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Sample records for hind hinnaregulatsioonile allutatud

  1. Hinds Community College MSEIP program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Student Assistant Antoinette Davis (left) of Utica; Carmella Forsythe, 13, of Clinton; Terri Henderson, 14, of Clinton; Tyra Greer, 12, of Port Gibson; and Kala Battle, 14, of Edwards, answer curriculum questions about NASA's Return to Flight mission exhibit at StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) near Bay St. Louis, Miss. The girls were on a field trip to StenniSphere with fellow participants in Hinds Community College's MSEIP (Minority Science Engineering Improvement Program) summer program. MSEIP encourages students to pursue and prepare for careers in science, technology, engineering and math.

  2. 4. EAST ELEVATION OF HINDS PLANT. NOTE BUTTRESSING AS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EAST ELEVATION OF HINDS PLANT. NOTE BUTTRESSING AS ON EAGLE MOUNTAIN FOR SEISMIC REINFORCEMENT. - Hinds Pump Plant, East of Joshua Tree National Monument, 5 miles north of Route 10, Hayfield, Riverside County, CA

  3. Hind, John R (1823-1895)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    English astronomer, discovered in 1852 a small nebula in Taurus which, in 1861, was found by HEINRICH D'ARREST to have disappeared. By the end of the year, D'Arrest and OTTO WILHELM STRUVE had recovered it. Hind's variable nebula, as it came to be called, demonstrated that at least some nebulae were small, as nothing larger than a light year in dimension can disappear in a year. The nebula is a ...

  4. Posterior Ankle and Hind Foot Arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gökkuş, Kemal; Aydın, Ahmet Turan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: While anterior ankle arthroscopy is a widely accepted technique, posterior ankle/hind foot arthroscopy is still a relatively new procedure. The arthroscopic visualisation was often initially limited and vulnerabilty of the posteromedial neurovascular structures to injury scared orthopaedic surgeons. The goal of this review is to highlight the indications, and to present the long term follow up results of posterior ankle/hind foot arthroscopy. Methods: The study included 21 ankles in 21 patients (12 male and 9 female ).The mean age was 37.7 , the mean duration of preoperative symptoms 12.8 months . Arthroscopy performed with the patient prone , under general and spinal anesthesia with tourniquet hemostasis . Preoperative intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis is performed (cefazolin 1g) , sand bag placed under ipsilateral anteresuperior iliac spine to correct natural external rotated posture of the ankle and ankle is left hanging of the table so that it can moved freely during surgery. We applied noninvasive distraction method with simple rope which tied and knotted waist of the surgeon . The posterolateral and posteromedial portals which described by Van Dijk was utilized . The arthroscopic visualisation was often initially limited and careful debritement of some adipose tissue of the kager fat pad (Kager's fat pad, also known as the pre-Achilles fat pad) was necessary to create more space to aid visualization .The most valuable point to stay clear from trouble is to understand , know and aware where the flexor hallucis longus tendon exist .So neurovascular structures located beyond this tendon. Principally the process must advance into lateral to medial manner. The mean follow up period was 55 months. The most common preoperative diagnoses were osteochondral lesions of talus (ten ),painful os trigonum syndrome with (five )or without (three) FHL tenosynovitis (total eight ), posterior talofibular ligament thickenning (two ), Haglund’s deformity (one

  5. 5. HINDS PUMPING FLOOR FROM WEST END TOP OF UNIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. HINDS PUMPING FLOOR FROM WEST END TOP OF UNIT #9 (LENS STOPPED DOWN ALL THE WAY FOR DEPTH OF FIELD ENHANCEMENT). - Hinds Pump Plant, East of Joshua Tree National Monument, 5 miles north of Route 10, Hayfield, Riverside County, CA

  6. HD 38452 - J. R. Hind's star that changed colour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Brian; Sneden, Christopher

    1988-01-01

    In 1851, John Russell Hind announced that a star previously observed by him to be very red had become bluish white in color. It is shown that this star, HD 38451, is a ninth magnitude shell star which presumably was ejecting a shell when Hind first observed it. From high dispersion coude spectra, low dispersion IUE spectra, and ground-based photometry, HD 38451 is found to be a normal A21V shell star. Its current values of E(B-V) of about 0.14 is probably caused by interstellar rather than circumstellar reddening. There remains a problem to reconcile the large amount of reddening present when Hind first observed the star with its evidently small diminution in visual brightness at that time.

  7. HD 38451 - J. R. Hind's star that changed colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian; Sneden, Christopher

    1988-09-01

    In 1851, John Russell Hind announced that a star previously observed by him to be very red had become bluish white in color. It is shown that this star, HD 38451, is a ninth magnitude shell star which presumably was ejecting a shell when Hind first observed it. From high dispersion coude spectra, low dispersion IUE spectra, and ground-based photometry, HD 38451 is found to be a normal A21V shell star. Its current values of E(B-V) of about 0.14 is probably caused by interstellar rather than circumstellar reddening. There remains a problem to reconcile the large amount of reddening present when Hind first observed the star with its evidently small diminution in visual brightness at that time.

  8. Conditional effect of selenium on the mammalian hind gut microbiota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenium (Se) status is linked to cancer risk in humans and other mammals. Because Se is used by certain microbial species which contain selenoproteins, and because hind gut microfloral composition is linked to cancer development, we proposed that supranutritional Se could reduce tumorigenisis by af...

  9. The volume of vascular compartment in rat hind limb muscles

    PubMed Central

    Law, R. O.; Phelps, C. F.

    1966-01-01

    1. A non-recirculatory perfusion system has been developed suitable for the perfusion of the hind limbs of small experimental animals. 2. By means of it a solution of T. 1824-labelled serum albumin has been introduced into the vascular compartment of the hind limbs of female rats under isogravimetric conditions. Excision and analysis of certain muscles has been used to provide information concerning the percentage distribution of the labelled albumin within these muscles. 3. Experiments have been carried out in vivo employing [131I]labelled serum albumin and [51Cr]labelled erythrocytes in order to compare the vascular volumes determined under in vivo conditions and in perfusions, and to estimate the capillary haematocrit in vivo. 4. The physiological validity of the methods used and the results obtained has been discussed. PMID:5972152

  10. Edge detection of red hind grouper vocalizations in the littorals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Cameron A.; Beaujean, Pierre-Philippe

    2016-05-01

    Littoral regions typically present to passive sensors as a high noise acoustic environment, particularly with respect to port and harbor regions where tidal variation, often characterized as pink, mixes with reverberation from on-shore business and commercial shipping, often characterized as white. Some fish in these regions, in particular epiphenalius Guttatus or more commonly the red hind grouper, emit relatively narrowband tones in low frequencies to communicate with other fish in such regions. The impact of anthropogenic noise sources on the red Hind and other fish is a topical area of interest for wildlife fisheries, private sportsmen and military offices that is not considered here; the fact that fish species continue to populate and communicate in these regions in the presence of high noise content lends some study to the signal content and modeling of a potential biologically inspired receiver structure.

  11. Hind Right Approach Pancreaticoduodenectomy: From Skill to Indications

    PubMed Central

    Georgescu, Stefan; Ursulescu, Corina

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pancreaticoduodenectomy is the potentially curative treatment for malignant and several benign conditions of the pancreatic head and periampullary region. While performing pancreaticoduodenectomy, early neck division may be impossible or inadequate in case of hepatic artery anatomic variants, suspected involvement of the superior mesenteric vessels, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, and pancreatic head bleeding pseudoaneurysm. Our work aims to highlight a particular hind right approach pancreaticoduodenectomy in selected indications and assess the preliminary results. Methods. We describe our early hind right approach to the retropancreatic vasculature during pancreaticoduodenectomy by mesopancreas dissection before any pancreatic or digestive transection. Results. We used this approach in 52 patients. Thirty-two had hepatic artery anatomic variant and 2 had bleeding pancreatic head pseudoaneurysm. The hepatic artery variant was preserved in all cases out of 2 in which arterial reconstruction was performed. In nine patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms the pancreaticoduodenectomy was extended to the body in 6 and totalized in 3 patients. Seven patients with adenocarcinoma involving the portomesenteric axis required venous resection and reconstruction. Conclusions. Early hind right approach is advocated in selected cases of pancreaticoduodenectomy to improve locoregional vascular control and determine, safely and early, whether there is mesopancreas involvement. PMID:25221601

  12. Pelvic and hind limb musculature of Staurikosaurus pricei (Dinosauria: Saurischia).

    PubMed

    Grillo, Orlando N; Azevedo, Sergio A K

    2011-03-01

    The study of pelvic and hind limb bones and muscles in basal dinosaurs is important for understanding the early evolution of bipedal locomotion in the group. The use of data from both extant and extinct taxa placed into a phylogenetic context allowed to make well-supported inferences concerning most of the hind limb musculature of the basal saurischian Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970 (Santa Maria Formation, Late Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil). Two large concavities in the lateral surface of the ilium represent the origin of the muscles iliotrochantericus caudalis plus iliofemoralis externus (in the anterior concavity) and iliofibularis (in the posterior concavity). Muscle ambiens has only one head and originates from the pubic tubercle. The origin of puboischiofemoralis internus 1 possibly corresponds to a fossa in the ventral margin of the pré-acetabular iliac process. This could represent an intermediate stage prior to the origin of a true pré-acetabular fossa. Muscles caudofemorales longus et brevis were likely well developed, and Staurikosaurus is unique in bearing a posteriorly projected surface for the origin of caudofemoralis brevis.

  13. Bone morphology of the hind limbs in two caviomorph rodents.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, F A P; Sesoko, N F; Rahal, S C; Teixeira, C R; Müller, T R; Machado, M R F

    2013-04-01

    In order to evaluate the hind limbs of caviomorph rodents a descriptive analysis of the Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766) and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) was performed using anatomical specimens, radiography, computed tomography (CT) and full-coloured prototype models to generate bone anatomy data. The appendicular skeleton of the two largest rodents of Neotropical America was compared with the previously reported anatomical features of Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) and domestic Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758). The structures were analyzed macroscopically and particular findings of each species reported. Features including the presence of articular fibular projection and lunulae were observed in the stifle joint of all rodents. Imaging aided in anatomical description and, specifically in the identification of bone structures in Cuniculus paca and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. The imaging findings were correlated with the anatomical structures observed. The data may be used in future studies comparing these animals to other rodents and mammalian species.

  14. New Australovenator hind limb elements pertaining to the holotype reveal the most complete Neovenatorid leg.

    PubMed

    White, Matt A; Benson, Roger B J; Tischler, Travis R; Hocknull, Scott A; Cook, Alex G; Barnes, David G; Poropat, Stephen F; Wooldridge, Sarah J; Sloan, Trish; Sinapius, George H K; Elliott, David A

    2013-01-01

    We report new skeletal elements pertaining to the same individual which represents the holotype of Australovenator wintonensis, from the 'Matilda Site' in the Winton Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of western Queensland. The discovery of these new elements means that the hind limb of Australovenator is now the most completely understood hind limb among Neovenatoridae. The new hind limb elements include: the left fibula; left metatarsal IV; left pedal phalanges I-2, II-1, III-4, IV-2, IV-3; and right pedal phalanges, II-2 and III-1. The detailed descriptions are supported with three dimensional figures. These coupled with the completeness of the hind limb will increase the utility of Australovenator in comparisons with less complete neovenatorid genera. These specimens and the previously described hind limb elements of Australovenator are compared with other theropods classified as neovenatorids (including Neovenator, Chilantaisaurus, Fukuiraptor, Orkoraptor and Megaraptor). Hind limb length proportion comparisons indicate that the smaller neovenatorids Australovenator and Fukuiraptor possess more elongate and gracile hind limb elements than the larger Neovenator and Chilantaisaurus. Greater stride lengths to body size exist in both Fukuiraptor and Australovenator with the femur discovered to be proportionally shorter the rest of the hind limb length. Additionally Australovenator is identified as possessing the most elongate metatarsus. The metatarsus morphology varies with body size. The larger neoventorids possess a metatarsus with greater width but shorter length compared to smaller forms.

  15. New Australovenator Hind Limb Elements Pertaining to the Holotype Reveal the Most Complete Neovenatorid Leg

    PubMed Central

    White, Matt A.; Benson, Roger B. J.; Tischler, Travis R.; Hocknull, Scott A.; Cook, Alex G.; Barnes, David G.; Poropat, Stephen F.; Wooldridge, Sarah J.; Sloan, Trish; Sinapius, George H. K.; Elliott, David A.

    2013-01-01

    We report new skeletal elements pertaining to the same individual which represents the holotype of Australovenator wintonensis, from the ‘Matilda Site’ in the Winton Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of western Queensland. The discovery of these new elements means that the hind limb of Australovenator is now the most completely understood hind limb among Neovenatoridae. The new hind limb elements include: the left fibula; left metatarsal IV; left pedal phalanges I-2, II-1, III-4, IV-2, IV-3; and right pedal phalanges, II-2 and III-1. The detailed descriptions are supported with three dimensional figures. These coupled with the completeness of the hind limb will increase the utility of Australovenator in comparisons with less complete neovenatorid genera. These specimens and the previously described hind limb elements of Australovenator are compared with other theropods classified as neovenatorids (including Neovenator, Chilantaisaurus, Fukuiraptor, Orkoraptor and Megaraptor). Hind limb length proportion comparisons indicate that the smaller neovenatorids Australovenator and Fukuiraptor possess more elongate and gracile hind limb elements than the larger Neovenator and Chilantaisaurus. Greater stride lengths to body size exist in both Fukuiraptor and Australovenator with the femur discovered to be proportionally shorter the rest of the hind limb length. Additionally Australovenator is identified as possessing the most elongate metatarsus. The metatarsus morphology varies with body size. The larger neoventorids possess a metatarsus with greater width but shorter length compared to smaller forms. PMID:23894328

  16. Dependence of gait pattern on the type of coupling between hind- and forelimb generators: modelling study.

    PubMed

    Zmysłowski, W; Kasicki, S

    1982-01-01

    Dependence of gait pattern on the way of possible coupling between fore and hindlimb girdles was investigated. This dependence was analysed using the analog model of neuronal net of spinal generator. Both nets (i.e., for fore and hind girdles) could be synchronized by any coupling between the executive and intrinsic elements. However, only few of them assured generation of patterns corresponding to physiological gaits. Patterns corresponding to walk and trot were obtained with inhibitory connections from hind intrinsic elements to fore executive ones. Pace was obtained at the coupling connections directed from hind executive elements to fore ones. To obtain gallop it was necessary to couple fore executive elements with hind ones by inhibitory connections.

  17. Developmental basis for hind-limb loss in dolphins and origin of the cetacean bodyplan

    PubMed Central

    Thewissen, J. G. M.; Cohn, M. J.; Stevens, L. S.; Bajpai, S.; Heyning, J.; Horton, W. E.

    2006-01-01

    Among mammals, modern cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) are unusual in the absence of hind limbs. However, cetacean embryos do initiate hind-limb bud development. In dolphins, the bud arrests and degenerates around the fifth gestational week. Initial limb outgrowth in amniotes is maintained by two signaling centers, the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA). Our data indicate that the cetacean hind-limb bud forms an AER and that this structure expresses Fgf8 initially, but that neither the AER nor Fgf8 expression is maintained. Moreover, Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which mediates the signaling activity of the ZPA, is absent from the dolphin hind-limb bud. We find that failure to establish a ZPA is associated with the absence of Hand2, an upstream regulator of Shh. Interpreting our results in the context of both the cetacean fossil record and the known functions of Shh suggests that reduction of Shh expression may have occurred ≈41 million years ago and led to the loss of distal limb elements. The total loss of Shh expression may account for the further loss of hind-limb elements that occurred near the origin of the modern suborders of cetaceans ≈34 million years ago. Integration of paleontological and developmental data suggests that hind-limb size was reduced by gradually operating microevolutionary changes. Long after locomotor function was totally lost, modulation of developmental control genes eliminated most of the hind-limb skeleton. Hence, macroevolutionary changes in gene expression did not drive the initial reduction in hind-limb size. PMID:16717186

  18. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiyu; Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems. PMID:27547607

  19. On the development of Cetacean extremities: I. Hind limb rudimentation in the Spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata).

    PubMed

    Sedmera, D; Misek, I; Klima, M

    1997-02-01

    The Cetacea are group of animals which have completely lost their hind limbs during the course of evolution as a result of their entirely aquatic mode of life. It is known, however, that during their embryonal period, the hind limb buds are temporarily present. The control mechanisms of this regression are not yet understood, and vestigial limbs can sometimes be found in adults. The aim of the present study is to describe the course of hind limb rudimentation during prenatal development of Stenella attenuata (Spotted dolphin) at tissue and cell levels and compare the results with other natural or experimentally induced amelias. Hind limb buds of dolphin embryos, CRL 10-30 mm, were examined histologically. Before total disappearance, they show histodifferentiation comparable with other mammals. Initially, they form the apical ectodermal ridge, which soon regresses. The mesenchyme undergoes the process of condensation to form anlagens of prospective skeletal elements. These condensations are surrounded by vascular plexuses. During the course of rudimentation, some mesenchymal cells die, while the others are incorporated into the body wall. Nerve ingrowth into rudimentary limb buds was also detected. The temporary presence of hind limb rudiments in cetacean embryos can be regarded as a good example of recapitulation of phylogenesis in ontogenesis. PMID:9143876

  20. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Tong, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Summary The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems. PMID:27547607

  1. Analysis of the HindIII-catalyzed reaction by time-resolved crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Tomoki; Watanabe, Nobuhisa

    2015-02-01

    A time-resolved study using the freeze-trap method elucidates the mechanism of the DNA-cleaving reaction of HindIII. In order to investigate the mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by HindIII, structures of HindIII–DNA complexes with varying durations of soaking time in cryoprotectant buffer containing manganese ions were determined by the freeze-trap method. In the crystal structures of the complexes obtained after soaking for a longer duration, two manganese ions, indicated by relatively higher electron density, are clearly observed at the two metal ion-binding sites in the active site of HindIII. The increase in the electron density of the two metal-ion peaks followed distinct pathways with increasing soaking times, suggesting variation in the binding rate constant for the two metal sites. DNA cleavage is observed when the second manganese ion appears, suggesting that HindIII uses the two-metal-ion mechanism, or alternatively that its reactivity is enhanced by the binding of the second metal ion. In addition, conformational change in a loop near the active site accompanies the catalytic reaction.

  2. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiyu; Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems.

  3. The Hydraulic Mechanism of the Unfolding of Hind Wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (Order: Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiyu; Ling, Mingze; Wu, Wei; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin

    2014-01-01

    In most beetles, the hind wings are thin and fragile; when at rest, they are held over the back of the beetle. When the hind wing unfolds, it provides the necessary aerodynamic forces for flight. In this paper, we investigate the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process of the hind wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (Oder: Coleoptera). The wing unfolding process of Dorcus titanus platymelus was examined using high speed camera sequences (400 frames/s), and the hydraulic pressure in the veins was measured with a biological pressure sensor and dynamic signal acquisition and analysis (DSA) during the expansion process. We found that the total time for the release of hydraulic pressure during wing folding is longer than the time required for unfolding. The pressure is proportional to the length of the wings and the body mass of the beetle. A retinal camera was used to investigate the fluid direction. We found that the peak pressures correspond to two main cross-folding joint expansions in the hind wing. These observations strongly suggest that blood pressure facilitates the extension of hind wings during unfolding. PMID:24722572

  4. The hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding of hind wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (order: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiyu; Ling, Mingze; Wu, Wei; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin

    2014-01-01

    In most beetles, the hind wings are thin and fragile; when at rest, they are held over the back of the beetle. When the hind wing unfolds, it provides the necessary aerodynamic forces for flight. In this paper, we investigate the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process of the hind wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (Oder: Coleoptera). The wing unfolding process of Dorcus titanus platymelus was examined using high speed camera sequences (400 frames/s), and the hydraulic pressure in the veins was measured with a biological pressure sensor and dynamic signal acquisition and analysis (DSA) during the expansion process. We found that the total time for the release of hydraulic pressure during wing folding is longer than the time required for unfolding. The pressure is proportional to the length of the wings and the body mass of the beetle. A retinal camera was used to investigate the fluid direction. We found that the peak pressures correspond to two main cross-folding joint expansions in the hind wing. These observations strongly suggest that blood pressure facilitates the extension of hind wings during unfolding. PMID:24722572

  5. Hox gene expression leads to differential hind leg development between honeybee castes.

    PubMed

    Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Barchuk, Angel Roberto; Moda, Livia Maria; Simoes, Zila Luz Paulino

    2012-01-01

    Beyond the physiological and behavioural, differences in appendage morphology between the workers and queens of Apis mellifera are pre-eminent. The hind legs of workers, which are highly specialized pollinators, deserve special attention. The hind tibia of worker has an expanded bristle-free region used for carrying pollen and propolis, the corbicula. In queens this structure is absent. Although the morphological differences are well characterized, the genetic inputs driving the development of this alternative morphology remain unknown. Leg phenotype determination takes place between the fourth and fifth larval instar and herein we show that the morphogenesis is completed at brown-eyed pupa. Using results from the hybridization of whole genome-based oligonucleotide arrays with RNA samples from hind leg imaginal discs of pre-pupal honeybees of both castes we present a list of 200 differentially expressed genes. Notably, there are castes preferentially expressed cuticular protein genes and members of the P450 family. We also provide results of qPCR analyses determining the developmental transcription profiles of eight selected genes, including abdominal-A, distal-less and ultrabithorax (Ubx), whose roles in leg development have been previously demonstrated in other insect models. Ubx expression in workers hind leg is approximately 25 times higher than in queens. Finally, immunohistochemistry assays show that Ubx localization during hind leg development resembles the bristles localization in the tibia/basitarsus of the adult legs in both castes. Our data strongly indicate that the development of the hind legs diphenism characteristic of this corbiculate species is driven by a set of caste-preferentially expressed genes, such as those encoding cuticular protein genes, P450 and Hox proteins, in response to the naturally different diets offered to honeybees during the larval period.

  6. Hox Gene Expression Leads to Differential Hind Leg Development between Honeybee Castes

    PubMed Central

    Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Barchuk, Angel Roberto; Moda, Livia Maria; Simoes, Zila Luz Paulino

    2012-01-01

    Beyond the physiological and behavioural, differences in appendage morphology between the workers and queens of Apis mellifera are pre-eminent. The hind legs of workers, which are highly specialized pollinators, deserve special attention. The hind tibia of worker has an expanded bristle-free region used for carrying pollen and propolis, the corbicula. In queens this structure is absent. Although the morphological differences are well characterized, the genetic inputs driving the development of this alternative morphology remain unknown. Leg phenotype determination takes place between the fourth and fifth larval instar and herein we show that the morphogenesis is completed at brown-eyed pupa. Using results from the hybridization of whole genome-based oligonucleotide arrays with RNA samples from hind leg imaginal discs of pre-pupal honeybees of both castes we present a list of 200 differentially expressed genes. Notably, there are castes preferentially expressed cuticular protein genes and members of the P450 family. We also provide results of qPCR analyses determining the developmental transcription profiles of eight selected genes, including abdominal-A, distal-less and ultrabithorax (Ubx), whose roles in leg development have been previously demonstrated in other insect models. Ubx expression in workers hind leg is approximately 25 times higher than in queens. Finally, immunohistochemistry assays show that Ubx localization during hind leg development resembles the bristles localization in the tibia/basitarsus of the adult legs in both castes. Our data strongly indicate that the development of the hind legs diphenism characteristic of this corbiculate species is driven by a set of caste-preferentially expressed genes, such as those encoding cuticular protein genes, P450 and Hox proteins, in response to the naturally different diets offered to honeybees during the larval period. PMID:22848371

  7. Forskolin inhibits histamine release by neurotensin in the rat perfused hind limb.

    PubMed

    Kérouac, R; St-Pierre, S; Rioux, F

    1984-08-01

    We have assessed the influence of forskolin, a potent activator of adenylate cyclase, on histamine release by neurotensin (NT) in the rat perfused hind limb. The results indicate that forskolin, in concentrations known to increase the cyclic AMP content of various tissues, markedly inhibits the histamine releasing effect of NT. The inhibitory action of forskolin was mimicked by a synthetic cyclic AMP derivative and by 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (IBMX), a potent phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Our results suggest that the inhibitory action of forskolin toward histamine release by NT in the rat hind limb mast cells results from the activation of a cyclic AMP-generating system in mast cells.

  8. 78 FR 54512 - Illinois Central Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Hinds County, Miss.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board Illinois Central Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Hinds County... part 1152 subpart F--Exempt Abandonments to abandon approximately 0.16 miles of rail line between... exemption, any employee adversely affected by the abandonment shall be protected under Oregon Short...

  9. Analysis of the HindIII-catalyzed reaction by time-resolved crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Tomoki; Watanabe, Nobuhisa

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by HindIII, structures of HindIII–DNA complexes with varying durations of soaking time in cryoprotectant buffer containing manganese ions were determined by the freeze-trap method. In the crystal structures of the complexes obtained after soaking for a longer duration, two manganese ions, indicated by relatively higher electron density, are clearly observed at the two metal ion-binding sites in the active site of HindIII. The increase in the electron density of the two metal-ion peaks followed distinct pathways with increasing soaking times, suggesting variation in the binding rate constant for the two metal sites. DNA cleavage is observed when the second manganese ion appears, suggesting that HindIII uses the two-metal-ion mechanism, or alternatively that its reactivity is enhanced by the binding of the second metal ion. In addition, conformational change in a loop near the active site accompanies the catalytic reaction. PMID:25664735

  10. Investigations on the role of leukotrienes in remote hind limb preconditioning-induced cardioprotection in rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baljeet; Randhawa, Puneet Kaur; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2016-05-01

    The cardioprotective effects of remote hind limb preconditioning (RIPC) are well established, but its mechanisms still remain to be explored. Therefore, the present study was aimed to explore the possible involvement of 5-lipoxygenase-derived leukotrienes in RIPC. The hind limb was tied by a pressure cuff and was subjected to four episodes of inflation and deflation (5min each) to induce remote hind-limb preconditioning. Thereafter, the hearts were isolated and were subjected to global ischemia (30min) followed by reperfusion (120min) on the Langendorff apparatus. The extent of myocardial injury was assessed by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) levels in the coronary effluent; the infarct size using TTC staining, and the hemodynamic parameters including LVDP, dp/dtmax and dp/dtmin. RIPC significantly decreased ischemia and reperfusion-induced increase in LDH, CK release, infarct size and improved LVDP, dp/dtmax and dp/dtmin. Administration of montelukast, leukotriene receptor antagonist (10 and 20mg/kg) and zileuton, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, (2.5 and 5mg/kg) abolished RIPC-induced cardioprotection. It may be concluded that hind limb ischemia stimulates 5-lipoxygenase to release leukotrienes which may elicit cardioprotection by humoral or neurogenic pathway. PMID:27058978

  11. Comparative anatomy and muscle architecture of selected hind limb muscles in the Quarter Horse and Arab.

    PubMed

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wakeling, J M; Wilson, A M; Payne, R C

    2008-02-01

    The Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance) are situated at either end of the equine athletic spectrum. Studies into the form and function of the leg muscles in human sprint and endurance runners have demonstrated that differences exist in their muscle architecture. It is not known whether similar differences exist in the horse. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab fresh hind limb cadavers were dissected to gain information on the muscle mass and architecture of the following muscles: gluteus medius; biceps femoris; semitendinosus; vastus lateralis; gastrocnemius; tibialis cranialis and extensor digitorum longus. Specifically, muscle mass, fascicle length and pennation angle were quantified and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and maximum isometric force were estimated. The hind limb muscles of the Quarter Horse were of a significantly greater mass, but had similar fascicle lengths and pennation angles when compared with those of the Arab; this resulted in the Quarter Horse hind limb muscles having greater PCSAs and hence greater isometric force potential. This study suggests that Quarter Horses as a breed inherently possess large strong hind limb muscles, with the potential to accelerate their body mass more rapidly than those of the Arab.

  12. Effects of immobilization on rat hind limb muscles under non-weight-bearing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaspers, Stephen R.; Fagan, Julie M.; Satarug, Soisungwan; Cook, Paul H.; Tischler, Marc E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of stretched and unstretched immobilization of a hind limb on the concentration and the metabolism of proteins in the hind-limb muscles of rats was investigated. The animals were divided into three groups: (1) weight-bearing controls, (2) tail-cast-suspended, and (3) suspended, with one hind limb immobilized with the ankle in dorsiflexion (30-40 deg angle) and the other freely moving. It was found that unloading the hind limbs for 6 days by tail cast suspension caused soleus to atrophy and reduced growth of the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles; unloading resulted in a higher degradation rate and lower synthesis rate in both in vitro and in vivo. Chronic stretch of the unloaded soleus not only prevented its atrophy but led to significant hypertrophy, relative to weight-bearing controls, with increases in both the sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein fractions. Immobilizing one ankle in dorsiflexion prevented the inhibition of growth in the plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles due to unloading.

  13. Sequence and transcriptional analysis of the vaccinia virus HindIII I fragment.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J F; Stunnenberg, H G

    1988-06-01

    The complete sequence of the vaccinia virus HindIII I fragment, which is composed of 6,498 base pairs, encodes six complete and two incomplete open reading frames (ORFs). Computer analysis revealed an amino acid sequence homology between ORF I 4 and the large subunit of the ribonucleotide reductase complex. The two small polypeptides derived from ORFs I 2 and I 5, with molecular weights of 8,500 and 8,700, respectively, have a very high hydrophobic amino acid sequence composition. S1 analysis revealed that ORF I 4 is expressed at early stages of infection, ORFs I 1, I 2, I 5, and I 7 are expressed in the late phase of infection, and ORF I 3 is constitutively expressed. Screening a vaccinia virus genomic library revealed a large vaccinia virus insert overlapping the HindIII I and O fragments which contains a previously undetected HindIII P fragment of approximately 300 base pairs. S1 analysis revealed an early (O1) and a late (O2) start site of transcription initiation located within the HindIII O fragment.

  14. Production of prostaglandins in placentae and corpus luteum in pregnant hinds of red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Korzekwa, A J; Szczepańska, A; Bogdaszewski, M; Nadolski, P; Malż, P; Giżejewski, Z

    2016-03-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are synthesized from arachidonic acid by prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2) and specific terminal PG synthases such as PGES and PGFS. The role of PGs in the reproductive processes of domestic ruminants is well recognized, whereas in cervidae, it is almost unknown, although it is noteworthy because some species of this family are valued in meat production and trophies. The aim of this study was to determine an effective marker of pregnancy and investigate the production and secretion of PGs in placenta and CL tissue in pregnancy. In the preliminary experiment, the levels of progesterone and 17-β estradiol (RIA; N = 14 divided into seven pregnant and seven nonpregnant hinds) were measured in the peripheral blood. In the main experiment, a comparison of messenger RNA (real-time polymerase chain reaction) and protein expression (Western blotting) of PTGS2, PGES, and PGFS, the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and PGF2α in the placentae and CL in pregnant hinds (aged 3-4 years, ca. 100 days of pregnancy, N = 6). In pregnant hinds, the level of progesterone in the blood was higher than that in nonpregnant hinds (P < 0.05), whereas the level of E2 was similar in all animals (P > 0.05). The highest messenger RNA expression of PTGS2, PGES, and PGFS was observed in the placentae than in the CL (P < 0.05). The protein expression of PTGS2 and PGES was elevated in the placentae compared with the CL (P < 0.05). The PGE2 output was the highest in cotyledonary tissue (P < 0.05). Pregnancy development in hinds around 100 days is regulated by arachidonic acid metabolites, especially PGE2 produced by the placentae, which production increases in pregnancy. Further studies are required to unravel the mechanisms involved in the regulation of PG and biosynthetic enzymes in uteroplacental and ovarian tissues during pregnancy in red deer females. PMID:26553568

  15. Egg binding and hind limb paralysis in an African penguin--a case report.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Monique Anamarie

    2009-03-01

    This case report assesses the role acupuncture played in the rehabilitation therapy of an African penguin with bilateral hind limb paresis and paralysis following egg binding and a caesarean section. Egg binding is the failure of the oviduct to pass the egg down into the cloaca. In avian species the sciatic nerve runs through the middle of the kidney. Swelling of the kidney tissue due to the pressure exerted by the retained egg will cause pressure on the sciatic nerve which may lead to hind limb paresis/paralysis. Acupuncture was used to relieve any muscle, joint or nerve pain and to attempt to stimulate recovery of the sciatic nerve. Acupuncture was incorporated into a fairly intensive physical rehabilitation programme to help the penguin to walk again so that it could be re-introduced back into the sanctuary's captive colony.

  16. Evolutionary patterns of hind wing morphology in dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).

    PubMed

    Bai, Ming; Beutel, Rolf G; Song, Ke-Qing; Liu, Wan-Gang; Malqin, Hinggan; Li, Sha; Hu, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2012-09-01

    The shape of wings can be a good predictor of adaptations to different selective pressures and the value of wing features in taxonomy and phylogeny has long been recognized. In our investigation of the hind wing evolution of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae) we use geometric morphometrics combined with a cladistic approach. The variations of entire hind wings and of three specific regions of 80 dung beetle species were investigated using 19 landmarks and outline data. Extensive evidence indicates that the wing as a whole and the three separate regions were under different selective pressures. The detailed evolutionary patterns of the three regions and the reconstruction of the ancestral forms were computed by mapping the geometric morphometrics data onto a tree based on a cladistic character analysis.

  17. Effect of electrically induced muscle contractions on posttraumatic edema formation in frog hind limbs.

    PubMed

    Taylor, K; Fish, D R; Mendel, F C; Burton, H W

    1992-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that repeated muscle contractions induced by high voltage pulsed current (HVPC) would limit volume increases in traumatized frog hind limbs. Twelve frogs were anesthetized, and both hind limbs of each frog were traumatized by impact. Limb volumes were measured via water displacement over a 24-hour period. Four 30-minute treatments of continuous 1-pulse per second HVPC were applied to one limb selected randomly. Stimulation produced muscle contractions that resulted in minimal joint movements. Volume changes from pretrauma limb volumes (in milliliters per kilogram) were analyzed by an analysis of variance for repeated measures. Our hypothesis was rejected (ie, repeated muscle contractions, as induced in this study, did not limit posttraumatic edema formation in frogs). Further investigation of the relative influences of limb position and varying pulse rates, pulse durations, and intensities of HVPC on edema formation may provide valuable insights on effective treatment of edema in humans.

  18. Selection for nutrients by red deer hinds feeding on a mixed forest edge.

    PubMed

    Verheyden-Tixier, Hélène; Renaud, Pierre-Cyril; Morellet, Nicolas; Jamot, Jacqueline; Besle, Jean-Michel; Dumont, Bertrand

    2008-06-01

    We studied the nutritional behaviour of hinds foraging on a mixed-forest edge by direct observation of their choices at each season and by measuring nutrient concentration in the plants. We compared nutrient concentrations in the observed diets with those in the total available vegetation, and with those of 1,000 randomly simulated diets in which we included only those plants that were actually eaten by the animal. Whether the available or the consumed feeds were used as the basis for comparisons had important consequences due to the presence of conifers and ferns, which were high in soluble sugars but were never eaten by the animals (potentially due to their toxicity). The selected diets were lower in sugars than the total available vegetation in summer, but were actually higher in sugars than the random diets generated from consumed forage species only. Hind diets contained more soluble sugars but not more protein than simulated diets in all seasons. Contrary to our prediction, anti-nutritional compounds (ADL and tannins) were avoided only in winter. Compared to simulated diets, hinds consumed more tannins in spring and summer and more ADL in summer and autumn. We suggest that this was a consequence of selection for soluble sugars, because the preferred plant species, which had high soluble sugar concentrations, also contained a large proportion of the anti-nutritional compounds eaten. In winter, the grass-dominated diets contained more fibre (NDF) and less ADL than the simulated diets, indicating that hinds orient their feeding towards digestible fibres. The switch from a browser to a grazer diet was related to a change in the availability of the nutrients, mainly soluble sugars. In our study, grasses contained more soluble sugars and proteins than deciduous browse during winter. This calls into question the dichotomy usually assumed in the literature between grass and browse in terms of nutrient content.

  19. Identifying risk factors for poor hind limb cleanliness in Danish loose-housed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, B H; Thomsen, P T; Sørensen, J T

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify possible risk factors for poor cow hind limb cleanliness in Danish loose-housed, lactating dairy cows. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional study of 1315 cows in 42 commercial Danish dairy herds with primarily Danish Holstein cows. The effect of four cow-level factors (parity, days in milk, daily lying time and lameness) and eight herd-level factors (herd size, milk production, milking system, floor type, access to pasture grazing, floor scraping frequency, hoof bathing frequency and hoof washing frequency) on the risk of having dirtier hind limbs were analysed using ordinal logistic regression fitting a proportional odds model. Cow hind limb cleanliness was scored using an ordinal score from 1 to 4: 1 being clean and 4 being covered in dirt. The odds ratios (ORs) estimated from the proportional odds model depict the effect of a risk factor on the odds of having a higher rather than a lower cleanliness score. First parity cows had an increased risk of being dirtier compared with third parity or older cows (OR=1.70). Compared with late lactation, early and mid lactation were associated with an increased risk of being dirtier (OR=2.07 and 1.33, respectively). Decreasing the daily time lying by 30 min was associated with an increased risk of being dirtier (OR=1.05). Furthermore, an increased risk of being dirtier was found in herds with no pasture access (OR=3.75). PMID:22440353

  20. DNA sequence analysis of the Hind III M fragment from Chinese vaccine strain of vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, V J; Jin, Q; Jin, D Y; Hou, Y D

    1989-01-01

    The complete DNA sequence of the Hind III M fragment of vaccinia virus (VV) Tian Tan strain genome was determined by the dideoxynucleotide chain termination method. Three open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in the complementary strand of the sequence, comprised of 2218bp. Among them, ORF K1 initiates its transcription at -45 of the Hind III K fragment. The deduced peptide encoded by K1 contains 284 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 32.48 KDa. Its sequence is homologous to the host range protein of VV Copenhagen strain; the variation is only 2.46% at the amino acid level. ORF M2 could encode a peptide of 21.94 KDa with 196 amino acids. This gene was shown to be homologous to that of the 23 KDa peptide of herpes simplex virus type I. A non-coding region of 204bp located between K1 and M2 is rich in palindromic structures. ORF M1 extends its 3' terminus into the Hind III N fragment. Within the M fragment, M1 can only encode 212 amino acids. The major part of ORF M1 is very similar to the M portion of a possible alpha-amanitin resistance gene isolated from VV-WR strain. This work provides a molecular foundation in the construction of a new insertion vector for the preparation of a recombinant vaccinia virus to be used as a polyvalent live vaccine.

  1. Interaction of the elytra and hind wing of a rhinoceros beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus) during a take-off mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seungyoung; Oh, Sehyeong; Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Boogeon; Park, Hyungmin; Kim, Sun-Tae

    2015-11-01

    The elytra are a pair of hardened wings that cover the abdomen of a beetle to protect beetle's hind wings. During the take-off, these elytra open and flap in phase with the hind wings. We investigate the effect of the elytra flapping on beetle's aerodynamic performance. Numerical simulations are performed at Re=10,000 (based on the wingtip mean velocity and mean chord length of the hind wing) using an immersed boundary method. The simulations are focused on a take-off, and the wing kinematics used is directly obtained from the experimental observations using high speed cameras. The simulation result shows three-dimensional vortical structures generated by the hind wing of the beetle and their interaction with the elytra. The presence of elytra has a negative effect on the lift generation by the hind wings, but the lift force on the elytra themselves is negligible. Further discussions on the elytra - hind wing interaction will be provided during the presentation. Supported by UD130070ID.

  2. Spatial distribution and conservation of speckled hind and warsaw grouper in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Nicholas A; Karnauskas, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    There is broad interest in the development of efficient marine protected areas (MPAs) to reduce bycatch and end overfishing of speckled hind (Epinephelus drummondhayi) and warsaw grouper (Hyporthodus nigritus) in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S. We assimilated decades of data from many fishery-dependent, fishery-independent, and anecdotal sources to describe the spatial distribution of these data limited stocks. A spatial classification model was developed to categorize depth-grids based on the distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper point observations and identified benthic habitats. Logistic regression analysis was used to develop a quantitative model to predict the spatial distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper as a function of depth, latitude, and habitat. Models, controlling for sampling gear effects, were selected based on AIC and 10-fold cross validation. The best-fitting model for warsaw grouper included latitude and depth to explain 10.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 28-33%. The best-fitting model for speckled hind, per cross-validation, included latitude and depth to explain 36.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 25-27%. The best-fitting speckled hind model, per AIC, also included habitat, but had false prediction rates up to 36%. Speckled hind and warsaw grouper habitats followed a shelf-edge hardbottom ridge from North Carolina to southeast Florida, with speckled hind more common to the north and warsaw grouper more common to the south. The proportion of habitat classifications and model-estimated stock contained within established and proposed MPAs was computed. Existing MPAs covered 10% of probable shelf-edge habitats for speckled hind and warsaw grouper, protecting 3-8% of speckled hind and 8% of warsaw grouper stocks. Proposed MPAs could add 24% more probable shelf-edge habitat, and protect an additional 14-29% of speckled

  3. Spatial Distribution and Conservation of Speckled Hind and Warsaw Grouper in the Atlantic Ocean off the Southeastern U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Nicholas A.; Karnauskas, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    There is broad interest in the development of efficient marine protected areas (MPAs) to reduce bycatch and end overfishing of speckled hind (Epinephelus drummondhayi) and warsaw grouper (Hyporthodus nigritus) in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S. We assimilated decades of data from many fishery-dependent, fishery-independent, and anecdotal sources to describe the spatial distribution of these data limited stocks. A spatial classification model was developed to categorize depth-grids based on the distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper point observations and identified benthic habitats. Logistic regression analysis was used to develop a quantitative model to predict the spatial distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper as a function of depth, latitude, and habitat. Models, controlling for sampling gear effects, were selected based on AIC and 10-fold cross validation. The best-fitting model for warsaw grouper included latitude and depth to explain 10.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 28–33%. The best-fitting model for speckled hind, per cross-validation, included latitude and depth to explain 36.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 25–27%. The best-fitting speckled hind model, per AIC, also included habitat, but had false prediction rates up to 36%. Speckled hind and warsaw grouper habitats followed a shelf-edge hardbottom ridge from North Carolina to southeast Florida, with speckled hind more common to the north and warsaw grouper more common to the south. The proportion of habitat classifications and model-estimated stock contained within established and proposed MPAs was computed. Existing MPAs covered 10% of probable shelf-edge habitats for speckled hind and warsaw grouper, protecting 3–8% of speckled hind and 8% of warsaw grouper stocks. Proposed MPAs could add 24% more probable shelf-edge habitat, and protect an additional 14–29% of

  4. Spatial distribution and conservation of speckled hind and warsaw grouper in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Nicholas A; Karnauskas, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    There is broad interest in the development of efficient marine protected areas (MPAs) to reduce bycatch and end overfishing of speckled hind (Epinephelus drummondhayi) and warsaw grouper (Hyporthodus nigritus) in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S. We assimilated decades of data from many fishery-dependent, fishery-independent, and anecdotal sources to describe the spatial distribution of these data limited stocks. A spatial classification model was developed to categorize depth-grids based on the distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper point observations and identified benthic habitats. Logistic regression analysis was used to develop a quantitative model to predict the spatial distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper as a function of depth, latitude, and habitat. Models, controlling for sampling gear effects, were selected based on AIC and 10-fold cross validation. The best-fitting model for warsaw grouper included latitude and depth to explain 10.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 28-33%. The best-fitting model for speckled hind, per cross-validation, included latitude and depth to explain 36.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 25-27%. The best-fitting speckled hind model, per AIC, also included habitat, but had false prediction rates up to 36%. Speckled hind and warsaw grouper habitats followed a shelf-edge hardbottom ridge from North Carolina to southeast Florida, with speckled hind more common to the north and warsaw grouper more common to the south. The proportion of habitat classifications and model-estimated stock contained within established and proposed MPAs was computed. Existing MPAs covered 10% of probable shelf-edge habitats for speckled hind and warsaw grouper, protecting 3-8% of speckled hind and 8% of warsaw grouper stocks. Proposed MPAs could add 24% more probable shelf-edge habitat, and protect an additional 14-29% of speckled

  5. Ontogenetic Scaling of Fore- and Hind Limb Posture in Wild Chacma Baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Biren A.; Horner, Angela M.; Thompson, Nathan E.; Barrett, Louise; Henzi, S. Peter

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale interspecific studies of mammals ranging between 0.04–280 kg have shown that larger animals walk with more extended limb joints. Within a taxon or clade, however, the relationship between body size and joint posture is less straightforward. Factors that may affect the lack of congruence between broad and narrow phylogenetic analyses of limb kinematics include limited sampling of (1) ranges of body size, and/or (2) numbers of individuals. Unfortunately, both issues are inherent in laboratory-based or zoo locomotion research. In this study, we examined the relationship between body mass and elbow and knee joint angles (our proxies of fore- and hind limb posture, respectively) in a cross-sectional ontogenetic sample of wild chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) habituated in the De Hoop Nature Reserve, South Africa. Videos were obtained from 33 individuals of known age (12 to ≥108 months) and body mass (2–29.5 kg) during walking trials. Results show that older, heavier baboons walk with significantly more extended knee joints but not elbow joints. This pattern is consistent when examining only males, but not within the female sample. Heavier, older baboons also display significantly less variation in their hind limb posture compared to lighter, young animals. Thus, within this ontogenetic sample of a single primate species spanning an order of magnitude in body mass, hind limb posture exhibited a postural scaling phenomenon while the forelimbs did not. These findings may further help explain 1) why younger mammals (including baboons) tend to have relatively stronger bones than adults, and 2) why humeri appear relatively weaker than femora (in at least baboons). Finally, this study demonstrates how field-acquired kinematics can help answer fundamental biomechanical questions usually addressed only in animal gait laboratories. PMID:23923046

  6. Coordinated, multi-joint, fatigue-resistant feline stance produced with intrafascicular hind limb nerve stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normann, R. A.; Dowden, B. R.; Frankel, M. A.; Wilder, A. M.; Hiatt, S. D.; Ledbetter, N. M.; Warren, D. A.; Clark, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    The production of graceful skeletal movements requires coordinated activation of multiple muscles that produce torques around multiple joints. The work described herein is focused on one such movement, stance, that requires coordinated activation of extensor muscles acting around the hip, knee and ankle joints. The forces evoked in these muscles by external stimulation all have a complex dependence on muscle length and shortening velocities, and some of these muscles are biarticular. In order to recreate sit-to-stand maneuvers in the anesthetized feline, we excited the hind limb musculature using intrafascicular multielectrode stimulation (IFMS) of the muscular branch of the sciatic nerve, the femoral nerve and the main branch of the sciatic nerve. Stimulation was achieved with either acutely or chronically implanted Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (USEAs) via subsets of electrodes (1) that activated motor units in the extensor muscles of the hip, knee and ankle joints, (2) that were able to evoke large extension forces and (3) that manifested minimal coactivation of the targeted motor units. Three hind limb force-generation strategies were investigated, including sequential activation of independent motor units to increase force, and interleaved or simultaneous IFMS of three sets of six or more USEA electrodes that excited the hip, knee and ankle extensors. All force-generation strategies evoked stance, but the interleaved IFMS strategy also reduced muscle fatigue produced by repeated sit-to-stand maneuvers compared with fatigue produced by simultaneous activation of different motor neuron pools. These results demonstrate the use of interleaved IFMS as a means to recreate coordinated, fatigue-resistant multi-joint muscle forces in the unilateral hind limb. This muscle activation paradigm could provide a promising neuroprosthetic approach for the restoration of sit-to-stand transitions in individuals who are paralyzed by spinal cord injury, stroke or disease.

  7. Ontogenetic scaling of fore- and hind limb posture in wild chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus).

    PubMed

    Patel, Biren A; Horner, Angela M; Thompson, Nathan E; Barrett, Louise; Henzi, S Peter

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale interspecific studies of mammals ranging between 0.04-280 kg have shown that larger animals walk with more extended limb joints. Within a taxon or clade, however, the relationship between body size and joint posture is less straightforward. Factors that may affect the lack of congruence between broad and narrow phylogenetic analyses of limb kinematics include limited sampling of (1) ranges of body size, and/or (2) numbers of individuals. Unfortunately, both issues are inherent in laboratory-based or zoo locomotion research. In this study, we examined the relationship between body mass and elbow and knee joint angles (our proxies of fore- and hind limb posture, respectively) in a cross-sectional ontogenetic sample of wild chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) habituated in the De Hoop Nature Reserve, South Africa. Videos were obtained from 33 individuals of known age (12 to ≥ 108 months) and body mass (2-29.5 kg) during walking trials. Results show that older, heavier baboons walk with significantly more extended knee joints but not elbow joints. This pattern is consistent when examining only males, but not within the female sample. Heavier, older baboons also display significantly less variation in their hind limb posture compared to lighter, young animals. Thus, within this ontogenetic sample of a single primate species spanning an order of magnitude in body mass, hind limb posture exhibited a postural scaling phenomenon while the forelimbs did not. These findings may further help explain 1) why younger mammals (including baboons) tend to have relatively stronger bones than adults, and 2) why humeri appear relatively weaker than femora (in at least baboons). Finally, this study demonstrates how field-acquired kinematics can help answer fundamental biomechanical questions usually addressed only in animal gait laboratories.

  8. Potency of various peptides as histamine liberators in the rat hind limb.

    PubMed

    Rioux, F; Kérouac, R; St-Pierre, S

    1985-07-01

    The potency of several peptides and drugs as histamine liberators was assessed using the rat isolated hind limb preparation. Neurotensin (NT) and compound 48/80 (C48/80) were effective in concentrations as low as 10(-9) M and 10(-8) M, respectively. Threshold concentrations of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and substance P (SP) varied between 5 X 10(-7) to 5 X 10(-6) M while somatostatin (SS) was barely active at 6 X 10(-6) M. No histamine release could be detected following the use of high concentrations of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) (6 X 10(-6) M), dynorphin (DYN) (6 X 10(-6) M) bradykinin (BK), des-Arg9-BK or bombesin (BB) (at 10(-5) M). Poly-L-Lysine and the calcium ionophore A23187 were about 100 times less active than NT. Concanavalin A (Con A) was inactive at 10(-6) M. These results indicate that NT is more potent (on a molar basis) as histamine liberator in the rat hind limb preparation (which contains a large population of cutaneous and subcutaneous mast cells) than any of the other compounds tested. Histamine release by NT was inhibited by preexposure of the rat hind limb mast cells to a high concentration of SP (1.5 X 10(-6) M). This result adds further support to the hypothesis suggesting that NT and SP might share a common mechanism of action and/or act through common receptors at least in rat mast cells.

  9. The role of hind limb tendons in gibbon locomotion: springs or strings?

    PubMed

    Vereecke, Evie E; Channon, Anthony J

    2013-11-01

    Tendon properties have an important effect on the mechanical behaviour of muscles, with compliant tendons allowing near-isometric muscle contraction and facilitating elastic energy storage and recoil. Stiff tendons, in contrast, facilitate rapid force transfer and precise positional control. In humans, the long Achilles tendon contributes to the mechanical efficiency of running via elastic energy storage and recovery, and its presence has been linked to the evolution of habitual bipedalism. Gibbons also possess relatively long hind limb tendons; however, their role is as yet unknown. Based on their large dimensions, and inferring from the situation in humans, we hypothesize that the tendons in the gibbon hind limb will facilitate elastic energy storage and recoil during hind-limb-powered locomotion. To investigate this, we determined the material properties of the gibbon Achilles and patellar tendon in vitro and linked this with available kinematic and kinetic data to evaluate their role in leaping and bipedalism. Tensile tests were conducted on tendon samples using a material testing machine and the load-displacement data were used to calculate stiffness, Young's modulus and hysteresis. In addition, the average stress-in-life and energy absorption capacity of both tendons were estimated. We found a functional difference between the gibbon Achilles and patellar tendon, with the Achilles tendon being more suitable for elastic energy storage and release. The patellar tendon, in contrast, has a relatively high hysteresis, making it less suitable to act as elastic spring. This suggests that the gibbon Achilles tendon might fulfil a similar function as in humans, contributing to reducing the locomotor cost of bipedalism by acting as elastic spring, while the high stiffness of the patellar tendon might favour fast force transfer upon recoil and, possibly, enhance leaping performance.

  10. Acute and chronic nociceptive phases observed in a rat hind paw ischemia/reperfusion model depend on different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Klafke, J Z; da Silva, M A; Rossato, M F; de Prá, S Dal Toé; Rigo, F K; Walker, C I B; Bochi, G V; Moresco, R N; Ferreira, J; Trevisan, G

    2016-02-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1) may be evoked by ischemia/reperfusion, eliciting acute and chronic pain that is difficult to treat. Despite this, the underlying mechanism of CRPS1 has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the goal of this study is to evaluate the involvement of inflammation, oxidative stress, and the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel, a chemosensor of inflammation and oxidative substances, in an animal model of chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP). Male Wistar rats were subjected to 3 h hind paw ischemia/reperfusion (CPIP model). Different parameters of nociception, inflammation, ischemia, and oxidative stress were evaluated at 1 (acute) and 14 (chronic) days after CPIP. The effect of a TRPA1 antagonist and the TRPA1 immunoreactivity were also observed after CPIP. In the CPIP acute phase, we observed mechanical and cold allodynia; increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (hind paw), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) (serum), protein carbonyl (hind paw and spinal cord), lactate (serum), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, hind paw and spinal cord); and higher myeloperoxidase (MPO) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activities (hind paw). In the CPIP chronic phase, we detected mechanical and cold allodynia and increased levels of IMA (serum), protein carbonyl (hind paw and spinal cord), and 4-HNE (hind paw and spinal cord). TRPA1 antagonism reduced mechanical and cold allodynia 1 and 14 days after CPIP, but no change in TRPA1 immunoreactivity was observed. Different mechanisms underlie acute (inflammation and oxidative stress) and chronic (oxidative stress) phases of CPIP. TRPA1 activation may be relevant for CRPS1/CPIP-induced acute and chronic pain.

  11. Acute and chronic nociceptive phases observed in a rat hind paw ischemia/reperfusion model depend on different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Klafke, J Z; da Silva, M A; Rossato, M F; de Prá, S Dal Toé; Rigo, F K; Walker, C I B; Bochi, G V; Moresco, R N; Ferreira, J; Trevisan, G

    2016-02-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1) may be evoked by ischemia/reperfusion, eliciting acute and chronic pain that is difficult to treat. Despite this, the underlying mechanism of CRPS1 has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the goal of this study is to evaluate the involvement of inflammation, oxidative stress, and the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel, a chemosensor of inflammation and oxidative substances, in an animal model of chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP). Male Wistar rats were subjected to 3 h hind paw ischemia/reperfusion (CPIP model). Different parameters of nociception, inflammation, ischemia, and oxidative stress were evaluated at 1 (acute) and 14 (chronic) days after CPIP. The effect of a TRPA1 antagonist and the TRPA1 immunoreactivity were also observed after CPIP. In the CPIP acute phase, we observed mechanical and cold allodynia; increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (hind paw), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) (serum), protein carbonyl (hind paw and spinal cord), lactate (serum), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, hind paw and spinal cord); and higher myeloperoxidase (MPO) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activities (hind paw). In the CPIP chronic phase, we detected mechanical and cold allodynia and increased levels of IMA (serum), protein carbonyl (hind paw and spinal cord), and 4-HNE (hind paw and spinal cord). TRPA1 antagonism reduced mechanical and cold allodynia 1 and 14 days after CPIP, but no change in TRPA1 immunoreactivity was observed. Different mechanisms underlie acute (inflammation and oxidative stress) and chronic (oxidative stress) phases of CPIP. TRPA1 activation may be relevant for CRPS1/CPIP-induced acute and chronic pain. PMID:26490459

  12. Whole body vibration induces forepaw and hind paw behavioral sensitivity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Baig, Hassam A; Guarino, Benjamin B; Lipschutz, Daniel; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2013-11-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) has been linked to neck and back pain, but the biomechanical and physiological mechanisms responsible for its development and maintenance are unknown. A rodent model of WBV was developed in which rats were exposed to different WBV paradigms, either daily for 7 consecutive days (repeated WBV) or two single exposures at Day 0 and 7 (intermittent WBV). Each WBV session lasted for 30 min and was imposed at a frequency of 15 Hz and RMS platform acceleration of 0.56 ± 0.07 g. Changes in the withdrawal response of the forepaw and hind paw were measured, and were used to characterize the onset and maintenance of behavioral sensitivity. Accelerations and displacements of the rat and deformations in the cervical and lumbar spines were measured during WBV to provide mechanical context for the exposures. A decrease in withdrawal threshold was induced at 1 day after the first exposure in both the hind paw and forepaw. Repeated WBV exhibited a sustained reduction in withdrawal threshold in both paws and intermittent WBV induced a sustained response only in the forepaw. Cervical deformations were significantly elevated which may explain the more robust forepaw response. Findings suggest that a WBV exposure leads to behavioral sensitivity.

  13. Outbreak of hind limb paralysis in young CFW Swiss Webster mice.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Alejandro Victorio; Rozengurt, Nora

    2002-04-01

    An outbreak of paralysis among 16- to 20-week-old CFW Swiss Webster sentinel mice developed in one of our barrier facilities. Two months after arrival and over a period of four weeks, six of 400 mice purchased from an approved vendor, developed progressive hind limb paralysis without other clinical signs of disease. On the basis of the histopathologic changes and negative serologic test results, lymphoblastic lymphoma causing compression of the spinal cord was diagnosed. There were two leading features to this outbreak: its unusual epidemiologic presentation, and the localization of the lesions principally in the lumbar muscles. A presumptive diagnosis of retroviral infection with Abelson's murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) was established on the basis of histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings. Little is known about retroviral status in many commercial colonies, and few users report presence of spontaneous lymphomas. This report points out complications derived from commercially available animals that carry endogenous retroviruses. It also emphasizes the need of diagnosing and reporting clusters of hind limb paralysis or lymphomas in mice to assess the prevalence and relevance of retroviral infections in commercial colonies.

  14. Transition of chytrid fungus infection from mouthparts to hind limbs during amphibian metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Taegan A; Rohr, Jason R

    2015-03-01

    The chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is implicated in worldwide amphibian declines. Bd has been shown to qualitatively transition from the mouthparts of tadpoles to the hindlimbs during metamorphosis, but we lack evidence of consistency in the timing of this transition across amphibian species. We also do not have predictive functions for the abundance of Bd in mouthparts and limbs as tadpoles develop or for the relationship between keratin and Bd abundance. Hence, researchers presently have little guidance on where to sample developing amphibians to maximize Bd detection, which could affect the accuracy of prevalence and abundance estimates for this deadly pathogen. Here, we show consistency in the timing of the transition of Bd from mouthparts to hind limbs across two frog species (Osteopilus septentrionalis and Mixophyes fasciolatus). Keratin and Bd simultaneously declined from the mouthparts starting at approximately Gosner stage 40. However, keratin on the hindlimbs began to appear at approximately stage 38 but, on average, Bd was not detectable on the hindlimbs until approximately stage 40, suggesting a lag between keratin and Bd arrival. Predictive functions for the relationships between developmental stage and keratin and developmental stage and Bd for mouthparts and hind limbs are provided so that researchers can optimize sampling designs and minimize erroneous conclusions associated with missing Bd infections or misestimating Bd abundance. PMID:25384612

  15. The D1 family dopamine receptor, DopR, potentiates hind leg grooming behavior in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pitmon, E.; Stephens, G.; Parkhurst, S. J.; Wolf, F. W.; Kehne, G.; Taylor, M.

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila groom away debris and pathogens from the body using their legs in a stereotyped sequence of innate motor behaviors. Here, we investigated one aspect of the grooming repertoire by characterizing the D1 family dopamine receptor, DopR. Removal of DopR results in decreased hind leg grooming, as substantiated by quantitation of dye remaining on mutant and RNAi animals vs. controls and direct scoring of behavioral events. These data are also supported by pharmacological results that D1 receptor agonists fail to potentiate grooming behaviors in headless DopR flies. DopR protein is broadly expressed in the neuropil of the thoracic ganglion and overlaps with TH‐positive dopaminergic neurons. Broad neuronal expression of dopamine receptor in mutant animals restored normal grooming behaviors. These data provide evidence for the role of DopR in potentiating hind leg grooming behaviors in the thoracic ganglion of adult Drosophila. This is a remarkable juxtaposition to the considerable role of D1 family dopamine receptors in rodent grooming, and future investigations of evolutionary relationships of circuitry may be warranted. PMID:26749475

  16. Glutaminase Increases in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons after Unilateral Adjuvant-Induced Hind Paw Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, E. Matthew; Zhang, Zijia; Schechter, Ruben; Miller, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate is a neurotransmitter used at both the peripheral and central terminals of nociceptive primary sensory neurons, yet little is known concerning regulation of glutamate metabolism during peripheral inflammation. Glutaminase (GLS) is an enzyme of the glutamate-glutamine cycle that converts glutamine into glutamate for neurotransmission and is implicated in producing elevated levels of glutamate in central and peripheral terminals. A potential mechanism for increased levels of glutamate is an elevation in GLS expression. We assessed GLS expression after unilateral hind paw inflammation by measuring GLS immunoreactivity (ir) with quantitative image analysis of L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after one, two, four, and eight days of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) compared to saline injected controls. No significant elevation in GLS-ir occurred in the DRG ipsilateral to the inflamed hind paw after one or two days of AIA. After four days AIA, GLS-ir was elevated significantly in all sizes of DRG neurons. After eight days AIA, GLS-ir remained elevated in small (<400 µm2), presumably nociceptive neurons. Western blot analysis of the L4 DRG at day four AIA confirmed the elevated GLS-ir. The present study indicates that GLS expression is increased in the chronic stage of inflammation and may be a target for chronic pain therapy. PMID:26771651

  17. Effect of anodal high voltage pulsed current on edema formation in frog hind limbs.

    PubMed

    Fish, D R; Mendel, F C; Schultz, A M; Gottstein-Yerke, L M

    1991-10-01

    We have recently demonstrated that some forms of cathodal high voltage pulsed current (HVPC) curb posttraumatic edema formation in frog hind limbs. The purpose of this study was to determine, by assessing the capacity of anodal HVPC to curb posttraumatic edema formation, whether polarity is an important variable. Fourteen anesthetized bullfrogs were placed on large dispersive electrodes lining body slings that maintained the frogs' limbs in a dependent position throughout data collection. The frogs' feet were traumatized by impact following initial measurement of limb volumes. At the commencement of each of four 30-minute treatments, hind limbs were immersed in separate beakers and briefly stimulated until motor threshold was determined. One limb, randomly selected, received anodal HVPC at 90% of motor threshold and 120 pulses per second; the other limb served as a control. Treatments were followed by 30-minute rests. Limb volumes were measured by water displacement immediately after trauma and following each treatment and rest period. Data were expressed as changes from pretrauma volumes in milliliters per kilogram of body weight. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to test for treatment effect. Despite an aggressive series of treatments, virtually symmetrical bilateral edema occurred; therefore, no treatment effect was evident. This result contrasts with treatment effects previously reported for cathodal HVPC.

  18. Hind limb malformations in free-living northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) from Maine, Minnesota, and Vermont suggest multiple etiologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meteyer, C.U.; Loeffler, I.K.; Fallon, J.F.; Converse, K.A.; Green, E.; Helgen, J.C.; Kersten, S.; Levey, R.; Eaton-Poole, L.; Burkhart, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    Background Reports of malformed frogs have increased throughout the North American continent in recent years. Most of the observed malformations have involved the hind limbs. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the hind limb malformations in wild frogs as an important step toward understanding the possible etiologies. Methods During 1997 and 1998, 182 recently metamorphosed northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were collected from Minnesota, Vermont, and Maine. Malformed hind limbs were present in 157 (86%) of these frogs, which underwent necropsy and radiographic evaluation at the National Wildlife Health Center. These malformations are described in detail and classified into four major categories: (1) no limb (amelia); (2) multiple limbs or limb elements (polymelia, polydactyly, polyphalangy); (3) reduced limb segments or elements (phocomelia, ectromelia, ectrodactyly, and brachydactyly; and (4) distally complete but malformed limb (bone rotations, bridging, skin webbing, and micromelia). Results Amelia and reduced segments and/or elements were the most common finding. Frogs with bilateral hind limb malformations were not common, and in only eight of these 22 frogs were the malformations symmetrical. Malformations of a given type tended to occur in frogs collected from the same site, but the types of malformations varied widely among all three states, and between study sites within Minnesota. Conclusions Clustering of malformation type suggests that developmental events may produce a variety of phenotypes depending on the timing, sequence, and severity of the environmental insult. Hind limb malformations in free-living frogs transcend current mechanistic explanations of tetrapod limb development.

  19. Muscular reconstruction and functional morphology of the hind limb of santacrucian (Early Miocene) sloths (Xenarthra, Folivora) of Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Néstor; Bargo, M Susana; Vizcaíno, Sergio F

    2015-05-01

    This article presents a morphofunctional analysis of the hind limb of Santacrucian (Early Miocene) sloths from southernmost Patagonia (Argentina). These fossil sloths were mid sized to large animals, ranging from 40 to 120 kg, and their postcranial skeleton was markedly different in shape compared with that of extant tree sloths, which vary from 2 to 10 kg. The functional anatomy of the hind limb of Santacrucian sloths was compared with that of living xenarthrans (tree sloths, anteaters, and armadillos), which involved reconstruction of the hind limb musculature and comparative and qualitative morphofunctional analyses, and hypotheses on the biological role of the hind limb in terms of preferences in substrate, posture, and strategies of locomotion were formulated. The hind limb of Santacrucian sloths bears strong resemblances to that of living South American anteaters in stoutness of skeletal elements, form of the characteristics related to muscular and ligamentous attachments, and conservative, pentadactylous strong-clawed pes. The musculature was very well developed, allowing powerful forces, principally in entire limb adduction, crus flexion and extension, pes extension, and toe prehension. These functional features, together with those of the forelimb, are congruent with climbing behavior, and support the hypothesis that Santacrucian sloths were good but slow climbing mammals. However, their climbing strategies were limited, owing principally to their comparatively large body size, and they relied to a large extent on their powerful musculature and curved manual and pedal unguals for both moving and standing on the arboreal supports. PMID:25644288

  20. Muscular reconstruction and functional morphology of the hind limb of santacrucian (Early Miocene) sloths (Xenarthra, Folivora) of Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Néstor; Bargo, M Susana; Vizcaíno, Sergio F

    2015-05-01

    This article presents a morphofunctional analysis of the hind limb of Santacrucian (Early Miocene) sloths from southernmost Patagonia (Argentina). These fossil sloths were mid sized to large animals, ranging from 40 to 120 kg, and their postcranial skeleton was markedly different in shape compared with that of extant tree sloths, which vary from 2 to 10 kg. The functional anatomy of the hind limb of Santacrucian sloths was compared with that of living xenarthrans (tree sloths, anteaters, and armadillos), which involved reconstruction of the hind limb musculature and comparative and qualitative morphofunctional analyses, and hypotheses on the biological role of the hind limb in terms of preferences in substrate, posture, and strategies of locomotion were formulated. The hind limb of Santacrucian sloths bears strong resemblances to that of living South American anteaters in stoutness of skeletal elements, form of the characteristics related to muscular and ligamentous attachments, and conservative, pentadactylous strong-clawed pes. The musculature was very well developed, allowing powerful forces, principally in entire limb adduction, crus flexion and extension, pes extension, and toe prehension. These functional features, together with those of the forelimb, are congruent with climbing behavior, and support the hypothesis that Santacrucian sloths were good but slow climbing mammals. However, their climbing strategies were limited, owing principally to their comparatively large body size, and they relied to a large extent on their powerful musculature and curved manual and pedal unguals for both moving and standing on the arboreal supports.

  1. Combined effects of soy isoflavones and milk basic protein on bone mineral density in hind-limb unloaded mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yu; Tousen, Yuko; Nishide, Yoriko; Tadaishi, Miki; Kato, Ken; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2016-03-01

    We examined whether the combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein both are reported to be effective for bone metabolism, prevents bone loss induced by skeletal hind-limb unloading in mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were divided into six groups (n = 6-8 each): (1) normally housed group, (2) loading group, (3) hind-limb unloading group fed a control diet, (4) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates diet, (5) hind-limb unloading group fed a 1.0% milk basic protein diet, and (6) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates and 1.0% milk basic protein diet. After 3 weeks, femoral bone mineral density was markedly reduced in unloading mice. The combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein showed cooperative effects in preventing bone loss and milk basic protein inhibited the increased expression of osteogenic genes in bone marrow cells in unloading mice. These results suggest that the combination of soy isoflavone and milk basic protein may be useful for bone health in subjects with disabling conditions as well as astronauts. PMID:27013781

  2. Combined effects of soy isoflavones and milk basic protein on bone mineral density in hind-limb unloaded mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yu; Tousen, Yuko; Nishide, Yoriko; Tadaishi, Miki; Kato, Ken; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether the combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein both are reported to be effective for bone metabolism, prevents bone loss induced by skeletal hind-limb unloading in mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were divided into six groups (n = 6–8 each): (1) normally housed group, (2) loading group, (3) hind-limb unloading group fed a control diet, (4) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates diet, (5) hind-limb unloading group fed a 1.0% milk basic protein diet, and (6) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates and 1.0% milk basic protein diet. After 3 weeks, femoral bone mineral density was markedly reduced in unloading mice. The combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein showed cooperative effects in preventing bone loss and milk basic protein inhibited the increased expression of osteogenic genes in bone marrow cells in unloading mice. These results suggest that the combination of soy isoflavone and milk basic protein may be useful for bone health in subjects with disabling conditions as well as astronauts. PMID:27013781

  3. Combined effects of soy isoflavones and milk basic protein on bone mineral density in hind-limb unloaded mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yu; Tousen, Yuko; Nishide, Yoriko; Tadaishi, Miki; Kato, Ken; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2016-03-01

    We examined whether the combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein both are reported to be effective for bone metabolism, prevents bone loss induced by skeletal hind-limb unloading in mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were divided into six groups (n = 6-8 each): (1) normally housed group, (2) loading group, (3) hind-limb unloading group fed a control diet, (4) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates diet, (5) hind-limb unloading group fed a 1.0% milk basic protein diet, and (6) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates and 1.0% milk basic protein diet. After 3 weeks, femoral bone mineral density was markedly reduced in unloading mice. The combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein showed cooperative effects in preventing bone loss and milk basic protein inhibited the increased expression of osteogenic genes in bone marrow cells in unloading mice. These results suggest that the combination of soy isoflavone and milk basic protein may be useful for bone health in subjects with disabling conditions as well as astronauts.

  4. Perivertebral B-cell lymphoma in a Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) with paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs.

    PubMed

    Kido, Nobuhide; Edamura, Kazuya; Inoue, Naomi; Shibuya, Hisashi; Sato, Tsuneo; Kondo, Masako; Shindo, Izumi

    2012-08-01

    A male Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) at Kanazawa Zoological Gardens (Kanagawa, Japan) exhibited paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass on the left ventral side of the 11th to 13th thoracic vertebrae, and the presence of myelitis or edema in the spinal cord. The koala was under anesthesia during the examination and suddenly developed ventricular fibrillation and died. Necropsy revealed a firm flat ovoid hemorrhagic mass on the vertebrae. Following a microscopic examination including immunohistochemistry, the perivertebral mass was diagnosed as B cell lymphoma. Therefore, neoplastic cell infiltration into the spinal cord may cause paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs.

