytochrome C and an RidA protein, respectively. RT-qPCR showed that transcript levels of lao. cccA, and ridA genes were reduced in the Gdiaa01 as compared to PAL5T. In addition, rice plants inoculated with Gdiaa01 showed significantly smaller root development (length, surface area, number of forks and tips) than those plants inoculated with PAL5T. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that G. diazotrophicus PAL5T produces IAA via the IPyA pathway in cultures supplemented with tryptophan and provides evidence for the involvement of an L-amino acid oxidase gene cluster in the biosynthesis of IAA. Furthermore, we showed that the mutant strains with reduction in IAA biosynthesis ability, in consequence of the lower transcription levels of genes of the lao cluster, had remarkable effects on development of rice roots. PMID:27774087

  1. MAR elements and transposons for improved transgene integration and expression.

    PubMed

    Ley, Déborah; Harraghy, Niamh; Le Fourn, Valérie; Bire, Solenne; Girod, Pierre-Alain; Regamey, Alexandre; Rouleux-Bonnin, Florence; Bigot, Yves; Mermod, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Reliable and long-term expression of transgenes remain significant challenges for gene therapy and biotechnology applications, especially when antibiotic selection procedures are not applicable. In this context, transposons represent attractive gene transfer vectors because of their ability to promote efficient genomic integration in a variety of mammalian cell types. However, expression from genome-integrating vectors may be inhibited by variable gene transcription and/or silencing events. In this study, we assessed whether inclusion of two epigenetic control elements, the human Matrix Attachment Region (MAR) 1-68 and X-29, in a piggyBac transposon vector, may lead to more reliable and efficient expression in CHO cells. We found that addition of the MAR 1-68 at the center of the transposon did not interfere with transposition frequency, and transgene expressing cells could be readily detected from the total cell population without antibiotic selection. Inclusion of the MAR led to higher transgene expression per integrated copy, and reliable expression could be obtained from as few as 2-4 genomic copies of the MAR-containing transposon vector. The MAR X-29-containing transposons was found to mediate elevated expression of therapeutic proteins in polyclonal or monoclonal CHO cell populations using a transposable vector devoid of selection gene. Overall, we conclude that MAR and transposable vectors can be used to improve transgene expression from few genomic transposition events, which may be useful when expression from a low number of integrated transgene copies must be obtained and/or when antibiotic selection cannot be applied.

  2. DNA transposon activity is associated with increased mutation rates in genes of rice and other grasses.

    PubMed

    Wicker, Thomas; Yu, Yeisoo; Haberer, Georg; Mayer, Klaus F X; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Rounsley, Steve; Chen, Mingsheng; Zuccolo, Andrea; Panaud, Olivier; Wing, Rod A; Roffler, Stefan

    2016-09-07

    DNA (class 2) transposons are mobile genetic elements which move within their 'host' genome through excising and re-inserting elsewhere. Although the rice genome contains tens of thousands of such elements, their actual role in evolution is still unclear. Analysing over 650 transposon polymorphisms in the rice species Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima, we find that DNA repair following transposon excisions is associated with an increased number of mutations in the sequences neighbouring the transposon. Indeed, the 3,000 bp flanking the excised transposons can contain over 10 times more mutations than the genome-wide average. Since DNA transposons preferably insert near genes, this is correlated with increases in mutation rates in coding sequences and regulatory regions. Most importantly, we find this phenomenon also in maize, wheat and barley. Thus, these findings suggest that DNA transposon activity is a major evolutionary force in grasses which provide the basis of most food consumed by humankind.

  3. DNA transposon activity is associated with increased mutation rates in genes of rice and other grasses

    PubMed Central

    Wicker, Thomas; Yu, Yeisoo; Haberer, Georg; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Rounsley, Steve; Chen, Mingsheng; Zuccolo, Andrea; Panaud, Olivier; Wing, Rod A.; Roffler, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    DNA (class 2) transposons are mobile genetic elements which move within their ‘host' genome through excising and re-inserting elsewhere. Although the rice genome contains tens of thousands of such elements, their actual role in evolution is still unclear. Analysing over 650 transposon polymorphisms in the rice species Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima, we find that DNA repair following transposon excisions is associated with an increased number of mutations in the sequences neighbouring the transposon. Indeed, the 3,000 bp flanking the excised transposons can contain over 10 times more mutations than the genome-wide average. Since DNA transposons preferably insert near genes, this is correlated with increases in mutation rates in coding sequences and regulatory regions. Most importantly, we find this phenomenon also in maize, wheat and barley. Thus, these findings suggest that DNA transposon activity is a major evolutionary force in grasses which provide the basis of most food consumed by humankind. PMID:27599761

  4. Reconstitutional Mutagenesis of the Maize P Gene by Short-Range Ac Transpositions

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, M. A.; Chen, J.; Greenblatt, I.; Dellaporta, S. L.

    1992-01-01

    The tendency for Ac to transpose over short intervals has been utilized to develop insertional mutagenesis and fine structure genetic mapping strategies in maize. We recovered excisions of Ac from the P gene and insertions into nearby chromosomal sites. These closely linked Ac elements reinserted into the P gene, reconstituting over 250 unstable variegated alleles. Reconstituted alleles condition a variety of variegation patterns that reflect the position and orientation of Ac within the P gene. Molecular mapping and DNA sequence analyses have shown that reinsertion sites are dispersed throughout a 12.3-kb chromosomal region in the promoter, exons and introns of the P gene, but in some regions insertions sites were clustered in a nonrandom fashion. Transposition profiles and target site sequence data obtained from these studies have revealed several features of Ac transposition including its preference for certain target sites. These results clearly demonstrate the tendency of Ac to transpose to nearby sites in both proximal and distal directions from the donor site. With minor modifications, reconstitutional mutagenesis should be applicable to many Ac-induced mutations in maize and in other plant species and can possibly be extended to other eukaryotic transposon systems as well. PMID:1325389

  5. Transposons play an important role in the evolution and diversification of centromeres among closely related species.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dongying; Jiang, Ning; Wing, Rod A; Jiang, Jiming; Jackson, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Centromeres are important chromosomal regions necessary for eukaryotic cell segregation and replication. Due to high amounts of tandem repeats and transposons, centromeres have been difficult to sequence in most multicellular organisms, thus their sequence structure and evolution are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed transposons in the centromere 8 (Cen8) from the African cultivated rice (O. glaberrima) and two subspecies of the Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa), indica and japonica. We detected much higher transposon contents (>69%) in centromere regions than in the whole genomes of O. sativa ssp. japonica and O. glaberrima (~35%). We compared the three Cen8s and identified numerous recent insertions of transposons that were frequently organized into multiple-layer nested blocks, similar to nested transposons in maize. Except for the Hopi retrotransposon, all LTR retrotransposons were shared but exhibit different abundances amongst the three Cen8s. Even though a majority of the transposons were located in intergenic regions, some gene-related transposons were found and may be involved in gene diversification. Chromatin immunoprecipitated (ChIP) data analysis revealed that 165 families from both Class I and Class II transposons were found in CENH3-associated chromatin sequences. These results indicate essential roles for transposons in centromeres and that the rapid divergence of the Cen8 sequences between the two cultivated rice species was primarily caused by recent transposon insertions.

  6. Transposons, Genome Size, and Evolutionary Insights in Animals.

    PubMed

    Canapa, Adriana; Barucca, Marco; Biscotti, Maria A; Forconi, Mariko; Olmo, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between genome size and the percentage of transposons in 161 animal species evidenced that variations in genome size are linked to the amplification or the contraction of transposable elements. The activity of transposable elements could represent a response to environmental stressors. Indeed, although with different trends in protostomes and deuterostomes, comprehensive changes in genome size were recorded in concomitance with particular periods of evolutionary history or adaptations to specific environments. During evolution, genome size and the presence of transposable elements have influenced structural and functional parameters of genomes and cells. Changes of these parameters have had an impact on morphological and functional characteristics of the organism on which natural selection directly acts. Therefore, the current situation represents a balance between insertion and amplification of transposons and the mechanisms responsible for their deletion or for decreasing their activity. Among the latter, methylation and the silencing action of small RNAs likely represent the most frequent mechanisms.

  7. Transposon-induced nuclear mutations that alter chloroplast gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Barkan, A.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this project is to use mutant phenotypes as a guide to nuclear genes that determine the timing and localization of chloroplast development The immediate goals are to identify nuclear mutants with defects in chloroplast gene expression from maize lines harboring active Mu transposons; characterize their phenotypes to determine the precise defect in gene expression; clone several of the most interesting mutations by exploiting the transposon tag; and use the clones to further define the roles of these genes in modulating chloroplast gene expression. Three mutants were described earlier that had global defects in chloroplast gene expression. We have found that two of these mutations are allelic. Both alleles have global defects in chloroplast translation initiation, as revealed by the failure to assemble chloroplast mRNAs into polysomes. We have isolated and characterized three new mutants from Mu lines that have novel defects in chloroplast RNA metabolism. We are now ready to begin the task of cloning several of these genes, by using the Mu transposon tag.

  8. Kidney-specific transposon-mediated gene transfer in vivo.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Lauren E; Cheng, Jizhong; Welch, Richard C; Williams, Felisha M; Luo, Wentian; Gewin, Leslie S; Wilson, Matthew H

    2017-03-20

    Methods enabling kidney-specific gene transfer in adult mice are needed to develop new therapies for kidney disease. We attempted kidney-specific gene transfer following hydrodynamic tail vein injection using the kidney-specific podocin and gamma-glutamyl transferase promoters, but found expression primarily in the liver. In order to achieve kidney-specific transgene expression, we tested direct hydrodynamic injection of a DNA solution into the renal pelvis and found that luciferase expression was strong in the kidney and absent from extra-renal tissues. We observed heterogeneous, low-level transfection of the collecting duct, proximal tubule, distal tubule, interstitial cells, and rarely glomerular cells following injection. To assess renal injury, we performed the renal pelvis injections on uninephrectomised mice and found that their blood urea nitrogen was elevated at two days post-transfer but resolved within two weeks. Although luciferase expression quickly decreased following renal pelvis injection, the use of the piggyBac transposon system improved long-term expression. Immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide stabilised luciferase expression, suggesting immune clearance of the transfected cells occurs in immunocompetent animals. Injection of a transposon expressing erythropoietin raised the haematocrit, indicating that the developed injection technique can elicit a biologic effect in vivo. Hydrodynamic renal pelvis injection enables transposon mediated-kidney specific gene transfer in adult mice.

  9. Kidney-specific transposon-mediated gene transfer in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Woodard, Lauren E.; Cheng, Jizhong; Welch, Richard C.; Williams, Felisha M.; Luo, Wentian; Gewin, Leslie S.; Wilson, Matthew H.

    2017-01-01

    Methods enabling kidney-specific gene transfer in adult mice are needed to develop new therapies for kidney disease. We attempted kidney-specific gene transfer following hydrodynamic tail vein injection using the kidney-specific podocin and gamma-glutamyl transferase promoters, but found expression primarily in the liver. In order to achieve kidney-specific transgene expression, we tested direct hydrodynamic injection of a DNA solution into the renal pelvis and found that luciferase expression was strong in the kidney and absent from extra-renal tissues. We observed heterogeneous, low-level transfection of the collecting duct, proximal tubule, distal tubule, interstitial cells, and rarely glomerular cells following injection. To assess renal injury, we performed the renal pelvis injections on uninephrectomised mice and found that their blood urea nitrogen was elevated at two days post-transfer but resolved within two weeks. Although luciferase expression quickly decreased following renal pelvis injection, the use of the piggyBac transposon system improved long-term expression. Immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide stabilised luciferase expression, suggesting immune clearance of the transfected cells occurs in immunocompetent animals. Injection of a transposon expressing erythropoietin raised the haematocrit, indicating that the developed injection technique can elicit a biologic effect in vivo. Hydrodynamic renal pelvis injection enables transposon mediated-kidney specific gene transfer in adult mice. PMID:28317878

  10. Transposon leads to contamination of clinical pDNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, I; Gomez-Eerland, R; van den Berg, J H; Oosterhuis, K; Schumacher, T N; Haanen, J B A G; Beijnen, J H; Nuijen, B

    2013-07-11

    We report an unexpected contamination during clinical manufacture of a Human Papilomavirus (HPV) 16 E6 encoding plasmid DNA (pDNA) vaccine, with a transposon originating from the Escherichia coli DH5 host cell genome. During processing, presence of this transposable element, insertion sequence 2 (IS2) in the plasmid vector was not noticed until quality control of the bulk pDNA vaccine when results of restriction digestion, sequencing, and CGE analysis were clearly indicative for the presence of a contaminant. Due to the very low level of contamination, only an insert-specific PCR method was capable of tracing back the presence of the transposon in the source pDNA and master cell bank (MCB). Based on the presence of an uncontrolled contamination with unknown clinical relevance, the product was rejected for clinical use. In order to prevent costly rejection of clinical material, both in-process controls and quality control methods must be sensitive enough to detect such a contamination as early as possible, i.e. preferably during plasmid DNA source generation, MCB production and ultimately during upstream processing. However, as we have shown that contamination early in the process development pipeline (source pDNA, MCB) can be present below limits of detection of generally applied analytical methods, the introduction of "engineered" or transposon-free host cells seems the only 100% effective solution to avoid contamination with movable elements and should be considered when searching for a suitable host cell-vector combination.

  11. Lethal Mutagenesis Failure May Augment Viral Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Paff, Matthew L.; Stolte, Steven P.; Bull, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Lethal mutagenesis, the attempt to extinguish a population by elevating its mutation rate, has been endorsed in the virology literature as a promising approach for treating viral infections. In support of the concept, in vitro studies have forced viral extinction with high doses of mutagenic drugs. However, the one known mutagenic drug used on patients commonly fails to cure infections, and in vitro studies typically find a wide range of mutagenic conditions permissive for viral growth. A key question becomes how subsequent evolution is affected if the viral population is mutated but avoids extinction—Is viral adaptation augmented rather than suppressed? Here we consider the evolution of highly mutated populations surviving mutagenesis, using the DNA phage T7. In assays using inhibitory hosts, whenever resistance mutants were observed, the mutagenized populations exhibited higher frequencies, but some inhibitors blocked plaque formation by even the mutagenized stock. Second, outgrowth of previously mutagenized populations led to rapid and potentially complete fitness recovery but polymorphism was slow to decay, and mutations exhibited inconsistent patterns of change. Third, the combination of population bottlenecks with mutagenesis did cause fitness declines, revealing a vulnerability that was not apparent from mutagenesis of large populations. The results show that a population surviving high mutagenesis may exhibit enhanced adaptation in some environments and experience little negative fitness consequences in many others. PMID:24092771

  12. Mobilization of giant piggyBac transposons in the mouse genome.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng Amy; Turner, Daniel J; Ning, Zemin; Yusa, Kosuke; Liang, Qi; Eckert, Sabine; Rad, Lena; Fitzgerald, Tomas W; Craig, Nancy L; Bradley, Allan

    2011-12-01

    The development of technologies that allow the stable delivery of large genomic DNA fragments in mammalian systems is important for genetic studies as well as for applications in gene therapy. DNA transposons have emerged as flexible and efficient molecular vehicles to mediate stable cargo transfer. However, the ability to carry DNA fragments >10 kb is limited in most DNA transposons. Here, we show that the DNA transposon piggyBac can mobilize 100-kb DNA fragments in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, making it the only known transposon with such a large cargo capacity. The integrity of the cargo is maintained during transposition, the copy number can be controlled and the inserted giant transposons express the genomic cargo. Furthermore, these 100-kb transposons can also be excised from the genome without leaving a footprint. The development of piggyBac as a large cargo vector will facilitate a wider range of genetic and genomic applications.

  13. RNA sequencing of Sleeping Beauty transposon-induced tumors detects transposon-RNA fusions in forward genetic cancer screens

    PubMed Central

    Temiz, Nuri A.; Moriarity, Branden S.; Wolf, Natalie K.; Riordan, Jesse D.; Dupuy, Adam J.; Largaespada, David A.; Sarver, Aaron L.

    2016-01-01

    Forward genetic screens using Sleeping Beauty (SB)-mobilized T2/Onc transposons have been used to identify common insertion sites (CISs) associated with tumor formation. Recurrent sites of transposon insertion are commonly identified using ligation-mediated PCR (LM-PCR). Here, we use RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data to directly identify transcriptional events mediated by T2/Onc. Surprisingly, the majority (∼80%) of LM-PCR identified junction fragments do not lead to observable changes in RNA transcripts. However, in CIS regions, direct transcriptional effects of transposon insertions are observed. We developed an automated method to systematically identify T2/Onc-genome RNA fusion sequences in RNA-seq data. RNA fusion-based CISs were identified corresponding to both DNA-based CISs (Cdkn2a, Mycl1, Nf2, Pten, Sema6d, and Rere) and additional regions strongly associated with cancer that were not observed by LM-PCR (Myc, Akt1, Pth, Csf1r, Fgfr2, Wisp1, Map3k5, and Map4k3). In addition to calculating recurrent CISs, we also present complementary methods to identify potential driver events via determination of strongly supported fusions and fusions with large transcript level changes in the absence of multitumor recurrence. These methods independently identify CIS regions and also point to cancer-associated genes like Braf. We anticipate RNA-seq analyses of tumors from forward genetic screens will become an efficient tool to identify causal events. PMID:26553456

  14. Movers and shakers: maize transposons as tools for analyzing other plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Osborne, B I; Baker, B

    1995-06-01

    Transposons have been successfully exploited as insertional mutagens for the efficient identification and isolation of genes (transposon tagging) in many organisms. Plants are no exception. The maize Activator and Suppressor-mutator transposons function when transferred into heterologous plant species, and many different gene tagging systems have been developed. These systems have recently been used to clone novel and important genes, including disease resistance loci from Nicotiana tabacum, tomato and flax.

  15. PCR-based detection of composite transposons and translocatable units from oral metagenomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Tansirichaiya, Supathep; Mullany, Peter; Roberts, Adam P

    2016-09-01

    A composite transposon is a mobile genetic element consisting of two insertion sequences (ISs) flanking a segment of cargo DNA often containing antibiotic resistance (AR) genes. Composite transposons can move as a discreet unit. There have been recently several reports on a novel mechanism of movement of an IS26-based composite transposon through the formation of a translocatable unit (TU), carrying the internal DNA segment of a composite transposon and one copy of a flanking IS. In this study, we determined the presence of composite transposons and TUs in human oral metagenomic DNA using PCR primers from common IS elements. Analysis of resulting amplicons showed four different IS1216 composite transposons and one IS257 composite transposon in our metagenomic sample. As our PCR strategy would also detect TUs, PCR was carried out to detect circular TUs predicted to originate from these composite transposons. We confirmed the presence of two novel TUs, one containing an experimentally proven antiseptic resistance gene and another containing a putative universal stress response protein (UspA) encoding gene. This is the first report of a PCR strategy to amplify the DNA segment on composite transposons and TUs in metagenomic DNA. This can be used to identify AR genes associated with a variety of mobile genetic elements from metagenomes.

  16. [Differential expression of DTSsa4 Tc1-like transposons in closely related populations of Baikal ciscoes].

    PubMed

    Bychenko, O S; Sukhanova, L V; Azhikina, T L; Sverdlov, E D

    2009-01-01

    Two representatives of Baikal ciscoes - lake cisco and omul - diverged from a common ancestor as recently as 10-20 thousand years ago. We have found an increasing expression level of DTSsa4 Tc1-like DNA transposons in cisco and omul brains. The mapping of the sequences of these transposons from Salmo salar and Danio rerio genomes has shown that in some cases, these transposons are located in the 5' and 3' regions, as well as in the promoter regions of various genes. Probably, Tc1-like transposons affect the activity of neighboring genes, providing the adaptive divergence of the cisco population.

  17. PCR-based detection of composite transposons and translocatable units from oral metagenomic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Tansirichaiya, Supathep; Mullany, Peter; Roberts, Adam P.

    2016-01-01

    A composite transposon is a mobile genetic element consisting of two insertion sequences (ISs) flanking a segment of cargo DNA often containing antibiotic resistance (AR) genes. Composite transposons can move as a discreet unit. There have been recently several reports on a novel mechanism of movement of an IS26-based composite transposon through the formation of a translocatable unit (TU), carrying the internal DNA segment of a composite transposon and one copy of a flanking IS. In this study, we determined the presence of composite transposons and TUs in human oral metagenomic DNA using PCR primers from common IS elements. Analysis of resulting amplicons showed four different IS1216 composite transposons and one IS257 composite transposon in our metagenomic sample. As our PCR strategy would also detect TUs, PCR was carried out to detect circular TUs predicted to originate from these composite transposons. We confirmed the presence of two novel TUs, one containing an experimentally proven antiseptic resistance gene and another containing a putative universal stress response protein (UspA) encoding gene. This is the first report of a PCR strategy to amplify the DNA segment on composite transposons and TUs in metagenomic DNA. This can be used to identify AR genes associated with a variety of mobile genetic elements from metagenomes. PMID:27521260

  18. Suicidal autointegration of sleeping beauty and piggyBac transposons in eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongming; Wang, Jichang; Devaraj, Anatharam; Singh, Manvendra; Jimenez Orgaz, Ana; Chen, Jia-Xuan; Selbach, Matthias; Ivics, Zoltán; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

    2014-03-01

    Transposons are discrete segments of DNA that have the distinctive ability to move and replicate within genomes across the tree of life. 'Cut and paste' DNA transposition involves excision from a donor locus and reintegration into a new locus in the genome. We studied molecular events following the excision steps of two eukaryotic DNA transposons, Sleeping Beauty (SB) and piggyBac (PB) that are widely used for genome manipulation in vertebrate species. SB originates from fish and PB from insects; thus, by introducing these transposons to human cells we aimed to monitor the process of establishing a transposon-host relationship in a naïve cellular environment. Similarly to retroviruses, neither SB nor PB is capable of self-avoidance because a significant portion of the excised transposons integrated back into its own genome in a suicidal process called autointegration. Barrier-to-autointegration factor (BANF1), a cellular co-factor of certain retroviruses, inhibited transposon autointegration, and was detected in higher-order protein complexes containing the SB transposase. Increasing size sensitized transposition for autointegration, consistent with elevated vulnerability of larger transposons. Both SB and PB were affected similarly by the size of the transposon in three different assays: excision, autointegration and productive transposition. Prior to reintegration, SB is completely separated from the donor molecule and followed an unbiased autointegration pattern, not associated with local hopping. Self-disruptive autointegration occurred at similar frequency for both transposons, while aberrant, pseudo-transposition events were more frequently observed for PB.

  19. Spy: a new group of eukaryotic DNA transposons without target site duplications.

    PubMed

    Han, Min-Jin; Xu, Hong-En; Zhang, Hua-Hao; Feschotte, Cédric; Zhang, Ze

    2014-06-24

    Class 2 or DNA transposons populate the genomes of most eukaryotes and like other mobile genetic elements have a profound impact on genome evolution. Most DNA transposons belong to the cut-and-paste types, which are relatively simple elements characterized by terminal-inverted repeats (TIRs) flanking a single gene encoding a transposase. All eukaryotic cut-and-paste transposons so far described are also characterized by target site duplications (TSDs) of host DNA generated upon chromosomal insertion. Here, we report a new group of evolutionarily related DNA transposons called Spy, which also include TIRs and DDE motif-containing transposase but surprisingly do not create TSDs upon insertion. Instead, Spy transposons appear to transpose precisely between 5'-AAA and TTT-3' host nucleotides, without duplication or modification of the AAATTT target sites. Spy transposons were identified in the genomes of diverse invertebrate species based on transposase homology searches and structure-based approaches. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Spy transposases are distantly related to IS5, ISL2EU, and PIF/Harbinger transposases. However, Spy transposons are distinct from these and other DNA transposon superfamilies by their lack of TSD and their target site preference. Our findings expand the known diversity of DNA transposons and reveal a new group of eukaryotic DDE transposases with unusual catalytic properties.

  20. Faux Mutagenesis: Teaching Troubleshooting through Controlled Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartberg, Yasha

    2006-01-01

    By shifting pedagogical goals from obtaining successful mutations to teaching students critical troubleshooting skills, it has been possible to introduce site-directed mutagenesis into an undergraduate teaching laboratory. Described in this study is an inexpensive laboratory exercise in which students follow a slightly modified version of…

  1. CHALLENGES FOR THE FUTURE IN ENVIRONMENTAL MUTAGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CHALLENGES FOR THE FUTURE IN ENVIRONMENTAL MUTAGENESIS
    Michael D. Waters
    US Environmental Protection Agency, MD-51A, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 USA

    Our rapidly growing understanding of the structure of the human genome is forming the basis for numerous new...

  2. Forced evolution in silico by artificial transposons and their genetic operators: The ant navigation problem.

    PubMed

    Zamdborg, Leonid; Holloway, David M; Merelo, Juan J; Levchenko, Vladimir F; Spirov, Alexander V

    2015-06-10

    Modern evolutionary computation utilizes heuristic optimizations based upon concepts borrowed from the Darwinian theory of natural selection. Their demonstrated efficacy has reawakened an interest in other aspects of contemporary biology as an inspiration for new algorithms. However, amongst the many excellent candidates for study, contemporary models of biological macroevolution attract special attention. We believe that a vital direction in this field must be algorithms that model the activity of "genomic parasites", such as transposons, in biological evolution. Many evolutionary biologists posit that it is the co-evolution of populations with their genomic parasites that permits the high efficiency of evolutionary searches found in the living world. This publication is our first step in the direction of developing a minimal assortment of algorithms that simulate the role of genomic parasites. Specifically, we started in the domain of genetic algorithms (GA) and selected the Artificial Ant Problem as a test case. This navigation problem is widely known as a classical benchmark test and possesses a large body of literature. We add new objects to the standard toolkit of GA - artificial transposons and a collection of operators that operate on them. We define these artificial transposons as a fragment of an ant's code with properties that cause it to stand apart from the rest. The minimal set of operators for transposons is a transposon mutation operator, and a transposon reproduction operator that causes a transposon to multiply within the population of hosts. An analysis of the population dynamics of transposons within the course of ant evolution showed that transposons are involved in the processes of propagation and selection of blocks of ant navigation programs. During this time, the speed of evolutionary search increases significantly. We concluded that artificial transposons, analogous to real transposons, are truly capable of acting as intelligent mutators

  3. Forced evolution in silico by artificial transposons and their genetic operators: The ant navigation problem

    PubMed Central

    Zamdborg, Leonid; Holloway, David M.; Merelo, Juan J.; Levchenko, Vladimir F.; Spirov, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Modern evolutionary computation utilizes heuristic optimizations based upon concepts borrowed from the Darwinian theory of natural selection. Their demonstrated efficacy has reawakened an interest in other aspects of contemporary biology as an inspiration for new algorithms. However, amongst the many excellent candidates for study, contemporary models of biological macroevolution attract special attention. We believe that a vital direction in this field must be algorithms that model the activity of “genomic parasites”, such as transposons, in biological evolution. Many evolutionary biologists posit that it is the co-evolution of populations with their genomic parasites that permits the high efficiency of evolutionary searches found in the living world. This publication is our first step in the direction of developing a minimal assortment of algorithms that simulate the role of genomic parasites. Specifically, we started in the domain of genetic algorithms (GA) and selected the Artificial Ant Problem as a test case. This navigation problem is widely known as a classical benchmark test and possesses a large body of literature. We add new objects to the standard toolkit of GA - artificial transposons and a collection of operators that operate on them. We define these artificial transposons as a fragment of an ant's code with properties that cause it to stand apart from the rest. The minimal set of operators for transposons is a transposon mutation operator, and a transposon reproduction operator that causes a transposon to multiply within the population of hosts. An analysis of the population dynamics of transposons within the course of ant evolution showed that transposons are involved in the processes of propagation and selection of blocks of ant navigation programs. During this time, the speed of evolutionary search increases significantly. We concluded that artificial transposons, analogous to real transposons, are truly capable of acting as intelligent

  4. The Drosophila mojavensis Bari3 transposon: distribution and functional characterization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bari-like transposons belong to the Tc1-mariner superfamily, and they have been identified in several genomes of the Drosophila genus. This transposon’s family has been used as paradigm to investigate the complex dynamics underlying the persistence and structural evolution of transposable elements (TEs) within a genome. Three structural Bari variants have been identified so far and can be distinguished based on the organization of their terminal inverted repeats. Bari3 is the last discovered member of this family identified in Drosophila mojavensis, a recently emerged species of the Repleta group of the genus Drosophila. Results We studied the insertion pattern of Bari3 in different D. mojavensis populations and found evidence of recent transposition activity. Analysis of the transposase domains unveiled the presence of a functional nuclear localization signal, as well as a functional binding domain. Using luciferase-based assays, we investigated the promoter activity of Bari3 as well as the interaction of its transposase with its left terminus. The results suggest that Bari3 is transposition-competent. Finally we demonstrated transposase transcript processing when the transposase gene is overexpressed in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions Bari3 displays very similar structural and functional features with its close relative, Bari1. Our results strongly suggest that Bari3 is an independent element that has generated genomic diversity in D. mojavensis. It can autonomously transcribe its transposase gene, which in turn can localize in the nucleus and bind the terminal inverted repeats of the transposon. Nevertheless, the identification of an unpredicted spliced form of the Bari3 transposase transcript allows us to hypothesize a control mechanism of its mobility based on mRNA processing. These results will aid the studies on the Bari family of transposons, which is intriguing for its widespread diffusion in Drosophilids coupled with a structural diversity

  5. The Design and Analysis of Transposon-Insertion Sequencing Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Michael C.; Abel, Sören; Davis, Brigid M.; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2016-01-01

    Preface Transposon-insertion sequencing (TIS) is a powerful approach that can be widely applied to genome-wide definition of loci that are required for growth in diverse conditions. However, experimental design choices and stochastic biological processes can heavily influence the results of TIS experiments and affect downstream statistical analysis. Here, we discuss TIS experimental parameters and how these factors relate to the benefits and limitations of the various statistical frameworks that can be applied to computational analysis of TIS data. PMID:26775926

  6. Genomic Analysis of Sleeping Beauty Transposon Integration in Human Somatic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Turchiano, Giandomenico; Latella, Maria Carmela; Gogol-Döring, Andreas; Cattoglio, Claudia; Mavilio, Fulvio; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Recchia, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon is a non-viral integrating vector system with proven efficacy for gene transfer and functional genomics. However, integration efficiency is negatively affected by the length of the transposon. To optimize the SB transposon machinery, the inverted repeats and the transposase gene underwent several modifications, resulting in the generation of the hyperactive SB100X transposase and of the high-capacity “sandwich” (SA) transposon. In this study, we report a side-by-side comparison of the SA and the widely used T2 arrangement of transposon vectors carrying increasing DNA cargoes, up to 18 kb. Clonal analysis of SA integrants in human epithelial cells and in immortalized keratinocytes demonstrates stability and integrity of the transposon independently from the cargo size and copy number-dependent expression of the cargo cassette. A genome-wide analysis of unambiguously mapped SA integrations in keratinocytes showed an almost random distribution, with an overrepresentation in repetitive elements (satellite, LINE and small RNAs) compared to a library representing insertions of the first-generation transposon vector and to gammaretroviral and lentiviral libraries. The SA transposon/SB100X integrating system therefore shows important features as a system for delivering large gene constructs for gene therapy applications. PMID:25390293

  7. Excision of Sleeping Beauty transposons: parameters and applications to gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Geyi; Aronovich, Elena L.; Cui, Zongbin; Whitley, Chester B.; Hackett, Perry B.

    2007-01-01

    A major problem in gene therapy is the determination of the rates at which gene transfer has occurred. Our work has focused on applications of the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system as a non-viral vector for gene therapy. Excision of a transposon from a donor molecule and its integration into a cellular chromosome are catalyzed by SB transposase. In this study, we used a plasmid-based excision assay to study the excision step of transposition. We used the excision assay to evaluate the importance of various sequences that border the sites of excision inside and outside the transposon in order to determine the most active sequences for transposition from a donor plasmid. These findings together with our previous results in transposase binding to the terminal repeats suggest that the sequences in the transposon-junction of SB are involved in steps subsequent to DNA binding but before excision, and that they may have a role in transposase–transposon interaction. We found that SB transposons leave characteristically different footprints at excision sites in different cell types, suggesting that alternative repair machineries operate in concert with transposition. Most importantly, we found that the rates of excision correlate with the rates of transposition. We used this finding to assess transposition in livers of mice that were injected with the SB transposon and transposase. The excision assay appears to be a relatively quick and easy method to optimize protocols for delivery of genes in SB transposons to mammalian chromosomes in living animals. PMID:15133768

  8. Passport, a native Tc1 transposon from flatfish, is functionally active in vertebrate cells.

    PubMed

    Clark, Karl J; Carlson, Daniel F; Leaver, Michael J; Foster, Linda K; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2009-03-01

    The Tc1/mariner family of DNA transposons is widespread across fungal, plant and animal kingdoms, and thought to contribute to the evolution of their host genomes. To date, an active Tc1 transposon has not been identified within the native genome of a vertebrate. We demonstrate that Passport, a native transposon isolated from a fish (Pleuronectes platessa), is active in a variety of vertebrate cells. In transposition assays, we found that the Passport transposon system improved stable cellular transgenesis by 40-fold, has an apparent preference for insertion into genes, and is subject to overproduction inhibition like other Tc1 elements. Passport represents the first vertebrate Tc1 element described as both natively intact and functionally active, and given its restricted phylogenetic distribution, may be contemporaneously active. The Passport transposon system thus complements the available genetic tools for the manipulation of vertebrate genomes, and may provide a unique system for studying the infiltration of vertebrate genomes by Tc1 elements.

  9. P53 and the defenses against genome instability caused by transposons and repetitive elements.

    PubMed

    Levine, Arnold J; Ting, David T; Greenbaum, Benjamin D

    2016-06-01

    The recent publication by Wylie et al. is reviewed, demonstrating that the p53 protein regulates the movement of transposons. While this work presents genetic evidence for a piRNA-mediated p53 interaction with transposons in Drosophila and zebrafish, it is herein placed in the context of a decade or so of additional work that demonstrated a role for p53 in regulating transposons and other repetitive elements. The line of thought in those studies began with the observation that transposons damage DNA and p53 regulates DNA damage. The presence of transposon movement can increase the rate of evolution in the germ line and alter genes involved in signal transduction pathways. Transposition can also play an important role in cancers where the p53 gene function is often mutated. This is particularly interesting as recent work has shown that de-repression of repetitive elements in cancer has important consequences for the immune system and tumor microenvironment.

  10. Transposon tagging of the sulfur gene of tobacco using engineered maize Ac/Ds elements.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzmaurice, W P; Nguyen, L V; Wernsman, E A; Thompson, W F; Conkling, M A

    1999-01-01

    The Sulfur gene of tobacco is nuclearly encoded. A Su allele at this locus acts as a dominant semilethal mutation and causes reduced accumulation of chlorophyll, resulting in a yellow color in the plant. An engineered transposon tagging system, based upon the maize element Ac/Ds, was used to mutate the gene. High frequency of transposon excision from the Su locus produced variegated sectors. Plants regenerated from the variegated sector exhibited a similar variegated phenotype. Genetic analyses showed that the variegation was always associated with the transposase construct and the transposon was linked to the Su locus. Sequences surrounding the transposon were isolated, and five revertant sectors possessed typical direct repeats following Ds excisions. These genetic and molecular data are consistent with the tagging of the Su allele by the transposon. PMID:10581296

  11. P53 and the defenses against genome instability caused by transposons and repetitive elements

    PubMed Central

    Ting, David T.; Greenbaum, Benjamin D.

    2016-01-01

    The recent publication by Wylie et al. is reviewed, demonstrating that the p53 protein regulates the movement of transposons. While this work presents genetic evidence for a piRNA‐mediated p53 interaction with transposons in Drosophila and zebrafish, it is herein placed in the context of a decade or so of additional work that demonstrated a role for p53 in regulating transposons and other repetitive elements. The line of thought in those studies began with the observation that transposons damage DNA and p53 regulates DNA damage. The presence of transposon movement can increase the rate of evolution in the germ line and alter genes involved in signal transduction pathways. Transposition can also play an important role in cancers where the p53 gene function is often mutated. This is particularly interesting as recent work has shown that de‐repression of repetitive elements in cancer has important consequences for the immune system and tumor microenvironment. PMID:27172878

  12. Essential Genes for In Vitro Growth of the Endophyte Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1 as Revealed by Transposon Insertion Site Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Rosconi, Federico; de Vries, Stefan P W; Baig, Abiyad; Fabiano, Elena; Grant, Andrew J

    2016-11-15

    The interior of plants contains microorganisms (referred to as endophytes) that are distinct from those present at the root surface or in the surrounding soil. Herbaspirillum seropedicae strain SmR1, belonging to the betaproteobacteria, is an endophyte that colonizes crops, including rice, maize, sugarcane, and sorghum. Different approaches have revealed genes and pathways regulated during the interactions of H. seropedicae with its plant hosts. However, functional genomic analysis of transposon (Tn) mutants has been hampered by the lack of genetic tools. Here we successfully employed a combination of in vivo high-density mariner Tn mutagenesis and targeted Tn insertion site sequencing (Tn-seq) in H. seropedicae SmR1. The analysis of multiple gene-saturating Tn libraries revealed that 395 genes are essential for the growth of H. seropedicae SmR1 in tryptone-yeast extract medium. A comparative analysis with the Database of Essential Genes (DEG) showed that 25 genes are uniquely essential in H. seropedicae SmR1. The Tn mutagenesis protocol developed and the gene-saturating Tn libraries generated will facilitate elucidation of the genetic mechanisms of the H. seropedicae endophytic lifestyle.

  13. Large-scale functional annotation and expanded implementations of the P{wHy} hybrid transposon in the Drosophila melanogaster genome.

    PubMed

    Myrick, Kyl V; Huet, François; Mohr, Stephanie E; Alvarez-García, Inés; Lu, Jeffrey T; Smith, Mark A; Crosby, Madeline A; Gelbart, William M

    2009-07-01

    Whole genome sequencing of the model organisms has created increased demand for efficient tools to facilitate the genome annotation efforts. Accordingly, we report the further implementations and analyses stemming from our publicly available P{wHy} library for Drosophila melanogaster. A two-step regime-large scale transposon mutagenesis followed by hobo-induced nested deletions-allows mutation saturation and provides significant enhancements to existing genomic coverage. We previously showed that, for a given starting insert, deletion saturation is readily obtained over a 60-kb interval; here, we perform a breakdown analysis of efficiency to identify rate-limiting steps in the process. Transrecombination, the hobo-induced recombination between two P{wHy} half molecules, was shown to further expand the P{wHy} mutational range, pointing to a potent, iterative process of transrecombination-reconstitution-transrecombination for alternating between very large and very fine-grained deletions in a self-contained manner. A number of strains also showed partial or complete repression of P{wHy} markers, depending on chromosome location, whereby asymmetric marker silencing allowed continuous phenotypic detection, indicating that P{wHy}-based saturational mutagenesis should be useful for the study of heterochromatin/positional effects.

  14. Mariner Transposons Contain a Silencer: Possible Role of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2

    PubMed Central

    Beauclair, Linda; Moiré, Nathalie; Arensbuger, Peter; Bigot, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements are driving forces for establishing genetic innovations such as transcriptional regulatory networks in eukaryotic genomes. Here, we describe a silencer situated in the last 300 bp of the Mos1 transposase open reading frame (ORF) which functions in vertebrate and arthropod cells. Functional silencers are also found at similar locations within three other animal mariner elements, i.e. IS630-Tc1-mariner (ITm) DD34D elements, Himar1, Hsmar1 and Mcmar1. These silencers are able to impact eukaryotic promoters monitoring strong, moderate or low expression as well as those of mariner elements located upstream of the transposase ORF. We report that the silencing involves at least two transcription factors (TFs) that are conserved within animal species, NFAT-5 and Alx1. These cooperatively act with YY1 to trigger the silencing activity. Four other housekeeping transcription factors (TFs), neuron restrictive silencer factor (NRSF), GAGA factor (GAF) and GTGT factor (GTF), were also found to have binding sites within mariner silencers but their impact in modulating the silencer activity remains to be further specified. Interestingly, an NRSF binding site was found to overlap a 30 bp motif coding a highly conserved PHxxYSPDLAPxD peptide in mariner transposases. We also present experimental evidence that silencing is mainly achieved by co-opting the host Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 pathway. However, we observe that when PRC2 is impaired another host silencing pathway potentially takes over to maintain weak silencer activity. Mariner silencers harbour features of Polycomb Response Elements, which are probably a way for mariner elements to self-repress their transcription and mobility in somatic and germinal cells when the required TFs are expressed. At the evolutionary scale, mariner elements, through their exaptation, might have been a source of silencers playing a role in the chromatin configuration in eukaryotic genomes. PMID:26939020

  15. Novel Random Mutagenesis Method for Directed Evolution.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hong; Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Hong-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Directed evolution is a powerful strategy for gene mutagenesis, and has been used for protein engineering both in scientific research and in the biotechnology industry. The routine method for directed evolution was developed by Stemmer in 1994 (Stemmer, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91, 10747-10751, 1994; Stemmer, Nature 370, 389-391, 1994). Since then, various methods have been introduced, each of which has advantages and limitations depending upon the targeted genes and procedure. In this chapter, a novel alternative directed evolution method which combines mutagenesis PCR with dITP and fragmentation by endonuclease V is described. The kanamycin resistance gene is used as a reporter gene to verify the novel method for directed evolution. This method for directed evolution has been demonstrated to be efficient, reproducible, and easy to manipulate in practice.

  16. Final report [DNA Repair and Mutagenesis - 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Graham C.

    2001-05-30

    The meeting, titled ''DNA Repair and Mutagenesis: Mechanism, Control, and Biological Consequences'', was designed to bring together the various sub-disciplines that collectively comprise the field of DNA Repair and Mutagenesis. The keynote address was titled ''Mutability Doth Play Her Cruel Sports to Many Men's Decay: Variations on the Theme of Translesion Synthesis.'' Sessions were held on the following themes: Excision repair of DNA damage; Transcription and DNA excision repair; UmuC/DinB/Rev1/Rad30 superfamily of DNA polymerases; Cellular responses to DNA damage, checkpoints, and damage tolerance; Repair of mismatched bases, mutation; Genome-instability, and hypermutation; Repair of strand breaks; Replicational fidelity, and Late-breaking developments; Repair and mutation in challenging environments; and Defects in DNA repair: consequences for human disease and aging.

  17. Excision and transposition activity of Tc1/mariner superfamily transposons in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Sasakura, Yasunori; Yaguchi, Junko; Yaguchi, Shunsuke; Yajima, Mamiko

    2010-03-01

    Tc1/mariner superfamily transposons are used as transformation vectors in various model organisms. The utility of this transposon family is evidenced by the fact that Tc1/mariner transposons have loose host specificity. However, the activity of these transposons has been observed in only a few organisms, and a recent study in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis suggests that not all Tc1/ mariner transposons show loose host specificity. To understand host specificity, we used sea urchins, since they have a long history as materials of embryology and developmental biology. Transposon techniques have not been reported in this organism, despite the likelihood that these techniques would open up many experimental possibilities. Here we tested the activity of three Tc1/ mariner transposons (Minos, Sleeping Beauty, and Frog Prince) in the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. Minos has both excision and transposition activity in H. pulcherrimus embryos, whereas no excision activity was detected for Sleeping Beauty or Frog Prince. This study suggests that Minos is active in a broad range of non-host organisms and can be used as a transformation tool in sea urchin embryos.

  18. DNA methylation restrains transposons from adopting a chromatin signature permissive for meiotic recombination

    PubMed Central

    Zamudio, Natasha; Barau, Joan; Teissandier, Aurélie; Walter, Marius; Borsos, Maté; Servant, Nicolas; Bourc'his, Déborah

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is essential for protecting the mammalian germline against transposons. When DNA methylation-based transposon control is defective, meiotic chromosome pairing is consistently impaired during spermatogenesis: How and why meiosis is vulnerable to transposon activity is unknown. Using two DNA methylation-deficient backgrounds, the Dnmt3L and Miwi2 mutant mice, we reveal that DNA methylation is largely dispensable for silencing transposons before meiosis onset. After this, it becomes crucial to back up to a developmentally programmed H3K9me2 loss. Massive retrotransposition does not occur following transposon derepression, but the meiotic chromatin landscape is profoundly affected. Indeed, H3K4me3 marks gained over transcriptionally active transposons correlate with formation of SPO11-dependent double-strand breaks and recruitment of the DMC1 repair enzyme in Dnmt3L−/− meiotic cells, whereas these features are normally exclusive to meiotic recombination hot spots. Here, we demonstrate that DNA methylation restrains transposons from adopting chromatin characteristics amenable to meiotic recombination, which we propose prevents the occurrence of erratic chromosomal events. PMID:26109049

  19. Independent and parallel lateral transfer of DNA transposons in tetrapod genomes.

    PubMed

    Novick, Peter; Smith, Jeremy; Ray, David; Boissinot, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    In animals, the mode of transmission of transposable elements is generally vertical. However, recent studies have suggested that lateral transfer has occurred repeatedly in several distantly related tetrapod lineages, including mammals. Using transposons extracted from the genome of the lizard Anolis carolinensis as probes, we identified four novel families of hAT transposons that share extremely high similarity with elements in other genomes including several mammalian lineages (primates, chiropters, marsupials), one amphibian and one flatworm, the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. The discontinuous phylogenetic distribution of these hAT families, coupled with very low synonymous divergence between species, strongly suggests that these elements were laterally transferred to these different species. This indicates that the horizontal transfer of DNA transposons in vertebrates might be more common than previously thought. Yet, it appears that the transfer of DNA transposons did not occur randomly as the same genomes have been invaded independently by different, unrelated transposon families whereas others seem to be immune to lateral transfer. This suggests that some organisms might be intrinsically more vulnerable to DNA transposon lateral transfer, possibly because of a weakened defense against transposons or because they have developed mechanisms to tolerate their impact.

  20. A role for host-parasite interactions in the horizontal transfer of transposons across phyla.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Clément; Schaack, Sarah; Pace, John K; Brindley, Paul J; Feschotte, Cédric

    2010-04-29

    Horizontal transfer (HT), or the passage of genetic material between non-mating species, is increasingly recognized as an important force in the evolution of eukaryotic genomes. Transposons, with their inherent ability to mobilize and amplify within genomes, may be especially prone to HT. However, the means by which transposons can spread across widely diverged species remain elusive. Here we present evidence that host-parasite interactions have promoted the HT of four transposon families between invertebrates and vertebrates. We found that Rhodnius prolixus, a triatomine bug feeding on the blood of various tetrapods and vector of Chagas' disease in humans, carries in its genome four distinct transposon families that also invaded the genomes of a diverse, but overlapping, set of tetrapods. The bug transposons are approximately 98% identical and cluster phylogenetically with those of the opossum and squirrel monkey, two of its preferred mammalian hosts in South America. We also identified one of these transposon families in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, a cosmopolitan vector of trematodes infecting diverse vertebrates, whose ancestral sequence is nearly identical and clusters with those found in Old World mammals. Together these data provide evidence for a previously hypothesized role of host-parasite interactions in facilitating HT among animals. Furthermore, the large amount of DNA generated by the amplification of the horizontally transferred transposons supports the idea that the exchange of genetic material between hosts and parasites influences their genomic evolution.

  1. A systematic identification of Kolobok superfamily transposons in Trichomonas vaginalis and sequence analysis on related transposases.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingshu; Chen, Kaifu; Ma, Lina; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun

    2011-02-01

    Transposons are sequence elements widely distributed among genomes of all three kingdoms of life, providing genomic changes and playing significant roles in genome evolution. Trichomonas vaginalis is an excellent model system for transposon study since its genome (~160 Mb) has been sequenced and is composed of ~65% transposons and other repetitive elements. In this study, we primarily report the identification of Kolobok-type transposons (termed tvBac) in T. vaginalis and the results of transposase sequence analysis. We categorized 24 novel subfamilies of the Kolobok element, including one autonomous subfamily and 23 non-autonomous subfamilies. We also identified a novel H2CH motif in tvBac transposases based on multiple sequence alignment. In addition, we supposed that tvBac and Mutator transposons may have evolved independently from a common ancestor according to our phylogenetic analysis. Our results provide basic information for the understanding of the function and evolution of tvBac transposons in particular and other related transposon families in general.

