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Sample records for hind hinnaregulatsioonile allutatud

  1. Hinds Community College MSEIP program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Student Assistant Antoinette Davis (left) of Utica; Carmella Forsythe, 13, of Clinton; Terri Henderson, 14, of Clinton; Tyra Greer, 12, of Port Gibson; and Kala Battle, 14, of Edwards, answer curriculum questions about NASA's Return to Flight mission exhibit at StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) near Bay St. Louis, Miss. The girls were on a field trip to StenniSphere with fellow participants in Hinds Community College's MSEIP (Minority Science Engineering Improvement Program) summer program. MSEIP encourages students to pursue and prepare for careers in science, technology, engineering and math.

  2. Hinds Community College MSEIP program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Student Assistant Antoinette Davis (left) of Utica; Carmella Forsythe, 13, of Clinton; Terri Henderson, 14, of Clinton; Tyra Greer, 12, of Port Gibson; and Kala Battle, 14, of Edwards, answer curriculum questions about NASA's Return to Flight mission exhibit at StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) near Bay St. Louis, Miss. The girls were on a field trip to StenniSphere with fellow participants in Hinds Community College's MSEIP (Minority Science Engineering Improvement Program) summer program. MSEIP encourages students to pursue and prepare for careers in science, technology, engineering and math.

  3. Hinds Community College MSEIP program

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-06-24

    Student Assistant Antoinette Davis (left) of Utica; Carmella Forsythe, 13, of Clinton; Terri Henderson, 14, of Clinton; Tyra Greer, 12, of Port Gibson; and Kala Battle, 14, of Edwards, answer curriculum questions about NASA's Return to Flight mission exhibit at StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) near Bay St. Louis, Miss. The girls were on a field trip to StenniSphere with fellow participants in Hinds Community College's MSEIP (Minority Science Engineering Improvement Program) summer program. MSEIP encourages students to pursue and prepare for careers in science, technology, engineering and math.

  4. 4. EAST ELEVATION OF HINDS PLANT. NOTE BUTTRESSING AS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EAST ELEVATION OF HINDS PLANT. NOTE BUTTRESSING AS ON EAGLE MOUNTAIN FOR SEISMIC REINFORCEMENT. - Hinds Pump Plant, East of Joshua Tree National Monument, 5 miles north of Route 10, Hayfield, Riverside County, CA

  5. 8. MAIN INLET FROM FILTER GALLERY AND CANAL INTO HINDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. MAIN INLET FROM FILTER GALLERY AND CANAL INTO HINDS PLANT. VIEW LOOKING DUE WEST OF HINDS COMPLEX IN BACKGROUND OF SAND FILTERS. - Hinds Pump Plant, East of Joshua Tree National Monument, 5 miles north of Route 10, Hayfield, Riverside County, CA

  6. Hind, John R (1823-1895)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    English astronomer, discovered in 1852 a small nebula in Taurus which, in 1861, was found by HEINRICH D'ARREST to have disappeared. By the end of the year, D'Arrest and OTTO WILHELM STRUVE had recovered it. Hind's variable nebula, as it came to be called, demonstrated that at least some nebulae were small, as nothing larger than a light year in dimension can disappear in a year. The nebula is a ...

  7. 5. HINDS PUMPING FLOOR FROM WEST END TOP OF UNIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. HINDS PUMPING FLOOR FROM WEST END TOP OF UNIT #9 (LENS STOPPED DOWN ALL THE WAY FOR DEPTH OF FIELD ENHANCEMENT). - Hinds Pump Plant, East of Joshua Tree National Monument, 5 miles north of Route 10, Hayfield, Riverside County, CA

  8. John Bowlby and ethology: an annotated interview with Robert Hinde.

    PubMed

    Bowlby, John

    2007-12-01

    From the 1950s, John Bowlby, one of the founders of attachment theory, was in personal and scientific contact with leading European scientists in the field of ethology (e.g., Niko Tinbergen, Konrad Lorenz, and especially Robert Hinde). In constructing his new theory on the nature of the bond between children and their caregivers, Bowlby profited highly from their new approach to (animal) behavior. Hinde and Tinbergen in their turn were influenced and inspired by Bowlby's new thinking. On the basis of extensive interviews with bowlby's colleague and lifelong friend Robert Hinde and on the basis of archival materials, both the relationship between John Bowlby and Robert Hinde and the cross-fertilization of ethology and attachment theory are described.

  9. HD 38451 - J. R. Hind's star that changed colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian; Sneden, Christopher

    1988-09-01

    In 1851, John Russell Hind announced that a star previously observed by him to be very red had become bluish white in color. It is shown that this star, HD 38451, is a ninth magnitude shell star which presumably was ejecting a shell when Hind first observed it. From high dispersion coude spectra, low dispersion IUE spectra, and ground-based photometry, HD 38451 is found to be a normal A21V shell star. Its current values of E(B-V) of about 0.14 is probably caused by interstellar rather than circumstellar reddening. There remains a problem to reconcile the large amount of reddening present when Hind first observed the star with its evidently small diminution in visual brightness at that time.

  10. HD 38452 - J. R. Hind's star that changed colour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Brian; Sneden, Christopher

    1988-01-01

    In 1851, John Russell Hind announced that a star previously observed by him to be very red had become bluish white in color. It is shown that this star, HD 38451, is a ninth magnitude shell star which presumably was ejecting a shell when Hind first observed it. From high dispersion coude spectra, low dispersion IUE spectra, and ground-based photometry, HD 38451 is found to be a normal A21V shell star. Its current values of E(B-V) of about 0.14 is probably caused by interstellar rather than circumstellar reddening. There remains a problem to reconcile the large amount of reddening present when Hind first observed the star with its evidently small diminution in visual brightness at that time.

  11. Scaling and functional morphology in strigiform hind limbs

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Meena A.; Rayfield, Emily J.; Bright, Jen A.

    2017-01-01

    Strigiformes are an order of raptorial birds consisting exclusively of owls: the Tytonidae (barn owls) and the Strigidae (true owls), united by a suite of adaptations aiding a keen predatory lifestyle, including robust hind limb elements modified for grip strength. To assess variation in hind limb morphology, we analysed how the dimensions of the major hind limb elements in subfossil and modern species scaled with body mass. Comparing hind limb element length, midshaft width, and robusticity index (RI: ratio of midshaft width to maximum length) to body mass revealed that femoral and tibiotarsal width scale with isometry, whilst length scales with negative allometry, and close to elastic similarity in the tibiotarsus. In contrast, tarsometatarsus width shows strong positive allometry with body mass, whilst length shows strong negative allometry. Furthermore, the tarsometatarsi RI scales allometrically to mass0.028, whilst a weak relationship exists in femora (mass0.004) and tibiotarsi (mass0.004). Our results suggest that tarsometatarsi play a more substantial functional role than tibiotarsi and femora. Given the scaling relationship between tarsometatarsal width and robusticity to body mass, it may be possible to infer the body mass of prehistoric owls by analysing tarsometatarsi, an element that is frequently preserved in the fossil record of owls. PMID:28327549

  12. Animal Productivity and Health Responses to Hind-Gut Acidosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microbial fermentation of carbohydrates in the large intestine of dairy cattle is responsible for 5 to 10% of total tract carbohydrate digestion. When dietary, animal, and/or environmental factors contribute to abnormal, excessive flow of fermentable carbohydrates to the large intestine, hind-gut ac...

  13. Conditional effect of selenium on the mammalian hind gut microbiota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Selenium (Se) status is linked to cancer risk in humans and other mammals. Because Se is used by certain microbial species which contain selenoproteins, and because hind gut microfloral composition is linked to cancer development, we proposed that supranutritional Se could reduce tumorigenisis by af...

  14. A possible function of the preference for hind nipples in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    McGuire, B

    2001-12-01

    Prairie vole pups (Microtus ochrogaster) in laboratory cages prefer hind nipples. In this research, the author observed 8 litters of prairie voles in a seminatural environment to confirm the preference for hind nipples and to determine if young on hind nipples were groomed more frequently or dislodged less frequently than were young on other nipples. Prairie vole pups in seminatural environments preferred hind nipples; this preference was illustrated by the progressive use of more anterior nipples only as litter size increased and by the reluctance of pups to voluntarily release their hold on hind nipples. Maternal grooming of young did not vary with suckling location. Prairie vole young on hind nipples, however, were dislodged less frequently than were young on other nipples. Less frequent dislodgment from hind nipples during maternal movements may play a role in the preference for hind nipples in prairie voles.

  15. Edge detection of red hind grouper vocalizations in the littorals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Cameron A.; Beaujean, Pierre-Philippe

    2016-05-01

    Littoral regions typically present to passive sensors as a high noise acoustic environment, particularly with respect to port and harbor regions where tidal variation, often characterized as pink, mixes with reverberation from on-shore business and commercial shipping, often characterized as white. Some fish in these regions, in particular epiphenalius Guttatus or more commonly the red hind grouper, emit relatively narrowband tones in low frequencies to communicate with other fish in such regions. The impact of anthropogenic noise sources on the red Hind and other fish is a topical area of interest for wildlife fisheries, private sportsmen and military offices that is not considered here; the fact that fish species continue to populate and communicate in these regions in the presence of high noise content lends some study to the signal content and modeling of a potential biologically inspired receiver structure.

  16. Acoustic Tonal and Vector Properties of Red Hind Grouper Vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Cameron Anthony

    Vertebrates are the most prodigious vocalizing animals in existence, and the most diverse methods of acoustic communication among vertebrates can be found in the ocean. Relatively many teleost fish are gifted with the ability to communicate acoustically, and the family of serranidae often performs this as a function of the swim bladder. Epinephelus Guttatus (E. guttatus), or more commonly the red hind grouper, is equipped with a drum shaped swim bladder acting as a monopole under typical ocean conditions. This configuration allows for what is understood to be omnidirectional projection of tones approximately centered between 40 and 440 Hz and spanning anywhere from 40 to 200 Hz of bandwidth and modulation effects based on observed data provided by researchers. Prior studies on many other fish show correlation in acoustic communication profile with length, size and sexual identity. In the red hind, sexual dimorphism leads to an inherent female identity in all juvenile fish which converts to male according to environmental factors, recommending at least consistent organs across both sexes be assumed even if not in use. Much research has been performed on male fish vocalization in terms of spectral content. Communication in fish is a complex multi-modal process, with acoustic communication being important for many of the species, particularly those in the littoral regions of the worlds' oceans. If identifying characteristics of the red hind vocalization can be isolated based on detection, classification, tracking and localizing methodologies, then these identifying characteristics may indeed lead to passive feature identification that allows for estimation of individual fish mass. Hypotheses based on vector, cyclostationary and classical tonal mechanics are presented for consideration. A battery of test data collection events, applying pre-recorded fish vocalizations to a geolocated undersea sound source were conducted. The results are supplied with the intent of

  17. Hind Right Approach Pancreaticoduodenectomy: From Skill to Indications

    PubMed Central

    Georgescu, Stefan; Ursulescu, Corina

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pancreaticoduodenectomy is the potentially curative treatment for malignant and several benign conditions of the pancreatic head and periampullary region. While performing pancreaticoduodenectomy, early neck division may be impossible or inadequate in case of hepatic artery anatomic variants, suspected involvement of the superior mesenteric vessels, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, and pancreatic head bleeding pseudoaneurysm. Our work aims to highlight a particular hind right approach pancreaticoduodenectomy in selected indications and assess the preliminary results. Methods. We describe our early hind right approach to the retropancreatic vasculature during pancreaticoduodenectomy by mesopancreas dissection before any pancreatic or digestive transection. Results. We used this approach in 52 patients. Thirty-two had hepatic artery anatomic variant and 2 had bleeding pancreatic head pseudoaneurysm. The hepatic artery variant was preserved in all cases out of 2 in which arterial reconstruction was performed. In nine patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms the pancreaticoduodenectomy was extended to the body in 6 and totalized in 3 patients. Seven patients with adenocarcinoma involving the portomesenteric axis required venous resection and reconstruction. Conclusions. Early hind right approach is advocated in selected cases of pancreaticoduodenectomy to improve locoregional vascular control and determine, safely and early, whether there is mesopancreas involvement. PMID:25221601

  18. Ubx Regulates Differential Enlargement and Diversification of Insect Hind Legs

    PubMed Central

    Mahfooz, Najmus; Turchyn, Nataliya; Mihajlovic, Michelle; Hrycaj, Steven; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Differential enlargement of hind (T3) legs represents one of the hallmarks of insect evolution. However, the actual mechanism(s) responsible are yet to be determined. To address this issue, we have now studied the molecular basis of T3 leg enlargement in Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug) and Acheta domesticus (house cricket). In Oncopeltus, the T3 tibia displays a moderate increase in size, whereas in Acheta, the T3 femur, tibia, and tarsus are all greatly enlarged. Here, we show that the hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx) is expressed in the enlarged segments of hind legs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of Ubx during embryogenesis has a primary effect in T3 legs and causes shortening of leg segments that are enlarged in a wild type. This result shows that Ubx is regulating the differential growth and enlargement of T3 legs in both Oncopeltus and Acheta. The emerging view suggests that Ubx was co-opted for a novel role in regulating leg growth and that the transcriptional modification of its expression may be a universal mechanism for the evolutionary diversification of insect hind legs. PMID:17848997

  19. Stereotaxic Device for Optical Imaging of Mice Hind Feet

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Richard; Hoffman, Timothy; Smith, Jason; Herron, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Imaging of in vivo model systems, especially mouse models, has revolutionized our understanding of normal and pathological developments. However, mice present several challenges for imaging. They are living and therefore breathing organisms with a fast heart rate (>500 beat/min), which necessitates the need for restraints and positioning controls that do not compromise their normal physiology. We present here a device that immobilizes the rear legs of a mouse while retaining the ability to position both the hind feet and legs for reproducible imaging deep below the skin's surface. The device is highly adjustable to accommodate mice, 5 weeks of age and older. The function of this device is demonstrated by imaging the vasculature ∼250 μm beneath the skin in the hind leg. Whereas the overall dimensions are for a motorized stage (Märzhäuser Wetzlar GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany), minor modifications would allow it to be customized for use with most commercially available stages that accept an insert. PMID:23997660

  20. Pelvic and hind limb musculature of Staurikosaurus pricei (Dinosauria: Saurischia).

    PubMed

    Grillo, Orlando N; Azevedo, Sergio A K

    2011-03-01

    The study of pelvic and hind limb bones and muscles in basal dinosaurs is important for understanding the early evolution of bipedal locomotion in the group. The use of data from both extant and extinct taxa placed into a phylogenetic context allowed to make well-supported inferences concerning most of the hind limb musculature of the basal saurischian Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970 (Santa Maria Formation, Late Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil). Two large concavities in the lateral surface of the ilium represent the origin of the muscles iliotrochantericus caudalis plus iliofemoralis externus (in the anterior concavity) and iliofibularis (in the posterior concavity). Muscle ambiens has only one head and originates from the pubic tubercle. The origin of puboischiofemoralis internus 1 possibly corresponds to a fossa in the ventral margin of the pré-acetabular iliac process. This could represent an intermediate stage prior to the origin of a true pré-acetabular fossa. Muscles caudofemorales longus et brevis were likely well developed, and Staurikosaurus is unique in bearing a posteriorly projected surface for the origin of caudofemoralis brevis.

  1. Bone morphology of the hind limbs in two caviomorph rodents.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, F A P; Sesoko, N F; Rahal, S C; Teixeira, C R; Müller, T R; Machado, M R F

    2013-04-01

    In order to evaluate the hind limbs of caviomorph rodents a descriptive analysis of the Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766) and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) was performed using anatomical specimens, radiography, computed tomography (CT) and full-coloured prototype models to generate bone anatomy data. The appendicular skeleton of the two largest rodents of Neotropical America was compared with the previously reported anatomical features of Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) and domestic Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758). The structures were analyzed macroscopically and particular findings of each species reported. Features including the presence of articular fibular projection and lunulae were observed in the stifle joint of all rodents. Imaging aided in anatomical description and, specifically in the identification of bone structures in Cuniculus paca and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. The imaging findings were correlated with the anatomical structures observed. The data may be used in future studies comparing these animals to other rodents and mammalian species. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. New Australovenator Hind Limb Elements Pertaining to the Holotype Reveal the Most Complete Neovenatorid Leg

    PubMed Central

    White, Matt A.; Benson, Roger B. J.; Tischler, Travis R.; Hocknull, Scott A.; Cook, Alex G.; Barnes, David G.; Poropat, Stephen F.; Wooldridge, Sarah J.; Sloan, Trish; Sinapius, George H. K.; Elliott, David A.

    2013-01-01

    We report new skeletal elements pertaining to the same individual which represents the holotype of Australovenator wintonensis, from the ‘Matilda Site’ in the Winton Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of western Queensland. The discovery of these new elements means that the hind limb of Australovenator is now the most completely understood hind limb among Neovenatoridae. The new hind limb elements include: the left fibula; left metatarsal IV; left pedal phalanges I-2, II-1, III-4, IV-2, IV-3; and right pedal phalanges, II-2 and III-1. The detailed descriptions are supported with three dimensional figures. These coupled with the completeness of the hind limb will increase the utility of Australovenator in comparisons with less complete neovenatorid genera. These specimens and the previously described hind limb elements of Australovenator are compared with other theropods classified as neovenatorids (including Neovenator, Chilantaisaurus, Fukuiraptor, Orkoraptor and Megaraptor). Hind limb length proportion comparisons indicate that the smaller neovenatorids Australovenator and Fukuiraptor possess more elongate and gracile hind limb elements than the larger Neovenator and Chilantaisaurus. Greater stride lengths to body size exist in both Fukuiraptor and Australovenator with the femur discovered to be proportionally shorter the rest of the hind limb length. Additionally Australovenator is identified as possessing the most elongate metatarsus. The metatarsus morphology varies with body size. The larger neoventorids possess a metatarsus with greater width but shorter length compared to smaller forms. PMID:23894328

  3. Population characteristics of a recovering US Virgin Islands red hind spawning aggregation following protection

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Richard S.

    2006-01-01

    Many species of groupers form spawning aggregations, dramatic events where 100s to 1000s of individuals gather annually at specific locations for reproduction. Spawning aggregations are often targeted by local fishermen, making them extremely vulnerable to over fishing. The Red Hind Bank Marine Conservation District located in St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands, was closed seasonally in 1990 and closed permanently in 1999 to protect an important red hind Epinephelus guttatus spawning site. This study provides some of the first information on the population response of a spawning aggregation located within a marine protected area. Tag-and-release fishing and fish transects were used to evaluate population characteristics and habitat utilization patterns of a red hind spawning aggregation between 1999 and 2004. Compared with studies conducted before the permanent closure, the average size of red hind increased mostly during the seasonal closure period (10 cm over 12 yr), but the maximum total length of male red hind increased by nearly 7 cm following permanent closure. Average density and biomass of spawning red hind increased by over 60% following permanent closure whereas maximum spawning density more than doubled. Information from tag returns indicated that red hind departed the protected area following spawning and migrated 6 to 33 km to a ca. 500 km2 area. Protection of the spawning aggregation site may have also contributed to an overall increase in the size of red hind caught in the commercial fishery, thus increasing the value of the grouper fishery for local fishermen. PMID:16612415

  4. New Australovenator hind limb elements pertaining to the holotype reveal the most complete Neovenatorid leg.

    PubMed

    White, Matt A; Benson, Roger B J; Tischler, Travis R; Hocknull, Scott A; Cook, Alex G; Barnes, David G; Poropat, Stephen F; Wooldridge, Sarah J; Sloan, Trish; Sinapius, George H K; Elliott, David A

    2013-01-01

    We report new skeletal elements pertaining to the same individual which represents the holotype of Australovenator wintonensis, from the 'Matilda Site' in the Winton Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of western Queensland. The discovery of these new elements means that the hind limb of Australovenator is now the most completely understood hind limb among Neovenatoridae. The new hind limb elements include: the left fibula; left metatarsal IV; left pedal phalanges I-2, II-1, III-4, IV-2, IV-3; and right pedal phalanges, II-2 and III-1. The detailed descriptions are supported with three dimensional figures. These coupled with the completeness of the hind limb will increase the utility of Australovenator in comparisons with less complete neovenatorid genera. These specimens and the previously described hind limb elements of Australovenator are compared with other theropods classified as neovenatorids (including Neovenator, Chilantaisaurus, Fukuiraptor, Orkoraptor and Megaraptor). Hind limb length proportion comparisons indicate that the smaller neovenatorids Australovenator and Fukuiraptor possess more elongate and gracile hind limb elements than the larger Neovenator and Chilantaisaurus. Greater stride lengths to body size exist in both Fukuiraptor and Australovenator with the femur discovered to be proportionally shorter the rest of the hind limb length. Additionally Australovenator is identified as possessing the most elongate metatarsus. The metatarsus morphology varies with body size. The larger neoventorids possess a metatarsus with greater width but shorter length compared to smaller forms.

  5. Lymph pump mechanics in the rabbit hind leg.

    PubMed

    Ikomi, F; Schmid-Schönbein, G W

    1996-07-01

    The mechanisms that govern fluid uptake by the initial lymphatics and adjustment of lymph flow rates remain to a large degree uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine how passive tissue movement contributes to lymph flow rates. Lymph fluid was collected via a cannula inserted into one of the popliteal prenodal lymphatics in the rabbit hind leg. Lymph flow rates were measured during periodic whole leg rotation and controlled oscillatory massage of the dorsal skin of the foot. Without whole leg rotation, lymph flow remained at low values (< 0.01 ml/h). Introduction of whole leg passive rotation caused a frequency-dependent increase in lymph flow rates, which were increased linearly with the log of frequency between 0.03 and 1.0 Hz. Local skin massage in the region of the initial lymphatics also led to a similar increase of lymph flow rates dependent on frequency as well as amplitude of skin displacement. Lymph flow rates during local skin massage reached a comparable order of magnitude regardless of whether the animal was alive or the heart had been arrested, suggesting that local lymph flow rates can be adjusted by periodic tissue motion independently of capillary fluid filtration pressures. The results indicate that periodic expansion and compression of initial lymphatics provide a mechanism for lymph pumping.

  6. Hind-limb vascular-capacitance responses in anaesthetized dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Hainsworth, R; Karim, F; McGregor, K H; Wood, L M

    1983-01-01

    In anaesthetized dogs a hind limb was vascularly isolated, perfused through the femoral artery at either constant flow or constant pressure and drained from the femoral vein at constant pressure. Inflow and outflow were recorded. Vascular-resistance changes were calculated from changes in pressure or flow and volume changes from the differences between inflow and outflow. During constant-flow perfusion, both changes in carotid sinus pressure and direct stimulation of efferent sympathetic nerves resulted in large resistance responses. However, changes in carotid sinus pressure did not result in changes in limb blood volume and only small decreases were obtained in response to direct stimulation. During constant-pressure perfusion, both reflex and direct stimulation resulted not only in significant changes in resistance but also in significant volume changes which were much larger than those obtained during constant-flow perfusion. Similar responses were obtained when the flow rate was changed by altering the pump speed. These results indicate that changes in pressure to carotid baroreceptors do not result in active capacitance responses in the limb circulation and that only very small responses are obtained even to electrical stimulation of sympathetic nerves. The larger responses occurring during constant-pressure perfusion are thought to be secondary to changes in blood flow. PMID:6875939

  7. Treatment of hind limb ischemia using angiogenic peptide nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek A; Liu, Qi; Wickremasinghe, Navindee C; Shi, Siyu; Cornwright, Toya T; Deng, Yuxiao; Azares, Alon; Moore, Amanda N; Acevedo-Jake, Amanda M; Agudo, Noel R; Pan, Su; Woodside, Darren G; Vanderslice, Peter; Willerson, James T; Dixon, Richard A; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D

    2016-08-01

    For a proangiogenic therapy to be successful, it must promote the development of mature vasculature for rapid reperfusion of ischemic tissue. Whole growth factor, stem cell, and gene therapies have yet to achieve the clinical success needed to become FDA-approved revascularization therapies. Herein, we characterize a biodegradable peptide-based scaffold engineered to mimic VEGF and self-assemble into a nanofibrous, thixotropic hydrogel, SLanc. We found that this injectable hydrogel was rapidly infiltrated by host cells and could be degraded while promoting the generation of neovessels. In mice with induced hind limb ischemia, this synthetic peptide scaffold promoted angiogenesis and ischemic tissue recovery, as shown by Doppler-quantified limb perfusion and a treadmill endurance test. Thirteen-month-old mice showed significant recovery within 7 days of treatment. Biodistribution studies in healthy mice showed that the hydrogel is safe when administered intramuscularly, subcutaneously, or intravenously. These preclinical studies help establish the efficacy of this treatment for peripheral artery disease due to diminished microvascular perfusion, a necessary step before clinical translation. This peptide-based approach eliminates the need for cell transplantation or viral gene transfection (therapies currently being assessed in clinical trials) and could be a more effective regenerative medicine approach to microvascular tissue engineering.

  8. Energy storage and synchronisation of hind leg movements during jumping in planthopper insects (Hemiptera, Issidae).

    PubMed

    Burrows, M

    2010-02-01

    The hind legs of Issus (Hemiptera, Issidae) move in the same plane underneath the body, an arrangement that means they must also move synchronously to power jumping. Moreover, they move so quickly that energy must be stored before a jump and then released suddenly. High speed imaging and analysis of the mechanics of the proximal joints of the hind legs show that mechanical mechanisms ensure both synchrony of movements and energy storage. The hind trochantera move first in jumping and are synchronised to within 30 micros. Synchrony is achieved by mechanical interactions between small protrusions from each trochantera which fluoresce bright blue under specific wavelengths of ultra-violet light and which touch at the midline when the legs are cocked before a jump. In dead Issus, a depression force applied to a cocked hind leg, or to the tendon of its trochanteral depressor muscle causes a simultaneous depression of both hind legs. The protrusion of the hind leg that moves first nudges the other hind leg so that both move synchronously. Contractions of the trochanteral depressor muscles that precede a jump bend the metathoracic pleural arches of the internal skeleton. Large areas of these bow-shaped structures fluoresce bright blue in ultraviolet light, and the intensity of this fluorescence depends on the pH of the bathing saline. These are key signatures of the rubber-like protein resilin. The remainder of a pleural arch consists of stiff cuticle. Bending these composite structures stores energy and their recoil powers jumping.

  9. Architecture of the hind limb muscles of cats: functional significance.

    PubMed

    Sacks, R D; Roy, R R

    1982-08-01

    Force, velocity, and displacement properties of a muscle are determined in large part by its architectural design. The relative effect of muscle architecture on these physiological variables was studied by determining muscle weight, fiber length, average sarcomere length, and approximate angle of pinnation of 24 cat hind limb muscles. Muscle lengths ranged from 28.3 to 144 mm, whereas fiber lengths ranged from 8.4 to 105.5 mm. Generally, fiber to muscle length ratios were similar throughout a muscle. Estimated angles of pinnation of muscle fibers varied from 0 to 21 degrees with most having an angle of less than 10 degrees. The cross-sectional area of the knee extensors was similar to the knee flexors (16.43 vs. 16.83 cm2) whereas the cross-sectional area of the ankle extensors was more than six times greater than the ankle flexors (18.59 vs. 2.83 cm2). There was a 6.7-fold difference in the maximal force between muscles, when normalized to a constant weight, that could be attributed to architectural features. Ratios of wet weight to predicted maximal tetanic tension for each muscle and muscle group were calculated to compare the relative priority of muscle force versus muscle length-velocity for a given mass of muscle. These ratios varied from 0.4 to 4.84. The ratios suggest that velocity and/or displacement is a priority for the hamstrings, whereas force is a priority for the quadriceps and lower leg muscles. As much as a 12.6-fold difference in maximal velocity between muscles can be attributed to differences in fiber lengths. This can be compared to approximately a 2.5-fold difference in maximal velocity reported to occur as a result of biochemical (intrinsic) differences.

  10. Structures of restriction endonuclease HindIII in complex with its cognate DNA and divalent cations.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Takasaki, Yozo; Sato, Chika; Ando, Shoji; Tanaka, Isao

    2009-12-01

    The three-dimensional crystal structures of HindIII bound to its cognate DNA with and without divalent cations were solved at 2.17 and 2.00 A resolution, respectively. HindIII forms a dimer. The structures showed that HindIII belongs to the EcoRI-like (alpha-class) subfamily of type II restriction endonucleases. The cognate DNA-complex structures revealed the specific DNA-recognition mechanism of HindIII by which it recognizes the palindromic sequence A/AGCTT. In the Mg(2+) ion-soaked structure the DNA was cleaved and two ions were bound at each active site, corresponding to the two-metal-ion mechanism.

  11. Artificial insemination following observational versus electronic methods of estrus detection in red deer hinds (Cervus elephus).

    PubMed

    Bowers, S D; Brown, C G; Strauch, T A; Gandy, B S; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D; Willard, S T

    2004-08-01

    The objectives were to determine the efficacy of the HeatWatch (HW) electronic estrus detection system for monitoring behavioral estrus (including duration and intensity) in red deer hinds and to evaluate pregnancy rate to AI after detected estrus. Red deer hinds (Cervus elephus; n = 50) were allocated into two treatment groups: AI following synchronization (CIDR/PMSG) and observed estrus (induced estrus group: IE; n = 25) or AI following the detection of natural estrus (NE; n = 25) without hormonal treatment. Hinds were fitted with two HeatWatch (HW) electronic estrus detection transmitters, one above the tail (bottom) and one between the tuber coxae of the pelvic girdle (top), and visual observations for mounting activity began with the aid of young sterile red deer stags (18 months old) fitted with marking harnesses. Hinds in both groups were inseminated (10-12h after observed estrus) with frozen-thawed red deer semen using a transvaginal/cervical AI approach. Following a 26-day period of AI, hinds were placed with a mature fertile stag for an additional 30-day natural breeding period. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed 57 and 86 days after the start of AI. While the hinds were housed with the young stags, 82% were detected in estrus by visual appraisal of stag crayon marks, but only 32% of these were detected by HW. In contrast, in the hinds housed with the mature stag, 93% detected in estrus by crayon marks were also detected by HW. The top HW transmitter consistently recorded more mounts (P < 0.05) than the bottom transmitter. The pregnancy rate was numerically better in IE versus NE hinds (42% versus 29%, P > 0.10). In summary, there were no differences (P > 0.10) in the intensity (number) or duration of mounts (detected by HW) during estrus in IE versus NE hinds, and HW was most effective in detecting estrus in the presence of a heavier, mature stag versus a younger stag. When used in combination with transvaginal AI, an overall first-service pregnancy rate

  12. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Tong, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Summary The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems. PMID:27547607

  13. Hind limb kinematics during therapeutic exercises in dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints.

    PubMed

    Bockstahler, Barbara A; Prickler, Bettina; Lewy, Elisabeth; Holler, Peter J; Vobornik, Angela; Peham, Christian

    2012-09-01

    To assess joint kinematics in dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints during walking up an incline or down a decline and over low obstacles and to compare findings with data for nonlame dogs. 10 dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints (mean ± SD age, 6.95 ± 3.17 years; mean body weight, 34.33 ± 13.58 kg) and 8 nonlame dogs (3.4 ± 2.0 years; 23.6 ± 4.6 kg). Reflective markers located on the limbs and high-speed cameras were used to record joint kinematics during walking up an incline or down a decline and over low obstacles. Maximal flexion, extension, and range of motion of the hip joints were calculated. Osteoarthritis of the hip joints reduced extension of both hip joints and flexion of the contralateral hind limb, compared with flexion of the lame hind limb, during walking down a decline. Walking up an incline resulted in decreased extension of the stifle joint in both hind limbs of osteoarthritic dogs; extension was significantly decreased for the lame hind limb. During walking over low obstacles, maximal flexion of the stifle joint was increased significantly for the contralateral hind limb. Maximal flexion was increased in both tarsal joints. Osteoarthritis of the hip joints led to complex changes in the gait of dogs, which involved more joints than the affected hip joint alone. Each exercise had specific effects on joint kinematics that must be considered when planning a rehabilitation program.

  14. Analysis of the HindIII-catalyzed reaction by time-resolved crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Tomoki; Watanabe, Nobuhisa

    2015-02-01

    A time-resolved study using the freeze-trap method elucidates the mechanism of the DNA-cleaving reaction of HindIII. In order to investigate the mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by HindIII, structures of HindIII–DNA complexes with varying durations of soaking time in cryoprotectant buffer containing manganese ions were determined by the freeze-trap method. In the crystal structures of the complexes obtained after soaking for a longer duration, two manganese ions, indicated by relatively higher electron density, are clearly observed at the two metal ion-binding sites in the active site of HindIII. The increase in the electron density of the two metal-ion peaks followed distinct pathways with increasing soaking times, suggesting variation in the binding rate constant for the two metal sites. DNA cleavage is observed when the second manganese ion appears, suggesting that HindIII uses the two-metal-ion mechanism, or alternatively that its reactivity is enhanced by the binding of the second metal ion. In addition, conformational change in a loop near the active site accompanies the catalytic reaction.

  15. The hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding of hind wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (order: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiyu; Ling, Mingze; Wu, Wei; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin

    2014-04-09

    In most beetles, the hind wings are thin and fragile; when at rest, they are held over the back of the beetle. When the hind wing unfolds, it provides the necessary aerodynamic forces for flight. In this paper, we investigate the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process of the hind wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (Oder: Coleoptera). The wing unfolding process of Dorcus titanus platymelus was examined using high speed camera sequences (400 frames/s), and the hydraulic pressure in the veins was measured with a biological pressure sensor and dynamic signal acquisition and analysis (DSA) during the expansion process. We found that the total time for the release of hydraulic pressure during wing folding is longer than the time required for unfolding. The pressure is proportional to the length of the wings and the body mass of the beetle. A retinal camera was used to investigate the fluid direction. We found that the peak pressures correspond to two main cross-folding joint expansions in the hind wing. These observations strongly suggest that blood pressure facilitates the extension of hind wings during unfolding.

  16. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiyu; Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems.

  17. A case report of partial bilateral hind limb adactyly in a male lamb.

    PubMed

    Rajabioun, Masoud; Kazemi Mehrjerdi, Hossein; Ghasemi, Samaneh

    2016-01-01

    Hemimelia as a congenital anomaly is a failure of development of extremities formation in embryonic period. This anomaly is defined as complete absence of the part of extremities and different forms were explained for hemimelia. Adactyly is an alternative name for transverse hemimelia and is a rare disorder in the most of animal species. A two months old male lamb with normal vital signs was referred to clinic due to both hind limbs shortness and absence of hooves from the birth day. Clinical and radiological examinations were performed and partial hemimelia was confirmed radiographically in both hind limbs. In left hind limb, total absence of the toe indicated presence of adactyly in this limb. No other congenital deformities were diagnosed in skeletal system based on clinical and radiological examinations. According to our knowledge, this is the first report of such rare conditions in a lamb. Clinical findings and radiological signs of this rare anomaly in a lamb were described in this report.

  18. Changes in the composition of hind limb lymph after chemical injury

    PubMed Central

    Boyles, Susan; Lewis, G. P.; Westcott, Barbara

    1970-01-01

    1. Lymph was collected directly from the hind limbs of rabbits and cats anaesthetized with pentobarbitone. 2. Injury to the hind limb was caused by injection of one of two chemicals; either dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) which produced a mild injury, or croton oil which produced severe injury. 3. After subcutaneous injection (6 × 0·2 ml) into the right hind limb there was a good correlation between the changes in concentration of intracellular enzyme systems in the lymph draining the limb and the histological appearance of the injured tissue. DMSO caused an increase in cytoplasmic enzymes only, while after croton oil, which caused cell necrosis, there was an increase in the concentration of all intracellular enzymes examined. 4. There was an increased lymph flow accompanied by a fall in protein concentration after DMSO, while croton oil caused an increase in protein concentration and a variable effect on lymph flow. PMID:5485152

  19. Hox gene expression leads to differential hind leg development between honeybee castes.

    PubMed

    Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Barchuk, Angel Roberto; Moda, Livia Maria; Simoes, Zila Luz Paulino

    2012-01-01

    Beyond the physiological and behavioural, differences in appendage morphology between the workers and queens of Apis mellifera are pre-eminent. The hind legs of workers, which are highly specialized pollinators, deserve special attention. The hind tibia of worker has an expanded bristle-free region used for carrying pollen and propolis, the corbicula. In queens this structure is absent. Although the morphological differences are well characterized, the genetic inputs driving the development of this alternative morphology remain unknown. Leg phenotype determination takes place between the fourth and fifth larval instar and herein we show that the morphogenesis is completed at brown-eyed pupa. Using results from the hybridization of whole genome-based oligonucleotide arrays with RNA samples from hind leg imaginal discs of pre-pupal honeybees of both castes we present a list of 200 differentially expressed genes. Notably, there are castes preferentially expressed cuticular protein genes and members of the P450 family. We also provide results of qPCR analyses determining the developmental transcription profiles of eight selected genes, including abdominal-A, distal-less and ultrabithorax (Ubx), whose roles in leg development have been previously demonstrated in other insect models. Ubx expression in workers hind leg is approximately 25 times higher than in queens. Finally, immunohistochemistry assays show that Ubx localization during hind leg development resembles the bristles localization in the tibia/basitarsus of the adult legs in both castes. Our data strongly indicate that the development of the hind legs diphenism characteristic of this corbiculate species is driven by a set of caste-preferentially expressed genes, such as those encoding cuticular protein genes, P450 and Hox proteins, in response to the naturally different diets offered to honeybees during the larval period.

  20. Hox Gene Expression Leads to Differential Hind Leg Development between Honeybee Castes

    PubMed Central

    Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Barchuk, Angel Roberto; Moda, Livia Maria; Simoes, Zila Luz Paulino

    2012-01-01

    Beyond the physiological and behavioural, differences in appendage morphology between the workers and queens of Apis mellifera are pre-eminent. The hind legs of workers, which are highly specialized pollinators, deserve special attention. The hind tibia of worker has an expanded bristle-free region used for carrying pollen and propolis, the corbicula. In queens this structure is absent. Although the morphological differences are well characterized, the genetic inputs driving the development of this alternative morphology remain unknown. Leg phenotype determination takes place between the fourth and fifth larval instar and herein we show that the morphogenesis is completed at brown-eyed pupa. Using results from the hybridization of whole genome-based oligonucleotide arrays with RNA samples from hind leg imaginal discs of pre-pupal honeybees of both castes we present a list of 200 differentially expressed genes. Notably, there are castes preferentially expressed cuticular protein genes and members of the P450 family. We also provide results of qPCR analyses determining the developmental transcription profiles of eight selected genes, including abdominal-A, distal-less and ultrabithorax (Ubx), whose roles in leg development have been previously demonstrated in other insect models. Ubx expression in workers hind leg is approximately 25 times higher than in queens. Finally, immunohistochemistry assays show that Ubx localization during hind leg development resembles the bristles localization in the tibia/basitarsus of the adult legs in both castes. Our data strongly indicate that the development of the hind legs diphenism characteristic of this corbiculate species is driven by a set of caste-preferentially expressed genes, such as those encoding cuticular protein genes, P450 and Hox proteins, in response to the naturally different diets offered to honeybees during the larval period. PMID:22848371

  1. Effects of immobilization on rat hind limb muscles under non-weight-bearing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaspers, Stephen R.; Fagan, Julie M.; Satarug, Soisungwan; Cook, Paul H.; Tischler, Marc E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of stretched and unstretched immobilization of a hind limb on the concentration and the metabolism of proteins in the hind-limb muscles of rats was investigated. The animals were divided into three groups: (1) weight-bearing controls, (2) tail-cast-suspended, and (3) suspended, with one hind limb immobilized with the ankle in dorsiflexion (30-40 deg angle) and the other freely moving. It was found that unloading the hind limbs for 6 days by tail cast suspension caused soleus to atrophy and reduced growth of the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles; unloading resulted in a higher degradation rate and lower synthesis rate in both in vitro and in vivo. Chronic stretch of the unloaded soleus not only prevented its atrophy but led to significant hypertrophy, relative to weight-bearing controls, with increases in both the sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein fractions. Immobilizing one ankle in dorsiflexion prevented the inhibition of growth in the plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles due to unloading.

  2. Effects of immobilization on rat hind limb muscles under non-weight-bearing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaspers, Stephen R.; Fagan, Julie M.; Satarug, Soisungwan; Cook, Paul H.; Tischler, Marc E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of stretched and unstretched immobilization of a hind limb on the concentration and the metabolism of proteins in the hind-limb muscles of rats was investigated. The animals were divided into three groups: (1) weight-bearing controls, (2) tail-cast-suspended, and (3) suspended, with one hind limb immobilized with the ankle in dorsiflexion (30-40 deg angle) and the other freely moving. It was found that unloading the hind limbs for 6 days by tail cast suspension caused soleus to atrophy and reduced growth of the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles; unloading resulted in a higher degradation rate and lower synthesis rate in both in vitro and in vivo. Chronic stretch of the unloaded soleus not only prevented its atrophy but led to significant hypertrophy, relative to weight-bearing controls, with increases in both the sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein fractions. Immobilizing one ankle in dorsiflexion prevented the inhibition of growth in the plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles due to unloading.

  3. Hind-limb paresis in a dog with paralumbar solitary T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Maria; Castillo-Alcala, Fernanda

    2010-05-01

    A 2-year-old, neutered, male golden retriever was referred to the Ontario Veterinary College, with a 6-week history of hind limb weakness and back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar vertebral column, and histopathology and immunohistochemistry following euthanasia identified an uncommon solitary T-cell lymphoma in the paralumbar area.

  4. Therapeutic effect of human adipose-derived stromal cells cluster in rat hind-limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Park, In-Su; Kang, Jo A; Kang, Jungmi; Rhie, Jong-Won; Kim, Sang-Heon

    2014-12-01

    We investigated whether transplantation of three-dimensional cell masses (3DCM) of human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs) cultured on a basic fibroblast growth factor-immobilized substrate improved hind limb functional recovery by stimulating angiogenesis in an immune-competent rat ischemic limb model. In vitro experiments confirmed that cells within 3DCMs differentiate toward the endothelial lineage one day after culture in normal medium. The therapeutic effect of 3DCMs was evaluated by transplanting hASCs, phosphate-buffered saline alone, and the 3DCM into rat ischemic hind limbs. Blood flow was enhanced in the ischemic hind limb in the 3DCM-injected group compared with the other groups. The ratio of human nuclear antigen (HNA) and hVEGF-positive cells was significantly higher in the 3DCM-injected group compared to hASC-injected group. Human VEGF was observed in most HNA-positive cells. Many hCD31 and hSMA-positive cells were observed in vessel-like structures in the 3DCM-injected group. The 3DCM transplantation improved cell retention and angiogenic effects compared with ASC transplantation. These findings suggest that transplantation of 3DCMs may be an effective stem cell therapy for hind limb ischemia.

  5. 78 FR 54512 - Illinois Central Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Hinds County, Miss.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Illinois Central Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Hinds County, Miss. Illinois Central Railroad Company (IC) \\1\\ has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR...

  6. Comparative anatomy and muscle architecture of selected hind limb muscles in the Quarter Horse and Arab

    PubMed Central

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wakeling, J M; Wilson, A M; Payne, R C

    2008-01-01

    The Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance) are situated at either end of the equine athletic spectrum. Studies into the form and function of the leg muscles in human sprint and endurance runners have demonstrated that differences exist in their muscle architecture. It is not known whether similar differences exist in the horse. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab fresh hind limb cadavers were dissected to gain information on the muscle mass and architecture of the following muscles: gluteus medius; biceps femoris; semitendinosus; vastus lateralis; gastrocnemius; tibialis cranialis and extensor digitorum longus. Specifically, muscle mass, fascicle length and pennation angle were quantified and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and maximum isometric force were estimated. The hind limb muscles of the Quarter Horse were of a significantly greater mass, but had similar fascicle lengths and pennation angles when compared with those of the Arab; this resulted in the Quarter Horse hind limb muscles having greater PCSAs and hence greater isometric force potential. This study suggests that Quarter Horses as a breed inherently possess large strong hind limb muscles, with the potential to accelerate their body mass more rapidly than those of the Arab. PMID:18194205

  7. Comparative anatomy and muscle architecture of selected hind limb muscles in the Quarter Horse and Arab.

    PubMed

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wakeling, J M; Wilson, A M; Payne, R C

    2008-02-01

    The Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance) are situated at either end of the equine athletic spectrum. Studies into the form and function of the leg muscles in human sprint and endurance runners have demonstrated that differences exist in their muscle architecture. It is not known whether similar differences exist in the horse. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab fresh hind limb cadavers were dissected to gain information on the muscle mass and architecture of the following muscles: gluteus medius; biceps femoris; semitendinosus; vastus lateralis; gastrocnemius; tibialis cranialis and extensor digitorum longus. Specifically, muscle mass, fascicle length and pennation angle were quantified and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and maximum isometric force were estimated. The hind limb muscles of the Quarter Horse were of a significantly greater mass, but had similar fascicle lengths and pennation angles when compared with those of the Arab; this resulted in the Quarter Horse hind limb muscles having greater PCSAs and hence greater isometric force potential. This study suggests that Quarter Horses as a breed inherently possess large strong hind limb muscles, with the potential to accelerate their body mass more rapidly than those of the Arab.

  8. Production of prostaglandins in placentae and corpus luteum in pregnant hinds of red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Korzekwa, A J; Szczepańska, A; Bogdaszewski, M; Nadolski, P; Malż, P; Giżejewski, Z

    2016-03-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are synthesized from arachidonic acid by prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2) and specific terminal PG synthases such as PGES and PGFS. The role of PGs in the reproductive processes of domestic ruminants is well recognized, whereas in cervidae, it is almost unknown, although it is noteworthy because some species of this family are valued in meat production and trophies. The aim of this study was to determine an effective marker of pregnancy and investigate the production and secretion of PGs in placenta and CL tissue in pregnancy. In the preliminary experiment, the levels of progesterone and 17-β estradiol (RIA; N = 14 divided into seven pregnant and seven nonpregnant hinds) were measured in the peripheral blood. In the main experiment, a comparison of messenger RNA (real-time polymerase chain reaction) and protein expression (Western blotting) of PTGS2, PGES, and PGFS, the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and PGF2α in the placentae and CL in pregnant hinds (aged 3-4 years, ca. 100 days of pregnancy, N = 6). In pregnant hinds, the level of progesterone in the blood was higher than that in nonpregnant hinds (P < 0.05), whereas the level of E2 was similar in all animals (P > 0.05). The highest messenger RNA expression of PTGS2, PGES, and PGFS was observed in the placentae than in the CL (P < 0.05). The protein expression of PTGS2 and PGES was elevated in the placentae compared with the CL (P < 0.05). The PGE2 output was the highest in cotyledonary tissue (P < 0.05). Pregnancy development in hinds around 100 days is regulated by arachidonic acid metabolites, especially PGE2 produced by the placentae, which production increases in pregnancy. Further studies are required to unravel the mechanisms involved in the regulation of PG and biosynthetic enzymes in uteroplacental and ovarian tissues during pregnancy in red deer females.

  9. Innervation mapping of the hind paw of the rat using Evans Blue extravasation, Optical Surface Mapping and CASAM.

    PubMed

    Kambiz, S; Baas, M; Duraku, L S; Kerver, A L; Koning, A H J; Walbeehm, E T; Ruigrok, T J H

    2014-05-30

    Although numerous studies investigate sensory regeneration and reinnervation of the hind paw of the rat after nerve damage, no comprehensive overview of its normal innervation is present in literature. The Evans Blue extravasation technique is a well-known technique to study patterns of skin innervation. This technique has been performed differently by various groups but was never used to study the entire skin innervation in rats' hind paw including all three branches of the sciatic nerve and the saphenous nerve in detail. In this paper, we have used the Evans Blue extravasation technique to chart the skin areas innervated by the sural, peroneal, tibial and/or saphenous nerves, which together innervate the entire hind paw of the rat, and use a new technique to analyze the distribution, overlap and variability of the results. The technique is based on analysis of whole hind paws using Optical Surface Mapping (OSM) in combination with the Computer Assisted Surgical Anatomy Mapping (CASAM) technology. While the plantar hind paw is mainly innervated by the tibial nerve, the dorsal hind paw is supplied by the sural, peroneal and the saphenous nerve. Although our results basically concur with the general nerve-specific innervation of the rat hind paw, they show considerable detail in their areas of overlap as well as in the amount of variability between animals. These results will be invaluable to study and evaluate patterns of innervation and reinnervation of intact and damaged nerve fibers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of kinetic gait analysis for detection, quantification, and differentiation of hind limb lameness and spinal ataxia in horses.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Akikazu; Reed, Stephen M; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J; Robertson, James T; Bertone, Alicia L

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate use of kinetic gait analysis for detection, quantification, and differentiation of hind limb lameness and spinal ataxia in horses. Prospective clinical study. 36 horses. Procedures-Kinetic gait analysis with a force plate was performed for 12 clinically normal horses, 12 horses with hind limb lameness, and 12 horses with spinal ataxia. Kinetic variables were compared among groups, correlated to subjective grading, and used to build predictive models to assess the accuracy of discrimination. Subsets of kinetic variables were characteristically altered in ataxic and lame gaits. Ataxic horses had significantly increased lateral force peak and variation in vertical force peaks in both hind limbs. Lame horses had significantly decreased vertical force peak and increased variation in vertical force peaks only in the lame hind limb. These variables were used to differentiate between spinal ataxia and hind limb lameness with excellent accuracy. There were significant correlations between a subset of kinetic variables and subjective lameness and neurologic grades. Kinetic gait variables, specifically lateral force peak and the variation in vertical force, can be used to support the differential diagnosis between spinal ataxia and hind limb lameness in horses. Kinetic gait analysis may also be applied for quantification of equine hind limb gait abnormalities as well as confirming lack of lameness and ataxia in soundness examinations.

  11. Unsteady aerodynamics of flapping flight - A fluid-structure interaction study of fore-hind wing phase difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasani, M. R.; Shamsudeen, A.; Sulaiman, M. N.

    2016-11-01

    Flights of dragonflies, various insects and birds have been a subject of active research that may offer insight towards enhanced aerodynamic performance at low Reynolds numbers. To that end, we mimick the flapping biomechanics of a dragonfly by two thin flat airfoils plunging in tandem with each other. In the present study, we aim to investigate the effect of difference in flapping phase between fore and hind wings towards their aerodynamic performances. We computationally simulate incompressible, viscous, laminar flow around two thin flat airfoils that are purely plunging, at a Strouhal number of 0.25 and Reynolds number of 6500, using a flow solver in an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian framework. Kinematics of both fore and hind wing flapping followed a similar sinusoidal function but with relative phase angle difference to each other, that were varied between -50° to +50° including two cases were phase difference is 0° (i.e. in-phase fore-hind wing flapping) and +90° (i.e. fore wing lags hind wing by 90°). Numerical results indicate that maximum lift and drag forces for each fore and hind wings occur at phase angle of -40° and that power efficiency of tandem wings are better at phase angles when hind wing leads the fore wing, with maximum power efficiency occurring at a fore-hind wing phase difference of +30°. The complex fore-hind wing vortex interaction indicate likely benefit on the hind wing as it interacts with the fore wing at different phase angles.

  12. Evaluation of a New Surgical Treatment for Equine Hind Limb Proximal Suspensory Desmitis.

    PubMed

    Brokken, Matthew T; Schneider, Robert K; Roberts, Gregory D; Holmes, Shannon P; Gavin, Patrick R; Sampson, Sarah N; Farnsworth, Kelly D; Dahlgren, Linda A

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of a new microfracture and ligament splitting procedure on ligament healing and to examine the usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for monitoring ligament healing over time using a collagenase model of hind limb proximal suspensory desmitis. Experimental in vivo study. Healthy adult horses (n=6). Horses were free of lameness with normal hind limb proximal suspensory ligaments (PSL). The origin of both hind limb PSL was injected with collagenase and underwent MR imaging 2 weeks later, followed by the microfracture and ligament splitting procedure on 1 limb, with the opposite limb serving as the sham-operated control. Serial lameness and MR examinations were performed. Horses were euthanatized 210 days after surgery, the PSL harvested, and histology, biochemistry, and gene expression performed on both PSL. Collagenase lesions viewed on MR images appeared similar to those seen clinically. Serial MR images demonstrated resolution of abnormal signal intensity and tissue formation in the microfracture sites within the third metatarsal bone. Treated limbs had histologic evidence of connective tissue appearing to originate from the small perforations and blending into the ligament but no statistical differences were identified. Gene expression for cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and decorin were significantly increased in treated compared to control limbs. The microfracture and ligament splitting procedure did incite a tissue response but further clinical investigation is necessary to determine if this tissue remodeling at the bone-ligament interface translates to improved clinical outcome. MR imaging may be useful to follow healing in horses with hind limb proximal suspensory desmitis. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  13. Interaction between the fore- and hind-wings in hovering flight of modelled dragonfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kweon, Jihoon; Choi, Haecheon

    2009-11-01

    In the present study, we investigate the interaction between the fore- and hind-wings in hovering flight of modelled dragonfly using 3D numerical simulation. The three-dimensional wing shape is based on that of Aeschna juncea (Norberg 1972) and numerically realized using an immersed boundary method (Kim et al. 2001). The wing flapping motion is modelled using a sinusoidal function and the stroke plane angle is 60^o. We consider 12 different phase differences between the fore- and hind-wings (φ=0^o ˜ 330^o). The Reynolds number is 1,000 based on the maximum translational velocity and mean chord length. In counter stroke (φ=180^o), the wing-tip vortices from both wings are connected, generating an entangled wing-tip vortex (e-WTV). A strong downward motion induced by this vortex decreases the vertical force in the following stroke (Kweon & Choi 2008). In parallel stroke (φ=0^o), both wings meet e-WTV during the upstroke and thus the decrease of vertical force is small. At φ=270^o, although e-WTV is generated on a relatively narrow region, the hind-wing moves downward along with e-WTV, resulting in a significant reduction of vertical force on the hind-wing. Therefore, the sum of vertical forces on both wings is maximum with parallel stroke and minimum at φ=270^o. The power required has a similar trend to the vertical force and thus the efficiency does not show a large variation with the phase difference.

  14. Reinnervation of hind limb extremity after lumbar dorsal root ganglion injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Song; Bréjot, Thomas; Cressant, Arnaud; Bacci, Josette; Saïd, Gérard; Tadié, Marc; Heard, Jean Michel

    2005-12-01

    Loss of dorsal root ganglion neuron, or injury to dorsal roots, induces permanent somatosensory defect without therapeutic option. We explored an approach to restoring hind limb somatosensory innervation after elimination of L4, L5 and L6 dorsal root ganglion neurons in rats. Somatosensory pathways were reconstructed by connecting L4, L5 and L6 lumbar dorsal roots to T10, T11 and T12 intercostal nerves, respectively, thus allowing elongation of thoracic ganglion neuron peripheral axons into the sciatic nerve. Connection of thoracic dorsal root ganglion neurons to peripheral tissues was documented 4 and 7 months after injury. Myelinated and unmyelinated fibers regrew in the sciatic nerve. Nerve terminations expressing calcitonin-gene-related-peptide colonized the footpad skin. Retrograde tracing showed that T10, T11 and T12 dorsal root ganglion neurons expressing calcitonin-gene-related-peptide or the neurofilament RT97 projected axons to the sciatic nerve and the footpad skin. Recording of somatosensory evoked potentials in the upper spinal cord indicated connection between the sciatic nerve and the central nervous system. Hind limb retraction in response to nociceptive stimulation of the reinnervated footpads and reversion of skin lesions suggested partial recovery of sensory function. Proprioceptive defects persisted. Delayed somatosensory reinnervation of the hind limb after destruction of lumbar dorsal root neurons in rats indicates potential approaches to reduce chronic disability after severe injury to somatosensory pathways.

  15. Cloning and genetic variability of a HindIII repetitive DNA in Acrossocheilus paradoxus (Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, W L; Wang, J P; Tseng, M C; Chiang, T Y

    1999-08-01

    Thirty clones of a highly repetitive HindIII fragment of DNA from seven populations of Acrossocheilus paradoxus (Cyprinidae) were isolated and sequenced. The fragment represents a tandemly repeated sequence, with a monomeric unit of 270 bp, amounting to 0.08-0.10% of the fish genome. Higher units of this monomer appear as a ladder in Southern blots. The HindIII satellite DNA family is conserved in three genera of the Cyprinidae. Variation in nucleotide sequences of this repetitive fragment, which is A+T-rich, is distributed both within individuals and among populations. High overall nucleotide divergence (dij = 0.056 +/- 0.001) was detected among clones of the HindIII satellite DNAs of Acrossocheilus paradoxus. Based on the molecular clock hypothesis, the maximum evolutionary rate was estimated to be 5.3 x 10(-7) substitutions per site per year. Lineage sorting may have contributed to the genetic heterogeneity within individuals and populations. Cladistic analyses indicated a closer phylogeographic relationship between populations of the central and south regions in Taiwan.

  16. HindSight: Encouraging Exploration through Direct Encoding of Personal Interaction History.

    PubMed

    Feng, Mi; Deng, Cheng; Peck, Evan M; Harrison, Lane

    2017-01-01

    Physical and digital objects often leave markers of our use. Website links turn purple after we visit them, for example, showing us information we have yet to explore. These "footprints" of interaction offer substantial benefits in information saturated environments - they enable us to easily revisit old information, systematically explore new information, and quickly resume tasks after interruption. While applying these design principles have been successful in HCI contexts, direct encodings of personal interaction history have received scarce attention in data visualization. One reason is that there is little guidance for integrating history into visualizations where many visual channels are already occupied by data. More importantly, there is not firm evidence that making users aware of their interaction history results in benefits with regards to exploration or insights. Following these observations, we propose HindSight - an umbrella term for the design space of representing interaction history directly in existing data visualizations. In this paper, we examine the value of HindSight principles by augmenting existing visualizations with visual indicators of user interaction history (e.g. How the Recession Shaped the Economy in 255 Charts, NYTimes). In controlled experiments of over 400 participants, we found that HindSight designs generally encouraged people to visit more data and recall different insights after interaction. The results of our experiments suggest that simple additions to visualizations can make users aware of their interaction history, and that these additions significantly impact users' exploration and insights.

  17. A new model for the immobilization of the rat hind limb.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, E L; Gomes, A R S; Franca, C N; Salvini, T F

    2002-11-01

    An alternative device for the immobilization of the hind limb of the rat was developed to study the effects of chronic disuse on the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles, maintained for 3 weeks in the shortening and the stretching positions, respectively. The proposed device is made of steel mesh and cotton materials, and has some advantages when compared to cast or plaster cast: it is cheaper, lighter (12 g or 4% of the body weight of the rat) and the same unit can be easily adjusted and used several times in the same animal or in animals of similar size. Immobilization is also useful to restrain the movements of the hip, knee, and ankle joints. Male rats (291 +/- 35 g and aged 14 +/- 2 weeks) were used to develop and test the model. The soleus muscle of 18 rats was maintained in a shortened position for 21 consecutive days and lost 19 +/- 7% of its length (P = 0.008) and 44 +/- 6% of its weight (P = 0.002) compared to the contralateral intact muscle. No difference (P = 0.67) was found in the stretched tibialis anterior of the same hind limb when compared to the contralateral muscle. No ulcer, sore or foot swelling was observed in the animals. Immobilization was effective in producing chronic muscle disuse in the hind limbs of rats and is an acceptable alternative to the traditional methods of immobilization such as cast or plaster cast.

  18. Insulin resistance of hind-limb tissues in vivo in lactating sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, R G; Faulkner, A; Hay, W W; Calvert, D T; Flint, D J

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of varying the plasma insulin concentration by infusion while maintaining euglycaemia by infusion of glucose on nutrient arterio-venous differences across the hind-limb and mammary gland in lactating and non-lactating sheep were investigated. 2. Insulin infusion increased the glucose arterio-venous difference across the hind-limb; this effect of insulin was decreased by lactation, suggesting that lactation induces insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. 3. Lactation increased but insulin infusion decreased the plasma concentrations of acetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids. 4. Insulin infusion decreased the arterio-venous differences of acetate and hydroxybutyrate across the hind-limb; this effect of insulin is probably indirect, resulting from the decrease in plasma concentrations of these metabolites. 5. Infusion of insulin had no effect on the glucose arterio-venous difference across the mammary gland, but did decrease the oxygen arterio-venous difference. 6. The results suggest that lactation results in insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, at least with respect to glucose utilization; this should facilitate the preferential utilization of glucose by the mammary gland. PMID:2241910

  19. Identifying risk factors for poor hind limb cleanliness in Danish loose-housed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, B H; Thomsen, P T; Sørensen, J T

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify possible risk factors for poor cow hind limb cleanliness in Danish loose-housed, lactating dairy cows. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional study of 1315 cows in 42 commercial Danish dairy herds with primarily Danish Holstein cows. The effect of four cow-level factors (parity, days in milk, daily lying time and lameness) and eight herd-level factors (herd size, milk production, milking system, floor type, access to pasture grazing, floor scraping frequency, hoof bathing frequency and hoof washing frequency) on the risk of having dirtier hind limbs were analysed using ordinal logistic regression fitting a proportional odds model. Cow hind limb cleanliness was scored using an ordinal score from 1 to 4: 1 being clean and 4 being covered in dirt. The odds ratios (ORs) estimated from the proportional odds model depict the effect of a risk factor on the odds of having a higher rather than a lower cleanliness score. First parity cows had an increased risk of being dirtier compared with third parity or older cows (OR=1.70). Compared with late lactation, early and mid lactation were associated with an increased risk of being dirtier (OR=2.07 and 1.33, respectively). Decreasing the daily time lying by 30 min was associated with an increased risk of being dirtier (OR=1.05). Furthermore, an increased risk of being dirtier was found in herds with no pasture access (OR=3.75).