  5. Pancreatic Histology and Associated Biochemical Changes in Rats on Hind-Limb Suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulsby, Michael; Johnson, Emily; Akel, Nisreen; Agarwal, Rakhee; Gaddy, Dana; Dobretsov, Maxim; Chowdhury, Parimal

    2011-06-01

    The pancreas plays an important role in regulating many of the key endocrine hormones and digestive enzymes that are required for nutrition and survival of the organism. This study examines the pancreatic histology and associated biochemical changes in rats on hind limb suspension (HLS) after exposure to simulated microgravity. Results show that MDA and glutathione levels were significantly increased in the suspended (HLS) groups as compared to the control group. Plasma insulin levels averaged 2.43±0.32 ng/ml in the control animals and decreased significantly to 1.47±0.24 ng/ml in the suspended group. Histopathology revealed increased vacuolation, pyknosis, membrane thickening, increase of zymogen granules and increase in islets (both in size and number) in the suspended group as compared to the control group.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the sixblotch hind Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Pisces: Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Sheng-Tai; Chen, Kao-Sung; Tseng, Chen-Te; Wu, Chi-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the sixblotch hind, Cephalopholis sexmaculata was presented in this study. This mitochondrial genome consists of 16,589 bp, with 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a noncoding control region (CR), and its gene arrangement is identical to most vertebrates. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is A, 29.35%; G, 16.08%; C, 28.56%; and T, 26.01%. The COI gene started with GTG codon and the ATP6 gene started with CTG codon. The complete mitogenomic data may provide informative for further phylogenetic approach of species of Cephalopholis and related genera belong to the Epinephelidae groupers. PMID:24938086

  7. Determining the size of American alligators using hind-foot track length

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkinson, Philip M.; Rice, Kenneth G.

    2000-01-01

    Size distribution information is useful for crocodilian management, but can be hard to obtain. Indirect and less costly demographic inferences made from track measurements may be valuable for management decisions. We related hind-foot lengths (HF) with total length (TL) to determine if we could indirectly assess alligator size using track length. Regression showed that HF was an excellent predictor (F1,246= 15722.9, R2=0.98, P<0.01) of TL and track length was an exceptional predictor of HF (F1,14=7520.3, R2= 1.00, P<0.01). The correlation between track length and HF length also was significant (N= 15, r=0.99, P <0.01). Thus, alligator size can be accurately estimated from measures of track length at sites where capture and direct measurement is impractical.

  8. 3D reconstruction of digitized histological sections for vasculature quantification in the mouse hind limb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yiwen; Pickering, J. Geoffrey; Nong, Zengxuan; Gibson, Eli; Ward, Aaron D.

    2014-03-01

    In contrast to imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and micro computed tomography, digital histology reveals multiple stained tissue features at high resolution (0.25μm/pixel). However, the two-dimensional (2D) nature of histology challenges three-dimensional (3D) quantification and visualization of the different tissue components, cellular structures, and subcellular elements. This limitation is particularly relevant to the vasculature, which has a complex and variable structure within tissues. The objective of this study was to perform a fully automated 3D reconstruction of histology tissue in the mouse hind limb preserving the accurate systemic orientation of the tissues, stained with hematoxylin and immunostained for smooth muscle α actin. We performed a 3D reconstruction using pairwise rigid registrations of 5μm thick, paraffin-embedded serial sections, digitized at 0.25μm/pixel. Each registration was performed using the iterative closest points algorithm on blood vessel landmarks. Landmarks were vessel centroids, determined according to a signed distance map of each pixel to a decision boundary in hue-saturation-value color space; this decision boundary was determined based on manual annotation of a separate training set. Cell nuclei were then automatically extracted and corresponded to refine the vessel landmark registration. Homologous nucleus landmark pairs appearing on not more than two adjacent slides were chosen to avoid registrations which force curved or non-sectionorthogonal structures to be straight and section-orthogonal. The median accumulated target registration errors ± interquartile ranges for the vessel landmark registration, and the nucleus landmark refinement were 43.4+/-42.8μm and 2.9+/-1.7μm, respectively (p<0.0001). Fully automatic and accurate 3D rigid reconstruction of mouse hind limb histology imaging is feasible based on extracted vasculature and nuclei.

  9. [Detection of carriers of hemophilia A by testing for HindIII polymorphism in the factor VIII gene by PCR].

    PubMed

    Surin, V L; Aseev, M V; Zhukova, E L; Baranov, V S; Solov'ev, G Ia; Grineva, N I; Andreeva, T A; Izhevskaia, V L; Likhacheva, E A; Pliushch, O P

    1990-10-01

    Representatives of 62 families from Moscow and Leningrad with haemophilia A observed in the pedigree were tested for HindIII polymorphism in the factor VIII gene. The proposed scheme of investigation was based on intron 19 of the FVIII gene amplification by the PCR technique followed by restriction analysis with the inner control of hydrolysis. 207 unrelated X-chromosomes were analysed, the frequency of the incidence of the polymorphic HindIII site in the given population found to be 0.29. The frequency of incidence of the HindIII heterozygotes calculated according to Hardy-Weinberg equation was 0.41. This value evidences for relatively high informativity of this polymorphism for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis of haemophilia A. 23 families (37%) out of 62 examined in the study were informative for this criteria. The new scheme proved to be effective in testing HindIII polymorphism for haemophilia A carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis. The whole procedure takes one day, the radiolabelled probes are not used. The scheme described was inculcated in the All-Union Research Center for Haematology, Ministry of Health, USSR, Moscow, Research Institute for Obstetrics and Gynecology, Leningrad, Institute of Medical Genetics, Greifswald, DDR. PMID:2149345

  10. 77 FR 25687 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Speckled Hind as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... number of coral stressors, including coral bleaching, disease, tropical storms, coastal development and... speckled hind. A negative finding for goliath grouper was made on June 1, 2011 (76 FR 31592), while the... FR 4722; February 7, 1996). A species, subspecies, or DPS is ``endangered'' if it is in danger...

  11. Polymelous layer chick displaying additional malformations of the hind gut: case report and in-depth review of related literature.

    PubMed

    Hirschberg, R M; Saleh, M; Kaiser, S; Lierz, M; Hafez, H M; Bragulla, H H

    2012-08-01

    A case report of a male 6-day-old male layer chick featuring incomplete polymelia of the hind limbs and hindgut malformations is presented. The chick was submitted to computed tomography (CT) examination and subsequent anatomical dissection. Apart from the two supernumerary hind limbs, the anatomical dissection revealed additional hindgut alterations: three uniform-sized caeca flanked the ileum, and the rectum branched into paired cloacae. The supernumerary hind limbs were localized caudal to the normal hind limbs in an inverted position and were attached to pelvic girdle elements and to a curtate pygostyle. They featured a prominent unpaired femur besides paired tibiotarsi, tarsometatarsi and species-specific phalanges of the toes. Additionally, two separate bones attached to the caudoventral aspect of the regular hip bones were developed. The supernumerary limbs were in part mobile and received nerve and vascular supply. Digital 3D-reconstruction based on the CT datasets revealed the osseous components of the malformed body parts. The possible morphogenesis including an in-depth literature review and the clinical implications of the reported malformations are discussed. PMID:22250842

  12. System identification of muscle-joint interactions of the cat hind limb during locomotion.

    PubMed

    Harischandra, Nalin; Ekeberg, Orjan

    2008-08-01

    Neurophysiological experiments in walking cats have shown that a number of neural control mechanisms are involved in regulating the movements of the hind legs during locomotion. It is experimentally hard to isolate individual mechanisms without disrupting the natural walking pattern and we therefore introduce a different approach where we use a model to identify what control is necessary to maintain stability in the musculo-skeletal system. We developed a computer simulation model of the cat hind legs in which the movements of each leg are produced by eight limb muscles whose activations follow a centrally generated pattern with no proprioceptive feedback. All linear transfer functions, from each muscle activation to each joint angle, were identified using the response of the joint angle to an impulse in the muscle activation at 65 postures of the leg covering the entire step cycle. We analyzed the sensitivity and stability of each muscle action on the joint angles by studying the gain and pole plots of these transfer functions. We found that the actions of most of the hindlimb muscles display inherent stability during stepping, even without the involvement of any proprioceptive feedback mechanisms, and that those musculo-skeletal systems are acting in a critically damped manner, enabling them to react quickly without unnecessary oscillations. We also found that during the late swing, the activity of the posterior biceps/semitendinosus (PB/ST) muscles causes the joints to be unstable. In addition, vastus lateralis (VL), tibialis anterior (TA) and sartorius (SAT) muscle-joint systems were found to be unstable during the late stance phase, and we conclude that those muscles require neuronal feedback to maintain stable stepping, especially during late swing and late stance phases. Moreover, we could see a clear distinction in the pole distribution (along the step cycle) for the systems related to the ankle joint from that of the other two joints, hip or knee. A

  13. A reproducible radiation delivery method for unanesthetized rodents during periods of hind limb unloading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walb, M. C.; Black, P. J.; Payne, V. S.; Munley, M. T.; Willey, J. S.

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to the spaceflight environment has long been known to be a health challenge concerning many body systems. Both microgravity and/or ionizing radiation can cause acute and chronic effects in multiple body systems. The hind limb unloaded (HLU) rodent model is a ground-based analogue for microgravity that can be used to simulate and study the combined biologic effects of reduced loading with spaceflight radiation exposure. However, studies delivering radiation to rodents during periods of HLU are rare. Herein we report the development of an irradiation protocol using a clinical linear accelerator that can be used with hind limb unloaded, unanesthetized rodents that is capable of being performed at most academic medical centers. A 30.5 cm × 30.5 cm × 40.6 cm rectangular chamber was constructed out of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sheets (0.64 cm thickness). Five centimeters of water-equivalent material were placed outside of two PMMA inserts on either side of the rodent that permitted the desired radiation dose buildup (electronic equilibrium) and helped to achieve a flatter dose profile. Perforated aluminum strips permitted the suspension dowel to be placed at varying heights depending on the rodent size. Radiation was delivered using a medical linear accelerator at an accelerating potential of 10 MV. A calibrated PTW Farmer ionization chamber, wrapped in appropriately thick tissue-equivalent bolus material to simulate the volume of the rodent, was used to verify a uniform dose distribution at various regions of the chamber. The dosimetry measurements confirmed variances typically within 3%, with maximum variance <10% indicated through optically stimulated luminescent dosimeter (OSLD) measurements, thus delivering reliable spaceflight-relevant total body doses and ensuring a uniform dose regardless of its location within the chamber. Due to the relative abundance of LINACs at academic medical centers and the reliability of their dosimetry properties, this

  14. Effects of Hind Limb Unloading on Pharmacokinetics of Procainamide in Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risin, Semyon A.; Dasgupta, Amitava; Ramesh, Govindarajan T.; Risin, Diana

    2007-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of medications administered to astronauts could be altered by the conditions in space. It is prudent to expect that low gravity and free floating (and associated hemodynamic changes) could affect the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the drugs. Knowledge of these alterations is essential for adjusting the dosage and the regimen of drug administration. Among the medications of special interest are the cardiovascular drugs, especially the antiarrhythmic agents. In this study we used hind limb unloaded (HLU) mice as a model to investigate possible changes in the PK of a common antiarrhythmic drug procainamide (PA). Prior to drug administration the experimental animals were tail suspended for 24 hours and the control animals were kept free. PA (150-250 mg per kg) was given orally by a gavage procedure. After that the experimental mice were kept suspended for additional 1, 2, 3 and 6 hours. At these time points the serum concentration of PA and N-acetyl-procainamide (NAPA), an active metabolite which is formed by N-acetyltransferase in the liver, were measured by the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) on the AxSYM autoanalyzer (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL). The serum level of PA in HLU mice at 1 hour after administration was almost 40% lower than in controls. At 2-3 hours the difference still maintained, however, it was not statistically significant; at 6 hours no difference was detected. The level of NAPA in HLU mice was slightly lower at 1 and 2 hours but the difference did not reach statistical significance. The estimated PA half-life time in HLU mice was almost 55% longer than in control animals. These results confirm that hind limb unloading and related hemodynamic changes significantly alter the PK of PA. The effects are most likely primarily associated with a decrease in the drug absorption, especially within the first two hours after administration. At the same time prolongation of the PA half

  15. System identification of muscle-joint interactions of the cat hind limb during locomotion.

    PubMed

    Harischandra, Nalin; Ekeberg, Orjan

    2008-08-01

    Neurophysiological experiments in walking cats have shown that a number of neural control mechanisms are involved in regulating the movements of the hind legs during locomotion. It is experimentally hard to isolate individual mechanisms without disrupting the natural walking pattern and we therefore introduce a different approach where we use a model to identify what control is necessary to maintain stability in the musculo-skeletal system. We developed a computer simulation model of the cat hind legs in which the movements of each leg are produced by eight limb muscles whose activations follow a centrally generated pattern with no proprioceptive feedback. All linear transfer functions, from each muscle activation to each joint angle, were identified using the response of the joint angle to an impulse in the muscle activation at 65 postures of the leg covering the entire step cycle. We analyzed the sensitivity and stability of each muscle action on the joint angles by studying the gain and pole plots of these transfer functions. We found that the actions of most of the hindlimb muscles display inherent stability during stepping, even without the involvement of any proprioceptive feedback mechanisms, and that those musculo-skeletal systems are acting in a critically damped manner, enabling them to react quickly without unnecessary oscillations. We also found that during the late swing, the activity of the posterior biceps/semitendinosus (PB/ST) muscles causes the joints to be unstable. In addition, vastus lateralis (VL), tibialis anterior (TA) and sartorius (SAT) muscle-joint systems were found to be unstable during the late stance phase, and we conclude that those muscles require neuronal feedback to maintain stable stepping, especially during late swing and late stance phases. Moreover, we could see a clear distinction in the pole distribution (along the step cycle) for the systems related to the ankle joint from that of the other two joints, hip or knee. A

  16. Local and distant trauma after hypervelocity ballistic impact to the pig hind limb.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Wei; Kang, Jian-Yi; Chen, Kui-Jun; Wang, Ai-Min; Wang, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    The development of high-energy weapons could increase the velocity of projectiles to well over 1000 m/s. The nature of the injuries caused by the ballistic impact of projectiles at velocities much faster than 1000 m/s is unclear. This study characterizes the mechanical and biochemical alterations caused by high-speed ballistic impact generated by spherical steel ball to the hind limbs of the pig. That the local and distal injuries caused by hypervelocity ballistic impact to the living body are also identified. It is showed that the severity of the injury was positively correlated with the velocity of the projectile. And 4000 m/s seems to be the critical velocity for the 5.6 mm spherical steel ball, which would cause severe damage to either local or distal organs, as below that speed the projectile penetrated the body while above that speed it caused severe damage to the body. In addition, vaporization prevented the projectile from penetrating the body and the consequent pressure wave seems to be the causal factor for the distant damage.

  17. Radiographic protocol and normal anatomy of the hind feet in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    PubMed

    Dudley, Robert J; Wood, Simon P; Hutchinson, John R; Weller, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Foot pathology is a common and important health concern in captive rhinoceroses worldwide, but osteopathologies are rarely diagnosed, partly because of a lack of radiographic protocols. Here, we aimed to develop the first radiographic protocol for rhinoceros feet and describe the radiographic anatomy of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) hind foot (pes). Computed tomographic images were obtained of nine cadaver pedes from seven different white rhinoceroses and assessed for pathology. A single foot deemed free of pathology was radiographed using a range of different projections and exposures to determine the best protocol. 3D models were produced from the CT images and were displayed with the real radiographs to describe the normal radiographic anatomy of the white rhinoceros pes. An optimal radiographic projection was determined for each bone in the rhinoceros pes focusing on highlighting areas where pathology has been previously described. The projections deemed to be most useful were D60Pr-PlDiO (digit III), D45Pr45M-PlDiLO (digit II), and D40Pr35L-PlDiLO (digit IV). The primary beam was centered 5-7 cm proximal to the cuticle on the digit of interest. Articular surfaces, ridges, grooves, tubercles, processes and fossae were identified. The radiographic protocol we have developed along with the normal radiographic anatomy we have described will allow for more accessible and effective diagnosis of white rhinoceros foot osteopathologies.

  18. Local and distant trauma after hypervelocity ballistic impact to the pig hind limb.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Wei; Kang, Jian-Yi; Chen, Kui-Jun; Wang, Ai-Min; Wang, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    The development of high-energy weapons could increase the velocity of projectiles to well over 1000 m/s. The nature of the injuries caused by the ballistic impact of projectiles at velocities much faster than 1000 m/s is unclear. This study characterizes the mechanical and biochemical alterations caused by high-speed ballistic impact generated by spherical steel ball to the hind limbs of the pig. That the local and distal injuries caused by hypervelocity ballistic impact to the living body are also identified. It is showed that the severity of the injury was positively correlated with the velocity of the projectile. And 4000 m/s seems to be the critical velocity for the 5.6 mm spherical steel ball, which would cause severe damage to either local or distal organs, as below that speed the projectile penetrated the body while above that speed it caused severe damage to the body. In addition, vaporization prevented the projectile from penetrating the body and the consequent pressure wave seems to be the causal factor for the distant damage. PMID:27652070

  19. A gigantic new dinosaur from Argentina and the evolution of the sauropod hind foot.

    PubMed

    González Riga, Bernardo J; Lamanna, Matthew C; Ortiz David, Leonardo D; Calvo, Jorge O; Coria, Juan P

    2016-01-01

    Titanosauria is an exceptionally diverse, globally-distributed clade of sauropod dinosaurs that includes the largest known land animals. Knowledge of titanosaurian pedal structure is critical to understanding the stance and locomotion of these enormous herbivores and, by extension, gigantic terrestrial vertebrates as a whole. However, completely preserved pedes are extremely rare among Titanosauria, especially as regards the truly giant members of the group. Here we describe Notocolossus gonzalezparejasi gen. et sp. nov. from the Upper Cretaceous of Mendoza Province, Argentina. With a powerfully-constructed humerus 1.76 m in length, Notocolossus is one of the largest known dinosaurs. Furthermore, the complete pes of the new taxon exhibits a strikingly compact, homogeneous metatarsus--seemingly adapted for bearing extraordinary weight--and truncated unguals, morphologies that are otherwise unknown in Sauropoda. The pes underwent a near-progressive reduction in the number of phalanges along the line to derived titanosaurs, eventually resulting in the reduced hind foot of these sauropods. PMID:26777391

  20. A gigantic new dinosaur from Argentina and the evolution of the sauropod hind foot

    PubMed Central

    González Riga, Bernardo J.; Lamanna, Matthew C.; Ortiz David, Leonardo D.; Calvo, Jorge O.; Coria, Juan P.

    2016-01-01

    Titanosauria is an exceptionally diverse, globally-distributed clade of sauropod dinosaurs that includes the largest known land animals. Knowledge of titanosaurian pedal structure is critical to understanding the stance and locomotion of these enormous herbivores and, by extension, gigantic terrestrial vertebrates as a whole. However, completely preserved pedes are extremely rare among Titanosauria, especially as regards the truly giant members of the group. Here we describe Notocolossus gonzalezparejasi gen. et sp. nov. from the Upper Cretaceous of Mendoza Province, Argentina. With a powerfully-constructed humerus 1.76 m in length, Notocolossus is one of the largest known dinosaurs. Furthermore, the complete pes of the new taxon exhibits a strikingly compact, homogeneous metatarsus—seemingly adapted for bearing extraordinary weight—and truncated unguals, morphologies that are otherwise unknown in Sauropoda. The pes underwent a near-progressive reduction in the number of phalanges along the line to derived titanosaurs, eventually resulting in the reduced hind foot of these sauropods. PMID:26777391

  1. Restriction endonucleases HindII and TaqI cleave DNA with mismatched nucleotides within their recognition sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Jiricny, J; Martin, D

    1986-01-01

    Restriction endonucleases HindII and TaqI, but not SalI, were found to efficiently cleave synthetic hexadecanucleotide duplexes which contained either an A/C or a G/T mismatch within their respective restriction sites. Double-stranded M13 DNAs with identical mismatches were also cleaved under the assay conditions. These results suggest that the distortion of the DNA duplex, caused by these purine/pyrimidine mismatches is not sufficiently large so as to interfere with the recognition and the subsequent cleavage of the DNA by these two enzymes. HindII and SalI, but not TaqI, were furthermore shown to hydrolyze the two strands of the duplex with different rates. The differences between the mode of recognition of their respective restriction sites by these three enzymes are discussed. Images PMID:3008080

  2. Benefits for Dominant Red Deer Hinds under a Competitive Feeding System: Food Access Behavior, Diet and Nutrient Selection

    PubMed Central

    Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J.; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Bartošová, Jitka; Bartoš, Ludek; Gallego, Laureano

    2012-01-01

    Social dominance is widely known to facilitate access to food resources in many animal species such as deer. However, research has paid little attention to dominance in ad libitum access to food because it was thought not to result in any benefit for dominant individuals. In this study we assessed if, even under ad libitum conditions, social rank may allow dominant hinds to consume the preferred components of food. Forty-four red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus) were allowed to consume ad libitum meal consisting of pellets of sunflower, lucerne and orange, and seeds of cereals, corn, cotton, and carob tree. The meal was placed only in one feeder, which reduced accessibility to a few individuals simultaneously. During seven days, feeding behavior (order of access, time to first feeding bout, total time spent feeding, and time per feeding bout) were assessed during the first hour. The relative abundance of each meal component was assessed at times 0, 1 and 5 h, as well as its nutritional composition. Social rank was positively related to the amount of time spent feeding during the 1st h (P = 0.048). Selection indices were positively correlated with energy (P = 0.018 during the 1st h and P = 0.047 from 1st to 5th) and fat (only during the 1st h; P = 0.036), but also negatively with certain minerals. Thus, dominant hinds could select high energy meal components for longer time under an ad libitum but restricted food access setting. Selection indices showed a higher selectivity when food availability was higher (1st hour respect to 1st to 5th). Finally, high and low ranking hinds had longer time per feeding bout than mid ones (P = 0.011), suggesting complex behavioral feeding tactics of low ranking social ungulates. PMID:22403707

  3. Benefits for dominant red deer hinds under a competitive feeding system: food access behavior, diet and nutrient selection.

    PubMed

    Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Bartošová, Jitka; Bartoš, Ludek; Gallego, Laureano

    2012-01-01

    Social dominance is widely known to facilitate access to food resources in many animal species such as deer. However, research has paid little attention to dominance in ad libitum access to food because it was thought not to result in any benefit for dominant individuals. In this study we assessed if, even under ad libitum conditions, social rank may allow dominant hinds to consume the preferred components of food. Forty-four red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus) were allowed to consume ad libitum meal consisting of pellets of sunflower, lucerne and orange, and seeds of cereals, corn, cotton, and carob tree. The meal was placed only in one feeder, which reduced accessibility to a few individuals simultaneously. During seven days, feeding behavior (order of access, time to first feeding bout, total time spent feeding, and time per feeding bout) were assessed during the first hour. The relative abundance of each meal component was assessed at times 0, 1 and 5 h, as well as its nutritional composition. Social rank was positively related to the amount of time spent feeding during the 1(st) h (P = 0.048). Selection indices were positively correlated with energy (P = 0.018 during the 1(st) h and P = 0.047 from 1(st) to 5(th)) and fat (only during the 1(st) h; P = 0.036), but also negatively with certain minerals. Thus, dominant hinds could select high energy meal components for longer time under an ad libitum but restricted food access setting. Selection indices showed a higher selectivity when food availability was higher (1(st) hour respect to 1(st) to 5(th)). Finally, high and low ranking hinds had longer time per feeding bout than mid ones (P = 0.011), suggesting complex behavioral feeding tactics of low ranking social ungulates.

  4. Feasibility and repeatability of thermal quantitative sensory testing in normal dogs and dogs with hind limb osteoarthritis-associated pain

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Morika D.; Kirkpatrick, Amy E.; Griffith, Emily; Benito, Javier; Hash, Jon; Lascelles, B.D.X.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether thermal quantitative sensory testing (QST) can be performed in client-owned dogs, is repeatable and whether QST differs between normal dogs and dogs with hind limb osteoarthritis (OA). This clinical, prospective, observational study used clinically normal dogs (n = 23) and dogs with OA-associated hind limb pain (n = 9). Thermal QST was performed in standing dogs using a high-powered light source delivered by a previously validated system. Dogs were tested on two occasions, 2 weeks apart. Five tests were performed on each hind limb at each time point. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate the effects of leg, time point and OA/normal status on thermal threshold latencies (TTL). Additionally, paired t tests were used to compare the TTL of left and right limbs within groups and between time points. Thermal thresholds were successfully measured in 32 client-owned dogs without prior training. TTL were significantly different between normal and OA dogs (P = 0.012). There was no difference between limbs (P = 0.744) or time periods (P = 0.572), when analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance, and no interactions between group and limb, visit and limb, or visit and group. In conclusion, thermal thresholds can be measured in client owned dogs with no prior training and are repeatable from week to week. Further data are required to determine if OA results in thermal hypoalgesia as measured at the distal hind limb and whether this is an indication of central sensitization. PMID:24316154

  5. A three-dimensional analysis of the morphological evolution and locomotor behaviour of the carnivoran hind limb

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The shape of the appendicular bones in mammals usually reflects adaptations towards different locomotor abilities. However, other aspects such as body size and phylogeny also play an important role in shaping bone design. We used 3D landmark-based geometric morphometrics to analyse the shape of the hind limb bones (i.e., femur, tibia, and pelvic girdle bones) of living and extinct terrestrial carnivorans (Mammalia, Carnivora) to quantitatively investigate the influence of body size, phylogeny, and locomotor behaviour in shaping the morphology of these bones. We also investigated the main patterns of morphological variation within a phylogenetic context. Results Size and phylogeny strongly influence the shape of the hind limb bones. In contrast, adaptations towards different modes of locomotion seem to have little influence. Principal Components Analysis and the study of phylomorphospaces suggest that the main source of variation in bone shape is a gradient of slenderness-robustness. Conclusion The shape of the hind limb bones is strongly influenced by body size and phylogeny, but not to a similar degree by locomotor behaviour. The slender-robust “morphological bipolarity” found in bone shape variability is probably related to a trade-off between maintaining energetic efficiency and withstanding resistance to stresses. The balance involved in this trade-off impedes the evolution of high phenotypic variability. In fact, both morphological extremes (slender/robust) are adaptive in different selective contexts and lead to a convergence in shape among taxa with extremely different ecologies but with similar biomechanical demands. Strikingly, this “one-to-many mapping” pattern of evolution between morphology and ecology in hind limb bones is in complete contrast to the “many-to-one mapping” pattern found in the evolution of carnivoran skull shape. The results suggest that there are more constraints in the evolution of the shape of the appendicular

  6. Possible living fossil in Bolivia: A new genus of flea beetles with modified hind legs (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini).

    PubMed

    Konstantinov, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    A new genus (Chanealtica) with three new species (Chanealtica cuevas, Chanealtica ellimon, and Chanealtica maxi) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is compared with Aphthonoides Jacoby, 1885, Argopistes Motschulsky, 1860, Metroserrapha Bechyne, 1958, Psylliodes Berthold, 1827 and Psyllototus Nadein, 2010. Remarkably, based on the available characters, among all the flea beetles, Chanealtica is mostly similar to an extinct genus Psyllototus. A discussion of diversity and function of the hind leg in flea beetles is provided.

  7. Possible living fossil in Bolivia: A new genus of flea beetles with modified hind legs (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini)

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinov, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new genus (Chanealtica) with three new species (Chanealtica cuevas, Chanealtica ellimon, and Chanealtica maxi) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is compared with Aphthonoides Jacoby, 1885, Argopistes Motschulsky, 1860, Metroserrapha Bechyne, 1958, Psylliodes Berthold, 1827 and Psyllototus Nadein, 2010. Remarkably, based on the available characters, among all the flea beetles, Chanealtica is mostly similar to an extinct genus Psyllototus. A discussion of diversity and function of the hind leg in flea beetles is provided. PMID:27408546

  8. Osteology and radiographic anatomy of the pelvis and hind limb of healthy ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Makungu, M; Groenewald, H B; du Plessis, W M; Barrows, M; Koeppel, K N

    2014-06-01

    In family Lemuridae, anatomical variations exist. Considering its conservation status (near threatened) and presence of similarities between strepsirrhines and primitive animals, it was thought to be beneficial to describe the gross osteology and radiographic anatomy of the pelvis and hind limb of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) as a reference for clinical use and species identification. Radiography was performed in 14 captive adult ring-tailed lemurs. The radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from two adult animals. Additionally, computed tomography of the hind limbs was performed in one animal. The pelvic bone has a well-developed caudal ventral iliac spine. The patella has a prominent tuberosity on the cranial surface. The first metatarsal bone and digit 1 are markedly stouter than the other metatarsal bones and digits with medial divergence from the rest of the metatarsal bones and digits. Ossicles were seen in the lateral meniscus, inter-phalangeal joint of digit 1 and in the infrapatellar fat pad. Areas of mineral opacity were seen within the external genitalia, which are believed to be the os penis and os clitoris. Variations exist in the normal osteology and radiographic appearance of the pelvis and hind limb of different animal species. The use of only atlases from domestic cats and dogs for interpretative purposes may be misleading. PMID:23651234

  9. Three-dimensional kinematics of the pelvis and hind limbs in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and human bipedal walking.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Matthew C; Lee, Leng-Feng; Demes, Brigitte; Thompson, Nathan E; Larson, Susan G; Stern, Jack T; Umberger, Brian R

    2015-09-01

    The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is a facultative biped and our closest living relative. As such, the musculoskeletal anatomies of their pelvis and hind limbs have long provided a comparative context for studies of human and fossil hominin locomotion. Yet, how the chimpanzee pelvis and hind limb actually move during bipedal walking is still not well defined. Here, we describe the three-dimensional (3-D) kinematics of the pelvis, hip, knee and ankle during bipedal walking and compare those values to humans walking at the same dimensionless and dimensional velocities. The stride-to-stride and intraspecific variations in 3-D kinematics were calculated using the adjusted coefficient of multiple correlation. Our results indicate that humans walk with a more stable pelvis than chimpanzees, especially in tilt and rotation. Both species exhibit similar magnitudes of pelvis list, but with segment motion that is opposite in phasing. In the hind limb, chimpanzees walk with a more flexed and abducted limb posture, and substantially exceed humans in the magnitude of hip rotation during a stride. The average stride-to-stride variation in joint and segment motion was greater in chimpanzees than humans, while the intraspecific variation was similar on average. These results demonstrate substantial differences between human and chimpanzee bipedal walking, in both the sagittal and non-sagittal planes. These new 3-D kinematic data are fundamental to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanics, energetics and control of chimpanzee bipedalism.

  10. Osteology and radiographic anatomy of the pelvis and hind limb of healthy ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Makungu, M; Groenewald, H B; du Plessis, W M; Barrows, M; Koeppel, K N

    2014-06-01

    In family Lemuridae, anatomical variations exist. Considering its conservation status (near threatened) and presence of similarities between strepsirrhines and primitive animals, it was thought to be beneficial to describe the gross osteology and radiographic anatomy of the pelvis and hind limb of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) as a reference for clinical use and species identification. Radiography was performed in 14 captive adult ring-tailed lemurs. The radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from two adult animals. Additionally, computed tomography of the hind limbs was performed in one animal. The pelvic bone has a well-developed caudal ventral iliac spine. The patella has a prominent tuberosity on the cranial surface. The first metatarsal bone and digit 1 are markedly stouter than the other metatarsal bones and digits with medial divergence from the rest of the metatarsal bones and digits. Ossicles were seen in the lateral meniscus, inter-phalangeal joint of digit 1 and in the infrapatellar fat pad. Areas of mineral opacity were seen within the external genitalia, which are believed to be the os penis and os clitoris. Variations exist in the normal osteology and radiographic appearance of the pelvis and hind limb of different animal species. The use of only atlases from domestic cats and dogs for interpretative purposes may be misleading.

  11. Effect of Royal Jelly on Formalin Induced-Inflammation in Rat Hind Paw

    PubMed Central

    Arzi, Ardeshir; Olapour, Samaneh; Yaghooti, Hamid; Sistani Karampour, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Royal Jelly (RJ), a food item secreted by worker honeybees, is a mixture that contains protein, glucose, lipid, vitamins, and minerals; it is widely used as a commercial medical product. Previous studies have shown that RJ has a number of physiological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antiallergic and antioxidant activities. Objectives: In the present study, the anti-inflammatory properties of RJ were investigated in formalin-induced rat paw edema. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into five equal groups (n = 6) as follows: test groups received different doses (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, ip) of RJ and a negative control group received normal saline (5 mL/kg) and a positive control group received aspirin (300 mg/kg, i.p). Edema was induced on the right hind paw of the rat by a subplantar injection of 100 µL of formalin (2.5%) after 30 minutes. Paw edema was measured in the rats received the drugs, saline and aspirin before and after the formalin injection during 5 hours, using a plethysmometer. Results: The results showed that RJ has a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect and the highest anti-inflammatory effect was observed in the doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg. Conclusions: Royal jelly has potent anti-inflammatory effects compared to aspirin and it could be used in the treatment of inflammation. However, further studies are required to determine the active components in RJ responsible for this effect and its mechanism of action. PMID:25866724

  12. Evolutionary Constraints in Hind Wing Shape in Chinese Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae)

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ming; McCullough, Erin; Song, Ke-Qing; Liu, Wan-Gang; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2011-01-01

    paper sheds new light on the evolution of dung beetle hind wings. PMID:21738727

  13. A three-dimensional musculoskeletal model of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) pelvis and hind limb.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Matthew C; Lee, Leng-Feng; Larson, Susan G; Demes, Brigitte; Stern, Jack T; Umberger, Brian R

    2013-10-01

    Musculoskeletal models have become important tools for studying a range of muscle-driven movements. However, most work has been in modern humans, with few applications in other species. Chimpanzees are facultative bipeds and our closest living relatives, and have provided numerous important insights into our own evolution. A chimpanzee musculoskeletal model would allow integration across a wide range of laboratory-based experimental data, providing new insights into the determinants of their locomotor performance capabilities, as well as the origins and evolution of human bipedalism. Here, we described a detailed three-dimensional (3D) musculoskeletal model of the chimpanzee pelvis and hind limb. The model includes geometric representations of bones and joints, as well as 35 muscle-tendon units that were represented using 44 Hill-type muscle models. Muscle architecture data, such as muscle masses, fascicle lengths and pennation angles, were drawn from literature sources. The model permits calculation of 3D muscle moment arms, muscle-tendon lengths and isometric muscle forces over a wide range of joint positions. Muscle-tendon moment arms predicted by the model were generally in good agreement with tendon-excursion estimates from cadaveric specimens. Sensitivity analyses provided information on the parameters that model predictions are most and least sensitive to, which offers important context for interpreting future results obtained with the model. Comparisons with a similar human musculoskeletal model indicate that chimpanzees are better suited for force production over a larger range of joint positions than humans. This study represents an important step in understanding the integrated function of the neuromusculoskeletal systems in chimpanzee locomotion. PMID:24006347

  14. A Modified Heterotopic Swine Hind Limb Transplant Model for Translational Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation (VCA) Research

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Cooney, Damon S.; Shores, Jaimie T.; Sacks, Justin M.; Wimmers, Eric G.; Bonawitz, Steven C.; Gordon, Chad; Ruben, Dawn; Schneeberger, Stefan; Lee, W. P. Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation (VCA) such as hand and face transplants represent a viable treatment option for complex musculoskeletal trauma and devastating tissue loss. Despite favorable and highly encouraging early and intermediate functional outcomes, rejection of the highly immunogenic skin component of a VCA and potential adverse effects of chronic multi-drug immunosuppression continue to hamper widespread clinical application of VCA. Therefore, research in this novel field needs to focus on translational studies related to unique immunologic features of VCA and to develop novel immunomodulatory strategies for immunomodulation and tolerance induction following VCA without the need for long term immunosuppression. This article describes a reliable and reproducible translational large animal model of VCA that is comprised of an osteomyocutaneous flap in a MHC-defined swine heterotopic hind limb allotransplantation. Briefly, a well-vascularized skin paddle is identified in the anteromedial thigh region using near infrared laser angiography. The underlying muscles, knee joint, distal femur, and proximal tibia are harvested on a femoral vascular pedicle. This allograft can be considered both a VCA and a vascularized bone marrow transplant with its unique immune privileged features. The graft is transplanted to a subcutaneous abdominal pocket in the recipient animal with a skin component exteriorized to the dorsolateral region for immune monitoring. Three surgical teams work simultaneously in a well-coordinated manner to reduce anesthesia and ischemia times, thereby improving efficiency of this model and reducing potential confounders in experimental protocols. This model serves as the groundwork for future therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing and potentially eliminating the need for chronic multi-drug immunosuppression in VCA. PMID:24145603

  15. A three-dimensional musculoskeletal model of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) pelvis and hind limb.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Matthew C; Lee, Leng-Feng; Larson, Susan G; Demes, Brigitte; Stern, Jack T; Umberger, Brian R

    2013-10-01

    Musculoskeletal models have become important tools for studying a range of muscle-driven movements. However, most work has been in modern humans, with few applications in other species. Chimpanzees are facultative bipeds and our closest living relatives, and have provided numerous important insights into our own evolution. A chimpanzee musculoskeletal model would allow integration across a wide range of laboratory-based experimental data, providing new insights into the determinants of their locomotor performance capabilities, as well as the origins and evolution of human bipedalism. Here, we described a detailed three-dimensional (3D) musculoskeletal model of the chimpanzee pelvis and hind limb. The model includes geometric representations of bones and joints, as well as 35 muscle-tendon units that were represented using 44 Hill-type muscle models. Muscle architecture data, such as muscle masses, fascicle lengths and pennation angles, were drawn from literature sources. The model permits calculation of 3D muscle moment arms, muscle-tendon lengths and isometric muscle forces over a wide range of joint positions. Muscle-tendon moment arms predicted by the model were generally in good agreement with tendon-excursion estimates from cadaveric specimens. Sensitivity analyses provided information on the parameters that model predictions are most and least sensitive to, which offers important context for interpreting future results obtained with the model. Comparisons with a similar human musculoskeletal model indicate that chimpanzees are better suited for force production over a larger range of joint positions than humans. This study represents an important step in understanding the integrated function of the neuromusculoskeletal systems in chimpanzee locomotion.

  16. Effect of recovery mode following hind-limb suspension on soleus muscle composition in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNulty, A. L.; Otto, A. J.; Kasper, C. E.; Thomas, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different recovery modes from hind-limb suspension-induced hypodynamia on whole body and muscle (soleus) growth as well as soleus composition and size changes of different fiber types within this same muscle. Following 28 days of tail-suspension, rats were returned to their cages and sedentarily recovered (HS), or were exercised by running on a treadmill 5 days/wk, at progressively increasing workloads (HR) for one month. Sedentary and running control groups of animals (CS, CR) were also evaluated for comparative purposes. The exercise program, which was identical for CR and HR groups, had no effect on body wt., soleus wt., soleus muscle composition or fiber size in CR rats. Atrophied soleus muscle and reduced soleus wt./body wt. ratio (both 60% of control) had returned to control values by day 7 of recovery in both suspended groups despite the fact that whole body wt. gain was significantly reduced (p less than 0.05) in HR as compared to HS rats. Atrophied soleus Type I fiber mean cross-sectional area in both HR and HS groups demonstrated similar and significant (p less than 0.01) increases during recovery. Increases in Type IIa and IIc fiber area during this same period were significant only in the HR group. While the percentage area of muscle composed of Type I fibers increased in both hypodynamic groups during recovery, the reduction in area percentage of muscle made up of Type IIa fibers was again only significant in the HR group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  17. Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at Riverland Dingo Observatory (RDO): 501 Urhixidur, 1897 Hind, 1928 Summa, 6261 Chione, and (68216) 2001 CV 26.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Lightcurves for five asteroids selected from the Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL) were obtained at Riverland Dingo Observatory (RDO) from 2012 July-September: 501 Urhixidur, 1897 Hind, 1928 Summa, 6261 Chione, and (68216) 2001 CV26.

  18. Nucleotide sequence of the BamHI repetitive sequence, including the HindIII fundamental unit, as a possible mobile element from the Japanese monkey Macaca fuscata.

    PubMed

    Prassolov, V S; Kuchino, Y; Nemoto, K; Nishimura, S

    1986-01-01

    Clustered repeat units produced by BamHI digestion of genomic DNA from the Japanese monkey Macaca fuscata [JMr(BamHI)] were sequenced by dideoxy DNA sequencing. The nucleotide sequences of several individual repeats showed that the BamHI repeat contains the 170-bp HindIII element as an integral part, and that it has more than 90% homology with the HindIII repeat element [AGMr(HindIII)] found in the genomic DNA of the African green monkey. In the JMr(BamHI) repeat unit, the 170-bp HindIII element is flanked by a 6-bp inverted repeat, which is part of a 22-bp direct repeat. This latter repeat of 22-bp asymmetrically overlaps the border between the internal AGMr(HindIII)-like region and adjacent regions of the JMr(BamHI) repeat. A similar structural feature of the BamHI repeat unit has been found in the genomic DNA of the baboon, but not in that of the African green monkey. These results show clearly that the BamHI repeat of the modern Japanese monkey originated as a result of insertion of an AGMr(HindIII) element into a certain site(s) of the genomic DNA of an ancestor of the modern Japanese monkey before Macaca-Cercocebus divergence.

  19. Lack of association between the HindIII RFLP of the osteocalcin (BGP) gene and bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy pre- and postmenopausal Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xiao-Yang; Cao, Chi-Ke; Xu, Fu-Hua; Liu, Man-Yuan; Li, Miao-Xin; Qin, Yue-Juan; Zhou, Qi; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2004-01-01

    In Caucasian populations, the polymorphic restriction endonuclease HindIII marker of the osteocalcin (also known as BGP, for bone Gla protein) gene has recently been reported to be associated with bone mass, a major risk determinant of osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the BGP HindIII polymorphism and bone mineral density (BMD) in 388 premenopausal (31.18 +/- 5.92 years) and 169 postmenopausal (58.90 +/- 6.27 years) Chinese women. The BMD of spine and hip was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). All the study subjects were genotyped at the HindIII site of the BGP gene by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) detecting methods. The BGP alleles were designated according to the absence ( H) or presence ( h) of the HindIII restriction site. We did not find any significant difference in spine and hip BMD across BGP genotypes in either pre- or postmenopausal women or the combined group. Our result is not consistent with recent reports that the HindIII marker of the BGP gene is associated with osteoporosis. The different findings may reflect inter-population differences in the association (i.e., linkage disequilibrium) of molecular markers with BMD, and indicate the limit of using the HindIII marker of the BGP gene as a genetic marker to discern women susceptible to low BMD and thus osteoporosis in Chinese.

  20. Increased androgenic sensitivity in the hind limb muscular system marks the evolution of a derived gestural display

    PubMed Central

    Mangiamele, Lisa A.; Fuxjager, Matthew J.; Schuppe, Eric R.; Taylor, Rebecca S.; Hödl, Walter; Preininger, Doris

    2016-01-01

    Physical gestures are prominent features of many species’ multimodal displays, yet how evolution incorporates body and leg movements into animal signaling repertoires is unclear. Androgenic hormones modulate the production of reproductive signals and sexual motor skills in many vertebrates; therefore, one possibility is that selection for physical signals drives the evolution of androgenic sensitivity in select neuromotor pathways. We examined this issue in the Bornean rock frog (Staurois parvus, family: Ranidae). Males court females and compete with rivals by performing both vocalizations and hind limb gestural signals, called “foot flags.” Foot flagging is a derived display that emerged in the ranids after vocal signaling. Here, we show that administration of testosterone (T) increases foot flagging behavior under seminatural conditions. Moreover, using quantitative PCR, we also find that adult male S. parvus maintain a unique androgenic phenotype, in which androgen receptor (AR) in the hind limb musculature is expressed at levels ∼10× greater than in two other anuran species, which do not produce foot flags (Rana pipiens and Xenopus laevis). Finally, because males of all three of these species solicit mates with calls, we accordingly detect no differences in AR expression in the vocal apparatus (larynx) among taxa. The results show that foot flagging is an androgen-dependent gestural signal, and its emergence is associated with increased androgenic sensitivity within the hind limb musculature. Selection for this novel gestural signal may therefore drive the evolution of increased AR expression in key muscles that control signal production to support adaptive motor performance. PMID:27143723

  1. Curcumin and dexmedetomidine prevents oxidative stress and renal injury in hind limb ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Karahan, M A; Yalcin, S; Aydogan, H; Büyükfirat, E; Kücük, A; Kocarslan, S; Yüce, H H; Taskın, A; Aksoy, N

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin and dexmedetomidine have been shown to have protective effects in ischemia-reperfusion injury on various organs. However, their protective effects on kidney tissue against ischemia-reperfusion injury remain unclear. We aimed to determine whether curcumin or dexmedetomidine prevents renal tissue from injury that was induced by hind limb ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Fifty rats were divided into five groups: sham, control, curcumin (CUR) group (200 mg/kg curcumin, n = 10), dexmedetomidine (DEX) group (25 μg/kg dexmedetomidine, n = 10), and curcumin-dexmedetomidine (CUR-DEX) group (200 mg/kg curcumin and 25 μg/kg dexmedetomidine). Curcumin and dexmedetomidine were administered intraperitoneally immediately after the end of 4 h ischemia, just 5 min before reperfusion. The extremity re-perfused for 2 h and then blood samples were taken and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidative status (TOS) levels, and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured, and renal tissue samples were histopathologically examined. The TAC activity levels in blood samples were significantly lower in the control than the other groups (p < 0.01 for all comparisons). The TOS activity levels in blood samples were significantly higher in Control group and than the other groups (p <  0.01 for all comparison). The OSI were found to be significantly increased in the control group compared to others groups (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Histopathological examination revealed less severe lesions in the sham, CUR, DEX, and CUR-DEX groups, compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Rat hind limb ischemia-reperfusion causes histopathological changes in the kidneys. Curcumin and dexmedetomidine administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing oxidative stress and renal histopathologic injury in an acute hind limb I/R rat model. PMID:26983591

  2. Poly ADP-Ribose Polymerase Inhibition Ameliorates Hind Limb Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in a Murine Model of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Long, Chandler A.; Boloum, Valy; Albadawi, Hassan; Tsai, Shirling; Yoo, Hyung-Jin; Oklu, Rahmi; Goldman, Mitchell H.; Watkins, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes is known to increase poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP) activity and posttranslational poly-ADP-ribosylation of several regulatory proteins involved in inflammation and energy metabolism. These experiments test the hypothesis that PARP inhibition will modulate hind limb ischemia reperfusion (IR) in a mouse model of type-II diabetes; ameliorate the ribosylation and the activity/transnuclear localization of the key glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Methods db/db mice underwent 1.5hrs of hind limb ischemia followed by 1, 7, or 24hrs reperfusion. The treatment group received the PARP inhibitor PJ34 (PJ34) over a 24hrs period; the untreated group received Lactated ringer’s (LR) at the same time points. IR muscles were analyzed for indices of PARP activity, fiber injury, metabolic activity, inflammation, GAPDH activity /intracellular localization and poly-ADP-ribosylation of GAPDH. Results PARP activity was significantly lower in the PJ34 treated groups compared to the LR group at 7 and 24 hours reperfusion. There was significantly less muscle fiber injury in the PJ34 treated group compared to LR treated mice at 24 hrs reperfusion. PJ34 lowered levels of select proinflammatory molecules at 7hrs and 24hrs IR. There were significant increases in metabolic activity only at 24 hours IR in the PJ34 group, which temporally correlated with increase in GAPDH activity, decreased GAPDH poly ADP-ribosylation and nuclear translocation of GAPDH. Conclusions PJ34 reduced PARP activity, GAPDH ribosylation, GAPDH translocation, ameliorated muscle fiber injury, and increased metabolic activity following hind limb IR injury in a murine model of type-II diabetes. PARP inhibition might be a therapeutic strategy following IR in diabetic humans. PMID:23549425

  3. DUE AvalRS: Remote Sensing Derive Avalanche Inventory Data for Decision Support and Hind-Cast After Avalanche Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frauenfelder, Regula; Kronholm, Kalle; Solberg, Rune; Larsen, Siri Oyen; Salberg, Arnt-Borre; Larsen, Jan Otto; Bjordal, Heidi

    2010-12-01

    Each year, snow avalanches hit populated areas and parts of the transport network in the Norwegian mountain regions, leading to loss of lives and the damaging of buildings and infrastructure. We present the results of a feasibility study on the operation of a service providing the National Public Roads Administration (NPRA) with hind-cast avalanche inventory data on a local-to-regional scale during the course of the winter season, and as soon as possible after major avalanche events. We have explored the use of imagery from high-resolution and very-high-resolution space-borne satellites applying manual mapping and automated image segmentation.

  4. Valine partitioning and kinetics between the gastrointestinal tract and hind limbs in lambs with an adult Trichostrongylus colubriformis burden.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, E N; McNabb, W C; Sinclair, B R; Tavendale, M H; Roy, N C

    2011-11-01

    Intestinal parasitic infection increases the demand for AA because of increased protein synthesis in the intestine and increased luminal losses of AA, and these increased demands may be supported by increased mobilization of AA from the skeletal muscles. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of parasitic infection on valine kinetics within the gastrointestinal tract and hind limbs of lambs fed fresh forages. On d 1, lambs were given 6,000 stage-3 Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae per day for 6 d (n = 6) or kept as parasite-free controls (n = 6) and fed fresh lucerne (Medicago sativa; Exp. 1) or fresh sulla (Hedysarum coronarium; Exp. 2). On d 48, valine kinetics within the mesenteric- (MDV) and portal-drained viscera (PDV) and hind limbs were obtained by carrying out concurrent infusions of para-amminohippuric acid into the mesenteric vein and indocyanin green into the abdominal aorta (for blood flow), and [3,4-(3)H]valine into the jugular vein and [1-(13)C]valine into the abomasum for 8 h (for kinetics). During the infusions, blood was collected from the mesenteric and portal veins and from the mesenteric artery and vena cava, and plasma was harvested. After the 8-h infusion, lambs were euthanized, ileal digesta were collected, and tissues were sampled from the intestine and muscle (biceps femoris). Tissues, digesta, and plasma were analyzed for valine concentration, specific radioactivity, and isotopic enrichment. In both experiments, intestinal worm burdens on d 48 were greater in parasitized lambs (P = 0.0001 and 0.003). In Exp. 1, parasitic infection increased (P = 0.03) the total valine irreversible loss rate (ILR) in the MDV and PDV. In Exp. 2, luminal ILR of valine in the MDV was reduced (P = 0.01); however, ILR of valine in the PDV was unaffected. Despite these changes within the MDV and PDV, parasitic infection did not affect the ILR of valine within the hind limbs, and valine transport rates were largely unchanged. We suggest that

  5. Thermographic evaluation of hind paw skin temperature and functional recovery of locomotion after sciatic nerve crush in rats

    PubMed Central

    Z. Sacharuk, Viviane; A. Lovatel, Gisele; Ilha, Jocemar; Marcuzzo, Simone; Severo do Pinho, Alexandre; L. Xavier, Léder; A. Zaro, Milton; Achaval, Matilde

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Peripheral nerves are often damaged by direct mechanical injury, diseases, and tumors. The peripheral nerve injuries that result from these conditions can lead to a partial or complete loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic functions, which in turn are related to changes in skin temperature, in the involved segments of the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in hind paw skin temperature after sciatic nerve crush in rats in an attempt to determine whether changes in skin temperature correlate with the functional recovery of locomotion. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (n = 7), sham (n = 25), and crush (n = 25). All groups were subjected to thermographic, functional, and histological assessments. RESULTS: ΔT in the crush group was different from the control and sham groups at the 1st, 3rd and 7rd postoperative days (p<0.05). The functional recovery from the crush group returned to normal values between the 3rd and 4th week post-injury, and morphological analysis of the nerve revealed incomplete regeneration at the 4th week after injury. DISCUSSION: This study is the first demonstration that sciatic nerve crush in rats induces an increase in hind paw skin temperature and that skin temperature changes do not correlate closely with functional recovery PMID:21876984

  6. Fucoidan improves bioactivity and vasculogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells in murine hind limb ischemia associated with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Hee; Ryu, Jung Min; Han, Yong-Seok; Zia, Mohammad Farid; Kwon, Hyog Young; Noh, Hyunjin; Han, Ho Jae; Lee, Sang Hun

    2016-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease. Although mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is a promising strategy for treatment of ischemic diseases associated with CKD, the associated pathophysiological conditions lead to low survival and proliferation of transplanted MSCs. To address these limitations, we investigated the effects of fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, on the bioactivity of adipose tissue-derived MSCs and the potential of fucoidan-treated MSCs to improve neovascularization in ischemic tissues of CKD mice. Treatment of MSCs with fucoidan increased their proliferative potential and the expression of cell cycle-associated proteins, such as cyclin E, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 2, cyclin D1, and CDK4, via focal adhesion kinase and the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase-Akt axis. Moreover, fucoidan enhanced the immunomodulatory activity of MSCs through the ERK-IDO-1 signal cascade. Fucoidan was found to augment the proliferation, incorporation, and endothelial differentiation of transplanted MSCs at ischemic sites in CKD mice hind limbs. In addition, transplantation of fucoidan-treated MSCs enhanced the ratio of blood flow and limb salvage in CKD mice with hind limb ischemia. To our knowledge, our findings are the first to reveal that fucoidan enhances the bioactivity of MSCs and improves their neovascularization in ischemic injured tissues of CKD. In conclusion, fucoidan-treated MSCs may provide an important pathway toward therapeutic neovascularization in patients with CKD.

  7. Hind limb scaling of kangaroos and wallabies (superfamily Macropodoidea): implications for hopping performance, safety factor and elastic savings.

    PubMed

    McGowan, C P; Skinner, J; Biewener, A A

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine hind limb scaling of the musculoskeletal system in the Macropodoidea, the superfamily containing wallabies and kangaroos, to re-examine the effect of size on the locomotor mechanics and physiology of marsupial hopping. Morphometric musculoskeletal analyses were conducted of 15 species and skeletal specimens of 21 species spanning a size range from 0.8 to 80 kg that included representatives of 12 of the 16 extant genera of macropodoids. We found that unlike other groups, macropodoids are able to match force demands associated with increasing body size primarily through a combination of positive allometry in muscle area and muscle moment arms. Isometric scaling of primary hind limb bones suggests, however, that larger species experience relatively greater bone stresses. Muscle to tendon area ratios of the ankle extensors scale with strong positive allometry, indicating that peak tendon stresses also increase with increasing body size but to a lesser degree than previously reported. Consistent with previous morphological and experimental studies, large macropodoids are therefore better suited for elastic strain energy recovery but operate at lower safety factors, which likely poses an upper limit to body size. Scaling patterns for extant macropodoids suggest that extinct giant kangaroos (approximately 250 kg) were likely limited in locomotor capacity.

  8. Transcription and translation mapping of the 13 genes in the vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment.

    PubMed

    Lee-Chen, G J; Niles, E G

    1988-03-01

    The vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment is 160,060 bp in length and encodes 13 complete open reading frames [Niles et al. (1986) Virology 153, 96-112; S. L. Weinrich and D. E. Hruby (1986). Nucleic Acids Res. 14, 3003-3016]. We have employed a two-step Northern hybridization protocol using single-stranded DNA probes from M13 recombinants in order to identify the mRNA products from the 13 genes. Six of these genes are expressed only at early times after infection; six are transcribed only at late times; one gene is expressed at both early and late times after virus infection. The D11 gene is transcribed into two late mRNA species, one full-length and the other derived from the 3' one-third of the coding sequence. Translation of hybrid-selected mRNA was carried out in an attempt to identify the protein products encoded by each mRNA. Protein products were found for each early gene but translation was successful for only two of the eight late mRNAs. With the completion of the physical map it is apparent that the early and late genes in the HindIII D fragment are arranged in order to minimize potential interference caused by the expression of closely packed viral genes.

  9. Morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) evidenced by gross osteology, radiography and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Makungu, M; du Plessis, W M; Groenewald, H B; Barrows, M; Koeppel, K N

    2015-12-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is a quadrupedal arboreal animal primarily distributed in the Himalayas and southern China. It is a species commonly kept in zoological collections. This study was carried out to describe the morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda evidenced by gross osteology, radiography and computed tomography as a reference for clinical use and identification of skeletons. Radiography of the pelvis and right hind limb was performed in nine and seven animals, respectively. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. Computed tomography of the torso and hind limb was performed in one animal. The pelvic bone had a wide ventromedial surface of the ilium. The trochlea of the femur was wide and shallow. The patella was similar to that seen in feline species. The medial fabella was not seen radiographically in any animal. The cochlea grooves of the tibia were shallow with a poorly defined intermediate ridge. The trochlea of the talus was shallow and presented with an almost flattened medial ridge. The tarsal sesamoid bone was always present. The lateral process of the base of the fifth metatarsal (MT) bone was directed laterally. The MT bones were widely spaced. The morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda indicated flexibility of the pelvis and hind limb joints as an adaptation to an arboreal quadrupedal lifestyle.

  10. Passive hind-limb cycling improves cardiac function and reduces cardiovascular disease risk in experimental spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    West, Christopher R; Crawford, Mark A; Poormasjedi-Meibod, Malihe-Sadat; Currie, Katharine D; Fallavollita, Andre; Yuen, Violet; McNeill, John H; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes altered autonomic control and severe physical deconditioning that converge to drive maladaptive cardiac remodelling. We used a clinically relevant experimental model to investigate the cardio-metabolic responses to SCI and to establish whether passive hind-limb cycling elicits a cardio-protective effect. Initially, 21 male Wistar rats were evenly assigned to three groups: uninjured control (CON), T3 complete SCI (SCI) or T3 complete SCI plus passive hind-limb cycling (SCI-EX; 2 × 30 min day−1, 5 days week−1 for 4 weeks beginning 6 days post-SCI). On day 32, cardio-metabolic function was assessed using in vivo echocardiography, ex vivo working heart assessments, cardiac histology/molecular biology and blood lipid profiles. Twelve additional rats (n = 6 SCI and n = 6 SCI-EX) underwent in vivo echocardiography and basal haemodynamic assessments pre-SCI and at days 7, 14 and 32 post-SCI to track temporal cardiovascular changes. Compared with CON, SCI exhibited a rapid and sustained reduction in left ventricular dimensions and function that ultimately manifested as reduced contractility, increased myocardial collagen deposition and an up-regulation of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1) and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (Smad3) mRNA. For SCI-EX, the initial reduction in left ventricular dimensions and function at day 7 post-SCI was completely reversed by day 32 post-SCI, and there were no differences in myocardial contractility between SCI-EX and CON. Collagen deposition was similar between SCI-EX and CON. TGFβ1 and Smad3 were down-regulated in SCI-EX. Blood lipid profiles were improved in SCI-EX versus SCI. We provide compelling novel evidence that passive hind-limb cycling prevents cardiac dysfunction and reduces cardiovascular disease risk in experimental SCI. PMID:24535438

  11. Novel Dynamics Observed in a Spiking Neural Network Model of the NTS in the Rat Hind-brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jingyi; Schaffer, J. David; Dilorenzo, Patricia; Laramee, Craig

    2012-02-01

    The Nucleus of the Solitary Tract (NTS) is a hind-brain structure in the rat that is the first way-station in taste processing. Its structure and function are poorly understood. Recently our group produced a model, implemented as a spiking neural network (SNN), that successfully replicated experimental data. The model's topology was manually devised and the parameters were set by a genetic algorithm. In order to better understand its information processing capabilities, we probed the model with a variety of input spike patterns and observed a striking winner-take-all decision-making dynamic. We show how the topology and tuned parameters enable this decision to depend on precise spike timing events. It is curious that the experimental data upon which the model was originally evolved did not include winner-take-all examples; this was an emergent capability. It remains for additional experiments on rats to confirm or reject this model prediction.

  12. Murine cytomegalovirus with a deletion of genes spanning HindIII-J and -I displays altered cell and tissue tropism.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, V J; Stenberg, R M; Staley, T L; Virgin, H W; MacDonald, M R; Paetzold, S; Farrell, H E; Rawlinson, W D; Campbell, A E

    1996-03-01

    Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) gene products dispensable for growth in cell culture are likely to have important functions within the infected host, influencing tissue tropism, dissemination, or immunological responses against the virus. To identify such genes, our strategy was to delete large regions of the MCMV genome likely to contain genes nonessential for virus replication in NIH 3T3 cells. Mutant virus RV7 contained a deletion of 7.7 kb spanning portions of MCMV HindIII-J and -I. This virus grew comparably to wild-type (WT) virus in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, primary embryo fibroblasts, and bone marrow macrophages. However, RV7 failed to replicate in target organs of immunocompetent BALB/c mice and severe combined immunodeficient mice, which are exquisitely sensitive to MCMV infection. This defect in vivo growth may be related to the observation that RV7 grew poorly in the peritoneal macrophage cell line IC-21, which is highly permissive for growth of WT MCMV. Two other mutant viruses with an insertion or smaller deletion in the region common to the RV7 deletion grew comparably to WT virus in the macrophage cell line and replicated in salivary gland tissue. The poor growth of RV7 in IC-21 cells was due to a block in immediate-early gene expression, as levels of RNA from immediate-early gene IE1 were reduced eightfold compared with levels for WT virus in macrophages infected with RV7. Consequently, levels of RNA from early and late genes were also reduced. The lower expression of IE1 in RV7-infected IC-21 macrophages was not due to defective entry of virus into the cells, as equal amounts of viral DNA were present in cells 3 h after infection with RV7 or WT MCMV. These studies demonstrate that deletion of sequences in HindIII-J and -I confer altered cell and tissue tropism. PMID:8627652

  13. Murine cytomegalovirus with a deletion of genes spanning HindIII-J and -I displays altered cell and tissue tropism.

    PubMed Central

    Cavanaugh, V J; Stenberg, R M; Staley, T L; Virgin, H W; MacDonald, M R; Paetzold, S; Farrell, H E; Rawlinson, W D; Campbell, A E

    1996-01-01

    Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) gene products dispensable for growth in cell culture are likely to have important functions within the infected host, influencing tissue tropism, dissemination, or immunological responses against the virus. To identify such genes, our strategy was to delete large regions of the MCMV genome likely to contain genes nonessential for virus replication in NIH 3T3 cells. Mutant virus RV7 contained a deletion of 7.7 kb spanning portions of MCMV HindIII-J and -I. This virus grew comparably to wild-type (WT) virus in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, primary embryo fibroblasts, and bone marrow macrophages. However, RV7 failed to replicate in target organs of immunocompetent BALB/c mice and severe combined immunodeficient mice, which are exquisitely sensitive to MCMV infection. This defect in vivo growth may be related to the observation that RV7 grew poorly in the peritoneal macrophage cell line IC-21, which is highly permissive for growth of WT MCMV. Two other mutant viruses with an insertion or smaller deletion in the region common to the RV7 deletion grew comparably to WT virus in the macrophage cell line and replicated in salivary gland tissue. The poor growth of RV7 in IC-21 cells was due to a block in immediate-early gene expression, as levels of RNA from immediate-early gene IE1 were reduced eightfold compared with levels for WT virus in macrophages infected with RV7. Consequently, levels of RNA from early and late genes were also reduced. The lower expression of IE1 in RV7-infected IC-21 macrophages was not due to defective entry of virus into the cells, as equal amounts of viral DNA were present in cells 3 h after infection with RV7 or WT MCMV. These studies demonstrate that deletion of sequences in HindIII-J and -I confer altered cell and tissue tropism. PMID:8627652

  14. Arboreal Day Geckos (Phelsuma madagascariensis) Differentially Modulate Fore- and Hind Limb Kinematics in Response to Changes in Habitat Structure

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Mingna V.; Higham, Timothy E.

    2016-01-01

    By using adhesion, geckos can move through incredibly challenging habitats. However, continually changing terrain may necessitate modulation of the adhesive apparatus in order to maximize its effectiveness over a range of challenges. Behaviorally modulating how the adhesive system is applied can occur by altering the alignment of the foot relative to the long axis of the body and/or the angles between the digits (interdigital angle). Given the directionality of the adhesive system, geckos likely vary the application of the system via these mechanisms as they run. We quantified 3D movements (using high-speed video) of the day gecko, Phelsuma madagascariensis, running on a range of ecologically relevant inclines (0°, 45°, 90°) and perch diameters (1.5 cm, 10 cm and broad). We measured the instantaneous sum of interdigital angles and foot alignment relative to the body, as well as other kinematic variables, throughout each stride and across treatments. Modulation of foot alignment at 45° and 90° was similar between the forelimb and hind limb, but differed at 0°, suggesting that P. madagascariensis is able to exert an adhesive force using multiple strategies. Both the sum of interdigital angles and alignment in the fore- and hind foot were modulated. Differences in modulation between the limbs are likely related to the underlying morphology. The modulation of interdigital angle and foot alignment suggests that aspects other than the mechanism of adhesion, such as joint morphology, are important for arboreal movement in geckos. Our study of foot usage in arboreal locomotion reveals patterns that may be widespread across pad-bearing lizards. In addition to understanding the constraints exerted by the adhesive apparatus, we highlight how biomechanical traits may respond to the evolution of novel adaptations and morphologies. PMID:27145027

  15. Radioprotection by WR-151327 against the late normal tissue damage in mouse hind legs from gamma ray radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushita, Satoru; Ando, Koichi; Koike, Sachiko

    1994-11-15

    To evaluate the protective effect of WR-151327 on late radiation-induced damaged to normal tissues in mice, the right hind legs of mice with or without WR-151327 administration (400 mg/kg) were irradiated with {sup 137}Cs gamma rays. Leg contracture and skin shrinkage assays were performed at 380 days after irradiation. The mice were killed on day 400 postirradiation and histological sections of the legs were made. The thickness of the dermis, epidermis, and skin (dermis plus epidermis) was measured. The muscular area of the legs and the posterior knee angle between the femur and tibia were also measured. The left hind legs were similarly assessed as nonirradiated controls. Group means and standard deviations were calculated and dose-response curves were drawn for every endpoint. Then, the dose modifying factor (DMF) for each endpoint and the correlations among endpoints were determined. Latae damage assayed by leg contracture and skin shrinkage progressed with increasing radiation dose. However, it was reduced by drug treatment. The significant effect was indicated for skin shrinkage by a DMF of 1.8 at 35%. The DMF for leg contracture was 1.3 at 6 mm. In the irradiated legs, epidermal hyperplasia and dermal fibrosis in the skin, muscular atrophy, and extension disturbance of the knee joint were observed. These changes progressed with increasing radiation dose. Skin damage assayed by the present endpoints was also reduced by drug treatment by DMFs of 1.4 to 1.7. However, DMFs for damage to the muscle and knee were not determined because no isoeffect was observed. There were good correlations between leg contracture or skin shrinkage and the other endpoints in both untreated and drug-treated mice. WR-151327 has the potential to protect against radiation-induced late normal tissue damage. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Arboreal Day Geckos (Phelsuma madagascariensis) Differentially Modulate Fore- and Hind Limb Kinematics in Response to Changes in Habitat Structure.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Mingna V; Higham, Timothy E

    2016-01-01

    By using adhesion, geckos can move through incredibly challenging habitats. However, continually changing terrain may necessitate modulation of the adhesive apparatus in order to maximize its effectiveness over a range of challenges. Behaviorally modulating how the adhesive system is applied can occur by altering the alignment of the foot relative to the long axis of the body and/or the angles between the digits (interdigital angle). Given the directionality of the adhesive system, geckos likely vary the application of the system via these mechanisms as they run. We quantified 3D movements (using high-speed video) of the day gecko, Phelsuma madagascariensis, running on a range of ecologically relevant inclines (0°, 45°, 90°) and perch diameters (1.5 cm, 10 cm and broad). We measured the instantaneous sum of interdigital angles and foot alignment relative to the body, as well as other kinematic variables, throughout each stride and across treatments. Modulation of foot alignment at 45° and 90° was similar between the forelimb and hind limb, but differed at 0°, suggesting that P. madagascariensis is able to exert an adhesive force using multiple strategies. Both the sum of interdigital angles and alignment in the fore- and hind foot were modulated. Differences in modulation between the limbs are likely related to the underlying morphology. The modulation of interdigital angle and foot alignment suggests that aspects other than the mechanism of adhesion, such as joint morphology, are important for arboreal movement in geckos. Our study of foot usage in arboreal locomotion reveals patterns that may be widespread across pad-bearing lizards. In addition to understanding the constraints exerted by the adhesive apparatus, we highlight how biomechanical traits may respond to the evolution of novel adaptations and morphologies.

  17. Arboreal Day Geckos (Phelsuma madagascariensis) Differentially Modulate Fore- and Hind Limb Kinematics in Response to Changes in Habitat Structure.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Mingna V; Higham, Timothy E

    2016-01-01

    By using adhesion, geckos can move through incredibly challenging habitats. However, continually changing terrain may necessitate modulation of the adhesive apparatus in order to maximize its effectiveness over a range of challenges. Behaviorally modulating how the adhesive system is applied can occur by altering the alignment of the foot relative to the long axis of the body and/or the angles between the digits (interdigital angle). Given the directionality of the adhesive system, geckos likely vary the application of the system via these mechanisms as they run. We quantified 3D movements (using high-speed video) of the day gecko, Phelsuma madagascariensis, running on a range of ecologically relevant inclines (0°, 45°, 90°) and perch diameters (1.5 cm, 10 cm and broad). We measured the instantaneous sum of interdigital angles and foot alignment relative to the body, as well as other kinematic variables, throughout each stride and across treatments. Modulation of foot alignment at 45° and 90° was similar between the forelimb and hind limb, but differed at 0°, suggesting that P. madagascariensis is able to exert an adhesive force using multiple strategies. Both the sum of interdigital angles and alignment in the fore- and hind foot were modulated. Differences in modulation between the limbs are likely related to the underlying morphology. The modulation of interdigital angle and foot alignment suggests that aspects other than the mechanism of adhesion, such as joint morphology, are important for arboreal movement in geckos. Our study of foot usage in arboreal locomotion reveals patterns that may be widespread across pad-bearing lizards. In addition to understanding the constraints exerted by the adhesive apparatus, we highlight how biomechanical traits may respond to the evolution of novel adaptations and morphologies. PMID:27145027

  18. Vasomotor responses in the hind limbs of foetal and new-born lambs to asphyxia and aortic chemoreceptor stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, G. S.; Lewis, B. V.; Milligan, J. E.; Roach, Margot R.; Talner, N. S.

    1968-01-01

    1. Hind limb blood flow was measured in lambs of from 91 days gestation (delivered by Caesarean section) to 1 month after birth (term is about 147 days), under chloralose anaesthesia. Vascular resistance/100 g wet wt. increased progressively with age. There was reflex femoral vascular tone from the earliest age studied, as shown by vasodilatation on cutting the sciatic nerve. 2. On asphyxia by cord occlusion reflex femoral vasoconstriction began earlier and was somewhat greater in older foetal lambs. At all ages, and after denervation of the hind limb, there was vasodilatation after local ischaemia, and a vasoconstriction of delayed onset during asphyxia attributed to release of noradrenaline into the circulation. The vasoconstrictor effect of noradrenaline in immature lambs was at least as great as at term or in the new-born. 3. Injections of minimal effective doses of cyanide were used to localize possible chemoreceptor sites in foetal lambs. Injection into the left atrium caused a rise of arterial pressure, femoral vasoconstriction and a complex change in heart rate (usually bradycardia) but rarely any respiratory movement. After atropine, cyanide caused a large tachycardia. All responses were much reduced or abolished by cervical vagotomy. 4. Injection of the same doses of cyanide into a jugular vein, the right ventricle, pulmonary or common carotid arteries of foetal lambs caused negligible cardiovascular or respiratory effects, whereas injection into the carotids of new-born lambs caused a profound hyperpnoea. 5. It is concluded that the aortic chemoreceptors are active in the foetus, are supplied from the left heart, and that they probably represent the primary defence in blood gas homeostasis by their effects on the circulation. PMID:4295757

  19. Cleavage maps for human cytomegalovirus DNA strain AD169 for restriction endonucleases EcoRI, BglII, and HindIII.

    PubMed Central

    Spector, D H; Hock, L; Tamashiro, J C

    1982-01-01

    We have used cloned EcoRI fragments of the human CMV (HCMV) genome, strain AD169, to prepare restriction endonuclease maps of the DNA. Individual 32P-labeled cloned fragments were hybridized to Southern blots of HCMV DNA cleaved to completion with the restriction endonucleases BglII and HindIII and cleaved partially with EcoRI. By determining which EcoRI fragments hybridized to the same band on a Southern blot, we were able to establish linkage groups. This information coupled with the data derived from digestion of the cloned fragments with the enzymes BglII and HindIII (Tamashiro et al., J. Virol. 42:547-557, 1982) provided the basis for the construction of detailed maps for the enzymes EcoRI, BglII, and HindIII. We also identified the EcoRI fragments derived from the termini of this genome and mapped them with respect to the BglII and HindIII terminal fragments. From our mapping data, we conclude that the genome of HCMV is approximately 240 kilobases in length and is divided into long (198 kilobases) and short (42 kilobases) regions. Both regions consist of a unique sequence bounded by inverted repeats (11 to 12 kilobases for the long region and 2 to 3 kilobases for the short region). Furthermore, the long and short regions can invert relative to each other. Images PMID:6283173

  20. Insights into the dynamics of hind leg development in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) queen and worker larvae - A morphology/differential gene expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carolina Gonçalves; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is a hallmark of the caste systems of social insects, expressed in their life history and morphological traits. These are best studied in bees. In their co-evolution with angiosperm plants, the females of corbiculate bees have acquired a specialized structure on their hind legs for collecting pollen. In the highly eusocial bees (Apini and Meliponini), this structure is however only present in workers and absent in queens. By means of histological sections and cell proliferation analysis we followed the developmental dynamics of the hind legs of queens and workers in the fourth and fifth larval instars. In parallel, we generated subtractive cDNA libraries for hind leg discs of queen and worker larvae by means of a Representational Difference Analysis (RDA). From the total of 135 unique sequences we selected 19 for RT-qPCR analysis, where six of these were confirmed as differing significantly in their expression between the two castes in the larval spinning stage. The development of complex structures such as the bees’ hind legs, requires diverse patterning mechanisms and signaling modules, as indicated by the set of differentially expressed genes related with cell adhesion and signaling pathways. PMID:26500430

  1. Fatty liver accompanies an increase of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the hind gut of C57/BL mice fed a high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-fat diets can produce obesity and have been linked to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which also induces changes in the gut microbiome. This study tested the hypothesis that high-fat feeding increases certain predominate hind gut bacteria in a C57BL/6 mouse model o...