  2. DNA methylation restrains transposons from adopting a chromatin signature permissive for meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Zamudio, Natasha; Barau, Joan; Teissandier, Aurélie; Walter, Marius; Borsos, Maté; Servant, Nicolas; Bourc'his, Déborah

    2015-06-15

    DNA methylation is essential for protecting the mammalian germline against transposons. When DNA methylation-based transposon control is defective, meiotic chromosome pairing is consistently impaired during spermatogenesis: How and why meiosis is vulnerable to transposon activity is unknown. Using two DNA methylation-deficient backgrounds, the Dnmt3L and Miwi2 mutant mice, we reveal that DNA methylation is largely dispensable for silencing transposons before meiosis onset. After this, it becomes crucial to back up to a developmentally programmed H3K9me2 loss. Massive retrotransposition does not occur following transposon derepression, but the meiotic chromatin landscape is profoundly affected. Indeed, H3K4me3 marks gained over transcriptionally active transposons correlate with formation of SPO11-dependent double-strand breaks and recruitment of the DMC1 repair enzyme in Dnmt3L(-/-) meiotic cells, whereas these features are normally exclusive to meiotic recombination hot spots. Here, we demonstrate that DNA methylation restrains transposons from adopting chromatin characteristics amenable to meiotic recombination, which we propose prevents the occurrence of erratic chromosomal events.

  3. Transposition of Mboumar-9: identification of a new naturally active mariner-family transposon.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-López, Martín; Siddique, Azeem; Bischerour, Julien; Lorite, Pedro; Chalmers, Ronald; Palomeque, Teresa

    2008-10-10

    Although mariner transposons are widespread in animal genomes, the vast majority harbor multiple inactivating mutations and only two naturally occurring elements are known to be active. Previously, we discovered a mariner-family transposon, Mboumar, in the satellite DNA of the ant Messor bouvieri. Several copies of the transposon contain a full-length open reading frame, including Mboumar-9, which has 64% nucleotide identity to Mos1 of Drosophila mauritiana. To determine whether Mboumar is currently active, we expressed and purified the Mboumar-9 transposase and demonstrate that it is able to catalyze the movement of a transposon from one plasmid to another in a genetic in vitro hop assay. The efficiency is comparable to that of the well-characterized mariner transposon Mos1. Transposon insertions were precise and were flanked by TA duplications, a hallmark of mariner transposition. Mboumar has been proposed to have a role in the evolution and maintenance of satellite DNA in M. bouvieri and its activity provides a means to examine the involvement of the transposon in the genome dynamics of this organism.

  4. DNA transposon-based gene vehicles - scenes from an evolutionary drive

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    DNA transposons are primitive genetic elements which have colonized living organisms from plants to bacteria and mammals. Through evolution such parasitic elements have shaped their host genomes by replicating and relocating between chromosomal loci in processes catalyzed by the transposase proteins encoded by the elements themselves. DNA transposable elements are constantly adapting to life in the genome, and self-suppressive regulation as well as defensive host mechanisms may assist in buffering ‘cut-and-paste’ DNA mobilization until accumulating mutations will eventually restrict events of transposition. With the reconstructed Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon as a powerful engine, a growing list of transposable elements with activity in human cells have moved into biomedical experimentation and preclinical therapy as versatile vehicles for delivery and genomic insertion of transgenes. In this review, we aim to link the mechanisms that drive transposon evolution with the realities and potential challenges we are facing when adapting DNA transposons for gene transfer. We argue that DNA transposon-derived vectors may carry inherent, and potentially limiting, traits of their mother elements. By understanding in detail the evolutionary journey of transposons, from host colonization to element multiplication and inactivation, we may better exploit the potential of distinct transposable elements. Hence, parallel efforts to investigate and develop distinct, but potent, transposon-based vector systems will benefit the broad applications of gene transfer. Insight and clever optimization have shaped new DNA transposon vectors, which recently debuted in the first DNA transposon-based clinical trial. Learning from an evolutionary drive may help us create gene vehicles that are safer, more efficient, and less prone for suppression and inactivation. PMID:24320156

  5. The evolutionary history of human DNA transposons: evidence for intense activity in the primate lineage.

    PubMed

    Pace, John K; Feschotte, Cédric

    2007-04-01

    Class 2, or DNA transposons, make up approximately 3% of the human genome, yet the evolutionary history of these elements has been largely overlooked and remains poorly understood. Here we carried out the first comprehensive analysis of the activity of human DNA transposons over the course of primate evolution using three independent computational methods. First, we conducted an exhaustive search for human DNA transposons nested within L1 and Alu elements known to be primate specific. Second, we assessed the presence/absence of 794 human DNA transposons at orthologous positions in 10 mammalian species using sequence data generated by The ENCODE Project. These two approaches, which do not rely upon sequence divergence, allowed us to classify DNA transposons into three different categories: anthropoid specific (40-63 My), primate specific (64-80 My), and eutherian wide (81-150 My). Finally, we used this data to calculate the substitution rates of DNA transposons for each category and refine the age of each family based on the average percent divergence of individual copies to their consensus. Based on these combined methods, we can confidently estimate that at least 40 human DNA transposon families, representing approximately 98,000 elements ( approximately 33 Mb) in the human genome, have been active in the primate lineage. There was a cessation in the transpositional activity of DNA transposons during the later phase of the primate radiation, with no evidence of elements younger than approximately 37 My. This data points to intense activity of DNA transposons during the mammalian radiation and early primate evolution, followed, apparently, by their mass extinction in an anthropoid primate ancestor.

  6. Suicidal Autointegration of Sleeping Beauty and piggyBac Transposons in Eukaryotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, Anatharam; Singh, Manvendra; Jimenez Orgaz, Ana; Chen, Jia-Xuan; Selbach, Matthias; Ivics, Zoltán; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

    2014-01-01

    Transposons are discrete segments of DNA that have the distinctive ability to move and replicate within genomes across the tree of life. ‘Cut and paste’ DNA transposition involves excision from a donor locus and reintegration into a new locus in the genome. We studied molecular events following the excision steps of two eukaryotic DNA transposons, Sleeping Beauty (SB) and piggyBac (PB) that are widely used for genome manipulation in vertebrate species. SB originates from fish and PB from insects; thus, by introducing these transposons to human cells we aimed to monitor the process of establishing a transposon-host relationship in a naïve cellular environment. Similarly to retroviruses, neither SB nor PB is capable of self-avoidance because a significant portion of the excised transposons integrated back into its own genome in a suicidal process called autointegration. Barrier-to-autointegration factor (BANF1), a cellular co-factor of certain retroviruses, inhibited transposon autointegration, and was detected in higher-order protein complexes containing the SB transposase. Increasing size sensitized transposition for autointegration, consistent with elevated vulnerability of larger transposons. Both SB and PB were affected similarly by the size of the transposon in three different assays: excision, autointegration and productive transposition. Prior to reintegration, SB is completely separated from the donor molecule and followed an unbiased autointegration pattern, not associated with local hopping. Self-disruptive autointegration occurred at similar frequency for both transposons, while aberrant, pseudo-transposition events were more frequently observed for PB. PMID:24625543

  7. Precise excision of transposons and point mutations induced by chemicals.

    PubMed

    Rusina OYu; Mirskaya, E E; Andreeva, I V; Skavronskaya, A G

    1992-11-01

    The ability of 23 chemicals (carcinogens and non-carcinogens) to induce precise excision of Tn10 and point mutations was studied in experiments with a single strain. The mutation assay was shown to detect a wider spectrum of genotoxic agents than the assay of Tn10 precise excision. The latter was induced only by potent SOS mutagens, which is in accordance with data on the SOS dependence of the induction of precise excision of Tn10. The precise excision assay as an additional test contributing to the knowledge of particular features of the action of a tested mutagen is discussed. The induction of precise excision of Tn10 by pyrene (and its failure to induce point mutations in this strain) demonstrates the value of using the transposon excision assay in cases of 'problem' mutagens.

  8. Heterologous transposon tagging of the DRL1 locus in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Bancroft, I; Jones, J D; Dean, C

    1993-01-01

    The development of heterologous transposon tagging systems has been an important objective for many laboratories. Here, we demonstrate the use of a Dissociation (Ds) derivative of the maize transposable element Activator (Ac) to tag the DRL1 locus of Arabidopsis. The drl1 mutant shows highly abnormal development with stunted roots, few root hairs, lanceolate leaves, and a highly enlarged, disorganized shoot apex that does not produce an inflorescence. The mutation was shown to be tightly linked to a transposed Ds, and somatic instability was observed in the presence of the transposase source. Some plants showing somatic reversion flowered and produced large numbers of wild-type progeny. These revertant progeny always inherited a DRL1 allele from which Ds had excised. Analysis of the changes in DNA sequence induced by the insertion and excision of the Ds element showed that they were typical of those induced by Ac and Ds in maize. PMID:8392411

  9. Fish transposons and their potential use in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Tafalla, C; Estepa, A; Coll, J M

    2006-06-10

    A large part of repetitive DNA of vertebrate genomes have been identified as transposon elements (TEs) or mobile sequences. Although TEs detected to date in most vertebrates are inactivated, active TEs have been found in fish and a salmonid TE has been successfully reactivated by molecular genetic manipulation from inactive genomic copies (Sleeping Beauty, SB). Progress in the understanding of the dynamics, control and evolution of fish TEs will allow the insertion of selected sequences into the fish genomes of germ cells to obtain transgenics or to identify genes important for growth and/or of somatic cells to improve DNA vaccination. Expectations are high for new possible applications to fish of this well developed technology for mammals. Here, we review the present state of knowledge of inactive and active fish TEs and briefly discuss how their possible future applications might be used to improve fish production in aquaculture.

  10. Assigning biological functions to rice genes by genome annotation, expression analysis and mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shu-Ye; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2010-12-01

    Rice is the first cereal genome to be completely sequenced. Since the completion of its genome sequencing, considerable progress has been made in multiple areas including the whole genome annotation, gene expression profiling, mutant collection, etc. Here, we summarize the current status of rice genome annotation and review the methodology of assigning biological functions to hundreds of thousands of rice genes as well as discuss the major limitations and the future perspective in rice functional genomics. Available data analysis shows that the rice genome encodes around 32,000 protein-coding genes. Expression analysis revealed at least 31,000 genes with expression evidence from full-length cDNA/EST collection or other transcript profiling. In addition, we have summarized various strategies to generate mutant population including natural, physical, chemical, T-DNA, transposon/retrotransposon or gene silencing based mutagenesis. Currently, more than 1 million of mutants have been generated and 27,551 of them have their flanking sequence tags. To assign biological functions to hundreds of thousands of rice genes, global co-operations are required, various genetic resources should be more easily accessible and diverse data from transcriptomics, proteomics, epigenetics, comparative genomics and bioinformatics should be integrated to better understand the functions of these genes and their regulatory mechanisms.

  11. Identification of virulence determinants for endocarditis in Streptococcus sanguinis by signature-tagged mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Paik, Sehmi; Senty, Lauren; Das, Sankar; Noe, Jody C; Munro, Cindy L; Kitten, Todd

    2005-09-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is a gram-positive, facultative anaerobe and a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity. It is also one of the most common agents of infective endocarditis, a serious endovascular infection. To identify virulence factors for infective endocarditis, signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) was applied to the SK36 strain of S. sanguinis, whose genome is being sequenced. STM allows the large-scale creation, in vivo screening, and recovery of a series of mutants with altered virulence. Screening of 800 mutants by STM identified 38 putative avirulent and 5 putative hypervirulent mutants. Subsequent molecular analysis of a subset of these mutants identified genes encoding undecaprenol kinase, homoserine kinase, anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase, adenylosuccinate lyase, and a hypothetical protein. Virulence reductions ranging from 2-to 150-fold were confirmed by competitive index assays. One putatively hypervirulent strain with a transposon insertion in an intergenic region was identified, though increased virulence was not confirmed in competitive index assays. All mutants grew comparably to SK36 in aerobic broth culture except for the homoserine kinase mutant. Growth of this mutant was restored by the addition of threonine to the medium. Mutants containing an insertion or in-frame deletion in the anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase gene failed to grow under strictly anaerobic conditions. The results suggest that housekeeping functions such as cell wall synthesis, amino acid and nucleic acid synthesis, and the ability to survive under anaerobic conditions are important virulence factors in S. sanguinis endocarditis.

  12. Rampant horizontal transfer of SPIN transposons in squamate reptiles.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Clément; Hernandez, Sharon S; Flores-Benabib, Jaime; Smith, Eric N; Feschotte, Cédric

    2012-02-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are highly abundant in the genome and capable of mobility, two properties that make them particularly prone to transfer horizontally between organisms. Although the impact of horizontal transfer (HT) of TEs is well recognized in prokaryotes, the frequency of this phenomenon and its contribution to genome evolution in eukaryotes remain poorly appreciated. Here, we provide evidence that a DNA transposon called SPIN has colonized the genome of 17 species of reptiles representing nearly every major lineage of squamates, including 14 families of lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians. Slot blot analyses indicate that SPIN has amplified to high copy numbers in most of these species, ranging from 2,000-28,000 copies per haploid genome. In contrast, we could not detect the presence of SPIN in any of the turtles (seven species from seven families) and crocodiles (four species) examined. Genetic distances between SPIN sequences from species belonging to different squamate families are consistently very low (average = 0.1), considering the deep evolutionary divergence of the families investigated (most are >100 My diverged). Furthermore, these distances fall below interfamilial distances calculated for two genes known to have evolved under strong functional constraint in vertebrates (RAG1, average = 0.24 and C-mos, average = 0.27). These data, combined with phylogenetic analyses, indicate that the widespread distribution of SPIN among squamates is the result of at least 13 independent events of HTs. Molecular dating and paleobiogeographical data suggest that these transfers took place during the last 50 My on at least three different continents (North America, South America and, Africa). Together, these results triple the number of known SPIN transfer events among tetrapods, provide evidence for a previously hypothesized transoceanic movement of SPIN transposons during the Cenozoic, and further underscore the role of HT in the evolution of vertebrate

  13. Rampant Horizontal Transfer of SPIN Transposons in Squamate Reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Clément; Hernandez, Sharon S.; Flores-Benabib, Jaime; Smith, Eric N.; Feschotte, Cédric

    2012-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are highly abundant in the genome and capable of mobility, two properties that make them particularly prone to transfer horizontally between organisms. Although the impact of horizontal transfer (HT) of TEs is well recognized in prokaryotes, the frequency of this phenomenon and its contribution to genome evolution in eukaryotes remain poorly appreciated. Here, we provide evidence that a DNA transposon called SPIN has colonized the genome of 17 species of reptiles representing nearly every major lineage of squamates, including 14 families of lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians. Slot blot analyses indicate that SPIN has amplified to high copy numbers in most of these species, ranging from 2,000–28,000 copies per haploid genome. In contrast, we could not detect the presence of SPIN in any of the turtles (seven species from seven families) and crocodiles (four species) examined. Genetic distances between SPIN sequences from species belonging to different squamate families are consistently very low (average = 0.1), considering the deep evolutionary divergence of the families investigated (most are >100 My diverged). Furthermore, these distances fall below interfamilial distances calculated for two genes known to have evolved under strong functional constraint in vertebrates (RAG1, average = 0.24 and C-mos, average = 0.27). These data, combined with phylogenetic analyses, indicate that the widespread distribution of SPIN among squamates is the result of at least 13 independent events of HTs. Molecular dating and paleobiogeographical data suggest that these transfers took place during the last 50 My on at least three different continents (North America, South America and, Africa). Together, these results triple the number of known SPIN transfer events among tetrapods, provide evidence for a previously hypothesized transoceanic movement of SPIN transposons during the Cenozoic, and further underscore the role of HT in the evolution of

  14. Autonomous Replication of the Conjugative Transposon Tn916.

    PubMed

    Wright, Laurel D; Grossman, Alan D

    2016-12-15

    Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), also known as conjugative transposons, are self-transferable elements that are widely distributed among bacterial phyla and are important drivers of horizontal gene transfer. Many ICEs carry genes that confer antibiotic resistances to their host cells and are involved in the dissemination of these resistance genes. ICEs reside in host chromosomes but under certain conditions can excise to form a plasmid that is typically the substrate for transfer. A few ICEs are known to undergo autonomous replication following activation. However, it is not clear if autonomous replication is a general property of many ICEs. We found that Tn916, the first conjugative transposon identified, replicates autonomously via a rolling-circle mechanism. Replication of Tn916 was dependent on the relaxase encoded by orf20 of Tn916 The origin of transfer of Tn916, oriT(916), also functioned as an origin of replication. Using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we found that the relaxase (Orf20) and the two putative helicase processivity factors (Orf22 and Orf23) encoded by Tn916 likely interact in a complex and that the Tn916 relaxase contains a previously unidentified conserved helix-turn-helix domain in its N-terminal region that is required for relaxase function and replication. Lastly, we identified a functional single-strand origin of replication (sso) in Tn916 that we predict primes second-strand synthesis during rolling-circle replication. Together these results add to the emerging data that show that several ICEs replicate via a conserved, rolling-circle mechanism.

  15. Conjugative transposition of Tn916 and detection of Tn916-Like transposon in Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.

    PubMed

    OZAWA, Manao; YAMAMOTO, Kinya; KOJIMA, Akemi; TAKAGI, Masami; TAKAHASHI, Toshio

    2009-11-01

    In order to investigate the origin of tetracycline resistance in Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, conjugative transpositions of Tn916 were tested. The frequency of transfer between strains of E. rhusiopathiae was about 10-fold higher than that between Enterococcus faecalis and E. rhusiopathiae. In addition, detection of a Tn916-like transposon was performed by PCR assay and DNA sequencing in E. rhusiopathiae field isolates. Of 49 tetracycline-resistant isolates, 38 (77.6 %) carried a Tn916-like transposon, while 11 (22.4 %) carried tet(M) only. These results suggested that Tn916-like transposon may be widely present in the E. rhsuiopathiae field isolates resistant to tetracycline.

  16. Insertional mutagenesis and development of malignancies induced by integrating gene delivery systems: implications for the design of safer gene-based interventions in patients.

    PubMed

    Romano, Gaetano; Marino, Ignazio R; Pentimalli, Francesca; Adamo, Vincenzo; Giordano, Antonio

    2009-05-01

    Effective gene-based interventions for the treatment of genetic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular maladies require longterm transgene expression in target cells. Integrating viral vector systems based on the genera of the retroviridae and on adeno-associated virus are suitable tools, as the integration of viral vector genomes into the cellular chromosomal DNA allows for a more stable and long-lasting transgene expression than episomal gene-delivery models. Two nonviral gene-delivery systems with integrating properties have also been developed. These are based on the Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon system and on the Streptomyces bacteriophage integrase phiC31. However, the integration of recombinant vector systems may damage the natural genetic arrangement of the target cell. Such genetic alterations are termed insertional mutagenesis, which might result in malignant cell transformation. Insertional mutagenesis caused leukemia in five patients who participated in clinical trials for the treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)-X1; sadly, one of the patients died. Gene therapists had to assess the real risk-versus-benefit ratio for the use of retroviral vectors in patients and devise novel strategies to minimize the occurrence of insertional mutagenesis-related malignancies. In this respect, a particular emphasis was placed on the engineering of enhancer-less self-inactivating retroviridae-based systems.

  17. AS52/GPT Mammalian Mutagenesis Assay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-10

    dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) at 50 and 100 f.J.g/rnl was used as a 3 TLS Project Nn. A0ŗ-003: AS52/GPT Mammalian Mutagenesis Assay promutagen that requires metabolic...Chemical Source Lot No. air Air Products N/A calcium chloride Sigma 84F-0723 d imeth y !sulfoxide Fisher 933274 dimethylnitrosamine Sigma 82B0365...methanesulfonate (EMS) at 150 and 300 J.i-g/ml is used as a direct-acting mutagen for the nonactivated portion, and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) at 150 and 300

  18. Fluorometric method of quantitative cell mutagenesis

    DOEpatents

    Dolbeare, Frank A.

    1982-01-01

    A method for assaying a cell culture for mutagenesis is described. A cell culture is stained first with a histochemical stain, and then a fluorescent stain. Normal cells in the culture are stained by both the histochemical and fluorescent stains, while abnormal cells are stained only by the fluorescent stain. The two stains are chosen so that the histochemical stain absorbs the wavelengths that the fluorescent stain emits. After the counterstained culture is subjected to exciting light, the fluorescence from the abnormal cells is detected.

  19. Fluorometric method of quantitative cell mutagenesis

    DOEpatents

    Dolbeare, F.A.

    1980-12-12

    A method for assaying a cell culture for mutagenesis is described. A cell culture is stained first with a histochemical stain, and then a fluorescent stain. Normal cells in the culture are stained by both the histochemical and fluorescent stains, while abnormal cells are stained only by the fluorescent stain. The two stains are chosen so that the histochemical stain absorbs the wavelengths that the fluorescent stain emits. After the counterstained culture is subjected to exciting light, the fluorescence from the abnormal cells is detected.

  20. Stochastic Predator-Prey Dynamics of Transposons in the Human Genome.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chi; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2016-11-11

    Transposable elements, or transposons, are DNA sequences that can jump from site to site in the genome during the life cycle of a cell, usually encoding the very enzymes which perform their excision. However, some transposons are parasitic, relying on the enzymes produced by the regular transposons. In this case, we show that a stochastic model, which takes into account the small copy numbers of the active transposons in a cell, predicts noise-induced predator-prey oscillations with a characteristic time scale that is much longer than the cell replication time, indicating that the state of the predator-prey oscillator is stored in the genome and transmitted to successive generations. Our work demonstrates the important role of the number fluctuations in the expression of mobile genetic elements, and shows explicitly how ecological concepts can be applied to the dynamics and fluctuations of living genomes.

  1. Stochastic Predator-Prey Dynamics of Transposons in the Human Genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Chi; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2016-11-01

    Transposable elements, or transposons, are DNA sequences that can jump from site to site in the genome during the life cycle of a cell, usually encoding the very enzymes which perform their excision. However, some transposons are parasitic, relying on the enzymes produced by the regular transposons. In this case, we show that a stochastic model, which takes into account the small copy numbers of the active transposons in a cell, predicts noise-induced predator-prey oscillations with a characteristic time scale that is much longer than the cell replication time, indicating that the state of the predator-prey oscillator is stored in the genome and transmitted to successive generations. Our work demonstrates the important role of the number fluctuations in the expression of mobile genetic elements, and shows explicitly how ecological concepts can be applied to the dynamics and fluctuations of living genomes.

  2. WRKY6 Transcription Factor Restricts Arsenate Uptake and Transposon Activation in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Castrillo, Gabriel; Sánchez-Bermejo, Eduardo; de Lorenzo, Laura; Crevillén, Pedro; Fraile-Escanciano, Ana; TC, Mohan; Mouriz, Alfonso; Catarecha, Pablo; Sobrino-Plata, Juan; Olsson, Sanna; Leo del Puerto, Yolanda; Mateos, Isabel; Rojo, Enrique; Hernández, Luis E.; Jarillo, Jose A.; Piñeiro, Manuel; Paz-Ares, Javier; Leyva, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Stress constantly challenges plant adaptation to the environment. Of all stress types, arsenic was a major threat during the early evolution of plants. The most prevalent chemical form of arsenic is arsenate, whose similarity to phosphate renders it easily incorporated into cells via the phosphate transporters. Here, we found that arsenate stress provokes a notable transposon burst in plants, in coordination with arsenate/phosphate transporter repression, which immediately restricts arsenate uptake. This repression was accompanied by delocalization of the phosphate transporter from the plasma membrane. When arsenate was removed, the system rapidly restored transcriptional expression and membrane localization of the transporter. We identify WRKY6 as an arsenate-responsive transcription factor that mediates arsenate/phosphate transporter gene expression and restricts arsenate-induced transposon activation. Plants therefore have a dual WRKY-dependent signaling mechanism that modulates arsenate uptake and transposon expression, providing a coordinated strategy for arsenate tolerance and transposon gene silencing. PMID:23922208

  3. A set of mini-Mu transposons for versatile cloning of circular DNA and novel dual-transposon strategy for increased efficiency.

    PubMed

    Pulkkinen, Elsi; Haapa-Paananen, Saija; Turakainen, Hilkka; Savilahti, Harri

    2016-07-01

    Mu transposition-based cloning of DNA circles employs in vitro transposition reaction to deliver both the plasmid origin of replication and a selectable marker into the target DNA of interest. We report here the construction of a platform for the purpose that contains ten mini-Mu transposons with five different replication origins, enabling a variety of research approaches for the discovery and study of circular DNA. We also demonstrate that the simultaneous use of two transposons, one with the origin of replication and the other with selectable marker, is beneficial as it improves the cloning efficiency by reducing the fraction of autointegration-derived plasmid clones. The constructed transposons now provide a set of new tools for the studies on DNA circles and widen the applicability of Mu transposition based approaches to clone circular DNA from various sources.

  4. Transition and Transversion Mutations Are Biased towards GC in Transposons of Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Luo, Guang-Hua; Li, Xiao-Huan; Han, Zhao-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Chun; Yang, Qiong; Guo, Hui-Fang; Fang, Ji-Chao

    2016-09-24

    Transposons are often regulated by their hosts, and as a result, there are transposons with several mutations within their host organisms. To gain insight into the patterns of the variations, nucleotide substitutions and indels of transposons were analysed in Chilo suppressalis Walker. The CsuPLE1.1 is a member of the piggyBac-like element (PLE) family, which belongs to the DNA transposons, and the Csu-Ty3 is a member of the Ty3/gypsy family, which belongs to the RNA transposons. Copies of CsuPLE1.1 and Csu-Ty3 were cloned separately from different C. suppressalis individuals, and then multiple sequence alignments were performed. There were numerous single-base substitutions in CsuPLE1.1 and Csu-Ty3, but only a few insertion and deletion mutations. Similarly, in both transposons, the occurring frequencies of transitions were significantly higher than transversions (p ≤ 0.01). In the single-base substitutions, the most frequently occurring base changes were A→G and T→C in both types of transposons. Additionally, single-base substitution frequencies occurring at positions 1, 2 or 3 (pos1, pos2 or pos3) of a given codon in the element transposase were not significantly different. Both in CsuPLE1.1 and Csu-Ty3, the patterns of nucleotide substitution had the same characteristics and nucleotide mutations were biased toward GC. This research provides a perspective on the understanding of transposon mutation patterns.

  5. An efficient TALEN mutagenesis system in rice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kunling; Shan, Qiwei; Gao, Caixia

    2014-08-15

    Targeted gene mutagenesis is a powerful tool for elucidating gene function and facilitating genetic improvement in rice. TALENs (transcription activator-like effector nucleases), consisting of a custom TALE DNA binding domain fused to a nonspecific FokI cleavage domain, are one of the most efficient genome engineering methods developed to date. The technology of TALENs allows DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to be introduced into predetermined chromosomal loci. DSBs trigger DNA repair mechanisms and can result in loss of gene function by error-prone non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), or they can be exploited to modify gene function or activity by precise homologous recombination (HR). In this paper, we describe a detailed protocol for constructing TALEN expression vectors, assessing nuclease activities in vivo using rice protoplast-based assays, generating and introducing TALEN DNAs into embryogenic calluses of rice and identifying TALEN-generated mutations at targeted genomic sites. Using these methods, T0 rice plants resulting from TALEN mutagenesis can be produced within 4-5 months.

  6. SmTRC1, a novel Schistosoma mansoni DNA transposon, discloses new families of animal and fungi transposons belonging to the CACTA superfamily

    PubMed Central

    DeMarco, Ricardo; Venancio, Thiago M; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Background The CACTA (also called En/Spm) superfamily of DNA-only transposons contain the core sequence CACTA in their Terminal Inverted Repeats (TIRs) and so far have only been described in plants. Large transcriptome and genome sequence data have recently become publicly available for Schistosoma mansoni, a digenetic blood fluke that is a major causative agent of schistosomiasis in humans, and have provided a comprehensive repository for the discovery of novel genes and repetitive elements. Despite the extensive description of retroelements in S. mansoni, just a single DNA-only transposon belonging to the Merlin family has so far been reported in this organism. Results We describe a novel S. mansoni transposon named SmTRC1, for S. mansoni Transposon Related to CACTA 1, an element that shares several characteristics with plant CACTA transposons. Southern blotting indicates approximately 30–300 copies of SmTRC1 in the S. mansoni genome. Using genomic PCR followed by cloning and sequencing, we amplified and characterized a full-length and a truncated copy of this element. RT-PCR using S. mansoni mRNA followed by cloning and sequencing revealed several alternatively spliced transcripts of this transposon, resulting in distinct ORFs coding for different proteins. Interestingly, a survey of complete genomes from animals and fungi revealed several other novel TRC elements, indicating new families of DNA transposons belonging to the CACTA superfamily that have not previously been reported in these kingdoms. The first three bases in the S. mansoni TIR are CCC and they are identical to those in the TIRs of the insects Aedes aegypti and Tribolium castaneum, suggesting that animal TRCs may display a CCC core sequence. Conclusion The DNA-only transposable element SmTRC1 from S. mansoni exhibits various characteristics, such as generation of multiple alternatively-spliced transcripts, the presence of terminal inverted repeats at the extremities of the elements flanked by

  7. Hybrid Nonviral/Viral Vector Systems for Improved piggyBac DNA Transposon In Vivo Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Ashley L; Singh, Brajesh K; Sinn, Patrick L

    2015-01-01

    The DNA transposon piggyBac is a potential therapeutic agent for multiple genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Recombinant piggyBac transposon and transposase are typically codelivered by plasmid transfection; however, plasmid delivery is inefficient in somatic cells in vivo and is a barrier to the therapeutic application of transposon-based vector systems. Here, we investigate the potential for hybrid piggyBac/viral vectors to transduce cells and support transposase-mediated genomic integration of the transposon. We tested both adenovirus (Ad) and adeno-associated virus (AAV) as transposon delivery vehicles. An Ad vector expressing hyperactive insect piggyBac transposase (iPB7) was codelivered. We show transposase-dependent transposition activity and mapped integrations in mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo from each viral vector platform. We also demonstrate efficient and persistent transgene expression following nasal delivery of piggyBac/viral vectors to mice. Furthermore, using piggyBac/Ad expressing Cystic Fibrosis transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR), we show persistent correction of chloride current in well-differentiated primary cultures of human airway epithelial cells derived from CF patients. Combining the emerging technologies of DNA transposon-based vectors with well-studied adenoviral and AAV delivery provides new tools for in vivo gene transfer and presents an exciting opportunity to increase the delivery efficiency for therapeutic genes such as CFTR. PMID:25557623

  8. An epigenetic switch ensures transposon repression upon dynamic loss of DNA methylation in embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Marius; Teissandier, Aurélie; Pérez-Palacios, Raquel; Bourc'his, Déborah

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is extensively remodeled during mammalian gametogenesis and embryogenesis. Most transposons become hypomethylated, raising the question of their regulation in the absence of DNA methylation. To reproduce a rapid and extensive demethylation, we subjected mouse ES cells to chemically defined hypomethylating culture conditions. Surprisingly, we observed two phases of transposon regulation. After an initial burst of de-repression, various transposon families were efficiently re-silenced. This was accompanied by a reconfiguration of the repressive chromatin landscape: while H3K9me3 was stable, H3K9me2 globally disappeared and H3K27me3 accumulated at transposons. Interestingly, we observed that H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 occupy different transposon families or different territories within the same family, defining three functional categories of adaptive chromatin responses to DNA methylation loss. Our work highlights that H3K9me3 and, most importantly, polycomb-mediated H3K27me3 chromatin pathways can secure the control of a large spectrum of transposons in periods of intense DNA methylation change, ensuring longstanding genome stability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11418.001 PMID:26814573

  9. Identifying microbial fitness determinants by insertion sequencing using genome-wide transposon mutant libraries.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Andrew L; Wu, Meng; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2011-11-17

    Insertion sequencing (INSeq) is a method for determining the insertion site and relative abundance of large numbers of transposon mutants in a mixed population of isogenic mutants of a sequenced microbial species. INSeq is based on a modified mariner transposon containing MmeI sites at its ends, allowing cleavage at chromosomal sites 16-17 bp from the inserted transposon. Genomic regions adjacent to the transposons are amplified by linear PCR with a biotinylated primer. Products are bound to magnetic beads, digested with MmeI and barcoded with sample-specific linkers appended to each restriction fragment. After limited PCR amplification, fragments are sequenced using a high-throughput instrument. The sequence of each read can be used to map the location of a transposon in the genome. Read count measures the relative abundance of that mutant in the population. Solid-phase library preparation makes this protocol rapid (18 h), easy to scale up, amenable to automation and useful for a variety of samples. A protocol for characterizing libraries of transposon mutant strains clonally arrayed in a multiwell format is provided.

  10. Hyperactive PiggyBac Transposons for Sustained and Robust Liver-targeted Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Di Matteo, Mario; Samara-Kuko, Emira; Ward, Natalie J; Waddingon, Simon N; McVey, John H; Chuah, Marinee Kl; VandenDriessche, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    The development of robust nonviral vectors could facilitate clinical gene therapy applications and may overcome some of the immune complications of viral vectors. Nevertheless, most nonviral gene deliver approaches typically yield only transient and/or low gene expression. To address these caveats, we have explored piggyBac transposons to correct hemophilia B by liver-directed factor IX (FIX) gene therapy in hemophilic mice. To achieve this, we combined the use of: (i) a hyperactive codon-optimized piggyBac transposase, (ii) a computationally enhanced liver-specific promoter, (iii) a hyperfunctional codon-optimized FIX transgene (FIX R338L Padua), and (iv) a modification of the transposon terminal repeats. This combination strategy resulted in a robust 400-fold improvement in vector performance in hepatocytes, yielding stable supraphysiologic human FIX activity (>1 year). Liver-specific expression resulted in the induction of FIX-specific immune tolerance. Remarkably, only very low transposon/transposase doses were required to cure the bleeding diathesis. Similarly, PB transposons could be used to express supraphysiologic factor VIII levels using low transposon/transposase doses. PB transposition did not induce tumors in a sensitive hepatocellular carcinoma-prone mouse model. These results underscore the potency and relative safety of the latest generation PB transposons, which constitutes a versatile platform for stable and robust secretion of therapeutic proteins.

  11. Hyperactive piggyBac transposons for sustained and robust liver-targeted gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Di Matteo, Mario; Samara-Kuko, Emira; Ward, Natalie J; Waddington, Simon N; Waddingon, Simon N; McVey, John H; Chuah, Marinee K L; VandenDriessche, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    The development of robust nonviral vectors could facilitate clinical gene therapy applications and may overcome some of the immune complications of viral vectors. Nevertheless, most nonviral gene deliver approaches typically yield only transient and/or low gene expression. To address these caveats, we have explored piggyBac transposons to correct hemophilia B by liver-directed factor IX (FIX) gene therapy in hemophilic mice. To achieve this, we combined the use of: (i) a hyperactive codon-optimized piggyBac transposase, (ii) a computationally enhanced liver-specific promoter, (iii) a hyperfunctional codon-optimized FIX transgene (FIX R338L Padua), and (iv) a modification of the transposon terminal repeats. This combination strategy resulted in a robust 400-fold improvement in vector performance in hepatocytes, yielding stable supraphysiologic human FIX activity (>1 year). Liver-specific expression resulted in the induction of FIX-specific immune tolerance. Remarkably, only very low transposon/transposase doses were required to cure the bleeding diathesis. Similarly, PB transposons could be used to express supraphysiologic factor VIII levels using low transposon/transposase doses. PB transposition did not induce tumors in a sensitive hepatocellular carcinoma-prone mouse model. These results underscore the potency and relative safety of the latest generation PB transposons, which constitutes a versatile platform for stable and robust secretion of therapeutic proteins.

  12. Bombyx small RNAs: genomic defense system against transposons in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Kawaoka, Shinpei; Hayashi, Nobumitsu; Katsuma, Susumu; Kishino, Hirohisa; Kohara, Yuji; Mita, Kazuei; Shimada, Toru

    2008-12-01

    Selfish genetic elements called transposons can insert themselves at new locations in host genomes to modify gene structure and alter gene expression. Expansion of transposons can occur when novel transposition events are transmitted to subsequent generations after germline hopping. Therefore, organisms seem likely to have evolved defense mechanisms to silence transposons in the germline. Recently, small RNAs interacting with Piwi proteins (piwi-interacting RNAs: piRNAs) have been demonstrated to be involved in genomic defense mechanism against transposons. Here, we show that piRNA-like small RNAs are present abundantly in the Bombyx ovary. We cloned 38,493 kinds of Bombyx small RNA from the ovary and performed functional characterization. Bombyx small RNAs showed a unimodal length distribution with a peak at 28nt and a strong bias for U at the 5' end. We found that 12,869 kinds of Bombyx small RNAs were associated with transposons or repetitive sequences. We classified them as repeat-associated small interfering RNAs (rasiRNAs), a subclass of piRNAs. Notably, antisense rasiRNAs have a strong bias toward U at 5' ends; in contrast, sense rasiRNAs have a strong bias toward A at nucleotide position 10, indicating that the piRNA amplification loop proposed in Drosophila is evolutionarily conserved in Bombyx. These results suggest that Bombyx small RNAs regulate transposon activity.

  13. Transposons passively and actively contribute to evolution of the two-speed genome of a fungal pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Faino, Luigi; Seidl, Michael F.; Shi-Kunne, Xiaoqian; Pauper, Marc; van den Berg, Grardy C.M.; Wittenberg, Alexander H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Genomic plasticity enables adaptation to changing environments, which is especially relevant for pathogens that engage in “arms races” with their hosts. In many pathogens, genes mediating virulence cluster in highly variable, transposon-rich, physically distinct genomic compartments. However, understanding of the evolution of these compartments, and the role of transposons therein, remains limited. Here, we show that transposons are the major driving force for adaptive genome evolution in the fungal plant pathogen Verticillium dahliae. We show that highly variable lineage-specific (LS) regions evolved by genomic rearrangements that are mediated by erroneous double-strand repair, often utilizing transposons. We furthermore show that recent genetic duplications are enhanced in LS regions, against an older episode of duplication events. Finally, LS regions are enriched in active transposons, which contribute to local genome plasticity. Thus, we provide evidence for genome shaping by transposons, both in an active and passive manner, which impacts the evolution of pathogen virulence. PMID:27325116

  14. Transposons passively and actively contribute to evolution of the two-speed genome of a fungal pathogen.

    PubMed

    Faino, Luigi; Seidl, Michael F; Shi-Kunne, Xiaoqian; Pauper, Marc; van den Berg, Grardy C M; Wittenberg, Alexander H J; Thomma, Bart P H J

    2016-08-01

    Genomic plasticity enables adaptation to changing environments, which is especially relevant for pathogens that engage in "arms races" with their hosts. In many pathogens, genes mediating virulence cluster in highly variable, transposon-rich, physically distinct genomic compartments. However, understanding of the evolution of these compartments, and the role of transposons therein, remains limited. Here, we show that transposons are the major driving force for adaptive genome evolution in the fungal plant pathogen Verticillium dahliae We show that highly variable lineage-specific (LS) regions evolved by genomic rearrangements that are mediated by erroneous double-strand repair, often utilizing transposons. We furthermore show that recent genetic duplications are enhanced in LS regions, against an older episode of duplication events. Finally, LS regions are enriched in active transposons, which contribute to local genome plasticity. Thus, we provide evidence for genome shaping by transposons, both in an active and passive manner, which impacts the evolution of pathogen virulence.

  15. Structure and Evolution of Chlorate Reduction Composite Transposons

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Iain C.; Melnyk, Ryan A.; Engelbrektson, Anna; Coates, John D.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genes for chlorate reduction in six bacterial strains were analyzed in order to gain insight into the metabolism. A newly isolated chlorate-reducing bacterium (Shewanella algae ACDC) and three previously isolated strains (Ideonella dechloratans, Pseudomonas sp. strain PK, and Dechloromarinus chlorophilus NSS) were genome sequenced and compared to published sequences (Alicycliphilus denitrificans BC plasmid pALIDE01 and Pseudomonas chloritidismutans AW-1). De novo assembly of genomes failed to join regions adjacent to genes involved in chlorate reduction, suggesting the presence of repeat regions. Using a bioinformatics approach and finishing PCRs to connect fragmented contigs, we discovered that chlorate reduction genes are flanked by insertion sequences, forming composite transposons in all four newly sequenced strains. These insertion sequences delineate regions with the potential to move horizontally and define a set of genes that may be important for chlorate reduction. In addition to core metabolic components, we have highlighted several such genes through comparative analysis and visualization. Phylogenetic analysis places chlorate reductase within a functionally diverse clade of type II dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductases, part of a larger family of enzymes with reactivity toward chlorate. Nucleotide-level forensics of regions surrounding chlorite dismutase (cld), as well as its phylogenetic clustering in a betaproteobacterial Cld clade, indicate that cld has been mobilized at least once from a perchlorate reducer to build chlorate respiration. PMID:23919996

  16. Gene repair and transposon-mediated gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Paul D; Augustin, Lance B; Kren, Betsy T; Steer, Clifford J

    2002-01-01

    The main strategy of gene therapy has traditionally been focused on gene augmentation. This approach typically involves the introduction of an expression system designed to express a specific protein in the transfected cell. Both the basic and clinical sciences have generated enough information to suggest that gene therapy would eventually alter the fundamental practice of modern medicine. However, despite progress in the field, widespread clinical applications and success have not been achieved. The myriad deficiencies associated with gene augmentation have resulted in the development of alternative approaches to treat inherited and acquired genetic disorders. One, derived primarily from the pioneering work of homologous recombination, is gene repair. Simply stated, the process involves targeting the mutation in situ for gene correction and a return to normal gene function. Site-specific genetic repair has many advantages over augmentation although it too is associated with significant limitations. This review outlines the advantages and disadvantages of gene correction. In particular, we discuss technologies based on chimeric RNA/DNA oligonucleotides, single-stranded and triplex-forming oligonucleotides, and small fragment homologous replacement. While each of these approaches is different, they all share a number of common characteristics, including the need for efficient delivery of nucleic acids to the nucleus. In addition, we review the potential application of a novel and exciting nonviral gene augmentation strategy--the Sleeping Beauty transposon system.

  17. Conditional gene-trap mutagenesis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Maddison, Lisette A; Li, Mingyu; Chen, Wenbiao

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish has become a widely used model for analysis of gene function. Several methods have been used to create mutations in this organism and thousands of mutant lines are available. However, all the conventional zebrafish mutations affect the gene in all cells at all time, making it difficult to determine tissue-specific functions. We have adopted a FlEx Trap approach to generate conditional mutations in zebrafish by gene-trap mutagenesis. Combined with appropriate Cre or Flp lines, the insertional mutants not only allow spatial- and temporal-specific gene inactivation but also permit spatial- and temporal-specific rescue of the disrupted gene. We provide experimental details on how to generate and use such mutations.

  18. Mutagenesis assays of human amniotic fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Everson, R.B.; Milne, K.L.; Warbuton, D.; McClamrock, H.D.; Buchanan, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    Extracts of amniocentesis samples from 144 women were tested for the presence of mutagenic substances using tester strain TA1538 in the Ames Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test. Because the volume of amniotic fluid in these samples was limited (generally less than 10 ml), the authors investigated modifications of this mutagenesis assay that could increase its ability to detect effects from small quantities of test material. Using mutagenicity in samples of urine from smokers as a model, it appeared that improved ability to detect small amounts of mutagen could be obtained by reducing volumes of media and reagents while keeping the amount of test sample constant. Tests of amniotic fluid extracts by this modified procedure showed small increases in revertants, about 50% above dimethylsulfoxide solvent control values. The increases suggest the presence of small amounts of mutagenic material in many of the amniotic fluid samples. At the doses employed, mutagenic activity in these samples was not associated with maternal smoking.

  19. From Chemical Mutagenesis to Post‐Expression Mutagenesis: A 50 Year Odyssey

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Tom H.; Vallée, M. Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Site‐directed (gene) mutagenesis has been the most useful method available for the conversion of one amino acid residue of a given protein into another. Until relatively recently, this strategy was limited to the twenty standard amino acids. The ongoing maturation of stop codon suppression and related technologies for unnatural amino acid incorporation has greatly expanded access to nonstandard amino acids by expanding the scope of the translational apparatus. However, the necessity for translation of genetic changes restricts the diversity of residues that may be incorporated. Herein we highlight an alternative approach, termed post‐expression mutagenesis, which operates at the level of the very functional biomolecules themselves. Using the lens of retrosynthesis, we highlight prospects for new strategies in protein modification, alteration, and construction which will enable protein science to move beyond the constraints of the “translational filter” and lead to a true synthetic biology. PMID:27119221

  20. [Activity of the corn Spm transposon system in transgenic plants Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) O.E. Schulz obtained by both direct transfer of DNA to protoplasts and agrobacterial transformation of root explants].

    PubMed

    Sakhno, L A; Sytnik, E S; Cherep, N N; Komarnitskiĭ, I K; Kuchuk, N V; Klimiuk, V I

    2002-01-01

    Transposon mediated insertional mutagenesis is one of the approaches for the unique gene cloning. A wild species of Cruciferae family Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) O.E. Schulz, which is of interest for practical breeding as a donor of improved plant oil, was an object of the investigation. Plasmid construction used in the experiments included selective NPT II gene, reported GUS gene serving as an excision marker, structural BAR gene located within the dSpm element and Spm transposase. The GUS gene of this plasmid had not his own promoter and became functional only after Spm-transposition. Transformed Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) O.E. Schulz. plants were obtained by direct mesophyll protoplast transformation as well as Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated root explant transformation. Gene transfer and the transposition event were confirmed by the GUS activity and the PCR analysis. Relative transformation efficiency using protoplasts was 5.8%.

  1. The diversification and activity of hAT transposons in Musa genomes.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Gerhard; Heitkam, Tony; Seibt, Kathrin M; Nouroz, Faisal; Müller-Stoermer, Manuela; Heslop-Harrison, John S; Schmidt, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Sequencing of plant genomes often identified the hAT superfamily as the largest group of DNA transposons. Nevertheless, detailed information on the diversity, abundance and chromosomal localization of plant hAT families are rare. By in silico analyses of the reference genome assembly and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences, respectively, we performed the classification and molecular characterization of hAT transposon families in Musa acuminata. Musa hAT transposons are organized in three families designated MuhAT I, MuhAT II and MuhAT III. In total, 70 complete autonomous elements of the MuhAT I and MuhAT II families were detected, while no autonomous MuhAT III transposons were found. Based on the terminal inverted repeat (TIR)-specific sequence information of the autonomous transposons, 1722 MuhAT I- and MuhAT II-specific miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MuhMITEs) were identified. Autonomous MuhAT I and MuhAT II elements are only moderately abundant in the sections of the genus Musa, while the corresponding MITEs exhibit an amplification in Musa genomes. By fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), autonomous MuhAT transposons as well as MuhMITEs were localized in subtelomeric, most likely gene-rich regions of M. acuminata chromosomes. A comparison of homoeologous regions of M. acuminata and Musa balbisiana BACs revealed the species-specific mobility of MuhMITEs. In particular, the activity of MuhMITEs II showing transduplications of genomic sequences might indicate the presence of active MuhAT transposons, thus suggesting a potential role of MuhMITEs as modulators of genome evolution of Musa.

  2. Novel Aminoglycoside Resistance Transposons and Transposon-Derived Circular Forms Detected in Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates.