  20. A case report of partial bilateral hind limb adactyly in a male lamb

    PubMed Central

    Rajabioun, Masoud; Kazemi Mehrjerdi, Hossein; Ghasemi, Samaneh

    2016-01-01

    Hemimelia as a congenital anomaly is a failure of development of extremities formation in embryonic period. This anomaly is defined as complete absence of the part of extremities and different forms were explained for hemimelia. Adactyly is an alternative name for transverse hemimelia and is a rare disorder in the most of animal species. A two months old male lamb with normal vital signs was referred to clinic due to both hind limbs shortness and absence of hooves from the birth day. Clinical and radiological examinations were performed and partial hemimelia was confirmed radiographically in both hind limbs. In left hind limb, total absence of the toe indicated presence of adactyly in this limb. No other congenital deformities were diagnosed in skeletal system based on clinical and radiological examinations. According to our knowledge, this is the first report of such rare conditions in a lamb. Clinical findings and radiological signs of this rare anomaly in a lamb were described in this report. PMID:28144430

  1. Gadolinium and ruthenium red attenuate remote hind limb preconditioning-induced cardioprotection: possible role of TRP and especially TRPV channels.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Puneet Kaur; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2016-08-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning is a well reported therapeutic strategy that induces cardioprotective effects but the underlying intracellular mechanisms have not been widely explored. The current study was designed to investigate the involvement of TRP and especially TRPV channels in remote hind limb preconditioning-induced cardioprotection. Remote hind limb preconditioning stimulus (4 alternate cycles of inflation and deflation of 5 min each) was delivered using a blood pressure cuff tied on the hind limb of the anesthetized rat. Using Langendorff's system, the heart was perfused and subjected to 30-min ischemia and 120-min reperfusion. The myocardial injury was assessed by measuring infarct size, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), LVDP, +dp/dtmax, -dp/dtmin, heart rate, and coronary flow rate. Gadolinium, TRP blocker, and ruthenium red, TRPV channel blocker, were employed as pharmacological tools. Remote hind limb preconditioning significantly reduced the infarct size, LDH release, CK release and improved coronary flow rate, hemodynamic parameters including LVDP, +dp/dtmax, -dp/dtmin, and heart rate. However, gadolinium (7.5 and 15 mg kg(-1)) and ruthenium red (4 and 8 mg kg(-1)) significantly attenuated the cardioprotective effects suggesting the involvement of TRP especially TRPV channels in mediating remote hind limb preconditioning-induced cardioprotection. Remote hind limb preconditioning stimulus possibly activates TRPV channels on the heart or sensory nerve fibers innervating the heart to induce cardioprotective effects. Alternatively, remote hind limb preconditioning stimulus may also activate the mechanosensitive TRP and especially TRPV channels on the sensory nerve fibers innervating the skeletal muscles to trigger cardioprotective neurogenic signaling cascade. The cardioprotective effects of remote hind limb preconditioning may be mediated via activation of mechanosensitive TRP and especially TRPV channels.

  2. Interaction of the elytra and hind wing of a rhinoceros beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus) during a take-off mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seungyoung; Oh, Sehyeong; Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Boogeon; Park, Hyungmin; Kim, Sun-Tae

    2015-11-01

    The elytra are a pair of hardened wings that cover the abdomen of a beetle to protect beetle's hind wings. During the take-off, these elytra open and flap in phase with the hind wings. We investigate the effect of the elytra flapping on beetle's aerodynamic performance. Numerical simulations are performed at Re=10,000 (based on the wingtip mean velocity and mean chord length of the hind wing) using an immersed boundary method. The simulations are focused on a take-off, and the wing kinematics used is directly obtained from the experimental observations using high speed cameras. The simulation result shows three-dimensional vortical structures generated by the hind wing of the beetle and their interaction with the elytra. The presence of elytra has a negative effect on the lift generation by the hind wings, but the lift force on the elytra themselves is negligible. Further discussions on the elytra - hind wing interaction will be provided during the presentation. Supported by UD130070ID.

  3. Spatial Distribution and Conservation of Speckled Hind and Warsaw Grouper in the Atlantic Ocean off the Southeastern U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Nicholas A.; Karnauskas, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    There is broad interest in the development of efficient marine protected areas (MPAs) to reduce bycatch and end overfishing of speckled hind (Epinephelus drummondhayi) and warsaw grouper (Hyporthodus nigritus) in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S. We assimilated decades of data from many fishery-dependent, fishery-independent, and anecdotal sources to describe the spatial distribution of these data limited stocks. A spatial classification model was developed to categorize depth-grids based on the distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper point observations and identified benthic habitats. Logistic regression analysis was used to develop a quantitative model to predict the spatial distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper as a function of depth, latitude, and habitat. Models, controlling for sampling gear effects, were selected based on AIC and 10-fold cross validation. The best-fitting model for warsaw grouper included latitude and depth to explain 10.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 28–33%. The best-fitting model for speckled hind, per cross-validation, included latitude and depth to explain 36.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 25–27%. The best-fitting speckled hind model, per AIC, also included habitat, but had false prediction rates up to 36%. Speckled hind and warsaw grouper habitats followed a shelf-edge hardbottom ridge from North Carolina to southeast Florida, with speckled hind more common to the north and warsaw grouper more common to the south. The proportion of habitat classifications and model-estimated stock contained within established and proposed MPAs was computed. Existing MPAs covered 10% of probable shelf-edge habitats for speckled hind and warsaw grouper, protecting 3–8% of speckled hind and 8% of warsaw grouper stocks. Proposed MPAs could add 24% more probable shelf-edge habitat, and protect an additional 14–29% of

  4. Spatial distribution and conservation of speckled hind and warsaw grouper in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Nicholas A; Karnauskas, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    There is broad interest in the development of efficient marine protected areas (MPAs) to reduce bycatch and end overfishing of speckled hind (Epinephelus drummondhayi) and warsaw grouper (Hyporthodus nigritus) in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S. We assimilated decades of data from many fishery-dependent, fishery-independent, and anecdotal sources to describe the spatial distribution of these data limited stocks. A spatial classification model was developed to categorize depth-grids based on the distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper point observations and identified benthic habitats. Logistic regression analysis was used to develop a quantitative model to predict the spatial distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper as a function of depth, latitude, and habitat. Models, controlling for sampling gear effects, were selected based on AIC and 10-fold cross validation. The best-fitting model for warsaw grouper included latitude and depth to explain 10.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 28-33%. The best-fitting model for speckled hind, per cross-validation, included latitude and depth to explain 36.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 25-27%. The best-fitting speckled hind model, per AIC, also included habitat, but had false prediction rates up to 36%. Speckled hind and warsaw grouper habitats followed a shelf-edge hardbottom ridge from North Carolina to southeast Florida, with speckled hind more common to the north and warsaw grouper more common to the south. The proportion of habitat classifications and model-estimated stock contained within established and proposed MPAs was computed. Existing MPAs covered 10% of probable shelf-edge habitats for speckled hind and warsaw grouper, protecting 3-8% of speckled hind and 8% of warsaw grouper stocks. Proposed MPAs could add 24% more probable shelf-edge habitat, and protect an additional 14-29% of speckled

  5. Anisotropy and non-homogeneity of an Allomyrina Dichotoma beetle hind wing membrane.

    PubMed

    Ha, N S; Jin, T L; Goo, N S; Park, H C

    2011-12-01

    Biomimetics is one of the most important paradigms as researchers seek to invent better engineering designs over human history. However, the observation of insect flight is a relatively recent work. Several researchers have tried to address the aerodynamic performance of flapping creatures and other natural properties of insects, although there are still many unsolved questions. In this study, we try to answer the questions related to the mechanical properties of a beetle's hind wing, which consists of a stiff vein structure and a flexible membrane. The membrane of a beetle's hind wing is small and flexible to the point that conventional methods cannot adequately quantify the material properties. The digital image correlation method, a non-contact displacement measurement method, is used along with a specially designed mini-tensile testing system. To reduce the end effects, we developed an experimental method that can deal with specimens with as high an aspect ratio as possible. Young's modulus varies over the area in the wing and ranges from 2.97 to 4.5 GPa in the chordwise direction and from 1.63 to 2.24 GPa in the spanwise direction. Furthermore, Poisson's ratio in the chordwise direction is 0.63-0.73 and approximately twice as large as that in the spanwise direction (0.33-0.39). From these results, we can conclude that the membrane of a beetle's hind wing is an anisotropic and non-homogeneous material. Our results will provide a better understanding of the flapping mechanism through the formulation of a fluid-structure interaction analysis or aero-elasticity analysis and meritorious data for biomaterial properties database as well as a creative design concept for a micro aerial flapper that mimics an insect.

  6. Anatomy of the hind legs and actions of their muscles during jumping in leafhopper insects.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Malcolm

    2007-10-01

    The rapid and simultaneous depression of the trochantera about the coxae of both hind legs of leafhoppers are the key joint movements powering a jump. The present study analyses the structure of these joints and the actions of the muscles that move them. The hind coxae are huge and are linked to each other at the midline by a protrusion from one coxa that inserts in a socket of the other and acts like a press-stud (popper) fastener. This asymmetry is not reflected in any left- or right-handed preference either within one species or between species. The movements of the joints in a jump are monitored by a number of possible proprioceptors that should be activated when a hind leg is fully levated in preparation for a jump: a hair row and two hair plates on the coxa, a hair plate on a trochanteral pivot with a coxa, and femoral spines at the femoro-tibial joint. The depressor and levator muscles that move the trochanter are of similar size and together occupy the greater part of the metathorax. Their lever arms are similar when the leg is fully levated, but the lever arm of the depressor increases with initial depression of the coxo-trochanteral joint while that of the levator declines. A jump is preceded by activity in the trochanteral depressor and levator muscles, which results in a forward movement of the coxa and metathorax with the trochanter fully levated. This period of co-contraction could result in storage of energy in skeletal structures in the thorax. Just before the rapid depression of the trochanter in the jump movement the frequency of depressor spikes increases while that in the levator declines, releasing any force stored by the preceding muscle contractions. These bursts of depressor spikes occur at the same time in the left and right muscles but none of the individual motor spikes appeared to be synchronous on the two sides.

  7. COORDINATED, MULTI-JOINT, FATIGUE-RESISTANT FELINE STANCE PRODUCED WITH INTRAFASCICULAR HIND LIMB NERVE STIMULATION

    PubMed Central

    Normann, R A; Dowden, B R; Frankel, M A; Wilder, A M; Hiatt, S D; Ledbetter, N M; Warren, D A; Clark, G A

    2012-01-01

    The production of graceful skeletal movements requires coordinated activation of multiple muscles that produce torques around multiple joints. The work described herein is focused on one such movement, stance, that requires coordinated activation of extensor muscles acting around the hip, knee and ankle joints. The forces evoked in these muscles by external stimulation all have a complex dependence on muscle length and shortening velocities, and some of these muscles are bi-articular. In order to recreate sit-to-stand maneuvers in the anesthetized feline, we excited the hind limb musculature using intrafascicular multielectrode stimulation (IFMS) of the muscular branch of the sciatic nerve, the femoral nerve, and the main branch of the sciatic nerve. Stimulation was achieved with either acutely or chronically implanted Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (USEAs) via subsets of electrodes 1) that activated motor units in the extensor muscles of the hip, knee, and ankle joints, 2) that were able to evoke large extension forces, and 3) that manifested minimal coactivation of the targeted motor units. Three hind limb force-generation strategies were investigated, including sequential activation of independent motor units to increase force, and interleaved or simultaneous IFMS of three sets of six or more USEA electrodes that excited the hip, knee, and ankle extensors. All force-generation strategies evoked stance, but the interleaved IFMS strategy also reduced muscle fatigue produced by repeated sit-to-stand maneuvers compared with fatigue produced by simultaneous activation of different motor neuron pools. These results demonstrate the use of interleaved IFMS as a means to recreate coordinated, fatigue-resistant multi-joint muscle forces in the unilateral hind limb. This muscle activation paradigm could provide a promising neuroprosthetic approach for the restoration of sit-to-stand transitions in individuals who are paralyzed by spinal cord injury, stroke, or disease. PMID

  8. Ontogenetic scaling of fore- and hind limb posture in wild chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus).

    PubMed

    Patel, Biren A; Horner, Angela M; Thompson, Nathan E; Barrett, Louise; Henzi, S Peter

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale interspecific studies of mammals ranging between 0.04-280 kg have shown that larger animals walk with more extended limb joints. Within a taxon or clade, however, the relationship between body size and joint posture is less straightforward. Factors that may affect the lack of congruence between broad and narrow phylogenetic analyses of limb kinematics include limited sampling of (1) ranges of body size, and/or (2) numbers of individuals. Unfortunately, both issues are inherent in laboratory-based or zoo locomotion research. In this study, we examined the relationship between body mass and elbow and knee joint angles (our proxies of fore- and hind limb posture, respectively) in a cross-sectional ontogenetic sample of wild chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) habituated in the De Hoop Nature Reserve, South Africa. Videos were obtained from 33 individuals of known age (12 to ≥ 108 months) and body mass (2-29.5 kg) during walking trials. Results show that older, heavier baboons walk with significantly more extended knee joints but not elbow joints. This pattern is consistent when examining only males, but not within the female sample. Heavier, older baboons also display significantly less variation in their hind limb posture compared to lighter, young animals. Thus, within this ontogenetic sample of a single primate species spanning an order of magnitude in body mass, hind limb posture exhibited a postural scaling phenomenon while the forelimbs did not. These findings may further help explain 1) why younger mammals (including baboons) tend to have relatively stronger bones than adults, and 2) why humeri appear relatively weaker than femora (in at least baboons). Finally, this study demonstrates how field-acquired kinematics can help answer fundamental biomechanical questions usually addressed only in animal gait laboratories.

  9. Ontogenetic Scaling of Fore- and Hind Limb Posture in Wild Chacma Baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Biren A.; Horner, Angela M.; Thompson, Nathan E.; Barrett, Louise; Henzi, S. Peter

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale interspecific studies of mammals ranging between 0.04–280 kg have shown that larger animals walk with more extended limb joints. Within a taxon or clade, however, the relationship between body size and joint posture is less straightforward. Factors that may affect the lack of congruence between broad and narrow phylogenetic analyses of limb kinematics include limited sampling of (1) ranges of body size, and/or (2) numbers of individuals. Unfortunately, both issues are inherent in laboratory-based or zoo locomotion research. In this study, we examined the relationship between body mass and elbow and knee joint angles (our proxies of fore- and hind limb posture, respectively) in a cross-sectional ontogenetic sample of wild chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) habituated in the De Hoop Nature Reserve, South Africa. Videos were obtained from 33 individuals of known age (12 to ≥108 months) and body mass (2–29.5 kg) during walking trials. Results show that older, heavier baboons walk with significantly more extended knee joints but not elbow joints. This pattern is consistent when examining only males, but not within the female sample. Heavier, older baboons also display significantly less variation in their hind limb posture compared to lighter, young animals. Thus, within this ontogenetic sample of a single primate species spanning an order of magnitude in body mass, hind limb posture exhibited a postural scaling phenomenon while the forelimbs did not. These findings may further help explain 1) why younger mammals (including baboons) tend to have relatively stronger bones than adults, and 2) why humeri appear relatively weaker than femora (in at least baboons). Finally, this study demonstrates how field-acquired kinematics can help answer fundamental biomechanical questions usually addressed only in animal gait laboratories. PMID:23923046

  10. Coordinated, multi-joint, fatigue-resistant feline stance produced with intrafascicular hind limb nerve stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normann, R. A.; Dowden, B. R.; Frankel, M. A.; Wilder, A. M.; Hiatt, S. D.; Ledbetter, N. M.; Warren, D. A.; Clark, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    The production of graceful skeletal movements requires coordinated activation of multiple muscles that produce torques around multiple joints. The work described herein is focused on one such movement, stance, that requires coordinated activation of extensor muscles acting around the hip, knee and ankle joints. The forces evoked in these muscles by external stimulation all have a complex dependence on muscle length and shortening velocities, and some of these muscles are biarticular. In order to recreate sit-to-stand maneuvers in the anesthetized feline, we excited the hind limb musculature using intrafascicular multielectrode stimulation (IFMS) of the muscular branch of the sciatic nerve, the femoral nerve and the main branch of the sciatic nerve. Stimulation was achieved with either acutely or chronically implanted Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (USEAs) via subsets of electrodes (1) that activated motor units in the extensor muscles of the hip, knee and ankle joints, (2) that were able to evoke large extension forces and (3) that manifested minimal coactivation of the targeted motor units. Three hind limb force-generation strategies were investigated, including sequential activation of independent motor units to increase force, and interleaved or simultaneous IFMS of three sets of six or more USEA electrodes that excited the hip, knee and ankle extensors. All force-generation strategies evoked stance, but the interleaved IFMS strategy also reduced muscle fatigue produced by repeated sit-to-stand maneuvers compared with fatigue produced by simultaneous activation of different motor neuron pools. These results demonstrate the use of interleaved IFMS as a means to recreate coordinated, fatigue-resistant multi-joint muscle forces in the unilateral hind limb. This muscle activation paradigm could provide a promising neuroprosthetic approach for the restoration of sit-to-stand transitions in individuals who are paralyzed by spinal cord injury, stroke or disease.

  11. The effect of baclofen on the hind limb flexor reflex of the spinal rat.

    PubMed

    Sypniewska, M

    1979-01-01

    The effect of baclofen on the hind limb flexor reflex of the spinal rat was studied. Baclofen inhibited the flexor reflex, this effect not being antagonized by picrotoxin and bicuculline. Baclofen reduced the stimulating action of quipazine and LSD, had no effect on the clonidine-induced reflex stimulation, but inhibited the flexor reflex stimulation induced by amphetamine and fenfluramine. The results obtained bring forth some doubts as to the GABA-mimetic action of baclofen. The action of baclofen on the spinal cord seems to be directed mainly to the presynaptic part of the noradrenergic and serotonergic systems.

  12. Acute and chronic nociceptive phases observed in a rat hind paw ischemia/reperfusion model depend on different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Klafke, J Z; da Silva, M A; Rossato, M F; de Prá, S Dal Toé; Rigo, F K; Walker, C I B; Bochi, G V; Moresco, R N; Ferreira, J; Trevisan, G

    2016-02-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1) may be evoked by ischemia/reperfusion, eliciting acute and chronic pain that is difficult to treat. Despite this, the underlying mechanism of CRPS1 has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the goal of this study is to evaluate the involvement of inflammation, oxidative stress, and the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel, a chemosensor of inflammation and oxidative substances, in an animal model of chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP). Male Wistar rats were subjected to 3 h hind paw ischemia/reperfusion (CPIP model). Different parameters of nociception, inflammation, ischemia, and oxidative stress were evaluated at 1 (acute) and 14 (chronic) days after CPIP. The effect of a TRPA1 antagonist and the TRPA1 immunoreactivity were also observed after CPIP. In the CPIP acute phase, we observed mechanical and cold allodynia; increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (hind paw), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) (serum), protein carbonyl (hind paw and spinal cord), lactate (serum), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, hind paw and spinal cord); and higher myeloperoxidase (MPO) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activities (hind paw). In the CPIP chronic phase, we detected mechanical and cold allodynia and increased levels of IMA (serum), protein carbonyl (hind paw and spinal cord), and 4-HNE (hind paw and spinal cord). TRPA1 antagonism reduced mechanical and cold allodynia 1 and 14 days after CPIP, but no change in TRPA1 immunoreactivity was observed. Different mechanisms underlie acute (inflammation and oxidative stress) and chronic (oxidative stress) phases of CPIP. TRPA1 activation may be relevant for CRPS1/CPIP-induced acute and chronic pain.

  13. Glutaminase Increases in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons after Unilateral Adjuvant-Induced Hind Paw Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, E Matthew; Zhang, Zijia; Schechter, Ruben; Miller, Kenneth E

    2016-01-13

    Glutamate is a neurotransmitter used at both the peripheral and central terminals of nociceptive primary sensory neurons, yet little is known concerning regulation of glutamate metabolism during peripheral inflammation. Glutaminase (GLS) is an enzyme of the glutamate-glutamine cycle that converts glutamine into glutamate for neurotransmission and is implicated in producing elevated levels of glutamate in central and peripheral terminals. A potential mechanism for increased levels of glutamate is an elevation in GLS expression. We assessed GLS expression after unilateral hind paw inflammation by measuring GLS immunoreactivity (ir) with quantitative image analysis of L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after one, two, four, and eight days of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) compared to saline injected controls. No significant elevation in GLS-ir occurred in the DRG ipsilateral to the inflamed hind paw after one or two days of AIA. After four days AIA, GLS-ir was elevated significantly in all sizes of DRG neurons. After eight days AIA, GLS-ir remained elevated in small (<400 µm²), presumably nociceptive neurons. Western blot analysis of the L4 DRG at day four AIA confirmed the elevated GLS-ir. The present study indicates that GLS expression is increased in the chronic stage of inflammation and may be a target for chronic pain therapy.

  14. Glutaminase Increases in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons after Unilateral Adjuvant-Induced Hind Paw Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, E. Matthew; Zhang, Zijia; Schechter, Ruben; Miller, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate is a neurotransmitter used at both the peripheral and central terminals of nociceptive primary sensory neurons, yet little is known concerning regulation of glutamate metabolism during peripheral inflammation. Glutaminase (GLS) is an enzyme of the glutamate-glutamine cycle that converts glutamine into glutamate for neurotransmission and is implicated in producing elevated levels of glutamate in central and peripheral terminals. A potential mechanism for increased levels of glutamate is an elevation in GLS expression. We assessed GLS expression after unilateral hind paw inflammation by measuring GLS immunoreactivity (ir) with quantitative image analysis of L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after one, two, four, and eight days of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) compared to saline injected controls. No significant elevation in GLS-ir occurred in the DRG ipsilateral to the inflamed hind paw after one or two days of AIA. After four days AIA, GLS-ir was elevated significantly in all sizes of DRG neurons. After eight days AIA, GLS-ir remained elevated in small (<400 µm2), presumably nociceptive neurons. Western blot analysis of the L4 DRG at day four AIA confirmed the elevated GLS-ir. The present study indicates that GLS expression is increased in the chronic stage of inflammation and may be a target for chronic pain therapy. PMID:26771651

  15. Hind limb unloading, a model of spaceflight conditions, leads to decreased B lymphopoiesis similar to aging.

    PubMed

    Lescale, Chloé; Schenten, Véronique; Djeghloul, Dounia; Bennabi, Meriem; Gaignier, Fanny; Vandamme, Katleen; Strazielle, Catherine; Kuzniak, Isabelle; Petite, Hervé; Dosquet, Christine; Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Goodhardt, Michele

    2015-02-01

    Within the bone marrow, the endosteal niche plays a crucial role in B-cell differentiation. Because spaceflight is associated with osteoporosis, we investigated whether changes in bone microstructure induced by a ground-based model of spaceflight, hind limb unloading (HU), could affect B lymphopoiesis. To this end, we analyzed both bone parameters and the frequency of early hematopoietic precursors and cells of the B lineage after 3, 6, 13, and 21 d of HU. We found that limb disuse leads to a decrease in both bone microstructure and the frequency of B-cell progenitors in the bone marrow. Although multipotent hematopoietic progenitors were not affected by HU, a decrease in B lymphopoiesis was observed as of the common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) stage with a major block at the progenitor B (pro-B) to precursor B (pre-B) cell transition (5- to 10-fold decrease). The modifications in B lymphopoiesis were similar to those observed in aged mice and, as with aging, decreased B-cell generation in HU mice was associated with reduced expression of B-cell transcription factors, early B-cell factor (EBF) and Pax5, and an alteration in STAT5-mediated IL-7 signaling. These findings demonstrate that mechanical unloading of hind limbs results in a decrease in early B-cell differentiation resembling age-related modifications in B lymphopoiesis.

  16. Mechanical constraints on the functional morphology of the gibbon hind limb

    PubMed Central

    Channon, Anthony J; Günther, Michael M; Crompton, Robin H; Vereecke, Evie E

    2009-01-01

    Gibbons utilize a number of locomotor modes in the wild, including bipedalism, leaping and, most of all, brachiation. Each locomotor mode puts specific constraints on the morphology of the animal; in some cases these may be complementary, whereas in others they may conflict. Despite several studies of the locomotor biomechanics of gibbons, very little is known about the musculoskeletal architecture of the limbs. In this study, we present quantitative anatomical data of the hind limb for four species of gibbon (Hylobates lar, H. moloch, H. pileatus and Symphalangus syndactylus). Muscle mass and fascicle lengths were obtained from all of the major hind limb muscles and the physiological cross-sectional area was calculated and scaled to remove the effect of body size. The results clearly indicate that, for all of the species studied, the major hip, knee and ankle extensors are short-fascicled and pennate. The major hip and knee flexors, however, are long-fascicled, parallel muscles with relatively small physiological cross-sectional areas. We hypothesize that the short-fascicled muscles could be coupled with a power-amplifying mechanism and are predominantly useful in leaping. The long-fascicled knee and hip flexors are adapted for a wide range of joint postures and can play a role in flexing the legs during brachiation. PMID:19627388

  17. Mechanical constraints on the functional morphology of the gibbon hind limb.

    PubMed

    Channon, Anthony J; Günther, Michael M; Crompton, Robin H; Vereecke, Evie E

    2009-10-01

    Gibbons utilize a number of locomotor modes in the wild, including bipedalism, leaping and, most of all, brachiation. Each locomotor mode puts specific constraints on the morphology of the animal; in some cases these may be complementary, whereas in others they may conflict. Despite several studies of the locomotor biomechanics of gibbons, very little is known about the musculoskeletal architecture of the limbs. In this study, we present quantitative anatomical data of the hind limb for four species of gibbon (Hylobates lar, H. moloch, H. pileatus and Symphalangus syndactylus). Muscle mass and fascicle lengths were obtained from all of the major hind limb muscles and the physiological cross-sectional area was calculated and scaled to remove the effect of body size. The results clearly indicate that, for all of the species studied, the major hip, knee and ankle extensors are short-fascicled and pennate. The major hip and knee flexors, however, are long-fascicled, parallel muscles with relatively small physiological cross-sectional areas. We hypothesize that the short-fascicled muscles could be coupled with a power-amplifying mechanism and are predominantly useful in leaping. The long-fascicled knee and hip flexors are adapted for a wide range of joint postures and can play a role in flexing the legs during brachiation.

  18. Nerve growth factor induced hyperalgesia in the rat hind paw is dependent on circulating neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Bennett, G; al-Rashed, S; Hoult, J R; Brain, S D

    1998-09-01

    The mechanisms by which nerve growth factor (NGF) induces thermal hyperalgesia and neutrophil accumulation have been investigated in the rat. Thermal nociceptive thresholds in rat hind paw were measured as the time taken for paw withdrawal from a heat source and neutrophil accumulation was measured in hind paw and dorsal skin samples using a myeloperoxidase assay. NGF (23-80 pmol intraplantar (i.pl.) injection) induced a significant (P < 0.05, n = 6-16) thermal hyperalgesia at 5 h after injection and significant neutrophil accumulation (P < 0.05, n = 6) was observed with NGF (40 pmol). In dorsal skin, where multiple samples can be assessed, intradermal (i.d.) NGF was 10-30 times less potent than interleukin-1beta in inducing neutrophil accumulation. The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor ZM230487 (10 nmol co-injected with NGF) significantly attenuated neutrophil accumulation and hyperalgesia induced by NGF; unlike the histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonists (mepyramine and methysergide) which were without effect at the times measured. Furthermore, depletion of circulating neutrophils (using a rabbit anti-rat neutrophil antibody) abolished NGF induced hyperalgesia. These results indicate that neutrophils, which accumulate in response to a 5-lipoxygenase product, play a crucial role in NGF-induced hyperalgesia.

  19. The D1 family dopamine receptor, DopR, potentiates hind leg grooming behavior in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pitmon, E.; Stephens, G.; Parkhurst, S. J.; Wolf, F. W.; Kehne, G.; Taylor, M.

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila groom away debris and pathogens from the body using their legs in a stereotyped sequence of innate motor behaviors. Here, we investigated one aspect of the grooming repertoire by characterizing the D1 family dopamine receptor, DopR. Removal of DopR results in decreased hind leg grooming, as substantiated by quantitation of dye remaining on mutant and RNAi animals vs. controls and direct scoring of behavioral events. These data are also supported by pharmacological results that D1 receptor agonists fail to potentiate grooming behaviors in headless DopR flies. DopR protein is broadly expressed in the neuropil of the thoracic ganglion and overlaps with TH‐positive dopaminergic neurons. Broad neuronal expression of dopamine receptor in mutant animals restored normal grooming behaviors. These data provide evidence for the role of DopR in potentiating hind leg grooming behaviors in the thoracic ganglion of adult Drosophila. This is a remarkable juxtaposition to the considerable role of D1 family dopamine receptors in rodent grooming, and future investigations of evolutionary relationships of circuitry may be warranted. PMID:26749475

  20. Whole body vibration induces forepaw and hind paw behavioral sensitivity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Baig, Hassam A; Guarino, Benjamin B; Lipschutz, Daniel; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2013-11-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) has been linked to neck and back pain, but the biomechanical and physiological mechanisms responsible for its development and maintenance are unknown. A rodent model of WBV was developed in which rats were exposed to different WBV paradigms, either daily for 7 consecutive days (repeated WBV) or two single exposures at Day 0 and 7 (intermittent WBV). Each WBV session lasted for 30 min and was imposed at a frequency of 15 Hz and RMS platform acceleration of 0.56 ± 0.07 g. Changes in the withdrawal response of the forepaw and hind paw were measured, and were used to characterize the onset and maintenance of behavioral sensitivity. Accelerations and displacements of the rat and deformations in the cervical and lumbar spines were measured during WBV to provide mechanical context for the exposures. A decrease in withdrawal threshold was induced at 1 day after the first exposure in both the hind paw and forepaw. Repeated WBV exhibited a sustained reduction in withdrawal threshold in both paws and intermittent WBV induced a sustained response only in the forepaw. Cervical deformations were significantly elevated which may explain the more robust forepaw response. Findings suggest that a WBV exposure leads to behavioral sensitivity. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  1. Oestrous red deer hinds prefer male roars with higher fundamental frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Reby, David; Charlton, Benjamin D.; Locatelli, Yann; McComb, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Across vertebrates, the observation that lower-pitched vocalizations are typically associated with larger and/or higher quality males has lead to the widespread belief that inter- and intra-sexual selection will produce male calls with low fundamental frequencies (F0). Here we investigated the response of oestrous red deer hinds to playback of re-synthesized male roars characterized by either higher than average or lower than average F0. We found that hinds prefer higher rather than lower ‘pitched’ roars, providing, to our knowledge, the first evidence of such a bias in nonhuman mammals. Our findings can be interpreted in relation to previous observations that the minimum F0 of roars is positively correlated with male reproductive success in free-ranging red deer stags, and that across Cervids the F0 of male mating calls shows extreme variability. Females showing preferences for higher-pitched roars might derive genetic benefits through more competitive male offspring. Our results emphasize the need for further investigations of female preferences in mammals in order to better understand the extreme variation of F0 values observed in male sexual calls. PMID:20427342

  2. Combined effects of soy isoflavones and milk basic protein on bone mineral density in hind-limb unloaded mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yu; Tousen, Yuko; Nishide, Yoriko; Tadaishi, Miki; Kato, Ken; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether the combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein both are reported to be effective for bone metabolism, prevents bone loss induced by skeletal hind-limb unloading in mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were divided into six groups (n = 6–8 each): (1) normally housed group, (2) loading group, (3) hind-limb unloading group fed a control diet, (4) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates diet, (5) hind-limb unloading group fed a 1.0% milk basic protein diet, and (6) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates and 1.0% milk basic protein diet. After 3 weeks, femoral bone mineral density was markedly reduced in unloading mice. The combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein showed cooperative effects in preventing bone loss and milk basic protein inhibited the increased expression of osteogenic genes in bone marrow cells in unloading mice. These results suggest that the combination of soy isoflavone and milk basic protein may be useful for bone health in subjects with disabling conditions as well as astronauts. PMID:27013781

  3. Muscular reconstruction and functional morphology of the hind limb of santacrucian (Early Miocene) sloths (Xenarthra, Folivora) of Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Néstor; Bargo, M Susana; Vizcaíno, Sergio F

    2015-05-01

    This article presents a morphofunctional analysis of the hind limb of Santacrucian (Early Miocene) sloths from southernmost Patagonia (Argentina). These fossil sloths were mid sized to large animals, ranging from 40 to 120 kg, and their postcranial skeleton was markedly different in shape compared with that of extant tree sloths, which vary from 2 to 10 kg. The functional anatomy of the hind limb of Santacrucian sloths was compared with that of living xenarthrans (tree sloths, anteaters, and armadillos), which involved reconstruction of the hind limb musculature and comparative and qualitative morphofunctional analyses, and hypotheses on the biological role of the hind limb in terms of preferences in substrate, posture, and strategies of locomotion were formulated. The hind limb of Santacrucian sloths bears strong resemblances to that of living South American anteaters in stoutness of skeletal elements, form of the characteristics related to muscular and ligamentous attachments, and conservative, pentadactylous strong-clawed pes. The musculature was very well developed, allowing powerful forces, principally in entire limb adduction, crus flexion and extension, pes extension, and toe prehension. These functional features, together with those of the forelimb, are congruent with climbing behavior, and support the hypothesis that Santacrucian sloths were good but slow climbing mammals. However, their climbing strategies were limited, owing principally to their comparatively large body size, and they relied to a large extent on their powerful musculature and curved manual and pedal unguals for both moving and standing on the arboreal supports.

  4. Hind limb malformations in free-living northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) from Maine, Minnesota, and Vermont suggest multiple etiologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meteyer, C.U.; Loeffler, I.K.; Fallon, J.F.; Converse, K.A.; Green, E.; Helgen, J.C.; Kersten, S.; Levey, R.; Eaton-Poole, L.; Burkhart, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    Background Reports of malformed frogs have increased throughout the North American continent in recent years. Most of the observed malformations have involved the hind limbs. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the hind limb malformations in wild frogs as an important step toward understanding the possible etiologies. Methods During 1997 and 1998, 182 recently metamorphosed northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were collected from Minnesota, Vermont, and Maine. Malformed hind limbs were present in 157 (86%) of these frogs, which underwent necropsy and radiographic evaluation at the National Wildlife Health Center. These malformations are described in detail and classified into four major categories: (1) no limb (amelia); (2) multiple limbs or limb elements (polymelia, polydactyly, polyphalangy); (3) reduced limb segments or elements (phocomelia, ectromelia, ectrodactyly, and brachydactyly; and (4) distally complete but malformed limb (bone rotations, bridging, skin webbing, and micromelia). Results Amelia and reduced segments and/or elements were the most common finding. Frogs with bilateral hind limb malformations were not common, and in only eight of these 22 frogs were the malformations symmetrical. Malformations of a given type tended to occur in frogs collected from the same site, but the types of malformations varied widely among all three states, and between study sites within Minnesota. Conclusions Clustering of malformation type suggests that developmental events may produce a variety of phenotypes depending on the timing, sequence, and severity of the environmental insult. Hind limb malformations in free-living frogs transcend current mechanistic explanations of tetrapod limb development.

  5. The hind wing of the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskål). I. Functional morphology and mode of operation.

    PubMed

    Wootton, R J; Evans, K E; Herbert, R; Smith, C W

    2000-10-01

    Detailed morphological investigation, mechanical testing and high-speed cinematography and stroboscopic examination of desert locusts, Schistocerca gregaria, in flight show that their hind wings are adapted to deform cyclically and automatically through the wing stroke and that the deformations are subtly dependent on the wings' structure: their shape, venation and vein design and the local properties of the membrane. The insects predominantly fly fast forwards, generating most force on the downstroke, and the hind wings generate extra lift by peeling apart at the beginning of the downstroke and by developing a cambered section during the stroke's translation phase through the 'umbrella effect' - an automatic consequence of the active extension of the wings' expanded posterior fan. Bending experiments indicate that most of the hind wing is more rigid to forces from below than from above and demonstrate that the membrane acts as a stressed skin to stiffen the structure.

  6. Perivertebral B-cell lymphoma in a Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) with paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs.

    PubMed

    Kido, Nobuhide; Edamura, Kazuya; Inoue, Naomi; Shibuya, Hisashi; Sato, Tsuneo; Kondo, Masako; Shindo, Izumi

    2012-08-01

    A male Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) at Kanazawa Zoological Gardens (Kanagawa, Japan) exhibited paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass on the left ventral side of the 11th to 13th thoracic vertebrae, and the presence of myelitis or edema in the spinal cord. The koala was under anesthesia during the examination and suddenly developed ventricular fibrillation and died. Necropsy revealed a firm flat ovoid hemorrhagic mass on the vertebrae. Following a microscopic examination including immunohistochemistry, the perivertebral mass was diagnosed as B cell lymphoma. Therefore, neoplastic cell infiltration into the spinal cord may cause paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs.

  7. FACS-based Satellite Cell Isolation From Mouse Hind Limb Muscles.

    PubMed

    Gromova, Anastasia; Tierney, Matthew T; Sacco, Alessandra

    2015-08-20

    Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) is a sensitive and accurate method for purifying satellite cells, or muscle stem cells, from adult mouse skeletal muscle (Liu et al., 2013; Sacco et al., 2008; Tierney et al., 2014). Mechanical and enzymatic digestion of hind limb muscles releases mononuclear muscle cells into suspension. This protocol employs fractionation strategies to deplete cells expressing the cell surface markers CD45, CD31, CD11b and Ly-6A/E-Sca1, both by magnetic separation and FACS-based exclusion, and positively select for cells expressing a7-integrin and CD34. This enables the researcher to successfully enrich satellite cells that uniformly express the paired-box transcription factor Pax7 and are capable of long-term self-renewal, skeletal muscle repair and muscle stem cell pool repopulation.

  8. Effect of demedullation on freezing injury in hind limbs of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhingra, Shashi; Bhatia, B.; Chhina, G. S.; Singh, Baldev

    1987-09-01

    Freezing incidence and tissue loss on exposure of hind limbs of female Wistar rats to freezing mixture was reduced by demedullation 6 days prior to cold exposure (p<0.01 and p<0.001 respectively); demedullation 1 h after freezing injury had no effect on tissue loss. Noradrenaline (1 mg/kg i.p.) 5 min before exposure increased the freezing incidence in intact (p<0.05) as well as in demedullated rats (p<0.01), with no effect on tissue loss. Adrenaline (500 mg/kg i.p.) had no effect on either. A sustained fall in plasma adrenaline after demedullation leading to reduced reactivity of the blood vessels to some vasoactive agents is postulated.

  9. Pancreatic Histology and Associated Biochemical Changes in Rats on Hind-Limb Suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulsby, Michael; Johnson, Emily; Akel, Nisreen; Agarwal, Rakhee; Gaddy, Dana; Dobretsov, Maxim; Chowdhury, Parimal

    2011-06-01

    The pancreas plays an important role in regulating many of the key endocrine hormones and digestive enzymes that are required for nutrition and survival of the organism. This study examines the pancreatic histology and associated biochemical changes in rats on hind limb suspension (HLS) after exposure to simulated microgravity. Results show that MDA and glutathione levels were significantly increased in the suspended (HLS) groups as compared to the control group. Plasma insulin levels averaged 2.43±0.32 ng/ml in the control animals and decreased significantly to 1.47±0.24 ng/ml in the suspended group. Histopathology revealed increased vacuolation, pyknosis, membrane thickening, increase of zymogen granules and increase in islets (both in size and number) in the suspended group as compared to the control group.

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of the sixblotch hind Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Pisces: Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Sheng-Tai; Chen, Kao-Sung; Tseng, Chen-Te; Wu, Chi-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the sixblotch hind, Cephalopholis sexmaculata was presented in this study. This mitochondrial genome consists of 16,589 bp, with 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a noncoding control region (CR), and its gene arrangement is identical to most vertebrates. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is A, 29.35%; G, 16.08%; C, 28.56%; and T, 26.01%. The COI gene started with GTG codon and the ATP6 gene started with CTG codon. The complete mitogenomic data may provide informative for further phylogenetic approach of species of Cephalopholis and related genera belong to the Epinephelidae groupers.

  11. Determining the size of American alligators using hind-foot track length

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkinson, Philip M.; Rice, Kenneth G.

    2000-01-01

    Size distribution information is useful for crocodilian management, but can be hard to obtain. Indirect and less costly demographic inferences made from track measurements may be valuable for management decisions. We related hind-foot lengths (HF) with total length (TL) to determine if we could indirectly assess alligator size using track length. Regression showed that HF was an excellent predictor (F1,246= 15722.9, R2=0.98, P<0.01) of TL and track length was an exceptional predictor of HF (F1,14=7520.3, R2= 1.00, P<0.01). The correlation between track length and HF length also was significant (N= 15, r=0.99, P <0.01). Thus, alligator size can be accurately estimated from measures of track length at sites where capture and direct measurement is impractical.

  12. 3D reconstruction of digitized histological sections for vasculature quantification in the mouse hind limb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yiwen; Pickering, J. Geoffrey; Nong, Zengxuan; Gibson, Eli; Ward, Aaron D.

    2014-03-01

    In contrast to imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and micro computed tomography, digital histology reveals multiple stained tissue features at high resolution (0.25μm/pixel). However, the two-dimensional (2D) nature of histology challenges three-dimensional (3D) quantification and visualization of the different tissue components, cellular structures, and subcellular elements. This limitation is particularly relevant to the vasculature, which has a complex and variable structure within tissues. The objective of this study was to perform a fully automated 3D reconstruction of histology tissue in the mouse hind limb preserving the accurate systemic orientation of the tissues, stained with hematoxylin and immunostained for smooth muscle α actin. We performed a 3D reconstruction using pairwise rigid registrations of 5μm thick, paraffin-embedded serial sections, digitized at 0.25μm/pixel. Each registration was performed using the iterative closest points algorithm on blood vessel landmarks. Landmarks were vessel centroids, determined according to a signed distance map of each pixel to a decision boundary in hue-saturation-value color space; this decision boundary was determined based on manual annotation of a separate training set. Cell nuclei were then automatically extracted and corresponded to refine the vessel landmark registration. Homologous nucleus landmark pairs appearing on not more than two adjacent slides were chosen to avoid registrations which force curved or non-sectionorthogonal structures to be straight and section-orthogonal. The median accumulated target registration errors ± interquartile ranges for the vessel landmark registration, and the nucleus landmark refinement were 43.4+/-42.8μm and 2.9+/-1.7μm, respectively (p<0.0001). Fully automatic and accurate 3D rigid reconstruction of mouse hind limb histology imaging is feasible based on extracted vasculature and nuclei.

  13. Association of lipoprotein lipase Hind III and Ser 447 Ter polymorphisms with dyslipidemia in Asian Indians.

    PubMed

    Radha, Venkatesan; Mohan, Viswanathan; Vidya, Ramprakash; Ashok, Ayyappa K; Deepa, Raj; Mathias, Rasika A

    2006-05-01

    Studies have shown an association between the lipoprotein lipase gene and dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis in some populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the common lipoprotein lipase HindIII (T-G) and Ser447Ter (C-G) polymorphisms with dyslipidemia in Asian Indians, who are known to have very high rates of premature coronary artery disease. A total of 1,015 subjects, comprising 550 normal glucose-tolerant subjects and 465 patients with type 2 diabetes, were randomly selected from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. The total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and serum triglyceride levels were assayed using enzymatic methods. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was calculated using the Friedewald formula. Genotyping was done using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. A significant association was found between the H+ allele of HindIII with low HDL cholesterol and elevated triglyceride levels. The Ser allele of Ser447Ter was also strongly associated with low HDL cholesterol levels. No association was found between the H+ allele and Ser Allele with the total or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Group-wise haplotype frequencies were generated using the expectation-maximization algorithm to detect differences in overall haplotype frequency profiles between the case-control groups. The haplotype analysis showed that the H+ Ser and H- Ter were the "high-risk" and "low-risk" haplotypes for low HDL cholesterol and elevated triglyceride levels, respectively. In conclusion, the H+ Ser haplotype of the lipoprotein lipase gene was associated with low HDL cholesterol levels and hypertriglyceridemia in Asian Indians.

  14. Engendering Allograft Ignorance in a Mouse Model of Allogeneic Skin Transplantation to the Distal Hind Limb

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shailesh; Loder, Shawn; Wood, Sherri; Cederna, Paul S.; Bishop, D. Keith; Wang, Stewart C.; Levi, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to demonstrate lymphatic isolation in a model of hind limb lymph node (LN) excision, consisting of ipsilateral popliteal and inguinal LN excision and to evaluate the immunologic response to allogeneic skin transplanted onto this region of lymphatic isolation. Methods To study lymphatic flow, C57BL/6 mice underwent lymphadenectomy (n = 5), sham lymphadenectomy (n = 5), or no intervention (n = 5), followed by methylene blue injection. Mice were dissected to determine whether methylene blue traveled to the iliac LN. To study host response to skin transplantation, C57BL/6 mice underwent allogeneic skin transplantation with LN excision (n = 6), allogeneic skin transplantation alone (n = 6), or syngeneic skin transplantation (n = 4). Skin grafts were placed distal to the popliteal fossa and mice were euthanized at day 10. Grafts were stained for endothelial cell and proliferation markers (CD31 and Ki67, respectively). Secondary lymphoid tissues (spleen, ipsilateral axillary LN, and contralateral inguinal LN) were removed and rechallenged with BALB/c alloantigen in vitro with subsequent assay of interferon-γ and interleukin 4 cell expression using ELISPOT technique. Results Mice that underwent LN excision had no evidence of methylene blue in the iliac nodes; mice without surgical intervention or with sham LN excision consistently had methylene blue visible in the ipsilateral iliac nodes. Mice treated with allogeneic skin transplantation and LN excision had lower expression of interferon-γ and interleukin 4 in the secondary lymphoid tissues. Conclusions Lymph node excision completely interrupts lymphatic flow of the hind limb. This model of lymphatic isolation impairs the ability of the transplant recipient to acutely mount a Th1 or Th2 response to allogeneic skin transplants. PMID:24509194

  15. Imaging receptor for advanced glycation end product expression in mouse model of hind limb ischemia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to image the effect of diabetes on expression of receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) in limb ischemia in live animals. Methods Male wild-type C57BL/6 mice were either made diabetic or left as control. Two months later, diabetic and non-diabetic mice underwent left femoral artery ligation. The right leg served as lesion control. Five days later, mice were injected with 15.1 ± 4.4 MBq 99mTc-anti-RAGE F(ab’)2 and 4 to 5 h later (blood pool clearance) underwent SPECT/CT imaging. At the completion of imaging, mice were euthanized, hind limbs counted and sectioned, and scans reconstructed. Regions of interest were drawn on serial transverse sections comprising the hind limbs and activity in millicuries summed and divided by the injected dose (ID). Quantitative histology was performed for RAGE staining and angiogenesis. Results Uptake of 99mTc-anti-RAGE F(ab')2 as %ID × 10−3 was higher in the left (ischemic) limbs for the diabetic mice (n = 8) compared to non-diabetic mice (n = 8) (1.20 ± 0.44% vs. 0.49 ± 0.40%; P = 0.0007) and corresponded to less angiogenesis in the diabetic mice. Uptake was also higher in the right limbs of diabetic compared to non-diabetic animals (0.82 ± 0.33% vs. 0.40 ± 0.14%; P = 0.0004). Conclusions These data show the feasibility of imaging and quantifying the effect of diabetes on RAGE expression in limb ischemia. PMID:23663412

  16. Disparate Igf1 expression and growth in the fore- and hind limbs of a marsupial mammal (Monodelphis domestica).

    PubMed

    Sears, Karen E; Patel, Ankit; Hübler, Merla; Cao, Xiaoyi; Vandeberg, John L; Zhong, Sheng

    2012-06-01

    Proper regulation of growth is essential to all stages of life, from development of the egg into an embryo to the maintenance of normal cell cycle progression in adults. However, despite growth's importance to basic biology and health, little is known about how mammalian growth is regulated. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis of the highly disparate growth of opossum fore- and hind limbs in utero. We first used a novel, opossum-specific microarray to identify several growth-related genes that are differentially expressed in opossum fore- and hind limbs of comparable developmental stages. These genes included Igf1. Given Igf1's role in the growth of other systems, we further investigated the role of Igf1 in opossum limb growth. Supporting the microarray results, RT-PCR indicated that Igf1 levels are approximately two times higher in opossum fore- than hind limbs. Consistent with this, while Igf1 transcripts were readily detectable in opossum forelimbs using whole-mount in situ hybridization, they were not detectable in opossum hind limbs. Furthermore, opossum limbs treated with exogenous Igf1 protein experienced significantly greater cellular proliferation and growth than control limbs in vitro. Taken together, results suggest that the differential expression of Igf1 in developing opossum limbs contributes to their divergent rate of growth, and the unique limb phenotype of opossum newborns. This study establishes the opossum limb as a new mammalian model system for study of organ growth.

  17. Exploring the putative role of TRPV1 -dependent CGRP release in remote hind preconditioning-induced cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Puneet Kaur; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2017-10-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a phenomenon whereby transient nonlethal ischemia and reperfusion episodes confer protection against prolonged ischemia reperfusion-induced injury. However, the underlying intracellular signaling has not been extensively explored. This study aimed to inspect the putative involvement of TRPV1 -dependent CGRP release in mediating remote hind limb preconditioning-induced cardioprotection. In this study, remote hind limb preconditioning stimulus was delivered (four consecutive episodes of 5 minutes of ischemia reperfusion) using a blood pressure cuff tied at the inguinal level of the rat. The isolated rat hearts were perfused on the Langendorff's system and were subjected to 30-minutes global ischemia and 120-minutes reperfusion. Prolonged ischemia and subsequent reperfusion led to myocardial injury that was evaluated in terms of infarct size, LDH release, CK release, LVDP, +dp/dtmax , -dp/dtmin , and coronary flow rate. The pharmacological agents used in this study included capsaicin as TRPV1 channel activator, sumatriptan and CGRP8-37 as CGRP blockers. Remote hind limb and capsaicin preconditioning (10 mg/kg(-1) ) significantly reduced the infarct size, LDH release, CK release and significantly improved LVDP, +dp/dtmax , -dp/dtmin , and coronary flow rate. However, remote hind limb and capsaicin preconditioning-induced cardioprotective effects were remarkably reduced in the presence of sumatriptan (8 mg/kg(-1) ) and CGRP8-37 (1 mg/kg(-1) ). This indicates that remote hind limb preconditioning stimulus probably activates TRPV1 channels which subsequently induces CGRP release to produce cardioprotective effects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Investigating the involvement of TRPV1 ion channels in remote hind limb preconditioning-induced cardioprotection in rats.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Puneet Kaur; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2017-02-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) treatment strategy is a breakthrough in the field of cardiovascular pharmacology as it has the potential to attenuate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the underlying intracellular pathways have not been widely explored. The present study intends to explore the possible role of TRPV1 channels in mediating remote hind limb preconditioning-induced cardioprotection. Remote hind limb preconditioning stimulus (4 cycles in succession) was delivered by tying the blood pressure cuff at the inguinal level of the rat. The Langendorff system was used to perfuse the isolated heart and afterward was subjected to 30 min of global ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. Sustained ischemia and, thereafter, reperfusion led to cardiac injury that was assessed in terms of infarct size, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, creatine kinase (CK) release, left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP), left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), +dp/dtmax, -dp/dtmin, heart rate, rate pressure product, and coronary flow rate. The pharmacological modulators employed included capsaicin as TRPV1 agonist and capsazepine as TRPV1 antagonist. Remote hind limb preconditioning stimulus and capsaicin preconditioning (5 and 10 mg/kg) led to significant reduction in infarct size, LVEDP, LDH release, CK release, and significant improvement in LVDP, +dp/dtmax, -dp/dtmin, heart rate, rate pressure product, and coronary flow rate. However, remote hind limb preconditioning-induced cardioprotective effects were considerably abolished in the presence of capsazepine (2.5 and 5 mg/kg). This indicates that remote hind limb preconditioning stimulus possibly activates TRPV1 channels to produce cardioprotective effects.

  19. P2Y2 nucleotide receptor mediates arteriogenesis in a murine model of hind limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    McEnaney, Ryan M; Shukla, Ankur; Madigan, Michael C; Sachdev, Ulka; Tzeng, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Arteriogenesis represents the maturation of preformed vascular connections in response to flow changes and shear stress. These collateral vessels can restore up to 60% of the native blood flow. Shear stress and vascular injury can induce the release of nucleotides from vascular smooth muscle cells and platelets that can serve as signaling ligands, suggesting they may be involved in mediating arteriogenesis. The P2Y2 nucleotide receptor (P2Y2R) has also been shown to mediate smooth muscle migration and arterial remodeling. Thus, we hypothesize that P2Y2R mediates arteriogenesis in response to ischemia. Hind limb ischemia was induced by femoral artery ligation (FAL) in C57Bl/6NJ or P2Y2R negative mice (P2Y2(-/-)). Hind limb perfusion was measured with laser Doppler perfusion imaging and compared with the sham-operated contralateral limb immediately and at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after ligation. Collateral vessel size was measured by Microfil casting. Muscle specimens were harvested and analyzed with immunohistochemistry for Ki67, vascular cell adhesion molecule, macrophages, and muscle viability by hematoxylin and essoin stain. Hind limb ischemia induced by FAL in C57Bl/6NJ mice resulted in significant ischemia as measured by laser Doppler perfusion imaging. There was rapid recovery to nearly normal levels of perfusion by 2 weeks. FAL in P2Y2(-/-) mice resulted in severe ischemia with greater tissue loss. Recovery of perfusion was impaired, achieving only 40% compared with wild-type mice by 28 days. Collateral vessels in the P2Y2(-/-) mice were underdeveloped, with reduced vascular cell proliferation and smaller vessel size. The collaterals were ∼65% the size of wild-type collateral vessels (P = .011). Angiogenesis at 28 days in the ischemic muscle, however, was greater in the P2Y2(-/-) mice (P < .001), possibly related to persistent ischemia leading and angiogenic drive. Early macrophage recruitment was reduced by nearly 70% in P2Y2(-/-) despite significantly

  20. [Effect of two types of intermittent pressure on formation of pressure ulcer in rabbit hind limbs].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianghui; Wang, Weiping; Wang, Keke; Chen, Xilin; Li, Qiang; Dai, Qiangsheng; Wang, Yongqian; Ji, Zhongliang

    2009-08-01

    To compare the effect of two types of intermittent pressure on formation of pressure ulcer in rabbit hind limbs and to investigate the mechanism of gradually changed intermittent pressure produced by waves bed in the prevention of pressure ulcer. Gracilis (3 cm2) in both hind limbs of 12 adult Japanese white rabbits were randomly loaded with gradually changed intermittent pressure (50-160 mm Hg, 1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa) and sustained pressure (100 mmHg) serving as the experimental group and the control group, respectively. The experiment was terminated after 4 cycles, and a single cycle included 2 hours of compression and 30 minutes of compression-release. Blood velocity of hind limbs and blood perfusion of wound were detected by bidirectional Doppler blood flow detector and laser Doppler perfusion imaging detection system before compression and at every 10 minutes in compression-release period of each cycle (0, 10, 20 and 30 minutes). After the termination, gross observation of the wound was conducted, pathomorphological changes of tissues from compressed area were observed by HE staining, and contents of NO, malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in muscle tissue were measured using colorimetry method. No significant difference was evident between two groups in terms of blood flow velocity before compression (P > 0.05); the blood flow velocity of two groups decreased significantly at 0 minute in every compression-release period of each cycle, and no significant differences were noted between two groups (P > 0.05); the blood flow velocity of the experimental group was higher than that of the control group at 10, 20 and 30 minutes (P < 0.05). No significant difference was noted between two groups in terms of wound blood perfusion before compression (P > 0.05); the wound blood perfusion of two groups decreased significantly at 0 minute in every compression-release period of each cycle, and no significant differences were noted between two groups (P > 0

  1. Earth's Dynamo: Fore- and Hind- casting Limits from a Variational Data Assimilation Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, L. L.; Egbert, G. D.; Kuang, W.; Tangborn, A.

    2010-12-01

    In the last decade, fully 3-D, nonlinear numerical dynamo models have allowed for the study of many geomagnetic field features. As the ultimate goal of geodynamo simulations is to explain the features of the real geomagnetic field, variational data assimilation (DA) techniques, in which observations are combined with the underlying dynamical principles governing the system, are a logical next step. A variational approach to DA allows inputs (e.g., initial and boundary data, and forcing) to be adjusted to simultaneously fit dynamical equations and observational data by minimizing a cost functional. The increased resolution and accuracy of geomagnetic field models and observations in recent years can be used to, on one hand, improve estimates of the geodynamo state in earlier years and, on the other hand, to produce better forecasts. Consequently, of interest is the time scales on which such fore- and hind- predictions are appropriate. Recently, Hullot et al. [2010] used a series of perturbed numerical dynamo simulations to estimate a time limit for predictability (time for forecast errors to grow to 100 nT) of 50-70 years for the geodynamo. We present our ongoing effort to develop modern variational DA methods (based on the representers, potentially allowing for weak constraint DA) for the Modular Scalable Self-consistent Three-dimensional (MoSST) geodynamo simulator. An implementation of variational DA requires developing tangent linear (TL) and adjoint (ADJ) codes for the nonlinear forcing and the three different time stepping schemes. The adjoint of the numerical time-stepping schemes is calculated in terms of adjoints of the discrete spatial operators. Because the linear parts of these operators are explicitly formed matrices, adjoints of these spatial operators are essentially matrix transposes. The non-linear terms, which must be linearized around a background state, require more care. The TL and the adjoint can be furthermore used to characterize (1) the

  2. A reproducible radiation delivery method for unanesthetized rodents during periods of hind limb unloading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walb, M. C.; Black, P. J.; Payne, V. S.; Munley, M. T.; Willey, J. S.

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to the spaceflight environment has long been known to be a health challenge concerning many body systems. Both microgravity and/or ionizing radiation can cause acute and chronic effects in multiple body systems. The hind limb unloaded (HLU) rodent model is a ground-based analogue for microgravity that can be used to simulate and study the combined biologic effects of reduced loading with spaceflight radiation exposure. However, studies delivering radiation to rodents during periods of HLU are rare. Herein we report the development of an irradiation protocol using a clinical linear accelerator that can be used with hind limb unloaded, unanesthetized rodents that is capable of being performed at most academic medical centers. A 30.5 cm × 30.5 cm × 40.6 cm rectangular chamber was constructed out of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sheets (0.64 cm thickness). Five centimeters of water-equivalent material were placed outside of two PMMA inserts on either side of the rodent that permitted the desired radiation dose buildup (electronic equilibrium) and helped to achieve a flatter dose profile. Perforated aluminum strips permitted the suspension dowel to be placed at varying heights depending on the rodent size. Radiation was delivered using a medical linear accelerator at an accelerating potential of 10 MV. A calibrated PTW Farmer ionization chamber, wrapped in appropriately thick tissue-equivalent bolus material to simulate the volume of the rodent, was used to verify a uniform dose distribution at various regions of the chamber. The dosimetry measurements confirmed variances typically within 3%, with maximum variance <10% indicated through optically stimulated luminescent dosimeter (OSLD) measurements, thus delivering reliable spaceflight-relevant total body doses and ensuring a uniform dose regardless of its location within the chamber. Due to the relative abundance of LINACs at academic medical centers and the reliability of their dosimetry properties, this

  3. Revising Australian Pristomerus (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cremastinae): species with a tooth on the hind femur.