  2. Insights into the dynamics of hind leg development in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) queen and worker larvae - A morphology/differential gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carolina Gonçalves; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is a hallmark of the caste systems of social insects, expressed in their life history and morphological traits. These are best studied in bees. In their co-evolution with angiosperm plants, the females of corbiculate bees have acquired a specialized structure on their hind legs for collecting pollen. In the highly eusocial bees (Apini and Meliponini), this structure is however only present in workers and absent in queens. By means of histological sections and cell proliferation analysis we followed the developmental dynamics of the hind legs of queens and workers in the fourth and fifth larval instars. In parallel, we generated subtractive cDNA libraries for hind leg discs of queen and worker larvae by means of a Representational Difference Analysis (RDA). From the total of 135 unique sequences we selected 19 for RT-qPCR analysis, where six of these were confirmed as differing significantly in their expression between the two castes in the larval spinning stage. The development of complex structures such as the bees' hind legs, requires diverse patterning mechanisms and signaling modules, as indicated by the set of differentially expressed genes related with cell adhesion and signaling pathways. PMID:26500430

  3. Effect of picroside II on erythrocyte deformability and lipid peroxidation in rats subjected to hind limb ischemia reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Çomu, Faruk Metin; Kılıç, Yiğit; Özer, Abdullah; Kirişçi, Mehmet; Dursun, Ali Doğan; Tatar, Tolga; Zor, Mustafa Hakan; Kartal, Hakan; Küçük, Ayşegül; Boyunağa, Hakan; Arslan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Ischemia reperfusion injury (I/R) in hind limb is a frequent and important clinical phenomenon. Many structural and functional damages are observed in cells and tissues in these kinds of injuries. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of picroside II on lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte deformability during I/R in rats. Methods Rats were randomly divided into four groups – each containing six animals (sham, I/R, sham + picroside II, and I/R + picroside II). The infrarenal section of the abdominal aorta was occluded with an atraumatic microvascular clamp in I/R groups. The clamp was removed after 120 minutes and reperfusion was provided for a further 120 minutes. Picroside II (10 mg·kg−1) was administered intraperitoneally to the animals in the appropriate groups (sham + picroside II, I/R + picroside II groups). All rats were euthanized by intraperitoneal administration of ketamine (100 mg·kg−1) and taking blood from the abdominal aorta. Erythrocytes were extracted from heparinized complete blood samples. Buffer (PT) and then erythrocytes (PE) were passed through the filtration system and the changes in pressure were measured to investigate the role of serum malondialdehyde and nitric oxide (NO) in lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte deformability index. Results Deformability index was significantly increased in the I/R group compared to groups sham, sham + picroside-II, and I/R + picroside-II (P<0.0001, P<0.0001, and P=0.007). Malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO levels were evaluated. MDA level and NO activity were also higher in the I/R group than in the other groups. Picroside II treatment before hind limb I/R prevented these changes. Conclusion These results support that deformability of erythrocytes is decreased in I/R injury and picroside II plays a critical role to prevent these alterations. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to evaluate and clarify the molecular mechanisms of action and clinical importance of these

  4. Young's modulus and SEM analysis of leg bones exposed to simulated microgravity by hind limb suspension (HLS)

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Niravkumar D.; Mehta, Rahul; Ali, Nawab; Soulsby, Michael; Chowdhury, Parimal

    2013-04-19

    The aim of this study was to determine composition of the leg bone tissue of rats that were exposed to simulated microgravity by Hind-Limb Suspension (HLS) by tail for one week. The leg bones were cross sectioned, cleaned of soft tissues, dried and sputter coated, and then placed horizontally on the stage of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for analysis. Interaction of a 17.5 keV electron beam, incident from the vertical direction on the sample, generated images using two detectors. X-rays emitted from the sample during electron bombardment were measured with an Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) feature of SEM using a liquid-nitrogen cooled Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 144 eV at 5.9 keV ({sub 25}Mn K{sub {alpha}} x-ray). K{sub {alpha}}- x-rays from carbon, oxygen, phosphorus and calcium formed the major peaks in the spectrum. Relative percentages of these elements were determined using a software that could also correct for ZAF factors namely Z(atomic number), A(X-ray absorption) and F(characteristic fluorescence). The x-rays from the control groups and from the experimental (HLS) groups were analyzed on well-defined parts (femur, tibia and knee) of the leg bone. The SEM analysis shows that there are definite changes in the hydroxyl or phosphate group of the main component of the bone structure, hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}], due to hind limb suspension. In a separate experiment, entire leg bones (both from HLS and control rats) were subjected to mechanical stress by mean of a variable force. The stress vs. strain graph was fitted with linear and polynomial function, and the parameters reflecting the mechanical strength of the bone, under increasing stress, were calculated. From the slope of the linear part of the graph the Young's modulus for HLS bones were calculated and found to be 2.49 times smaller than those for control bones.

  5. Young's modulus and SEM analysis of leg bones exposed to simulated microgravity by hind limb suspension (HLS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Niravkumar D.; Mehta, Rahul; Ali, Nawab; Soulsby, Michael; Chowdhury, Parimal

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine composition of the leg bone tissue of rats that were exposed to simulated microgravity by Hind-Limb Suspension (HLS) by tail for one week. The leg bones were cross sectioned, cleaned of soft tissues, dried and sputter coated, and then placed horizontally on the stage of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for analysis. Interaction of a 17.5 keV electron beam, incident from the vertical direction on the sample, generated images using two detectors. X-rays emitted from the sample during electron bombardment were measured with an Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) feature of SEM using a liquid-nitrogen cooled Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 144 eV at 5.9 keV (25Mn Kα x-ray). Kα- x-rays from carbon, oxygen, phosphorus and calcium formed the major peaks in the spectrum. Relative percentages of these elements were determined using a software that could also correct for ZAF factors namely Z(atomic number), A(X-ray absorption) and F(characteristic fluorescence). The x-rays from the control groups and from the experimental (HLS) groups were analyzed on well-defined parts (femur, tibia and knee) of the leg bone. The SEM analysis shows that there are definite changes in the hydroxyl or phosphate group of the main component of the bone structure, hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2], due to hind limb suspension. In a separate experiment, entire leg bones (both from HLS and control rats) were subjected to mechanical stress by mean of a variable force. The stress vs. strain graph was fitted with linear and polynomial function, and the parameters reflecting the mechanical strength of the bone, under increasing stress, were calculated. From the slope of the linear part of the graph the Young's modulus for HLS bones were calculated and found to be 2.49 times smaller than those for control bones.

  6. Therapeutic angiogenesis. A single intraarterial bolus of vascular endothelial growth factor augments revascularization in a rabbit ischemic hind limb model.

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, S; Zheng, L P; Brogi, E; Kearney, M; Pu, L Q; Bunting, S; Ferrara, N; Symes, J F; Isner, J M

    1994-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a heparin-binding, endothelial cell-specific mitogen. Previous studies have suggested that VEGF is a regulator of naturally occurring physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis. In this study we investigated the hypothesis that the angiogenic potential of VEGF is sufficient to constitute a therapeutic effect. The soluble 165-amino acid isoform of VEGF was administered as a single intra-arterial bolus to the internal iliac artery of rabbits in which the ipsilateral femoral artery was excised to induce severe, unilateral hind limb ischemia. Doses of 500-1,000 micrograms of VEGF produced statistically significant augmentation of collateral vessel development by angiography as well as the number of capillaries by histology; consequent amelioration of the hemodynamic deficit in the ischemic limb was significantly greater in animals receiving VEGF than in nontreated controls (calf blood pressure ratio, 0.75 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.48 +/- 0.19, P < 0.05). Serial angiograms disclosed progressive linear extension of the collateral artery of origin (stem artery) to the distal point of parent vessel (reentry artery) reconstitution in seven of nine VEGF-treated animals. These findings establish proof of principle for the concept that the angiogenic activity of VEGF is sufficiently potent to achieve therapeutic benefit. Such a strategy might ultimately be applicable to patients with severe limb ischemia secondary to arterial occlusive disease. Images PMID:7509344

  7. Biomechanical Properties of Insect Wings: The Stress Stiffening Effects on the Asymmetric Bending of the Allomyrina dichotoma Beetle's Hind Wing

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ngoc San; Truong, Quang Tri; Goo, Nam Seo; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2013-01-01

    Although the asymmetry in the upward and downward bending of insect wings is well known, the structural origin of this asymmetry is not yet clearly understood. Some researchers have suggested that based on experimental results, the bending asymmetry of insect wings appears to be a consequence of the camber inherent in the wings. Although an experimental approach can reveal this phenomenon, another method is required to reveal the underlying theory behind the experimental results. The finite element method (FEM) is a powerful tool for evaluating experimental measurements and is useful for studying the bending asymmetry of insect wings. Therefore, in this study, the asymmetric bending of the Allomyrina dichotoma beetle's hind wing was investigated through FEM analyses rather than through an experimental approach. The results demonstrated that both the stressed stiffening of the membrane and the camber of the wing affect the bending asymmetry of insect wings. In particular, the chordwise camber increased the rigidity of the wing when a load was applied to the ventral side, while the spanwise camber increased the rigidity of the wing when a load was applied to the dorsal side. These results provide an appropriate explanation of the mechanical behavior of cambered insect wings, including the bending asymmetry behavior, and suggest an appropriate approach for analyzing the structural behavior of insect wings. PMID:24339878

  8. Terrestrial Water Storage Variations from GRACE for the Validation of CMIP5 Coupled Climate Model Hind-Casts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liangjing; Dobslaw, Henryk; Dahle, Christoph; Thomas, Maik

    2013-04-01

    Land-atmosphere feedbacks are increasingly recognized as important drivers for multi-year climate variability. For example, water stored in the root-zone modifies surface albedo by determining vegetation grow, and ultimately limits the amount of water available for evapo-transpiration. Modern climate models therefore require a realistic representation of the terrestrial branch of the hydrological cycle in order to be able to reliably simulate such feedbacks. Temporal gravity field variations that are observed by the satellite mission GRACE for more than one decade now, provide quantitative information about changes in the terrestrially stored water. in this contribution, we derive basin-scale water mass anomalies from the recent release 05 of GRACE gravity field coefficients from GFZ Potsdam, augmented by degree-one coefficients obtained from a method suggested by Swenson et al. (2008). Correlated errors are removed using an anisotropic filter from Kusche (2007), and the impact of random noise is minimized using the spatiospectral localization method developed by Simons and Dahlen (2007). We use those estimates of terrestrial water storage anomalies to validate an ensemble of hind-casts performed with the MPI_ESM model of the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology on seasonal to interannual time-scales, and discuss where GRACE-type observations might contribute to further improvements of those types of coupled Earth System Models in the future.

  9. Real-time control of hind limb functional electrical stimulation using feedback from dorsal root ganglia recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, Tim M.; Wagenaar, Joost B.; Bauman, Matthew J.; Gaunt, Robert A.; Weber, Douglas J.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) approaches often utilize an open-loop controller to drive state transitions. The addition of sensory feedback may allow for closed-loop control that can respond effectively to perturbations and muscle fatigue. Approach. We evaluated the use of natural sensory nerve signals obtained with penetrating microelectrode arrays in lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) as real-time feedback for closed-loop control of FES-generated hind limb stepping in anesthetized cats. Main results. Leg position feedback was obtained in near real-time at 50 ms intervals by decoding the firing rates of more than 120 DRG neurons recorded simultaneously. Over 5 m of effective linear distance was traversed during closed-loop stepping trials in each of two cats. The controller compensated effectively for perturbations in the stepping path when DRG sensory feedback was provided. The presence of stimulation artifacts and the quality of DRG unit sorting did not significantly affect the accuracy of leg position feedback obtained from the linear decoding model as long as at least 20 DRG units were included in the model. Significance. This work demonstrates the feasibility and utility of closed-loop FES control based on natural neural sensors. Further work is needed to improve the controller and electrode technologies and to evaluate long-term viability.

  10. Segment and joint angles of hind limb during bipedal and quadrupedal walking of the bonobo (Pan paniscus).

    PubMed

    D'Août, Kristiaan; Aerts, Peter; De Clercq, Dirk; De Meester, Koen; Van Elsacker, Linda

    2002-09-01

    We describe segment angles (trunk, thigh, shank, and foot) and joint angles (hip, knee, and ankle) for the hind limbs of bonobos walking bipedally ("bent-hip bent-knee walking," 17 sequences) and quadrupedally (33 sequences). Data were based on video recordings (50 Hz) of nine subjects in a lateral view, walking at voluntary speed. The major differences between bipedal and quadrupedal walking are found in the trunk, thigh, and hip angles. During bipedal walking, the trunk is approximately 33-41 degrees more erect than during quadrupedal locomotion, although it is considerably more bent forward than in normal human locomotion. Moreover, during bipedal walking, the hip has a smaller range of motion (by 12 degrees ) and is more extended (by 20-35 degrees ) than during quadrupedal walking. In general, angle profiles in bonobos are much more variable than in humans. Intralimb phase relationships of subsequent joint angles show that hip-knee coordination is similar for bipedal and quadrupedal walking, and resembles the human pattern. The coordination between knee and ankle differs much more from the human pattern. Based on joint angles observed throughout stance phase and on the estimation of functional leg length, an efficient inverted pendulum mechanism is not expected in bonobos.

  11. RIP2-mediated LKB1 deletion causes axon degeneration in the spinal cord and hind-limb paralysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gao; Reynolds, Richard; Leclerc, Isabelle; Rutter, Guy A

    2011-03-01

    Axon degeneration is observed in neurodegenerative diseases and neuroinflammatory disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis. The molecular basis of this process remains largely unknown. Here, we show that mice deleted for the tumour suppressor LKB1 (also called STK11) in the spinal cord, some parts of the brain and in the endocrine pancreas (βLKB1KO mice) develop hind-limb dysfunction and axon degeneration at about 7 weeks. Demyelination and macrophage infiltration are observed in the white matter of these mice, predominantly in the bilateral and anterior funiculi of the thoracic segment of the spinal cord, suggesting damage to the ascending sensory signalling pathway owing to LKB1 deletion in the brain. Microtubule structures were also affected in the degenerated foci, with diminished neurofilament and tubulin expression. Deletion of both PRKAA1 genes, whose products AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 are also downstream targets of LKB1, with the same strategy was without effect. We thus define LKB1 as an intrinsic suppressor of axon degeneration and a possible target for strategies that can reverse this process. PMID:21135058

  12. The cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitor, etodolac, but not aspirin reduces neovascularization in a murine ischemic hind limb model.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kohei; Yamamoto, Yasutaka; Tsujimoto, Shunsuke; Uozumi, Naonori; Kita, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Akio; Shimizu, Takao; Hisatome, Ichiro

    2010-02-10

    Cyclooxygenase inhibitors are often prescribed to relieve severe ischemic leg pain in critical ischemic limb patients. Prescription of high doses of aspirin and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors is reported to increase cardiovascular events through suppression of the vasodilative prostanoid prostaglandin I(2) in endothelium. Here, we evaluated the influence of aspirin and etodolac, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, on neovascularization using a murine ischemia hind limb model. C57BL/6J mice were treated with aspirin or etodolac for twenty-eight days after induction of ischemia. We exploited a concentration of the agents that suppressed cyclooxygenase activity efficiently, especially in prostaglandin I(2) production. Recovery of limb blood perfusion and capillary density in ischemic limbs was significantly suppressed by etodolac treatment when compared to the aspirin treated group and untreated group. Production of 6-keto prostaglandin F(1alpha) and prostaglandin E(2) was lower in the aspirin treated group when compared with the etodolac-treated group. Also, these concentrations were lower in both treatment groups compared with the untreated group. Immunohistochemical analysis suggested cyclooxygenase-2 was expressed in endothelium but not in inflammatory cells in ischemic tissue from the acute to chronic phase. Cyclooxygenase-1 was expressed strongly in inflammatory cells in the acute phase. Furthermore, bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell transplantation improved neovascularization, whereas aspirin and etodolac did not inhibit these effects. Production of arachidonic acid metabolites by transplanted cells was independent of the improvement of neovascularization. In conclusion, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition reduces ischemia-induced neovascularization. PMID:19879866

  13. Real-time control of hind limb functional electrical stimulation using feedback from dorsal root ganglia recordings

    PubMed Central

    Bruns, Tim M; Wagenaar, Joost B; Bauman, Matthew J; Gaunt, Robert A; Weber, Douglas J

    2013-01-01

    Objective Functional electrical stimulation (FES) approaches often utilize an open-loop controller to drive state transitions. The addition of sensory feedback may allow for closed-loop control that can respond effectively to perturbations and muscle fatigue. Approach We evaluated the use of natural sensory nerve signals obtained with penetrating microelectrode arrays in lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) as real-time feedback for closed-loop control of FES-generated hind limb stepping in anesthetized cats. Main results Leg position feedback was obtained in near real-time at 50 ms intervals by decoding the firing rates of more than 120 DRG neurons recorded simultaneously. Over 5 m of effective linear distance was traversed during closed-loop stepping trials in each of two cats. The controller compensated effectively for perturbations in the stepping path when DRG sensory feedback was provided. The presence of stimulation artifacts and the quality of DRG unit sorting did not significantly affect the accuracy of leg position feedback obtained from the linear decoding model as long as at least 20 DRG units were included in the model. Significance This work demonstrates the feasibility and utility of closed-loop FES control based on natural neural sensors. Further work is needed to improve the controller and electrode technologies and to evaluate long-term viability. PMID:23503062

  14. Ultrasound-induced microbubble destruction promotes targeted delivery of adipose-derived stem cells to improve hind-limb ischemia of diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Ye; Xie, Xiaoyun; Gao, Yuan; Gu, Guojun; Wang, Peijun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether ultrasound-induced microbubble destruction was able to promote targeted delivery of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to improve hind-limb ischemia of diabetic mice. Ischemia was induced in the lower limb of db/db mice which were then randomly divided into 5 groups: PBS group, Sham group, ultrasound + microbubble group (US+MB), US+MB+ASCs group and ASCs group. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound perfusion imaging showed the ratio of blood flow in ischemic hind-limb to that in contralateral limb increased over time in five groups. A significant enhancement in US+MB+ASCs group was observed compared with US+MB group (P<0.01). Immunofluorescence microscopy of hind-limb muscle showed the microvessel density (microvessels/skeletal muscle fibers) and arteriolar density in US+MB+ASCs group were higher than in US+MB group, and significantly higher than in other control groups (P<0.01). Masson staining indicated the degree of muscle fibrosis in US+MB+ASCs group was lower than in US+MB. 3 and 7 days after therapy, ELISA and RT-PCR showed the expression of VEGF, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and SDF-1 in US+MB+ASCs group was higher than in US+MB group, and dramatically increased as compared to other groups (P<0.01). 3 and 7 days after therapy, Western blot assay showed the protein expression of P-P13K, P-AKT, VEGF, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and SDF-1 in US+MB+ASCs group was higher than US+MB group (P<0.01). The bioeffects of ultrasound-induced microbubble cavitation is able to up-regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may improve the targeted delivery, adhesion and paracrine of ASCs, attenuating the hind-limb ischemia in diabetic mice. PMID:27398142

  15. Protease-Activated Receptor (PAR)2, but Not PAR1, Is Involved in Collateral Formation and Anti-Inflammatory Monocyte Polarization in a Mouse Hind Limb Ischemia Model

    PubMed Central

    Nossent, Anne Yael; van Oeveren-Rietdijk, Annemarie M.; de Vries, Margreet R.; Spek, C. Arnold; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Hamming, Jaap F.; de Boer, Hetty C.; Versteeg, Henri H.; Quax, Paul H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims In collateral development (i.e. arteriogenesis), mononuclear cells are important and exist as a heterogeneous population consisting of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory/repair-associated cells. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)1 and PAR2 are G-protein-coupled receptors that are both expressed by mononuclear cells and are involved in pro-inflammatory reactions, while PAR2 also plays a role in repair-associated responses. Here, we investigated the physiological role of PAR1 and PAR2 in arteriogenesis in a murine hind limb ischemia model. Methods and Results PAR1-deficient (PAR1-/-), PAR2-deficient (PAR2-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice underwent femoral artery ligation. Laser Doppler measurements revealed reduced post-ischemic blood flow recovery in PAR2-/- hind limbs when compared to WT, while PAR1-/- mice were not affected. Upon ischemia, reduced numbers of smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive collaterals and CD31-positive capillaries were found in PAR2-/- mice when compared to WT mice, whereas these parameters in PAR1-/- mice did not differ from WT mice. The pool of circulating repair-associated (Ly6C-low) monocytes and the number of repair-associated (CD206-positive) macrophages surrounding collaterals in the hind limbs were increased in WT and PAR1-/- mice, but unaffected in PAR2-/- mice. The number of repair-associated macrophages in PAR2-/- hind limbs correlated with CD11b- and CD115-expression on the circulating monocytes in these animals, suggesting that monocyte extravasation and M-CSF-dependent differentiation into repair-associated cells are hampered. Conclusion PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in arteriogenesis and promotes the repair-associated response in ischemic tissues. Therefore, PAR2 potentially forms a new pro-arteriogenic target in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. PMID:23637930

  16. Ultrasound-induced microbubble destruction promotes targeted delivery of adipose-derived stem cells to improve hind-limb ischemia of diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ye; Xie, Xiaoyun; Gao, Yuan; Gu, Guojun; Wang, Peijun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether ultrasound-induced microbubble destruction was able to promote targeted delivery of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to improve hind-limb ischemia of diabetic mice. Ischemia was induced in the lower limb of db/db mice which were then randomly divided into 5 groups: PBS group, Sham group, ultrasound + microbubble group (US+MB), US+MB+ASCs group and ASCs group. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound perfusion imaging showed the ratio of blood flow in ischemic hind-limb to that in contralateral limb increased over time in five groups. A significant enhancement in US+MB+ASCs group was observed compared with US+MB group (P<0.01). Immunofluorescence microscopy of hind-limb muscle showed the microvessel density (microvessels/skeletal muscle fibers) and arteriolar density in US+MB+ASCs group were higher than in US+MB group, and significantly higher than in other control groups (P<0.01). Masson staining indicated the degree of muscle fibrosis in US+MB+ASCs group was lower than in US+MB. 3 and 7 days after therapy, ELISA and RT-PCR showed the expression of VEGF, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and SDF-1 in US+MB+ASCs group was higher than in US+MB group, and dramatically increased as compared to other groups (P<0.01). 3 and 7 days after therapy, Western blot assay showed the protein expression of P-P13K, P-AKT, VEGF, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and SDF-1 in US+MB+ASCs group was higher than US+MB group (P<0.01). The bioeffects of ultrasound-induced microbubble cavitation is able to up-regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may improve the targeted delivery, adhesion and paracrine of ASCs, attenuating the hind-limb ischemia in diabetic mice. PMID:27398142

  17. A new negroid-specific HindIII polymorphism in the serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) gene increases the usefulness of the SAA locus in linkage studies

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, G.; Ramsay, M.; Jenkins, T. ); Kluve-Beckerman, B. )

    1993-01-01

    The cDNA probe pSAA82 detects three serum amyloid A (SAA) loci on chromosome 11p. SAA1 and SAA2 have 90% nucleotide identity in exon and intron sequences (1), whereas SAA3 has an average of 70% identity with SAA1 and SAA2 (3). The chromosomal organization of the loci is not yet known. A two-allele polymorphic HindIII site was found within intron 2 of the SAA2 locus (1) with fragments of 3.0 (a2) and 5.0 kb (a1) (previously sized as 2.8 and 4.6 kb, respectively) which occur in Caucasoids, Negroids, and San (formerly [open quote]Bushmen[close quotes]) (2). The discovery of a further, Negroid-specific, polymorphic HindIII restriction site, detected with the same probe, increases its usefulness. This RFLP is associated with the SAA1 locus (6) and is characterized by the presence of two allelic fragments of 3.6 (b1) and 1.4 kb (b2). This HindIII site is also thought to occur within intron 2 because of the strong evolutionary conservation between the SAA1 and SAA2 genes. The polymorphism may therefore either predate the gene duplication event or be present as a result of gene conversion. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Detection of hemophilia a carriers in Azeri Turkish population of Iran: usefulness of HindIII and BclI markers.

    PubMed

    Moharrami, Tamouchin; Derakhshan, Sima Mansoori; Pourfeizi, Abbas Ali H; Khaniani, Mahmoud Shekari

    2015-11-01

    Hemophilia A (HA) is an inherited X-linked coagulation disorder caused by the deficiency of factor VIII (FVIII). Linkage analysis is a common indirect method for the detection of female carriers in families with HA. In the current study, 173 patients from 30 unrelated families with HA were recruited from the Azeri Turkish population of northwest Iran and analyzed for BclI and HindIII markers by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. We investigated the potential of using these markers for the detection of mutation in carriers through linkage analysis, which would be of tremendous use in prenatal diagnosis. Among the tested women, 47% and 35% were found to be heterozygous for BclI and HindIII polymorphic markers, respectively. The BclI and HindIII markers were informative for the detection of 63% and 17% potential carriers, respectively, demonstrating the effectiveness of the BclI marker for the detection of HA carriers among the Azeri Turkish population.

  19. Longitudinal Evaluation of Mouse Hind Limb Bone Loss After Spinal Cord Injury using Novel, in vivo, Methodology

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Madonna M.; Grill, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is often accompanied by osteoporosis in the sublesional regions of the pelvis and lower extremities, leading to a higher frequency of fractures 1. As these fractures often occur in regions that have lost normal sensory function, the patient is at a greater risk of fracture-dependent pathologies, including death. SCI-dependent loss in both bone mineral density (BMD, grams/cm2) and bone mineral content (BMC, grams) has been attributed to mechanical disuse 2, aberrant neuronal signaling 3 and hormonal changes 4. The use of rodent models of SCI-induced osteoporosis can provide invaluable information regarding the mechanisms underlying the development of osteoporosis following SCI as well as a test environment for the generation of new therapies 5-7 (and reviewed in 8). Mouse models of SCI are of great interest as they permit a reductionist approach to mechanism-based assessment through the use of null and transgenic mice. While such models have provided important data, there is still a need for minimally-invasive, reliable, reproducible, and quantifiable methods in determining the extent of bone loss following SCI, particularly over time and within the same cohort of experimental animals, to improve diagnosis, treatment methods, and/or prevention of SCI-induced osteoporosis. An ideal method for measuring bone density in rodents would allow multiple, sequential (over time) exposures to low-levels of X-ray radiation. This study describes the use of a new whole-animal scanner, the IVIS Lumina XR (Caliper Instruments) that can be used to provide low-energy (1-3 milligray (mGy)) high-resolution, high-magnification X-ray images of mouse hind limb bones over time following SCI. Significant bone density loss was seen in the tibiae of mice by 10 days post-spinal transection when compared to uninjured, age-matched control (naïve) mice (13% decrease, p<0.0005). Loss of bone density in the distal femur was also detectable by day 10 post-SCI, while a loss

  20. Bothrops lanceolatus (Fer de lance) venom induces oedema formation and increases vascular permeability in the mouse hind paw.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, A L; de Souza, A O; da Cruz-Höfling, M A; Flores, C A; Bon, C

    2000-02-01

    The ability of snake venoms to increase vascular permeability and to induce oedema through the release of pharmacologically active substances is well known. We have studied the oedema and vascular permeability induced by Bothrops lanceolatus venom in male Swiss white mice. Paw oedema was induced by the subplantar injection of B. lanceolatus venom (125-1000 ng/paw) and was quantified as the increase in paw weight. Changes in vascular permeability were assessed by measuring the amount of Evans blue dye extravasation. The oedema and the increase in vascular permeability were maximal within 2 h and had resolved after 24 h. The administration of the vasodilator iloprost (20 ng/paw) immediately after B. lanceolatus venom potentiated the oedema and the increase in vascular permeability by approximately four-fold. Pretreating the mice with indomethacin, dexamethasone, NDGA or BW A4C inhibited the venom-induced oedema and the increase in vascular permeability. In contrast, histamine, serotonin and PAF-acether antagonists (mepyramine, cyproheptadine and WEB 2086, respectively) were ineffective. Histological examination showed that B. lanceolatus venom (250 ng and 500 ng/paw) caused thickening of the inner dermal layers which was accompanied by extensive intercellular spaces indicative of oedema. In addition, there was a marked infiltration of inflammatory cells, particularly neutrophils, into the underlying muscle layer. The latter, however, remained morphologically unaffected during the 3 h of observation. Venom doses larger than 500 ng/paw produced intense haemorrhage. These results indicate that B. lanceolatus venom induces oedema and increases vascular permeability in the mouse hind paw. The principal mediators of this inflammatory response are cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase products. PMID:10665802

  1. Hind limb suspension and long-chain omega-3 PUFA increase mRNA endocannabinoid system levels in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hutchins-Wiese, Heather L; Li, Yong; Hannon, Kevin; Watkins, Bruce A

    2012-08-01

    Muscle disuse has numerous physiological consequences that end up with significant catabolic metabolism and ultimately tissue atrophy. What is not known is how muscle atrophy affects the endocannabinoid (EC) system. Arachidonic acid (AA) is the substrate for anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonylgycerol (2-AG), which act as agonists for cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 found in muscle. Diets with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been shown to reduce tissue levels of AA, AEA and 2-AG. Therefore, we hypothesized that hind limb suspension (HS)-induced muscle atrophy and intake of n-3 PUFA will change mRNA levels of the EC system. Mice were randomized and assigned to a moderate n-3 PUFA [11.7 g/kg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)+docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], high n-3 PUFA (17.6 g/kg EPA+DHA) or control diets for 12 days and then subjected to HS or continued weight bearing (WB) for 14 days. HS resulted in body weight, epididymal fat pad and quadriceps muscle loss compared to WB. Compared to WB, HS had greater mRNA levels of AEA and 2-AG synthesis enzymes and CB2 in the atrophied quadriceps muscle. The high n-3 PUFA diet resulted in greater mRNA levels of EC synthesis enzymes, and CB1 and CB2. The higher mRNA levels for EC with HS and dietary n-3 PUFA suggest that muscle disuse and diet induce changes in the EC system to sensitize muscle in response to metabolic and physiological consequences of atrophy.

  2. A flexible electrode array for muscle impedance measurements in the mouse hind limb: A tool to speed research in neuromuscular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Rutkove, S. B.

    2013-04-01

    Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is a bioelectrical impedance technique focused on the assessment of neuromuscular diseases using tetrapolar surface arrays. Recently, we have shown that reproducible and sensitive EIM measurements can be made on the gastrocnemius muscle of the mouse hind limb and that these are sensitive to disease alterations. A dedicated array would help speed data acquisition and provide additional sensitivity to disease-induced alterations. A flexible electrode array was developed with electrode sizes of 1mm × 1mm by Parlex, Inc. Tetrapolar electrode sets were arranged both parallel to (longitudinal) and orthogonally to (transverse) the major muscle fiber direction of the gastrocnemius muscle. Measurements were made with a dedicated EIM system. A total of 11 healthy animals and 7 animals with spinal muscular atrophy (a form of motor neuron disease) were evaluated after the fur was completely removed with a depilatory agent from the hind limb. Standard electrophysiologic testing (compound motor action potential amplitude and motor unit number estimation) was also performed. The flexible electrode array demonstrated high repeatability in both the longitudinal and transverse directions in the healthy and diseased animals (with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.94 and 0.89, respectively, for phase angle measured transversely). In addition, differences between healthy and diseased animals were identifiable. For example, the 50 kHz transverse phase angle was higher in the healthy as compared to the SMA animals (16.8° ± 0.5 vs. 14.3° ± 0.7, respectively) at 21 weeks of age (p = 0.01). Differences in anisotropy were also identifiable. Correlations to several standard neurophysiologic parameters also appeared promising. This novel flexible tetrapolar electrode array can be used on the mouse hind limb and provides multidirectional data that can be used to assess muscle health. This technique has the potential of finding widespread use in

  3. Effects of N-acetylcysteine and pentoxifylline on remote lung injury in a rat model of hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Hesaraki, Saeed; Razmara, Foad; Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Hajizadeh, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and pentoxifylline in a model of remote organ injury after hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats, the lungs being the remote organ system. Methods : Thirty-five male Wistar rats were assigned to one of five conditions (n = 7/group), as follows: sham operation (control group); hind-limb ischemia, induced by clamping the left femoral artery, for 2 h, followed by 24 h of reperfusion (I/R group); and hind-limb ischemia, as above, followed by intraperitoneal injection (prior to reperfusion) of 150 mg/kg of NAC (I/R+NAC group), 40 mg/kg of pentoxifylline (I/R+PTX group), or both (I/R+NAC+PTX group). At the end of the trial, lung tissues were removed for histological analysis and assessment of oxidative stress. Results : In comparison with the rats in the other groups, those in the I/R group showed lower superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels, together with higher malondialdehyde levels and lung injury scores (p < 0.05 for all). Interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration of the lungs was also markedly greater in the I/R group than in the other groups. In addition, I/R group rats showed various signs of interstitial edema and hemorrhage. In the I/R+NAC, I/R+PTX, and I/R+NAC+PTX groups, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione levels, malondialdehyde levels, and lung injury scores were preserved (p < 0.05 for all). The differences between the administration of NAC or pentoxifylline alone and the administration of the two together were not significant for any of those parameters (p > 0.05 for all). Conclusions : Our results suggest that NAC and pentoxifylline both protect lung tissue from the effects of skeletal muscle I/R. However, their combined use does not appear to increase the level of that protection. PMID:26982035

  4. 3,3',5-Triiodothyronine-induced differences in water-insoluble protein synthesis in primary epidermal cell cultures from the hind limb of premetamorphic Rana catesbeiana tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Ketola-Pirie, C A; Atkinson, B G

    1988-02-01

    Epidermal cells from the hind limb of premetamorphic tadpoles of the American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana (stages IX-XI) were maintained in primary culture for 120 hr. Cultures, maintained for 36 hr in medium supplemented with L-triiodothyronine (T3; 3 x 10(-10) mol T3/ml medium), synthesize water-insoluble proteins with Mrs of 59, 50, 48, and 43. The 59 and 48 kDa proteins synthesized by T3-supplemented cultures are not detectably synthesized by 36-hr-old cell cultures without added T3, but they are synthesized by both hormone-supplemented and unsupplemented cultures after 120 hr. These two proteins have Mrs and pIs which correspond with keratins detected in stratifying mammalian epidermis and are immunoprecipitated by antibodies prepared against human keratins. These observations indicate that T3 induces epidermal cell cultures from the hind limb of premetamorphic tadpoles to precociously synthesize water-insoluble proteins which (1) have Mrs and pIs similar to keratins from differentiating amphibian epidermal tissue and (2) are biochemically and immunologically similar to keratins associated with the differentiation of mammalian epidermal tissue.

  5. Advancement of reproductive activity, seasonal reduction in prolactin secretion and seasonal pelage changes in pubertal red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus) subjected to artificially shortened daily photoperiod or daily melatonin treatments.

    PubMed

    Webster, J R; Barrell, G K

    1985-01-01

    Prepubertal red deer hinds were subjected to shortened daily photoperiod (8 h light per day, N = 3) or a daily (afternoon) melatonin injection (N = 4) for 83 days starting on 8 January, 2 weeks after the summer solstice. Compared with control hinds (N = 3) these treatments caused premature moulting of summer pelage, reduced serum prolactin concentrations to barely detectable levels about 34 days earlier than usual and advanced the date of mating. Calves were born earlier (P less than 0.005) in the hinds exposed to a shortened photoperiod (12 November +/- 1.7 days) and melatonin treatment (11 November +/- 3.2 days) than in control hinds (13 December +/- 7.9 days). Serum progesterone levels recorded before the first detected oestrus indicated that silent ovulations had occurred in many of the hinds (6 of 10) in this experiment. This study demonstrated the role of shortened daily photoperiod in red deer and indicated that the effects of reduced photoperiod observed were mediated by melatonin. PMID:3968657

  6. Effect of feeding growing-fattening rabbits a diet supplemented with whole white lupin (Lupinus albus cv. Amiga) seeds on fatty acid composition and indexes related to human health in hind leg meat and perirenal fat.

    PubMed

    Volek, Zdeněk; Marounek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    A total of 20 weaned rabbits (33 days old) (10 per treatment) were fed one of two diets that included 150 g of sunflower meal (SF)/kg of diet or 120 g of whole white lupin (WL)/kg of diet for 42 days. The WL diet contained less saturated fatty acids (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) but more monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) than the SF diet. The WL diet significantly decreased SFA and PUFA content, as well as the PUFA n-6/PUFA n-3 ratio and saturation, atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in hind leg meat. The fatty acid composition in perirenal fat was similar to that of hind leg meat; however, significantly higher MUFA levels were observed in rabbits fed the WL diet. Thus, feeding rabbits the WL diet affected the fatty acid profile of hind leg meat and perirenal fat in a favourable manner.

  7. A 405-kb cosmid contig and HindIII restriction map of the progressive myoclonus epilepsy type 1 (EPM1) candidate region in 21q22.3

    SciTech Connect

    Lafreniere, R.G.; Rouleau, G.A.; De Jong, P.J.

    1995-09-01

    As a step toward identifying the molecular defect in patients afflicted with progressive myoclonus epilepsy type 1 (EPM1), we have assembled a cosmid contig of the candidate EPM1 region in 21q22.3. The contig constitutes a collection of 87 different cosmids spanning 405 kb based on a derived HindIII restriction map. Potential CpG-rich islands have been identified based on the restriction map generated from eight different rare-cutting enzymes. This contig contains the genetic material required for the isolation of expressed sequences and the identification of the gene defective in EPM1 and possibly other disorders mapping to this region. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  8. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT OF BILATERAL CUTANEOUS SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF THE HIND FEET PADS IN A SOUTHERN WHITE RHINOCEROS (CERATOTHERIUM SIMUM SIMUM).

    PubMed

    Greunz, Eva Maria; Simon, Marie; Lemberger, Karin; Galateanu, Gabriela; Hermes, Robert; Leclerc, Antoine

    2016-06-01

    The current report describes the temporary regression, due to intensive symptomatic treatment, of ulcerative skin lesions caused by squamous cell carcinoma in a white rhinoceros. A captive, 40-yr-old southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) developed profound, ulcerative skin lesions on the pads of both hind feet. At the peak of the disease, at least one quarter of the pads was affected. A diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma was made via biopsy. Treatment included anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, and local care. The lesions regressed on both feet until they seemed clinically healed. It was presumed that long-term, anti-inflammatory treatment and local bandaging had induced the temporary regression of the lesions. Two years later, however, a small ulcerative lesion reappeared on one pad and post mortem examination confirmed that the carcinoma was also histologically present in the clinically intact tissue. No metastasis was found and computed tomography showed normal digital bones. PMID:27468043

  9. Filamentous coliphage M13 as a cloning vehicle: insertion of a HindII fragment of the lac regulatory region in M13 replicative form in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Messing, J; Gronenborn, B; Müller-Hill, B; Hans Hopschneider, P

    1977-01-01

    A HindII restriction fragment comprising the Escherichia coli lac regulatory region and the genetic information for the alpha peptide of beta-galactosidase (beta-D-galactosidegalactohydrolase, EC. 3.2.1.23) has been inserted into 1 of the 10 Bsu I cleavage sites of M13 by blunt end ligation. A stable hybrid phage was isolated and identified by its ability to complement the lac alpha function. Further characterization of the hybrid phage includes retransformation studies, agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA-DNA hybridization, and heteroduplex mapping. The insertion point has been localized at 0.083 map unit on thewild-type circular map-i.e., within the intergenic region. The results prove that part of the intergenic region is nonessential and that the phage can be used as a cloning vehicle. Images PMID:333444

  10. Effects of Feed Supplementation on Mineral Composition, Mechanical Properties and Structure in Femurs of Iberian Red Deer Hinds (Cervus elaphus hispanicus)

    PubMed Central

    Olguin, Cesar A.; Landete-Castillejos, Tomas; Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J.; Gallego, Laureano

    2013-01-01

    Few studies in wild animals have assessed changes in mineral profile in long bones and their implications for mechanical properties. We examined the effect of two diets differing in mineral content on the composition and mechanical properties of femora from two groups each with 13 free-ranging red deer hinds. Contents of Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, B and Sr, Young’s modulus of elasticity (E), bending strength and work of fracture were assessed in the proximal part of the diaphysis (PD) and the mid-diaphysis (MD). Whole body measures were also recorded on the hinds. Compared to animals on control diets, those on supplemented diets increased live weight by 6.5 kg and their kidney fat index (KFI), but not carcass weight, body or organ size, femur size or cortical thickness. Supplemental feeding increased Mn content of bone by 23%, Cu by 9% and Zn by 6%. These differences showed a mean fourfold greater content of these minerals in supplemental diet, whereas femora did not reflect a 5.4 times greater content of major minerals (Na and P) in the diet. Lower content of B and Sr in supplemented diet also reduced femur B by 14% and Sr by 5%. There was a subtle effect of diet only on E and none on other mechanical properties. Thus, greater availability of microminerals but not major minerals in the diet is reflected in bone composition even before marked body effects, bone macro-structure or its mechanical properties are affected. PMID:23750262

  11. Fatty liver accompanies an increase in lactobacillus species in the hind gut of C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huawei; Liu, Jun; Jackson, Matthew I; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Yan, Lin; Combs, Gerald F

    2013-05-01

    High-fat (HF) diets can produce obesity and have been linked to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and changes in the gut microbiome. To test the hypothesis that HF feeding increases certain predominant hind gut bacteria and development of steatohepatitis, C57BL/6 mice were fed an HF (45% energy) or low-fat (LF) (10% energy) diet for 10 wk. At the end of the feeding period, body weights in the HF group were 34% greater than those in the LF group (P < 0.05). These changes were associated with dramatic increases in lipid droplet number and size, inflammatory cell infiltration, and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase protein concentration in the livers of mice fed the HF diet. Consistent with the fatty liver phenotype, plasma leptin and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations were also elevated in mice fed the HF diet, indicative of chronic inflammation. Eight of 12 pairs of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for bacterial species that typically predominate hind gut microbial ecology generated specific PCR products from the fecal DNA samples. The amount of DNA from Lactobacillus gasseri and/or Lactobacillus taiwanensis in the HF group was 6900-fold greater than that in the LF group. Many of these bacteria are bile acid resistant and are capable of bile acid deconjugation. Because bile acids are regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism, the marked increase of gut L. gasseri and/or L. taiwanensis species bacteria with HF feeding may play a role in development of steatohepatitis in this model.

  12. A HindIII polymorphism detected by cDMD 4-5a at the DMD locus in a family with Becker muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Gibb, M.F.; Greenberg, C.R.; Carson, N.L.

    1994-09-01

    Deletions within the dystrophin gene can be detected by hybridizing a series of cDNA probes to HindIII-digested DNA, with the absence of one or more fragments indicating the presence of a deletion. However, incorrect interpretations can be made if the absence of a fragment is due to a polymorphism rather than a deletion. Otto and Rothbery reported that the 5.2 kb fragment detected by cM 4-5a could be resolved, with extended electrophoresis, into two fragments estimated to be 5.2 and 5.15 kb in size. They concluded that the extra fragment of this doublet appears to be polymorphic, inherited in a Mendelian dominant fashion. The mother, who is an obligate carrier of BMD, does not have the upper fragment as is the case for her normal and affected sons. The father, who clinically has no evidence of neuromuscular disease, does have the upper fragment as do all their daughters. Given a dominant pattern of inheritance, the daughters should be heterozygous. Analysis of one grandson, who was predicted to have inherited the grandpaternal dystrophin gene, showed that he did have the upper fragment, consistent with our conclusions. To date, we have been unable to analyze a grandson that has inherited the grandmaternal allele; however, presuably he would not have the upper fragment of this doublet. We conclude that there likely is a dominant HindIII polymorphism detected with the cDMD 4-5a probe at the DMD locus. Population studies will be required to determine the frequency of this polymorphism; however, it should be noted that absence of the upper fragment of this doublet in a male with BMD/DMD does not necessarily correspond to the presence of a deletion.

  13. Nucleotide sequence and molecular genetic analysis of the vaccinia virus HindIII N/M region encoding the genes responsible for resistance to alpha-amanitin.

    PubMed

    Tamin, A; Villarreal, E C; Weinrich, S L; Hruby, D E

    1988-07-01

    The genomic location of the gene(s) which provides vaccinia virus (VV) alpha-amanitin-resistant mutants with a drug-resistant phenotype have been mapped to the HindIII N/M region of the genome by the use of marker rescue techniques [E. C. Villarreal and D. E. Hruby (1986) J. Virol. 57, 65-70]. Nucleotide sequencing of a 2356-bp HindIII-Sau3A fragment of the vaccinia virus genome encompassing this region reveals the presence of two complete leftward-reading open reading frames (ORFs, N2 and M1) and two incomplete ORFs (N1 and M2). By computer analysis the N2 and M1 ORFs would be predicted to encode soluble VV polypeptides with molecular weights of approximately 20 and 48 kDa, respectively. The N2 and M1 ORFs have extremely A-T-rich 5'-proximal sequences, consistent with previous data regarding the location and A-T-richness of viral early promoters. Likewise, the consensus signal believed to be involved in terminating VV early gene transcription, TTTTTNT, was evident at the 3'-boundary of both the N2 and M1 ORFs suggesting that these genes may be VV early genes. The in vivo transcriptional activity, orientation, and limits of these putative transcriptional units were investigated by Northern blot, nuclease S1, and primer extension analysis. Both N2- and M1-specific transcripts were detected in the cytoplasm of VV-infected cells, suggesting that these loci are bonafide viral genes. Time-course nuclease S1 experiments revealed that the N2 gene was transcribed exclusively prior to VV DNA replication. In contrast, the M1 gene was transcribed throughout infection, although different start sites were used at early versus late times postinfection. These results are discussed in relation to the drug-resistant phenotype and future experiments to identify the viral gene product responsible.

  14. Structure of the transcription initiation and termination sequences of seven early genes in the vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment.

    PubMed

    Lee-Chen, G J; Bourgeois, N; Davidson, K; Condit, R C; Niles, E G

    1988-03-01

    The vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment is 16,060 bp in length and encodes 13 complete genes [E.G. Niles et al. (1986). Virology 153, 96-112; S. L. Weinrich and D. E. Hruby (1986). Nucleic Acids Res. 14, 3003-3016]. Six of these genes are expressed only at early times after infection and one gene is expressed at both early and late times [G. -J. Lee-Chen and E. G. Niles (1988). Virology 163, 52-63]. Transcript mapping by S1 nuclease protection studies was carried out and compared to the results of primer extension analyses, in order to locate map positions of the 5' termini of each early mRNA. The lengths of the products of in vitro transcription, from DNA templates which possess the transcription start regions of each of the early genes, were determined and compared to the lengths of DNA products generated by S1 nuclease protection and primer extension, in order to demonstrate that the 5' termini identified by S1 mapping and primer extension are due to transcription initiation and not to mRNA processing. For each of the early genes in the HindIII D fragment, transcription starts within 25 nucleotides of the translation initiation codon. The precise location of the 3' termini of each early transcript was identified by S1 nuclease mapping. In all but one case, the 3' ends map within 75 nucleotides of the putative transcription termination signal TTTTTNT [G. Rohrmann, L. Yuen, and B. Moss (1986).

  15. Papers Delivered at the Junior/Senior College English Workshop (Hinds Junior College, February 5, 1972) and the Workshop for English Teachers (University of Mississippi, February 12, 1972) and a Research Paper Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhail, Augustine H., Comp.

    The following are nine papers delivered at the annual workshop for junior and senior college English teachers held at Hinds Jr. College on February 5, 1972: "The Role of Grammar in the Classroom" -Mrs. Elba Patterson; "Grammar in the English Class" -Dr. Gerald Walton; "Creative Writing and Freshman English" Gordon Weaver; "Attitudes Toward the…

  16. Data set incongruence and correlated character evolution: an example of functional convergence in the hind-limbs of stifftail diving ducks.

    PubMed

    McCracken, K G; Harshman, J; McClellan, D A; Afton, A D

    1999-12-01

    The unwitting inclusion of convergent characters in phylogenetic estimates poses a serious problem for efforts to recover phylogeny. Convergence is not inscrutable, however, particularly when one group of characters tracks phylogeny and another set tracks adaptive history. In such cases, convergent characters may be correlated with one or a few functional anatomical units and readily identifiable by using comparative methods. Stifftail ducks (Oxyurinae) offer one such opportunity to study correlated character evolution and function in the context of phylogenetic reconstruction. Morphological analyses place stifftail ducks as part of a large clade of diving ducks that includes the sea ducks (Mergini), Hymenolaimus, Merganetta, and Tachyeres, and possibly the pochards (Aythyini). Molecular analyses, on the other hand, place stifftails far from other diving ducks and suggest, moreover, that stifftails are polyphyletic. Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences of eight stifftail species traditionally supposed to form a clade were compared with each other and with sequences from 50 other anseriform and galliform species. Stifftail ducks are not the sister group of sea ducks but lie outside the typical ducks (Anatinae). Of the four traditional stifftail genera, monophyly of Oxyura and its sister group relationship with Nomonyx are strongly supported. Heteronetta probably is the sister group of that clade, but support is weak. Biziura is not a true stifftail. Within Oxyura, Old World species (O. australis, O. leucocephala, O. maccoa) appear to form a clade, with New World species (O. jamaicensis, O. vittata) branching basally. Incongruence between molecules and morphology is interpreted to be the result of adaptive specialization and functional convergence in the hind limbs of Biziura and true stifftails. When morphological characters are divided into classes, only hind-limb characters are significantly in conflict with the molecular tree. Likewise, null models of

  17. Data set incongruence and correlated character evolution: An example of functional convergence in the hind-limbs of stifftail diving ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCracken, K.G.; Harshman, J.; Mcclellan, D.A.; Afton, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    The unwitting inclusion of convergent characters in phylogenetic estimates poses a serious problem for efforts to recover phylogeny. Convergence is not inscrutable, however, particularly when one group of characters tracks phylogeny and another set tracks adaptive history. In such cases, convergent characters may be correlated with one or a few functional anatomical units and readily identifiable by using comparative methods. Stifftail ducks (Oxyurinae) offer one such opportunity to study correlated character evolution and function in the context of phylogenetic reconstruction. Morphological analyses place stifftail ducks as part of a large clade of diving ducks that includes the sea ducks (Mergini), Hymenolaimus, Merganetta, and Tachyeres, and possibly the pochards (Aythyini). Molecular analyses, on the other hand, place stifftails far from other diving ducks and suggest, moreover, that stifftails are polyphyletic. Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences of eight stifftail species traditionally supposed to form a clade were compared with each other and with sequences from 50 other anseriform and galliform species. Stifftail ducks are not the sister group of sea ducks but lie outside the typical ducks (Anatinae). Of the four traditional stifftail genera, monophyly of Oxyura and its sister group relationship with Nomonyx are strongly supported. Heteronetta probably is the sister group of that clade, but support is weak. Biziura is not a true stifftail. Within Oxyura, Old World species (O. australis, O. leucocephala, O. mnccoa) appear to form a clade, with New World species (O. jamaicensis, O. vittata) branching basally. Incongruence between molecules and morphology is interpreted to be the result of adaptive specialization and functional convergence in the hind limbs of Biziura and true stifftails. When morphological characters are divided into classes, only hind-limb characters are significantly in conflict with the molecular tree. Likewise, null models of

  18. Forces loading the tarsal joint in the hind limb of the horse, determined from in vivo strain measurements of the third metatarsal bone.

    PubMed

    Schamhardt, H C; Hartman, W; Lammertink, J L

    1989-05-01

    Strain gauge rosettes were bonded to the dorsal, lateral, medial, and plantar aspects of the third metatarsal bone in the hind limbs of 6 ponies. The maximal compressive principal strain was approximately -600 X 10(-6) m/m, and exceeded the amplitudes of the tensile strains at all aspects of the bone. After transformation, the shear strain and the principal strains parallel and perpendicular to the bone were obtained. The first peak in the bending strain was higher in the dorsal and lateral aspects, and the second peak was higher in the medial and plantar aspects. Young modulus of elasticity was determined in a 4-point bending test at the dorsal and plantar sides; it averaged 19.5 GPa in tension and compression. Applying linear bending theory, the eccentricity of an axial force parallel or a bending force perpendicular to the bone were calculated. The position where the total force penetrated the tarsometatarsal joint surface was largely within the joint surface, indicating that the joint is merely loaded in (eccentric) compression.

  19. Comparative Anatomy of the Hind Limb Vessels of the Bearded Capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus) with Apes, Baboons, and Cebus capucinus: With Comments on the Vessels' Role in Bipedalism

    PubMed Central

    Aversi-Ferreira, Roqueline A. G. M. F.; de Abreu, Tainá; Pfrimer, Gabriel A.; Silva, Sylla F.; Ziermann, Janine M.; Carneiro-e-Silva, Frederico O.; Tomaz, Carlos; Tavares, Maria Clotilde H.; Maior, Rafael S.; Aversi-Ferreira, Tales A.

    2013-01-01

    Capuchin monkeys are known to exhibit sporadic bipedalism while performing specific tasks, such as cracking nuts. The bipedal posture and locomotion cause an increase in the metabolic cost and therefore increased blood supply to lower limbs is necessary. Here, we present a detailed anatomical description of the capuchin arteries and veins of the pelvic limb of Sapajus libidinosus in comparison with other primates. The arterial pattern of the bearded capuchin hind limb is more similar to other quadrupedal Cebus species. Similarities were also found to the pattern observed in the quadruped Papio, which is probably due to a comparable pelvis and the presence of the tail. Sapajus' traits show fewer similarities when compared to great apes and modern humans. Moreover, the bearded capuchin showed unique patterns for the femoral and the short saphenous veins. Although this species switches easily from quadrupedal to bipedal postures, our results indicate that the bearded capuchin has no specific or differential features that support extended bipedal posture and locomotion. Thus, the explanation for the behavioral differences found among capuchin genera probably includes other aspects of their physiology. PMID:24396829

  20. Bromoenol Lactone, an Inhibitor of Calcium-Independent Phospholipase A2, Suppresses Carrageenan-Induced Prostaglandin Production and Hyperalgesia in Rat Hind Paw

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchida, Keiichiro; Ibuki, Takae; Matsumura, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) E2 and PGI2 are essential to hyperalgesia in inflammatory tissues. These prostaglandins are produced from arachidonic acid, which is cleaved from membrane phospholipids by the action of phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Which isozyme of PLA2 is responsible for the cleavage of arachidonic acid and the production of prostaglandins essential to inflammation-induced hyperalgesia is not clear. In this study, we examined the effects of two PLA2 isozyme-specific inhibitors on carrageenan-induced production of PGE2 and PGI2 in rat hind paw and behavioral nociceptive response to radiant heat. Local administration of bromoenol lactone (BEL), an inhibitor of calcium-independent PLA2 (iPLA2), significantly reduced carrageenan-induced elevation of prostaglandins in the inflamed foot pad 3 h after injection. It also ameliorated the hyperalgesic response between 1 h and 3 h after carrageenan injection. On the other hand, AACOCF3, an inhibitor of cytosolic PLA2, suppressed neither prostaglandin production nor the hyperalgesic response. BEL did not suppress the mRNA levels of iPLA2β, iPLA2γ, cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase, prostaglandin I synthase, or proinflammatory cytokines in the inflamed foot pad, indicating that BEL did not suppress inflammation itself. These results suggest that iPLA2 is involved in the production of prostaglandins and hyperalgesia at the inflammatory loci. PMID:26063975

  1. Effects of stimulus intensity, cervical cord tractotomies and cerebellectomy on somatosensory evoked potentials from skin and muscle afferents of cat hind limb.

    PubMed

    Schieppati, M; Ducati, A

    1981-04-01

    The somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) recorded from the sensory cortex were investigated by using graded stimulation of skin and muscle nerves from contralateral hind limb in the cat. Sections were made of the middle cervical cord to assess the pathways involved in mediating SEPs evoked by large and small diameter fibers. Dorsal column (DC) section caused a decrease of SEPs from skin group I afferents, and a small increase in those from group I muscle afferents. A subsequent section of dorso-lateral fasciculus (DLF) further decreased SEPs from skin and eliminated SEPs from muscle, evoked at low stimulus intensity. When the stimulus recruited group III fibres, SEPs were still present after DC and DLF section, both from skin and muscle nerves. Section of ALT in addition to DC confirmed a major role played by DLF (mainly spino-cervical tract of Morin) in transmitting impulses from muscle afferents; the role of DLF in mediating potentials evoked from skin is less remarkable than that of DC. Cerebellectomy did not change any SEP, however evoked. Previous results in the literature are discussed, taking into account the methodologies employed by various authors, and the possible interactions among pathways mediating SEPs.

  2. Colonic inflammation accompanies an increase of β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huawei; Ishaq, Suzanne L; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Wright, André-Denis G

    2016-09-01

    Consumption of an obesigenic/high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with a high colon cancer risk and may alter the gut microbiota. To test the hypothesis that long-term high-fat (HF) feeding accelerates inflammatory process and changes gut microbiome composition, C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD (45% energy) or a low-fat (LF) diet (10% energy) for 36 weeks. At the end of the study, body weights in the HF group were 35% greater than those in the LF group. These changes were associated with dramatic increases in body fat composition, inflammatory cell infiltration, inducible nitric oxide synthase protein concentration and cell proliferation marker (Ki67) in ileum and colon. Similarly, β-catenin expression was increased in colon (but not ileum). Consistent with gut inflammation phenotype, we also found that plasma leptin, interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α concentrations were also elevated in mice fed the HFD, indicative of chronic inflammation. Fecal DNA was extracted and the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the microbial 16S rRNA gene was amplified using primers suitable for 454 pyrosequencing. Compared to the LF group, the HF group had high proportions of bacteria from the family Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae, which is known to be involved in the development of metabolic disorders, diabetes and colon cancer. Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that long-term HF consumption not only increases inflammatory status but also accompanies an increase of colonic β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of C57BL/6 mice.

  3. Modal analysis of an artificial wing mimicking an Allomyrina dichotoma beetle's hind wing for flapping-wing micro air vehicles by noncontact measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Ngoc San; Jin, Tailie; Goo, Nam Seo

    2013-05-01

    Recently, the development of flapping-wing micro air vehicles (FW-MAV) for operation in extreme environmental conditions has demanded properly designed, biologically inspired wings that can produce enough lift force to keep the vehicles aloft. The structural analysis of an artificial wing is carried out in the design of an FW-MAV. In this study, the dynamic characteristics of an artificial wing mimicking an Allomyrina dichotoma beetle's hind wing were investigated by a non-contact measurement method. The natural frequencies, mode shapes, and damping ratios of the first three basic vibration modes in the operating frequency range were determined using a Bruel & Kjaer (B&K) fast Fourier transform analyzer, along with a laser sensor. The laser sensor was used to obtain the displacement history of the marked points on the wing to calculate the frequency response function. To confirm the results, a three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) method, as well as high speed digital cameras, were employed to construct the mode shapes of the wing when it was vibrated at a pre-determined natural frequency. The mode shapes by the DIC method showed good agreement with those by the laser displacement sensor. These results provide a method for the modal analysis of a light weight structure like an insect wing as well as for the construction of the mode shapes using DIC. The high speed 3D-DIC method, used successfully in mode shape measurements, can also be used to study the wing deformation of an insect during flight, which is challenging in an insect study.

  4. Different effects of anoxia and hind-limb immobilization on sensorimotor development and cell numbers in the somatosensory cortex in rats.

    PubMed

    Marcuzzo, Simone; Dutra, Márcio Ferreira; Stigger, Felipe; do Nascimento, Patrícia Severo; Ilha, Jocemar; Kalil-Gaspar, Pedro Ivo; Achaval, Matilde

    2010-04-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of movement and posture disorders attributed to insults in the developing brain. In rats, CP-like motor deficits can be induced by early hind-limb sensorimotor restriction (SR; from postnatal days P2 to P28), associated or otherwise with perinatal anoxia (PA; on P0 and P1). In this study, we address the question of whether PA, early SR or a combination of both produces alterations to sensorimotor development. Developmental milestones (surface righting, cliff aversion, stability on an inclined surface, proprioceptive placing, auditory startle, eye opening) were assessed daily from P3 to P14. Motor skills (horizontal ladder and beam walking) were evaluated weekly (from P31 to P52). In addition, on P52, the thickness of the somatosensory (S1) and cerebellar cortices, and corpus callosum were measured, and the neuronal and glial cell numbers in S1 were counted. SR (with or without PA) significantly delayed the stability on an inclined surface and hastened the appearance of the placing reflex and impaired motor skills. No significant differences were found in the thickness measurements between the groups. Quantitative histology of S1 showed that PA, either alone or associated with SR, increased the number of glial cells, while SR alone reduced neuronal cell numbers. Finally, the combination of PA and SR increased the size of neuronal somata. We conclude that SR impairs the achievement of developmental milestones and motor skills. Moreover, both SR and PA induce histological alterations in the S1 cortex, which may contribute to sensorimotor deficits. PMID:19467580

  5. Pharmacokinetics of Acetaminophen in Hind Limbs Unloaded Mice: A Model System Simulating the Effects of Low Gravity on Astronauts in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Amanda; Risin, Semyon A.; Ramesh, Govindarajan T.; Dasgupta, Amitava; Risin, Diana

    2008-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of medications administered to astronauts could be altered by the conditions in Space. Low gravity and free floating (and associated hemodynamic changes) could affect the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the drugs. Knowledge of these alterations is essential for adjusting the dosage and the regimen of drug administration in astronauts. Acquiring of such knowledge has inherent difficulties due to limited opportunities for experimenting in Space. One of the approaches is to use model systems that simulate some of the Space conditions on Earth. In this study we used hind limbs unloaded mice (HLU) to investigate the possible changes in PK of acetaminophen, a widely used analgesic with high probability of use by astronauts. The HLU is recognized as an appropriate model for simulating the effects of low gravity on hemodynamic parameters. Mice were tail suspended (n = 24) for 24-96 hours prior to introduction of acetaminophen (150 - 300 mg/kg). The drug (in aqueous solution containing 10% ethyl alcohol by volume) was given orally by a gavage procedure and after the administration of acetaminophen mice were additionally suspended for 30 min, 1 and 2 hours. Control mice (n = 24) received the same dose of acetaminophen and were kept freely all the time. Blood specimens were obtained either from retroorbital venous sinuses or from heart. Acetaminophen concentration was measured in plasma by the fluorescent polarization immunoassay and the AxSYM analyzer (Abbott Laboratories). In control mice peak acetaminophen concentration was achieved at 30 min. By 1 hour the concentration decreased to less than 50% of the peak level and at 2 hours the drug was almost undetectable in the serum. HLU for 24 hours significantly altered the acetaminophen pharmacokinetic: at 30 min the acetaminophen concentrations were significantly (both statistically and medically significant) lower than in control mice. The concentrations also reduced less

  6. A Novel Intronic Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the Myosin heavy polypeptide 4 Gene Is Responsible for the Mini-Muscle Phenotype Characterized by Major Reduction in Hind-Limb Muscle Mass in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Scott A.; Bell, Timothy A.; Selitsky, Sara R.; Buus, Ryan J.; Hua, Kunjie; Weinstock, George M.; Garland, Theodore; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Pomp, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Replicated artificial selection for high levels of voluntary wheel running in an outbred strain of mice favored an autosomal recessive allele whose primary phenotypic effect is a 50% reduction in hind-limb muscle mass. Within the High Runner (HR) lines of mice, the numerous pleiotropic effects (e.g., larger hearts, reduced total body mass and fat mass, longer hind-limb bones) of this hypothesized adaptive allele include functional characteristics that facilitate high levels of voluntary wheel running (e.g., doubling of mass-specific muscle aerobic capacity, increased fatigue resistance of isolated muscles, longer hind-limb bones). Previously, we created a backcross population suitable for mapping the responsible locus. We phenotypically characterized the population and mapped the Minimsc locus to a 2.6-Mb interval on MMU11, a region containing ∼100 known or predicted genes. Here, we present a novel strategy to identify the genetic variant causing the mini-muscle phenotype. Using high-density genotyping and whole-genome sequencing of key backcross individuals and HR mice with and without the mini-muscle mutation, from both recent and historical generations of the HR lines, we show that a SNP representing a C-to-T transition located in a 709-bp intron between exons 11 and 12 of the Myosin heavy polypeptide 4 (Myh4) skeletal muscle gene (position 67,244,850 on MMU11; assembly, December 2011, GRCm38/mm10; ENSMUSG00000057003) is responsible for the mini-muscle phenotype, Myh4Minimsc. Using next-generation sequencing, our approach can be extended to identify causative mutations arising in mouse inbred lines and thus offers a great avenue to overcome one of the most challenging steps in quantitative genetics. PMID:24056412

  7. Non-essential genes in the vaccinia virus HindIII K fragment: a gene related to serine protease inhibitors and a gene related to the 37K vaccinia virus major envelope antigen.

    PubMed

    Boursnell, M E; Foulds, I J; Campbell, J I; Binns, M M

    1988-12-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a cloned copy of the HindIII K fragment of the WR strain of vaccinia virus has been determined. Eight open reading frames (ORFs) have been identified, on the basis of size and codon usage. The predicted amino acid sequences of the putative genes have been compared to the Protein Identification Resource and to published vaccinia virus sequences. One gene, predicted to encode a 42.2K protein, is highly related to the family of serine protease inhibitors. It shows approximately 25% identity to human antithrombin III and 19% identity to the cowpox virus 38K protein gene which is also related to serine protease inhibitors. The product of another gene shows a similar high level of identity to the 37K vaccinia virus major envelope antigen. The existence of viable deletion mutants and recombinants containing foreign DNA inserted into both these genes indicates that they are non-essential.

  8. Characterization of the genome of molluscum contagiosum virus type 1 between the genome coordinates 0.045 and 0.075 by DNA nucleotide sequence analysis of a 5.6-kb HindIII/MluI DNA fragment.

    PubMed

    Hadasch, R P; Bugert, J J; Janssen, W; Darai, G

    1993-01-01

    The complete DNA nucleotide sequence of a HindIII/MluI genomic DNA fragment (0.045-0.075 viral map units) from molluscum contagiosum virus type 1 (MCV-1) was determined. The HindIII/MluI DNA fragment comprises 5,646 bp with a base composition of 64.4% G + C and 35.6% A + T. The DNA sequence contains many perfect direct repeats. A cluster of three repetitive DNA elements R1, R2 and R3, with a complex structural arrangement was detected between nucleotide positions 1802 and 2107. The unit length (box) of the repetitive DNA sequences was found to be 6 bp (15 boxes) and 9 bp (24 boxes) for R1 and R2, respectively. The repetitive DNA element R3 is organized in fifteen boxes (15 bp) in which a unit length of R1 is combined with a unit length of R2. The arrangement of the repetition R3 within the DNA sequences of this particular region of the MCV-1 genome was found to be (5 x R3) + (2 x R2) + (1 x R3) + (6 x R2) + (1 x R3) + (1 x R2) + (8 x R3). Twenty-three open reading frames (ORFs) of 60-1,175 amino acid (AA) residues were detected. The largest ORF (number 17) comprises 1,175 AA with a predicted molecular weight of 126 kD. This ORF harbors a promoter signal which is located 21 nucleotides upstream from the start codon and is very similar to the early promoter signals known for vaccinia virus. This putative protein contains glutamine-enriched regions between AA residues 427 and 682 which show homologies to the corresponding glutamine-enriched regions of a variety of cellular genes like human transcriptional initiation factor (TFIID: TATA box factor).

  9. Conserved TAAATG sequence at the transcriptional and translational initiation sites of vaccinia virus late genes deduced by structural and functional analysis of the HindIII H genome fragment.

    PubMed

    Rosel, J L; Earl, P L; Weir, J P; Moss, B

    1986-11-01

    The sequence of the 8,600-base-pair HindIII H fragment, located at the center of the vaccinia virus genome, was determined to analyze several late genes. Seven major complete open reading frames (ORFs) and two that started from or continued into adjacent DNA segments were identified. ORFs were closely spaced and present on both DNA strands. Some adjacent ORFs had oppositely oriented overlapping termination codons or contiguous stop and start codons. Nucleotide compositional analysis indicated that the A-T frequency was consistently lowest in the first codon position. The sizes of the polypeptides predicted from the DNA sequence were compared with those determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of cell-free translation products of mRNAs selected by hybridization to cloned single-stranded DNA segments or synthesized in vitro by bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Six transcripts that initiated within the HindIII H DNA fragment were detected, and of these, four were synthesized only at late times, one was synthesized only early, and one was synthesized early and late. The sites on the genome corresponding to the 5' ends of the transcripts were located by high-resolution nuclease S1 analysis. For late genes, the transcriptional and translational initiation sites mapped within a few nucleotides of each other, and in each case the sequence TAAATGG occurred at the start of the ORF. The extremely short leader and the absence of A or G in the -3 position, relative to the first nucleotide of the initiation codon, distinguishes the majority of vaccinia virus late genes from eucaryotic and vaccinia virus early genes.

  10. Thyroid hormone-induced differential synthesis of water-insoluble proteins in epidermal cell cultures from the hind limb of Rana catesbeiana tadpoles in stages XII-XV and XVI-XIX.

    PubMed

    Ketola-Pirie, C A; Atkinson, B G

    1990-08-01

    Hind limb epidermal cell cultures from stage XII-XV and XVI-XIX tadpoles of the American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana were maintained for 36 and 120 hr in medium containing either fetal calf serum or thyroid hormone (3,3',5-triiodothyronine, T3; 3 x 10(-10) mol/ml). T3 induces the precocious synthesis (within the first 36 hr) of a 59-kDa keratin associated with epidermal stratification in cultures from stages XII-XV. In epidermal cell cultures from stages XVI-XIX, T3 produces an overall pattern of water-insoluble proteins, including keratins, which is strikingly similar to temporally differentiated cultures (120 hr). A 73-kDa protein is among the water-insoluble proteins precociously synthesized by 36-hr-old cultures from stages XVI-XIX treated with T3. This protein, which is not immunoprecipitated by antibodies raised against keratins, corresponds in Mr and pI to a mammalian differentiation-specific desmosomal plaque protein. Immunoprecipitation of keratins from 120-hr-old cultures shows that many of the water-insoluble proteins synthesized are, indeed, keratins. Further, quantitation, by laser densitometry, of immunoprecipitated keratins from 120-hr cultures demonstrates that greater amounts of keratins, particularly the 65 and 59 kDa which are associated with a differentiated epidermis, are present in stages XVI-XIX. This study indicates that epidermal cell cultures from stages XVI-XIX respond more quickly to the differentiating effects of T3.