    PubMed

    Karah, Nabil; Dwibedi, Chinmay Kumar; Sjöström, Karin; Edquist, Petra; Johansson, Anders; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Uhlin, Bernt Eric

    2016-01-11

    Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen equipped with a growing number of antibiotic resistance genes. Our study investigated the molecular epidemiology and antibiotic resistance features of 28 consecutive carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates of A. baumannii collected throughout Sweden in 2012 and 2013. The isolates mainly belonged to clonal complexes (CCs) with an extensive international distribution, such as CC2 (n = 16) and CC25 (n = 7). Resistance to carbapenems was related to blaOXA-23 (20 isolates), blaOXA-24/40-like (6 isolates), blaOXA-467 (1 isolate), and ISAba1-blaOXA-69 (1 isolate). Ceftazidime resistance was associated with blaPER-7 in the CC25 isolates. Two classical point mutations were responsible for resistance to quinolones in all the isolates. Isolates with high levels of resistance to aminoglycosides carried the 16S rRNA methylase armA gene. The isolates also carried a variety of genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. Several novel structures involved in aminoglycoside resistance were identified, including Tn6279, ΔTn6279, Ab-ST3-aadB, and different assemblies of Tn6020 and TnaphA6. Importantly, a number of circular forms related to the IS26 or ISAba125 composite transposons were detected. The frequent occurrence of these circular forms in the populations of several isolates indicates a potential role of these circular forms in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes.

  3. Novel Aminoglycoside Resistance Transposons and Transposon-Derived Circular Forms Detected in Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Dwibedi, Chinmay Kumar; Sjöström, Karin; Edquist, Petra; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Uhlin, Bernt Eric

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen equipped with a growing number of antibiotic resistance genes. Our study investigated the molecular epidemiology and antibiotic resistance features of 28 consecutive carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates of A. baumannii collected throughout Sweden in 2012 and 2013. The isolates mainly belonged to clonal complexes (CCs) with an extensive international distribution, such as CC2 (n = 16) and CC25 (n = 7). Resistance to carbapenems was related to blaOXA-23 (20 isolates), blaOXA-24/40-like (6 isolates), blaOXA-467 (1 isolate), and ISAba1-blaOXA-69 (1 isolate). Ceftazidime resistance was associated with blaPER-7 in the CC25 isolates. Two classical point mutations were responsible for resistance to quinolones in all the isolates. Isolates with high levels of resistance to aminoglycosides carried the 16S rRNA methylase armA gene. The isolates also carried a variety of genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. Several novel structures involved in aminoglycoside resistance were identified, including Tn6279, ΔTn6279, Ab-ST3-aadB, and different assemblies of Tn6020 and TnaphA6. Importantly, a number of circular forms related to the IS26 or ISAba125 composite transposons were detected. The frequent occurrence of these circular forms in the populations of several isolates indicates a potential role of these circular forms in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:26824943

  4. 205 PRODUCTION OF Cas9-EXPRESSING CATTLE USING DNA TRANSPOSON.

    PubMed

    Hahn, S-E; Yum, S-Y; Lee, S-J; Lee, C-I; Kim, H-S; Kim, H-J; Choi, W-J; Lee, J-H; Jang, G

    2016-01-01

    A genome-editing technology, CRISPR/Cas9 system is proved to be a powerful tool for knockout and knock-in in various species. When 2 components [Cas9 and single guide (sg) RNA] are delivered into cells or embryos, the events of gene editing occur. Because Cas9 is essential for every gene editing based on the CRISPR/Cas9 system, some studies reported that efficiency of gene editing would be increased as Cas9 was integrated into cells or animals. Accordingly, if the Cas9-expressing cattle is born, it would be broadly used for gene editing in cattle. For this study, the Cas9 and RFP genes were cloned into the PiggyBac transposon system. PiggyBac-Cas9-RFP and transposase were microinjected into 1436 IVF embryos and 241 blastocysts were formed. Blastocysts with RFP expression accounted for 14.1% of total formed blastocysts. Five blastocysts were selected and transferred into 5 recipient cow (1 embryo per recipient). After gestation periods, 4 transgenic cattle were delivered without any veterinary assistance. From transgenic cattle, ear skin tissue was collected for primary culture. On those primary cells, sgRNA in DNA form for various genes such as PRNP, RB1, and BLG were transfected with 2μg of sgRNA per 5×10(5) cells using electroporation. As expected, every group of each sgRNA delivered was confirmed to be mutated by T7E1 assay. The data demonstrated that, for the first time, transgenic cattle with Cas9 expression were born, grown up to date (age=5 months) and will be a valuable resource for genome editing in cattle.

  5. Characterization of polVR391: a Y-family polymerase encoded by rumA'B from the IncJ conjugative transposon, R391.

    PubMed

    Mead, Samantha; Vaisman, Alexandra; Valjavec-Gratian, Majda; Karata, Kiyonobu; Vandewiele, Dominique; Woodgate, Roger

    2007-02-01

    Although best characterized for their ability to traverse a variety of DNA lesions, Y-family DNA polymerases can also give rise to elevated spontaneous mutation rates if they are allowed to replicate undamaged DNA. One such enzyme that promotes high levels of spontaneous mutagenesis in Escherichia coli is polV(R391), a polV-like Y-family polymerase encoded by rumA'B from the IncJ conjugative transposon R391. When expressed in a DeltaumuDC lexA(Def) recA730 strain, polV(R391) promotes higher levels of spontaneous mutagenesis than the related MucA'B (polR1) or UmuD'C (polV) polymerases respectively. Analysis of the spectrum of polV(R391)-dependent mutations in rpoB revealed a unique genetic fingerprint that is typified by an increase in C:G-->A:T and A:T-->T:A transversions at certain mutagenic hot spots. Biochemical characterization of polV(R391) highlights the exceptional ability of the enzyme to misincorporate T opposite C and T in sequence contexts corresponding to mutagenic hot spots. Purified polV(R391) can also bypass a T-T pyrimidine dimer efficiently and displays greater accuracy opposite the 3'T of the dimer than opposite an undamaged T. Our study therefore provides evidence for the molecular basis for the enhanced spontaneous mutator activity of RumA'B, as well as explains its ability to promote efficient and accurate bypass of T-T pyrimidine dimers in vivo.

  6. piggyBac transposons expressing full-length human dystrophin enable genetic correction of dystrophic mesoangioblasts

    PubMed Central

    Loperfido, Mariana; Jarmin, Susan; Dastidar, Sumitava; Di Matteo, Mario; Perini, Ilaria; Moore, Marc; Nair, Nisha; Samara-Kuko, Ermira; Athanasopoulos, Takis; Tedesco, Francesco Saverio; Dickson, George; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; VandenDriessche, Thierry; Chuah, Marinee K.

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic neuromuscular disorder caused by the absence of dystrophin. We developed a novel gene therapy approach based on the use of the piggyBac (PB) transposon system to deliver the coding DNA sequence (CDS) of either full-length human dystrophin (DYS: 11.1 kb) or truncated microdystrophins (MD1: 3.6 kb; MD2: 4 kb). PB transposons encoding microdystrophins were transfected in C2C12 myoblasts, yielding 65±2% MD1 and 66±2% MD2 expression in differentiated multinucleated myotubes. A hyperactive PB (hyPB) transposase was then deployed to enable transposition of the large-size PB transposon (17 kb) encoding the full-length DYS and green fluorescence protein (GFP). Stable GFP expression attaining 78±3% could be achieved in the C2C12 myoblasts that had undergone transposition. Western blot analysis demonstrated expression of the full-length human DYS protein in myotubes. Subsequently, dystrophic mesoangioblasts from a Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy dog were transfected with the large-size PB transposon resulting in 50±5% GFP-expressing cells after stable transposition. This was consistent with correction of the differentiated dystrophic mesoangioblasts following expression of full-length human DYS. These results pave the way toward a novel non-viral gene therapy approach for DMD using PB transposons underscoring their potential to deliver large therapeutic genes. PMID:26682797

  7. Recurrent Horizontal Transfers of Chapaev Transposons in Diverse Invertebrate and Vertebrate Animals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua-Hao; Feschotte, Cédric; Han, Min-Jin; Zhang, Ze

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal transfer (HT) of a transposable element (TE) into a new genome is regarded as an important force to drive genome variation and biological innovation. In addition, HT also plays an important role in the persistence of TEs in eukaryotic genomes. Here, we provide the first documented example for the repeated HT of three families of Chapaev transposons in a wide range of animal species, including mammals, reptiles, jawed fishes, lampreys, insects, and in an insect bracovirus. Multiple alignments of the Chapaev transposons identified in these species revealed extremely high levels of nucleotide sequence identity (79–99%), which are inconsistent with vertical evolution given the deep divergence time separating these host species. Rather, the discontinuous distribution amongst species and lack of purifying selection acting on these transposons strongly suggest that they were independently and horizontally transferred into these species lineages. The detection of Chapaev transposons in an insect bracovirus indicated that these viruses might act as a possible vector for the horizontal spread of Chapaev transposons. One of the Chapaev families was also shared by lampreys and some of their common hosts (such as sturgeon and paddlefish), which suggested that parasite–host interaction might facilitate HTs. PMID:24868016

  8. Separation of stem cell maintenance and transposon silencing functions of Piwi protein.

    PubMed

    Klenov, Mikhail S; Sokolova, Olesya A; Yakushev, Evgeny Y; Stolyarenko, Anastasia D; Mikhaleva, Elena A; Lavrov, Sergey A; Gvozdev, Vladimir A

    2011-11-15

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and Piwi proteins have the evolutionarily conserved function of silencing of repetitive genetic elements in germ lines. The founder of the Piwi subfamily, Drosophila nuclear Piwi protein, was also shown to be required for the maintenance of germ-line stem cells (GSCs). Hence, null mutant piwi females exhibit two types of abnormalities, overexpression of transposons and severely underdeveloped ovaries. It remained unknown whether the failure of GSC maintenance is related to transposon derepression or if GSC self-renewal and piRNA silencing are two distinct functions of the Piwi protein. We have revealed a mutation, piwi(Nt), removing the nuclear localization signal of the Piwi protein. piwi(Nt) females retain the ability of GSC self-renewal and a near-normal number of egg chambers in the ovarioles but display a drastic transposable element derepression and nuclear accumulation of their transcripts in the germ line. piwi(Nt) mutants are sterile most likely because of the disturbance of piRNA-mediated transposon silencing. Analysis of chromatin modifications in the piwi(Nt) ovaries indicated that Piwi causes chromatin silencing only of certain types of transposons, whereas others are repressed in the nuclei without their chromatin modification. Thus, Piwi nuclear localization that is required for its silencing function is not essential for the maintenance of GSCs. We suggest that the Piwi function in GSC self-renewal is independent of transposon repression and is normally realized in the cytoplasm of GSC niche cells.

  9. Recurrent horizontal transfers of Chapaev transposons in diverse invertebrate and vertebrate animals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua-Hao; Feschotte, Cédric; Han, Min-Jin; Zhang, Ze

    2014-05-27

    Horizontal transfer (HT) of a transposable element (TE) into a new genome is regarded as an important force to drive genome variation and biological innovation. In addition, HT also plays an important role in the persistence of TEs in eukaryotic genomes. Here, we provide the first documented example for the repeated HT of three families of Chapaev transposons in a wide range of animal species, including mammals, reptiles, jawed fishes, lampreys, insects, and in an insect bracovirus. Multiple alignments of the Chapaev transposons identified in these species revealed extremely high levels of nucleotide sequence identity (79-99%), which are inconsistent with vertical evolution given the deep divergence time separating these host species. Rather, the discontinuous distribution amongst species and lack of purifying selection acting on these transposons strongly suggest that they were independently and horizontally transferred into these species lineages. The detection of Chapaev transposons in an insect bracovirus indicated that these viruses might act as a possible vector for the horizontal spread of Chapaev transposons. One of the Chapaev families was also shared by lampreys and some of their common hosts (such as sturgeon and paddlefish), which suggested that parasite-host interaction might facilitate HTs.

  10. Can silencing of transposons contribute to variation in effector gene expression in Phytophthora infestans?

    PubMed

    Whisson, Stephen; Vetukuri, Ramesh; Avrova, Anna; Dixelius, Christina

    2012-03-01

    Transposable elements are ubiquitous residents in eukaryotic genomes. Often considered to be genomic parasites, they can lead to dramatic changes in genome organization, gene expression, and gene evolution. The oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans has evolved a genome organization where core biology genes are predominantly located in genome regions that have relatively few resident transposons. In contrast, disease effector-encoding genes are most frequently located in rapidly evolving genomic regions that are rich in transposons. P. infestans, as a eukaryote, likely uses RNA silencing to minimize the activity of transposons. We have shown that fusion of a short interspersed element (SINE) to an effector gene in P. infestans leads to the silencing of both the introduced fusion and endogenous homologous sequences. This is also likely to occur naturally in the genome of P. infestans, as transcriptional inactivation of effectors is known to occur, and over half of the translocated "RXLR class" of effectors are located within 2 kb of transposon sequences in the P. infestans genome. In this commentary, we review the diverse transposon inventory of P. infestans, its control by RNA silencing, and consequences for expression modulation of nearby effector genes in this economically important plant pathogen.

  11. piggyBac transposons expressing full-length human dystrophin enable genetic correction of dystrophic mesoangioblasts.

    PubMed

    Loperfido, Mariana; Jarmin, Susan; Dastidar, Sumitava; Di Matteo, Mario; Perini, Ilaria; Moore, Marc; Nair, Nisha; Samara-Kuko, Ermira; Athanasopoulos, Takis; Tedesco, Francesco Saverio; Dickson, George; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; VandenDriessche, Thierry; Chuah, Marinee K

    2016-01-29

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic neuromuscular disorder caused by the absence of dystrophin. We developed a novel gene therapy approach based on the use of the piggyBac (PB) transposon system to deliver the coding DNA sequence (CDS) of either full-length human dystrophin (DYS: 11.1 kb) or truncated microdystrophins (MD1: 3.6 kb; MD2: 4 kb). PB transposons encoding microdystrophins were transfected in C2C12 myoblasts, yielding 65±2% MD1 and 66±2% MD2 expression in differentiated multinucleated myotubes. A hyperactive PB (hyPB) transposase was then deployed to enable transposition of the large-size PB transposon (17 kb) encoding the full-length DYS and green fluorescence protein (GFP). Stable GFP expression attaining 78±3% could be achieved in the C2C12 myoblasts that had undergone transposition. Western blot analysis demonstrated expression of the full-length human DYS protein in myotubes. Subsequently, dystrophic mesoangioblasts from a Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy dog were transfected with the large-size PB transposon resulting in 50±5% GFP-expressing cells after stable transposition. This was consistent with correction of the differentiated dystrophic mesoangioblasts following expression of full-length human DYS. These results pave the way toward a novel non-viral gene therapy approach for DMD using PB transposons underscoring their potential to deliver large therapeutic genes.

  12. Heat shock and herpes virus: enhanced reactivation without untargeted mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, C.D.; Carney, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Enhanced reactivation of Ultraviolet-irradiated virus has been reported to occur in heat-shocked host cells. Since enhanced virus reactivation is often accompanied by untargeted mutagenesis, we investigated whether such mutagenesis would occur for herpes simplex virus (HSV) in CV-1 monkey kidney cells subjected to heat shock. In addition to expressing enhanced reactivation, the treated cells were transiently more susceptible to infection by unirradiated HSV. No mutagenesis of unirradiated HSV was found whether infection occurred at the time of increased susceptibility to infection or during expression of enhanced viral reactivation.

  13. Large-Scale Transposition Mutagenesis of Streptomyces coelicolor Identifies Hundreds of Genes Influencing Antibiotic Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhong; Wang, Yemin; Chater, Keith F; Ou, Hong-Yu; Xu, H Howard; Deng, Zixin; Tao, Meifeng

    2017-03-15

    Gram-positive Streptomyces bacteria produce thousands of bioactive secondary metabolites, including antibiotics. To systematically investigate genes affecting secondary metabolism, we developed a hyperactive transposase-based Tn5 transposition system and employed it to mutagenize the model species Streptomyces coelicolor, leading to the identification of 51,443 transposition insertions. These insertions were distributed randomly along the chromosome except for some preferred regions associated with relatively low GC content in the chromosomal core. The base composition of the insertion site and its flanking sequences compiled from the 51,443 insertions implied a 19-bp expanded target site surrounding the insertion site, with a slight nucleic acid base preference in some positions, suggesting a relative randomness of Tn5 transposition targeting in the high-GC Streptomyces genome. From the mutagenesis library, 724 mutants involving 365 genes had altered levels of production of the tripyrrole antibiotic undecylprodigiosin (RED), including 17 genes in the RED biosynthetic gene cluster. Genetic complementation revealed that most of the insertions (more than two-thirds) were responsible for the changed antibiotic production. Genes associated with branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis, DNA metabolism, and protein modification affected RED production, and genes involved in signaling, stress, and transcriptional regulation were overrepresented. Some insertions caused dramatic changes in RED production, identifying future targets for strain improvement.IMPORTANCE High-GC Gram-positive streptomycetes and related actinomycetes have provided more than 100 clinical drugs used as antibiotics, immunosuppressants, and antitumor drugs. Their genomes harbor biosynthetic genes for many more unknown compounds with potential as future drugs. Here we developed a useful genome-wide mutagenesis tool based on the transposon Tn5 for the study of secondary metabolism and its regulation

  14. First Streptococcus pyogenes signature-tagged mutagenesis screen identifies novel virulence determinants.

    PubMed

    Kizy, Anne E; Neely, Melody N

    2009-05-01

    The virulence of bacterial pathogens is a complex process that requires the dynamic expression of many genes for the pathogens to invade and circumvent host defenses, as well as to proliferate in vivo. In this study, we employed a large-scale screen, signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM), to identify Streptococcus pyogenes virulence genes important for pathogenesis within the host. Approximately 1,200 STM mutants were created and screened using the zebrafish infectious disease model. The transposon insertion site was identified for 29 of the 150 mutants that were considered attenuated for virulence. Previously reported streptococcal virulence genes, such as mga, hasA, amrA, smeZ, and two genes in the sil locus, were identified, confirming the utility of the model for revealing genes important for virulence. Multiple genes not previously implicated in virulence were also identified, including genes encoding putative transporters, hypothetical cytosolic proteins, and macrolide efflux pumps. The STM mutant strains display various levels of attenuation, and multiple separate insertions were identified in either the same gene or the same locus, suggesting that these factors are important for this type of acute, invasive infection. We further examined two such genes, silB and silC of a putative quorum-sensing regulon, and determined that they are significant virulence factors in our model of necrotizing fasciitis. sil locus promoter expression was examined under various in vitro conditions, as well as in zebrafish tissues, and was found to be differentially induced. This study was a unique investigation of S. pyogenes factors required for successful invasive infection.

  15. Sleeping Beauty transposon system for genetic etiological research and gene therapy of cancers.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaomei; Du, Yan; Deng, Yang; Wu, Jianfeng; Cao, Guangwen

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is etiologically associated with somatic mutations of critical genes. Recently, a number of somatic mutations and key molecules have been found to be involved in functional networks affecting cancer progression. Suitable animal models are required to validate cancer-promoting or -inhibiting capacities of these mutants and molecules. Sleeping Beauty transposon system consists of a transposon that carries gene(s) of interest and a transposase that recognizes, excises, and reinserts genes in given location of the genome. It can create both gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutations, thus being frequently chosen to investigate the etiological mechanisms and gene therapy for cancers in animal models. In this review, we summarized current advances of Sleeping Beauty transposon system in revealing molecular mechanism of cancers and improving gene therapy. Understanding molecular mechanisms by which driver mutations contribute to carcinogenesis and metastasis may pave the way for the development of innovative prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against malignant diseases.

  16. Sleeping Beauty transposon system for genetic etiological research and gene therapy of cancers

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xiaomei; Du, Yan; Deng, Yang; Wu, Jianfeng; Cao, Guangwen

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is etiologically associated with somatic mutations of critical genes. Recently, a number of somatic mutations and key molecules have been found to be involved in functional networks affecting cancer progression. Suitable animal models are required to validate cancer-promoting or -inhibiting capacities of these mutants and molecules. Sleeping Beauty transposon system consists of a transposon that carries gene(s) of interest and a transposase that recognizes, excises, and reinserts genes in given location of the genome. It can create both gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutations, thus being frequently chosen to investigate the etiological mechanisms and gene therapy for cancers in animal models. In this review, we summarized current advances of Sleeping Beauty transposon system in revealing molecular mechanism of cancers and improving gene therapy. Understanding molecular mechanisms by which driver mutations contribute to carcinogenesis and metastasis may pave the way for the development of innovative prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against malignant diseases. PMID:25455252

  17. Mutagenesis during plant responses to UVB radiation.

    PubMed

    Holá, M; Vágnerová, R; Angelis, K J

    2015-08-01

    We tested an idea that induced mutagenesis due to unrepaired DNA lesions, here the UV photoproducts, underlies the impact of UVB irradiation on plant phenotype. For this purpose we used protonemal culture of the moss Physcomitrella patens with 50% of apical cells, which mimics actively growing tissue, the most vulnerable stage for the induction of mutations. We measured the UVB mutation rate of various moss lines with defects in DNA repair (pplig4, ppku70, pprad50, ppmre11), and in selected clones resistant to 2-Fluoroadenine, which were mutated in the adenosine phosphotrasferase gene (APT), we analysed induced mutations by sequencing. In parallel we followed DNA break repair and removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers with a half-life τ = 4 h 14 min determined by comet assay combined with UV dimer specific T4 endonuclease V. We show that UVB induces massive, sequence specific, error-prone bypass repair that is responsible for a high mutation rate owing to relatively slow, though error-free, removal of photoproducts by nucleotide excision repair (NER).

  18. A mutagenesis study of a catalytic antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.Y.; Prudent, J.R.; Baldwin, E.P.; Schultz, P.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors have generated seven site-specific mutations in the genes encoding the variable region of the heavy chain domain (V{sub H}) of the phosphocholine-binding antibody S107.S107 is a member of a family of well-characterized highly homologous antibodies that bind phosphorylcholine mono- and diesters. Two of these antibodies, MOPC-167 and T15, have previously been shown to catalyze the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl N-trimethylammonioethyl carbonate. Two conserved heavy-chain residues, Tyr-33 and Arg-52, were postulated to be involved in binding and hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenylcholine carbonate esters. To more precisely define the catalytic roles of these residues, three Arg-52 mutants (R52K, R52Q, R52C) and four Tyr-33 mutants (Y33H, Y33F, Y33E, Y33D) of antibody S107 were generated. The genes encoding the V{sub H} binding domain of S107 were inserted into plasmid pUC-fl, and in vitro mutagenesis was performed. These results not only demonstrate the importance of electrostatic interactions in catalysis by antibody S107 but also show that catalytic side chains can be introduced into antibodies to enhance their catalytic efficiency.

  19. Genomic and evolutionary analyses of Tango transposons in Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae and other mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Coy, M R; Tu, Z

    2007-08-01

    Tango is a transposon of the Tc1 family and was originally discovered in the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Here we report a systematic analysis of the genome sequence of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, which uncovered three distinct Tango transposons. We name the only An. gambiae Tango transposon AgTango1 and the three Ae. aegypti Tango elements AeTango1-3. Like AgTango1, AeTango1 and AeTango2 elements both have members that retain characteristics of autonomous elements such as intact open reading frames and terminal inverted repeats (TIRs). AeTango3 is a degenerate transposon with no full-length members. All full-length Tango transposons contain subterminal direct repeats within their TIRs. AgTango1 and AeTango1-3 form a single clade among other Tc1 transposons. Within this clade, AgTango1 and AeTango1 are closely related and share approximately 80% identity at the amino acid level, which exceeds the level of similarity of the majority of host genes in the two species. A survey of Tango in other mosquito species was carried out using degenerate PCR. Tango was isolated and sequenced in all members of the An. gambiae species complex, Aedes albopictus and Ochlerotatus atropalpus. Oc. atropalpus contains a rich diversity of Tango elements, while Tango elements in Ae. albopictus and the An. gambiae species complex all belong to Tango1. No Tango was detected in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles dirus, Anopheles farauti or Anopheles albimanus using degenerate PCR. Bioinformatic searches of the Cx. p. quinquefasciatus (~10 x coverage) and An. stephensi (0.33 x coverage) databases also failed to uncover any Tango elements. Although other evolutionary scenarios cannot be ruled out, there are indications that Tango1 underwent horizontal transfer among divergent mosquito species.

  20. DNA methylation of retrotransposons, DNA transposons and genes in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Zakrzewski, Falk; Schmidt, Martin; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Schmidt, Thomas

    2017-03-03

    The methylation of cytosines shapes the epigenetic landscape of plant genomes, coordinates transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, represses activity of transposable elements (TEs), affects gene expression, and, hence, can influence the phenotype. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris), an important crop that accounts for 30% of the worldwide sugar needs, has a relatively small genome size (758 Mbp) consisting of approximately 485 Mbp repetitive DNA (64%) in particular, satellite DNA, retrotransposons, and DNA transposons. Genome-wide cytosine methylation in the sugar beet genome was studied in leaves and leaf-derived callus with a focus on repetitive sequences, including retrotransposons and DNA transposons, the major groups of repetitive DNA sequences and compared with gene methylation. Genes showed a specific methylation pattern for CG, CHG (H=A, C, and T), and CHH sites, whereas the TE pattern differed, depending on the classes 1 (retrotransposons) and 2 (DNA transposons), respectively. Along genes and TEs, the CG and CHG methylation was higher than that of adjacent genomic regions. In contrast to the relatively low CHH methylation in retrotransposons and genes, the level of CHH methylation in DNA transposons was strongly increased, pointing toward a functional role of asymmetric methylation in DNA transposon silencing. Comparison of genome-wide DNA methylation between sugar beet leaves and callus revealed a differential methylation upon tissue culture. Potential epialleles were hypomethylated (lower methylation) at CG and CHG sites in retrotransposons and genes and hypermethylated (higher methylation) at CHH sites in DNA transposons of callus when compared to leaves. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel method for somatic transgenesis of the mouse prostate using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Kimberly D.P.; Alsop, Jim; Buresh-Stiemke, Rita A.; Frantskevich, Katsiaryna; Malinowski, Rita; Roethe, Laura; Powers, Ginny L; Marker, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND In vivo ectopic gene expression is a common approach for prostate research through the use of transgenes in germline transgenic mice. For some other organs, somatic transgenesis with the Sleeping Beauty transposon system has allowed in vivo ectopic gene expression with higher throughput and lower cost than germline transgenic approaches. METHODS Mouse e16 urogenital sinuses (UGSs) were co-injected with plasmids expressing the Sleeping Beauty transposase and plasmids with control or activated BRAF expressing transposons. Following electroporation, the transduced UGSs were grown as allografts in mouse hosts for 8 weeks, and the resulting allografts were evaluated for several endpoints. RESULTS Transposon-transduced UGS allografts developed into prostatic tissue with normal tissue structure and cellular differentiation. Integration of transposon vectors into the genomes of transduced allografts was confirmed using linker-mediated PCR, sequencing, and in situ PCR. Transduction of UGS allografts with transposons expressing activated BRAF resulted in ectopic BRAF expression that was detectable at both the mRNA and protein levels. Prostatic ducts over-expressing activated BRAF also had ectopic activation of the ERK1/2 mitogen activated kinases and increased epithelial cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS The Sleeping Beauty transposon system can be used to achieve somatic transgenesis of prostatic allografts. This new method for achieving ectopic gene expression in the prostate will complement other existing approaches such as ectopic gene expression in cell lines and in germline transgenic mice. Advantages of this new approach include preservation of stromal-epithelial interactions not possible with cell lines, and higher throughput and lower cost than traditional germline transgenic approaches. PMID:24647932

  2. Symposium on molecular and cellular mechanisms of mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    These proceedings contain abstracts only of the 21 papers presented at the Sympsoium. The papers dealt with molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis and cellular responses to chemical and physical mutagenic agents. (ERB)

  3. Favipiravir elicits antiviral mutagenesis during virus replication in vivo.

    PubMed

    Arias, Armando; Thorne, Lucy; Goodfellow, Ian

    2014-10-21

    Lethal mutagenesis has emerged as a novel potential therapeutic approach to treat viral infections. Several studies have demonstrated that increases in the high mutation rates inherent to RNA viruses lead to viral extinction in cell culture, but evidence during infections in vivo is limited. In this study, we show that the broad-range antiviral nucleoside favipiravir reduces viral load in vivo by exerting antiviral mutagenesis in a mouse model for norovirus infection. Increased mutation frequencies were observed in samples from treated mice and were accompanied with lower or in some cases undetectable levels of infectious virus in faeces and tissues. Viral RNA isolated from treated animals showed reduced infectivity, a feature of populations approaching extinction during antiviral mutagenesis. These results suggest that favipiravir can induce norovirus mutagenesis in vivo, which in some cases leads to virus extinction, providing a proof-of-principle for the use of favipiravir derivatives or mutagenic nucleosides in the clinical treatment of noroviruses.

  4. The dynamics of gene duplication and transposons in microbial genome evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, Nicholas; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2010-03-01

    Evidence indicates that new functional genes emerge from a process of gene duplication coupled with selection for a novel function. Recently, Bergthorsson et al. proposed a model of continuous selection in order to describe this process. Here, we examine their proposed evolutionary scheme, by modeling gene evolution using a stochastic simulation. Our results indicate that this model, and a related one that includes horizontal gene transfer, can account for the distribution of transposons in microbial genomes, and reproduce the observed environmentally-driven spatial dependence of transposon density in marine bacteria.

  5. A Method for Bioinformatic Analysis of Transposon Insertion Sequencing (INSeq) Results for Identification of Microbial Fitness Determinants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nengding; Ozer, Egon A

    2017-01-01

    Transposon insertion sequencing is a process whereby microbial fitness determinants can be identified on a genome-wide scale. This process uses high-throughput next generation sequencing to screen for changes in the composition of a pool of transposon mutants after exposure to selective conditions. One commonly used process for generating transposon insertion sequencing libraries is called INSeq that works with mutant pools produced using a modified Mariner transposon. Libraries produced using the INSeq process are sequenced on the Illumina platform. In this chapter, we describe our method for processing the raw Illumina sequencing reads, aligning the reads to a reference sequence to determine read counts, and using the online transposon insertion sequencing data analysis server, ESSENTIALS, to interpret the results.

  6. Noncoding RNA. piRNA-guided transposon cleavage initiates Zucchini-dependent, phased piRNA production.

    PubMed

    Han, Bo W; Wang, Wei; Li, Chengjian; Weng, Zhiping; Zamore, Phillip D

    2015-05-15

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) protect the animal germ line by silencing transposons. Primary piRNAs, generated from transcripts of genomic transposon "junkyards" (piRNA clusters), are amplified by the "ping-pong" pathway, yielding secondary piRNAs. We report that secondary piRNAs, bound to the PIWI protein Ago3, can initiate primary piRNA production from cleaved transposon RNAs. The first ~26 nucleotides (nt) of each cleaved RNA becomes a secondary piRNA, but the subsequent ~26 nt become the first in a series of phased primary piRNAs that bind Piwi, allowing piRNAs to spread beyond the site of RNA cleavage. The ping-pong pathway increases only the abundance of piRNAs, whereas production of phased primary piRNAs from cleaved transposon RNAs adds sequence diversity to the piRNA pool, allowing adaptation to changes in transposon sequence.

  7. Environmental stress induces trinucleotide repeat mutagenesis in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Nimrat; Lin, Yunfu; Santillan, Beatriz A.; Yotnda, Patricia; Wilson, John H.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic mutability of microsatellite repeats is implicated in the modification of gene function and disease phenotype. Studies of the enhanced instability of long trinucleotide repeats (TNRs)—the cause of multiple human diseases—have revealed a remarkable complexity of mutagenic mechanisms. Here, we show that cold, heat, hypoxic, and oxidative stresses induce mutagenesis of a long CAG repeat tract in human cells. We show that stress-response factors mediate the stress-induced mutagenesis (SIM) of CAG repeats. We show further that SIM of CAG repeats does not involve mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair, or transcription, processes that are known to promote TNR mutagenesis in other pathways of instability. Instead, we find that these stresses stimulate DNA rereplication, increasing the proportion of cells with >4 C-value (C) DNA content. Knockdown of the replication origin-licensing factor CDT1 eliminates both stress-induced rereplication and CAG repeat mutagenesis. In addition, direct induction of rereplication in the absence of stress also increases the proportion of cells with >4C DNA content and promotes repeat mutagenesis. Thus, environmental stress triggers a unique pathway for TNR mutagenesis that likely is mediated by DNA rereplication. This pathway may impact normal cells as they encounter stresses in their environment or during development or abnormal cells as they evolve metastatic potential. PMID:25775519

  8. Development of Safer Gene Delivery Systems to Minimize the Risk of Insertional Mutagenesis-Related Malignancies: A Critical Issue for the Field of Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Gaetano

    2012-01-01

    Integrating gene delivery systems allow for a more stable transgene expression in mammalian cells than the episomal ones. However, the integration of the shuttle vector within the cellular chromosomal DNA is associated with the risk of insertional mutagenesis, which, in turn, may cause malignant cell transformation. The use of a retroviral-derived vector system was responsible for the development of leukemia in five children, who participated in various clinical trials for the treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) in France and in the United Kingdom. Unfortunately, the hematological malignancy claimed the life of one patient in 2004, who was enrolled in the French clinical trial. In addition, adeno-associated-viral-(AAV-) mediated gene transfer induced tumors in animal models, whereas the Sleeping Beauty (SB) DNA transposon system was associated with insertional mutagenesis events in cell culture systems. On these grounds, it is necessary to develop safer gene delivery systems for the genetic manipulation of mammalian cells. This paper discusses the latest achievements that have been reported in the field of vector design. PMID:23209944

  9. Transposon mutagenesis of Salmonella Enteritidis identifies genes that contribute to invasiveness in human and chicken cells and survival in egg albumen.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is the world’s leading cause of food borne salmonellosis and illness in people is linked strongly to its contamination of eggs produced by otherwise healthy appearing hens. Salmonella Enteritidis is noted for generating exceptional strain heterogeneity despite having a clonal ...

  10. Genome sequencing and transposon mutagenesis of Burkholderia seminalis TC3.4.2R3 identify genes contributing to suppression of orchid necrosis caused by B. gladioli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty six strains of Burkholderia spp. isolated from sugarcane were evaluated for biological control of leaf and pseudobulb necrosis of orchid caused by B. gladioli. Twenty nine of the sugarcane strains suppressed the disease in greenhouse assays. We generated a draft genomic sequence of one suppr...

  11. Photochemical mutagenesis: examples and toxicological relevance.

    PubMed

    Gocke, E

    2001-01-01

    Induction of DNA damage as a consequence of exposure to UV light has been established as the major cause of skin cancer. DNA molecules absorb photon energy directly for wavelengths <320 nm, and lead to well-characterized mutagenic DNA damage. Alternatively, endogenous or exogenous chemicals (sensitizers) may absorb light with the potential of subsequent energy or electron transfer, and lead indirectly to DNA damage. A few light-absorbing pharmaceuticals have long been known to cause photo(geno)toxic effects. Notably, psoralen and chlorpromazine derivatives have been established as photomutagens and the reaction mechanisms have been identified; the fluoroquinolone antibiotics have more recently been recognized as being photomutagenic. The type of DNA damage and the modulation by antioxidants indicate the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but other mechanisms are also reported for, at least, some derivatives. In routine genotoxicity studies, we observed the photomutagenic activity of a compound (Ro 19-8022) under development as an anxiolytic agent in the Ames tester strain TA102 under normal laboratory illumination conditions. Further investigations showed strong photogenotoxic activity in tests for gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations in mammalian cells. The finding led to the termination of drug development. Another example of a pharmaceutical for which photogenotoxic properties were observed during development is Ro 47-7737, a bisquinoline derivative of the antimalaria compound chloroquine. Also in this case, the photochemical reactivity contributed to the termination of the development process. The risk/benefit assessment for the described compounds has to take into account the human exposure situation, for example, the ability to avoid light exposure during treatment. Consideration of photochemical mutagenesis is specifically important for sunscreen ingredients. The active components of sunscreen lotions are efficient UV absorbers. Consequently

  12. Endogenous mutagenesis in recombinant sulfolobus plasmids.

    PubMed

    Sakofsky, Cynthia J; Grogan, Dennis W

    2013-06-01

    Low rates of replication errors in chromosomal genes of Sulfolobus spp. demonstrate that these extreme thermoacidophiles can maintain genome integrity in environments with high temperature and low pH. In contrast to this genetic stability, we observed unusually frequent mutation of the β-D-glycosidase gene (lacS) of a shuttle plasmid (pJlacS) propagated in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. The resulting Lac(-) mutants also grew faster than the Lac(+) parent, thereby amplifying the impact of the frequent lacS mutations on the population. We developed a mutant accumulation assay and corrections for the effects of copy number and differential growth for this system; the resulting measurements and calculations yielded a corrected rate of 5.1 × 10(-4) mutational events at the lacS gene per plasmid replication. Analysis of independent lacS mutants revealed three types of mutations: (i) G · C-to-A · T transitions, (ii) slipped-strand events, and (iii) deletions. These mutations were frequent in plasmid-borne lacS expressed at a high level but not in single-copy lacS in the chromosome or at lower levels of expression in a plasmid. Substitution mutations arose at only two of 12 potential priming sites of the DNA primase of the pRN1 replicon, but nearly all these mutations created nonsense (chain termination) codons. The spontaneous mutation rate of plasmid-borne lacS was 175-fold higher under high-expression than under low-expression conditions. The results suggest that important DNA repair or replication fidelity functions are impaired or overwhelmed in pJlacS, with results analogous to those of the "transcription-associated mutagenesis" seen in bacteria and eukaryotes.

  13. Repeated horizontal transfer of a DNA transposon in mammals and other tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Pace, John K; Gilbert, Clément; Clark, Marlena S; Feschotte, Cédric

    2008-11-04

    Horizontal transfer (HT) is central to the evolution of prokaryotic species. Selfish and mobile genetic elements, such as phages, plasmids, and transposons, are the primary vehicles for HT among prokaryotes. In multicellular eukaryotes, the prevalence and evolutionary significance of HT remain unclear. Here, we identified a set of DNA transposon families dubbed SPACE INVADERS (or SPIN) whose consensus sequences are approximately 96% identical over their entire length (2.9 kb) in the genomes of murine rodents (rat/mouse), bushbaby (prosimian primate), little brown bat (laurasiatherian), tenrec (afrotherian), opossum (marsupial), and two non-mammalian tetrapods (anole lizard and African clawed frog). In contrast, SPIN elements were undetectable in other species represented in the sequence databases, including 19 other mammals with draft whole-genome assemblies. This patchy distribution, coupled with the extreme level of SPIN identity in widely divergent tetrapods and the overall lack of selective constraint acting on these elements, is incompatible with vertical inheritance, but strongly indicative of multiple horizontal introductions. We show that these germline infiltrations likely occurred around the same evolutionary time (15-46 mya) and spawned some of the largest bursts of DNA transposon activity ever recorded in any species lineage (nearly 100,000 SPIN copies per haploid genome in tenrec). The process also led to the emergence of a new gene in the murine lineage derived from a SPIN transposase. In summary, HT of DNA transposons has contributed significantly to shaping and diversifying the genomes of multiple mammalian and tetrapod species.

  14. A transposon-based analysis of gene mutations related to skin cancer development.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Rita M; Dupuy, Adam J; Bravo, Ana; Casanova, M Llanos; Alameda, Josefa P; Page, Angustias; Sánchez-Viera, Miguel; Ramírez, Angel; Navarro, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is by far the most frequent type of cancer in humans. NMSC includes several types of malignancies with different clinical outcomes, the most frequent being basal and squamous cell carcinomas. We have used the Sleeping Beauty transposon/transposase system to identify somatic mutations associated with NMSC. Transgenic mice bearing multiple copies of a mutagenic Sleeping Beauty transposon T2Onc2 and expressing the SB11 transposase under the transcriptional control of regulatory elements from the keratin K5 promoter were treated with TPA, either in wild-type or Ha-ras mutated backgrounds. After several weeks of treatment, mice with transposition developed more malignant tumors with decreased latency compared with control mice. Transposon/transposase animals also developed basal cell carcinomas. Genetic analysis of the transposon integration sites in the tumors identified several genes recurrently mutated in different tumor samples, which may represent novel candidate cancer genes. We observed alterations in the expression levels of some of these genes in human tumors. Our results show that inactivating mutations in Notch1 and Nsd1, among others, may have an important role in skin carcinogenesis.

  15. Establishment of cell-based transposon-mediated transgenesis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Alessio, Ana P; Fili, Alejandro E; Garrels, Wiebke; Forcato, Diego O; Olmos Nicotra, María F; Liaudat, Ana C; Bevacqua, Romina J; Savy, Virginia; Hiriart, María I; Talluri, Thirumala R; Owens, Jesse B; Ivics, Zoltán; Salamone, Daniel F; Moisyadi, Stefan; Kues, Wilfried A; Bosch, Pablo

    2016-04-15

    Transposon-mediated transgenesis is a well-established tool for genome modification in small animal models. However, translation of this active transgenic method to large animals warrants further investigations. Here, the piggyBac (PB) and sleeping beauty (SB) transposon systems were assessed for stable gene transfer into the cattle genome. Bovine fibroblasts were transfected either with a helper-independent PB system or a binary SB system. Both transposons were highly active in bovine cells increasing the efficiency of DNA integration up to 88 times over basal nonfacilitated integrations in a colony formation assay. SB transposase catalyzed multiplex transgene integrations in fibroblast cells transfected with the helper vector and two donor vectors carrying different transgenes (fluorophore and neomycin resistance). Stably transfected fibroblasts were used for SCNT and on in vitro embryo culture, morphologically normal blastocysts that expressed the fluorophore were obtained with both transposon systems. The data indicate that transposition is a feasible approach for genetic engineering in the cattle genome.

  16. Bleomycin increases amikacin and streptomycin resistance in Escherichia coli harboring transposon Tn5.

    PubMed Central

    Blazquez, J; Martinez, J L; Baquero, F

    1993-01-01

    The antitumor antibiotic bleomycin acts as a transcriptional inducer of the neo-ble-str operon of the transposon Tn5, increasing the resistance level to streptomycin and amikacin in Tn5-containing Escherichia coli. The mechanism may involve a recA-independent induction mediated by DNA damage. Images PMID:7694544

  17. Transposon tools for recombinant DNA manipulation: characterization of transcriptional regulators from yeast, Xenopus, and mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, B A; Conlon, F L; Manzanares, M; Millar, J B; Kanuga, N; Sharpe, J; Krumlauf, R; Smith, J C; Sedgwick, S G

    1996-01-01

    Transposon Tn1000 has been adapted to deliver novel DNA sequences for manipulating recombinant DNA. The transposition procedure for these "tagged" Tn1000s is simple and applicable to most plasmids in current use. For yeast molecular biology, tagged Tn1000s introduce a variety of yeast selective markers and replication origins into plasmids and cosmids. In addition, the beta-globin minimal promoter and lacZ gene of Tn(beta)lac serve as a mobile reporter of eukaryotic enhancer activity. In this paper, Tn(beta)lac was used to localize a mouse HoxB-complex enhancer in transgenic mice. Other tagged transposons create Gal4 DNA-binding-domain fusions, in either Escherichia coli or yeast plasmids, for use in one- and two-hybrid tests of transcriptional activation and protein-protein interaction, respectively. With such fusions, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Swi6 G1/S-phase transcription factor and the Xenopus laevis Pintallavis developmental regulator are shown to activate transcription. Furthermore, the same transposon insertions also facilitated mapping of the Swi6 and Pintallavis domains responsible for transcriptional activation. Thus, as well as introducing novel sequences, tagged transposons share the numerous other applications of transposition such as producing insertional mutations, creating deletion series, or serving as mobile primer sites for DNA sequencing. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8610121

  18. Structures of homologous composite transposons carrying cbaABC genes from Europe and North America.

    PubMed

    Di Gioia, D; Peel, M; Fava, F; Wyndham, R C

    1998-05-01

    IS1071 is a class II transposable element carrying a tnpA gene related to the transposase genes of the Tn3 family. Copies of IS1071 that are conserved with more than 99% nucleotide sequence identity have been found as direct repeats flanking a remarkable variety of catabolic gene sequences worldwide. The sequences of chlorobenzoate catabolic transposons found on pBRC60 (Tn5271) in Niagara Falls, N.Y., and on pCPE3 in Bologna, Italy, show that these transposons were formed from highly homologous IS1071 and cbaABC components (levels of identity, > 99.5 and > 99.3%, respectively). Nevertheless, the junction sequences between the IS1071L and IS1071R elements and the internal DNA differ by 41 and 927 bp, respectively, suggesting that these transposons were assembled independently on the two plasmids. The formation of the right junction in both transposons truncated an open reading frame for a putative aryl-coenzyme A ligase with sequence similarity to benzoate- and p-hydroxybenzoate-coenzyme A ligases of Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

  19. Use of Multicopy Transposons Bearing Unfitness Genes in Weed Control: Four Example Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Gressel, Jonathan; Levy, Avraham A.

    2014-01-01

    We speculate that multicopy transposons, carrying both fitness and unfitness genes, can provide new positive and negative selection options to intractable weed problems. Multicopy transposons rapidly disseminate through populations, appearing in approximately 100% of progeny, unlike nuclear transgenes, which appear in a proportion of segregating populations. Different unfitness transgenes and modes of propagation will be appropriate for different cases: (1) outcrossing Amaranthus spp. (that evolved resistances to major herbicides); (2) Lolium spp., important pasture grasses, yet herbicide-resistant weeds in crops; (3) rice (Oryza sativa), often infested with feral weedy rice, which interbreeds with the crop; and (4) self-compatible sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), which readily crosses with conspecific shattercane and with allotetraploid johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense). The speculated outcome of these scenarios is to generate weed populations that contain the unfitness gene and thus are easily controllable. Unfitness genes can be under chemically or environmentally inducible promoters, activated after gene dissemination, or under constitutive promoters where the gene function is utilized only at special times (e.g. sensitivity to an herbicide). The transposons can be vectored to the weeds by introgression from the crop (in rice, sorghum, and Lolium spp.) or from planted engineered weed (Amaranthus spp.) using a gene conferring the degradation of a no longer widely used herbicide, especially in tandem with an herbicide-resistant gene that kills all nonhybrids, facilitating the rapid dissemination of the multicopy transposons in a weedy population. PMID:24820021

  20. Mos1 transposon-based transformation of fish cell lines using baculoviral vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoo, Masako; Fujita, Ryosuke; Nakajima, Yumiko; Yoshimizu, Mamoru; Kasai, Hisae; Asano, Shin-ichiro; Bando, Hisanori

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •The baculovirus vector infiltrates the cells of economic important fishes. •Drosophila Mos1 transposase expressed in fish cells maintains its ability to localize to the nucleus. •The baculoviral vector carrying Mos1 is a useful tool to stably transform fish cells. -- Abstract: Drosophila Mos1 belongs to the mariner family of transposons, which are one of the most ubiquitous transposons among eukaryotes. We first determined nuclear transportation of the Drosophila Mos1-EGFP fusion protein in fish cell lines because it is required for a function of transposons. We next constructed recombinant baculoviral vectors harboring the Drosophila Mos1 transposon or marker genes located between Mos1 inverted repeats. The infectivity of the recombinant virus to fish cells was assessed by monitoring the expression of a fluorescent protein encoded in the viral genome. We detected transgene expression in CHSE-214, HINAE, and EPC cells, but not in GF or RTG-2 cells. In the co-infection assay of the Mos1-expressing virus and reporter gene-expressing virus, we successfully transformed CHSE-214 and HINAE cells. These results suggest that the combination of a baculovirus and Mos1 transposable element may be a tool for transgenesis in fish cells.

  1. [Role of transposons in origin and evolution of plant XY sex chromosomes].