    PubMed

    Klopfstein, Seraina

    2016-09-15

    The Australian insect fauna is among the least-well studied in the world, and conservative estimates state that 75% of the species still await description. In the more species-rich groups, this percentage might be even larger, which is certainly the case in parasitoid wasps which have received very little attention by taxonomists. The genus Pristomerus of the family Ichneumonidae is distributed worldwide, with most species found in the tropics. Its members attack concealed larvae of small Lepidoptera, and several species are used in biocontrol. Five species have been reported from Australia, all of them endemic, but many more undescribed species are present in various collections.        I here revise Australian Pristomerus, focussing on the species that bear a tooth on the ventral side of the hind femur. Twenty-two species are recorded, 19 of which are described as new: Pristomerus australiensis n. sp., P. bertschmanni n. sp., P. callitrinus n. sp., P. dundeei n. sp., P. flavicephalus n. sp., P. fourecksensis n. sp., P. gracilis n. sp., P. kakaduensis n. sp., P. laetus n. sp., P. luculentus n. sp., P. lunatus n. sp., P. mangiferus n. sp., P. merus n. sp., P. nedkellyi n. sp., P. pellicius n. sp., P. periculosus n. sp., P. stellatus n. sp., P. tenebrosus n. sp., and P. venustus n. sp. A dichotomous key and an online interactive key to the known Australian species with a tooth on the hind femur are provided, including photographs of all the species.        The origin of the considerable number of Australian Pristomerus species remains unclear. They might represent Southern relict elements with affinities to South American taxa, or their ancestors might have immigrated from the Paleotropics in more recent times; this question can only be solved with a dated phylogeny of the genus. However, support for a Palaeotropic origin of at least a good portion of the taxa comes from their current distribution, as the Australian Pristomerus are found to be most

  4. A Reproducible Radiation Delivery Method for Unanesthetized Rodents during Periods of Hind Limb Unloading

    PubMed Central

    Walb, M.C.; Black, P.J.; Payne, V.S.; Munley, M.T.; Willey, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to the spaceflight environment has long been known to be a health challenge concerning many body systems. Both microgravity and/or ionizing radiation can cause acute and chronic effects in multiple body systems. The hind limb unloaded (HLU) rodent model is a ground-based analogue for microgravity that can be used to simulate and study the combined biologic effects of reduced loading with spaceflight radiation exposure. However, studies delivering radiation to rodents during periods of HLU are rare. Herein we report the development of an irradiation protocol using a clinical linear accelerator that can be used with hind limb unloaded, unanesthetized rodents that is capable of being performed at most academic medical centers. A 30.5 cm × 30.5 cm × 40.6 cm rectangular chamber was constructed out of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sheets (0.64 cm thickness). Five cm of water-equivalent material were placed outside of two PMMA inserts on either side of the rodent that permitted the desired radiation dose buildup (electronic equilibrium) and helped to achieve a flatter dose profile. Perforated aluminum strips permitted the suspension dowel to be placed at varying heights depending on the rodent size. Radiation was delivered using a medical linear accelerator at an accelerating potential of 10 MV. A calibrated PTW Farmer ionization chamber, wrapped in appropriately thick tissue-equivalent bolus material to simulate the volume of the rodent, was used to verify a uniform dose distribution at various regions of the chamber. The dosimetry measurements confirmed variances typically within 3%, with maximum variance <10% indicated through optically stimulated luminescent dosimeter (OSLD) measurements, thus delivering reliable spaceflight-relevant total body doses and ensuring a uniform dose regardless of its location within the chamber. Due to the relative abundance of LINAC’s at academic medical centers and the reliability of their dosimetry properties, this method

  5. A reproducible radiation delivery method for unanesthetized rodents during periods of hind limb unloading.

    PubMed

    Walb, M C; Black, P J; Payne, V S; Munley, M T; Willey, J S

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to the spaceflight environment has long been known to be a health challenge concerning many body systems. Both microgravity and/or ionizing radiation can cause acute and chronic effects in multiple body systems. The hind limb unloaded (HLU) rodent model is a ground-based analogue for microgravity that can be used to simulate and study the combined biologic effects of reduced loading with spaceflight radiation exposure. However, studies delivering radiation to rodents during periods of HLU are rare. Herein we report the development of an irradiation protocol using a clinical linear accelerator that can be used with hind limb unloaded, unanesthetized rodents that is capable of being performed at most academic medical centers. A 30.5 cm×30.5 cm×40.6 cm30.5 cm×30.5 cm×40.6 cm rectangular chamber was constructed out of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sheets (0.64 cm thickness). Five centimeters of water-equivalent material were placed outside of two PMMA inserts on either side of the rodent that permitted the desired radiation dose buildup (electronic equilibrium) and helped to achieve a flatter dose profile. Perforated aluminum strips permitted the suspension dowel to be placed at varying heights depending on the rodent size. Radiation was delivered using a medical linear accelerator at an accelerating potential of 10 MV. A calibrated PTW Farmer ionization chamber, wrapped in appropriately thick tissue-equivalent bolus material to simulate the volume of the rodent, was used to verify a uniform dose distribution at various regions of the chamber. The dosimetry measurements confirmed variances typically within 3%, with maximum variance <10% indicated through optically stimulated luminescent dosimeter (OSLD) measurements, thus delivering reliable spaceflight-relevant total body doses and ensuring a uniform dose regardless of its location within the chamber. Due to the relative abundance of LINACs at academic medical centers and the reliability of their

  6. Effects of Hind Limb Unloading on Pharmacokinetics of Procainamide in Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risin, Semyon A.; Dasgupta, Amitava; Ramesh, Govindarajan T.; Risin, Diana

    2007-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of medications administered to astronauts could be altered by the conditions in space. It is prudent to expect that low gravity and free floating (and associated hemodynamic changes) could affect the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the drugs. Knowledge of these alterations is essential for adjusting the dosage and the regimen of drug administration. Among the medications of special interest are the cardiovascular drugs, especially the antiarrhythmic agents. In this study we used hind limb unloaded (HLU) mice as a model to investigate possible changes in the PK of a common antiarrhythmic drug procainamide (PA). Prior to drug administration the experimental animals were tail suspended for 24 hours and the control animals were kept free. PA (150-250 mg per kg) was given orally by a gavage procedure. After that the experimental mice were kept suspended for additional 1, 2, 3 and 6 hours. At these time points the serum concentration of PA and N-acetyl-procainamide (NAPA), an active metabolite which is formed by N-acetyltransferase in the liver, were measured by the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) on the AxSYM autoanalyzer (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL). The serum level of PA in HLU mice at 1 hour after administration was almost 40% lower than in controls. At 2-3 hours the difference still maintained, however, it was not statistically significant; at 6 hours no difference was detected. The level of NAPA in HLU mice was slightly lower at 1 and 2 hours but the difference did not reach statistical significance. The estimated PA half-life time in HLU mice was almost 55% longer than in control animals. These results confirm that hind limb unloading and related hemodynamic changes significantly alter the PK of PA. The effects are most likely primarily associated with a decrease in the drug absorption, especially within the first two hours after administration. At the same time prolongation of the PA half

  7. Effects of Hind Limb Unloading on Pharmacokinetics of Procainamide in Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risin, Semyon A.; Dasgupta, Amitava; Ramesh, Govindarajan T.; Risin, Diana

    2007-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of medications administered to astronauts could be altered by the conditions in space. It is prudent to expect that low gravity and free floating (and associated hemodynamic changes) could affect the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the drugs. Knowledge of these alterations is essential for adjusting the dosage and the regimen of drug administration. Among the medications of special interest are the cardiovascular drugs, especially the antiarrhythmic agents. In this study we used hind limb unloaded (HLU) mice as a model to investigate possible changes in the PK of a common antiarrhythmic drug procainamide (PA). Prior to drug administration the experimental animals were tail suspended for 24 hours and the control animals were kept free. PA (150-250 mg per kg) was given orally by a gavage procedure. After that the experimental mice were kept suspended for additional 1, 2, 3 and 6 hours. At these time points the serum concentration of PA and N-acetyl-procainamide (NAPA), an active metabolite which is formed by N-acetyltransferase in the liver, were measured by the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) on the AxSYM autoanalyzer (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL). The serum level of PA in HLU mice at 1 hour after administration was almost 40% lower than in controls. At 2-3 hours the difference still maintained, however, it was not statistically significant; at 6 hours no difference was detected. The level of NAPA in HLU mice was slightly lower at 1 and 2 hours but the difference did not reach statistical significance. The estimated PA half-life time in HLU mice was almost 55% longer than in control animals. These results confirm that hind limb unloading and related hemodynamic changes significantly alter the PK of PA. The effects are most likely primarily associated with a decrease in the drug absorption, especially within the first two hours after administration. At the same time prolongation of the PA half

  8. A gigantic new dinosaur from Argentina and the evolution of the sauropod hind foot.

    PubMed

    González Riga, Bernardo J; Lamanna, Matthew C; Ortiz David, Leonardo D; Calvo, Jorge O; Coria, Juan P

    2016-01-18

    Titanosauria is an exceptionally diverse, globally-distributed clade of sauropod dinosaurs that includes the largest known land animals. Knowledge of titanosaurian pedal structure is critical to understanding the stance and locomotion of these enormous herbivores and, by extension, gigantic terrestrial vertebrates as a whole. However, completely preserved pedes are extremely rare among Titanosauria, especially as regards the truly giant members of the group. Here we describe Notocolossus gonzalezparejasi gen. et sp. nov. from the Upper Cretaceous of Mendoza Province, Argentina. With a powerfully-constructed humerus 1.76 m in length, Notocolossus is one of the largest known dinosaurs. Furthermore, the complete pes of the new taxon exhibits a strikingly compact, homogeneous metatarsus--seemingly adapted for bearing extraordinary weight--and truncated unguals, morphologies that are otherwise unknown in Sauropoda. The pes underwent a near-progressive reduction in the number of phalanges along the line to derived titanosaurs, eventually resulting in the reduced hind foot of these sauropods.

  9. HindIII polymorphism in the human c-sis proto-oncogene

    SciTech Connect

    Fourney, R.M.; Dietrich, K.D.; Aubin, R.A.; Paterson, M.C. )

    1988-08-25

    The 2.0 kb BamH1 restriction fragment corresponding to a cDNA insert encoding the human c-sis PDGF A chain and nucleotide sequences homologous to the v-sis gene was isolated from plasmid pSM-1. An identical polymorphism was noted using the 1.2 kb PstI fragment or the 1.0 kb PstI/XbaI fragment isolated from the v-sis sequence subcloned in the plasmid pV-sis. HindIII identifies a single bi-allelic polymorphism with bands at 22.6 kb and 19.4 kb. Co-dominant segregation was demonstrated in 1 family. This polymorphism is not easily detected unless the restricted DNA is separated on 0.6-0.8% agarose gels. Resolution was optimal if gels were run until the bromophenol blue tracking dye had migrated 14 cm from the origin and Southern blotting was performed under alkaline conditions.

  10. Muscle moment arms of the gibbon hind limb: implications for hylobatid locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Channon, Anthony J; Crompton, Robin H; Günther, Michael M; Vereecke, Evie E

    2010-01-01

    Muscles facilitate skeletal movement via the production of a torque or moment about a joint. The magnitude of the moment produced depends on both the force of muscular contraction and the size of the moment arm used to rotate the joint. Hence, larger muscle moment arms generate larger joint torques and forces at the point of application. The moment arms of a number of gibbon hind limb muscles were measured on four cadaveric specimens (one Hylobates lar, one H. moloch and two H. syndactylus). The tendon travel technique was used, utilizing an electro-goniometer and a linear voltage displacement transducer. The data were analysed using a technique based on a differentiated cubic spline and normalized to remove the effect of body size. The data demonstrated a functional differentiation between voluminous muscles with short fascicles having small muscle moment arms and muscles with longer fascicles and comparatively smaller physiological cross-sectional area having longer muscle moment arms. The functional implications of these particular configurations were simulated using a simple geometric fascicle strain model that predicts that the rectus femoris and gastrocnemius muscles are more likely to act primarily at their distal joints (knee and ankle, respectively) because they have short fascicles. The data also show that the main hip and knee extensors maintain a very small moment arm throughout the range of joint angles seen in the locomotion of gibbons, which (coupled to voluminous, short-fascicled muscles) might help facilitate rapid joint rotation during powerful movements. PMID:20447251

  11. A gigantic new dinosaur from Argentina and the evolution of the sauropod hind foot

    PubMed Central

    González Riga, Bernardo J.; Lamanna, Matthew C.; Ortiz David, Leonardo D.; Calvo, Jorge O.; Coria, Juan P.

    2016-01-01

    Titanosauria is an exceptionally diverse, globally-distributed clade of sauropod dinosaurs that includes the largest known land animals. Knowledge of titanosaurian pedal structure is critical to understanding the stance and locomotion of these enormous herbivores and, by extension, gigantic terrestrial vertebrates as a whole. However, completely preserved pedes are extremely rare among Titanosauria, especially as regards the truly giant members of the group. Here we describe Notocolossus gonzalezparejasi gen. et sp. nov. from the Upper Cretaceous of Mendoza Province, Argentina. With a powerfully-constructed humerus 1.76 m in length, Notocolossus is one of the largest known dinosaurs. Furthermore, the complete pes of the new taxon exhibits a strikingly compact, homogeneous metatarsus—seemingly adapted for bearing extraordinary weight—and truncated unguals, morphologies that are otherwise unknown in Sauropoda. The pes underwent a near-progressive reduction in the number of phalanges along the line to derived titanosaurs, eventually resulting in the reduced hind foot of these sauropods. PMID:26777391

  12. Local and distant trauma after hypervelocity ballistic impact to the pig hind limb.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Wei; Kang, Jian-Yi; Chen, Kui-Jun; Wang, Ai-Min; Wang, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    The development of high-energy weapons could increase the velocity of projectiles to well over 1000 m/s. The nature of the injuries caused by the ballistic impact of projectiles at velocities much faster than 1000 m/s is unclear. This study characterizes the mechanical and biochemical alterations caused by high-speed ballistic impact generated by spherical steel ball to the hind limbs of the pig. That the local and distal injuries caused by hypervelocity ballistic impact to the living body are also identified. It is showed that the severity of the injury was positively correlated with the velocity of the projectile. And 4000 m/s seems to be the critical velocity for the 5.6 mm spherical steel ball, which would cause severe damage to either local or distal organs, as below that speed the projectile penetrated the body while above that speed it caused severe damage to the body. In addition, vaporization prevented the projectile from penetrating the body and the consequent pressure wave seems to be the causal factor for the distant damage.

  13. A gigantic new dinosaur from Argentina and the evolution of the sauropod hind foot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Riga, Bernardo J.; Lamanna, Matthew C.; Ortiz David, Leonardo D.; Calvo, Jorge O.; Coria, Juan P.

    2016-01-01

    Titanosauria is an exceptionally diverse, globally-distributed clade of sauropod dinosaurs that includes the largest known land animals. Knowledge of titanosaurian pedal structure is critical to understanding the stance and locomotion of these enormous herbivores and, by extension, gigantic terrestrial vertebrates as a whole. However, completely preserved pedes are extremely rare among Titanosauria, especially as regards the truly giant members of the group. Here we describe Notocolossus gonzalezparejasi gen. et sp. nov. from the Upper Cretaceous of Mendoza Province, Argentina. With a powerfully-constructed humerus 1.76 m in length, Notocolossus is one of the largest known dinosaurs. Furthermore, the complete pes of the new taxon exhibits a strikingly compact, homogeneous metatarsus—seemingly adapted for bearing extraordinary weight—and truncated unguals, morphologies that are otherwise unknown in Sauropoda. The pes underwent a near-progressive reduction in the number of phalanges along the line to derived titanosaurs, eventually resulting in the reduced hind foot of these sauropods.

  14. Du-zhong (Eucommia ulmoides) prevents disuse-induced osteoporosis in hind limb suspension rats.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yalei; Niu, Yinbo; Li, Chenrui; Zhai, Yuankun; Zhang, Rong; Guo, Xin; Mei, Qibing

    2014-01-01

    Du-Zhong has a long history of being used in traditional Chinese formulas to treat bone related diseases. The objective of the present study is to systematically investigate the effects of Du-Zhong cortex extract (DZCE) on disuse-induced osteoporosis. Rats were randomly divided into four groups, and three groups were treated with hind limb suspension (HLS). Control and HLS group received deionized distilled water, while the other two groups received alendronate (2.0 mg/kg/day) and DZCE (300 mg/kg/day) respectively by intragastric gavage for six weeks (two weeks prior to and during the four weeks of HLS). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, assay of biochemical markers, and three-point bending test were employed to determine the effect of various treatments on bone mass, turnover, and strength. The trabecular bone microarchitecture was assessed by microCT analysis. DZCE could effectively prevent the bone loss induced by HLS, which was indicated by decreased levels of bone turnover markers as well as the changes in urinary calcium and phosphorus. The DZCE treatment also enhanced the biomechanical strength of bone and prevented the deterioration of trabecular bone microarchitecture. DZCE administration was able to prevent disuse-induced osteoporosis by regulating the bone metabolism, suggesting that DZCE could be used as an alternative therapy for the prevention of disuse-induced osteoporosis.

  15. Influence of 14-day hind limb unloading on isolated muscle spindle activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue Hong; Fan, Xiao Li; Song, Xin Ai; Wu, Su Di; Ren, Jun Chan; Chen, Ming Xia

    2010-09-01

    During hind limb unloading (HU), the soleus is often in a shortened position and the natural physiological stimulus of muscle spindles is altered, such that muscle spindle activity also changes. Using isolated spindle conditions, the present study investigates the electrophysiological activity and ultrastructure of muscle spindles following HU. Results show that muscle spindle discharges fall into either of two main patterns, single spikes or spike clusters in shortened positions, with a steady frequency of 18-38 spikes/s (mean 29.08 +/- 2.45) in an extended position. Following 14-day HU, afferent discharge activity was significantly altered in soleus muscle spindles. Duration of individual spikes was significantly prolonged, from 0.54 +/- 0.05 ms for control rats to 1.53 +/- 0.25 ms for rats in the HU group. In a shortened position, regular rhythm afferent discharges were obviously depressed, and the majority of muscle spindles became silent, while in an extended position, the discharges remained continuous but with decreased frequency. Results also show that the ultrastructure of muscle spindles experience degenerative changes during HU. Altered muscle spindle afference could possibly modify the activity of motor neurons and further affect the activity of extrafusal fibers.

  16. The development of functional innervation in the hind limb of the chick embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Landmesser, L; Morris, D G

    1975-01-01

    1. The development of functional motor innervation was studied in the hind limb of chick embryos from Stages 25 to 43 by observing contraction of individual muscles and by recording the resultant tension when individual spinal nerves were electrically stimulated. 2. At later developmental stages (35-43) a given muscle always received functional innervation from specific spinal nerves. This pattern, with respect to the craniocaudal position of motoneurones, was similar to those described for amphibians and mammals. 3. The observed pattern was similar throughout development from the time that movement could first be elicited at Stages 27-28. There was no indication that motoneurones form initial synapses with inappropriate muscles. 4. Recordings from muscle nerves during excitation of individual spinal nerves gave results similar to the tension recordings, showing that even at early developmental stages muscle nerves did not contain substantial numbers of inappropriate axons. 5. Most limb muscles or primitive muscle masses became functionally innervated at the same time with no clearly defined proximo-distal sequence of limb innervation. 6. It appears that chick motoneurones are initially specified with respect to their peripheral destination and grow out selectively to synapse with appropriate muscles from the outset. PMID:1177095

  17. Mechanical Overloading Increases Maximal Force and Reduces Fragility in Hind Limb Skeletal Muscle from Mdx Mouse.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Arnaud; Parlakian, Ara; Joanne, Pierre; Fraysse, Bodvael; Mgrditchian, Takouhie; Roy, Pauline; Furling, Denis; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Agbulut, Onnik

    2015-07-01

    There is fear that mechanical overloading (OVL; ie, high-force contractions) accelerates Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Herein, we determined whether short-term OVL combined with wheel running, short-term OVL combined with irradiation, and long-term OVL are detrimental for hind limb mdx mouse muscle, a murine model of Duchene muscular dystrophy exhibiting milder dystrophic features. OVL was induced by the surgical ablation of the synergic muscles of the plantaris muscle, a fast muscle susceptible to contraction-induced muscle damage in mdx mice. We found that short-term OVL combined with wheel and long-term OVL did not worsen the deficit in specific maximal force (ie, absolute maximal force normalized to muscle size) and histological markers of muscle damage (percentage of regenerating fibers and fibrosis) in mdx mice. Moreover, long-term OVL did not increase the alteration in calcium homeostasis and did not deplete muscle cell progenitors expressing Pax 7 in mdx mice. Irradiation before short-term OVL, which is believed to inhibit muscle regeneration, was not more detrimental to mdx than control mice. Interestingly, short-term OVL combined with wheel and long-term OVL markedly improved the susceptibility to contraction-induced damage, increased absolute maximal force, induced hypertrophy, and promoted a slower, more oxidative phenotype. Together, these findings indicate that OVL is beneficial to mdx muscle, and muscle regeneration does not mask the potentially detrimental effect of OVL. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Morphological changes in hind limb muscles elicited by adjuvant-induced arthritis of the rat knee.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, J; Kurose, T; Kawamata, S; Yamaoka, K

    2010-02-01

    We investigated qualitative and quantitative changes in rat hind limb muscles caused by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced knee joint pain. One week after CFA injection, muscle atrophy was induced only on the CFA-injected side. Wet weight of the rectus femoris (RF) and soleus (SOL) muscles were significantly decreased by 20% and 19%, respectively. The reduction in cross-sectional areas by CFA was similar for fast and slow muscle fibers in the RF (10% vs 15%, respectively) and SOL muscles (16% vs 16%, respectively). At the light microscopic level, pathological changes were not found in the RF muscles on both sides, although the infiltration of mononuclear cells and muscle regeneration were found in the SOL muscles on CFA-injected and contralateral control sides. On the other hand, electron microscopy revealed degenerative changes in the RF and SOL muscles on the CFA-injected side. Interestingly, sarcomere hypercontraction, indicating overexercise, was observed to a limited extent in the SOL muscles on the control side. In conclusions, knee joint pain can trigger the rapid development of muscle atrophy with degenerative changes not only in thigh but also calf muscles. This indicates that early interventions to inhibit joint pain or inflammation may prevent muscle atrophy.

  19. Muscle moment arms of the gibbon hind limb: implications for hylobatid locomotion.

    PubMed

    Channon, Anthony J; Crompton, Robin H; Günther, Michael M; Vereecke, Evie E

    2010-04-01

    Muscles facilitate skeletal movement via the production of a torque or moment about a joint. The magnitude of the moment produced depends on both the force of muscular contraction and the size of the moment arm used to rotate the joint. Hence, larger muscle moment arms generate larger joint torques and forces at the point of application. The moment arms of a number of gibbon hind limb muscles were measured on four cadaveric specimens (one Hylobates lar, one H. moloch and two H. syndactylus). The tendon travel technique was used, utilizing an electro-goniometer and a linear voltage displacement transducer. The data were analysed using a technique based on a differentiated cubic spline and normalized to remove the effect of body size. The data demonstrated a functional differentiation between voluminous muscles with short fascicles having small muscle moment arms and muscles with longer fascicles and comparatively smaller physiological cross-sectional area having longer muscle moment arms. The functional implications of these particular configurations were simulated using a simple geometric fascicle strain model that predicts that the rectus femoris and gastrocnemius muscles are more likely to act primarily at their distal joints (knee and ankle, respectively) because they have short fascicles. The data also show that the main hip and knee extensors maintain a very small moment arm throughout the range of joint angles seen in the locomotion of gibbons, which (coupled to voluminous, short-fascicled muscles) might help facilitate rapid joint rotation during powerful movements.

  20. Segmentation of digitized histological sections for quantification of the muscularized vasculature in the mouse hind limb.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yiwen; Pickering, J Geoffrey; Nong, Zengxuan; Ward, Aaron D

    2017-04-01

    Immunohistochemical tissue staining enhances microvasculature characteristics, including the smooth muscle in the medial layer of the vessel walls that is responsible for regulation of blood flow. The vasculature can be imaged in a comprehensive fashion using whole-slide scanning. However, since each such image potentially contains hundreds of small vessels, manual vessel delineation and quantification is not practically feasible. In this work, we present a fully automatic segmentation and vasculature quantification algorithm for whole-slide images. We evaluated its performance on tissue samples drawn from the hind limbs of wild-type mice, stained for smooth muscle using 3,3'-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) immunostain. The algorithm was designed to be robust to vessel fragmentation due to staining irregularity, and artefactual staining of nonvessel objects. Colour deconvolution was used to isolate the DAB stain for detection of vessel wall fragments. Complete vessels were reconstructed from the fragments by joining endpoints of topological skeletons. Automatic measures of vessel density, perimeter, wall area and local wall thickness were taken. The segmentation algorithm was validated against manual measures, resulting in a Dice similarity coefficient of 89%. The relationships observed between these measures were as expected from a biological standpoint, providing further reinforcement of the accuracy of this system. This system provides a fully automated and accurate means of measuring the arteriolar and venular morphology of vascular smooth muscle.

  1. Influence of level of nutrition during late pregnancy on reproductive productivity of red deer (2) Adult hinds gestating wapitixred deer crossbred calves.

    PubMed

    Asher, G W; Scott, I C; O'Neill, K T; Littlejohn, R P

    2005-04-01

    The present study aimed to relate feed intake of red deer hinds in the later stages of gestating wapitixred deer crossbred foetuses on dam body condition, gestation length, birth weight and calf growth. Multiparous hinds (N=18) conceiving at known dates to either wapiti (n=12) or red deer (n=6) sires were housed in individual pens from days 150-220 of pregnancy, during which time they were offered either ad libitum access to pelletised rations (n=6 crossbred-bearing hinds [HH] and n=6 red deer-bearing hinds [RH]) or a restricted offer (n=6 crossbred-bearing hinds [HL]) set at 70% of the average ad libitum intake of HH hind in the previous week. Hinds were returned to pasture at day 220 and calving was closely monitored. Liveweights, body condition score (BCS), and lactation score (LS) of hinds were recorded weekly from day 130 of pregnancy until calves were weaned at 12 weeks of age. Calves were tagged and weighed at birth, and subsequently weighed at 7 and 12 weeks of age. HH and RH hinds exhibited similar patterns and levels of MEI/kg0.75, which peaked at 7.8 MJME/kg0.75 at day 220. HL hinds peaked at approximately 5 MJME/kg0.75 and showed significantly lower rates of liveweight gain during pregnancy. Interestingly, both crossbred-bearing groups initiated mammary development in advance of the RH hinds. While there were significant effects of foetal genotype on mean gestation length (239 days versus 234 days for crossbred versus red deer) and mean birth weight (14.5 kg versus 10 kg), the nutritional contrast for gestation length of crossbred-bearing hinds (i.e. HH versus HL) was not significant but approached significance for birth weight (14.5 kg versus 11.9 kg; P=0.06). Regression analysis revealed weak relationships between changes in hind liveweight and gestation length (P>0.05) but a significant relationship with birth weight (P<0.05). However, change in hind BCS was significantly related to both gestation length and birth weight. Crossbred calves reared by

  2. Clonal analysis reveals nerve-dependent and independent roles on mammalian hind limb tissue maintenance and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Rinkevich, Yuval; Montoro, Daniel T; Muhonen, Ethan; Walmsley, Graham G; Lo, David; Hasegawa, Masakazu; Januszyk, Michael; Connolly, Andrew J; Weissman, Irving L; Longaker, Michael T

    2014-07-08

    The requirement and influence of the peripheral nervous system on tissue replacement in mammalian appendages remain largely undefined. To explore this question, we have performed genetic lineage tracing and clonal analysis of individual cells of mouse hind limb tissues devoid of nerve supply during regeneration of the digit tip, normal maintenance, and cutaneous wound healing. We show that cellular turnover, replacement, and cellular differentiation from presumed tissue stem/progenitor cells within hind limb tissues remain largely intact independent of nerve and nerve-derived factors. However, regenerated digit tips in the absence of nerves displayed patterning defects in bone and nail matrix. These nerve-dependent phenotypes mimic clinical observations of patients with nerve damage resulting from spinal cord injury and are of significant interest for translational medicine aimed at understanding the effects of nerves on etiologies of human injury.

  3. Clonal analysis reveals nerve-dependent and independent roles on mammalian hind limb tissue maintenance and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rinkevich, Yuval; Montoro, Daniel T.; Muhonen, Ethan; Walmsley, Graham G.; Lo, David; Hasegawa, Masakazu; Januszyk, Michael; Connolly, Andrew J.; Weissman, Irving L.; Longaker, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    The requirement and influence of the peripheral nervous system on tissue replacement in mammalian appendages remain largely undefined. To explore this question, we have performed genetic lineage tracing and clonal analysis of individual cells of mouse hind limb tissues devoid of nerve supply during regeneration of the digit tip, normal maintenance, and cutaneous wound healing. We show that cellular turnover, replacement, and cellular differentiation from presumed tissue stem/progenitor cells within hind limb tissues remain largely intact independent of nerve and nerve-derived factors. However, regenerated digit tips in the absence of nerves displayed patterning defects in bone and nail matrix. These nerve-dependent phenotypes mimic clinical observations of patients with nerve damage resulting from spinal cord injury and are of significant interest for translational medicine aimed at understanding the effects of nerves on etiologies of human injury. PMID:24958860

  4. Possible living fossil in Bolivia: A new genus of flea beetles with modified hind legs (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini)

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinov, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new genus (Chanealtica) with three new species (Chanealtica cuevas, Chanealtica ellimon, and Chanealtica maxi) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is compared with Aphthonoides Jacoby, 1885, Argopistes Motschulsky, 1860, Metroserrapha Bechyne, 1958, Psylliodes Berthold, 1827 and Psyllototus Nadein, 2010. Remarkably, based on the available characters, among all the flea beetles, Chanealtica is mostly similar to an extinct genus Psyllototus. A discussion of diversity and function of the hind leg in flea beetles is provided. PMID:27408546

  5. Impact of neonatal asphyxia and hind limb immobilization on musculoskeletal tissues and S1 map organization: implications for cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Coq, Jacques-Olivier; Strata, Fabrizio; Russier, Michaël; Safadi, Fayez F; Merzenich, Michael M; Byl, Nancy N; Barbe, Mary F

    2008-03-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a complex disorder of locomotion, posture and movements resulting from pre-, peri- or postnatal damage to the developing brain. In a previous study (Strata, F., Coq, J.O., Byl, N.N., Merzenich, M.M., 2004. Comparison between sensorimotor restriction and anoxia on gait and motor cortex organization: implications for a rodent model of cerebral palsy. Neuroscience 129, 141-156.), CP-like movement disorders were more reliably reproduced in rats by hind limb sensorimotor restriction (disuse) during development rather than perinatal asphyxia (PA). To gain new insights into the underpinning mechanisms of CP symptoms we investigated the long-term effects of PA and disuse on the hind limb musculoskeletal histology and topographical organization in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) of adult rats. Developmental disuse (i.e. hind limb immobilization) associated with PA induced muscle fiber atrophy, extracellular matrix changes in the muscle, and mild to moderate ankle and knee joint degeneration at levels greater than disuse alone. Sensorimotor restricted rats with or without PA exhibited a topographical disorganization of the S1 cortical hind limb representation with abnormally large, multiple and overlapping receptive fields. This disorganization was enhanced when disuse and PA were associated. Altered cortical neuronal properties included increased cortical responsiveness and a decrease in neuronal selectivity to afferent inputs. These data support previous observations that asphyxia per se can generate the substrate for peripheral tissue and brain damage, which are worsened by aberrant sensorimotor experience during maturation, and could explain the disabling movement disorders observed in children with CP.

  6. A three-dimensional analysis of the morphological evolution and locomotor behaviour of the carnivoran hind limb

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The shape of the appendicular bones in mammals usually reflects adaptations towards different locomotor abilities. However, other aspects such as body size and phylogeny also play an important role in shaping bone design. We used 3D landmark-based geometric morphometrics to analyse the shape of the hind limb bones (i.e., femur, tibia, and pelvic girdle bones) of living and extinct terrestrial carnivorans (Mammalia, Carnivora) to quantitatively investigate the influence of body size, phylogeny, and locomotor behaviour in shaping the morphology of these bones. We also investigated the main patterns of morphological variation within a phylogenetic context. Results Size and phylogeny strongly influence the shape of the hind limb bones. In contrast, adaptations towards different modes of locomotion seem to have little influence. Principal Components Analysis and the study of phylomorphospaces suggest that the main source of variation in bone shape is a gradient of slenderness-robustness. Conclusion The shape of the hind limb bones is strongly influenced by body size and phylogeny, but not to a similar degree by locomotor behaviour. The slender-robust “morphological bipolarity” found in bone shape variability is probably related to a trade-off between maintaining energetic efficiency and withstanding resistance to stresses. The balance involved in this trade-off impedes the evolution of high phenotypic variability. In fact, both morphological extremes (slender/robust) are adaptive in different selective contexts and lead to a convergence in shape among taxa with extremely different ecologies but with similar biomechanical demands. Strikingly, this “one-to-many mapping” pattern of evolution between morphology and ecology in hind limb bones is in complete contrast to the “many-to-one mapping” pattern found in the evolution of carnivoran skull shape. The results suggest that there are more constraints in the evolution of the shape of the appendicular

  7. A three-dimensional analysis of the morphological evolution and locomotor behaviour of the carnivoran hind limb.

    PubMed

    Martín-Serra, Alberto; Figueirido, Borja; Palmqvist, Paul

    2014-06-14

    The shape of the appendicular bones in mammals usually reflects adaptations towards different locomotor abilities. However, other aspects such as body size and phylogeny also play an important role in shaping bone design.We used 3D landmark-based geometric morphometrics to analyse the shape of the hind limb bones (i.e., femur, tibia, and pelvic girdle bones) of living and extinct terrestrial carnivorans (Mammalia, Carnivora) to quantitatively investigate the influence of body size, phylogeny, and locomotor behaviour in shaping the morphology of these bones. We also investigated the main patterns of morphological variation within a phylogenetic context. Size and phylogeny strongly influence the shape of the hind limb bones. In contrast, adaptations towards different modes of locomotion seem to have little influence. Principal Components Analysis and the study of phylomorphospaces suggest that the main source of variation in bone shape is a gradient of slenderness-robustness. The shape of the hind limb bones is strongly influenced by body size and phylogeny, but not to a similar degree by locomotor behaviour. The slender-robust "morphological bipolarity" found in bone shape variability is probably related to a trade-off between maintaining energetic efficiency and withstanding resistance to stresses. The balance involved in this trade-off impedes the evolution of high phenotypic variability. In fact, both morphological extremes (slender/robust) are adaptive in different selective contexts and lead to a convergence in shape among taxa with extremely different ecologies but with similar biomechanical demands. Strikingly, this "one-to-many mapping" pattern of evolution between morphology and ecology in hind limb bones is in complete contrast to the "many-to-one mapping" pattern found in the evolution of carnivoran skull shape. The results suggest that there are more constraints in the evolution of the shape of the appendicular skeleton than in that of skull shape

  8. Benefits for dominant red deer hinds under a competitive feeding system: food access behavior, diet and nutrient selection.

    PubMed

    Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Bartošová, Jitka; Bartoš, Ludek; Gallego, Laureano

    2012-01-01

    Social dominance is widely known to facilitate access to food resources in many animal species such as deer. However, research has paid little attention to dominance in ad libitum access to food because it was thought not to result in any benefit for dominant individuals. In this study we assessed if, even under ad libitum conditions, social rank may allow dominant hinds to consume the preferred components of food. Forty-four red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus) were allowed to consume ad libitum meal consisting of pellets of sunflower, lucerne and orange, and seeds of cereals, corn, cotton, and carob tree. The meal was placed only in one feeder, which reduced accessibility to a few individuals simultaneously. During seven days, feeding behavior (order of access, time to first feeding bout, total time spent feeding, and time per feeding bout) were assessed during the first hour. The relative abundance of each meal component was assessed at times 0, 1 and 5 h, as well as its nutritional composition. Social rank was positively related to the amount of time spent feeding during the 1(st) h (P = 0.048). Selection indices were positively correlated with energy (P = 0.018 during the 1(st) h and P = 0.047 from 1(st) to 5(th)) and fat (only during the 1(st) h; P = 0.036), but also negatively with certain minerals. Thus, dominant hinds could select high energy meal components for longer time under an ad libitum but restricted food access setting. Selection indices showed a higher selectivity when food availability was higher (1(st) hour respect to 1(st) to 5(th)). Finally, high and low ranking hinds had longer time per feeding bout than mid ones (P = 0.011), suggesting complex behavioral feeding tactics of low ranking social ungulates.

  9. Cloning and characterization of a repetitive DNA detected by HindIII in the genome of Raja montagui (Batoidea, Chondrichthyes).

    PubMed

    Rocco, L; Stingo, V; Bellitti, M

    1996-10-17

    A repetitive HindIII fragment of DNA from Raja montagui (Rajiformes) was cloned and sequenced for the first time in cartilaginous fishes. This element, which comprises approximately 5% of the whole genome of the spotted ray, is absent in long tandem arrays, being typical of satellite DNA. It appeared constituted by 311 AT-rich bp (61%). The clone was hybridized to the genomic DNA of species with varying phyletic distances, revealing a high degree of conservation.

  10. Benefits for Dominant Red Deer Hinds under a Competitive Feeding System: Food Access Behavior, Diet and Nutrient Selection

    PubMed Central

    Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J.; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Bartošová, Jitka; Bartoš, Ludek; Gallego, Laureano

    2012-01-01

    Social dominance is widely known to facilitate access to food resources in many animal species such as deer. However, research has paid little attention to dominance in ad libitum access to food because it was thought not to result in any benefit for dominant individuals. In this study we assessed if, even under ad libitum conditions, social rank may allow dominant hinds to consume the preferred components of food. Forty-four red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus) were allowed to consume ad libitum meal consisting of pellets of sunflower, lucerne and orange, and seeds of cereals, corn, cotton, and carob tree. The meal was placed only in one feeder, which reduced accessibility to a few individuals simultaneously. During seven days, feeding behavior (order of access, time to first feeding bout, total time spent feeding, and time per feeding bout) were assessed during the first hour. The relative abundance of each meal component was assessed at times 0, 1 and 5 h, as well as its nutritional composition. Social rank was positively related to the amount of time spent feeding during the 1st h (P = 0.048). Selection indices were positively correlated with energy (P = 0.018 during the 1st h and P = 0.047 from 1st to 5th) and fat (only during the 1st h; P = 0.036), but also negatively with certain minerals. Thus, dominant hinds could select high energy meal components for longer time under an ad libitum but restricted food access setting. Selection indices showed a higher selectivity when food availability was higher (1st hour respect to 1st to 5th). Finally, high and low ranking hinds had longer time per feeding bout than mid ones (P = 0.011), suggesting complex behavioral feeding tactics of low ranking social ungulates. PMID:22403707

  11. Recovery of sympathetic nerve function after lumbar sympathectomy is slower in the hind limbs than in the torso.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi-Fang; Liu, Yi-Shu; Min, Xuan; Tang, Jian-Bing; Liu, Hong-Wei; Cheng, Biao

    2017-07-01

    Local sympathetic denervation by surgical sympathectomy is used in the treatment of lower limb ulcers and ischemia, but the restoration of cutaneous sympathetic nerve functions is less clear. This study aims to explore the recovery of cutaneous sympathetic functions after bilateral L2-4 sympathectomy. The skin temperature of the left feet, using a point monitoring thermometer, increased intraoperatively after sympathectomy. The cytoplasm of sympathetic neurons contained tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine β-hydroxylase, visualized by immunofluorescence, indicated the accuracy of sympathectomy. Iodine starch test results suggested that the sweating function of the hind feet plantar skin decreased 2 and 7 weeks after lumbar sympathectomy but had recovered by 3 months. Immunofluorescence and western blot assay results revealed that norepinephrine and dopamine β-hydroxylase expression in the skin from the sacrococcygeal region and hind feet decreased in the sympathectomized group at 2 weeks. Transmission electron microscopy results showed that perinuclear space and axon demyelination in sympathetic cells in the L5 sympathetic trunks were found in the sympathectomized group 3 months after sympathectomy. Although sympathetic denervation occurred in the sacrococcygeal region and hind feet skin 2 weeks after lumbar sympathectomy, the skin functions recovered gradually over 7 weeks to 3 months. In conclusion, sympathetic functional recovery may account for the recurrence of hyperhidrosis after sympathectomy and the normalization of sympathetic nerve trunks after incomplete injury. The recovery of sympathetic nerve function was slower in the limbs than in the torso after bilateral L2-4 sympathectomy.

  12. Novel phenanthridine (PHE-4i) derivative inhibits carrageenan-induced rat hind paw oedema through suppression of hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    George, Leema; Ramasamy, Tamizhselvi; Manickam, Venkatraman; Iyer, Sathiyanarayanan Kulathu; Radhakrishnan, Vidya

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of a novel synthesized phenanthridine alkaloid (PHE-4i) and to examine the possible involvement of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in anti-inflammatory mechanism. The synthesized phenanthridine derivative PHE-4i (2, 5, and 10 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to rats. One hour following treatment, inflammation was induced by intraplantar injection of carrageenan (1 %), in the hind paw. Paw volume as the index of inflammation was measured before and after carrageenan injection. Neutrophil sequestration into the hind paw was quantified by measuring tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and was compared for the inhibition of H2S production. Pretreatment with PHE-4i significantly reduced carrageenan-induced hind paw weight, MPO activity, leukocyte infiltration, and H2S production in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.001). These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory effect of PHE-4i on carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema could be via the inhibition of the gaseous mediator H2S.

  13. Recovery of sympathetic nerve function after lumbar sympathectomy is slower in the hind limbs than in the torso

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhi-fang; Liu, Yi-shu; Min, Xuan; Tang, Jian-bing; Liu, Hong-wei; Cheng, Biao

    2017-01-01

    Local sympathetic denervation by surgical sympathectomy is used in the treatment of lower limb ulcers and ischemia, but the restoration of cutaneous sympathetic nerve functions is less clear. This study aims to explore the recovery of cutaneous sympathetic functions after bilateral L2–4 sympathectomy. The skin temperature of the left feet, using a point monitoring thermometer, increased intraoperatively after sympathectomy. The cytoplasm of sympathetic neurons contained tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine β-hydroxylase, visualized by immunofluorescence, indicated the accuracy of sympathectomy. Iodine starch test results suggested that the sweating function of the hind feet plantar skin decreased 2 and 7 weeks after lumbar sympathectomy but had recovered by 3 months. Immunofluorescence and western blot assay results revealed that norepinephrine and dopamine β-hydroxylase expression in the skin from the sacrococcygeal region and hind feet decreased in the sympathectomized group at 2 weeks. Transmission electron microscopy results showed that perinuclear space and axon demyelination in sympathetic cells in the L5 sympathetic trunks were found in the sympathectomized group 3 months after sympathectomy. Although sympathetic denervation occurred in the sacrococcygeal region and hind feet skin 2 weeks after lumbar sympathectomy, the skin functions recovered gradually over 7 weeks to 3 months. In conclusion, sympathetic functional recovery may account for the recurrence of hyperhidrosis after sympathectomy and the normalization of sympathetic nerve trunks after incomplete injury. The recovery of sympathetic nerve function was slower in the limbs than in the torso after bilateral L2–4 sympathectomy. PMID:28852403

  14. Three-dimensional kinematics of the pelvis and hind limbs in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and human bipedal walking.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Matthew C; Lee, Leng-Feng; Demes, Brigitte; Thompson, Nathan E; Larson, Susan G; Stern, Jack T; Umberger, Brian R

    2015-09-01

    The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is a facultative biped and our closest living relative. As such, the musculoskeletal anatomies of their pelvis and hind limbs have long provided a comparative context for studies of human and fossil hominin locomotion. Yet, how the chimpanzee pelvis and hind limb actually move during bipedal walking is still not well defined. Here, we describe the three-dimensional (3-D) kinematics of the pelvis, hip, knee and ankle during bipedal walking and compare those values to humans walking at the same dimensionless and dimensional velocities. The stride-to-stride and intraspecific variations in 3-D kinematics were calculated using the adjusted coefficient of multiple correlation. Our results indicate that humans walk with a more stable pelvis than chimpanzees, especially in tilt and rotation. Both species exhibit similar magnitudes of pelvis list, but with segment motion that is opposite in phasing. In the hind limb, chimpanzees walk with a more flexed and abducted limb posture, and substantially exceed humans in the magnitude of hip rotation during a stride. The average stride-to-stride variation in joint and segment motion was greater in chimpanzees than humans, while the intraspecific variation was similar on average. These results demonstrate substantial differences between human and chimpanzee bipedal walking, in both the sagittal and non-sagittal planes. These new 3-D kinematic data are fundamental to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanics, energetics and control of chimpanzee bipedalism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Osteology and radiographic anatomy of the pelvis and hind limb of healthy ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Makungu, M; Groenewald, H B; du Plessis, W M; Barrows, M; Koeppel, K N

    2014-06-01

    In family Lemuridae, anatomical variations exist. Considering its conservation status (near threatened) and presence of similarities between strepsirrhines and primitive animals, it was thought to be beneficial to describe the gross osteology and radiographic anatomy of the pelvis and hind limb of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) as a reference for clinical use and species identification. Radiography was performed in 14 captive adult ring-tailed lemurs. The radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from two adult animals. Additionally, computed tomography of the hind limbs was performed in one animal. The pelvic bone has a well-developed caudal ventral iliac spine. The patella has a prominent tuberosity on the cranial surface. The first metatarsal bone and digit 1 are markedly stouter than the other metatarsal bones and digits with medial divergence from the rest of the metatarsal bones and digits. Ossicles were seen in the lateral meniscus, inter-phalangeal joint of digit 1 and in the infrapatellar fat pad. Areas of mineral opacity were seen within the external genitalia, which are believed to be the os penis and os clitoris. Variations exist in the normal osteology and radiographic appearance of the pelvis and hind limb of different animal species. The use of only atlases from domestic cats and dogs for interpretative purposes may be misleading. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Leptin receptor of the hind brain nuclei is involved in the conditioned taste preference of rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cai-xia; Zhang, Shao-yun; Chen, Ke; Luo, Xiao; Sun, Bo; Kang, Yu-ming; Yan, Jian-qun

    2015-11-01

    Conditioned taste preference (CTP) is a taste learning reflex by which an animal learns to prefer a substance which tastes not well and has been studied with much interest in recent years. However, the neural substrates of CTP are less known. This study aimed to determine the possible neural path- ways of CTP and whether serum leptin level and the leptin receptor (OB-Rb) in the hind brain are involved following CTP formation. We established CTP of quinine in rats with a 2-bottle preference test. The serum leptin concentrations were detected, the expression of c-fos in the rat brain was tested to determine the nuclei in relation with establishment of CTR Finally, the OB-Rb mRNA expression was examined by RT-qPCR assay in parabrachial nucleus (PBN) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) of the hind brain. Compared with control group, the level of serum leptin was higher in the CTP group (4.58 ± 0.52 vs 1.67 ± 0.25 µg/L, P < 0.01); increased c-fos positive cells were found in the anterior hypothalamus (AH, 221.75 ± 4.96 vs. 178.50 ± 6.63 cells/mm², P < 0.05), the basal lateral amygdala (BLA, 70.75 ± 6.17 vs 56.50 ± 3.62 cells/ mm², P < 0.05) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST, 41.25 ± 1.32 vs 32.50 ± 1.02 cells/mm², P < 0.05). But in ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH, 20.75 ± 2.73 vs 38.5 ± 1.54 per 1 mm², P < 005), PBN (21.50 ± 2.24 vs 36.25 ± 1.49 cells/mm², P < 0.05) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA, 22.25 ± 1.53 vs 35.50 ± 2.11 cells/mm², P < 0.05), the number of c-fos positive cells was decreased in the CTP group. In addition, we found OB-Rb mRNA expression in PBN of CTP group rats was higher than that of control group (0.95 ± 0.055 vs 0.57 ± 0.034, P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference of OB-Rb mRNA expression in NST between the two groups. Nuclei AH, BLA, NST, VMH, PBN and CeA participate in the formation of CTP. Leptin and its receptor in PBN may be involved in the formation and

  17. Evolutionary constraints in hind wing shape in Chinese dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).

    PubMed

    Bai, Ming; McCullough, Erin; Song, Ke-Qing; Liu, Wan-Gang; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2011-01-01

    paper sheds new light on the evolution of dung beetle hind wings.

  18. Effect of recovery mode following hind-limb suspension on soleus muscle composition in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNulty, A. L.; Otto, A. J.; Kasper, C. E.; Thomas, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different recovery modes from hind-limb suspension-induced hypodynamia on whole body and muscle (soleus) growth as well as soleus composition and size changes of different fiber types within this same muscle. Following 28 days of tail-suspension, rats were returned to their cages and sedentarily recovered (HS), or were exercised by running on a treadmill 5 days/wk, at progressively increasing workloads (HR) for one month. Sedentary and running control groups of animals (CS, CR) were also evaluated for comparative purposes. The exercise program, which was identical for CR and HR groups, had no effect on body wt., soleus wt., soleus muscle composition or fiber size in CR rats. Atrophied soleus muscle and reduced soleus wt./body wt. ratio (both 60% of control) had returned to control values by day 7 of recovery in both suspended groups despite the fact that whole body wt. gain was significantly reduced (p less than 0.05) in HR as compared to HS rats. Atrophied soleus Type I fiber mean cross-sectional area in both HR and HS groups demonstrated similar and significant (p less than 0.01) increases during recovery. Increases in Type IIa and IIc fiber area during this same period were significant only in the HR group. While the percentage area of muscle composed of Type I fibers increased in both hypodynamic groups during recovery, the reduction in area percentage of muscle made up of Type IIa fibers was again only significant in the HR group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  19. Muscle growth and fiber type composition in hind limb muscles during postnatal development in pigs.

    PubMed

    Wank, Veit; Fischer, Martin S; Walter, Bernd; Bauer, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    Rapid postnatal development in pigs is reflected by differentiation in skeletal muscle. This process depends on muscle function and demands, but a comprehensive overview of individual developmental characteristics of quickly growing leg muscles in pigs is still missing. This study focused on the development of 10 hind limb muscles in pigs. To determine these changes in mass, fiber type patterns and fiber diameters were analyzed 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 400 days after birth. Generally, the proportion of slow fibers increased from birth to 8 weeks. Thereafter, only minor changes in muscle fiber type composition were observed. The majority of the muscles contained less then 10% slow-twitch fibers at birth, increasing to between 12 (Musculus vastus lateralis) and 38% (M. gastrocnemius medialis) in adult pigs. By contrast, postural muscles already had 20-30% slow fibers at birth, and this contribution increased up to 65% in adults (i.e. M. vastus intermedius). From birth to the 2nd week, only in slow fibers could activity of oxidative enzymes be detected. A differentiation of fast-twitch fibers into subtypes with high (comparable to type IIA) and low oxidative metabolism (equivalent to type IIB) occurred between the 2nd and 4th week of life. The ratio between type II fibers with high and low oxidative enzyme activity did not change markedly through development in any muscle, although there was a trend towards an increasing proportion of type IIA fibers in the soleus. In the majority of the muscles investigated, the fast-twitch fibers with low oxidative metabolism (IIB) obtained the largest cross-sectional area. In contrast, at birth no remarkable differences in the diameter of fast and slow fibers were found. The rapid increase in muscle mass compared to body mass reflects the high performance in meat production of the cross pig investigated.

  20. Evolutionary Constraints in Hind Wing Shape in Chinese Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae)

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ming; McCullough, Erin; Song, Ke-Qing; Liu, Wan-Gang; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2011-01-01

    paper sheds new light on the evolution of dung beetle hind wings. PMID:21738727

  1. Effect of Royal Jelly on Formalin Induced-Inflammation in Rat Hind Paw

    PubMed Central

    Arzi, Ardeshir; Olapour, Samaneh; Yaghooti, Hamid; Sistani Karampour, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Royal Jelly (RJ), a food item secreted by worker honeybees, is a mixture that contains protein, glucose, lipid, vitamins, and minerals; it is widely used as a commercial medical product. Previous studies have shown that RJ has a number of physiological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antiallergic and antioxidant activities. Objectives: In the present study, the anti-inflammatory properties of RJ were investigated in formalin-induced rat paw edema. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into five equal groups (n = 6) as follows: test groups received different doses (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, ip) of RJ and a negative control group received normal saline (5 mL/kg) and a positive control group received aspirin (300 mg/kg, i.p). Edema was induced on the right hind paw of the rat by a subplantar injection of 100 µL of formalin (2.5%) after 30 minutes. Paw edema was measured in the rats received the drugs, saline and aspirin before and after the formalin injection during 5 hours, using a plethysmometer. Results: The results showed that RJ has a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect and the highest anti-inflammatory effect was observed in the doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg. Conclusions: Royal jelly has potent anti-inflammatory effects compared to aspirin and it could be used in the treatment of inflammation. However, further studies are required to determine the active components in RJ responsible for this effect and its mechanism of action. PMID:25866724

  2. The development of motor projection patterns in the chick hind limb.

    PubMed Central

    Landmesser, L

    1978-01-01

    1. Retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase was used to map the initial projection patterns of lumbosacral motoneurones to the embryonic chick hind limb. 2. The stage 28 segmental projection pattern to each of the four primary muscle masses was characteristic and indistinguishable from the stage 36 projection pattern to the sum of the muscles derived from that mass. In addition, the adductor motoneurone pool was found to be similar in position (both rostro-caudal and mediolateral) at stages 29, 30, 32, 33 1/2 and 36. 3. Therefore axons from lumbosacral motoneurones project for the most part only to appropriate regions from early times shortly after they grow into the limb bud. Furthermore, the attainment of the segmental projection pattern occurs prior to the normal time of, and therefore without the aid of, cell death. This conclusion was supported by electrophysiological recordings made from muscle nerves. 4. A regionalization of the projection patterns within a single muscle mass could be shown both anatomically and physiologically prior to the cleavage of the mass into individual muscles and the projections were in a general way appropriate for the muscles derived from those regions. 5. Therefore the process of muscle cleavage does not in itself create the specific projection patterns observed, and motoneurone axons appear to grow to and to ramify and make synapses only within regions which correspond to their adult muscles. 6. Finally, the termination site of each motoneurone axon in the early limb was found to be tightly correlated in a somatotopic fashion with the position occupied by its soma in the cord. This suggests that some feature of the motoneurone related to its position may be of importance in achieving the specific projection patterns observed. Images Plate 1 PMID:731552

  3. Factors Associated with Recently Transmitted Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain MS0006 in Hinds County, Mississippi

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Brian; Kwara, Awewura; Sunesara, Imran; Mena, Leandro; Dobbs, Thomas; Henderson, Harold; Holcomb, Mike; Webb, Risa

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate risk factors associated with tuberculosis (TB) transmission that was caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain MS0006 from 2004 to 2009 in Hinds County, Mississippi. Methods DNA fingerprinting using spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit, and IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism of culture-confirmed cases of TB was performed. Clinical and demographic factors associated with strain MS0006 were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Of the 144 cases of TB diagnosed during the study period, 117 were culture positive with fingerprints available. There were 48 different strains, of which 6 clustered strains were distributed among 74 patients. The MS0006 strain accounted for 46.2% of all culture-confirmed cases. Risk factors for having the MS0006 strain in a univariate analysis included homelessness, HIV co-infection, sputum smear negativity, tuberculin skin test negativity, and noninjectable drug use. Multivariate analysis identified homelessness (odds ratio 7.88, 95% confidence interval 2.90-21.35) and African American race (odds ratio 5.80, 95% confidence interval 1.37-24.55) as independent predictors of having TB caused by the MS0006 strain of M tuberculosis. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a majority of recently transmitted TB in the studied county was caused by the MS0006 strain. African American race and homelessness were significant risk factors for inclusion in the cluster. Molecular epidemiology techniques continue to provide in-depth analysis of disease transmission and play a vital role in effective contact tracing and interruption of ongoing transmission. PMID:22089361

  4. A three-dimensional musculoskeletal model of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) pelvis and hind limb.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Matthew C; Lee, Leng-Feng; Larson, Susan G; Demes, Brigitte; Stern, Jack T; Umberger, Brian R

    2013-10-01

    Musculoskeletal models have become important tools for studying a range of muscle-driven movements. However, most work has been in modern humans, with few applications in other species. Chimpanzees are facultative bipeds and our closest living relatives, and have provided numerous important insights into our own evolution. A chimpanzee musculoskeletal model would allow integration across a wide range of laboratory-based experimental data, providing new insights into the determinants of their locomotor performance capabilities, as well as the origins and evolution of human bipedalism. Here, we described a detailed three-dimensional (3D) musculoskeletal model of the chimpanzee pelvis and hind limb. The model includes geometric representations of bones and joints, as well as 35 muscle-tendon units that were represented using 44 Hill-type muscle models. Muscle architecture data, such as muscle masses, fascicle lengths and pennation angles, were drawn from literature sources. The model permits calculation of 3D muscle moment arms, muscle-tendon lengths and isometric muscle forces over a wide range of joint positions. Muscle-tendon moment arms predicted by the model were generally in good agreement with tendon-excursion estimates from cadaveric specimens. Sensitivity analyses provided information on the parameters that model predictions are most and least sensitive to, which offers important context for interpreting future results obtained with the model. Comparisons with a similar human musculoskeletal model indicate that chimpanzees are better suited for force production over a larger range of joint positions than humans. This study represents an important step in understanding the integrated function of the neuromusculoskeletal systems in chimpanzee locomotion.

  5. A Modified Heterotopic Swine Hind Limb Transplant Model for Translational Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation (VCA) Research

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Cooney, Damon S.; Shores, Jaimie T.; Sacks, Justin M.; Wimmers, Eric G.; Bonawitz, Steven C.; Gordon, Chad; Ruben, Dawn; Schneeberger, Stefan; Lee, W. P. Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation (VCA) such as hand and face transplants represent a viable treatment option for complex musculoskeletal trauma and devastating tissue loss. Despite favorable and highly encouraging early and intermediate functional outcomes, rejection of the highly immunogenic skin component of a VCA and potential adverse effects of chronic multi-drug immunosuppression continue to hamper widespread clinical application of VCA. Therefore, research in this novel field needs to focus on translational studies related to unique immunologic features of VCA and to develop novel immunomodulatory strategies for immunomodulation and tolerance induction following VCA without the need for long term immunosuppression. This article describes a reliable and reproducible translational large animal model of VCA that is comprised of an osteomyocutaneous flap in a MHC-defined swine heterotopic hind limb allotransplantation. Briefly, a well-vascularized skin paddle is identified in the anteromedial thigh region using near infrared laser angiography. The underlying muscles, knee joint, distal femur, and proximal tibia are harvested on a femoral vascular pedicle. This allograft can be considered both a VCA and a vascularized bone marrow transplant with its unique immune privileged features. The graft is transplanted to a subcutaneous abdominal pocket in the recipient animal with a skin component exteriorized to the dorsolateral region for immune monitoring. Three surgical teams work simultaneously in a well-coordinated manner to reduce anesthesia and ischemia times, thereby improving efficiency of this model and reducing potential confounders in experimental protocols. This model serves as the groundwork for future therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing and potentially eliminating the need for chronic multi-drug immunosuppression in VCA. PMID:24145603

  6. Effect of thermal injury on the kinin system in rabbit hind limb lymph

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, G. P.; Wawretschek, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    1. The kinin-forming activity of hind limb lymph and of plasma has been examined in rabbits before and after thermal injury. 2. Neither plasma nor lymph contained much active kallikrein activity but the enzyme was evident in samples treated with glass or with acid. 3. There was little or no increase in the activity of enzyme activated by glass after thermal injury, but an increase in the activity of enzyme activated by acid regularly occurred. 4. There were two increases in the activity of enzyme activated by acid—one about 2 h and the other 4-6 h after thermal injury. They corresponded to increases in vascular permeability as indicated by increases in the concentration of lymph protein. 5. There was considerably more kininogen in the lymph and plasma than was used in the assays of kallikrein activity, showing that the increased kinin-forming activity in lymph was not the result of the passage of kininogen from the plasma. 6. The increase in activity in lymph was not usually accompanied by a similar increase in the plasma. However, an increase in the activity of enzyme activated by acid sometimes occurred in the plasma simply as a result of prolonged anaesthesia. 7. It is suggested that whereas the enzyme activated by glass is a measure of prekallikrein, the acid activatable enzyme appears as a result of the dissociation of a kallikrein-inhibitor complex. An increase in the concentration of this complex is therefore an indication of the preceding activation of kallikrein. PMID:5136453

  7. Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at Riverland Dingo Observatory (RDO): 501 Urhixidur, 1897 Hind, 1928 Summa, 6261 Chione, and (68216) 2001 CV 26.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Lightcurves for five asteroids selected from the Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL) were obtained at Riverland Dingo Observatory (RDO) from 2012 July-September: 501 Urhixidur, 1897 Hind, 1928 Summa, 6261 Chione, and (68216) 2001 CV26.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA pattern of the fine shrimp Metapenaeus elegans (De Man, 1907) in the lagoon of Segara Anakan, Central Java, using Hind III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraha, Fitra Arya Dwi; Holil, Kholifah; Kurniawan, Nia

    2017-05-01

    Ecological damages to the Lagoon of Segara Anakan, Central Java, as well as large-scale and continuous exploitation are threatening the sustainability of fine shrimp, Metapenaeus elegans, and resources. Information in regards to genetic resources is crucial to establish long-term conservation programs and to preserve germplasm quality. This study aims to evaluate the number and size of the fragment which is digested with restriction enzyme Hind III. Seven individuals of Metapenaeus elegans from the Lagoon of Segara Anakan were examined using Hind III. Amplification of mitochondrial DNA resulted in 950 bp, and the digestion using Hind III generated four fragments consisting of 114 bp, 200 bp, 250 bp, and 386 bp, which formed a monomorphic pattern. The restriction pattern showed the probability of homozygosity of alleles that restricted using Hind III. Homozygosity indicates no variation of DNA sequence.

  9. HindIII(+/-) polymorphism of the Y chromosome, blood pressure, and serum lipids: no evidence of association in three white populations.