  11. Murine Hind Limb Long Bone Dissection and Bone Marrow Isolation.

    PubMed

    Amend, Sarah R; Valkenburg, Kenneth C; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of the bone and the bone marrow is critical in many research fields including basic bone biology, immunology, hematology, cancer metastasis, biomechanics, and stem cell biology. Despite the importance of the bone in healthy and pathologic states, however, it is a largely under-researched organ due to lack of specialized knowledge of bone dissection and bone marrow isolation. Mice are a common model organism to study effects on bone and bone marrow, necessitating a standardized and efficient method for long bone dissection and bone marrow isolation for processing of large experimental cohorts. We describe a straightforward dissection procedure for the removal of the femur and tibia that is suitable for downstream applications, including but not limited to histomorphologic analysis and strength testing. In addition, we outline a rapid procedure for isolation of bone marrow from the long bones via centrifugation with limited handling time, ideal for cell sorting, primary cell culture, or DNA, RNA, and protein extraction. The protocol is streamlined for rapid processing of samples to limit experimental error, and is standardized to minimize user-to-user variability. PMID:27168390

  12. Murine Hind Limb Long Bone Dissection and Bone Marrow Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Amend, Sarah R.; Valkenburg, Kenneth C.; Pienta, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of the bone and the bone marrow is critical in many research fields including basic bone biology, immunology, hematology, cancer metastasis, biomechanics, and stem cell biology. Despite the importance of the bone in healthy and pathologic states, however, it is a largely under-researched organ due to lack of specialized knowledge of bone dissection and bone marrow isolation. Mice are a common model organism to study effects on bone and bone marrow, necessitating a standardized and efficient method for long bone dissection and bone marrow isolation for processing of large experimental cohorts. We describe a straightforward dissection procedure for the removal of the femur and tibia that is suitable for downstream applications, including but not limited to histomorphologic analysis and strength testing. In addition, we outline a rapid procedure for isolation of bone marrow from the long bones via centrifugation with limited handling time, ideal for cell sorting, primary cell culture, or DNA, RNA, and protein extraction. The protocol is streamlined for rapid processing of samples to limit experimental error, and is standardized to minimize user-to-user variability. PMID:27168390

  13. Study of Hind Limb Tissue Gas Phase Formation in Response to Suspended Adynamia and Hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Bruce D.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that reduced joint/muscle activity (hypo kinesia) as well as reduced or null loading of limbs (adynamia) in gravity would result in reduced decompression-induced gas phase and symptoms of decompression sickness (DCS). Finding a correlation between the two phenomena would correspond to the proposed reduction in tissue gas phase formation in astronauts undergoing decompression during extravehicular activity (EVA) in microgravity. The observation may further explain the reported low incidence of DCS in space.

  14. Trace metals in corals--hind casting environmental chemical changes in the tropical Atlantic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, C. W.; Koenig, A.; Ridley, W. I.; Wilson, S. A.

    2002-12-01

    As corals grow, they secrete a calcareous skeleton with the aid of photosynthetic activity of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae). The rate of this secretion varies inter-annually. Entrapped with the carbonate are trace substances that record the chemistry of the surrounding ocean. Detailing changes in chemistry requires careful and very tedious high-resolution sampling. The advent of laser ablation inductive couple plasma/mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP/MS) circumvents this sampling problem. This method also permits a continuous scan of the entire coral skeleton. Another problem has been the lack of a carbonate standard which appears to be resolved with the creation of an artificial carbonate standard (USGS MAC-1). This standard is presently undergoing rigorous analysis, but preliminary results are very positive. The LA-ICP/MS data of three Atlantic corals reveals an intriguing distribution of trace metals and boron that may be related to climatic driven chemical changes during the last hundred years. The distribution of the trace metals appears to have an association with three climate signals: 1. the strength of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), 2. the local effects of El Nino in the Florida region and 3. change in oceanic chemistry, possibly due to rising CO2. Aluminum and titanium levels vary with the strength of the NAO. The highest concentrations occur at the time of strong positive NOA when there is large amount of sediment transported off the deserts of North Africa. This relationship is particularly strong in the coral from the Cape Verde Islands. Along the eastern seaboard of the Atlantic, the relationship is not as pronounced but still observable. Nutrients and anthropogenic trace metals, such as zinc, lead, and mercury appear to correlate with local conditions and show a weak correspondence to the El Nino as it affects south Florida. Boron variation is directly related to the high-density bands of the corals. The long-term record of boron concentrations in a coral collected at Looe Key shows an increase of approximately 25 percent from 1885 to a peak in the early 1970s. From the peak until 1983, the time of collection, boron decreases about 15 percent. Boron in the twenty-year record in the Cape Verde coral shows a similar decrease. Hemming and others (1986) found that the boron concentration and the heavy isotope of carbon, 13C are concentrated in the annual high-density bands. They proposed that this phenomenon is the result of the physiological processes leading to the precipitation of the carbonate structure. Assuming that the zooanthellae are driving the photosynthetic processes, the explanation of high boron and associated high δ13C is the result of increased primary productivity. As a result, 12C is preferentially utilized within the cell leaving the extracelluar fluids in the region between the basal ectoderm and exoskeleton enriched in 13C. In addition, this increased activity increases HCO3^{-} leading to the higher pH in these fluids. This increase in pH, favors an increase in the reactive species, B(OH)_{4}$-which leads to increased boron precipitation within the carbonate structure. If this model is correct, our data suggest that increases in boron reflect increases in photosynthesis from the 1800s till about 1970, then have slightly decreased.

  15. Reloading partly recovers bone mineral density and mechanical properties in hind limb unloaded rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fan; Li, Dijie; Arfat, Yasir; Chen, Zhihao; Liu, Zonglin; Lin, Yu; Ding, Chong; Sun, Yulong; Hu, Lifang; Shang, Peng; Qian, Airong

    2014-12-01

    Skeletal unloading results in decreased bone formation and bone mass. During long-term space flight, the decreased bone mass is impossible to fully recover. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the effective countermeasures to prevent spaceflight-induced bone loss. Hindlimb Unloading (HLU) simulates effects of weightlessness and is utilized extensively to examine the response of musculoskeletal systems to certain aspects of space flight. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a 4-week HLU in rats and subsequent reloading on the bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties of load-bearing bones. After HLU for 4 weeks, the rats were then subjected to reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks, and then the BMD of the femur, tibia and lumbar spine in rats were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) every week. The mechanical properties of the femur were determined by three-point bending test. Dry bone and bone ash of femur were obtained through Oven-Drying method and were weighed respectively. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum calcium were examined through ELISA and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results showed that 4 weeks of HLU significantly decreased body weight of rats and reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks or 3 weeks did not recover the weight loss induced by HLU. However, after 2 weeks of reloading, BMD of femur and tibia of HLU rats partly recovered (+10.4%, +2.3%). After 3 weeks of reloading, the reduction of BMD, energy absorption, bone mass and mechanical properties of bone induced by HLU recovered to some extent. The changes in serum ALP and serum calcium induced by HLU were also recovered after reloading. Our results indicate that a short period of reloading could not completely recover bone after a period of unloading, thus some interventions such as mechanical vibration or pharmaceuticals are necessary to help bone recovery.

  16. Functional MMP-10 is required for efficient tissue repair after experimental hind limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Rodriguez, Violeta; Orbe, Josune; Martinez-Aguilar, Esther; Rodriguez, Jose A; Fernandez-Alonso, Leopoldo; Serneels, Jens; Bobadilla, Miriam; Perez-Ruiz, Ana; Collantes, Maria; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Paramo, Jose A; Roncal, Carmen

    2015-03-01

    We studied the role of matrix metalloproteinase-10 (MMP-10) during skeletal muscle repair after ischemia using a model of femoral artery excision in wild-type (WT) and MMP-10 deficient (Mmp10(-/-)) mice. Functional changes were analyzed by small animal positron emission tomography and tissue morphology by immunohistochemistry. Gene expression and protein analysis were used to study the molecular mechanisms governed by MMP-10 in hypoxia. Early after ischemia, MMP-10 deficiency resulted in delayed tissue reperfusion (10%, P < 0.01) and in increased necrosis (2-fold, P < 0.01), neutrophil (4-fold, P < 0.01), and macrophage (1.5-fold, P < 0.01) infiltration. These differences at early time points resulted in delayed myotube regeneration in Mmp10(-/-) soleus at later stages (regenerating myofibers: 30 ± 9% WT vs. 68 ± 10% Mmp10(-/-), P < 0.01). The injection of MMP-10 into Mmp10(-/-) mice rescued the observed phenotype. A molecular analysis revealed higher levels of Cxcl1 mRNA (10-fold, P < 0.05) and protein (30%) in the ischemic Mmp10(-/-) muscle resulting from a lack of transcriptional inhibition by MMP-10. This was further confirmed using siRNA against MMP-10 in vivo. Our results demonstrate an important role of MMP-10 for proper muscle repair after ischemia, and suggest that chemokine regulation such as Cxcl1 by MMP-10 is involved in muscle regeneration. PMID:25414484

  17. Acute hind limb paralysis secondary to an extradural spinal cord Cryptococcus gattii lesion in a dog.

    PubMed

    Kurach, Lindsey; Wojnarowicz, Chris; Wilkinson, Tom; Sereda, Colin

    2013-05-01

    A 2-year-old, spayed female, German short-haired pointer was presented with a 1-day history of non-ambulatory paraplegia with absent deep pain perception. A computed tomography scan revealed an irregular eighth thoracic vertebral body and an extradural compressive lesion. Decompression was performed and abnormal tissues were submitted for analysis. Findings were consistent with a Cryptococcus gattii infection. PMID:24155428

  18. [Transverse folding and the evolution of hind wings in beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)].

    PubMed

    Fedorenko, D N

    2013-01-01

    Strong intensification of the protective function of the fore wing in Coleoptera has made their flight apparatus a posteromotoric one and invited an apparatus responsible for folding the hindwings beneath the elytra to develop. Folding apparatus could hardly develop without higher deformability of veins or their parts, which diminished strength properties of the wing support. The effect was stressed by folds that intersected veins. Organization of the folds into a system confined this negative influence to a few wing regions and some veinal sections. This having happened, wing support and folding pattern evolved interrelated, the former into being more flexible, with no or minimum loss of rigidity, and the latter towards being less harmful for the supporting elements, especially axial ones. Monofunctionality, together with very simple structure and little specialization of constituent parts, made the folding pattern very labile during evolution. The folding pattern evolved more rapidly than wing venation, thus defining transformations of the latter. Evolutionary conservatism of wing venation stemmed from that many veins were strongly specialized in performing two conflicting functions. An adaptive compromise was necessary for the conflict to be solved, which determined the wing to orthogenetic development. The main evolutionary trends for wing venation and folding pattern were those towards simplification and a higher complexity, respectively. The beetle wing has passed through two main evolutionary stages. Among them, the first resulted in the development of the "Archostemata" wing type, the second started from the "cantharoid" structural plan. The main evolutionary factors were the infancies of wing posteromotorism at the first stage while the wing strongly influenced by size evolution, with the main trend towards miniaturization, at the second. The archostematan and "cantharoid" morphofunctional wing types differ fundamentally. In the wing of the former kind, folding and flight apparatus, because of considerably overlapping supporting systems, constitute a lasting coadaptive ensemble, with only minor deviations from the ground-plan occurring through evolution. The uprise of the "cantharoid" wing type was an upgrade of morpho-functional organization. The region of maximum transverse deformations having been extruded from the remigium basal part, chief supporting axes of the wing increased their rigid properties. The supporting systems of the two wing apparatus became more autonomous, having been separated. This expanded the adaptive zone for the wing strongly, which a great variety of derived wing types have emerged from. PMID:25438578

  19. [Transverse folding and the evolution of hind wings in beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Strong intensification of the protective function of the fore wing in Coleoptera has made their flight apparatus a posteromotoric one and invited an apparatus responsible for folding the hindwings beneath the elytra to develop. Folding apparatus could hardly develop without higher deformability of veins or their parts, which diminished strength properties of the wing support. The effect was stressed by folds that intersected veins. Organization of the folds into a system confined this negative influence to a few wing regions and some veinal sections. This having happened, wing support and folding pattern evolved interrelated, the former into being more flexible, with no or minimum loss of rigidity, and the latter towards being less harmful for the supporting elements, especially axial ones. Monofunctionality, together with very simple structure and little specialization of constituent parts, made the folding pattern very labile during evolution. The folding pattern evolved more rapidly than wing venation, thus defining transformations of the latter. Evolutionary conservatism of wing venation stemmed from that many veins were strongly specialized in performing two conflicting functions. An adaptive compromise was necessary for the conflict to be solved, which determined the wing to orthogenetic development. The main evolutionary trends for wing venation and folding pattern were those towards simplification and a higher complexity, respectively. The beetle wing has passed through two main evolutionary stages. Among them, the first resulted in the development of the "Archostemata" wing type, the second started from the "cantharoid" structural plan. The main evolutionary factors were the infancies of wing posteromotorism at the first stage while the wing strongly influenced by size evolution, with the main trend towards miniaturization, at the second. The archostematan and "cantharoid" morphofunctional wing types differ fundamentally. In the wing of the former kind, folding and flight apparatus, because of considerably overlapping supporting systems, constitute a lasting coadaptive ensemble, with only minor deviations from the ground-plan occurring through evolution. The uprise of the "cantharoid" wing type was an upgrade of morpho-functional organization. The region of maximum transverse deformations having been extruded from the remigium basal part, chief supporting axes of the wing increased their rigid properties. The supporting systems of the two wing apparatus became more autonomous, having been separated. This expanded the adaptive zone for the wing strongly, which a great variety of derived wing types have emerged from. PMID:25508109

  20. Effects of stretching and disuse on amino acids in muscles of rat hind limbs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaspers, Stephen R.; Henriksen, Erik J.; Satarug, Soisungwan; Tischler, Marc E.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of disuse and passive stretch on the concentrations of amino acids and ammonia in the unloaded soleus muscle was investigated in hindquarter-suspended (for six days by casting one foot in dorsiflexion) tail-casted rats. For a comparison with the condition of unloading, amino acids and ammonia were also measured in shortened extensor digitorum longus in the same casted limb and in denervated leg muscles. The results obtained suggest that passive stretch diminishes some of the characteristic alterations of amino acid concentrations due to unloading. This effect of stretch is considered to be due to the maintenance of muscle tension.

  1. Morphological changes in neurons of the hind limb reflex arc during long term immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tkachenko, Z. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Twelve adult rabbits were immobilized for 9 to 31 days, followed by histological study of the nerve processes of lumbar vertebra 7 and sacral vertebra 1, the sciatic nerve and the motor endings of the thigh muscles. In the spinal ganglia, dystrophic changes of increasing severity with immobilization time were found, including pericellular edema, vacuolized neuroplasm, pycnotic changes, cytolysis and destruction. Chromatophilic matter decreased and was partly bleached, and amitotic division occurred. A portion of the sciatic nerve fibers were argentophilic, and some fragmentary decomposition occurred. Considerable dystrophic changes occurred in the motor nerve endings.

  2. Acute hind limb paralysis secondary to an extradural spinal cord Cryptococcus gattii lesion in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Kurach, Lindsey; Wojnarowicz, Chris; Wilkinson, Tom; Sereda, Colin

    2013-01-01

    A 2-year-old, spayed female, German short-haired pointer was presented with a 1-day history of non-ambulatory paraplegia with absent deep pain perception. A computed tomography scan revealed an irregular eighth thoracic vertebral body and an extradural compressive lesion. Decompression was performed and abnormal tissues were submitted for analysis. Findings were consistent with a Cryptococcus gattii infection. PMID:24155428

  3. Physiological properties of tandem muscle spindles in neck and hind-limb muscles.

    PubMed

    Price, R F; Dutia, M B

    1989-01-01

    Although tandem muscle spindle complexes are found in small but significant numbers in most muscles, experimental investigation of their properties has been problematic because of the difficulty of distinguishing their afferents from those of "normal" single spindles. Of particular interest are the afferents from b2c capsules of tandem spindles, which unlike normal spindles contain only a static b2 nuclear bag fibre and some nuclear chain fibres. The absence of a dynamic b1 nuclear bag fibre from b2c spindles has engendered much speculation as to their response properties and their possible role in motor control. We have recently developed a method for the identification of afferents from b2c spindles in electrophysiological experiments, using infusion or topical application of succinylcholine (SCh). SCh causes the contraction of the dynamic b1 and static b2 nuclear bag intrafusal fibres, and paralyses the nuclear chain fibres. Afferents from b2c spindles are characterized by a strong "biasing" of their discharge rate to about 100 impulses per second (i.p.s.) when activated by SCh (reflecting the contraction of the static b2 fibre), while primary afferents from normal b1b2c spindles show a large increase in dynamic sensitivity as well as "biasing" (reflecting the contraction of both dynamic b1 and static b2 bag fibres). Histological examination of tenuissimus spindles activated by SCh has confirmed this relationship between the pattern of activation by SCh and the number of intrafusal nuclear bag fibres in the spindle. In this paper we review the value of SCh as a means of testing spindle afferents for functional inputs from sensory terminals on the nuclear bag fibres, and discuss the properties of b2c afferents from tandem spindles in the context of their possible function.

  4. Hind brain agenesis a rare imaging findings in cerebro cerebellar lissencephalic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mundaganur, Praveen M; Solwalkar, Pradeep; Nimbal, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    A case report of cerebro cerebellar lissencephaly shows complete agenesis of cerebellum and brainstem which is rare imaging finding of group lissencephaly (type I lissencephaly). Though agenesis of cerebellum and brainstem were included in literature, in most of the cases we saw a hypoplasia or atrophy of cerebellum in lissencephaly syndrome. The CT scan findings of this patient shows features of lissencephaly with complete agenesis of brain stem and cerebellum associated with multiple congenital abnormalities.

  5. Concerted evolution at the population level: pupfish HindIII satellite DNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Elder, J F; Turner, B J

    1994-01-01

    The canonical monomers (approximately 170 bp) of an abundant (1.9 x 10(6) copies per diploid genome) satellite DNA sequence family in the genome of Cyprinodon variegatus, a "pupfish" that ranges along the Atlantic coast from Cape Cod to central Mexico, are divergent in base sequence in 10 of 12 samples collected from natural populations. The divergence involves substitutions, deletions, and insertions, is marked in scope (mean pairwise sequence similarity = 61.6%; range = 35-95.9%), is largely confined to the 3' half of the monomer, and is not correlated with the distance among collecting sites. Repetitive cloning and direct genomic sequencing experiments failed to detect intrapopulation and intraindividual variation, suggesting high levels of sequence homogeneity within populations. The satellite sequence has therefore undergone "concerted evolution," at the level of the local population. Concerted evolution has previously almost always been discussed in terms of the divergence of species or higher taxa; its intraspecific occurrence apparently has not been reported previously. The generality of the observation is difficult to evaluate, for although satellite DNAs from a large number of organisms have been studied in detail, there appear to be little or no other data on their sequence variation in natural populations. The relationship (if any) between concerted, population level, satellite DNA divergence and the extent of gene flow/genetic isolation among conspecific natural populations remains to be established. Images PMID:8302879

  6. Systemic and regional hemorheological consequences of warm and cold hind limb ischemia-reperfusion in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, N; Szokoly, M; Acs, G; Brath, E; Lesznyak, T; Furka, I; Miko, I

    2004-01-01

    We have studied systemic and regional changes in hemorheological parameters after complete acute limb ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) in 24 mongrel dogs. Unilateral cooled and non-cooled vascular ischemia (3 h)-reperfusion (4 h), and sham-operations were performed. Blood samples were collected from the excluded region, during reperfusion and for 5 days. Whole blood and plasma viscosity (WBV, PV), relative cell transit time (RCTT) of erythrocytes, fibrinogen level and hematological parameters were determined. In I/R groups WBV of excluded blood was significantly higher compared to the base (p < 0.05), and RCTT increased during the reperfusion. On 2nd-3rd days RCTT increased significantly in both I/R groups. In each group PV and fibrinogen showed continuous increase during the postoperative period, prominently in cooled I/R group, and furthermore WBV corrected for hematocrit (40%) was the highest in cooled I/R group. These suggest that surgical acute limb I/R may cause hemorheological changes, which are more serious after cooling. (Grants: OTKA-T032571, 6003/1/2001/ETT.)

  7. Hind-Casting the Quantity and Composition of Discards by Mixed Demersal Fisheries in the North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Michael R.; Cook, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    Many commercial fisheries seek to maximise the economic value of the catch that they bring ashore and market for human consumption by discarding undersize or low value fish. Information on the quantity, size and species composition of discarded fish is vital for stock assessments and for devising legislation to minimise the practice. However, except for a few major species, data are usually extremely sparse and reliant on observers aboard a small sample of fishing vessels. Expanding these data to estimate total regional discards is highly problematic. Here, we develop a method for utilising additional information from scientific trawl surveys to model the quantities of fish discarded by the commercial fisheries. As a case-study, we apply the model to the North Sea over the period 1978-2011, and show a long-term decline in the overall quantity of fish discarded, but an increase in the proportion of catch which is thrown away. The composition of discarded catch has shifted from predominantly (∼80%) roundfish, to >50% flatfish. Undersized plaice constitute the largest single fraction of discards, unchanged from the beginning of the 20th century. Overall, around 60% of discarded fish are rejected on the basis of size rather than for reasons of species value or quota restrictions. The analysis shows that much more information can be gained on discarding by utilising additional sources of data rather than relying solely on information gathered by observers. In addition, it is clear that reducing fishing intensity and rebuilding stocks is likely to be more effective at reducing discards in the long term, than any technical legislation to outlaw the practice in the short term. PMID:25774938

  8. Passive exercise of the hind limbs after complete thoracic transection of the spinal cord promotes cortical reorganization.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Alessandro; Foffani, Guglielmo; Knudsen, Eric B; Shumsky, Jed; Moxon, Karen A

    2013-01-01

    Physical exercise promotes neural plasticity in the brain of healthy subjects and modulates pathophysiological neural plasticity after sensorimotor loss, but the mechanisms of this action are not fully understood. After spinal cord injury, cortical reorganization can be maximized by exercising the non-affected body or the residual functions of the affected body. However, exercise per se also produces systemic changes - such as increased cardiovascular fitness, improved circulation and neuroendocrine changes - that have a great impact on brain function and plasticity. It is therefore possible that passive exercise therapies typically applied below the level of the lesion in patients with spinal cord injury could put the brain in a more plastic state and promote cortical reorganization. To directly test this hypothesis, we applied passive hindlimb bike exercise after complete thoracic transection of the spinal cord in adult rats. Using western blot analysis, we found that the level of proteins associated with plasticity - specifically ADCY1 and BDNF - increased in the somatosensory cortex of transected animals that received passive bike exercise compared to transected animals that received sham exercise. Using electrophysiological techniques, we then verified that neurons in the deafferented hindlimb cortex increased their responsiveness to tactile stimuli delivered to the forelimb in transected animals that received passive bike exercise compared to transected animals that received sham exercise. Passive exercise below the level of the lesion, therefore, promotes cortical reorganization after spinal cord injury, uncovering a brain-body interaction that does not rely on intact sensorimotor pathways connecting the exercised body parts and the brain. PMID:23349859

  9. Improvement of the aerodynamic performance by wing flexibility and elytra--hind wing interaction of a beetle during forward flight.

    PubMed

    Le, Tuyen Quang; Truong, Tien Van; Park, Soo Hyung; Quang Truong, Tri; Ko, Jin Hwan; Park, Hoon Cheol; Byun, Doyoung

    2013-08-01

    In this work, the aerodynamic performance of beetle wing in free-forward flight was explored by a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) simulation with measured wing kinematics. It is shown from the CFD results that twist and camber variation, which represent the wing flexibility, are most important when determining the aerodynamic performance. Twisting wing significantly increased the mean lift and camber variation enhanced the mean thrust while the required power was lower than the case when neither was considered. Thus, in a comparison of the power economy among rigid, twisting and flexible models, the flexible model showed the best performance. When the positive effect of wing interaction was added to that of wing flexibility, we found that the elytron created enough lift to support its weight, and the total lift (48.4 mN) generated from the simulation exceeded the gravity force of the beetle (47.5 mN) during forward flight. PMID:23740486

  10. Hind-casting the quantity and composition of discards by mixed demersal fisheries in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Heath, Michael R; Cook, Robin M

    2015-01-01

    Many commercial fisheries seek to maximise the economic value of the catch that they bring ashore and market for human consumption by discarding undersize or low value fish. Information on the quantity, size and species composition of discarded fish is vital for stock assessments and for devising legislation to minimise the practice. However, except for a few major species, data are usually extremely sparse and reliant on observers aboard a small sample of fishing vessels. Expanding these data to estimate total regional discards is highly problematic. Here, we develop a method for utilising additional information from scientific trawl surveys to model the quantities of fish discarded by the commercial fisheries. As a case-study, we apply the model to the North Sea over the period 1978-2011, and show a long-term decline in the overall quantity of fish discarded, but an increase in the proportion of catch which is thrown away. The composition of discarded catch has shifted from predominantly (∼80%) roundfish, to >50% flatfish. Undersized plaice constitute the largest single fraction of discards, unchanged from the beginning of the 20th century. Overall, around 60% of discarded fish are rejected on the basis of size rather than for reasons of species value or quota restrictions. The analysis shows that much more information can be gained on discarding by utilising additional sources of data rather than relying solely on information gathered by observers. In addition, it is clear that reducing fishing intensity and rebuilding stocks is likely to be more effective at reducing discards in the long term, than any technical legislation to outlaw the practice in the short term. PMID:25774938

  11. Improvement of the aerodynamic performance by wing flexibility and elytra–hind wing interaction of a beetle during forward flight

    PubMed Central

    Le, Tuyen Quang; Truong, Tien Van; Park, Soo Hyung; Quang Truong, Tri; Ko, Jin Hwan; Park, Hoon Cheol; Byun, Doyoung

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the aerodynamic performance of beetle wing in free-forward flight was explored by a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) simulation with measured wing kinematics. It is shown from the CFD results that twist and camber variation, which represent the wing flexibility, are most important when determining the aerodynamic performance. Twisting wing significantly increased the mean lift and camber variation enhanced the mean thrust while the required power was lower than the case when neither was considered. Thus, in a comparison of the power economy among rigid, twisting and flexible models, the flexible model showed the best performance. When the positive effect of wing interaction was added to that of wing flexibility, we found that the elytron created enough lift to support its weight, and the total lift (48.4 mN) generated from the simulation exceeded the gravity force of the beetle (47.5 mN) during forward flight. PMID:23740486

  12. Transplantation of freshly isolated adipose tissue-derived regenerative cells enhances angiogenesis in a murine model of hind limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Harada, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Yasutaka; Tsujimoto, Shunsuke; Matsugami, Hiromi; Yoshida, Akio; Hisatome, Ichiro

    2013-02-01

    Therapeutic angiogenesis has emerged as one of the most promising therapies for severe ischemic cardiovascular diseases with no optional therapy. Several investigators have reported that transplantation of cultured adipose-derived regenerative cells (cADRCs) to ischemic tissues promotes neovascularization and blood perfusion recovery; however, cell therapy using cultured cells has several restrictions. To resolve this problem, the angiogenic capacity of freshly isolated ADRCs (fADRCs) obtained from Lewis rats was compared with cADRCs, both in vivo and in vitro. Flow cytometric analysis showed that fADRCs contained several cell types such as endothelial progenitor cells and endothelial cells; however, these cells were present in a very small proportion in cADRCs. Transplantation of fADRCs in mice significantly improved blood perfusion, capillary density, and production of several angiogenic factors in transplanted ischemic limbs compared with a saline-injected group, whereas these effects were not observed in the cADRCs-injected group. fADRCs also showed significantly higher expression levels of angiogenic factors than cADRCs in the in vitro study. Furthermore, fADRC stimulated tube formation more remarkably than cADRC in an in vitro tube formation assay. These results suggested that fADRCs have an effective angiogenic capacity, and they would be more valuable as a source for cell-based therapeutic angiogenesis than cADRCs or other stem/progenitor cells.

  13. Hind-casting the quantity and composition of discards by mixed demersal fisheries in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Heath, Michael R; Cook, Robin M

    2015-01-01

    Many commercial fisheries seek to maximise the economic value of the catch that they bring ashore and market for human consumption by discarding undersize or low value fish. Information on the quantity, size and species composition of discarded fish is vital for stock assessments and for devising legislation to minimise the practice. However, except for a few major species, data are usually extremely sparse and reliant on observers aboard a small sample of fishing vessels. Expanding these data to estimate total regional discards is highly problematic. Here, we develop a method for utilising additional information from scientific trawl surveys to model the quantities of fish discarded by the commercial fisheries. As a case-study, we apply the model to the North Sea over the period 1978-2011, and show a long-term decline in the overall quantity of fish discarded, but an increase in the proportion of catch which is thrown away. The composition of discarded catch has shifted from predominantly (∼80%) roundfish, to >50% flatfish. Undersized plaice constitute the largest single fraction of discards, unchanged from the beginning of the 20th century. Overall, around 60% of discarded fish are rejected on the basis of size rather than for reasons of species value or quota restrictions. The analysis shows that much more information can be gained on discarding by utilising additional sources of data rather than relying solely on information gathered by observers. In addition, it is clear that reducing fishing intensity and rebuilding stocks is likely to be more effective at reducing discards in the long term, than any technical legislation to outlaw the practice in the short term.

  14. Improvement of the aerodynamic performance by wing flexibility and elytra--hind wing interaction of a beetle during forward flight.

    PubMed

    Le, Tuyen Quang; Truong, Tien Van; Park, Soo Hyung; Quang Truong, Tri; Ko, Jin Hwan; Park, Hoon Cheol; Byun, Doyoung

    2013-08-01

    In this work, the aerodynamic performance of beetle wing in free-forward flight was explored by a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) simulation with measured wing kinematics. It is shown from the CFD results that twist and camber variation, which represent the wing flexibility, are most important when determining the aerodynamic performance. Twisting wing significantly increased the mean lift and camber variation enhanced the mean thrust while the required power was lower than the case when neither was considered. Thus, in a comparison of the power economy among rigid, twisting and flexible models, the flexible model showed the best performance. When the positive effect of wing interaction was added to that of wing flexibility, we found that the elytron created enough lift to support its weight, and the total lift (48.4 mN) generated from the simulation exceeded the gravity force of the beetle (47.5 mN) during forward flight.

  15. Hind Limb Unloading Model Alters Nuclear Factor kappa B and Activator Protein-1 Signaling in Mouse Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Govindarajan; Vani, Vani; Renard, Renard; Vera, Vera; Wilosn, Wilosn; Ramesh, Govindarajan

    Microgravity induces inflammatory response and also modulates immune functions, which may increase oxidative stress. Exposure to the microgravity environment induces adverse neurological effects. However, there is little research exploring the etiology of neurological effects of exposure to this environment. To explore this area we evaluated changes in Nuclear Factor kappa B, Activator Protein 1, MAPP kinase and N terminal c-Jun kinase in mouse brain exposed to a simulated microgravity environment using the hindlimb unloading model. BALB/c male mice were randomly assigned to hindlimb unloading group (n=12) and control group (n=12) to simulate a microgravity environment, for 7 days. Changes observed in NF-κB, AP- 1 DNA binding, MAPKK and N terminal c-Jun kinase were measured using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and western blot analysis and compared to unexposed brain regions. Hindlimb unloading exposed mice showed significant increases in generated NF-κB, AP-1, MAPKK and Kinase in all regions of the brain exposed to hindlimb unloading as compared to the control brain regions. Results suggest that exposure to simulated microgravity can induce expression of certain transcription factors and protein kinases. This work was supported by funding from NASA NCC 9-165. 504b030414000600080000002100828abc13fa0000001c020000130000005b436f6e74656e745f54797065735d2e78

  16. Proteomic analysis of fibroblastema formation in regenerating hind limbs of Xenopus laevis froglets and comparison to axolotl

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To gain insight into what differences might restrict the capacity for limb regeneration in Xenopus froglets, we used High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)/double mass spectrometry to characterize protein expression during fibroblastema formation in the amputated froglet hindlimb, and compared the results to those obtained previously for blastema formation in the axolotl limb. Results Comparison of the Xenopus fibroblastema and axolotl blastema revealed several similarities and significant differences in proteomic profiles. The most significant similarity was the strong parallel down regulation of muscle proteins and enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Regenerating Xenopus limbs differed significantly from axolotl regenerating limbs in several ways: deficiency in the inositol phosphate/diacylglycerol signaling pathway, down regulation of Wnt signaling, up regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and proteins involved in chondrocyte differentiation, lack of expression of a key cell cycle protein, ecotropic viral integration site 5 (EVI5), that blocks mitosis in the axolotl, and the expression of several patterning proteins not seen in the axolotl that may dorsalize the fibroblastema. Conclusions We have characterized global protein expression during fibroblastema formation after amputation of the Xenopus froglet hindlimb and identified several differences that lead to signaling deficiency, failure to retard mitosis, premature chondrocyte differentiation, and failure of dorsoventral axial asymmetry. These differences point to possible interventions to improve blastema formation and pattern formation in the froglet limb. PMID:25063185

  17. Serving Students with Significant Disabilities in Two-Year Colleges: Services for the Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing, Hinds Community College, Raymond, MS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gugerty, John, Ed.; Knutsen, Caryl, Ed.

    This report is an outcome of a project designed to seek, screen, evaluate, describe, and disseminate highly effective approaches used by two-year colleges to serve students with significant disabilities. "Two-year colleges" included academic institutions, technical colleges, and vocational institutes. From a pool of 18 applicants, the project made…

  18. Low-Level Laser Therapy (904 nm) Counteracts Motor Deficit of Mice Hind Limb following Skeletal Muscle Injury Caused by Snakebite-Mimicking Intramuscular Venom Injection.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Willians Fernando; Kenzo-Kagawa, Bruno; Cogo, José Carlos; Baranauskas, Vitor; Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice da

    2016-01-01

    Myotoxins present in Bothrops venom disrupt the sarcolemma of muscle fibers leading to the release of sarcoplasmic proteins and loss of muscle homeostasis. Myonecrosis and tissue anoxia induced by vascularization impairment can lead to amputation or motor functional deficit. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamic behavior of motor function in mice subjected to injection of Bothrops jararacussu venom (Bjssu) and exposed to low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Male Swiss mice received Bjssu injection (830 μg/kg) into the medial portion of the right gastrocnemius muscle. Three hours later the injected region was irradiated with diode semiconductor Gallium Arsenide (GaAs- 904 nm, 4 J/cm²) laser following by irradiation at 24, 48 and 72 hours. Saline injection (0.9% NaCl) was used as control. Gait analysis was performed 24 hours before Bjssu injection and at every period post-Bjssu using CatWalk method. Data from spatiotemporal parameters Stand, Maximum Intensity, Swing, Swing Speed, Stride Length and Step Cycle were considered. The period of 3 hours post venom-induced injury was considered critical for all parameters evaluated in the right hindlimb. Differences (p<0.05) were concentrated in venom and venom + placebo laser groups during the 3 hours post-injury period, in which the values of stand of most animals were null. After this period, the gait characteristics were re-established for all parameters. The venom + laser group kept the values at 3 hours post-Bjssu equal to that at 24 hours before Bjssu injection indicating that the GaAs laser therapy improved spatially and temporally gait parameters at the critical injury period caused by Bjssu. This is the first study to analyze with cutting edge technology the gait functional deficits caused by snake envenoming and gait gains produced by GaAs laser irradiation. In this sense, the study fills a gap on the field of motor function after laser treatment following snake envenoming. PMID:27392016

  19. Fatty liver accompanies an increase in Lactobacillus species in the hind gut of C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-fat diets can produce obesity and have been linked to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). They have also been shown to induce changes in the gut microbiome, metabolic products of which have also been linked to NAFLD. This study tested the hypothesis that high-fat fee...

  20. Low-Level Laser Therapy (904 nm) Counteracts Motor Deficit of Mice Hind Limb following Skeletal Muscle Injury Caused by Snakebite-Mimicking Intramuscular Venom Injection.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Willians Fernando; Kenzo-Kagawa, Bruno; Cogo, José Carlos; Baranauskas, Vitor; Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice da

    2016-01-01

    Myotoxins present in Bothrops venom disrupt the sarcolemma of muscle fibers leading to the release of sarcoplasmic proteins and loss of muscle homeostasis. Myonecrosis and tissue anoxia induced by vascularization impairment can lead to amputation or motor functional deficit. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamic behavior of motor function in mice subjected to injection of Bothrops jararacussu venom (Bjssu) and exposed to low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Male Swiss mice received Bjssu injection (830 μg/kg) into the medial portion of the right gastrocnemius muscle. Three hours later the injected region was irradiated with diode semiconductor Gallium Arsenide (GaAs- 904 nm, 4 J/cm²) laser following by irradiation at 24, 48 and 72 hours. Saline injection (0.9% NaCl) was used as control. Gait analysis was performed 24 hours before Bjssu injection and at every period post-Bjssu using CatWalk method. Data from spatiotemporal parameters Stand, Maximum Intensity, Swing, Swing Speed, Stride Length and Step Cycle were considered. The period of 3 hours post venom-induced injury was considered critical for all parameters evaluated in the right hindlimb. Differences (p<0.05) were concentrated in venom and venom + placebo laser groups during the 3 hours post-injury period, in which the values of stand of most animals were null. After this period, the gait characteristics were re-established for all parameters. The venom + laser group kept the values at 3 hours post-Bjssu equal to that at 24 hours before Bjssu injection indicating that the GaAs laser therapy improved spatially and temporally gait parameters at the critical injury period caused by Bjssu. This is the first study to analyze with cutting edge technology the gait functional deficits caused by snake envenoming and gait gains produced by GaAs laser irradiation. In this sense, the study fills a gap on the field of motor function after laser treatment following snake envenoming.

  1. Low-Level Laser Therapy (904 nm) Counteracts Motor Deficit of Mice Hind Limb following Skeletal Muscle Injury Caused by Snakebite-Mimicking Intramuscular Venom Injection

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Willians Fernando; Kenzo-Kagawa, Bruno; Cogo, José Carlos; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice

    2016-01-01

    Myotoxins present in Bothrops venom disrupt the sarcolemma of muscle fibers leading to the release of sarcoplasmic proteins and loss of muscle homeostasis. Myonecrosis and tissue anoxia induced by vascularization impairment can lead to amputation or motor functional deficit. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamic behavior of motor function in mice subjected to injection of Bothrops jararacussu venom (Bjssu) and exposed to low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Male Swiss mice received Bjssu injection (830 μg/kg) into the medial portion of the right gastrocnemius muscle. Three hours later the injected region was irradiated with diode semiconductor Gallium Arsenide (GaAs– 904 nm, 4 J/cm²) laser following by irradiation at 24, 48 and 72 hours. Saline injection (0.9% NaCl) was used as control. Gait analysis was performed 24 hours before Bjssu injection and at every period post-Bjssu using CatWalk method. Data from spatiotemporal parameters Stand, Maximum Intensity, Swing, Swing Speed, Stride Length and Step Cycle were considered. The period of 3 hours post venom-induced injury was considered critical for all parameters evaluated in the right hindlimb. Differences (p<0.05) were concentrated in venom and venom + placebo laser groups during the 3 hours post-injury period, in which the values of stand of most animals were null. After this period, the gait characteristics were re-established for all parameters. The venom + laser group kept the values at 3 hours post-Bjssu equal to that at 24 hours before Bjssu injection indicating that the GaAs laser therapy improved spatially and temporally gait parameters at the critical injury period caused by Bjssu. This is the first study to analyze with cutting edge technology the gait functional deficits caused by snake envenoming and gait gains produced by GaAs laser irradiation. In this sense, the study fills a gap on the field of motor function after laser treatment following snake envenoming. PMID:27392016

  2. Colonic inflammation and enhanced-beta-catenin signaling accompany an increase of the Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae in the hind gut of high-fat diet-fed mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of an obesigenic / high-fat (HF) diet is associated with an increase of inflammation-related colon cancer risk and may alter the gut microbiota. To test the hypothesis that a HF feeding accelerates inflammatory processes and changes gut microbiome composition, C57BL/6 mice were fed a HF ...

  3. Colonic inflammation and enhanced-beta-catenin signaling accompany an increase of the Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae in the hind gut of high-fat diet-fed mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of an obesigenic / high-fat (HF) diet is associated with a high colon cancer risk, and may alter the gut microbiota. To test the hypothesis that a HF feeding accelerates inflammatory process and changes gut microbiome composition, C57BL/6 mice were fed a HF (45% energy) or low-fat (LF) (...

  4. Possible living flea beetle fossil in Bolivia: A new genus of flea beetles with modified hind legs (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus (Chanealtica) with three new species (C. cuevas, C. ellimon, and C. maxi) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is compared with Aphthonoides Jacoby 1885, Argopistes Motschulsky 1860, Metroserrapha Bechyne 1958, Psylliodes Berthold 1827 and Psyllototus Nadein 2010. Remarkably, ba...

  5. Hind limb muscle atrophy precedes cerebral neuronal degeneration in G93A-SOD1 mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a longitudinal MRI study.

    PubMed

    Marcuzzo, Stefania; Zucca, Ileana; Mastropietro, Alfonso; de Rosbo, Nicole Kerlero; Cavalcante, Paola; Tartari, Silvia; Bonanno, Silvia; Preite, Lorenzo; Mantegazza, Renato; Bernasconi, Pia

    2011-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, fatal, neurodegenerative disorder caused by the degeneration of motor neurons in the CNS, which results in complete paralysis of skeletal muscles. Recent experimental studies have suggested that the disease could initiate in skeletal muscle, rather than in the motor neurons. To establish the timeframe of motor neuron degeneration in relation to muscle atrophy in motor neuron disease, we have used MRI to monitor changes throughout disease in brain and skeletal muscle of G93A-SOD1 mice, a purported model of ALS. Longitudinal MRI examination of the same animals indicated that muscle volume in the G93A-SOD1 mice was significantly reduced from as early as week 8 of life, 4 weeks prior to clinical onset. Progressive muscle atrophy from week 8 onwards was confirmed by histological analysis. In contrast, brain MRI indicated that neurodegeneration occurs later in G93A-SOD1 mice, with hyperintensity MRI signals detected only at weeks 10-18. Neurodegenerative changes were observed only in the motor nuclei areas of the brainstem; MRI changes indicative of neurodegeneration were not detected in the motor cortex where first motor neurons originate, even at the late disease stage. This longitudinal MRI study establishes unequivocally that, in the experimental murine model of ALS, muscle degeneration occurs before any evidence of neurodegeneration and clinical signs, supporting the postulate that motor neuron disease can initiate from muscle damage and result from retrograde dying-back of the motor neurons. PMID:21620832

  6. Right atrial stretch alters fore- and hind-brain expression of c-fos and inhibits the rapid onset of salt appetite.

    PubMed

    De Gobbi, Juliana Irani Fratucci; Menani, Jose Vanderlei; Beltz, Terry G; Johnson, Ralph F; Thunhorst, Robert L; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-08-01

    The inflation of an intravascular balloon positioned at the superior vena cava and right atrial junction (SVC-RAJ) reduces sodium or water intake induced by various experimental procedures (e.g. sodium depletion; hypovolaemia). In the present study we investigated if the stretch induced by a balloon at this site inhibits a rapid onset salt appetite, and if this procedure modifies the pattern of immunohistochemical labelling for Fos protein (Fos-ir) in the brain. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with SVC-RAJ balloons received a combined treatment of furosemide (Furo; 10 mg (kg bw)(-1)) plus a low dose of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (Cap; 5 mg (kg bw)(-1)). Balloon inflation greatly decreased the intake of 0.3 m NaCl for as long as the balloon was inflated. Balloon inflation over a 3 h period following Furo-Cap treatment decreased Fos-ir in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and the subfornical organ and increased Fos-ir in the lateral parabrachial nucleus and caudal ventrolateral medulla. The effect of balloon inflation was specific for sodium intake because it did not affect the drinking of diluted sweetened condensed milk. Balloon inflation and deflation also did not acutely change mean arterial pressure. These results suggest that activity in forebrain circumventricular organs and in hindbrain putative body fluid/cardiovascular regulatory regions is affected by loading low pressure mechanoreceptors at the SVC-RAJ, a manipulation that also attenuates salt appetite.

  7. Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students' Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2 (Creencias de estudiantes universitarios iraníes EFL e hindúes ESL acerca de las estrategias de lectura en L2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karbalaei, Alireza

    2010-01-01

    The notion of "learner beliefs" has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners' beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers' beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study…

  8. Sequence-specific interactions of minor groove binders with the 154 base pair HindIII-RsaI restriction fragment of cDNA of the human Tau 40 protein involved in pathology of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kittler, L; Matesoi, D; Bell, A; Baguley, B C; Unger, E; Löber, G

    1997-01-01

    The DNA minor groove binders netropsin, distamycin and four structurally related bisquaternary ammonium heterocycles (BQA), SN 6999, SN 6570, SN 6132 and SN 6131, were investigated for sequence-specific interactions with the 154 base pair fragment of cDNA of the human Tau 40 protein (h Tau 40 protein), involved in pathology of Alzheimer's disease. The base sequences 5' AATCTT 3', 5' AATATT 3' and 5' TTTCAATCTTTTTATTT 3' were identified as ligand specific binding sites and demonstrate the obvious dA.dT binding preference. Footprinting titration experiments were performed to estimate sequence-specific binding constants (KA). The KA-values were in the order of 10(6)M-1 and dependent on DNA base sequence as well as ligands used. The highest values estimated were for netropsin (KA = 5.0 x 10(6)M-1) and the quinoline derivative SN 6999 (KA = 6.2 x 10(6)M-1) binding to the sequence 5' ATAAT 3'. Microscopic binding constants are determined by the base sequence rather than by the length of dA.dT stretches. In the extended dA.dT run, 5' TTTCAATCTTTTTATTT 3', netropsin and distamycin binding tolerates the presence of two dG.dC base pairs, as indicated by nearly unaffected footprints. In contrast, the failure of BQAs to form footprints demonstrates their significantly decreased binding selectivity.

  9. EXXON Valdez Hindcast (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-03

    Once installed, the 'HindCast Player' HyperCard stack displays the spill trajectory of the EXXON Valdez oil spill in the Prince William Sound in March of 1989. The product, 'Exxon Valdez Hind Cast' contains one compressed file and one documentation file. The file containing the documentation is named 'Read.me', and the compressed file is named Exxon HindCasts'. The compressed folder contains a moov file called 'EXXON Valdez', a HyperCard Stack called, 'HindCast Player v/2', and Apples QuickTime(TM) extension file.

  10. 7. SAND FILTERS, CANAL TO LEFT. CONCRETE OVERFLOW AREA TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SAND FILTERS, CANAL TO LEFT. CONCRETE OVERFLOW AREA TO LEFT OF CANAL ORIGINALLY PLANNED AS A STORAGE LAKE. VIEW LOOKING DUE WEST OF HINDS COMPLEX IN BACKGROUND OF SAND FILTERS. - Hinds Pump Plant, East of Joshua Tree National Monument, 5 miles north of Route 10, Hayfield, Riverside County, CA

  11. Cellular basis of differential limb growth in postnatal gray short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica).

    PubMed

    Beiriger, Anastasia; Sears, Karen E

    2014-06-01

    While growth has been studied extensively in invertebrates, the mechanisms by which it is controlled in vertebrates, particularly in mammals, remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigate the cellular basis of differential limb growth in postnatal Monodelphis domestica, the gray short-tailed opossum, to gain insights into the mechanisms regulating mammalian growth. Opossums are an ideal model for the study of growth because they are born with relatively large, well-developed forelimbs and small hind limbs that must "catch up" to the forelimb before the animal reaches adulthood. Postnatal Days 1-17 were identified as a key period of growth for the hind limbs, during which they undergo accelerated development and nearly quadruple in length. Histology performed on fore- and hind limbs from this period indicates a higher rate of cellular differentiation in the long bones of the hind limbs. Immunohistochemical assays indicate that cellular proliferation is also occurring at a significantly greater rate in the long bones of the hind limb at 6 days after birth. Taken together, these results suggest that a faster rate of cellular proliferation and differentiation in the long bones of the hind limb relative to those of the forelimb generates a period of accelerated growth through which the adult limb phenotype of M. domestica is achieved. Assays for gene expression suggest that the molecular basis of this differential growth differs from that previously identified for differential pre-natal growth in opossum fore- and hind limbs.

  12. Increased SCE levels in Mediterranean Italian buffaloes affected by limb malformation (transversal hemimelia).

    PubMed

    Peretti, V; Ciotola, F; Albarella, S; Restucci, B; Meomartino, L; Ferretti, L; Barbieri, V; Iannuzzi, L

    2008-01-01

    In recent years some buffalo farms in Campania have reported the birth of calves with limb malformation, especially with transversal hemimelia. We investigated 20 Mediterranean Italian buffaloes (8 males and 12 females) from one day to six months of age, of which 10 were affected by transversal hemimelia (group 1) and 10 were healthy controls (group 2). The following clinical and radiological patterns were observed in the malformed animals: hind limbs amputated, the right amputated off the second tarsus bones and the left amputated off the proximal epiphysis metatarsus, and the right thoracic limb hypoplasic (1 female); left hind limb amputated off the proximal epiphysis metatarsus (2 females and 1 male); left hind limb amputated off the third tarsus bones (1 female); left hind limb amputated off the tibia (1 female and 1 male); left hind limb amputated off the distal epiphysis metatarsus (1 female); left hind limb amputated off the first phalanx (1 male); right hind limb amputated off the proximal epiphysis metatarsus (1 male). In their malformed limbs all the animals presented more or less developed outlines of claws. The mean rate of SCE/cell in animals with transversal hemimelia was 8.80 +/- 3.19, that of the controls 6.61 +/- 2.73. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). PMID:18467846

  13. Experimental investigation on the wing-wake interaction at the mid stroke in hovering flight of dragonfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, GuoJun; Shen, GongXin

    2012-11-01

    This paper focuses on flow structures of the wing-wake interaction between the hind wing and the wake of the forewing in hovering flight of a dragonfly since there are arguments whether the wing-wake interaction is useful or not. A mechanical flapping model with two tandem wings is used to study the interaction. In the device, two identical simplified model wings are mounted to the flapping model and they are both scaled up to keep the Reynolds number similar to those of dragonfly in hovering flight since our experiment is conducted in a water tank. The kinetic pattern of dragonfly ( Aeschna juncea) is chosen because of its special interesting asymmetry. A multi-slice phase-locked stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) system is used to record flow structures around the hind wing at the mid downstroke ( t/ T=0.25) and the mid upstroke ( t/ T=0.75). To make comparison of the flow field between with and without the influence of the wake, flow structures around a single flapping wing (hind wing without the existence of the forewing) at these two stroke phases are also recorded. A local vortex identification scheme called swirling strength is applied to determine the vortices around the wing and they are visualized with the iso-surface of swirling strength. This paper also presents contour lines of ω z at each spanwise position of the hind wing, the vortex core position of the leading edge vortex (LEV) of hind wing with respect to the upper surface of hind wing, the circulation of the hind wing LEV at each spanwise position and so on. Experimental results show that dimension and strength of the hind wing LEV are impaired at the mid stroke in comparison with the single wing LEV because of the downwash from the forewing. Our results also reveal that a wake vortex from the forewing traverses the upper surface of the hind wing at the mid downstroke and its distance to the upper surface is about 40% of the wing chord length. At the instant, the distance of the hind wing

  14. CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. 3 DIRECTLY BEHIND; HINDS & CONNER AND "A" BUNGALOWS IN REAR. VISTA DEL ARROYO HOTEL ON RIGHT - Vista del Arroyo Hotel, 125 South Grand Avenue, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS POTENTIALLY RESPONSIBLE FOR MALFORMATIONS IN NORTH AMERICAN ANURAN AMPHIBIANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of species of anuran amphibians from different regions across North America have recently exhibited an increased occurrence of, predominantly, hind limb malformations. Research concerning factors potentially responsible for these malformations has focused extensively on ...

  16. 78 FR 65972 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Scoping Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ..., Bajo de Sico, and Tourmaline Bank. The goal of modifying the closures is to protect the red hind... achieve a more natural sex ratio, age, and size structure, while minimizing adverse social and...

  17. Diabetic Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... made by a veterinarian. Because older dogs and cats are more likely to develop age-related diseases ... cataracts, which commonly develop in diabetic dogs and cats. Other problems that can occur include hind leg ...

  18. 9. HEADGATE STRUCTURE TO TUNNEL. HEADGATE THROTTLED IN THIS PHOTO; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. HEADGATE STRUCTURE TO TUNNEL. HEADGATE THROTTLED IN THIS PHOTO; SEE NEXT PHOTO FOR WATER LEVEL WHEN WIDE OPEN. - Hinds Pump Plant, East of Joshua Tree National Monument, 5 miles north of Route 10, Hayfield, Riverside County, CA

  19. GAIT ANALYSIS IN GIANT ANTEATER (MYRMECOPHAGA TRIDACTYLA) WITH THE USE OF A PRESSURE-SENSITIVE WALKWAY.

    PubMed

    de Faria, Luís Guilherme; Rahal, Sheila Canevese; dos Reis Mesquita, Luciane; Agostinho, Felipe Stefan; Kano, Washington Takashi; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto; Monteiro, Frederico Ozanan Barros

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the kinetic and temporospatial parameters of clinically healthy juvenile giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) by using a pressure-sensing walkway. Three free-ranging clinically healthy giant anteaters (M. tridactyla), two males and one female, aged 5-7 mo, were used. There was no statistically significant difference between the right and left sides for the kinetic and temporospatial parameters for both forelimbs and hind limbs. Although the gait velocity was similar for all giant anteaters, the stride frequency was higher in the smaller anteaters. The difference in stride frequency is associated with body size, which also influenced other temporospatial parameters. The percentage of body distribution was higher on the forelimbs than the hind limbs. The contact surface and trajectory of the force of the forepaws differed from the hind paws. In conclusion, the anteaters have gait peculiarities associated with the anatomical differences between forelimbs and hind limbs. PMID:26056881

  20. High Salt Intake Promotes Urinary Loss of Vitamin D Metabolites by Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats in a Space Flight Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierry-Palmer, M.; Cephas, S.; Sayavongsa, P.; Clark, T.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism in the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat, a model of salt-induced hypertension, differs from that in the Dahl salt-resistant (R) rat. We have demonstrated that female S rats are more vulnerable than female R rats to decreases in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D) concentrations during hind limb unloading (a space flight model). We report here on the response of the vitamin D endocrine system of S and R rats to hind limb unloading during high salt intake. Dahl female rats (9.7-week-old) were tail-suspended (hind limb unloaded) for 28 days, while fed a diet containing twice the salt in standard rat chow (2 % sodium chloride). Control rats were fed the same diet, but were not hind limb unloaded. Vitamin D metabolites were analyzed by HPLC and radioimmunoassay kits from Diasorin.

  1. GAIT ANALYSIS IN GIANT ANTEATER (MYRMECOPHAGA TRIDACTYLA) WITH THE USE OF A PRESSURE-SENSITIVE WALKWAY.

    PubMed

    de Faria, Luís Guilherme; Rahal, Sheila Canevese; dos Reis Mesquita, Luciane; Agostinho, Felipe Stefan; Kano, Washington Takashi; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto; Monteiro, Frederico Ozanan Barros

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the kinetic and temporospatial parameters of clinically healthy juvenile giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) by using a pressure-sensing walkway. Three free-ranging clinically healthy giant anteaters (M. tridactyla), two males and one female, aged 5-7 mo, were used. There was no statistically significant difference between the right and left sides for the kinetic and temporospatial parameters for both forelimbs and hind limbs. Although the gait velocity was similar for all giant anteaters, the stride frequency was higher in the smaller anteaters. The difference in stride frequency is associated with body size, which also influenced other temporospatial parameters. The percentage of body distribution was higher on the forelimbs than the hind limbs. The contact surface and trajectory of the force of the forepaws differed from the hind paws. In conclusion, the anteaters have gait peculiarities associated with the anatomical differences between forelimbs and hind limbs.

  2. Diabrotica collicola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)a new species of leaf beetle from Argentina Discussion and key to some similar species of the Diabrotica virgifera group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The new species Diabrotica collicola Cabrera & Cabrera Walsh is described and illustrated based on specimens collected from Balcozna, Catamarca Province (Argentina). A full description is provided and includes morphological characters of the mouthparts, hind wing venation, binding patch, metendoster...

  3. Shivering in a thoroughbred mare.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, P C

    2000-01-01

    An 11-year-old mare presented with neuromuscular deficits and what resembled shivering in the left hind limb. On necropsy, there was no evidence of denervation atrophy of the left hind gastrocnemius muscle. The spinal cord had a small, right-sided lesion at C3-C4 and C4-C5. Tests for equine herpesvirus-1 and Sarcocystis spp. were negative. PMID:10723600

  4. Evaluation of the response of rat skeletal muscle to a model of weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Templeton, G. H.; Padalino, M.; Glasberg, M.; Manton, J.; Silver, P.; Sutko, J.

    1982-01-01

    Suspension of rats in a head-down tilt position such that their hind limbs are non-load bearing has been proposed as a model for weightlessness. Changes observed in metabolism, bone formation (Morey et al., 1979), and muscle catabolism (Mussachia et al., 1980) support the validity of the model. To further document this model, the effects of suspension on the mechanical, biochemical and histochemical characteristics of two hind limb skeletal muscles, the gastrocnemius and the soleus, are investigated.

  5. Suspected disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in a 3-year-old Perro de Presa Canario dog.

    PubMed

    Denstedt, Emily

    2014-02-01

    A 3-year-old intact male Perro de Presa Canario dog was presented with acutely inflamed and edematous right hind limb, scrotum, prepuce, and an enlarged left carpus. Two weeks later the dog returned with weight loss, draining tracts in the right hind limb, dermal nodules, a palpable abdominal mass, and uveitis in the left eye. The dog succumbed to his illness 2 days later and a widely disseminated round cell tumor compatible with histiocytic sarcoma was diagnosed following postmortem examination.

  6. Altering blood flow does not reveal differences between nitrogen and helium kinetics in brain or in skeletal miracle in sheep.

    PubMed

    Doolette, David J; Upton, Richard N; Grant, Cliff

    2015-03-01

    In underwater diving, decompression schedules are based on compartmental models of nitrogen and helium tissue kinetics. However, these models are not based on direct measurements of nitrogen and helium kinetics. In isoflurane-anesthetized sheep, nitrogen and helium kinetics in the hind limb (n = 5) and brain (n = 5) were determined during helium-oxygen breathing and after return to nitrogen-oxygen breathing. Nitrogen and helium concentrations in arterial, femoral vein, and sagittal sinus blood samples were determined using headspace gas chromatography, and venous blood flows were monitored continuously using ultrasonic Doppler. The experiment was repeated at different states of hind limb blood flow and cerebral blood flow. Using arterial blood gas concentrations and blood flows as input, parameters and model selection criteria of various compartmental models of hind limb and brain were estimated by fitting to the observed venous gas concentrations. In both the hind limb and brain, nitrogen and helium kinetics were best fit by models with multiexponential kinetics. In the brain, there were no differences in nitrogen and helium kinetics. Hind limb models fit separately to the two gases indicated that nitrogen kinetics were slightly faster than helium, but models with the same kinetics for both gases fit the data well. In the hind limb and brain, the blood:tissue exchange of nitrogen is similar to that of helium. On the basis of these results, it is inappropriate to assign substantially different time constants for nitrogen and helium in all compartments in decompression algorithms.

  7. Persistent organic pollutant levels in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.), feed, lichen, blood, milk, placenta, foetus and calf.

    PubMed

    Holma-Suutari, A; Ruokojärvi, P; Laaksonen, S; Kiviranta, H; Nieminen, M; Viluksela, M; Hallikainen, A

    2014-04-01

    A study concerning persistent organic pollutants in Finnish semi-domesticated reindeer was conducted in northern Finland. The aim of this study was to explore POP presence in different tissues of reindeer. In addition, it was studied how POPs are transported from food concentrates and lichen to reindeer hind tissues and further to the placenta, foetus, milk and calf. Concentrations of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), 37 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (including 12 dioxin-like PCBs), and 15 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analysed. In most of the reindeer muscle tissue samples PCBs were clearly dominating compounds (on average 58% of the total WHO-TEQ). The total WHO-TEQ was higher in the muscle tissue of reindeer calves than in their corresponding hinds (on average 1.7 pg/g fat vs. 1.1 pg/g fat, respectively). The total WHO-TEQ concentrations were higher in the muscle and liver tissues of reindeer hinds than in their blood or placentas. The foetuses had clearly lower WHO-TEQ concentrations than their corresponding hinds. The contribution of WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ to the total WHO-TEQ was somewhat higher in the liver than in the muscle tissue. The reindeer hind-calf pair, which had gone through the lichen diet, had on average higher WHO-PCDD/F- and PCB-TEQ concentrations in their tissues than the hind-calf-pair that had gone through the reindeer food concentrate diet. WHO-PCB-TEQs in the reindeer foetuses were equal with the concentrations of placentas. The reindeer foetuses contained generally more PBDEs than their corresponding hinds and placentas. This may indicate effective transport of these compounds through the placenta of reindeer.

  8. The jumping mechanism of cicada Cercopis vulnerata (Auchenorrhyncha, Cercopidae): skeleton-muscle organisation, frictional surfaces, and inverse-kinematic model of leg movements.

    PubMed

    Gorb, Stanislav N

    2004-07-01

    In Auchenorrhyncha, jumping is achieved by metathoracic muscles which are inserted into the trochanter of the hind leg. The synchronisation of movements of the hind legs is a difficult problem, as the leg extension that produces the jump occurs in less than 1 ms. Even slight asynchrony could potentially result in failure of a jump. Both the synchronisation of the movements of a pair of jumping legs, and their stabilisation during a jump, seem to be important problems for small jumping insects. The present study was performed in order to clarify some questions of the functional morphology of the leafhopper jumping mechanism. It is based on skeleton-muscle reconstruction, high-speed video recordings, transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) investigations of the cuticle, together with 3D inverse-kinematic modelling of angles and working zones of hind leg joints of cicada Cercopis vulnerata (Cercopidae). The complete extension of the hind leg takes less than 1 ms, which suggests that the jump is powered not only by the muscle system, but also by an elastic spring. Histological staining and fluorescence microscopy showed resilin-bearing structures, responsible for elastic energy storage, in the pleural area of the metathorax. Synchronisation of hind leg movements may be aided by microtrichia fields that are located on the medial surface of each hind coxa. In Auchenorrhyncha, hind coxae are rounded in their anterior and lateral parts, whereas medial parts are planar, and contact each other over a rather large area. The inverse-kinematic model of propulsive leg movements was used to draw the surface outlined by the medial surface of the coxa, during the jump movement. This is a cone surface, faced with its bulged-in side, medially. Surfaces outlined by the movements of both right and left coxae overlap in their anterior and posterior positions. In both extreme positions, coxae are presumably connected to each other by coupled microtrichia fields. Thus

  9. Gait pattern of heifers before and after claw trimming: a high-speed cinematographic study on a treadmill.

    PubMed

    Meyer, S W; Weishaupt, M A; Nuss, K A

    2007-02-01

    The manner in which the claws contacted the ground at the walk was evaluated in 18 healthy heifers. The animals were filmed before and after claw trimming while walking on a treadmill using high-speed cinematography (500 frames/s). For each limb, 4 consecutive steps were recorded from a side and a frontal plane. The objectives of the study were to evaluate 1) the order of claw contact with the treadmill surface, 2) the initial claw contact area, and 3) the effect of trimming on claw contact patterns. The heifers placed their front feet on the ground in a plane sagittal to the shoulders, whereas the hind feet were advanced more toward the median plane. Before trimming, the lateral claws contacted the ground before the medial in 83% of front and 100% of hind limbs. Trimming changed the percentage to 92% in the front and to 97% in the hind limbs. The percentage with which the heel of the lateral claws became the region of initial contact with the ground increased from 47 to 64% in the front feet and from 50 to 78% in the hind feet. In the medial claws of the forelimbs, claw trimming shifted the region of initial contact from the toe to the abaxial wall and heel. In the hind limbs, the main region of initial contact of the medial claws became the abaxial wall. Weight bearing by the medial claw became visibly apparent only during the midstance, propulsion, and push-off phases. "Heel first" contact of the lateral claws in the front and hind limbs may be the normal gait pattern in cattle. On hard surfaces, this pattern may lead to overload and predispose to disease, especially in the hind limbs. PMID:17235142

  10. Bone structure and quality preserved by active versus passive muscle exercise in 21 days tail-suspended rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Huiqin; Sun, Lian-wen; Fan, Yu-bo

    2012-07-01

    Humans in Space suffer from microgravity-induced attenuated bone strength that needs to be addressed by on-orbit exercise countermeasures. However, exercise prescriptions so far did not adequately counteract the bone loss of astronauts in spaceflight because even active muscle contractions were converted to passive mode during voluntary bouts. We tested our hypothesis in unloaded rat hind limb following twenty-one days of tail-suspension (TS) combined with exercise using a hind limb stepper device designed by our group. Female Sprague Dawley rats (250g b.wt.) were divided into four groups (n=5, each): TS-only (hind limb unloading), TS plus passive mode exercise (TSP) induced by mechanically-forced passive hind limb lifting, TS plus active mode exercise (TSA) entrained by plantar electrostimulation, and control (CON) group. Standard measures of bone (e.g., mineral density, trabecular microstructure, biomechanics and ash weight) were monitored. Results provided that the attenuated properties of unloaded hind limb bone in TS-rats were more effectively supported by active mode than by passive mode motions. We here propose a modified exercise regimen combined with spontaneous muscle contractions thereby considering the biodynamic demands of both muscle and bone during resistive-load exercise in microgravity. Keywords: rat, BMD, DXA, passive exercise, active exercise, bone loss, tail suspension, spaceflight analogue, exercise countermeasure.

  11. How do the substrate reaction forces acting on a gecko's limbs respond to inclines?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhouyi; Dai, Zhendong; Li, Wei; Ji, Aihong; Wang, Wenbao

    2015-02-01

    Locomotion is an essential character of animals, and excellent moving ability results from the delicate sensing of the substrate reaction forces (SRF) acting on body and modulating the behavior to adapt the motion requirement. The inclined substrates present in habitats pose a number of functional challenges to locomotion. In order to effectively overcome these challenges, climbing geckos execute complex and accurate movements that involve both the front and hind limbs. Few studies have examined gecko's SRF on steeper inclines of greater than 90°. To reveal how the SRFs acting on the front and hind limbs respond to angle incline changes, we obtained detailed measurements of the three-dimensional SRFs acting on the individual limbs of the tokay gecko while it climbed on an inclined angle of 0-180°. The fore-aft forces acting on the front and hind limbs show opposite trends on inverted inclines of greater than 120°, indicating propulsion mechanism changes in response to inclines. When the incline angles change, the forces exerted in the normal and fore-aft directions by gecko's front and hind limbs are reassigned to take full advantage of limbs' different roles in overcoming resistance and in propelling locomotion. This also ensures that weight acts in the angle range between the forces generated by the front and hind limbs. The change in the distribution of SRF with a change in the incline angle is directly linked to the favorable trade-off between locomotive maneuverability and stability.

  12. Effect of Autologous Platelet Rich Fibrin on the Healing of Experimental Articular Cartilage Defects of the Knee in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Davoud; Fakhrjou, Ashraf; Mirzazadeh Dizaji, Vahid; Khanzadeh Alishahi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    The effect of autologous platelet rich fibrin (PRF), a second generation platelet product, on the healing of experimental articular cartilage lesions was evaluated in an animal model. Full thickness cartilage lesions with a diameter of 6 mm and depth of 5 mm were created in the weight bearing area of femoral condyles of both hind limbs in 12 adult mixed breed dogs. Defects in the left hind limb of each dog were repaired by PRF implantation whereas those in the right hind limb were left empty. The animals were euthanized at 4, 16, and 24 weeks following surgery and the resultant repair tissue was investigated macroscopically and microscopically. The results of macroscopic and histological evaluations indicated that there were significant differences between the PRF treated and untreated defects. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the use of platelet rich fibrin as a source of autologous growth factors leads to improvement in articular cartilage repair. PMID:25028656

  13. [Instrumentalization of movements induced by stimulation of motor cortex with food reinforcement in dogs].

    PubMed

    Frolov, A G; Pavlova, O G

    2002-01-01

    Contrary to some literature data, the possibility to instrumentalize the movements (liftings) of the hind limb elicited by stimulation of the corresponding contralateral area of the motor cortex was shown. The instrumental reflex (spontaneous high lifting of the hind limb) was acquired after a number of uniform trials: cortical stimulation--movement--food. Food delivery was preceded by a click, which was presented during the hind limb lifting and served as a secondary reinforcement. The acquisition was rather prolonged (50-200 trials) and demanded some special conditions. The results count in favor of the viewpoint that the motor cortex can directly participate in establishing the instrumental conditioned connection (motivation--movement), and simple instrumental movements can be initiated through this connection.

  14. Behavior, color change and time for sexual inversion in the protogynous grouper (Epinephelus adscensionis).

    PubMed

    Kline, Richard J; Khan, Izhar A; Holt, G Joan

    2011-01-01

    Hermaphroditism, associated with territoriality and dominance behavior, is common in the marine environment. While male sex-specific coloration patterns have been documented in groupers, particularly during the spawning season, few data regarding social structure and the context for these color displays are available. In the present study, we define the social structure and male typical behavior of rock hind (Epinephelus adscensionis) in the wild. In addition, we detail the captive conditions and time period necessary to induce the onset of the sex-specific coloration and sexual change. At six oil production platform locations in the Gulf of Mexico, rock hind social group size and typical male rock hind social behavior were documented. We observed a rapid temporary color display in rock hind that could be turned on and off within three seconds and was used for confronting territory intruders and displays of aggression towards females. The male-specific "tuxedo" pattern consists of a bright yellow tail, a body with alternating dark brown and white patches and a dark bar extending from the upper mandible to the operculum. Identification and size ranges of male, female and intersex fish collected from oil platforms were determined in conjunction with gonadal histology. Rock hind social order is haremic with one dominant male defending a territory and a linear dominance hierarchy among individuals. In five captive experiments, the largest remaining female rock hind displayed the male specific color pattern within 32d after dominant male removal from the social group. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence in a grouper species of color patterning used to display territoriality and dominance outside of spawning aggregations. The behavioral paradigm described here is a key advance that will enable mechanistic studies of this complex sex change process.