    PubMed

    Shufen, Li; Sha, Li; Chuanliang, Deng; Longdou, Lu; Wujun, Gao

    2015-02-01

    The XY sex-determination system is crucial for plant reproduction. However, little is known about the mechanism of the origin and evolution of the XY sex chromosomes. It has been believed that a pair of autosomes is evolved to produce young sex chromosomes (neo-X chromosome and neo-Y chromosome) by loss of function or gain of function mutation, which influences the development of pistil or stamen. With the aggravation of the recombination suppression between neo-X and neo-Y and consequent expanding of the non-recombination region, the proto-sex chromosomes were finally developed to heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Accumulation of repetitive sequences and DNA methylation were probably involved in this process. Transposons, as the most abundant repetitive sequences in the genome, might be the initial motivation factors for the evolution of sex chromosome. Moreover, transposons may also increase heterochromatin expansion and recombination suppression of sex chromosome by local epigenetics modification. In this review, we summarize the function of transposon accumulation and the relationship between transposon and heterochromatization in the evolution of plant sex chromosome.

  2. Use of multicopy transposons bearing unfitness genes in weed control: four example scenarios.

    PubMed

    Gressel, Jonathan; Levy, Avraham A

    2014-11-01

    We speculate that multicopy transposons, carrying both fitness and unfitness genes, can provide new positive and negative selection options to intractable weed problems. Multicopy transposons rapidly disseminate through populations, appearing in approximately 100% of progeny, unlike nuclear transgenes, which appear in a proportion of segregating populations. Different unfitness transgenes and modes of propagation will be appropriate for different cases: (1) outcrossing Amaranthus spp. (that evolved resistances to major herbicides); (2) Lolium spp., important pasture grasses, yet herbicide-resistant weeds in crops; (3) rice (Oryza sativa), often infested with feral weedy rice, which interbreeds with the crop; and (4) self-compatible sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), which readily crosses with conspecific shattercane and with allotetraploid johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense). The speculated outcome of these scenarios is to generate weed populations that contain the unfitness gene and thus are easily controllable. Unfitness genes can be under chemically or environmentally inducible promoters, activated after gene dissemination, or under constitutive promoters where the gene function is utilized only at special times (e.g. sensitivity to an herbicide). The transposons can be vectored to the weeds by introgression from the crop (in rice, sorghum, and Lolium spp.) or from planted engineered weed (Amaranthus spp.) using a gene conferring the degradation of a no longer widely used herbicide, especially in tandem with an herbicide-resistant gene that kills all nonhybrids, facilitating the rapid dissemination of the multicopy transposons in a weedy population.

  3. Sperm-mediated transgenesis in chicken using a PiggyBac transposon system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sperm-mediated transgenesis in chicken using a PiggyBac transposon system Emmanuel Quansah1,2, Julie Long2, David Donovan2, Stephen Becker2, Bhanu Telugu2, Juli Frey2, Nigel Urwin1 1,Charles Sturt University, Graham Center of Agricultural Innovation, Wagga Wagga. Australia and 2Beltsville Agricultu...

  4. Repeated horizontal transfer of a DNA transposon in mammals and other tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    Pace, John K.; Gilbert, Clément; Clark, Marlena S.; Feschotte, Cédric

    2008-01-01

    Horizontal transfer (HT) is central to the evolution of prokaryotic species. Selfish and mobile genetic elements, such as phages, plasmids, and transposons, are the primary vehicles for HT among prokaryotes. In multicellular eukaryotes, the prevalence and evolutionary significance of HT remain unclear. Here, we identified a set of DNA transposon families dubbed SPACE INVADERS (or SPIN) whose consensus sequences are ≈96% identical over their entire length (2.9 kb) in the genomes of murine rodents (rat/mouse), bushbaby (prosimian primate), little brown bat (laurasiatherian), tenrec (afrotherian), opossum (marsupial), and two non-mammalian tetrapods (anole lizard and African clawed frog). In contrast, SPIN elements were undetectable in other species represented in the sequence databases, including 19 other mammals with draft whole-genome assemblies. This patchy distribution, coupled with the extreme level of SPIN identity in widely divergent tetrapods and the overall lack of selective constraint acting on these elements, is incompatible with vertical inheritance, but strongly indicative of multiple horizontal introductions. We show that these germline infiltrations likely occurred around the same evolutionary time (15–46 mya) and spawned some of the largest bursts of DNA transposon activity ever recorded in any species lineage (nearly 100,000 SPIN copies per haploid genome in tenrec). The process also led to the emergence of a new gene in the murine lineage derived from a SPIN transposase. In summary, HT of DNA transposons has contributed significantly to shaping and diversifying the genomes of multiple mammalian and tetrapod species. PMID:18936483

  5. Identification of α-amylase by random and specific mutagenesis of Texcoconibacillus texcoconensis 13CCT strain isolated from extreme alkaline-saline soil of the former Lake Texcoco (Mexico).

    PubMed

    Bello-López, Juan Manuel; Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Gómez-Acata, Selene; Hernández-Montañez, Zahuiti; Dendooven, Luc

    2014-05-01

    The alkaline α-amylase produced by Texcoconibacillus texcoconensis 13CC(T) strain was identified by random mutagenesis and confirmed by directed mutagenesis. A transposon mutagenesis approach was taken to identify the gene responsible for the degradation of starch in T. texcoconensis 13CC(T) strain. The deduced amino acids of the amy gene had a 99% similarity with those of Bacillus selenitireducens MLS10 and 97% with those of Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus YK9. The enzyme showed a maximum activity of 131.1 U/mL at 37 °C and pH 9.5 to 10.5. In situ activity of the enzyme determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed only one band with amylolytic activity. This is the first report of a bacterium isolated from the extreme alkaline-saline soil of the former Lake Texcoco (Mexico) with amylolytic activity in alkaline conditions while its potential as a source of amylases for the industry is discussed.

  6. Transcriptional silencing of transposons by Piwi and maelstrom and its impact on chromatin state and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Sienski, Grzegorz; Dönertas, Derya; Brennecke, Julius

    2012-11-21

    Eukaryotic genomes are colonized by transposons whose uncontrolled activity causes genomic instability. The piRNA pathway silences transposons in animal gonads, yet how this is achieved molecularly remains controversial. Here, we show that the HMG protein Maelstrom is essential for Piwi-mediated silencing in Drosophila. Genome-wide assays revealed highly correlated changes in RNA polymerase II recruitment, nascent RNA output, and steady-state RNA levels of transposons upon loss of Piwi or Maelstrom. Our data demonstrate piRNA-mediated trans-silencing of hundreds of transposon copies at the transcriptional level. We show that Piwi is required to establish heterochromatic H3K9me3 marks on transposons and their genomic surroundings. In contrast, loss of Maelstrom affects transposon H3K9me3 patterns only mildly yet leads to increased heterochromatin spreading, suggesting that Maelstrom acts downstream of or in parallel to H3K9me3. Our work illustrates the widespread influence of transposons and the piRNA pathway on chromatin patterns and gene expression.

  7. Phantom, a New Subclass of Mutator DNA Transposons Found in Insect Viruses and Widely Distributed in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Claudia P.; Pritham, Ellen J.

    2010-01-01

    Transposons of the Mutator (Mu) superfamily have been shown to play a critical role in the evolution of plant genomes. However, the identification of Mutator transposons in other eukaryotes has been quite limited. Here we describe a previously uncharacterized group of DNA transposons designated Phantom identified in the genomes of a wide range of eukaryotic taxa, including many animals, and provide evidence for its inclusion within the Mutator superfamily. Interestingly three Phantom proteins were also identified in two insect viruses and phylogenetic analysis suggests horizontal movement from insect to virus, providing a new line of evidence for the role of viruses in the horizontal transfer of DNA transposons in animals. Many of the Phantom transposases are predicted to harbor a FLYWCH domain in the amino terminus, which displays a WRKY–GCM1 fold characteristic of the DNA binding domain (DBD) of Mutator transposases and of several transcription factors. While some Phantom elements have terminal inverted repeats similar in length and structure to Mutator elements, some display subterminal inverted repeats (sub-TIRs) and others have more complex termini reminiscent of so-called Foldback (FB) transposons. The structural plasticity of Phantom and the distant relationship of its encoded protein to known transposases may have impeded the discovery of this group of transposons and it suggests that structure in itself is not a reliable character for transposon classification. PMID:20457878

  8. Phantom, a new subclass of Mutator DNA transposons found in insect viruses and widely distributed in animals.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Claudia P; Pritham, Ellen J

    2010-08-01

    Transposons of the Mutator (Mu) superfamily have been shown to play a critical role in the evolution of plant genomes. However, the identification of Mutator transposons in other eukaryotes has been quite limited. Here we describe a previously uncharacterized group of DNA transposons designated Phantom identified in the genomes of a wide range of eukaryotic taxa, including many animals, and provide evidence for its inclusion within the Mutator superfamily. Interestingly three Phantom proteins were also identified in two insect viruses and phylogenetic analysis suggests horizontal movement from insect to virus, providing a new line of evidence for the role of viruses in the horizontal transfer of DNA transposons in animals. Many of the Phantom transposases are predicted to harbor a FLYWCH domain in the amino terminus, which displays a WRKY-GCM1 fold characteristic of the DNA binding domain (DBD) of Mutator transposases and of several transcription factors. While some Phantom elements have terminal inverted repeats similar in length and structure to Mutator elements, some display subterminal inverted repeats (sub-TIRs) and others have more complex termini reminiscent of so-called Foldback (FB) transposons. The structural plasticity of Phantom and the distant relationship of its encoded protein to known transposases may have impeded the discovery of this group of transposons and it suggests that structure in itself is not a reliable character for transposon classification.

  9. Bioinformatic evidence and characterization of novel putative large conjugative transposons residing in genomes of genera Bacteroides and Prevotella.

    PubMed

    Gorenc, Katja; Accetto, Tomaž; Avguštin, Gorazd

    2012-07-01

    Bioinformatic evidence of the presence of a large conjugative transposon in ruminal bacterium Prevotella bryantii B(1)4(T) is presented. The described transposon appears to be related to another large conjugative transposon CTnBST, described in Bacteroides uniformis WH207 and to the conjugative transposon CTn3-Bf, which was observed in the genome of Bacteroides fragilis strain YCH46. All three transposons share tra gene regions with high amino acid identity and clearly conserved gene order. Additionally, a second conserved region consisting of hypothetical genes was discovered in all three transposons and named the GG region. This region served as a specific sequence signature and made possible the discovery of several other apparently related hypothetical conjugative transposons in bacteria from the genus Bacteroides. A cluster of genes involved in sugar utilization and metabolism was discovered within the hypothetical CTnB(1)4, to a certain extent resembling the polysaccharide utilization loci which were described recently in some Bacteroides strains. This is the first firm report on the presence of a large mobile genetic element in any strain from the genus Prevotella.

  10. An efficient strategy for large-scale high-throughput transposon-mediated sequencing of cDNA clones

    PubMed Central

    Butterfield, Yaron S. N.; Marra, Marco A.; Asano, Jennifer K.; Chan, Susanna Y.; Guin, Ranabir; Krzywinski, Martin I.; Lee, Soo Sen; MacDonald, Kim W. K.; Mathewson, Carrie A.; Olson, Teika E.; Pandoh, Pawan K.; Prabhu, Anna-Liisa; Schnerch, Angelique; Skalska, Ursula; Smailus, Duane E.; Stott, Jeff M.; Tsai, Miranda I.; Yang, George S.; Zuyderduyn, Scott D.; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Jones, Steven J. M.

    2002-01-01

    We describe an efficient high-throughput method for accurate DNA sequencing of entire cDNA clones. Developed as part of our involvement in the Mammalian Gene Collection full-length cDNA sequencing initiative, the method has been used and refined in our laboratory since September 2000. Amenable to large scale projects, we have used the method to generate >7 Mb of accurate sequence from 3695 candidate full-length cDNAs. Sequencing is accomplished through the insertion of Mu transposon into cDNAs, followed by sequencing reactions primed with Mu-specific sequencing primers. Transposon insertion reactions are not performed with individual cDNAs but rather on pools of up to 96 clones. This pooling strategy reduces the number of transposon insertion sequencing libraries that would otherwise be required, reducing the costs and enhancing the efficiency of the transposon library construction procedure. Sequences generated using transposon-specific sequencing primers are assembled to yield the full-length cDNA sequence, with sequence editing and other sequence finishing activities performed as required to resolve sequence ambiguities. Although analysis of the many thousands (22 785) of sequenced Mu transposon insertion events revealed a weak sequence preference for Mu insertion, we observed insertion of the Mu transposon into 1015 of the possible 1024 5mer candidate insertion sites. PMID:12034834

  11. Self-synthesizing transposons: unexpected key players in the evolution of viruses and defense systems.

    PubMed

    Krupovic, Mart; Koonin, Eugene V

    2016-06-01

    Self-synthesizing transposons are the largest known transposable elements that encode their own DNA polymerases (DNAP). The Polinton/Maverick family of self-synthesizing transposons is widespread in eukaryotes and abundant in the genomes of some protists. In addition to the DNAP and a retrovirus-like integrase, most of the polintons encode homologs of the major and minor jelly-roll capsid proteins, DNA-packaging ATPase and capsid maturation protease. Therefore, polintons are predicted to alternate between the transposon and viral lifestyles although virion formation remains to be demonstrated. Polintons are related to a group of eukaryotic viruses known as virophages that parasitize on giant viruses of the family Mimiviridae and another recently identified putative family of polinton-like viruses (PLV) predicted to lead a similar, dual life style. Comparative genomic analysis of polintons, virophages, PLV and the other viruses with double-stranded (ds)DNA genomes infecting eukaryotes and prokaryotes suggests that the polintons evolved from bacterial tectiviruses and could have been the ancestors of a broad range of eukaryotic viruses including adenoviruses and members of the proposed order 'Megavirales' as well as linear cytoplasmic plasmids. Recently, a group of predicted self-synthesizing transposons was discovered also in prokaryotes. These elements, denoted casposons, encode a DNAP and a homolog of the CRISPR-associated Cas1 endonuclease that has an integrase activity but no capsid proteins. Thus, unlike polintons, casposons appear to be limited to the transposon life style although they could have evolved from viruses. The casposons are thought to have played a pivotal role in the origin of the prokaryotic adaptive immunity, giving rise to the adaptation module of the CRISPR-Cas systems.

  12. Separation of stem cell maintenance and transposon silencing functions of Piwi protein

    PubMed Central

    Klenov, Mikhail S.; Sokolova, Olesya A.; Yakushev, Evgeny Y.; Stolyarenko, Anastasia D.; Mikhaleva, Elena A.; Lavrov, Sergey A.; Gvozdev, Vladimir A.

    2011-01-01

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and Piwi proteins have the evolutionarily conserved function of silencing of repetitive genetic elements in germ lines. The founder of the Piwi subfamily, Drosophila nuclear Piwi protein, was also shown to be required for the maintenance of germ-line stem cells (GSCs). Hence, null mutant piwi females exhibit two types of abnormalities, overexpression of transposons and severely underdeveloped ovaries. It remained unknown whether the failure of GSC maintenance is related to transposon derepression or if GSC self-renewal and piRNA silencing are two distinct functions of the Piwi protein. We have revealed a mutation, piwiNt, removing the nuclear localization signal of the Piwi protein. piwiNt females retain the ability of GSC self-renewal and a near-normal number of egg chambers in the ovarioles but display a drastic transposable element derepression and nuclear accumulation of their transcripts in the germ line. piwiNt mutants are sterile most likely because of the disturbance of piRNA-mediated transposon silencing. Analysis of chromatin modifications in the piwiNt ovaries indicated that Piwi causes chromatin silencing only of certain types of transposons, whereas others are repressed in the nuclei without their chromatin modification. Thus, Piwi nuclear localization that is required for its silencing function is not essential for the maintenance of GSCs. We suggest that the Piwi function in GSC self-renewal is independent of transposon repression and is normally realized in the cytoplasm of GSC niche cells. PMID:22065765

  13. miRNAs trigger widespread epigenetically activated siRNAs from transposons in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Creasey, Kate M; Zhai, Jixian; Borges, Filipe; Van Ex, Frederic; Regulski, Michael; Meyers, Blake C; Martienssen, Robert A

    2014-04-17

    In plants, post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is mediated by DICER-LIKE 1 (DCL1)-dependent microRNAs (miRNAs), which also trigger 21-nucleotide secondary short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) via RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 6 (RDR6), DCL4 and ARGONAUTE 1 (AGO1), whereas transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) of transposons is mediated by 24-nucleotide heterochromatic (het)siRNAs, RDR2, DCL3 and AGO4 (ref. 4). Transposons can also give rise to abundant 21-nucleotide 'epigenetically activated' small interfering RNAs (easiRNAs) in DECREASED DNA METHYLATION 1 (ddm1) and DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (met1) mutants, as well as in the vegetative nucleus of pollen grains and in dedifferentiated plant cell cultures. Here we show that easiRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana resemble secondary siRNAs, in that thousands of transposon transcripts are specifically targeted by more than 50 miRNAs for cleavage and processing by RDR6. Loss of RDR6, DCL4 or DCL1 in a ddm1 background results in loss of 21-nucleotide easiRNAs and severe infertility, but 24-nucleotide hetsiRNAs are partially restored, supporting an antagonistic relationship between PTGS and TGS. Thus miRNA-directed easiRNA biogenesis is a latent mechanism that specifically targets transposon transcripts, but only when they are epigenetically reactivated during reprogramming of the germ line. This ancient recognition mechanism may have been retained both by transposons to evade long-term heterochromatic silencing and by their hosts for genome defence.

  14. HelitronScanner uncovers a large overlooked cache of Helitron transposons in many plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wenwei; He, Limei; Lai, Jinsheng; Dooner, Hugo K; Du, Chunguang

    2014-07-15

    Transposons make up the bulk of eukaryotic genomes, but are difficult to annotate because they evolve rapidly. Most of the unannotated portion of sequenced genomes is probably made up of various divergent transposons that have yet to be categorized. Helitrons are unusual rolling circle eukaryotic transposons that often capture gene sequences, making them of considerable evolutionary importance. Unlike other DNA transposons, Helitrons do not end in inverted repeats or create target site duplications, so they are particularly challenging to identify. Here we present HelitronScanner, a two-layered local combinational variable (LCV) tool for generalized Helitron identification that represents a major improvement over previous identification programs based on DNA sequence or structure. HelitronScanner identified 64,654 Helitrons from a wide range of plant genomes in a highly automated way. We tested HelitronScanner's predictive ability in maize, a species with highly heterogeneous Helitron elements. LCV scores for the 5' and 3' termini of the predicted Helitrons provide a primary confidence level and element copy number provides a secondary one. Newly identified Helitrons were validated by PCR assays or by in silico comparative analysis of insertion site polymorphism among multiple accessions. Many new Helitrons were identified in model species, such as maize, rice, and Arabidopsis, and in a variety of organisms where Helitrons had not been reported previously to our knowledge, leading to a major upward reassessment of their abundance in plant genomes. HelitronScanner promises to be a valuable tool in future comparative and evolutionary studies of this major transposon superfamily.

  15. Resistance determinants and their association with different transposons in the antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Korona-Glowniak, Izabela; Siwiec, Radoslaw; Malm, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Multiple resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae is generally associated with their unique recombination-mediated genetic plasticity and possessing the mobile genetic elements. The aim of our study was to detect antibiotic resistance determinants and conjugative transposons in 138 antibiotic-resistant pneumococcal strains isolated from nasopharynx of healthy young children from Lublin, Poland. These strains resistant to tetracycline and/or to chloramphenicol/erythromycin/clindamycin were tested by PCR using the specific genes as markers. The presence of Tn916 family transposons, carrying tet(M) and int/xisTn916, was observed in all of the tested strains. Tn916 was detected in 16 strains resistant only to tetracycline. Tn6002 and Tn3872-related element were found among 99 erm(B)-carrying strains (83.8% and 3.0%, resp.). Eight strains harbouring mef(E) and erm(B) genes were detected, suggesting the presence of Tn2010 and Tn2017 transposons. Among 101 chloramphenicol-resistant strains, two variants of Tn5252-related transposon were distinguished depending on the presence of int/xis5252 genes specific for cat gene-containing Tn5252 (75.2% of strains) or int Sp23FST81 gene, specific for cat-containing ICESp23FST81 element (24.8% of strains). In 6 strains Tn916-like and Tn5252-like elements formed a Tn5253-like structure. Besides clonal dissemination of resistant strains of pneumococci in the population, horizontal transfer of conjugative transposons is an important factor of the high prevalence of antibiotic resistance.

  16. The Nucleoid Binding Protein H-NS Biases Genome-Wide Transposon Insertion Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Satoshi; Hubbard, Troy P.; Davis, Brigid M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transposon insertion sequencing (TIS; also known as TnSeq) is a potent approach commonly used to comprehensively define the genetic loci that contribute to bacterial fitness in diverse environments. A key presumption underlying analyses of TIS datasets is that loci with a low frequency of transposon insertions contribute to fitness. However, it is not known whether factors such as nucleoid binding proteins can alter the frequency of transposon insertion and thus whether TIS output may systematically reflect factors that are independent of the role of the loci in fitness. Here, we investigated whether the histone-like nucleoid structuring (H-NS) protein, which preferentially associates with AT-rich sequences, modulates the frequency of Mariner transposon insertion in the Vibrio cholerae genome, using comparative analysis of TIS results from wild-type (wt) and Δhns V. cholerae strains. These analyses were overlaid on gene classification based on GC content as well as on extant genome-wide identification of H-NS binding loci. Our analyses revealed a significant dearth of insertions within AT-rich loci in wt V. cholerae that was not apparent in the Δhns insertion library. Additionally, we observed a striking correlation between genetic loci that are overrepresented in the Δhns insertion library relative to their insertion frequency in wt V. cholerae and loci previously found to physically interact with H-NS. Collectively, our findings reveal that factors other than genetic fitness can systematically modulate the frequency of transposon insertions in TIS studies and add a cautionary note to interpretation of TIS data, particularly for AT-rich sequences. PMID:27578758

  17. Predicting oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis failures in protein engineering

    PubMed Central

    Wassman, Christopher D.; Tam, Phillip Y.; Lathrop, Richard H.; Weiss, Gregory A.

    2004-01-01

    Protein engineering uses oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis to modify DNA sequences through a two-step process of hybridization and enzymatic synthesis. Inefficient reactions confound attempts to introduce mutations, especially for the construction of vast combinatorial protein libraries. This paper applied computational approaches to the problem of inefficient mutagenesis. Several results implicated oligonucleotide annealing to non-target sites, termed ‘cross-hybridization’, as a significant contributor to mutagenesis reaction failures. Test oligonucleotides demonstrated control over reaction outcomes. A novel cross-hybridization score, quickly computable for any plasmid and oligonucleotide mixture, directly correlated with yields of deleterious mutagenesis side products. Cross-hybridization was confirmed conclusively by partial incorporation of an oligonucleotide at a predicted cross-hybridization site, and by modification of putative template secondary structure to control cross-hybridization. Even in low concentrations, cross-hybridizing species in mixtures poisoned reactions. These results provide a basis for improved mutagenesis efficiencies and increased diversities of cognate protein libraries. PMID:15585664

  18. The goldfish hAT-family transposon Tgf2 is capable of autonomous excision in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Luo-Dan; Jiang, Xia-Yun; Tian, Yu-Mei; Chen, Jie; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2014-02-15

    The goldfish (Carassius auratus) Tgf2 transposon is a vertebrate DNA transposon that belongs to the hAT transposon family. In this study, we constructed plasmids containing either the full-length Tgf2 transposon (pTgf2 plasmid) or a partially-deleted Tgf2 transposon (ΔpTgf2 plasmid), and microinjected these plasmids into fertilized zebrafish (Danio rerio) eggs at the one- to two-cell stage. DNA extracted from the embryos was analyzed by PCR to assess transient excision, if any, of the exogenous plasmid and to verify whether Tgf2 is an autonomous transposon. The results showed that excision-specific bands were not detected in embryos injected with the ΔpTgf2 plasmid, while bands of 300-500bp were detected in embryos injected with pTgf2, which indicated that the full-length Tgf2-containing plasmid could undergo autonomous excision in zebrafish embryos. DNA cloned from 24 embryos injected with pTgf2 was sequenced, and the results suggested that Tgf2 underwent self-excision in zebrafish embryos. Cloning and PCR analysis of DNA extracted from embryos co-injected with ΔpTgf2 and in vitro-transcribed transposase mRNA indicated that partially-deleted-Tgf2-containing ΔpTgf2 plasmid also underwent excision, in the presence of functional transposase mRNA. DNA cloned from 25 embryos co-injected with ΔpTgf2 and transposase mRNA was sequenced, and the results suggested that partially-deleted Tgf2 transposons plasmids were excised. These results demonstrated that excisions of Tgf2 transposons were mediated by the Tgf2 transposase, which in turn confirmed that Tgf2 is an autonomous transposon.

  19. Genetic aspects of targeted insertion mutagenesis in yeasts.

    PubMed

    Klinner, U; Schäfer, B

    2004-05-01

    Targeted insertion mutagenesis is a main molecular tool of yeast science initially applied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The method was extended to fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and to "non-conventional" yeast species, which show specific properties of special interest to both basic and applied research. Consequently, the behaviour of such non-Saccharomyces yeasts is reviewed against the background of the knowledge of targeted insertion mutagenesis in S. cerevisiae. Data of homologous integration efficiencies obtained with circular, ends-in or ends-out vectors in several yeasts are compared. We follow details of targeted insertion mutagenesis in order to recognize possible rate-limiting steps. The route of the vector to the target and possible mechanisms of its integration into chromosomal genes are considered. Specific features of some yeast species are discussed. In addition, similar approaches based on homologous recombination that have been established for the mitochondrial genome of S. cerevisiae are described.

  20. Empirical Complexities in the Genetic Foundations of Lethal Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bull, James J.; Joyce, Paul; Gladstone, Eric; Molineux, Ian J.

    2013-01-01

    From population genetics theory, elevating the mutation rate of a large population should progressively reduce average fitness. If the fitness decline is large enough, the population will go extinct in a process known as lethal mutagenesis. Lethal mutagenesis has been endorsed in the virology literature as a promising approach to viral treatment, and several in vitro studies have forced viral extinction with high doses of mutagenic drugs. Yet only one empirical study has tested the genetic models underlying lethal mutagenesis, and the theory failed on even a qualitative level. Here we provide a new level of analysis of lethal mutagenesis by developing and evaluating models specifically tailored to empirical systems that may be used to test the theory. We first quantify a bias in the estimation of a critical parameter and consider whether that bias underlies the previously observed lack of concordance between theory and experiment. We then consider a seemingly ideal protocol that avoids this bias—mutagenesis of virions—but find that it is hampered by other problems. Finally, results that reveal difficulties in the mere interpretation of mutations assayed from double-strand genomes are derived. Our analyses expose unanticipated complexities in testing the theory. Nevertheless, the previous failure of the theory to predict experimental outcomes appears to reside in evolutionary mechanisms neglected by the theory (e.g., beneficial mutations) rather than from a mismatch between the empirical setup and model assumptions. This interpretation raises the specter that naive attempts at lethal mutagenesis may augment adaptation rather than retard it. PMID:23934886

  1. ENU mutagenesis to generate genetically modified rat models.

    PubMed

    van Boxtel, Ruben; Gould, Michael N; Cuppen, Edwin; Smits, Bart M G

    2010-01-01

    The rat is one of the most preferred model organisms in biomedical research and has been extremely useful for linking physiology and pathology to the genome. However, approaches to genetically modify specific genes in the rat germ line remain relatively scarce. To date, the most efficient approach for generating genetically modified rats has been the target-selected N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis-based technology. Here, we describe the detailed protocols for ENU mutagenesis and mutant retrieval in the rat model organism.

  2. Epigenome confrontation triggers immediate reprogramming of DNA methylation and transposon silencing in Arabidopsis thaliana F1 epihybrids

    PubMed Central

    Rigal, Mélanie; Becker, Claude; Pélissier, Thierry; Pogorelcnik, Romain; Devos, Jane; Ikeda, Yoko; Weigel, Detlef; Mathieu, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Genes and transposons can exist in variable DNA methylation states, with potentially differential transcription. How these epialleles emerge is poorly understood. Here, we show that crossing an Arabidopsis thaliana plant with a hypomethylated genome and a normally methylated WT individual results, already in the F1 generation, in widespread changes in DNA methylation and transcription patterns. Novel nonparental and heritable epialleles arise at many genic loci, including a locus that itself controls DNA methylation patterns, but with most of the changes affecting pericentromeric transposons. Although a subset of transposons show immediate resilencing, a large number display decreased DNA methylation, which is associated with de novo or enhanced transcriptional activation and can translate into transposon mobilization in the progeny. Our findings reveal that the combination of distinct epigenomes can be viewed as an epigenomic shock, which is characterized by a round of epigenetic variation creating novel patterns of gene and TE regulation. PMID:27001853

  3. CRISPR-Cas immunity and mobile DNA: a new superfamily of DNA transposons encoding a Cas1 endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Alison B; Dyda, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Mobile genetic elements such as DNA transposons are a feature of most genomes. The existence of novel DNA transposons can be inferred when whole genome sequencing reveals the presence of hallmarks of mobile elements such as terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) flanked by target site duplications (TSDs). A recent report describes a new superfamily of DNA transposons in the genomes of a few bacteria and archaea that possess TIRs and TSDs, and encode several conserved genes including a cas1 endonuclease gene, previously associated only with CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems. The data strongly suggests that these elements, designated 'casposons', are likely to be bona fide DNA transposons and that their Cas1 nucleases act as transposases and are possibly still active.

  4. DmGTSF1 is necessary for Piwi–piRISC-mediated transcriptional transposon silencing in the Drosophila ovary

    PubMed Central

    Ohtani, Hitoshi; Iwasaki, Yuka W.; Shibuya, Aoi; Siomi, Haruhiko; Siomi, Mikiko C.; Saito, Kuniaki

    2013-01-01

    The Piwi–piRNA (PIWI-interacting RNA) complex (Piwi–piRISC) in Drosophila ovarian somatic cells represses transposons transcriptionally to maintain genome integrity; however, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Here, we reveal that DmGTSF1, a Drosophila homolog of gametocyte-specific factor 1 (GTSF1) (which is required for transposon silencing in mouse testes), is necessary for Piwi–piRISC to repress target transposons and neighboring genes. DmGTSF1 depletion affected neither piRNA biogenesis nor nuclear import of Piwi–piRISC. DmGTSF1 mutations caused derepression of transposons and loss of ovary follicle layers, resulting in female infertility. We suggest that DmGTSF1, a nuclear Piwi interactor, is an integral factor in Piwi–piRISC-mediated transcriptional silencing. PMID:23913921

  5. An Epigenetic Role for Maternally Inherited piRNAs in Transposon Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Brennecke, Julius; Malone, Colin D.; Aravin, Alexei A.; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Stark, Alexander; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    In plants and mammals, small RNAs indirectly mediate epigenetic inheritance by specifying cytosine methylation. We found that small RNAs themselves serve as vectors for epigenetic information. Crosses between Drosophila strains that differ in the presence of a particular transposon can produce sterile progeny, a phenomenon called hybrid dysgenesis. This phenotype manifests itself only if the transposon is paternally inherited, suggesting maternal transmission of a factor that maintains fertility. In both P- and I-element–mediated hybrid dysgenesis models, daughters show a markedly different content of Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) targeting each element, depending on their parents of origin. Such differences persist from fertilization through adulthood. This indicates that maternally deposited piRNAs are important for mounting an effective silencing response and that a lack of maternal piRNA inheritance underlies hybrid dysgenesis. PMID:19039138

  6. The role of conjugative transposons in spreading antibiotic resistance between bacteria that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Scott, K P

    2002-12-01

    There is huge potential for genetic exchange to occur within the dense, diverse anaerobic microbial population inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of humans and animals. However, the incidence of conjugative transposons (CTns) and the antibiotic resistance genes they carry has not been well studied among this population. Since any incoming bacteria, including pathogens, can access this reservoir of genes, this oversight would appear to be an important one. Recent evidence has shown that anaerobic bacteria native to the rumen or hindgut harbour both novel antibiotic resistance genes and novel conjugative transposons. These CTns, and previously characterized CTns, can be transferred to a wide range of commensal bacteria under laboratory and in vivo conditions. The main evidence that gene transfer occurs widely in vivo between GIT bacteria, and between GIT bacteria and pathogenic bacteria, is that identical resistance genes are present in diverse bacterial species from different hosts.

  7. Genome-wide barcoded transposon screen for cancer drug sensitivity in haploid mouse embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Pettitt, Stephen J.; Krastev, Dragomir B.; Pemberton, Helen N.; Fontebasso, Yari; Frankum, Jessica; Rehman, Farah L.; Brough, Rachel; Song, Feifei; Bajrami, Ilirjana; Rafiq, Rumana; Wallberg, Fredrik; Kozarewa, Iwanka; Fenwick, Kerry; Armisen-Garrido, Javier; Swain, Amanda; Gulati, Aditi; Campbell, James; Ashworth, Alan; Lord, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a screen for cellular response to drugs that makes use of haploid embryonic stem cells. We generated ten libraries of mutants with piggyBac gene trap transposon integrations, totalling approximately 100,000 mutant clones. Random barcode sequences were inserted into the transposon vector to allow the number of cells bearing each insertion to be measured by amplifying and sequencing the barcodes. These barcodes were associated with their integration sites by inverse PCR. We exposed these libraries to commonly used cancer drugs and profiled changes in barcode abundance by Ion Torrent sequencing in order to identify mutations that conferred sensitivity. Drugs tested included conventional chemotherapeutics as well as targeted inhibitors of topoisomerases, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), Hsp90 and WEE1. PMID:28248920

  8. Insertion sites and the terminal nucleotide sequences of the Tn4 transposon.

    PubMed

    Hyde, D R; Tu, C P

    1982-07-10

    The nucleotide sequences at the ends of the Tn4 transposon (mercury spectinomycin and sulfonamide resistance) have been determined. They are inverted repeated sequences of 38 nucleotides with three mismatched base pairs. These sequences are strongly homologous with the terminal sequences of Tn501 (mercury resistance) but less so with those of Tn3 (ampicillin resistance). The Tn4 transposon generates pentanucleotide members (Tn3, Tn1000, Tn501, Tn551, IS2) with the exception of Tn1721 and bacteriophage Mu. Among the three Tn4 insertion sites examined here, two of them occurred near a nonanucleotide sequence in perfect homology with part of the terminal inverted-repeat sequence of Tn4 and the third insertion occurred near a sequence of partial homology to one end of Tn4. All three insertions were in the same orientation such that IRb is proximal to its homologous sequence on the recipient DNA.

  9. Julian Davies and the discovery of kanamycin resistance transposon Tn5.

    PubMed

    Berg, Douglas E

    2016-10-12

    This paper recounts some of my fond memories of a collaboration between Julian Davies and myself that started in 1974 in Geneva and that led to our serendipitous discovery of the bacterial kanamycin resistance transposon Tn5, and aspects of the lasting positive impact of our interaction and discovery on me and the community. Tn5 was one of the first antibiotic resistance transposons to be found. Its analysis over the ensuing decades provided valuable insights into mechanisms and control of transposition, and led to its use as a much-valued tool in diverse areas of molecular genetics, as also will be discussed here.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 12 October 2016; doi:10.1038/ja.2016.120.

  10. Coupled mutagenesis screens and genetic mapping in zebrafish.

    PubMed Central

    Rawls, John F; Frieda, Matthew R; McAdow, Anthony R; Gross, Jason P; Clayton, Chad M; Heyen, Candy K; Johnson, Stephen L

    2003-01-01

    Forward genetic analysis is one of the principal advantages of the zebrafish model system. However, managing zebrafish mutant lines derived from mutagenesis screens and mapping the corresponding mutations and integrating them into the larger collection of mutations remain arduous tasks. To simplify and focus these endeavors, we developed an approach that facilitates the rapid mapping of new zebrafish mutations as they are generated through mutagenesis screens. We selected a minimal panel of 149 simple sequence length polymorphism markers for a first-pass genome scan in crosses involving C32 and SJD inbred lines. We also conducted a small chemical mutagenesis screen that identified several new mutations affecting zebrafish embryonic melanocyte development. Using our first-pass marker panel in bulked-segregant analysis, we were able to identify the genetic map positions of these mutations as they were isolated in our screen. Rapid mapping of the mutations facilitated stock management, helped direct allelism tests, and should accelerate identification of the affected genes. These results demonstrate the efficacy of coupling mutagenesis screens with genetic mapping. PMID:12663538

  11. A simple mutagenesis using natural competence in Tannerella forsythia.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Yoshinobu

    2013-09-01

    We report the discovery of natural competence in Tannerella forsythia and its application to targeted chromosomal mutagenesis. Keeping T. forsythia in a biofilm throughout the procedure allowed efficient DNA uptake and allelic replacement. This simple method is cost-effective and reproducible compared with the conventional protocols using broth culture and electroporation.

  12. Favipiravir elicits antiviral mutagenesis during virus replication in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Armando; Thorne, Lucy; Goodfellow, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Lethal mutagenesis has emerged as a novel potential therapeutic approach to treat viral infections. Several studies have demonstrated that increases in the high mutation rates inherent to RNA viruses lead to viral extinction in cell culture, but evidence during infections in vivo is limited. In this study, we show that the broad-range antiviral nucleoside favipiravir reduces viral load in vivo by exerting antiviral mutagenesis in a mouse model for norovirus infection. Increased mutation frequencies were observed in samples from treated mice and were accompanied with lower or in some cases undetectable levels of infectious virus in faeces and tissues. Viral RNA isolated from treated animals showed reduced infectivity, a feature of populations approaching extinction during antiviral mutagenesis. These results suggest that favipiravir can induce norovirus mutagenesis in vivo, which in some cases leads to virus extinction, providing a proof-of-principle for the use of favipiravir derivatives or mutagenic nucleosides in the clinical treatment of noroviruses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03679.001 PMID:25333492

  13. What Can a Micronucleus Teach? Learning about Environmental Mutagenesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linde, Ana R.; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2009-01-01

    The micronucleus test is widely employed in environmental health research. It can also be an excellent tool for learning important concepts in environmental health. In this article we present an inquiry-based laboratory exercise where students explore several theoretical and practical aspects of environmental mutagenesis employing the micronucleus…

  14. Methods for targetted mutagenesis in gram-positive bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Yunfeng

    2014-05-27

    The present invention provides a method of targeted mutagenesis in Gram-positive bacteria. In particular, the present invention provides a method that effectively integrates a suicide integrative vector into a target gene in the chromosome of a Gram-positive bacterium, resulting in inactivation of the target gene.

  15. The evolution and diversity of DNA transposons in the genome of the Lizard Anolis carolinensis.

    PubMed

    Novick, Peter A; Smith, Jeremy D; Floumanhaft, Mark; Ray, David A; Boissinot, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    DNA transposons have considerably affected the size and structure of eukaryotic genomes and have been an important source of evolutionary novelties. In vertebrates, DNA transposons are discontinuously distributed due to the frequent extinction and recolonization of these genomes by active elements. We performed a detailed analysis of the DNA transposons in the genome of the lizard Anolis carolinensis, the first non-avian reptile to have its genome sequenced. Elements belonging to six of the previously recognized superfamilies of elements (hAT, Tc1/Mariner, Helitron, PIF/Harbinger, Polinton/Maverick, and Chapaev) were identified. However, only four (hAT, Tc1/Mariner, Helitron, and Chapaev) of these superfamilies have successfully amplified in the anole genome, producing 67 distinct families. The majority (57/67) are nonautonomous and demonstrate an extraordinary diversity of structure, resulting from frequent interelement recombination and incorporation of extraneous DNA sequences. The age distribution of transposon families differs among superfamilies and reveals different dynamics of amplification. Chapaev is the only superfamily to be extinct and is represented only by old copies. The hAT, Tc1/Mariner, and Helitron superfamilies show different pattern of amplification, yet they are predominantly represented by young families, whereas divergent families are exceedingly rare. Although it is likely that some elements, in particular long ones, are subjected to purifying selection and do not reach fixation, the majority of families are neutral and accumulate in the anole genome in large numbers. We propose that the scarcity of old copies in the anole genome results from the rapid decay of elements, caused by a high rate of DNA loss.

  16. Large-scale analysis of the yeast genome by transposon tagging and gene disruption.

    PubMed

    Ross-Macdonald, P; Coelho, P S; Roemer, T; Agarwal, S; Kumar, A; Jansen, R; Cheung, K H; Sheehan, A; Symoniatis, D; Umansky, L; Heidtman, M; Nelson, F K; Iwasaki, H; Hager, K; Gerstein, M; Miller, P; Roeder, G S; Snyder, M

    1999-11-25

    Economical methods by which gene function may be analysed on a genomic scale are relatively scarce. To fill this need, we have developed a transposon-tagging strategy for the genome-wide analysis of disruption phenotypes, gene expression and protein localization, and have applied this method to the large-scale analysis of gene function in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we present the largest collection of defined yeast mutants ever generated within a single genetic background--a collection of over 11,000 strains, each carrying a transposon inserted within a region of the genome expressed during vegetative growth and/or sporulation. These insertions affect nearly 2,000 annotated genes, representing about one-third of the 6,200 predicted genes in the yeast genome. We have used this collection to determine disruption phenotypes for nearly 8,000 strains using 20 different growth conditions; the resulting data sets were clustered to identify groups of functionally related genes. We have also identified over 300 previously non-annotated open reading frames and analysed by indirect immunofluorescence over 1,300 transposon-tagged proteins. In total, our study encompasses over 260,000 data points, constituting the largest functional analysis of the yeast genome ever undertaken.

  17. Induction of rat liver tumor using the Sleeping Beauty transposon and electroporation.

    PubMed

    Park, June-Shine; Kim, Bae-Hwan; Park, Sung Goo; Jung, Sun Young; Lee, Do Hee; Son, Woo-Chan

    2013-05-10

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system has been receiving much attention as a gene transfer method of choice since it allows permanent gene expression after insertion into the host chromosome. However, low transposition frequency in higher eukaryotes limits its use in commonly-used mammalian species. Researchers have therefore attempted to modify gene delivery and expression to overcome this limitation. In mouse liver, tumor induction using SB introduced by the hydrodynamic method has been successfully accomplished. Liver tumor in rat models using SB could also be of great use; however, dose of DNA, injection volume, rate of injection and achieving back pressure limit the use of the hydrodynamics-based gene delivery. In the present study, we combined the electroporation, a relatively simple and easy gene delivery method, with the SB transposon system and as a result successfully induced tumor in rat liver by directly injecting the c-Myc, HRAS and shp53 genes. The tumor phenotype was determined as a sarcomatoid carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of induction of tumor in the rat liver using the electroporation-enhanced SB transposon system.

  18. [Tn5037-a Tn21-like mercury transposon, detected in Thiobacillus ferrooxidans].

    PubMed

    Kaliaeva, E S; Kholodiĭ, G Ia; Bass, I A; Gorlenko, Zh M; Iur'eva, O V; Nikiforov, V G

    2001-08-01

    The 6645-bp mercury resistance transposon of the chemolithotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was cloned and sequenced. This transposon, named Tn5037, belongs to the Tn21 branch of the Tn21 subgroup, many members of which have been isolated from clinical sources. Having the minimum set of the genes (merRTPA), the mercury resistance operon of Tn5037 is organized similarly to most of the Gram-negative bacteria mer operons and is closest to that of Thiobacillus 3.2. The operator-promoter region of the mer operon of Tn5037 also has the common (Tn21/Tn501-like) structure. However, its inverted, presumably MerR protein binding repeats in the operator/promoter element are two base pairs shorter than in Tn21/Tn501. In the merA region, this transposon shares 77.4, 79.1, 83.2 and 87.8% identical bases with Tn21, Tn501, T. ferrooxidance E-15, and Thiobacillus 3.2, respectively. No inducibility of the Tn5037 mer operon was detected in the in vivo experiments. The transposition system (terminal repeats plus gene tnpA) of Tn5037 was inactive in Escherichia coli K12, in contrast to its resolution system (res site plus gene tnpR). However, transposition of Tn5037 in this host was provided by the tnpA gene of Tn5036, a member of the Tn21 subgroup. Sequence analysis of the Tn5037 res site suggested its recombinant nature.

  19. Development of a transposon-based marker system for mutation breeding in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.).

    PubMed

    Im, S B; Kwon, S-J; Ryu, J; Jeong, S W; Kim, J B; Ahn, J-W; Kim, S H; Jo, Y D; Choi, H-I; Kang, S-Y

    2016-09-16

    Under certain circumstances, transposable elements (TE) can create or reverse mutations and alter the genome size of a cell. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is promising for plant transposon tagging due to its small genome size and its low content of repetitive DNA. We developed a marker system based on targeted region amplification polymorphisms (TE-TRAP) that uses the terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) of transposons. A total of 3816 class 2 transposons belonging to the PIF/Harbinger family were identified from the whole sorghum genome that produced five primers, including eight types of TIRs. To define the applicability and utilization of TE-TRAP, we used 21 individuals that had been bred after ɤ-ray irradiation. In total, 31 TE-TRAP, 16 TD, and 21 AFLP primer combinations generated 1133, 223, and 555 amplicons, respectively. The percent polymorphic marker was 62.8, 51.1, and 59.3% for the TE-TRAP, TD, and AFLP markers, respectively. Phylogenetic and principal component analyses revealed that TE-TRAP divided the 21 individuals into three groups. Analysis of molecular variance suggested that TE-TRAP had a higher level of genetic diversity than the other two marker systems. After verifying the efficiency of TE-TRAP, 189 sorghum individuals were used to investigate the associations between the markers and the ɤ-ray doses. Two significant associations were found among the polymorphic markers. This TE-based method provides a useful marker resource for mutation breeding research.

  20. TRT, a Vertebrate and Protozoan Tc1-Like Transposon: Current Activity and Horizontal Transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua-Hao; Li, Guo-Yin; Xiong, Xiao-Min; Han, Min-Jin; Zhang, Xiao-Gu; Dai, Fang-Yin

    2016-10-05

    We report a Danio rerio transposon named DrTRT, for D. rerio Transposon Related to Tc1 The complete sequence of the DrTRT transposon is 1,563 base pairs (bp) in length, and its transposase putatively encodes a 338-amino acid protein that harbors a DD37E motif in its catalytic domain. We present evidence based on searches of publicly available genomes that TRT elements commonly occur in vertebrates and protozoa. Phylogenetic and functional domain comparisons confirm that TRT constitutes a new subfamily within the Tc1 family. Hallmark features of having no premature termination codons within the transposase, the presence of all expected functional domains, and its occurrence in the bony fish transcriptome suggest that TRT might have current or recent activity in these species. Further analysis showed that the activity of TRT elements in these species might have arisen about between 4 and 19 Ma. Interestingly, our results also implied that the widespread distribution of TRT among fishes, frog, and snakes is the result of multiple independent HT events, probably from bony fishes to snakes or frog. Finally, the mechanisms underlying horizontal transfer of TRT elements are discussed.

  1. Construction and application of efficient Ac-Ds transposon tagging vectors in rice.

    PubMed

    Qu, Shaohong; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B F; Bellizzi, Maria; Leach, Jan; Ronald, Pamela; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2009-11-01

    Transposons are effective mutagens alternative to T-DNA for the generation of insertional mutants in many plant species including those whose transformation is inefficient. The current strategies of transposon tagging are usually slow and labor-intensive and yield low frequency of tagged lines. We have constructed a series of transposon tagging vectors based on three approaches: (i) AcTPase controlled by glucocorticoid binding domain/VP16 acidic activation domain/Gal4 DNA-binding domain (GVG) chemical-inducible expression system; (ii) deletion of AcTPase via Cre-lox site-specific recombination that was initially triggered by Ds excision; and (iii) suppression of early transposition events in transformed rice callus through a dual-functional hygromycin resistance gene in a novel Ds element (HPT-Ds). We tested these vectors in transgenic rice and characterized the transposition events. Our results showed that these vectors are useful resources for functional genomics of rice and other crop plants. The vectors are freely available for the community.