    PubMed

    Russo, Paola; Venezia, Antonella; Lauria, Fabio; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Iacoviello, Licia; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Siani, Alfonso

    2006-04-01

    Male sex is associated with elevated levels of cardiovascular risk factors, including higher blood pressure (BP). Genetic variants on the Y chromosome may contribute to explain the sexual dimorphism in cardiovascular diseases. Among them, the HindIII(+/-) polymorphism of the male-specific region of the Y chromosome has been associated with BP and serum cholesterol levels, with conflicting results. We evaluated the association between the HindIII(+/-) polymorphism, prevalence of hypertension, BP, and serum lipid levels in a large sample of white men and the previously reported epistatic interaction between HindIII(+/-) and the -344C/T polymorphism of the aldosterone synthase gene (CYP11B2) on BP. From three European populations (UK n = 422; Belgium n = 313; Italy n = 1248) 1983 white men were phenotyped for BP and serum lipids and genotyped for HindIII(+/-) site and for -344C/T polymorphism in the promoter of CYP11B2 by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). A higher frequency of the HindIII (+) was found in Italians (63%) as compared to both British (31%) and Belgians (28%) (P < .0001). We found no evidence of association of the HindIII(+/-) site with prevalence of hypertension, BP, and serum lipids in any of the three European populations examined and in the entire sample. Finally, we did not observe any interaction between the HindIII(+/-) polymorphism and the -344C/T variant of CYP11B2 on BP. Our data do not support the hypothesis that the HindIII(+/-) site of the Y chromosome is a marker of cardiovascular risk in white men, highlighting the need for replication in genetic association studies.

  10. Lack of association between the HindIII RFLP of the osteocalcin (BGP) gene and bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy pre- and postmenopausal Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xiao-Yang; Cao, Chi-Ke; Xu, Fu-Hua; Liu, Man-Yuan; Li, Miao-Xin; Qin, Yue-Juan; Zhou, Qi; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2004-01-01

    In Caucasian populations, the polymorphic restriction endonuclease HindIII marker of the osteocalcin (also known as BGP, for bone Gla protein) gene has recently been reported to be associated with bone mass, a major risk determinant of osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the BGP HindIII polymorphism and bone mineral density (BMD) in 388 premenopausal (31.18 +/- 5.92 years) and 169 postmenopausal (58.90 +/- 6.27 years) Chinese women. The BMD of spine and hip was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). All the study subjects were genotyped at the HindIII site of the BGP gene by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) detecting methods. The BGP alleles were designated according to the absence ( H) or presence ( h) of the HindIII restriction site. We did not find any significant difference in spine and hip BMD across BGP genotypes in either pre- or postmenopausal women or the combined group. Our result is not consistent with recent reports that the HindIII marker of the BGP gene is associated with osteoporosis. The different findings may reflect inter-population differences in the association (i.e., linkage disequilibrium) of molecular markers with BMD, and indicate the limit of using the HindIII marker of the BGP gene as a genetic marker to discern women susceptible to low BMD and thus osteoporosis in Chinese.

  11. Dynamics of neurons controlling movements of a locust hind leg. III. Extensor tibiae motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Newland, P L; Kondoh, Y

    1997-06-01

    Imposed movements of the apodeme of the femoral chordotonal organ (FeCO) of the locust hind leg elicit resistance reflexes in extensor and flexor tibiae motor neurons. The synaptic responses of the fast and slow extensor tibiae motor neurons (FETi and SETi, respectively) and the spike responses of SETi were analyzed with the use of the Wiener kernel white noise method to determine their response properties. The first-order Wiener kernels computed from soma recordings were essentially monophasic, or low passed, indicating that the motor neurons were primarily sensitive to the position of the tibia about the femorotibial joint. The responses of both extensor motor neurons had large nonlinear components. The second-order kernels of the synaptic responses of FETi and SETi had large on-diagonal peaks with two small off-diagonal valleys. That of SETi had an additional elongated valley on the diagonal, which was accompanied by two off-diagonal depolarizing peaks at a cutoff frequency of 58 Hz. These second-order components represent a half-wave rectification of the position-sensitive depolarizing response in FETi and SETi, and a delayed inhibitory input to SETi, indicating that both motor neurons were directionally sensitive. Model predictions of the responses of the motor neurons showed that the first-order (linear) characterization poorly predicted the actual responses of FETi and SETi to FeCO stimulation, whereas the addition of the second-order (nonlinear) term markedly improved the performance of the model. Simultaneous recordings from the soma and a neuropilar process of FETi showed that its synaptic responses to FeCO stimulation were phase delayed by about -30 degrees at 20 Hz, and reduced in amplitude by 30-40% when recorded in the soma. Similar configurations of the first and second-order kernels indicated that the primary process of FETi acted as a low-pass filter. Cross-correlation between a white noise stimulus and a unitized spike discharge of SETi again

  12. Technical note: Effects of attachment of hind teats before cleaning and attachment of front teats on milking characteristics in automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Besier, J; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Wellnitz, O; Bruckmaier, R M

    2017-04-01

    Milking characteristics differ between the 4 quarters of a dairy cow udder. In particular, milking time is mostly prolonged in hind quarters compared with front quarters because of the usually higher amount of stored milk. The standard milking routine (STDMR) in both conventional and automatic milking systems (AMS) consists of teat preparation of all 4 quarters, followed by attachment of the 4 teat cups, regardless of the distribution of milk between quarters. In the current study, an alternative teat preparation and milking routine (ALTMR) in AMS was tested, which consisted of cleaning and starting the milking of hind teats before cleaning and attachment of front teats. The hypothesis was based on the fact that hind quarters have usually a longer milking time than front quarters. Starting the milking of hind quarters while the front teats are being cleaned may reduce the difference in the end of milking between front and hind quarters and thus reduce total milking time. Both routines were tested on 5 Swedish dairy farms equipped with AMS in a 4-wk experiment in which treatments were alternated weekly. Total milk yield did not differ between treatments. Machine-on time (MOT) was longer in ALTMR than in STDMR because the difference in milking time between hind and front quarters was less than the time needed to prepare the front teats. However, the longer MOT in ALTMR was compensated by a shorter total preparation time, including the attachment of the first teat cup, as only the hind teats (instead of all 4 teats) were cleaned before milking was started. This resulted in a similar total milking time from start of cleaning of the first quarter until the end of milking of the last quarter in both treatments. Because of the prolonged MOT, average milk flow rate was lower in ALTMR than STDMR. Peak flow rate was higher in ALTMR than STDMR, but only in teat cups 1 (first attached, hind quarter) and 3 (third attached, front quarter), whereas main milk flow was higher in

  13. Curcumin and dexmedetomidine prevents oxidative stress and renal injury in hind limb ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Karahan, M A; Yalcin, S; Aydogan, H; Büyükfirat, E; Kücük, A; Kocarslan, S; Yüce, H H; Taskın, A; Aksoy, N

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin and dexmedetomidine have been shown to have protective effects in ischemia-reperfusion injury on various organs. However, their protective effects on kidney tissue against ischemia-reperfusion injury remain unclear. We aimed to determine whether curcumin or dexmedetomidine prevents renal tissue from injury that was induced by hind limb ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Fifty rats were divided into five groups: sham, control, curcumin (CUR) group (200 mg/kg curcumin, n = 10), dexmedetomidine (DEX) group (25 μg/kg dexmedetomidine, n = 10), and curcumin-dexmedetomidine (CUR-DEX) group (200 mg/kg curcumin and 25 μg/kg dexmedetomidine). Curcumin and dexmedetomidine were administered intraperitoneally immediately after the end of 4 h ischemia, just 5 min before reperfusion. The extremity re-perfused for 2 h and then blood samples were taken and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidative status (TOS) levels, and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured, and renal tissue samples were histopathologically examined. The TAC activity levels in blood samples were significantly lower in the control than the other groups (p < 0.01 for all comparisons). The TOS activity levels in blood samples were significantly higher in Control group and than the other groups (p <  0.01 for all comparison). The OSI were found to be significantly increased in the control group compared to others groups (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Histopathological examination revealed less severe lesions in the sham, CUR, DEX, and CUR-DEX groups, compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Rat hind limb ischemia-reperfusion causes histopathological changes in the kidneys. Curcumin and dexmedetomidine administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing oxidative stress and renal histopathologic injury in an acute hind limb I/R rat model.

  14. Kinetic, kinematic, magnetic resonance and owner evaluation of dogs before and after the amputation of a hind limb.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Zamora, Vladimir; von Babo, Verena; Eberle, Nina; Betz, Daniela; Nolte, Ingo; Wefstaedt, Patrick

    2016-01-25

    The amputation of a limb is a surgical procedure that is regularly performed in small animal practice. In spite of several clinical reports indicating high owner satisfaction after limb amputation in dogs, an amputation is still very critically seen by the owners, and even by some veterinarians, due to the lack of accurate information about the recovery of amputee patients. Thus, the objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate, both objectively and subjectively, the recovery outcome of dogs undergoing a hind limb amputation. Twelve patients in which a hind limb amputation was scheduled were studied. Kinetic and kinematic gait analyses were performed before the amputation, and 10, 30, 90 and 120 days after surgery. Magnetic resonance (MR) examination of the contralateral stifle joint was performed before and 120 days after amputation. The subjective impressions of the owners were gathered at the same examination times of the gait analyses. Kinetic data showed a redistribution of the load to all remaining limbs after the amputation; ten days after the procedure patients had already established their new locomotory pattern. Kinematic data showed significant differences between sessions in the mean angle progression curves of almost all analyzed joints; however, the ranges of motion were very similar before and after the amputation, and remained constant in the subsequent sessions after the amputation. No changes in the signal intensity of the soft tissues evaluated, and no evidence of cartilage damage or osteoarthritis was seen on the MR examination of the contralateral stifle. Owners evaluated the results of the amputation very positively, both during and at the end of the study. Dogs had a quick adaptation after a hind limb amputation, and the adaptation process began before the amputation was performed. This happened without evidence of morphologic changes in the contralateral stifle joint, and with a very positive evaluation from the owner.

  15. Increased androgenic sensitivity in the hind limb muscular system marks the evolution of a derived gestural display

    PubMed Central

    Mangiamele, Lisa A.; Fuxjager, Matthew J.; Schuppe, Eric R.; Taylor, Rebecca S.; Hödl, Walter; Preininger, Doris

    2016-01-01

    Physical gestures are prominent features of many species’ multimodal displays, yet how evolution incorporates body and leg movements into animal signaling repertoires is unclear. Androgenic hormones modulate the production of reproductive signals and sexual motor skills in many vertebrates; therefore, one possibility is that selection for physical signals drives the evolution of androgenic sensitivity in select neuromotor pathways. We examined this issue in the Bornean rock frog (Staurois parvus, family: Ranidae). Males court females and compete with rivals by performing both vocalizations and hind limb gestural signals, called “foot flags.” Foot flagging is a derived display that emerged in the ranids after vocal signaling. Here, we show that administration of testosterone (T) increases foot flagging behavior under seminatural conditions. Moreover, using quantitative PCR, we also find that adult male S. parvus maintain a unique androgenic phenotype, in which androgen receptor (AR) in the hind limb musculature is expressed at levels ∼10× greater than in two other anuran species, which do not produce foot flags (Rana pipiens and Xenopus laevis). Finally, because males of all three of these species solicit mates with calls, we accordingly detect no differences in AR expression in the vocal apparatus (larynx) among taxa. The results show that foot flagging is an androgen-dependent gestural signal, and its emergence is associated with increased androgenic sensitivity within the hind limb musculature. Selection for this novel gestural signal may therefore drive the evolution of increased AR expression in key muscles that control signal production to support adaptive motor performance. PMID:27143723

  16. Exploring the Role of TRPV and CGRP in Adenosine Preconditioning and Remote Hind Limb Preconditioning-Induced Cardioprotection in Rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amritpal; Randhawa, Puneet Kaur; Bali, Anjana; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2017-02-14

    The cardioprotective effects of remote hind limb preconditioning (RIPC) are well known, but mechanisms by which protection occurs still remain to be explored. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the role of TRPV and CGRP in adenosine and remote preconditioning-induced cardioprotection, using sumatriptan, a CGRP release inhibitor and ruthenium red, a TRPV inhibitor, in rats. For remote preconditioning, a pressure cuff was tied around the hind limb of the rat and was inflated with air up to 150 mmHg to produce ischemia in the hind limb and during reperfusion pressure was released. Four cycles of ischemia and reperfusion, each consisting of 5 min of inflation and 5 min of deflation of pressure cuff were used to produce remote limb preconditioning. An ex vivo Langendorff's isolated rat heart model was used to induce ischemia reperfusion injury by 30 min of global ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. RIPC demonstrated a significant decrease in ischemia reperfusion-induced significant myocardial injury in terms of increase in LDH, CK, infarct size and decrease in LVDP, +dp/dtmax and -dp/dtmin. Moreover, pharmacological preconditioning with adenosine produced cardioprotective effects in a similar manner to RIPC. Pretreatment with sumatriptan, a CGRP release blocker, abolished RIPC and adenosine preconditioning-induced cardioprotective effects. Administration of ruthenium red, a TRPV inhibitor, also abolished adenosine preconditioning-induced cardioprotection. It may be proposed that the cardioprotective effects of adenosine and remote preconditioning are possibly mediated through activation of a TRPV channels and consequent, release of CGRP.

  17. In Vivo Detection of Macrophage Recruitment in Hind-Limb Ischemia Using a Targeted Near-Infrared Fluorophore

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jung Sun; Das, Raj Kumar; Jow, Zhi Yen; Chang, Young-Tae

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are an essential component of the immune system and have protective and pathogenic functions in various diseases. Imaging of macrophages in vivo could furnish new tools to advance evaluation of disease and therapies. Critical limb ischemia is a disease in which macrophages have considerable pathogenic roles, and are potential targets for cell-based immunotherapy. We sought to develop a new near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging probe to target macrophages specifically in vivo in various pathological states, including hind-limb ischemia. We rapidly screened the photostable cyanine-based NIRF library against different blood cell lines. The identified monocyte/macrophage-selective hit was tested in vitro in live-cell labeling assay. Non-invasive NIRF imaging was performed with murine models of paw inflammation by lipopolysaccharide challenge and hind-limb ischemia with femoral artery ligation. in vivo macrophage targeting was further evaluated using intravital microscopy with Csf1r-EGFP transgenic mice and immunofluorescent staining with macrophage-specific markers. We discovered MF800, a Macrophage-specific near-infrared Fluorophore, which showed selective live-cell imaging performance in a panel of cell lines and primary human blood samples. MF800 outperforms the clinically-available NIRF contrast agent ICG for in vivo specificity in paw inflammation and hind-limb ischemia models. We observed a marked overlap of MF800-labeled cells and EGFP-expressing macrophages in intravital imaging of Csf1r-EGFP transgenic mice. In the histologic analysis, MF800-positive cells also expressed the macrophage markers CD68 and CD169. NIRF imaging showcased the potential of using MF800 to understand macrophage behavior in vivo, characterize macrophage-associated diseases, and may help in assessing therapeutic responses in the clinic. PMID:25072508

  18. Activation patterns of embryonic chick hind limb muscles recorded in ovo and in an isolated spinal cord preparation.

    PubMed

    Landmesser, L T; O'Donovan, M J

    1984-02-01

    Muscle activation patterns of embryonic chick hind limb muscles were determined from electromyographic (e.m.g.) recordings in an isolated spinal cord/hind limb preparation of stage 34-36 embryos, and were compared with in ovo e.m.g. activity from similarly staged embryos. Muscle activity in ovo consisted of periodically recurring sequences of bursts during which antagonistic muscles often alternated and synergistic muscles were co-active, as compatible with their mature function. However, more variable behaviour was also observed. Burst sequences in ovo were often initiated by a short-duration, high-amplitude discharge that occurred synchronously in all muscles studied, and which was followed by a period of electrical silence that was longest in the flexor muscles. This type of activity has not been described previously in mature animals. In ovo movement sequences were generally initiated by extensor activity which progressively declined in duration and intensity throughout the sequence, while flexor activity progressively intensified. The onset of activity in extensor muscles was accompanied by an abrupt decrease in flexor activity, whereas the converse was not observed. Spontaneous movement sequences also occurred when the spinal cord and hind limb were isolated and maintained in oxygenated Tyrode solution for several hours. Deafferentation experiments indicated that the motor pattern in this preparation was generated centrally by circuits within the spinal cord. Activity from the isolated cord was less variable than that occurring in ovo, consisting of sequences of highly regular recurring bursts. Each burst began with a brief high-amplitude discharge that occurred synchronously in all muscles and which was similar to that observed in ovo. This was followed by a silent period, which was longest in the flexors, and then by a more prolonged burst. Although its behaviour differs from that in ovo in some respects, it is concluded that the isolated cord maintained in

  19. Activation patterns of embryonic chick hind limb muscles recorded in ovo and in an isolated spinal cord preparation.

    PubMed Central

    Landmesser, L T; O'Donovan, M J

    1984-01-01

    Muscle activation patterns of embryonic chick hind limb muscles were determined from electromyographic (e.m.g.) recordings in an isolated spinal cord/hind limb preparation of stage 34-36 embryos, and were compared with in ovo e.m.g. activity from similarly staged embryos. Muscle activity in ovo consisted of periodically recurring sequences of bursts during which antagonistic muscles often alternated and synergistic muscles were co-active, as compatible with their mature function. However, more variable behaviour was also observed. Burst sequences in ovo were often initiated by a short-duration, high-amplitude discharge that occurred synchronously in all muscles studied, and which was followed by a period of electrical silence that was longest in the flexor muscles. This type of activity has not been described previously in mature animals. In ovo movement sequences were generally initiated by extensor activity which progressively declined in duration and intensity throughout the sequence, while flexor activity progressively intensified. The onset of activity in extensor muscles was accompanied by an abrupt decrease in flexor activity, whereas the converse was not observed. Spontaneous movement sequences also occurred when the spinal cord and hind limb were isolated and maintained in oxygenated Tyrode solution for several hours. Deafferentation experiments indicated that the motor pattern in this preparation was generated centrally by circuits within the spinal cord. Activity from the isolated cord was less variable than that occurring in ovo, consisting of sequences of highly regular recurring bursts. Each burst began with a brief high-amplitude discharge that occurred synchronously in all muscles and which was similar to that observed in ovo. This was followed by a silent period, which was longest in the flexors, and then by a more prolonged burst. Although its behaviour differs from that in ovo in some respects, it is concluded that the isolated cord maintained in

  20. The migration and loss of human primordial germ stem cells from the hind gut epithelium towards the gonadal ridge.

    PubMed

    Mamsen, Linn Salto; Brøchner, Christian Beltoft; Byskov, Anne Grete; Møllgard, Kjeld

    2012-01-01

    Human primordial germ cells (PGCs) can be recognized in the yolk sac wall, from 3-4 weeks post conception (wpc), in the hind gut epithelium from week 4 and in the gonadal area from early week 5. The objective of this study was to map the migration route of PGCs and elucidate the role of the nervous system in this process. Sixteen human specimens, 5-14 wpc obtained from legal abortions were included. On serial paraffin sections, PGCs were detected immunohistochemically by expression of OCT4 and c-Kit, nerve fibers by β-III-tubulin and stem cell factor (SCF) as a possible chemoattractive cue for PGC migration. PGCs were present in the hind gut epithelium, in the mesenchyme of the dorsal mesentery and in the developing gonadal ridge of 4-6 wpc embryos, prior to connections between the enteric and the sympathetic nervous system. From 6 wpc onwards, the PGCs travelled along the developing nerve fibers from the wall of the hind gut via the dorsal mesentery to the midline of the dorsal wall and laterally into the gonads. Numerous PGCs were still present in the nervous system by 14 wpc. PGCs in 4-5 wpc embryos are suggested to leave the gut epithelium by EMT-like transition. SCF may facilitate further migration, but after establishment of connections between the enteric and sympathetic nervous systems. PGCs follow sympathetic nerve fibers towards the gonads. PGCs failing to exit the nerve branches at the gonadal site, may continue along the sympathetic trunk ending up in other organs where they may form germ cell tumors if not eliminated by apoptosis.

  1. DUE AvalRS: Remote Sensing Derive Avalanche Inventory Data for Decision Support and Hind-Cast After Avalanche Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frauenfelder, Regula; Kronholm, Kalle; Solberg, Rune; Larsen, Siri Oyen; Salberg, Arnt-Borre; Larsen, Jan Otto; Bjordal, Heidi

    2010-12-01

    Each year, snow avalanches hit populated areas and parts of the transport network in the Norwegian mountain regions, leading to loss of lives and the damaging of buildings and infrastructure. We present the results of a feasibility study on the operation of a service providing the National Public Roads Administration (NPRA) with hind-cast avalanche inventory data on a local-to-regional scale during the course of the winter season, and as soon as possible after major avalanche events. We have explored the use of imagery from high-resolution and very-high-resolution space-borne satellites applying manual mapping and automated image segmentation.

  2. The response of the hind-limb vascular bed of the rabbit to sympathetic stimulation and its modification by pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, P W; Joels, N

    1982-01-01

    1. Pressure-flow relationships in the hind limb, perfused with blood at a series of constant flows, have been compared in primigravid and virgin rabbits following section of the lumbar sympathetic chain. 2. In the absence of sympathetic stimulation perfusion pressure was lower (P less than 0.05) in the pregnant rabbits at all levels of flow to the leg. 3. It is concluded that pregnancy leads to a reduction in the vascular resistance of the acutely sympathectomized hind limb. 4. The pressure-flow curves of hind limbs from pregnant and non-pregnant rabbits in which the cutaneous circulation had been excluded by skinning the leg and ligating the ankle were also compared. Again, perfusion pressure at each flow level was lower in the limbs from the pregnant animals (P less than 0.05). 5. The sympathetic supply was stimulated at frequencies of 0.3, 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 Hz. Irrespective of whether the cutaneous circulation was excluded, the pressure-flow curves for the hind limbs of pregnant and non-pregnant rabbits were different at the lower frequencies. As stimulus frequency rose this difference became smaller, and at a stimulus frequency of 7-15 Hz or more there was little difference in the position of the curves in pregnant and non-pregnant rabbits. 6. Examination of the pressure-flow curves suggests that when, as in these experiments, flow is held constant, the ability of sympathetic stimulation to increase the resistance to blood flow is reduced in pregnancy. However, if these pressure-flow curves are used to predict the change of flow that would occur at a constant perfusion pressure, the response to sympathetic stimulation appears to be greater in pregnancy. 7. Further analysis of the findings, based on certain assumptions, suggests that differences between the pressure-flow curves of pregnant and non-pregnant animals during sympathetic stimulation are due in the main to either a differing size of the unstimulated vascular beds or a differing compliance of their

  3. Dynamics of goat distal hind limb muscle–tendon function in response to locomotor grade

    PubMed Central

    McGuigan, M. Polly; Yoo, Edwin; Lee, David V.; Biewener, Andrew A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The functional roles of the lateral gastrocnemius (LG), medial gastrocnemius (MG) and superficial digital flexor (SDF) muscle–tendon units (MTUs) in domestic goats (N=6) were studied as a function of locomotor grade, testing the hypothesis that changes in distal limb muscle work would reflect changes in mechanical work requirements while goats walked or trotted on the level, 15 deg. decline and 15 deg. incline. As steep terrain-adapted animals, changes in muscle work output are expected to be particularly important for goats. In vivo muscle–tendon forces, fascicle length changes and muscle activation were recorded via tendon force buckles, sonomicrometry and electromyography to evaluate the work performance and elastic energy recovery of the three distal MTUs. These recordings confirmed that fascicle strain and force within goat distal hind limb muscles are adjusted in response to changes in mechanical work demand associated with locomotor grade. In general, muscle work was modulated most consistently by changes in fascicle strain, with increased net shortening (P<0.001) observed as goats switched from decline to level to incline locomotion. Peak muscle stresses increased as goats increased speed from a walk to a trot within each grade condition (P<0.05), and also increased significantly with grade (P<0.05 to P<0.01). Due to the increase in net fascicle shortening and muscle force, net muscle work per cycle also increased significantly (P<0.05 to P<0.005) as goats switched from decline to level to incline conditions (LG work: 20 mJ to 56 mJ to 209 mJ; MG work: –7 mJ to 34 mJ to 179 mJ; SDF work: –42 mJ to 14 mJ to 71 mJ, at a 2.5 ms–1 trot). Although muscle work was modulated in response to changes in grade, the amount of work produced by these three distal pennate muscles was small (being <3%) in comparison with the change in mechanical energy required of the limb as a whole. Elastic energy recovery in the SDF and gastrocnemius (GA) tendons was

  4. Effects of Cold Water Immersion on Edema Formation After Blunt Injury to the Hind Limbs of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Michael G.; Thornton, Richard M.; Fish, Dale R.; Mendel, Frank C.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Despite the long history of using cryotherapy to control edema, we found no randomized, controlled studies providing evidence to substantiate this common clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cold water immersion affects edema formation following blunt injuries in rats. Design and Setting: The feet of 16 rats were traumatized after hind limb volumes were determined. Four 30-minute treatments of cold water immersion (12.8°C to 15.6°C, 55°F to 60°F), interspersed with four 30-minute rest periods, began immediately after trauma to one randomly selected hind limb of each rat. The limb remained in a dependent position during all treatments, rest periods, and volumetric measurements. Subjects: Sixteen anesthetized Zucker Lean rats were used in the study. Measurements: Limb volumes were measured after each treatment and rest period for a total of 4 hours. Results: The volume of treated limbs was significantly smaller (p < .05) than the volume of untreated limbs after the first treatment and remained smaller throughout the experiment. Conclusions: Immersing rat limbs in 12.8°C to 15.6°C (55°F to60°F) water immediately after blunt injury was effective in curbing edema formation. ImagesFig 1. PMID:16558455

  5. Thermographic evaluation of hind paw skin temperature and functional recovery of locomotion after sciatic nerve crush in rats

    PubMed Central

    Z. Sacharuk, Viviane; A. Lovatel, Gisele; Ilha, Jocemar; Marcuzzo, Simone; Severo do Pinho, Alexandre; L. Xavier, Léder; A. Zaro, Milton; Achaval, Matilde

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Peripheral nerves are often damaged by direct mechanical injury, diseases, and tumors. The peripheral nerve injuries that result from these conditions can lead to a partial or complete loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic functions, which in turn are related to changes in skin temperature, in the involved segments of the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in hind paw skin temperature after sciatic nerve crush in rats in an attempt to determine whether changes in skin temperature correlate with the functional recovery of locomotion. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (n = 7), sham (n = 25), and crush (n = 25). All groups were subjected to thermographic, functional, and histological assessments. RESULTS: ΔT in the crush group was different from the control and sham groups at the 1st, 3rd and 7rd postoperative days (p<0.05). The functional recovery from the crush group returned to normal values between the 3rd and 4th week post-injury, and morphological analysis of the nerve revealed incomplete regeneration at the 4th week after injury. DISCUSSION: This study is the first demonstration that sciatic nerve crush in rats induces an increase in hind paw skin temperature and that skin temperature changes do not correlate closely with functional recovery PMID:21876984

  6. Fucoidan improves bioactivity and vasculogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells in murine hind limb ischemia associated with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Hee; Ryu, Jung Min; Han, Yong-Seok; Zia, Mohammad Farid; Kwon, Hyog Young; Noh, Hyunjin; Han, Ho Jae; Lee, Sang Hun

    2016-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease. Although mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is a promising strategy for treatment of ischemic diseases associated with CKD, the associated pathophysiological conditions lead to low survival and proliferation of transplanted MSCs. To address these limitations, we investigated the effects of fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, on the bioactivity of adipose tissue-derived MSCs and the potential of fucoidan-treated MSCs to improve neovascularization in ischemic tissues of CKD mice. Treatment of MSCs with fucoidan increased their proliferative potential and the expression of cell cycle-associated proteins, such as cyclin E, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 2, cyclin D1, and CDK4, via focal adhesion kinase and the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase-Akt axis. Moreover, fucoidan enhanced the immunomodulatory activity of MSCs through the ERK-IDO-1 signal cascade. Fucoidan was found to augment the proliferation, incorporation, and endothelial differentiation of transplanted MSCs at ischemic sites in CKD mice hind limbs. In addition, transplantation of fucoidan-treated MSCs enhanced the ratio of blood flow and limb salvage in CKD mice with hind limb ischemia. To our knowledge, our findings are the first to reveal that fucoidan enhances the bioactivity of MSCs and improves their neovascularization in ischemic injured tissues of CKD. In conclusion, fucoidan-treated MSCs may provide an important pathway toward therapeutic neovascularization in patients with CKD.

  7. p66(ShcA) and oxidative stress modulate myogenic differentiation and skeletal muscle regeneration after hind limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Zaccagnini, Germana; Martelli, Fabio; Magenta, Alessandra; Cencioni, Chiara; Fasanaro, Pasquale; Nicoletti, Carmine; Biglioli, Paolo; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Capogrossi, Maurizio C

    2007-10-26

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in ischemic injury, and p66(ShcA)ko mice exhibit both lower oxidative stress and decreased tissue damage following hind limb ischemia. Thus, it was investigated whether tissue regeneration following acute hind limb ischemia was altered in p66(ShcA)ko mice. Upon femoral artery dissection, muscle regeneration started earlier and was completed faster than in wild-type (WT) control. Moreover, faster regeneration was associated with decreased oxidative stress. Unlike ischemia, cardiotoxin injury induced similar skeletal muscle damage in both genotypes. However, p66(ShcA)ko mice regenerated faster, in agreement with the regenerative advantage upon ischemia. Since no difference between p66(ShcA)wt and knock-out (ko) mice was found in blood perfusion recovery after ischemia, satellite cells (SCs), a resident population of myogenic progenitors, were examined. Similar SCs numbers were present in WT and ko mice. However, in vitro cultured p66(ShcA)ko SCs displayed lower oxidative stress levels and higher proliferation rate and differentiated faster than WT. Furthermore, when exposed to sublethal H(2)O(2) doses, p66(ShcA)ko SCs were resistant to H(2)O(2)-induced inhibition of differentiation. Finally, myogenic conversion induced by MyoD overexpression was more efficient in p66(ShcA)ko fibroblasts compared with WT. The present work demonstrates that oxidative stress and p66(ShcA) play a crucial role in the regenerative pathways activated by acute ischemia.

  8. Dynamic imaging of allogeneic adipose-derived regenerative cells transplanted in ischemic hind limb of apolipoprotein E mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yi; Qin, Jinbao; Wang, Xin; Peng, Zhiyou; Hou, Peiyong; Lu, Xinwu

    2017-01-01

    Background Transplantation of allogeneic adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) is a promising treatment modality for severe ischemic diseases. However, minimal information is available on the in vivo effects, fate, and migration of ADRCs, as well as the mechanisms of their therapeutic angiogenesis. Materials and methods In this study, green fluorescent protein-expressing ADRCs (GFP-ADRCs) were obtained, labeled with acetylated 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTS)-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (APTS NPs), and injected into an old apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-KO) mouse model with hind limb ischemia. Then, 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to dynamically trace the role of ADRCs targeting hind limb ischemia in the ApoE-KO mice model. Results Labeled cells were visualized as large hypointense spots in ischemic muscles by serial 3.0 T MRI scans during a 4-week follow-up. The presence of labeled GFP-ADRCs was confirmed by Prussian blue staining and fluorescence microscopy on postmortem specimens. Conclusion This study showed that allogeneic ADRCs offer great potential application for therapeutic angiogenesis in severe ischemic disease based on the efficacy and feasibility of ADRC transplantation and on the available amounts of tissue. PMID:28053524

  9. No evidence of association of the osteocalcin gene HindIII polymorphism with bone mineral density in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Jiang, D K; Xu, F H; Liu, M Y; Chen, X D; Li, M X; Liu, Y J; Shen, H; Deng, H W

    2007-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem, mainly characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD). Osteocalcin (also known as BGP, for bone Gla protein) is a significant biomarker of bone turnover and thus the BGP gene has been considered as an important candidate gene for osteoporosis. A few studies on the relationship between variants of the BGP gene and BMD variation, via traditional association and/or linkage methods, have yielded conflicting results. In the present study, we simultaneously tested linkage and/or association of the BGP HindIII polymorphism with BMD in a large cohort of pre-menopausal Chinese women. A total of 1,263 subjects from 402 Chinese nuclear families were examined. Each family consists of both parents and at least one daughter aged between 20-45 years. BMDs at the lumbar spine and hip were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Using the QTDT (quantitative transmission disequilibrium test) program, we did not detect significant evidence of linkage or association between the BGP HindIII polymorphisms and the BMD variation at any skeletal site. Our data do not support the BGP gene having a major effect on BMD variation in pre-menopausal Chinese women.

  10. Hind limb scaling of kangaroos and wallabies (superfamily Macropodoidea): implications for hopping performance, safety factor and elastic savings

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, C P; Skinner, J; Biewener, A A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine hind limb scaling of the musculoskeletal system in the Macropodoidea, the superfamily containing wallabies and kangaroos, to re-examine the effect of size on the locomotor mechanics and physiology of marsupial hopping. Morphometric musculoskeletal analyses were conducted of 15 species and skeletal specimens of 21 species spanning a size range from 0.8 to 80 kg that included representatives of 12 of the 16 extant genera of macropodoids. We found that unlike other groups, macropodoids are able to match force demands associated with increasing body size primarily through a combination of positive allometry in muscle area and muscle moment arms. Isometric scaling of primary hind limb bones suggests, however, that larger species experience relatively greater bone stresses. Muscle to tendon area ratios of the ankle extensors scale with strong positive allometry, indicating that peak tendon stresses also increase with increasing body size but to a lesser degree than previously reported. Consistent with previous morphological and experimental studies, large macropodoids are therefore better suited for elastic strain energy recovery but operate at lower safety factors, which likely poses an upper limit to body size. Scaling patterns for extant macropodoids suggest that extinct giant kangaroos (∼250 kg) were likely limited in locomotor capacity. PMID:18086129

  11. Morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) evidenced by gross osteology, radiography and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Makungu, M; du Plessis, W M; Groenewald, H B; Barrows, M; Koeppel, K N

    2015-12-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is a quadrupedal arboreal animal primarily distributed in the Himalayas and southern China. It is a species commonly kept in zoological collections. This study was carried out to describe the morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda evidenced by gross osteology, radiography and computed tomography as a reference for clinical use and identification of skeletons. Radiography of the pelvis and right hind limb was performed in nine and seven animals, respectively. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. Computed tomography of the torso and hind limb was performed in one animal. The pelvic bone had a wide ventromedial surface of the ilium. The trochlea of the femur was wide and shallow. The patella was similar to that seen in feline species. The medial fabella was not seen radiographically in any animal. The cochlea grooves of the tibia were shallow with a poorly defined intermediate ridge. The trochlea of the talus was shallow and presented with an almost flattened medial ridge. The tarsal sesamoid bone was always present. The lateral process of the base of the fifth metatarsal (MT) bone was directed laterally. The MT bones were widely spaced. The morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda indicated flexibility of the pelvis and hind limb joints as an adaptation to an arboreal quadrupedal lifestyle.

  12. Development of body condition in hinds of Iberian red deer during gestation and its effects on calf birth weight and milk production.

    PubMed

    Carrión, Déborah; García, Andrés José; Gaspar-López, Enrique; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Gallego, Laureano

    2008-01-01

    Reproductive effort affects body reserves and subsequent ability to reproduce. In fact, the energy costs of gestation and lactation in hinds of red deer have a marked effect on maternal condition. The objectives of this study were to examine the development of hind monthly body condition during gestation in relation to reproductive rest, age and age class, just as its effects on total milk yield and calf birth weight. Eighty hinds of Iberian red deer were used as subjects during 2 years of study. They had ad libitum access to food and water. Animals were weighed weekly, and body condition was individually assessed. Milking was carried out under anesthesia with a milking machine followed by hand milking to collect the remaining milk. Age and reproductive rest influenced body condition, improving with age (coefficient: 0.10+/-0.01; P<0.001) and reproductive rest (mean+/-SEM, 3.75+/-0.05 vs. 3.25+/-0.02, with and without rest respectively; P<0.001). Hind age correlated positively with her body condition (R=0.62, P<0.001), however, when age class was included in the model, age was not significant. The greater the age class (up to age class 4) the greater the body condition; however, hinds of age class 5 had a lower body condition, but no significant differences were observed. Development of the body condition during gestation was different to age class 1 with respect to the others, just as between hinds that rested the preceding year and those that did not.

  13. AB296. SPR-23 Aberrant bladder reflexes can drive hind limb locomotor activity following complete suprasacral spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Inouye, Brian M.; Brooks, Jillene M.; Degoski, Danielle J.; Hughes, Francis M.; Purves, J. Todd; Fraser, Matthew O.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many rats with chronic suprasacral spinal cord injury (SCI) demonstrate hind limb locomotor activity (HLLA) in response to external crede or high pressure contractions during cystometry. We propose that this aberrant, pressure-driven bladder reflex pathway may be harnessed to facilitate walking in SCI patients. As a first step in exploring this possibility, we examined the relationship between intravesical pressure (IVP) and HLLA in chronic suprasacral SCI rats. Methods Female rats (4 weeks post-SCI at T9-10, n=16) were anesthetized with isoflurane and fitted with transvesical catheters and right quadriceps EMG electrodes to monitor bladder and hind limb locomotor activities, respectively. The animals were mounted in Ballman restraint cages to which they had been previously acclimated. The catheter was connected to a pressure transducer, an infusion pump, and a saline-filled reservoir mounted on a metered vertical pole (pressure clamp). After 30 min of recovery from anesthesia, the bladder was filled at 0.1 mL/min with saline to verify bladder-to-bladder reflex activity for 30 min. IVP was then increased in an interrupted stepwise fashion from 0–120 cmH2O at 10 cmH2O increments. Each step consisted of five minutes: 3 minutes at the new pressure followed by 2 minutes at 0 cmH2O. IVP and the number of HLLA events (as defined by rhythmic EMG discharges of 3–10 cycles/event) were recorded for each pressure step. This process was repeated for two more trials for each rat to assess the durability of the reflex. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with repeated measures both within and across pressure escalation trials. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results ANOVA revealed that locomotor events increased with increasing IVP and decreased with the number of escalation trials (P<0.0001 for both effects). The increase in the number of locomotor events with increasing IVP appeared to plateau at ~50–60 cmH2O (P<0.05 for all). The average of the maximal number of

  14. Effect of external lymph drainage and of coumarin treatment on thermal injury in the rat hind leg

    PubMed Central

    Földi-Börcsök, Ethel

    1972-01-01

    1. External lymph drainage brings about a significant protective effect in thermal oedema of the rat hind leg. It is suggested that external lymph drainage prevents vasoactive substances drained from the site of injury from passing into the blood stream, which would further increase permeability of the injured blood capillaries. 2. Coumarin (5,6-benzo-alpha-pyron) brings about a significant protective effect against the same injury in sham-operated rats. 3. The strongest protective effect may be attained by combining external lymph drainage with the administration of coumarin. 4. The additional therapeutic effect brought about by coumarin treatment in rats with external lymph drainage is not mediated by an increased flow. The possible mechanisms are discussed. PMID:4651772

  15. Fatty acid profile of hind leg muscle in female and male nutria (Myocastor coypus Mol.), fed green forage diet.

    PubMed

    Głogowski, Robert; Czauderna, Marian; Rozbicka, Agnieszka; Krajewska, Katarzyna A; Clauss, Marcus

    2010-07-01

    The study describes the profile of fatty acids in hind leg muscle of 18 female and 12 male nutria reared on an extensive system farm in eastern Poland with a diet based on fresh forage. When compared to results from nutrias from an intensive production system from the literature, the forage-fed animals had lower proportions of saturated fatty acids, and higher proportions of n3-fatty acids in their muscle tissue; in particular, n6:n3-fatty acid ratios were lower (2.6-3.0) in forage-fed animals compared to intensively reared animals (16.8-28.9). These findings underline that using forage-based diets is feasible in nutrias, and an economic way to improve the fatty acid composition of their meat. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel Dynamics Observed in a Spiking Neural Network Model of the NTS in the Rat Hind-brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jingyi; Schaffer, J. David; Dilorenzo, Patricia; Laramee, Craig

    2012-02-01

    The Nucleus of the Solitary Tract (NTS) is a hind-brain structure in the rat that is the first way-station in taste processing. Its structure and function are poorly understood. Recently our group produced a model, implemented as a spiking neural network (SNN), that successfully replicated experimental data. The model's topology was manually devised and the parameters were set by a genetic algorithm. In order to better understand its information processing capabilities, we probed the model with a variety of input spike patterns and observed a striking winner-take-all decision-making dynamic. We show how the topology and tuned parameters enable this decision to depend on precise spike timing events. It is curious that the experimental data upon which the model was originally evolved did not include winner-take-all examples; this was an emergent capability. It remains for additional experiments on rats to confirm or reject this model prediction.

  17. Vasomotor responses in the hind limbs of foetal and new-born lambs to asphyxia and aortic chemoreceptor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dawes, G S; Lewis, B V; Milligan, J E; Roach, M R; Talner, N S

    1968-03-01

    1. Hind limb blood flow was measured in lambs of from 91 days gestation (delivered by Caesarean section) to 1 month after birth (term is about 147 days), under chloralose anaesthesia. Vascular resistance/100 g wet wt. increased progressively with age. There was reflex femoral vascular tone from the earliest age studied, as shown by vasodilatation on cutting the sciatic nerve.2. On asphyxia by cord occlusion reflex femoral vasoconstriction began earlier and was somewhat greater in older foetal lambs. At all ages, and after denervation of the hind limb, there was vasodilatation after local ischaemia, and a vasoconstriction of delayed onset during asphyxia attributed to release of noradrenaline into the circulation. The vasoconstrictor effect of noradrenaline in immature lambs was at least as great as at term or in the new-born.3. Injections of minimal effective doses of cyanide were used to localize possible chemoreceptor sites in foetal lambs. Injection into the left atrium caused a rise of arterial pressure, femoral vasoconstriction and a complex change in heart rate (usually bradycardia) but rarely any respiratory movement. After atropine, cyanide caused a large tachycardia. All responses were much reduced or abolished by cervical vagotomy.4. Injection of the same doses of cyanide into a jugular vein, the right ventricle, pulmonary or common carotid arteries of foetal lambs caused negligible cardiovascular or respiratory effects, whereas injection into the carotids of new-born lambs caused a profound hyperpnoea.5. It is concluded that the aortic chemoreceptors are active in the foetus, are supplied from the left heart, and that they probably represent the primary defence in blood gas homeostasis by their effects on the circulation.

  18. Radioprotection by WR-151327 against the late normal tissue damage in mouse hind legs from gamma ray radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushita, Satoru; Ando, Koichi; Koike, Sachiko

    1994-11-15

    To evaluate the protective effect of WR-151327 on late radiation-induced damaged to normal tissues in mice, the right hind legs of mice with or without WR-151327 administration (400 mg/kg) were irradiated with {sup 137}Cs gamma rays. Leg contracture and skin shrinkage assays were performed at 380 days after irradiation. The mice were killed on day 400 postirradiation and histological sections of the legs were made. The thickness of the dermis, epidermis, and skin (dermis plus epidermis) was measured. The muscular area of the legs and the posterior knee angle between the femur and tibia were also measured. The left hind legs were similarly assessed as nonirradiated controls. Group means and standard deviations were calculated and dose-response curves were drawn for every endpoint. Then, the dose modifying factor (DMF) for each endpoint and the correlations among endpoints were determined. Latae damage assayed by leg contracture and skin shrinkage progressed with increasing radiation dose. However, it was reduced by drug treatment. The significant effect was indicated for skin shrinkage by a DMF of 1.8 at 35%. The DMF for leg contracture was 1.3 at 6 mm. In the irradiated legs, epidermal hyperplasia and dermal fibrosis in the skin, muscular atrophy, and extension disturbance of the knee joint were observed. These changes progressed with increasing radiation dose. Skin damage assayed by the present endpoints was also reduced by drug treatment by DMFs of 1.4 to 1.7. However, DMFs for damage to the muscle and knee were not determined because no isoeffect was observed. There were good correlations between leg contracture or skin shrinkage and the other endpoints in both untreated and drug-treated mice. WR-151327 has the potential to protect against radiation-induced late normal tissue damage. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Divergent systemic and local inflammatory response to hind limb demand ischemia in wild-type and ApoE-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Robert S; Albadawi, Hassan; Robaldo, Alessandro; Peck, Michael A; Abularrage, Christopher J; Yoo, Hyung-Jin; Lamuraglia, Glenn M; Watkins, Michael T

    2013-08-01

    We designed studies to determine whether the ApoE-/- phenotype modulates the local skeletal muscle and systemic inflammatory (plasma) responses to lower extremity demand ischemia. The ApoE-/- phenotype is an experimental model for atherosclerosis in humans. Aged female ApoE-/- and C57BL6 mice underwent femoral artery ligation, then were divided into sedentary and demand ischemia (exercise) groups on day 14. We assessed baseline and postexercise limb perfusion and hind limb function. On day 14, animals in the demand ischemia group underwent daily treadmill exercise through day 28. Sedentary mice were not exercised. On day 28, we harvested plasma and skeletal muscle from ischemic limbs from sedentary and exercised mice. We assayed muscle for angiogenic and proinflammatory proteins, markers of skeletal muscle regeneration, and evidence of skeletal muscle fiber maturation. Hind limb ischemia was similar in ApoE-/- and C57 mice before the onset of exercise. Under sedentary conditions, plasma vascular endothelial cell growth factor and interleukin-6, but not keratinocyte chemoattractant factor (KC) or macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), were higher in ApoE (P < 0.0001). After exercise, plasma levels of vascular endothelial cell growth factor, KC, and MIP-2, but not IL-6, were lower in ApoE (P < 0.004). The cytokines KC and MIP-2 in muscle were greater in exercised ApoE-/- mice compared with C57BL6 mice (P = 0.01). Increased poly-ADP-ribose activity and mature muscle regeneration were associated with demand ischemia in the C57BL6 mice, compared with the ApoE-/- mice (P = 0.01). Demand limb ischemia in the ApoE-/- phenotype exacerbated the expression of select systemic cytokines in plasma and blunted indices of muscle regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Vasomotor responses in the hind limbs of foetal and new-born lambs to asphyxia and aortic chemoreceptor stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, G. S.; Lewis, B. V.; Milligan, J. E.; Roach, Margot R.; Talner, N. S.

    1968-01-01

    1. Hind limb blood flow was measured in lambs of from 91 days gestation (delivered by Caesarean section) to 1 month after birth (term is about 147 days), under chloralose anaesthesia. Vascular resistance/100 g wet wt. increased progressively with age. There was reflex femoral vascular tone from the earliest age studied, as shown by vasodilatation on cutting the sciatic nerve. 2. On asphyxia by cord occlusion reflex femoral vasoconstriction began earlier and was somewhat greater in older foetal lambs. At all ages, and after denervation of the hind limb, there was vasodilatation after local ischaemia, and a vasoconstriction of delayed onset during asphyxia attributed to release of noradrenaline into the circulation. The vasoconstrictor effect of noradrenaline in immature lambs was at least as great as at term or in the new-born. 3. Injections of minimal effective doses of cyanide were used to localize possible chemoreceptor sites in foetal lambs. Injection into the left atrium caused a rise of arterial pressure, femoral vasoconstriction and a complex change in heart rate (usually bradycardia) but rarely any respiratory movement. After atropine, cyanide caused a large tachycardia. All responses were much reduced or abolished by cervical vagotomy. 4. Injection of the same doses of cyanide into a jugular vein, the right ventricle, pulmonary or common carotid arteries of foetal lambs caused negligible cardiovascular or respiratory effects, whereas injection into the carotids of new-born lambs caused a profound hyperpnoea. 5. It is concluded that the aortic chemoreceptors are active in the foetus, are supplied from the left heart, and that they probably represent the primary defence in blood gas homeostasis by their effects on the circulation. PMID:4295757

  1. Divergent Systemic and Local Inflammatory Response to Hind Limb Demand Ischemia in Wild Type And ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Robert S.; Albadawi, Hassan; Robaldo, Alessandro; Peck, Michael A.; Abularrage, Christopher J.; Yoo, Hyung-Jin; LaMuraglia, Glenn M.; Watkins, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Studies were designed to determine whether the ApoE−/− phenotype modulates the local skeletal muscle and systemic inflammatory (plasma) responses to lower extremity demand ischemia. The ApoE−/− phenotype is an experimental model for atherosclerosis in humans. Methods Aged female ApoE −/− and C57BL6 mice underwent femoral artery ligation, then divided into sedentary and demand ischemia (exercise) groups on day 14. Baseline and post exercise limb perfusion and hind limb function were assessed. On day 14, animals in the demand ischemia group underwent daily treadmill exercise through day 28. Sedentary mice were not exercised. On day 28, plasma and skeletal muscle from ischemic limbs were harvested from sedentary and exercised mice. Muscle was assayed for angiogenic and pro-inflammatory proteins, markers of skeletal muscle regeneration, and evidence of skeletal muscle fiber maturation. Results Hind limb ischemia was similar in ApoE −/− and C57 mice prior to the onset of exercise. Under sedentary conditions, plasma VEGF, IL-6, but not KC or MIP-2 were higher in ApoE (P<0.0001). Following exercise, plasma levels of VEGF, KC and MIP-2, but not IL-6 were lower in ApoE (P<0.004). The cytokines KC and MIP-2 in muscle was greater in exercised ApoE−/− mice as compared to C57BL6 mice (p=0.01). Increased PAR activity, and mature muscle regeneration was associated with demand ischemia in the C57BL6 mice as compared to the ApoE −/− mice (p=0.01). Conclusion Demand limb ischemia in the ApoE−/− phenotype exacerbated the expression of select systemic cytokines in plasma and blunted indices of muscle regeneration. PMID:23528286

  2. Arboreal Day Geckos (Phelsuma madagascariensis) Differentially Modulate Fore- and Hind Limb Kinematics in Response to Changes in Habitat Structure

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Mingna V.; Higham, Timothy E.

    2016-01-01

    By using adhesion, geckos can move through incredibly challenging habitats. However, continually changing terrain may necessitate modulation of the adhesive apparatus in order to maximize its effectiveness over a range of challenges. Behaviorally modulating how the adhesive system is applied can occur by altering the alignment of the foot relative to the long axis of the body and/or the angles between the digits (interdigital angle). Given the directionality of the adhesive system, geckos likely vary the application of the system via these mechanisms as they run. We quantified 3D movements (using high-speed video) of the day gecko, Phelsuma madagascariensis, running on a range of ecologically relevant inclines (0°, 45°, 90°) and perch diameters (1.5 cm, 10 cm and broad). We measured the instantaneous sum of interdigital angles and foot alignment relative to the body, as well as other kinematic variables, throughout each stride and across treatments. Modulation of foot alignment at 45° and 90° was similar between the forelimb and hind limb, but differed at 0°, suggesting that P. madagascariensis is able to exert an adhesive force using multiple strategies. Both the sum of interdigital angles and alignment in the fore- and hind foot were modulated. Differences in modulation between the limbs are likely related to the underlying morphology. The modulation of interdigital angle and foot alignment suggests that aspects other than the mechanism of adhesion, such as joint morphology, are important for arboreal movement in geckos. Our study of foot usage in arboreal locomotion reveals patterns that may be widespread across pad-bearing lizards. In addition to understanding the constraints exerted by the adhesive apparatus, we highlight how biomechanical traits may respond to the evolution of novel adaptations and morphologies. PMID:27145027

  3. TLR4 Accessory Molecule RP105 (CD180) Regulates Monocyte-Driven Arteriogenesis in a Murine Hind Limb Ischemia Model

    PubMed Central

    Bastiaansen, Antonius J. N. M.; Karper, Jacco C.; Wezel, Anouk; de Boer, Hetty C.; Welten, Sabine M. J.; de Jong, Rob C. M.; Peters, Erna A. B.; de Vries, Margreet R.; van Oeveren-Rietdijk, Annemarie M.; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; Hamming, Jaap F.

    2014-01-01

    Aims We investigated the role of the TLR4-accessory molecule RP105 (CD180) in post-ischemic neovascularization, i.e. arteriogenesis and angiogenesis. TLR4-mediated activation of pro-inflammatory Ly6Chi monocytes is crucial for effective neovascularization. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that RP105+ monocytes are present in the perivascular space of remodeling collateral arterioles. As RP105 inhibits TLR4 signaling, we hypothesized that RP105 deficiency would lead to an unrestrained TLR4-mediated inflammatory response and hence to enhanced blood flow recovery after ischemia. Methods and Results RP105−/− and wild type (WT) mice were subjected to hind limb ischemia and blood flow recovery was followed by Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging. Surprisingly, we found that blood flow recovery was severely impaired in RP105−/− mice. Immunohistochemistry showed that arteriogenesis was reduced in these mice compared to the WT. However, both in vivo and ex vivo analyses showed that circulatory pro-arteriogenic Ly6Chi monocytes were more readily activated in RP105−/− mice. FACS analyses showed that Ly6Chi monocytes became activated and migrated to the affected muscle tissues in WT mice following induction of hind limb ischemia. Although Ly6Chi monocytes were readily activated in RP105−/− mice, migration into the ischemic tissues was hampered and instead, Ly6Chi monocytes accumulated in their storage compartments, bone marrow and spleen, in RP105−/− mice. Conclusions RP105 deficiency results in an unrestrained inflammatory response and monocyte over-activation, most likely due to the lack of TLR4 regulation. Inappropriate, premature systemic activation of pro-inflammatory Ly6Chi monocytes results in reduced infiltration of Ly6Chi monocytes in ischemic tissues and in impaired blood flow recovery. PMID:24945347

  4. Fatty liver accompanies an increase of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the hind gut of C57/BL mice fed a high-fat diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High-fat diets can produce obesity and have been linked to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which also induces changes in the gut microbiome. This study tested the hypothesis that high-fat feeding increases certain predominate hind gut bacteria in a C57BL/6 mouse model o...

  5. Perceptions of High school Students and School Personnel toward Gang Activity, Violence, and Safety in the High Schools of the Hinds County Public School District in Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Janice E. Lewis

    This paper presents findings of a study that examined students' and school personnel's perceptions of gang activity, violence, and safety in the high schools of the Hinds County Public School District in Mississippi. The perceptions were measured against the student variables of grade level, age, gender, and race, and the school personnel…

  6. Insights into the dynamics of hind leg development in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) queen and worker larvae - A morphology/differential gene expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carolina Gonçalves; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is a hallmark of the caste systems of social insects, expressed in their life history and morphological traits. These are best studied in bees. In their co-evolution with angiosperm plants, the females of corbiculate bees have acquired a specialized structure on their hind legs for collecting pollen. In the highly eusocial bees (Apini and Meliponini), this structure is however only present in workers and absent in queens. By means of histological sections and cell proliferation analysis we followed the developmental dynamics of the hind legs of queens and workers in the fourth and fifth larval instars. In parallel, we generated subtractive cDNA libraries for hind leg discs of queen and worker larvae by means of a Representational Difference Analysis (RDA). From the total of 135 unique sequences we selected 19 for RT-qPCR analysis, where six of these were confirmed as differing significantly in their expression between the two castes in the larval spinning stage. The development of complex structures such as the bees’ hind legs, requires diverse patterning mechanisms and signaling modules, as indicated by the set of differentially expressed genes related with cell adhesion and signaling pathways. PMID:26500430

  7. Young's modulus and SEM analysis of leg bones exposed to simulated microgravity by hind limb suspension (HLS)

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Niravkumar D.; Mehta, Rahul; Ali, Nawab; Soulsby, Michael; Chowdhury, Parimal

    2013-04-19

    The aim of this study was to determine composition of the leg bone tissue of rats that were exposed to simulated microgravity by Hind-Limb Suspension (HLS) by tail for one week. The leg bones were cross sectioned, cleaned of soft tissues, dried and sputter coated, and then placed horizontally on the stage of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for analysis. Interaction of a 17.5 keV electron beam, incident from the vertical direction on the sample, generated images using two detectors. X-rays emitted from the sample during electron bombardment were measured with an Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) feature of SEM using a liquid-nitrogen cooled Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 144 eV at 5.9 keV ({sub 25}Mn K{sub {alpha}} x-ray). K{sub {alpha}}- x-rays from carbon, oxygen, phosphorus and calcium formed the major peaks in the spectrum. Relative percentages of these elements were determined using a software that could also correct for ZAF factors namely Z(atomic number), A(X-ray absorption) and F(characteristic fluorescence). The x-rays from the control groups and from the experimental (HLS) groups were analyzed on well-defined parts (femur, tibia and knee) of the leg bone. The SEM analysis shows that there are definite changes in the hydroxyl or phosphate group of the main component of the bone structure, hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}], due to hind limb suspension. In a separate experiment, entire leg bones (both from HLS and control rats) were subjected to mechanical stress by mean of a variable force. The stress vs. strain graph was fitted with linear and polynomial function, and the parameters reflecting the mechanical strength of the bone, under increasing stress, were calculated. From the slope of the linear part of the graph the Young's modulus for HLS bones were calculated and found to be 2.49 times smaller than those for control bones.

  8. Actions on gamma-motoneurones elicited by electrical stimulation of cutaneous afferent fibres in the hind limb of the cat.

    PubMed

    Johansson, H; Sojka, P

    1985-09-01

    The reflex actions elicited by graded electrical stimulation of hind-limb cutaneous (sural, superficial peroneal and tibial) nerves were investigated with intra- and extracellular micro-electrode recordings in gamma-motoneurones projecting to hind-limb muscles in twenty-four cats anaesthetized with alpha-chloralose. In total, reflex responses of 100 gamma-motoneurones were analysed. 82 of the gamma-cells were classified as dynamic (43) or static (39) using the method of mesencephalic stimulation (Appelberg, Hulliger, Johansson & Sojka, 1982). The general responsiveness (i.e. number of input nerves with effect/number of input nerves tested) of the whole sample of gamma-cells to stimulation of skin nerves was extremely high (94.8%). All negative observations were encountered among static and non-classified gamma-cells. Generally, the stimulation strengths needed for evoking effects in the gamma-cells were very low. A majority of the excitatory effects in the dynamic cells appeared with stimulation intensities below 1.5 threshold (T), while most static cells were excited with stimulation strengths between 1.5 and 2 T. Also a statistical comparison of the populations of stimulation strength thresholds for the excitatory effects revealed a significant difference (P less than 0.0009) between dynamic and static gamma-cells. By contrast, the thresholds for inhibitory effects in dynamic cells were slightly higher than for excitatory effects (P less than 0.0009). As regards excitation of static cells, inhibition of dynamic cells and inhibition of static cells, no statistically significant threshold differences were found. A strong dominance of excitation over inhibition was found in both dynamic and static flexor (posterior biceps and semitendinosus) gamma-motoneurones from all input nerves. In comparison to flexor gamma-motoneurones, there was a much higher incidence of inhibitory and mixed (excitatory and inhibitory) responses in extensor (triceps) gamma-motoneurones, from

  9. Quantitative evaluation of bone development of the distal phalanx of the cow hind limb using computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Tsuka, T; Ooshita, K; Sugiyama, A; Osaki, T; Okamoto, Y; Minami, S; Imagawa, T

    2012-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 400 claws (200 inner and 200 outer claws) of 100 pairs of bovine hind limbs to investigate the etiological theory that an exacerbating factor for ulceration is exostosis of the tuberculum flexorium within the distal phalanx. A variety of morphological changes of the tuberculum flexorium of bovine hind limb claws was visualized by 3-dimensional CT, and the geometry of these claws suggested a growth pattern of bone development with respect to the assumed daily loading patterns. This growth occurs initially at the abaxial caudal aspect of the distal phalanx and is followed by horizontal progression toward the axial aspect. The length of downward bone development on the solar face of the distal phalanx was 2.73±1.32 mm in the outer claws, significantly greater than in the inner claws (2.38±0.96 mm). Ratios of downward (vertical) bone development to the thickness of the subcutis and the corium (VerBD ratios) did not differ between the outer and inner claws (36.7 vs. 38.3%, respectively). Ratios of horizontal bone development to the axial-to-abaxial line of the tuberculum flexorium (HorBD ratios) were approximately 60% for both outer and inner claws. These quantitative measures regarding horizontal and vertical bone development within the distal phalanx were positively correlated with age and VerBD ratios (r=0.53 and r=0.36 for the inner and outer claws, respectively). Correlations between claw width of the outer claw and length of vertical bone development (r=0.43), the HorBD ratio (r=0.51), and the VerBD ratio (r=0.42) suggested that the relative size difference between the inner and outer claws enhances bone development in the outer claw. Correlation coefficients between VerBD and HorBD ratios (r=0.52 and 0.63 for the inner and outer claws, respectively) suggested that horizontal and vertical bone development occurs as a synchronized process within the tuberculum flexorium. This age-related progress of bone development

  10. Young's modulus and SEM analysis of leg bones exposed to simulated microgravity by hind limb suspension (HLS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Niravkumar D.; Mehta, Rahul; Ali, Nawab; Soulsby, Michael; Chowdhury, Parimal

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine composition of the leg bone tissue of rats that were exposed to simulated microgravity by Hind-Limb Suspension (HLS) by tail for one week. The leg bones were cross sectioned, cleaned of soft tissues, dried and sputter coated, and then placed horizontally on the stage of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for analysis. Interaction of a 17.5 keV electron beam, incident from the vertical direction on the sample, generated images using two detectors. X-rays emitted from the sample during electron bombardment were measured with an Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) feature of SEM using a liquid-nitrogen cooled Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 144 eV at 5.9 keV (25Mn Kα x-ray). Kα- x-rays from carbon, oxygen, phosphorus and calcium formed the major peaks in the spectrum. Relative percentages of these elements were determined using a software that could also correct for ZAF factors namely Z(atomic number), A(X-ray absorption) and F(characteristic fluorescence). The x-rays from the control groups and from the experimental (HLS) groups were analyzed on well-defined parts (femur, tibia and knee) of the leg bone. The SEM analysis shows that there are definite changes in the hydroxyl or phosphate group of the main component of the bone structure, hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2], due to hind limb suspension. In a separate experiment, entire leg bones (both from HLS and control rats) were subjected to mechanical stress by mean of a variable force. The stress vs. strain graph was fitted with linear and polynomial function, and the parameters reflecting the mechanical strength of the bone, under increasing stress, were calculated. From the slope of the linear part of the graph the Young's modulus for HLS bones were calculated and found to be 2.49 times smaller than those for control bones.