  15. Kinematic characteristics of Andalusian, Arabian and Anglo-Arabian horses: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Cano, M R; Vivo, J; Miró, F; Morales, J L; Galisteo, A M

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the kinematic trot characteristics of three different breeds of horse: Andalusian (AN, n = 15), Arabian (AR, n = 7) and Anglo-Arabian (AA, n = 5) using standard computer-assisted videography (25 Hz). Linear, temporal and angular parameters in fore- and hind limbs were analysed in six randomly selected strides per horse. Normalised angle-time diagrams along the complete stride were obtained for all joints angles in each breed and specific kinematic characteristics were detected graphically. AA horses displayed longer swing durations in both limbs ans a shorter angular range of motion (ARM) in scapula and pelvis inclination and in shoulder, hip and forelimb retraction-protraction angles. At lift off, stifle and tarsal joint angles were more flexed. In general, only small differences were observed in AR horse kinematics when compared with the other 2 breeds. AN horses presented negative overtracking length, which was positive in AR and AA. In AN horses the elbow and carpal joints were more flexed at the moment of maximal elevation, elbow and fore-fetlock joints also exhibited a larger ARM due to a smaller angle at maximal flexion. In the hind limbs, tarsal, hind fetlock and retraction-protraction angles presented a larger ARM in AN horses due to greater maximal flexion in the tarsal and hind fetlock joints. Fore- and hind fetlocks were also more flexed in horses from this breed. In conclusion, differences between kinematic variables at the trot were observed in the three breeds studied here, mainly in forelimb joints. The most outstanding feature was the greater forelimb flexion recorded in AN horses than in the other breeds which is consistent with the elevated movements in this breed. In AA horses, the ARM of proximal joints involved in retraction protraction in both fore- and hind limbs was smaller. All the differences observed highlighted the idiosyncratic nature of the trot in each breed; this may influence the functional

  16. Sympathetic alpha-adrenergic regulation of blood flow and volume in hamsters arousing from hibernation.

    PubMed

    Osborne, P G; Sato, J; Shuke, N; Hashimoto, M

    2005-08-01

    Mammals arousing from hibernation display pronounced regional heterothermy, where the thoracic and head regions warm faster than the abdominal and hindlimb regions. We used laser-Doppler flowmetry to measure peripheral hind foot blood flow during hibernation and arousal and gamma imaging of technetium-labeled albumin to measure whole blood volume distribution in hamsters arousing from hibernation. It was discovered that the hibernating hamster responds to physical but not to sound or hypercapnic stimulation with rapid, 73% reduction of hind foot blood flow. Hind foot blood flow vasoconstriction was maintained from the onset of arousal until late in arousal when rectal temperature was rapidly increased. alpha-Adrenergic blockade early in arousal increased hind foot blood flow by 700%, suggesting that vasoconstriction was mediated by activation of sympathetic tone. Gamma imaging revealed that, by the early phase of arousal from hibernation, the blood volume of the body below the liver is greatly reduced, whereas blood volumes of the thorax and head are much greater than corresponding volumes in anesthetized hamsters. As arousal progresses and cardiac activity increases and regional heterothermy develops, this regional blood volume distribution is largely maintained; however, blood volume slowly decreases in the thoracic region and slowly increases in the shoulder and head regions. The rapid increase in rectal temperature, characteristic of mid- to late- arousal phases, is probably mediated, in part, by reduction of adrenergic tone on abdominal and hindlimb vasculature. Warm blood then moves into the hind body, produces an increase in temperature, blood flow, and blood volume in the hind body and compensatory reductions of blood volume in the neck, head, and thoracic regions.

  17. The effect of timing electrical stimulation to robotic-assisted stepping on neuromuscular activity and associated kinematics.

    PubMed

    Askari, Sina; Chao, TeKang; de Leon, Ray D; Won, Deborah S

    2013-01-01

    Results of previous studies raise the question of how timing neuromuscular functional electrical stimulation (FES) to limb movements during stepping might alter neuromuscular control differently than patterned stimulation alone. We have developed a prototype FES system for a rodent model of spinal cord injury (SCI) that times FES to robotic treadmill training (RTT). In this study, one group of rats (n = 6) was trained with our FES+RTT system and received stimulation of the ankle flexor (tibialis anterior [TA]) muscle timed according to robot-controlled hind-limb position (FES+RTT group); a second group (n = 5) received a similarly patterned stimulation, randomly timed with respect to the rats' hind-limb movements, while they were in their cages (randomly timed stimulation [RS] group). After 4 wk of training, we tested treadmill stepping ability and compared kinematic measures of hind-limb movement and electromyography (EMG) activity in the TA. The FES+RTT group stepped faster and exhibited TA EMG profiles that better matched the applied stimulation profile during training than the RS group. The shape of the EMG profile was assessed by "gamma," a measure that quantified the concentration of EMG activity during the early swing phase of the gait cycle. This gamma measure was 112% higher for the FES+RTT group than for the RS group. The FES+RTT group exhibited burst-to-step latencies that were 41% shorter and correspondingly exhibited a greater tendency to perform ankle flexion movements during stepping than the RS group, as measured by the percentage of time the hind limb was either dragging or in withdrawal. The results from this study support the hypothesis that locomotor training consisting of FES timed to hind-limb movement improves the activation of hind-limb muscle more so than RS alone. Our rodent FES+RTT system can serve as a tool to help further develop this combined therapy to target appropriate neurophysiological changes for locomotor control.

  18. [The changes of p-Akt/MuRF1/FoxO1 proteins expressions in the conditions of training and immobilization in rats' gastrocnemius muscle].

    PubMed

    Su, Yan-Hong; Su, Zhe; Zhang, Kai; Yuan, Qian-Kun; Liu, Qiang; Lv, Shen; Wang, Zhao-Hui; Zou, Wei

    2014-10-25

    This study was aimed to investigate the changes of muscle protein synthesis and degradation under different movement conditions, so as to provide theoretical basis for muscle atrophy mechanism. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into control, endurance training (treadmill training), hind limb overhanging and eccentric training (treadmill training, angle -16º) groups. The gastrocnemius muscles of rats were taken and weighed. The muscle was sectioned, and HE staining was employed to determine the cell's cross-sectional area. Protein expression of p-Akt was measured by immunohistochemistry; and the expressions of MuRF1 and FoxO1 were determined by Western blot. The results showed that, compared with control group, hind limb overhanging and eccentric training groups exhibited decreased muscle weight and cross-sectional area, but endurance training group did not show any changes. The expressions of p-Akt in endurance and eccentric training groups, not in hind limb overhanging group, were significantly higher than that in control group. Compared with that of control, MuRF1 protein remained unchanged in endurance training groups, but was increased in eccentric training and hind limb overhanging groups; FoxO1 protein was decreased in endurance training group, but was increased in eccentric training and hind limb overhanging groups. These results indicate that movement (endurance and eccentric training) can activate Akt expression, but does not increase muscle weight, whereas eccentric training and hind limb overhanging can increase the expressions of MuRF1 and FoxO1, and induce amyotrophy, suggesting MuRF1 and FoxO1 are major determinant factors in muscle atrophy.

  19. The kangaroo's tail propels and powers pentapedal locomotion

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Shawn M.; Dawson, Terence J.; Kram, Rodger; Donelan, J. Maxwell

    2014-01-01

    When moving slowly, kangaroos plant their tail on the ground in sequence with their front and hind legs. To determine the tail's role in this ‘pentapedal’ gait, we measured the forces the tail exerts on the ground and calculated the mechanical power it generates. We found that the tail is responsible for as much propulsive force as the front and hind legs combined. It also generates almost exclusively positive mechanical power, performing as much mass-specific mechanical work as does a human leg during walking at the same speed. Kangaroos use their muscular tail to support, propel and power their pentapedal gait just like a leg. PMID:24990111

  20. Body region shocked need not critically define the neurochemical basis of stress analgesia.

    PubMed

    Cannon, J T; Terman, G W; Lewis, J W; Liebeskind, J C

    1984-12-10

    Both opioid and non-opioid forms of stress-induced analgesia have been demonstrated in rats, although the conditions leading to their selective activation are still being investigated. We have shown that variations in shock intensity, duration or temporal pattern can determine whether opioid or non-opioid stress analgesia occurs. Others have suggested that body region shocked is the critical determinant, analgesia from front paw shock being opioid and that from hind paw shock non-opioid. We now report that either opioid or non-opioid stress analgesia can be evoked from either front or hind paws depending only on footshock intensity when duration and temporal pattern are held constant.

  1. Osteitis of the apex of the third phalanx following foot trimming in a dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P N

    1998-03-01

    An adult Ayrshire cow was presented with bilateral hind-limb lameness 5 weeks after routine claw trimming. Examination under intravenous regional anaesthesia revealed ulceration of the sole at the toe of both the right lateral and left medial claws of the hind limbs. Radiographic examination showed osteolysis and pathological fractures of the 3rd phalanx of both affected claws. Wooden blocks were fixed to the 2 healthy claws and the bone fragments were removed using a different technique for each claw. Full recovery followed within 11 weeks. The aetiological factors and treatment options for this condition, which was considered to be caused primarily by incorrect claw trimming, are discussed. PMID:9646258

  2. Suspected disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in a 3-year-old Perro de Presa Canario dog

    PubMed Central

    Denstedt, Emily

    2014-01-01

    A 3-year-old intact male Perro de Presa Canario dog was presented with acutely inflamed and edematous right hind limb, scrotum, prepuce, and an enlarged left carpus. Two weeks later the dog returned with weight loss, draining tracts in the right hind limb, dermal nodules, a palpable abdominal mass, and uveitis in the left eye. The dog succumbed to his illness 2 days later and a widely disseminated round cell tumor compatible with histiocytic sarcoma was diagnosed following postmortem examination. PMID:24489399

  3. A new record for Lispe orientalis Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Muscidae) from peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chew, W K; Kurahashi, H; Nazni, W A; Heo, C C; Heah, S K; Jeffery, J; Lee, H L

    2012-09-01

    Lispe orientalis Wiedemann, 1824 is recorded for the first time in peninsular Malaysia. Specimens were collected from a mushroom cultivation farm in Genting Highlands, Pahang (3°25'18"N 101°47'48"E). Previously, this species had been recorded from Azerbaijin, India, Russia, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey and South Korea. The male of Lispe orientalis can be determined by the following characteristics: body non-metallic, ashy gray, third antennal segment black, R5 cell not narrow apically, hind metatarsus normal, legs entirely black, femora with long bristle-like hairs on av and pv surfaces, hind tibia without av and pv seta and the palpi orangish in colour.

  4. [Muscular system of the Microphallus pygmaeus metacercaria (Trematoda: microphallidae)].

    PubMed

    Krupenko, D Iu

    2010-01-01

    The musculature of body wall, attachment organs (oral and ventral suckers), and internal organs (alimentary tract, excretory bladder, and ducts of reproductive system) of the Microphallus pygmaeus metacercaria are described. An unusual arrangement of longitude and diagonal muscles was found in the hind part of the metacercaria body. Longitude fibers of dorsal and lateral body surfaces are bow-shaped and bend round the excretory pore along its ventral margin. An additional group of diagonal fibers is situated in the hind part of ventral body surface.

  5. [Fundamental biological model for trials of wound ballistics].

    PubMed

    Krajsa, J; Hirt, M

    2006-10-01

    The aim of our experiment was the testing of effects of common ammunition on usable and slightly accessible biological tissue thereby to create fundamental simple biological model for trials of wounded ballistic. Like objective tissue was elected biological material - pork and beef hind-limbs, pork head, pork bodily cavity. It was discovered that objective tissue is able to react to singles types of shots in all spectrum results namely simple smooth penetration wound as well as splintery fracture in dependence on kind of using ammunition. Pork hind-limb was evaluated like the most suitable biological material for given object.

  6. Suspected disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in a 3-year-old Perro de Presa Canario dog.

    PubMed

    Denstedt, Emily

    2014-02-01

    A 3-year-old intact male Perro de Presa Canario dog was presented with acutely inflamed and edematous right hind limb, scrotum, prepuce, and an enlarged left carpus. Two weeks later the dog returned with weight loss, draining tracts in the right hind limb, dermal nodules, a palpable abdominal mass, and uveitis in the left eye. The dog succumbed to his illness 2 days later and a widely disseminated round cell tumor compatible with histiocytic sarcoma was diagnosed following postmortem examination. PMID:24489399

  7. Bone loss during simulated weightlessness - Is it glucocorticoid mediated?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Halloran, B. P.; Cone, C. M.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1985-01-01

    Elevating the hindquarters of a rat by the tail unweights the hind limbs but maintains normal weight-bearing by the forelimbs. This maneuver leads to a decrease in bone mass and calcium content in the unweighted bones (e.g., tibia and L1 vertebra), but not in the normally weighted bones (e.g., humerus and mandible). Potentially, the stress of the maneuver, mediated by increased glucocorticoid production and secretion, could explain the decreased bone formation, rather than the skeletal unweighting per se. To test this possibility, the effects of adrenalectomy on the response of bone to the unweighting of the hind limbs of normal rats were evaluated.

  8. Taxonomic Study of the Genus Apalacris Walker (Orthoptera: Catantopidae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Z M; Lin, L L; Niu, Y

    2016-02-01

    The research history of the genus Apalacris is reviewed; a key to all known species of the genus is given, and one new species, Apalacris eminifronta n. sp., and one new combination, Apalacris maculifemura (Lin & Zheng), are described. The new species is very closely related to Apalacris antennata Liang, but differs in the following characters: (1) tegmen longer, reaching apex of hind femur; (2) basal part of inner side of hind femur orange red; (3) frontal ridge more protruded, obviously depressed under median ocellus in lateral view; and (4) epiphallus bridge prominent, ancora shorter than anterior projection. PMID:26514365

  9. Active specific immunotherapy using the immune reaction of a low-dose irradiated tumor tissue. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Y.; Imanaka, K.; Ashida, C.; Takashima, H.; Imajo, Y.; Kimura, S.

    1983-04-01

    Active specific immunotherapy using the immune reaction of a low-dose irradiated tumor tissue was studied on the transplanted MM46 tumor of female C3H/He mice after radiotherapy. MM46 tumor cells were inoculated into the right hind paws of mice. On the 5th day, irradiation with the dose irradiated tumor tissue (2000 rad on the fifth day), were injected into the left hind paws of the tumor-bearing mice. Effectiveness of this active specific immunotherapy against tumor was evaluated by the regression of tumor and survival rate of mice. Tumor was markedly regressed and survival rate was significantly increased by the active specific immunitherapy.

  10. The combined influence of stretch, mobility and electrical stimulation in the prevention of muscle fiber atrophy caused hypokinesia and hypodynamia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldspink, G.; Goldspink, D.; Loughna, P.

    1984-01-01

    The morphological and biochemical changes which occur in the hind limb muscles of the rat in response to hypokinesia and hypodynamia were investigated. Hind limb cast fixation and suspension techniques were employed to study the musclar atrophy after five days of hypokinesia and hypodynamia induced by suspension, appreciable muscular atrophy was apparent, particularly in the anti-gravity muscles. The effect of passive stretching and electrical stimulation on muscle atrophy was studied. Changes in muscle protein mass were assessed with spectrophotometric and radioactive techniques. Passive stretch is shown to counteract muscle disuse atrophy. The change in the numbers of specific muscle fibers in atrophied muscles is discussed.

  11. Distraction osteogenesis for treatment of premature physeal closure and shortening of the third and fourth metatarsals of a dog.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Robert B; Cook, James L; Tomlinson, James L

    2003-01-01

    A 4-month-old Siberian husky was presented for a history of lameness of the left hind limb. Physical and radiographic examination revealed a 1-cm shortening of metatarsals III and IV, with subsequent hyperextension of the digits on the left hind paw. A circular external skeletal fixator was used to accomplish distraction osteogenesis in both metatarsals over a period of 15 days. Treatment was successful in restoring appropriate length of the metatarsals and in resolution of the lameness. At 6 and 12 months after surgery, the owner reported that the dog was ambulating normally and had no complications related to the surgery.

  12. The effect of pregabalin - codeine combination on partial sciatic nerve ligation - induced peripheral mononeuropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Popa, G; Mititelu Tartau, L; Stoleriu, I; Lupusoru, R V; Lupusoru, C E; Ochiuz, L

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigates the effects of pregabalin (PGB) and codeine (COD) combination on neuropathic hyperalgesia in an animal model of peripheral nerve injury represented by partial sciatic nerve ligation. Hot plate and analgesimeter tests were performed to evaluate the influence of PGB, COD and their combination on thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia in the hind paw with partial sciatic nerve ligation. Reactivity was evaluated by measuring the latency to withdrawal of the operated hind paw from the noxious heat and pressure stimulation. Nociceptive thresholds were evaluated before (baseline) and in the 1(st), 3(rd), 5(th) and 7(th) day after surgical procedure. The investigation demonstrates that the treatment with PGB attenuated partial sciatic nerve ligation development of thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia in rats operated hind paw. The oral administration, during 14 consecutive days of PGB-COD combination significantly reduced the degree of both thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia in the hind paw with partial sciatic nerve ligation. These results suggest that the association of PGB with COD exerted ameliorative effect on partial sciatic nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain in rats. PMID:27512007

  13. Closing the Gap between Research Evidence and Clinical Practice: Jordanian Nurses' Perceived Barriers to Research Utilisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khalaileh, Murad; Al Qadire, Mohammad; Musa, Ahmad S.; Al-Khawaldeh, Omar A.; Al Qudah, Hani; Alhabahbeh, Atalla

    2016-01-01

    Background: The nursing profession is a combination of theory and practical skill, and nurses are required to generate and develop knowledge through implementing research into clinical practice. Considerable number of barriers could hind implementing research findings into practice. Barriers to research utilisation are not identified in the…

  14. Dynamic Pattern Formation for Wings of Pterygota in an Eclosion ---Pattern Analysis for Wings with the Imago---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seino, M.; Kakazu, Y.

    The vein and cell patterns for the fore and hind wing of Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Odonata are analyzed and discussed. For vein patterns of them, the fractal properties are shown and the inequality between four orders is obtained. The nature of wings observed by mass distributions for fractal dimensions of the vein pattern is presented.

  15. Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library for hexaploid wheat line 92R137

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For map-based cloning of genes conferring important traits in the hexaploid wheat line 92R137, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, including two sub libraries, was constructed using the genomic DNA of 92R137 digested with restriction enzymes HindIII and BamHI. The BAC library was compos...

  16. Development of a high-density intra-specific linkage map of lettuce using genotyping by sequencing (GBS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) has been developed as an affordable application of next-generation sequencing for the purposes of discovering and genotyping SNPs in a variety of crop species and populations. In this study we employed a double restriction enzyme digestion protocol (HindIII and NlaIII)...

  17. Clonal differences in IgE antibodies affect cutaneous anaphylaxis-associated thermal sensitivity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Madison; Tonc, Elena; Ashbaugh, Alyssa; Wetzel, Abigail; Sykes, Akilah; Engblom, Camilla; Shabani, Estela; Mora-Solano, Carolina; Trier, Anna; Swanson, Linnea; Ewan, Emily; Martinov, Tijana; Chatterjea, Devavani

    2014-01-01

    Cellular and molecular mediators of immune responses are increasingly implicated in acute and chronic pain pathophysiologies. Here we demonstrate that passive cutaneous IgE/Ag anaphylaxis provokes increased thermal sensitivity in the hind paw tissue of mice. The murine anti-DNP IgE antibodies SPE-7 and ε26 are known to induce differential cytokine production in bone marrow cultured mast cells in vitro without antigen challenge. We found a novel, antigen-dependent heterogeneity in the thermal pain responses elicited in the hind paws between SPE-7 and ε26 sensitized DNP-challenged mice. Mice experienced pronounced hind paw thermal sensitivity lasting 6 hours after DNP challenge when sensitized with SPE-7 but not ε26 IgE. The two IgE clones induced equivalent hind paw edema, neutrophil influx, cytokine production, and reduction in tissue histamine content in vivo, and bound to the same or overlapping epitopes on the DNP antigen in vitro. Therefore IgE antibodies against the same antigen can induce comparable inflammation, yet contribute to markedly different anaphylaxis-associated pain within an allergic response, suggesting that non-canonical IgE binding partners such as sensory neurons may play a role in allergy-related pain responses. PMID:25149207

  18. Stress: Family, Economic, and Management Considerations. Papers of the Annual Conference of the Western Region Home Management Family Economics Educators (28th, Salt Lake City, Utah, November 3-5, 1988). Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holyoak, Arlene, Ed.

    These proceedings consist of 16 papers, some of which are followed by discussants' comments. They include: "Growing Older in a Rural Retirement Community" (Brokaw, Peters, Tripple; discussants Olson, Tucker; "An Interactive Computer Model for Achieving Personal Financial Goals" (Dilbeck, Hinds, Ulivi; discussants Burton, Peterson); "The Economics…

  19. Na+ Dysregulation Coupled with Ca2+ Entry through NCX1 Promotes Muscular Dystrophy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Burr, Adam R.; Millay, Douglas P.; Goonasekera, Sanjeewa A.; Park, Ki Ho; Sargent, Michelle A.; Collins, James; Altamirano, Francisco; Philipson, Kenneth D.; Allen, Paul D.; Ma, Jianjie; López, José Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Unregulated Ca2+ entry is thought to underlie muscular dystrophy. Here, we generated skeletal-muscle-specific transgenic (TG) mice expressing the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger 1 (NCX1) to model its identified augmentation during muscular dystrophy. The NCX1 transgene induced dystrophy-like disease in all hind-limb musculature, as well as exacerbated the muscle disease phenotypes in δ-sarcoglycan (Sgcd−/−), Dysf−/−, and mdx mouse models of muscular dystrophy. Antithetically, muscle-specific deletion of the Slc8a1 (NCX1) gene diminished hind-limb pathology in Sgcd−/− mice. Measured increases in baseline Na+ and Ca2+ in dystrophic muscle fibers of the hind-limb musculature predicts a net Ca2+ influx state due to reverse-mode operation of NCX1, which mediates disease. However, the opposite effect is observed in the diaphragm, where NCX1 overexpression mildly protects from dystrophic disease through a predicted enhancement in forward-mode NCX1 operation that reduces Ca2+ levels. Indeed, Atp1a2+/− (encoding Na+-K+ ATPase α2) mice, which have reduced Na+ clearance rates that would favor NCX1 reverse-mode operation, showed exacerbated disease in the hind limbs of NCX1 TG mice, similar to treatment with the Na+-K+ ATPase inhibitor digoxin. Treatment of Sgcd−/− mice with ranolazine, a broadly acting Na+ channel inhibitor that should increase NCX1 forward-mode operation, reduced muscular pathology. PMID:24662047

  20. A thymic carcinoid in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Powe, Joshua; Castleman, William; Fiorello, Christine

    2005-09-01

    An 18-yr-old Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) presented with acute onset hind limb paresis. Radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging revealed a caudal abdominal aortic thrombus and a cranial mediastinal mass. Necropsy confirmed aortic thrombosis. Necrotizing enteritis and multifocal renal thrombosis were also noted. The cranial mediastinum contained a bilobed mass that histologically and ultrastructurally was consistent with a carcinoid.

  1. The etiology of digital dermatitis in ruminants: recent perspectives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digital dermatitis is a multifactorial polymicrobial infectious disease originally described in dairy cattle but is increasingly recognized in beef cattle, sheep and more recently, elk. Clinical bovine lesions typically appear on the plantar surface of the hind foot from the interdigital space and h...

  2. Sequencing the Pig Genome Using a Mapped BAC by BAC Approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have generated a highly contiguous physical map covering >98% of the pig genome in just 176 contigs. The map is localised to the genome through integration with the UIUC RH map as well BAC end sequence alignments to the human genome. Over 265k HindIII restriction digest fingerprints totalling 1...

  3. 78 FR 44932 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Pearl River Section...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... Statement for the Pearl River Section 211 Watershed Project for the Pearl River Watershed, Mississippi...: Pursuant to Section 211 of the Water Resources Development Act of 1996, the Rankin-Hinds Pearl River Flood... conducting a re-analysis of all engineering, economic, and environmental factors relative to...

  4. Identifying Developmental Cascades among Differentiated Dimensions of Social Competence and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Bethany L.; Perry, Nicole B.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; Shanahan, Lilly

    2015-01-01

    This study used data from 356 children, their mothers, teachers, and peers to examine the longitudinal and dynamic associations among 3 dimensions of social competence derived from Hinde's (1987) framework of social complexity: social skills, peer group acceptance, and friendship quality. Direct and indirect associations among each discrete…

  5. Campus Communications in the Age of Crises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Recent catastrophes have brought about numerous critiques and changes to campus communications. In this article, the author shares the lessons she has learned from the crises she experienced during her 18 years of being the president of Trinity (Washington) University. Furthermore, Joan Hinde Stewart, president of Hamilton College, adds her…

  6. Experiment K-7-21: Effect of Microgravity on 1: Metabolic Enzymes of Type 1 and Type 2 Muscle Fibers, and on 2: Metabolic Enzymes, Neurotransmitter Amino Acids, and Neurotransmitter Associated Enzymes in Selected Regions of the Central Nervous System. Part 1; Metabolic Enzymes of Individual Muscle Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, O. H.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Krasnov, I. B.; Carter, J. G.; Chi, M. M.-Y.; Choksi, R.; Manchester, J. K.; McDougal, D. B.; Nemeth, P. M.; Pusateri, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    Individual fibers of any given muscle vary widely in enzyme composition, a fact obscured when enzyme levels of whole muscle are measured. Therefore, the purpose of this part of the study was to assess the effects of microgravity and hind limb suspension on the enzyme patterns within a slow twitch muscle (soleus) and a fast twitch muscle (tibialis anterior).

  7. 77 FR 61559 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Nassau Grouper as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... speckled hind were made on June 1, 2011 (76 FR 31592), and May 1, 2012 (77 FR 25687), respectively. ESA... species under the ESA (``DPS Policy''; 61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). A species, subspecies, or DPS is... impacts and threats to the species. We evaluate any information on specific demographic factors...

  8. Implementation of a Competency-Based Teacher Education Program. Final Report, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Lee

    The purpose of this project was to help implement the change from traditional instructional programs in teacher education at Jackson State College, Mississippi, to programs which are competency-based, starting with the faculty and interns of Jackson State College-Hinds County Teacher Corps Program. From July 1970 through July 1971, 36 interns…

  9. The Efficacy of Learning Communities in Assisting Developmental Students in Achieving Graduation and Accumulation of Credit Hours in a Southern Metropolitan Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashley, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Hinds Community College (HCC) engaged in a study that produced the transitional program. This program was in response to high rates of attrition of the college's freshmen classes because of poor academic performance. This dissertation evaluated the effectiveness of the transitional program's main component-the learning community created…

  10. Fine mapping for Weaver Syndrome in the Brown Swiss breed with the identification of possible casual mutations across NRCAM, PNPLA8, and CTTNBP2 and Developement of a diagnostic SNP haplotype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine Progressive Degenerative Myeloencephalopathy (Weaver Syndrome) is a recessive neurological disease that has been observed in the Brown Swiss cattle breed since the 1970’s in North America and Europe. Bilateral hind leg weakness and ataxia appear in afflicted animals at 6 to 18 months of age,...

  11. Na+ dysregulation coupled with Ca2+ entry through NCX1 promotes muscular dystrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Burr, Adam R; Millay, Douglas P; Goonasekera, Sanjeewa A; Park, Ki Ho; Sargent, Michelle A; Collins, James; Altamirano, Francisco; Philipson, Kenneth D; Allen, Paul D; Ma, Jianjie; López, José Rafael; Molkentin, Jeffery D

    2014-06-01

    Unregulated Ca(2+) entry is thought to underlie muscular dystrophy. Here, we generated skeletal-muscle-specific transgenic (TG) mice expressing the Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger 1 (NCX1) to model its identified augmentation during muscular dystrophy. The NCX1 transgene induced dystrophy-like disease in all hind-limb musculature, as well as exacerbated the muscle disease phenotypes in δ-sarcoglycan (Sgcd(-/-)), Dysf(-/-), and mdx mouse models of muscular dystrophy. Antithetically, muscle-specific deletion of the Slc8a1 (NCX1) gene diminished hind-limb pathology in Sgcd(-/-) mice. Measured increases in baseline Na(+) and Ca(2+) in dystrophic muscle fibers of the hind-limb musculature predicts a net Ca(2+) influx state due to reverse-mode operation of NCX1, which mediates disease. However, the opposite effect is observed in the diaphragm, where NCX1 overexpression mildly protects from dystrophic disease through a predicted enhancement in forward-mode NCX1 operation that reduces Ca(2+) levels. Indeed, Atp1a2(+/-) (encoding Na(+)-K(+) ATPase α2) mice, which have reduced Na(+) clearance rates that would favor NCX1 reverse-mode operation, showed exacerbated disease in the hind limbs of NCX1 TG mice, similar to treatment with the Na(+)-K(+) ATPase inhibitor digoxin. Treatment of Sgcd(-/-) mice with ranolazine, a broadly acting Na(+) channel inhibitor that should increase NCX1 forward-mode operation, reduced muscular pathology. PMID:24662047

  12. Validation of a new radiographic protocol for Asian elephant feet and description of their radiographic anatomy.

    PubMed

    Mumby, C; Bouts, T; Sambrook, L; Danika, S; Rees, E; Parry, A; Rendle, M; Masters, N; Weller, R

    2013-10-01

    Foot problems are extremely common in elephants and radiography is the only imaging method available but the radiographic anatomy has not been described in detail. The aims of this study were to develop a radiographic protocol for elephant feet using digital radiography, and to describe the normal radiographic anatomy of the Asian elephant front and hind foot. A total of fifteen cadaver foot specimens from captive Asian elephants were radiographed using a range of projections and exposures to determine the best radiographic technique. This was subsequently tested in live elephants in a free-contact setting. The normal radiographic anatomy of the Asian elephant front and hind foot was described with the use of three-dimensional models based on CT reconstructions. The projection angles that were found to be most useful were 65-70° for the front limb and 55-60° in the hind limb. The beam was centred 10-15 cm proximal to the cuticle in the front and 10-15 cm dorsal to the plantar edge of the sole in the hind foot depending on the size of the foot. The protocol developed can be used for larger-scale diagnostic investigations of captive elephant foot disorders, while the normal radiographic anatomy described can improve the diagnostic reliability of elephant feet radiography.

  13. Mississippi's Public Community and Junior Colleges Statistical Data, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges, Jackson.

    This document presents the 1998-1999 statistical data for the following 15 Mississippi (MS) public community and junior colleges: Coahoma, Copiah-Lincoln, East Central, East MS, Hinds, Holmes, Itawamba, Jones, Meridian, MS Delta, MS Gulf Coast, Northeast MS, Northwest MS, Pearl River, and Southwest MS. It begins with a list of State Board members…

  14. 76 FR 32984 - Mississippi; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... a major disaster under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... this declared major disaster: Clarke, Greene, Hinds, Jasper, Kemper, Lafayette, and Monroe Counties...

  15. Milk drop due to leptospirosis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    Leptospiral milk drop in dairy cows. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mastitis in a cow. Systemic pasteurellosis in lambs. Encephalopathy due to water deprivation/salt poisoning suspected in weaned lambs. Biliary cystadenoma in a red deer hind. These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for November 2014 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:25748187

  16. A remarkable new species of Eutrichopoda Townsend, 1908 (Diptera: Tachinidae: Phasiinae).

    PubMed

    Dios, Rodrigo De Vilhena Perez; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo

    2016-01-01

    A new Tachinidae species, Eutrichopoda flavipenna sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae: Phasiinae), from Brazil and Paraguay is described and illustrated by photographs and line drawings. The remarkable yellow, feather-like setae on the hind tibia distinguishes the new species from all other species in the tribe Trichopodini. PMID:27395220

  17. Assessment of temperament in Rusa timorensis and its relationship to stress.

    PubMed

    Mahre, M B; Wahid, H; Rosnina, Y; Jesse, F F A

    2015-03-01

    The delayed domestication of may be associated with their poor temperament and to date there is no published information on the temperament of the farmed Understanding of the temperament and selection program for its evaluation in a breeding herd is important not only for farming but also to other types of animal production. We investigated the temperament of ( = 17) raised in the tropics and determined its relationship with stress. A distance of 13.2 m was fixed for the measurement of flight times. hinds with rapid speed are considered temperamental. Each hind was earmarked for a crush test score between 1 and 5; 1 represents calm and 5 represents highly agitated . Stress was determined by measuring plasma cortisol using a cortisol RIA kit and live weight gain was determined by weighing the animals weekly. The hinds were aged using their date of birth records. We found a strong negative correlation between flight time, crush score, and plasma cortisol concentration ( < 0.05). Animals with very poor temperament have elevated plasma cortisol level and lower weight gain ( < 0.05). It was concluded that flight time, crush score, and plasma cortisol concentration could be used for selecting hinds based on temperament for the breeding herd. This method is quick and easy to implement on a farm; therefore, it remains the test choice for selecting animals based on temperament for the breeding herd.

  18. Emotional Teaching--An Effective Approach to Improve CET

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shan, Guoqian

    2008-01-01

    As a matter of fact, many teachers and managements are puzzled about and not satisfied with the teaching results. They have no idea about the real reason. Actually, they pay more attention to recognition and less attention to the development of emotion of the students, which, to some extent, hinds the development of positive personalities of the…

  19. Identifying the RNA polymerases that synthesize specific transcripts of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus.

    PubMed

    Huh, N E; Weaver, R F

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear run-on assays carried out in the presence and absence of the RNA polymerase II inhibitor, alpha-amanitin, were used to determine the exact timing of the switch from inhibitor-sensitive transcription catalysed by host RNA polymerase II, to inhibitor-resistant transcription catalysed by the baculovirus-induced RNA polymerase. These studies revealed that the onset of alpha-amanitin-resistant transcription is just after 6 h post-infection, simultaneous with the beginning of the late phase of infection. They also showed that transcripts from the p26 gene in the HindIII Q/P region and the p35 gene in the HindIII K/Q region of the viral genome are synthesized by the host RNA polymerase II both early and late in infection. On the other hand, transcripts of the p10 gene in the HindIII Q/P region and the gamma transcripts in the HindIII K region are synthesized by the alpha-amanitin-resistant, virus-induced RNA polymerase late in infection. PMID:2106003

  20. Effect of mixed micelle formulations including terpenes on the transdermal delivery of diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Hendradi, Esti; Obata, Yasuko; Isowa, Koichi; Nagai, Tsuneji; Takayama, Kozo

    2003-12-01

    The significant inhibitory action of diclofenac formulated in mixed micelles of lecithin with cholate or deoxycholate was observed on the rat hind paw edema induced by carrageenan. In the primary stage, mixed micelle formulation of deoxycholate was more effective compared with that of cholate. However, in the final term, the inhibitory action was similar in both formulations. In a previous study, the flux of diclofenac was greater in the mixed micelle formulation of deoxycholate compared with that of cholate. It was suggested that the permeation rate of diclofenac through skin was proportional to the pharmacological activity. The hind paw edema was quickly inhibited when cyclic monoterpene such as d-limonene or l-menthol was included in the formulations. All the micelle formulations significantly decreased the value of AUC estimated the hind paw thickness-time profile. This suggests that the micelle formulation of cholate in addition to deoxycholate showed significant anti-inflammatory activity to hind paw edema of rats. Incorporation of d-limonene or l-menthol was more effective on the decrease of AUC. A pharmacological study revealed that micelle formulations were able to reduce the skin irritation of chemicals.

  1. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of porcupine quill foreign bodies in the plantar flexor tendon sheath region in a heifer.

    PubMed

    Mulon, Pierre-Yves; Achard, Damien; Babkine, Marie

    2010-08-01

    A 17-month-old Holstein heifer was presented for persistent enlargement above the right hind fetlock of 1-month's duration. Diffuse plantar soft tissue swelling was present on the radiographs and ultrasonography revealed the presence of multiple porcupine quill extremities embedded in the subcutaneous tissue within the flexor tendon sheath wall. Surgical removal was performed. PMID:21037892

  2. A cockroach that jumps.

    PubMed

    Picker, Mike; Colville, Jonathan F; Burrows, Malcolm

    2012-06-23

    We report on a newly discovered cockroach (Saltoblattella montistabularis) from South Africa, which jumps and therefore differs from all other extant cockroaches that have a scuttling locomotion. In its natural shrubland habitat, jumping and hopping accounted for 71 per cent of locomotory activity. Jumps are powered by rapid and synchronous extension of the hind legs that are twice the length of the other legs and make up 10 per cent of the body weight. In high-speed images of the best jumps the body was accelerated in 10 ms to a take-off velocity of 2.1 m s(-1) so that the cockroach experienced the equivalent of 23 times gravity while leaping a forward distance of 48 times its body length. Such jumps required 38 µJ of energy, a power output of 3.4 mW and exerted a ground reaction force through both hind legs of 4 mN. The large hind legs have grooved femora into which the tibiae engage fully in advance of a jump, and have resilin, an elastic protein, at the femoro-tibial joint. The extensor tibiae muscles contracted for 224 ms before the hind legs moved, indicating that energy must be stored and then released suddenly in a catapult action to propel a jump. Overall, the jumping mechanisms and anatomical features show remarkable convergence with those of grasshoppers with whom they share their habitat and which they rival in jumping performance.

  3. Serving Students with Significant Disabilities in Two-Year Colleges: A Summary of Six Highly Effective Approaches. More News You Can Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gugerty, John, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Describes six programs: special-needs instructional support services, Lakeshore Technical College, Wisconsin; services for deaf and hard of hearing, Hinds Community College, Mississippi; program accessibility committee, Florence-Darlington Technical College, South Carolina; Project ABLE, Metropolitan Community College, Missouri; Center for Special…

  4. Task specific adaptations in rat locomotion: runway versus horizontal ladder.

    PubMed

    Bolton, David A E; Tse, Arthur D Y; Ballermann, Mark; Misiaszek, John E; Fouad, Karim

    2006-04-01

    In walking quadrupeds the alternating activity pattern of antagonistic leg muscles and the coordination between legs is orchestrated by central pattern generating networks within the spinal cord. These networks are activated by tonic input from the reticular formation in the brainstem. Under more challenging conditions, such as walking on a horizontal ladder, successful locomotion relies upon additional context dependent input from pathways such as the cortico- and rubro-spinal tracts. In this study we used electromyographic and kinematic approaches to characterize the adaptations in the walking pattern in adult uninjured rats crossing a horizontal ladder. We found that the placement of a hind limb on a rung precisely followed the placement of the ipsilateral fore limb. This is different to normal walking where the hind limb is placed behind the position of the ipsilateral fore limb. The increased reach of the hind limbs is achieved by increased flexion of the hip and rotation of the pelvis during the swing phase. Electromyographic observations showed decreased burst duration in Tibialis anterior an ankle flexor muscle. Further changes in the muscle activity pattern were likely due to the reduced stepping frequency during ladder walking. Following a lesion of the dorsal column, containing major parts of the corticospinal tract, we found an increased number of stepping errors and changes in the stepping strategy. The step length of the fore limbs was reduced and the hind limbs were frequently positioned on rungs other than those occupied by the fore limb. PMID:16406145

  5. 76 FR 74757 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Annual Catch Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... therefore limited in their range to south of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, on the east coast of the U.S..., longspine porgy, ocean triggerfish, rock sea bass, and schoolmaster as EC species within the Snapper-Grouper... tilefish, queen snapper, black snapper, and blackfin snapper); shallow-water groupers (red hind, rock...

  6. High-resolution genetic mapping of maize pan-genome sequence anchors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to single-nucleotide polymorphisms, structural variation is abundant in many plant genomes. The structural variation across a species can be represented by a ‘pan-genome’, which is essential to fully understand the genetic control of phenotypes. However, the pan-genome’s complexity hinde...

  7. A remarkable new pygmy grasshopper (Orthoptera, Tetrigidae) in Miocene amber from the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Heads, Sam W.; Thomas, M. Jared; Wang, Yinan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of pygmy grasshopper (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae) is described from Early Miocene (Burdigalian) Dominican amber. Electrotettix attenboroughi Heads & Thomas, gen. et sp. n. is assigned to the subfamily Cladonotinae based on the deeply forked frontal costa, but is remarkable for the presence of tegmina and hind wings, hitherto unknown in this subfamily. PMID:25147472

  8. Acute monensin toxicosis in Stone sheep (Ovis dalli stonei), blesbok (Damaliscus dorcus phillipsi), and a Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus).

    PubMed

    Miller, R E; Boever, W J; Junge, R E; Thornburg, L P; Raisbeck, M F

    1990-01-01

    Accidental monensin toxicosis developed in 5 Stone sheep (Ovis dalli stonei), 5 blesbok (Damaliscus dorcas phillipsi), and a Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) at the St Louis Zoological Park. Eight animals died acutely and 1 was euthanatized because of chronic hind limb paresis. All affected animals had clinicopathologic evidence of severe muscle necrosis, serum electrolyte disturbances, and hemoconcentration. PMID:2295548

  9. Three-Dimensional Wing Kinematics and Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Beetle in Free Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Truong, Tien; Byun, Doyoung; Tran, Hieu Trung; Quang Le, Tuyen; Park, Hoon Cheol; Kim, Minjun

    2010-11-01

    Detailed three dimensional wing kinematics and aerodynamic characteristics are experimentally presented for the free flight of a beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, which has a pair of elytra (fore wings) and hind wings. The kinematic parameters of the wing motion, such as the wing tip trajectory, angle of attack, torsion angle, and camber deformation, are obtained from a 3D reconstruction technique that involves the use of two or three synchronized high-speed cameras to digitize various points marked on the wings. Our data show outstanding characteristics of wing deformation and flexibility in the free flight of the beetle. To find out the mechanism of aerodynamic force, the leading edge vortex (LEV) and trailing edge vortex (TEV) on both elytron and hind wing were observed by using smoke wire visualization and digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) technique. Qualitative smoke lines in the region of the most intent vortex shedding demonstrate clearly the interaction between elytron and hind wing in hovering, forward, and climbing flight conditions. In addition, flow fields near regions of the elytron and the hind wing are quantitatively analyzed in order to visualize the LEV and calculate the circulation and lift coefficient by means of a DPIV experiment.

  10. A thymic carcinoid in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Powe, Joshua; Castleman, William; Fiorello, Christine

    2005-09-01

    An 18-yr-old Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) presented with acute onset hind limb paresis. Radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging revealed a caudal abdominal aortic thrombus and a cranial mediastinal mass. Necropsy confirmed aortic thrombosis. Necrotizing enteritis and multifocal renal thrombosis were also noted. The cranial mediastinum contained a bilobed mass that histologically and ultrastructurally was consistent with a carcinoid. PMID:17312779

  11. Immobilization-induced hypersensitivity associated with spinal cord sensitization during cast immobilization and after cast removal in rats.

    PubMed

    Hamaue, Yohei; Nakano, Jiro; Sekino, Yuki; Chuganji, Sayaka; Sakamoto, Jyunya; Yoshimura, Toshiro; Origuchi, Tomoki; Okita, Minoru

    2013-11-01

    This study examined mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in the rat hind paw during cast immobilization of the hind limbs for 4 or 8 weeks and following cast removal. Blood flow, skin temperature, and volume of the rat hind paw were assessed in order to determine peripheral circulation of the hind limbs. Sensitization was analyzed by measuring the expression of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the spinal dorsal horn following cast immobilization. Two weeks post immobilization, mechanical and thermal sensitivities increased significantly in all rats; however, peripheral circulation was not affected by immobilization. Cast immobilization for 8 weeks induced more serious hypersensitivity compared to cast immobilization for 4 weeks. Moreover, CGRP expression in the deeper lamina layer of the spinal dorsal horn increased in the rats immobilized for 8 weeks but not in those immobilized for 4 weeks. These findings suggest that immobilization-induced hypersensitivity develops during the immobilization period without affecting peripheral circulation. Our results also highlight the possibility that prolonged immobilization induces central sensitization in the spinal cord.

  12. Teachers Think Aloud about Picture Books for Teaching Social Studies in the Primary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Judith Marie

    2012-01-01

    Social studies has long been relegated to the sidelines in the elementary grades. Teachers have often used children's literature to teach social studies (e.g., Hicks, 1996; Hinde, 2005, 2009; Kent & Simpson, 2008) but there are concerns that this integration shortchanges social studies learning (e.g., Alleman & Brophy, 1993, 1994;…

  13. 5-AZA-2'-DEOXYCYTIDINE INDUCED CYTOTOXICITY AND LONG BONE REDUCTION DEFECTS IN THE MURINE LIMB

    EPA Science Inventory

    The antineoplastic drug 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (dAZA) is a DNA hypomethylating agent that can be used to induce hind limb phocomelia in the offspring of CD-1 Swiss Webster mice. Previously, our laboratory investigated the possibility that dAZA induced alterations in gene express...

  14. GH/IGF-I Transgene Expression on Muscle Homeostasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    We propose to test the hypothesis that the growth hormone/ insulin like growth factor-I axis through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms may provide long term muscle homeostasis under conditions of prolonged weightlessness. As a key alternative to hormone replacement therapy, ectopic production of hGH, growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), and IGF-I will be studied for its potential on muscle mass impact in transgenic mice under simulated microgravity. Expression of either hGH or IGF-I would provide a chronic source of a growth-promoting protein whose biosynthesis or secretion is shut down in space. Muscle expression of the IGF-I transgene has demonstrated about a 20% increase in hind limb muscle mass over control nontransgenic litter mates. These recent experiments, also establish the utility of hind-limb suspension in mice as a workable model to study atrophy in weight bearing muscles. Thus, transgenic mice will be used in hind-limb suspension models to determine the role of GH/IGF-I on maintenance of muscle mass and whether concentric exercises might act in synergy with hormone treatment. As a means to engineer and ensure long-term protein production that would be workable in humans, gene therapy technology will be used by to monitor muscle mass preservation during hind-limb suspension, after direct intramuscular injection of a genetically engineered muscle-specific vector expressing GHRH. Effects of this gene-based therapy will be assessed in both fast twitch (medial gastrocnemius) and slow twitch muscle (soleus). End-points include muscle size, ultrastructure, fiber type, and contractile function, in normal animals, hind limb suspension, and reambutation.

  15. Aerodynamic forces and flow structures of the leading edge vortex on a flapping wing considering ground effect.

    PubMed

    Van Truong, Tien; Byun, Doyoung; Kim, Min Jun; Yoon, Kwang Joon; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this work is to provide an insight into the aerodynamic performance of the beetle during takeoff, which has been estimated in previous investigations. We employed a scaled-up electromechanical model flapping wing to measure the aerodynamic forces and the three-dimensional flow structures on the flapping wing. The ground effect on the unsteady forces and flow structures were also characterized. The dynamically scaled wing model could replicate the general stroke pattern of the beetle's hind wing kinematics during takeoff flight. Two wing kinematic models have been studied to examine the influences of wing kinematics on unsteady aerodynamic forces. In the first model, the angle of attack is asymmetric and varies during the translational motion, which is the flapping motion of the beetle's hind wing. In the second model, the angle of attack is constant during the translational motion. The instantaneous aerodynamic forces were measured for four strokes during the beetle's takeoff by the force sensor attached at the wing base. Flow visualization provided a general picture of the evolution of the three-dimensional leading edge vortex (LEV) on the beetle hind wing model. The LEV is stable during each stroke, and increases radically from the root to the tip, forming a leading-edge spiral vortex. The force measurement results show that the vertical force generated by the hind wing is large enough to lift the beetle. For the beetle hind wing kinematics, the total vertical force production increases 18.4% and 8.6% for the first and second strokes, respectively, due to the ground effect. However, for the model with a constant angle of attack during translation, the vertical force is reduced during the first stroke. During the third and fourth strokes, the ground effect is negligible for both wing kinematic patterns. This finding suggests that the beetle's flapping mechanism induces a ground effect that can efficiently lift its body from the ground during takeoff

  16. Wing-wake interaction reduces power consumption in insect tandem wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    Insects are capable of a remarkable diversity of flight techniques. Dragonflies, in particular, are notable for their powerful aerial manoeuvres and endurance during prey catching or territory flights. While most insects such as flies, bees and wasps either reduced their hinds wings or mechanically coupled fore and hind wings, dragonflies have maintained two independent-controlled pairs of wings throughout their evolution. An extraordinary feature of dragonfly wing kinematics is wing phasing, the shift in flapping phase between the fore and hind wing periods. Wing phasing has previously been associated with an increase in thrust production, readiness for manoeuvrability and hunting performance. Recent studies have shown that wing phasing in tandem wings produces a twofold modulation in hind wing lift, but slightly reduces the maximum combined lift of fore and hind wings, compared to two wings flapping in isolation. Despite this disadvantage, however, wing phasing is effective in improving aerodynamic efficiency during flight by the removal of kinetic energy from the wake. Computational analyses demonstrate that this increase in flight efficiency may save up to 22% aerodynamic power expenditure compared to insects flapping only two wings. In terms of engineering, energetic benefits in four-wing flapping are of substantial interest in the field of biomimetic aircraft design, because the performance of man-made air vehicles is often limited by high-power expenditure rather than by lift production. This manuscript provides a summary on power expenditures and aerodynamic efficiency in flapping tandem wings by investigating wing phasing in a dynamically scaled robotic model of a hovering dragonfly.

  17. Wing-wake interaction reduces power consumption in insect tandem wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    2009-05-01

    Insects are capable of a remarkable diversity of flight techniques. Dragonflies, in particular, are notable for their powerful aerial manoeuvres and endurance during prey catching or territory flights. While most insects such as flies, bees and wasps either reduced their hinds wings or mechanically coupled fore and hind wings, dragonflies have maintained two independent-controlled pairs of wings throughout their evolution. An extraordinary feature of dragonfly wing kinematics is wing phasing, the shift in flapping phase between the fore and hind wing periods. Wing phasing has previously been associated with an increase in thrust production, readiness for manoeuvrability and hunting performance. Recent studies have shown that wing phasing in tandem wings produces a twofold modulation in hind wing lift, but slightly reduces the maximum combined lift of fore and hind wings, compared to two wings flapping in isolation. Despite this disadvantage, however, wing phasing is effective in improving aerodynamic efficiency during flight by the removal of kinetic energy from the wake. Computational analyses demonstrate that this increase in flight efficiency may save up to 22% aerodynamic power expenditure compared to insects flapping only two wings. In terms of engineering, energetic benefits in four-wing flapping are of substantial interest in the field of biomimetic aircraft design, because the performance of man-made air vehicles is often limited by high-power expenditure rather than by lift production. This manuscript provides a summary on power expenditures and aerodynamic efficiency in flapping tandem wings by investigating wing phasing in a dynamically scaled robotic model of a hovering dragonfly.

  18. Does mating behaviour affect connectivity in marine fishes? Comparative population genetics of two protogynous groupers (Family Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Portnoy, D S; Hollenbeck, C M; Renshaw, M A; Cummings, N J; Gold, J R

    2013-01-01

    Pelagic larval duration (PLD) has been hypothesized to be the primary predictor of connectivity in marine fishes; however, few studies have examined the effects that adult reproductive behaviour may have on realized dispersal. We assessed gene flow (connectivity) by documenting variation in microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA sequences in two protogynous species of groupers, the aggregate spawning red hind, Epinephelus guttatus, and the single-male, harem-spawning coney, Cephalopholis fulva, to ask whether reproductive strategy affects connectivity. Samples of both species were obtained from waters off three islands (Puerto Rico, St. Thomas and St. Croix) in the Caribbean Sea. Despite the notion that aggregate spawning of red hind may facilitate larval retention, stronger signals of population structure were detected in the harem-spawning coney. Heterogeneity and/or inferred barriers, based on microsatellites, involved St. Croix (red hind and coney) and the west coast of Puerto Rico (coney). Heterogeneity and/or inferred barriers, based on mitochondrial DNA, involved St. Croix (coney only). Genetic divergence in both species was stronger for microsatellites than for mitochondrial DNA, suggesting sex-biased dispersal in both species. Long-term migration rates, based on microsatellites, indicated asymmetric gene flow for both species in the same direction as mean surface currents in the region. Red hind had higher levels of variation in microsatellites and lower levels of variation in mitochondrial DNA. Long-term effective size and effective number of breeders were greater for red hind; estimates of θ(f) , a proxy for long-term effective female size, were the same in both species. Patterns of gene flow in both species appear to stem in part from shared aspects of larval and adult biology, local bathymetry and surface current patterns. Differences in connectivity and levels of genetic variation between the species, however, likely stem from differences in behaviour

  19. A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab)

    PubMed Central

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C

    2010-01-01

    Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output. PMID

  20. Does mating behaviour affect connectivity in marine fishes? Comparative population genetics of two protogynous groupers (Family Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Portnoy, D S; Hollenbeck, C M; Renshaw, M A; Cummings, N J; Gold, J R

    2013-01-01

    Pelagic larval duration (PLD) has been hypothesized to be the primary predictor of connectivity in marine fishes; however, few studies have examined the effects that adult reproductive behaviour may have on realized dispersal. We assessed gene flow (connectivity) by documenting variation in microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA sequences in two protogynous species of groupers, the aggregate spawning red hind, Epinephelus guttatus, and the single-male, harem-spawning coney, Cephalopholis fulva, to ask whether reproductive strategy affects connectivity. Samples of both species were obtained from waters off three islands (Puerto Rico, St. Thomas and St. Croix) in the Caribbean Sea. Despite the notion that aggregate spawning of red hind may facilitate larval retention, stronger signals of population structure were detected in the harem-spawning coney. Heterogeneity and/or inferred barriers, based on microsatellites, involved St. Croix (red hind and coney) and the west coast of Puerto Rico (coney). Heterogeneity and/or inferred barriers, based on mitochondrial DNA, involved St. Croix (coney only). Genetic divergence in both species was stronger for microsatellites than for mitochondrial DNA, suggesting sex-biased dispersal in both species. Long-term migration rates, based on microsatellites, indicated asymmetric gene flow for both species in the same direction as mean surface currents in the region. Red hind had higher levels of variation in microsatellites and lower levels of variation in mitochondrial DNA. Long-term effective size and effective number of breeders were greater for red hind; estimates of θ(f) , a proxy for long-term effective female size, were the same in both species. Patterns of gene flow in both species appear to stem in part from shared aspects of larval and adult biology, local bathymetry and surface current patterns. Differences in connectivity and levels of genetic variation between the species, however, likely stem from differences in behaviour

  1. The femoral artery and its branches in the baboon Papio anubis.

    PubMed

    Dyl, L; Topol, M

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the research was to examine the anatomy of the arterial system in the inguinal region, hip and thigh of Papio anubis. No description of this was found in the available scientific literature, although, at the same time, the baboon is considered to be a good animal model in biomedical research. Macroscopic anatomical research was carried out on 20 hind limbs (10 cadavers: 9 male and 1 female) of adult Papio anubis and the results were then compared with the anatomy of the arterial hind limb systems of other apes as described in the literature. The circulatory system of the whole body was filled with coloured latex via the common carotid artery and internal jugular vein, and traditional methods were then used to prepare the vessels. The arterial system in the hind extremity of Papio anubis was recorded. The anatomical names of human arteries were used as well as the names of those of apes as applied in the literature. The femoral artery was the only artery supplying the hind limb of Papio anubis. It started under the inguinal ligament as a continuation of the external iliac artery. It went down and divided into the popliteal artery, which coursed in the popliteal fossa, and the saphenous artery, which passed on the medial side of the thigh and leg. The number of smaller branches and the way in which they issued from the larger arteries were documented. The external diameter and length of the hind limb arteries were measured. It was observed that the cutaneous branches of the femoral artery supplied the inguinal and genital regions and the abdominal wall, while the deep artery of the thigh was the main vessel of the hip and thigh.

  2. Aerodynamic forces and flow structures of the leading edge vortex on a flapping wing considering ground effect.

    PubMed

    Van Truong, Tien; Byun, Doyoung; Kim, Min Jun; Yoon, Kwang Joon; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this work is to provide an insight into the aerodynamic performance of the beetle during takeoff, which has been estimated in previous investigations. We employed a scaled-up electromechanical model flapping wing to measure the aerodynamic forces and the three-dimensional flow structures on the flapping wing. The ground effect on the unsteady forces and flow structures were also characterized. The dynamically scaled wing model could replicate the general stroke pattern of the beetle's hind wing kinematics during takeoff flight. Two wing kinematic models have been studied to examine the influences of wing kinematics on unsteady aerodynamic forces. In the first model, the angle of attack is asymmetric and varies during the translational motion, which is the flapping motion of the beetle's hind wing. In the second model, the angle of attack is constant during the translational motion. The instantaneous aerodynamic forces were measured for four strokes during the beetle's takeoff by the force sensor attached at the wing base. Flow visualization provided a general picture of the evolution of the three-dimensional leading edge vortex (LEV) on the beetle hind wing model. The LEV is stable during each stroke, and increases radically from the root to the tip, forming a leading-edge spiral vortex. The force measurement results show that the vertical force generated by the hind wing is large enough to lift the beetle. For the beetle hind wing kinematics, the total vertical force production increases 18.4% and 8.6% for the first and second strokes, respectively, due to the ground effect. However, for the model with a constant angle of attack during translation, the vertical force is reduced during the first stroke. During the third and fourth strokes, the ground effect is negligible for both wing kinematic patterns. This finding suggests that the beetle's flapping mechanism induces a ground effect that can efficiently lift its body from the ground during takeoff.

  3. A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab).

    PubMed

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C

    2010-07-01

    Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output.

  4. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (170).

    PubMed

    Shah, Mohammad Taufik Bin Mohamed; Wong, Bak Siew Steven

    2016-09-01

    A 30-year-old woman presented with a six-month history of left posterior heel pain. Physical examination revealed a tender, inflamed and indurated posterior heel with a visible bony prominence of the posterosuperior aspect of the calcaneus. Lateral ankle radiography showed a prominent left posterosuperior calcaneal tuberosity and thickening of the distal Achilles tendon outline. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated high-signal inflammatory fluid in the retrocalcaneal bursa, increased signal intensity and thickening of the Achilles tendon, and prominence of the posterior calcaneus tuberosity with reactive marrow oedema. The findings are consistent with Haglund's deformity. The patient underwent hind foot surgery after failing a six-month course of conservative therapy. There was no further recurrence of symptoms after surgery. The clinical and radiological features of Haglund's deformity are described, including a short discussion of other causes of hind foot pain. PMID:27663032

  5. The lesions of toe tip necrosis in southern Alberta feedlot cattle provide insight into the pathogenesis of the disease.

    PubMed

    Gyan, Lana A; Paetsch, Chad D; Jelinski, Murray D; Allen, Andrew L

    2015-11-01

    Gross and histologic postmortem studies were performed on the hind feet of feedlot cattle that had, or were free from, lesions of toe tip necrosis. The hind feet of feedlot cattle were collected by 3 veterinary feedlot practices in southern Alberta, Canada. Three studies of these feet were conducted: i) prediction of disease based on the presence or absence of apical white line separation, ii) gross assessment of the distribution and severity of lesions within affected claws, and iii) microscopic evaluation of the distal phalanx and surrounding soft tissues of affected claws. Prediction of toe tip necrosis based on the presence of apical white line separation was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). This, combined with a pattern of lesions indicative of an ascending infection of the distal phalanx and the absence of other lesions, suggests that the pathogenesis involves bacterial infection originating from the most distal aspect of the toe, at the apical white line.

  6. One-sided limb preference is linked to alternating-limb locomotion in anuran amphibians.

    PubMed

    Malashichev, Yegor B

    2006-11-01

    Amphibians provide a unique opportunity for identifying possible links between lateralized behaviors, locomotion, and phylogeny and for addressing the origin of lateralized behaviors of higher vertebrates. Five anuran species with different locomotive habits were tested for forelimb and hind limb preferences during 2 stereotyped behavior sequences--wiping a foreign object off their snout and righting themselves from the overturned position. The experiments were analyzed in a broader context of previous findings on anuran lateralization involving 11 anuran species that were studied within the same experimental paradigms. This analysis shows that one-sided forelimb and hind limb motor lateralization in anurans is strongly associated with alternating-limb locomotion and other unilateral limb activity. Conclusions reached for anuran amphibians may be applicable to other vertebrates possessing paired appendages-the degree of lateralization in motor response depends on the mode of locomotion used by a species.

  7. Coxiella burnetii Shedding by Farmed Red Deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    González-Barrio, D; Almería, S; Caro, M R; Salinas, J; Ortiz, J A; Gortázar, C; Ruiz-Fons, F

    2015-10-01

    Wildlife and notably deer species--due to the increasing relevance of deer farming worldwide--may contribute to the maintenance of Coxiella burnetii, the causal agent of Q fever. Currently, there are no precedents linking exposure to deer species with human Q fever cases. However, a human case of Q fever was recently diagnosed in a red deer (Cervus elaphus) farm, which led us to investigate whether deer could be a source for environmental contamination with C. burnetii and ascertain the implication of C. burnetii in reproductive failure in the farm. Blood serum and vaginal swabs were collected from hinds either experiencing or not reproductive failure and tested to detect the presence of antibodies and DNA, respectively, of C. burnetii, Chlamydia abortus, Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii. Serology and PCR results suggest C. burnetii was the primary cause of the reproductive failure. We identified vaginal shedding of C. burnetii in hinds, confirming red deer as a source of Q fever zoonotic infection.

  8. Edema induced by Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) snake venom and its inhibition by Costa Rican plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Badilla, Beatriz; Chaves, Fernando; Mora, Gerardo; Poveda, Luis J

    2006-06-01

    We tested the capacity of leaf (Urera baccifera, Loasa speciosa, Urtica leptuphylla, Chaptalia nutans, and Satureja viminea) and root (Uncaria tomentosa) extracts to inhibit edema induced by Bothrops asper snake venom. Edema-forming activity was studied plethysmographically in the rat hind paw model. Groups of rats were injected intraperitoneally with various doses of each extract and, one hour later, venom was injected subcutaneously in the right hind paw. Edema was assessed at various time intervals. The edematogenic activity was inhibited in those animals that received an injection U. tomentosa, C. nutans or L. speciosa extract. The extract of U. baccifera showed a slight inhibition of the venom effect. Extract from S. viminea and, to a lesser extent that of U. leptuphylla, induced a pro-inflammatory effect, increasing the edema at doses of 250 mg/kg at one and two hours.

  9. Histopathology of Lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Hejka, A.; Schmitz, J.L.; England, D.M.; Callister, S.M.; Schell, R.F.

    1989-05-01

    The authors studied the histopathologic evolution of arthritis in nonirradiated and irradiated hamsters infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Nonirradiated hamsters injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi developed an acute inflammatory reaction involving the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and dermis. This acute inflammatory reaction was short-lived and was replaced by a mild chronic synovitis as the number of detectable spirochetes in the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and perineurovascular areas diminished. Exposing hamsters to radiation before inoculation with B. burgdorferi exacerbated and prolonged the acute inflammatory phase. Spirochetes also persisted longer in the periarticular soft tissues. A major histopathologic finding was destructive and erosive bone changes of the hind paws, which resulted in deformation of the joints. These studies should be helpful in defining the immune mechanism participating in the onset, progression, and resolution of Lyme arthritis.

  10. Molecular cloning of a malyl coenzyme A lyase gene from Pseudomonas sp. strain AM1, a facultative methylotroph

    SciTech Connect

    Fulton, G.L.; Nunn, D.N.; Lidstrom, M.E.

    1984-11-01

    A genomic library containing HindIII partial digest of Pseudomonas sp. strain AM1 DNA was constructed in the broad-host-range cosmid pVK100. PCT57, a Pseudomonas sp. strain AM1 methanol mutant deficient in malyl coenzyme A lyase activity, was complemented to a methanol-positive phenotype by mobilization of pVK100 library into PCT57 recipients with the ColE1/RK2 mobilizing plasmid pRK2013. Six different complemented isolates all contained a recombinant plasmid carrying the same 19.6-kilobase-pair Pseudomonas sp. strain AM1 DNA insert. Subcloning and complementation analysis demonstrated that the gene deficient in PCT57 (mcl-1) was located in a 1.6-kilobase-pair region within a 7.4-kilobase-pair EcoRI-HindIII fragment. 33 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Katianna maryae n. sp. (Collembola: Katiannidae), a southern Appalachian species of a Gondwanan genus.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Ernest C

    2014-01-14

    Katianna maryae n. sp. is described from turf and grassy fields in eastern Tennessee, USA. This species is the first of its genus to be noted from temperate North America. It is distinguished from other described Katianna spp. by a combination of the following characters: color pattern of body an intricate mosaic of purple-brown, yellow-orange and white; copper-brown median stripe between eye patches; fourth antennal segment annuliform but not subsegmented; region between interantennal and clypeal region devoid of setae, clypeal region with six rows of setae; fore and middle feet with 8 clavate tenent hairs, hind foot with 6; apical filament of unguiculus long on fore and middle tibiotarsi, short on hind tibiotarsus; unguis with intricate multidentate pseudonychia; posterior face of dens with one proximal seta and a pair of subapical setae.

  12. Distribution of lameness lesions in beef cattle: A retrospective analysis of 745 cases

    PubMed Central

    Newcomer, Benjamin W.; Chamorro, Manuel F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to characterize the relative prevalence of diagnoses and location of lameness lesions in beef cattle. Medical records from 2005 to 2012 were reviewed and 745 cases of beef cattle that had presented for lameness were identified. Information regarding signalment, lesion location, and cause of lameness was analyzed. The cause of lameness was localized to the foot in approximately 85% of cases; a hind limb was affected over 70% of the time. The lateral claw was most commonly affected in cases of both fore- and hind-limb lameness. The most common diagnoses of noninfectious etiology were screw claw, vertical fissure, and interdigital fibroma. Infectious foot disease accounted for only 20% of foot lameness. Routine foot trimming may be warranted in some herds to improve weight-bearing balance and alleviate lameness. PMID:27041758

  13. Circannual changes in serum concentrations of thyroxine, calcitonin and parathormone in immature and mature red deer females (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Kuba, J; Błaszczyk, B; Stankiewicz, T; Kwita, E; Udała, J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine circannual changes in the serum concentrations of thyroxine, calcitonin and parathormone in mature and immature red deer females. Blood samples from 8 hinds were collected monthly for 26 months. Secretions of thyroxine and calcitonin showed circannual rhythms with significantly higher levels in the immature hinds compared to the mature animals (p<0.05). For thyroxine, the concentration was higher in the winter/spring period than in summer/autumn (p<0.05), while for calcitonin the concentration profile was the opposite (p<0.05). The concentration of parathormone was significantly higher in summer/autumn that in the other months of the experiment (p<0.01). These results may indicate that the hormones investigated may be involved in the regulation of seasonal reproductive activity and in processes contributing to entering puberty in red deer females. PMID:26618595

  14. Detection of monoclonal integration of bovine leukemia virus proviral DNA as a malignant marker in two enzootic bovine leukosis cases with difficult clinical diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    MIURA, Saori; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; MATSUMOTO, Kotaro; KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyasu; KAWAZU, Shin-ichiro; INOKUMA, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal integration of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) proviral DNA into bovine genomes was detected in peripheral blood from two clinical cases of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) without enlargement of superficial lymph nodes. A BLV-specific probe hybridized with 1 to 3 EcoRI and HindIII fragments in these 2 atypical EBL cattle by Southern blotting and hybridization, as well as in 3 typical EBL cattle. The probe also hybridized to a large number of EcoRI and HindIII fragments in 5 cattle with persistent leukosis. These results suggest that the detection of monoclonal integration of BLV provirus into the host genome may serve as a marker of monoclonal proliferation and malignancy in difficult to diagnose EBL cattle. PMID:25766769

  15. Two new species and key to four species of the genus Humphaplotropis from China (Orthoptera: Pamphagidae, Pamphaginae).

    PubMed

    Zhi, Yong-Chao; Shi, Jian-Ping; Dai, Li

    2015-10-14

    Two new species i.e.: Humphaplotropis xiai sp. nov. and Humphaplotropis hebeiensis sp. nov. of the genus Humphaplotropis Xiao, Yin et Yin, 2013, are described from Hebei and Jiangsu, China in this paper. The new species Humphaplotropis xiai sp. nov. differs all known species of the genus by the abdomen like sawtooth in lateral view. The new species Humphaplotropis hebeiensis sp. nov. is similar to Humphaplotropis culaishanensis Lin, Cao et Yin, 2014, but differs from the latter by: lateral carinae of frontal ridge parallel; anterior margin of pronotum with acute angular in the middle, the apex reaching the hind margin of eyes; tegmina wider, cover 4/5 tympanum. Hind tibia yellow brown on upper side; epiphallus with 44 spikes, ancorae oblique inward distinctly, both posterior projections shorter than median projection. Type specimens are deposited in the Shanghai Entomological Museum, C.A.S., Shanghai and Natural Museum of Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei China respectively.

  16. The lesions of toe tip necrosis in southern Alberta feedlot cattle provide insight into the pathogenesis of the disease

    PubMed Central

    Gyan, Lana A.; Paetsch, Chad D.; Jelinski, Murray D.; Allen, Andrew L.

    2015-01-01

    Gross and histologic postmortem studies were performed on the hind feet of feedlot cattle that had, or were free from, lesions of toe tip necrosis. The hind feet of feedlot cattle were collected by 3 veterinary feedlot practices in southern Alberta, Canada. Three studies of these feet were conducted: i) prediction of disease based on the presence or absence of apical white line separation, ii) gross assessment of the distribution and severity of lesions within affected claws, and iii) microscopic evaluation of the distal phalanx and surrounding soft tissues of affected claws. Prediction of toe tip necrosis based on the presence of apical white line separation was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). This, combined with a pattern of lesions indicative of an ascending infection of the distal phalanx and the absence of other lesions, suggests that the pathogenesis involves bacterial infection originating from the most distal aspect of the toe, at the apical white line. PMID:26538666

  17. Osmium(IV) complexes with 1H- and 2H-indazoles: tautomer identity versus spectroscopic properties and antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Büchel, Gabriel E; Stepanenko, Iryna N; Hejl, Michaela; Jakupec, Michael A; Keppler, Bernhard K; Heffeter, Petra; Berger, Walter; Arion, Vladimir B

    2012-08-01

    A one-pot synthesis of osmium(IV) complexes with two different tautomers of indazole, 1H-indazole and 2H-indazole, namely (H(2)ind)[Os(IV)Cl(5)(2H-ind)] (1) and (H(2)ind)[Os(IV)Cl(5)(1H-ind)] (2) is reported. Both compounds have been comprehensively characterized by NMR spectroscopy, ESI (electrospray ionization) mass spectrometry, electronic absorption spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and tested for antiproliferative activity in vitro in three human cancer cell lines, CH1 (ovarian carcinoma), A549 (non-small cell lung cancer) and SW480 (colon carcinoma), as well as in vivo in a Hep3B SCID mouse xeno-transplantation model. 2H-Indazole tautomer stabilization in 1 has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction.

  18. [The relation between gene of lipoprotein-lipase and carrier protein of cholesterol ethers and life duration in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia].

    PubMed

    Kostomarov, I V; Vodolagina, N N; Malygina, N A; Mitina, Z S

    2008-01-01

    Comparative analysis of frequency distribution of genotypes and alleles of HindIII-polymorphism of gene LPL and TaqIB-polymorphism of gene CETP in 267 patients of various ages with chronic cerebral ischemia (CCI) was performed. Relation between age and polymorphous variants of genes LPL and CETP was noticed. It was shown that genotype of H+H+ HindIII-polymorphism of and genotype B1B1 TaqIB-polymorphism of gene CETP were found more frequently in more young patients with chronic cerebral ischemia (CCI). Since there is an association of these genotypes with atherogenic dislipidemias, they apparently can be considered as risk factors of CCI development. On the contrary, genotype of gene LPL and B2 allele of gene CETP in patients elder 90 years (long-livers) are found significantly more frequently than in younger patients, that makes possible to consider they as markers of favorable course of disease and patients' long life.

  19. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (170)

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Mohammad Taufik Bin Mohamed; Wong, Bak Siew Steven

    2016-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman presented with a six-month history of left posterior heel pain. Physical examination revealed a tender, inflamed and indurated posterior heel with a visible bony prominence of the posterosuperior aspect of the calcaneus. Lateral ankle radiography showed a prominent left posterosuperior calcaneal tuberosity and thickening of the distal Achilles tendon outline. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated high-signal inflammatory fluid in the retrocalcaneal bursa, increased signal intensity and thickening of the Achilles tendon, and prominence of the posterior calcaneus tuberosity with reactive marrow oedema. The findings are consistent with Haglund’s deformity. The patient underwent hind foot surgery after failing a six-month course of conservative therapy. There was no further recurrence of symptoms after surgery. The clinical and radiological features of Haglund’s deformity are described, including a short discussion of other causes of hind foot pain. PMID:27663032

  20. Induction of lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, J.L.; Schell, R.F.; Hejka, A.; England, D.M.; Konick, L.