  2. Transposon mouse models to elucidate the genetic mechanisms of hepatitis B viral induced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Amy P; Tschida, Barbara R; Lo, Lilian H; Moriarity, Branden S; Rowlands, Dewi K; Largaespada, David A; Keng, Vincent W

    2015-01-01

    The major type of human liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and there are currently many risk factors that contribute to this deadly disease. The majority of HCC occurrences are associated with chronic hepatitis viral infection, and hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection is currently a major health problem in Eastern Asia. Elucidating the genetic mechanisms associated with HBV-induced HCC has been difficult due to the heterogeneity and genetic complexity associated with this disease. A repertoire of animal models has been broadly used to study the pathophysiology and to develop potential treatment regimens for HBV-associated HCC. The use of these animal models has provided valuable genetic information and has been an important contributor to uncovering the factors involved in liver malignant transformation, invasion and metastasis. Recently, transposon-based mouse models are becoming more widely used in liver cancer research to interrogate the genome by forward genetics and also used to validate genes rapidly in a reverse genetic manner. Importantly, these transposon-based rapid reverse genetic mouse models could become crucial in testing potential therapeutic agents before proceeding to clinical trials in human. Therefore, this review will cover the use of transposon-based mouse models to address the problems of liver cancer, especially HBV-associated HCC occurrences in Asia. PMID:26576100

  3. IS10/Tn10 transposition efficiently accommodates diverse transposon end configurations.

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, R M; Kleckner, N

    1996-01-01

    Transposon Tn10 and its component insertion sequence IS10 move by non-replicative transposition. We have studied the array of reaction intermediates and products in a high efficiency in vitro IS10/Tn10 transposition reaction. Synapsis of two transposon ends, followed by cleavage and strand transfer, can occur very efficiently irrespective of the relative locations and orientations of the two ends. The two participating ends can occur in inverted or direct orientation on the same molecule or, most importantly, on two different molecules. This behavior contrasts sharply with that of Mu, in which transposition is strongly biased in favor of inverted repeat synapsis. Mechanistically, the absence of discrimination amongst various end configurations implies that the architecture within the IS10/Tn10 synaptic complex is relatively simple, i.e. lacking any significant intertwining of component DNA strands. Biologically these observations are important because they suggest that the IS10 insertion sequence module has considerable flexibility in the types of DNA rearrangements that it can promote. Most importantly, it now seems highly probable that a single non-replicative IS10 element can promote DNA rearrangements usually attributed to replicative transposition, i.e. adjacent deletions and cointegrates, by utilizing transposon ends on two sister chromosomes. Other events which probably also contribute to the diversity of IS10/Tn10-promoted rearrangements are discussed. Images PMID:8890185

  4. Discovery of an Active RAG Transposon Illuminates the Origins of V(D)J Recombination.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengfeng; Tao, Xin; Yuan, Shaochun; Zhang, Yuhang; Li, Peiyi; Beilinson, Helen A; Zhang, Ya; Yu, Wenjuan; Pontarotti, Pierre; Escriva, Hector; Le Petillon, Yann; Liu, Xiaolong; Chen, Shangwu; Schatz, David G; Xu, Anlong

    2016-06-30

    Co-option of RAG1 and RAG2 for antigen receptor gene assembly by V(D)J recombination was a crucial event in the evolution of jawed vertebrate adaptive immunity. RAG1/2 are proposed to have arisen from a transposable element, but definitive evidence for this is lacking. Here, we report the discovery of ProtoRAG, a DNA transposon family from lancelets, the most basal extant chordates. A typical ProtoRAG is flanked by 5-bp target site duplications and a pair of terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) resembling V(D)J recombination signal sequences. Between the TIRs reside tail-to-tail-oriented, intron-containing RAG1-like and RAG2-like genes. We demonstrate that ProtoRAG was recently active in the lancelet germline and that the lancelet RAG1/2-like proteins can mediate TIR-dependent transposon excision, host DNA recombination, transposition, and low-efficiency TIR rejoining using reaction mechanisms similar to those used by vertebrate RAGs. We propose that ProtoRAG represents a molecular "living fossil" of the long-sought RAG transposon.

  5. ZBED evolution: repeated utilization of DNA transposons as regulators of diverse host functions.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Alexander; Ghazal, Awaisa; Andersson, Göran; Andersson, Leif; Jern, Patric

    2013-01-01

    ZBED genes originate from domesticated hAT DNA transposons and encode regulatory proteins of diverse function in vertebrates. Here we reveal the evolutionary relationship between ZBED genes and demonstrate that they are derived from at least two independent domestication events in jawed vertebrate ancestors. We show that ZBEDs form two monophyletic clades, one of which has expanded through several independent duplications in host lineages. Subsequent diversification of ZBED genes has facilitated regulation of multiple diverse fundamental functions. In contrast to known examples of transposable element exaptation, our results demonstrate a novel unprecedented capacity for the repeated utilization of a family of transposable element-derived protein domains sequestered as regulators during the evolution of diverse host gene functions in vertebrates. Specifically, ZBEDs have contributed to vertebrate regulatory innovation through the donation of modular DNA and protein interacting domains. We identify that C7ORF29, ZBED2, 3, 4, and ZBEDX form a monophyletic group together with ZBED6, that is distinct from ZBED1 genes. Furthermore, we show that ZBED5 is related to Buster DNA transposons and is phylogenetically separate from other ZBEDs. Our results offer new insights into the evolution of regulatory pathways, and suggest that DNA transposons have contributed to regulatory complexity during genome evolution in vertebrates.

  6. Bioinformatic analyses of sense and antisense expression from terminal inverted repeat transposons in Drosophila somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Andrew W; Steiniger, Mindy

    2016-01-02

    Understanding regulation of transposon movement in somatic cells is important as mobile elements can cause detrimental genomic rearrangements. Generally, transposons move via one of 2 mechanisms; retrotransposons utilize an RNA intermediate, therefore copying themselves and amplifying throughout the genome, while terminal inverted repeat transposons (TIR Tns) excise DNA sequences from the genome and integrate into a new location. Our recently published work indicates that retrotransposons in Drosophila tissue culture cells are actively transcribed in the antisense direction. Our data support a model in which convergent transcription of retrotransposons from intra element transcription start sites results in complementary RNAs that hybridize to form substrates for Dicer-2, the endogenous small interfering (esi)RNA generating enzyme. Here, we extend our previous analysis to TIR Tns. In contrast to retrotransposons, our data show that antisense TIR Tn RNAs result from transcription of intronic TIR Tns oriented antisense to their host genes. Also, disproportionately less esiRNAs are generated from TIR transcripts than from retrotransposons and transcription of very few individual TIR Tns could be confirmed. Collectively, these data support a model in which TIR Tns are regulated at the level of Transposase production while retrotransposons are regulated with esiRNA post-transcriptional mechanisms in Drosophila somatic cells.

  7. Gene insertion and long-term expression in lung mediated by the Sleeping Beauty transposon system.

    PubMed

    Belur, Lalitha R; Frandsen, Joel L; Dupuy, Adam J; Ingbar, David H; Largaespada, David A; Hackett, Perry B; Scott McIvor, R

    2003-09-01

    Gene transfer to the lung could provide important new treatments for chronic and acquired lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis, alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency, emphysema, and cancer. DNA-mediated gene transfer to the lung has been previously demonstrated, but anticipated effectiveness has been limited by low gene transfer efficiencies and by transient expression of the transgene. Here, we combine plasmid-based gene transfer with the integrating capacity of the nonviral Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon vector system to mediate gene insertion and long-term gene expression in mouse lung. We observed transgene expression after 24 h in lungs of all animals injected with the luciferase transposon (pT/L), but expression for up to 3 months required codelivery of a plasmid encoding the Sleeping Beauty transposase. We also observed long-term expression in pT/L-injected animals transgenic for SB transposase. Transgene expression was localized to the alveolar region of the lung, with transfection including mainly type II pneumocytes. We used a linker-mediated PCR technique to recover transposon flanking sequences, demonstrating transposition of pT/L into mouse chromosomal DNA of the lung.

  8. The Functionality of Minimal PiggyBac Transposons in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Troyanovsky, Boris; Bitko, Vira; Pastukh, Viktor; Fouty, Brian; Solodushko, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Minimal piggyBac vectors are a modified single-plasmid version of the classical piggyBac delivery system that can be used for stable transgene integration. These vectors have a truncated terminal domain in the delivery cassette and thus, integrate significantly less flanking transposon DNA into host cell chromatin than classical piggyBac vectors. Herein, we test various characteristics of this modified transposon. The integration efficiency of minimal piggyBac vectors was inversely related to the size of both the transposon and the entire plasmid, but inserts as large as 15 kb were efficiently integrated. Open and super-coiled vectors demonstrated the same integration efficiency while DNA methylation decreased the integration efficiency and silenced the expression of previously integrated sequences in some cell types. Importantly, the incidence of plasmid backbone integration was not increased above that seen in nontransposon control vectors. In BALB/c mice, we demonstrated prolonged expression of two transgenes (intracellular mCherry and secretable Gaussia luciferase) when delivered by the minimal piggyBac that resulted in a more sustained antibody production against the immunogenic luciferase than when delivered by a transient (nontransposon) vector plasmid. We conclude that minimal piggyBac vectors are an effective alternative to other integrative systems for stable DNA delivery in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27701401

  9. Construction of a random circular permutation library using an engineered transposon.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Brennal; Shah, Vandan; Xiao, Jenny; Kim, Jin Ryoun

    2015-04-01

    Circular permutation is an important protein engineering tool used to create sequence diversity of a protein by changing its linear order of amino acid sequence. Circular permutation has proven to be effective in the evolution of proteins for desired properties while maintaining similar three-dimensional structures. Due to the lack of a robust design principle guiding the selection of new termini, construction of a combinatorial library is much preferred for comprehensive evaluation of circular permutation. Unfortunately, the conventional methods used to create random circular permutation libraries cause significant sequence modification at new termini of circular permutants. In addition, these methods impose additional limitations by requiring either relatively inefficient blunt-end ligation during library construction or redesign of transposons for tailored expression of circular permutants. In this study, we present the development of an engineered transposon for facile construction of random circular permutation libraries. We provide evidence that minimal modification at the new termini of the random circular permutants is possible with our engineered transposon. In addition, our method enables the use of sticky-end ligation during library construction and provides external tunability for expression of random circular permutants.

  10. Comparison of inherently essential genes of Porphyromonas gingivalis identified in two transposon-sequencing libraries.

    PubMed

    Hutcherson, J A; Gogeneni, H; Yoder-Himes, D; Hendrickson, E L; Hackett, M; Whiteley, M; Lamont, R J; Scott, D A

    2016-08-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative anaerobe and keystone periodontal pathogen. A mariner transposon insertion mutant library has recently been used to define 463 genes as putatively essential for the in vitro growth of P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 in planktonic culture (Library 1). We have independently generated a transposon insertion mutant library (Library 2) for the same P. gingivalis strain and herein compare genes that are putatively essential for in vitro growth in complex media, as defined by both libraries. In all, 281 genes (61%) identified by Library 1 were common to Library 2. Many of these common genes are involved in fundamentally important metabolic pathways, notably pyrimidine cycling as well as lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan, pantothenate and coenzyme A biosynthesis, and nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism. Also in common are genes encoding heat-shock protein homologues, sigma factors, enzymes with proteolytic activity, and the majority of sec-related protein export genes. In addition to facilitating a better understanding of critical physiological processes, transposon-sequencing technology has the potential to identify novel strategies for the control of P. gingivalis infections. Those genes defined as essential by two independently generated TnSeq mutant libraries are likely to represent particularly attractive therapeutic targets.

  11. Essential Genes for In Vitro Growth of the Endophyte Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1 as Revealed by Transposon Insertion Site Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Rosconi, Federico; de Vries, Stefan P. W.; Baig, Abiyad; Fabiano, Elena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The interior of plants contains microorganisms (referred to as endophytes) that are distinct from those present at the root surface or in the surrounding soil. Herbaspirillum seropedicae strain SmR1, belonging to the betaproteobacteria, is an endophyte that colonizes crops, including rice, maize, sugarcane, and sorghum. Different approaches have revealed genes and pathways regulated during the interactions of H. seropedicae with its plant hosts. However, functional genomic analysis of transposon (Tn) mutants has been hampered by the lack of genetic tools. Here we successfully employed a combination of in vivo high-density mariner Tn mutagenesis and targeted Tn insertion site sequencing (Tn-seq) in H. seropedicae SmR1. The analysis of multiple gene-saturating Tn libraries revealed that 395 genes are essential for the growth of H. seropedicae SmR1 in tryptone-yeast extract medium. A comparative analysis with the Database of Essential Genes (DEG) showed that 25 genes are uniquely essential in H. seropedicae SmR1. The Tn mutagenesis protocol developed and the gene-saturating Tn libraries generated will facilitate elucidation of the genetic mechanisms of the H. seropedicae endophytic lifestyle. IMPORTANCE A focal point in the study of endophytes is the development of effective biofertilizers that could help to reduce the input of agrochemicals in croplands. Besides the ability to promote plant growth, a good biofertilizer should be successful in colonizing its host and competing against the native microbiota. By using a systematic Tn-based gene-inactivation strategy and massively parallel sequencing of Tn insertion sites (Tn-seq), it is possible to study the fitness of thousands of Tn mutants in a single experiment. We have applied the combination of these techniques to the plant-growth-promoting endophyte Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1. The Tn mutant libraries generated will enable studies into the genetic mechanisms of H. seropedicae-plant interactions. The

  12. A novel suicide shuttle plasmid for Streptococcus suis serotype 2 and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus gene mutation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Ping; Su, Yiqi; Lin, Huixing; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Lei; Ma, Zhe; Fan, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    The mariner-based Himar1 system has been utilized for creating mutant libraries of many Gram-positive bacteria. Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) are primary pathogens of swine that threaten the swine industry in China. To provide a forward-genetics technology for finding virulent phenotype-related genes in these two pathogens, we constructed a novel temperature-sensitive suicide shuttle plasmid, pMar4s, which contains the Himar1 system transposon, TnYLB-1, and the Himar1 C9 transposase from pMarA and the repTAs temperature-sensitive fragment from pSET4s. The kanamycin (Kan) resistance gene was in the TnYLB-1 transposon. Temperature sensitivity and Kan resistance allowed the selection of mutant strains and construction of the mutant library. The SS2 and SEZ mutant libraries were successfully constructed using the pMar4s plasmid. Inverse-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Inverse-PCR) results revealed large variability in transposon insertion sites and that the library could be used for phenotype alteration screening. The thiamine biosynthesis gene apbE was screened for its influence on SS2 anti-phagocytosis; likewise, the sagF gene was identified to be a hemolytic activity-related gene in SEZ. pMar4s was suitable for mutant library construction, providing more information regarding SS2 and SEZ virulence factors and illustrating the pathogenesis of swine streptococcosis. PMID:27256117

  13. Flexibility in MuA transposase family protein structures: functional mapping with scanning mutagenesis and sequence alignment of protein homologues.

    PubMed

    Rasila, Tiina S; Vihinen, Mauno; Paulin, Lars; Haapa-Paananen, Saija; Savilahti, Harri

    2012-01-01

    MuA transposase protein is a member of the retroviral integrase superfamily (RISF). It catalyzes DNA cleavage and joining reactions via an initial assembly and subsequent structural transitions of a protein-DNA complex, known as the Mu transpososome, ultimately attaching transposon DNA to non-specific target DNA. The transpososome functions as a molecular DNA-modifying machine and has been used in a wide variety of molecular biology and genetics/genomics applications. To analyze structure-function relationships in MuA action, a comprehensive pentapeptide insertion mutagenesis was carried out for the protein. A total of 233 unique insertion variants were generated, and their activity was analyzed using a quantitative in vivo DNA transposition assay. The results were then correlated with the known MuA structures, and the data were evaluated with regard to the protein domain function and transpososome development. To complement the analysis with an evolutionary component, a protein sequence alignment was produced for 44 members of MuA family transposases. Altogether, the results pinpointed those regions, in which insertions can be tolerated, and those where insertions are harmful. Most insertions within the subdomains Iγ, IIα, IIβ, and IIIα completely destroyed the transposase function, yet insertions into certain loop/linker regions of these subdomains increased the protein activity. Subdomains Iα and IIIβ were largely insertion-tolerant. The comprehensive structure-function data set will be useful for designing MuA transposase variants with improved properties for biotechnology/genomics applications, and is informative with regard to the function of RISF proteins in general.

  14. Minimizing off-Target Mutagenesis Risks Caused by Programmable Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Kentaro; Gee, Peter; Hotta, Akitsu

    2015-01-01

    Programmable nucleases, such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats associated protein-9 (CRISPR-Cas9), hold tremendous potential for applications in the clinical setting to treat genetic diseases or prevent infectious diseases. However, because the accuracy of DNA recognition by these nucleases is not always perfect, off-target mutagenesis may result in undesirable adverse events in treated patients such as cellular toxicity or tumorigenesis. Therefore, designing nucleases and analyzing their activity must be carefully evaluated to minimize off-target mutagenesis. Furthermore, rigorous genomic testing will be important to ensure the integrity of nuclease modified cells. In this review, we provide an overview of available nuclease designing platforms, nuclease engineering approaches to minimize off-target activity, and methods to evaluate both on- and off-target cleavage of CRISPR-Cas9. PMID:26501275

  15. Structural evidence for the rare tautomer hypothesis of spontaneous mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weina; Hellinga, Homme W.; Beese, Lorena S.

    2012-05-10

    Even though high-fidelity polymerases copy DNA with remarkable accuracy, some base-pair mismatches are incorporated at low frequency, leading to spontaneous mutagenesis. Using high-resolution X-ray crystallographic analysis of a DNA polymerase that catalyzes replication in crystals, we observe that a C {center_dot} A mismatch can mimic the shape of cognate base pairs at the site of incorporation. This shape mimicry enables the mismatch to evade the error detection mechanisms of the polymerase, which would normally either prevent mismatch incorporation or promote its nucleolytic excision. Movement of a single proton on one of the mismatched bases alters the hydrogen-bonding pattern such that a base pair forms with an overall shape that is virtually indistinguishable from a canonical, Watson-Crick base pair in double-stranded DNA. These observations provide structural evidence for the rare tautomer hypothesis of spontaneous mutagenesis, a long-standing concept that has been difficult to demonstrate directly.

  16. Targeted mutagenesis in sea urchin embryos using TALENs.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Sayaka; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Sakamoto, Naoaki; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Genome editing with engineered nucleases such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) has been reported in various animals. We previously described ZFN-mediated targeted mutagenesis and insertion of reporter genes in sea urchin embryos. In this study, we demonstrate that TALENs can induce mutagenesis at specific genomic loci of sea urchin embryos. Injection of TALEN mRNAs targeting the HpEts transcription factor into fertilized eggs resulted in the impairment of skeletogenesis. Sequence analyses of the mutations showed that deletions and/or insertions occurred at the HpEts target site in the TALEN mRNAs-injected embryos. The results suggest that targeted gene disruption using TALENs is feasible in sea urchin embryos.

  17. Insertional mutagenesis of an industrial strain of Streptococcus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Labarre, C; Schirawski, J; van der Zwet, A; Fitzgerald, G F; van Sinderen, D

    2001-06-12

    Random mutagenesis of an industrial strain of Streptococcus thermophilus was achieved through an adapted version of a two-plasmid system. The mutagenesis strategy is based on random integration of derivatives of the non-replicative (Rep(-)) plasmid pORI19 by means of homologous recombination following a temperature shift that eliminates replication of the temperature-sensitive (Rep(ts)) helper plasmid pVE6007. In this way mutants were generated which were affected in bacteriophage sensitivity or sucrose metabolism. Homologues were identified of a protein related to folate metabolism from a bacteriophage-resistant mutant and of two subunits of an oligopeptide transport system from a mutant deficient in sucrose utilisation.

  18. Specific mutagenesis of a chlorophyll-binding protein. Progress report.

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton-Rye, Dr., Julian; Shen, Gaozhong

    1990-01-01

    During the first phase of the project regarding specific mutagenesis of the chlorophyll-binding protein CP47 in photosystem II (PS II) most of the time has been devoted to (1) establishment of an optimal procedure for the reintroduction of psbB (the gene encoding CP47) carrying a site-directed mutation into the experimental organism, the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, (2) preparations for site-directed mutagenesis, and (3) creation and analysis of chimaeric spinach/cyanobacterial CP47 mutants of Synechocystis. In the coming year, psbB constructs with site-directed mutations in potential chlorophyll-binding regions of CP47 will be introduced into the Synechocystis genome, and site-directed mutants will be characterized according to procedures described in the original project description. In addition, analysis of chimaeric CP47 mutants will be continued.

  19. Use of liver cell cultures in mutagenesis studies

    SciTech Connect

    Huberman, E.; Jones, C.A.

    1980-09-30

    A sensitive cell-mediated assay has been developed for testing the mutagenesis of liver carcinogens. Mutagenesis was detected in Chinese hamster V79 cells that were cocultivated with hepatocytes isolated after collagenase/hyaluronidase digestion of rat liver slices. Mutations were characterized by resistance to ouabain and 6-thioguanine. Seven of the nitrosamines, which are potent liver carcinogens, exhibited a mutagenic response. Mutagenesis with these carcinogens could be detected at ..mu..molar doses. The polyaromatic hydrocarbon benzo(a)pyrene, which is not a liver carcinogen, but can cause fibrosarcomas, was not mutagenic in this assay, but was mutagenic in a fibroblast-mediated assay. The liver carcinogen, aflatoxin B/sub 1/, which usually does not induce fibrosarcomas, exhibited an inverse situation; it was mutagenic for V79 cells in the presence of liver cells but not in the presence of fibroblasts. We suggest that the use of various cell types, including hepatocytes prepared by the slicing method for carcinogen metabolism, and mutable V79 cells offers a sensitive assay for determining the mutagenic potential of chemical carcinogens, and may also allow a study of their organ specificity.

  20. Systemic Correction of Storage Disease in MPS I NOD/SCID Mice Using the Sleeping Beauty Transposon System

    PubMed Central

    Aronovich, Elena L; Bell, Jason B; Khan, Shaukat A; Belur, Lalitha R; Gunther, Roland; Koniar, Brenda; Schachern, Patricia A; Parker, Josh B; Carlson, Cathy S; Whitley, Chester B; McIvor, R Scott; Gupta, Pankaj; Hackett, Perry B

    2009-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system is a nonviral vector that directs transgene integration into vertebrate genomes. We hydrodynamically delivered SB transposon plasmids encoding human α-L-iduronidase (hIDUA) at two DNA doses, with and without an SB transposase gene, to NOD.129(B6)-Prkdcscid IDUAtm1Clk/J mice. In transposon-treated, nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice with mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), plasma IDUA persisted for 18 weeks at levels up to several hundred–fold wild-type (WT) activity, depending on DNA dose and gender. IDUA activity was present in all examined somatic organs, as well as in the brain, and correlated with both glycosaminoglycan (GAG) reduction in these organs and level of expression in the liver, the target of transposon delivery. IDUA activity was higher in the treated males than in females. In females, omission of transposase source resulted in significantly lower IDUA levels and incomplete GAG reduction in some organs, confirming the positive effect of transposition on long-term IDUA expression and correction of the disease. The SB transposon system proved efficacious in correcting several clinical manifestations of MPS I in mice, including thickening of the zygomatic arch, hepatomegaly, and accumulation of foamy macrophages in bone marrow and synovium, implying potential effectiveness of this approach in treatment of human MPS I. PMID:19384290

  1. Non-viral reprogramming of fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells by Sleeping Beauty and piggyBac transposons.

    PubMed

    Talluri, Thirumala R; Kumar, Dharmendra; Glage, Silke; Garrels, Wiebke; Ivics, Zoltan; Debowski, Katharina; Behr, Rüdiger; Kues, Wilfried A

    2014-07-18

    The generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells represents a promising approach for innovative cell therapies. The original method requires viral transduction of several reprogramming factors, which may be associated with an increased risk of tumorigenicity. Transposition of reprogramming cassettes represents a recent alternative to viral approaches. Since binary transposons can be produced as common plasmids they provide a safe and cost-efficient alternative to viral delivery methods. Here, we compared the efficiency of two different transposon systems, Sleeping Beauty (SB) and piggyBac (PB), for the generation of murine iPS. Murine fibroblasts derived from an inbred BL/6 mouse line carrying a pluripotency reporter, Oct4-EGFP, and fibroblasts derived from outbred NMRI mice were employed for reprogramming. Both transposon systems resulted in the successful isolation of murine iPS cell lines. The reduction of the core reprogramming factors to omit the proto-oncogene c-Myc was compatible with iPS cell line derivation, albeit with reduced reprogramming efficiencies. The transposon-derived iPS cells featured typical hallmarks of pluripotency, including teratoma growth in immunodeficient mice. Thus SB and PB transposons represent a promising non-viral approach for iPS cell derivation.

  2. Small RNAs, big impact: small RNA pathways in transposon control and their effect on the host stress response.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Bayly S

    2013-12-01

    Transposons are mobile genetic elements that are a major constituent of most genomes. Organisms regulate transposable element expression, transposition, and insertion site preference, mitigating the genome instability caused by uncontrolled transposition. A recent burst of research has demonstrated the critical role of small non-coding RNAs in regulating transposition in fungi, plants, and animals. While mechanistically distinct, these pathways work through a conserved paradigm. The presence of a transposon is communicated by the presence of its RNA or by its integration into specific genomic loci. These signals are then translated into small non-coding RNAs that guide epigenetic modifications and gene silencing back to the transposon. In addition to being regulated by the host, transposable elements are themselves capable of influencing host gene expression. Transposon expression is responsive to environmental signals, and many transposons are activated by various cellular stresses. TEs can confer local gene regulation by acting as enhancers and can also confer global gene regulation through their non-coding RNAs. Thus, transposable elements can act as stress-responsive regulators that control host gene expression in cis and trans.

  3. A pair of transposon-derived proteins function in a histone acetyltransferase complex for active DNA demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Cheng-Guo; Wang, Xingang; Xie, Shaojun; Pan, Li; Miki, Daisuke; Tang, Kai; Hsu, Chuan-Chih; Lei, Mingguang; Zhong, Yingli; Hou, Yueh-Ju; Wang, Zhijuan; Zhang, Zhengjing; Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Xu, Huawei; Zhang, Heng; Dilkes, Brian; Tao, W Andy; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2017-01-01

    Transposons are generally kept silent by epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation. Here, we identified a pair of Harbinger transposon-derived proteins (HDPs), HDP1 and HDP2, as anti-silencing factors in Arabidopsis. hdp1 and hdp2 mutants displayed an enhanced silencing of transgenes and some transposons. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that HDP1 and HDP2 were co-domesticated from the Harbinger transposon-encoded transposase and DNA-binding protein, respectively. HDP1 interacts with HDP2 in the nucleus, analogous to their transposon counterparts. Moreover, HDP1 and HDP2 are associated with IDM1, IDM2, IDM3 and MBD7 that constitute a histone acetyltransferase complex functioning in DNA demethylation. HDP2 and the methyl-DNA-binding protein MBD7 share a large set of common genomic binding sites, indicating that they jointly determine the target specificity of the histone acetyltransferase complex. Thus, our data revealed that HDP1 and HDP2 constitute a functional module that has been recruited to a histone acetyltransferase complex to prevent DNA hypermethylation and epigenetic silencing. PMID:27934869

  4. Sleeping Beauty Transposon Vectors in Liver-directed Gene Delivery of LDLR and VLDLR for Gene Therapy of Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Turunen, Tytteli A K; Kurkipuro, Jere; Heikura, Tommi; Vuorio, Taina; Hytönen, Elisa; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    Plasmid-based Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon vectors were developed and used to deliver genes for low-density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR and VLDLR, respectively) or lacZ reporter into liver of an LDLR-deficient mouse model of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). SB transposase, SB100x, was used to integrate the therapeutic transposons into mice livers for evaluating the feasibility of the vectors in reducing high blood cholesterol and the progression of atherosclerosis. Hydrodynamic gene delivery of transposon-VLDLR into the livers of the mice resulted in initial 17–19% reductions in plasma cholesterol, and at the later time points, in a significant stabilization of the cholesterol level for the 6.5-month duration of the study compared to the control mice. Transposon-LDLR-treated animals also demonstrated a trend of stabilization in the cholesterol levels in the long term. Vector-treated mice had slightly less lipid accumulation in the liver and reduced aortic atherosclerosis. Clinical chemistry and histological analyses revealed normal liver function and morphology comparable to that of the controls during the follow-up with no safety issues regarding the vector type, transgenes, or the gene transfer method. The study demonstrates the safety and potential benefits of the SB transposon vectors in the treatment of FH. PMID:26670130

  5. Survey of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hAT transposons and MITE-like hATpin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Gerhard; Krebs, Carmen; Diez, Mercedes; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Weisshaar, Bernd; Minoche, André E; Dohm, Juliane C; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Schmidt, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Genome-wide analyses of repetitive DNA suggest a significant impact particularly of transposable elements on genome size and evolution of virtually all eukaryotic organisms. In this study, we analyzed the abundance and diversity of the hAT transposon superfamily of the sugar beet (B. vulgaris) genome, using molecular, bioinformatic and cytogenetic approaches. We identified 81 transposase-coding sequences, three of which are part of structurally intact but nonfunctional hAT transposons (BvhAT), in a B. vulgaris BAC library as well as in whole genome sequencing-derived data sets. Additionally, 116 complete and 497 truncated non-autonomous BvhAT derivatives lacking the transposase gene were in silico-detected. The 116 complete derivatives were subdivided into four BvhATpin groups each characterized by a distinct terminal inverted repeat motif. Both BvhAT and BvhATpin transposons are specific for species of the genus Beta and closely related species, showing a localization on B. vulgaris chromosomes predominantely in euchromatic regions. The lack of any BvhAT transposase function together with the high degree of degeneration observed for the BvhAT and the BvhATpin genomic fraction contrasts with the abundance and activity of autonomous and non-autonomous hAT transposons revealed in other plant species. This indicates a possible genus-specific structural and functional repression of the hAT transposon superfamily during Beta diversification and evolution.

  6. Rapid evolution of piRNA pathway in the teleost fish: implication for an adaptation to transposon diversity.

    PubMed

    Yi, Minhan; Chen, Feng; Luo, Majing; Cheng, Yibin; Zhao, Huabin; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2014-05-19

    The Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is responsible for germline specification, gametogenesis, transposon silencing, and genome integrity. Transposable elements can disrupt genome and its functions. However, piRNA pathway evolution and its adaptation to transposon diversity in the teleost fish remain unknown. This article unveils evolutionary scene of piRNA pathway and its association with diverse transposons by systematically comparative analysis on diverse teleost fish genomes. Selective pressure analysis on piRNA pathway and miRNA/siRNA (microRNA/small interfering RNA) pathway genes between teleosts and mammals showed an accelerated evolution of piRNA pathway genes in the teleost lineages, and positive selection on functional PAZ (Piwi/Ago/Zwille) and Tudor domains involved in the Piwi-piRNA/Tudor interaction, suggesting that the amino acid substitutions are adaptive to their functions in piRNA pathway in the teleost fish species. Notably five piRNA pathway genes evolved faster in the swamp eel, a kind of protogynous hermaphrodite fish, than the other teleosts, indicating a differential evolution of piRNA pathway between the swamp eel and other gonochoristic fishes. In addition, genome-wide analysis showed higher diversity of transposons in the teleost fish species compared with mammals. Our results suggest that rapidly evolved piRNA pathway in the teleost fish is likely to be involved in the adaption to transposon diversity.

  7. Identification of the maize gravitropism gene lazy plant1 by a transposon-tagging genome resequencing strategy.

    PubMed

    Howard, Thomas P; Hayward, Andrew P; Tordillos, Anthony; Fragoso, Christopher; Moreno, Maria A; Tohme, Joe; Kausch, Albert P; Mottinger, John P; Dellaporta, Stephen L

    2014-01-01

    Since their initial discovery, transposons have been widely used as mutagens for forward and reverse genetic screens in a range of organisms. The problems of high copy number and sequence divergence among related transposons have often limited the efficiency at which tagged genes can be identified. A method was developed to identity the locations of Mutator (Mu) transposons in the Zea mays genome using a simple enrichment method combined with genome resequencing to identify transposon junction fragments. The sequencing library was prepared from genomic DNA by digesting with a restriction enzyme that cuts within a perfectly conserved motif of the Mu terminal inverted repeats (TIR). Paired-end reads containing Mu TIR sequences were computationally identified and chromosomal sequences flanking the transposon were mapped to the maize reference genome. This method has been used to identify Mu insertions in a number of alleles and to isolate the previously unidentified lazy plant1 (la1) gene. The la1 gene is required for the negatively gravitropic response of shoots and mutant plants lack the ability to sense gravity. Using bioinformatic and fluorescence microscopy approaches, we show that the la1 gene encodes a cell membrane and nuclear localized protein. Our Mu-Taq method is readily adaptable to identify the genomic locations of any insertion of a known sequence in any organism using any sequencing platform.

  8. Transposon-mediated transgenesis, transgenic rescue, and tissue-specific gene expression in rodents and rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Katter, Katharina; Geurts, Aron M.; Hoffmann, Orsolya; Mátés, Lajos; Landa, Vladimir; Hiripi, László; Moreno, Carol; Lazar, Jozef; Bashir, Sanum; Zidek, Vaclav; Popova, Elena; Jerchow, Boris; Becker, Katja; Devaraj, Anantharam; Walter, Ingrid; Grzybowksi, Michael; Corbett, Molly; Filho, Artur Rangel; Hodges, Matthew R.; Bader, Michael; Ivics, Zoltán; Jacob, Howard J.; Pravenec, Michal; Bősze, Zsuzsanna; Rülicke, Thomas; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

    2013-01-01

    Germline transgenesis is an important procedure for functional investigation of biological pathways, as well as for animal biotechnology. We have established a simple, nonviral protocol in three important biomedical model organisms frequently used in physiological studies. The protocol is based on the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposon system, SB100X, which reproducibly promoted generation of transgenic founders at frequencies of 50–64, 14–72, and 15% in mice, rats, and rabbits, respectively. The SB100X-mediated transgene integrations are less prone to genetic mosaicism and gene silencing as compared to either the classical pronuclear injection or to lentivirus-mediated transgenesis. The method was successfully applied to a variety of transgenes and animal models, and can be used to generate founders with single-copy integrations. The transposon vector also allows the generation of transgenic lines with tissue-specific expression patterns specified by promoter elements of choice, exemplified by a rat reporter strain useful for tracking serotonergic neurons. As a proof of principle, we rescued an inborn genetic defect in the fawn-hooded hypertensive rat by SB100X transgenesis. A side-by-side comparison of the SB100X- and piggyBac-based protocols revealed that the two systems are complementary, offering new opportunities in genome manipulation.—Katter, K., Geurts, A. M., Hoffmann, O., Mátés, L., Landa,V., Hiripi, L., Moreno, C., Lazar, J., Bashir, S., Zidek, V., Popova, E., Jerchow, B., Becker, K., Devaraj, A., Walter, I., Grzybowksi, M., Corbett, M., Rangel Filho, A., Hodges, M. R., Bader, M., Ivics, Z., Jacob, H. J., Pravenec, M., Bősze, Z., Rülicke, T., Izsvák, Z. Transposon-mediated transgenesis, transgenic rescue, and tissue-specific gene expression in rodents and rabbits. PMID:23195032

  9. The Transposon Galileo Generates Natural Chromosomal Inversions in Drosophila by Ectopic Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Delprat, Alejandra; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Background Transposable elements (TEs) are responsible for the generation of chromosomal inversions in several groups of organisms. However, in Drosophila and other Dipterans, where inversions are abundant both as intraspecific polymorphisms and interspecific fixed differences, the evidence for a role of TEs is scarce. Previous work revealed that the transposon Galileo was involved in the generation of two polymorphic inversions of Drosophila buzzatii. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the impact of TEs in Drosophila chromosomal evolution and shed light on the mechanism involved, we isolated and sequenced the two breakpoints of another widespread polymorphic inversion from D. buzzatii, 2z3. In the non inverted chromosome, the 2z3 distal breakpoint was located between genes CG2046 and CG10326 whereas the proximal breakpoint lies between two novel genes that we have named Dlh and Mdp. In the inverted chromosome, the analysis of the breakpoint sequences revealed relatively large insertions (2,870-bp and 4,786-bp long) including two copies of the transposon Galileo (subfamily Newton), one at each breakpoint, plus several other TEs. The two Galileo copies: (i) are inserted in opposite orientation; (ii) present exchanged target site duplications; and (iii) are both chimeric. Conclusions/Significance Our observations provide the best evidence gathered so far for the role of TEs in the generation of Drosophila inversions. In addition, they show unequivocally that ectopic recombination is the causative mechanism. The fact that the three polymorphic D. buzzatii inversions investigated so far were generated by the same transposon family is remarkable and is conceivably due to Galileo's unusual structure and current (or recent) transpositional activity. PMID:19936241

  10. A living fossil in the genome of a living fossil: Harbinger transposons in the coelacanth genome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeramiah J; Sumiyama, Kenta; Amemiya, Chris T

    2012-03-01

    Emerging data from the coelacanth genome are beginning to shed light on the origin and evolution of tetrapod genes and noncoding elements. Of particular relevance is the realization that coelacanth retains active copies of transposable elements that once served as raw material for the evolution of new functional sequences in the vertebrate lineage. Recognizing the evolutionary significance of coelacanth genome in this regard, we employed an ab initio search strategy to further classify its repetitive complement. This analysis uncovered a class of interspersed elements (Latimeria Harbinger 1-LatiHarb1) that is a major contributor to coelacanth genome structure and gene content (∼1% to 4% or the genome). Sequence analyses indicate that 1) each ∼8.7 kb LatiHarb1 element contains two coding regions, a transposase gene and a gene whose function is as yet unknown (MYB-like) and 2) copies of LatiHarb1 retain biological activity in the coelacanth genome. Functional analyses verify transcriptional and enhancer activities of LatiHarb1 in vivo and reveal transcriptional decoupling that could permit MYB-like genes to play functional roles not directly linked to transposition. Thus, LatiHarb1 represents the first known instance of a harbinger-superfamily transposon with contemporary activity in a vertebrate genome. Analyses of LatiHarb1 further corroborate the notion that exaptation of anciently active harbinger elements gave rise to at least two vertebrate genes (harbi1 and naif1) and indicate that the vertebrate gene tsnare1 also traces its ancestry to this transposon superfamily. Based on our analyses of LatiHarb1, we speculate that several functional features of harbinger elements may predispose the transposon superfamily toward recurrent exaptive evolution of cellular coding genes. In addition, these analyses further reinforce the broad utility of the coelacanth genome and other "outgroup" genomes in understanding the ancestry and evolution of vertebrate genes and

  11. Sleeping Beauty transposon-based system for rapid generation of HBV-replicating stable cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong; Zhang, Tian-Ying; Fang, Lin-Lin; Chen, Zi-Xuan; Song, Liu-Wei; Cao, Jia-Li; Yang, Lin; Yuan, Quan; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2016-08-01

    The stable HBV-replicating cell lines, which carry replication-competent HBV genome stably integrated into the genome of host cell, are widely used to evaluate the effects of antiviral agents. However, current methods to generate HBV-replicating cell lines, which are mostly dependent on random integration of foreign DNA via plasmid transfection, are less-efficient and time-consuming. To address this issue, we constructed an all-in-one Sleeping Beauty transposon system (denoted pTSMP-HBV vector) for robust generation of stable cell lines carrying replication-competent HBV genome of different genotype. This vector contains a Sleeping Beauty transposon containing HBV 1.3-copy genome with an expression cassette of the SV40 promoter driving red fluorescent protein (mCherry) and self-cleaving P2A peptide linked puromycin resistance gene (PuroR). In addition, a PGK promoter-driven SB100X hyperactive transposase cassette is placed in the outside of the transposon in the same plasmid.The HBV-replicating stable cells could be obtained from pTSMP-HBV transfected HepG2 cells by red fluorescence-activated cell sorting and puromycin resistant cell selection within 4-week. Using this system, we successfully constructed four cell lines carrying replication-competent HBV genome of genotypes A-D. The replication and viral protein expression profiles of these cells were systematically characterized. In conclusion, our study provides a high-efficiency strategy to generate HBV-replicating stable cell lines, which may facilitate HBV-related virological study.

  12. Quantitative insertion-site sequencing (QIseq) for high throughput phenotyping of transposon mutants.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Iraad F; Otto, Thomas D; Zhang, Min; Udenze, Kenneth; Wang, Chengqi; Quail, Michael A; Jiang, Rays H Y; Adams, John H; Rayner, Julian C

    2016-07-01

    Genetic screening using random transposon insertions has been a powerful tool for uncovering biology in prokaryotes, where whole-genome saturating screens have been performed in multiple organisms. In eukaryotes, such screens have proven more problematic, in part because of the lack of a sensitive and robust system for identifying transposon insertion sites. We here describe quantitative insertion-site sequencing, or QIseq, which uses custom library preparation and Illumina sequencing technology and is able to identify insertion sites from both the 5' and 3' ends of the transposon, providing an inbuilt level of validation. The approach was developed using piggyBac mutants in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum but should be applicable to many other eukaryotic genomes. QIseq proved accurate, confirming known sites in >100 mutants, and sensitive, identifying and monitoring sites over a >10,000-fold dynamic range of sequence counts. Applying QIseq to uncloned parasites shortly after transfections revealed multiple insertions in mixed populations and suggests that >4000 independent mutants could be generated from relatively modest scales of transfection, providing a clear pathway to genome-scale screens in P. falciparum QIseq was also used to monitor the growth of pools of previously cloned mutants and reproducibly differentiated between deleterious and neutral mutations in competitive growth. Among the mutants with fitness defects was a mutant with a piggyBac insertion immediately upstream of the kelch protein K13 gene associated with artemisinin resistance, implying mutants in this gene may have competitive fitness costs. QIseq has the potential to enable the scale-up of piggyBac-mediated genetics across multiple eukaryotic systems.

  13. Genes and transposons are differentially methylated in plants, but not in mammals.

    PubMed

    Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Palmer, Lance E; May, Bruce P; Hemann, Michael T; Lowe, Scott W; McCombie, W Richard; Martienssen, Robert A

    2003-12-01

    DNA methylation is found in many eukaryotes, but its function is still controversial. We have studied the methylation of plant and animal genomes using a PCR-based technique amenable for high throughput. Repetitive elements are methylated in both organisms, but whereas most mammalian exons are methylated, plant exons are not. Thus, targeting of methylation specifically to transposons appears to be restricted to plants. We propose that the mechanistic basis of this difference may involve RNA interference. Sequencing strategies that depend on differential methylation are predicted to have different outcomes in plant and mammalian genomes.

  14. Structural and functional analyses of the fosfomycin resistance transposon Tn2921.

    PubMed Central

    Navas, J; García-Lobo, J M; León, J; Ortíz, J M

    1985-01-01

    The fosfomycin resistance transposon Tn2921 is flanked by directly repeated sequences homologous to the Tn10-related insertion sequence IS10. The nonrepeated DNA sequences of Tn2921 can be deleted without affecting the transposition ability of the element, showing that at least one of the direct repeats is an active insertion sequence. Transposition of Tn2921 seems to occur through direct transposition, since cointegrates have not been observed. The evolutionary relatedness of Tn2921 and IS10 is discussed. Images PMID:2987181

  15. Reprogramming of Human Fibroblasts to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Sleeping Beauty Transposon-Based Stable Gene Delivery.

    PubMed

    Sebe, Attila; Ivics, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a source of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells and resemble human embryonic stem (ES) cells in gene expression profiles, morphology, pluripotency, and in vitro differentiation potential. iPS cells are applied in disease modeling, drug screenings, toxicology screenings, and autologous cell therapy. In this protocol, we describe how to derive human iPS cells from fibroblasts by Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-mediated gene transfer of reprogramming factors. First, the components of the non-viral Sleeping Beauty transposon system, namely a transposon vector encoding reprogramming transcription factors and a helper plasmid expressing the SB transposase, are electroporated into human fibroblasts. The reprogramming cassette undergoes transposition from the transfected plasmids into the fibroblast genome, thereby resulting in stable delivery of the reprogramming factors. Reprogramming by using this protocol takes ~4 weeks, after which the iPS cells are isolated and clonally propagated.

  16. Autonomous and non-autonomous Tn3-family transposons and their role in the evolution of mobile genetic elements.

    PubMed

    Szuplewska, Magdalena; Czarnecki, Jakub; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The Tn3 family of transposons includes diverse elements that encode homologous transposases and contain conserved terminal inverted repeat sequences (IRs). The recent identification of non-autonomous elements, named TIMEs (Tn3-derived Inverted-repeat Miniature Elements), has shed new light on the diversity and evolution of this transposon family. A common feature of TIMEs and other members of this family is their ability to mobilize genomic DNA for transposition as part of composite transposons. These elements significantly influence the structure and properties of plasmids and other mobile genetic elements (MGEs). They may contain and move by transposition (i) plasmid replication systems, (ii) toxin-antitoxin systems and (iii) site-specific recombination modules that can resolve plasmid multimers. Some Tn3 family elements may also transfer large segments of chromosomal DNA into plasmids, which increases the pool of mobile DNA that can take part in horizontal gene transfer.

  17. Efficient generation of transgenic cattle using the DNA transposon and their analysis by next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Soo-Young; Lee, Song-Jeon; Kim, Hyun-Min; Choi, Woo-Jae; Park, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Won-Wu; Kim, Hee-Soo; Kim, Hyeong-Jong; Bae, Seong-Hun; Lee, Je-Hyeong; Moon, Joo-Yeong; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Choong-Il; Son, Bong-Jun; Song, Sang-Hoon; Ji, Su-Min; Kim, Seong-Jin; Jang, Goo

    2016-01-01

    Here, we efficiently generated transgenic cattle using two transposon systems (Sleeping Beauty and Piggybac) and their genomes were analyzed by next-generation sequencing (NGS). Blastocysts derived from microinjection of DNA transposons were selected and transferred into recipient cows. Nine transgenic cattle have been generated and grown-up to date without any health issues except two. Some of them expressed strong fluorescence and the transgene in the oocytes from a superovulating one were detected by PCR and sequencing. To investigate genomic variants by the transgene transposition, whole genomic DNA were analyzed by NGS. We found that preferred transposable integration (TA or TTAA) was identified in their genome. Even though multi-copies (i.e. fifteen) were confirmed, there was no significant difference in genome instabilities. In conclusion, we demonstrated that transgenic cattle using the DNA transposon system could be efficiently generated, and all those animals could be a valuable resource for agriculture and veterinary science. PMID:27324781

  18. A Method Adapting Microarray Technology for Signature-Tagged Mutagenesis of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in Anaerobic Sediment Survival Experiments†

    PubMed Central

    Groh, Jennifer L.; Luo, Qingwei; Ballard, Jimmy D.; Krumholz, Lee R.

    2005-01-01

    Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) is a powerful technique that can be used to identify genes expressed by bacteria during exposure to conditions in their natural environments. To date, there have been no reports of studies in which this approach was used to study organisms of environmental, rather than pathogenic, significance. We used a mini-Tn10 transposon-bearing plasmid, pBSL180, that efficiently and randomly mutagenized Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 in addition to Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Using these organisms as model sediment-dwelling anaerobic bacteria, we developed a new screening system, modified from former STM procedures, to identify genes that are critical for sediment survival. The screening system uses microarray technology to visualize tags from input and output pools, allowing us to identify those lost during sediment incubations. While the majority of data on survival genes identified will be presented in future papers, we report here on chemotaxis-related genes identified by our STM method in both bacteria in order to validate our method. This system may be applicable to the study of numerous environmental bacteria, allowing us to identify functions and roles of survival genes in various habitats. PMID:16269742

  19. A method adapting microarray technology for signature tagged mutagenesis of Dusulfovibrio dusulfuricans G20 and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in anaerobic sediment survival experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groh, Jennifer L.; Luo, Qingwei; Ballard , Jimmy D.; Krumholz, Lee R.