  11. Effect of picroside II on erythrocyte deformability and lipid peroxidation in rats subjected to hind limb ischemia reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Çomu, Faruk Metin; Kılıç, Yiğit; Özer, Abdullah; Kirişçi, Mehmet; Dursun, Ali Doğan; Tatar, Tolga; Zor, Mustafa Hakan; Kartal, Hakan; Küçük, Ayşegül; Boyunağa, Hakan; Arslan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Ischemia reperfusion injury (I/R) in hind limb is a frequent and important clinical phenomenon. Many structural and functional damages are observed in cells and tissues in these kinds of injuries. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of picroside II on lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte deformability during I/R in rats. Methods Rats were randomly divided into four groups – each containing six animals (sham, I/R, sham + picroside II, and I/R + picroside II). The infrarenal section of the abdominal aorta was occluded with an atraumatic microvascular clamp in I/R groups. The clamp was removed after 120 minutes and reperfusion was provided for a further 120 minutes. Picroside II (10 mg·kg−1) was administered intraperitoneally to the animals in the appropriate groups (sham + picroside II, I/R + picroside II groups). All rats were euthanized by intraperitoneal administration of ketamine (100 mg·kg−1) and taking blood from the abdominal aorta. Erythrocytes were extracted from heparinized complete blood samples. Buffer (PT) and then erythrocytes (PE) were passed through the filtration system and the changes in pressure were measured to investigate the role of serum malondialdehyde and nitric oxide (NO) in lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte deformability index. Results Deformability index was significantly increased in the I/R group compared to groups sham, sham + picroside-II, and I/R + picroside-II (P<0.0001, P<0.0001, and P=0.007). Malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO levels were evaluated. MDA level and NO activity were also higher in the I/R group than in the other groups. Picroside II treatment before hind limb I/R prevented these changes. Conclusion These results support that deformability of erythrocytes is decreased in I/R injury and picroside II plays a critical role to prevent these alterations. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to evaluate and clarify the molecular mechanisms of action and clinical importance of these

  12. Real-time control of hind limb functional electrical stimulation using feedback from dorsal root ganglia recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, Tim M.; Wagenaar, Joost B.; Bauman, Matthew J.; Gaunt, Robert A.; Weber, Douglas J.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) approaches often utilize an open-loop controller to drive state transitions. The addition of sensory feedback may allow for closed-loop control that can respond effectively to perturbations and muscle fatigue. Approach. We evaluated the use of natural sensory nerve signals obtained with penetrating microelectrode arrays in lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) as real-time feedback for closed-loop control of FES-generated hind limb stepping in anesthetized cats. Main results. Leg position feedback was obtained in near real-time at 50 ms intervals by decoding the firing rates of more than 120 DRG neurons recorded simultaneously. Over 5 m of effective linear distance was traversed during closed-loop stepping trials in each of two cats. The controller compensated effectively for perturbations in the stepping path when DRG sensory feedback was provided. The presence of stimulation artifacts and the quality of DRG unit sorting did not significantly affect the accuracy of leg position feedback obtained from the linear decoding model as long as at least 20 DRG units were included in the model. Significance. This work demonstrates the feasibility and utility of closed-loop FES control based on natural neural sensors. Further work is needed to improve the controller and electrode technologies and to evaluate long-term viability.

  13. Biomechanical Properties of Insect Wings: The Stress Stiffening Effects on the Asymmetric Bending of the Allomyrina dichotoma Beetle's Hind Wing

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ngoc San; Truong, Quang Tri; Goo, Nam Seo; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2013-01-01

    Although the asymmetry in the upward and downward bending of insect wings is well known, the structural origin of this asymmetry is not yet clearly understood. Some researchers have suggested that based on experimental results, the bending asymmetry of insect wings appears to be a consequence of the camber inherent in the wings. Although an experimental approach can reveal this phenomenon, another method is required to reveal the underlying theory behind the experimental results. The finite element method (FEM) is a powerful tool for evaluating experimental measurements and is useful for studying the bending asymmetry of insect wings. Therefore, in this study, the asymmetric bending of the Allomyrina dichotoma beetle's hind wing was investigated through FEM analyses rather than through an experimental approach. The results demonstrated that both the stressed stiffening of the membrane and the camber of the wing affect the bending asymmetry of insect wings. In particular, the chordwise camber increased the rigidity of the wing when a load was applied to the ventral side, while the spanwise camber increased the rigidity of the wing when a load was applied to the dorsal side. These results provide an appropriate explanation of the mechanical behavior of cambered insect wings, including the bending asymmetry behavior, and suggest an appropriate approach for analyzing the structural behavior of insect wings. PMID:24339878

  14. Biomechanical properties of insect wings: the stress stiffening effects on the asymmetric bending of the Allomyrina dichotoma beetle's hind wing.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ngoc San; Truong, Quang Tri; Goo, Nam Seo; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2013-01-01

    Although the asymmetry in the upward and downward bending of insect wings is well known, the structural origin of this asymmetry is not yet clearly understood. Some researchers have suggested that based on experimental results, the bending asymmetry of insect wings appears to be a consequence of the camber inherent in the wings. Although an experimental approach can reveal this phenomenon, another method is required to reveal the underlying theory behind the experimental results. The finite element method (FEM) is a powerful tool for evaluating experimental measurements and is useful for studying the bending asymmetry of insect wings. Therefore, in this study, the asymmetric bending of the Allomyrina dichotoma beetle's hind wing was investigated through FEM analyses rather than through an experimental approach. The results demonstrated that both the stressed stiffening of the membrane and the camber of the wing affect the bending asymmetry of insect wings. In particular, the chordwise camber increased the rigidity of the wing when a load was applied to the ventral side, while the spanwise camber increased the rigidity of the wing when a load was applied to the dorsal side. These results provide an appropriate explanation of the mechanical behavior of cambered insect wings, including the bending asymmetry behavior, and suggest an appropriate approach for analyzing the structural behavior of insect wings.

  15. Accuracy and precision of hind limb foot contact timings of horses determined using a pelvis-mounted inertial measurement unit.

    PubMed

    Starke, Sandra D; Witte, Thomas H; May, Stephen A; Pfau, Thilo

    2012-05-11

    Gait analysis using small sensor units is becoming increasingly popular in the clinical context. In order to segment continuous movement from a defined point of the stride cycle, knowledge about footfall timings is essential. We evaluated the accuracy and precision of foot contact timings of a defined limb determined using an inertial sensor mounted on the pelvis of ten horses during walk and trot at different speeds and in different directions. Foot contact was estimated from vertical velocity events occurring before maximum sensor roll towards the contralateral limb. Foot contact timings matched data from a synchronised hoof mounted accelerometer well when velocity minimum was used for walk (mean (SD) difference of 15 (18)ms across horses) and velocity zero-crossing for trot (mean (SD) difference from -4 (14) to 12 (7)ms depending on the condition). The stride segmentation method also remained robust when applied to movement data of hind limb lame horses. In future, this method may find application in segmenting overground sensor data of various species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. RIP2-mediated LKB1 deletion causes axon degeneration in the spinal cord and hind-limb paralysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gao; Reynolds, Richard; Leclerc, Isabelle; Rutter, Guy A

    2011-03-01

    Axon degeneration is observed in neurodegenerative diseases and neuroinflammatory disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis. The molecular basis of this process remains largely unknown. Here, we show that mice deleted for the tumour suppressor LKB1 (also called STK11) in the spinal cord, some parts of the brain and in the endocrine pancreas (βLKB1KO mice) develop hind-limb dysfunction and axon degeneration at about 7 weeks. Demyelination and macrophage infiltration are observed in the white matter of these mice, predominantly in the bilateral and anterior funiculi of the thoracic segment of the spinal cord, suggesting damage to the ascending sensory signalling pathway owing to LKB1 deletion in the brain. Microtubule structures were also affected in the degenerated foci, with diminished neurofilament and tubulin expression. Deletion of both PRKAA1 genes, whose products AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 are also downstream targets of LKB1, with the same strategy was without effect. We thus define LKB1 as an intrinsic suppressor of axon degeneration and a possible target for strategies that can reverse this process.

  17. Countercurrent compartmental models describe hind limb skeletal muscle helium kinetics at resting and low blood flows in sheep.

    PubMed

    Doolette, D J; Upton, R N; Grant, C

    2005-10-01

    This study evaluated the relative importance of perfusion and diffusion mechanisms in compartmental models of blood : tissue helium exchange in a predominantly skeletal muscle tissue bed in the sheep hind limb. Helium has different physiochemical properties from previously studied gases and is a common diluent gas in underwater diving where decompression schedules are based on theoretical models of inert gas kinetics. Helium kinetics across skeletal muscle were determined during and after 20 min of helium inhalation, at separate resting and low steady-states of femoral vein blood flow in six sheep under isoflurane anaesthesia. Helium concentrations in arterial and femoral vein blood were determined using gas chromatographic analysis and femoral vein blood flow was monitored continuously. Parameters and model selection criteria of various perfusion-limited or perfusion-diffusion compartmental models of skeletal muscle were estimated by simultaneous fitting of the models to the femoral vein helium concentrations for both blood flow states. A model comprising two parallel perfusion-limited compartment models fitted the data well but required a 51-fold difference in relative compartment perfusion that did not seem physiologically plausible. Models that allowed a countercurrent diffusion exchange of helium between arterial and venous vessels outside of the tissue compartments provided better overall fit of the data and credible parameter estimates. These results suggest a role of arterial-venous diffusion in blood : tissue helium equilibration in skeletal muscle.

  18. Segment and joint angles of hind limb during bipedal and quadrupedal walking of the bonobo (Pan paniscus).

    PubMed

    D'Août, Kristiaan; Aerts, Peter; De Clercq, Dirk; De Meester, Koen; Van Elsacker, Linda

    2002-09-01

    We describe segment angles (trunk, thigh, shank, and foot) and joint angles (hip, knee, and ankle) for the hind limbs of bonobos walking bipedally ("bent-hip bent-knee walking," 17 sequences) and quadrupedally (33 sequences). Data were based on video recordings (50 Hz) of nine subjects in a lateral view, walking at voluntary speed. The major differences between bipedal and quadrupedal walking are found in the trunk, thigh, and hip angles. During bipedal walking, the trunk is approximately 33-41 degrees more erect than during quadrupedal locomotion, although it is considerably more bent forward than in normal human locomotion. Moreover, during bipedal walking, the hip has a smaller range of motion (by 12 degrees ) and is more extended (by 20-35 degrees ) than during quadrupedal walking. In general, angle profiles in bonobos are much more variable than in humans. Intralimb phase relationships of subsequent joint angles show that hip-knee coordination is similar for bipedal and quadrupedal walking, and resembles the human pattern. The coordination between knee and ankle differs much more from the human pattern. Based on joint angles observed throughout stance phase and on the estimation of functional leg length, an efficient inverted pendulum mechanism is not expected in bonobos.

  19. Expression of nestin, desmin and vimentin in intact and regenerating muscle spindles of rat hind limb skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Cízková, Dana; Soukup, Tomás; Mokrý, Jaroslav

    2009-02-01

    We describe the expression and distribution patterns of nestin, desmin and vimentin in intact and regenerating muscle spindles of the rat hind limb skeletal muscles. Regeneration was induced by intramuscular isotransplantation of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) or soleus muscles from 15-day-old rats into the EDL muscle of adult female inbred Lewis rats. The host muscles with grafts were excised after 7-, 16-, 21- and 29-day survival and immunohistochemically stained. Nestin expression in intact spindles in host muscles was restricted to Schwann cells of sensory and motor nerves. In transplanted muscles, however, nestin expression was also found in regenerating "spindle fibers", 7 and 16 days after grafting. From the 21st day onwards, the regenerated spindle fibers were devoid of nestin immunoreactivity. Desmin was detected in spindle fibers at all developmental stages in regenerating as well as in intact spindles. Vimentin was expressed in cells of the outer and inner capsules of all muscle spindles and in newly formed myoblasts and myotubes of regenerating spindles 7 days after grafting. Our results show that the expression pattern of these intermediate filaments in regenerating spindle fibers corresponds to that found in regenerating extrafusal fibers, which supports our earlier suggestion that they resemble small-diameter extrafusal fibers.

  20. A system identification analysis of neural adaptation dynamics and nonlinear responses in the local reflex control of locust hind limbs.

    PubMed

    Dewhirst, Oliver P; Angarita-Jaimes, Natalia; Simpson, David M; Allen, Robert; Newland, Philip L

    2013-02-01

    Nonlinear type system identification models coupled with white noise stimulation provide an experimentally convenient and quick way to investigate the often complex and nonlinear interactions between the mechanical and neural elements of reflex limb control systems. Previous steady state analysis has allowed the neurons in such systems to be categorised by their sensitivity to position, velocity or acceleration (dynamics) and has improved our understanding of network function. These neurons, however, are known to adapt their output amplitude or spike firing rate during repetitive stimulation and this transient response may be more important than the steady state response for reflex control. In the current study previously used system identification methods are developed and applied to investigate both steady state and transient dynamic and nonlinear changes in the neural circuit responsible for controlling reflex movements of the locust hind limbs. Through the use of a parsimonious model structure and Monte Carlo simulations we conclude that key system dynamics remain relatively unchanged during repetitive stimulation while output amplitude adaptation is occurring. Whilst some evidence of a significant change was found in parts of the systems nonlinear response, the effect was small and probably of little physiological relevance. Analysis using biologically more realistic stimulation reinforces this conclusion.

  1. Real-time control of hind limb functional electrical stimulation using feedback from dorsal root ganglia recordings

    PubMed Central

    Bruns, Tim M; Wagenaar, Joost B; Bauman, Matthew J; Gaunt, Robert A; Weber, Douglas J

    2013-01-01

    Objective Functional electrical stimulation (FES) approaches often utilize an open-loop controller to drive state transitions. The addition of sensory feedback may allow for closed-loop control that can respond effectively to perturbations and muscle fatigue. Approach We evaluated the use of natural sensory nerve signals obtained with penetrating microelectrode arrays in lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) as real-time feedback for closed-loop control of FES-generated hind limb stepping in anesthetized cats. Main results Leg position feedback was obtained in near real-time at 50 ms intervals by decoding the firing rates of more than 120 DRG neurons recorded simultaneously. Over 5 m of effective linear distance was traversed during closed-loop stepping trials in each of two cats. The controller compensated effectively for perturbations in the stepping path when DRG sensory feedback was provided. The presence of stimulation artifacts and the quality of DRG unit sorting did not significantly affect the accuracy of leg position feedback obtained from the linear decoding model as long as at least 20 DRG units were included in the model. Significance This work demonstrates the feasibility and utility of closed-loop FES control based on natural neural sensors. Further work is needed to improve the controller and electrode technologies and to evaluate long-term viability. PMID:23503062

  2. Implanting iodine-125 seeds into rat dorsal root ganglion for neuropathic pain: neuronal microdamage without impacting hind limb motion.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Ling; Zhang, Tengda; Wang, Huixing; Zhang, Wenyi; Fan, Saijun; Huo, Xiaodong; Zheng, Baosen; Ma, Wenting

    2014-06-15

    The use of iodine-125 ((125)I) in cancer treatment has been shown to relieve patients' pain. Considering dorsal root ganglia are critical for neural transmission between the peripheral and central nervous systems, we assumed that (125)I could be implanted into rat dorsal root ganglia to provide relief for neuropathic pain. (125)I seeds with different radioactivity (0, 14.8, 29.6 MBq) were implanted separately through L4-5 and L5-6 intervertebral foramen into the vicinity of the L5 dorsal root ganglion. von Frey hair results demonstrated the mechanical pain threshold was elevated after implanting (125)I seeds from the high radioactivity group. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that nuclear membrane shrinkage, nucleolar margination, widespread mitochondrial swelling, partial vacuolization, lysosome increase, and partial endoplasmic reticulum dilation were visible at 1,440 hours in the low radioactivity group and at 336 hours in the high radioactivity group. Abundant nuclear membrane shrinkage, partial fuzzy nuclear membrane and endoplasmic reticulum necrosis were observed at 1,440 hours in the high radioactivity group. No significant difference in combined behavioral scores was detected between preoperation and postoperation in the low and high radioactivity groups. These results suggested that the mechanical pain threshold was elevated after implanting (125)I seeds without influencing motor functions of the hind limb, although cell injury was present.

  3. IL-20 is an arteriogenic cytokine that remodels collateral networks and improves functions of ischemic hind limbs

    PubMed Central

    Tritsaris, Katerina; Myren, Maja; Ditlev, Sisse B.; Hübschmann, Martin V.; van der Blom, Ida; Hansen, Anker Jon; Olsen, Uffe B.; Cao, Renhai; Zhang, Junhang; Jia, Tanghong; Wahlberg, Eric; Dissing, Steen; Cao, Yihai

    2007-01-01

    Successful therapeutic angiogenesis for the treatment of ischemic disorders relies on selection of optimal proangiogenic or arteriogenic agents that are able to promote establishment of functional collateral networks. Here, we show that IL-20, a pleiotropic inflammatory cytokine, displays an imperative effect on vascular remodeling. Stimulation of both large and microvascular endothelial cells with IL-20 leads to activation of receptor-dependent multiple intracellular signaling components, including increased phosphorylation levels of JAK2/STAT5, Erk1/2, and Akt; activation of small GTP-binding proteins Rac and Rho; and intracellular release of calcium. Surprisingly, IL-20 significantly promotes endothelial cell tube formation without affecting their proliferation and motility. These findings suggest that the vascular function of IL-20 involves endothelial cell organization, vessel maturation, and remodeling. Consistent with this notion, delivery of IL-20 to the ischemic muscle tissue significantly improves arteriogenesis and blood perfusion in a rat hind-limb model. Our findings provide mechanistic insights on vascular functions of IL-20 and define therapeutic implication of this cytokine for the treatment of ischemic disorders. PMID:17878297

  4. Low energy shock wave therapy induces angiogenesis in acute hind-limb ischemia via VEGF receptor 2 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Holfeld, Johannes; Tepeköylü, Can; Blunder, Stefan; Lobenwein, Daniela; Kirchmair, Elke; Dietl, Marion; Kozaryn, Radoslaw; Lener, Daniela; Theurl, Markus; Paulus, Patrick; Kirchmair, Rudolf; Grimm, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Low energy shock waves have been shown to induce angiogenesis, improve left ventricular ejection fraction and decrease angina symptoms in patients suffering from chronic ischemic heart disease. Whether there is as well an effect in acute ischemia was not yet investigated. Hind-limb ischemia was induced in 10-12 weeks old male C57/Bl6 wild-type mice by excision of the left femoral artery. Animals were randomly divided in a treatment group (SWT, 300 shock waves at 0.1 mJ/mm2, 5 Hz) and untreated controls (CTR), n = 10 per group. The treatment group received shock wave therapy immediately after surgery. Higher gene expression and protein levels of angiogenic factors VEGF-A and PlGF, as well as their receptors Flt-1 and KDR have been found. This resulted in significantly more vessels per high-power field in SWT compared to controls. Improvement of blood perfusion in treatment animals was confirmed by laser Doppler perfusion imaging. Receptor tyrosine kinase profiler revealed significant phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 as an underlying mechanism of action. The effect of VEGF signaling was abolished upon incubation with a VEGFR2 inhibitor indicating that the effect is indeed VEGFR 2 dependent. Low energy shock wave treatment induces angiogenesis in acute ischemia via VEGF receptor 2 stimulation and shows the same promising effects as known from chronic myocardial ischemia. It may therefore develop as an adjunct to the treatment armentarium of acute muscle ischemia in limbs and myocardium.

  5. Reproductive performance of pubertal red deer (Cervus elaphus) hinds: effects of genetic introgression of wapiti subspecies on pregnancy rates at 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Asher, G W; Archer, J A; Scott, I C; O'Neill, K T; Ward, J; Littlejohn, R P

    2005-12-01

    Low reproductive productivity of young red deer (Cervus elaphus) hinds on New Zealand deer farms appears to reflect high incidences of puberty failure at 16 months of age. This is despite the general attainment of average liveweights 15-25 kg in excess of the accepted minimum threshold for puberty in subspecies of western European origin (scoticus, elaphus and hippelaphus) that form the basis of the national herd. The present study tests the hypotheses that introgression of the larger North American wapiti subspecies (nelsoni, manitobensis and roosevelti) into breeding herds (1) can be assessed from morphological features of individuals, (2) that there is a relationship between the level of wapiti parentage and non-pregnancy rate at 18 months of age (a proxy for puberty failure) and (3) that minimum liveweight thresholds for puberty increase with increasing levels of wapiti parentage. A total of 4329 18-month-old hinds across four "red" deer farms in southern New Zealand were scanned for pregnancy status. Each hind was assigned a wapiti score (WS) as a subjective assessment of the obviousness of wapiti features. Various body measurements were additionally recorded for each hind. A hair sample was collected for DNA analysis (14 markers) to objectively assign subspecies pedigree (i.e. "Elkmeter") on a subset of 1258 individuals. A total of 506 (11.7%) hinds were not pregnant at 18 months of age with rates varying between 4.1 and 37.3% between farms and years. Mean WS differed significantly between farms and reflected the genetic management policy of each farm. WS was positively correlated to Elkmeter for each farm/year (<0.05) although regression slopes varied significantly. WS was able to be adjusted for these differences to assign a corrected WS (CWS) for all 4329 individuals that estimated the proportion wapiti parentage. Discriminant analysis of morphological variables relative to Elkmeter supported the first hypothesis and showed that shoulder height and body

  6. Fasting increases palmitic acid incorporation into rat hind-limb intramuscular acylglycerols while short-term cold exposure has no effect.

    PubMed

    Synak, M; Zarzeczny, R; Górecka, M; Langfort, J; Kaciuba-Uściłko, H; Zernicka, Ewa

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the palmitic acid incorporation into intramuscular acylglycerols in perfused hind-limb skeletal muscles of different fibre types in rats either fasted for 48 h or exposed to cold (6 °C) for 12 h. Hind-limb preparations of fasted and cold exposed rats were perfused with buffers containing tritium labelled and cold palmitic acid. Palmitic acid incorporation into intracellular lipid pools in the soleus, plantaris, red and white gastrocnemius and red and white quadriceps was measured. It was found that fasting increased approximately 2-fold palmitic acid incorporation in all muscles examined regardless of the fibre type composition of the muscle. On the other hand, exposure to cold had no effect on the palmitic acid incorporation into intramuscular acylglycerols regardless the muscle fibre type. The increased incorporation of palmitic acid into acylglycerols in fasted animals is in line with data showing that 48 h fasting stimulates the expression of plasma membrane proteins putatively facilitating fatty acid uptake. It appears that although 12 h cold exposure increases the use of fatty acids as energy substrates it does not alter the incorporation of palmitic acid into intramuscular acylglycerols in the perfused rat hind-limb.

  7. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 polymorphisms (-844 G>A and HindIII C>G) in systemic lupus erythematosus: association with clinical variables.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Gutiérrez, Jorge Ramón; Palafox-Sánchez, Claudia Azucena; Valle, Yeminia; Orozco-Barocio, Gerardo; Oregón-Romero, Edith; Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; Llamas-Covarrubias, Mara Anaís; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco

    2011-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of autoantibodies against nuclear autoantigens as well as cytoplasmic and circulating proteins. Recent studies have demonstrated mechanisms responsible for modulation of the immune response by the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Furthermore, the endogenous PAI-1 has shown to promote a Th2 immune response. We assessed the -844 G>A and HindIII C>G PAI-1 polymorphisms in SLE. In a case-control study of 71 SLE patients classified according to ACR criteria and 71 healthy subjects (HS). The A allele of -844 PAI-1 polymorphism showed a significant difference in SLE patients (41%) when compared with HS (27%) [P = 0.01; OR = 1.8, 95%, CI = 1.1-3.0]. In addition, the -844 G>A PAI-1 polymorphism was associated with increased risk for SLE in a dominant genetic model (G/G vs. G/A + A/A; OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.14-4.44). Also, anti-RNP positive antibodies in SLE were associated with G/G -844 PAI-1 genotype. The HindIII polymorphism did not show any differences. The haplotype analysis showed that the AC haplotype confers susceptibility to SLE (OR = 3.1, 95% CI, 1.45-6.52; P = 0.003). The AC haplotype of the -844 and HindIII PAI-1 polymorphism might be an additional susceptibility factor to SLE in Mexicans.

  8. Distribution of --844 G/A and Hind III C/G PAI-1 polymorphisms and plasma PAI-1 levels in Mexican subjects: comparison of frequencies between populations.

    PubMed

    Torres-Carrillo, Norma; Magdalena Torres-Carrillo, Nora; Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; Parra-Rojas, Isela; Sánchez-Enríquez, Sergio; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco

    2008-04-01

    Several polymorphisms have been described in the PAI-1 gene including the -844 G/A and Hind III C/G polymorphisms. These polymorphisms have been associated with different diseases such as preeclampsia and cardiovascular diseases. The allele and genotype frequencies of both PAI-1 polymorphism where investigated in Mexican subjects and compared with other healthy worldwide populations. The hematological and biochemical parameters where classified according each genotype in our studied group. One hundred Mexican subjects were recruited. Demographic data and hematological and biochemical parameters were collected, and genomic DNA isolation was performed in all the participants. Screening of both polymorphisms studied was made by polymerase chain reaction and restriction analysis. Levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in plasma were measured by ELIS-ARA plasminogen activator inhibitor antigen kit. The -844 and Hind III genotypes frequencies were as follows: 49% (G/G), 40% (G/A), 11% (A/A) and 50% (C/C), 44% (C/G), 6% (G/G), respectively. The wild-type genotypes (G/G and C/C) were significantly higher with respect to the compared populations. In addition, a significant increase of apolipoprotein A1 in the carriers of G/A -844 and C/G Hind III genotypes was observed. However, when the plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor levels were analyzed with respect to each genotype and haplotype, no significant differences were found.

  9. Detection of hemophilia a carriers in Azeri Turkish population of Iran: usefulness of HindIII and BclI markers.

    PubMed

    Moharrami, Tamouchin; Derakhshan, Sima Mansoori; Pourfeizi, Abbas Ali H; Khaniani, Mahmoud Shekari

    2015-11-01

    Hemophilia A (HA) is an inherited X-linked coagulation disorder caused by the deficiency of factor VIII (FVIII). Linkage analysis is a common indirect method for the detection of female carriers in families with HA. In the current study, 173 patients from 30 unrelated families with HA were recruited from the Azeri Turkish population of northwest Iran and analyzed for BclI and HindIII markers by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. We investigated the potential of using these markers for the detection of mutation in carriers through linkage analysis, which would be of tremendous use in prenatal diagnosis. Among the tested women, 47% and 35% were found to be heterozygous for BclI and HindIII polymorphic markers, respectively. The BclI and HindIII markers were informative for the detection of 63% and 17% potential carriers, respectively, demonstrating the effectiveness of the BclI marker for the detection of HA carriers among the Azeri Turkish population.

  10. Longitudinal evaluation of mouse hind limb bone loss after spinal cord injury using novel, in vivo, methodology.

    PubMed

    McManus, Madonna M; Grill, Raymond J

    2011-12-07

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is often accompanied by osteoporosis in the sublesional regions of the pelvis and lower extremities, leading to a higher frequency of fractures. As these fractures often occur in regions that have lost normal sensory function, the patient is at a greater risk of fracture-dependent pathologies, including death. SCI-dependent loss in both bone mineral density (BMD, grams/cm2) and bone mineral content (BMC, grams) has been attributed to mechanical disuse, aberrant neuronal signaling and hormonal changes. The use of rodent models of SCI-induced osteoporosis can provide invaluable information regarding the mechanisms underlying the development of osteoporosis following SCI as well as a test environment for the generation of new therapies. Mouse models of SCI are of great interest as they permit a reductionist approach to mechanism-based assessment through the use of null and transgenic mice. While such models have provided important data, there is still a need for minimally-invasive, reliable, reproducible, and quantifiable methods in determining the extent of bone loss following SCI, particularly over time and within the same cohort of experimental animals, to improve diagnosis, treatment methods, and/or prevention of SCI-induced osteoporosis. An ideal method for measuring bone density in rodents would allow multiple, sequential (over time) exposures to low-levels of X-ray radiation. This study describes the use of a new whole-animal scanner, the IVIS Lumina XR (Caliper Instruments) that can be used to provide low-energy (1-3 milligray (mGy)) high-resolution, high-magnification X-ray images of mouse hind limb bones over time following SCI. Significant bone density loss was seen in the tibiae of mice by 10 days post-spinal transection when compared to uninjured, age-matched control (naïve) mice (13% decrease, p < 0.0005). Loss of bone density in the distal femur was also detectable by day 10 post-SCI, while a loss of density in the proximal

  11. Bothrops lanceolatus (Fer de lance) venom induces oedema formation and increases vascular permeability in the mouse hind paw.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, A L; de Souza, A O; da Cruz-Höfling, M A; Flores, C A; Bon, C

    2000-02-01

    The ability of snake venoms to increase vascular permeability and to induce oedema through the release of pharmacologically active substances is well known. We have studied the oedema and vascular permeability induced by Bothrops lanceolatus venom in male Swiss white mice. Paw oedema was induced by the subplantar injection of B. lanceolatus venom (125-1000 ng/paw) and was quantified as the increase in paw weight. Changes in vascular permeability were assessed by measuring the amount of Evans blue dye extravasation. The oedema and the increase in vascular permeability were maximal within 2 h and had resolved after 24 h. The administration of the vasodilator iloprost (20 ng/paw) immediately after B. lanceolatus venom potentiated the oedema and the increase in vascular permeability by approximately four-fold. Pretreating the mice with indomethacin, dexamethasone, NDGA or BW A4C inhibited the venom-induced oedema and the increase in vascular permeability. In contrast, histamine, serotonin and PAF-acether antagonists (mepyramine, cyproheptadine and WEB 2086, respectively) were ineffective. Histological examination showed that B. lanceolatus venom (250 ng and 500 ng/paw) caused thickening of the inner dermal layers which was accompanied by extensive intercellular spaces indicative of oedema. In addition, there was a marked infiltration of inflammatory cells, particularly neutrophils, into the underlying muscle layer. The latter, however, remained morphologically unaffected during the 3 h of observation. Venom doses larger than 500 ng/paw produced intense haemorrhage. These results indicate that B. lanceolatus venom induces oedema and increases vascular permeability in the mouse hind paw. The principal mediators of this inflammatory response are cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase products.

  12. FACS-purified myoblasts producing controlled VEGF levels induce safe and stable angiogenesis in chronic hind limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Thomas; Mujagic, Edin; Gianni-Barrera, Roberto; Fueglistaler, Philipp; Helmrich, Uta; Misteli, Heidi; Gurke, Lorenz; Heberer, Michael; Banfi, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    We recently developed a method to control the in vivo distribution of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by high throughput Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) purification of transduced progenitors such that they homogeneously express specific VEGF levels. Here we investigated the long-term safety of this method in chronic hind limb ischemia in nude rats. Primary myoblasts were transduced to co-express rat VEGF-A(164) (rVEGF) and truncated ratCD8a, the latter serving as a FACS-quantifiable surface marker. Based on the CD8 fluorescence of a reference clonal population, which expressed the desired VEGF level, cells producing similar VEGF levels were sorted from the primary population, which contained cells with very heterogeneous VEGF levels. One week after ischemia induction, 12 × 10(6) cells were implanted in the thigh muscles. Unsorted myoblasts caused angioma-like structures, whereas purified cells only induced normal capillaries that were stable after 3 months. Vessel density was doubled in engrafted areas, but only approximately 0.1% of muscle volume showed cell engraftment, explaining why no increase in total blood flow was observed. In conclusion, the use of FACS-purified myoblasts granted the cell-by-cell control of VEGF expression levels, which ensured long-term safety in a model of chronic ischemia. Based on these results, the total number of implanted cells required to achieve efficacy will need to be determined before a clinical application. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Dietary Fat Content and Fiber Type Modulate Hind Gut Microbial Community and Metabolic Markers in the Pig

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hui; Potu, Ramesh; Lu, Hang; Vezzoni de Almeida, Vivian; Stewart, Terry; Ragland, Darryl; Armstrong, Arthur; Adeola, Olayiwola; Nakatsu, Cindy H.; Ajuwon, Kolapo M.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity leads to changes in the gut microbial community which contribute to the metabolic dysregulation in obesity. Dietary fat and fiber affect the caloric density of foods. The impact of dietary fat content and fiber type on the microbial community in the hind gut is unknown. Effect of dietary fat level and fiber type on hindgut microbiota and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles was investigated. Expression of metabolic marker genes in the gut, adipose tissue and liver was determined. A 2×2 experiment was conducted in pigs fed at two dietary fat levels (5% or 17.5% swine grease) and two fiber types (4% inulin, fermentable fructo-oligosaccharide or 4% solka floc, non-fermentable cellulose). High fat diets (HFD) resulted in a higher (P<0.05) total body weight gain, feed efficiency and back fat accumulation than the low fat diet. Feeding of inulin, but not solka floc, attenuated (P<0.05) the HFD-induced higher body weight gain and fat mass accumulation. Inulin feeding tended to lead to higher total VFA production in the cecum and resulted in a higher (P<0.05) expression of acyl coA oxidase (ACO), a marker of peroxisomal β-oxidation. Inulin feeding also resulted in lower expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), a marker of lipid anabolism. Bacteria community structure characterized by DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that inulin feeding resulted in greater bacterial population richness than solka floc feeding. Cluster analysis of pairwise Dice similarity comparisons of the DGGE profiles showed grouping by fiber type but not the level of dietary fat. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of PCR- DGGE profiles showed that inulin feeding negatively correlated with back fat thickness. This study suggests a strong interplay between dietary fat level and fiber type in determining susceptibility to obesity. PMID:23573202

  14. Effects of intravenous ibuprofen and lornoxicam on erythrocyte deformability in rats undergoing hind limb ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Sivgin, V; Kucuk, A; Comu, F M; Kosem, B; Kartal, S; Turgut, H C; Arpaci, H; Aydin, M E; Koc, D S; Ozer, A; Arslan, M; Alkan, M

    2016-01-01

    Acute hind limb ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is a common consequence of abdominal aorta cross‑clamping during aortic surgery. Erythrocyte deformability is affected by I/R process and may lead to increased tissue and organ injury. Lornoxicam and intravenous ibuprofen are becoming commonly used as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) for postoperative analgesia. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of lornoxicam (2 mg/kg iv) and intravenous ibuprofen (30 mg/kg iv) on erythrocyte deformability in I/R model in rats. Four study groups, each containing 6 Wistar rats were created. Laparotomy was performed in all groups under general anesthesia with ketamine and xylazine. In all groups except sham group, ischemia and reperfusion were achieved by clamping and declamping the infrarenal abdominal aorta for 120 minutes. Rats in Group IR+L received intravenous infusion of lornoxicam (2 mg/kg) while rats in Group IR+I received intravenous infusion of ibubrofen (30 mg/kg) following 2 hours of ischemic period. At the end of reperfusion period, erythrocyte packs were prepared from heparinized blood samples. Erythrocyte suspensions with hematocrit at a concentration of 5% in a phosphate‑buffered saline (PBS) were used in order to perform deformability measurements. The value of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Relative resistance has increased in ischemia reperfusion group when compared to control group (p < 0.0001). Lornoxicam or ibuprofen intravenous treatments did not change the erythrocyte deformability during ischemia reperfusion period in rats (p=0.851, p=0.690). Intravenous ibuprofen or lornoxicam administrations during ischemia reperfusion period in rats have no negative effect on erythrocyte deformability. The findings of the study should be supported with more detailed and extensive clinical/experimental studies in the future (Fig. 1, Ref. 18).

  15. Calcium-dependent signalling is essential during collateral growth in the pig hind limb-ischemia model.

    PubMed

    Troidl, C; Nef, H; Voss, S; Schilp, A; Kostin, S; Troidl, K; Szardien, S; Rolf, A; Schmitz-Rixen, T; Schaper, W; Hamm, C W; Elsässer, A; Möllmann, H

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the effect of pharmacological activation of the Ca(2+)-channel transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 4 (TRPV4) on collateral growth in a pig hind limb-ischemia model thereby identifying subcellular mechanisms. Domestic pigs received femoral artery ligature and were randomly assigned to one of the following groups (each n=6): (1) 4alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (4alphaPDD) treatment; (2) treatment with an arterio-venous shunt (AV-shunt) distal to the occlusion; or (3) implantation of NaCl-filled minipump. Six sham-operated pigs acted as controls. Aortic and peripheral mean arterial pressure (MAP) measurements were performed to assess the collateral flow index (CFI). Tissue was isolated from M. quadriceps for immunohistochemistry and from isolated collateral arteries for quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). Shortly after ligature the CFI dropped from 0.96+/-0.02 to 0.21+/-0.02 in all ligature-treated groups. In ligature-only-treated pigs CFI increased to 0.56+/-0.03 after 7days. Treatment with 4alphaPDD led to an enhancement of CFI compared with ligature alone (0.73+/-0.03). CD31-staining showed improved arteriolar density. Increased Ki67 staining in collaterals indicated proliferation. qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed upregulation or modulation of Ca(2+)-dependent transcription factors nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1), Kv channel interacting protein 3, calsenilin (KCNIP3/CSEN/DREAM), and myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) in 4alphaPDD- and AV-shunt-treated pigs compared with controls. Improved CFI after 4alphaPDD treatment identifies TRPV4 as an initial fluid shear-stress sensor and collateral remodelling and growth trigger. Subcellularly, modulation of Ca(2+)-dependent transcription factors indicates a pivotal role for Ca(2+)-signalling during arteriogenesis.

  16. Dietary fat content and fiber type modulate hind gut microbial community and metabolic markers in the pig.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Potu, Ramesh; Lu, Hang; Vezzoni de Almeida, Vivian; Stewart, Terry; Ragland, Darryl; Armstrong, Arthur; Adeola, Olayiwola; Nakatsu, Cindy H; Ajuwon, Kolapo M

    2013-01-01

    Obesity leads to changes in the gut microbial community which contribute to the metabolic dysregulation in obesity. Dietary fat and fiber affect the caloric density of foods. The impact of dietary fat content and fiber type on the microbial community in the hind gut is unknown. Effect of dietary fat level and fiber type on hindgut microbiota and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles was investigated. Expression of metabolic marker genes in the gut, adipose tissue and liver was determined. A 2 × 2 experiment was conducted in pigs fed at two dietary fat levels (5% or 17.5% swine grease) and two fiber types (4% inulin, fermentable fructo-oligosaccharide or 4% solka floc, non-fermentable cellulose). High fat diets (HFD) resulted in a higher (P<0.05) total body weight gain, feed efficiency and back fat accumulation than the low fat diet. Feeding of inulin, but not solka floc, attenuated (P<0.05) the HFD-induced higher body weight gain and fat mass accumulation. Inulin feeding tended to lead to higher total VFA production in the cecum and resulted in a higher (P<0.05) expression of acyl coA oxidase (ACO), a marker of peroxisomal β-oxidation. Inulin feeding also resulted in lower expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), a marker of lipid anabolism. Bacteria community structure characterized by DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that inulin feeding resulted in greater bacterial population richness than solka floc feeding. Cluster analysis of pairwise Dice similarity comparisons of the DGGE profiles showed grouping by fiber type but not the level of dietary fat. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of PCR- DGGE profiles showed that inulin feeding negatively correlated with back fat thickness. This study suggests a strong interplay between dietary fat level and fiber type in determining susceptibility to obesity.

  17. MRI-Based Computational Model of Heterogeneous Tracer Transport following Local Infusion into a Mouse Hind Limb Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Magdoom, Kulam Najmudeen; Pishko, Gregory L.; Rice, Lori; Pampo, Chris; Siemann, Dietmar W.; Sarntinoranont, Malisa

    2014-01-01

    Systemic drug delivery to solid tumors involving macromolecular therapeutic agents is challenging for many reasons. Amongst them is their chaotic microvasculature which often leads to inadequate and uneven uptake of the drug. Localized drug delivery can circumvent such obstacles and convection-enhanced delivery (CED) - controlled infusion of the drug directly into the tissue - has emerged as a promising delivery method for distributing macromolecules over larger tissue volumes. In this study, a three-dimensional MR image-based computational porous media transport model accounting for realistic anatomical geometry and tumor leakiness was developed for predicting the interstitial flow field and distribution of albumin tracer following CED into the hind-limb tumor (KHT sarcoma) in a mouse. Sensitivity of the model to changes in infusion flow rate, catheter placement and tissue hydraulic conductivity were investigated. The model predictions suggest that 1) tracer distribution is asymmetric due to heterogeneous porosity; 2) tracer distribution volume varies linearly with infusion volume within the whole leg, and exponentially within the tumor reaching a maximum steady-state value; 3) infusion at the center of the tumor with high flow rates leads to maximum tracer coverage in the tumor with minimal leakage outside; and 4) increasing the tissue hydraulic conductivity lowers the tumor interstitial fluid pressure and decreases the tracer distribution volume within the whole leg and tumor. The model thus predicts that the interstitial fluid flow and drug transport is sensitive to porosity and changes in extracellular space. This image-based model thus serves as a potential tool for exploring the effects of transport heterogeneity in tumors. PMID:24619021

  18. Telomerase mediates vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent responsiveness in a rat model of hind limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Zaccagnini, Germana; Gaetano, Carlo; Della Pietra, Linda; Nanni, Simona; Grasselli, Annalisa; Mangoni, Antonella; Benvenuto, Roberta; Fabrizi, Manuela; Truffa, Silvia; Germani, Antonia; Moretti, Fabiola; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Sacchi, Ada; Bacchetti, Silvia; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Farsetti, Antonella

    2005-04-15

    Telomere dysfunction contributes to reduced cell viability, altered differentiation, and impaired regenerative/proliferative responses. Recent advances indicate that telomerase activity confers a pro-angiogenic phenotype to endothelial cells and their precursors. We have investigated whether telomerase contributes to tissue regeneration following hind limb ischemia and vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF(165)) treatment. VEGF delivery induced angiogenesis and increased expression of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and telomerase activity in skeletal muscles and satellite and endothelial cells. Adenovirus-mediated transfer of wild type TERT but not of a dominant negative mutant, TERTdn, significantly induced capillary but not arteriole formation. However, when co-delivered with VEGF, TERTdn abrogated VEGF-dependent angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, and blood flow increase. This effect was paralleled by in vitro evidence that telomerase inhibition by 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine in VEGF-treated endothelial cells strongly reduced capillary density and promoted apoptosis in the absence of serum. Similar results were obtained with adenovirus-mediated expression of TERTdn and AKTdn, both reducing endogenous TERT activity and angiogenesis on Matrigel. Mechanistically, neo-angiogenesis in our system involved: (i) VEGF-dependent activation of telomerase through the nitric oxide pathway and (ii) telomerase-dependent activation of endothelial cell differentiation and protection from apoptosis. Furthermore, detection of TERT in activated satellite cells identified them as VEGF targets during muscle regeneration. Because TERT behaves as an angiogenic factor and a downstream effector of VEGF signaling, telomerase activity appears required for VEGF-dependent remodeling of ischemic tissue at the capillaries and arterioles level.

  19. Low Energy Shock Wave Therapy Induces Angiogenesis in Acute Hind-Limb Ischemia via VEGF Receptor 2 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Holfeld, Johannes; Tepeköylü, Can; Blunder, Stefan; Lobenwein, Daniela; Kirchmair, Elke; Dietl, Marion; Kozaryn, Radoslaw; Lener, Daniela; Theurl, Markus; Paulus, Patrick; Kirchmair, Rudolf; Grimm, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Low energy shock waves have been shown to induce angiogenesis, improve left ventricular ejection fraction and decrease angina symptoms in patients suffering from chronic ischemic heart disease. Whether there is as well an effect in acute ischemia was not yet investigated. Methods Hind-limb ischemia was induced in 10–12 weeks old male C57/Bl6 wild-type mice by excision of the left femoral artery. Animals were randomly divided in a treatment group (SWT, 300 shock waves at 0.1 mJ/mm2, 5 Hz) and untreated controls (CTR), n = 10 per group. The treatment group received shock wave therapy immediately after surgery. Results Higher gene expression and protein levels of angiogenic factors VEGF-A and PlGF, as well as their receptors Flt-1 and KDR have been found. This resulted in significantly more vessels per high-power field in SWT compared to controls. Improvement of blood perfusion in treatment animals was confirmed by laser Doppler perfusion imaging. Receptor tyrosine kinase profiler revealed significant phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 as an underlying mechanism of action. The effect of VEGF signaling was abolished upon incubation with a VEGFR2 inhibitor indicating that the effect is indeed VEGFR 2 dependent. Conclusions Low energy shock wave treatment induces angiogenesis in acute ischemia via VEGF receptor 2 stimulation and shows the same promising effects as known from chronic myocardial ischemia. It may therefore develop as an adjunct to the treatment armentarium of acute muscle ischemia in limbs and myocardium. PMID:25093816

  20. Microvascular remodelling after endurance training with Co2+ treatment in the rat diaphragm and hind-leg muscles.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Junichi

    2002-10-01

    This study was designed to examine the changes in capillary geometry, especially the distribution of arteriolar and venular capillaries, in the skeletal muscles of female Wistar rats after endurance training with and without chronic CoCl(2) administration. Four groups of rats were used: non-treated sedentary, non-treated training, Co(2+)-treated sedentary, and Co(2+)-treated training. Exercise training by running lasted for 5 weeks at 25 m/min on a 20% gradient, 10-60 min/d, 5 d/week. The Co(2+)-treated rats drank water containing 0.01% CoCl(2) for 5 weeks. Morphological findings were obtained from the soleus (SOL), deep (PLd) and superficial (PLs) portions of plantaris, and diaphragm (DIA) muscles. Co(2+) administration significantly increased the blood hemoglobin concentration by approximately 25% with and without training. Only in DIA, the Co(2+) treatment alone significantly increased total capillary density and the capillary-to-fiber ratio (C : F) (p<0.05). Both training groups with and without Co(2+) administration showed a significant increase in the C : F in SOL and PLd (p<0.05). In PLd, the increase was significantly greater in the Co(2+)-treated training group than in the non-Co(2+)-treated training group (p<0.05). Training significantly increased the proportion of arteriolar capillaries while it decreased that of venular capillaries in both SOL and PLd (p<0.05). These changes were also observed in PLd after training with Co(2+). The densities of VEGF-positive and TGF-beta1-positive capillaries remained unchanged in all muscle portions examined after either Co(2+) administration or exercise training. These results suggest that chronic Co(2+) administration causes adaptive changes in the oxygen transport system in respiratory muscle and facilitates exercise-induced angiogenesis in hind-leg muscles.

  1. Scaling factor relating conduction velocity and diameter for myelinated afferent nerve fibres in the cat hind limb.

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, I A; Kalu, K U

    1979-01-01

    1. Compound action potentials were recorded from certain muscle and cutaneous nerves in normal and chronically de-efferentated hind limbs of cats during stimulation of the appropriate dorsal spinal roots, 2. The peaks for groups I, II and III in the compound action potential were correlated with the corresponding peaks in the fibre-diameter histograms of the same de-efferentated nerve after processing it for light microscopy. 3. The scaling factor (ratio of conduction velocity in m/sec to total diameter in micrometer) was not constant for all sizes of fibre nor did it increase progressively with fibre size. Evidence is presented that a logarithmic relation between conduction velocity and fibre diameter is not appropriate. 4. In muscle nerves the scaling factor for fibres fixed by glutaraldehyde perfusion and embedded in Epon was 5.7 for group I afferent fibres and 4.6 for myelinated fibres in both group II and group III. 5. In cutaneous nerves the scaling factor was 5.6 for large fibres (group I or Abeta) and 4.6 for small fibres (group III or Adelta). 6. The scaling factor for group I fibres is the same as was found previously for alpha-efferent fibres, and that for groups II and III is the same as for gamma-efferent fibres (Boyd & Davey, 1968). 7. The possibility that there is a clear discontinuity in scaling factor between fibres in groups I and alpha, and those in other functional groups, is discussed. 8. It is concluded that there must be some structural feature of alpha and group I fibres which differs from that of smaller myelinated fibres. It is likely that a difference in the relative thickness of the myelin sheath is involved and possibly also in the conductances responsible for generating the action potential. Images Plate 1 PMID:458657

  2. MRI-based computational model of heterogeneous tracer transport following local infusion into a mouse hind limb tumor.

    PubMed

    Magdoom, Kulam Najmudeen; Pishko, Gregory L; Rice, Lori; Pampo, Chris; Siemann, Dietmar W; Sarntinoranont, Malisa

    2014-01-01

    Systemic drug delivery to solid tumors involving macromolecular therapeutic agents is challenging for many reasons. Amongst them is their chaotic microvasculature which often leads to inadequate and uneven uptake of the drug. Localized drug delivery can circumvent such obstacles and convection-enhanced delivery (CED)--controlled infusion of the drug directly into the tissue--has emerged as a promising delivery method for distributing macromolecules over larger tissue volumes. In this study, a three-dimensional MR image-based computational porous media transport model accounting for realistic anatomical geometry and tumor leakiness was developed for predicting the interstitial flow field and distribution of albumin tracer following CED into the hind-limb tumor (KHT sarcoma) in a mouse. Sensitivity of the model to changes in infusion flow rate, catheter placement and tissue hydraulic conductivity were investigated. The model predictions suggest that 1) tracer distribution is asymmetric due to heterogeneous porosity; 2) tracer distribution volume varies linearly with infusion volume within the whole leg, and exponentially within the tumor reaching a maximum steady-state value; 3) infusion at the center of the tumor with high flow rates leads to maximum tracer coverage in the tumor with minimal leakage outside; and 4) increasing the tissue hydraulic conductivity lowers the tumor interstitial fluid pressure and decreases the tracer distribution volume within the whole leg and tumor. The model thus predicts that the interstitial fluid flow and drug transport is sensitive to porosity and changes in extracellular space. This image-based model thus serves as a potential tool for exploring the effects of transport heterogeneity in tumors.

  3. Amputation versus functional reconstruction in the management of complex hind foot injuries caused by land-mine explosions: a long-term retrospective comparison.

    PubMed

    Demiralp, Bahtiyar; Ege, Tolga; Kose, Ozkan; Yurttas, Yuksel; Basbozkurt, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the long-term clinical outcomes of patients who were treated with either hind foot reconstruction or amputation in complex hind foot injuries accompanied with bone and soft tissue loss due to land-mine explosions. Between 1994 and 2004, all patients with hind foot complex injuries due to land-mine explosion, who were operated in our clinic, were enrolled to the study. All patients were evaluated with Short-Form 36 (SF-36), Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI) and Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI) after a mean of 15.1 ± 2.2 (range 9-19) years of follow-up. Demographic characteristics, number of operations, necessity of psychiatric treatment and all complications were compared between groups. There were a total of 42 patients [21 in reconstruction group (Gr I) and 21 in amputation group (Gr II)]. The mean age at the time of final follow-up was 38.4 ± 3.04 years in Gr I and 38.2 ± 4.24 years in Gr II (p = 0.732). The mean follow-up duration was 15.7 ± 2.07 years in Gr I and 14.57 ± 2.29 years in Gr II (p = 0.081). The number of operations was significantly higher in Gr I (8.66 ± 10.2 times vs. 4.42 ± 7.7 times, respectively, p = 0.001). The mean FADI score at the final follow-up was 64.3 ± 18.1 in Gr I. In amputation group, more patients needed psychotherapy due to major depression (12 patients vs. 4 patients, p = 0.012). Major complications in Gr I were musculocutaneous flap atrophy in calcaneal region (n = 8 patients), limited ankle motion (n = 11) and painful osteophytes on plantar region (n = 6). In Gr II, stump problems were dominating (pain and tenderness n = 10, ulcer n = 2, allergic skin lesions n = 7, painful neuroma n = 10, bony spur n = 5, paresthesia n = 1, excessive sweating n = 12). At the final visit, although SF-36 scores were similar between groups (p = 0.182), extremity reconstruction group had significantly higher BIQLI scores than the amputation group (p = 0.016). If the dorsalis pedis is

  4. Contribution of hind limb flexor muscle afferents to the timing of phase transitions in the cat step cycle.

    PubMed

    Hiebert, G W; Whelan, P J; Prochazka, A; Pearson, K G

    1996-03-01

    1. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that muscle spindle afferents signaling the length of hind-leg flexor muscles are involved in terminating extensor activity and initiating flexion during walking. The hip flexor muscle iliopsoas (IP) and the ankle flexors tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) were stretched or vibrated at various phases of the step cycle in spontaneously walking decerebrate cats. Changes in electromyogram amplitude, duration, and timing were then examined. The effects of electrically stimulating group I and II afferents in the nerves to TA and EDL also were examined. 2. Stretch of the individual flexor muscles (IP, TA, or EDL) during the stance phase reduced the duration of extensor activity and promoted the onset of flexor burst activity. The contralateral step cycle also was affected by the stretch, the duration of flexor activity being shortened and extensor activity occurring earlier. Therefore, stretch of the flexor muscles during the stance phase reset the locomotor rhythm to flexion ipsilaterally and extension contralaterally. 3. Results of electrically stimulating the afferents from the TA and EDL muscles suggested that different groups of afferents were responsible for the resetting of the step cycle. Stimulation of the TA nerve reset the locomotor step cycle when the stimulus intensity was in the group II range (2-5 xT). By contrast, stimulation of the EDL nerve generated strong resetting of the step cycle in the range of 1.2-1.4 xT, where primarily the group Ia afferents from the muscle spindles would be activated. 4. Vibration of IP or EDL during stance reduced the duration of the extensor activity by similar amounts to that produced by muscle stretch or by electrical stimulation of EDL at group Ia strengths. This suggests that the group Ia afferents from IP and EDL are capable of resetting the locomotor pattern generator. Vibration of TA did not affect the locomotor rhythm. 5. Stretch of IP or

  5. Pig specific vascular anatomy allows acute infrarenal aortic occlusion without hind limb ischemia and stepwise occlusion without clinical signs.

    PubMed

    Haacke, N; Unger, J K; Haidenhein, C; Russ, M; Hiebl, B; Niehues, S M

    2011-01-01

    EGAs for a partial collateral support of an infrarenal aortic occlusion the pig's EGA is a naturally sufficient collateral system capable to cover immediately for an acute infrarenal aortic occlusion. Further collateral enlargement even provides a permanent, sufficient hind limb perfusion in pigs. As the sufficient collateral system probably reduce pressure and shear rates in the infrarenal aortic segment after cross clamping, pigs might have a higher predisposition to produce early thrombosis related graft occlusions tan humans.

  6. Effects of N-acetylcysteine and pentoxifylline on remote lung injury in a rat model of hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Hesaraki, Saeed; Razmara, Foad; Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Hajizadeh, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and pentoxifylline in a model of remote organ injury after hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats, the lungs being the remote organ system. Thirty-five male Wistar rats were assigned to one of five conditions (n = 7/group), as follows: sham operation (control group); hind-limb ischemia, induced by clamping the left femoral artery, for 2 h, followed by 24 h of reperfusion (I/R group); and hind-limb ischemia, as above, followed by intraperitoneal injection (prior to reperfusion) of 150 mg/kg of NAC (I/R+NAC group), 40 mg/kg of pentoxifylline (I/R+PTX group), or both (I/R+NAC+PTX group). At the end of the trial, lung tissues were removed for histological analysis and assessment of oxidative stress. In comparison with the rats in the other groups, those in the I/R group showed lower superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels, together with higher malondialdehyde levels and lung injury scores (p < 0.05 for all). Interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration of the lungs was also markedly greater in the I/R group than in the other groups. In addition, I/R group rats showed various signs of interstitial edema and hemorrhage. In the I/R+NAC, I/R+PTX, and I/R+NAC+PTX groups, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione levels, malondialdehyde levels, and lung injury scores were preserved (p < 0.05 for all). The differences between the administration of NAC or pentoxifylline alone and the administration of the two together were not significant for any of those parameters (p > 0.05 for all). Our results suggest that NAC and pentoxifylline both protect lung tissue from the effects of skeletal muscle I/R. However, their combined use does not appear to increase the level of that protection.

  7. A flexible electrode array for muscle impedance measurements in the mouse hind limb: A tool to speed research in neuromuscular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Rutkove, S. B.

    2013-04-01

    Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is a bioelectrical impedance technique focused on the assessment of neuromuscular diseases using tetrapolar surface arrays. Recently, we have shown that reproducible and sensitive EIM measurements can be made on the gastrocnemius muscle of the mouse hind limb and that these are sensitive to disease alterations. A dedicated array would help speed data acquisition and provide additional sensitivity to disease-induced alterations. A flexible electrode array was developed with electrode sizes of 1mm × 1mm by Parlex, Inc. Tetrapolar electrode sets were arranged both parallel to (longitudinal) and orthogonally to (transverse) the major muscle fiber direction of the gastrocnemius muscle. Measurements were made with a dedicated EIM system. A total of 11 healthy animals and 7 animals with spinal muscular atrophy (a form of motor neuron disease) were evaluated after the fur was completely removed with a depilatory agent from the hind limb. Standard electrophysiologic testing (compound motor action potential amplitude and motor unit number estimation) was also performed. The flexible electrode array demonstrated high repeatability in both the longitudinal and transverse directions in the healthy and diseased animals (with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.94 and 0.89, respectively, for phase angle measured transversely). In addition, differences between healthy and diseased animals were identifiable. For example, the 50 kHz transverse phase angle was higher in the healthy as compared to the SMA animals (16.8° ± 0.5 vs. 14.3° ± 0.7, respectively) at 21 weeks of age (p = 0.01). Differences in anisotropy were also identifiable. Correlations to several standard neurophysiologic parameters also appeared promising. This novel flexible tetrapolar electrode array can be used on the mouse hind limb and provides multidirectional data that can be used to assess muscle health. This technique has the potential of finding widespread use in

  8. Effects of N-acetylcysteine and pentoxifylline on remote lung injury in a rat model of hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Hesaraki, Saeed; Razmara, Foad; Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Hajizadeh, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and pentoxifylline in a model of remote organ injury after hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats, the lungs being the remote organ system. Methods : Thirty-five male Wistar rats were assigned to one of five conditions (n = 7/group), as follows: sham operation (control group); hind-limb ischemia, induced by clamping the left femoral artery, for 2 h, followed by 24 h of reperfusion (I/R group); and hind-limb ischemia, as above, followed by intraperitoneal injection (prior to reperfusion) of 150 mg/kg of NAC (I/R+NAC group), 40 mg/kg of pentoxifylline (I/R+PTX group), or both (I/R+NAC+PTX group). At the end of the trial, lung tissues were removed for histological analysis and assessment of oxidative stress. Results : In comparison with the rats in the other groups, those in the I/R group showed lower superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels, together with higher malondialdehyde levels and lung injury scores (p < 0.05 for all). Interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration of the lungs was also markedly greater in the I/R group than in the other groups. In addition, I/R group rats showed various signs of interstitial edema and hemorrhage. In the I/R+NAC, I/R+PTX, and I/R+NAC+PTX groups, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione levels, malondialdehyde levels, and lung injury scores were preserved (p < 0.05 for all). The differences between the administration of NAC or pentoxifylline alone and the administration of the two together were not significant for any of those parameters (p > 0.05 for all). Conclusions : Our results suggest that NAC and pentoxifylline both protect lung tissue from the effects of skeletal muscle I/R. However, their combined use does not appear to increase the level of that protection. PMID:26982035

  9. Relationship of metabolic syndrome and its components with -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 gene polymorphisms in Mexican children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several association studies have shown that -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 polymorphisms are related with increase of PAI-1 levels, obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia, which are components of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze the allele and genotype frequencies of these polymorphisms in PAI-1 gene and its association with metabolic syndrome and its components in a sample of Mexican mestizo children. Methods This study included 100 children with an age range between 6-11 years divided in two groups: a) 48 children diagnosed with metabolic syndrome and b) 52 children metabolically healthy without any clinical and biochemical alteration. Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of three or more of the following criteria: fasting glucose levels ≥ 100 mg/dL, triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL, HDL-cholesterol < 40 mg/dL, obesity BMI ≥ 95th percentile, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 95th percentile and insulin resistance HOMA-IR ≥ 2.4. The -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Results For the -844 G/A polymorphism, the G/A genotype (OR = 2.79; 95% CI, 1.11-7.08; p = 0.015) and the A allele (OR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.10-4.43; p = 0.015) were associated with metabolic syndrome. The -844 G/A and A/A genotypes were associated with increase in plasma triglycerides levels (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.16 to 6.04; p = 0.02), decrease in plasma HDL-cholesterol levels (OR = 2.4; 95% CI, 1.06 to 5.42; p = 0.03) and obesity (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.17-5.92; p = 0.01). The C/G and G/G genotypes of the HindIII C/G polymorphism contributed to a significant increase in plasma total cholesterol levels (179 vs. 165 mg/dL; p = 0.02) in comparison with C/C genotype. Conclusions The -844 G/A PAI-1 polymorphism is related with the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, obesity and atherogenic dyslipidemia, and the HindIII C/G PAI-1 polymorphism was

  10. Extended electrophoresis resolves the dystrophin gene 5. 2-kbp cDMD4-5a/HindIII fragment into two bands

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, Y.M.; Rothberg, P.G. )

    1992-12-01

    A 1% agarose gel is electrophoresed at 1.6V/cm for 16 h, the buffer is changed, unused lanes are loaded with samples, and electrophoresis is resumed for 4 h at 2.5V/cm. Short electrophoresis gave the expected pattern but long electrophoresis resolved the 5.2-kbp fragment into two bands estimated at 5.20 and 5.15 kbp. It is unlikely that this is a polymorphic fragment or the product of partial digestion. This finding may represent another exon in this region detectable using HindIII digestion.