    1988-09-01

    In studies of experimental Lyme disease, a major obstacle has been the unavailability of a suitable animal model. We found that irradiated LSH/Ss Lak hamsters developed arthritis after injection of Borrelia burgdorferi in the hind paws. When nonirradiated hamsters were injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi, acute transient synovitis was present. A diffuse neutrophilic infiltrate involved the synovia and periarticular structures. The inflammation was associated with edema, hyperemia, and granulation tissue. Numerous spirochetes were seen in the synovial and subsynovial tissues. The histopathologic changes were enhanced in irradiated hamsters. The onset and duration of the induced swelling were dependent on the dose of radiation and the inoculum of spirochetes. Inoculation of irradiated hamsters with Formalin-killed spirochetes or medium in which B. burgdorferi had grown for 7 days failed to induce swelling. This animal model should prove useful for studies of the immune response to B. burgdorferi and the pathogenesis of Lyme arthritis.

  1. Intrathecal administration of substance P enhances cutaneous plasma protein extravasation in pentobarbital anaesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Kérouac, R; Jacques, L; Couture, R

    1987-01-13

    In pentobarbital-anaesthetized rats, the intrathecal administration of substance P (SP) at T9 spinal cord level enhances plasma protein extravasation (PE) in cutaneous tissues of the back, the hind paws and the ears. This vascular response is maximum at 15 min after administration of SP (6.5 nmol), and the most striking in the skin of the hind paws. Contrary to SP, neurotensin (NT) administered intrathecally failed to enhance PE. Both peptides are however potent enhancers of PE following intravenous injection. PE elicited by intrathecal administration of SP is significantly reduced in both spinal rats and in capsaicin treated animals. These results suggest that SP but not NT may play a role as a spinal chemical mediator in peripheral vascular permeability through a supraspinal reflex mechanism involving sensory afferents.

  2. Molecular cloning of a malyl coenzyme A lyase gene from Pseudomonas sp. strain AM1, a facultative methylotroph.

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, G L; Nunn, D N; Lidstrom, M E

    1984-01-01

    A genomic library containing HindIII partial digests of Pseudomonas sp. strain AM1 DNA was constructed in the broad-host-range cosmid pVK100. PCT57, a Pseudomonas sp. strain AM1 methanol mutant deficient in malyl coenzyme A lyase activity, was complemented to a methanol-positive phenotype by mobilization of the pVK100 library into PCT57 recipients with the ColE1/RK2 mobilizing plasmid pRK2013. Six different complemented isolates all contained a recombinant plasmid carrying the same 19.6-kilobase-pair Pseudomonas sp. strain AM1 DNA insert. Subcloning and complementation analysis demonstrated that the gene deficient in PCT57 (mcl-1) was located in a 1.6-kilobase-pair region within a 7.4-kilobase-pair EcoRI-HindIII fragment. PMID:6094488

  3. Osmium(IV) complexes with 1H- and 2H-indazoles: Tautomer identity versus spectroscopic properties and antiproliferative activity

    PubMed Central

    Büchel, Gabriel E.; Stepanenko, Iryna N.; Hejl, Michaela; Jakupec, Michael A.; Keppler, Bernhard K.; Heffeter, Petra; Berger, Walter; Arion, Vladimir B.

    2012-01-01

    A one-pot synthesis of osmium(IV) complexes with two different tautomers of indazole, 1H-indazole and 2H-indazole, namely (H2ind)[OsIVCl5(2H-ind)] (1) and (H2ind)[OsIVCl5(1H-ind)] (2) is reported. Both compounds have been comprehensively characterized by NMR spectroscopy, ESI (electrospray ionization) mass spectrometry, electronic absorption spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and tested for antiproliferative activity in vitro in three human cancer cell lines, CH1 (ovarian carcinoma), A549 (non-small cell lung cancer) and SW480 (colon carcinoma), as well as in vivo in a Hep3B SCID mouse xeno-transplantation model. 2H-Indazole tautomer stabilization in 1 has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction. PMID:22687494

  4. Circannual changes in serum concentrations of thyroxine, calcitonin and parathormone in immature and mature red deer females (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Kuba, J; Błaszczyk, B; Stankiewicz, T; Kwita, E; Udała, J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine circannual changes in the serum concentrations of thyroxine, calcitonin and parathormone in mature and immature red deer females. Blood samples from 8 hinds were collected monthly for 26 months. Secretions of thyroxine and calcitonin showed circannual rhythms with significantly higher levels in the immature hinds compared to the mature animals (p<0.05). For thyroxine, the concentration was higher in the winter/spring period than in summer/autumn (p<0.05), while for calcitonin the concentration profile was the opposite (p<0.05). The concentration of parathormone was significantly higher in summer/autumn that in the other months of the experiment (p<0.01). These results may indicate that the hormones investigated may be involved in the regulation of seasonal reproductive activity and in processes contributing to entering puberty in red deer females.

  5. Biochemical adaptations of antigravity muscle fibers to disuse atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Studies are presented in four parts of this report. The four parts include; (1) studies to gain information on the molecular basis of atrophy by antigravity muscle; (2) studies on the work capacity of antigravity muscles during atrophy and during recovery from atrophy; (3) studies on recovery of degenerated antigravity fibers after removal of hind-limb casts; and (4) studies on the atrophy and recovery of bone. The philosophy of these studies was to identify the time sequence of events in the soleus muscle of the rat following immobilization of the hind limbs, so that the length of the soleus muscle within the fixed limb is less than its resting length. In two separate studies, no decline in the weight of the soleus muscle could be detected during the first 72 hours of limb immobilization.

  6. The nucleotide sequence of the chicken thymidine kinase gene and the relationship of its predicted polypeptide to that of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase.

    PubMed

    Kwoh, T J; Engler, J A

    1984-05-11

    The entire DNA nucleotide sequence of a 3.0 kilobase pair Hind III fragment containing the chicken cytoplasmic thymidine kinase gene was determined. Oligonucleotide linker insertion mutations distributed throughout this gene and having known effects upon gene activity ( Kwoh , T.J., Zipser , D., and Wigler , M. 1983. J. Mol. Appl. Genet. 2, 191-200), were used to access regions of the Hind III fragment for sequencing reactions. The complete nucleotide sequence, together with the positions of the linker insertion mutations within the sequence, allows us to propose a structure for the chicken thymidine kinase gene. The protein coding sequence of the gene is divided into seven small segments (each less than 160 base pairs) by six small introns (each less than 230 base pairs). The proposed 244 amino acid polypeptide encoded by this gene bears strong homology to the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase. No homology with the thymidine kinases of the herpes simplex viruses was found.

  7. Characterization and regulation of the NADP-linked 7 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene from Clostridium sordellii.

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, J P; Hudson, L L; Adams, M J

    1994-01-01

    A bile acid-inducible NADP-linked 7 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7 alpha-HSDH) from Clostridium sordellii ATCC 9714 was purified 310-fold by ion-exchange, gel filtration, and dye-ligand affinity chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the purified enzyme showed one predominant peptide band (30,000 Da). The N-terminal sequence was determined, and the corresponding oligonucleotides were synthesized and used to screen EcoRI and HindIII genomic digests of C. sordellii. Two separate fragments (4,500 bp, EcoRI; 3,200 bp, HindIII) were subsequently cloned by ligation to pUC19 and transformation into Escherichia coli DH5 alpha-MCR. The EcoRI fragment was shown to contain a truncated 7 alpha-HSDH gene, while the HindIII fragment contained the entire coding region. E. coli clones containing the HindIII insert expressed high levels of an NADP-linked 7 alpha-HSDH. Nucleotide sequence analyses suggest that the 7 alpha-HSDH is encoded by a monocistronic transcriptional unit, with DNA sequence elements resembling rho-independent terminators located in both the upstream and downstream flanking regions. The transcriptional start site was located by primer extension analysis. Northern (RNA) blot analysis indicated that induction is mediated at the transcriptional level in response to the presence of bile acid in the growth medium. In addition, growth-phase-dependent expression is observed in uninduced cultures. Analysis of the predicted protein sequence indicates that the enzyme can be classified in the short-chain dehydrogenase group. Images PMID:8050999

  8. Exon structure of the human dystrophin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.G.; Coffey, A.J.; Bobrow, M.; Bentley, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    Application of a novel vectorette PCR approach to defining intron-exon boundaries has permitted completion of analysis of the exon structure of the largest and most complex known human gene. The authors present here a summary of the exon structure of the entire human dystrophin gene, together with the sizes of genomic HindIII fragments recognized by each exon, and (where available) GenBank accession numbers for adjacent intron sequences. 20 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Nanosecond Pulse Electric Field Activated-Platelet Rich Plasma Enhances the Return of Blood Flow to Large and Ischemic Wounds in a Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Hargrave, Barbara; Li, Francis

    2015-07-01

    Platelet-rich plasma is a therapeutic strategy used for accelerating wound healing of a wide range of tissues through the release of platelet growth factors. Here, we describe a nonchemical, safe method for preparing platelet-rich plasma using nanosecond-pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) and investigated the effect of this platelet-rich plasma on reperfusion of blood in large skin flap or ischemic hind limb wounds in New Zealand White rabbits. Laser Doppler images of blood flow to the dorsal surface of skin flap wounds or to ischemic hind limb wounds were obtained from wounds treated with 0.9% saline or nanosecond-pulsed electric field prepared platelet-rich plasma (nsPRP). Reperfusion in the skin flap wounds was greater in the nsPRP-treated wounds than in the wounds treated with saline on postoperative days 3 (P < 0.001) and 21 (P < 0.03). Reperfusion in the ischemic hind-limb treated with nsPRP was greater than in the saline-treated limb on post-operative Day 3 (P < 0.001), post-operative week 1 (P < 0.025) and post-operative week 4 (P < 0.015). In the hind limb ischemic tissue, the number of endothelial cells, collagen, and cells containing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was greater in the nsPRP-treated tissue. These results demonstrate that nsPRP improves blood flow in large surgical skin wounds and in ischemic wounds. PMID:26197934

  10. Surgical treatment of canine stifle disruption using a novel extracapsular articulated stifle stabilizing implant.

    PubMed

    Embleton, Neil A; Barkowski, Veronica J

    2015-02-01

    A 5-year-old Labrador retriever mixed breed dog was presented for an acute non-weight-bearing left hind limb lameness. A stifle disruption was diagnosed. The patient was treated using a novel extracapsular articulated stifle stabilizing implant (Simitri™). Twelve weeks after surgery the patient had full range of motion of the affected stifle and had begun to return to pre-injury activity. This is the first reported case of this condition being surgically managed successfully in this manner.

  11. Nanosecond Pulse Electric Field Activated-Platelet Rich Plasma Enhances the Return of Blood Flow to Large and Ischemic Wounds in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Hargrave, Barbara; Li, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma is a therapeutic strategy used for accelerating wound healing of a wide range of tissues through the release of platelet growth factors. Here, we describe a nonchemical, safe method for preparing platelet-rich plasma using nanosecond-pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) and investigated the effect of this platelet-rich plasma on reperfusion of blood in large skin flap or ischemic hind limb wounds in New Zealand White rabbits. Laser Doppler images of blood flow to the dorsal surface of skin flap wounds or to ischemic hind limb wounds were obtained from wounds treated with 0.9% saline or nanosecond-pulsed electric field prepared platelet-rich plasma (nsPRP). Reperfusion in the skin flap wounds was greater in the nsPRP-treated wounds than in the wounds treated with saline on postoperative days 3 (P < 0.001) and 21 (P < 0.03). Reperfusion in the ischemic hind-limb treated with nsPRP was greater than in the saline-treated limb on post-operative Day 3 (P < 0.001), post-operative week 1 (P < 0.025) and post-operative week 4 (P < 0.015). In the hind limb ischemic tissue, the number of endothelial cells, collagen, and cells containing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was greater in the nsPRP-treated tissue. These results demonstrate that nsPRP improves blood flow in large surgical skin wounds and in ischemic wounds. PMID:26197934

  12. Propulsive forces of mudskipper fins and salamander limbs during terrestrial locomotion: implications for the invasion of land.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Sandy M; Blob, Richard W

    2013-08-01

    The invasion of land was a pivotal event in vertebrate evolution that was associated with major appendicular modifications. Although fossils indicate that the evolution of fundamentally limb-like appendages likely occurred in aquatic environments, the functional consequences of using early digited limbs, rather than fins, for terrestrial propulsion have had little empirical investigation. Paleontological and experimental analyses both have led to the proposal of an early origin of "hind limb-driven" locomotion among tetrapods or their ancestors. However, the retention of a pectoral appendage that had already developed terrestrial adaptations has been proposed for some taxa, and few data are available from extant functional models that can provide a foundation for evaluating the relative contributions of pectoral and pelvic appendages to terrestrial support among early stem tetrapods. To examine these aspects of vertebrate locomotor evolution during the invasion of land, we measured three-dimensional ground reaction forces (GRFs) produced by isolated pectoral fins of mudskipper fishes (Periophthalmus barbarus) during terrestrial crutching, and compared these to isolated walking footfalls by the forelimbs and hind limbs of tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum), a species with subequally-sized limbs that facilitate comparisons to early tetrapods. Pectoral appendages of salamanders and mudskippers exhibited numerous differences in GRFs. Compared with salamander forelimbs, isolated fins of mudskippers bear lower vertical magnitudes of GRFs (as a proportion of body weight), and had GRFs that were oriented more medially. Comparing the salamanders' forelimbs and hind limbs, although the peak net GRF occurs later in stance for the forelimb, both limbs experience nearly identical mediolateral and vertical components of GRF, suggesting comparable contributions to support. Thus, forelimbs could also have played a significant locomotor role among basal tetrapods that had limbs

  13. New material of the enigmatic reptile Khurendukhosaurus (Diapsida: Choristodera) from Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Ryoko; Suzuki, Shigeru; Tsogtbaatar, Khisigjav; Evans, Susan E.

    2009-02-01

    New material of the enigmatic diapsid Khurendukhosaurus is described from the Mongolian type locality, Khuren Dukh, providing additional data on the vertebral column, pelvis, and hind limb. It confirms the choristoderan status of the genus and permits a more detailed phylogenetic analysis that supports a relationship between Khurendukhosaurus and the long-necked Asian Hyphalosauridae. The existence of tall caudal neural spines implies that Khurendukhosaurus was a deep-tailed swimmer. This and the open sacral costocentral sutures suggest a primarily aquatic lifestyle.

  14. [Cloning and expression of a promoter function fragment from Thiobacillus thiooxidans in Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Yan, W

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a recombinant plasmid pSDR12 which is constructed through the substitution of the EcoRI-HindIII fragment of pBR322 by a specific fragment of chromosomal DNA of T. thiooxidans. After it was transformed into C600, the transformants revealed higher levels of Tc resistance. This result shows that a promoter function fragment from autotrophic bacteria is able to express in Escherichia coil.

  15. Protection against Chikungunya virus induced arthralgia following prophylactic treatment with adenovirus vectored interferon (mDEF201).

    PubMed

    Dagley, Ashley; Ennis, Jane; Turner, Jeffrey D; Rood, Kerry A; Van Wettere, Arnaud J; Gowen, Brian B; Julander, Justin G

    2014-08-01

    Recent outbreaks of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection have resulted in millions of cases of disease with significant morbidity. No approved antiviral treatments exist for the prevention or treatment of this viral disease. Infection with CHIKV results in a high rate of symptomatic disease that primarily includes a debilitating arthralgia. To model this cardinal disease manifestation, adult DBA/1J mice were challenged with CHIKV by footpad injection. Viremia and hind limb virus titers increased ∼100-fold while spleen virus increased >1000-fold within 1day post-virus infection (dpi). Footpad swelling was measured over a 10-day period, with peak swelling observed between 6 and 7dpi. Histology of the hind leg at the site of virus challenge showed evidence of myositis and synovitis starting on 5dpi. Cytokine profiling of the hind limb at the site of inoculation revealed a biphasic inflammatory response represented by an increase in IL-6, MCP-1, IFN-γ, MIP-1α, RANTES, and IL-17. To investigate the prophylactic capacity of IFN, mice were treated with mDEF201, an adenovirus-vectored IFN-α. Intranasal administration of a single 10(7)pfu/ml dose of mDEF201 administered 21days to 24h prior to infection, significantly reduced footpad swelling, virus titers in the hind leg and spleen, and several inflammatory cytokines. Efficacy was not observed when treatment was initiated 24h after virus challenge. This arthralgia model of CHIKV recapitulates relevant disease features commonly observed in human disease making it applicable to preclinical testing of therapies that target both viral replication and the associated joint disease.

  16. Focal thoracolumbar spinal cord lymphosarcoma in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    PubMed Central

    Ingrao, Joelle C.; Eshar, David; Vince, Andrew; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Nykamp, Stephanie; DeLay, Josepha; Smith, Dale

    2014-01-01

    A 6-year-old, castrated male domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was euthanized following progressive hind limb paresis and atonia of the bladder of 1-year duration. Neurological evaluation localized the lesion to the thoracolumbar spinal region, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a focal intramedullary spinal cord lesion. Histopathology revealed an extensive, unencapsulated, poorly demarcated mass within the thoracolumbar spinal cord, diagnosed as lymphosarcoma. PMID:24982519

  17. Two new species of Sinosmylites Hong (Neuroptera, Berothidae) from the Middle Jurassic of China, with notes on Mesoberothidae

    PubMed Central

    Makarkin, Vladimir N.; Yang, Qiang; Ren, Dong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the genus Sinosmylites Hong are described from the Middle Jurassic locality at Daohugou (Inner Mongolia, China): Sinosmylites fumosus sp. n. and Sinosmylites rasnitsyni sp. n. This is the oldest known occurrence of the family Berothidae. The berothid affinity of this genus is confirmed by examination of the hind wing venation characteristic of the family. The Late Triassic family Mesoberothidae may represent an early group of Berothidae. PMID:22259277

  18. Genomic DNA fingerprint analysis of biotype 1 Gardnerella vaginalis from patients with and without bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, S R; Hillier, S L; Nath, K

    1996-01-01

    Of the 20 biotype 1 Gardnerella vaginalis isolates analyzed, 10 from patients with bacterial vaginosis and 10 from patients without bacterial vaginosis, none shared the same DNA fingerprint. However, a 1.18-kb HindIII fragment was common among 18 of the 20 biotype 1 isolates in a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with a 7.9-kb G. vaginalis DNA probe. PMID:8748302

  19. Sex-biased differences in the effects of host individual, host population and environmental traits driving tick parasitism in red deer

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Acevedo, Pelayo; Sobrino, Raquel; Vicente, Joaquín; Fierro, Yolanda; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G.

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between host individual, host population, and environmental factors modulate parasite abundance in a given host population. Since adult exophilic ticks are highly aggregated in red deer (Cervus elaphus) and this ungulate exhibits significant sexual size dimorphism, life history traits and segregation, we hypothesized that tick parasitism on males and hinds would be differentially influenced by each of these factors. To test the hypothesis, ticks from 306 red deer—182 males and 124 females—were collected during 7 years in a red deer population in south-central Spain. By using generalized linear models, with a negative binomial error distribution and a logarithmic link function, we modeled tick abundance on deer with 20 potential predictors. Three models were developed: one for red deer males, another for hinds, and one combining data for males and females and including “sex” as factor. Our rationale was that if tick burdens on males and hinds relate to the explanatory factors in a differential way, it is not possible to precisely and accurately predict the tick burden on one sex using the model fitted on the other sex, or with the model that combines data from both sexes. Our results showed that deer males were the primary target for ticks, the weight of each factor differed between sexes, and each sex specific model was not able to accurately predict burdens on the animals of the other sex. That is, results support for sex-biased differences. The higher weight of host individual and population factors in the model for males show that intrinsic deer factors more strongly explain tick burden than environmental host-seeking tick abundance. In contrast, environmental variables predominated in the models explaining tick burdens in hinds. PMID:23819112

  20. Unliganded Thyroid Hormone Receptor α Regulates Developmental Timing via Gene Repression in Xenopus tropicalis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jinyoung; Suzuki, Ken-ichi T.; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Shewade, Leena; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) receptor (TR) expression begins early in development in all vertebrates when circulating TH levels are absent or minimal, yet few developmental roles for unliganded TRs have been established. Unliganded TRs are expected to repress TH-response genes, increase tissue responsivity to TH, and regulate the timing of developmental events. Here we examined the role of unliganded TRα in gene repression and development in Xenopus tropicalis. We used transcription activator-like effector nuclease gene disruption technology to generate founder animals with mutations in the TRα gene and bred them to produce F1 offspring with a normal phenotype and a mutant phenotype, characterized by precocious hind limb development. Offspring with a normal phenotype had zero or one disrupted TRα alleles, and tadpoles with the mutant hind limb phenotype had two truncated TRα alleles with frame shift mutations between the two zinc fingers followed by 40–50 mutant amino acids and then an out-of-frame stop codon. We examined TH-response gene expression and early larval development with and without exogenous TH in F1 offspring. As hypothesized, mutant phenotype tadpoles had increased expression of TH-response genes in the absence of TH and impaired induction of these same genes after exogenous TH treatment, compared with normal phenotype animals. Also, mutant hind limb phenotype animals had reduced hind limb and gill responsivity to exogenous TH. Similar results in methimazole-treated tadpoles showed that increased TH-response gene expression and precocious development were not due to early production of TH. These results indicate that unliganded TRα delays developmental progression by repressing TH-response genes. PMID:25456067

  1. Lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells can be focused at sites of tumor growth by products of macrophage activation

    SciTech Connect

    Migliori, R.J.; Gruber, S.A.; Sawyer, M.D.; Hoffman, R.; Ochoa, A.; Bach, F.H.; Simmons, R.L.

    1987-08-01

    Successful adoptive cancer immunotherapy presumably depends on the accumulation of tumoricidal leukocytes at the sites of tumor growth. Large numbers of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells can be generated in vitro by growth in high concentrations of interleukin-2 (IL-2), but relatively few arrive at the tumor site after intravenous injection. We hypothesize that the delivery of LAK cells to tumor sites may be augmented by previously demonstrated lymphocyte-recruiting factors, including activated macrophage products such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor. /sup 111/Indium-labeled LAK cells were injected intravenously into syngeneic mice bearing the macrophage activator endotoxin (LPS) in one hind footpad, and saline solution was injected into the contralateral footpad. Significantly more activity was recovered from the LPS-bearing footpad at all times during a 96-hour period. Recombinant IL-1 also attracted more LAK cells after injection into tumor-free hind footpads. Furthermore, LAK cells preferentially homed to hind footpads that were bearing 3-day established sarcomas after intralesional injections of LPS, IL-1, or tumor necrosis factor when compared with contralateral tumor-bearing footpads injected with saline solution alone. In preliminary experiments, mice with hind-footpad tumors appeared to survive longer after combined systemic IL-2 and LAK therapy if intralesional LPS was administered. These studies demonstrate that macrophage activation factors that have been shown capable of attracting circulating normal lymphocytes can also effectively attract LAK cells from the circulation. By the stimulation of macrophages at the sites of tumor growth, more LAK cells can be attracted. It is hoped that by focusing the migration of LAK cells to tumors, LAK cells and IL-2 would effect tumor regression more efficiently and with less toxicity.

  2. Severe pruritus and myoclonus following intrathecal morphine administration in a dog.

    PubMed

    Iff, Isabelle; Valeskini, Karin; Mosing, Martina

    2012-09-01

    During epidural needle placement in a 32-kg dog the subarachnoid space was punctured and half the intended dose of lidocaine, bupivacaine, and morphine was injected. After recovery from anesthesia the dog showed signs of severe pruritus of the tail base and limbs and myoclonus of the tail and hind limbs. Methadone, acepromazine, ketamine, buprenorphine, and butorphanol were administered to control myoclonus and pruritus, but were unsuccessful. Diazepam was used to control myoclonus until the effects of morphine abated.

  3. Associations between mutations and a VNTR in the human phenylalanine hydroxylase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Goltsov, A.A.; Eisensmith, R.C.; Woo, S.L.C. ); Konecki, D.S.; Lichter-Konecki, U.

    1992-09-01

    The HindIII RFLP in the human phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene is caused by the presence of an AT-rich (70%) minisatellite region. This region contains various multiples of 30-bp tandem repeats and is located 3 kb downstream of the final exon of the gene. PCR-mediated amplification of this region from haplotyped PAH chromosomes indicates that the previously reported 4.0-kb HindIII allele contains three of these repeats, while the 4.4-kb HindIII allele contains 12 of these repeats. The 4.2-kb HindIII fragment can contain six, seven, eight, or nine copies of this repeat. These variations permit more detailed analysis of mutant haplotypes 1, 5, 6, and, possibly, others. Kindred analysis in phenylketonuria families demonstrates Mendelian segregation of these VNTR alleles, as well as associations between theses alleles and certain PAH mutations. The R261Q mutation, associated with haplotype 1, is associated almost exclusively with an allele containing eight repeats; the R408W mutation, when occurring on a haplotype 1 background, may also be associated with the eight-repeat VNTR allele. Other PAH mutations associated with haplotype 1, R252W and P281L, do not appear to segregate with specific VNTR alleles. The IVS-10 mutation, when associated with haplotype 6, is associated exclusively with an allele containing seven repeats. The combined use of this VNTR system and the existing RFLP haplotype system will increase the performance of prenatal diagnostic tests based on haplotype analysis. In addition, this VNTR may prove useful in studies concerning the origins and distributions of PAH mutations in different human populations. 32 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Improving Climate Prediction By Climate Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, S. S.; Redaelli, G.; Grassi, B.

    2014-12-01

    Various climate agencies are pursuing concepts of space-based atmospheric monitoring based on ideas of empirically verifiable accuracy in observations. Anticipating that atmospheric monitoring systems based in observing the emitted longwave spectrum, the reflected shortwave spectrum, and radio occultation are implemented, we seek to discover how long-term records in these quantities might be used to improve our ability to predict climate change. This is a follow-up to a previous study that found that climate monitoring by remote sensing better informs climate prediction than does climate monitoring in situ. We have used the output of a CMIP5 historical scenario to hind-cast observation types being considered for space-based atmospheric monitoring to modify ensemble prediction of multi-decadal climate change produced by a CMIP5 future scenario. Specifically, we have considered spatial fingerprints of 1970­-2005 averages and trends in hind-cast observations to improve global average surface air temperature change from 2005 to 2100. Correlations between hind-cast observations at individual locations on the globe and multi-decadal change are generally consistent with a null-correlation distribution. We have found that the modes in inter-model differences in hind-casts are clearly identified with tropical clouds, but only Arctic warming as can be identified in radio occultation observations correlates with multi-decadal change, but only with 80% confidence. Understanding how long-term monitoring can be used to improve climate prediction remains an unsolved problem, but it is anticipated that improving climate prediction will depend strongly on an ability to distinguish between climate forcing and climate response in remotely sensed observables.

  5. Heterogeneity of Maize Cytoplasmic Genomes among Male-Sterile Cytoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Pring, D. R.; Levings, C. S.

    1978-01-01

    Maize mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA's were prepared from normal (fertile) lines or single crosses and from members of the T, C, and S groups of male-sterile cytoplasms. Restriction endonucleases HindIII, BamI, EcoRI, and SalI were used to restrict the DNA, and the resultant fragments were electrophoresed in agarose gels. The results show that the N (fertile), T, C, and S cytoplasms each contained distinct mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). These distinctive patterns were unaffected by nuclear genotype. No evidence of paternal inheritance of mtDNA was observed. Chloroplast DNA (ctDNA) from the N, C, and T cytoplasms was indistinguishable by HindIII, SalI, or EcoRI endonuclease digestion. The S cytoplasm ctDNA, however, was slightly different from that of other cytoplasms, as indicated by a slight displacement of one band in HindIII digests. The molecular weight of maize ctDNA was estimated to be as high as 88 x 106. Estimates of the minimum molecular weight of maize mtDNA ranged from 116–131 x 106, but the patterns were to complex for an unambiguous determination. Based on HindIII data, a comparison of the molecular weight of mtDNA bands common to the N, T. C, and S cytoplasms suggests that C cytoplasm most closely resembles N cytoplasm. The T and S sources are more divergent from the C and N cytoplasms. These results indicate a possible gradation of relatedness among male-sterile cytoplasms. The marked variation in mtDNA, with apparently less variation in ctDNA, represents circumstantial, but compelling, evidence that mtDNA may be involved in the male sterility and disease susceptibility traits in maize. PMID:17248823

  6. Cloning of xylanase gene of Streptomyces flavogriseus in Escherichia coli and bacteriophage lambda-induced lysis for the release of cloned enzyme.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, R; Ali, S S; Srivastava, B S

    1991-03-01

    The xylanase gene of Streptomyces flavogriseus was cloned in pUC8 plasmid and expressed in Escherichia coli lysogenic for lambda cI857. lambda-Induced lysis of E. coli at 42 degrees C allowed efficient release of cloned enzyme activity in extracellular environment. The xylanase gene was located in the 0.8-kb HindIII fragment and coded for 18,000 Mr xylanase.

  7. Acute intraparenchymal spinal cord injury in a cat due to high-rise syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cruz–Arámbulo, Robert; Nykamp, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    A 9-year-old spayed female Bengal Red cat was evaluated for high-rise syndrome. The cat had paraplegia of the hind limbs, intact reflexes and pain perception, and hyperesthesia in the caudal thoracic area. Mentation, cranial nerve function, forelimb proprioceptive responses, and spinal reflexes were normal. There were no abnormalities on radiographs or computed tomography scan, but magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hyperintense intraparenchymal spinal cord lesion on T2-weighted and T2 fat saturation images. PMID:22942443

  8. A note on Agraeciini species (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Conocephalinae) in India.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Rajendra; Swaminathan, Tatiana; Swaminathan, R

    2016-01-01

    The present paper re-describes three known species of the tribe Agraeciini (Tettigonidae: Conocephalinae), as well as recording Palaeoagraecia brunnea Ingrisch, 1998 for the first time from India. These descriptions hold to be useful in the identification of Indian agraeciine species. The important morphological characters of the head, pronotum, cerci, spines on the fore tibiae, hind femora and the ovipositor have been illustrated with suitable line drawings to distinguish the newly reported species. PMID:27615984

  9. Wild-type Escherichia coli producing microcins B17, D93, J25, and L; cloning of genes for microcin L production and immunity.

    PubMed

    Sablé, S; Duarte, M; Bravo, D; Lanneluc, I; Pons, A M; Cottenceau, G; Moreno, F

    2003-05-01

    For the first time, an Escherichia coli strain producing four microcins (Mcc), B17, D93, J25, and L, and showing immunity to Mcc V was isolated and characterized. Each of the gene clusters encoding the production of Mcc B17, D93, and L was cloned separately. The gene cluster for Mcc L was cloned within a 13.5-kb HindIII-SalI fragment, which includes the Mcc V immunity gene, cvi.

  10. Facilitated spinal neuropeptide signaling and upregulated inflammatory mediator expression contribute to postfracture nociceptive sensitization.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoyou; Guo, Tian-Zhi; Wei, Tzuping; Li, Wen-Wu; Clark, David J; Kingery, Wade S

    2015-10-01

    Tibia fracture induces exaggerated substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) signaling and neuropeptide-dependent nociceptive and inflammatory changes in the hind limbs of rats similar to those seen in complex regional pain syndrome. Inflammatory changes in the spinal cord contribute to nociceptive sensitization in a variety of animal pain models. This study tested the hypothesis that fracture-induced exaggerated neuropeptide signaling upregulates spinal inflammatory mediator expression, leading to postfracture hind limb nociceptive sensitization. At 4 weeks after performing tibia fracture and casting in rats, we measured hind limb allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, and spinal cord neuropeptide and inflammatory mediator content. The antinociceptive effects of intrathecally injected neuropeptide and inflammatory mediator receptor antagonists were evaluated in fracture rats. Transgenic fracture mice lacking SP or the CGRP RAMP1 receptor were used to determine the effects of neuropeptide signaling on postfracture pain behavior and spinal inflammatory mediator expression. Hind limb allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, increased spinal SP and CGRP, and increased spinal inflammatory mediator expression (TNF, IL-1, IL-6, CCL2, and nerve growth factor) were observed at 4 weeks after fracture in rats. Fracture-induced increases in spinal inflammatory mediators were not observed in fracture mice lacking SP or the CGRP receptor, and these mice had attenuated postfracture nociceptive sensitization. Intrathecal injection of selective receptor antagonists for SP, CGRP, TNF, IL-1, IL-6, CCL2, or nerve growth factor each reduced pain behaviors in the fracture rats. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that facilitated spinal neuropeptide signaling upregulates the expression of spinal inflammatory mediators contributing to nociceptive sensitization in a rodent fracture model of complex regional pain syndrome. PMID:25932690

  11. Jumping mechanisms and strategies in moths (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Burrows, Malcolm; Dorosenko, Marina

    2015-06-01

    To test whether jumping launches moths into the air, take-off by 58 species, ranging in mass from 0.1 to 220 mg, was captured in videos at 1000 frames s(-1). Three strategies for jumping were identified. First, rapid movements of both middle and hind legs provided propulsion while the wings remained closed. Second, middle and hind legs again provided propulsion but the wings now opened and flapped after take-off. Third, wing and leg movements both began before take-off and led to an earlier transition to powered flight. The middle and hind legs were of similar lengths and were between 10 and 130% longer than the front legs. The rapid depression of the trochantera and extension of the middle tibiae began some 3 ms before similar movements of the hind legs, but their tarsi lost contact with the ground before take-off. Acceleration times ranged from 10 ms in the lightest moths to 25 ms in the heaviest ones. Peak take-off velocities varied from 0.6 to 0.9 m s(-1) in all moths, with the fastest jump achieving a velocity of 1.2 m s(-1). The energy required to generate the fastest jumps was 1.1 µJ in lighter moths but rose to 62.1 µJ in heavier ones. Mean accelerations ranged from 26 to 90 m s(-2) and a maximum force of 9 G: was experienced. The highest power output was within the capability of normal muscle so that jumps were powered by direct contractions of muscles without catapult mechanisms or energy storage.

  12. [A new hereditary disease in Braunvieh cattle in Switzerland: spinal demyelinization (SDM) in calves that remain in lateral recumbency].

    PubMed

    Stocker, H; Berger Pusterla, J; Lutz, H; Ossent, P

    1996-01-01

    Clinical, laboratory and histopathological findings are described in ten Braunvieh calves with Spinal Dysmyelination (SDM). Characteristically, immediately after birth the animals were normally alert but remained in lateral recumbency with opisthotonus, spastic hind limbs, partially increased spinal reflexes and were unable to stand or support themselves. Histological examination of the spinal cord revealed a bilateral symmetrical reduction of myelin. Means of differentiating between SDM and other conditions, in particular spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are discussed.

  13. Spirit Looks Back

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's rear hazard identification camera shows the rover's hind view of the lander platform, its nest for the past 12 sols, or martian days. The rover is approximately 1 meter (3 feet) in front of the airbag-cushioned lander, facing northwest. Note the tracks left in the martian soil by the rovers' wheels, all six of which have rolled off the lander. This is the first time the rover has touched martian soil.

  14. Morphological differences among egg nests and adult individuals of Cicadatra persica (Hemiptera, Cicadidae), distributed in Erneh, Syria.

    PubMed

    Dardar, Marah A; Belal, Hamzeh Mr

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is determining the different patterns of egg nests and the morphological differences between the specimens of Cicadatra persica Kirkalidy, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) distributed in fruit orchards in Erneh located on AL-Sheikh mountain south west of Syria. The appearance of 80 egg nests was studied, and the results showed that there were two basic patterns of egg nests laid by Cicadatra persica, 90% of the egg nests were of the first pattern (consists of several adjacent slits), while 10% of them were of the second pattern (consists of several divergent slits). A random sample consisting of 300 specimens (150 males and 150 females) were also studied concentrating on the differences in the color of the supra-antennal plate and in the number of spurs on the tibia of the hind legs. The results showed that there were two basic patterns of individuals based on the differences in the color of supra-antennal plate. The first pattern (individuals with yellow supra-antennal plates), constituted more than 90%, and the second one (individuals with black supra-antennal plates) constituted less than 10%. The results also showed that there were 27 different patterns based on the number of spurs on the tibia of the hind legs. One of them was a common pattern (2, 3) whose individuals have 2 spurs on the upper side of the tibia of the hind legs and 3 spurs on the lateral side of the tibia of the hind legs. The total percent of this common pattern was 76%. The other 26 patterns were different from each other, and the total percent of all these different patterns was 24%.

  15. Facilitated spinal neuropeptide signaling and upregulated inflammatory mediator expression contribute to postfracture nociceptive sensitization.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoyou; Guo, Tian-Zhi; Wei, Tzuping; Li, Wen-Wu; Clark, David J; Kingery, Wade S

    2015-10-01

    Tibia fracture induces exaggerated substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) signaling and neuropeptide-dependent nociceptive and inflammatory changes in the hind limbs of rats similar to those seen in complex regional pain syndrome. Inflammatory changes in the spinal cord contribute to nociceptive sensitization in a variety of animal pain models. This study tested the hypothesis that fracture-induced exaggerated neuropeptide signaling upregulates spinal inflammatory mediator expression, leading to postfracture hind limb nociceptive sensitization. At 4 weeks after performing tibia fracture and casting in rats, we measured hind limb allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, and spinal cord neuropeptide and inflammatory mediator content. The antinociceptive effects of intrathecally injected neuropeptide and inflammatory mediator receptor antagonists were evaluated in fracture rats. Transgenic fracture mice lacking SP or the CGRP RAMP1 receptor were used to determine the effects of neuropeptide signaling on postfracture pain behavior and spinal inflammatory mediator expression. Hind limb allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, increased spinal SP and CGRP, and increased spinal inflammatory mediator expression (TNF, IL-1, IL-6, CCL2, and nerve growth factor) were observed at 4 weeks after fracture in rats. Fracture-induced increases in spinal inflammatory mediators were not observed in fracture mice lacking SP or the CGRP receptor, and these mice had attenuated postfracture nociceptive sensitization. Intrathecal injection of selective receptor antagonists for SP, CGRP, TNF, IL-1, IL-6, CCL2, or nerve growth factor each reduced pain behaviors in the fracture rats. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that facilitated spinal neuropeptide signaling upregulates the expression of spinal inflammatory mediators contributing to nociceptive sensitization in a rodent fracture model of complex regional pain syndrome.

  16. A new erythroneurine leafhopper genus from Thailand (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Typhlocybinae), with description of three new species.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuehua; Li, Zizhong; Dietrich, Christopher H

    2016-01-01

    A new genus of tribe Erythroneurini from Thailand, Thaioneura gen. n., including three new species: Thaioneura nigrilinea sp. n. (type species), Thaioneura sinuata sp. n. and Thaioneura suphanburia sp. n., is described and illustrated and a key to species is provided. The new genus exhibits a pattern of interspecific variation in the hind wing venation that has not been observed in other genera of the tribe. PMID:27408565

  17. PubMed Central

    Papageorges, M.; Lussier, S.; Breton, L.; Gosselin, Y.; Teuscher, E.

    1982-01-01

    A pulmonary anaplastic epithelioma in a bitch An anaplastic epithelioma of the lungs was diagnosed in a 26 month old female Airedale. The authors describe signs of bronchopneumonia and lameness involving the right fore and hind limbs. The lameness occurred following metastases to the long bones. The clinical signs, the radiological appearance, the postmortem lesions encountered with that neoplasm and differential diagnosis are discussed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4a,b.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:17422120

  18. A new erythroneurine leafhopper genus from Thailand (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Typhlocybinae), with description of three new species

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuehua; Li, Zizhong; Dietrich, Christopher H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new genus of tribe Erythroneurini from Thailand, Thaioneura gen. n., including three new species: Thaioneura nigrilinea sp. n. (type species), Thaioneura sinuata sp. n. and Thaioneura suphanburia sp. n., is described and illustrated and a key to species is provided. The new genus exhibits a pattern of interspecific variation in the hind wing venation that has not been observed in other genera of the tribe. PMID:27408565

  19. A new species of pine anole from the Sierra Madre del Sur in Oaxaca, Mexico (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae: Anolis).

    PubMed

    Köhler, Gunther; Pérez, Raúl Gómez Trejo; Petersen, Claus Bo P; de La Cruz, Fausto R Mendez

    2014-01-09

    We describe the new species Anolis peucephilus sp. nov. from the Pacific versant of southern Mexico. Anolis peucephilus differs from all congeners by having a combination of (1) smooth ventral scales; (2) usually a patch of three greatly enlarged supraocular scales; (3) extremely short hind legs, longest toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to a point between levels of axilla and ear opening, ratio shank length/snout-vent length 0.18-0.21; (4) circumnasal usually in contact with first supralabial; and (5) a large yellowish orange dewlap in males and a very small to small white dewlap in females. In external morphology, A. peucephilus is most similar to A. omiltemanus from which it differs by having even shorter hind legs with the longest toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to a point between levels of axilla and ear opening (versus usually to ear opening, occasionally to slightly beyond ear opening or to a point between shoulder and ear opening in A. omiltemanus), a slightly larger dewlap in females, to 64 mm2 (versus to 41 mm2 in A. omiltemanus), the circumnasal usually in contact with the first supralabial (versus those scales separated by the presence of a subnasal in A. omiltemanus), and 4-6 internasal scales in the new species (versus usually 6-7 in A. omiltemanus). Furthermore, A. peucephilus differs from A. omiltemanus in hemipenial morphology (no finger-like processus on asulcate side in A. peucephilus versus such a processus present in A. omiltemanus). Also, in a preliminary molecular genetic analysis of the mitochondrial CO1 gene fragment, A. peucephilus has a genetic distance of 11.5% from A. omiltemanus. Anolis peucephilus was collected at night while the lizards were sleeping in pine trees, 2-10 m above the ground.

  20. A comparative anti-inflammatory activity of raw and processed Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) seeds on albino rats.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Kumar, Vijay; Ashok, Bk; Acharya, R N; Ravishankar, B

    2011-10-01

    Seeds of Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Kupeelu only after passing through specific purificatory procedures in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel) etc. Strychnos nux vomica seeds are extensively advocated for nervous debility, paralysis, and weakness of limbs, sexual weakness, dyspepsia, and dysentery and in rheumatism where it can be assumed that besides other properties, Kupeelu may have some sort of anti-inflammatory activity too. In the present study, the powder of raw and processed Kupeelu seeds (processed / purified with Kanji i.e sour gruel) as test drugs were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by employing Carrageenan and Formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema in Wistar strain albino rats at a dose of 22.5 mg/kg body weight orally. This study reveals that both raw and purified Kupeelu showed presence of highly significant anti-inflammatory activity against formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema, but did not have similar activity against Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema. PMID:23284209

  1. Genetic variation in MDR1, LPL and eNOS genes and the response to atorvastatin treatment in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Anjana

    2012-11-01

    Statins reduce the risk of cardiovascular events by lowering the blood cholesterol. Many genes involved in the pharmacodynamic pathway of statins have been part of pharmacogenetic research in patients with hypercholesterolemia, with an emphasis on genes involved in the cholesterol pathway. The present study was carried out with an aim to evaluate the association between the genetic variants of lipoprotein lipase gene [HindIII (+/+)/HindIII (-/-)], multiple drug resistance gene (C3435T) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (4a/4b) with clinical outcome including an increased risk of recurrent stroke or death in ischemic stroke patients on atorvastatin therapy. 525 stroke patients and 500 healthy controls were involved in the study. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted with patients post-event to determine stroke outcome. Blood samples were collected and genotypes determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction digestion technique. A significant association of MDR1 and LPL gene variants with bad outcome in stroke patients on atorvastatin therapy was found. However, there was no significant association of 27 bp VNTR polymorphism of eNOS gene with outcome. MDR analysis was carried out to analyze gene-gene interaction involving these gene variants contributing to clinical outcome of patients on stratin therapy but no significant interaction between these variants was observed. In conclusion the individuals with HindIII (-/-) genotype of LPL and CC genotype of MDR1 gene would benefit more from atorvastatin therapy. PMID:22810051

  2. Enhancement of electric field-mediated gene delivery through pretreatment of tumors with a hyperosmotic mannitol solution.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, J; Mossop, B; Yuan, F

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed electric fields can enhance interstitial transport of plasmid DNA (pDNA) in solid tumors. However, the extent of enhancement is still limited. To this end, the effects of cellular resistance to electric field-mediated gene delivery were investigated. The investigation used two tumor cell lines (4T1 (a murine mammary carcinoma) and B16.F10 (a metastatic subline of B16 murine melanoma)) either in suspensions or implanted in two in vivo models (dorsal skin-fold chamber (DSC) and hind leg). The volume fraction of cells was altered by pretreatment with a hyperosmotic mannitol solution (1 M). It was observed that the pretreatment reduced the volumes of 4T1 and B16.F10 cells, suspended in an agarose gel, by 50 and 46%, respectively, over a 20-min period, but did not cause significant changes ex vivo in volumes of hind-leg tumor tissues grown from the same cells in mice. The mannitol pretreatment in vivo improved electric field-mediated gene delivery in the hind-leg tumor models, in terms of reporter gene expression, but resulted in minimal enhancement in pDNA electrophoresis over a few microns distance in the DSC tumor models. These data demonstrated that hyperosmotic mannitol solution could effectively improve electric field-mediated gene delivery around individual cells in vivo by increasing the extracellular space. PMID:20847751

  3. An Observational Study of the Effects of Therapeutic Hoof Blocks on the Locomotion, Behavior, and Production of Healthy Dairy Cattle.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Janet H; Shearer, Jan K; Kelton, David F; Cramer, Gerard; Gorden, Pat J; Millman, Suzanne T

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic hoof blocks have been recommended for treatment of sole ulcers in dairy cattle; however, they are underutilized in the industry. Twenty Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive a wooden hoof block applied to the left hind leg (n = 5), to the right hind leg (n = 5), or no hoof blocks (n = 10). Accelerometers were affixed to both hind legs of 10 blocked cows and 5 control cows. Cows were observed for locomotion scores, and milk production was recorded. Mixed models were constructed to determine effects of block application on behavior, milk production, and locomotion. Activity was altered by day, with cows being most active on Day - 1. The mean number of daily lying bouts and lying bout duration did not differ by treatment. Locomotion scores were higher for blocked cows on Days 1, 2, and 3 compared with baseline; however, milk production did not differ between treatments. In conclusion, although block application affected the appearance of locomotion, it did not appear to adversely affect the behavior or milk production of sound dairy cows. PMID:25933055

  4. Cilostazol improves the response to ischemia in diabetic mice by a mechanism dependent on PPARγ.

    PubMed

    Biscetti, Federico; Pecorini, Giovanni; Arena, Vincenzo; Stigliano, Egidio; Angelini, Flavia; Ghirlanda, Giovanni; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Flex, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    Cilostazol is effective for the treatment of peripheral ischemia. This compound has several beneficial effects on platelet aggregation, serum lipids and endothelial cells, and we recently found that it enhances collateral blood flow in the ischemic hind limbs of mice. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, a receptor for thiazolidinediones, plays a role in angiogenesis. The aim of this work was to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms and effects of cilostazol in a model of peripheral ischemia in diabetic mice. We induced diabetes in mice by streptozotocin (STZ) administration and studied ischemia-induced angiogenesis in the ischemic hind limbs of cilostazol-treated and untreated control mice. We found that perfusion recovery was significantly improved in treated compared with control diabetic mice. Interestingly, we found that the expression of PPARγ is reduced in ischemic tissues of diabetic mice. Furthermore, we discovered that local inhibition of the activity of this nuclear receptor decreased the angiogenic response to cilostazol treatment. Finally, we noted that this phenomenon is dependent on VEGF and modulated by PPARγ. Cilostazol administration enhances collateral blood flow in the ischemic hind limbs of STZ-induced diabetic mice through a PPARγ-dependent mechanism.

  5. In Vivo Hypobaric Hypoxia Performed During the Remodeling Process Accelerates Bone Healing in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Marjorie; Collombet, Jean-Marc; Frasca, Sophie; Begot, Laurent; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Le Bousse-Kerdilès, Marie-Caroline

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of respiratory hypobaric hypoxia on femoral bone-defect repair in mice because hypoxia is believed to influence both mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) and hematopoietic stem cell mobilization, a process involved in the bone-healing mechanism. To mimic conditions of non-weight-bearing limb immobilization in patients suffering from bone trauma, our hypoxic mouse model was further subjected to hind-limb unloading. A hole was drilled in the right femur of adult male C57/BL6J mice. Four days after surgery, mice were subjected to hind-limb unloading for 1 week. Seven days after surgery, mice were either housed for 4 days in a hypobaric room (FiO2 at 10%) or kept under normoxic conditions. Unsuspended control mice were housed in either hypobaric or normoxic conditions. Animals were sacrificed on postsurgery day 11 to allow for collection of both contralateral and lesioned femurs, blood, and spleen. As assessed by microtomography, delayed hypoxia enhanced bone-healing efficiency by increasing the closing of the cortical defect and the newly synthesized bone volume in the cavity by +55% and +35%, respectively. Proteome analysis and histomorphometric data suggested that bone-repair improvement likely results from the acceleration of the natural bone-healing process rather than from extended mobilization of MSC-derived osteoprogenitors. Hind-limb unloading had hardly any effect beyond delayed hypoxia-enhanced bone-healing efficiency. PMID:24944208

  6. Kinematics and estimated thrust production of swimming harp and ringed seals.

    PubMed

    Fish, F E; Innes, S; Ronald, K

    1988-07-01

    The propulsive motions of swimming harp seals (Phoca groenlandica Erxleben) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida Schreber) were studied by filming individuals in a flume. The seals swam at velocities ranging from 0.6 to 1.42 m s-1. Locomotion was accomplished with alternate lateral sweeps of the hind flippers generated by lateral flexions of the axial body in conjunction with flexion of the flippers. The frequency of the propulsive cycle increased linearly with the swimming velocity, and the maximum angle of attack of the flipper decreased, but the amplitude remained constant. The kinematics and morphology of this hind flipper motion indicated that phocid seals do not swim in the carangiform mode as categorized by Lighthill (1969), but in a distinct mode that mimics swimming by thunniform propulsors. The hind flippers acted as hydrofoils, and the efficiency, thrust power and coefficient of thrust were calculated from unsteady wing theory. The propulsive efficiency was high at approximately 0.85. The thrust power increased curvilinearly with velocity. The drag coefficient ranged from 0.012 to 0.028 and was found to be 2.8-7.0 times higher than the theoretical minimum. The drag coefficient was high compared with that of phocid seals examined during gliding or towing experiments, indicating an increased drag encumbered by actively swimming seals. It was determined that phocid seals are capable of generating sufficient power for swimming with turbulent boundary layer conditions.

  7. Increased muscular volume and cuticular specialisations enhance jump velocity in solitarious compared with gregarious desert locusts, Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Stephen M; Riley, Joanna; Brighton, Caroline; Sutton, Gregory P; Cullen, Darron A; Burrows, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    The desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, shows a strong phenotypic plasticity. It can develop, depending upon population density, into either a solitarious or gregarious phase that differs in many aspects of behaviour, physiology and morphology. Prominent amongst these differences is that solitarious locusts have proportionately longer hind femora than gregarious locusts. The hind femora contain the muscles and energy-storing cuticular structures that propel powerful jumps using a catapult-like mechanism. We show that solitarious locusts jump on average 23% faster and 27% further than gregarious locusts, and attribute this improved performance to three sources: first, a 17.5% increase in the relative volume of their hind femur, and hence muscle volume; second, a 24.3% decrease in the stiffness of the energy-storing semi-lunar processes of the distal femur; and third, a 4.5% decrease in the stiffness of the tendon of the extensor tibiae muscle. These differences mean that solitarious locusts can generate more power and store more energy in preparation for a jump than can gregarious locusts. This improved performance comes at a cost: solitarious locusts expend nearly twice the energy of gregarious locusts during a single jump and the muscular co-contraction that energises the cuticular springs takes twice as long. There is thus a trade-off between achieving maximum jump velocity in the solitarious phase against the ability to engage jumping rapidly and repeatedly in the gregarious phase. PMID:26936638

  8. A CRPS-IgG-transfer-trauma model reproducing inflammatory and positive sensory signs associated with complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tékus, Valéria; Hajna, Zsófia; Borbély, Éva; Markovics, Adrienn; Bagoly, Teréz; Szolcsányi, János; Thompson, Victoria; Kemény, Ágnes; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Goebel, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    The aetiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), a highly painful, usually post-traumatic condition affecting the limbs, is unknown, but recent results have suggested an autoimmune contribution. To confirm a role for pathogenic autoantibodies, we established a passive-transfer trauma model. Prior to undergoing incision of hind limb plantar skin and muscle, mice were injected either with serum IgG obtained from chronic CRPS patients or matched healthy volunteers, or with saline. Unilateral hind limb plantar skin and muscle incision was performed to induce typical, mild tissue injury. Mechanical hyperalgesia, paw swelling, heat and cold sensitivity, weight-bearing ability, locomotor activity, motor coordination, paw temperature, and body weight were investigated for 8days. After sacrifice, proinflammatory sensory neuropeptides and cytokines were measured in paw tissues. CRPS patient IgG treatment significantly increased hind limb mechanical hyperalgesia and oedema in the incised paw compared with IgG from healthy subjects or saline. Plantar incision induced a remarkable elevation of substance P immunoreactivity on day 8, which was significantly increased by CRPS-IgG. In this IgG-transfer-trauma model for CRPS, serum IgG from chronic CRPS patients induced clinical and laboratory features resembling the human disease. These results support the hypothesis that autoantibodies may contribute to the pathophysiology of CRPS, and that autoantibody-removing therapies may be effective treatments for long-standing CRPS.

  9. Male Armaments and Reproductive Behavior in "Nutcracker" Camel Crickets (Rhaphidophoridae, Pristoceuthophilus).

    PubMed

    Conroy, Lauren P; Gray, David A

    2015-01-01

    Males of many species possess striking weaponry used in intrasexual competition for access to females. Until recently, there were no known cases of male weaponry being used against females in sexual coercion. However, in the camel cricket, Pristoceuthophilus marmoratus, males use modified hind legs to fight with each other and also to trap females and force them to copulate. To determine whether hind leg armaments serve similar fighting and mating functions in morphologically similar congeners, we performed a comparative survey of armament use in intra- and inter-sexual interactions in four additional species of Pristoceuthophilus (P. arizonae and three undescribed species: P. 'Huachuca summer,' P. 'Madera' and P. 'Mt. Pinos'). Intrasexual leg fighting occurred in all species for which trials were performed, and hints of sexual coercion occurred in two species (P. 'Huachuca summer' and P. 'Mt. Pinos'), suggesting additional cases of a uniquely dual-purpose armament. These findings suggest an evolutionary exaptation of hind leg armaments in this genus, wherein an intrasexual fighting weapon took on a secondary function of sexual coercion. PMID:26463067

  10. Acquisition of species-specific perfume blends: influence of habitat-dependent compound availability on odour choices of male orchid bees (Euglossa spp.).

    PubMed

    Pokorny, T; Hannibal, M; Quezada-Euan, J J G; Hedenström, E; Sjöberg, N; Bång, J; Eltz, T

    2013-06-01

    Male orchid bees (Euglossini, Apidae, Hymenoptera) expose species-specific blends of volatile chemicals (perfume bouquets) during their courtship display. The perfumes are acquired by collecting fragrant substances from environmental sources, which are then accumulated in specialised hind leg pouches. To balance the perfume composition, the males need to find and collect the required substances in specific relative amounts while facing seasonal, local or habitat-dependent differences in compound availability. Experience-dependent choice of odours, i.e. 'learned avoidance' of recently collected components, has been proposed as the mechanism that mediates the accumulation of the stereotypical compound ratios. In the present study, we used the presence of certain compounds in male hind leg pouches as proxy for the respective local compound availability, and investigated whether differences in content are correlated with differences in chemical choice assays. Our results suggest that volatile availability differs between localities (n = 16) as well as habitats (n = 2; coastal vs. inland) across the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico, for both studied species. Male Euglossa dilemma showed a pronounced preference for benzyl benzoate and eugenol at locations where those compounds were rare in hind leg extracts, as predicted by the learned avoidance model. No equivalent correlations were found for Euglossa viridissima. This is the first study to combine chemical analyses of perfumes with bioassays of odour choice. It strengthens the view that negative feedback from collected odours modifies future chemical choice and helps males to acquire specific perfume blends.

  11. Effect of Carnosine in Experimental Arthritis and on Primary Culture Chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ponist, S; Drafi, F; Kuncirova, V; Mihalova, D; Rackova, L; Danisovic, L; Ondrejickova, O; Tumova, I; Trunova, O; Fedorova, T; Bauerova, K

    2016-01-01

    Carnosine's (CARN) anti-inflammatory potential in autoimmune diseases has been but scarcely investigated as yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CARN in rat adjuvant arthritis, in the model of carrageenan induced hind paw edema (CARA), and also in primary culture of chondrocytes under H2O2 injury. The experiments were done on healthy animals, arthritic animals, and arthritic animals with oral administration of CARN in a daily dose of 150 mg/kg b.w. during 28 days as well as animals with CARA treated by a single administration of CARN in the same dose. CARN beneficially affected hind paw volume and changes in body weight on day 14 and reduced hind paw swelling in CARA. Markers of oxidative stress in plasma and brain (malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal, protein carbonyls, and lag time of lipid peroxidation) and also activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase were significantly corrected by CARN. CARN also reduced IL-1alpha in plasma. Suppression of intracellular oxidant levels was also observed in chondrocytes pretreated with CARN. Our results obtained on two animal models showed that CARN has systemic anti-inflammatory activity and protected rat brain and chondrocytes from oxidative stress. This finding suggests that CARN might be beneficial for treatment of arthritic diseases. PMID:26885252

  12. Hip Anatomy and Ontogeny of Lower Limb Musculature in Three Species of Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Jeremy J.; Searight, Katherine J.; Stump, Madeliene Atzeva; Kehrer, Matthew B.; Shanafelt, Colleen; Graham, Eric; Smith, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    The hip region is examined to determine what aspects of musculoskeletal anatomy are precociously developed in primate species with highly specialized modes of locomotion. Muscles of the hind limb were removed and weighed in each specimen, and the hip joint of selected specimens was studied in stained serial sections. No perinatal differences among species are evident, but in adults, the hip joint of Galago moholi (a leaping specialist) appears to have proportionally thick articular cartilage (relative to the subchondral plate) compared to two species of cheirogaleids. Muscle mass distribution in the hind limbs confirms previous observations that the quadriceps femoris muscle is especially large in Galago (in percent mass of the entire hind limb), while the hip region is smaller compared to the more quadrupedal cheirogaleids. Across age groups, the species with the least specialized locomotion as adults, Cheirogaleus medius, shows little or no change in proximal to distal percentage distribution of muscle mass. Galago has a larger percentage mass gain in the thigh. We suggest that muscle mass gain to specific limb segments may be a critical milestone for primates with extremely specialized modes of locomotion. PMID:22567295

  13. Effects of spaceflight and simulated weightlessness on longitudinal bone growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Zhang, M.; Evans, G. L.; Westerlind, K. C.; Cavolina, J. M.; Morey-Holton, E.; Turner, R. T.

    2000-01-01

    Indirect measurements have suggested that spaceflight impairs bone elongation in rats. To test this possibility, our laboratory measured, by the fluorochrome labeling technique, bone elongation that occurred during a spaceflight experiment. The longitudinal growth rate (LGR) in the tibia of rats in spaceflight experiments (Physiological Space Experiments 1, 3, and 4 and Physiological-Anatomical Rodent Experiment 3) and in two models of skeletal unloading (hind-limb elevation and unilateral sciatic neurotomy) were calculated. The effects of an 11 day spaceflight on gene expression of cartilage matrix proteins in rat growth plates were also determined by northern analysis and are reported for the first time in this study. Measurements of longitudinal growth indicate that skeletal unloading generally did not affect LGR, regardless of age, strain, gender, duration of unloading, or method of unloading. There was, however, one exception with 34% suppression in LGR detected in slow-growing, ovariectomized rats skeletally unloaded for 8 days by hind-limb elevation. This detection of reduced LGR by hind-limb elevation is consistent with changes in steady-state mRNA levels for type II collagen (-33%) and for aggrecan (-53%) that were detected in rats unloaded by an 11 day spaceflight. The changes detected in gene expression raise concern that spaceflight may result in changes in the composition of extracellular matrix, which could have a negative impact on conversion of growth-plate cartilage into normal cancellous bone by endochondral ossification.

  14. Genetic Polymorphism of Human Y Chromosome and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases: A Study in WOBASZ Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kostrzewa, Grażyna; Broda, Grażyna; Konarzewska, Magdalena; Krajewki, Paweł; Płoski, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variants of Y chromosome predispose to hypertension in rodents, whereas in humans the evidence is conflicting. Our purpose was to study the distribution of a panel of Y chromosome markers in a cohort from a cross-sectional population-based study on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Poland (WOBASZ study). The HindIII, YAP Y chromosome variants, previously shown to influence blood pressure, lipid traits or height, as well as SNPs defining main Y chromosome haplogroups, were typed in 3026, 2783 and 2652 samples, respectively. In addition, 4 subgroups (N∼100 each) representing extremes of LDL concentration or blood pressure (BP) were typed for a panel of 17 STRs. The HindIII and YAP polymorphism were not associated with any of the studied traits. Analysis of the haplogroup distribution showed an association between higher HDL level and hg I-M170 (P = 0.02), higher LDL level and hg F*(xI-M170, J2-M172, K-M9) (P = 0.03) and lower BMI and hg N3-Tat (P = 0.04). Analysis of STRs did not show statistically significant differences. Since all these associations lost statistical significance after Bonferroni correction, we conclude that a major role of Y chromosome genetic variation (defined by HindIII, YAP or main Y chromosome haplogroups) in determining cardiovascular risk in Poles is unlikely. PMID:23935855

  15. Two new tardigrade species from Sicily.

    PubMed

    Pilato, Giovanni; Sabella, Giorgio; Lisi, Oscar

    2014-01-14

    Two new species of tardigrades are described from Sicilian moss samples: Macrobiotus insuetus sp. nov. and Diphascon (Diphascon) procerum sp. nov.        Macrobiotus insuetus sp. nov. is a species of the harmsworthi-group characterized by both posterior and anterior claws of the hind legs, which are different in shape from those of the first three leg pairs. The IV claws have extended basal tract where the branches are joined and the secondary branch breaks at near right angle to the primary branch and is clearly shorter than the main branch and the secondary branch of claws I-III. The eggs are not areolated and have conical processes with a reticular ornamentation.        Diphascon (D.) procerum sp. nov. has a delicate cuticular ornamentation of very small tubercles, almost dots; two macroplacoids and septulum are present; thin accessory points are present on the main branches of the slender claws; lunules are absent but the base of the external claws of the hind legs are enlarged and slightly indented; a cuticular bar is present near the internal claw of the first three leg pairs and two cuticular bars are present on the hind legs between the base of the claws and near the base of the anterior claw. 

  16. Evaluation of a novel accelerometer for kinetic gait analysis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kyle; Caraguel, Charles; Leahey, Lorne; Béraud, Romain

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a novel accelerometer-based sensor system, the Walkabout Portable Gait Monitor (WPGM), for use in kinetic gait analysis of dogs. The accelerometer was compared to the common reference standard of force platform analysis. Fifteen client-owned, orthopedically sound dogs of various breeds underwent simultaneous force platform and accelerometer gait trials to measure peak vertical forces (PVFs). The agreement between PVF for the accelerometer and force platform was measured using concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) and was found, overall, to be moderate [CCC = 0.51; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46 to 0.56]. The agreement between PVF for the accelerometer and force platform for the forelimbs was positive and substantial (CCC = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.84) and for the hind limbs was positive and low (CCC = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.29 to 0.38). As measured by the accelerometer, PVF was systematically higher than as measured by the force platform (forelimbs 55.3 N, hind limbs 144.3 N). It was also found that, when positioned over the lumbar spine, the WPGM cannot measure PVF of the individual forelimbs and hind limbs, which limits its use as a clinical tool to measure kinetic variables in dogs. PMID:24982555

  17. Morphological and genetic diversity studies among populations of tea mosquito bug, Helopeltis theivora from Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Bhau, Brijmohan Singh; Mech, Jiten; Borthakur, Sangita; Bhuyan, Mantu; Bhattacharyya, Pranab Ram

    2014-12-01

    Multilocus DNA fingerprinting and morphometry were compared to evaluate genetic diversity of tea mosquito bug, Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse (Hemiptera: Miridae). Eighty-one female individuals representing 27 populations of H. theivora from tea plantations of different regions of Assam, India were collected and evaluated. Observation of 12 characters i.e. body length, antennae length, head width, stylet length, thorax width, forewing length, forewing width, hind wing length, hind wing width and length of foreleg, middle leg, hind leg revealed distinct pattern in different population of H. theivora. On the basis of morphological traits, six different types of population groups have been identified. Genetic analysis produced a total number of 262 bands, of which 221 (84.35 %) were polymorphic. The number of bands produced per primer varied from 2 to 17. The dendrogram derived from UPGMA cluster analysis indicates three clusters containing 24 populations at 63 % of similarity while three populations viz. H23, H19 and H14 excluded from the major cluster and come out as a discrete cluster. The cluster 1 includes populations from 9 different districts of Assam, cluster 2 again included 5 populations, cluster 3 constitute 3 populations and cluster 4 again consist of 3 populations. Both marker (morphological and molecular) systems indicated that genetic variability within populations examined was significantly high. Appropriate quality and quantity of chemical pesticides used in pest control programmes is a fundamental goal in the tea industry. It is supported by the knowledge of patterns of population connectivity and historical demography.

  18. Sin Nombre hantavirus nucleocapsid protein exhibits a metal-dependent DNA-specific endonucleolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Möncke-Buchner, Elisabeth; Szczepek, Michal; Bokelmann, Marcel; Heinemann, Patrick; Raftery, Martin J; Krüger, Detlev H; Reuter, Monika

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate that the nucleocapsid protein of Sin Nombre hantavirus (SNV-N) has a DNA-specific endonuclease activity. Upon incubation of SNV-N with DNA in the presence of magnesium or manganese, we observed DNA digestion in sequence-unspecific manner. In contrast, RNA was not affected under the same conditions. Moreover, pre-treatment of SNV-N with RNase before DNA cleavage increased the endonucleolytic activity. Structure-based protein fold prediction using known structures from the PDB database revealed that Asp residues in positions 88 and 103 of SNV-N show sequence similarity with the active site of the restriction endonuclease HindIII. Crystal structure of HindIII predicts that residues Asp93 and Asp108 are essential for coordination of the metal ions required for HindIII DNA cleavage. Therefore, we hypothesized that homologous residues in SNV-N, Asp88 and Asp103, may have a similar function. Replacing Asp88 and Asp103 by alanine led to an SNV-N protein almost completely abrogated for endonuclease activity. PMID:27261891

  19. Quercetin inhibits radiation-induced skin fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Horton, Jason A; Li, Fei; Chung, Eun Joo; Hudak, Kathryn; White, Ayla; Krausz, Kristopher; Gonzalez, Frank; Citrin, Deborah

    2013-08-01

    Radiation induced fibrosis of the skin is a late toxicity that may result in loss of function due to reduced range of motion and pain. The current study sought to determine if oral delivery of quercetin mitigates radiation-induced cutaneous injury. Female C3H/HeN mice were fed control chow or quercetin-formulated chow (1% by weight). The right hind leg was exposed to 35 Gy of X rays and the mice were followed serially to assess acute toxicity and hind leg extension. Tissue samples were collected for assessment of soluble collagen and tissue cytokines. Human and murine fibroblasts were subjected to clonogenic assays to determine the effects of quercetin on radiation response. Contractility of fibroblasts was assessed with a collagen contraction assay in the presence or absence of quercetin and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Western blotting of proteins involved in fibroblast contractility and TGF-β signaling were performed. Quercetin treatment significantly reduced hind limb contracture, collagen accumulation and expression of TGF-β in irradiated skin. Quercetin had no effect on the radioresponse of fibroblasts or murine tumors, but was capable of reducing the contractility of fibroblasts in response to TGF-β, an effect that correlated with partial stabilization of phosphorylated cofilin. Quercetin is capable of mitigating radiation induced skin fibrosis and should be further explored as a therapy for radiation fibrosis.

  20. Increased muscular volume and cuticular specialisations enhance jump velocity in solitarious compared with gregarious desert locusts, Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Stephen M; Riley, Joanna; Brighton, Caroline; Sutton, Gregory P; Cullen, Darron A; Burrows, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    The desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, shows a strong phenotypic plasticity. It can develop, depending upon population density, into either a solitarious or gregarious phase that differs in many aspects of behaviour, physiology and morphology. Prominent amongst these differences is that solitarious locusts have proportionately longer hind femora than gregarious locusts. The hind femora contain the muscles and energy-storing cuticular structures that propel powerful jumps using a catapult-like mechanism. We show that solitarious locusts jump on average 23% faster and 27% further than gregarious locusts, and attribute this improved performance to three sources: first, a 17.5% increase in the relative volume of their hind femur, and hence muscle volume; second, a 24.3% decrease in the stiffness of the energy-storing semi-lunar processes of the distal femur; and third, a 4.5% decrease in the stiffness of the tendon of the extensor tibiae muscle. These differences mean that solitarious locusts can generate more power and store more energy in preparation for a jump than can gregarious locusts. This improved performance comes at a cost: solitarious locusts expend nearly twice the energy of gregarious locusts during a single jump and the muscular co-contraction that energises the cuticular springs takes twice as long. There is thus a trade-off between achieving maximum jump velocity in the solitarious phase against the ability to engage jumping rapidly and repeatedly in the gregarious phase.

  1. Kinetic peak vertical force measurement in cats afflicted by coxarthritis: data management and acquisition protocols.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Maxim; Guillot, Martin; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Troncy, Eric

    2013-08-01

    The management of the peak vertical force (PVF) measurement needs to be determined in coxarthritis cats. Six privately-owned coxarthritis cats were conditioned to trot across a floor mat-based plantar force measurement system. Hind limbs PVF was measured on level ground at day one (D1), D8, D42, and D84. Measurements were repeated after 10 min treadmill exercise (D1), trotting on an inclined (13°) plane (D42) and after stair climbing exercise (D84). Test-retest reliability between D1 and D8 was good (intraclass coefficient of correlation of 0.8). Coefficients of dispersion (within-subject and between-subject) were <15% using the lowest hind limb PVF value. Only stair climbing exercise positively affected sample and effect size estimates. To limit the dispersion of data, the measurement of PVF should be managed using the lowest hind limb PVF value. In addition, PVF should be measured following stair climbing to optimise sample and effect sizes and to preserve statistical power.

  2. The mechanics of elevation control in locust jumping.

    PubMed

    Sutton, G P; Burrows, M

    2008-06-01

    How do animals control the trajectory of ballistic motions like jumping? Targeted jumps by a locust, which are powered by a rapid extension of the tibiae of both hind legs, require control of the take-off angle and speed. To determine how the locust controls these parameters, we used high speed images of jumps and mechanical analysis to reach three conclusions: (1) the extensor tibiae muscle applies equal and opposite torques to the femur and tibia, which ensures that tibial extension accelerates the centre of mass of the body along a straight line; (2) this line is parallel to a line drawn from the distal end of the tibia through the proximal end of the femur; (3) the slope of this line (the angle of elevation) is not affected if the two hind legs extend asynchronously. The mechanics thus uncouple the control of elevation and speed, allowing simplified and independent control mechanisms. Jump elevation is controlled mechanically by the initial positions of the hind legs and jump speed is determined by the energy stored within their elastic processes, which allows us to then propose which proprioceptors are involved in controlling these quantities.