    2005-01-01

    Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) is a powerful technique that can be used to identify genes expressed by bacteria during exposure to conditions in their natural environments. To date, there have been no reports of studies in which this approach was used to study organisms of environmental, rather than pathogenic, significance. We used a mini-Tn10 transposon-bearing plasmid, pBSL180, that efficiently and randomly mutagenized Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 in addition to Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Using these organisms as model sediment-dwelling anaerobic bacteria, we developed a new screening system, modified from former STM procedures, to identify genes that are critical for sediment survival. The screening system uses microarray technology to visualize tags from input and output pools, allowing us to identify those lost during sediment incubations. While the majority of data on survival genes identified will be presented in future papers, we report here on chemotaxis-related genes identified by our STM method in both bacteria in order to validate our method. This system may be applicable to the study of numerous environmental bacteria, allowing us to identify functions and roles of survival genes in various habitats.

  20. PIF-like transposons are common in drosophila and have been repeatedly domesticated to generate new host genes.

    PubMed

    Casola, Claudio; Lawing, A Michelle; Betrán, Esther; Feschotte, Cédric

    2007-08-01

    The P instability factor or PIF superfamily of DNA transposons constitutes an important group of transposable elements (TEs) in plants, but it is still poorly characterized in metazoans. Taking advantage of the availability of draft genome sequences for twelve Drosophila species, we discovered 4 different lineages of Drosophila PIF-like transposons, named DPLT1-4. These lineages have experienced a complex evolutionary history during the Drosophila radiation, involving differential amplification and retention among species and probable events of horizontal transmission. Like previously described plant and animal PIF transposons, full-length DPLTs encode a putative transposase as well as a second predicted protein containing a Myb/SANT domain. In DPLTs, this domain is most closely related to the MADF DNA-binding domain found in several Drosophila transcription factors. In addition, we identified 7 distinct genes distributed across the Drosophila genus that encode proteins related to PIF transposases, but lack the hallmarks of transposons. Instead, these sequences show features of functional genes, such as an intact coding region evolving under purifying selection, the presence of orthologs in at least 2 Drosophila species, and the conservation of intron/exon structure across orthologs. We also provide evidence that most of these genes are transcribed and that some are developmentally regulated. Together the data indicate that these genes derived from PIF-transposons that have been "domesticated" to serve cellular functions. In one instance the recruitment of the transposase gene was accompanied by the co-recruitment of the adjacent second PIF gene, which raises the hypothesis that both proteins now function in the same pathway. The second PIF gene has retained the capacity to encode a protein with an intact MADF domain, suggesting that it may function as a transcription factor. We conclude that PIF transposons are common in the Drosophila lineage and have been a

  1. Structure analysis of a class II transposon encoding the mercury resistance of the Gram-positive Bacterium bacillus megaterium MB1, a strain isolated from minamata bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Huang, C C; Narita, M; Yamagata, T; Itoh, Y; Endo, G

    1999-07-08

    A unique transposon was found in the chromosome of Bacillus megaterium MB1, a Gram-positive bacterium isolated from mercury-polluted sediments of Minamata Bay, Japan. The transposon region of a 14.5kb DNA fragment was amplified by PCR using a single PCR primer designed from the nucleotide sequence of an inverted repeat of class II transposons. The molecular analysis revealed that the PCR-amplified DNA fragment encodes a transposition module similar to that of Tn21. The transposon also encodes a broad-spectrum mercury resistance region having a restriction endonuclease map identical to that of Bacillus cereus RC607, a strain isolated from Boston Harbor, USA. The result of a phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequence of putative resolvase of the transposon showed that the transposon is phylogenetically closer to the transposons of Gram-positive bacteria than those of Gram-negative bacteria. Besides the transposition module and mer operon, the transposon encodes a mobile genetic element of bacterial group II introns between the resolvase gene and mer operon. The intron, however, does not intervene in any exon gene. The discovery of this newly found combination of the complex mobile elements may offer a clue to understanding the horizontal dissemination of broad-spectrum mercury resistance among microbes.

  2. Functional characterization of Tn4401, a Tn3-based transposon involved in blaKPC gene mobilization.

    PubMed

    Cuzon, Gaelle; Naas, Thierry; Nordmann, Patrice

    2011-11-01

    The carbapenemase gene bla(KPC), which is rapidly spreading worldwide, is located on a Tn3-based transposon, Tn4401. In a transposition-conjugation assay, Tn4401 was able to mobilize bla(KPC-2) gene at a frequency of 4.4 × 10(-6)/recipient cell. A 5-bp target site duplication was evidenced upon each insertion without target site specificity. This study demonstrated that Tn4401 is an active transposon capable of mobilizing bla(KPC) genes at high frequency.

  3. Coordination of transposon expression with DNA replication in the targeting of telomeric retrotransposons in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Beaucher, Michelle; Cheng, Yan; Rong, Yikang S

    2014-01-01

    In Drosophila, a group of retrotransposons is mobilized exclusively to telomeres in a sequence-independent manner. How they target chromosome ends is not understood. Here, we focused on the telomeric element HeT-A and characterized the cell cycle expression and cytological distribution of its protein and RNA products. We determined the timing of telomere replication by creating a single lacO-marked telomere and provide evidence suggesting that transposon expression and recruitment to telomeres is linked to telomere replication. The HeT-A-encoded ORF1p protein is expressed predominantly in S phase, particularly in early S phase. Orf1p binds HeT-A transcripts and forms spherical structures at telomeres undergoing DNA replication. HeT-A sphere formation requires Verrocchio, a putative homolog of the conserved Stn1 telomeric protein. Our results suggest that coupling of telomere elongation and telomere replication is a universal feature, and raise the possibility that transposon recruitment to Drosophila telomeres is mechanistically related to telomerase recruitment in other organisms. Our study also supports a co-adaptive relationship between the Drosophila host and HeT-A mobile elements. PMID:24733842

  4. [Transposon expression and potential effects on gene regulation of Brassica rapa and B. oleracea genomes].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mei-Xia; Zhang, Biao; Liu, Sheng-Yi; Ma, Jian-Xin

    2013-08-01

    Transposons or transposable elements (TEs) are ubiquitous and most abundant DNA components in higher eukaryotes. Recent sequencing of the Brassica rapa and B. oleracea genomes revealed that the amplification of TEs is one of the main factors inducing the difference in genome size. However, the expressions of TEs and the TE effects on gene regulation and functions of these two Brassica diploid species were unclear. Here, we analyzed the RNA sequencing data of leaves, roots, and stems from B. rapa and B. oleracea. Our data showed that overall TEs in either genome expressed at very low levels, and the expression levels of different TE categories and families varied among different organs. Moreover, even for the same TE category or family, the expression activities were distinct between the two Brassica diploids. Forty-one and nine LTR retrotransposons with the transcripts that read into their adjacent sequences have the distances shorter than 2 kb and 100 bp compared to the downstream genes. These LTR retrotransposon readout transcriptions may produce sense or antisense transcripts of nearby genes, with the effects on activating or silencing corresponding genes. Meanwhile, intact LTRs were detected at stronger readout activities than solo LTRs. Of the TEs inserted into genes, the frequencies were ob-served at a higher level in B. rapa than in B. oleracea. In addition, DNA transposons were prone to insert or retain in the intronic regions of genes in either Brassica genomes. These results revealed that the TEs may have potential effects on regulating protein coding genes.

  5. Screening of a Haloferax volcanii Transposon Library Reveals Novel Motility and Adhesion Mutants.

    PubMed

    Legerme, Georgio; Yang, Evan; Esquivel, Rianne N; Kiljunen, Saija; Savilahti, Harri; Pohlschroder, Mechthild

    2016-11-26

    Archaea, like bacteria, use type IV pili to facilitate surface adhesion. Moreover, archaeal flagella-structures required for motility-share a common ancestry with type IV pili. While the characterization of archaeal homologs of bacterial type IV pilus biosynthesis components has revealed important aspects of flagellum and pilus biosynthesis and the mechanisms regulating motility and adhesion in archaea, many questions remain. Therefore, we screened a Haloferax volcanii transposon insertion library for motility mutants using motility plates and adhesion mutants, using an adapted air-liquid interface assay. Here, we identify 20 genes, previously unknown to affect motility or adhesion. These genes include potential novel regulatory genes that will help to unravel the mechanisms underpinning these processes. Both screens also identified distinct insertions within the genomic region lying between two chemotaxis genes, suggesting that chemotaxis not only plays a role in archaeal motility, but also in adhesion. Studying these genes, as well as hypothetical genes hvo_2512 and hvo_2876-also critical for both motility and adhesion-will likely elucidate how these two systems interact. Furthermore, this study underscores the usefulness of the transposon library to screen other archaeal cellular processes for specific phenotypic defects.

  6. Screening of a Haloferax volcanii Transposon Library Reveals Novel Motility and Adhesion Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Legerme, Georgio; Yang, Evan; Esquivel, Rianne N.; Kiljunen, Saija; Savilahti, Harri; Pohlschroder, Mechthild

    2016-01-01

    Archaea, like bacteria, use type IV pili to facilitate surface adhesion. Moreover, archaeal flagella—structures required for motility—share a common ancestry with type IV pili. While the characterization of archaeal homologs of bacterial type IV pilus biosynthesis components has revealed important aspects of flagellum and pilus biosynthesis and the mechanisms regulating motility and adhesion in archaea, many questions remain. Therefore, we screened a Haloferax volcanii transposon insertion library for motility mutants using motility plates and adhesion mutants, using an adapted air–liquid interface assay. Here, we identify 20 genes, previously unknown to affect motility or adhesion. These genes include potential novel regulatory genes that will help to unravel the mechanisms underpinning these processes. Both screens also identified distinct insertions within the genomic region lying between two chemotaxis genes, suggesting that chemotaxis not only plays a role in archaeal motility, but also in adhesion. Studying these genes, as well as hypothetical genes hvo_2512 and hvo_2876—also critical for both motility and adhesion—will likely elucidate how these two systems interact. Furthermore, this study underscores the usefulness of the transposon library to screen other archaeal cellular processes for specific phenotypic defects. PMID:27898036

  7. A Transposon-based Analysis Reveals RASA1 Is Involved in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Cabrera, Cristian; Quintana, Rita M; Bravo, Ana; Casanova, M Llanos; Page, Angustias; Alameda, Josefa P; Paramio, Jesús M; Maroto, Alicia; Salamanca, Javier; Dupuy, Adam J; Ramírez, Angel; Navarro, Manuel

    2017-03-15

    RAS genes are mutated in 20% of human tumors, but these mutations are very rare in breast cancer. Here, we used a mouse model to generate tumors upon activation of a mutagenic T2Onc2 transposon via expression of a transposase driven by the keratin K5 promoter in a p53(+/-) background. These animals mainly developed mammary tumors, most of which had transposon insertions in one of two RASGAP genes, neurofibromin1 (Nf1) and RAS p21 protein activator (Rasa1). Immunohistochemical analysis of a collection of human breast tumors confirmed that low expression of RASA1 is frequent in basal (triple-negative) and estrogen receptor negative tumors. Bioinformatic analysis of human breast tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas database showed that although RASA1 mutations are rare, allelic loss is frequent, particularly in basal tumors (80%) and in association with TP53 mutation. Inactivation of RASA1 in MCF10A cells resulted in the appearance of a malignant phenotype in the context of mutated p53. Our results suggest that alterations in the Ras pathway due to the loss of negative regulators of RAS may be a common event in basal breast cancer. Cancer Res; 77(6); 1357-68. ©2017 AACR.

  8. Definition and characterization of an artificial En/Spm-based transposon tagging system in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Cardon, G H; Frey, M; Saedler, H; Gierl, A

    1993-10-01

    A transposon tagging system for heterologous hosts, based on the maize En/Spm transposable element, was developed in transgenic tobacco. In this system, the two En-encoded trans-acting factors necessary for excision are expressed by fusing their cDNAs to the CaMV 35S promoter. The dSpm receptor component is inserted in the 5'-untranslated leader of the bar gene. Germinal revertants can therefore be selected by seed germination on L-PPT-containing medium or by spraying seedlings with the herbicide Basta. Using this bar-based excision reporter construct, an average frequency of germinal excision of 10.1% was estimated for dSpm-S, an En/Spm native internal deletion derivative. Insertion of En-foreign sequences in a receptor, such as a DHFR selectable marker gene in dSpm-DHFR, does not abolish its capacity to transpose. However, dSpm-DHFR has a lower frequency of somatic and germinal excision than dSpm-S. Revertants carrying a transposed dSpm-DHFR element can be selected with methotrexate. Germinal excision is frequently associated with reinsertion but, as in maize, dSpm has a tendency to integrate at chromosomal locations linked to the donor site. Concerning the timing of excision, independent germinal transpositions are often found within a single seed capsule. All activity parameters analysed suggest that transposon tagging with this system in heterologous hosts should be feasible.

  9. Control of Transposon-mediated Directed Mutation by the Escherichia coli Phosphoenolpyruvate:Sugar Phosphotransferase System

    PubMed Central

    Saier, Milton H.; Zhang, Zhongge

    2015-01-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) has been shown to control transport, cell metabolism and gene expression. We here present results supporting the novel suggestion that in certain instances, it also regulates mutation rate. Directed mutations are defined as mutations that occur at higher frequencies when beneficial than when neutral or detrimental. To date, the occurrence of directed point mutations has not been documented and confirmed, but a few examples of transposon-mediated directed mutation have been reported. Here we focus on the first and best-studied example of directed mutation, which involves the regulation of Insertion Sequence-5 (IS5) hopping into a specific site upstream of the glpFK glycerol utilization operon in Escherichia coli. This insertional event specifically activates expression of the glpFK operon, allowing growth of wild type cells with glycerol as a carbon source in the presence of non-metabolizable glucose analogues which normally block glycerol utilization. The sugar transporting PTS controls this process by regulating levels of cytoplasmic glycerol-3-phosphate and cyclic AMP as established in previous publications. Direct involvement of the glycerol repressor, GlpR, and the cyclic AMP receptor protein, Crp, in the regulation of transposon-mediated directed mutation has been demonstrated. PMID:26159081

  10. Insights on genome size evolution from a miniature inverted repeat transposon driving a satellite DNA.

    PubMed

    Scalvenzi, Thibault; Pollet, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    The genome size in eukaryotes does not correlate well with the number of genes they contain. We can observe this so-called C-value paradox in amphibian species. By analyzing an amphibian genome we asked how repetitive DNA can impact genome size and architecture. We describe here our discovery of a Tc1/mariner miniature inverted-repeat transposon family present in Xenopus frogs. These transposons named miDNA4 are unique since they contain a satellite DNA motif. We found that miDNA4 measured 331 bp, contained 25 bp long inverted terminal repeat sequences and a sequence motif of 119 bp present as a unique copy or as an array of 2-47 copies. We characterized the structure, dynamics, impact and evolution of the miDNA4 family and its satellite DNA in Xenopus frog genomes. This led us to propose a model for the evolution of these two repeated sequences and how they can synergize to increase genome size.

  11. Dynamics of gene duplication and transposons in microbial genomes following a sudden environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, Nicholas; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2011-02-01

    A variety of genome transformations can occur as a microbial population adapts to a large environmental change. In particular, genomic surveys indicate that, following the transition to an obligate, host-dependent symbiont, the density of transposons first rises, then subsequently declines over evolutionary time. Here we show that these observations can be accounted for by a class of generic stochastic models for the evolution of genomes in the presence of continuous selection and gene duplication. The models use a fitness function that allows for partial contributions from multiple gene copies, is an increasing but bounded function of copy number, and is optimal for one fully adapted gene copy. We use Monte Carlo simulation to show that the dynamics result in an initial rise in gene copy number followed by a subsequent falloff due to adaptation to the new environmental parameters. These results are robust for reasonable gene duplication and mutation parameters when adapting to a novel target sequence. Our model provides a generic explanation for the dynamics of microbial transposon density following a large environmental change such as host restriction.

  12. MiniTn7-transposon delivery vectors for inducible or constitutive fluorescent protein expression in Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Remus-Emsermann, Mitja N. P.; Gisler, Pascal; Drissner, David

    2016-01-01

    Here we present the generation and function of two sets of bacterial plasmids that harbor fluorescent genes encoding either blue, cyan, yellow or red fluorescent proteins. In the first set, protein expression is controlled by the strong and constitutive nptII promoter whereas in the second set, the strong tac promoter was chosen that underlies LacIq regulation. Furthermore, the plasmids are mobilizable, contain Tn7 transposons and a temperature-sensitive origin of replication. Using Escherichia coli S17-1 as donor strain, the plasmids allow fast and convenient Tn7-transposon delivery into many enterobacterial hosts, such as the here-used E. coli O157:H7. This procedure omits the need of preparing competent recipient cells and antibiotic resistances are only transiently conferred to the recipients. As the fluorescence proteins show little to no overlap in fluorescence emission, the constructs are well suited for the study of multicolored synthetic bacterial communities during biofilm production or in host colonization studies, e.g. of plant surfaces. Furthermore, tac promoter-reporter constructs allow the generation of so-called reproductive success reporters, which allow to estimate past doublings of bacterial individuals after introduction into environments, emphasizing the role of individual cells during colonization. PMID:27445318

  13. A comparison of dense transposon insertion libraries in the Salmonella serovars Typhi and Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Barquist, Lars; Langridge, Gemma C.; Turner, Daniel J.; Phan, Minh-Duy; Turner, A. Keith; Bateman, Alex; Parkhill, Julian; Wain, John; Gardner, Paul P.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Typhi and Typhimurium diverged only ∼50 000 years ago, yet have very different host ranges and pathogenicity. Despite the availability of multiple whole-genome sequences, the genetic differences that have driven these changes in phenotype are only beginning to be understood. In this study, we use transposon-directed insertion-site sequencing to probe differences in gene requirements for competitive growth in rich media between these two closely related serovars. We identify a conserved core of 281 genes that are required for growth in both serovars, 228 of which are essential in Escherichia coli. We are able to identify active prophage elements through the requirement for their repressors. We also find distinct differences in requirements for genes involved in cell surface structure biogenesis and iron utilization. Finally, we demonstrate that transposon-directed insertion-site sequencing is not only applicable to the protein-coding content of the cell but also has sufficient resolution to generate hypotheses regarding the functions of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) as well. We are able to assign probable functions to a number of cis-regulatory ncRNA elements, as well as to infer likely differences in trans-acting ncRNA regulatory networks. PMID:23470992

  14. Control of Transposon-Mediated Directed Mutation by the Escherichia coli Phosphoenolpyruvate:Sugar Phosphotransferase System.

    PubMed

    Saier, Milton H; Zhang, Zhongge

    2015-01-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) has been shown to control transport, cell metabolism and gene expression. We here present results supporting the novel suggestion that in certain instances it also regulates the mutation rate. Directed mutations are defined as mutations that occur at higher frequencies when beneficial than when neutral or detrimental. To date, the occurrence of directed point mutations has not been documented and confirmed, but a few examples of transposon-mediated directed mutations have been reported. Here we focus on the first and best-studied example of directed mutation, which involves the regulation of insertion sequence-5 hopping into a specific site upstream of the glpFK glycerol utilization operon in Escherichia coli. This insertional event specifically activates expression of the glpFK operon, allowing the growth of wild-type cells with glycerol as a carbon source in the presence of nonmetabolizable glucose analogues which normally block glycerol utilization. The sugar-transporting PTS controls this process by regulating levels of cytoplasmic glycerol-3-phosphate and cyclic (c)AMP as established in previous publications. Direct involvement of the glycerol repressor, GlpR, and the cAMP receptor protein, Crp, in the regulation of transposon-mediated directed mutation has been demonstrated.

  15. Tc7, a Tc1-hitch hiking transposon in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Rezsohazy, R; van Luenen, H G; Durbin, R M; Plasterk, R H

    1997-01-01

    We have found a novel transposon in the genome of Caenorhabditis elegans. Tc7 is a 921 bp element, made up of two 345 bp inverted repeats separated by a unique, internal sequence. Tc7 does not contain an open reading frame. The outer 38 bp of the inverted repeat show 36 matches with the outer 38 bp of Tc1. This region of Tc1 contains the Tc1-transposase binding site. Furthermore, Tc7 is flanked by TA dinucleotides, just like Tc1, which presumably correspond to the target duplication generated upon integration. Since Tc7 does not encode its own transposase but contains the Tc1-transposase binding site at its extremities, we tested the ability of Tc7 to jump upon forced expression of Tc1 transposase in somatic cells. Under these conditions Tc7 jumps at a frequency similar to Tc1. The target site choice of Tc7 is identical to that of Tc1. These data suggest that Tc7 shares with Tc1 all the sequences minimally required to parasitize upon the Tc1 transposition machinery. The genomic distribution of Tc7 shows a striking clustering on the X chromosome where two thirds of the elements (20 out of 33) are located. Related transposons in C. elegans do not show this asymmetric distribution. PMID:9321656

  16. Pyrosequencing: Applicability for Studying DNA Damage-induced Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Minko, Irina G.; Earley, Lauriel F.; Larlee, Kimberly E.; Lin, Ying-Chih; Lloyd, R. Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Site-specifically modified DNAs are routinely used in the study of DNA damage-induced mutagenesis. These analyses involve the creation of DNA vectors containing a lesion at a predetermined position, DNA replication, and detection of mutations at the target site. The final step has previously required the isolation of individual DNA clones, hybridization with radioactively-labeled probes, and verification of mutations by Sanger sequencing. In search for an alternative procedure that would allow direct quantification of sequence variants in a mixed population of DNA molecules, we evaluated the applicability of pyrosequencing to site-specific mutagenesis assays. The progeny DNAs were analyzed that originated from replication of N6-(deoxy-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-2,6-diamino-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-5-N-methylformamidopyrimidine (MeFapy-dG)-containing vectors in primate cells, with the lesion being positioned in the 5′-GCNGG-3′ sequence context. Pyrosequencing detected ~8% G to T transversions and ~3.5% G to A transitions, a result that was in excellent agreement with frequencies previously measured by the standard procedure [Earley et al., 2013]. However, ~3.5% G to C transversions and ~2.0% deletions could not be detected by pyrosequencing. Consistent with these observations, the sensitivity of pyrosequencing for measuring the single deoxynucleotide variants differed depending on the deoxynucleotide identity, and in the given sequence contexts, was determined to be ~1-2% for A and T and ~5% for C. Pyrosequencing of other DNA isolates that were obtained following replication of MeFapy-dG-containing vectors in primate cells or Escherichia coli, identified several additional limitations. Collectively, our data demonstrated that pyrosequencing can be used for studying DNA damage-induced mutagenesis as an effective complementary experimental approach to current protocols. PMID:24962778

  17. EMS Mutagenesis in the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Tagu, Denis; Le Trionnaire, Gaël; Tanguy, Sylvie; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Huynh, Jean-René

    2014-01-01

    In aphids, clonal individuals can show distinct morphologic traits in response to environmental cues. Such phenotypic plasticity cannot be studied with classical genetic model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans or Drosophila melanogaster. The genetic basis of this biological process remain unknown, as mutations affecting this process are not available in aphids. Here, we describe a protocol to treat third-stage larvae with an alkylating mutagen, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), to generate random mutations within the Acyrthosiphon pisum genome. We found that even low concentrations of EMS were toxic for two genotypes of A. pisum. Mutagenesis efficiency was nevertheless assessed by estimating the occurrence of mutational events on the X chromosome. Indeed, any lethal mutation on the X-chromosome would kill males that are haploid on the X so that we used the proportion of males as an estimation of mutagenesis efficacy. We could assess a putative mutation rate of 0.4 per X-chromosome at 10 mM of EMS. We then applied this protocol to perform a small-scale mutagenesis on parthenogenetic individuals, which were screened for defects in their ability to produce sexual individuals in response to photoperiod shortening. We found one mutant line showing a reproducible altered photoperiodic response with a reduced production of males and the appearance of aberrant winged males (wing atrophy, alteration of legs morphology). This mutation appeared to be stable because it could be transmitted over several generations of parthenogenetic individuals. To our knowledge, this study represents the first example of an EMS-generated aphid mutant. PMID:24531730

  18. Pollen tetrads in the detection of environmental mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mulcahy, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Although pollen is a very sensitive indicator of environmental mutagenesis, it is also sensitive to nonmutagenic environmental stress. By analyzing pollen tetrads, rather than individual pollen grains, it is possible to distinguish between mutagenic and nonmutagenic influences. Another advantage of using pollen tetrads in mutagenicity studies is that it is possible to discriminate between pre- and post-pachytene mutations. This eliminates the mutant sector problem of a single mutational event giving rise to a large number of mutant cells. Methods of analyzing pollen tetrads are described.

  19. Mutagenesis in Newts: Protocol for Iberian Ribbed Newts.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Toshinori; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Newts have the remarkable capability of organ/tissue regeneration, and have been used as a unique experimental model for regenerative biology. The Iberian ribbed newt (Pleurodeles waltl) is suitable as a model animal. We have established methods for artificial insemination and efficient transgenesis using P. waltl newts. In addition to the transgenic technique, development of TALENs enables targeting mutagenesis in the newts. We have reported that TALENs efficiently disrupted targeted genes in newt embryos. In this chapter, we introduce a protocol for TALEN-mediated gene targeting in Iberian ribbed newts.

  20. Chemical mutagenesis: an emerging issue for public health.

    PubMed Central

    Claxton, L D; Barry, P Z

    1977-01-01

    Chemical mutagens are recognized as prevalent in the environment and a potential threat to the health of future generations. This paper presents an overview of chemical mutagenesis as an issue for public health. Several problems in the determination of risk to human populations are discussed, including difficulties of extrapolating scientific data to humans, the latency period between exposure and recognizable genetic damage, and the large number of chemicals which must be tested. Test systems are described. Possibilities of control through federal regulation are discussed. PMID:911015

  1. New approach for fish breeding by chemical mutagenesis: establishment of TILLING method in fugu (Takifugu rubripes) with ENU mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In fish breeding, it is essential to discover and generate fish exhibiting an effective phenotype for the aquaculture industry, but screening for natural mutants by only depending on natural spontaneous mutations is limited. Presently, reverse genetics has become an important tool to generate mutants, which exhibit the phenotype caused by inactivation of a gene. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions INGenomes) is a reverse genetics strategy that combines random chemical mutagenesis with high-throughput discovery technologies for screening the induced mutations in target genes. Although the chemical mutagenesis has been used widely in a variety of model species and also genetic breeding of microorganisms and crops, the application of the mutagenesis in fish breeding has been only rarely reported. Results In this study, we developed the TILLING method in fugu with ENU mutagenesis and high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis to detect base pair changes in target sequences. Fugu males were treated 3 times at weekly intervals with various ENU concentrations, and then the collected sperm after the treatment was used to fertilize normal female for generating the mutagenized population (F1). The fertilization and the hatching ratios were similar to those of the control and did not reveal a dose dependency of ENU. Genomic DNA from the harvested F1 offspring was used for the HRM analysis. To obtain a fish exhibiting a useful phenotype (e.g. high meat production and rapid growth), fugu myostatin (Mstn) gene was examined as a target gene, because it has been clarified that the mstn deficient medaka exhibited double-muscle phenotype in common with MSTN knockout mice and bovine MSTN mutant. As a result, ten types of ENU-induced mutations were identified including a nonsense mutation in the investigated region with HRM analysis. In addition, the average mutation frequency in fugu Mstn gene was 1 mutant per 297 kb, which is similar to values calculated for zebrafish

  2. Heritable site-specific mutagenesis using TALENs in maize.

    PubMed

    Char, Si Nian; Unger-Wallace, Erica; Frame, Bronwyn; Briggs, Sarah A; Main, Marcy; Spalding, Martin H; Vollbrecht, Erik; Wang, Kan; Yang, Bing

    2015-09-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) technology has been utilized widely for targeted gene mutagenesis, especially for gene inactivation, in many organisms, including agriculturally important plants such as rice, wheat, tomato and barley. This report describes application of this technology to generate heritable genome modifications in maize. TALENs were employed to generate stable, heritable mutations at the maize glossy2 (gl2) locus. Transgenic lines containing mono- or di-allelic mutations were obtained from the maize genotype Hi-II at a frequency of about 10% (nine mutated events in 91 transgenic events). In addition, three of the novel alleles were tested for function in progeny seedlings, where they were able to confer the glossy phenotype. In a majority of the events, the integrated TALEN T-DNA segregated independently from the new loss of function alleles, producing mutated null-segregant progeny in T1 generation. Our results demonstrate that TALENs are an effective tool for genome mutagenesis in maize, empowering the discovery of gene function and the development of trait improvement.

  3. Lethal Mutagenesis of Hepatitis C Virus Induced by Favipiravir.

    PubMed

    de Ávila, Ana I; Gallego, Isabel; Soria, Maria Eugenia; Gregori, Josep; Quer, Josep; Esteban, Juan Ignacio; Rice, Charles M; Domingo, Esteban; Perales, Celia

    2016-01-01

    Lethal mutagenesis is an antiviral approach that consists in extinguishing a virus by an excess of mutations acquired during replication in the presence of a mutagen. Here we show that favipiravir (T-705) is a potent mutagenic agent for hepatitis C virus (HCV) during its replication in human hepatoma cells. T-705 leads to an excess of G → A and C → U transitions in the mutant spectrum of preextinction HCV populations. Infectivity decreased significantly in the presence of concentrations of T-705 which are 2- to 8-fold lower than its cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50). Passaging the virus five times in the presence of 400 μM T-705 resulted in virus extinction. Since T-705 has undergone advanced clinical trials for approval for human use, the results open a new approach based on lethal mutagenesis to treat hepatitis C virus infections. If proven effective for HCV in vivo, this new anti-HCV agent may be useful in patient groups that fail current therapeutic regimens.

  4. Lethal Mutagenesis of Hepatitis C Virus Induced by Favipiravir

    PubMed Central

    de Ávila, Ana I.; Gallego, Isabel; Soria, Maria Eugenia; Gregori, Josep; Quer, Josep; Esteban, Juan Ignacio; Rice, Charles M.; Domingo, Esteban; Perales, Celia

    2016-01-01

    Lethal mutagenesis is an antiviral approach that consists in extinguishing a virus by an excess of mutations acquired during replication in the presence of a mutagen. Here we show that favipiravir (T-705) is a potent mutagenic agent for hepatitis C virus (HCV) during its replication in human hepatoma cells. T-705 leads to an excess of G → A and C → U transitions in the mutant spectrum of preextinction HCV populations. Infectivity decreased significantly in the presence of concentrations of T-705 which are 2- to 8-fold lower than its cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50). Passaging the virus five times in the presence of 400 μM T-705 resulted in virus extinction. Since T-705 has undergone advanced clinical trials for approval for human use, the results open a new approach based on lethal mutagenesis to treat hepatitis C virus infections. If proven effective for HCV in vivo, this new anti-HCV agent may be useful in patient groups that fail current therapeutic regimens. PMID:27755573

  5. Mutagenesis of diploid mammalian genes by gene entrapment

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qing; Donahue, Sarah L.; Moore-Jarrett, Tracy; Cao, Shang; Osipovich, Anna B.; Ruley, H. Earl

    2006-01-01

    The present study describes a genome-wide method for biallelic mutagenesis in mammalian cells. Novel poly(A) gene trap vectors, which contain features for direct cloning vector–cell fusion transcripts and for post-entrapment genome engineering, were used to generate a library of 979 mutant ES cells. The entrapment mutations generally disrupted gene expression and were readily transmitted through the germline, establishing the library as a resource for constructing mutant mice. Cells homozygous for most entrapment loci could be isolated by selecting for enhanced expression of an inserted neomycin-resistance gene that resulted from losses of heterozygosity (LOH). The frequencies of LOH measured at 37 sites in the genome ranged from 1.3 × 10−5 to 1.2 × 10−4 per cell and increased with increasing distance from the centromere, implicating mitotic recombination in the process. The ease and efficiency of obtaining homozygous mutations will (i) facilitate genetic studies of gene function in cultured cells, (ii) permit genome-wide studies of recombination events that result in LOH and mediate a type of chromosomal instability important in carcinogenesis, and (iii) provide new strategies for phenotype-driven mutagenesis screens in mammalian cells. PMID:17062627

  6. Mutagenesis of diploid mammalian genes by gene entrapment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qing; Donahue, Sarah L; Moore-Jarrett, Tracy; Cao, Shang; Osipovich, Anna B; Ruley, H Earl

    2006-01-01

    The present study describes a genome-wide method for biallelic mutagenesis in mammalian cells. Novel poly(A) gene trap vectors, which contain features for direct cloning vector-cell fusion transcripts and for post-entrapment genome engineering, were used to generate a library of 979 mutant ES cells. The entrapment mutations generally disrupted gene expression and were readily transmitted through the germline, establishing the library as a resource for constructing mutant mice. Cells homozygous for most entrapment loci could be isolated by selecting for enhanced expression of an inserted neomycin-resistance gene that resulted from losses of heterozygosity (LOH). The frequencies of LOH measured at 37 sites in the genome ranged from 1.3 x 10(-5) to 1.2 x 10(-4) per cell and increased with increasing distance from the centromere, implicating mitotic recombination in the process. The ease and efficiency of obtaining homozygous mutations will (i) facilitate genetic studies of gene function in cultured cells, (ii) permit genome-wide studies of recombination events that result in LOH and mediate a type of chromosomal instability important in carcinogenesis, and (iii) provide new strategies for phenotype-driven mutagenesis screens in mammalian cells.

  7. TALEN mediated somatic mutagenesis in murine models of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuyuan; Li, Lin; Kendrick, Sara L.; Gerard, Robert D.; Zhu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Cancer genome sequencing has identified numerous somatic mutations whose biological relevance is uncertain. In this study, we used genome-editing tools to create and analyze targeted somatic mutations in murine models of liver cancer. TALEN were designed against β-catenin (Ctnnb1) and Apc, two commonly mutated genes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), to generate isogenic HCC cell lines. Both mutant cell lines exhibited evidence of Wnt pathway dysregulation. We asked if these TALENs could create targeted somatic mutations after hydrodynamic transfection (HDT) into mouse liver. TALENs targeting β-catenin promoted endogenous HCC carrying the intended gain-of-function mutations. However, TALENs targeting Apc were not as efficient in inducing in vivo homozygous loss-of-function mutations. We hypothesized that hepatocyte polyploidy might be protective against TALEN-induced loss of heterozygosity (LOH), and indeed Apc gene editing was less efficient in tetraploid than in diploid hepatocytes. To increase efficiency, we administered adenoviral Apc TALENs and found that we could achieve a higher mutagenesis rate in vivo. Our results demonstrate that genome-editing tools can enable the in vivo study of cancer genes and faithfully recapitulate the mosaic nature of mutagenesis in mouse cancer models. PMID:25070752

  8. Mechanisms of Base Substitution Mutagenesis in Cancer Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Bacolla, Albino; Cooper, David N.; Vasquez, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer genome sequence data provide an invaluable resource for inferring the key mechanisms by which mutations arise in cancer cells, favoring their survival, proliferation and invasiveness. Here we examine recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the predominant type of genetic alteration found in cancer cells, somatic single base substitutions (SBSs). Cytosine methylation, demethylation and deamination, charge transfer reactions in DNA, DNA replication timing, chromatin status and altered DNA proofreading activities are all now known to contribute to the mechanisms leading to base substitution mutagenesis. We review current hypotheses as to the major processes that give rise to SBSs and evaluate their relative relevance in the light of knowledge acquired from cancer genome sequencing projects and the study of base modifications, DNA repair and lesion bypass. Although gene expression data on APOBEC3B enzymes provide support for a role in cancer mutagenesis through U:G mismatch intermediates, the enzyme preference for single-stranded DNA may limit its activity genome-wide. For SBSs at both CG:CG and YC:GR sites, we outline evidence for a prominent role of damage by charge transfer reactions that follow interactions of the DNA with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other endogenous or exogenous electron-abstracting molecules. PMID:24705290

  9. [Mechanism of arginine deiminase activity by site-directed mutagenesis].

    PubMed

    Li, Lifeng; Ni, Ye; Sun, Zhihao

    2012-04-01

    Arginine deiminase (ADI) has been studied as a potential anti-cancer agent for inhibiting arginine-auxotrophic tumors (such as melanomas and hepatocellular carcinomas) in phase III clinical trials. In this work, we studied the molecular mechanism of arginine deiminase activity by site-directed mutagenesis. Three mutation sites, A128, H404 and 1410, were introduced into wild-type ADI gene by QuikChange site-directed mutagenesis method, and four ADI mutants M1 (A128T), M2 (H404R), M3 (I410L), and M4 (A128T, H404R) were obtained. The ADI mutants were individually expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and the enzymatic properties of the purified mutant proteins were determined. The results show that both A128T and H404R had enhanced optimum pH, higher activity and stability of ADI under physiological condition (pH 7.4), as well as reduced K(m) value. This study provides an insight into the molecular mechanism of the ADI activity, and also the experimental evidence for the rational protein evolution in the future.

  10. Idaten is a new cold-inducible transposon of Volvox carteri that can be used for tagging developmentally important genes.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Noriko; Nishii, Ichiro

    2008-11-01

    A cold-inducible transposon called Jordan has previously been used to tag and recover genes controlling key aspects of Volvox development, including the process called inversion. In a search for additional genes, we isolated 17 new inversionless mutants from cultures grown at 24 degrees (the temperature that activates Jordan transposition). These mutants were stable at 32 degrees, but generated revertants at 24 degrees . DNA blots revealed that one mutant had a transposon unrelated to Jordan inserted in invA ("inversionless A"). This new transposon, which we named Idaten, has terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) beginning with CCCTA, and upon insertion it creates a 3-bp target-site duplication. It appears to belong to the CACTA superfamily of class II DNA transposons, which includes En/Spm. No significant open reading frames were in the Idaten sequence, but we retrieved another element with Idaten-type TIRs encoding a protein similar to the En/Spm transposase as a candidate for an Idaten-specific transposase. We found that in five of the new inversionless strains we could not find any Jordan insertions causing the phenotype to possess insertions of an Idaten family member in a single locus (invC). This clearly indicates that Idaten is a potentially powerful alternative to Jordan for tagging developmentally important genes in Volvox.

  11. Dual functions of Macpiwi1 in transposon silencing and stem cell maintenance in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin; Battistoni, Giorgia; El Demerdash, Osama; Gurtowski, James; Wunderer, Julia; Falciatori, Ilaria; Ladurner, Peter; Schatz, Michael C.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Wasik, Kaja A.

    2015-01-01

    PIWI proteins and piRNA pathways are essential for transposon silencing and some aspects of gene regulation during animal germline development. In contrast to most animal species, some flatworms also express PIWIs and piRNAs in somatic stem cells, where they are required for tissue renewal and regeneration. Here, we have identified and characterized piRNAs and PIWI proteins in the emerging model flatworm Macrostomum lignano. We found that M. lignano encodes at least three PIWI proteins. One of these, Macpiwi1, acts as a key component of the canonical piRNA pathway in the germline and in somatic stem cells. Knockdown of Macpiwi1 dramatically reduces piRNA levels, derepresses transposons, and severely impacts stem cell maintenance. Knockdown of the piRNA biogenesis factor Macvasa caused an even greater reduction in piRNA levels with a corresponding increase in transposons. Yet, in Macvasa knockdown animals, we detected no major impact on stem cell self-renewal. These results may suggest stem cell maintenance functions of PIWI proteins in flatworms that are distinguishable from their impact on transposons and that might function independently of what are considered canonical piRNA populations. PMID:26323280

  12. Sleeping Beauty transposon screen identifies signaling modules that cooperate with STAT5 activation to induce B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Heltemes-Harris, Lynn M.; Larson, Jon D.; Starr, Timothy K.; Hubbard, Gregory K.; Sarver, Aaron L.; Largaespada, David A.; Farrar, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    STAT5 activation occurs frequently in human progenitor B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). To identify gene alterations that cooperate with STAT5 activation to initiate leukemia we crossed mice expressing a constitutively active form of STAT5 (Stat5b-CA) to mice in which a mutagenic Sleeping Beauty transposon (T2/Onc) was mobilized only in B cells. Stat5b-CA mice typically do not develop B-ALL (<2% penetrance); in contrast, 89% of Stat5b–CA mice in which the T2/Onc transposon had been mobilized died of B-ALL by 3 months of age. High-throughput sequencing approaches were used to identify genes frequently targeted by the T2/Onc transposon; these included Sos1 (74%), Kdm2a (35%), Jak1 (26%), Bmi1 (19%), Prdm14 or Ncoa2 (13%), Cdkn2a (10%), Ikzf1 (8%), Caap1 (6%) and Klf3 (6%). Collectively, these mutations target three major cellular processes: (i) the JAK/STAT5 pathway (ii) progenitor B cell differentiation and (iii) the CDKN2A tumor suppressor pathway. Transposon insertions typically resulted in altered expression of these genes, as well as downstream pathways including STAT5, ERK and p38. Importantly, expression of Sos1 and Kdm2a, and activation of p38, correlated with survival, further underscoring the role these genes and associated pathways play in B-ALL. PMID:26500062

  13. The blaSHV-5 gene is encoded in a compound transposon duplicated in tandem in Enterobacter cloacae.

    PubMed

    Garza-Ramos, U; Davila, G; Gonzalez, V; Alpuche-Aranda, C; López-Collada, V R; Alcantar-Curiel, D; Newton, O; Silva-Sanchez, J

    2009-09-01

    The presence of bla(SHV-5) is described in a compound transposon, duplicated in tandem and flanked by IS26 copies on a 70-kb conjugative plasmid (pHNM1), in an Enterobacter cloacae strain associated with a nosocomial outbreak that occurred in Mexico.

  14. A tetracycline efflux gene on Bacteroides transposon Tn4400 does not contribute to tetracycline resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Speer, B S; Salyers, A A

    1990-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the Bacteroides transposon Tn4351, which confers tetracycline resistance only on aerobically grown Escherichia coli, carries a gene that codes for a tetracycline-inactivating enzyme (B. S. Speer and A. A. Salyers, J. Bacteriol. 170:1423-1429, 1988). However, Park et al. (B. H. Park, M. Hendricks, M. H. Malamy, F. P. Tally, and S. B. Levy, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31:1739-1743, 1987) showed that E. coli carrying a closely related transposon, Tn4400, exhibits energy-dependent efflux of tetracycline as well as tetracycline-inactivating activity (B. H. Park and S. B. Levy, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:1797-1800, 1988). This result raised the question of whether efflux or inactivation or a combination of the two was necessary for resistance conferred by both transposons. We showed that cells carrying Tn4351 did not exhibit the clear-cut efflux activity seen with cells carrying Tn4400 but rather exhibited a tetracycline accumulation profile which could be explained solely on the basis of inactivation of tetracycline in the cytoplasm and rapid diffusion of altered tetracycline out of the cell. Additionally, we were able to clone the efflux and tetracycline-modifying genes of Tn4400 separately. The region carrying the efflux gene spanned one of the two regions in which Tn4400 differs from Tn4351. A clone containing the corresponding region of Tn4351 did not exhibit efflux. Thus, it appears that Tn4351 does not have the efflux gene and that efflux makes no contribution to the resistance conferred by Tn4351. The MIC for cells carrying the subclone from Tn4400 that contained only the gene for tetracycline inactivation was the same that for cells carrying both the inactivation and efflux genes. Cells carrying only the gene for tetracycline efflux were tetracycline sensitive. This was true even when the efflux gene was on a high-copy-number plasmid which increased the level of efflux to that associated with the Tcr gene on pBR328. These

  15. Site-directed mutagenesis and saturation mutagenesis for the functional study of transcription factors involved in plant secondary metabolite biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Werkman, Joshua R; Kong, Que; Yuan, Ling

    2010-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression is largely coordinated by a complex network of interactions between transcription factors (TFs), co-factors, and their cognate cis-regulatory elements in the genome. TFs are multidomain proteins that arise evolutionarily through protein domain shuffling. The modular nature of TFs has led to the idea that specific modules of TFs can be re-designed to regulate desired gene(s) through protein engineering. Utilization of designer TFs for the control of metabolic pathways has emerged as an effective approach for metabolic engineering. We are interested in engineering the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH, Myc-type) transcription factors. Using site-directed and saturation mutagenesis, in combination with efficient and high-throughput screening systems, we have identified and characterized several amino acid residues critical for higher transactivation activity of a Myc-like bHLH transcription factor involved in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in plants. Site-directed and saturation mutagenesis should be generally applicable to engineering of all TFs.

  16. DDR complex facilitates global association of RNA polymerase V to promoters and evolutionarily young transposons.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xuehua; Hale, Christopher J; Law, Julie A; Johnson, Lianna M; Feng, Suhua; Tu, Andy; Jacobsen, Steven E

    2012-09-01

    The plant-specific DNA-dependent RNA polymerase V (Pol V) evolved from Pol II to function in an RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway. Here, we have identified targets of Pol V in Arabidopsis thaliana on a genome-wide scale using ChIP-seq of NRPE1, the largest catalytic subunit of Pol V. We found that Pol V is enriched at promoters and evolutionarily recent transposons. This localization pattern is highly correlated with Pol V-dependent DNA methylation and small RNA accumulation. We also show that genome-wide chromatin association of Pol V is dependent on all members of a putative chromatin-remodeling complex termed DDR. Our study presents a genome-wide view of Pol V occupancy and sheds light on the mechanistic basis of Pol V localization. Furthermore, these findings suggest a role for Pol V and RNA-directed DNA methylation in genome surveillance and in responding to genome evolution.

  17. Transposon-mediated targeted and specific knockdown of maternally expressed transcripts in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Iitsuka, Takako; Mita, Kaoru; Hozumi, Akiko; Hamada, Mayuko; Satoh, Nori; Sasakura, Yasunori

    2014-05-23

    Maternal mRNAs play crucial roles during early embryogenesis of ascidians, but their functions are largely unknown. In this study, we developed a new method to specifically knockdown maternal mRNAs in Ciona intestinalis using transposon-mediated transgenesis. We found that GFP expression is epigenetically silenced in Ciona intestinalis oocytes and eggs, and this epigenetic silencing of GFP was used to develop the knockdown method. When the 5' upstream promoter and 5' untranslated region (UTR) of a maternal gene are used to drive GFP in eggs, the maternal gene is specifically knocked down together with GFP. The 5' UTR of the maternal gene is the major element that determines the target gene silencing. Zygotic transcription of the target gene is unaffected, suggesting that the observed phenotypes specifically reflect the maternal function of the gene. This new method can provide breakthroughs in studying the functions of maternal mRNAs.

  18. A standardized format for handling data on plasmids, viruses and transposons: The PVT database format.

    PubMed

    Vicente, M; Aldea, M; Sacristán, A; Rohde, C; Weihs, V; Kracht, M; van Asma, F; Kampert, E; Hughes, V; Jones, C

    1992-09-01

    The PVT format described here has been designed to store and retrieve genetic data on plasmids, viruses or transposons with special focus on their applications. Both naturally-occurring and engineered elements can be included in it. A variety of data can be accommodated in fields that are grouped in blocks: name and type of element, database administration, element administration, history, propagation, selection and host, biological properties, cloned insert and applications. The number of fields, now 157, can be expanded as required. Most properties can be described in simple logical fields. The format is organized to permit rapid searches and to facilitate communication between database and user; connection with culture and/or DNA collections is also envisaged and adequate fields for these tasks have been provided. The format allows cross-reference with that originated by the Microbial Information Network Europe (MINE) for computer storage and handling of bacterial or fungal strain data.