  11. Co-injection of mesenchymal stem cells with endothelial progenitor cells accelerates muscle recovery in hind limb ischemia through an endoglin-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Elisa; Smadja, David; Goyard, Celine; Cras, Audrey; Dizier, Blandine; Bacha, Nour; Lokajczyk, Anna; Guerin, Coralie L; Gendron, Nicolas; Planquette, Benjamin; Mignon, Virginie; Bernabéu, Carmelo; Sanchez, Olivier; Smadja, David M

    2017-10-05

    Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are progenitor cells committed to endothelial lineages and have robust vasculogenic properties. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been described to support ECFC-mediated angiogenic processes in various matrices. However, MSC-ECFC interactions in hind limb ischemia (HLI) are largely unknown. Here we examined whether co-administration of ECFCs and MSCs bolsters vasculogenic activity in nude mice with HLI. In addition, as we have previously shown that endoglin is a key adhesion molecule, we evaluated its involvement in ECFC/MSC interaction. Foot perfusion increased on day 7 after ECFC injection and was even better at 14 days. Co-administration of MSCs significantly increased vessel density and foot perfusion on day 7 but the differences were no longer significant at day 14. Analysis of mouse and human CD31, and in situ hybridization of the human ALU sequence, showed enhanced capillary density in ECFC+MSC mice. When ECFCs were silenced for endoglin, coinjection with MSCs led to lower vessel density and foot perfusion at both 7 and 14 days (p<0.001). Endoglin silencing in ECFCs did not affect MSC differentiation into perivascular cells or other mesenchymal lineages. Endoglin silencing markedly inhibited ECFC adhesion to MSCs. Thus, MSCs, when combined with ECFCs, accelerate muscle recovery in a mouse model of hind limb ischemia, through an endoglin-dependent mechanism.

  12. Treatment effect with anti-RAGE F(ab')2 antibody improves hind limb angiogenesis and blood flow in Type 1 diabetic mice with left femoral artery ligation.

    PubMed

    Tekabe, Yared; Anthony, Tamykah; Li, Qing; Ray, Rashmi; Rai, Vivek; Zhang, Geping; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Johnson, Lynne L

    2015-06-01

    We investigated treatment with a receptor for advanced glycation endproduct (RAGE) blocking antibody on angiogenic response to hind limb ischemia in diabetic mice. Streptozotocin treated C57BL/6 mice received either murine monoclonal anti-RAGE F(ab')2 intraperitoneally (n=10) or saline (n=9) for 9 weeks. Diabetic plus 10 non-diabetic C57BL/6 mice underwent left femoral artery ligation and 5 days later angiogenesis imaging with (99m)Tc-Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) nanoSPECT/CT. Twenty-four days later, hind limb blood flow was measured with ultrasound, the mice were euthanized, and tissue was taken for immunohistochemistry. The angiogenic imaging signal in ischemic limbs was higher in RAGE-ab treated versus saline treated mice at day 5 (3.1±1.4 vs 1.68±0.35, p=0.02) and blood flow was higher at day 24 (1.49±0.5 vs 0.61±0.39, p=0.04). Immunohistochemistry of ischemic muscles showed greater capillary density in the RAGE-ab treated group versus the vehicle-treated group (p<0.001) (NS from non-diabetic mice). In conclusion, treatment with anti-RAGE F(ab')2 in diabetic mice improves neovascularization in the ischemic leg. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. GM-CSF treated F4/80+ BMCs improve murine hind limb ischemia similar to M-CSF differentiated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Go; Nishinakamura, Hitomi; Kojima, Daibo; Tashiro, Tadashi; Kodama, Shohta

    2014-01-01

    Novel cell therapy is required to treat critical limb ischemia (CLI) as many current approaches require repeated aspiration of bone marrow cells (BMCs). The use of cultured BMCs can reduce the total number of injections required and were shown to induce therapeutic angiogenesis in a murine model of hind limb ischemia. Blood flow recovery was significantly improved in mice treated with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-dependent BMCs that secreted inflammatory cytokines. Angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and blood flow recovery ratio were significantly higher in the GM-CSF-cultured F4/80+ macrophage (GM-Mø)-treated group compared with controls. Furthermore, Foxp3+ cell numbers and tissue IL-10 concentrations were significantly increased compared with controls. There was no significant difference in blood flow recovery between GM-Mø and M-CSF-cultured F4/80+ macrophages (M-Mø). Thus, GM-Mø were associated with improved blood flow in hind limb ischemia similar to M-Mø. The selective methods of culturing and treating GM-Mø cells similar to M-Mø cells could be used clinically to help resolve the large number of cells required for BMC treatment of CLI. This study demonstrates a novel cell therapy for CLI that can be used in conjunction with conventional therapy including percutaneous intervention and surgical bypass.

  14. VEGF and IGF Delivered from Alginate Hydrogels Promote Stable Perfusion Recovery in Ischemic Hind Limbs of Aged Mice and Young Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Erin M; Silva, Eduardo A; Hao, Yibai; Martinick, Kathleen D; Vermillion, Sarah A; Stafford, Alexander G; Doherty, Elisabeth G; Wang, Lin; Doherty, Edward J; Grossman, Paul M; Mooney, David J

    2017-09-21

    Biomaterial-based delivery of angiogenic growth factors restores perfusion more effectively than bolus delivery methods in rodent models of peripheral vascular disease, but the same success has not yet been demonstrated in clinically relevant studies of aged or large animals. These studies explore, in clinically relevant models, a therapeutic angiogenesis strategy for the treatment of peripheral vascular disease that overcomes the challenges encountered in previous clinical trials. Alginate hydrogels providing sustained release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF) were injected into ischemic hind limbs in middle-aged and old mice, and also in young rabbits, as a test of the scalability of this local growth factor treatment. Spontaneous perfusion recovery diminished with increasing age, and only the combination of VEGF and IGF delivery from gels significantly rescued perfusion in middle-aged (13 months) and old (20 months) mice. In rabbits, the delivery of VEGF alone or in combination with IGF from alginate hydrogels, at a dose 2 orders of magnitude lower than the typical doses used in past rabbit studies, enhanced perfusion recovery when given immediately after surgery, or as a treatment for chronic ischemia. Capillary density measurements and angiographic analysis demonstrated the benefit of gel delivery. These data together suggest that alginate hydrogels providing local delivery of low doses of VEGF and IGF constitute a safe and effective treatment for hind-limb ischemia in clinically relevant animal models, thereby supporting the potential clinical translation of this concept. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Effect of feeding growing-fattening rabbits a diet supplemented with whole white lupin (Lupinus albus cv. Amiga) seeds on fatty acid composition and indexes related to human health in hind leg meat and perirenal fat.

    PubMed

    Volek, Zdeněk; Marounek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    A total of 20 weaned rabbits (33 days old) (10 per treatment) were fed one of two diets that included 150 g of sunflower meal (SF)/kg of diet or 120 g of whole white lupin (WL)/kg of diet for 42 days. The WL diet contained less saturated fatty acids (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) but more monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) than the SF diet. The WL diet significantly decreased SFA and PUFA content, as well as the PUFA n-6/PUFA n-3 ratio and saturation, atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in hind leg meat. The fatty acid composition in perirenal fat was similar to that of hind leg meat; however, significantly higher MUFA levels were observed in rabbits fed the WL diet. Thus, feeding rabbits the WL diet affected the fatty acid profile of hind leg meat and perirenal fat in a favourable manner.

  16. The Effects of Inclination (Up and Down) of the Treadmill on the Electromyogram Activities of the Forelimb and Hind limb Muscles at a Walk and a Trot in Thoroughbred Horses

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Toshiyuki; MATSUI, Akira; MUKAI, Kazutaka; OHMURA, Hajime; HIRAGA, Atsushi; AIDA, Hiroko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT It is important to know the effects of the inclination of a slope on the activity of each muscle, because training by running on a sloped track is commonly used for Thoroughbred racehorses. The effects of incline (from −6 to +6%) on the forelimbs and hind limbs during walking and trotting on a treadmill were evaluated by an integrated electromyogram (iEMG). The muscle activities in the forelimbs (5 horses) and hind limbs (4 horses) were measured separately. Two stainless steel wires were inserted into each of the brachiocephalicus (Bc), biceps brachii (BB), splenius (Sp), and pectoralis descendens (PD) in the forelimb experiment and into the longissimus dorsi (LD), vastus lateralis (VL), gluteus medius (GM), and biceps femoris (BF) in the hind limb experiment. The EMG recordings were taken at a sampling rate of 1,000 Hz. At a walk, the iEMG values for the forelimb were not significantly different under any of the inclinations. In the hind limb, the iEMG values for the GM and BF significantly decreased as the inclination decreased. At a trot, the iEMG values for the Bc in the forelimb significantly decreased as the inclination of the treadmill decreased. In the hind limb, the iEMG values for the LD, GM, and BF significantly decreased as the inclination decreased. Uphill exercise increased the iEMG values for the Bc, LD, GM, and BF, while downhill exercise resulted in little increase in the iEMG values. It was concluded that the effects of inclination on the muscle activities were larger for the uphill exercises, and for the hind limb muscles compared with the forelimb muscles. PMID:25558180

  17. The Effects of Inclination (Up and Down) of the Treadmill on the Electromyogram Activities of the Forelimb and Hind limb Muscles at a Walk and a Trot in Thoroughbred Horses.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Matsui, Akira; Mukai, Kazutaka; Ohmura, Hajime; Hiraga, Atsushi; Aida, Hiroko

    2014-01-01

    It is important to know the effects of the inclination of a slope on the activity of each muscle, because training by running on a sloped track is commonly used for Thoroughbred racehorses. The effects of incline (from -6 to +6%) on the forelimbs and hind limbs during walking and trotting on a treadmill were evaluated by an integrated electromyogram (iEMG). The muscle activities in the forelimbs (5 horses) and hind limbs (4 horses) were measured separately. Two stainless steel wires were inserted into each of the brachiocephalicus (Bc), biceps brachii (BB), splenius (Sp), and pectoralis descendens (PD) in the forelimb experiment and into the longissimus dorsi (LD), vastus lateralis (VL), gluteus medius (GM), and biceps femoris (BF) in the hind limb experiment. The EMG recordings were taken at a sampling rate of 1,000 Hz. At a walk, the iEMG values for the forelimb were not significantly different under any of the inclinations. In the hind limb, the iEMG values for the GM and BF significantly decreased as the inclination decreased. At a trot, the iEMG values for the Bc in the forelimb significantly decreased as the inclination of the treadmill decreased. In the hind limb, the iEMG values for the LD, GM, and BF significantly decreased as the inclination decreased. Uphill exercise increased the iEMG values for the Bc, LD, GM, and BF, while downhill exercise resulted in little increase in the iEMG values. It was concluded that the effects of inclination on the muscle activities were larger for the uphill exercises, and for the hind limb muscles compared with the forelimb muscles.

  18. 2D motion analysis of rabbits after Achilles tendon rupture repair and histological analysis of extracted tendons: can the number of animals be reduced by operating both hind legs simultaneously?

    PubMed

    Buschmann, Johanna; Müller, Angela; Nicholls, Flora; Achermann, Rita; Bürgisser, Gabriella Meier; Baumgartner, Walter; Calcagni, Maurizio; Giovanoli, Pietro

    2013-10-01

    Considering the 3Rs principle in animal experiments, there is a demand to perform research experiments with the fewest number of animals possible while warranting the welfare of the animals. Orthopaedic experimental studies involving operations on the hind legs of rabbits are either performed on one hind leg with the second hind leg serving as control or on both hind legs simultaneously (control: rabbits with no operations at all). The Achilles tendon of rabbits was transected and sutured, and the two-dimensional motion pattern of animals having only one leg operated was compared to rabbits having both hind legs operated (control: non-treated animals). Step length, maximum ankle angle, minimum ankle angle and the resulting range of motion of both hind legs were determined weekly over a time span from 3 weeks to 12 weeks post-operation. The results were fitted by a linear mixed effects model including time dependency. Moreover, all tendon specimen were analysed histologically. Tenocyte and tenoblast density, tenocyte and tenoblast nuclei width, inflammation level and collagen fibre alignment were determined. Statistically significant differences in the motion pattern were found when one-leg treated and two-leg treated animals were compared. However, the absolute differences were on average less than 20%. Histologically, 1-leg treated animals had tendon tissue with higher cell density, but lower inflammation and less ondulated collagen fibres compared to 2-leg treated animals; the nuclei width was the same for both groups. With regard to welfare, all animals were fine during the experiments. While comparative studies should be performed with one-leg treated animals due to interaction effects, for proof-of-principle studies, operating two legs per animal may be justified as the welfare of the animals is warranted. This is a great benefit in the sense of the 3Rs because up to 50% of animals can be spared. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Embryo transfer and sex determination following superovulated hinds inseminated with frozen-thawed sex-sorted Y sperm or unsorted semen in Wapiti (Cervus elaphus songaricus).

    PubMed

    Gao, Q H; Wang, H E; Zeng, W B; Wei, H J; Han, C M; Du, H Z; Zhang, Z G; Li, X M

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate embryo production in superovulated wapiti hinds inseminated with either Y-sorted or unsorted semen. Eighteen hinds were allocated to three treatment groups: AI following multiple ovulation (CIDR/FSH) with 10×10(6) Y-sorted frozen-thawed semen (Y group, n=6), or 10×10(6) and 100×10(6) unsorted frozen-thawed semen for the unsorted (n=6) and the control group (n=6). The embryos from the sixth day following insemination were collected and classified. Fifteen embryos from the unsorted or the control group, and four embryos from the Y group were sex determinated based on DNA analysis of the amelogenin gene. Twenty-one embryos from the Y group and 42 embryos from the unsorted or the control group were transferred into 21 and 42 synchronized recipients via standard procedures on 6th day post estrus, respectively. There were no significant differences in the number of recovered eggs, transferable embryos, degenerated embryos or unfertilized oocytes per hind among the three groups of the control (9.2±3.6, 4.7±1.9, 3.0±2.0, 1.5±1.4), the unsorted (8.2±1.9, 4.8±0.7, 1.7±1.0, 1.7±1.0) and the Y group (8.8±4.2, 4.2±1.8, 2.2±1.2, 2.5±2.1), respectively (P>0.05). The sex ratio of embryos from the Y group (4M/0F) was significantly (P<0.05) distinct from that of the unsorted and control group (8M/7F). The sex ratio of the offspring from sexed embryos (8M/0F) was deviated significantly (P<0.05) from that of the non-sexed embryos (11M/9F). In conclusion, the results suggested that the male embryos of predicted sex can be achieved with AI of sex-sorted cryopreserved sperm. PCR amplification using the amelogenin gene primers can be applied to DNA analysis of micro samples from wapiti embryo biopsies for sex identification. The male offspring can be produced after transferred with the male embryos of predicted sex.

  20. Connexions from large, ipsilateral hind limb muscle and skin afferents to the rostral main cuneate nucleus and to the nucleus X region in the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, H; Silfvenius, H

    1977-01-01

    1. Evidence is presented for an input from ipsilateral hind limb group I muscle afferents and low threshold cutaneous afferents, to cells in the rostral division of the main cuneate nucleus (rMCN) and in the region of the descending vestibular nucleus and the nucleus X of Brodal & Pompeiano (1957a), the (DV-X). 2. Thirteen group I-rMCN cells were recorded from. The functional properties of these cells were similar to those of nueleus Z (Landgren & Silfvenius, 1971; Johansson & Silfvenius, 1977a, b). The cells were monosynaptically linked to spinal dorsolateral fascicle (DLF) fibres. Nine cells projected to the contralateral thalamus, i.e. a second group I hind limb bulbothalamic tract is described. Ten cells were synaptically activated from the ipsilateral cerebellum from the anterior projection zone of the dorsal spinocerebellar tract (DSCT). Axon-collateral activation by DSCT fibres was established for two of these cells. They were both bulbothalamic relay cells. For the remaining eight cells, activated from the cerebellum, this was not proven. These cells could, however, either be linked to DSCT fibres or to short axon-collaterals of a cell body of unknown location. A projection from the rMCN to the cerebellum is described and agrees with recent anatomical findings. Two cells were not excited from the cerebellum. 3. Four rMCN cells were activated by cutaneous afferents with their secondary axons in the DLF. Suggestive evidence for a bulbothalamic cutaneous hind limb path via the rMCN is presented. Two cells were activated from the cerebellum, presumably via axon-collaterals of nonsegmental cells. 4. Eight group I-DV-X cells were recorded from. They were monosynaptically linked to spinal DLF fibres and resembled functionally the nucleus Z and rMCN cells when stimulated from the periphery. Two cells projected to the contralateral thalamus, and two others were synaptically excited. Seven cells were activated from the ipsilateral cerebellum. Two of them projected to

  1. A 405-kb cosmid contig and HindIII restriction map of the progressive myoclonus epilepsy type 1 (EPM1) candidate region in 21q22.3

    SciTech Connect

    Lafreniere, R.G.; Rouleau, G.A.; De Jong, P.J.

    1995-09-01

    As a step toward identifying the molecular defect in patients afflicted with progressive myoclonus epilepsy type 1 (EPM1), we have assembled a cosmid contig of the candidate EPM1 region in 21q22.3. The contig constitutes a collection of 87 different cosmids spanning 405 kb based on a derived HindIII restriction map. Potential CpG-rich islands have been identified based on the restriction map generated from eight different rare-cutting enzymes. This contig contains the genetic material required for the isolation of expressed sequences and the identification of the gene defective in EPM1 and possibly other disorders mapping to this region. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  2. The hind wing of the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskål). III. A finite element analysis of a deployable structure.

    PubMed

    Herbert, R C; Young, P G; Smith, C W; Wootton, R J; Evans, K E

    2000-10-01

    Finite element analysis is used to model the automatic cambering of the locust hind wing during promotion: the umbrella effect. It was found that the model required a high degree of sophistication before replicating the deformations found in vivo. The model has been validated using experimental data and the deformations recorded both in vivo and ex vivo. It predicts that even slight modifications to the geometrical description used can lead to significant changes in the deformations observed in the anal fan. The model agrees with experimental data and produces deformations very close to those seen in free-flying locusts. The validated model may be used to investigate the varying geometries found in orthopteran anal fans and the stresses found throughout the wing when loaded.

  3. Physical Map of the Channel Catfish Virus Genome: Location of Sites for Restriction Endonucleases EcoRI, HindIII, HpaI, and XbaI

    PubMed Central

    Chousterman, Suzanne; Lacasa, Michel; Sheldrick, Peter

    1979-01-01

    The overall arrangement of nucleotide sequences in the DNA of channel catfish virus has been studied by cleavage with four restriction endonucleases. Physical maps have been developed for the location of sites for EcoRI, HindIII, HpaI, and XbaI. The sum of the molecular weights of fragments generated by each restriction enzyme indicates a molecular weight of approximately 86 × 106 for the channel catfish virus genome. Fragments corresponding to the molecular ends of channel catfish virus DNA have been identified by their sensitivity to exonuclease treatment. The distribution of restriction sites in the genome shows that sequences included in a 12 × 106-molecular weight region at one end are repeated with direct polarity at the other end, and that the overall genomic sequence order is nonpermuted. Images PMID:16789182

  4. A HindIII polymorphism detected by cDMD 4-5a at the DMD locus in a family with Becker muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Gibb, M.F.; Greenberg, C.R.; Carson, N.L.

    1994-09-01

    Deletions within the dystrophin gene can be detected by hybridizing a series of cDNA probes to HindIII-digested DNA, with the absence of one or more fragments indicating the presence of a deletion. However, incorrect interpretations can be made if the absence of a fragment is due to a polymorphism rather than a deletion. Otto and Rothbery reported that the 5.2 kb fragment detected by cM 4-5a could be resolved, with extended electrophoresis, into two fragments estimated to be 5.2 and 5.15 kb in size. They concluded that the extra fragment of this doublet appears to be polymorphic, inherited in a Mendelian dominant fashion. The mother, who is an obligate carrier of BMD, does not have the upper fragment as is the case for her normal and affected sons. The father, who clinically has no evidence of neuromuscular disease, does have the upper fragment as do all their daughters. Given a dominant pattern of inheritance, the daughters should be heterozygous. Analysis of one grandson, who was predicted to have inherited the grandpaternal dystrophin gene, showed that he did have the upper fragment, consistent with our conclusions. To date, we have been unable to analyze a grandson that has inherited the grandmaternal allele; however, presuably he would not have the upper fragment of this doublet. We conclude that there likely is a dominant HindIII polymorphism detected with the cDMD 4-5a probe at the DMD locus. Population studies will be required to determine the frequency of this polymorphism; however, it should be noted that absence of the upper fragment of this doublet in a male with BMD/DMD does not necessarily correspond to the presence of a deletion.

  5. Effects of Feed Supplementation on Mineral Composition, Mechanical Properties and Structure in Femurs of Iberian Red Deer Hinds (Cervus elaphus hispanicus)

    PubMed Central

    Olguin, Cesar A.; Landete-Castillejos, Tomas; Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J.; Gallego, Laureano

    2013-01-01

    Few studies in wild animals have assessed changes in mineral profile in long bones and their implications for mechanical properties. We examined the effect of two diets differing in mineral content on the composition and mechanical properties of femora from two groups each with 13 free-ranging red deer hinds. Contents of Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, B and Sr, Young’s modulus of elasticity (E), bending strength and work of fracture were assessed in the proximal part of the diaphysis (PD) and the mid-diaphysis (MD). Whole body measures were also recorded on the hinds. Compared to animals on control diets, those on supplemented diets increased live weight by 6.5 kg and their kidney fat index (KFI), but not carcass weight, body or organ size, femur size or cortical thickness. Supplemental feeding increased Mn content of bone by 23%, Cu by 9% and Zn by 6%. These differences showed a mean fourfold greater content of these minerals in supplemental diet, whereas femora did not reflect a 5.4 times greater content of major minerals (Na and P) in the diet. Lower content of B and Sr in supplemented diet also reduced femur B by 14% and Sr by 5%. There was a subtle effect of diet only on E and none on other mechanical properties. Thus, greater availability of microminerals but not major minerals in the diet is reflected in bone composition even before marked body effects, bone macro-structure or its mechanical properties are affected. PMID:23750262

  6. Coadministration of adipose-derived stem cells and control-released basic fibroblast growth factor facilitates angiogenesis in a murine ischemic hind limb model.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi-Ishihara, Hisako; Tobita, Morikuni; Tajima, Satoshi; Tanaka, Rica; Oshita, Takashi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have angiogenic potential owing to their differentiation into endothelial cells and their release of angiogenic growth factors to elicit paracrine effects. In addition, control-released basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) sustained with a gelatin hydrogel also supports effective angiogenesis. We sought to determine if coadministration of ASCs and control-released bFGF into murine ischemic limbs facilitates angiogenesis. Levels of growth factors in the conditioned media of ASCs cultured with or without control-released bFGF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. A murine ischemic hind limb model was generated and intramuscularly injected with the following: gelatin hydrogel (group 1), a high number of ASCs (group 2), control-released bFGF (group 3), a small number of ASCs and control-released bFGF (group 4), and a high number of ASCs and control-released bFGF (group 5). Macroscopic and microscopic vascular changes were evaluated until day 7 by laser Doppler perfusion imaging and histologic analyses, respectively. Secretion of hepatocyte growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and transforming growth factor-β1 was enhanced by control-released bFGF. Vascular improvement was achieved in groups 4 and 5 according to laser Doppler perfusion imaging. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and CD31 immunohistochemical staining demonstrated an increase in the vascular density, vessel diameter, and thickness of vessel walls in groups 4 and 5. Cells positively stained for CD146, α-smooth muscle actin, and transforming growth factor-β1 were observed around vessel walls in groups 4 and 5. These findings suggest that coadministration of ASCs and control-released bFGF facilitates angiogenesis in terms of vessel maturation in a murine ischemic hind limb model. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of a twenty-one-component finite element distal hind limb model: stress and strain in bovine digit structures as a result of loading on different floorings.

    PubMed

    Hinterhofer, C; Haider, H; Apprich, V; Ferguson, J C; Collins, S N; Stanek, C

    2009-03-01

    Finite element modeling is a unique way of introducing technical and material research into medical science. A bovine distal hind limb was scanned using computed tomography for geometric image capture and the data were subsequently divided (segmented) into 4 tissue types: bone, bone marrow, soft tissue, and the horn capsule. Material data from previous studies were integrated into the model. Flexor tendons were assembled as longitudinal structures starting at their cross-sectional areas at the height of the metatarsophalangeal joint, proceeding in the plantaro-distal direction and meeting the distal phalanx at the tuberculum flexorium. Three different flooring situations (full support floor, bearing weight in the abaxial half of the lateral claw and in the dorsal halves of both claws, respectively) were created to evaluate the effects of loading. Full support resulted in von Mises stress levels between 3.5 and 1.5 MPa for the osseous structures and some regions of the segmented soft tissue; stress patterns in the bulb and sole of the claw capsule (1.5 MPa) and in the floor (0.5 MPa) were similar to pressure plate data in vivo and in vitro, with corresponding strain values of 2.4%. Reduced support resulted in higher stresses (up to approximately 8 MPa) in bones, claw capsules, and tendons; high strains ( approximately 11%) were found in the soft tissue, depending on how the floor was constructed. Although the models may still be anatomically improved, stress and strain calculations are possible with results comparable to related research, and the model shows interaction between the 2 digits. This possibly will help with further understanding of the biomechanical function of this 2-digit structure. With respect to clinical interpretation, reduced support to the bovine hind limb increases focal stress peaks in the different tissues, which may indicate a location of potential injury.

  8. Delivery system for autologous growth factors fabricated with low-molecular-weight heparin and protamine to attenuate ischemic hind-limb loss in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shingo; Takikawa, Megumi; Ishihara, Masayuki; Nakayama, Takefumi; Kishimoto, Satoko; Isoda, Susumu; Ozeki, Yuichi; Sato, Masahiro; Maehara, Tadaaki

    2012-12-01

    Frozen and thawed platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains high concentrations of various growth factors, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and hepatocyte growth factor. We previously reported that low-molecular-weight heparin/protamine microparticles (LH/P MPs) are useful as biodegradable carriers for the controlled release of FGF-2. In this study, we examined the ability of PRP/LH/P MPs to prevent limb loss in an induced ischemic hind-limb model that used adult BALB/c-nu/nu male mice. One day after inducing ischemia, intramuscular injections of a PRP/LH/P MPs solution were administered into several sites of the ischemic hind limb. Seven days and onward after the injections, the PRP/LH/P MPs-treated and PRP-treated groups recovered from ischemia, as reflected by the improved oxygen saturation. In the PRP-treated group, however, the level of recovery of oxygen saturation after ischemia decreased after 14 days. From the 21st day onward, there was a significant difference between those two groups. In the LH/P MPs-treated group, a partial recovery occurred only in the early period. The saline-treated group (i.e., the control) and the noninjection group (i.e., ischemia only) exhibited no recovery. The limb survival rate at 1 year in the ischemia-induced mice injected with PRP/LH/P MPs was approximately 25 % (two of eight mice) but was absent in the other groups.

  9. Fatty Liver Accompanies an Increase in Lactobacillus Species in the Hind Gut of C57BL/6 Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet123

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Huawei; Liu, Jun; Jackson, Matthew I.; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Yan, Lin; Combs, Gerald F.

    2013-01-01

    High-fat (HF) diets can produce obesity and have been linked to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and changes in the gut microbiome. To test the hypothesis that HF feeding increases certain predominant hind gut bacteria and development of steatohepatitis, C57BL/6 mice were fed an HF (45% energy) or low-fat (LF) (10% energy) diet for 10 wk. At the end of the feeding period, body weights in the HF group were 34% greater than those in the LF group (P < 0.05). These changes were associated with dramatic increases in lipid droplet number and size, inflammatory cell infiltration, and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase protein concentration in the livers of mice fed the HF diet. Consistent with the fatty liver phenotype, plasma leptin and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations were also elevated in mice fed the HF diet, indicative of chronic inflammation. Eight of 12 pairs of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for bacterial species that typically predominate hind gut microbial ecology generated specific PCR products from the fecal DNA samples. The amount of DNA from Lactobacillus gasseri and/or Lactobacillus taiwanensis in the HF group was 6900-fold greater than that in the LF group. Many of these bacteria are bile acid resistant and are capable of bile acid deconjugation. Because bile acids are regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism, the marked increase of gut L. gasseri and/or L. taiwanensis species bacteria with HF feeding may play a role in development of steatohepatitis in this model. PMID:23486979

  10. Fatty liver accompanies an increase in lactobacillus species in the hind gut of C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huawei; Liu, Jun; Jackson, Matthew I; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Yan, Lin; Combs, Gerald F

    2013-05-01

    High-fat (HF) diets can produce obesity and have been linked to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and changes in the gut microbiome. To test the hypothesis that HF feeding increases certain predominant hind gut bacteria and development of steatohepatitis, C57BL/6 mice were fed an HF (45% energy) or low-fat (LF) (10% energy) diet for 10 wk. At the end of the feeding period, body weights in the HF group were 34% greater than those in the LF group (P < 0.05). These changes were associated with dramatic increases in lipid droplet number and size, inflammatory cell infiltration, and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase protein concentration in the livers of mice fed the HF diet. Consistent with the fatty liver phenotype, plasma leptin and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations were also elevated in mice fed the HF diet, indicative of chronic inflammation. Eight of 12 pairs of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for bacterial species that typically predominate hind gut microbial ecology generated specific PCR products from the fecal DNA samples. The amount of DNA from Lactobacillus gasseri and/or Lactobacillus taiwanensis in the HF group was 6900-fold greater than that in the LF group. Many of these bacteria are bile acid resistant and are capable of bile acid deconjugation. Because bile acids are regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism, the marked increase of gut L. gasseri and/or L. taiwanensis species bacteria with HF feeding may play a role in development of steatohepatitis in this model.

  11. Involvement of substance P present in primary afferent neurones in modulation of cutaneous blood flow in the instep of rat hind paw.

    PubMed Central

    Yonehara, N.; Chen, J. Q.; Imai, Y.; Inoki, R.

    1992-01-01

    1. The participation of small-diameter afferent fibres in the microcirculatory haemodynamics of cutaneous tissue was examined by studies on the effects of antidromic stimulation of primary afferent neurones on cutaneous blood flow (CBF) and tachykinin release into the subcutaneous space in the instep of the hind paw of rats. 2. Antidromic stimulation of the sectioned sciatic nerve induced a biphasic flow response, an initial transient decrease followed by an increase, with no alteration in the blood pressure. 3. Neither phase was affected by pretreatment with phentolamine (0.1 mg kg-1, i.a.), propranolol (0.5 mg kg-1, i.a.), atropine (0.5 mg kg-1, i.a.), methysergide (0.5 mg kg-1, i.a.) or mepyramine (10 mg kg-1, i.a.) plus cimetidine (10 mg kg-1, i.a.), but both were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with capsaicin (50 mg kg-1, s.c.). 4. Spantide (1-2 mumol kg-1, i.a.), a substance P (SP) antagonist, reduced the basal CBF, and also inhibited both phases of the biphasic flow response evoked by antidromic stimulation of the sectioned sciatic nerve. 5. Intra-arterial infusion of SP (0.5 mumol kg-1, i.a.) induced a biphasic flow response similar to that elicited by antidromic stimulation of the sectioned sciatic nerve. 6. Antidromic stimulation of the sectioned sciatic nerve caused a marked increase in SP release into the subcutaneous perfusate of the instep of the rat hind paw, but no detectable increase in neurokinin A release.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1382777

  12. Effects of feed supplementation on mineral composition, mechanical properties and structure in femurs of Iberian red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus hispanicus).

    PubMed

    Olguin, Cesar A; Landete-Castillejos, Tomas; Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J; Gallego, Laureano

    2013-01-01

    Few studies in wild animals have assessed changes in mineral profile in long bones and their implications for mechanical properties. We examined the effect of two diets differing in mineral content on the composition and mechanical properties of femora from two groups each with 13 free-ranging red deer hinds. Contents of Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, B and Sr, Young's modulus of elasticity (E), bending strength and work of fracture were assessed in the proximal part of the diaphysis (PD) and the mid-diaphysis (MD). Whole body measures were also recorded on the hinds. Compared to animals on control diets, those on supplemented diets increased live weight by 6.5 kg and their kidney fat index (KFI), but not carcass weight, body or organ size, femur size or cortical thickness. Supplemental feeding increased Mn content of bone by 23%, Cu by 9% and Zn by 6%. These differences showed a mean fourfold greater content of these minerals in supplemental diet, whereas femora did not reflect a 5.4 times greater content of major minerals (Na and P) in the diet. Lower content of B and Sr in supplemented diet also reduced femur B by 14% and Sr by 5%. There was a subtle effect of diet only on E and none on other mechanical properties. Thus, greater availability of microminerals but not major minerals in the diet is reflected in bone composition even before marked body effects, bone macro-structure or its mechanical properties are affected.

  13. Papers Delivered at the Junior/Senior College English Workshop (Hinds Junior College, February 5, 1972) and the Workshop for English Teachers (University of Mississippi, February 12, 1972) and a Research Paper Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhail, Augustine H., Comp.

    The following are nine papers delivered at the annual workshop for junior and senior college English teachers held at Hinds Jr. College on February 5, 1972: "The Role of Grammar in the Classroom" -Mrs. Elba Patterson; "Grammar in the English Class" -Dr. Gerald Walton; "Creative Writing and Freshman English" Gordon Weaver; "Attitudes Toward the…

  14. Data set incongruence and correlated character evolution: An example of functional convergence in the hind-limbs of stifftail diving ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCracken, K.G.; Harshman, J.; Mcclellan, D.A.; Afton, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    The unwitting inclusion of convergent characters in phylogenetic estimates poses a serious problem for efforts to recover phylogeny. Convergence is not inscrutable, however, particularly when one group of characters tracks phylogeny and another set tracks adaptive history. In such cases, convergent characters may be correlated with one or a few functional anatomical units and readily identifiable by using comparative methods. Stifftail ducks (Oxyurinae) offer one such opportunity to study correlated character evolution and function in the context of phylogenetic reconstruction. Morphological analyses place stifftail ducks as part of a large clade of diving ducks that includes the sea ducks (Mergini), Hymenolaimus, Merganetta, and Tachyeres, and possibly the pochards (Aythyini). Molecular analyses, on the other hand, place stifftails far from other diving ducks and suggest, moreover, that stifftails are polyphyletic. Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences of eight stifftail species traditionally supposed to form a clade were compared with each other and with sequences from 50 other anseriform and galliform species. Stifftail ducks are not the sister group of sea ducks but lie outside the typical ducks (Anatinae). Of the four traditional stifftail genera, monophyly of Oxyura and its sister group relationship with Nomonyx are strongly supported. Heteronetta probably is the sister group of that clade, but support is weak. Biziura is not a true stifftail. Within Oxyura, Old World species (O. australis, O. leucocephala, O. mnccoa) appear to form a clade, with New World species (O. jamaicensis, O. vittata) branching basally. Incongruence between molecules and morphology is interpreted to be the result of adaptive specialization and functional convergence in the hind limbs of Biziura and true stifftails. When morphological characters are divided into classes, only hind-limb characters are significantly in conflict with the molecular tree. Likewise, null models of

  15. Data set incongruence and correlated character evolution: an example of functional convergence in the hind-limbs of stifftail diving ducks.

    PubMed

    McCracken, K G; Harshman, J; McClellan, D A; Afton, A D

    1999-12-01

    The unwitting inclusion of convergent characters in phylogenetic estimates poses a serious problem for efforts to recover phylogeny. Convergence is not inscrutable, however, particularly when one group of characters tracks phylogeny and another set tracks adaptive history. In such cases, convergent characters may be correlated with one or a few functional anatomical units and readily identifiable by using comparative methods. Stifftail ducks (Oxyurinae) offer one such opportunity to study correlated character evolution and function in the context of phylogenetic reconstruction. Morphological analyses place stifftail ducks as part of a large clade of diving ducks that includes the sea ducks (Mergini), Hymenolaimus, Merganetta, and Tachyeres, and possibly the pochards (Aythyini). Molecular analyses, on the other hand, place stifftails far from other diving ducks and suggest, moreover, that stifftails are polyphyletic. Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences of eight stifftail species traditionally supposed to form a clade were compared with each other and with sequences from 50 other anseriform and galliform species. Stifftail ducks are not the sister group of sea ducks but lie outside the typical ducks (Anatinae). Of the four traditional stifftail genera, monophyly of Oxyura and its sister group relationship with Nomonyx are strongly supported. Heteronetta probably is the sister group of that clade, but support is weak. Biziura is not a true stifftail. Within Oxyura, Old World species (O. australis, O. leucocephala, O. maccoa) appear to form a clade, with New World species (O. jamaicensis, O. vittata) branching basally. Incongruence between molecules and morphology is interpreted to be the result of adaptive specialization and functional convergence in the hind limbs of Biziura and true stifftails. When morphological characters are divided into classes, only hind-limb characters are significantly in conflict with the molecular tree. Likewise, null models of

  16. Protective effects of erdosteine, vitamin E, and vitamin C on renal injury induced by the ischemia-reperfusion of the hind limbs in rats.

    PubMed

    Sirmali, Rana; Armağan, Abdullah; Öktem, Faruk; Uz, Efkan; Kirbas, Aynur; Dönmezs, Soner; Yilmaz, Hacı Ramazan; Silay, Mesrur Selçuk; Sirmali, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    To compare the protective efficacy of erdosteine and vitamins C and E against renal injury caused by hind limb ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Rats were split into 4 groups: group I as the control, group II as I/R, group III as I/R + erdosteine, and group IV as I/R + vitamins C and E. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) tissue levels were determined. MDA levels were found comparable with the control group in groups II and III. However, they were considerably decreased in group IV when compared to group II (P < 0.01). Additionally, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities were considerably (P < 0.05) decreased in group II. While CAT and GSH-Px activities were restored (P <0.01) by vitamin E and C treatment, SOD activity was not significantly affected. While GSH-Px activities were higher (P < 0.05) with erdosteine administration, SOD and CAT activities were unchanged. The protective effect of vitamins C and E is higher than that of erdosteine treatment in reducing the oxidative stress after renal ischemia in this animal model.

  17. A new technique using roentgen stereophotogrammetry to measure changes in the spatial conformation of bovine hind claws in response to external loads.

    PubMed

    Ouweltjes, W; Gussekloo, S W S; Spoor, C W; van Leeuwen, J L

    2016-02-01

    Claw and locomotion problems are widespread in ungulates. Although it is presumed that mechanical overload is an important contributor to claw tissue damage and impaired locomotion, deformation and claw injury as a result of mechanical loading has been poorly quantified and, as a result, practical solutions to reduce such lesions have been established mostly through trial and error. In this study, an experimental technique was developed that allowed the measurement under controlled loading regimes of minute deformations in the lower limbs of dissected specimens from large ungulates. Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) was applied to obtain 3D marker coordinates with an accuracy of up to 0.1 mm with optimal contrast and to determine changes in the spatial conformation. A force plate was used to record the applied forces in three dimensions. The results obtained for a test sample (cattle hind leg) under three loading conditions showed that small load-induced deformations and translations as well as small changes in centres of force application could be measured. Accuracy of the order of 0.2-0.3 mm was feasible under practical circumstances with suboptimal contrast. These quantifications of claw deformation during loading improve understanding of the spatial strain distribution as a result of external loading and the risks of tissue overload. The method promises to be useful in determining load-deformation relationships for a wide variety of specimens and circumstances.

  18. Comparative Anatomy of the Hind Limb Vessels of the Bearded Capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus) with Apes, Baboons, and Cebus capucinus: With Comments on the Vessels' Role in Bipedalism

    PubMed Central

    Aversi-Ferreira, Roqueline A. G. M. F.; de Abreu, Tainá; Pfrimer, Gabriel A.; Silva, Sylla F.; Ziermann, Janine M.; Carneiro-e-Silva, Frederico O.; Tomaz, Carlos; Tavares, Maria Clotilde H.; Maior, Rafael S.; Aversi-Ferreira, Tales A.

    2013-01-01

    Capuchin monkeys are known to exhibit sporadic bipedalism while performing specific tasks, such as cracking nuts. The bipedal posture and locomotion cause an increase in the metabolic cost and therefore increased blood supply to lower limbs is necessary. Here, we present a detailed anatomical description of the capuchin arteries and veins of the pelvic limb of Sapajus libidinosus in comparison with other primates. The arterial pattern of the bearded capuchin hind limb is more similar to other quadrupedal Cebus species. Similarities were also found to the pattern observed in the quadruped Papio, which is probably due to a comparable pelvis and the presence of the tail. Sapajus' traits show fewer similarities when compared to great apes and modern humans. Moreover, the bearded capuchin showed unique patterns for the femoral and the short saphenous veins. Although this species switches easily from quadrupedal to bipedal postures, our results indicate that the bearded capuchin has no specific or differential features that support extended bipedal posture and locomotion. Thus, the explanation for the behavioral differences found among capuchin genera probably includes other aspects of their physiology. PMID:24396829

  19. Transfection of VEGF(165) genes into endothelial progenitor cells and in vivo imaging using quantum dots in an ischemia hind limb model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han Na; Park, Ji Sun; Woo, Dae Gyun; Jeon, Su Yeon; Park, Keun-Hong

    2012-11-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were transfected with fluorescently labeled quantum dot nanoparticles (QD NPs) with or without VEGF(165) plasmid DNA (pDNA) to probe the EPCs after in vivo transplantation and to test whether they presented as differentiated endothelial cells (ECs). Bare QD NPs and QD NPs coated with PEI or PEI + VEGF(165) genes were characterized by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Transfection of EPCs with VEGF(165) led to the expression of specific genes and proteins for mature ECs. A hind limb ischemia model was generated in nude mice, and VEGF(165) gene-transfected EPCs were transplanted intramuscularly into the ischemic limbs. At 28 days after transplantation, the VEGF(165) gene-transfected EPCs significantly increased the number of differentiated ECs compared with the injection of medium or bare EPCs without VEGF(165) genes. Laser Doppler imaging revealed that blood perfusion levels were increased significantly by VEGF(165) gene-transfected EPCs compared to EPCs without VEGF(165). Moreover, the transplantation of VEGF(165) gene-transfected EPCs increased the specific gene and protein expression levels of mature EC markers and angiogenic factors in the animal model.

  20. Thermal stimulation of primary sensory neurons in the rat hind paw: effect of morphine on ERK1/2 phosphorylation, TRPV1 and TRPA1 channel expression.

    PubMed

    Donnerer, Josef; Liebmann, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels or 'thermo-TRP' were stimulated on rat sensory afferents, and the effects on the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, on the regulation of TRPV1 and TRPA1, as well as the pharmacological modulation by the opioid analgesic morphine were investigated. The thermal stimuli were applied to the rat hind paw by immersion into either hot or cold water. Phospho-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) was measured by fluorescence-immunohistochemistry in the lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. TRP channel mRNA expression was measured by RT-PCR in the innervating DRGs, and the protein content of TRPV1 and TRPA1 was determined by Western blot in the DRGs and in the sciatic nerve. The thermal stimuli led to a time-dependent increase in the number of DRG cells displaying cytoplasmic and nuclear staining for p-ERK1/2. Morphine partly prevented this increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, exerting its effect mainly on the nuclear staining. The mRNA expression for TRPV1 and TRPA1 in the DRG did not change within 24 h following the thermal stimuli. However, the protein content of both TRPV1 and TRPA1 was regulated by the thermal stimulation and by morphine. In the DRGs and in the sciatic nerve, heat or cold stimuli per se tended to decrease TRP protein levels, whereas with morphine pretreatment protein levels were raised. The present findings shed new light on the time-dependent reactions of primary sensory neurons towards irritant thermal stimuli to the skin and on their opioid modulation.

  1. Modal analysis of an artificial wing mimicking an Allomyrina dichotoma beetle's hind wing for flapping-wing micro air vehicles by noncontact measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Ngoc San; Jin, Tailie; Goo, Nam Seo

    2013-05-01

    Recently, the development of flapping-wing micro air vehicles (FW-MAV) for operation in extreme environmental conditions has demanded properly designed, biologically inspired wings that can produce enough lift force to keep the vehicles aloft. The structural analysis of an artificial wing is carried out in the design of an FW-MAV. In this study, the dynamic characteristics of an artificial wing mimicking an Allomyrina dichotoma beetle's hind wing were investigated by a non-contact measurement method. The natural frequencies, mode shapes, and damping ratios of the first three basic vibration modes in the operating frequency range were determined using a Bruel & Kjaer (B&K) fast Fourier transform analyzer, along with a laser sensor. The laser sensor was used to obtain the displacement history of the marked points on the wing to calculate the frequency response function. To confirm the results, a three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) method, as well as high speed digital cameras, were employed to construct the mode shapes of the wing when it was vibrated at a pre-determined natural frequency. The mode shapes by the DIC method showed good agreement with those by the laser displacement sensor. These results provide a method for the modal analysis of a light weight structure like an insect wing as well as for the construction of the mode shapes using DIC. The high speed 3D-DIC method, used successfully in mode shape measurements, can also be used to study the wing deformation of an insect during flight, which is challenging in an insect study.

  2. Periostin enhances adipose-derived stem cell adhesion, migration, and therapeutic efficiency in Apo E deficient mice with hind limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jinbao; Yuan, Fukang; Peng, Zhiyou; Ye, Kaichuang; Yang, Xinrui; Huang, Lijia; Jiang, Mier; Lu, Xinwu

    2015-07-24

    Therapeutic angiogenesis by transplantation of autologous/allogeneic adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) is a potential approach for severe ischemic diseases. However, poor viability, adhesion, migration and differentiation limit the therapeutic efficiency after the cells were transplanted into the targeted area. Periostin, an extracellular matrix protein, exhibits a critical role in wound repair as well as promotes cell adhesion, survival, and angiogenesis. ADSCs were obtained and genetically engineered with periostin gene (P-ADSCs). The viability, proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of P-ADSCs under hypoxia were analyzed. Moreover, P-ADSCs were implanted into Apo E deficient mice with hind limb ischemia. The Laser Doppler perfusion index, immunofluorescence, and histological pathology assay were tested to evaluate the therapeutic effects. The associated molecular mechanism of periostin on the proliferation, adhesion, migration, and differentiation of ADSCs was also analyzed. The in vitro studies have shown that periostin-transfected ADSCs (P-ADSCs) promoted viability, proliferation, and migration of ADSCs. Apoptosis of ADSCs was inhibited under hypoxic conditions. The Laser Doppler perfusion index was significantly higher in the P-ADSCs group compared with that in the ADSC and control groups after 4 weeks. Immunofluorescence and histological pathology assay showed that the P-ADSCs were in and around the ischemic sites, and some cells differentiated into capillaries and endothelium. Microvessel densities were significantly improved in P-ADSCs group compared with those in the control group. The molecular mechanisms that provide the beneficial effects of periostin were connected with the upregulated expression of integrinβ1/FAK/PI3K/Akt/eNOS signal pathway and the increased secretion of growth factors. Overexpression of periostin by gene transfection on ADSCs promotes survival, migration, and therapeutic efficiency, which will bring new insights into the

  3. Involvement of spinal α2 -adrenoceptors in prolonged modulation of hind limb withdrawal reflexes following acute noxious stimulation in the anaesthetized rabbit.

    PubMed

    Harris, John

    2016-03-01

    The role of spinal α2 -adrenoceptors in mediating long-lasting modulation of hind limb withdrawal reflexes following acute noxious chemical stimulation of distant heterotopic and local homotopic locations has been investigated in pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rabbits. Reflexes evoked in the ankle extensor muscle medial gastrocnemius (MG) by electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral heel, and reflexes elicited in the ankle flexor tibialis anterior and the knee flexor semitendinosus by stimulation at the base of the ipsilateral toes, could be inhibited for over 1 h after mustard oil (20%) was applied to either the snout or into the contralateral MG. The heel-MG response was also inhibited after applying mustard oil across the plantar metatarsophalangeal joints of the ipsilateral foot, whereas this homotopic stimulus facilitated both flexor responses. Mustard oil also caused a significant pressor effect when applied to any of the three test sites. The selective α2 -adrenoceptor antagonist, RX 821002 (100-300 μg, intrathecally), had no effect on reflexes per se, but did cause a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure. In the presence of the α2 -blocker, inhibitory and facilitatory effects of mustard oil on reflexes were completely abolished. These data imply that long-lasting inhibition of spinal reflexes following acute noxious stimulation of distant locations involves activation of supraspinal noradrenergic pathways, the effects of which are dependent on an intact α2 -adrenoceptor system at the spinal level. These pathways and receptors also appear to be involved in facilitation (sensitization) as well as inhibition of reflexes following a noxious stimulus applied to the same limb.

  4. Colonic inflammation accompanies an increase of β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huawei; Ishaq, Suzanne L; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Wright, André-Denis G

    2016-09-01

    Consumption of an obesigenic/high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with a high colon cancer risk and may alter the gut microbiota. To test the hypothesis that long-term high-fat (HF) feeding accelerates inflammatory process and changes gut microbiome composition, C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD (45% energy) or a low-fat (LF) diet (10% energy) for 36 weeks. At the end of the study, body weights in the HF group were 35% greater than those in the LF group. These changes were associated with dramatic increases in body fat composition, inflammatory cell infiltration, inducible nitric oxide synthase protein concentration and cell proliferation marker (Ki67) in ileum and colon. Similarly, β-catenin expression was increased in colon (but not ileum). Consistent with gut inflammation phenotype, we also found that plasma leptin, interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α concentrations were also elevated in mice fed the HFD, indicative of chronic inflammation. Fecal DNA was extracted and the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the microbial 16S rRNA gene was amplified using primers suitable for 454 pyrosequencing. Compared to the LF group, the HF group had high proportions of bacteria from the family Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae, which is known to be involved in the development of metabolic disorders, diabetes and colon cancer. Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that long-term HF consumption not only increases inflammatory status but also accompanies an increase of colonic β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of C57BL/6 mice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. A HindIII BAC library construction of Mesobuthus martensii Karsch (Scorpiones:Buthidae): an important genetic resource for comparative genomics and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Songryong; Ma, Yibao; Jang, Shenghun; Wu, Yingliang; Liu, Hui; Cao, Zhijian; Li, Wenxin

    2009-12-01

    Scorpions are "living but sophisticated fossils" that have changed little in their morphology since their first appearance over the past 450 million years ago. To provide a genetic resource for understanding the evolution of scorpion genome and the relationships between scorpions and other organisms, we first determined the genome size of the scorpion Mesobuthus martensii Karsch (about 600 Mbp) in the order Scorpiones and constructed a HindIII BAC library of the male scorpion M. martensii Karsch from China. The BAC library consists of a total of 46,080 clones with an average insert size of 100 kb, providing a 7.7-fold coverage of the scorpion haploid genome size of 600 Mbp as revealed in this study. High-density colony hybridization-based library screening was performed using 18S-5.8S-28S rRNA gene that is one of the most commonly used phylogenetic markers. Both library screening and PCR identification results revealed six positive BAC clones which were overlapped, and formed a contig of approximately 120 kb covering the rDNA. BAC DNA sequencing analysis determined the complete sequence of M. martensii Karsch rDNA unit that has a total length of 8779 bp, including 1813 bp 18s rDNA, 157 bp 5.8s rDNA, 3823 bp 28s rDNA, 530 bp ETS, 2168 bp ITS1 and 288 bp ITS2. Interestingly, some tandem repeats are present in the rRNA intergenic sequence (IGS) and ITS1/2 regions. These results demonstrated that the BAC library of the scorpion M. martensii Karsch and the complete sequence of rDNA unit will provide important genetic resources and tools for comparative genomics and phylogenetic analysis.

  6. Combination of anti-ICAM-1 and anti-LFA-1 monoclonal antibody therapy prolongs allograft survival in rat hind-limb transplants.

    PubMed

    Ozer, K; Siemionow, M

    2001-10-01

    Immunosuppressive effects of monoclonal antibodies against adhesion molecules were validated in solid organ transplants. There have been only a few reports on the effect of these antibodies on limb transplantation. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of anti-ICAM-1 and anti-LFA-1 therapy in the rat hind-limb-cremaster transplantation model. Twenty transplantations were performed across a major histocompatibility barrier between Lewis Brown Norway (LBN, RT-1(l+n)) and Lewis (LEW, RT-1(l)) rats in four experimental groups of five animals each. Group 1 animals received only vehicle solution; Groups 2 and 3 received monoclonal antibodies against ICAM-1 and LFA-1, respectively; Group 4 received a combination dose. Treatments were continued for 7 days. Clinical signs of rejection were noted daily, and correlated with in vivo microcirculatory measurements. The activation of adhering leukocytes was significantly lower in rats treated with anti-ICAM-1, anti-LFA-1, and combination than in controls (p < 0.05). Transmigrating leukocytes were also reduced in antibody-treated groups, when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The mean number of rolling lymphocytes was significantly reduced only in the combination group (p < 0.05). Endothelial edema index, a measure of endothelial swelling, was lowest in the combination group (p < 0.05). The first clinical signs of rejection were noted between the 5(th) and 9(th) days in the control group, on the 9(th) day in the anti-ICAM-1 or anti-LFA-1 groups, and on the 13(th) day with combination therapy. Monoclonal antibodies against LFA-1 or ICAM-1 alone inhibit the activation of leukocytes at the microcirculatory level but do not prolong graft survival. However, the combination of anti-ICAM-1 and anti-LFA-1 monoclonal antibodies significantly prolonged allograft survival in this composite tissue transplantation model.

  7. Angiotensin II receptor type 2 activation is required for cutaneous sensory hyperinnervation and hypersensitivity in a rat hind paw model of inflammatory pain

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarty, Anuradha; Liao, Zhaohui; Smith, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Many pain syndromes are associated with abnormal proliferation of peripheral sensory fibers. We showed previously that angiotensin II, acting through its type 2 receptor (AT2), stimulates axon outgrowth by cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons. In this study, we assessed whether AT2 mediates nociceptor hyperinnervation in the rodent hind paw model of inflammatory pain. Plantar injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA), but not saline, produced marked thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity through 7 days. This was accompanied by proliferation of dermal and epidermal PGP9.5- and calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive (CGRP-ir) axons, and dermal axons immunoreactive for GFRα2 but not tyrosine hydroxylase or neurofilament H. Continuous infusion of the AT2 antagonist PD123319 beginning with CFA injection completely prevented hyperinnervation as well as hypersensitivity over a 7 day period. A single PD123319 injection 7 days after CFA also reversed thermal hypersensitivity and partially reversed mechanical hypersensitivity 3 hours later, without affecting cutaneous innervation. Angiotensin II synthesizing proteins renin and angiotensinogen were largely absent after saline but abundant in T-cells and macrophages in CFA-injected paws with or without PD123319. Thus, emigrant cells at the site of inflammation apparently establish a renin-angiotensin system, and AT2 activation elicits nociceptor sprouting and heightened thermal and mechanical sensitivity. Perspective Short-term AT2 activation is a potent contributor to thermal hypersensitivity, while long-term effects (such as hyperinnervation) also contribute to mechanical hypersensitivity. Pharmacological blockade of AT2 signaling represents a potential therapeutic strategy aimed at biological mechanisms underlying chronic inflammatory pain. PMID:23726047

  8. TRPA1, NMDA receptors and nitric oxide mediate mechanical hyperalgesia induced by local injection of magnesium sulfate into the rat hind paw.

    PubMed

    Srebro, Dragana P; Vučković, Sonja M; Savić Vujović, Katarina R; Prostran, Milica Š

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that while magnesium, an antagonist of the glutamate subtype of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, possesses analgesic properties, it can induce writhing in rodents. The aim of this study was to determine the effect and mechanism of action of local (intraplantar) administration of magnesium sulfate (MS) on the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) to mechanical stimuli. The PWT was evaluated by the electronic von Frey test in male Wistar rats. Tested drugs were either co-administered intraplantarly (i.pl.) with MS or given into the contralateral paw to exclude systemic effects. MS at doses of 0.5, 1.5, 3 and 6.2 mg/paw (i.pl.) induced a statistically significant (as compared to 0.9% NaCl) and dose-dependent mechanical hyperalgesia. Only isotonic MS (250 mmol/l or 6.2% or 6.2 mg/paw) induced mechanical hyperalgesia that lasted at least six hours. Isotonic MS-induced mechanical hyperalgesia was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by co-injection of camphor, a non-selective TRPA1 antagonist (0.3, 1 and 2.5 μg/paw), MK-801, a NMDA receptor antagonist (0.001, 0.025 and 0.1 μg/paw), L-NAME, a non-selective nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor (20, 50 and 100 μg/paw), ARL 17477, a selective neuronal NOS inhibitor (5.7 and 17 μg/paw), SMT, a selective inducible NOS inhibitor (1 and 2.78 μg/paw), and methylene blue, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor (5, 20 and 125 μg/paw). Drugs injected into the contralateral hind paw did not produce significant effects. These results suggest that an i.pl. injection of MS produces local peripheral mechanical hyperalgesia via activation of peripheral TRPA1 and NMDA receptors and peripheral production of NO.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of Acetaminophen in Hind Limbs Unloaded Mice: A Model System Simulating the Effects of Low Gravity on Astronauts in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Amanda; Risin, Semyon A.; Ramesh, Govindarajan T.; Dasgupta, Amitava; Risin, Diana

    2008-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of medications administered to astronauts could be altered by the conditions in Space. Low gravity and free floating (and associated hemodynamic changes) could affect the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the drugs. Knowledge of these alterations is essential for adjusting the dosage and the regimen of drug administration in astronauts. Acquiring of such knowledge has inherent difficulties due to limited opportunities for experimenting in Space. One of the approaches is to use model systems that simulate some of the Space conditions on Earth. In this study we used hind limbs unloaded mice (HLU) to investigate the possible changes in PK of acetaminophen, a widely used analgesic with high probability of use by astronauts. The HLU is recognized as an appropriate model for simulating the effects of low gravity on hemodynamic parameters. Mice were tail suspended (n = 24) for 24-96 hours prior to introduction of acetaminophen (150 - 300 mg/kg). The drug (in aqueous solution containing 10% ethyl alcohol by volume) was given orally by a gavage procedure and after the administration of acetaminophen mice were additionally suspended for 30 min, 1 and 2 hours. Control mice (n = 24) received the same dose of acetaminophen and were kept freely all the time. Blood specimens were obtained either from retroorbital venous sinuses or from heart. Acetaminophen concentration was measured in plasma by the fluorescent polarization immunoassay and the AxSYM analyzer (Abbott Laboratories). In control mice peak acetaminophen concentration was achieved at 30 min. By 1 hour the concentration decreased to less than 50% of the peak level and at 2 hours the drug was almost undetectable in the serum. HLU for 24 hours significantly altered the acetaminophen pharmacokinetic: at 30 min the acetaminophen concentrations were significantly (both statistically and medically significant) lower than in control mice. The concentrations also reduced less

  10. Pharmacokinetics of Acetaminophen in Hind Limbs Unloaded Mice: A Model System Simulating the Effects of Low Gravity on Astronauts in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Amanda; Risin, Semyon A.; Ramesh, Govindarajan T.; Dasgupta, Amitava; Risin, Diana

    2008-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of medications administered to astronauts could be altered by the conditions in Space. Low gravity and free floating (and associated hemodynamic changes) could affect the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the drugs. Knowledge of these alterations is essential for adjusting the dosage and the regimen of drug administration in astronauts. Acquiring of such knowledge has inherent difficulties due to limited opportunities for experimenting in Space. One of the approaches is to use model systems that simulate some of the Space conditions on Earth. In this study we used hind limbs unloaded mice (HLU) to investigate the possible changes in PK of acetaminophen, a widely used analgesic with high probability of use by astronauts. The HLU is recognized as an appropriate model for simulating the effects of low gravity on hemodynamic parameters. Mice were tail suspended (n = 24) for 24-96 hours prior to introduction of acetaminophen (150 - 300 mg/kg). The drug (in aqueous solution containing 10% ethyl alcohol by volume) was given orally by a gavage procedure and after the administration of acetaminophen mice were additionally suspended for 30 min, 1 and 2 hours. Control mice (n = 24) received the same dose of acetaminophen and were kept freely all the time. Blood specimens were obtained either from retroorbital venous sinuses or from heart. Acetaminophen concentration was measured in plasma by the fluorescent polarization immunoassay and the AxSYM analyzer (Abbott Laboratories). In control mice peak acetaminophen concentration was achieved at 30 min. By 1 hour the concentration decreased to less than 50% of the peak level and at 2 hours the drug was almost undetectable in the serum. HLU for 24 hours significantly altered the acetaminophen pharmacokinetic: at 30 min the acetaminophen concentrations were significantly (both statistically and medically significant) lower than in control mice. The concentrations also reduced less

  11. Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase reduce carrageenan-induced hind paw inflammation in pentobarbital-treated mice: comparison with indomethacin and possible involvement of cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Holt, Sandra; Comelli, Francesca; Costa, Barbara; Fowler, Christopher J

    2005-10-01

    The in vivo effect of inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) upon oedema volume and FAAH activity was evaluated in the carrageenan induced hind paw inflammation model in the mouse. Oedema was measured at two time points, 2 and 4 h, after intraplantar injection of carrageenan to anaesthetised mice. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the FAAH inhibitor URB597 (0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 mg kg(-1)) 30 min prior to carrageenan administration, dose-dependently reduced oedema formation. At the 4 h time point, the ED(50) for URB597 was approximately 0.3 mg kg(-1). Indomethacin (5 mg kg(-1) i.p.) completely prevented the oedema response to carrageenan. The antioedema effects of indomethacin and URB597 were blocked by 3 mg kg(-1) i.p. of the CB(2) receptor antagonist SR144528. The effect of URB597 was not affected by pretreatment with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma antagonist bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (30 mg kg(-1) i.p.) or the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine (10 mg kg(-1) i.p.), when oedema was assessed 4 h after carrageenan administration. The CB(1) receptor antagonists AM251 (3 mg kg(-1) i.p.) and rimonabant (0.5 mg kg(-1) i.p.) gave inconsistent effects upon the antioedema effect of URB597. FAAH measurements were conducted ex vivo in the paws, spinal cords and brains of the mice. The activities of FAAH in the paws and spinal cords of the inflamed vehicle-treated mice were significantly lower than the corresponding activities in the noninflamed mice. PMSF treatment almost completely inhibited the FAAH activity in all three tissues, as did the highest dose of URB597 (3 mg kg(-1)) in spinal cord samples, whereas no obvious changes were seen ex vivo for the other treatments. In conclusion, the results show that in mice, treatment with indomethacin and URB597 produce SR144528-sensitive anti-inflammatory effects in the carrageenan model of acute inflammation.