  3. Two new tardigrade species from Sicily.

    PubMed

    Pilato, Giovanni; Sabella, Giorgio; Lisi, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of tardigrades are described from Sicilian moss samples: Macrobiotus insuetus sp. nov. and Diphascon (Diphascon) procerum sp. nov.        Macrobiotus insuetus sp. nov. is a species of the harmsworthi-group characterized by both posterior and anterior claws of the hind legs, which are different in shape from those of the first three leg pairs. The IV claws have extended basal tract where the branches are joined and the secondary branch breaks at near right angle to the primary branch and is clearly shorter than the main branch and the secondary branch of claws I-III. The eggs are not areolated and have conical processes with a reticular ornamentation.        Diphascon (D.) procerum sp. nov. has a delicate cuticular ornamentation of very small tubercles, almost dots; two macroplacoids and septulum are present; thin accessory points are present on the main branches of the slender claws; lunules are absent but the base of the external claws of the hind legs are enlarged and slightly indented; a cuticular bar is present near the internal claw of the first three leg pairs and two cuticular bars are present on the hind legs between the base of the claws and near the base of the anterior claw.  PMID:24869688

  4. Flesh-eating Streptococcus pyogenes triggers the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Hidenori; Nakatani, Yuriko; Yoshida, Haruno; Takizawa, Asako; Takeuchi, Osamu; Øverby, Anders; Takahashi, Takashi; Murayama, Somay Y; Matsuo, Koichi

    2016-10-01

    Human CD46 is a receptor for the M protein of group A streptococcus (GAS). The emm1 GAS strain GAS472 was isolated from a patient suffering from streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome. Human CD46-expressing transgenic (Tg) mice developed necrotizing fasciitis associated with osteoclast-mediated progressive and severe bone destruction in the hind paws 3 days after subcutaneous infection with 5 × 10(5) colony-forming units of GAS472. GAS472 infection induced expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) while concomitantly reducing osteoprotegerin expression in the hind limb bones of CD46 Tg mice. Micro-computed tomography analysis of the bones suggested that GAS472 infection induced local bone erosion and systemic bone loss in CD46 Tg mice. Because treatment with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against mouse CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes did not inhibit osteoclastogenesis, T lymphocyte-derived RANKL was not considered a major contributor to massive bone loss during GAS472 infection. However, immunohistochemical analysis of the hind limb bones showed that GAS472 infection stimulated RANKL production in various bone marrow cells, including fibroblast-like cells. Treatment with a mAb against mouse RANKL significantly inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption. These data suggest that increased expression of RANKL in heterogeneous bone marrow cells provoked bone destruction during GAS infection.

  5. Experimental study in order to assess the effects of limited periosteum stripping on the fracture healing and to compare osteosynthesis using plates and screws with intramedullary Kirschner wire fixation.

    PubMed

    Neagu, Tiberiu Paul; Enache, Valentin; Cocoloş, Ion; Ţigliş, Mirela; Cobilinschi, Cristian; Ţincu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    There are many studies that investigate indirect and direct fracture healing but few mention the effect of periosteum stripping on consolidation of fractures. Most of these studies use only one method of osteosynthesis for each group. Therefore, we reported a new developed murine model in order to assess if limited periosteum stripping influence significantly the quality of the fracture healing process by comparing two different osteosynthesis methods to reduce simultaneously bilateral femur fractures. We applied the experimental protocol for a number of 12 rats. We used plates and screws to reduce femoral osteotomy for the right hind limb and intramedullary Kirschner wire for the left hind limb. Clinical, radiological and histological assessments were made for a period of eight weeks. The absence of a healthy hind limb led to a slower healing process based on the histological findings and to implant failure based on radiological findings. In summary, complete fracture healing was not achieved during this experimental study. Therefore, we consider that future studies are needed for a better understanding of the effects of periosteum removal on the fracture healing process. PMID:27516016

  6. Quercetin Inhibits Radiation-Induced Skin Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Jason A.; Li, Fei; Chung, Eun Joo; Hudak, Kathryn; White, Ayla; Krausz, Kristopher; Gonzalez, Frank; Citrin, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Radiation induced fibrosis of the skin is a late toxicity that may result in loss of function due to reduced range of motion and pain. The current study sought to determine if oral delivery of quercetin mitigates radiation-induced cutaneous injury. Female C3H/HeN mice were fed control chow or quercetin-formulated chow (1% by weight). The right hind leg was exposed to 35 Gy of X rays and the mice were followed serially to assess acute toxicity and hind leg extension. Tissue samples were collected for assessment of soluble collagen and tissue cytokines. Human and murine fibroblasts were subjected to clonogenic assays to determine the effects of quercetin on radiation response. Contractility of fibroblasts was assessed with a collagen contraction assay in the presence or absence of quercetin and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Western blotting of proteins involved in fibroblast contractility and TGF-β signaling were performed. Quercetin treatment significantly reduced hind limb contracture, collagen accumulation and expression of TGF-β in irradiated skin. Quercetin had no effect on the radioresponse of fibroblasts or murine tumors, but was capable of reducing the contractility of fibroblasts in response to TGF-β, an effect that correlated with partial stabilization of phosphorylated cofilin. Quercetin is capable of mitigating radiation induced skin fibrosis and should be further explored as a therapy for radiation fibrosis. PMID:23819596

  7. A complement receptor-1 polymorphism with high frequency in malaria endemic regions of Asia but not Africa

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, BN; Donvito, B; Cockburn, I; Fandeur, T; Rowe, JA; Cohen, JHM; Moulds, JM

    2010-01-01

    Complement receptor-1 (CR1) is a ligand for rosette formation, a phenomenon associated with cerebral malaria (CM). Binding is dependent on erythrocyte CR1 copy number. In Caucasians, low CR1 expressors have two linked mutations. We determined the Q981H and HindIII RFLP distribution in differing population groups to ascertain a possible role in adaptive evolution. We examined 194 Caucasians, 180 Choctaw Indians, 93 Chinese-Taiwanese, 304 Cambodians, 89 Papua New Guineans (PNG) and 366 Africans. PCR/RFLP used HindIII for CR1 expression and BstNI for the Q981H mutation. DNA sequencing and pyrosequencing were performed to resolve inconclusive results. Gene frequencies for the L allele were 0.15 in Africans, 0.16 in Choctaws, 0.18 in Caucasians, 0.29 in Chinese-Taiwanese, 0.47 in Cambodians and 0.58 in PNG. Allelic frequency for 981H were 0.07 in Africans, 0.15 in Caucasians, 0.18 in Choctaws, 0.29 in Chinese-Taiwanese, 0.47 in Cambodians and 0.54 in PNG. The Q981H polymorphism correlates with the HindIII RFLP in most groups except West Africans and appears to be part of a low CR1 expression haplotype. The gene frequency for the haplotype is highest in the malaria-endemic areas of Asia, suggesting that this haplotype may have evolved because it protects from rosetting and CM. PMID:15578041

  8. Hydrogen peroxide-responsive copolyoxalate nanoparticles for detection and therapy of ischemia–reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongwon; Bae, Soochan; Ke, Qingen; Lee, Jiyoo; Song, Byungjoo; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Khang, Gilson; Choi, Hak Soo; Kang, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    The main culprit in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is the generation of high level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, we report a novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for I/R injury based on H2O2-activatable copolyoxalate nanoparticles using a murine model of hind limb I/R injury. The nanoparticles are composed of hydroxybenzyl alcohol (HBA)-incorporating copolyoxalate (HPOX) that, in the presence of H2O2, degrades completely into three known and safe compounds, cyclohexanedimethanol, HBA and CO2. HPOX effectively scavenges H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner and hydrolyzes to release HBA which exerts intrinsic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities both in vitro and in vivo models of hind limb I/R. HPOX nanoparticles loaded with fluorophore effectively and robustly image H2O2 generated in hind limb I/R injury, demonstrating their potential for bioimaging of H2O2-associated diseases. Furthermore, HPOX nanoparticles loaded with anti-apoptotic drug effectively release the drug payload after I/R injury, exhibiting their effectiveness for a targeted drug delivery system for I/R injury. We anticipate that multifunctional HPOX nanoparticles have great potential as H2O2 imaging agents, therapeutics and drug delivery systems for H2O2-associated diseases. PMID:24096013

  9. Associations of three lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphisms, lipid profiles and coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    DAOUD, MOHAMED S.; ATAYA, FARID S.; FOUAD, DALIA; ALHAZZANI, AMAL; SHEHATA, AFAF I.; AL-JAFARI, ABDULAZIZ A.

    2013-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a central role in lipoprotein metabolism by hydrolyzing the core triglycerides (TGs) of circulating chylomicrons and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). The effects of LPL polymorphisms on lipid levels and coronary artery disease (CAD) have been inconsistent among studies and populations. To assess the lipid profiles and distributions of three LPL gene polymorphisms in Saudi patients with CAD, the HindIII, PvuII and Ser447Ter polymorphisms in the LPL gene were analyzed in 226 patients with CAD and 110 controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to detect LPL gene polymorphisms. The plasma lipid profiles of the patients were determined using standard enzymatic methods. Patients in the CAD group had significantly higher triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels than controls irrespective of the HindIII, PvuII or Ser447Ter genotype. Compared to the findings in controls, the HindIII TT, PvuII TC and Ser447Ter CC genotypes were associated with significantly reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in patients with CAD (P<0.0001). In summary, there are associations between LPL gene variants and high plasma TG, TC and LDL-C levels as well as low HDL-C levels. PMID:24648989

  10. Mapping of the vaccinia virus DNA polymerase gene by marker rescue and cell-free translation of selected RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.V.; Moss, B.

    1984-01-01

    The previous demonstration that a phosphonoacetate (PAA)-resistant (PAA/sup r/) vaccinia virus mutant synthesized an altered DNA polymerase provided the key to mapping this gene. Marker rescue was performed in cells infected with wild-type PAA-sensitive (PAA/sup s/) vaccinia by transfecting with calcium phosphate-precipitated DNA from a PAA/sup r/ mutant virus. Formation of PAA/sup r/ recombinants was measured by plaque assay in the presence of PAA. Of the 12 HindIII fragments cloned in plasmid or cosmid vectors, only fragment E conferred the PAA/sup r/ phenotype. Successive subcloning of the 15-kilobase HindIII fragment E localized the marker within a 7.5-kilobase BamHI-HindIII fragment and then within a 2.9-kilobase EcoRI fragment. The location of the DNA polymerase gene, about 57 kilobases from the left end of the genome, was confirmed by cell-free translation of mRNA selected by hybridization to plasmids containing regions of PAA/sup r/ vaccinia DNA active in marker rescue. A 100,000-dalton polypeptide that comigrated with authentic DNA polymerase was synthesized. Correspondence of the in vitro translation product with purified vaccinia DNA polymerase was established by peptide mapping.

  11. Effect of Carnosine in Experimental Arthritis and on Primary Culture Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ponist, S.; Drafi, F.; Kuncirova, V.; Mihalova, D.; Rackova, L.; Danisovic, L.; Ondrejickova, O.; Tumova, I.; Trunova, O.; Fedorova, T.; Bauerova, K.

    2016-01-01

    Carnosine's (CARN) anti-inflammatory potential in autoimmune diseases has been but scarcely investigated as yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CARN in rat adjuvant arthritis, in the model of carrageenan induced hind paw edema (CARA), and also in primary culture of chondrocytes under H2O2 injury. The experiments were done on healthy animals, arthritic animals, and arthritic animals with oral administration of CARN in a daily dose of 150 mg/kg b.w. during 28 days as well as animals with CARA treated by a single administration of CARN in the same dose. CARN beneficially affected hind paw volume and changes in body weight on day 14 and reduced hind paw swelling in CARA. Markers of oxidative stress in plasma and brain (malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal, protein carbonyls, and lag time of lipid peroxidation) and also activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase were significantly corrected by CARN. CARN also reduced IL-1alpha in plasma. Suppression of intracellular oxidant levels was also observed in chondrocytes pretreated with CARN. Our results obtained on two animal models showed that CARN has systemic anti-inflammatory activity and protected rat brain and chondrocytes from oxidative stress. This finding suggests that CARN might be beneficial for treatment of arthritic diseases. PMID:26885252

  12. Transcriptional and translational mapping and nucleotide sequence analysis of a vaccinia virus gene encoding the precursor of the major core polypeptide 4b.

    PubMed

    Rosel, J; Moss, B

    1985-12-01

    We prepared antiserum that reacted with a major core polypeptide of approximately 62,000 daltons (62K polypeptide), designated 4b, and its 74K precursor, designated P4b. A cell-free translation product of vaccinia virus late mRNA that comigrated with P4b was specifically immunoprecipitated. The late mRNA encoding P4b hybridized to restriction fragments derived from the left end of the HindIII A fragment and to a lesser extent from the right side of the HindIII D fragment. A polypeptide that comigrated with P4a, the precursor of another major core polypeptide, was synthesized by mRNA that hybridized to DNA segments upstream of the P4b gene. Complete nucleotide sequence analysis of the P4b gene revealed an open reading frame, entirely within the HindIII A fragment, that was sufficient to encode a 644-amino-acid polypeptide of 73K. The 5' end of the P4b mRNA was located at or just above the translational initiation site.

  13. Wing folding and the functional morphology of the wing base in Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Haas, F; Beutel, R G

    2001-01-01

    The wing unfolding of Pachnoda marginata was examined using digital video (50 half-fps) and high speed video sequences (1000 fps), and the skeleto-muscular apparatus of the metathorax was described. Left and right hind wing are able to promote independently of each other. The hind wings do not unfold instantly when the elytra are lifted and may also reach the flight position (and beat) while still folded. Wing promotion is exhaustible and the time needed for unfolding varies considerably. These observations strongly suggest a muscular control. Wing unfolding is probably triggered by contraction of M. pleura alaris and a resulting proximad movement of the 3rd axillary sclerite, pulling the Media posterior backwards, while the Radius anterior is held by the basalar muscle as the antagonist. Our findings are in clear contrast to the earlier assumption that the hind wings of Coleoptera either unfold or fold due to intrinsic elasticity. The specific wing folding and unfolding mechanisms are autapomorphic character states of Coleoptera. They were maintained during evolution even though considerable variations of skeletal thoracic structures, musculature and venation occurred. (Additional material is available from the Zoology web page: http://www.urbanfischer.de/journals/zoology).

  14. Male Armaments and Reproductive Behavior in “Nutcracker” Camel Crickets (Rhaphidophoridae, Pristoceuthophilus)

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Lauren P.; Gray, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Males of many species possess striking weaponry used in intrasexual competition for access to females. Until recently, there were no known cases of male weaponry being used against females in sexual coercion. However, in the camel cricket, Pristoceuthophilus marmoratus, males use modified hind legs to fight with each other and also to trap females and force them to copulate. To determine whether hind leg armaments serve similar fighting and mating functions in morphologically similar congeners, we performed a comparative survey of armament use in intra- and inter-sexual interactions in four additional species of Pristoceuthophilus (P. arizonae and three undescribed species: P. ‘Huachuca summer,’ P. ‘Madera’ and P. ‘Mt. Pinos’). Intrasexual leg fighting occurred in all species for which trials were performed, and hints of sexual coercion occurred in two species (P. ‘Huachuca summer’ and P. ‘Mt. Pinos’), suggesting additional cases of a uniquely dual-purpose armament. These findings suggest an evolutionary exaptation of hind leg armaments in this genus, wherein an intrasexual fighting weapon took on a secondary function of sexual coercion. PMID:26463067

  15. Calcium Balance in Mature Rats Exposed to a Space Flight Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolinsky, Ira

    1996-01-01

    Negative calcium balances are seen in humans during spaceflight and bed rest, an analog of space flight. Due to the infrequency and costliness of space flight and the difficulties, cost, and restraints in using invasive procedures in bed rest studies, several ground based animal models of space flight have been employed. The most useful and well developed of these models is hind limb unloading in the rat. In this model the hind limbs are non-weight bearing (unloaded) but still mobile; there is a cephalad fluid shift similar to that seen in astronauts in flight; the animals are able to feed, groom and locomote using their front limbs; the procedure is reversible; and, importantly, the model has been validated by comparison to space flight. Several laboratories have studied calcium balance using rats in hind limb unweighting. Roer and Dillaman used young male rats to study calcium balance in this model for 25 days. They found no differences in dietary calcium intake, percent calcium absorption, urinary and fecal excretion, hence indicating no differences in calcium balance between control and unloaded rats. In another study, employing 120 day old females, rats' hind limbs were unloaded for 28 days. While negative calcium balances were observed during a 25 day recovery period no balance measurements were possible during unweighting since the researchers did not employ appropriate metabolic cages. In a recent study from this laboratory, using 200 g rats in the space flight model for two weeks, we found depressed intestinal calcium absorption and increased fecal calcium excretion (indicating less positive calcium balances) and lower circulating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The above studies indicate that there remains a dearth of information on calcium balance during the hind limb unloading rat space flight model, especially in mature rats, whose use is a better model for planned manned space flight than juvenile or growing animals. With the aid of a newly designed

  16. An exploration of the influence of diagonal dissociation and moderate changes in speed on locomotor parameters in trotting horses

    PubMed Central

    Bertram, John E.A.; Clayton, Hilary M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Although the trot is described as a diagonal gait, contacts of the diagonal pairs of hooves are not usually perfectly synchronized. Although subtle, the timing dissociation between contacts of each diagonal pair could have consequences on gait dynamics and provide insight into the functional strategies employed. This study explores the mechanical effects of different diagonal dissociation patterns when speed was matched between individuals and how these effects link to moderate, natural changes in trotting speed. We anticipate that hind-first diagonal dissociation at contact increases with speed, diagonal dissociation at contact can reduce collision-based energy losses and predominant dissociation patterns will be evident within individuals. Methods. The study was performed in two parts: in the first 17 horses performed speed-matched trotting trials and in the second, five horses each performed 10 trotting trials that represented a range of individually preferred speeds. Standard motion capture provided kinematic data that were synchronized with ground reaction force (GRF) data from a series of force plates. The data were analyzed further to determine temporal, speed, GRF, postural, mass distribution, moment, and collision dynamics parameters. Results. Fore-first, synchronous, and hind-first dissociations were found in horses trotting at (3.3 m/s ± 10%). In these speed-matched trials, mean centre of pressure (COP) cranio-caudal location differed significantly between the three dissociation categories. The COP moved systematically and significantly (P = .001) from being more caudally located in hind-first dissociation (mean location = 0.41 ± 0.04) through synchronous (0.36 ± 0.02) to a more cranial location in fore-first dissociation (0.32 ± 0.02). Dissociation patterns were found to influence function, posture, and balance parameters. Over a moderate speed range, peak vertical forelimb GRF had a strong relationship with dissociation time (R = .594

  17. Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Epinephelini) in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species

    PubMed Central

    Kritsky, Delane C.; Bakenhaster, Micah D.; Adams, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    ; Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Oliver, 1984) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from dusky grouper Mycteroperca marginata; Pseudorhabdosynochus mizellei n. sp. from red hind Epinephelus guttatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus williamsi n. sp. from rock hind Epinephelus adscensionis; Pseudorhabdosynochus bunkleywilliamsae n. sp. from Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus mycteropercae n. sp. from tiger grouper Mycteroperca tigris; and Pseudorhabdosynochus tumeovagina n. sp. from speckled hind Epinephelus drummondhayi. Pseudorhabdosynochus woodi n. sp. from red hind Epinephelus guttatus is described based on specimens from the US National Parasite Collection (USNPC). Drawings of the haptoral and copulatory sclerites of the type specimens in the USNPC of Pseudorhabdosynochus monaensis Dyer, Williams & Bunkley-Williams, 1994 from rock hind Epinephelus adscensionis are presented. Finally, a note confirming Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli Yamaguti, 1958 rather than its senior synonym Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli (Yamaguti, 1938) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 as the type species of Pseudorhabdosynochus is provided. PMID:26272242

  18. Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Epinephelini) in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Bakenhaster, Micah D; Adams, Douglas H

    2015-01-01

    ; Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Oliver, 1984) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from dusky grouper Mycteroperca marginata; Pseudorhabdosynochus mizellei n. sp. from red hind Epinephelus guttatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus williamsi n. sp. from rock hind Epinephelus adscensionis; Pseudorhabdosynochus bunkleywilliamsae n. sp. from Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus mycteropercae n. sp. from tiger grouper Mycteroperca tigris; and Pseudorhabdosynochus tumeovagina n. sp. from speckled hind Epinephelus drummondhayi. Pseudorhabdosynochus woodi n. sp. from red hind Epinephelus guttatus is described based on specimens from the US National Parasite Collection (USNPC). Drawings of the haptoral and copulatory sclerites of the type specimens in the USNPC of Pseudorhabdosynochus monaensis Dyer, Williams & Bunkley-Williams, 1994 from rock hind Epinephelus adscensionis are presented. Finally, a note confirming Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli Yamaguti, 1958 rather than its senior synonym Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli (Yamaguti, 1938) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 as the type species of Pseudorhabdosynochus is provided.

  19. Stepping behavior and muscle activity of dairy cows on uncomfortable standing surfaces presented under 1 or 4 legs.

    PubMed

    Rajapaksha, E; Tucker, C B

    2015-01-01

    The comfort of dairy cattle while standing has important implications for housing design. Research has examined how cattle respond to standing surfaces by presenting options under all 4 legs or under a single leg, but no work, to date, has compared presentation methods. This study examined behavior and muscle activity when cows stood on rough floors under all 4 legs or just 1 hind leg. Three treatments were tested: smooth concrete under all 4 legs (0-ROUGH), a rough surface under all 4 legs [2cm × 2cm × 4cm trapezoidal protrusions (4-ROUGH)], and a rough surface only under 1 hind leg, with other legs on smooth concrete (1-ROUGH). Twenty-four healthy Holstein cows stood on each surface for 1h/d in a repeated-measures design. Surface electromyograms (SEMG) were used to evaluate muscle fatigue and total activity. Muscle fatigue was measured using SEMG to evaluate (1) static contractions when cows were continuously weight bearing on each hind leg, before and after 1h of standing, and (2) dynamic contractions associated with steps during 1h of standing. Behavioral measures included steps per minute, time between each consecutive step, and the latency to lie down after testing. The number of legs affected by roughness influenced both behavioral and physiological responses to flooring. Cows on 1-ROUGH stepped twice as often with the rough-treated leg and one-half as much with the hind leg on smooth concrete compared with other surfaces. Similarly, on the 1-ROUGH surface, total muscle activity was reduced in the leg on the rough surface, and muscle activity was more sustained (3× higher) in the other hind leg, suggesting that cows avoid possible discomfort under 1 leg by using muscles in the other. In the 4-ROUGH treatment, time between steps was more variable than on the other 2 treatments (coefficient of variation, 4-ROUGH: 245; 1-ROUGH: 208; 0-ROUGH: 190±5.8%), likely because cows could not move away from this uneven flooring. Thus, the method of presentation of

  20. The molecular response of bone to growth hormone during skeletal unloading: regional differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Halloran, B. P.; Currier, P. A.; Tanner, S.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1995-01-01

    Hind limb elevation of the growing rat provides a good model for the skeletal changes that occur during space flight. In this model the bones of the forelimbs (normally loaded) are used as an internal control for the changes that occur in the unloaded bones of the hind limbs. Previous studies have shown that skeletal unloading of the hind limbs results in a transient reduction of bone formation in the tibia and femur, with no change in the humerus. This fall in bone formation is accompanied by a fall in serum osteocalcin (bone Gla protein, BGP) and bone BGP messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, but a rise in bone insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) protein and mRNA levels and resistance to the skeletal growth-promoting actions of IGF-I. To determine whether skeletal unloading also induced resistance to GH, we evaluated the response of the femur and humerus of sham and hypophysectomized rats, control and hind limb elevated, to GH (two doses), measuring mRNA levels of IGF-I, BGP, rat bone alkaline phosphatase (RAP), and alpha 1(1)-procollagen (coll). Hypophysectomy (HPX) decreased the mRNA levels of IGF-I, BGP, and coll in the femur, but was either less effective or had the opposite effect in the humerus. GH at the higher dose (500 micrograms/day) restored these mRNA levels to or above the sham control values in the femur, but generally had little or no effect on the humerus. RAP mRNA levels were increased by HPX, especially in the femur. The lower dose of GH (50 micrograms/day) inhibited this rise in RAP, whereas the higher dose raised the mRNA levels and resulted in the appearance of additional transcripts not seen in controls. As for the other mRNAs, RAP mRNA in the humerus was less affected by HPX or GH than that in the femur. Hind limb elevation led to an increase in IGF-I, coll, and RAP mRNAs and a reduction in BGP mRNA in the femur and either had no effect or potentiated the response of these mRNAs to GH. We conclude that GH stimulates a number of markers of bone

  1. Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Epinephelini) in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Bakenhaster, Micah D; Adams, Douglas H

    2015-01-01

    ; Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Oliver, 1984) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from dusky grouper Mycteroperca marginata; Pseudorhabdosynochus mizellei n. sp. from red hind Epinephelus guttatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus williamsi n. sp. from rock hind Epinephelus adscensionis; Pseudorhabdosynochus bunkleywilliamsae n. sp. from Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus mycteropercae n. sp. from tiger grouper Mycteroperca tigris; and Pseudorhabdosynochus tumeovagina n. sp. from speckled hind Epinephelus drummondhayi. Pseudorhabdosynochus woodi n. sp. from red hind Epinephelus guttatus is described based on specimens from the US National Parasite Collection (USNPC). Drawings of the haptoral and copulatory sclerites of the type specimens in the USNPC of Pseudorhabdosynochus monaensis Dyer, Williams & Bunkley-Williams, 1994 from rock hind Epinephelus adscensionis are presented. Finally, a note confirming Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli Yamaguti, 1958 rather than its senior synonym Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli (Yamaguti, 1938) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 as the type species of Pseudorhabdosynochus is provided. PMID:26272242

  2. Forced Exercise as a Rehabilitation Strategy after Unilateral Cervical Spinal Cord Contusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sandrow-Feinberg, Harra R.; Izzi, Jessica; Shumsky, Jed S.; Zhukareva, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Evaluation of locomotor training after spinal cord injury (SCI) has primarily focused on hind limb recovery, with evidence of functional and molecular changes in response to exercise. Since trauma at a cervical (C) level is common in human SCI, we used a unilateral C4 contusion injury model in rats to determine whether forced exercise (Ex) would affect spinal cord biochemistry, anatomy, and recovery of fore and hind limb function. SCI was created with the Infinite Horizon spinal cord impactor device at C4 with a force of 200 Kdyne and a mean displacement of 1600–1800 μm in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats that had been acclimated to a motorized exercise wheel apparatus. Five days post-operatively, the treated group began Ex on the wheel for 20 min per day, 5 days per week for 8 weeks. Wheel speed was increased daily according to the abilities of each animal up to 14 m/min. Control rats were handled daily but were not exposed to Ex. In one set of animals experiencing 5 days of Ex, there was a moderate increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and heat shock protein–27 (HSP-27) levels in the lesion epicenter and surrounding tissue. Long-term (8 weeks) survival groups were exposed to weekly behavioral tests to assess qualitative aspects of fore limb and hind limb locomotion (fore limb scale, FLS and BBB [Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale]), as well as sensorimotor (grid) and motor (grip) skills. Biweekly assessment of performance during wheel walking examined gross and fine motor skills. The FLS indicated a significant benefit of Ex during weeks 2–4. The BBB test showed no change with Ex at the end of the 8-week period, however hind limb grid performance was improved during weeks 2–4. Lesion size was not affected by Ex, but the presence of phagocytic and reactive glial cells was reduced with Ex as an intervention. These results suggest that Ex alone can influence the evolution of the injury and transiently

  3. Evaluation of mechanical and thermal nociception as objective tools to measure painful and nonpainful lameness phases in multiparous sows.

    PubMed

    Mohling, C M; Johnson, A K; Coetzee, J F; Karriker, L A; Stalder, K J; Abell, C E; Tyler, H D; Millman, S T

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify pain sensitivity differences using mechanical nociception threshold (MNT) and thermal nociception threshold (TNT) tests when sows were in painful and nonpainful transient lameness phases. A total of 24 mixed parity crossbred sows (220.15 ± 21.23 kg) were utilized for the MNT test, and a total of 12 sows (211.41 ± 20.21 kg) were utilized for the TNT test. On induction day (D0), all sows were anesthetized and injected with Amphotericin B (10mg/mL) in the distal interphalangeal joint space in both claws of one randomly selected hind limb to induce transient lameness. Three days were compared: (1) D-1 (sound phase, defined as 1 d before induction), (2) D+1 (most lame phase, defined as 1 d after induction), and (3) D+6 (resolution phase, defined as 6 d after induction). After completion of the first round, sows were given a 7-d rest period and then the procedures were repeated with lameness induced in the contralateral hind limb. During the MNT test, pressure was applied perpendicularly to 3 landmarks in a randomized sequence for each sow: 1) middle of cannon on the hind limb (cannon), 2) 1 cm above the coronary band on the medial hind claw (medial claw), and 3) 1 cm above the coronary band on the lateral hind claw (lateral claw). During the TNT test, a radiant heat stimulus was directed 1 cm above the coronary band. The data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure in SAS with sow as the experimental unit. Differences were analyzed between sound and lame limbs on each day. For the MNT test, pressure tolerated by the lame limb decreased for every landmark (P < 0.05) when comparing D-1 and D+1. The sound limb tolerated more pressure on D+1 and D+6 than on baseline D-1 (P < 0.05). Thermal stimulation tolerated by the sound limb did not change over the 3 d (P > 0.05). However, the sows tolerated less heat stimulation on their lame limb on D+1 compared to D-1 levels (P < 0.05). Both MNT and TNT tests indicated greater pain

  4. Frequencies of VNTR and RFLP polymorphisms associated with factor VIII gene in Singapore

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, I.; Lai, P.S.; Ouah, T.C.

    1994-09-01

    The allelic frequency of any polymorphism within a population determines its usefulness for genetic counselling. This is important in populations of non-Caucasian origin as RFLPs may significantly differ among ethnic groups. We report a study of five intragenic polymorphisms in factor VIII gene carried out in Singapore. The three PCR-based RFLP markers studied were Intron 18/Bcl I, Intron 19/Hind III and Intron 22/Xba I. In an analysis of 148 unrelated normal X chromosomes, the allele frequencies were found to be A1 = 0.18, A2 = 0.82 (Bcl I RFLP), A1 = 0.80, A2 = 0.20 (Hind III RFLP) and A1 = 0.58, and A2 = 0.42 (Xba I RFLP). The heterozygosity rates of 74 females analyzed separately were 31%, 32% and 84.2%, respectively. Linkage disequilibrium was also observed to some degree between Bcl I and Hind III polymorphism in our population. We have also analyzed a sequence polymorphism in Intron 7 using hybridization with radioactive-labelled {sup 32}P allele-specific oligonucleotide probes. This polymorphism was not very polymorphic in our population with only 2% of 117 individuals analyzed being informative. However, the use of a hypervariable dinucleotide repeat sequence (VNTR) in Intron 13 showed that 25 of our of 27 (93%) females were heterozygous. Allele frequencies ranged from 1 to 55 %. We conclude that a viable strategy for molecular analysis of Hemophilia A families in our population should include the use of Intron 18/Bcl I and Intron 22/Xba I RFLP markers and the Intron 13 VNTR marker.

  5. Parasite (Ribeiroia ondatrae) infection linked to amphibian malformations in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, P.T.J.; Lunde, K.B.; Thurman, E.M.; Ritchie, E.G.; Wray, S.N.; Sutherland, D.R.; Kapfer, J.M.; Frest, T.J.; Bowerman, J.; Blaustein, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    Parasites and pathogens can influence the survivorship, behavior, and very structure of their host species. For example, experimental studies have shown that trematode parasites can cause high frequencies of severe limb malformations in amphibians. In a broad-scale field survey covering parts of California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Montana, we examined relationships between the frequency and types of morphological abnormalities in amphibians and the abundance of trematode parasite infection, pH, concentrations of 61 pesticides, and levels of orthophosphate and total nitrate. We recorded severe malformations at frequencies ranging from 1% to 90% in nine amphibian species from 53 aquatic systems. Infection of larvae by the trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae was associated with, and functionally related to, higher frequencies of amphibian limb malformations than found in uninfected populations (???5%). Parasites were concentrated around the basal tissue of hind limbs in infected anurans, and malformations associated with infection included skin webbings, supernumerary limbs and digits, and missing or malformed hind limbs. In the absence of Ribeiroia, amphibian populations exhibited low (0-5%) frequencies of abnormalities involving missing digits or distal portions of a hind limb. Species were affected differentially by the parasite, and Ambystoma macrodactylum, Hyla regilla, Rand aurora, R. luteiventris, and Taricha torosa typically exhibited the highest frequencies of abnormalities. None of the water-quality variables measured was associated with malformed amphibians, but aquatic snail hosts (Planorbella spp.) were significant predictors of the presence and abundance of Ribeiroia infection. Morphological comparisons of adult specimens of Ribeiroia collected from different sites and raised in experimental definitive hosts suggested that all samples represented the same species - R. ondatrae. These field results, coupled with experimental research on the effects of

  6. Leg mechanics contribute to establishing swing phase trajectories during memory-guided stepping movements in walking cats: a computational analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Keir G.; Arbabzada, Naik; Gramlich, Rod; Shinya, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    When quadrupeds stop walking after stepping over a barrier with their forelegs, the memory of barrier height and location is retained for many minutes. This memory is subsequently used to guide hind leg movements over the barrier when walking is resumed. The upslope of the initial trajectory of hind leg paw movements is strongly dependent on the initial location of the paw relative to the barrier. In this study, we have attempted to determine whether mechanical factors contribute significantly in establishing the slope of the paw trajectories by creating a four-link biomechanical model of a cat hind leg and driving this model with a variety of joint-torque profiles, including average torques for a range of initial paw positions relative to the barrier. Torque profiles for individual steps were determined by an inverse dynamic analysis of leg movements in three normal cats. Our study demonstrates that limb mechanics can contribute to establishing the dependency of trajectory slope on the initial position of the paw relative to the barrier. However, an additional contribution of neuronal motor commands was indicated by the fact that the simulated slopes of paw trajectories were significantly less than the observed slopes. A neuronal contribution to the modification of paw trajectories was also revealed by our observations that both the magnitudes of knee flexor muscle EMG bursts and the initial knee flexion torques depended on initial paw position. Previous studies have shown that a shift in paw position prior to stepping over a barrier changes the paw trajectory to be appropriate for the new paw position. Our data indicate that both mechanical and neuronal factors contribute to this updating process, and that any shift in leg position during the delay period modifies the working memory of barrier location. PMID:26441625

  7. Accuracy and precision of gait events derived from motion capture in horses during walk and trot.

    PubMed

    Boye, Jenny Katrine; Thomsen, Maj Halling; Pfau, Thilo; Olsen, Emil

    2014-03-21

    This study aimed to create an evidence base for detection of stance-phase timings from motion capture in horses. The objective was to compare the accuracy (bias) and precision (SD) for five published algorithms for the detection of hoof-on and hoof-off using force plates as the reference standard. Six horses were walked and trotted over eight force plates surrounded by a synchronised 12-camera infrared motion capture system. The five algorithms (A-E) were based on: (A) horizontal velocity of the hoof; (B) Fetlock angle and horizontal hoof velocity; (C) horizontal displacement of the hoof relative to the centre of mass; (D) horizontal velocity of the hoof relative to the Centre of Mass and; (E) vertical acceleration of the hoof. A total of 240 stance phases in walk and 240 stance phases in trot were included in the assessment. Method D provided the most accurate and precise results in walk for stance phase duration with a bias of 4.1% for front limbs and 4.8% for hind limbs. For trot we derived a combination of method A for hoof-on and method E for hoof-off resulting in a bias of -6.2% of stance in the front limbs and method B for the hind limbs with a bias of 3.8% of stance phase duration. We conclude that motion capture yields accurate and precise detection of gait events for horses walking and trotting over ground and the results emphasise a need for different algorithms for front limbs versus hind limbs in trot.

  8. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF OSTEOARTHRITIS IN HARBOR SEALS (PHOCA VITULINA).

    PubMed

    García, Ana Rubio; Contreras, Guillermo J Sánchez; Acosta, Cristina Juliá; Lacave, Géraldine; Prins, Pier; Marck, Klaas

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, 543 harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and 124 grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) were admitted to the Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre in Pieterburen, The Netherlands. In 19 seals (3%), signs of infection in a hind flipper were observed. Initial treatment consisting of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs resolved the symptoms in 15 animals. In four harbor seals, estimated to be 3 to 4 mo old, a necrotizing infection developed that resulted in osteoarthritis of the tarsus or tibiotarsal joint or both. Bacterial culture revealed the presence of polymicrobial infection in three of the four animals. Treatment consisted of amputation of the hind flipper under general anesthesia combined with tumescent anesthesia in the operation field. Amputations were done at the diaphysis of the tibia and fibula. After resecting these bones, the flipper was discarded, leaving a good muscle-skin cuff to cover the edges of the bones and close the skin without tension. The estimated blood loss varied between <50 to 150 ml. Healing was uneventful, and both antibiotics and analgesics were gradually reduced according to the individual response. The seals did not show any functional impairment 1 mo postoperatively. After release to the sea, scrutinous revision of all radiographs showed signs of osteomyelitis in at least one animal in the proximal part of the tibia, also present preoperatively. It is concluded that tumescent anesthesia in seals may reduce perioperative blood loss and that a lower leg amputation is a surgically easy and clean approach for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the hind flipper of seals, giving good functional results (diving, catching fish, exiting a pool, and moving on land).

  9. Anti-inflammatory activities of light emitting diode irradiation on collagen-induced arthritis in mice (a secondary publication)

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Yusuke; Abiko, Yoshimitsu

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an auto-immune disease afflicting multiple joints of the body, where as a result of the increase in inflammatory cytokines and tissue destructive factors such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, deterioration of the bones and cartilages of the joints occurs. The present investigation was carried out to study the anti-inflammatory activities of light emitting diode (LED) irradiation on hind paw inflammation in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice models. Materials and method: RA in the CIA mouse model was induced by immunization of DBA/1J mice with intradermal injections of an emulsion of bovine type II collagen and complete Freund's adjuvant. A total of 20 CIA mice were subdivided into the following groups: control group, CIA group and 2 groups of LED irradiated CIA mice (LED groups) (n=5 per group). The mouse knee joint area in the LED groups (the 570 nm and 940 nm groups) was irradiated with LED energy, three times a week for 500 s per session over 8 weeks at a dose of 5 J/cm2. The hind paw swelling was assessed by the increase in hind paw thickness. The serum levels of the inflammatory cytokines and arthritic factor MMP-3 were determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: In the LED-570 and LED-940 groups at 4 weeks after arthritis induction, the swelling inhibition index was 18.1±4.9 and 29.3±4.0 respectively. Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and MMP-3 serum levels were significantly lower in the LED-940 group. Conclusions: LED irradiation, particularly in the near-infrared was effective for inhibition of the inflammatory reactions caused by RA. PMID:25368445

  10. Ontogenetic changes in limb bone structural proportions in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei).

    PubMed

    Ruff, Christopher B; Burgess, M Loring; Bromage, Timothy G; Mudakikwa, Antoine; McFarlin, Shannon C

    2013-12-01

    Behavioral studies indicate that adult mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei) are the most terrestrial of all nonhuman hominoids, but that infant mountain gorillas are much more arboreal. Here we examine ontogenetic changes in diaphyseal strength and length of the femur, tibia, humerus, radius, and ulna in 30 Virunga mountain gorillas, including 18 immature specimens and 12 adults. Comparisons are also made with 14 adult western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), which are known to be more arboreal than adult mountain gorillas. Infant mountain gorillas have significantly stronger forelimbs relative to hind limbs than older juveniles and adults, but are nonsignificantly different from western lowland gorilla adults. The change in inter-limb strength proportions is abrupt at about two years of age, corresponding to the documented transition to committed terrestrial quadrupedalism in mountain gorillas. The one exception is the ulna, which shows a gradual increase in strength relative to the radius and other long bones during development, possibly corresponding to the gradual adoption of stereotypical fully pronated knuckle-walking in older juvenile gorillas. Inter-limb bone length proportions show a contrasting developmental pattern, with hind limb/forelimb length declining rapidly from birth to five months of age, and then showing no consistent change through adulthood. The very early change in length proportions, prior to significant independent locomotion, may be related to the need for relatively long forelimbs for climbing in a large-bodied hominoid. Virunga mountain gorilla older juveniles and adults have equal or longer forelimb relative to hind limb bones than western lowland adults. These findings indicate that both ontogenetically and among closely related species of Gorilla, long bone strength proportions better reflect actual locomotor behavior than bone length proportions.

  11. Neurons controlling jumping in froghopper insects.

    PubMed

    Bräunig, Peter; Burrows, Malcolm

    2008-03-01

    The neurons innervating muscles that deliver the enormous power enabling froghopper insects to excel at jumping were revealed by backfilling the nerves from those muscles. The huge trochanteral depressor muscle (M133) of a hind leg consists of four parts. The two largest parts (M133b,c) occupy most of the metathorax and are innervated by the same two motor neurons that have small, laterally placed somata in the metathoracic ganglion and axons in nerve N3C(2). They are also supplied by three dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons with the largest diameter somata in the central nervous system. A small metathoracic part of the muscle (M133d) is supplied by two motor neurons with lateral somata and by common inhibitory motor neuron CI(1), all with axons in nerve N3C(3) The motor neuron with the larger soma has a thick primary neurite that projects across the midline of the ganglion so that its branches overlap those of its symmetrical counterpart,innervating the same muscle of the other hind leg. The fourth coxal part of the muscle (M133a) is innervated by two motor neurons (one with a ventral and the other with a dorsal and lateral soma), by CI(1), and by a DUM neuron with a small soma. All have axons in nerve N5A. The two trochanteral levator muscles of a hind leg are contained within the coxa and are separately innervated by nerves N3B and N4, respectively. The properties of the different motor neurons are discussed in the context of the neural patterns that generate jumping. PMID:18095320

  12. Thysanoptera (Thrips) Within Citrus Orchards in Florida: Species Distribution, Relative and Seasonal Abundance Within Trees, and Species on Vines and Ground Cover Plants

    PubMed Central

    Childers, Carl C.; Nakahara, Sueo

    2006-01-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced to no pesticide spray programs were sampled for Thysanoptera in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs, trunk scrapings, vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between January 1995 and January 1996. Thirty-six species of thrips were identified from 2,979 specimens collected from within citrus tree canopies and 18,266 specimens from vines and ground cover plants within the seven citrus orchards. The thrips species included seven predators [Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones), K. melaleucus (Bagnall), Leptothrips cassiae (Watson), L. macroocellatus (Watson), L. pini (Watson), and Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Pergande)] 21 plant feeding species [Anaphothrips n. sp., Arorathrips mexicanus (Crawford), Aurantothrips orchidaceous (Bagnall), Baileyothrips limbatus (Hood), Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Moulton), Danothrips trifasciatus (Sakimura), Echinothrips americanus (Morgan), Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan), F. cephalica (Crawford), F. fusca (Hinds), F. gossypiana (Hood), Frankliniella sp. (runneri group), Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin), Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché), Leucothrips piercei (Morgan), Microcephalothrips abdominalis (Crawford), Neohydatothrips floridanus (Watson), N. portoricensis (Morgan), Pseudothrips inequalis (Beach), Scirtothrips sp., and Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan)]; and eight fungivorous feeding species [Adraneothrips decorus (Hood), Hoplandrothrips pergandei (Hinds), Idolothripinae sp., Merothrips floridensis (Watson), M. morgani (Hood), Neurothrips magnafemoralis (Hinds), Stephanothrips occidentalis Hood and Williams, and Symphyothrips sp.]. Only F. bispinosa, C. orchidii, D. trifasciatus, and H. haemorrhoidalis have been considered economic pests on Florida citrus. Scirtothrips sp. and T. hawaiiensis were recovered in low numbers within Florida citrus orchards. Both are potential pest species to citrus and possibly other

  13. A Spontaneous Missense Mutation in Branched Chain Keto Acid Dehydrogenase Kinase in the Rat Affects Both the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems.

    PubMed

    Zigler, J Samuel; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Wright, Megan; Klise, Andrew; Sundin, Olof; Broman, Karl W; Hejtmancik, Fielding; Huang, Hao; Patek, Bonnie; Sergeev, Yuri; Hose, Stacey; Brayton, Cory; Xaiodong, Jiao; Vasquez, David; Maragakis, Nicholas; Mori, Susumu; Goldman, David; Hoke, Ahmet; Sinha, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    A novel mutation, causing a phenotype we named frogleg because its most obvious characteristic is a severe splaying of the hind limbs, arose spontaneously in a colony of Sprague-Dawley rats. Frogleg is a complex phenotype that includes abnormalities in hind limb function, reduced brain weight with dilated ventricles and infertility. Using micro-satellite markers spanning the entire rat genome, the mutation was mapped to a region of rat chromosome 1 between D1Rat131 and D1Rat287. Analysis of whole genome sequencing data within the linkage interval, identified a missense mutation in the branched-chain alpha-keto dehydrogenase kinase (Bckdk) gene. The protein encoded by Bckdk is an integral part of an enzyme complex located in the mitochondrial matrix of many tissues which regulates the levels of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), leucine, isoleucine and valine. BCAAs are essential amino acids (not synthesized by the body), and circulating levels must be tightly regulated; levels that are too high or too low are both deleterious. BCKDK phosphorylates Ser293 of the E1α subunit of the BCKDH protein, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the catabolism of the BCAAs, inhibiting BCKDH and thereby, limiting breakdown of the BCAAs. In contrast, when Ser293 is not phosphorylated, BCKDH activity is unchecked and the levels of the BCAAs will decrease dramatically. The mutation is located within the kinase domain of Bckdk and is predicted to be damaging. Consistent with this, we show that in rats homozygous for the mutation, phosphorylation of BCKDH in the brain is markedly decreased relative to wild type or heterozygous littermates. Further, circulating levels of the BCAAs are reduced by 70-80% in animals homozygous for the mutation. The frogleg phenotype shares important characteristics with a previously described Bckdk knockout mouse and with human subjects with Bckdk mutations. In addition, we report novel data regarding peripheral neuropathy of the hind limbs

  14. Effects of multiple chemical, physical, and biological stressors on the incidence and types of abnormalities observed in Bermuda's cane toads (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Bacon, Jamie P; Fort, Chelsea E; Todhunter, Brian; Mathis, Michael; Fort, Douglas J

    2013-06-01

    The interactive effects of contaminants and ultraviolet light (UV)-exposure on the incidence and types of abnormalities observed were measured in newly metamorphosed cane toads (Rhinella marina) from four Bermuda ponds contaminated with petrochemicals and metals. Abnormalities were compared in toadlets that were field-collected, reared in predator exclusion cages, reared in laboratory microcosms exposed to control media or corresponding pond media, and reared in laboratory microcosms exposed to UV-light and control media or media from two ponds. Percent abnormal for field-collected, cage-reared, and microcosm-reared toadlets were equivalent per site and ranged between 14% and 63%. All treatments produced similar limb abnormalities but the percentage of hind versus forelimb defects was statistically greater only in field-collected toadlets. UV-exposed control media did not induce abnormalities in larvae exhibiting no maternal effect, and did not alter the types of abnormalities observed in larvae exhibiting a maternal or latent effect. Site media treatments without UV exposure induced significant cephalic and limb abnormalities, proved additive to the observed maternal/latent effect, and produced limb defects predominantly in forelimbs. Concurrent exposure to site media and UV-light induced similar types of abnormalities but a significantly higher percentage of hind limb abnormalities (68-89%) than exposure to site media alone (7-13%). Our results suggest that the types of abnormalities expressed were principally determined by direct and/or transgenerational contaminant exposure, but that UV-light exposure caused limb abnormalities to occur primarily in the hind limbs, mirroring field observations. Our field observations also suggest that ectromelia and brachydactyly in some field-collected specimens may be predator-induced. PMID:23526808

  15. Effects of multiple chemical, physical, and biological stressors on the incidence and types of abnormalities observed in Bermuda's cane toads (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Bacon, Jamie P; Fort, Chelsea E; Todhunter, Brian; Mathis, Michael; Fort, Douglas J

    2013-06-01

    The interactive effects of contaminants and ultraviolet light (UV)-exposure on the incidence and types of abnormalities observed were measured in newly metamorphosed cane toads (Rhinella marina) from four Bermuda ponds contaminated with petrochemicals and metals. Abnormalities were compared in toadlets that were field-collected, reared in predator exclusion cages, reared in laboratory microcosms exposed to control media or corresponding pond media, and reared in laboratory microcosms exposed to UV-light and control media or media from two ponds. Percent abnormal for field-collected, cage-reared, and microcosm-reared toadlets were equivalent per site and ranged between 14% and 63%. All treatments produced similar limb abnormalities but the percentage of hind versus forelimb defects was statistically greater only in field-collected toadlets. UV-exposed control media did not induce abnormalities in larvae exhibiting no maternal effect, and did not alter the types of abnormalities observed in larvae exhibiting a maternal or latent effect. Site media treatments without UV exposure induced significant cephalic and limb abnormalities, proved additive to the observed maternal/latent effect, and produced limb defects predominantly in forelimbs. Concurrent exposure to site media and UV-light induced similar types of abnormalities but a significantly higher percentage of hind limb abnormalities (68-89%) than exposure to site media alone (7-13%). Our results suggest that the types of abnormalities expressed were principally determined by direct and/or transgenerational contaminant exposure, but that UV-light exposure caused limb abnormalities to occur primarily in the hind limbs, mirroring field observations. Our field observations also suggest that ectromelia and brachydactyly in some field-collected specimens may be predator-induced.

  16. Osteological histology of the Pan-Alcidae (Aves, Charadriiformes): correlates of wing-propelled diving and flightlessness.

    PubMed

    Smith, N Adam; Clarke, Julia A

    2014-02-01

    Although studies of osteological morphology, gross myology, myological histology, neuroanatomy, and wing-scaling have all documented anatomical modifications associated with wing-propelled diving, the osteohistological study of this highly derived method of locomotion has been limited to penguins. Herein we present the first osteohistological study of the derived forelimbs and hind limbs of wing-propelled diving Pan-Alcidae (Aves, Charadriiformes). In addition to detailing differences between wing-propelled diving charadriiforms and nondiving charadriiforms, microstructural modifications to the humeri, ulnae and femora of extinct flightless pan-alcids are contrasted with those of volant alcids. Histological thin-sections of four species of pan-alcids (Alca torda, †Alca grandis, †Pinguinus impennis, †Mancalla cedrosensis) and one outgroup charadriiform (Stercorarius longicaudus) were compared. The forelimb bones of wing-propelled diving charadriiforms were found to have significantly thicker (∼22%) cortical bone walls. Additionally, as in penguins, the forelimbs of flightless pan-alcids are found to be osteosclerotic. However, unlike the pattern documented in penguins that display thickened cortices in both forelimbs and hind limbs, the forelimb and hind limb elements of pan-alcids display contrasting microstructural morphologies with thickened forelimb cortices and relatively thinner femoral cortices. Additionally, the identification of medullary bone in the sampled †Pinguinus impennis specimen suggests that further osteohistological investigation could provide an answer to longstanding questions regarding sexual dimorphism of Great Auks. Finally, these results suggest that it is possible to discern volant from flightless wing-propelled divers from fragmentary fossil remains.

  17. Neuropathic pain induced by spinal cord injury: Role of endothelin ETA and ETB receptors.

    PubMed

    Forner, S; Martini, A C; de Andrade, E L; Rae, G A

    2016-03-23

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurologic disorder that often inflicts neuropathic pain, which further impacts negatively on the patient's quality of life. Endothelin peptides, which exert their effects via endothelin A (ETAR) and endothelin B (ETBR) receptors, can contribute to sensory changes associated with inflammatory and neuropathic pain, but their role in nociception following SCI is unknown. At different time points after subjecting male Wistar rats to surgery for compression-induced T10 level SCI, the spinal cord levels of ETAR and ETBR were assessed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry, and the corresponding mRNAs by real-time PCR, alongside recordings of behavioural responses to mechanical stimulation of the hind paws with von Frey hairs. SCI was associated with development of hind paw mechanical allodynia from day 14 onwards, and up-regulation of ETAR and ETBR mRNA in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia, and of ETAR protein in the spinal cord. SCI increased ETAR protein expression in spinal grey matter. Treatment on day 21 after surgery with the ETAR selective antagonist BQ-123 (40 and 90 pmol, intrathecally) or the dual ETAR/ETBR antagonist bosentan (30 and 100mg/kg, orally) transiently reduced SCI-induced mechanical allodynia, but the ETBR antagonist BQ-788 was ineffective. Altogether, these data show that SCI upregulates ETAR expression in the spinal cord, which appears to contribute to the hind paw mechanical allodynia associated with this condition. Therapies directed towards blockade of spinal ETAR may hold potential to limit SCI-induced neuropathic pain.

  18. Skeletal unloading causes resistance of osteoprogenitor cells to parathyroid hormone and to insulin-like growth factor-I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostenuik, P. J.; Harris, J.; Halloran, B. P.; Turner, R. T.; Morey-Holton, E. R.; Bikle, D. D.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal unloading decreases bone formation and osteoblast number in vivo and decreases the number and proliferation of bone marrow osteoprogenitor (BMOp) cells in vitro. We tested the ability of parathyroid hormone (PTH) to stimulate BMOp cells in vivo by treating Sprague Dawley rats (n = 32) with intermittent PTH(1-34) (1 h/day at 8 microg/100 g of body weight), or with vehicle via osmotic minipumps during 7 days of normal weight bearing or hind limb unloading. Marrow cells were flushed from the femur and cultured at the same initial density for up to 21 days. PTH treatment of normally loaded rats caused a 2.5-fold increase in the number of BMOp cells, with similar increases in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization, compared with cultures from vehicle-treated rats. PTH treatment of hind limb unloaded rats failed to stimulate BMOp cell number, ALP activity, or mineralization. Hind limb unloading had no significant effect on PTH receptor mRNA or protein levels in the tibia. Direct in vitro PTH challenge of BMOp cells isolated from normally loaded bone failed to stimulate their proliferation and inhibited their differentiation, suggesting that the in vivo anabolic effect of intermittent PTH on BMOp cells was mediated indirectly by a PTH-induced factor. We hypothesize that this factor is insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), which stimulated the in vitro proliferation and differentiation of BMOp cells isolated from normally loaded bone, but not from unloaded bone. These results suggest that IGF-I mediates the ability of PTH to stimulate BMOp cell proliferation in normally loaded bone, and that BMOp cells in unloaded bone are resistant to the anabolic effect of intermittent PTH therapy due to their resistance to IGF-I.

  19. Dynamics and wheel's slip ratio of a wheel-legged robot in wheeled motion considering the change of height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xilun; Li, Kejia; Xu, Kun

    2012-09-01

    The existing research on dynamics and slip ratio of wheeled mobile robot (WMR) are derived without considering the effect of height, and the existing models can not be used to analyze the dynamics performance of the robot with variable height while moving such as NOROS-II. The existing method of dynamics modeling is improved by adding the constraint equation between perpendicular displacement of body and horizontal displacement of wheel into the constraint conditions. The dynamic model of NOROS-II in wheel motion is built by the Lagrange method under nonholonomic constraints. The inverse dynamics is calculated in three different paths based on this model, and the results demonstrate that torques of hip pitching joints are inversely proportional to the height of robot. The relative error of calculated torques is less than 2% compared with that of ADAMS simulation, by which the validity of dynamic model is verified. Moreover, the relative horizontal motion between fore/hind wheels and body is produced when the height is changed, and thus the accurate slip ratio can not be obtained by the traditional equation. The improved slip ratio equations with the parameter of the vertical velocity of body are introduced for fore wheels and hind wheels respectively. Numerical simulations of slip ratios are conducted to reveal the effect of varied height on slip ratios of different wheels. The result shows that the slip ratios of fore/hind wheels become larger/smaller respectively as the height increases, and as the height is reduced, the reverse applies. The proposed research of dynamic model and slip ratio based on the robot height provides the effective method to analyze the dynamics of WMRs with varying height.

  20. Antinociceptive effects of topical mepivacaine in a rat model of HIV-associated peripheral neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Sagen, Jacqueline; Castellanos, Daniel A; Hama, Aldric T

    2016-01-01

    Background A consequence of HIV infection is sensory neuropathy, a debilitating condition that degrades the quality of life of HIV patients. Furthermore, life-extending antiretroviral treatment may exacerbate HIV sensory neuropathy. Analgesics that relieve other neuropathic pains show little or no efficacy in ameliorating HIV sensory neuropathy. Thus, there is a need for analgesics for people with this particular pain. While lidocaine is used in the management of painful peripheral neuropathies, another local anesthetic mepivacaine, with a potentially improved bioavailability, could be utilized for the management of HIV neuropathic pain. Methods The efficacy of topical anesthetics was evaluated in a preclinical rodent model of painful peripheral neuropathy induced by epineural administration of the HIV envelope protein gp120 delivered using saturated oxidized cellulose implanted around the sciatic nerve. Beginning at 2 weeks following gp120 administration, the effects of local anesthetics topically applied via gauze pads were tested on heat and mechanical hyperalgesia in the hind paw. Rats were tested using several concentrations of mepivacaine or lidocaine during the following 2 weeks. Results By 2 weeks following epineural gp120 implantation, the ipsilateral hind paw developed significant hypersensitivity to noxious pressure and heat hyperalgesia. A short-lasting, concentration-dependent amelioration of pressure and heat hyperalgesia was observed following topical application of mepivacaine to the ipsilateral plantar hind paw. By contrast, topical lidocaine ameliorated heat hyperalgesia in a concentration-dependent manner but not pressure hyperalgesia. Equipotent concentrations of mepivacaine and lidocaine applied topically to the tail of mice significantly increased tail withdrawal latencies in the tail flick test, demonstrating that both local anesthetics attenuate responding to a brief noxious stimulus. Conclusion These findings showed that mepivacaine, rather

  1. A Spontaneous Missense Mutation in Branched Chain Keto Acid Dehydrogenase Kinase in the Rat Affects Both the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zigler, J. Samuel; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Wright, Megan; Klise, Andrew; Broman, Karl W.; Huang, Hao; Patek, Bonnie; Sergeev, Yuri; Hose, Stacey; Xaiodong, Jiao; Vasquez, David; Maragakis, Nicholas; Mori, Susumu; Goldman, David; Sinha, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    A novel mutation, causing a phenotype we named frogleg because its most obvious characteristic is a severe splaying of the hind limbs, arose spontaneously in a colony of Sprague-Dawley rats. Frogleg is a complex phenotype that includes abnormalities in hind limb function, reduced brain weight with dilated ventricles and infertility. Using micro-satellite markers spanning the entire rat genome, the mutation was mapped to a region of rat chromosome 1 between D1Rat131 and D1Rat287. Analysis of whole genome sequencing data within the linkage interval, identified a missense mutation in the branched-chain alpha-keto dehydrogenase kinase (Bckdk) gene. The protein encoded by Bckdk is an integral part of an enzyme complex located in the mitochondrial matrix of many tissues which regulates the levels of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), leucine, isoleucine and valine. BCAAs are essential amino acids (not synthesized by the body), and circulating levels must be tightly regulated; levels that are too high or too low are both deleterious. BCKDK phosphorylates Ser293 of the E1α subunit of the BCKDH protein, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the catabolism of the BCAAs, inhibiting BCKDH and thereby, limiting breakdown of the BCAAs. In contrast, when Ser293 is not phosphorylated, BCKDH activity is unchecked and the levels of the BCAAs will decrease dramatically. The mutation is located within the kinase domain of Bckdk and is predicted to be damaging. Consistent with this, we show that in rats homozygous for the mutation, phosphorylation of BCKDH in the brain is markedly decreased relative to wild type or heterozygous littermates. Further, circulating levels of the BCAAs are reduced by 70–80% in animals homozygous for the mutation. The frogleg phenotype shares important characteristics with a previously described Bckdk knockout mouse and with human subjects with Bckdk mutations. In addition, we report novel data regarding peripheral neuropathy of the hind limbs

  2. Effects of lipoprotein lipase gene variations, a high-carbohydrate low-fat diet, and gender on serum lipid profiles in healthy Chinese Han youth.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Gong, Renrong; Lin, Jia; Li, Ronghui; Xiao, Liying; Duan, Wei; Fang, Dingzhi

    2011-01-01

    A high-carbohydrate low-fat (HC/LF) diet and lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) Ser447Stop and Hind III polymorphisms have separately been found to be associated with triacylglycerol (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). This study sought to test the effects of LPL polymorphisms and an HC/LF diet on the serum lipid profile of Chinese with a lower incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) consuming a diet with less fat and more carbohydrates. Fifty-six healthy subjects (22.89 ± 1.80 years) were given a control diet of 30.1% fat and 54.1% carbohydrates for 7 days, followed by an HC/LF diet of 13.8% fat and 70.1% carbohydrate for 6 days; there were no changes in the fatty acid composition or restrictions on total energy. Serum lipid profiles at baseline, before and after the HC/LF diet, and LPL polymorphisms were analyzed. After 6 days of the HC/LF diet, TG and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) index were found to increase only in females with S447S. No decrease in HDL-C was noted. In subjects with Hind III polymorphism, increased TG was found in all females but not in males. Increased HDL-C, together with apolipoprotein (apo) AI, was found in male H- carriers but not in males with H+/H+ and females. In conclusion, LPL Ser447Stop and Hind III polymorphisms modified the effects of an HC/LF diet on the serum lipid profiles of a young Chinese population in different ways. Effective strategies for dietary interventions targeted at younger populations should take into account the interplay between genetic polymorphisms, diet, and gender.

  3. A Hypothesis for the Cause of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome - Type I (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy): Pain Due to Deep-Tissue Microvascular Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Coderre, Terence J.; Bennett, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome - type I (CRPS-I; Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy) is a chronic pain condition that usually follows a deep-tissue injury such as fracture or sprain. The cause of the pain is unknown. We have developed an animal model (chronic post-ischemia pain; CPIP) that creates CRPS-I –like symptomology. The model is produced by occluding the blood flow to one hind paw for 3 hr under general anesthesia. Following reperfusion, the treated hind paw exhibits an initial phase of hyperemia and edema. This is followed by mechano-hyperalgesia, mechano-allodynia, and cold-allodynia that last for at least one month. Light- and electron microscopic analyses of the nerves at the site of the tourniquet show that the majority of these animals have no sign of injury to myelinated or unmyelinated axons. However, electron microscopy shows that the ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury produces a microvascular injury, slow-flow/no-reflow, in the capillaries of the hind paw muscle and digital nerves. We propose that the slow-flow/no-reflow phenomenon initiates and maintains deep tissue ischemia and inflammation, leading to the activation of muscle nociceptors, and the ectopic activation of sensory afferent axons due to endoneurial ischemia and inflammation. These data, and a large body of clinical evidence, suggest that in at least a subset of CRPS-I patients, the fundamental cause of the abnormal pain sensations is ischemia and inflammation due to microvascular pathology in deep tissues, leading to a combination of inflammatory and neuropathic pain processes. Moreover, we suggest a unifying idea that relates the pathogenesis of CRPS-I to that of CRPS-II. Lastly, our hypothesis suggests that the role of the sympathetic nervous system in CRPS-I is a factor that is not fundamentally causative, but may have an important contributory role in early stage disease. PMID:20704671

  4. Substance P spinal signaling induces glial activation and nociceptive sensitization after fracture.

    PubMed

    Li, W-W; Guo, T-Z; Shi, X; Sun, Y; Wei, T; Clark, D J; Kingery, W S

    2015-12-01

    Tibia fracture in rodents induces substance P (SP)-dependent keratinocyte activation and inflammatory changes in the hindlimb, similar to those seen in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). In animal pain models spinal glial cell activation results in nociceptive sensitization. This study tested the hypothesis that limb fracture triggers afferent C-fiber SP release in the dorsal horn, resulting in chronic glial activation and central sensitization. At 4 weeks after tibia fracture and casting in rats, the cast was removed and hind paw allodynia, unweighting, warmth, and edema were measured, then the antinociceptive effects of microglia (minocycline) or astrocyte (L-2-aminoadipic acid (LAA)) inhibitors or an SP receptor antagonist (LY303870) were tested. Immunohistochemistry and PCR were used to evaluate microglial and astrocyte activation in the dorsal horn. Similar experiments were performed in intact rats after brief sciatic nerve electric stimulation at C-fiber intensity. Microglia and astrocytes were chronically activated at 4 weeks after fracture and contributed to the maintenance of hind paw allodynia and unweighting. Furthermore, LY303870 treatment initiated at 4 weeks after fracture partially reversed both spinal glial activation and nociceptive sensitization. Similarly, persistent spinal microglial activation and hind paw nociceptive sensitization were observed at 48 h after sciatic nerve C-fiber stimulation and this effect was inhibited by treatment with minocycline, LAA, or LY303870. These data support the hypothesis that C-fiber afferent SP signaling chronically supports spinal neuroglial activation after limb fracture and that glial activation contributes to the maintenance of central nociceptive sensitization in CRPS. Treatments inhibiting glial activation and spinal inflammation may be therapeutic for CRPS. PMID:26386297

  5. Lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration associated with axial and radiating low back pain in ageing SPARC-null mice.

    PubMed

    Millecamps, Magali; Tajerian, Maral; Naso, Lina; Sage, E Helene; Stone, Laura S

    2012-06-01

    Chronic low back pain (LBP) is a complex, multifactorial disorder with unclear underlying mechanisms. In humans and rodents, decreased expression of secreted protein acidic rich in cysteine (SPARC) is associated with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and signs of LBP. The current study investigates the hypothesis that IVD degeneration is a risk factor for chronic LBP. SPARC-null and age-matched control mice ranging from 6 to 78 weeks of age were evaluated in this study. X-ray and histologic analysis revealed reduced IVD height, increased wedging, and signs of degeneration (bulging and herniation). Cutaneous sensitivity to cold, heat, and mechanical stimuli were used as measures of referred (low back and tail) and radiating pain (hind paw). Region specificity was assessed by measuring icilin- and capsaicin-evoked behaviour after subcutaneous injection into the hind paw or upper lip. Axial discomfort was measured by the tail suspension and grip force assays. Motor impairment was determined by the accelerating rotarod. Physical function was evaluated by voluntary activity after axial strain or during ambulation with forced lateral flexion. SPARC-null mice developed (1) region-specific, age-dependent hypersensitivity to cold, icilin, and capsaicin (hind paw only), (2) axial discomfort, (3) motor impairment, and (4) reduced physical function. Morphine (6 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced cutaneous sensitivity and alleviated axial discomfort in SPARC-null mice. Ageing SPARC-null mice mirror many aspects of the complex and challenging nature of LBP in humans and incorporate both anatomic and functional components of the disease. The current study supports the hypothesis that IVD degeneration is a risk factor for chronic LBP.

  6. Cryptic diversity and morphological convergence in threatened species of fossorial skinks in the genus Scelotes (Squamata: Scincidae) from the Western Cape Coast of South Africa: implications for species boundaries, digit reduction and conservation.

    PubMed

    Heideman, Neil J L; Mulcahy, Daniel G; Sites, Jack W; Hendricks, Martin G J; Daniels, Savel R

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the evolutionary relationships among populations of two threatened Red Data Book fossorial skinks, Scelotes gronovii and Scelotes kasneri, along the Western Cape Coast of South Africa. The genus Scelotes shows considerable variation in limb and digit reduction. We sampled four localities purported to contain S. gronovii and seven of S. kasneri, encompassing all of each species' limited distribution. Each of these species lack forelimbs, and differ by the number of digits on the hind limbs, among other morphological characters; S. gronovii bears a single digit and S. kasneri bears two digits on the hind limbs. Sequence data obtained from three mtDNA (16S ribosomal RNA, cytochrome b, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase 1 unit; 2035 bp ttl.) and two nuclear (dynein axonemal heavy chain 3 and the natural killer tumor recognition; 1848 bp ttl.) gene regions were used to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships among the two focal species and several other co-distributed species (Scelotes bipes, Scelotes montispectus, and Scelotes sexlineatus). Phylogenetic results (Bayesian and parsimony) revealed that several populations previously considered S. kasneri actually belong to other species, and others are paraphyletic with respect to one another. Additionally, populations of S. gronovii were also found to be paraphyletic, with populations south of the Berg River supported as sister to S. bipes, and populations north of the Berg River sister the remaining sampled species. Our results require a redefinition of S. sexlineatus to encompass populations morphologically convergent with S. kasneri and restrict the ranges of the already threatened S. kasneri and S. gronovii even further. The paraphyly of S. gronovii and the placement of each clade as sister to clades of species bearing two digits on the hind limbs suggests that digit loss has occurred at least twice in this group. PMID:21907812

  7. A Spontaneous Missense Mutation in Branched Chain Keto Acid Dehydrogenase Kinase in the Rat Affects Both the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems.

    PubMed

    Zigler, J Samuel; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Wright, Megan; Klise, Andrew; Sundin, Olof; Broman, Karl W; Hejtmancik, Fielding; Huang, Hao; Patek, Bonnie; Sergeev, Yuri; Hose, Stacey; Brayton, Cory; Xaiodong, Jiao; Vasquez, David; Maragakis, Nicholas; Mori, Susumu; Goldman, David; Hoke, Ahmet; Sinha, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    A novel mutation, causing a phenotype we named frogleg because its most obvious characteristic is a severe splaying of the hind limbs, arose spontaneously in a colony of Sprague-Dawley rats. Frogleg is a complex phenotype that includes abnormalities in hind limb function, reduced brain weight with dilated ventricles and infertility. Using micro-satellite markers spanning the entire rat genome, the mutation was mapped to a region of rat chromosome 1 between D1Rat131 and D1Rat287. Analysis of whole genome sequencing data within the linkage interval, identified a missense mutation in the branched-chain alpha-keto dehydrogenase kinase (Bckdk) gene. The protein encoded by Bckdk is an integral part of an enzyme complex located in the mitochondrial matrix of many tissues which regulates the levels of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), leucine, isoleucine and valine. BCAAs are essential amino acids (not synthesized by the body), and circulating levels must be tightly regulated; levels that are too high or too low are both deleterious. BCKDK phosphorylates Ser293 of the E1α subunit of the BCKDH protein, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the catabolism of the BCAAs, inhibiting BCKDH and thereby, limiting breakdown of the BCAAs. In contrast, when Ser293 is not phosphorylated, BCKDH activity is unchecked and the levels of the BCAAs will decrease dramatically. The mutation is located within the kinase domain of Bckdk and is predicted to be damaging. Consistent with this, we show that in rats homozygous for the mutation, phosphorylation of BCKDH in the brain is markedly decreased relative to wild type or heterozygous littermates. Further, circulating levels of the BCAAs are reduced by 70-80% in animals homozygous for the mutation. The frogleg phenotype shares important characteristics with a previously described Bckdk knockout mouse and with human subjects with Bckdk mutations. In addition, we report novel data regarding peripheral neuropathy of the hind limbs.

  8. Metallomics for drug development: a further insight into intracellular activation chemistry of a ruthenium(III)-based anticancer drug gained using a multidimensional analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Matczuk, Magdalena; Prządka, Monika; Aleksenko, Svetlana S; Czarnocki, Zbigniew; Pawlak, Katarzyna; Timerbaev, Andrei R; Jarosz, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism by which the most relevant ruthenium anticancer drugs are activated in tumors to commence their tumor-inhibiting action remains one of the challenging research tasks of present-day metallomics. This contribution aims to capture and identify eventually more reactive species of one of two bis-indazole tetrachloridoruthenate(III) compounds that are progressing in clinical trials. In view of the fact that the transport of ruthenium into cancer cells is governed by transferrin receptors, the susceptibility of the Ru drug adduct with holo-transferrin to exposure by glutathione and ascorbic acid (at their cancer cytosol concentrations) was studied by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), following isolation of the reaction products by ultrafiltration. Next, capillary electrophoresis coupled to ICP-MS was applied to monitor changes in the Ru speciation both under simulated cancer cytosol conditions and in real cytosol and to assign the charge state of novel metal species. The latter were identified by using tandem electrospray ionization MS in the respective ion mode. The formation of ruthenium(II) species was for the first time revealed, in which the central metal is coordinated by the reduced (GSH) or the oxidized (GSSG) form of glutathione, i.e. [Ru(II)HindCl4(GSH)](2-) and [Ru(II)HindCl4(GSSG)](2-), respectively (Hind = indazole). Ascorbic acid released the ruthenium functionality from the protein-bound form in a different way, the products of adduct cleavage containing aqua ligands. Distribution of low-molecular mass species of Ru in human cytosol was found to have very much in common with the ruthenium speciation assayed under simulated cytosol conditions.