  19. Targeted gene inactivation in petunia by PCR-based selection of transposon insertion mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Koes, R; Souer, E; van Houwelingen, A; Mur, L; Spelt, C; Quattrocchio, F; Wing, J; Oppedijk, B; Ahmed, S; Maes, T

    1995-01-01

    Establishment of loss-of-function phenotypes is often a key step in determining the biological function of a gene. We describe a procedure to obtain mutant petunia plants in which a specific gene with known sequence is inactivated by the transposable element dTph1. Leaves are collected from batches of 1000 plants with highly active dTph1 elements, pooled according to a three-dimensional matrix, and screened by PCR using a transposon- and a gene-specific primer. In this way individual plants with a dTph1 insertion can be identified by analysis of about 30 PCRs. We found insertion alleles for various genes at a frequency of about 1 in 1000 plants. The plant population can be preserved by selfing all the plants, so that it can be screened for insertions in many genes over a prolonged period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7667260

  20. Necessity Is the Mother of Invention: Ciliates, Transposons, and Transgenerational Inheritance.

    PubMed

    Allen, Sarah E; Nowacki, Mariusz

    2017-03-01

    Ciliates are a fascinating model system for the study of the interaction between eukaryotic germlines and somatic lines, especially with regard to the invasion and defence against transposable elements. They separate their germline and somatic line into two nuclei within the same cell, and they silence transposons and repetitive elements by way of deleting them from their somatic genome. This large-scale deletion event uses a series of intricate sequence targeting pathways involving small RNAs and transposases, part of which consists of a transnuclear comparison between maternal soma and daughter germline. We present recent progress in this dynamic field, and argue that these DNA targeting pathways provide an optimal system for the transgenerational inheritance of acquired traits. Ciliates thus also demonstrate the evolutionary value of transposable elements, both as sources of sequence diversity and also as drivers of adaptive evolution by necessitating defensive systems.

  1. Physical and functional mapping of Tn2603, a transposon encoding ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and mercury resistance.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Tanaka, M; Baba, R; Yamagishi, S

    1981-01-01

    A map of cleavage sites for restriction endonuclease EcoRI, BamHI, HindIII, and SalI on Tn2603, a transposon encoding resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and mercury, was constructed by an analysis of restriction cleavage patterns of plasmid pMK1.::Tn2603 and its deletion derivative. By cloning the fragments generated from pMK1.::Tn2603 with these restriction endonucleases to a pACYC184 plasmid vehicle, the regions necessary for expression of resistance were located on the restriction cleavage map of Tn2603. Ampicillin, streptomycin, and sulfonamide-resistance genes were mapped in a cluster on the region between the center and the right and the mercury-resistance gene was located to the left of the map. The final functional map of Tn2603 was compared with those of Tn4 and Tn21 and the evolutional relationships between them were discussed.

  2. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome contains functional and nonfunctional copies of transposon Ty1

    SciTech Connect

    Boeke, J.D.; Eichinger, D.; Castrillon, D.; Fink, G.R.

    1988-04-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ty elements are transposons closely related to retroviruses. The DNA sequence of a functional Ty element (TyH3) is presented. The long terminal repeat sequences are different, suggesting that TyH3 is a recombinant Ty element. A chromosomal Ty element near the LYS2 gene, Ty173, was found to be nonfunctional, even though it has no detectable insertions or deletions. The defect in Ty173 transposition is caused by a missense mutation giving rise to a Leu-to-Ile substitution in the TYB (pol) open reading frame. Several chromosomal Ty elements carry this lesion in their DNA, indicating that nonfunctional Ty elements are common in the yeast genome.

  3. Endogenous siRNAs Derived from Transposons and mRNAs in Drosophila Somatic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghildiyal, Megha; Seitz, Hervé; Horwich, Michael D.; Li, Chengjian; Du, Tingting; Lee, Soohyun; Xu, Jia; Kittler, Ellen L.W.; Zapp, Maria L.; Weng, Zhiping; Zamore, Phillip D.

    2009-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) direct RNA interference (RNAi) in eukaryotes. In flies, somatic cells produce siRNAs from exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as a defense against viral infection. We identified endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs), 21 nucleotides in length, that correspond to transposons and heterochromatic sequences in the somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster. We also detected endo-siRNAs complementary to messenger RNAs (mRNAs); these siRNAs disproportionately mapped to the complementary regions of overlapping mRNAs predicted to form double-stranded RNA in vivo. Normal accumulation of somatic endo-siRNAs requires the siRNA-generating ribonuclease Dicer-2 and the RNAi effector protein Argonaute2 (Ago2). We propose that endo-siRNAs generated by the fly RNAi pathway silence selfish genetic elements in the soma, much as Piwi-interacting RNAs do in the germ line. PMID:18403677

  4. Evolution of double-stranded DNA viruses of eukaryotes: from bacteriophages to transposons to giant viruses

    PubMed Central

    Koonin, Eugene V; Krupovic, Mart; Yutin, Natalya

    2015-01-01

    Diverse eukaryotes including animals and protists are hosts to a broad variety of viruses with double-stranded (ds) DNA genomes, from the largest known viruses, such as pandoraviruses and mimiviruses, to tiny polyomaviruses. Recent comparative genomic analyses have revealed many evolutionary connections between dsDNA viruses of eukaryotes, bacteriophages, transposable elements, and linear DNA plasmids. These findings provide an evolutionary scenario that derives several major groups of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses, including the proposed order “Megavirales,” adenoviruses, and virophages from a group of large virus-like transposons known as Polintons (Mavericks). The Polintons have been recently shown to encode two capsid proteins, suggesting that these elements lead a dual lifestyle with both a transposon and a viral phase and should perhaps more appropriately be named polintoviruses. Here, we describe the recently identified evolutionary relationships between bacteriophages of the family Tectiviridae, polintoviruses, adenoviruses, virophages, large and giant DNA viruses of eukaryotes of the proposed order “Megavirales,” and linear mitochondrial and cytoplasmic plasmids. We outline an evolutionary scenario under which the polintoviruses were the first group of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses that evolved from bacteriophages and became the ancestors of most large DNA viruses of eukaryotes and a variety of other selfish elements. Distinct lines of origin are detectable only for herpesviruses (from a different bacteriophage root) and polyoma/papillomaviruses (from single-stranded DNA viruses and ultimately from plasmids). Phylogenomic analysis of giant viruses provides compelling evidence of their independent origins from smaller members of the putative order “Megavirales,” refuting the speculations on the evolution of these viruses from an extinct fourth domain of cellular life. PMID:25727355

  5. Rolling-Circle Transposons Catalyze Genomic Innovation in a Mammalian Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jainy; Phillips, Caleb D.; Baker, Robert J.; Pritham, Ellen J.

    2014-01-01

    Rolling-circle transposons (Helitrons) are a newly discovered group of mobile DNA widespread in plant and invertebrate genomes but limited to the bat family Vespertilionidae among mammals. Little is known about the long-term impact of Helitron activity because the genomes where Helitron activity has been extensively studied are predominated by young families. Here, we report a comprehensive catalog of vetted Helitrons from the 7× Myotis lucifugus genome assembly. To estimate the timing of transposition, we scored presence/absence across related vespertilionid genome sequences with estimated divergence times. This analysis revealed that the Helibat family has been a persistent source of genomic innovation throughout the vespertilionid diversification from approximately 30–36 Ma to as recently as approximately 1.8–6 Ma. This is the first report of persistent Helitron transposition over an extended evolutionary timeframe. These findings illustrate that the pattern of Helitron activity is akin to the vertical persistence of LINE retrotransposons in primates and other mammalian lineages. Like retrotransposition in primates, rolling-circle transposition has generated lineage-specific variation and accounts for approximately 110 Mb, approximately 6% of the genome of M. lucifugus. The Helitrons carry a heterogeneous assortment of host sequence including retroposed messenger RNAs, retrotransposons, DNA transposons, as well as introns, exons and regulatory regions (promoters, 5′-untranslated regions [UTRs], and 3′-UTRs) of which some are evolving in a pattern suggestive of purifying selection. Evidence that Helitrons have contributed putative promoters, exons, splice sites, polyadenylation sites, and microRNA-binding sites to transcripts otherwise conserved across mammals is presented, and the implication of Helitron activity to innovation in these unique mammals is discussed. PMID:25223768

  6. Diversity of plasmids and Tn1546-type transposons among VanA Enterococcus faecium in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wardal, E; Kuch, A; Gawryszewska, I; Żabicka, D; Hryniewicz, W; Sadowy, E

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance, Tn1546 transposon variability and plasmid diversity among Polish vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) isolates of VanA phenotype in the context of their clonal structure. Two hundred sixteen clinical VREfm isolates collected between 1997 and 2010 were studied by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, MLST, MLVA and detection of IS16, esp Efm, pilA, intA and plasmid-specific genes by PCR. Tn1546 structure was revealed by overlapping PCR and sequencing. Selected isolates were subjected to PFGE-S1 and Southern hybridization analyses. The vast majority of the isolates (95.8 %) belonged to lineages 17/18 (during the whole study period 1997-2010) and 78 (mostly in 2006-2010) of hospital-adapted meroclone of E. faecium. All isolates displayed a multi-drug resistance phenotype. Twenty-eight Tn1546 types (including 26 novel ones) were associated with eight different ISs (IS1216, IS1251, ISEfa4, ISEfa5, ISEfm2, ISEf1, IS3-like, ISEfm1-like). The vanA-determinant was typically located on plasmids, which most commonly carried rep2pRE25, rep17pRUM, rep18pEF418, rep1pIP501, ω-ε-ζ and axe-txe genes. VanA isolates from 1997-2005 to 2006-2010 differed in clonal composition, prevalence of gentamicin- and tetracycline-resistance and plasmidome. Our analysis revealed high complexity of Tn1546-type transposons and vanA-plasmids, and suggested that diverse genetic events, such as conjugation transfer, recombination, chromosomal integration and DNA mutations shaped the structure of these elements among Polish VREfm.

  7. Rolling-circle transposons catalyze genomic innovation in a mammalian lineage.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jainy; Phillips, Caleb D; Baker, Robert J; Pritham, Ellen J

    2014-09-14

    Rolling-circle transposons (Helitrons) are a newly discovered group of mobile DNA widespread in plant and invertebrate genomes but limited to the bat family Vespertilionidae among mammals. Little is known about the long-term impact of Helitron activity because the genomes where Helitron activity has been extensively studied are predominated by young families. Here, we report a comprehensive catalog of vetted Helitrons from the 7× Myotis lucifugus genome assembly. To estimate the timing of transposition, we scored presence/absence across related vespertilionid genome sequences with estimated divergence times. This analysis revealed that the Helibat family has been a persistent source of genomic innovation throughout the vespertilionid diversification from approximately 30-36 Ma to as recently as approximately 1.8-6 Ma. This is the first report of persistent Helitron transposition over an extended evolutionary timeframe. These findings illustrate that the pattern of Helitron activity is akin to the vertical persistence of LINE retrotransposons in primates and other mammalian lineages. Like retrotransposition in primates, rolling-circle transposition has generated lineage-specific variation and accounts for approximately 110 Mb, approximately 6% of the genome of M. lucifugus. The Helitrons carry a heterogeneous assortment of host sequence including retroposed messenger RNAs, retrotransposons, DNA transposons, as well as introns, exons and regulatory regions (promoters, 5'-untranslated regions [UTRs], and 3'-UTRs) of which some are evolving in a pattern suggestive of purifying selection. Evidence that Helitrons have contributed putative promoters, exons, splice sites, polyadenylation sites, and microRNA-binding sites to transcripts otherwise conserved across mammals is presented, and the implication of Helitron activity to innovation in these unique mammals is discussed.

  8. Genetic and Structural Analysis of the Bacteroides Conjugative Transposon CTn341

    PubMed Central

    Bacic, M.; Parker, A. C.; Stagg, J.; Whitley, H. P.; Wells, W. G.; Jacob, L. A.; Smith, C. J.

    2005-01-01

    The genetic structure and functional organization of a Bacteroides conjugative transposon (CTn), CTn341, were determined. CTn341 was originally isolated from a tetracycline-resistant clinical isolate of Bacteroides vulgatus. The element was 51,993 bp long, which included a 5-bp coupling sequence that linked the transposon ends in the circular form. There were 46 genes, and the corresponding gene products fell into three major functional groups: DNA metabolism, regulation and antibiotic resistance, and conjugation. The G+C content and codon usage observed in the functional groups suggested that the groups belong to different genetic lineages, indicating that CTn341 is a composite, modular element. Mutational analysis of genes representing the different functional groups provided evidence for the gene assignments and showed that the basic conjugation and excision genes are conserved among Bacteroides spp. A group IIA1 intron, designated B.f.I1, was found to be inserted into the bmhA methylase gene. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis of CTn341 RNA showed that B.fr.I1 was functional and was spliced out of the bmhA gene. Six related CTn-like elements were found in the genome sequences of Bacteroides fragilis NCTC9343 and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI5482. The putative elements were similar to CTn341 primarily in the tra and mob regions and in the exc gene, and several appeared to contain intron elements. Our data provide the first reported sequence for a complete Bacteroides CTn, and they should be of considerable benefit to further functional and genetic analyses of antibiotic resistance elements and genome evolution in Bacteroides. PMID:15805532

  9. Evolution of double-stranded DNA viruses of eukaryotes: from bacteriophages to transposons to giant viruses.

    PubMed

    Koonin, Eugene V; Krupovic, Mart; Yutin, Natalya

    2015-04-01

    Diverse eukaryotes including animals and protists are hosts to a broad variety of viruses with double-stranded (ds) DNA genomes, from the largest known viruses, such as pandoraviruses and mimiviruses, to tiny polyomaviruses. Recent comparative genomic analyses have revealed many evolutionary connections between dsDNA viruses of eukaryotes, bacteriophages, transposable elements, and linear DNA plasmids. These findings provide an evolutionary scenario that derives several major groups of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses, including the proposed order "Megavirales," adenoviruses, and virophages from a group of large virus-like transposons known as Polintons (Mavericks). The Polintons have been recently shown to encode two capsid proteins, suggesting that these elements lead a dual lifestyle with both a transposon and a viral phase and should perhaps more appropriately be named polintoviruses. Here, we describe the recently identified evolutionary relationships between bacteriophages of the family Tectiviridae, polintoviruses, adenoviruses, virophages, large and giant DNA viruses of eukaryotes of the proposed order "Megavirales," and linear mitochondrial and cytoplasmic plasmids. We outline an evolutionary scenario under which the polintoviruses were the first group of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses that evolved from bacteriophages and became the ancestors of most large DNA viruses of eukaryotes and a variety of other selfish elements. Distinct lines of origin are detectable only for herpesviruses (from a different bacteriophage root) and polyoma/papillomaviruses (from single-stranded DNA viruses and ultimately from plasmids). Phylogenomic analysis of giant viruses provides compelling evidence of their independent origins from smaller members of the putative order "Megavirales," refuting the speculations on the evolution of these viruses from an extinct fourth domain of cellular life.

  10. Greetings from The International Association of Environmental Mutagenesis and Genomics Societies.

    PubMed

    Nohmi, Takehiko

    2015-01-01

    The International Association of Environmental Mutagenesis and Genomics Societies (IAEMGS) is an organization that promotes basic and applied research on environmental mutagenesis and genomics. In this article, as President of IAEMGS, I stress the important role of Genes and Environment to spread the voice of Asia to the international scientific community. Open access will support the journal in achieving this mission.

  11. Establishment of a Counter-selectable Markerless Mutagenesis System in Veillonella atypica

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Peng; Li, Xiaoli; Qi, Fengxia

    2015-01-01

    Using an alternative sigma factor ecf3 as target, we successfully established the first markerless mutagenesis system in the Veillonella genus. This system will be a valuable tool for mutagenesis of multiple genes for gene function analysis as well as for gene regulation studies in Veillonella. PMID:25771833

  12. A mouse chromosome 4 balancer ENU-mutagenesis screen isolates eleven lethal lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ENU-mutagenesis is a powerful technique to identify genes regulating mammalian development. To functionally annotate the distal region of mouse chromosome 4, we performed an ENU-mutagenesis screen using a balancer chromosome targeted to this region of the genome. We isolated 11 lethal lines that map...

  13. Identification of a Tc1-like transposon integration site in the genome of the flounder (Platichthys flesus): a novel use of an inverse PCR method.

    PubMed

    Poćwierz-Kotus, Anita; Burzyński, Artur; Wenne, Roman

    2010-03-01

    The inverse PCR method has been developed and applied employed for the identification of the integration sites of the Tc1-like transposons in the genome of the flounder, Platichthys flesus. One Tc1-like insertion instance was recognized and characterized, demonstrating an efficiency of the method for determining of transposon integration sites. The similarity of the sequence flanking transposon (SFT) to reverse transcriptase sequences (RVT) was demonstrated. It is likely that the insertion took place within currently degenerated LINE (long interspersed nuclear elements) retrotransposon.

  14. Environmental mutagenesis during the end-Permian ecological crisis.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Henk; Looy, Cindy V; Collinson, Margaret E; Brinkhuis, Henk; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H A; Kürschner, Wolfram M; Sephton, Mark A

    2004-08-31

    During the end-Permian ecological crisis, terrestrial ecosystems experienced preferential dieback of woody vegetation. Across the world, surviving herbaceous lycopsids played a pioneering role in repopulating deforested terrain. We document that the microspores of these lycopsids were regularly released in unseparated tetrads indicative of failure to complete the normal process of spore development. Although involvement of mutation has long been hinted at or proposed in theory, this finding provides concrete evidence for chronic environmental mutagenesis at the time of global ecological crisis. Prolonged exposure to enhanced UV radiation could account satisfactorily for a worldwide increase in land plant mutation. At the end of the Permian, a period of raised UV stress may have been the consequence of severe disruption of the stratospheric ozone balance by excessive emission of hydrothermal organohalogens in the vast area of Siberian Traps volcanism.

  15. Targeted Mutagenesis in Zebrafish Using Customized Zinc Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Jonathan E.; Maeder, Morgan L.; Pearlberg, Joseph; Joung, J. Keith; Peterson, Randall T.; Yeh, Jing-Ruey J.

    2009-01-01

    Zebrafish mutants have traditionally been obtained using random mutagenesis or retroviral insertions, methods that cannot be targeted to a specific gene and require laborious gene mapping and sequencing. Recently, we and others have shown that customized zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) can introduce targeted frame-shift mutations with high efficiency, thereby enabling directed creation of zebrafish gene mutations. Here we describe a detailed protocol for constructing ZFN expression vectors, for generating and introducing ZFN-encoding RNAs into zebrafish embryos, and for identifying ZFN-generated mutations in targeted genomic sites. All of our vectors and methods are compatible with previously described Zinc Finger Consortium reagents for constructing engineered zinc finger arrays. Using these methods, zebrafish founders carrying targeted mutations can be identified within four months. PMID:20010934

  16. Combined Overlap Extension PCR Method for Improved Site Directed Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Nikson Fatt-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The combined overlap extension PCR (COE-PCR) method developed in this work combines the strengths of the overlap extension PCR (OE-PCR) method with the speed and ease of the asymmetrical overlap extension (AOE-PCR) method. This combined method allows up to 6 base pairs to be mutated at a time and requires a total of 40–45 PCR cycles. A total of eight mutagenesis experiments were successfully carried out, with each experiment mutating between two to six base pairs. Up to four adjacent codons were changed in a single experiment. This method is especially useful for codon optimization, where doublet or triplet rare codons can be changed using a single mutagenic primer set, in a single experiment. PMID:27995143

  17. Mutant fatty acid desaturase and methods for directed mutagenesis

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Whittle, Edward J.

    2008-01-29

    The present invention relates to methods for producing fatty acid desaturase mutants having a substantially increased activity towards substrates with fewer than 18 carbon atom chains relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon chain length specificity, the sequences encoding the desaturases and to the desaturases that are produced by the methods. The present invention further relates to a method for altering a function of a protein, including a fatty acid desaturase, through directed mutagenesis involving identifying candidate amino acid residues, producing a library of mutants of the protein by simultaneously randomizing all amino acid candidates, and selecting for mutants which exhibit the desired alteration of function. Candidate amino acids are identified by a combination of methods. Enzymatic, binding, structural and other functions of proteins can be altered by the method.

  18. Mutagenesis and differentiation induction in mammalian cells by environmental chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, J.; Huberman, E.

    1980-01-01

    These studies indicate that in agreement with the somatic mutation hypothesis, chemical carcinogens: (1) are mutagenic for mammalian cells as tested in the cell-mediated assay; (2) the degree of mutagenicity is correlated with their degree of carcinogenicity; (3) that at least in cases when analyzed carefully the metabolites responsible for mutagenesis are also responsible for initiating the carcinogenic event; and (4) that a cell organ type specificity can be established using the cell-mediated assay. Studies with HL-60 cells and HO melanoma cells and those of others suggest that tumor-promoting phorbol diesters can alter cell differentiation in various cell types and that the degree of the observed alteration in the differentiation properties may be related to the potency of the phorbol esters. Thus these and similar systems may serve as models for both studies and identification of certain types of tumor promoting agents. (ERB)

  19. New insights into behaviour using mouse ENU mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Peter L; Davies, Kay E

    2012-10-15

    Identifying genes involved in behavioural disorders in man is a challenge as the cause is often multigenic and the phenotype is modulated by environmental cues. Mouse mutants are a valuable tool for identifying novel pathways underlying specific neurological phenotypes and exploring the influence both genetic and non-genetic factors. Many human variants causing behavioural disorders are not gene deletions but changes in levels of expression or activity of a gene product; consequently, large-scale mouse ENU mutagenesis has the advantage over the study of null mutants in that it generates a range of point mutations that frequently mirror the subtlety and heterogeneity of human genetic lesions. ENU mutants have provided novel and clinically relevant functional information on genes that influence many aspects of mammalian behaviour, from neuropsychiatric endophenotypes to circadian rhythms. This review will highlight some of the most important findings that have been made using this method in several key areas of neurological disease research.

  20. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis in Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junping; Wang, Genhong; Ma, Sanyuan; Xie, Xiaodong; Wu, Xiangwei; Zhang, Xingtan; Wu, Yuqian; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    Genome editing is one of the most powerful tools for revealing gene function and improving crop plants. Recently, RNA-guided genome editing using the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein (Cas) system has been used as a powerful and efficient tool for genome editing in various organisms. Here, we report genome editing in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) mediated by the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Two genes, NtPDS and NtPDR6, were used for targeted mutagenesis. First, we examined the transient genome editing activity of this system in tobacco protoplasts, insertion and deletion (indel) mutations were observed with frequencies of 16.2-20.3% after transfecting guide RNA (gRNA) and the nuclease Cas9 in tobacco protoplasts. The two genes were also mutated using multiplexing gRNA at a time. Additionally, targeted deletions and inversions of a 1.8-kb fragment between two target sites in the NtPDS locus were demonstrated, while indel mutations were also detected at both the sites. Second, we obtained transgenic tobacco plants with NtPDS and NtPDR6 mutations induced by Cas9/gRNA. The mutation percentage was 81.8% for NtPDS gRNA4 and 87.5% for NtPDR6 gRNA2. Obvious phenotypes were observed, etiolated leaves for the psd mutant and more branches for the pdr6 mutant, indicating that highly efficient biallelic mutations occurred in both transgenic lines. No significant off-target mutations were obtained. Our results show that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a useful tool for targeted mutagenesis of the tobacco genome.

  1. Precision Targeted Mutagenesis via Cas9 Paired Nickases in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Mikami, Masafumi; Toki, Seiichi; Endo, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports of CRISPR- (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) mediated heritable mutagenesis in plants highlight the need for accuracy of the mutagenesis directed by this system. Off-target mutations are an important issue when considering functional gene analysis, as well as the molecular breeding of crop plants with large genome size, i.e. with many duplicated genes, and where the whole-genome sequence is still lacking. In mammals, off-target mutations can be suppressed by using Cas9 paired nickases together with paired guide RNAs (gRNAs). However, the performance of Cas9 paired nickases has not yet been fully assessed in plants. Here, we analyzed on- and off-target mutation frequency in rice calli and regenerated plants using Cas9 nuclease or Cas9 nickase with paired gRNAs. When Cas9 paired nickases were used, off-target mutations were fully suppressed in rice calli and regenerated plants. However, on-target mutation frequency also decreased compared with that induced by the Cas9 paired nucleases system. Since the gRNA sequence determines specific binding of Cas9 protein–gRNA ribonucleoproteins at the targeted sequence, the on-target mutation frequency of Cas9 paired nickases depends on the design of paired gRNAs. Our results suggest that a combination of gRNAs that can induce mutations at high efficiency with Cas9 nuclease should be used together with Cas9 nickase. Furthermore, we confirmed that a combination of gRNAs containing a one nucleotide (1 nt) mismatch toward the target sequence could not induce mutations when expressed with Cas9 nickase. Our results clearly show the effectiveness of Cas9 paired nickases in delivering on-target specific mutations. PMID:26936792

  2. In vivo site-directed mutagenesis using oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Storici, F; Lewis, L K; Resnick, M A

    2001-08-01

    Functional characterization of the genes of higher eukaryotes has been aided by their expression in model organisms and by analyzing site-specific changes in homologous genes in model systems such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Modifying sequences in yeast or other organisms such that no heterologous material is retained requires in vitro mutagenesis together with subcloning. PCR-based procedures that do not involve cloning are inefficient or require multistep reactions that increase the risk of additional mutations. An alternative approach, demonstrated in yeast, relies on transformation with an oligonucleotide, but the method is restricted to the generation of mutants with a selectable phenotype. Oligonucleotides, when combined with gap repair, have also been used to modify plasmids in yeast; however, this approach is limited by restriction-site availability. We have developed a mutagenesis approach in yeast based on transformation by unpurified oligonucleotides that allows the rapid creation of site-specific DNA mutations in vivo. A two-step, cloning-free process, referred to as delitto perfetto, generates products having only the desired mutation, such as a single or multiple base change, an insertion, a small or a large deletion, or even random mutations. The system provides for multiple rounds of mutation in a window up to 200 base pairs. The process is RAD52 dependent, is not constrained by the distribution of naturally occurring restriction sites, and requires minimal DNA sequencing. Because yeast is commonly used for random and selective cloning of genomic DNA from higher eukaryotes such as yeast artificial chromosomes, the delitto perfetto strategy also provides an efficient way to create precise changes in mammalian or other DNA sequences.

  3. Structure-based design of combinatorial mutagenesis libraries.

    PubMed

    Verma, Deeptak; Grigoryan, Gevorg; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    2015-05-01

    The development of protein variants with improved properties (thermostability, binding affinity, catalytic activity, etc.) has greatly benefited from the application of high-throughput screens evaluating large, diverse combinatorial libraries. At the same time, since only a very limited portion of sequence space can be experimentally constructed and tested, an attractive possibility is to use computational protein design to focus libraries on a productive portion of the space. We present a general-purpose method, called "Structure-based Optimization of Combinatorial Mutagenesis" (SOCoM), which can optimize arbitrarily large combinatorial mutagenesis libraries directly based on structural energies of their constituents. SOCoM chooses both positions and substitutions, employing a combinatorial optimization framework based on library-averaged energy potentials in order to avoid explicitly modeling every variant in every possible library. In case study applications to green fluorescent protein, β-lactamase, and lipase A, SOCoM optimizes relatively small, focused libraries whose variants achieve energies comparable to or better than previous library design efforts, as well as larger libraries (previously not designable by structure-based methods) whose variants cover greater diversity while still maintaining substantially better energies than would be achieved by representative random library approaches. By allowing the creation of large-scale combinatorial libraries based on structural calculations, SOCoM promises to increase the scope of applicability of computational protein design and improve the hit rate of discovering beneficial variants. While designs presented here focus on variant stability (predicted by total energy), SOCoM can readily incorporate other structure-based assessments, such as the energy gap between alternative conformational or bound states.

  4. Mobility and Generation of Mosaic Non-Autonomous Transposons by Tn3-Derived Inverted-Repeat Miniature Elements (TIMEs)

    PubMed Central

    Szuplewska, Magdalena; Ludwiczak, Marta; Lyzwa, Katarzyna; Czarnecki, Jakub; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Functional transposable elements (TEs) of several Pseudomonas spp. strains isolated from black shale ore of Lubin mine and from post-flotation tailings of Zelazny Most in Poland, were identified using a positive selection trap plasmid strategy. This approach led to the capture and characterization of (i) 13 insertion sequences from 5 IS families (IS3, IS5, ISL3, IS30 and IS1380), (ii) isoforms of two Tn3-family transposons – Tn5563a and Tn4662a (the latter contains a toxin-antitoxin system), as well as (iii) non-autonomous TEs of diverse structure, ranging in size from 262 to 3892 bp. The non-autonomous elements transposed into AT-rich DNA regions and generated 5- or 6-bp sequence duplications at the target site of transposition. Although these TEs lack a transposase gene, they contain homologous 38-bp-long terminal inverted repeat sequences (IRs), highly conserved in Tn5563a and many other Tn3-family transposons. The simplest elements of this type, designated TIMEs (Tn3 family-derived Inverted-repeat Miniature Elements) (262 bp), were identified within two natural plasmids (pZM1P1 and pLM8P2) of Pseudomonas spp. It was demonstrated that TIMEs are able to mobilize segments of plasmid DNA for transposition, which results in the generation of more complex non-autonomous elements, resembling IS-driven composite transposons in structure. Such transposon-like elements may contain different functional genetic modules in their core regions, including plasmid replication systems. Another non-autonomous element “captured” with a trap plasmid was a TIME derivative containing a predicted resolvase gene and a res site typical for many Tn3-family transposons. The identification of a portable site-specific recombination system is another intriguing example confirming the important role of non-autonomous TEs of the TIME family in shuffling genetic information in bacterial genomes. Transposition of such mosaic elements may have a significant impact on diversity and evolution

  5. Mobility and generation of mosaic non-autonomous transposons by Tn3-derived inverted-repeat miniature elements (TIMEs).

    PubMed

    Szuplewska, Magdalena; Ludwiczak, Marta; Lyzwa, Katarzyna; Czarnecki, Jakub; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Functional transposable elements (TEs) of several Pseudomonas spp. strains isolated from black shale ore of Lubin mine and from post-flotation tailings of Zelazny Most in Poland, were identified using a positive selection trap plasmid strategy. This approach led to the capture and characterization of (i) 13 insertion sequences from 5 IS families (IS3, IS5, ISL3, IS30 and IS1380), (ii) isoforms of two Tn3-family transposons--Tn5563a and Tn4662a (the latter contains a toxin-antitoxin system), as well as (iii) non-autonomous TEs of diverse structure, ranging in size from 262 to 3892 bp. The non-autonomous elements transposed into AT-rich DNA regions and generated 5- or 6-bp sequence duplications at the target site of transposition. Although these TEs lack a transposase gene, they contain homologous 38-bp-long terminal inverted repeat sequences (IRs), highly conserved in Tn5563a and many other Tn3-family transposons. The simplest elements of this type, designated TIMEs (Tn3 family-derived Inverted-repeat Miniature Elements) (262 bp), were identified within two natural plasmids (pZM1P1 and pLM8P2) of Pseudomonas spp. It was demonstrated that TIMEs are able to mobilize segments of plasmid DNA for transposition, which results in the generation of more complex non-autonomous elements, resembling IS-driven composite transposons in structure. Such transposon-like elements may contain different functional genetic modules in their core regions, including plasmid replication systems. Another non-autonomous element "captured" with a trap plasmid was a TIME derivative containing a predicted resolvase gene and a res site typical for many Tn3-family transposons. The identification of a portable site-specific recombination system is another intriguing example confirming the important role of non-autonomous TEs of the TIME family in shuffling genetic information in bacterial genomes. Transposition of such mosaic elements may have a significant impact on diversity and evolution, not

  6. A large inversion in the linear chromosome of Streptomyces griseus caused by replicative transposition of a new Tn3 family transposon.

    PubMed

    Murata, M; Uchida, T; Yang, Y; Lezhava, A; Kinashi, H

    2011-04-01

    We have comprehensively analyzed the linear chromosomes of Streptomyces griseus mutants constructed and kept in our laboratory. During this study, macrorestriction analysis of AseI and DraI fragments of mutant 402-2 suggested a large chromosomal inversion. The junctions of chromosomal inversion were cloned and sequenced and compared with the corresponding target sequences in the parent strain 2247. Consequently, a transposon-involved mechanism was revealed. Namely, a transposon originally located at the left target site was replicatively transposed to the right target site in an inverted direction, which generated a second copy and at the same time caused a 2.5-Mb chromosomal inversion. The involved transposon named TnSGR was grouped into a new subfamily of the resolvase-encoding Tn3 family transposons based on its gene organization. At the end, terminal diversity of S. griseus chromosomes is discussed by comparing the sequences of strains 2247 and IFO13350.

  7. pGLO Mutagenesis: A Laboratory Procedure in Molecular Biology for Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassiri, Eby A.

    2011-01-01

    A five-session laboratory project was designed to familiarize or increase the laboratory proficiency of biology students and others with techniques and instruments commonly used in molecular biology research laboratories and industries. In this project, the EZ-Tn5 transposon is used to generate and screen a large number of cells transformed with…

  8. A Broad Range of Dose Optima Achieve High-level, Long-term Gene Expression After Hydrodynamic Delivery of Sleeping Beauty Transposons Using Hyperactive SB100x Transposase

    PubMed Central

    Podetz-Pedersen, Kelly M; Olson, Erik R; Somia, Nikunj V; Russell, Stephen J; McIvor, R Scott

    2016-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system has been shown to enable long-term gene expression by integrating new sequences into host cell chromosomes. We found that the recently reported SB100x hyperactive transposase conferred a surprisingly high level of long-term expression after hydrodynamic delivery of luciferase-encoding reporter transposons in the mouse. We conducted dose-ranging studies to determine the effect of varying the amount of SB100x transposase-encoding plasmid (pCMV-SB100x) at a set dose of luciferase transposon and of varying the amount of transposon-encoding DNA at a set dose of pCMV-SB100x in hydrodynamically injected mice. Animals were immunosuppressed using cyclophosphamide in order to prevent an antiluciferase immune response. At a set dose of transposon DNA (25 µg), we observed a broad range of pCMV-SB100x doses (0.1–2.5 µg) conferring optimal levels of long-term expression (>1011 photons/second/cm2). At a fixed dose of 0.5 μg of pCMV-SB100x, maximal long-term luciferase expression (>1010 photons/second/cm2) was achieved at a transposon dose of 5–125 μg. We also found that in the linear range of transposon doses (100 ng), co-delivering the CMV-SB100x sequence on the same plasmid was less effective in achieving long-term expression than delivery on separate plasmids. These results show marked flexibility in the doses of SB transposon plus pCMV-SB100x that achieve maximal SB-mediated gene transfer efficiency and long-term gene expression after hydrodynamic DNA delivery to mouse liver. PMID:26784638

  9. A novel composite retrotransposon derived from or generated independently of the SVA (SINE/VNTR/Alu) transposon has undergone proliferation in gibbon genomes.

    PubMed

    Hara, Toru; Hirai, Yuriko; Baicharoen, Sudarath; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hirai, Hirohisa; Koga, Akihiko

    2012-01-01

    The superfamily Hominoidea (hominoids) comprises two families: Hominidae (hominids) and Hylobatidae (gibbons, also called small apes). The SVA transposon is a composite retrotransposon that occurs widely in hominoids and is considered to have been generated by stepwise fusions of three genetic elements: SINE-R, a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) sequence, and Alu. We identified a novel transposon whose basic structure is the same as that of SVA, with one prominent difference being the presence of part of prostaglandin reductase 2 (PTGR2) in place of SINE-R. We designate this composite transposon as PVA and propose two possible mechanisms regarding its generation. One is the derivation of PVA from SVA: the SINE-R region of SVA was replaced with a PTGR2 fragment by template switching. The other is the formation of PVA independently of SVA: a PTGR2 fragment was fused to an evolutionary intermediate comprising the VNTR and Alu regions. The nucleotide sequence of the junction between the VNTR and PTGR2 regions supports the second hypothesis. We identified PVA in the white-cheeked gibbon Nomascus leucogenys by analysis of genome sequence databases, and subsequent experimental analysis revealed its presence in all four gibbon genera. The white-cheeked gibbon harbors at least 93 PVA copies in its haploid genome. Another SVA-like composite transposon carrying parts of the LINE1 and Alu transposons in place of SINE-R, designated as LAVA, has recently been reported. The significance of the discovery of PVA is that its substituted fragment originates not from a transposon but from a single-copy gene. PVA should provide additional insights into the transposition mechanism of this type of composite transposon; the transposition activity is conferred even if the substituted fragment is not related to a transposon.

  10. Random mutagenesis by error-prone pol plasmid replication in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Alexander, David L; Lilly, Joshua; Hernandez, Jaime; Romsdahl, Jillian; Troll, Christopher J; Camps, Manel

    2014-01-01

    Directed evolution is an approach that mimics natural evolution in the laboratory with the goal of modifying existing enzymatic activities or of generating new ones. The identification of mutants with desired properties involves the generation of genetic diversity coupled with a functional selection or screen. Genetic diversity can be generated using PCR or using in vivo methods such as chemical mutagenesis or error-prone replication of the desired sequence in a mutator strain. In vivo mutagenesis methods facilitate iterative selection because they do not require cloning, but generally produce a low mutation density with mutations not restricted to specific genes or areas within a gene. For this reason, this approach is typically used to generate new biochemical properties when large numbers of mutants can be screened or selected. Here we describe protocols for an advanced in vivo mutagenesis method that is based on error-prone replication of a ColE1 plasmid bearing the gene of interest. Compared to other in vivo mutagenesis methods, this plasmid-targeted approach allows increased mutation loads and facilitates iterative selection approaches. We also describe the mutation spectrum for this mutagenesis methodology in detail, and, using cycle 3 GFP as a target for mutagenesis, we illustrate the phenotypic diversity that can be generated using our method. In sum, error-prone Pol I replication is a mutagenesis method that is ideally suited for the evolution of new biochemical activities when a functional selection is available.

  11. [Effect of transposons on expression of genes for naphthalene biodegradation in Pseudomonas putida BS202(NPL-1) and derivative strains].

    PubMed

    Sokolov, S L; Kosheleva, I A; Filonov, A E; Boronin, A M

    2005-01-01

    NPL-1 and its derivative plasmid pBS106, which control the degradation of naphthalene and salicylate, were found to contain class II transposons of the Tn3 family. These transposons are involved in intraplasmid rearrangements, such as deletions and inversions, and can influence the expression of the catabolic and regulatory genes borne by biodegradation plasmids. The formation of a strong NahR-independent constitutive promoter by the inversion of a DNA fragment may be responsible for changing the character of naphthalene dioxygenase synthesis from inducible (in the case of plasmid NPL-1) to constitutive (in the case of plasmid NPL-41). The stability of plasmids NPL-1 and NPL-41 in the Pseudomonas putida strains grown on different substrates depends on the expression of the nah and tnp genes.

  12. Transposon-mediated random gene disruption with moderate halophilic bacteria and its application for halophilic bacterial siderophore analysis.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Toru; Nishino, Tomohiko

    2016-12-01

    Analytical conditions using chromo azurol S was validated for quantification of siderophore in aqueous samples, followed by the characterization of siderophore derived from newly isolated moderately halophilic bacteria. Conditions with good linearity between the absorbance and the siderophore concentration were obtained at a siderophore concentration less than 20 µM, in the wavelength range between 630 and 660 nm with developing time for at least 2 h. Of the halophilic bacteria isolated from Tunisian soil, Halomonas sp., namely strain 21a was selected as siderophore producing halophiles. The strain produced siderophore significantly in the absence of iron in minimal medium. Siderophore-deficient mutant, namely IIa10, of the strain 21a was obtained from gene disruptant library constructed using transposon complex by electroporation. Genomic sequence analysis of the mutant IIa10 revealed that the transposon-inserted gene was TonB-dependent receptor.

  13. Cloning of a CACTA transposon-like insertion in intron I of tomato invertase Lin5 gene and identification of transposase-like sequences of Solanaceae species.

    PubMed

    Proels, Reinhard K; Roitsch, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    Very few CACTA transposon-like sequences have been described in Solanaceae species. Sequence information has been restricted to partial transposase (TPase)-like fragments, and no target gene of CACTA-like transposon insertion has been described in tomato to date. In this manuscript, we report on a CACTA transposon-like insertion in intron I of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) invertase gene Lin5 and TPase-like sequences of several Solanaceae species. Consensus primers deduced from the TPase region of the tomato CACTA transposon-like element allowed the amplification of similar sequences from various Solanaceae species of different subfamilies including Solaneae (Solanum tuberosum), Cestreae (Nicotiana tabacum) and Datureae (Datura stramonium). This demonstrates the ubiquitous presence of CACTA-like elements in Solanaceae genomes. The obtained partial sequences are highly conserved, and allow further detection and detailed analysis of CACTA-like transposons throughout Solanaceae species. CACTA-like transposon sequences make possible the evaluation of their use for genome analysis, functional studies of genes and the evolutionary relationships between plant species.

  14. Drosophila Piwi functions downstream of piRNA production mediating a chromatin-based transposon silencing mechanism in female germ line

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sidney H.; Elgin, Sarah C. R.

    2011-01-01

    Transposon control is a critical process during reproduction. The PIWI family proteins can play a key role, using a piRNA-mediated slicing mechanism to suppress transposon activity posttranscriptionally. In Drosophila melanogaster, Piwi is predominantly localized in the nucleus and has been implicated in heterochromatin formation. Here, we use female germ-line–specific depletion to study Piwi function. This depletion of Piwi leads to infertility and to axis specification defects in the developing egg chambers; correspondingly, widespread loss of transposon silencing is observed. Germ-line Piwi does not appear to be required for piRNA production. Instead, Piwi requires Aubergine (and presumably secondary piRNA) for proper localization. A subset of transposons that show significant overexpression in germ-line Piwi-depleted ovaries exhibit a corresponding loss of HP1a and H3K9me2. Germ-line HP1a depletion also leads to a loss of transposon silencing, demonstrating the functional requirement for HP1a enrichment at these loci. Considering our results and those of others, we infer that germ-line Piwi functions downstream of piRNA production to promote silencing of some transposons via recruitment of HP1a. Thus, in addition to its better-known function in posttranscriptional silencing, piRNA also appears to function in a targeting mechanism for heterochromatin formation mediated by Piwi. PMID:22160707

  15. Efficient generation of marker-free transgenic rice plants using an improved transposon-mediated transgene reintegration strategy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Jie; Li, Jun; Zou, Xiaowei; Zhao, Jianhua; Li, Qingliang; Xia, Ran; Yang, Ruifang; Wang, Dekai; Zuo, Zhaoxue; Tu, Jumin; Tao, Yuezhi; Chen, Xiaoyun; Xie, Qi; Zhu, Zengrong; Qu, Shaohong

    2015-01-01

    Marker-free transgenic plants can be developed through transposon-mediated transgene reintegration, which allows intact transgene insertion with defined boundaries and requires only a few primary transformants. In this study, we improved the selection strategy and validated that the maize (Zea mays) Activator/Dissociation (Ds) transposable element can be routinely used to generate marker-free transgenic plants. A Ds-based gene of interest was linked to green fluorescent protein in transfer DNA (T-DNA), and a green fluorescent protein-aided counterselection against T-DNA was used together with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based positive selection for the gene of interest to screen marker-free progeny. To test the efficacy of this strategy, we cloned the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) δ-endotoxin gene into the Ds elements and transformed transposon vectors into rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. PCR assays of the transposon empty donor site exhibited transposition in somatic cells in 60.5% to 100% of the rice transformants. Marker-free (T-DNA-free) transgenic rice plants derived from unlinked germinal transposition were obtained from the T1 generation of 26.1% of the primary transformants. Individual marker-free transgenic rice lines were subjected to thermal asymmetric interlaced-PCR to determine Ds(Bt) reintegration positions, reverse transcription-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Bt expression levels, and bioassays to confirm resistance against the striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis. Overall, we efficiently generated marker-free transgenic plants with optimized transgene insertion and expression. The transposon-mediated marker-free platform established in this study can be used in rice and possibly in other important crops.

  16. Fluorescence-Based Flow Sorting in Parallel with Transposon Insertion Site Sequencing Identifies Multidrug Efflux Systems in Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Amy K.; Huang, TaoTao; Liu, Qi; Elbourne, Liam D. H.; Boinett, Christine J.; Brzoska, Anthony J.; Li, Liping; Ostrowski, Martin; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Baker, Stephen; Paulsen, Ian T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multidrug efflux pumps provide clinically significant levels of drug resistance in a number of Gram-negative hospital-acquired pathogens. These pathogens frequently carry dozens of genes encoding putative multidrug efflux pumps. However, it can be difficult to determine how many of these pumps actually mediate antimicrobial efflux, and it can be even more challenging to identify the regulatory proteins that control expression of these pumps. In this study, we developed an innovative high-throughput screening method, combining transposon insertion sequencing and cell sorting methods (TraDISort), to identify the genes encoding major multidrug efflux pumps, regulators, and other factors that may affect the permeation of antimicrobials, using the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii. A dense library of more than 100,000 unique transposon insertion mutants was treated with ethidium bromide, a common substrate of multidrug efflux pumps that is differentially fluorescent inside and outside the bacterial cytoplasm. Populations of cells displaying aberrant accumulations of ethidium were physically enriched using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and the genomic locations of transposon insertions within these strains were determined using transposon-directed insertion sequencing. The relative abundance of mutants in the input pool compared to the selected mutant pools indicated that the AdeABC, AdeIJK, and AmvA efflux pumps are the major ethidium efflux systems in A. baumannii. Furthermore, the method identified a new transcriptional regulator that controls expression of amvA. In addition to the identification of efflux pumps and their regulators, TraDISort identified genes that are likely to control cell division, cell morphology, or aggregation in A. baumannii. PMID:27601573

  17. Identification of Bari Transposons in 23 Sequenced Drosophila Genomes Reveals Novel Structural Variants, MITEs and Horizontal Transfer.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, Antonio; Lovero, Domenica; D'Addabbo, Pietro; Caizzi, Ruggiero; Marsano, René Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Bari elements are members of the Tc1-mariner superfamily of DNA transposons, originally discovered in Drosophila melanogaster, and subsequently identified in silico in 11 sequenced Drosophila genomes and as experimentally isolated in four non-sequenced Drosophila species. Bari-like elements have been also studied for their mobility both in vivo and in vitro. We analyzed 23 Drosophila genomes and carried out a detailed characterization of the Bari elements identified, including those from the heterochromatic Bari1 cluster in D. melanogaster. We have annotated 401 copies of Bari elements classified either as putatively autonomous or inactive according to the structure of the terminal sequences and the presence of a complete transposase-coding region. Analyses of the integration sites revealed that Bari transposase prefers AT-rich sequences in which the TA target is cleaved and duplicated. Furthermore evaluation of transposon's co-occurrence near the integration sites of Bari elements showed a non-random distribution of other transposable elements. We also unveil the existence of a putatively autonomous Bari1 variant characterized by two identical long Terminal Inverted Repeats, in D. rhopaloa. In addition, we detected MITEs related to Bari transposons in 9 species. Phylogenetic analyses based on transposase gene and the terminal sequences confirmed that Bari-like elements are distributed into three subfamilies. A few inconsistencies in Bari phylogenetic tree with respect to the Drosophila species tree could be explained by the occurrence of horizontal transfer events as also suggested by the results of dS analyses. This study further clarifies the Bari transposon's evolutionary dynamics and increases our understanding on the Tc1-mariner elements' biology.

  18. Improved antibiotic resistance gene cassette for marker exchange mutagenesis in Ralstonia solanacearum and Burkholderia species.

    PubMed

    Um, Hae Young; Chung, Eunsook; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2011-04-01

    Marker exchange mutagenesis is a fundamental approach to understanding gene function at a molecular level in bacteria. New plasmids carrying a kanamycin resistance gene or a trimethoprim resistance gene were constructed to provide antibiotic resistance cassettes for marker exchange mutagenesis in Ralstonia solanacearum and many antibiotic-resistant Burkholderia spp. Insertion sequences present in the flanking sequences of the antibiotic resistance cassette were removed to prevent aberrant gene replacement and polar mutation during mutagenesis in wild-type bacteria. Plasmids provided in this study would be convenient for use in gene cassettes for gene replacement in other Gram-negative bacteria.

  19. Transposon insertion libraries for the characterization of mutants from the kiwifruit pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.