  12. Protective effects of erdosteine and vitamins C and E combination on ischemia-reperfusion-induced lung oxidative stress and plasma copper and zinc levels in a rat hind limb model.

    PubMed

    Sirmali, Mehmet; Uz, Efkan; Sirmali, Rana; Kilbaş, Aynur; Yilmaz, H Ramazan; Altuntaş, Irfan; Naziroğlu, Mustafa; Delibaş, Namik; Vural, Hüseyin

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of erdosteine and vitamins C and E (VCE) on the lungs after performing hind limb ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) by assessing oxidative stress, plasma copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) analysis. The animals were divided randomly into four groups as nine rats each as follows: control, I/R, I/R plus erdosteine, and I/R plus VCE combination. I/R period for 60 min was performed on the both hind limbs of all the rats in the groups of I/R, erdosteine with I/R, VCE with I/R allowing 120 min of reperfusion. The animals received orally erdosteine one time in a day and 3 days before I/R in the erdosteine group. In the VCE group, the animals VCE combination received one time in a day and 3 days before I/R, although placebo was given to control and I/R group animals. Lung lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA]) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase activities were increased, although lung glutathione (GSH) and plasma Zn levels decreased in I/R group in lung tissue compared with the control group. Serum MDA level, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase activities were increased in I/R group compared with the control. Lung MDA and plasma Zn levels and lung SOD activity were decreased by erdosteine administration, whereas lung GSH levels after I/R increased. The plasma Zn levels and lung SOD activity were decreased by VCE administration, although the plasma Cu and lung GSH levels increased after I/R. In conclusion, erdosteine has an antioxidant role on the values in the rat model, and it has more protective affect than in VCE in attenuating I/R-induced lung injury in rats.

  13. Supergiant Star Near Giraffe Hind Foot

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-19

    NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer captured this colorful image of the nebula BFS 29 surrounding the star CE-Camelopardalis, found hovering in the band of the night sky comprising the Milky Way.

  14. Rétraction: plagiat aggravé dans l'article Aspergillose broncho-pulmonaire allergique lors d'un asthme réfractaire: à propos d'un cas clinique. Khalid Lahmadi, Hind El Youssi, Jawad Rochdi, BoughrineNawal, Er-Rami Mohammed. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2015;20:350. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.20.350.6572)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cet article retracte l'article "Aspergillose broncho-pulmonaire allergique lors d'un asthme réfractaire: à propos d'un cas clinique. Khalid Lahmadi, Hind El Youssi, Jawad Rochdi, BoughrineNawal, Er-Rami Mohammed. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2015;20:350. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.20.350.6572)" PMID:26401219

  15. Slaughterhouse condemnations for hind leg disease in cattle.

    PubMed

    Weaver, A D

    1977-02-26

    Hindlimb condemnations occurred in 0-11 per cent (194/173,580) of all cattle at a large Scottish slaughterhouse over a 22-month period. Cows and bulls were more frequently involved than steers or heifers. Gross pathology, studied in 42 cattle (21 per cent of the total condemned), revealed osteoarthritis of the stifle and hip respectively in 19 and 16 cases. The traumatic lesions included meniscal damage, anterior and other ligamentous rupture. The UK loss from such condemnation is estimated at over pounds200,000 in January 1977.

  16. Murine Hind Limb Long Bone Dissection and Bone Marrow Isolation.

    PubMed

    Amend, Sarah R; Valkenburg, Kenneth C; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2016-04-14

    Investigation of the bone and the bone marrow is critical in many research fields including basic bone biology, immunology, hematology, cancer metastasis, biomechanics, and stem cell biology. Despite the importance of the bone in healthy and pathologic states, however, it is a largely under-researched organ due to lack of specialized knowledge of bone dissection and bone marrow isolation. Mice are a common model organism to study effects on bone and bone marrow, necessitating a standardized and efficient method for long bone dissection and bone marrow isolation for processing of large experimental cohorts. We describe a straightforward dissection procedure for the removal of the femur and tibia that is suitable for downstream applications, including but not limited to histomorphologic analysis and strength testing. In addition, we outline a rapid procedure for isolation of bone marrow from the long bones via centrifugation with limited handling time, ideal for cell sorting, primary cell culture, or DNA, RNA, and protein extraction. The protocol is streamlined for rapid processing of samples to limit experimental error, and is standardized to minimize user-to-user variability.

  17. Air to Air Helicopter Combat (USMC Helicopters versus Russian HIND)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-11

    OGAIATOW IAt AND ADODRB8 10. PR TAS US Army War College Carlisle Barracks, PA 17013 IrTAT II OTO6H FIKNAME AND ORKSS h.Ot.*e G Is..~I 3.DISTRIBUTION...KUY WORDS (COaiiUw on eveeeb oldb It 80400040V 4011 1IMlU 6F Week M0060) So. ANAT"ACY tconlbus M meree .ds of ***....v Med 4daentoly 4 1"k mosei ) The

  18. Effects of stretching and disuse on amino acids in muscles of rat hind limbs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaspers, Stephen R.; Henriksen, Erik J.; Satarug, Soisungwan; Tischler, Marc E.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of disuse and passive stretch on the concentrations of amino acids and ammonia in the unloaded soleus muscle was investigated in hindquarter-suspended (for six days by casting one foot in dorsiflexion) tail-casted rats. For a comparison with the condition of unloading, amino acids and ammonia were also measured in shortened extensor digitorum longus in the same casted limb and in denervated leg muscles. The results obtained suggest that passive stretch diminishes some of the characteristic alterations of amino acid concentrations due to unloading. This effect of stretch is considered to be due to the maintenance of muscle tension.

  19. Trimodal rescue of hind limb ischemia with growth factors, cells, and nanocarriers: fundamentals to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Rajesh; Ukani, Gopi; Rishi, Muhammad Tipu; Maulik, Nilanjana

    2017-10-01

    Peripheral artery disease is a severe medical condition commonly characterized by critical or acute limb ischemia. Gradual accumulation of thrombotic plaques in peripheral arteries of the lower limb may lead to intermittent claudication or ischemia in muscle tissue. Ischemic muscle tissue with lesions may become infected, resulting in a non-healing wound. Stable progression of the non-healing wound associated with severe ischemia might lead to functional deterioration of the limb, which, depending on the severity, can result in amputation. Immediate rescue of ischemic muscles through revascularization strategies is considered the gold standard to treat critical limb ischemia. Growth factors offer multiple levels of protection in revascularization of ischemic tissue. In this review, the basic mechanism through which growth factors exert their beneficial properties to rescue the ischemic limb is extensively discussed. Moreover, clinical trials based on growth factor and stem cell therapy to treat critical limb ischemia are considered. The clinical utility of stem cell therapy for the treatment of limb ischemia is explained and recent advances in nanocarrier technology for selective growth factor and stem cell supplementation are summarized.

  20. Morphological changes in neurons of the hind limb reflex arc during long term immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tkachenko, Z. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Twelve adult rabbits were immobilized for 9 to 31 days, followed by histological study of the nerve processes of lumbar vertebra 7 and sacral vertebra 1, the sciatic nerve and the motor endings of the thigh muscles. In the spinal ganglia, dystrophic changes of increasing severity with immobilization time were found, including pericellular edema, vacuolized neuroplasm, pycnotic changes, cytolysis and destruction. Chromatophilic matter decreased and was partly bleached, and amitotic division occurred. A portion of the sciatic nerve fibers were argentophilic, and some fragmentary decomposition occurred. Considerable dystrophic changes occurred in the motor nerve endings.

  1. Trace metals in corals--hind casting environmental chemical changes in the tropical Atlantic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, C. W.; Koenig, A.; Ridley, W. I.; Wilson, S. A.

    2002-12-01

    As corals grow, they secrete a calcareous skeleton with the aid of photosynthetic activity of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae). The rate of this secretion varies inter-annually. Entrapped with the carbonate are trace substances that record the chemistry of the surrounding ocean. Detailing changes in chemistry requires careful and very tedious high-resolution sampling. The advent of laser ablation inductive couple plasma/mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP/MS) circumvents this sampling problem. This method also permits a continuous scan of the entire coral skeleton. Another problem has been the lack of a carbonate standard which appears to be resolved with the creation of an artificial carbonate standard (USGS MAC-1). This standard is presently undergoing rigorous analysis, but preliminary results are very positive. The LA-ICP/MS data of three Atlantic corals reveals an intriguing distribution of trace metals and boron that may be related to climatic driven chemical changes during the last hundred years. The distribution of the trace metals appears to have an association with three climate signals: 1. the strength of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), 2. the local effects of El Nino in the Florida region and 3. change in oceanic chemistry, possibly due to rising CO2. Aluminum and titanium levels vary with the strength of the NAO. The highest concentrations occur at the time of strong positive NOA when there is large amount of sediment transported off the deserts of North Africa. This relationship is particularly strong in the coral from the Cape Verde Islands. Along the eastern seaboard of the Atlantic, the relationship is not as pronounced but still observable. Nutrients and anthropogenic trace metals, such as zinc, lead, and mercury appear to correlate with local conditions and show a weak correspondence to the El Nino as it affects south Florida. Boron variation is directly related to the high-density bands of the corals. The long-term record of boron concentrations in a coral collected at Looe Key shows an increase of approximately 25 percent from 1885 to a peak in the early 1970s. From the peak until 1983, the time of collection, boron decreases about 15 percent. Boron in the twenty-year record in the Cape Verde coral shows a similar decrease. Hemming and others (1986) found that the boron concentration and the heavy isotope of carbon, 13C are concentrated in the annual high-density bands. They proposed that this phenomenon is the result of the physiological processes leading to the precipitation of the carbonate structure. Assuming that the zooanthellae are driving the photosynthetic processes, the explanation of high boron and associated high δ13C is the result of increased primary productivity. As a result, 12C is preferentially utilized within the cell leaving the extracelluar fluids in the region between the basal ectoderm and exoskeleton enriched in 13C. In addition, this increased activity increases HCO3^{-} leading to the higher pH in these fluids. This increase in pH, favors an increase in the reactive species, B(OH)_{4}$-which leads to increased boron precipitation within the carbonate structure. If this model is correct, our data suggest that increases in boron reflect increases in photosynthesis from the 1800s till about 1970, then have slightly decreased.

  2. Association of abnormal hind-limb postures and back arch with gait abnormality in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, A C; Moore, D A; Vanegas, J; Wenz, J R

    2014-01-01

    Detection of lameness in individual cows is important for the prompt treatment of this painful and production-limiting disease. Current methods for lameness detection involve watching cows walk for several strides. If clinical signs predictive of lameness could be observed more conveniently, as cows are undergoing regularly scheduled examinations while standing, detection levels could increase. The objective of this study was to assess the association between postures observed while cows are standing in stanchions and clinical lameness evaluated by locomotion scoring, and to evaluate the observation of these postures as a test for lameness. The study included 1,243 cows from 4 farms. Cows were observed while standing in stanchions for regularly scheduled management procedures and the presence of arched back and cow-hocked, wide-stance, and favored-limb postures were recorded. The same cows were locomotion-scored as they exited the milking parlor. The proportion of cows observed with arched back and cow-hocked and favored-limb postures increased with increasing severity of lameness (higher locomotion score) but did not increase for the wide-stance posture. For the presence of these postures as a test for lameness (locomotion score ≥3), sensitivity and specificity were 0.63 and 0.64 for back arch, 0.54 and 0.57 for cow hocks, and 0.05 and 0.98 for favored limb. Back-arched, cow-hocked, and favored limb postures were associated with lameness but were not highly sensitive or specific as diagnostic tests. However, observation of back arch may be useful to identify cows needing further examination.

  3. Functional MMP-10 is required for efficient tissue repair after experimental hind limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Rodriguez, Violeta; Orbe, Josune; Martinez-Aguilar, Esther; Rodriguez, Jose A; Fernandez-Alonso, Leopoldo; Serneels, Jens; Bobadilla, Miriam; Perez-Ruiz, Ana; Collantes, Maria; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Paramo, Jose A; Roncal, Carmen

    2015-03-01

    We studied the role of matrix metalloproteinase-10 (MMP-10) during skeletal muscle repair after ischemia using a model of femoral artery excision in wild-type (WT) and MMP-10 deficient (Mmp10(-/-)) mice. Functional changes were analyzed by small animal positron emission tomography and tissue morphology by immunohistochemistry. Gene expression and protein analysis were used to study the molecular mechanisms governed by MMP-10 in hypoxia. Early after ischemia, MMP-10 deficiency resulted in delayed tissue reperfusion (10%, P < 0.01) and in increased necrosis (2-fold, P < 0.01), neutrophil (4-fold, P < 0.01), and macrophage (1.5-fold, P < 0.01) infiltration. These differences at early time points resulted in delayed myotube regeneration in Mmp10(-/-) soleus at later stages (regenerating myofibers: 30 ± 9% WT vs. 68 ± 10% Mmp10(-/-), P < 0.01). The injection of MMP-10 into Mmp10(-/-) mice rescued the observed phenotype. A molecular analysis revealed higher levels of Cxcl1 mRNA (10-fold, P < 0.05) and protein (30%) in the ischemic Mmp10(-/-) muscle resulting from a lack of transcriptional inhibition by MMP-10. This was further confirmed using siRNA against MMP-10 in vivo. Our results demonstrate an important role of MMP-10 for proper muscle repair after ischemia, and suggest that chemokine regulation such as Cxcl1 by MMP-10 is involved in muscle regeneration. © FASEB.

  4. Reloading partly recovers bone mineral density and mechanical properties in hind limb unloaded rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fan; Li, Dijie; Arfat, Yasir; Chen, Zhihao; Liu, Zonglin; Lin, Yu; Ding, Chong; Sun, Yulong; Hu, Lifang; Shang, Peng; Qian, Airong

    2014-12-01

    Skeletal unloading results in decreased bone formation and bone mass. During long-term space flight, the decreased bone mass is impossible to fully recover. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the effective countermeasures to prevent spaceflight-induced bone loss. Hindlimb Unloading (HLU) simulates effects of weightlessness and is utilized extensively to examine the response of musculoskeletal systems to certain aspects of space flight. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a 4-week HLU in rats and subsequent reloading on the bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties of load-bearing bones. After HLU for 4 weeks, the rats were then subjected to reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks, and then the BMD of the femur, tibia and lumbar spine in rats were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) every week. The mechanical properties of the femur were determined by three-point bending test. Dry bone and bone ash of femur were obtained through Oven-Drying method and were weighed respectively. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum calcium were examined through ELISA and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results showed that 4 weeks of HLU significantly decreased body weight of rats and reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks or 3 weeks did not recover the weight loss induced by HLU. However, after 2 weeks of reloading, BMD of femur and tibia of HLU rats partly recovered (+10.4%, +2.3%). After 3 weeks of reloading, the reduction of BMD, energy absorption, bone mass and mechanical properties of bone induced by HLU recovered to some extent. The changes in serum ALP and serum calcium induced by HLU were also recovered after reloading. Our results indicate that a short period of reloading could not completely recover bone after a period of unloading, thus some interventions such as mechanical vibration or pharmaceuticals are necessary to help bone recovery.

  5. The spatial organization of central sensitization of hind limb flexor reflexes in the decerebrated, spinalized rabbit.

    PubMed

    Clarke, R W; Harris, J

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the location of a noxious stimulus and the magnitude and duration of the plastic effects induced by that stimulus in withdrawal reflexes acting about the knee and the ankle, in rabbits. Reflexes were evoked in the nerves to the anterior tibial and semitendinosus flexor muscles by electrical stimulation at the toes. Repetitive, high intensity electrical stimulation of nerve trunks (sural, medial gastrocnemius, superficial peroneal, tibial, 100 pulses, 20 V, 1 ms at 0.5 Hz) was generally found to be a poor method for inducing central sensitization in these flexor reflexes. 'Natural' noxious stimulation induced more reliable enhancement of both reflexes. Mechanical (clamp) or chemical (mustard oil) stimulation of the heel induced prolonged (median duration >30 min) increases in reflexes to both muscles. Mechanical (clamp and superficial pinch) or chemical (mustard oil) stimulation of the toes, and injection of bradykinin into the gastrocnemius muscles or into the soft tissues of the sole of the foot, also led to enhancement of both reflexes, with the median duration of potentiation between 7 and 30 min. The effects obtained from deep tissue stimulation were generally weaker than those obtained after stimulation of superficial structures. These data show that there were no major differences in the effects obtained from the heel vs the toes, or between the two reflexes. It appears that the spatial organization of the spinal mechanisms underlying central sensitization of flexor withdrawal reflexes is rather more crudely drawn than that pertaining to the reflexes themselves. Furthermore, the data indicate that in the present preparation, afferents from deep tissues are no more effective in generating central sensitization than those from superficial structures.

  6. Study of Hind Limb Tissue Gas Phase Formation in Response to Suspended Adynamia and Hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Bruce D.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that reduced joint/muscle activity (hypo kinesia) as well as reduced or null loading of limbs (adynamia) in gravity would result in reduced decompression-induced gas phase and symptoms of decompression sickness (DCS). Finding a correlation between the two phenomena would correspond to the proposed reduction in tissue gas phase formation in astronauts undergoing decompression during extravehicular activity (EVA) in microgravity. The observation may further explain the reported low incidence of DCS in space.

  7. Effect of Endotoxin on Oxygen Consumption By a Flow-Controlled Canine Hind-Limb Preparation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    a reduction in the cardiac metabolic units of the periphery, (3) the red bloodq output and a widening of the central arteriovenous cell or...explained readily by the reduction in takeoff of the profunda femoris artery; the internal + SNum ber Volume 88 Effect of endotoxin on oxygen

  8. Hind brain agenesis a rare imaging findings in cerebro cerebellar lissencephalic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mundaganur, Praveen M; Solwalkar, Pradeep; Nimbal, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    A case report of cerebro cerebellar lissencephaly shows complete agenesis of cerebellum and brainstem which is rare imaging finding of group lissencephaly (type I lissencephaly). Though agenesis of cerebellum and brainstem were included in literature, in most of the cases we saw a hypoplasia or atrophy of cerebellum in lissencephaly syndrome. The CT scan findings of this patient shows features of lissencephaly with complete agenesis of brain stem and cerebellum associated with multiple congenital abnormalities.

  9. The Impact of Prophylactic Fasciotomy Following Porcine (Sus scrofa) Hind Limb Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-23

    the 14-day survival period to calculate the composite physiologic model of recovery ( PMR ). Necropsy was performed for evaluation of nerve and...muscle histology. Results: In hemorrhage alone, according to the PMR the recovery was 94+/-28%, 63+/- 37% and 55+/-44% at 0, 3 and 6 hours of ischemia...hours. , , . v w and compared to baseline to create the Physiologic Model of Recovery ( PMR ). On day 14, necropsy was performed and

  10. Effects of stretching and disuse on amino acids in muscles of rat hind limbs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaspers, Stephen R.; Henriksen, Erik J.; Satarug, Soisungwan; Tischler, Marc E.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of disuse and passive stretch on the concentrations of amino acids and ammonia in the unloaded soleus muscle was investigated in hindquarter-suspended (for six days by casting one foot in dorsiflexion) tail-casted rats. For a comparison with the condition of unloading, amino acids and ammonia were also measured in shortened extensor digitorum longus in the same casted limb and in denervated leg muscles. The results obtained suggest that passive stretch diminishes some of the characteristic alterations of amino acid concentrations due to unloading. This effect of stretch is considered to be due to the maintenance of muscle tension.

  11. Development and Training of a Neural Controller for Hind Leg Walking in a Dog Robot

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Alexander; Szczecinski, Nicholas; Quinn, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Animals dynamically adapt to varying terrain and small perturbations with remarkable ease. These adaptations arise from complex interactions between the environment and biomechanical and neural components of the animal's body and nervous system. Research into mammalian locomotion has resulted in several neural and neuro-mechanical models, some of which have been tested in simulation, but few “synthetic nervous systems” have been implemented in physical hardware models of animal systems. One reason is that the implementation into a physical system is not straightforward. For example, it is difficult to make robotic actuators and sensors that model those in the animal. Therefore, even if the sensorimotor circuits were known in great detail, those parameters would not be applicable and new parameter values must be found for the network in the robotic model of the animal. This manuscript demonstrates an automatic method for setting parameter values in a synthetic nervous system composed of non-spiking leaky integrator neuron models. This method works by first using a model of the system to determine required motor neuron activations to produce stable walking. Parameters in the neural system are then tuned systematically such that it produces similar activations to the desired pattern determined using expected sensory feedback. We demonstrate that the developed method successfully produces adaptive locomotion in the rear legs of a dog-like robot actuated by artificial muscles. Furthermore, the results support the validity of current models of mammalian locomotion. This research will serve as a basis for testing more complex locomotion controllers and for testing specific sensory pathways and biomechanical designs. Additionally, the developed method can be used to automatically adapt the neural controller for different mechanical designs such that it could be used to control different robotic systems. PMID:28420977

  12. Response of lymphatics of canine hind limb to sympathetic nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Browse, N L

    1968-07-01

    1. The changes in lymphatic pressure in a limb whose circulation was temporarily arrested with a pneumatic cuff have been studied.2. Stimulation of the lumbar sympathetic chain caused an increase in lymphatic pressure. It has been shown that this is a primary not a secondary phenomenon, due to an active lymphomotor mechanism.3. The increase of lymphatic tone is proportional to the rate of stimulation; peak values are reached between 5 and 9 impulses/sec.

  13. Capillary-to-fiber ratio of hind limb muscles in the male Syrian golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Swisher, Anne K; Alway, Stephen E; Yeater, Rachel

    2004-04-01

    The hamster has been the accepted model of emphysema since the 1970s, demonstrating disease-related effects on respiratory skeletal muscle. However, there is scant information available about the model's ability to replicate the peripheral skeletal muscle changes seen in human disease, such as alterations in capillarity. The present study described the capillary-to-fiber ratio (C/F) of normal hamster plantaris, gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles in eight animals. C/F was 1.72 +/- 0.38 for plantaris, 1.95 +/- 0.40 for gastrocnemius, and 2.22 +/- 0.43 for soleus. C/F of soleus was significantly greater (P < 0.01) than plantaris. The C/F of hamster hindlimb muscles varies from those seen in rat species, and having baseline data on hamsters makes it possible to determine the effects of emphysema on C/F in this model.

  14. Angiogenesis effect of therapeutic ultrasound on ischemic hind limb in mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jing-Juan; Shi, Yi-Qin; Li, Rui-Lin; Hu, An; Zhou, Hong-Sheng; Cheng, Qian; Xu, Zheng; Yang, Zhi-Ming; Hao, Chang-Ning; Duan, Jun-Li

    2014-01-01

    Although significant progress in bypass surgery and catheter intervention against peripheral artery disease, the number of severe critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients is increasing. Thus, it is crucial to develop new, non-invasive therapeutic strategies. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism of therapeutic ultrasound (TUS) on ischemic angiogenesis using mouse model of hindlimb ischemia and the cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying TUS-related neovascularization. The hindlimb ischemic mice were exposed to extracorporeal TUS for 3, 6, 9 minute per day (1 MHz, 0.3 W/cm2) until day 14 after left femoral artery ligation. Increased blood perfusion and capillary density were determined following 9 min of TUS compared with ischemic group. Moreover, TUS treatment increased the protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxic inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and p-Akt in vivo. TUS promoted capillary-like tube formation, migration and motility of human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs). Furthermore, the protein expressions of VEGF, eNOS and p-Akt were increased after TUS treatment. In conclusion, TUS therapy promotes postnatal neovascularization through multiple angiogenic pathways in mice model of ischemic hindlimb. PMID:25628781

  15. Hind Limb Unloading Model Alters Nuclear Factor kappa B and Activator Protein-1 Signaling in Mouse Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Govindarajan; Vani, Vani; Renard, Renard; Vera, Vera; Wilosn, Wilosn; Ramesh, Govindarajan

    Microgravity induces inflammatory response and also modulates immune functions, which may increase oxidative stress. Exposure to the microgravity environment induces adverse neurological effects. However, there is little research exploring the etiology of neurological effects of exposure to this environment. To explore this area we evaluated changes in Nuclear Factor kappa B, Activator Protein 1, MAPP kinase and N terminal c-Jun kinase in mouse brain exposed to a simulated microgravity environment using the hindlimb unloading model. BALB/c male mice were randomly assigned to hindlimb unloading group (n=12) and control group (n=12) to simulate a microgravity environment, for 7 days. Changes observed in NF-κB, AP- 1 DNA binding, MAPKK and N terminal c-Jun kinase were measured using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and western blot analysis and compared to unexposed brain regions. Hindlimb unloading exposed mice showed significant increases in generated NF-κB, AP-1, MAPKK and Kinase in all regions of the brain exposed to hindlimb unloading as compared to the control brain regions. Results suggest that exposure to simulated microgravity can induce expression of certain transcription factors and protein kinases. This work was supported by funding from NASA NCC 9-165. 504b030414000600080000002100828abc13fa0000001c020000130000005b436f6e74656e745f54797065735d2e78

  16. Improvement of the aerodynamic performance by wing flexibility and elytra–hind wing interaction of a beetle during forward flight

    PubMed Central

    Le, Tuyen Quang; Truong, Tien Van; Park, Soo Hyung; Quang Truong, Tri; Ko, Jin Hwan; Park, Hoon Cheol; Byun, Doyoung

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the aerodynamic performance of beetle wing in free-forward flight was explored by a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) simulation with measured wing kinematics. It is shown from the CFD results that twist and camber variation, which represent the wing flexibility, are most important when determining the aerodynamic performance. Twisting wing significantly increased the mean lift and camber variation enhanced the mean thrust while the required power was lower than the case when neither was considered. Thus, in a comparison of the power economy among rigid, twisting and flexible models, the flexible model showed the best performance. When the positive effect of wing interaction was added to that of wing flexibility, we found that the elytron created enough lift to support its weight, and the total lift (48.4 mN) generated from the simulation exceeded the gravity force of the beetle (47.5 mN) during forward flight. PMID:23740486

  17. Proteomic analysis of fibroblastema formation in regenerating hind limbs of Xenopus laevis froglets and comparison to axolotl

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To gain insight into what differences might restrict the capacity for limb regeneration in Xenopus froglets, we used High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)/double mass spectrometry to characterize protein expression during fibroblastema formation in the amputated froglet hindlimb, and compared the results to those obtained previously for blastema formation in the axolotl limb. Results Comparison of the Xenopus fibroblastema and axolotl blastema revealed several similarities and significant differences in proteomic profiles. The most significant similarity was the strong parallel down regulation of muscle proteins and enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Regenerating Xenopus limbs differed significantly from axolotl regenerating limbs in several ways: deficiency in the inositol phosphate/diacylglycerol signaling pathway, down regulation of Wnt signaling, up regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and proteins involved in chondrocyte differentiation, lack of expression of a key cell cycle protein, ecotropic viral integration site 5 (EVI5), that blocks mitosis in the axolotl, and the expression of several patterning proteins not seen in the axolotl that may dorsalize the fibroblastema. Conclusions We have characterized global protein expression during fibroblastema formation after amputation of the Xenopus froglet hindlimb and identified several differences that lead to signaling deficiency, failure to retard mitosis, premature chondrocyte differentiation, and failure of dorsoventral axial asymmetry. These differences point to possible interventions to improve blastema formation and pattern formation in the froglet limb. PMID:25063185

  18. Anatomical organization of the spinal paths to the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of the rat hind limb.

    PubMed

    Tredici, G; Migliorini, C; Barajon, I; Cavaletti, G; Cece, R

    1996-01-01

    The anatomical organization of the motoneuronal columns of the soleus and lateral gastrocnemius muscle and of the related premotor interneurons was studied in rats, using the retrograde transneuronal transport of WGA-HRP. Motoneurons of the gastrocnemius muscle have a well-developed dendritic arborization which spreads into the transverse plane of the spinal cord extending to the intermediate region of the grey matter, while dendrites of the soleus muscle motoneurons spread mainly in the rosto-caudal plane, where they remain inside the border of the motoneuronal column and form small dendritic bundles, suggesting a coupling of neuronal activity as is to be expected in the motoneurons of a tonically active postural muscle such as the soleus. Gastrocnemial premotor interneurons are located close to the motoneuronal column, while the soleus premotor interneurons are scattered all over the ventral horn and intermediate grey. The number of labelled premotor interneurons is greater when the WGA-HRP is injected into the soleus muscle. In both cases, the premotor interneurons could be classified as four different types on the basis of the shape and size of the neuronal somata. The differences in the anatomical organization of the spinal paths to the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles reflect the different tasks performed by these two synergic muscles in normal motor behaviour: fast phasic activity by the gastrocnemius muscle, slow tonic anti-gravity activity by the soleus muscle.

  19. Hind-Casting the Quantity and Composition of Discards by Mixed Demersal Fisheries in the North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Michael R.; Cook, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    Many commercial fisheries seek to maximise the economic value of the catch that they bring ashore and market for human consumption by discarding undersize or low value fish. Information on the quantity, size and species composition of discarded fish is vital for stock assessments and for devising legislation to minimise the practice. However, except for a few major species, data are usually extremely sparse and reliant on observers aboard a small sample of fishing vessels. Expanding these data to estimate total regional discards is highly problematic. Here, we develop a method for utilising additional information from scientific trawl surveys to model the quantities of fish discarded by the commercial fisheries. As a case-study, we apply the model to the North Sea over the period 1978-2011, and show a long-term decline in the overall quantity of fish discarded, but an increase in the proportion of catch which is thrown away. The composition of discarded catch has shifted from predominantly (∼80%) roundfish, to >50% flatfish. Undersized plaice constitute the largest single fraction of discards, unchanged from the beginning of the 20th century. Overall, around 60% of discarded fish are rejected on the basis of size rather than for reasons of species value or quota restrictions. The analysis shows that much more information can be gained on discarding by utilising additional sources of data rather than relying solely on information gathered by observers. In addition, it is clear that reducing fishing intensity and rebuilding stocks is likely to be more effective at reducing discards in the long term, than any technical legislation to outlaw the practice in the short term. PMID:25774938

  20. Correlative Imaging of the Murine Hind Limb Vasculature and Muscle Tissue by MicroCT and Light Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Schaad, Laura; Hlushchuk, Ruslan; Barré, Sébastien; Gianni-Barrera, Roberto; Haberthür, David; Banfi, Andrea; Djonov, Valentin

    2017-01-01

    A detailed vascular visualization and adequate quantification is essential for the proper assessment of novel angiomodulating strategies. Here, we introduce an ex vivo micro-computed tomography (microCT)-based imaging approach for the 3D visualization of the entire vasculature down to the capillary level and rapid estimation of the vascular volume and vessel size distribution. After perfusion with μAngiofil®, a novel polymerizing contrast agent, low- and high-resolution scans (voxel side length: 2.58–0.66 μm) of the entire vasculature were acquired. Based on the microCT data, sites of interest were defined and samples further processed for correlative morphology. The solidified, autofluorescent μAngiofil® remained in the vasculature and allowed co-registering of the histological sections with the corresponding microCT-stack. The perfusion efficiency of μAngiofil® was validated based on lectin-stained histological sections: 98 ± 0.5% of the blood vessels were μAngiofil®-positive, whereas 93 ± 2.6% were lectin-positive. By applying this approach we analyzed the angiogenesis induced by the cell-based delivery of a controlled VEGF dose. Vascular density increased by 426% mainly through the augmentation of medium-sized vessels (20–40 μm). The introduced correlative and quantitative imaging approach is highly reproducible and allows a detailed 3D characterization of the vasculature and muscle tissue. Combined with histology, a broad range of complementary structural information can be obtained. PMID:28169309

  1. Passive Exercise of the Hind Limbs after Complete Thoracic Transection of the Spinal Cord Promotes Cortical Reorganization

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Eric B.; Shumsky, Jed; Moxon, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    Physical exercise promotes neural plasticity in the brain of healthy subjects and modulates pathophysiological neural plasticity after sensorimotor loss, but the mechanisms of this action are not fully understood. After spinal cord injury, cortical reorganization can be maximized by exercising the non-affected body or the residual functions of the affected body. However, exercise per se also produces systemic changes – such as increased cardiovascular fitness, improved circulation and neuroendocrine changes – that have a great impact on brain function and plasticity. It is therefore possible that passive exercise therapies typically applied below the level of the lesion in patients with spinal cord injury could put the brain in a more plastic state and promote cortical reorganization. To directly test this hypothesis, we applied passive hindlimb bike exercise after complete thoracic transection of the spinal cord in adult rats. Using western blot analysis, we found that the level of proteins associated with plasticity – specifically ADCY1 and BDNF – increased in the somatosensory cortex of transected animals that received passive bike exercise compared to transected animals that received sham exercise. Using electrophysiological techniques, we then verified that neurons in the deafferented hindlimb cortex increased their responsiveness to tactile stimuli delivered to the forelimb in transected animals that received passive bike exercise compared to transected animals that received sham exercise. Passive exercise below the level of the lesion, therefore, promotes cortical reorganization after spinal cord injury, uncovering a brain-body interaction that does not rely on intact sensorimotor pathways connecting the exercised body parts and the brain. PMID:23349859

  2. Hind-casting the quantity and composition of discards by mixed demersal fisheries in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Heath, Michael R; Cook, Robin M

    2015-01-01

    Many commercial fisheries seek to maximise the economic value of the catch that they bring ashore and market for human consumption by discarding undersize or low value fish. Information on the quantity, size and species composition of discarded fish is vital for stock assessments and for devising legislation to minimise the practice. However, except for a few major species, data are usually extremely sparse and reliant on observers aboard a small sample of fishing vessels. Expanding these data to estimate total regional discards is highly problematic. Here, we develop a method for utilising additional information from scientific trawl surveys to model the quantities of fish discarded by the commercial fisheries. As a case-study, we apply the model to the North Sea over the period 1978-2011, and show a long-term decline in the overall quantity of fish discarded, but an increase in the proportion of catch which is thrown away. The composition of discarded catch has shifted from predominantly (∼80%) roundfish, to >50% flatfish. Undersized plaice constitute the largest single fraction of discards, unchanged from the beginning of the 20th century. Overall, around 60% of discarded fish are rejected on the basis of size rather than for reasons of species value or quota restrictions. The analysis shows that much more information can be gained on discarding by utilising additional sources of data rather than relying solely on information gathered by observers. In addition, it is clear that reducing fishing intensity and rebuilding stocks is likely to be more effective at reducing discards in the long term, than any technical legislation to outlaw the practice in the short term.

  3. Consumption of antimicrobial manuka honey does not significantly perturb the microbiota in the hind gut of mice

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Christine A.; de Guzman, Cloe Erika; Maddox, Ian S.; Martell, Sheridan; McIntyre, Lynn; Skinner, Margot A.; Dinnan, Hannah; Ansell, Juliet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that consuming manuka honey, which contains antimicrobial methylglyoxal, may affect the gut microbiota. We undertook a mouse feeding study to investigate whether dietary manuka honey supplementation altered microbial numbers and their production of organic acid products from carbohydrate fermentation, which are markers of gut microbiota function. The caecum of C57BL/6 mice fed a diet supplemented with antimicrobial UMF® 20+ manuka honey at 2.2 g/kg animal did not show any significantly changed concentrations of microbial short chain fatty acids as measured by gas chromatography, except for increased formate and lowered succinate organic acid concentrations, compared to mice fed a control diet. There was no change in succinate-producing Bacteroidetes numbers, or honey-utilising Bifidobacteria, nor any other microbes measured by real time quantitative PCR. These results suggest that, despite the antimicrobial activity of the original honey, consumption of manuka honey only mildly affects substrate metabolism by the gut microbiota. PMID:28028466

  4. Immediate and long-term transcriptional response of hind muscle tissue to transient variation of incubation temperature in broilers.

    PubMed

    Naraballobh, Watcharapong; Trakooljul, Nares; Muráni, Eduard; Brunner, Ronald; Krischek, Carsten; Janisch, Sabine; Wicke, Michael; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

    2016-05-04

    In oviparous species accidental variation of incubation temperatures may occur under natural conditions and mechanisms may have evolved by natural selection that facilitate coping with these stressors. However, under controlled artificial incubation modification of egg incubation temperature has been shown to have a wide-ranging impact on post-hatch development in several poultry species. Because developmental changes initiated in-ovo can affect poultry production, understanding the molecular routes and epigenetic alterations induced by incubation temperature differences may allow targeted modification of phenotypes. In order to identify molecular pathways responsive to variable incubation temperature, broiler eggs were incubated at a lower or higher temperature (36.8 °C, 38.8 °C) relative to control (37.8 °C) over two developmental intervals, embryonic days (E) 7-10 and 10-13. Global gene expression of M. gastrocnemius was assayed at E10, E13, and slaughter age [post-hatch day (D) 35] (6 groups; 3 time points; 8 animals each) by microarray analysis and treated samples were compared to controls within each time point. Transcript abundance differed for between 113 and 738 genes, depending on treatment group, compared to the respective control. In particular, higher incubation temperature during E7-10 immediately affected pathways involved in energy and lipid metabolism, cell signaling, and muscle development more so than did other conditions. But lower incubation temperature during E10-13 affected pathways related to cellular function and growth, and development of organ, tissue, and muscle as well as nutrient metabolism pathways at D35. Shifts in incubation temperature provoke specific immediate and long-term transcriptional responses. Further, the transcriptional response to lower incubation temperature, which did not affect the phenotypes, mediates compensatory effects reflecting adaptability. In contrast, higher incubation temperature triggers gene expression and has long-term effects on the phenotype, reflecting considerable phenotypic plasticity.

  5. Effect of prolonged ischaemic time on muscular atrophy and regenerating nerve fibres in transplantation of the rat hind limb.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Naoko; Yamashita, Shuji; Sugawara, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2012-09-01

    Our aim was to test the influence of cold ischaemia on replanted limbs, focusing on muscular atrophy and neurological recovery. Inbred wild-type and green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic (Tg) Lewis rats aged 8-10 weeks were used. The amputated limbs were transplanted at several cold ischaemic times (0, 1, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours). An arterial ischaemic model and a denervation model were used as controls. To study nerve regeneration, a GFP limb was transplanted on to the syngenic wild Lewis rat. These animals were evaluated histologically, electrophysiologically, and immunohistochemically. The longer the ischaemic time, the more evident was atrophy of the muscles. Electrophysiological investigation showed that the latency at 3 weeks was longer in the transplantation models than in the normal controls, particularly in the longer ischaemia group. Larger numbers of migrating Schwann cells were seen in the group with no delay than in the group that had been preserved for 12 hours. Ischaemia after amputation of a limb causes muscle cells to necrose and atrophy, and these changes worsen in proportion to the ischaemic preservation time. A delay in nerve regeneration and incomplete paralysis caused by malregeneration also affect muscular atrophy.

  6. 77 FR 25687 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Speckled Hind as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range, and ``threatened'' if it is likely to become..., if a reasonable person would conclude that the unknown information itself suggests an extinction risk... evaluate whether the information indicates that the species at issue faces extinction risk that is cause...

  7. Effects of ovariectomy on the changes in microarchitecture and material level properties in response to hind leg disuse in female rats.

    PubMed

    Maïmoun, Laurent; Brennan-Speranza, Tara C; Rizzoli, René; Ammann, Patrick

    2012-09-01

    Ovariectomy (OVX) and immobilization are known to decrease bone mineral density and alter its microarchitecture. Their effects on the material level properties of bone, a determinant of bone strength, are still largely unknown. We investigated the effect of OVX and/or disuse achieved by sciatic neurectomy (NX) in 6-month-old Sprague Dawley female rats. At baseline, animals underwent OVX or sham operation. At week 16, NX was performed on the left hindlimb while the right hindlimb was sham-operated. All animals were sacrificed at week 40. Proximal tibiae and vertebral bodies (L4) were evaluated by micro-computed tomographic morphometry (μCT). Material level properties (elastic modulus, hardness, and dissipated energy) were evaluated by a nanoindentation test. At the proximal tibia, OVX and NX decreased relative bone volume, the former mainly through a reduction in trabecular number, and the latter through a decrease in trabecular thickness. NX decreased modulus (-10%; p<0.001) and dissipated energy (-13.3%, p<0.001) in cortical bone, and modulus (-16.8%, p=0.004), hardness (-29.3%, p=0.004), and dissipated energy (-17.7%, p=0.01) in trabecular bone, while OVX decreased cortical bone dissipated energy (-14.6%, p<0.001) and trabecular bone hardness (-19.4%, p=0.05). In the vertebral body, OVX altered mainly the trabecular microarchitecture and nanoindentation variables. These results show that NX with and without OVX markedly alter material level properties in addition to an alteration of bone microarchitecture, although not in the same manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate reduces myonuclear apoptosis during recovery from hind limb suspension-induced muscle fiber atrophy in aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yanlei; Jackson, Janna R.; Wang, Yan; Edens, Neile; Pereira, Suzette L.

    2011-01-01

    β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a leucine metabolite shown to reduce protein catabolism in disease states and promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to loading exercise. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of HMB to reduce muscle wasting and promote muscle recovery following disuse in aged animals. Fisher 344×Brown Norway rats, 34 mo of age, were randomly assigned to receive either Ca-HMB (340 mg/kg body wt) or the water vehicle by gavage (n = 32/group). The animals received either 14 days of hindlimb suspension (HS, n = 8/diet group) or 14 days of unloading followed by 14 days of reloading (R; n = 8/diet group). Nonsuspended control animals were compared with suspended animals after 14 days of HS (n = 8) or after R (n = 8). HMB treatment prevented the decline in maximal in vivo isometric force output after 2 wk of recovery from hindlimb unloading. The HMB-treated animals had significantly greater plantaris and soleus fiber cross-sectional area compared with the vehicle-treated animals. HMB decreased the amount of TUNEL-positive nuclei in reloaded plantaris muscles (5.1% vs. 1.6%, P < 0.05) and soleus muscles (3.9% vs. 1.8%, P < 0.05). Although HMB did not significantly alter Bcl-2 protein abundance compared with vehicle treatment, HMB decreased Bax protein abundance following R, by 40% and 14% (P < 0.05) in plantaris and soleus muscles, respectively. Cleaved caspase-3 was reduced by 12% and 9% (P < 0.05) in HMB-treated reloaded plantaris and soleus muscles, compared with vehicle-treated animals. HMB reduced cleaved caspase-9 by 14% and 30% (P < 0.05) in reloaded plantaris and soleus muscles, respectively, compared with vehicle-treated animals. Although, HMB was unable to prevent unloading-induced atrophy, it attenuated the decrease in fiber area in fast and slow muscles after HS and R. HMB's ability to protect against muscle loss may be due in part to putative inhibition of myonuclear apoptosis via regulation of mitochondrial-associated caspase signaling. PMID:21697520

  9. Fatty liver accompanies an increase in Lactobacillus species in the hind gut of C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High-fat diets can produce obesity and have been linked to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). They have also been shown to induce changes in the gut microbiome, metabolic products of which have also been linked to NAFLD. This study tested the hypothesis that high-fat fee...

  10. Colonic inflammation and enhanced-beta-catenin signaling accompany an increase of the Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae in the hind gut of high-fat diet-fed mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumption of an obesigenic / high-fat (HF) diet is associated with a high colon cancer risk, and may alter the gut microbiota. To test the hypothesis that a HF feeding accelerates inflammatory process and changes gut microbiome composition, C57BL/6 mice were fed a HF (45% energy) or low-fat (LF) (...

  11. Colonic inflammation and enhanced-beta-catenin signaling accompany an increase of the Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae in the hind gut of high-fat diet-fed mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumption of an obesigenic / high-fat (HF) diet is associated with an increase of inflammation-related colon cancer risk and may alter the gut microbiota. To test the hypothesis that a HF feeding accelerates inflammatory processes and changes gut microbiome composition, C57BL/6 mice were fed a HF ...

  12. Mice Hemizygous for a Pathogenic Mitofusin-2 Allele Exhibit Hind Limb/Foot Gait Deficits and Phenotypic Perturbations in Nerve and Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Bannerman, Peter; Burns, Travis; Xu, Jie; Miers, Laird; Pleasure, David

    2016-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A (CMT2A), the most common axonal form of hereditary sensory motor neuropathy, is caused by mutations of mitofusin-2 (MFN2). Mitofusin-2 is a GTPase required for fusion of mitochondrial outer membranes, repair of damaged mitochondria, efficient mitochondrial energetics, regulation of mitochondrial-endoplasmic reticulum calcium coupling and axonal transport of mitochondria. We knocked T105M MFN2 preceded by a loxP-flanked STOP sequence into the mouse Rosa26 locus to permit cell type-specific expression of this pathogenic allele. Crossing these mice with nestin-Cre transgenic mice elicited T105M MFN2 expression in neuroectoderm, and resulted in diminished numbers of mitochondria in peripheral nerve axons, an alteration in skeletal muscle fiber type distribution, and a gait abnormality. PMID:27907123

  13. Right atrial stretch alters fore- and hind-brain expression of c-fos and inhibits the rapid onset of salt appetite

    PubMed Central

    De Gobbi, Juliana Irani Fratucci; Menani, Jose Vanderlei; Beltz, Terry G; Johnson, Ralph F; Thunhorst, Robert L; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-01-01

    The inflation of an intravascular balloon positioned at the superior vena cava and right atrial junction (SVC-RAJ) reduces sodium or water intake induced by various experimental procedures (e.g. sodium depletion; hypovolaemia). In the present study we investigated if the stretch induced by a balloon at this site inhibits a rapid onset salt appetite, and if this procedure modifies the pattern of immunohistochemical labelling for Fos protein (Fos-ir) in the brain. Male Sprague–Dawley rats with SVC-RAJ balloons received a combined treatment of furosemide (Furo; 10 mg (kg bw)−1) plus a low dose of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (Cap; 5 mg (kg bw)−1). Balloon inflation greatly decreased the intake of 0.3 m NaCl for as long as the balloon was inflated. Balloon inflation over a 3 h period following Furo–Cap treatment decreased Fos-ir in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and the subfornical organ and increased Fos-ir in the lateral parabrachial nucleus and caudal ventrolateral medulla. The effect of balloon inflation was specific for sodium intake because it did not affect the drinking of diluted sweetened condensed milk. Balloon inflation and deflation also did not acutely change mean arterial pressure. These results suggest that activity in forebrain circumventricular organs and in hindbrain putative body fluid/cardiovascular regulatory regions is affected by loading low pressure mechanoreceptors at the SVC-RAJ, a manipulation that also attenuates salt appetite. PMID:18556369

  14. Low-Level Laser Therapy (904 nm) Counteracts Motor Deficit of Mice Hind Limb following Skeletal Muscle Injury Caused by Snakebite-Mimicking Intramuscular Venom Injection

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Willians Fernando; Kenzo-Kagawa, Bruno; Cogo, José Carlos; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice

    2016-01-01

    Myotoxins present in Bothrops venom disrupt the sarcolemma of muscle fibers leading to the release of sarcoplasmic proteins and loss of muscle homeostasis. Myonecrosis and tissue anoxia induced by vascularization impairment can lead to amputation or motor functional deficit. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamic behavior of motor function in mice subjected to injection of Bothrops jararacussu venom (Bjssu) and exposed to low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Male Swiss mice received Bjssu injection (830 μg/kg) into the medial portion of the right gastrocnemius muscle. Three hours later the injected region was irradiated with diode semiconductor Gallium Arsenide (GaAs– 904 nm, 4 J/cm²) laser following by irradiation at 24, 48 and 72 hours. Saline injection (0.9% NaCl) was used as control. Gait analysis was performed 24 hours before Bjssu injection and at every period post-Bjssu using CatWalk method. Data from spatiotemporal parameters Stand, Maximum Intensity, Swing, Swing Speed, Stride Length and Step Cycle were considered. The period of 3 hours post venom-induced injury was considered critical for all parameters evaluated in the right hindlimb. Differences (p<0.05) were concentrated in venom and venom + placebo laser groups during the 3 hours post-injury period, in which the values of stand of most animals were null. After this period, the gait characteristics were re-established for all parameters. The venom + laser group kept the values at 3 hours post-Bjssu equal to that at 24 hours before Bjssu injection indicating that the GaAs laser therapy improved spatially and temporally gait parameters at the critical injury period caused by Bjssu. This is the first study to analyze with cutting edge technology the gait functional deficits caused by snake envenoming and gait gains produced by GaAs laser irradiation. In this sense, the study fills a gap on the field of motor function after laser treatment following snake envenoming. PMID:27392016

  15. Experimental measurements of the temperature variation along artery-vein pairs from 200 to 1000 microns diameter in rat hind limb.

    PubMed

    He, Qinghong; Zhu, Liang; Lemons, Daniel E; Weinbaum, Sheldon

    2002-12-01

    Theoretical studies have indicated that a significant fraction of all blood-tissue heat transfer occurs in artery-vein pairs whose arterial diameter varies between 200 and 1000 microns. In this study, we have developed a new in vivo technique in which it is possible to make the first direct measurements of the countercurrent thermal equilibration that occurs along thermally significant vessels of this size. Fine wire thermocouples were attached by superglue to the femoral arteries and veins and their subsequent branches in rats and the axial temperature variation in each vessel was measured under different physiological conditions. Unlike the blood vessels < 200 microns in diameter, where the blood rapidly equilibrates with the surrounding tissue, we found that the thermal equilibration length of blood vessels between 200 microns and 1000 microns in diameter is longer than or at least equivalent to the vessel length. It is shown that the axial arterial temperature decays from 44% to 76% of the total core-skin temperature difference along blood vessels of this size, and this decay depends strongly on the local blood perfusion rate and the vascular geometry. Our experimental measurements also showed that the SAV venous blood recaptured up to 41% of the total heat released from its countercurrent artery under normal conditions. The contribution of countercurrent heat exchange is significantly reduced in these larger thermally significant vessels for hyperemic conditions as predicted by previous theoretical analyses. Results from this study, when combined with previous analyses of vessel pairs less than 200 microns diameter, enable one estimate the arterial supply temperature and the correction coefficient in the modified perfusion source term developed by the authors.

  16. Serving Students with Significant Disabilities in Two-Year Colleges: Services for the Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing, Hinds Community College, Raymond, MS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gugerty, John, Ed.; Knutsen, Caryl, Ed.

    This report is an outcome of a project designed to seek, screen, evaluate, describe, and disseminate highly effective approaches used by two-year colleges to serve students with significant disabilities. "Two-year colleges" included academic institutions, technical colleges, and vocational institutes. From a pool of 18 applicants, the project made…

  17. Anti-inflammatory effect of bee pollen ethanol extract from Cistus sp. of Spanish on carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bee pollen, a honeybee product, is the feed for honeybees prepared themselves by pollens collecting from plants and has been consumed as a perfect food in Europe, because it is nutritionally well balanced. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of bee pollen from Cistus sp. of Spanish origin by a method of carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, and to investigate the mechanism of anti-inflammatory action and also to elucidate components involved in bee pollen extracted with ethanol. Methods The bee pollen bulk, its water extract and its ethanol extract were administered orally to rats. One hour later, paw edema was produced by injecting of 1% solution of carrageenan, and paw volume was measured before and after carrageenan injection up to 5 h. The ethanol extract and water extract were measured COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activities using COX inhibitor screening assay kit, and were compared for the inhibition of NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The constituents of bee pollen were purified from the ethanol extract subjected to silica gel or LH-20 column chromatography. Each column chromatography fractions were further purified by repeated ODS or silica gel column chromatography. Results The bee pollen bulk mildly suppressed the carrageenan-induced paw edema and the water extract showed almost no inhibitory activity, but the ethanol extract showed relatively strong inhibition of paw edema. The ethanol extract inhibited the NO production and COX-2 but not COX-1 activity, but the water extract did not affect the NO production or COX activities. Flavonoids were isolated and purified from the ethanol extract of bee pollen, and identified at least five flavonoids and their glycosides. Conclusions It is suggested that the ethanol extract of bee pollen show a potent anti-inflammatory activity and its effect acts via the inhibition of NO production, besides the inhibitory activity of COX-2. Some flavonoids included in bee pollen may partly participate in some of the anti-inflammatory action. The bee pollen would be beneficial not only as a dietary supplement but also as a functional food. PMID:20573205

  18. Anti-inflammatory effect of bee pollen ethanol extract from Cistus sp. of Spanish on carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Hiroe; Sakamoto, Takashi; Araki, Yoko; Hara, Hideaki

    2010-06-23

    Bee pollen, a honeybee product, is the feed for honeybees prepared themselves by pollens collecting from plants and has been consumed as a perfect food in Europe, because it is nutritionally well balanced. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of bee pollen from Cistus sp. of Spanish origin by a method of carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, and to investigate the mechanism of anti-inflammatory action and also to elucidate components involved in bee pollen extracted with ethanol. The bee pollen bulk, its water extract and its ethanol extract were administered orally to rats. One hour later, paw edema was produced by injecting of 1% solution of carrageenan, and paw volume was measured before and after carrageenan injection up to 5 h. The ethanol extract and water extract were measured COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activities using COX inhibitor screening assay kit, and were compared for the inhibition of NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The constituents of bee pollen were purified from the ethanol extract subjected to silica gel or LH-20 column chromatography. Each column chromatography fractions were further purified by repeated ODS or silica gel column chromatography. The bee pollen bulk mildly suppressed the carrageenan-induced paw edema and the water extract showed almost no inhibitory activity, but the ethanol extract showed relatively strong inhibition of paw edema. The ethanol extract inhibited the NO production and COX-2 but not COX-1 activity, but the water extract did not affect the NO production or COX activities. Flavonoids were isolated and purified from the ethanol extract of bee pollen, and identified at least five flavonoids and their glycosides. It is suggested that the ethanol extract of bee pollen show a potent anti-inflammatory activity and its effect acts via the inhibition of NO production, besides the inhibitory activity of COX-2. Some flavonoids included in bee pollen may partly participate in some of the anti-inflammatory action. The bee pollen would be beneficial not only as a dietary supplement but also as a functional food.

  19. Possible living flea beetle fossil in Bolivia: A new genus of flea beetles with modified hind legs (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new genus (Chanealtica) with three new species (C. cuevas, C. ellimon, and C. maxi) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is compared with Aphthonoides Jacoby 1885, Argopistes Motschulsky 1860, Metroserrapha Bechyne 1958, Psylliodes Berthold 1827 and Psyllototus Nadein 2010. Remarkably, ba...

  20. Low-Level Laser Therapy (904 nm) Counteracts Motor Deficit of Mice Hind Limb following Skeletal Muscle Injury Caused by Snakebite-Mimicking Intramuscular Venom Injection.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Willians Fernando; Kenzo-Kagawa, Bruno; Cogo, José Carlos; Baranauskas, Vitor; Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice da

    2016-01-01

    Myotoxins present in Bothrops venom disrupt the sarcolemma of muscle fibers leading to the release of sarcoplasmic proteins and loss of muscle homeostasis. Myonecrosis and tissue anoxia induced by vascularization impairment can lead to amputation or motor functional deficit. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamic behavior of motor function in mice subjected to injection of Bothrops jararacussu venom (Bjssu) and exposed to low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Male Swiss mice received Bjssu injection (830 μg/kg) into the medial portion of the right gastrocnemius muscle. Three hours later the injected region was irradiated with diode semiconductor Gallium Arsenide (GaAs- 904 nm, 4 J/cm²) laser following by irradiation at 24, 48 and 72 hours. Saline injection (0.9% NaCl) was used as control. Gait analysis was performed 24 hours before Bjssu injection and at every period post-Bjssu using CatWalk method. Data from spatiotemporal parameters Stand, Maximum Intensity, Swing, Swing Speed, Stride Length and Step Cycle were considered. The period of 3 hours post venom-induced injury was considered critical for all parameters evaluated in the right hindlimb. Differences (p<0.05) were concentrated in venom and venom + placebo laser groups during the 3 hours post-injury period, in which the values of stand of most animals were null. After this period, the gait characteristics were re-established for all parameters. The venom + laser group kept the values at 3 hours post-Bjssu equal to that at 24 hours before Bjssu injection indicating that the GaAs laser therapy improved spatially and temporally gait parameters at the critical injury period caused by Bjssu. This is the first study to analyze with cutting edge technology the gait functional deficits caused by snake envenoming and gait gains produced by GaAs laser irradiation. In this sense, the study fills a gap on the field of motor function after laser treatment following snake envenoming.

  1. 76 FR 32984 - Mississippi; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... this declared major disaster: Clarke, Greene, Hinds, Jasper, Kemper, Lafayette, and Monroe Counties for Individual Assistance. Clarke, Greene, Hinds, Jasper, Kemper, Lafayette, and Monroe Counties for...

  2. Potassium Channel Antagonists 4-Aminopyridine and the T-Butyl Carbamate Derivative of 4-Aminopyridine Improve Hind Limb Function in Chronically Non-Ambulatory Dogs; A Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji-Hey; Muguet-Chanoit, Audrey C.; Smith, Daniel T.; Laber, Eric; Olby, Natasha J.

    2014-01-01

    4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) blocks voltage gated potassium channels, restoring conduction to demyelinated axons and improving function in demyelinating conditions, but its use is associated with adverse effects and benefit in spinal cord injury is limited. Derivatives of 4-AP have been developed to improve clinical efficacy while reducing toxicity. We compared the therapeutic effects of orally administered 4-AP and its t-butyl carbamate derivative (t-butyl) with placebo in dogs that had suffered an acute spinal cord injury that left them chronically paralyzed. Nineteen dogs were entered into the trial, conducted in two-week treatment blocks starting with placebo, followed by random assignment to 4-AP or t-butyl, a washout and then the opposite medication followed by placebo. Investigators and owners were blinded to treatment group. Primary outcome measures included open field gait score (OFS), and treadmill based stepping score and regularity index, with additional secondary measures also considered. Thirteen of 19 dogs completed the protocol. Two were euthanized due to unrelated heath problems, two developed side effects and two were unable to complete for unrelated reasons. Dogs showed significant improvement in supported stepping score (from 17.39 to 37.24% with 4-AP; 16.85 to 29.18% with t-butyl p<0.0001) and OFS (from 3.63 to 4.73 with 4-AP; 3.78 to 4.45 with t-butyl, p = 0.005). Response was individually variable and most dramatic in three dogs that were able to walk without support with treatment. No significant difference was found between 4-AP and t-butyl. No adverse effects were reported with t-butyl but gastrointestinal upset and seizures were observed in two dogs with 4-AP. In conclusion, both 4-AP and t-butyl significantly improved supported stepping ability in dogs with chronic spinal cord injury with no adverse effects noted with t-butyl. Drug response varied widely between individuals, highlighting the need to understand the factors that influence canine and human patients' response to therapy. PMID:25551385

  3. Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students' Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2 (Creencias de estudiantes universitarios iraníes EFL e hindúes ESL acerca de las estrategias de lectura en L2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karbalaei, Alireza

    2010-01-01

    The notion of "learner beliefs" has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners' beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers' beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study investigated…

  4. 40 CFR 81.325 - Mississippi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... County X Harrison County X Hinds County X Holmes County X Humphreys County X Issaquena County X Ittawamba... County X Harrison County X Hinds County X Holmes County X Humphreys County X Issaquena County X Ittawamba... Greene County Grenada County Hancock County Harrison County Hinds County Holmes County Humphreys County...