  9. Jumping mechanisms in jumping plant lice (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Burrows, M

    2012-10-15

    Jumping mechanisms and performance were analysed in three species of psyllids (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha) that ranged from 2 to 4 mm in body length and from 0.7 to 2.8 mg in mass. Jumping was propelled by rapid movements of the short hind legs, which were only 10-20% longer than the other legs and 61-77% of body length. Power was provided by large thoracic muscles that depressed the trochantera so that the two hind legs moved in parallel planes on either side of the body. These movements accelerated the body to take-off in 0.9 ms in the smallest psyllid and 1.7 ms in the largest, but in all species imparted a rapid forward rotation so that at take-off the head pointed downwards, subtending angles of approximately -60 deg relative to the ground. The front legs thus supported the body just before take-off and either lost contact with the ground at the same time as, or even after, the hind legs. In the best jumps from the horizontal, take-off velocity reached 2.7 m s(-1) and the trajectory was steep at 62-80 deg. Once airborne, the body spun rapidly at rates of up to 336 Hz in the pitch plane. In many jumps, the wings did not open to provide stabilisation, but some jumps led directly to sustained flight. In their best jumps, the smallest species experienced a force of 637 g. The largest species had an energy requirement of 13 μJ, a power output of 13 mW and exerted a force of nearly 10 mN. In a rare jumping strategy seen in only two of 211 jumps analysed, the femoro-tibial joints extended further and resulted in the head pointing upwards at take-off and the spin rate being greatly reduced.

  10. Complete ostectomy of middle phalanx and partial ostectomy of proximal phalanx in a Brown Swiss calf for treatment of purulent arthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint and adjacent severe osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Burgstaller, Johann; Kofler, Johann

    2016-01-01

    A five month old Brown Swiss heifer calf (212 kg body mass) with severe left hind limb lameness, caused by a wound of the lateral digit was referred to the veterinary teaching hospital. The calf showed a score 4 of 5 lameness on the left hind limb. A scarified skin lesion with a fistula formation and purulent exudate was observed at the level of the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIJ) of the lateral digit of the left hind. The PIJ region and the lateral digit were severely swollen and painful. Ultrasonography showed a moderate anechoic effusion of the lateral digital flexor tendon sheet (DFTS) and a severe heterogeneous hypoechoic effusion with some small hyperechoic areas of the plantar and dorsal pouch of the PIJ. In addition, a highly irregular contour of the dorsal and abaxial surface of the phalanx media (P2) and the distal aspect of the proximal phalanx (P1) were imaged. Based on physical examination and ultrasonographic findings, the diagnosis was chronic purulent arthritis of the PIJ, osteitis of P2 and the distal end of P1 with suspected adjacent osteomyelitis. Complete ostectomy of P2 and ostectomy of the distal part of the P1 of the lateral digit was performed with an oscillating saw through the extended debrided wound. The lameness improved subsequently and 21 days post-surgery the calf was discharged from the clinic without lameness, and with a wooden block attached to the healthy claw. A year later the heifer was pregnant and still in the herd, during this period it did not exhibit lameness. The described surgical technique resulted in an excellent long-term outcome and may be considered in cases of severe purulent joint infection of the PIJ with osteolytic processes in adjacent bones, as a digit salvage procedure especially for young cattle. PMID:27169151

  11. Isolation and molecular genetic characterization of the Bacillus subtilis gene (infB) encoding protein synthesis initiation factor 2.

    PubMed Central

    Shazand, K; Tucker, J; Chiang, R; Stansmore, K; Sperling-Petersen, H U; Grunberg-Manago, M; Rabinowitz, J C; Leighton, T

    1990-01-01

    Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of Bacillus subtilis cell extracts detected two proteins that cross-reacted with monospecific polyclonal antibody raised against Escherichia coli initiation factor 2 alpha (IF2 alpha). Subsequent Southern blot analysis of B. subtilis genomic DNA identified a 1.3-kilobase (kb) HindIII fragment which cross-hybridized with both E. coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus IF2 gene probes. This DNA was cloned from a size-selected B. subtilis plasmid library. The cloned HindIII fragment, which was shown by DNA sequence analysis to encode the N-terminal half of the B. subtilis IF2 protein and 0.2 kb of upstream flanking sequence, was utilized as a homologous probe to clone an overlapping 2.76-kb ClaI chromosomal fragment containing the entire IF2 structural gene. The HindIII fragment was also used as a probe to obtain overlapping clones from a lambda gt11 library which contained additional upstream and downstream flanking sequences. Sequence comparisons between the B. subtilis IF2 gene and the other bacterial homologs from E. coli, B. stearothermophilus, and Streptococcus faecium displayed extensive nucleic acid and protein sequence homologies. The B. subtilis infB gene encodes two proteins, IF2 alpha (78.6 kilodaltons) and IF2 beta (68.2 kilodaltons); both were expressed in B. subtilis and E. coli. These two proteins cross-reacted with antiserum to E. coli IF2 alpha and were able to complement in vivo an E. coli infB gene disruption. Four-factor recombination analysis positioned the infB gene at 145 degrees on the B. subtilis chromosome, between the polC and spcB loci. This location is distinct from those of the other major ribosomal protein and rRNA gene clusters of B. subtilis. Images PMID:2110148

  12. Comparison of two methods of synchronization of estrus in brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira).

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Eveline Dos Santos; Polegato, Bruna Furlan; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to establish a protocol for synchronization of estrus in brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira). Two groups of hinds (n=3) were submitted to two different protocols: Treatment 1 received an intravaginal progesterone (CIDR) device for 8 days, followed by 265microg injection of cloprostenol at the time of removal; and Treatment 2 received two injections of 265microg of cloprostenol 11 days apart. After 30 days, each group of three hinds received the other treatment. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by reproductive behavior, fecal progestin and estrogen concentration and the observation of CL by laparoscopy 6 days after the end of estrus. All the hinds (100%) had estrous behavior upon the completion of treatment, but a significant difference occurred between the time of onset, 70.5+/-5.0h for Treatment 1 and 52.3+/-5.6h for Treatment 2. The mean estrus duration time (34.7+/-4.50 and 37.0+/-8.11h), ovulation rates (5/6 and 4/6), mean CL size (4.85+/-0.74 and 3.21+/-0.19mm) and mean fecal progestin concentration at 6 days after the end of estrus (865.53+/-76.59 and 1073.35+/-106.82ng/g feces) were not significantly different between treatments. There was no difference in fecal estrogen concentrations throughout the treatment and the greatest values of the estrogen:progestin ratio coincided with estrous behavior. Although fertility was not evaluated directly, both treatments were effective in synchronizing estrus in the species M. gouazoubira, with the formation of functional corpora lutea.

  13. Effect of galantamine on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Gowayed, Mennatallah A; Refaat, Rowaida; Ahmed, Walid M; El-Abhar, Hanan S

    2015-10-01

    Stimulation of the vagus nerve suppresses cytokine production and macrophage activation, via the interaction of its neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) with the α7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR), present on neurons and inflammatory cells. The present study aimed to verify the potential anti-inflammatory effect of galantamine against experimental arthritis induced in rats. Fourteen days post adjuvant injection, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally with three doses of galantamine (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg) or leflunomide (10 mg/kg) for 2 weeks and arthritis progression was assessed by hind paw swelling. Additionally, serum biomarkers, viz., anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (Anti-CCP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured. Radiological examination of the hind paws was also carried out to evaluate the degree of joint damage. Adjuvant arthritis led to a significant weight loss, marked swelling of the hind paw and alteration in the serum levels of anti-CCP, TNF-α, IL-10 and MCP-1. These alterations were associated with significant radiological changes of the joints. Galantamine, in a dose-dependent manner, reduced significantly all biomarkers of inflammation, with the highest dose showing the best beneficial anti-inflammatory effect that was superior in magnitude to the reference drug leflunomide in most of the studied parameters. In conclusion, these results suggest that galantamine may represent a novel, inexpensive and effective therapeutic strategy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:26189022

  14. True Katydids (Pseudophyllinae) from Guadeloupe: Acoustic Signals and Functional Considerations of Song Production

    PubMed Central

    Stumpner, Andreas; Dann, Angela; Schink, Matthias; Gubert, Silvia; Hugel, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Guadeloupe, the largest of the Leeward Islands, harbors three species of Pseudophyllinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) belonging to distinct tribes. This study examined the basic aspects of sound production and acousto-vibratory behavior of these species. As the songs of many Pseudophyllinae are complex and peak at high frequencies, they require high quality recordings. Wild specimens were therefore recorded ex situ. Collected specimens were used in structure-function experiments. Karukerana aguilari Bonfils (Pterophyllini) is a large species with a mirror in each tegmen and conspicuous folds over the mirror. It sings 4–6 syllables, each comprising 10–20 pulses, with several peaks in the frequency spectrum between 4 and 20 kHz. The song is among the loudest in Orthoptera (> 125 dB SPL in 10 cm distance). The folds are protective and have no function in song production. Both mirrors may work independently in sound radiation. Nesonotus reticulatus (Fabricius) (Cocconotini) produces verses from two syllables at irregular intervals. The song peaks around 20 kHz. While singing, the males often produce a tremulation signal with the abdomen at about 8–10 Hz. To our knowledge, it is the first record of simultaneous calling song and tremulation in Orthoptera. Other males reply to the tremulation with their own tremulation. Xerophyllopteryx fumosa (Brunner von Wattenwyl) (Pleminiini) is a large, bark-like species, producing a syllable of around 20 pulses. The syllables are produced with irregular rhythms (often two with shorter intervals). The song peaks around 2–3 kHz and 10 kHz. The hind wings are relatively thick and are held between the half opened tegmina during singing. Removal of the hind wings reduces song intensity by about 5 dB, especially of the low frequency component, suggesting that the hind wings have a role in amplifying the song. PMID:24785151

  15. True katydids (Pseudophyllinae) from Guadeloupe: acoustic signals and functional considerations of song production.

    PubMed

    Stumpner, Andreas; Dann, Angela; Schink, Matthias; Gubert, Silvia; Hugel, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Guadeloupe, the largest of the Leeward Islands, harbors three species of Pseudophyllinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) belonging to distinct tribes. This study examined the basic aspects of sound production and acousto-vibratory behavior of these species. As the songs of many Pseudophyllinae are complex and peak at high frequencies, they require high quality recordings. Wild specimens were therefore recorded ex situ. Collected specimens were used in structure-function experiments. Karukerana aguilari Bonfils (Pterophyllini) is a large species with a mirror in each tegmen and conspicuous folds over the mirror. It sings 4-6 syllables, each comprising 10-20 pulses, with several peaks in the frequency spectrum between 4 and 20 kHz. The song is among the loudest in Orthoptera (> 125 dB SPL in 10 cm distance). The folds are protective and have no function in song production. Both mirrors may work independently in sound radiation. Nesonotus reticulatus (Fabricius) (Cocconotini) produces verses from two syllables at irregular intervals. The song peaks around 20 kHz. While singing, the males often produce a tremulation signal with the abdomen at about 8-10 Hz. To our knowledge, it is the first record of simultaneous calling song and tremulation in Orthoptera. Other males reply to the tremulation with their own tremulation. Xerophyllopteryx fumosa (Brunner von Wattenwyl) (Pleminiini) is a large, bark-like species, producing a syllable of around 20 pulses. The syllables are produced with irregular rhythms (often two with shorter intervals). The song peaks around 2-3 kHz and 10 kHz. The hind wings are relatively thick and are held between the half opened tegmina during singing. Removal of the hind wings reduces song intensity by about 5 dB, especially of the low frequency component, suggesting that the hind wings have a role in amplifying the song. PMID:24785151

  16. Cool-Water Immersion and High-Voltage Electric Stimulation Curb Edema Formation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Michael G.; Mychaskiw, Anna M.; Mendel, Frank C.

    2003-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although cryotherapy and high-voltage electric stimulation, both alone and in combination, are commonly applied to curb acute edema, little evidence from randomized controlled studies supports these procedures. Our purpose was to examine the effects of cool-water immersion (CWI) at 12.8 degrees C (55 degrees F), cathodal high-voltage pulsed current (CHVPC) at 120 pulses per second and 90% of visible motor threshold, and the combination of CWI and CHVPC (CWI + CHVPC) on edema formation after impact injury to the hind limbs of rats. DESIGN AND SETTING: Both feet of 34 rats were traumatized after hind-limb volumes were determined. Animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: CWI (n = 10), CHVPC (n = 10), or CWI + CHVPC (n = 14). One randomly selected hind limb of each rat was exposed to four 30-minute treatments, interspersed with four 30-minute rest periods beginning immediately after posttraumatic limb volumes were determined. Contralateral limbs served as controls. Limbs remained dependent during all treatments, rest periods, and volumetric measurements. SUBJECTS: We used 34 anesthetized Zucker Lean rats in this study. MEASUREMENTS: We measured limb volumes immediately before and after trauma and after each of 4 treatment and rest periods. RESULTS: Volumes of treated limbs of all 3 experimental groups were smaller (P <.05) than those of untreated limbs. No treatment was more effective than another. CONCLUSIONS: Cool-water immersion, cathodal high-voltage electric stimulation, and simultaneous application of these treatments were effective in curbing edema after blunt injury. Combining CWI and CHVPC was not more effective than either CWI or CHVPC alone.

  17. A new cave species of the genus Protaphorura Absolon, 1901 (Collembola, Onychiuridae) from the Western Carpathians (Slovakia) with critical comments to the Palaearctic representatives of the genus.

    PubMed

    Parimuchová, Andrea; Kováč, Ľubomír

    2016-01-01

    The new species Protaphorura borinensis sp. nov. from a cave of the Western Carpathians, Central Europe, is described. It belongs to congeners with ~40 vesicles in PAO and three pseudocelli at the base of antennae and the hind margin of head. P. borinensis sp. nov. has coarse granulation of cuticle on head, and specific distribution of "s" chaetae on abdominal terga and chaetotaxy of ventral tube. Critical comments to the Palaearctic representatives of the genus Protaphorura and an identification key to 85 species are provided. PMID:27394585

  18. Techniques for collecting blood from collared peccaries, Dicotyles tajacu (L.).

    PubMed

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Robinson, R M; Grant, W E

    1984-01-01

    Four methods are described for obtaining blood samples from the collared peccary. This animal lacks prominent superficial veins which makes the procedure of taking blood difficult for inexperienced persons. Large volumes of blood (greater than 20 ml) can be obtained easily via anterior vena cava venipuncture. Moderate amounts of blood (less than 20 ml) can be obtained from the orbital sinus. Lesser volumes of blood can be obtained from superficial veins located on the ear and the hind limb. The saphenous vein is distended easily due to its unique location across the cranial face of the tibia.

  19. Pressure mat analysis of the longitudinal development of pig locomotion in growing pigs after weaning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gait evaluation is difficult in pigs, especially when objective and quantitative data are needed, thus little research has been conducted in this species. There is considerable experience, however, with objective gait analysis in other species, such as horses and dogs. In this study, a pressure mat was used to establish baseline kinetic data for gait and its longitudinal development in growing, weaned piglets. Ten clinically healthy weaned piglets were trained to trot over a pressure mat. Measurements were performed weekly during 10 weeks, starting at 5 weeks of age. Four kinetic parameters were recorded for all four limbs: peak vertical force (PVF), load rate (LR), vertical impulse (VI) and peak vertical pressure (PVP). Three representative runs per measuring session per pig were collected. For each of the variables, left vs. right limb asymmetry-indices (ASI’s) were calculated based on the average for that parameter per week. A linear mixed model was used to determine the influence of time (week), velocity, and limb (left vs. right, and fore vs. hind). Intra-class correlations were calculated to assess within-session replicability. Results Intra-class correlations showed good within-session replicability. Body-weight normalized PVF (nPVF), LR (nLR), VI (nVI) and PVP (nPVP) were higher in the forelimbs than in the hind limbs. A higher velocity was associated with a higher nPVF, nLR and nPVP. All parameters varied between weeks. ASI of LR and VI were higher in the forelimbs than in the hind limbs. Velocity and time did not influence ASI of any of the variables. Conclusions Kinetic pressure mat measurements from healthy weaned piglets are highly replicable within-session. However, these variables present a significant variability between-session, which may be due to conformational changes of the young, growing piglets. Velocity clearly influences nPVF, nLR and nPVP, and all kinetic variables have higher values in forelimbs than in hind limbs. As time

  20. Effect of methoxychlor on various life stages of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Fort, Douglas J; Guiney, Patrick D; Weeks, John A; Thomas, John H; Rogers, Robert L; Noll, Andra M; Spaulding, Clinton D

    2004-10-01

    The toxicological effects of the organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor were evaluated at various life stages of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, in an effort to determine stage-specific sensitivity. A battery of four separate assays, including a short-term (4-day) early embryo-larval assay (FETAX) (NF stages 8-46 [Nieuwkoop and Faber, 1994]), 30-day hind limb development assay (NF stages 8-54), 18-day metamorphic climax assay (NF stages 58-66), and 30-day adult reproduction assay were performed. Test concentrations for the FETAX, hind limb development, metamorphic climax, and reproductive assays ranged from 0.0001-1.0 mg/l, 0.0001-0.1 mg/l, 0.0001-0.1 mg/l, and 0.001-0.1 mg/l, respectively. Results from the short-term embryo-larval assay indicated that increased embryo-lethality, malformation, and growth inhibition were not induced at hind limb development studies indicated methoxychlor exposure >/=0.01 mg/l delayed hind limb digit differentiation. Follicular hyperplasia of the thyroid glands was noted in specimens exposed to 0.1 mg/l methoxychlor. Results from the 18-day metamorphic climax assay indicated that methoxychlor inhibited the rate of tail resorption in a concentration-dependent manner. Whole body tissue triiodothyronine (T(3)) profiles showed a reduced and delayed surge during climax compared to controls. For the reproductive assessment, adult female X. laevis were super-ovulated and both female and male were then exposed to varying concentrations of methoxychlor. A concentration-dependent reduction in ovary weight and the number of viable oocytes was observed. In exposed male specimens, a concentration-dependent reduction in testis weight and sperm count was found. Methoxychlor was found to accumulate in the ovary, and to a lesser extent in the testis. Based on breeding studies in which exposed females were bred with control males and exposed males bred with control

  1. [Effects of colchicine and of emetine on capillary permeability].

    PubMed

    Toscano Rico, J; Gião T Rico, J M; Zambelli de Almeida, M T; Cravo, A C; Costa Ferreira, J M

    1975-01-01

    Colchicine and emetine administered locally in the hind paw of the rats increased markedly the capillar permeability. The action may be strongly inhibited by methysergide (0.2 mug). Mepyramine (0.5 mug) is not so active and indomethacine (1 mg/kg per os), even less. As some prostaglandines release serotonine and histamine (8) it is possible that some liberation of these mediators may be attribuable to a previous release of prostaglandines, but the experiments suggest also the possibility of a direct and concomitant release of those two mediators by the alkaloids assayed.

  2. Cyrtodactylus khelangensis, a new cave-dwelling Bent-toed Gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Lampang Province, northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Olivier S G; Sumontha, Montri; Panitvong, Nonn; Varaguttanonda, Varawut

    2014-01-01

    We describe Cyrtodactylus khelangensis sp. nov. from a limestone cave in Pratu Pha, Mae Mo District, Lampang Province, northern Thailand. It is characterized by a maximal known SVL of 95.3 mm; 16-20 longitudinal rows of dorsal tubercles; a continuous series of 37-40 enlarged femoroprecloacal scales, including six-seven pitted or pore-bearing scales (males) or one or two pitted scales (females) on each femur separated by a diastema from 2-6 pore-bearing precloacal scales (males and females); no precloacal groove nor depression; transversely enlarged subcaudal scales; and four irregular brown dorsal bands between nuchal loop and hind limb insertions.

  3. Grazing-incidence iridescence from a butterfly wing.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Chris; Vukusic, Peter; Sambles, Roy

    2002-01-20

    The Troides magellanus butterfly exhibits a specialized iridescence that is visible only when its hind wings are both illuminated and viewed at near-grazing incidence. The effect is due to the presence of a constrained bigrating structure in its wing scales that has been previously observed in only one other species of butterfly (Ancyluris meliboeus). However, whereas the Ancyluris presents wide-angle flickering iridescence, the Troides butterfly uses pigmentary coloration at all but a narrow tailored range of angles, producing a characteristic effect. PMID:11905567

  4. A striking new treehopper genus Mutilifolia (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Smiliinae: Telamonini), from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Matthew S

    2015-01-23

    A new treehopper genus from Costa Rica, Mutilifolia, based on M. nishidai, new species, is described and illustrated. Mutilifolia is considered a member of the subfamily Smiliinae, tribe Telamonini based on characteristics of the pronotum, fore- and hind wing venation, and female genitalia. This genus superficially resembles the telamonine genera Antianthe, Archasia, and Hemicardiacus due to the highly elevated, foliaceous, and largely green pronotum, but the male style clasp of Mutilifolia with two recurved teeth differs greatly from the styles of any other presently known telamonine. Further collecting of treehoppers in the mountainous regions of Central America and Mexico, areas often neglected by collectors, may yield additional new Telamonini taxa. 

  5. Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids in leg muscles from tail-cast suspended intact and adrenalectomized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaspers, Stephen R.; Henriksen, Erik; Jacob, Stephan; Tischler, Marc E.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of muscle unloading, adrenalectomy, and cortisol treatment on the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus of tail-cast suspended rats were investigated using C-14-labeled lucine, isoleucine, and valine in incubation studies. It was found that, compared to not suspended controls, the degradation of branched-chain amino acids in hind limb muscles was accelerated in tail-cast suspended rats. Adrenalectomy was found to abolish the aminotransferase flux and to diminish the dehydrogenase flux in the soleus. The data also suggest that cortisol treatment increases the rate of metabolism of branched-chain amino acids at the dehydrogenase step.

  6. [First description of a desmoid tumor in a goat and comparative observations to human fibromatosis. Case report].

    PubMed

    Tontis, A; Rossi, G L

    1993-08-01

    The macroscopical, histological, and ultrastructural aspects of the abdominal and extra-abdominal desmoid tumour are reported in a 1 1/2-year old goat (breed: Nera-Verzasca, Tessin mountain goat). Macroscopically, the disease was characterized by glassy, whitish, very hard, plate-forming masses found in the abdominal wall and in the medial aspect of the upper hind limbs. Histologically, the masses consisted of well differentiated fibroblasts which locally infiltrated the surrounding tissues. No capsule formation was found. On electron microscopy, the cells appeared to be active, young, collagen-producing fibroblasts. The pathogenesis of this disease is unknown.

  7. A critical survey of vestigial structures in the postcranial skeletons of extant mammals

    PubMed Central

    Moch, John G.

    2015-01-01

    In the Mammalia, vestigial skeletal structures abound but have not previously been the focus of study, with a few exceptions (e.g., whale pelves). Here we use a phylogenetic bracketing approach to identify vestigial structures in mammalian postcranial skeletons and present a descriptive survey of such structures in the Mammalia. We also correct previous misidentifications, including the previous misidentification of vestigial caviid metatarsals as sesamoids. We also examine the phylogenetic distribution of vestigiality and loss. This distribution indicates multiple vestigialization and loss events in mammalian skeletal structures, especially in the hand and foot, and reveals no correlation in such events between mammalian fore and hind limbs. PMID:26623192

  8. Detection of inflammatory lymph nodes in rabbits by 99mTc-HIG lymphoscintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Ergün, E L; Bozkurt, M F; Ercan, M T; Ruacan, S; Sener, B; Unsal, I S

    2002-12-01

    Tc-Human immunoglobulin G ( Tc-HIG) is a well-known radiopharmaceutical for the evaluation of inflammatory lesions. Recently, it has been demonstrated as a new agent for the visualization of the lymphatic system by our group. Our aim was to investigate the feasibility of detection of inflammatory lymph nodes by Tc-HIG lymphoscintigraphy. Ten adult New Zealand rabbits were used as group A. In a baseline study, 37 MBq Tc-HIG (0.1 ml) was injected into both hind legs of the rabbits, and sequential posterior gamma imaging with the rabbits lying prone was performed at 5, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min using a single-headed gamma camera (Toshiba GCA G01 E). One week later, microorganisms ( ) were injected in a volume of 0.1 ml intradermally into the web space between the second and third toes in the bilateral hind legs of each rabbit in order to obtain inflammation in the popliteal lymph nodes. After 4 days, 37 MBq Tc-HIG (0.1 ml) was injected into the hind legs of the rabbits bilaterally, and sequential posterior gamma imaging was performed as described above (second study). Another group of 10 adult New Zealand rabbits (group B) was injected with the same microorganisms in the right hind legs only. After 4 days, scintigraphic imaging was carried out in the same way as described above (third study). Regions of interest were drawn over the injection sites and popliteal lymph nodes on each image for semiquantitative analysis. Count rates for each were calculated and a decay correction was applied. Time-activity curves were generated to show the percentage retention of radioactivity in each region. After the scintigraphic study, some of the group B rabbits were killed by intravenous injection of pentobarbitone (100-150 mg.kg, and both left and right lymph nodes were removed for microscopic examination. On the scintigrams, lymphatic channels and popliteal lymph nodes were visualized within 15 min. In the second study, bilateral popliteal lymph nodes were visualized more clearly

  9. A new species of salamander (Caudata: Plethodontidae, Bolitoglossa) from Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    García-Gutiérrez, Javier; Escalona, Moisés; Mora, Andrés; Díaz De Pascual, Amelia; Fermin, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a new species of salamander of the genus Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) from the cloud forest near La Mucuy in Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Venezuelan Andes, is described. Bolitoglossa mucuyensis sp. nov. differs from all Venezuelan salamanders, except B. orestes, by a larger SVL/TL ratio, and from La Culata salamander B. orestes by a reduced webbing extension of the front and hind limbs. Additionally, B. mucuyensis sp. nov. and B. orestes diverge 3.12% in terms of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene, as previously reported, and in 8.1% for the cytb gene as shown in this study.

  10. Distribution patterns and predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in experimentally infected Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti).

    PubMed

    La Grange, Louis J; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2014-02-21

    No controlled studies have been conducted to determine the predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) or the influence of infection intensity on the distribution of the larvae in crocodiles. The distribution of larvae in muscles of naturally infected Nile crocodiles and experimentally infected caimans (Caiman crocodilus) and varans (Varanus exanthematicus) have been reported in literature. To determine the distribution patterns of T. zimbabwensis larvae and predilection muscles, 15 crocodiles were randomly divided into three cohorts of five animals each, representing high infection (642 larvae/kg of bodyweight average), medium infection (414 larvae/kg of bodyweight average) and low infection (134 larvae/kg of bodyweight average) cohorts. In the high infection cohort, high percentages of larvae were observed in the triceps muscles (26%) and hind limb muscles (13%). In the medium infection cohort, high percentages of larvae were found in the triceps muscles (50%), sternomastoid (18%) and hind limb muscles (13%). In the low infection cohort, larvae were mainly found in the intercostal muscles (36%), longissimus complex (27%), forelimb muscles (20%) and hind limb muscles (10%). Predilection muscles in the high and medium infection cohorts were similar to those reported in naturally infected crocodiles despite changes in infection intensity. The high infection cohort had significantly higher numbers of larvae in the sternomastoid, triceps, intercostal, longissimus complex, external tibial flexor, longissimus caudalis and caudal femoral muscles (p < 0.05) compared with the medium infection cohort. In comparison with the low infection cohort, the high infection cohort harboured significantly higher numbers of larvae in all muscles (p < 0.05) except for the tongue. The high infection cohort harboured significantly higher numbers of larvae (p < 0.05) in the sternomastoid, triceps, intercostal, longissimus complex

  11. Segmental spinal cord hypoplasia in a Holstein Friesian calf.

    PubMed

    Binanti, D; Fantinato, E; De Zani, D; Riccaboni, P; Pravettoni, D; Zani, D D

    2013-08-01

    An 8-day-old female Holstein Friesian calf was examined because of congenital spastic paresis of the hind limbs. Myelography revealed deviation and thinning of subarachnoid contrast medium columns in the lumbar segment. Upon magnetic resonance imaging, the 'hour-glass' subdural compression appeared as a T1-hypointense, T2-hyperintense ovoidal area suggestive of cerebral spinal fluid collection, compatible with hydrosyringomyelia. The calf was euthanized and the necropsy confirmed the diagnosis of segmental spinal cord hypoplasia of the lumbar tract associated to hydromyelic and syringomyelic cavities.

  12. Oral administration of heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis reduces the response of farmed red deer to avian and bovine tuberculin.

    PubMed

    López, Vladimir; González-Barrio, David; Lima-Barbero, José Francisco; Ortiz, José Antonio; Domínguez, Lucas; Juste, Ramón; Garrido, Joseba M; Sevilla, Iker A; Alberdi, Pilar; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Orally delivered mycobacterial antigens may not sensitize the immunized animals causing a positive tuberculin skin test response. As the first step to address this critical issue, we characterized the response of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) to orally delivered heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis. Thirty-two adult red deer hinds from a farm known to be free of tuberculosis (TB) were randomly assigned to two different treatment groups, immunized (n=24) and control (n=8). Immunized hinds were dosed orally with 2 ml of PBS containing 6 × 10(6) heat-inactivated M. bovis. The mean skin test response of immunized deer to both avian purified protein derivative (aPPD) and bovine PPD (bPPD) was consistently lower in immunized than in control hinds. One year after immunization, immunized hinds had a significant reduction in the skin test response to aPPD and in the ELISA antibody levels against both aPPD and bPPD (24-36% reduction; P<0.05). By contrast, no significant change was observed in the skin test response to phytohaemagglutinin, or in the ELISA antibody levels against the M. bovis specific antigen MPB70. The mRNA levels for C3, IFN-γ and IL-1β and serum protein levels for IFN-γ and IL-1β did not vary between immunized and control deer. However, serum C3 protein levels were significantly higher (P=0.001) in immunized than in control deer six months after immunization. These results confirm that oral heat-inactivated M. bovis does not sensitize farmed red deer and therefore does not cause false-positive responses in the tuberculin skin test. The absence of sensitization in orally immunized deer opens the possibility of testing the vaccine in deer and possibly other ruminants without the risk of causing false-positive reactions in TB-tests. This study also provided the first evidence that orally-delivered inactivated mycobacterial antigens elicit some kind of immune response in a ruminant.

  13. Development of a new bicistronic retroviral vector with strong IRES activity

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Patrick; Albagli, Olivier; Poggi, Marie Christine; Boulukos, Kim E; Pognonec, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Background Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES)-based bicistronic vectors are important tools in today's cell biology. Among applications, the expression of two proteins under the control of a unique promoter permits the monitoring of expression of a protein whose biological function is being investigated through the observation of an easily detectable tracer, such as Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). However, analysis of published results making use of bicistronic vectors indicates that the efficiency of the IRES-controlled expression can vary widely from one vector to another, despite their apparent identical IRES sequences. We investigated the molecular basis for these discrepancies. Results We observed up to a 10 fold difference in IRES-controlled expression from distinct bicistronic expression vectors harboring the same apparent IRES sequences. We show that the insertion of a HindIII site, in place of the initiating AUG codon of the wild type EMCV IRES, is responsible for the dramatic loss of expression from the second cistron, whereas expression from the first cistron remains unaffected. Thus, while the replacement of the authentic viral initiating AUG by a HindIII site results in the theoretical usage of the initiation codon of the HindIII-subcloned cDNA, the subsequent drop of expression dramatically diminishes the interest of the bicistronic structure. Indeed, insertion of the HindIII site has such a negative effect on IRES function that detection of the IRES-controlled product can be difficult, and sometimes even below the levels of detection. It is striking to observe that this deleterious modification is widely found in available IRES-containing vectors, including commercial ones, despite early reports in the literature stating the importance of the integrity of the initiation codon for optimal IRES function. Conclusion From these observations, we engineered a new vector family, pPRIG, which respects the EMCV IRES structure, and permits easy cloning

  14. A new species of Falsopodabrus Pic characterized with geometric morphometrics (Coleoptera, Cantharidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Limei; Qi, Yaqing; Yang, Yuxia; Bai, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Falsopodabrus Pic, 1927 is described, Falsopodabrus tridentatus Yang, sp. n. (Yunnan, China). Geometric morphometric analyses based on the shapes of pronotum and hind wing and comparisons with two sibling species, Falsopodabrus himalaicus Wittmer, 1974 and Falsopodabrus martensi (Wittmer, 1979), support the valid status of the new species, also confirmed by the characters of tarsal claws. In addition to Falsopodabrus himalaicus and Falsopodabrus martensi, Falsopodabrus kostali Švihla, 2004 and Falsopodabrus rolciki Švihla, 2004 are recorded from China for the first time.

  15. A new species of Falsopodabrus Pic characterized with geometric morphometrics (Coleoptera, Cantharidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Limei; Qi, Yaqing; Yang, Yuxia; Bai, Ming

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Falsopodabrus Pic, 1927 is described, Falsopodabrus tridentatus Yang, sp. n. (Yunnan, China). Geometric morphometric analyses based on the shapes of pronotum and hind wing and comparisons with two sibling species, Falsopodabrus himalaicus Wittmer, 1974 and Falsopodabrus martensi (Wittmer, 1979), support the valid status of the new species, also confirmed by the characters of tarsal claws. In addition to Falsopodabrus himalaicus and Falsopodabrus martensi, Falsopodabrus kostali Švihla, 2004 and Falsopodabrus rolciki Švihla, 2004 are recorded from China for the first time. PMID:27667934

  16. [Neurophysiological study in the cat of 2 substituted benzamides : sulpiride and sultopride].

    PubMed

    Borenstein, P; Cléau, M; Hautier, C; Pointis, D

    1977-01-01

    Using three distinct electrophysiological tests in unanesthetized cat preparations (hippocampal theta, " caudat spindles " and stereotyped hind limb locomotor rhythms) two psychotropic benzamide derivatives (Sulpirid and Sultoprid) were tested both through systemic administration and local intracerebral microinjections. Our conclusions are that : a) Sulpirid activates the limbic system and locomotor rhythms, while deafferenting the higher " telodiencephalic " structures ; b) Sultoprid is, in revanche, at the same time deafferenting higher structure and depressing the lower one; c ) the hypothalamus represents one of the preferential targets for action of these substances.

  17. Impedance rheoplethysmography. The role of estimation of vasodilatory activity.

    PubMed

    Demenge, P; Silice, C; Lebas, J F; Piquard, J F; Carraz, G

    1979-01-01

    The activity of a number of vasodilatory drugs was studied, with the help of impedance rheoplethysmography, on the vascular bed of the hind limb of anaesthetized rabbits. The vasodilators under study induce changes in rheoplethysmogram to a more or less important degree. The results were compared with those obtained with electromagnetic flowmetry. This method seems to be useful in the study of vasodilators because it allows to measure their effects and the duration thereof in a non-aggressive way. This method using flowmetry, allows to study in an analytical way those substances' effects on artery, vein and also capillary.

  18. New anti-inflammatory triterpene from the root of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Pooja; Jyotshna; Gupta, Namita; Maurya, Anil Kumar; Shanker, Karuna

    2014-01-01

    Liquid-liquid partitioning of Ricinus communis root methanol extract resulted in enrichment of compounds. Purification of the n-hexane fraction led to the isolation and characterisation of two triterpenes: one known compound lupeol (1) and a new diketone pentacyclic triterpene named as erandone (urs-6-ene-3,16-dione) (2), from the plant. Their structures were determined by various spectroscopic techniques. Crude methanolic, enriched n-hexane fraction and isolates at doses 100 mg/kg p.o. exhibited significant (P < 0.001) anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema model.

  19. Ipsi- and Contralateral Motor Response Using Ultrasound-induced Neurostimulation in Deeply Anesthetized Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, Hermes; Wang, Shutao; Chen, Hong; Wang, Qi; Aurup, Christian; Fan, Kathtleen; Carneiro, Antonio; Konofagou, Elisa

    Ultrasound neurostimulation has been proven capable of eliciting motor responses. However, the studies in sedated rodents presented problems with target specificity due to the use of low ultrasound frequencies (<700 kHz). Here, we show that focused ultrasound (FUS) in mega-Hz range was able to evoke motor responses in mice under deep anesthesia. Contralateral movements of the hind limbs were observed when sonications were carried out at +2 mm of Lambda and ±2 mm lateral of midline in three mice. Moreover, stimulating other regions of the somatosensory and cerebellum induced trunk and ipsilateral limb movements in all six mice.

  20. Tumors in sea turtles: the insidious menace of fibropapillomatosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Balazs, George H.

    2013-01-01

    Early in July 2013, a colleague in New Caledonia reported the stranding of a green sea turtle on the far northwest of the island. The animal had washed up dead on a rocky beach with multiple large tumors on its neck and hind flippers. To all appearances, the turtle had fibropapillomatosis (FP), a tumor disease affecting marine turtles globally. This was the first known case of FP on the island—an alarming find, and another example of the creeping expansion of this disease in green turtles around the world.

  1. Studies on the chalcone synthase gene of two higher plants: petroselinum hortense and matthiola incana

    SciTech Connect

    Hemleben, V.; Frey, M.; Rall, S.; Koch, M.; Kittel, M.; Kreuzaler, F.; Ragg, H.; Fautz, E.; Hahlbrock, K.

    1982-01-01

    Two higher plant systems are presented which allow to study coordinated gene expression of the light-induced metabolic pathway of flavonoid biosynthesis: tissue culture cells of Petroselinum hortense (Apiaceae) and different developmental stages of various genotypes of Matthiola incana (Brassicaceae). The gene structure of the chalcone synthase is mainly studied. A cDNA clone (pLF56) of parsley has been constructed and characterized conferring the chalcone synthase gene sequence. Strong cross hybridization between the parsley cDNA and Matthiola DNA allowed to identify a HindIII fragment (6000 bp) identical in size for parsley and different Matthiola wild type lines and a mutant line.

  2. First Record of Anisoptera (Insecta: Odonata) from mid-Cretaceous Burmese Amber.

    PubMed

    Schädel, Mario; Bechly, Günter

    2016-01-01

    The fossil dragonfly Burmalindenia imperfecta gen. et sp. nov. is described from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber as the first record of the odonate suborder Anisoptera for this locality and one of the few records from amber in general. The inclusion comprises two fragments of the two hind wings of a dragonfly. The fossil can be attributed to a new genus and species of the family Gomphidae, presumably in the subfamily Lindeniinae, and features a strange teratological phenomenon in its wing venation. PMID:27394756

  3. Effect of rubber flooring on dairy cattle stepping behavior and muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Rajapaksha, Eranda; Winkler, Christoph; Tucker, Cassandra B

    2015-04-01

    Use of compressible flooring, such as rubber, has increased on dairy farms. Rubber improves locomotion and is well used by cattle in preference experiments that combine walking and standing. Previous work has found that rubber is particularly beneficial for lame animals, perhaps because a softer material is particularly useful when a single hoof is compromised. The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of flooring while standing, because cattle in freestall housing spend 40 to 50% of their time engaged in this behavior. In a 2 × 2 design, cows (n = 16) were evaluated on 4 standing surfaces that varied in terms of both floor type (concrete or rubber) and presentation [same floor under all 4 legs (all 4 legs on either concrete or rubber) or a rough surface under only one hind leg and the other 3 legs on concrete or rubber] in a crossover design. Surface electromyograms were used to evaluate muscle fatigue, total activity, and movement of muscle activity between legs during 1 h of standing. Muscle fatigue was evaluated in 2 contexts: (1) static contractions when cows continuously transferred weight to each hind leg, before and after 1 h of standing, and (2) dynamic contractions associated with steps during 1 h on treatment surfaces. In addition, stepping rate, time between each consecutive step, and the latency to lie down after testing were measured. No interaction between floor type and presentation was found. Presentation had a significant effect; when one hind leg was on a rough surface, cattle took 1.7 times more steps with this leg and the non-rough hind leg had 1.2 times more muscle activity, compared with when all 4 legs were on the same surface. These changes are consistent with movement away from concrete with protrusions. When standing on rubber, muscle-activity movements among legs remained stable (0.6-0.7 movements per min) over 1 h but increased on concrete (0.6-0.9 movements per min), indicating that, like humans, cattle may sway to counteract

  4. Avascular necrosis of the femoral heads in a red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens): possible Legg-Calve-Perthes disease.

    PubMed

    Delclaux, María; Talavera, Covadonga; López, Manuel; Sánchez, Jose Miguel; García, María Isabel

    2002-09-01

    A 17-mo-old captive-born female red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) presented with a sudden onset of lameness in its left hind leg was diagnosed radiographically as having possible severe, bilateral Legg-Calve-Perthes disease with fracture of the great trochanter of the left femur. Surgical repair of the fracture was performed using pins and a tension band wire through a lateral approach to the hip. This is the first case reported at Madrid Zoo-Aquarium, where 63 individuals have been bred over 15 yr.

  5. Cannabinoids for the treatment of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ashton, John C

    2007-05-01

    Cannabinoids are effective at suppressing immune and inflammation functions in leukocytes in vitro, and in animal models of acute inflammation, such as the mouse hind paw, ear and air pouch models, as well as gastrointestinal, pulmonary, myocardial, vascular, periodontal, neural, hepatic, pancreatic and arthritic inflammation models. The non-psychoactive cannabinoid receptor CB2 is emerging as a critical target for cannabinoid regulation of inflammation, and thus CB2-selective agonists are undergoing intense investigation and research. This review discusses the evidence for cannabinoid regulation of inflammation across a range of models and highlights the most promising drug candidates.

  6. Effects of Altosid and Abate-4E on deformities and survival in southern leopard frogs under semi-natural conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Kaiser, Hinrich; Casper, Gary S.; Bernstein, Neil P.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental wetlands were sprayed with Abate-4E (a.i. temephos) and Altosid (a.i. methoprene) through the summer following label directions. In late August and early Septemeber metamorphing tadpoles were captured and examined for deformities. Tadpoles captured from ponds sprayed with Altosid had a 15% deformity rate mostly involving total or partially missing hind limbs. Tadpoles from control ponds had a 5% rate of deformities. The difference was statistically significant. The relative abundance of tadpoles from ponds sprayed with Abate-4E was significantly lower than those from Altosid-sprayed or control wetlands.

  7. Mechanisms of spinal motoneurons survival in rats under simulated hypogravity on earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islamov, R. R.; Mishagina, E. A.; Tyapkina, O. V.; Shajmardanova, G. F.; Eremeev, A. A.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Nikolskij, E. E.; Grigorjev, A. I.

    2011-05-01

    It was previously shown that different cell types in vivo and in vitro may die via apoptosis under weightlessness conditions in space as well as in simulated hypogravity on the Earth. We assessed survivability of spinal motoneurons of rats after 35-day antiorthostatic hind limb suspension. Following weight bearing, unloading the total protein content in lumbar spinal cord is dropped by 21%. The electrophysiological studies of m. gastrocnemius revealed an elevated motoneurons' reflex excitability and conduction disturbances in the sciatic nerve axons. The number of myelinated fibers in the ventral root of experimental animals was insignificantly increased by 35-day of antiorthostatic hind limb suspension, although the retrograde axonal transport was significantly decreased during the first week of simulated hypogravity. The results of the immunohistochemical assay with antibodies against proapoptotic protein caspase 9 and cytotoxicity marker neuron specific nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the TUNEL staining did not reveal any signs of apoptosis in motoneurons of suspended and control animals. To examine the possible adaptation mechanisms activated in motoneurons in response to simulated hypogravity we investigated immunoexpression of Hsp25 and Hsp70 in lumbar spinal cord of the rats after 35-day antiorthostatic hind limb suspension. Comparative analysis of the immunohistochemical reaction with anti-Hsp25 antibodies revealed differential staining of motoneurons in intact and experimental animals. The density of immunoprecipitate with anti-Hsp25 antibodies was substantially higher in motoneurons of the 35-day suspended than control rats and the more intensive precipitate in this reaction was observed in motoneuron neuritis. Quantitative analysis of Hsp25 expression demonstrated an increase in the Hsp25 level by 95% in experimental rats compared to the control. The immunoexpression of Hsp70 found no qualitative and quantitative differences in control and experimental

  8. Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, and Antipyretic Activities of the Ethanol Extract of Piper interruptum Opiz. and Piper chaba Linn.

    PubMed

    Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Itharat, Arunporn; Lerdvuthisopon, Nusiri; Piyabhan, Pritsana; Khonsung, Parirat; Boonraeng, Supot; Jaijoy, Kanjana

    2012-01-01

    Piper interruptum Opiz. and Piper chaba Linn. are herbaceous plants in the Piperaceae family. The ethanol extract of P. interruptum and P. chaba inhibited ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. Both extracts reduced transudative and granuloma weights as well as body weight gain and thymus weight of the chronic inflammatory model using cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. Moreover, both extracts exhibited analgesic activity on both early phase and late phase of formalin test in mice and also showed antipyretic activity on yeast-induced hyperthermia in rats. PMID:22530143

  9. Kappa-casein polymorphisms among cattle breeds and bison herds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, M.A.; Cockett, N.

    1993-01-01

    We identified the HindIII restriction site polymorphism Of kappa-casein in cattle reported by Pinder et al. (Animal Genetics 22, 11, 1991) and found an additonal polymorphism (RsaI) in cattle and bison. The Hin dIII and Rsa I restriction sites were mapped and three haplotypes (alleles) were identified. Preliminary screening of 39 cattle and 71 bison revealed one allele restricted to cattle, one restricted to bison, and one shared by the species. No fixed allelic differences were observed among cattle breeds or among bison herds or subspecies.

  10. Detecting apoptosis in vivo and ex vivo using spectroscopic OCT and dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Golnaz; Giles, Anoja; Mariampillai, Adrian; Yang, Victor X. D.; Czarnota, Gregory J.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2014-03-01

    We present an in vivo implementation of a multi-parametric technique for detecting apoptosis using optical coherence tomography in a mouse tumor model. Solid tumors were grown from acute myeloid leukemia cells in the hind leg of SCID mice and treated with a single dose of cisplatin and dexamethasone to induce apoptosis. Both spectral features and speckle decorrelation times indicated good consistency between control mice and reasonable agreement with in vitro measurements. The integrated backscatter increased significantly in tumors responding to treatment while the spectral slope and decorrelation time did not show significant changes. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using spectroscopic OCT and dynamic light scattering for treatment monitoring in vivo.

  11. Epidermal laser stimulation of action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindra, Nichole M.; Goddard, Douglas; Imholte, Michelle; Thomas, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of laser-stimulated action potentials in the sciatic nerve of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) are made using two infrared lasers. The dorsal sides of the frog's hind limbs are exposed to short-pulsed 1540- and 1064-nm wavelengths at three separate spot sizes: 2, 3, and 4 mm. Energy density thresholds are determined for eliciting an action potential at each experimental condition. Results from these exposures show similar evoked potential thresholds for both wavelengths. The 2-mm-diam spot sizes yield action potentials at radiant exposure levels almost double that seen with larger beam sizes.

  12. Metastatic carcinoma of probable transitional cell origin in 66 free-living California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 1979 to 1994.

    PubMed

    Gulland, F M; Trupkiewicz, J G; Spraker, T R; Lowenstine, L J

    1996-04-01

    Sixty-six (18%) cases of widely metastatic carcinoma of probable transitional cell origin were identified in 370 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) stranded alive along the central California (USA) coast, between January 1979 and December 1994. Live animals were usually emaciated and anorectic, with perineal edema and occasionally hind-flipper paralysis or paresis. Large yellow caseous masses were observed in the sub-lumbar lymph nodes, often extending around the ureters resulting in hydroureter. Histologically, metastases were usually widespread, and the primary neoplastic focus undetectable. This is the highest reported prevalence among necropsied animals of neoplasia in a pinniped population to date. PMID:8722262

  13. One new species of the subgenus Hexatoma (Eriocera) Macquart (Diptera, Limoniidae) from China with a key to Chinese species.

    PubMed

    Men, Qiu-Lei; Yu, Dao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    One new species of the subgenus Eriocera Macquart, 1838, Hexatoma (Eriocera) cleopatroides Men, sp. n. (Southern China: Anhui) is described and illustrated. A key to all of 78 known species from China in the subgenus is provided, which was solely based on literatures. The new species is similar to Hexatoma (Eriocera) cleopatra Alexander, 1933, but distinguishes from the latter by the prescutum entirely black with two ill-defined gray stripes, by the legs with fore and middle femora brown in basal half, black in apical half, with hind femora brown in basal one-fourth, and by the wings with cells c and sc more yellowish brown than the ground color.

  14. Cloning of a Thiobacillus ferrooxidans plasmid in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, D.S.; Lobos, J.H.; Bopp, L.H.; Welch, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    Three separate plasmids of 6, 7, 16, and >23 kilobases were purified from a single clone of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 33020 grown in the presence of uranium. The 6.7-kilobase plasmid (pTfl) was cloned separately into the HindIII or BamHI site of Escherichia coli plasmid pBR322. Restriction maps of the recombinant plasmids, termed pTf100 and pTf110, respectively, were constructed, creating potential cloning vehicles for exchanging genetic information between E. coli and T. ferrooxidans. Evidence from restriction enzyme analysis and Southern blot DNA-DNA hybridization indicates that the three native plasmids share little sequence homology.

  15. Description of male, pupa and larva of Simulium (Asiosimulium) wanchaii (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thailand, with keys to identify four species of the subgenus Asiosimulium.

    PubMed

    Srisuka, W; Takaoka, H; Saeung, A

    2015-09-01

    The male, pupa and mature larva of Simulium (Asiosimulium) wanchaii Takaoka & Choochote, one of the four species of the small Oriental black fly subgenus Asiosimulium, are described for the first time based on samples collected from Thailand. The male S. (A.) wanchaii is characterized based on the enlarged hind basitarsus and the ventral plate which is much wider than long. The pupa and larva are characterized by the gill with 19 filaments and the deep postgenal cleft, respectively. Keys are provided to identify all the four species of the subgenus Asiosimulium for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.

  16. Phenrica littoralis (Bechyné, 1955) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) a potential candidate for the biological control of alligator weed, Alternantheraphiloxeroides (Martius) Grisebach (Amaranthaceae): redescription of the adult, first description of immature stages, and biological notes.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Nora; Sosa, Alejandro J; Julien, Mic

    2013-01-01

    Flea beetles of alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides (Martius) Grisebach (Amaranthaceae), were collected in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Brazil. Species in the genera Disonycha Chevrolat, Agasicles Jacoby, Systena Chevrolat and Phenrica Bechyné were frequently found on this weed. Phenrica littoralis (Bechyn6) was the most abundant within this genus. The male is described and the holotype female is redescribed adding new diagnostic characters of the mouthparts, hind wings, metendosternite, and male and female genitalia. Larva and pupa are described and illustrated for the first time providing data for future phylogenetic studies in the subtribe Disonychina.

  17. Oral administration of heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis reduces the response of farmed red deer to avian and bovine tuberculin.

    PubMed

    López, Vladimir; González-Barrio, David; Lima-Barbero, José Francisco; Ortiz, José Antonio; Domínguez, Lucas; Juste, Ramón; Garrido, Joseba M; Sevilla, Iker A; Alberdi, Pilar; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Orally delivered mycobacterial antigens may not sensitize the immunized animals causing a positive tuberculin skin test response. As the first step to address this critical issue, we characterized the response of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) to orally delivered heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis. Thirty-two adult red deer hinds from a farm known to be free of tuberculosis (TB) were randomly assigned to two different treatment groups, immunized (n=24) and control (n=8). Immunized hinds were dosed orally with 2 ml of PBS containing 6 × 10(6) heat-inactivated M. bovis. The mean skin test response of immunized deer to both avian purified protein derivative (aPPD) and bovine PPD (bPPD) was consistently lower in immunized than in control hinds. One year after immunization, immunized hinds had a significant reduction in the skin test response to aPPD and in the ELISA antibody levels against both aPPD and bPPD (24-36% reduction; P<0.05). By contrast, no significant change was observed in the skin test response to phytohaemagglutinin, or in the ELISA antibody levels against the M. bovis specific antigen MPB70. The mRNA levels for C3, IFN-γ and IL-1β and serum protein levels for IFN-γ and IL-1β did not vary between immunized and control deer. However, serum C3 protein levels were significantly higher (P=0.001) in immunized than in control deer six months after immunization. These results confirm that oral heat-inactivated M. bovis does not sensitize farmed red deer and therefore does not cause false-positive responses in the tuberculin skin test. The absence of sensitization in orally immunized deer opens the possibility of testing the vaccine in deer and possibly other ruminants without the risk of causing false-positive reactions in TB-tests. This study also provided the first evidence that orally-delivered inactivated mycobacterial antigens elicit some kind of immune response in a ruminant. PMID:27032499

  18. Myotonia congenita in a Jack Russell terrier.

    PubMed

    Lobetti, R G

    2009-06-01

    A 4-month-old male Jack Russell terrier was evaluated for non-painful muscle spasms and collapse associated with exercise and activity. Clinical examination revealed well-defined, non-painful hypertrophic muscles of the fore and hind limbs and exercise and excitement induced hindquarter bunny-hopping gait, which improved with activity but worsened with resting and with any sudden changes in direction of movement. Neurological examination and routine laboratory testing showed no abnormalities. DNA analysis for myotonia congenita showed the dog to have a gene mutation in the chloride ion channel, diagnostic for myotonia congenita, which has not been reported in the Jack Russell terrier breed. PMID:19831273

  19. Experiment K-314: Fetal and neonatal rat bone and joint development following in Utero spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelman, E. E.; Holton, E. M.; Arnaud, C. D.

    1981-01-01

    Infant rat limb specimens from Soviet and U.S. ground-based studies were examined by radiography, macrophotography, histologic sectioning and staining and scanning electron microscopy. A comparison was conducted between vivarium and flight-type diets suggesting that nutritional obesity may adversely affect pregnancy. Data were obtained on maturation of ossification centers, orientation of collagen fibers in bone, tendon and ligaments, joint surface texture and spatial relationships of bones of the hind limb. Computer reconstructions of the knee and hip show promise as a means of investigating the etiology of congenital hip dislocation.

  20. Amyloid beta-protein gene duplication is not common in Alzheimer's disease: analysis by polymorphic restriction fragments.

    PubMed

    Furuya, H; Sasaki, H; Goto, I; Wong, C W; Glenner, G G; Sakaki, Y

    1988-01-15

    The amyloid beta-protein(BP) is an important component of amyloid fibrils of both Alzheimer's disease(AD) and adult Down syndrome(DS). It has been hypothesized that sporadic AD may involve the duplication of a subregion of chromosome 21 containing the BP locus. However, an improved method for detection of the BP gene duplication using polymorphic Hind III fragments led us to a conclusion that BP gene duplication is rare, if any, in (Japanese) sporadic AD patients, indicating that the duplication of the BP gene itself is not the common underlying genetic defect in AD.

  1. Alterations in Signal Transduction and Intracellular Signaling Processes during Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Rakhee; Khan, Junaid; Laska, Bozena; Mehta, Rahul; Chowdhury, Parimal; Ali, Nawab

    2010-04-01

    A modified NASA validated tail suspension animal model of simulated microgravity was used to induce weightlessness in mice. Animals were suspended by tail to simulate microgravity for 21 days. Effect of simulated microgravity on the expression G-proteins was studied in various tissues. Specific antibodies were used to probe stimulatory and inhibitory G-proteins on Western Blots. Our results suggested that there is a significant increase in the amounts G-protein subunits in hind limb suspended tissues compared to controls. Further experiments are required to establish any relationship in the apparent changes in G-proteins and inositol phosphates.

  2. Data on macrophage mediated muscle transfection upon delivery of naked plasmid DNA with block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Vivek; Gaymalov, Zagit; Alakhova, Daria; Gupta, Richa; Zucker, Irving H; Kabanov, Alexander V

    2016-06-01

    The data contains 14 figures supporting the research article "Horizontal gene transfer from macrophages to ischemic muscles upon delivery of naked DNA with Pluronic block copolymers" [1]. The data explains the surgical procedure and histological characterization of Murine Hind Limb Ischemia. The data also shows the kinetics of luciferase gene expression, spread of GFP expression through muscle and the colocalization of GFP with cellular markers in ischemic muscles injected with pDNA alone or pDNA/Pluronic. Finally the data shows the effect of Pluronic Block Copolymer to enhance total gene expression (cmv-promoter driven luciferase gene) in coculture of DNA transfected MØs with muscle cells. PMID:27222845

  3. Coordinated righting behaviour in locusts.

    PubMed

    Faisal, A A; Matheson, T

    2001-02-01

    A locust placed upside down on a flat surface uses a predictable sequence of leg movements to right itself. To analyse this behaviour, we made use of a naturally occurring state of quiescence (thanatosis) to position locusts in a standardised upside-down position from which they spontaneously right themselves. Locusts grasped around the pronotum enter a state of thanatosis during which the limbs can be manipulated into particular postures, where they remain, and the animal can be placed upside down on the ground. When released, thanatosis lasts 4-456 s (mean 73 s) before the animal suddenly becomes active again and rights itself within a further 600 ms. Thanatosis is characterised by very low levels of leg motor activity. During righting, one hind leg provides most of the downward force against the ground that rolls the body around a longitudinal axis towards the other side. The driving force is produced by femoral levation (relative to the body) at the trochanter and by tibial extension. As the animal rolls over, the hind leg on the other side is also levated at the trochanter, so that it does not obstruct the movement. The forelegs and middle legs are not required for successful righting but they can help initially to tip the locust to one side, and at the end of the movement they help stop the roll as the animal turns upright. Individual locusts have a preferred righting direction but can, nevertheless, roll to either side. Locusts falling upside down through the air use both passive and active mechanisms to right themselves before they land. Without active movements, falling locusts tend to rotate into an upright position, but most locusts extend their hind leg tibiae and/or spread their wings, which increases the success of mid-air righting from 28 to 49 % when falling from 30 cm. The rapid and reliable righting behaviour of locusts reduces the time spent in a vulnerable upside-down position. Their narrow body geometry, large hind legs, which can generate

  4. Quantization of scalar fields coupled to point masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero G, J. Fernando; Juárez-Aubry, Benito A.; Margalef-Bentabol, Juan; Villaseñor, Eduardo J. S.

    2015-12-01

    We study the Fock quantization of a compound classical system consisting of point masses and a scalar field. We consider the Hamiltonian formulation of the model by using the geometric constraint algorithm of Gotay, Nester and Hinds. By relying on this Hamiltonian description, we characterize in a precise way the real Hilbert space of classical solutions to the equations of motion and use it to rigorously construct the Fock space of the system. We finally discuss the structure of this space, in particular the impossibility of writing it in a natural way as a tensor product of Hilbert spaces associated with the point masses and the field, respectively.

  5. Technical note: Validation of sensor-recorded lying bouts in lactating dairy cows using a 2-sensor approach.

    PubMed

    Kok, A; van Knegsel, A T M; van Middelaar, C E; Hogeveen, H; Kemp, B; de Boer, I J M

    2015-11-01

    Lying behavior is a relevant indicator for the evaluation of cow welfare. Lying can be recorded automatically by data loggers attached to one of the hind legs of a cow. A threshold for the duration of a lying bout (LB) record is required, however, to discard false records caused by horizontal leg movements, such as scratching. Previously determined thresholds for similar sensors ranged from 25s to 4min. We aimed to validate LB recorded by the IceQube sensor (with IceManager software; IceRobotics, South Queensferry, UK) and to determine a threshold to distinguish true from false LB records in lactating dairy cows. A novel method of validation, which does not require time-consuming behavioral observations, was used to generate a larger data set with potentially more incidental short LB records. Both hind legs of 28 lactating dairy cows were equipped with an IceQube sensor for a period of 6d and used as each other's validation. Classification of LB records as true (actual LB) or false (recorded while standing) was based on 3 assumptions. First, all standing records (absence of LB records) were assumed to occur while standing. Second, false LB records due to short leg movements could not occur in both hind legs simultaneously. Third, true LB only occurred if the LB records of the paired sensors coincided. False LB records constituted 4% of the records. Based on a maximum accuracy of 0.99, a minimum duration of LB records of 33 s was determined, implying a sensitivity of 0.99 and a specificity of 0.98. Applying this threshold of 33 s hardly affected estimates of daily lying time, but improved estimates of frequency and mean duration of LB for individual cows. The importance of distinguishing short LB was demonstrated specifically for detection of calving. The 2-sensor approach, using sensor outputs on both hind legs as each other's validation, is a time-efficient method to validate LB records that can be applied to different sensors and husbandry conditions.

  6. Physico-Phytochemical investigation and Anti-inflammatory screening of Capsicum annum L. and Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) R. Br

    PubMed Central

    Vijayalakshmi, K.; Shyamala, R.; Thirumurugan, V.; Sethuraman, M.; Rajan, S.; Badami, Shrishailappa; Mukherjee, Pulok K.

    2010-01-01

    Capsicum annum L. (Family: Solanaceae) and Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) R.Br. (Family: Asclepiadaceae) are commonly used in Tamilnadufor treating various ailments in the native system of medicine. The hydroalcoholic extracts of both plants at dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight showed demonstrable anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced hind paw model in rats. Nevertheless, the overall anti-inflammatory activity exhibited by the extracts are found to be less as compared with that of standard drug Indometacin. Preliminary physico-phytochemical analysis of the plants in question were attempted. The results are highlighted and discussed. PMID:22557366

  7. Clinical and pathological findings of a Yorkshire terrier affected with necrotizing encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Sawashima, Y; Sawashima, K; Taura, Y; Shimada, A; Umemura, T

    1996-07-01

    A three-year-old, male Yorkshire terrier was presented with blindness, circling, hind limb weakness, and convulsive seizure for the past 3 months. Characteristic clinical findings were chronic, progressive neurological signs involving cerebrum and brain stem, an elevation of brain-type isoenzyme of serum creatine kinase, appearance of high voltage slow activity in electroencephalogram, and multifocal lesions in the cerebral hemispheres on magnetic resonance imaging. Necrotizing encephalitis of Yorkshire terrier was diagnosed after postmortem pathological examination. This is the first case report of the disease in Japan.

  8. [Leishmania infantum induced bone lesions in a dog].

    PubMed

    Wallborn, Felix; Söffler, Charlotte; Winkels, Philipp; Hess, Marcus; Engelhardt, Peter

    2016-08-17

    A 3-year-old Labrador Retriever originating from Spain was presented with a left-sided hind limb lameness for several months. The orthopedic examination revealed a pain response when palpating the left tarsal joint. Radiographic and computed tomographic studies showed polyostotic, aggressive osteolytic bone lesions with mild erosive arthritis. The diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis was confirmed by bone biopsy and the detection of the pathogen by PCR. Three weeks after initiation of therapy with allopurinol, the dog presented no signs of lameness. Eight months after start of therapy, radiographic examination revealed moderate regression of the osteolytic bone lesions. PMID:27304984

  9. SURGICAL CORRECTION OF BILATERAL PATELLAR LUXATION IN AN AMERICAN BLACK BEAR CUB (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Katarina R; Desmarchelier, Marion R; Bailey, Trina R

    2015-06-01

    A wild orphaned male American black bear cub ( Ursus americanus ) presented with hind limb gait abnormalities and was found to have bilateral grade 3 laterally luxating patellas. There were no other significant abnormalities detected on neurologic, radiographic, or hematologic examinations. The trochlear grooves were deepened with a chondroplasty, and the redundant soft tissues imbricated. There was a marked improvement in the bear's gait postoperatively, with an apparent full return to function. To the authors' knowledge, patellar luxation has not been reported in the Ursidae family, and the success in this case suggests that this technique may be used in large wild or captive carnivore cubs. PMID:26056894

  10. Problems in analysis of data from muscles of rats flow in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Marc E.; Henriksen, Erik; Jacob, Stephan; Satarug, Soisungwan; Cook, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of hind-limb muscles of rats flown on Spacelab-3 or tail-traction-suspended showed that 11-17 h reloading postflight might have altered the results. Soleus atrophied; plantaris, gastrocnemius, and extensor digitorum longus grew slower; and tibialis anteiror grew normally. In both flight and simulated soleus and plantaris, higher tyrosine and greater glutamine/glutamate ratio indicated negative protein balance and increased glutamine production, respectively, relative to controls. Aspartate was lower in these muscles. Reloading generally decreased tyrosine, but increased aspartate and glutamine/glutamate. These data showed that 12 h of reloading after flight is characterized by reversal, to varying extents, of the effects of unloading.

  11. Residual radiation damage in the mouse foot after exposure to heavy particles

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, S.G.; Raju, M.R.

    1981-02-01

    Mice receiving a first treatment with graded doses of various heavy charged particles to one of their hind legs were re-exposed to a fixed dose of x rays eight months later to study the memory of residual damage from the first treatment. No significant memory of the first radiation exposure was observed for acute skin reaction. However, there is an indication of memory for foot deformity. The results do not seem to indicate any significant differences in memory after exposure to /sup 60/Co gamma rays compared with protons or heavy ions, if biological effectiveness of the doses is taken into consideration.

  12. Residual radiation damage in the mouse foot after exposure to heavy particles

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, S.G.; Raju, M.R.

    1981-02-01

    Mice receiving a first treatment with graded doses of various heavy charged particles (protons and heavy ions) to one of their hind legs were re-exposed to a fixed dose of x rays eight months later to study the memory of residual damage from the first treatment. No significant memory of the first radiation exposure was observed for acute skin reaction. However, there is an indication of memory for foot deformity. The results do not seem to indicate any significant differences in memory after exposure to 60Co gamma rays compared with protons or heavy ions, if biological effectiveness of the doses is taken into consideration.

  13. Bone Density and High Salt Diets in a Space Flight Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, S. B.; Navidi, M.; Liang, M. T. C.; Wolinsky, I.

    1999-01-01

    High salt diets accelerate bone loss with aging in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis except when calcium supplementation is provided. We have observed that the decrease in mineral content of growing femurs in juvenile rats, exposed to a space flight model which unloads the hind limbs , is substantially less in animals fed excess salt. To determine whether excess dietary salt has the same effect on the skeleton of the mature animal whose response to unloading is increased resorption and bone loss rather than impaired growth, we carried out a metabolic study in mature rats with hindlimbs unloaded by tailsuspension.

  14. Genetic trends of conformation traits and genetic correlations to osteochondrosis in boars.

    PubMed

    Aasmundstad, T; Gjerlaug-Enger, E; Grindflek, E; Vangen, O

    2014-07-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate the heritabilities and genetic correlations between traits from a linear exterior assessment system and osteochondrosis (OC) measured by computed tomography (CT), and in addition, to study the genetic trend in a population where the conformation traits have been included in the breeding goal. The data material consisted of phenotypes from a total of 4571 Norsvin Landrace test boars. At the end of the test period, all boars were subjected to a detailed exterior assessment system. Within 10 days of the assessment, the boars were CT scanned for measuring OC. The total score of osteochondrosis (OCT), used in this study, is the sum of phenotypes from the assessment on the medial and lateral condyles at the distal end of both the humerus and the femur of the right and the left leg of the boar based on images from CT. The exterior assessment traits included in the study were; 'front leg knee' (FKNE), 'front leg pasterns' (FPAS), 'front leg stance' (FSTA), 'front leg twisted pasterns' (FFLK), 'hind leg stance', 'hind leg pasterns' (HPAS), 'hind leg standing under' (HSTU), 'hind leg small inner toe', 'dipped back', 'arched back' (ARCH) and 'waddling hindquarters' (WADL). The estimation of (co)variance components and breeding values were performed using bivariate animal genetic models. Breeding values for HSTU, HPAS, FPAS, WADL and OCT traits were additional outputs from the same bivariate analyses. The lowest heritability was found for FFLK (h 2 FFLK=0.05), whereas FPAS was estimated to have the highest heritability (h 2 FPAS=0.36), and OCT demonstrating a heritability of 0.29. Significant genetic correlations were found between several traits; the strongest correlation was between FSTA and FFLK (0.94), which was followed by the correlation between FPAS and FKNE (0.69). The traits ARCH and FSTA had significant genetic correlations to OCT, whereas all other genetic correlations between OCT and the conformation traits were low and

  15. Phoomyia, a new genus of Dolichopodinae from the Oriental Region (Diptera: Dolichopodidae).

    PubMed

    Naglis, Stefan; Grootaert, Patrick; Brooks, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    Phoomyia Naglis & Grootaert gen. nov. is described to include two new species of beach-dwelling dolichopodine flies from coastal Sri Lanka and Thailand: Phoontyia srilankensis Naglis & Brooks sp. nov. and Phoomnyia thailandensis Naglis & Grootaert sp. nov. The new genus is closely related to the genera Argyrochlamys Lamb and Pseudargyrochlamys Grichanov, and is distinguished based on characters of the hind leg, and features of the male and female terminalia. Adults of Phoomyia are found on sandy coastal beaches often near the burrows of ghost crabs.

  16. A new species of Falsopodabrus Pic characterized with geometric morphometrics (Coleoptera, Cantharidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Limei; Qi, Yaqing; Yang, Yuxia; Bai, Ming

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Falsopodabrus Pic, 1927 is described, Falsopodabrus tridentatus Yang, sp. n. (Yunnan, China). Geometric morphometric analyses based on the shapes of pronotum and hind wing and comparisons with two sibling species, Falsopodabrus himalaicus Wittmer, 1974 and Falsopodabrus martensi (Wittmer, 1979), support the valid status of the new species, also confirmed by the characters of tarsal claws. In addition to Falsopodabrus himalaicus and Falsopodabrus martensi, Falsopodabrus kostali Švihla, 2004 and Falsopodabrus rolciki Švihla, 2004 are recorded from China for the first time.

  17. A new record of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera:Fanniidae) from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Omar, B; Kurahashi, H; Jeffery, J; Yasohdha, N; Lau, S Y; John, M C; Marwi, M A; Zuha, R M; Ahmad, M S

    2007-12-01

    Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Fanniidae) is newly recorded from Malaysia. This record is based on 1male symbol 1female symbol from Sarawak, east Malaysia and 1male symbol 2female symbol from Selangor, peninsular Malaysia. It is included in the pusio group of Fannia wherein are included Fannia femoralis (Stein), Fannia howardi Malloch, Fannia trimaculata (Stein), Fannia leucosticta (Meigen) and Fannia punctiventris Malloch. The male of Fannia pusio is differentiated from other members of the group by the following features: hind femur with a swelling bearing a number of setae that are usually curled at tip; squamae creamy; tergite 1+2 broadly grey dusted at sides.

  18. [Evaluation of the biological effects of chemical substances on albino rat offspring].

    PubMed

    Rukavishnikov, V S; Sosedova, L M; Kapustina, E A

    2011-01-01

    The paper provides the results of experimental studies of the impact of vinyl chloride or sublimate intoxication in male albino rats on the functional state of the nervous system of their offspring. Retarded sensorimotor development was revealed in the neonatal offspring. The pubertal offspring showed behavioral pattern disintegrity that was characterized by changes in motor activity and orientative-exploratory responses and by anxiety. There was abnormal impulse conduction in the neuromuscular apparatus of the hind legs of albino rats and morphological changes in the structure of nervous tissue. PMID:22250396

  19. Physiological abnormalities in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE): II. Correlation between clinical signs and vestibular hyperreactivity and other signs of brain-stem dysfunction in rats with EAE.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, C J; Huygen, P L

    1984-09-01

    12 Lewis rats were inoculated with a guinea pig spinal cord tissue preparation. They developed experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) after 12-14 days manifested by weight loss, tail flaccidity, ataxia, hind limb paresis or paralysis and urinary incontinence. Concomitantly with EAE, all animals developed vestibular hyperreactivity (VH) of canal and otolith reflexes. Other signs of brain-stem dysfunction were also observed: abducens paralysis, facial weakness, tachypnoe and mydriasis with defective pupillary light reflex. The vestibular and other abnormalities subsided with some delay after recovery from clinical EAE, whilst histological abnormalities were still present in the CNS.

  20. Studies of Peruvian Ptiliidae (Coleoptera) 5: Chaska nawi, a new genus and species of Acrotrichinae, Acrotrichini.

    PubMed

    Darby, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Chaska, a new monotypic genus of Acrotrichinae, Acrotrichini with its single species nawi is described and figured. Superficially similar to the more rounded species of Acrotrichis but distinguished by ventral characters in particular the form of the mesoventral collar and the rounded pronotal hind angles. The insect was collected by Dr Caroline Chaboo and her students at the University of Kansas as part of an inventory of leaf beetles in Peru. The name chosen as the winning entry in a national competition to name a beetle species and raise awareness about cryptic biodiversity. PMID:27615917