    PubMed

    Mesarich, Carl H; Rees-George, Jonathan; Gardner, Paul P; Ghomi, Fatemeh Ashari; Gerth, Monica L; Andersen, Mark T; Rikkerink, Erik H A; Fineran, Peter C; Templeton, Matthew D

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), the causal agent of kiwifruit canker, is one of the most devastating plant diseases of recent times. We have generated two mini-Tn5-based random insertion libraries of Psa ICMP 18884. The first, a 'phenotype of interest' (POI) library, consists of 10,368 independent mutants gridded into 96-well plates. By replica plating onto selective media, the POI library was successfully screened for auxotrophic and motility mutants. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis mutants with 'Fuzzy-Spreader'-like morphologies were also identified through a visual screen. The second, a 'mutant of interest' (MOI) library, comprises around 96,000 independent mutants, also stored in 96-well plates, with approximately 200 individuals per well. The MOI library was sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform using Transposon-Directed Insertion site Sequencing (TraDIS) to map insertion sites onto the Psa genome. A grid-based PCR method was developed to recover individual mutants, and using this strategy, the MOI library was successfully screened for a putative LPS mutant not identified in the visual screen. The Psa chromosome and plasmid had 24,031 and 1,236 independent insertion events respectively, giving insertion frequencies of 3.65 and 16.6 per kb respectively. These data suggest that the MOI library is near saturation, with the theoretical probability of finding an insert in any one chromosomal gene estimated to be 97.5%. However, only 47% of chromosomal genes had insertions. This surprisingly low rate cannot be solely explained by the lack of insertions in essential genes, which would be expected to be around 5%. Strikingly, many accessory genes, including most of those encoding type III effectors, lacked insertions. In contrast, 94% of genes on the Psa plasmid had insertions, including for example, the type III effector HopAU1. These results suggest that some chromosomal sites are rendered inaccessible to transposon insertion, either by DNA

  20. Tn6188 - a novel transposon in Listeria monocytogenes responsible for tolerance to benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anneliese; Rychli, Kathrin; Muhterem-Uyar, Meryem; Zaiser, Andreas; Stessl, Beatrix; Guinane, Caitriona M; Cotter, Paul D; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the food-borne pathogen Listeria (L.) monocytogenes is of great importance from a food safety perspective, and thus for human health. The consequences of failures in this regard have been exemplified by recent large listeriosis outbreaks in the USA and Europe. It is thus particularly notable that tolerance to quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride (BC) has been observed in many L. monocytogenes strains. However, the molecular determinants and mechanisms of BC tolerance of L. monocytogenes are still largely unknown. Here we describe Tn6188, a novel transposon in L. monocytogenes conferring tolerance to BC. Tn6188 is related to Tn554 from Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and other Tn554-like transposons such as Tn558, Tn559 and Tn5406 found in various Firmicutes. Tn6188 comprises 5117 bp, is integrated chromosomally within the radC gene and consists of three transposase genes (tnpABC) as well as genes encoding a putative transcriptional regulator and QacH, a small multidrug resistance protein family (SMR) transporter putatively associated with export of BC that shows high amino acid identity to Smr/QacC from S. aureus and to EmrE from Escherichia coli. We screened 91 L. monocytogenes strains for the presence of Tn6188 by PCR and found Tn6188 in 10 of the analyzed strains. These isolates were from food and food processing environments and predominantly from serovar 1/2a. L. monocytogenes strains harboring Tn6188 had significantly higher BC minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (28.5 ± 4.7 mg/l) than strains without Tn6188 (14 ± 3.2 mg/l). Using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR we could show a significant increase in qacH expression in the presence of BC. QacH deletion mutants were generated in two L. monocytogenes strains and growth analysis revealed that ΔqacH strains had lower BC MICs than wildtype strains. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that Tn6188 is responsible for BC tolerance in various L. monocytogenes

  1. Tn6188 - A Novel Transposon in Listeria monocytogenes Responsible for Tolerance to Benzalkonium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Muhterem-Uyar, Meryem; Zaiser, Andreas; Stessl, Beatrix; Guinane, Caitriona M.; Cotter, Paul D.; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the food-borne pathogen Listeria (L.) monocytogenes is of great importance from a food safety perspective, and thus for human health. The consequences of failures in this regard have been exemplified by recent large listeriosis outbreaks in the USA and Europe. It is thus particularly notable that tolerance to quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride (BC) has been observed in many L. monocytogenes strains. However, the molecular determinants and mechanisms of BC tolerance of L. monocytogenes are still largely unknown. Here we describe Tn6188, a novel transposon in L. monocytogenes conferring tolerance to BC. Tn6188 is related to Tn554 from Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and other Tn554-like transposons such as Tn558, Tn559 and Tn5406 found in various Firmicutes. Tn6188 comprises 5117 bp, is integrated chromosomally within the radC gene and consists of three transposase genes (tnpABC) as well as genes encoding a putative transcriptional regulator and QacH, a small multidrug resistance protein family (SMR) transporter putatively associated with export of BC that shows high amino acid identity to Smr/QacC from S. aureus and to EmrE from Escherichia coli. We screened 91 L. monocytogenes strains for the presence of Tn6188 by PCR and found Tn6188 in 10 of the analyzed strains. These isolates were from food and food processing environments and predominantly from serovar 1/2a. L. monocytogenes strains harboring Tn6188 had significantly higher BC minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (28.5 ± 4.7 mg/l) than strains without Tn6188 (14 ± 3.2 mg/l). Using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR we could show a significant increase in qacH expression in the presence of BC. QacH deletion mutants were generated in two L. monocytogenes strains and growth analysis revealed that ΔqacH strains had lower BC MICs than wildtype strains. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that Tn6188 is responsible for BC tolerance in various L. monocytogenes

  2. Transposon insertion libraries for the characterization of mutants from the kiwifruit pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae

    PubMed Central

    Mesarich, Carl H.; Rees-George, Jonathan; Gardner, Paul P.; Ghomi, Fatemeh Ashari; Gerth, Monica L.; Andersen, Mark T.; Rikkerink, Erik H. A.; Fineran, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), the causal agent of kiwifruit canker, is one of the most devastating plant diseases of recent times. We have generated two mini-Tn5-based random insertion libraries of Psa ICMP 18884. The first, a ‘phenotype of interest’ (POI) library, consists of 10,368 independent mutants gridded into 96-well plates. By replica plating onto selective media, the POI library was successfully screened for auxotrophic and motility mutants. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis mutants with ‘Fuzzy-Spreader’-like morphologies were also identified through a visual screen. The second, a ‘mutant of interest’ (MOI) library, comprises around 96,000 independent mutants, also stored in 96-well plates, with approximately 200 individuals per well. The MOI library was sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform using Transposon-Directed Insertion site Sequencing (TraDIS) to map insertion sites onto the Psa genome. A grid-based PCR method was developed to recover individual mutants, and using this strategy, the MOI library was successfully screened for a putative LPS mutant not identified in the visual screen. The Psa chromosome and plasmid had 24,031 and 1,236 independent insertion events respectively, giving insertion frequencies of 3.65 and 16.6 per kb respectively. These data suggest that the MOI library is near saturation, with the theoretical probability of finding an insert in any one chromosomal gene estimated to be 97.5%. However, only 47% of chromosomal genes had insertions. This surprisingly low rate cannot be solely explained by the lack of insertions in essential genes, which would be expected to be around 5%. Strikingly, many accessory genes, including most of those encoding type III effectors, lacked insertions. In contrast, 94% of genes on the Psa plasmid had insertions, including for example, the type III effector HopAU1. These results suggest that some chromosomal sites are rendered inaccessible to transposon insertion, either

  3. Radiation quality and mutagenesis in human lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Liber, Howard L; Idate, Rupa; Warner, Christy; Bailey, Susan M

    2014-10-01

    , there was no clear evidence of a dose response for bystander mutagenesis, i.e., the MF plateaued. Interestingly, the magnitudes of the bystander MFs induced by different ion/energy combinations did vary, with bystander MFs ranging from 0.8 to 2.2× higher than the background. Furthermore, the nontargeted MFs appeared to reflect a mirror image of that for direct mutagenesis.

  4. Cryptococcus neoformans Virulence Gene Discovery through Insertional Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Idnurm, Alexander; Reedy, Jennifer L.; Nussbaum, Jesse C.; Heitman, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Insertional mutagenesis was applied to Cryptococcus neoformans to identify genes associated with virulence attributes. Using biolistic transformation, we generated 4,300 nourseothricin (NAT)-resistant strains, of which 590 exhibited stable resistance. We focused on mutants with defects in established virulence factors and identified two with reduced growth at 37°C, four with reduced production of the antioxidant pigment melanin, and two with an increased sensitivity to nitric oxide (NO). The NAT insertion and mutant phenotypes were genetically linked in five of eight mutants, and the DNA flanking the insertions was characterized. For the strains with altered growth at 37°C and altered melanin production, mutations were in previously uncharacterized genes, while the two NO-sensitive strains bore insertions in the flavohemoglobin gene FHB1, whose product counters NO stress. Because of the frequent instability of nourseothricin resistance associated with biolistic transformation, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was tested. This transkingdom DNA delivery approach produced 100% stable nourseothricin-resistant transformants, and three melanin-defective strains were identified from 576 transformants, of which 2 were linked to NAT in segregation analysis. One of these mutants contained a T-DNA insertion in the promoter of the LAC1 (laccase) gene, which encodes a key enzyme required for melanin production, while the second contained an insertion in the promoter of the CLC1 gene, encoding a voltage-gated chloride channel. Clc1 and its homologs are required for ion homeostasis, and in their absence Cu+ transport into the secretory pathway is compromised, depriving laccase and other Cu+-dependent proteins of their essential cofactor. The NAT resistance cassette was optimized for cryptococcal codon usage and GC content and was then used to disrupt a mitogen-activated protein kinase gene, a predicted gene, and two putative chloride channel genes to analyze their

  5. Transposon-induced nuclear mutations that alter chloroplast gene expression. Annual report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Barkan, A.

    1992-12-31

    The goal of this project is to use mutant phenotypes as a guide to nuclear genes that determine the timing and localization of chloroplast development The immediate goals are to identify nuclear mutants with defects in chloroplast gene expression from maize lines harboring active Mu transposons; characterize their phenotypes to determine the precise defect in gene expression; clone several of the most interesting mutations by exploiting the transposon tag; and use the clones to further define the roles of these genes in modulating chloroplast gene expression. Three mutants were described earlier that had global defects in chloroplast gene expression. We have found that two of these mutations are allelic. Both alleles have global defects in chloroplast translation initiation, as revealed by the failure to assemble chloroplast mRNAs into polysomes. We have isolated and characterized three new mutants from Mu lines that have novel defects in chloroplast RNA metabolism. We are now ready to begin the task of cloning several of these genes, by using the Mu transposon tag.

  6. De novo piRNA cluster formation in the Drosophila germ line triggered by transgenes containing a transcribed transposon fragment

    PubMed Central

    Olovnikov, Ivan; Ryazansky, Sergei; Shpiz, Sergey; Lavrov, Sergey; Abramov, Yuri; Vaury, Chantal; Jensen, Silke; Kalmykova, Alla

    2013-01-01

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) provide defence against transposable element (TE) expansion in the germ line of metazoans. piRNAs are processed from the transcripts encoded by specialized heterochromatic clusters enriched in damaged copies of transposons. How these regions are recognized as a source of piRNAs is still elusive. The aim of this study is to determine how transgenes that contain a fragment of the Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINE)-like I transposon lead to an acquired TE resistance in Drosophila. We show that such transgenes, being inserted in unique euchromatic regions that normally do not produce small RNAs, become de novo bidirectional piRNA clusters that silence I-element activity in the germ line. Strikingly, small RNAs of both polarities are generated from the entire transgene and flanking genomic sequences—not only from the transposon fragment. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis shows that in ovaries, the trimethylated histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3) mark associates with transgenes producing piRNAs. We show that transgene-derived hsp70 piRNAs stimulate in trans cleavage of cognate endogenous transcripts with subsequent processing of the non-homologous parts of these transcripts into piRNAs. PMID:23620285

  7. De novo piRNA cluster formation in the Drosophila germ line triggered by transgenes containing a transcribed transposon fragment.

    PubMed

    Olovnikov, Ivan; Ryazansky, Sergei; Shpiz, Sergey; Lavrov, Sergey; Abramov, Yuri; Vaury, Chantal; Jensen, Silke; Kalmykova, Alla

    2013-06-01

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) provide defence against transposable element (TE) expansion in the germ line of metazoans. piRNAs are processed from the transcripts encoded by specialized heterochromatic clusters enriched in damaged copies of transposons. How these regions are recognized as a source of piRNAs is still elusive. The aim of this study is to determine how transgenes that contain a fragment of the Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINE)-like I transposon lead to an acquired TE resistance in Drosophila. We show that such transgenes, being inserted in unique euchromatic regions that normally do not produce small RNAs, become de novo bidirectional piRNA clusters that silence I-element activity in the germ line. Strikingly, small RNAs of both polarities are generated from the entire transgene and flanking genomic sequences--not only from the transposon fragment. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis shows that in ovaries, the trimethylated histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3) mark associates with transgenes producing piRNAs. We show that transgene-derived hsp70 piRNAs stimulate in trans cleavage of cognate endogenous transcripts with subsequent processing of the non-homologous parts of these transcripts into piRNAs.

  8. piRNA-mediated transposon regulation and the germ-line mutation rate in Drosophila melanogaster males.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Michael J; Peterson, Mark P; Thorp, Michael W; Buschette, Jared T; DiPrima, Stephanie N; Harter, Christine L; Skolnick, Matthew J

    2015-03-01

    Transposons, especially retrotransposons, are abundant in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster. These mobile elements are regulated by small RNAs that interact with the Piwi family of proteins-the piwi-interacting or piRNAs. The Piwi proteins are encoded by the genes argonaute3 (ago3), aubergine (aub), and piwi. Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1), a chromatin-organizing protein encoded by the Suppressor of variegation 205 [Su(var)205] gene, also plays a role in this regulation. To assess the mutational impact of weakening the system for transposon regulation, we measured the frequency of recessive X-linked lethal mutations occurring in the germ lines of males from stocks that were heterozygous for mutant alleles of the ago3, aub, piwi, or Su(var)205 genes. These mutant alleles are expected to deplete the wild-type proteins encoded by these genes by as much as 50%. The mutant alleles of piwi and Su(var)205 significantly increased the X-linked lethal mutation frequency, whereas the mutant alleles of ago3 did not. An increased mutation frequency was also observed in males from one of two mutant aub stocks, but this increase may not have been due to the aub mutant. The increased mutation frequency caused by depleting Piwi or HP1suggests that chromatin-organizing proteins play important roles in minimizing the germ-line mutation rate, possibly by stabilizing the structure of the heterochromatin in which many transposons are situated.

  9. Comparison of three transposons for the generation of highly productive recombinant CHO cell pools and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Sowmya; Rajendra, Yashas; Baldi, Lucia; Hacker, David L; Wurm, Florian M

    2016-06-01

    Several naturally occurring vertebrate transposable elements have been genetically modified to enable the transposition of recombinant genes in mammalian cells. We compared three transposons-piggyBac, Tol2, and Sleeping Beauty-for their ability to generate cell pools (polyclonal cultures of recombinant cells) and clonal cell lines for the large-scale production of recombinant proteins using Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-DG44) as the host. Transfection with each of the dual-vector transposon systems resulted in cell pools with volumetric yields of tumor necrosis factor receptor-Fc fusion protein (TNFR:Fc) that were about ninefold higher than those from cell pools generated by conventional plasmid transfection. On average, the cell pools had 10-12 integrated copies of the transgene per cell. In the absence of selection, the volumetric productivity of the cell pools decreased by 50% over a 2-month cultivation period and then remained constant. The average volumetric TNFR:Fc productivity of clonal cell lines recovered from cell pools was about 25 times higher than that of cell lines generated by conventional transfection. In 14-day fed-batch cultures, TNFR:Fc levels up to 900 mg/L were obtained from polyclonal cell pools and up to 1.5 g/L from clonal cell lines using any of the three transposons. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1234-1243. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Inducible Transgene Expression in Human iPS Cells Using Versatile All-in-One piggyBac Transposons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Il; Oceguera-Yanez, Fabian; Sakurai, Chiho; Nakagawa, Masato; Yamanaka, Shinya; Woltjen, Knut

    2016-01-01

    Transgenics is a mainstay of functional genomics. Conditionally overexpressing genes of interest (GOIs) helps to reveal their roles in the control of complex biological processes. Complemented by findings in classic animal model systems, recent advances in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) differentiation have led to sophisticated in vitro models of human development and disease. Yet, as transgenic elements encoding inducible systems must be introduced de novo into each genetically unique human stem cell line, robust and straightforward solutions to gene delivery are required. Transposons are a family of mobile DNA elements that have been adapted as experimental tools for stable genomic integration of transgenes. The piggyBac (PB) transposon from Trichoplusia ni presents a number of benefits over classic viral or BAC transgenesis: ease of application, simple integration-site mapping, and the unique capacity for traceless excision. Moreover, their large capacity permits the consolidation of multiple transgene components in a single vector system. In this chapter, we outline the features of a panel of "All-in-One" PB transposons designed for drug-inducible gene expression and provide guidelines to establish and validate populations or clones of transgenic hiPSCs.

  11. A novel gonad-specific Argonaute 4 serves as a defense against transposons in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Leebonoi, Wantana; Sukthaworn, Suchitraporn; Panyim, Sakol; Udomkit, Apinunt

    2015-02-01

    Argonaute is a key protein of the small-RNA guided gene regulation process. The Argonaute family is generally divided into two subfamilies; AGO and PIWI. In this study, a cDNA encoding a novel type of Argonaute (PmAgo4) in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon was identified and characterized. PmAgo4 cDNA contained an open reading frame of 2433 nucleotides that can be translated into a deduced amino acid with the conserved PAZ and PIWI domains. PmAgo4 was phylogenetically clustered with the AGO subfamily while exhibited a gonad-specific expression pattern similar to that of proteins in the PIWI subfamily. The expression of PmAgo4 did not change significantly in response to either double-stranded RNA or yellow head virus injection suggesting that PmAgo4 may not be the main AGO proteins that play a role in dsRNA-mediated gene silencing or antiviral defense. Interestingly, PmAgo4 appeared to participate in the control of transposons since the activation of both DNA transposon and retrotransposon was detected in the testis of PmAgo4-knockdown shrimp. Our study thus provided the first evidence for an unusual type of the AGO proteins that was predominantly expressed in shrimp gonad and implication of its role in protecting the shrimp genome against an invasion of transposons.

  12. The Drosophila HP1 homologue Rhino is required for transposon silencing and piRNA production by dual strand clusters

    PubMed Central

    Klattenhoff, Carla; Xi, Hualin; Li, Chengjian; Lee, Soohyun; Xu, Jia; Khurana, Jaspreet S.; Zhang, Fan; Schultz, Nadine; Koppetsch, Birgit S.; Nowosielska, Anetta; Seitz, Herve; Zamore, Phillip D.; Weng, Zhiping; Theurkauf, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary piRNAs silence transposons and maintain genome integrity during germ-line development. In Drosophila, transposon-rich heterochromatic clusters encode piRNAs either on both genomic strands (dual-strand clusters) or predominantly one genomic strand (uni-strand clusters). Primary piRNAs derived from these clusters are proposed to drive a ping-pong amplification cycle catalyzed by proteins that localize to the perinuclear nuage. We show that the HP1 homologue Rhino is required for nuage organization, transposon silencing, and ping-pong amplification of piRNAs. rhi mutations virtually eliminate piRNAs from the dual-strand clusters and block production of putative precursor RNAs from both strands of the major 42AB dual-strand cluster, but do not block production of transcripts or piRNAs from the uni-strand clusters. Furthermore, Rhino protein associates with the 42AB dual-strand cluster, but does not bind to uni-strand cluster 2 or flamenco. Rhino thus appears to promote transcription of dual-strand clusters, leading to production of piRNAs that drive the ping-pong amplification cycle. PMID:19732946

  13. Genome-wide manipulations of Drosophila melanogaster with transposons, Flp recombinase, and ΦC31 integrase.

    PubMed

    Venken, Koen J T; Bellen, Hugo J

    2012-01-01

    Transposable elements, the Flp recombinase, and the ΦC31 integrase are used in Drosophila melanogaster for numerous genome-wide manipulations. Often, their use is combined in a synergistic fashion to alter and engineer the fruit fly genome. Transposons are the foundation for all transgenic technologies in flies and hence almost all innovations in the fruit fly. They have been instrumental in the generation of genome-wide collections of insertions for gene disruption and manipulation. Many important transgenic strains of these collections are available from public repositories. The Flp protein is the most widely used recombinase to induce mitotic clones to study individual gene function. However, Flp has also been used to generate chromosome- and genome-wide collections of precise deletions, inversions, and duplications. Similarly, transposons that contain attP attachment sites for the ΦC31 integrase can be used for numerous applications. This integrase was incorporated into a transgenesis system that allows the integration of small to very large DNA fragments that can be easily manipulated through recombineering. This system allowed the creation of genomic DNA libraries for genome-wide gene manipulations and X chromosome duplications. Moreover, the attP sites are being used to create libraries of tens of thousands of RNAi constructs and tissue-specific GAL4 lines. This chapter focuses on genome-wide applications of transposons, Flp recombinase, and ΦC31 integrase that greatly facilitate experimental manipulation of Drosophila.

  14. Radio frequency electromagnetic fields: cancer, mutagenesis, and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Heynick, Louis N; Johnston, Sheila A; Mason, Patrick A

    2003-01-01

    We present critiques of epidemiologic studies and experimental investigations, published mostly in peer-reviewed journals, on cancer and related effects from exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic fields in the nominal frequency range of 3 kHz to 300 GHz of interest to Subcommittee 4 (SC4) of the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety (ICES). The major topics discussed are presented under the headings Epidemiologic and Other Findings on Human Exposure, Mammals Exposed In Vivo, Mammalian Live Tissues and Cell Preparations Exposed In Vitro, and Mutagenesis and Genotoxicity in Microorganisms and Fruit Flies. Under each major topic, we present minireviews of papers on various specific endpoints investigated. The section on Epidemiologic and Other Findings on Human Exposure is divided into two subsections, the first on possible carcinogenic effects of exposure from emitters not in physical contact with the populations studied, for example, transmitting antennas and other devices. Discussed in the second subsection are studies of postulated carcinogenic effects from use of mobile phones, with prominence given to brain tumors from use of cellular and cordless telephones in direct physical contact with an ear of each subject. In both subsections, some investigations yielded positive findings, others had negative findings, including papers directed toward experimentally verifying positive findings, and both were reported in a few instances. Further research on various important aspects may resolve such differences. Overall, however, the preponderance of published epidemiologic and experimental findings do not support the supposition that in vivo or in vitro exposures to such fields are carcinogenic.

  15. Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis for precision gene editing.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Noel J; Mozoruk, Jerry; Miller, Ryan B; Warburg, Zachary J; Walker, Keith A; Beetham, Peter R; Schöpke, Christian R; Gocal, Greg F W

    2016-02-01

    Differences in gene sequences, many of which are single nucleotide polymorphisms, underlie some of the most important traits in plants. With humanity facing significant challenges to increase global agricultural productivity, there is an urgent need to accelerate the development of these traits in plants. oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis (ODM), one of the many tools of Cibus' Rapid Trait Development System (RTDS(™) ) technology, offers a rapid, precise and non-transgenic breeding alternative for trait improvement in agriculture to address this urgent need. This review explores the application of ODM as a precision genome editing technology, with emphasis on using oligonucleotides to make targeted edits in plasmid, episomal and chromosomal DNA of bacterial, fungal, mammalian and plant systems. The process of employing ODM by way of RTDS technology has been improved in many ways by utilizing a fluorescence conversion system wherein a blue fluorescent protein (BFP) can be changed to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) by editing a single nucleotide of the BFP gene (CAC→TAC; H66 to Y66). For example, dependent on oligonucleotide length, applying oligonucleotide-mediated technology to target the BFP transgene in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts resulted in up to 0.05% precisely edited GFP loci. Here, the development of traits in commercially relevant plant varieties to improve crop performance by genome editing technologies such as ODM, and by extension RTDS, is reviewed.

  16. ENU mutagenesis in mice identifies candidate genes for hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jeffrey; Hurley, Lisa A; Harris, Rebecca M; Finlayson, Courtney; Tong, Minghan; Fisher, Lisa A; Moran, Jennifer L; Beier, David R; Mason, Christopher; Jameson, J Larry

    2012-06-01

    Genome-wide mutagenesis was performed in mice to identify candidate genes for male infertility, for which the predominant causes remain idiopathic. Mice were mutagenized using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), bred, and screened for phenotypes associated with the male urogenital system. Fifteen heritable lines were isolated and chromosomal loci were assigned using low-density genome-wide SNP arrays. Ten of the 15 lines were pursued further using higher-resolution SNP analysis to narrow the candidate gene regions. Exon sequencing of candidate genes identified mutations in mice with cystic kidneys (Bicc1), cryptorchidism (Rxfp2), restricted germ cell deficiency (Plk4), and severe germ cell deficiency (Prdm9). In two other lines with severe hypogonadism, candidate sequencing failed to identify mutations, suggesting defects in genes with previously undocumented roles in gonadal function. These genomic intervals were sequenced in their entirety and a candidate mutation was identified in SnrpE in one of the two lines. The line harboring the SnrpE variant retains substantial spermatogenesis despite small testis size, an unusual phenotype. In addition to the reproductive defects, heritable phenotypes were observed in mice with ataxia (Myo5a), tremors (Pmp22), growth retardation (unknown gene), and hydrocephalus (unknown gene). These results demonstrate that the ENU screen is an effective tool for identifying potential causes of male infertility.

  17. CRISPR/Cas-mediated targeted mutagenesis in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Takashi; Kato, Yasuhiko; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    The water flea Daphnia magna has been used as an animal model in ecology, evolution, and environmental sciences. Thanks to the recent progress in Daphnia genomics, genetic information such as the draft genome sequence and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) is now available. To investigate the relationship between phenotypes and the available genetic information about Daphnia, some gene manipulation methods have been developed. However, a technique to induce targeted mutagenesis into Daphnia genome remains elusive. To overcome this problem, we focused on an emerging genome editing technique mediated by the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated (CRISPR/Cas) system to introduce genomic mutations. In this study, we targeted a functionally conserved regulator of eye development, the eyeless gene in D. magna. When we injected Cas9 mRNAs and eyeless-targeting guide RNAs into eggs, 18-47% of the survived juveniles exhibited abnormal eye morphology. After maturation, up to 8.2% of the adults produced progenies with deformed eyes, which carried mutations in the eyeless loci. These results showed that CRISPR/Cas system could introduce heritable mutations into the endogenous eyeless gene in D. magna. This is the first report of a targeted gene knockout technique in Daphnia and will be useful in uncovering Daphnia gene functions.

  18. Embryonic Lethals and T-DNA Insertional Mutagenesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Errampalli, D; Patton, D; Castle, L; Mickelson, L; Hansen, K; Schnall, J; Feldmann, K; Meinke, D

    1991-01-01

    T-DNA insertional mutagenesis represents a promising approach to the molecular isolation of genes with essential functions during plant embryo development. We describe in this report the isolation and characterization of 18 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana defective in embryo development following seed transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Random T-DNA insertion was expected to result in a high frequency of recessive embryonic lethals because many target genes are required for embryogenesis. The cointegrate Ti plasmid used in these experiments contained the nopaline synthase and neomycin phosphotransferase gene markers. Nopaline assays and resistance to kanamycin were used to estimate the number of functional inserts present in segregating families. Nine families appeared to contain a T-DNA insert either within or adjacent to the mutant gene. Eight families were clearly not tagged with a functional insert and appeared instead to contain mutations induced during the transformation process. DNA gel blot hybridization with internal and right border probes revealed a variety of rearrangements associated with T-DNA insertion. A general strategy is presented to simplify the identification of tagged embryonic mutants and facilitate the molecular isolation of genes required for plant embryogenesis. PMID:12324593

  19. Combinatorial mutagenesis and selection to understand and improve yeast promoters.

    PubMed

    Berg, Laila; Strand, Trine Aakvik; Valla, Svein; Brautaset, Trygve

    2013-01-01

    Microbial promoters are important targets both for understanding the global gene expression and developing genetic tools for heterologous expression of proteins and complex biosynthetic pathways. Previously, we have developed and used combinatorial mutagenesis methods to analyse and improve bacterial expression systems. Here, we present for the first time an analogous strategy for yeast. Our model promoter is the strong and inducible P AOX1 promoter in methylotrophic Pichia pastoris. The Zeocin resistance gene was applied as a valuable reporter for mutant P AOX1 promoter activity, and we used an episomal plasmid vector to ensure a constant reporter gene dosage in the yeast host cells. This novel design enabled direct selection for colonies of recombinant cells with altered Zeocin tolerance levels originating solely from randomly introduced point mutations in the P AOX1 promoter DNA sequence. We demonstrate that this approach can be used to select for P AOX1 promoter variants with abolished glucose repression in large mutant libraries. We also selected P AOX1 promoter variants with elevated expression level under induced conditions. The properties of the selected P AOX1 promoter variants were confirmed by expressing luciferase as an alternative reporter gene. The tools developed here should be useful for effective screening, characterization, and improvement of any yeast promoters.

  20. A Synthetic Approach to Stop-Codon Scanning Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Lihua; Lavinder, Jason J.; Sarkar, Mohosin; Stephany, Kimberly; Magliery, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    A general combinatorial mutagenesis strategy using common DMT-protected mononucleotide phosphoramidites and a single orthogonally-protected trinucleotide phosphoramidite (Fmoc-TAG) was developed to scan a gene with the TAG amber stop codon with complete synthetic control. In combination with stop-codon suppressors that insert natural (e.g., alanine) or unnatural (e.g., p-benzoylphenylalanine or Bpa) amino acids, a single DNA library can be used to incorporate different amino acids for diverse purposes. Here, we scanned TAG codons through part of the gene for a model four-helix bundle protein, Rop, which regulates the copy number of ColE1 plasmids. Alanine was incorporated into Rop for mapping its binding site using an in vivo activity screen, and subtle but important differences from in vitro gel-shift studies of Rop function are evident. As a test, Bpa was incorporated using a Phe14 amber mutant isolated from the scanning library. Surprisingly, Phe14Bpa Rop is weakly active, despite the critical role of Phe14 in Rop activity. Bpa is a photoaffinity label unnatural amino acid that can form covalent bonds with adjacent molecules upon UV irradiation. Irradiation of Phe14Bpa-Rop, which is a dimer in solution like wild-type Rop, results in covalent dimers, trimers and tetramers. This suggests that Phe14Bpa Rop weakly associates as a tetramer in solution and highlights the use of Bpa crosslinking as a means of trapping weak and transient interactions. PMID:21452871

  1. Insertional mutagenesis of preneoplastic astrocytes by Moloney murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Afanasieva, T A; Pekarik, V; Grazia D'Angelo, M; Klein, M A; Voigtländer, T; Stocking, C; Aguzzi, A

    2001-04-01

    Retroviral infection can induce transcriptional activation of genes flanking the sites of proviral integration in target cells. Because integration is essentially random, this phenomenon can be exploited for random mutagenesis of the genome, and analysis of integration sites in tumors may identify potential oncogenes. Here we have investigated this strategy in the context of astrocytoma progression. Neuroectodermal explants from astrocytoma-prone GFAP-v-src transgenic mice were infected with the ecotropic Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV). In situ hybridization and FACS analysis indicated that astrocytes from E12.5-13.5 embryos were highly susceptible to retroviral infection and expressed viral RNA and proteins both in vitro and in vivo. In average 80% of neuroectodermal cells were infected in vitro with 9-14 proviral integrations per cell. Virus mobility assays confirmed that Mo-MuLV remained transcriptionally active and replicating in neuroectodermal primary cultures even after 45 days of cultivation. Proviral insertion sites were investigated by inverse long-range PCR. Analysis of a limited number of provirus flanking sequences in clones originated from in vitro infected GFAP-v-src neuroectodermal cells identified loci of possible relevance to tumorigenesis. Therefore, the approach described here might be suitable for acceleration of tumorigenesis in preneoplastic astrocytes. We expect this method to be useful for identifying genes involved in astrocytoma development/progression in animal models.

  2. Analysis of HIV-2 Vpx by modeling and insertional mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mahnke, Lisa A. . E-mail: lmahnke@im.wustl.edu; Belshan, Michael; Ratner, Lee . E-mail: lratner@im.wustl.edu

    2006-04-25

    Vpx facilitates HIV-2 nuclear localization by a poorly understood mechanism. We have compared Vpx to an NMR structure HIV-1 Vpr in a central helical domain and probed regions of Vpx by insertional mutagenesis. A predicted loop between helices two and three appears to be unique, overlapping with a known novel nuclear localization signal. Overall, Vpx was found to be surprisingly flexible, tolerating a series of large insertions. We found that insertion within the polyproline-containing C-terminus destabilizes nuclear localization, whereas mutating a second helix in the central domain disrupts viral packaging. Other insertional mutants in the predicted loop and in a linker region between the central domain and the C-terminus may be useful as sites of intramolecular tags as they could be packaged adequately and retained preintegration complex associated integration activity in a serum starvation assay. An unexpected result was found within a previously defined nuclear localization motif near aa 71. This mutant retained robust nuclear localization in a GFP fusion assay and was competent for preintegration complex associated nuclear import. In summary, we have modeled helical content in Vpx and assessed potential sites of intramolecular tags which may prove useful for protein-protein interactions studies.

  3. Lethal Mutagenesis of HIV with Mutagenic Nucleoside Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, Lawrence A.; Essigmann, John M.; Kazazi, Farhad; Zhang, Jue; Rose, Karl D.; Mullins, James I.

    1999-02-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replicates its genome and mutates at exceptionally high rates. As a result, the virus is able to evade immunological and chemical antiviral agents. We tested the hypothesis that a further increase in the mutation rate by promutagenic nucleoside analogs would abolish viral replication. We evaluated deoxynucleoside analogs for lack of toxicity to human cells, incorporation by HIV reverse transcriptase, resistance to repair when incorporated into the DNA strand of an RNA\\cdot DNA hybrid, and mispairing at high frequency. Among the candidates tested, 5-hydroxydeoxycytidine (5-OH-dC) fulfilled these criteria. In seven of nine experiments, the presence of this analog resulted in the loss of viral replicative potential after 9-24 sequential passages of HIV in human CEM cells. In contrast, loss of viral replication was not observed in 28 control cultures passaged in the absence of the nucleoside analog, nor with other analogs tested. Sequence analysis of a portion of the HIV reverse transcriptase gene demonstrated a disproportionate increase in G -> A substitutions, mutations predicted to result from misincorporation of 5-OH-dC into the cDNA during reverse transcription. Thus, "lethal mutagenesis" driven by the class of deoxynucleoside analogs represented by 5-OH-dC could provide a new approach to treating HIV infections and, potentially, other viral infections.

  4. Site Saturation Mutagenesis Applications on Candida methylica Formate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Özgün, Gülşah P.; Ordu, Emel B.; Tütüncü, H. Esra; Yelboğa, Emrah; Sessions, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    In NADH regeneration, Candida methylica formate dehydrogenase (cmFDH) is a highly significant enzyme in pharmaceutical industry. In this work, site saturation mutagenesis (SSM) which is a combination of both rational design and directed evolution approaches is applied to alter the coenzyme specificity of NAD+-dependent cmFDH from NAD+ to NADP+ and increase its thermostability. For this aim, two separate libraries are constructed for screening a change in coenzyme specificity and an increase in thermostability. To alter the coenzyme specificity, in the coenzyme binding domain, positions at 195, 196, and 197 are subjected to two rounds of SSM and screening which enabled the identification of two double mutants D195S/Q197T and D195S/Y196L. These mutants increase the overall catalytic efficiency of NAD+ to 5.6 × 104-fold and 5 × 104-fold value, respectively. To increase the thermostability of cmFDH, the conserved residue at position 1 in the catalytic domain of cmFDH is subjected to SSM. The thermodynamic and kinetic results suggest that 8 mutations on the first residue can be tolerated. Among all mutants, M1L has the best residual activity after incubation at 60°C with 17%. These studies emphasize that SSM is an efficient method for creating “smarter libraries” for improving the properties of cmFDH. PMID:27847673

  5. Transposon Dysregulation Modulates dWnt4 Signaling to Control Germline Stem Cell Differentiation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Maitreyi; Martino Cortez, Yesenia; Wong-Deyrup, SiuWah; Tavares, Leticia; Schowalter, Sean; Flora, Pooja; Hill, Corinne; Nasrallah, Mohamad Ali; Chittur, Sridar; Rangan, Prashanth

    2016-03-01

    Germline stem cell (GSC) self-renewal and differentiation are required for the sustained production of gametes. GSC differentiation in Drosophila oogenesis requires expression of the histone methyltransferase dSETDB1 by the somatic niche, however its function in this process is unknown. Here, we show that dSETDB1 is required for the expression of a Wnt ligand, Drosophila Wingless type mouse mammary virus integration site number 4 (dWnt4) in the somatic niche. dWnt4 signaling acts on the somatic niche cells to facilitate their encapsulation of the GSC daughter, which serves as a differentiation cue. dSETDB1 is known to repress transposable elements (TEs) to maintain genome integrity. Unexpectedly, we found that independent upregulation of TEs also downregulated dWnt4, leading to GSC differentiation defects. This suggests that dWnt4 expression is sensitive to the presence of TEs. Together our results reveal a chromatin-transposon-Wnt signaling axis that regulates stem cell fate.

  6. A transposon insertion in FLOWERING LOCUS T is associated with delayed flowering in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueming; Meng, Lin; Liu, Bo; Hu, Yunyan; Cheng, Feng; Liang, Jianli; Aarts, Mark G M; Wang, Xiaowu; Wu, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Long days and vernalization accelerate the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth in Brassica rapa. Bolting before plants reach the harvesting stage is a serious problem in B. rapa vegetable crop cultivation. The genetic dissection of flowering time is important for breeding of premature bolting-resistant B. rapa crops. Using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, we twice detected two major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for flowering time in two different growing seasons that were located on chromosomes A02 and A07, respectively. We hypothesized that an orthologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, named as BrFT2, was the candidate gene underlying the QTL localized to A07. A transposon insertion in the second intron of BrFT2 was detected in one of the parental lines, which was predicted to generate a loss-of-function allele. Transcription analysis revealed that the BrFT2 transcript was not present in the parental line that harbored the mutated allele. RILs carrying only the mutated BrFT2 allele showed delayed flowering regardless of growing seasons when compared to RILs carrying the wild-type BrFT2 allele. These data suggest that BrFT2 is involved in flowering time regulation in controlling flowering time in B. rapa.

  7. Efficient Production of Fluorescent Transgenic Rats using the piggyBac Transposon

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianda; Shuai, Ling; Mao, Junjie; Wang, Xuepeng; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Xinxin; Wang, Leyun; Li, Yanni; Li, Wei; Zhou, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Rats with fluorescent markers are of great value for studies that trace lineage-specific development, particularly those assessing the differentiation potential of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The piggyBac (PB) transposon is widely used for the efficient introduction of genetic modifications into genomes, and has already been successfully used to produce transgenic mice and rats. Here, we generated transgenic rats carrying either the desRed fluorescent protein (RFP) gene or the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene by injecting pronuclei with PB plasmids. We showed that the transgenic rats expressed the RFP or eGFP gene in many organs and had the capability to transmit the marker gene to the next generation through germline integration. In addition, rat embryonic stem cells (ESCs) carrying an RFP reporter gene can be derived from the blastocysts of the transgenic rats. Moreover, the RFP gene can be detected in chimeras derived from RFP ESCs via blastocyst injection. This work suggests that PB-mediated transgenesis is a powerful tool to generate transgenic rats expressing fluorescent proteins with high efficiency, and this technique can be used to derive rat ESCs expressing a reporter protein. PMID:27624004

  8. A LTR copia retrotransposon and Mutator transposons interrupt Pgip genes in cultivated and wild wheats.

    PubMed

    Di Giovanni, Michela; Cenci, Alberto; Janni, Michela; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2008-04-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins involved in plant defence. Wheat pgip genes have been isolated from the B (Tapgip1) and D (Tapgip2) genomes, and now we report the identification of pgip genes from the A genomes of wild and cultivated wheats. By Southern blots and sequence analysis of BAC clones we demonstrated that wheat contains a single copy pgip gene per genome and the one from the A genome, pgip3, is inactivated by the insertion of a long terminal repeat copia retrotranspon within the fourth LRR. We demonstrated also that this retrotransposon insertion is present in Triticum urartu and all the polyploidy wheats assayed, but is absent in T. monococcum (Tmpgip3), suggesting that this insertion took place after the divergence between T. monococcum and T. urartu, but before the formation of the polyploid wheats. We identified also two independent insertion events of new Class II transposable elements, Vacuna, belonging to the Mutator superfamily, that interrupted the Tdipgip1 gene of T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides. The occurrence of these transposons within the coding region of Tdipgip1 facilitated the mapping of the Pgip locus in the pericentric region of the short arm of chromosome group 7. We speculate that the inactivation of pgip genes are tolerated because of redundancy of PGIP activities in the wheat genome.

  9. Simple piggyBac transposon-based mammalian cell expression system for inducible protein production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhijie; Michael, Iacovos P.; Zhou, Dongxia; Nagy, Andras; Rini, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Reported here is a piggyBac transposon-based expression system for the generation of doxycycline-inducible, stably transfected mammalian cell cultures for large-scale protein production. The system works with commonly used adherent and suspension-adapted mammalian cell lines and requires only a single transfection step. Moreover, the high uniform expression levels observed among clones allow for the use of stable bulk cell cultures, thereby eliminating time-consuming cloning steps. Under continuous doxycycline induction, protein expression levels have been shown to be stable for at least 2 mo in the absence of drug selection. The high efficiency of the system also allows for the generation of stable bulk cell cultures in 96-well format, a capability leading to the possibility of generating stable cell cultures for entire families of membrane or secreted proteins. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the system through the large-scale production (140–750 mg scale) of an endoplasmic reticulum-resident fucosyltransferase and two potential anticancer protein therapeutic agents. PMID:23476064

  10. Transposon-mediated epigenetic regulation contributes to phenotypic diversity and environmental adaptation in rice.

    PubMed

    Song, Xianwei; Cao, Xiaofeng

    2017-03-05

    Transposable elements (TEs) have long been regarded as 'selfish DNA', and are generally silenced by epigenetic mechanisms. However, work in the past decade has identified positive roles for TEs in generating genomic novelty and diversity in plants. In particular, recent studies suggested that TE-induced epigenetic alterations and modification of gene expression contribute to phenotypic variation and adaptation to geography or stress. These findings have led many to regard TEs, not as junk DNA, but as sources of control elements and genomic diversity. As a staple food crop and model system for genomic research on monocot plants, rice (Oryza sativa) has a modest-sized genome that harbors massive numbers of DNA transposons (class II transposable elements) scattered across the genome, which may make TE regulation of genes more prevalent. In this review, we summarize recent progress in research on the functions of rice TEs in modulating gene expression and creating new genes. We also examine the contributions of TEs to phenotypic diversity and adaptation to environmental conditions.

  11. Multigene expression in stable CHO cell pools generated with the piggyBac transposon system.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Sowmya; Wurm, Florian M; Hacker, David L

    2016-09-01

    Heterogenous populations of recombinant cells (cell pools) stably expressing 1-4 transgenes were generated from Chinese hamster overy (CHO) cells with the piggyBac (PB) transposon system. The cell pools produced different combinations of three model proteins-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), and a monoclonal IgG1 antibody. Each transgene was present on a separate PB donor plasmid with either the same or a different selection gene. In both cases, we obtained PB-derived cell pools with higher recombinant protein yields than from cell pools generated by conventional gene delivery. In PB-derived cell pools generated using a single selection agent, both protein production and the number of integrated copies of each transgene declined as the number of transfected transgenes increased. However, the total number of integrated transgenes was similar regardless of the number of different transgenes transfected. For PB-derived cell pools generated by selection of each transgene with a different selection agent, the total number of integrated transgenes increased with the number of transfected transgenes. The results suggest that the generation of cell pools producing multiple recombinant proteins is feasible and that the method is more efficient when each individual transgene is selected with a different marker. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1308-1317, 2016.

  12. Generation and screening of a comprehensive Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis transposon mutant bank.

    PubMed

    Rathnaiah, Govardhan; Lamont, Elise A; Harris, N Beth; Fenton, Robert J; Zinniel, Denise K; Liu, Xiaofei; Sotos, Josh; Feng, Zhengyu; Livneh-Kol, Ayala; Shpigel, Nahum Y; Czuprynski, Charles J; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Barletta, Raúl G

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne's Disease in ruminants. This enteritis has significant economic impact and worldwide distribution. Vaccination is one of the most cost effective infectious disease control measures. Unfortunately, current vaccines reduce clinical disease and shedding, but are of limited efficacy and do not provide long-term protective immunity. Several strategies have been followed to mine the MAP genome for virulence determinants that could be applied to vaccine and diagnostic assay development. In this study, a comprehensive mutant bank of 13,536 MAP K-10 Tn5367 mutants (P > 95%) was constructed and screened in vitro for phenotypes related to virulence. This strategy was designated to maximize identification of genes important to MAP pathogenesis without relying on studies of other mycobacterial species that may not translate into similar effects in MAP. This bank was screened for mutants with colony morphology alterations, susceptibility to D-cycloserine, impairment in siderophore production or secretion, reduced cell association, and decreased biofilm and clump formation. Mutants with interesting phenotypes were analyzed by PCR, Southern blotting and DNA sequencing to determine transposon insertion sites. These insertion sites mapped upstream from the MAP1152-MAP1156 cluster, internal to either the Mod operon gene MAP1566 or within the coding sequence of lsr2, and several intergenic regions. Growth curves in broth cultures, invasion assays and kinetics of survival and replication in primary bovine macrophages were also determined. The ability of vectors carrying Tn5370 to generate stable MAP mutants was also investigated.

  13. S elements: A family of Tc1-like transposons in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Merriman, P.J.; Grimes, C.D.; Ambroziak, J.

    1995-12-01

    The S elements form a diverse family of long-inverted-repeat transposons within the genome of Drosophila melanogaster. These elements very in size and sequence, the longest consisting of 1736 bp with 234-bp inverted terminal repeats. The longest open reading frame in an intact S element could encode a 345-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide is homologous to the transposases of the mariner-Tc1 superfamily of transposable elements. S elements are ubiquitous in D. melanogaster populations and also appear to be present in the genomes of two sibling species; however, they seem to be absent from 17 other Drosophila species that were examined. Within D. melanogaster strains, there are, on average, 37.4 cytologically detectable S elements per diploid genome. These elements are scattered throughout the chromosomes, but several sites in both the euchromatin and {beta} heterochromatin are consistently occupied. The discovery of an S-element-insertion mutation and a reversion of this mutation indicates that S elements are at least occasionally mobile in the D. melanogaster genome. These elements seem to insert at an AT dinucleotide within a short palindrome and apparently duplicate that dinucleotide upon insertion. 44 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Activation Tagging Using the En-I Maize Transposon System in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Marsch-Martinez, Nayelli; Greco, Raffaella; Van Arkel, Gert; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Pereira, Andy

    2002-01-01

    A method for the generation of stable activation tag inserts was developed in Arabidopsis using the maize (Zea mays) En-I transposon system. The method employs greenhouse selectable marker genes that are useful to efficiently generate large populations of insertions. A population of about 8,300 independent stable activation tag inserts has been produced. Greenhouse-based screens for mutants in a group of plants containing about 2,900 insertions revealed about 31 dominant mutants, suggesting a dominant mutant frequency of about 1%. From the first batch of about 400 stable insertions screened in the greenhouse, four gain-in-function, dominant activation-tagged, morphological mutants were identified. A novel gain-in-function mutant called thread is described, in which the target gene belongs t