  5. Artificial insemination of red deer (Cervus elaphus) with frozen-thawed wapiti semen.

    PubMed

    Haigh, J C; Bowen, G

    1991-09-01

    Semen collected from wapiti (Cervus elaphus) in Canada in 1983 was frozen in two extenders. In 1988, the semen was used to inseminate 200 red deer hinds on 2 farms in New Zealand. Oestrus was synchronized in the hinds with progesterone-impregnated intravaginal devices (CIDR); 200 iu pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin was given to each hind on Day 11. The CIDRs were removed on Day 12 at 20/h, as the numbers of the hinds were recorded. On Day 14, 54-56 h after CIDR removal, the hinds were brought into the yards in the same batches and laparoscopically inseminated. Semen from three sires was used. The overall conception rate was 51%. Gestation length ranged from 239 to 247 days. One hind was lost at calving, 3 calves had to be hand raised and there were 2 neonatal calf deaths.

  6. EXXON Valdez Hindcast (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-03

    Once installed, the 'HindCast Player' HyperCard stack displays the spill trajectory of the EXXON Valdez oil spill in the Prince William Sound in March of 1989. The product, 'Exxon Valdez Hind Cast' contains one compressed file and one documentation file. The file containing the documentation is named 'Read.me', and the compressed file is named Exxon HindCasts'. The compressed folder contains a moov file called 'EXXON Valdez', a HyperCard Stack called, 'HindCast Player v/2', and Apples QuickTime(TM) extension file.

  7. Annual ovarian activity monitored by the noninvasive measurement of fecal concentrations of progesterone and 17β-estradiol metabolites in rusa deer (Rusa timorensis)

    PubMed Central

    SUDSUKH, Apichaya; TAYA, Kazuyoshi; WATANABE, Gen; WAJJWALKU, Worawidh; THONGPHAKDEE, Ampika; THONGTIP, Nikorn

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the reproductive cycle of female Rusa deer (Rusa timorensis), the fecal concentrations of progesterone and 17β-estradiol metabolites were measured. Fecal samples were collected on a weekly basis for one year (between October, 2012 and September, 2013) from five healthy adult hinds in Thailand. At the beginning of the study, three hinds were pregnant. Two hinds delivered one healthy offspring, and one hind delivered a stillborn calf. The mating period of Rusa hinds in Thailand is from November to April. In pregnant hinds, fecal progesterone metabolite concentration was high in late pregnancy and abruptly declined to the baseline around parturition, suggesting that the placenta secretes a large amount of progesterone. Fecal 17β-estradiol metabolite concentration remained elevated around the day of parturition. Both concentrations of fecal progesterone and 17β-estradiol metabolites in non-lactating hinds were significantly higher than those in lactating hinds, indicating that ovarian activity of lactating hinds is suppressed by the suckling stimulus of fawn during lactation. The present study demonstrated that monitoring of fecal steroid hormones is useful method for assessing ovarian function in this species. PMID:27570098

  8. 7. SAND FILTERS, CANAL TO LEFT. CONCRETE OVERFLOW AREA TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SAND FILTERS, CANAL TO LEFT. CONCRETE OVERFLOW AREA TO LEFT OF CANAL ORIGINALLY PLANNED AS A STORAGE LAKE. VIEW LOOKING DUE WEST OF HINDS COMPLEX IN BACKGROUND OF SAND FILTERS. - Hinds Pump Plant, East of Joshua Tree National Monument, 5 miles north of Route 10, Hayfield, Riverside County, CA

  9. Increased SCE levels in Mediterranean Italian buffaloes affected by limb malformation (transversal hemimelia).

    PubMed

    Peretti, V; Ciotola, F; Albarella, S; Restucci, B; Meomartino, L; Ferretti, L; Barbieri, V; Iannuzzi, L

    2008-01-01

    In recent years some buffalo farms in Campania have reported the birth of calves with limb malformation, especially with transversal hemimelia. We investigated 20 Mediterranean Italian buffaloes (8 males and 12 females) from one day to six months of age, of which 10 were affected by transversal hemimelia (group 1) and 10 were healthy controls (group 2). The following clinical and radiological patterns were observed in the malformed animals: hind limbs amputated, the right amputated off the second tarsus bones and the left amputated off the proximal epiphysis metatarsus, and the right thoracic limb hypoplasic (1 female); left hind limb amputated off the proximal epiphysis metatarsus (2 females and 1 male); left hind limb amputated off the third tarsus bones (1 female); left hind limb amputated off the tibia (1 female and 1 male); left hind limb amputated off the distal epiphysis metatarsus (1 female); left hind limb amputated off the first phalanx (1 male); right hind limb amputated off the proximal epiphysis metatarsus (1 male). In their malformed limbs all the animals presented more or less developed outlines of claws. The mean rate of SCE/cell in animals with transversal hemimelia was 8.80 +/- 3.19, that of the controls 6.61 +/- 2.73. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001).

  10. Cellular basis of differential limb growth in postnatal gray short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica).

    PubMed

    Beiriger, Anastasia; Sears, Karen E

    2014-06-01

    While growth has been studied extensively in invertebrates, the mechanisms by which it is controlled in vertebrates, particularly in mammals, remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigate the cellular basis of differential limb growth in postnatal Monodelphis domestica, the gray short-tailed opossum, to gain insights into the mechanisms regulating mammalian growth. Opossums are an ideal model for the study of growth because they are born with relatively large, well-developed forelimbs and small hind limbs that must "catch up" to the forelimb before the animal reaches adulthood. Postnatal Days 1-17 were identified as a key period of growth for the hind limbs, during which they undergo accelerated development and nearly quadruple in length. Histology performed on fore- and hind limbs from this period indicates a higher rate of cellular differentiation in the long bones of the hind limbs. Immunohistochemical assays indicate that cellular proliferation is also occurring at a significantly greater rate in the long bones of the hind limb at 6 days after birth. Taken together, these results suggest that a faster rate of cellular proliferation and differentiation in the long bones of the hind limb relative to those of the forelimb generates a period of accelerated growth through which the adult limb phenotype of M. domestica is achieved. Assays for gene expression suggest that the molecular basis of this differential growth differs from that previously identified for differential pre-natal growth in opossum fore- and hind limbs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effects of density, climate, and supplementary forage on body mass and pregnancy rates of female red deer in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Hidalgo, P; Gortazar, C; Tortosa, F S; Rodriguez-Vigal, C; Fierro, Y; Vicente, J

    2010-10-01

    The influence of short- and long-term (cohort) effects of climate and density on the life-histories of ungulates in temperate regions may vary with latitude, habitat, and management practices, but the life-histories of ungulates in the Mediterranean region are less well known. This study examined the short- and long-term effects of rainfall and absolute density on hinds in two of the southernmost populations of red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) in Europe. One population received supplementary forage. Unlike more northerly latitudes, where red deer hinds lose body mass in winter as a result of adverse weather, in the Spanish populations, hinds did not lose body mass. Hinds in the population that received supplementary forage were heavier and more likely to become pregnant than were the hinds in the unsupplemented population. The likelihood of pregnancy occurring was strongly influenced by hind body mass; the proportion of yearlings that became pregnant was consequently lower in the unsupplemented population than in the population that received supplementary forage. Cohort effects on hind body mass (negative for density and positive for rainfall at birth) and on the probability of pregnancy (negative for density at birth) were apparent only in the unsupplemented population, which implies that supplemental feeding may partially compensate for negative density-dependent factors during early growth, and that supplemented deer hinds may experience reduced selection pressures. These results reflect the particular seasonal variation in the abundance and quality of food in Mediterranean habitats. The delayed effects of climate and density at birth on adult hind body mass and the prevalence of pregnancy probably affects population dynamics and constitutes a mechanism by which cohort effects affect the population dynamics in Iberian red deer. The management of Iberian red deer populations should take into account cohort effects and supplemental feeding practices, which can

  12. Experimental investigation on the wing-wake interaction at the mid stroke in hovering flight of dragonfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, GuoJun; Shen, GongXin

    2012-11-01

    This paper focuses on flow structures of the wing-wake interaction between the hind wing and the wake of the forewing in hovering flight of a dragonfly since there are arguments whether the wing-wake interaction is useful or not. A mechanical flapping model with two tandem wings is used to study the interaction. In the device, two identical simplified model wings are mounted to the flapping model and they are both scaled up to keep the Reynolds number similar to those of dragonfly in hovering flight since our experiment is conducted in a water tank. The kinetic pattern of dragonfly ( Aeschna juncea) is chosen because of its special interesting asymmetry. A multi-slice phase-locked stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) system is used to record flow structures around the hind wing at the mid downstroke ( t/ T=0.25) and the mid upstroke ( t/ T=0.75). To make comparison of the flow field between with and without the influence of the wake, flow structures around a single flapping wing (hind wing without the existence of the forewing) at these two stroke phases are also recorded. A local vortex identification scheme called swirling strength is applied to determine the vortices around the wing and they are visualized with the iso-surface of swirling strength. This paper also presents contour lines of ω z at each spanwise position of the hind wing, the vortex core position of the leading edge vortex (LEV) of hind wing with respect to the upper surface of hind wing, the circulation of the hind wing LEV at each spanwise position and so on. Experimental results show that dimension and strength of the hind wing LEV are impaired at the mid stroke in comparison with the single wing LEV because of the downwash from the forewing. Our results also reveal that a wake vortex from the forewing traverses the upper surface of the hind wing at the mid downstroke and its distance to the upper surface is about 40% of the wing chord length. At the instant, the distance of the hind wing

  13. The effect of conception date on gestation length of red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Scott, I C; Asher, G W; Archer, J A; Littlejohn, R P

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that gestation length of red deer (Cervus elaphus) is highly variable and influenced by various environmental factors, and this may confer survival advantages for neonates. The current study investigated the relationship between conception date and gestation length to test the hypothesis that within-herd synchrony of red deer births is facilitated by a 'push/pull' control over gestation length, such that hinds conceiving early and late in the breeding season have longer and shorter gestation periods, respectively. In Study 1, data on conception and calving dates were obtained for 393 naturally cycling hinds across two herds. In Study 2, conception and calving dates were obtained from 91 hinds in which oestrus/conception were artificially synchronised across a 4-week range of dates spanning the natural rut. Gestation length for each population was analysed by linear regression, fitting conception day followed by terms for the fixed effect which included hind age (pubertal vs. adult), hind genotype (Cervus elaphus scoticus vs. Cervus elaphus hippelaphus and their crossbreds), calf sex, sire genotype (Study 1 only), birth weight and year. In Study 1, both populations of naturally cycling hinds exhibited highly significant (P<0.001) negative slopes (-0.36, -0.49) for the regression of gestation length against conception date, with indications of a significant hind genotype effect favouring shorter overall gestation lengths for crossbred hinds. Other effects for hind age, calf sex, birth weight, sire genotype and year were not significant. In Study 2, in which conception dates were artificially induced, there was a highly significant negative slope (-0.19), with a notable but non-significant effect of hind age favouring shorter overall gestation length for primiparous (pubertal) hinds (P>0.05). Other effects for hind live weight, calf sex and calf birth weight were not significant. All data sets support the hypothesis, and indicate that

  14. Creation and Analysis of a mutL Knockout Strain of Vibrio Cholerae

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    the fragment and pBluescript with KpnI and HindIII, joining the two with T4 DNA ligase , and selecting for ampicillin resistant colonies in E. coli...digesting both the fragment and pBMN with HindIII and XbaI, joining the two with T4 DNA ligase , and selecting for ampicillin resistant colonies in...mut1 fragment and pBluescript with KpnI and HindIII, separation by gel electrophoresis, extraction, purification and joining the two with T4 DNA ligase (Figure

  15. 47 CFR 90.614 - Segments of the 806-824/851-869 MHz band for non-border areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Jasper, Jeff Davis, Jefferson, Jenkins, Johnson, Jones, Lamar, Lanier, Laurens, Lee, Liberty, Lincoln..., Hinds, Holmes, Itawamba, Jackson, Jasper, Jefferson, Jefferson Davis, Jones, Kemper, Lamar, Lauderdale..., Beaufort, Edgefield, Greenwood, Hampton, Jasper, McCormick, Oconee. Tennessee: Bledsoe, Bradley,...

  16. 47 CFR 90.614 - Segments of the 806-824/851-869 MHz band for non-border areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Jasper, Jeff Davis, Jefferson, Jenkins, Johnson, Jones, Lamar, Lanier, Laurens, Lee, Liberty, Lincoln..., Hinds, Holmes, Itawamba, Jackson, Jasper, Jefferson, Jefferson Davis, Jones, Kemper, Lamar, Lauderdale..., Beaufort, Edgefield, Greenwood, Hampton, Jasper, McCormick, Oconee. Tennessee: Bledsoe, Bradley,...

  17. 47 CFR 90.614 - Segments of the 806-824/851-869 MHz band for non-border areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Jasper, Jeff Davis, Jefferson, Jenkins, Johnson, Jones, Lamar, Lanier, Laurens, Lee, Liberty, Lincoln..., Hinds, Holmes, Itawamba, Jackson, Jasper, Jefferson, Jefferson Davis, Jones, Kemper, Lamar, Lauderdale..., Beaufort, Edgefield, Greenwood, Hampton, Jasper, McCormick, Oconee. Tennessee: Bledsoe, Bradley,...

  18. 47 CFR 90.614 - Segments of the 806-824/851-869 MHz band for non-border areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Jasper, Jeff Davis, Jefferson, Jenkins, Johnson, Jones, Lamar, Lanier, Laurens, Lee, Liberty, Lincoln..., Hinds, Holmes, Itawamba, Jackson, Jasper, Jefferson, Jefferson Davis, Jones, Kemper, Lamar, Lauderdale..., Beaufort, Edgefield, Greenwood, Hampton, Jasper, McCormick, Oconee. Tennessee: Bledsoe, Bradley,...

  19. Infrared thermography of the udder after experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis in cows.

    PubMed

    Metzner, Moritz; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Seemueller, Andrea; Petzl, Wolfram; Zerbe, Holm

    2015-06-01

    The study aimed to use infrared thermography (IRT) to evaluate the changes in udder surface temperature after induction of Escherichia coli mastitis in the right hind quarter. Over a time period of 24 h before to 24 h post-inoculation, thermograms of both hind quarters were taken every 2 h to determine maximum (Tmax) and average (Tavg) temperatures. Differences in both maximum and average temperatures (DTmax and DTavg) were calculated, as well as temperature differences between both hind quarters. All cows developed signs of clinical mastitis with a significant increase in DTmax and DTavg with Tmax at 13 h post-inoculation for the (non-infected) left hind quarters. The results demonstrate that detection of mastitis using IRT is possible if the interval between examinations does not exceed 2 h.

  20. Digital Hive Project: Prototyping a Collaborative Web Portal for the Explosive Ordnance Disposal Community

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    computer interaction HDS Hazardous Devices School HI horizontal integration IED improvised explosive device IHEODTD Indian Head Explosive Ordnance...make contact with other grasshoppers’ hind legs, thereby creating the catalyst for a frenzied plague.90 Similarly, participants of collaborative web

  1. 78 FR 65615 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... marine protected areas to protect speckled hind and warsaw grouper; and Regulatory Amendment 16 to... Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., Acting Deputy Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE...

  2. Diabrotica collicola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)a new species of leaf beetle from Argentina Discussion and key to some similar species of the Diabrotica virgifera group

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The new species Diabrotica collicola Cabrera & Cabrera Walsh is described and illustrated based on specimens collected from Balcozna, Catamarca Province (Argentina). A full description is provided and includes morphological characters of the mouthparts, hind wing venation, binding patch, metendoster...

  3. High Salt Intake Promotes Urinary Loss of Vitamin D Metabolites by Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats in a Space Flight Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierry-Palmer, M.; Cephas, S.; Sayavongsa, P.; Clark, T.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism in the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat, a model of salt-induced hypertension, differs from that in the Dahl salt-resistant (R) rat. We have demonstrated that female S rats are more vulnerable than female R rats to decreases in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D) concentrations during hind limb unloading (a space flight model). We report here on the response of the vitamin D endocrine system of S and R rats to hind limb unloading during high salt intake. Dahl female rats (9.7-week-old) were tail-suspended (hind limb unloaded) for 28 days, while fed a diet containing twice the salt in standard rat chow (2 % sodium chloride). Control rats were fed the same diet, but were not hind limb unloaded. Vitamin D metabolites were analyzed by HPLC and radioimmunoassay kits from Diasorin.

  4. Study of the fine structure of adeno-associated virus DNA with bacterial restriction endonucleases.

    PubMed Central

    Berns, K I; Kort, J; Fife, K H; Grogan, E W; Spear, I

    1975-01-01

    A physical map of the adeno-associated virus type 2 genome has been constructed on the basis of the five fragments produced by the restriction endonucleases HindII + III from Hemophilus influenzae. There are three endo R-HindII cleavage sites and one endo R-HindIII site. Evidence has been obtained to support the existence of two nucleotide sequence permutations in adeno-associated virus DNA, the start points of which have been estimated to be separated by 1% of the genome. The three cleavage fragments produced by endo R-Eco RI have been ordered and oriented with respect to the endo R-HindII + III cleavage map. Images PMID:1159899

  5. CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. 3 DIRECTLY BEHIND; HINDS & CONNER AND "A" BUNGALOWS IN REAR. VISTA DEL ARROYO HOTEL ON RIGHT - Vista del Arroyo Hotel, 125 South Grand Avenue, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Effects of simulated weightlessness and sympathectomy on maximum VO2 of male rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, C. R.; Stump, C. S.; Beaulieu, S. M.; Rahman, Z.; Sebastian, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of simulated weightlessness (hind-limb suspension) and chemical sympathectomy (by repeated injections with guanethidine sulfate) on the maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) of female rats were investigated in rats assigned for 14 days to one of three groups: a head-down hind-limb suspension, a horizontal suspension with hind limbs weight bearing, or the caged control. The VO2 max values were assessed by having rats run on a treadmill enclosed in an airtight chamber. The hind-limb-suspended sympathectomized rats were found to exhibit shorter run times and lower mechanical efficiencies, compared to their presuspension values or the values from saline-injected suspended controls. On the other hand, the suspended sympathectomized rats did not demonstrate a decrease in the VO2 max values that was observed in saline-injected controls.

  7. 77 FR 33159 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... dealers who process greater amberjack, red porgy, gag, black grouper, red grouper, scamp, red hind, rock..., Departmental Paperwork Clearance Officer, (202) 482-0336, Department of Commerce, Room 6616, 14th and...

  8. 34 CFR 608.2 - What institutions are eligible to receive a grant under the HBCU Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... College—Tougaloo Hinds Junior College (Utica Jr Coll)—Raymond Missouri Lincoln University—Jefferson City... Virgin Islands—St. Thomas Virginia Hampton University—Hampton Norfolk State University—Norfolk Saint...

  9. 34 CFR 608.2 - What institutions are eligible to receive a grant under the HBCU Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... College—Tougaloo Hinds Junior College (Utica Jr Coll)—Raymond Missouri Lincoln University—Jefferson City... Virgin Islands—St. Thomas Virginia Hampton University—Hampton Norfolk State University—Norfolk Saint...

  10. GAIT ANALYSIS IN GIANT ANTEATER (MYRMECOPHAGA TRIDACTYLA) WITH THE USE OF A PRESSURE-SENSITIVE WALKWAY.

    PubMed

    de Faria, Luís Guilherme; Rahal, Sheila Canevese; dos Reis Mesquita, Luciane; Agostinho, Felipe Stefan; Kano, Washington Takashi; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto; Monteiro, Frederico Ozanan Barros

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the kinetic and temporospatial parameters of clinically healthy juvenile giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) by using a pressure-sensing walkway. Three free-ranging clinically healthy giant anteaters (M. tridactyla), two males and one female, aged 5-7 mo, were used. There was no statistically significant difference between the right and left sides for the kinetic and temporospatial parameters for both forelimbs and hind limbs. Although the gait velocity was similar for all giant anteaters, the stride frequency was higher in the smaller anteaters. The difference in stride frequency is associated with body size, which also influenced other temporospatial parameters. The percentage of body distribution was higher on the forelimbs than the hind limbs. The contact surface and trajectory of the force of the forepaws differed from the hind paws. In conclusion, the anteaters have gait peculiarities associated with the anatomical differences between forelimbs and hind limbs.

  11. High Salt Intake Promotes Urinary Loss of Vitamin D Metabolites by Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats in a Space Flight Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierry-Palmer, M.; Cephas, S.; Sayavongsa, P.; Clark, T.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism in the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat, a model of salt-induced hypertension, differs from that in the Dahl salt-resistant (R) rat. We have demonstrated that female S rats are more vulnerable than female R rats to decreases in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D) concentrations during hind limb unloading (a space flight model). We report here on the response of the vitamin D endocrine system of S and R rats to hind limb unloading during high salt intake. Dahl female rats (9.7-week-old) were tail-suspended (hind limb unloaded) for 28 days, while fed a diet containing twice the salt in standard rat chow (2 % sodium chloride). Control rats were fed the same diet, but were not hind limb unloaded. Vitamin D metabolites were analyzed by HPLC and radioimmunoassay kits from Diasorin.

  12. Effects of simulated weightlessness and sympathectomy on maximum VO2 of male rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, C. R.; Stump, C. S.; Beaulieu, S. M.; Rahman, Z.; Sebastian, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of simulated weightlessness (hind-limb suspension) and chemical sympathectomy (by repeated injections with guanethidine sulfate) on the maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) of female rats were investigated in rats assigned for 14 days to one of three groups: a head-down hind-limb suspension, a horizontal suspension with hind limbs weight bearing, or the caged control. The VO2 max values were assessed by having rats run on a treadmill enclosed in an airtight chamber. The hind-limb-suspended sympathectomized rats were found to exhibit shorter run times and lower mechanical efficiencies, compared to their presuspension values or the values from saline-injected suspended controls. On the other hand, the suspended sympathectomized rats did not demonstrate a decrease in the VO2 max values that was observed in saline-injected controls.

  13. Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, Andrew M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reviews "Cooperation and Prosocial Behaviour" (Hinde and Groebel); "Psychological Development of High Risk Multiple Birth Children" (Krall and Feinstein); "Early Prediction and Prevention of Child Abuse" (Browne and others); "Strategies des joueurs d'Awale" (Reitschitzki); "Children's Understanding of…

  14. Suspected disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in a 3-year-old Perro de Presa Canario dog.

    PubMed

    Denstedt, Emily

    2014-02-01

    A 3-year-old intact male Perro de Presa Canario dog was presented with acutely inflamed and edematous right hind limb, scrotum, prepuce, and an enlarged left carpus. Two weeks later the dog returned with weight loss, draining tracts in the right hind limb, dermal nodules, a palpable abdominal mass, and uveitis in the left eye. The dog succumbed to his illness 2 days later and a widely disseminated round cell tumor compatible with histiocytic sarcoma was diagnosed following postmortem examination.

  15. Examining the Effectiveness of Mindfulness Meditation for Chronic Pain Management in Combat Veterans with Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    in the rat hind paw induced dose- dependent sensitivity to mechanically-induced pain. Neutralizing IL-6 or altering the IL-6 pathway has also been...shown to modulate pain perception. Inflammatory pain elicited by a carrageenan injection into the rat hind paw followed by local administration of anti...reported that patients became addicted in more than half of the cases when opioids were prescribed for chronic pain (Dobscha et al. 2008). Nonetheless

  16. Home-care treatment of swimmer syndrome in a miniature schnauzer dog

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-A; Na, Ki-Jeong; Cho, Jong-Ki; Shin, Nam-Shik

    2013-01-01

    A 50-day-old, female miniature schnauzer dog was presented for astasia, dorsoventral flattening of the thorax, hypoplasia of hind-limb muscles, stiffness of hind-limb joints, paddling leg motion, and panting. The dog was diagnosed with swimmers syndrome. The dog recovered completely following 40 days of home-care treatment that involved environmental and nutritional management along with intensive physiotherapy. PMID:24155492

  17. Using Nerve Signals From Muscle Afferent Electrodes to Control FES-Based Ankle Motion in a Rabbit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    nerves in the left hind limb. A neural network was used for extraction of joint angles from the recorded ENGs. For stimulation purposes, percutaneous ...Natural sensors, neural prosthesis, implanted electrodes, functional electrical stimulation , closed-loop control, artificial neural networks, nerve ...branches of the sciatic nerve in the left hind limb. To minimize cutaneous inputs, the sural nerve was transected distal to its origin in the tibial nerve

  18. A computational study on effect of pitch difference in pure plunging tandem wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasani, M. R.; Nuawi, M. Z.; Mahmood, W. M. F. W.; Harun, Z.

    2016-10-01

    Flapping wing in tandem configuration may offer enhanced aerodynamic performance at low Reynolds number, in which micro air vehicles operate. The present study aims to investigate the effect of fore-hind wing pitch difference on the aerodynamic performance of tandem wings. To that end, two-dimensional, laminar flow around two thin flat airfoils that are sinusoidally plunging in phase with each other, were computationally simulated at a Reynolds number of 10000, using a flow solver in an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian framework. The fore wing pitch angle was fixed to 10°, while the hind wing pitch angle was varied between -10°, 0°, 10° and 20°. Numerical results shows that aerodynamic performance of the fore wing may be affected by the hind wing pitch angle and that tandem wings may offer improved lift to drag efficiency at some optimal fore-hind wing pitch difference compared to twice the results of a similar single wing case. In addition, the complex fore-hind wing vortex interaction is also affected by the hind wing pitch angle.

  19. Altering blood flow does not reveal differences between nitrogen and helium kinetics in brain or in skeletal miracle in sheep.

    PubMed

    Doolette, David J; Upton, Richard N; Grant, Cliff

    2015-03-01

    In underwater diving, decompression schedules are based on compartmental models of nitrogen and helium tissue kinetics. However, these models are not based on direct measurements of nitrogen and helium kinetics. In isoflurane-anesthetized sheep, nitrogen and helium kinetics in the hind limb (n = 5) and brain (n = 5) were determined during helium-oxygen breathing and after return to nitrogen-oxygen breathing. Nitrogen and helium concentrations in arterial, femoral vein, and sagittal sinus blood samples were determined using headspace gas chromatography, and venous blood flows were monitored continuously using ultrasonic Doppler. The experiment was repeated at different states of hind limb blood flow and cerebral blood flow. Using arterial blood gas concentrations and blood flows as input, parameters and model selection criteria of various compartmental models of hind limb and brain were estimated by fitting to the observed venous gas concentrations. In both the hind limb and brain, nitrogen and helium kinetics were best fit by models with multiexponential kinetics. In the brain, there were no differences in nitrogen and helium kinetics. Hind limb models fit separately to the two gases indicated that nitrogen kinetics were slightly faster than helium, but models with the same kinetics for both gases fit the data well. In the hind limb and brain, the blood:tissue exchange of nitrogen is similar to that of helium. On the basis of these results, it is inappropriate to assign substantially different time constants for nitrogen and helium in all compartments in decompression algorithms. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Synthesis and reactivity of the aquation product of the antitumor complex trans-[Ru(III)Cl4(indazole)2]-.

    PubMed

    Cebrián-Losantos, Berta; Reisner, Erwin; Kowol, Christian R; Roller, Alexander; Shova, Sergiu; Arion, Vladimir B; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2008-07-21

    Aquation of the investigational anticancer drug trans-[Ru(III)Cl4(Hind)2](-) (1, KP1019) results in the formation of mer,trans-[Ru(III)Cl3(Hind)2(H2O)] (2), which was isolated in high yield (85%) and characterized by spectroscopic methods and X-ray crystallography. Dissolution of 2 in acetone, led to its dimerization into [Ru(III)2(mu-Cl)2Cl4(Hind)4] x 2 (Me)2CO (3) in 79% yield, with release of two water molecules. Complex 2 reacts readily with nucleophilic organic molecules, viz., methanol or dimethyl sulfide, at room temperature by replacement of the aqua ligand to give mer,trans-[Ru(III)Cl3(Hind)2(MeOH)] (4) and mer,trans-[Ru(III)Cl3(Hind)2(Me2S)] (5) in 58 and 64% yield, respectively. By reaction of 2 with DMSO at room temperature or dimethyl sulfide at elevated temperatures trans,trans,trans-[Ru(II)Cl2(Hind)2(Me2S)2] (6) and trans,trans,trans-[Ru(II)Cl2(Hind)2(S-DMSO)2] (7) were prepared in 64 and 75% yield, respectively. Dissolution of 2 in acetonitrile or benzonitrile gave rise to mer,trans-[Ru(III)Cl3(Hind)(HNC(Me)ind)] (8a), mer,trans-[Ru(III)Cl3(Hind)(HNC(Ph)ind)] (8b), and trans,trans-[Ru(III)Cl2(HNC(Me)ind)2]Cl (9) in 67, 50, and 23% yield, respectively, upon metal-assisted iminoacylation of indazole, which is unprecedented for ruthenium(III). Furthermore, complex 2 reacts with the DNA-model bases 9-methyladenine (9-meade) and N6,N6-dimethyladenine (6-me2ade) to yield mer,trans-[Ru(III)Cl3(Hind)2(9-meade)] (10) and mer,trans-[Ru(III)Cl3(Hind)2(6-me2ade)] (11) with the purine bases bound to the Ru(III) center via N7 and N3, respectively. Complex 11 represents the first ruthenium complex in which the coordination of the purine ligand N6,N6-dimethyladenine occurs via N3. In addition, the polymer [Na(EtOAc)2Ru(III)(mu-Cl)4(Hind)2]n (12) was crystallized from ethyl acetate/diethyl ether solutions of Na[trans-Ru(III)Cl4(Hind)2] x 1.5 H2O (1a). The reported complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR and UV-vis spectroscopy, ESI mass spectrometry

  1. Cytogenetic and molecular characterization of a highly repeated DNA sequence in the peach potato aphid Myzus persicae.

    PubMed

    Mandrioli, M; Bizzaro, D; Manicardi, G C; Gionghi, D; Bassoli, L; Bianchi, U

    1999-12-01

    Electrophoresis following digestion of Myzus persicae genomic DNA with HindIII showed the presence of a prominent band of approximately 200 bp whereas a faint electrophoretic band corresponding to DNA fragments of about 3000 bp was observed after digestion with ApaI. In situ digestion with restriction enzymes, followed by in situ nick translation, showed that ApaI targets are localized at the nucleolus organizer-bearing X telomeric region, whereas HindIII restriction sites are clustered in intercalary C-positive areas on the same X chromosome. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) carried out by using digoxygenin-labeled HindIII repeats as probe fully confirmed overlapping between the hybridization sites of this probe and the AT-rich intercalary heterochromatic bands on the X chromosome. These findings, together with published data, allow us to conclude that the M. persicae genome possesses three classes of C-positive heterochromatin: (i) a GC-rich argentophilic band located on one telomere of the X chromosome that contains ApaI targets; (ii) AT-rich intercalary bands located on the X chromosome containing clustered HindIII fragments; (iii) AT-rich telomeric bands located on autosomes, consisting of HaeIII repeats. Molecular analysis has shown that the length of the HindIII repeat consensus sequence is 189 bp with an AT content of 67%. Southern blotting with HindIII monomers revealed a regular ladder of bands composed of multimers of basic length that are characteristic of satellite DNAs. The HindIII repeat displays other features typical of eukaryotic satellite arrays such as overlapping with heterochromatic bands and a high degree of sequence similarity among monomers (84%-94%). A similarity plot showed that sequences were particularly variable in the 50-100 bp region whereas they proved to be highly conservative in the first 50 bp, thus suggesting that this portion of the repeat might be functionally important.

  2. Transformation of rat embryo fibroblasts by cloned polyoma virus DNA fragments containing only part of the early region.

    PubMed Central

    Hassell, J A; Topp, W C; Rifkin, D B; Moreau, P E

    1980-01-01

    Recombinant plasmids containing either the entire polyoma viral genome or one or the other of the two HindIII fragments of polyoma virus DNA were constructed and cloned in Escherichia coli X1776, and their DNAs were individually tested for the capacity to transform an established line of rat cells. The recombinant plasmids containing the entire polyoma genome and those containing the HindIII-1 fragment of polyoma DNA (45-1.4 map units) efficiently transform rat cells, whereas the plasmids containing the HindIII-2 fragment (1.4-45.0 map units) do not. The properties of many independent transformed cell lines established by infection with the cloned HindIII-1 fragment were determined. In contrast to the parent cell line, rat cells transformed with the cloned HindIII-1 fragment grow to high saturation densities, form colonies with high efficiency in dilute agar suspension, produce high levels of plasminogen activator, and display a disorganized arrangement of actin cables. By all criteria examined, these cells transformed by fragments are indistinguishable from cells transformed by whole polyoma viral DNA. Cellular DNA prepared from many HindIII-1 fragment-transformed cell lines was analyzed for the presence and arrangement of polyoma viral sequences by Southern blot-hybridization. In all cases examined, only those viral sequences contained within the HindIII-1 fragment of polyoma DNA were detected. These data establish a strong correlation between polyoma DNA sequences mapping within a restricted portion of the early region and the induction and maintenance of the transformed phenotype. Images PMID:6254006

  3. Analysis of cytomegalovirus genomes with restriction endonucleases Hin D III and EcoR-1.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, B A; Huang, E S; Pagano, J S

    1976-06-01

    Cleavage of genomes of eleven human, one simian, and one simian-related cytomegalovirus (CMV) isolate by the restriction endonucleases HinD III and EcoR-1 generated reproducible DNA fragments. The size range of CMV DNA fragments as estimated by contour length measurements in comparison with simian virus 40 form II DNA and by coelectrophoresis with EcoR-1 fragments of herpes simplex virus DNA varied between 15 X 10(6) and 0.5 X 10(6) daltons. Comparison of the cleavage products of each isolate in 1% agarose slab gels showed extensive comigration of fragments among the human CMV isolates. In the HinD III digests, three fragment bands comigrated among all human CMV isolates, and six fragments comigrated among most, but not all, human CMV isolates. In the EcoR-1 digests, nine fragment bands comigrated among all human CMV isolates, and five bands comigrated among most, but not all human isolates. Each isolate had a distinctive electrophoretic profile with either HinD III or EcoR-1 digests. No two isolates had identical HinD III or EcoR-1 patterns although some isolates did share more general pattern similarities than others. No clear-cut subgrouping of isolates based on cleavage pattern characteristics could be discerned. Comparison of HinD III and EcoR-1 patterns showed that human isolates differ greatly from nonhuman CMV isolates. HinD III and EcoR-1 digests of each isolate contained both major and minor molar classes of DNA fragments that ranged from about 1 and multiples of 1 M down to about 0.25 M; however, the summed molecular weights for major molar fragments resulting from HinD III or EcoR-1 digests of several isolates closely approximated the molecular weight of 10(8) of the intact genome.

  4. Persistent organic pollutant levels in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.), feed, lichen, blood, milk, placenta, foetus and calf.

    PubMed

    Holma-Suutari, A; Ruokojärvi, P; Laaksonen, S; Kiviranta, H; Nieminen, M; Viluksela, M; Hallikainen, A

    2014-04-01

    A study concerning persistent organic pollutants in Finnish semi-domesticated reindeer was conducted in northern Finland. The aim of this study was to explore POP presence in different tissues of reindeer. In addition, it was studied how POPs are transported from food concentrates and lichen to reindeer hind tissues and further to the placenta, foetus, milk and calf. Concentrations of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), 37 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (including 12 dioxin-like PCBs), and 15 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analysed. In most of the reindeer muscle tissue samples PCBs were clearly dominating compounds (on average 58% of the total WHO-TEQ). The total WHO-TEQ was higher in the muscle tissue of reindeer calves than in their corresponding hinds (on average 1.7 pg/g fat vs. 1.1 pg/g fat, respectively). The total WHO-TEQ concentrations were higher in the muscle and liver tissues of reindeer hinds than in their blood or placentas. The foetuses had clearly lower WHO-TEQ concentrations than their corresponding hinds. The contribution of WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ to the total WHO-TEQ was somewhat higher in the liver than in the muscle tissue. The reindeer hind-calf pair, which had gone through the lichen diet, had on average higher WHO-PCDD/F- and PCB-TEQ concentrations in their tissues than the hind-calf-pair that had gone through the reindeer food concentrate diet. WHO-PCB-TEQs in the reindeer foetuses were equal with the concentrations of placentas. The reindeer foetuses contained generally more PBDEs than their corresponding hinds and placentas. This may indicate effective transport of these compounds through the placenta of reindeer.

  5. How do the substrate reaction forces acting on a gecko's limbs respond to inclines?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhouyi; Dai, Zhendong; Li, Wei; Ji, Aihong; Wang, Wenbao

    2015-02-01

    Locomotion is an essential character of animals, and excellent moving ability results from the delicate sensing of the substrate reaction forces (SRF) acting on body and modulating the behavior to adapt the motion requirement. The inclined substrates present in habitats pose a number of functional challenges to locomotion. In order to effectively overcome these challenges, climbing geckos execute complex and accurate movements that involve both the front and hind limbs. Few studies have examined gecko's SRF on steeper inclines of greater than 90°. To reveal how the SRFs acting on the front and hind limbs respond to angle incline changes, we obtained detailed measurements of the three-dimensional SRFs acting on the individual limbs of the tokay gecko while it climbed on an inclined angle of 0-180°. The fore-aft forces acting on the front and hind limbs show opposite trends on inverted inclines of greater than 120°, indicating propulsion mechanism changes in response to inclines. When the incline angles change, the forces exerted in the normal and fore-aft directions by gecko's front and hind limbs are reassigned to take full advantage of limbs' different roles in overcoming resistance and in propelling locomotion. This also ensures that weight acts in the angle range between the forces generated by the front and hind limbs. The change in the distribution of SRF with a change in the incline angle is directly linked to the favorable trade-off between locomotive maneuverability and stability.

  6. Molecular cloning of the 8000-base thyroglobulin structural gene.

    PubMed

    Christophe, D; Mercken, L; Brocas, H; Pohl, V; Vassart, G

    1982-03-01

    Bovine thyroglobulin mRNA was reverse-transcribed into full-length double-stranded cDNA. The existence of three HindIII restriction endonuclease sites in the 8000-base thyroglobulin structural gene had allowed the easy cloning of the two internal HindIII fragments [Christophe et al. (1980) Eur. J. Biochem. 111, 419-423]. In the present study, the central portion of the structural gene was cloned in Escherichia coli as two individual recombinant plasmids containing 2000-base-pair and 4700-base-pair segments located respectively 5' and 3' relative to the unique BamHI site of the cDNA. BamHI linkers were added to the double-stranded cDNA and, following restriction with HindIII, selective cloning of the 5' (2600-base-pair) and 3' (1000-base-pair) terminal HindIII fragments was achieved by inserting them between the HindIII and BamHI sites of the plasmid pBR322. Partial sequencing of the 1000-base-pair 3'-terminal fragment demonstrated the presence of an A-A-U-A-A-A sequence in the mRNA 14 bases upstream from a poly(A) tract corresponding to the 3' end of the mRNA. Together, the four clones represent about 99% of the thyroglobulin structural gene and provide the starting material for the determination of thyroglobulin primary structure.

  7. The association between osteocalcin gene polymorphism and dental fluorosis among children exposed to fluoride in People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Ba, Yue; Huang, Hui; Yang, Yuejin; Cui, Liuxin; Zhu, Jingyuan; Zhu, Cairong; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Yawei

    2009-11-01

    Excessive fluoride intake has been shown to affect dentin and cementum mineralization throughout life. Some studies indicated that a HindIII polymorphism, of osteocalcin (OC) gene, was associated with bone metabolism-related diseases. Therefore, it is possible that the variation in OC genotypes will be associated with dental fluorosis (DF) status and/or serum caciotropic hormone level. A case-control study was conducted among children aged 8-12 years in Henan Province, PR China to investigate the association between dental fluorosis, serum calciotropic hormone level, and polymorphisms in the OC gene. HindIII polymorphism in OC gene was genotyped using the PCR-RFLP procedure. OC and calcitonin (CT) level in serum was detected using radioimmunoassay. No significant difference was observed for OC HindIII genotypes among the cases with dental fluorosis, the controls from endemic fluorosis area (EFA) and the controls from non-endemic fluorosis area (NEFA). A significant negative correlation was observed between serum calcium and OC level. No significant relationship was found between OC HindIII polymorphisms and the level of OC and CT. In conclusion, OC HindIII polymorphisms may not be a useful genetic marker for differential risk of dental fluorosis among children in PR China.

  8. The Extent of Irradiation-Induced Long-Term Visceral Organ Damage Depends on Cranial/Brain Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Boittin, François-Xavier; Denis, Josiane; Mayol, Jean-François; Martigne, Patrick; Raffin, Florent; Coulon, David; Grenier, Nancy; Drouet, Michel; Hérodin, Francis

    2015-01-01

    In case of high-dose radiation exposure, mechanisms controlling late visceral organ damage are still not completely understood and may involve the central nervous system. To investigate the influence of cranial/brain irradiation on late visceral organ damage in case of high-dose exposure, Wistar rats were irradiated at 12 Gy, with either the head and fore limbs or the two hind limbs protected behind a lead wall (head- and hind limbs-protected respectively), which allows long-term survival thanks to bone marrow protection. Although hind limbs- and head-protected irradiated rats exhibited similar hematopoietic and spleen reconstitution, a late body weight loss was observed in hind limbs-protected rats only. Histological analysis performed at this time revealed that late damages to liver, kidney and ileum were attenuated in rats with head exposed when compared to animals whose head was protected. Plasma measurements of inflammation biomarkers (haptoglobin and the chemokine CXCL1) suggest that the attenuated organ damage in hind limbs-protected rats may be in part related to reduced acute and chronic inflammation. Altogether our results demonstrate the influence of cranial/brain exposure in the onset of organ damage. PMID:25836679

  9. Genomic fingerprinting of virulent and avirulent strains of Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies sepedonicus.

    PubMed

    Brown, Susan E; Reilley, Ann A; Knudson, Dennis L; Ishimaru, Carol A

    2002-02-01

    Genomic fingerprints of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus were generated by CHEF gel electrophoresis of restriction digested high-molecular weight DNA. Low levels of intra-subspecific variation were detected by cluster analysis of the fingerprints. Four haplotypes were identified by genomic fingerprinting with HindIII, and eight were identified with EcoRI. Haplotypes generated with HindIII were less similar than those generated by EcoRI. Haplotypes generated with HindIII formed groups that corresponded well with plant reactions of the strains, but similar types of groupings were less apparent with haplotypes generated with EcoRI. When disease severity in eggplant and potato, population size in potato, and ability to induce a hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco were overlaid onto dendograms of genetic similarity, avirulent HR-negative strains clustered separately from virulent HR-positive strains in both EcoRI and HindIII profiles. Avirulent HR-positive strains that lack pCS1 clustered with avirulent HR-negative strains in a EcoRI dendogram, but clustered with virulent HR-positive strains in a HindIII dendogram. Genomic fingerprinting of high-molecular weight DNA fragments provided a means for detecting genomic variability associated with virulence in C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus.

  10. Experimental and Numerical Study of the Role of Elytra on Beetles Flapping Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Tuyen Quang; Byun, Doyoung; Yoo, Yonghoon; Ko, Jinhwan; Kim, Won-Kap; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2008-11-01

    The effect of flapping elytra of a beetle on aerodynamic force is investigated by particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiment and a two-dimensional numerical analysis. During the transition period from the up-stroke to the down-stroke, the positions of the hind and elytrum wings become close to each other and then the elytrum strongly affects on the aerodynamic forces. Through experimentally method, the quantitative velocity, vorticity, and pressure fields around the both wings are measured. A big leading edge vortex (LEV) is observed on the upper surfaces of the elytrum and the hind wings from the measured quantities at the initial instance of the down-stroke. Numerical result shows that the at first, elytrum hinders vortex generation on the hind wing due to its position is ahead along the streamline direction, then it contributes for vortex generation as the hind wing goes down. The elytrum itself generates big vertical force and small horizontal force during flapping due to that its curved geometry interacts with flow around. Conclusively, the total aerodynamic force by the both wings is lager than that by the hind wing without the elytrum considered.

  11. Ontogenetic changes in limb postures and their impact on effective limb length in baboons (Papio cynocephalus).

    PubMed

    Zeininger, Angel; Shapiro, Liza J; Raichlen, David A

    2017-06-01

    Digitigrade hand and foot postures and extended elbows and knees are considered adaptations to running in cursorial mammals because they increase effective limb lengths (ELLs). However, the relationship between digitigrady and ELL in primates is not well understood. We documented the ontogeny of limb postures in baboons to better understand the function of digitigrady during walking. We hypothesized that the hand and foot would become more elevated and the elbow and knee more extended, leading to increased relative ELLs throughout ontogeny. Longitudinal kinematic data were collected on four infant yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) as they aged from two to nine months, and again at two to three years. Hand/foot postures, elbow/knee angles, relative fore/hind limb ELLs, and dimensionless velocity were measured for 404 symmetrical walking strides. Digitigrade hand and foot postures were preferred at all ages. The elbow extended slightly and the knee flexed slightly with age. Elevated proximal hands, extended elbows, and extended knees were associated with long relative ELLs. For a given age, relative hind limb ELL was longer than relative forelimb ELL. In the forelimb, digitigrade hand postures and extended elbows function to increase relative ELL at slow walking velocity. Increased forelimb ELL may be an attempt to equalize forelimb and hind limb ELLs in baboons with an absolutely longer hind limb. Pedal digitigrady is not a main contributing factor to hind limb ELL. Results suggest that manual and pedal digitigrady in terrestrial cercopithecoids does not function to increase velocity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Association analysis of genetic polymorphisms and potential interaction of the osteocalcin (BGP) and ER-α genes with body mass index (BMI) in premenopausal Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong; Xiao, Wen; Luo, Dan; Liu, Yong-ming; Zou, Lin; Kuang, Hai-bin

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether estrogen receptor α (ER-α) PvuII and osteocalcin (also known as bone Gla protein, or BGP) HindIII genetic polymorphisms and their potential interactions are associated with body mass index (BMI) variation. Methods: Data on BMI and ER-α PvuII and BGP HindIII genotypes were obtained from 328 healthy premenopausal Chinese women in east China. The study subjects were unrelated, at least 21 years old (mean age of 33.2±5.9 years), and had an average BMI of 21.58±2.59. All subjects were genotyped at the ER-α PvuII and BGP HindIII loci using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results: The BGP HindIII genotypes were significantly associated with BMI (P=0.003). Carriers of the HH and Hh genotypes had approximately 2.73% and 1.27% higher BMI than those of the hh genotype, respectively. In contrast, the ER-α PvuII polymorphism was not significantly associated with BMI (P=0.454). In addition, there was no evidence of potential interactions between the ER-α and BGP genes in our subjects (P≥0.013). Conclusion: The HindIII polymorphism of the BGP gene, but not the PvuII polymorphism of the ER-α gene or their potential interaction, was associated with BMI in premenopausal Chinese women. PMID:20305683

  13. Association analysis of genetic polymorphisms and potential interaction of the osteocalcin (BGP) and ER-alpha genes with body mass index (BMI) in premenopausal Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Xiao, Wen; Luo, Dan; Liu, Yong-ming; Zou, Lin; Kuang, Hai-bin

    2010-04-01

    To investigate whether estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha) PvuII and osteocalcin (also known as bone Gla protein, or BGP) HindIII genetic polymorphisms and their potential interactions are associated with body mass index (BMI) variation. Data on BMI and ER-alpha PvuII and BGP HindIII genotypes were obtained from 328 healthy premenopausal Chinese women in east China. The study subjects were unrelated, at least 21 years old (mean age of 33.2+/-5.9 years), and had an average BMI of 21.58+/-2.59. All subjects were genotyped at the ER-alpha PvuII and BGP HindIII loci using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The BGP HindIII genotypes were significantly associated with BMI (P=0.003). Carriers of the HH and Hh genotypes had approximately 2.73% and 1.27% higher BMI than those of the hh genotype, respectively. In contrast, the ER-alpha PvuII polymorphism was not significantly associated with BMI (P=0.454). In addition, there was no evidence of potential interactions between the ER-alpha and BGP genes in our subjects (P>or=0.013). The HindIII polymorphism of the BGP gene, but not the PvuII polymorphism of the ER-alpha gene or their potential interaction, was associated with BMI in premenopausal Chinese women.

  14. Effect of Brand's glucosamine with essence of chicken on collagen-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsi, Daniel; Khow, Agatha; Iino, Taeko; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2003-10-24

    The anti-arthritic effects of glucosamine incorporated in a chicken-meat extract known as Brand's Glucosamine with Essence of Chicken versus glucosamine or Essence of Chicken (EOC) alone were investigated on collagen induced arthritis (CIA) in dark agouti (DA) rats. Four groups of rats received basic food (control), 1.2% glucosamine (GLU), 0.8% EOC and 1.2% GLU + 0.8% EOC (GLU + EOC) admixed with basic food for 25 days following CIA. Foot pads were isolated on day 25 for histopathological evaluation. Clinical assessment of hind paw swelling as measured by foot pad volumes and histopathological scoring based on the degree of edema, periosteal new bone formation, periostitis and inflammatory cell infiltration of the isolated foot pad were performed. Arthritic rats given GLU + EOC showed significant reduction in left hind paw swelling following onset of arthritis. Correspondingly, a lesser degree of edema, periosteal new bone formation, periostitis and inflammatory cell infiltration was seen in histological sections of the left hind foot pads of these rats. A similar trend of reduced hind paw swelling was observed in the right hind paws of the same rats and those fed with EOC. Rats fed with GLU alone did not demonstrate these beneficial effects. The present findings demonstrate that a combination of glucosamine and EOC is effective in reducing the histopathological severity of arthritis, probably due to its ability to reduce the inflammatory conditions in CIA.

  15. Bone structure and quality preserved by active versus passive muscle exercise in 21 days tail-suspended rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Huiqin; Sun, Lian-wen; Fan, Yu-bo

    2012-07-01

    Humans in Space suffer from microgravity-induced attenuated bone strength that needs to be addressed by on-orbit exercise countermeasures. However, exercise prescriptions so far did not adequately counteract the bone loss of astronauts in spaceflight because even active muscle contractions were converted to passive mode during voluntary bouts. We tested our hypothesis in unloaded rat hind limb following twenty-one days of tail-suspension (TS) combined with exercise using a hind limb stepper device designed by our group. Female Sprague Dawley rats (250g b.wt.) were divided into four groups (n=5, each): TS-only (hind limb unloading), TS plus passive mode exercise (TSP) induced by mechanically-forced passive hind limb lifting, TS plus active mode exercise (TSA) entrained by plantar electrostimulation, and control (CON) group. Standard measures of bone (e.g., mineral density, trabecular microstructure, biomechanics and ash weight) were monitored. Results provided that the attenuated properties of unloaded hind limb bone in TS-rats were more effectively supported by active mode than by passive mode motions. We here propose a modified exercise regimen combined with spontaneous muscle contractions thereby considering the biodynamic demands of both muscle and bone during resistive-load exercise in microgravity. Keywords: rat, BMD, DXA, passive exercise, active exercise, bone loss, tail suspension, spaceflight analogue, exercise countermeasure.

  16. Stall dimensions and the prevalence of lameness, injury, and cleanliness on 317 tie-stall dairy farms in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The study objectives were to provide a province-wide description of stall dimensions and the aspects of cattle welfare linked to stall design in the tie-stall industry. Data on stall design; stall dimensions; and the prevalence of lameness, injury, and hind limb and udder cleanliness in lactating dairy cattle were collected from a sample of 317 tie-stall farms across Ontario. The majority of the study farms (90%) had stalls with dimensions (length, width, tie-chain length, and tie rail height) that were less than the current recommendations. This may explain, in part, the prevalence of lameness measured as the prevalence of back arch (3.2%) and severe hind claw rotation (23%), hock lesions (44%), neck lesions (3.8%), broken tails (3%), dirty hind limbs (23%), and dirty udders (4.6%). Veterinarians and producers may use this information to compare farms with the industry averages and target areas in need of improvement. PMID:16454382

  17. A new record of Fannia prisca Stein, 1918 (Diptera:Fanniidae) from peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Heo, Chong Chin; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Nishida, Kazumi; Tan Siew, Hwa; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Mohamed, Abdullah Marwi; Jeffrey, John; Omar, Baharudin

    2008-12-01

    Fannia prisca Stein, 1918 is newly recorded from peninsular Malaysia. This record is based on 4 male specimens from Mount Berembun, Brinchang, Cameron Highland, Pahang state, peninsular Malaysia. It is previously recorded from China, Mongolia, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Bonin Island, Thailand and oriental region. The male of Fannia prisca can be differentiated from male Fannia scalaris by the following features: for F. prisca, mid-coxa without spine; mid-tibia normal or without stout triangular ventral projection; and hind tibia usually with 2 av, while F. scalaris has several stout hook-like spines on the anterior margin; mid-tibia with stout triangular ventral projection and hind tibia usually with 3 av. Both F. prisca and F. scalaris can be differentiated from Fannia leucosticta by looking at its hind tibia, which only has 1 av.

  18. Work minimization accounts for footfall phasing in slow quadrupedal gaits

    PubMed Central

    Self Davies, Zoe T

    2017-01-01

    Quadrupeds, like most bipeds, tend to walk with an even left/right footfall timing. However, the phasing between hind and forelimbs shows considerable variation. Here, we account for this variation by modeling and explaining the influence of hind-fore limb phasing on mechanical work requirements. These mechanics account for the different strategies used by: (1) slow animals (a group including crocodile, tortoise, hippopotamus and some babies); (2) normal medium to large mammals; and (3) (with an appropriate minus sign) sloths undertaking suspended locomotion across a range of speeds. While the unusual hind-fore phasing of primates does not match global work minimizing predictions, it does approach an only slightly more costly local minimum. Phases predicted to be particularly costly have not been reported in nature. PMID:28910262

  19. [Instrumentalization of movements induced by stimulation of motor cortex with food reinforcement in dogs].

    PubMed

    Frolov, A G; Pavlova, O G

    2002-01-01

    Contrary to some literature data, the possibility to instrumentalize the movements (liftings) of the hind limb elicited by stimulation of the corresponding contralateral area of the motor cortex was shown. The instrumental reflex (spontaneous high lifting of the hind limb) was acquired after a number of uniform trials: cortical stimulation--movement--food. Food delivery was preceded by a click, which was presented during the hind limb lifting and served as a secondary reinforcement. The acquisition was rather prolonged (50-200 trials) and demanded some special conditions. The results count in favor of the viewpoint that the motor cortex can directly participate in establishing the instrumental conditioned connection (motivation--movement), and simple instrumental movements can be initiated through this connection.

  20. Boots on horses: limb protection or hyperflexion training aids in the showjumping horse.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jack

    2008-01-01

    Showjumping riders regularly employ various schooling strategies to control the horse's jump stride kinematics (JSK). Strategies include plyometric training regimes with fences of different heights and widths set at specific distances. Gymnastic grids teach the horse to jump cleanly. Rapping, once used almost routinely, is no longer in vogue. However, the use of performance enhancing (PE) boots on the distal hind limbs to alter equine JSK has become popular. There are two broad categories of PE boots: weighted and pressure. Some riders use so-called weighted boots on the horses' hind limbs during training and in competition to improve the jump stride. The application of so-called pressure boots may be little more than an adaptation of this technique. It appears that the PE boots induce hyperflexion of the hind limbs and incline the horse to jump fences cleanly. In the absence of scientific appraisal, it is unclear if such boots are acceptable and innovative training aids within equitation.

  1. Effects of Partial Vibration on Morphological Changes in Bone and Surrounding Muscle of Rats Under Microgravity Condition: Comparative Study by Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji Hyung; Seo, Dong-Hyun; Cho, Seungkwan; Kim, Seo-Hyun; Eom, Sinae; Kim, Han Sung

    2015-09-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders during and after spaceflight are considered as a serious health issue. In space, weight-bearing exercise recognized as the main countermeasure to bone loss, since many anti-resorptive medications have not yet been approved for spaceflight or have been unsuccessful in their limited application. We need to investigate a complementary or alternative way to prevent bone loss and muscle atrophy resulting from microgravity condition. Partial vibration was chosen because it is one of the most feasible ways to adopt safely and effectively. Moreover, although the influence of hind-limb suspension has been studied in both male and female rodents, only rarely are both genders evaluated in the same study. Thus, to further extend our knowledge, the present study performed comparative analysis between genders. A total of 36 12-week-old male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were used and were randomly assigned to control (CON), hind-limb suspension without vibration stimulus (HS), and hind-limb suspension with vibration stimulus (HV) groups. Hind-limb suspension has led to increasing the rate of bone loss and muscle atrophy regardless of gender. The rates of bone loss in male group obviously increased than that of female group. All structural parameters were showed significant difference between HS and HV ( p < 0.05) in male group whereas there are no significant differences in female group. In female, the muscle volume with treatment of partial vibration stimulus significantly increased which compared with that of hind-limb suspension ( p < 0.05) whereas there are no significant differences in male group. Thus partial vibration could prevent bone loss of tibia in males and muscle atrophy in females induced by hind-limb suspension. In other words, partial vibration has positive effects on damaged musculoskeletal tissues that differ based on gender.

  2. Effect of routine claw trimming on claw temperature in dairy cows measured by infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Alsaaod, M; Syring, C; Luternauer, M; Doherr, M G; Steiner, A

    2015-04-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) was used to assess the effect of routine claw trimming on claw temperature. In total, 648 IRT observations each were collected from 81 cows housed in 6 tiestalls before and 3 wk after claw trimming. The feet were classified as either healthy (nonlesion group, n = 182) or affected with infectious foot disorders (group IFD, n = 142). The maximal surface temperatures of the coronary band and skin and the difference of the maximal temperatures (ΔT) between the lateral and medial claws of the respective foot were assessed. Linear mixed models, correcting for the hierarchical structure of the data, ambient temperature, and infectious status of the claws, were developed to evaluate the effect of time in relation to the trimming event (d 0 versus d 21) and claw (medial versus lateral). Front feet and hind feet were analyzed separately. Ambient temperature and infectious foot status were identified as external and internal factors, respectively, that significantly affected claw temperature. Before claw trimming, the lateral claws of the hind feet were significantly warmer compared with the medial claws, whereas such a difference was not evident for the claws of the front feet. At d 21, ΔT of the hind feet was reduced by ≥ 0.25 °C, whereas it was increased by ≤ 0.13 °C in the front feet compared with d 0. Therefore, trimming was associated with a remarkable decrease of ΔT of the hind claws. Equalizing the weight bearing of the hind feet by routine claw trimming is associated with a measurable reduction of ΔT between the paired hind claws.

  3. Cross-generational effects of habitat and density on life history in red deer.

    PubMed

    McLoughlin, Philip D; Coulson, Tim; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2008-12-01

    We used long-term data on movements, survival, and reproduction of female red deer (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus) of the Isle of Rum, Scotland (1970-2001), to explain variation in life history (age at maturity) from a hind's access to habitat resources and exposure to local density, and cross-generational (maternal) effects on observed relationships. We described each hind's use of resources relative to availability in the study area from an individual-based resource selection function (RSF); we defined local density as the total number of hinds aged > or = 1 year within the subpopulation cluster to which an individual belonged. The likelihood of a hind producing her first calf in the period from birth to the end of the summer in which she turned age 3 was positively related to relative use of Agrostis/Festuca grasslands and other low-elevation communities, and inversely related to a hind's mean annual local density. However, when we considered both a daughter's RSF and exposure to local density and her mother's RSF and exposure to local density, maternal data alone most parsimoniously explained variation in age at maturity of daughters. Mothers were able to lower age at maturity in their daughters in two, non-mutually exclusive ways. First, birth mass of daughters was inversely related to age at maturity, and mothers that used relatively less uplands (Calluna-dominated heath and heather moorland) and occupied areas of lower density produced larger offspring. Second, mothers could establish a home range that enabled daughters to mature in areas with access to high quality Agrostis/Festuca grasslands at low density. Lifetime reproductive success was inversely associated with a hind's age at maturity via extension of the reproductive life span. Longevity did not change in association with age at maturity. Patterns in how animals use available habitat resources may depend on that of previous generations, especially at larger scales of resource selection.

  4. Kinematic characteristics of Andalusian, Arabian and Anglo-Arabian horses: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Cano, M R; Vivo, J; Miró, F; Morales, J L; Galisteo, A M

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the kinematic trot characteristics of three different breeds of horse: Andalusian (AN, n = 15), Arabian (AR, n = 7) and Anglo-Arabian (AA, n = 5) using standard computer-assisted videography (25 Hz). Linear, temporal and angular parameters in fore- and hind limbs were analysed in six randomly selected strides per horse. Normalised angle-time diagrams along the complete stride were obtained for all joints angles in each breed and specific kinematic characteristics were detected graphically. AA horses displayed longer swing durations in both limbs ans a shorter angular range of motion (ARM) in scapula and pelvis inclination and in shoulder, hip and forelimb retraction-protraction angles. At lift off, stifle and tarsal joint angles were more flexed. In general, only small differences were observed in AR horse kinematics when compared with the other 2 breeds. AN horses presented negative overtracking length, which was positive in AR and AA. In AN horses the elbow and carpal joints were more flexed at the moment of maximal elevation, elbow and fore-fetlock joints also exhibited a larger ARM due to a smaller angle at maximal flexion. In the hind limbs, tarsal, hind fetlock and retraction-protraction angles presented a larger ARM in AN horses due to greater maximal flexion in the tarsal and hind fetlock joints. Fore- and hind fetlocks were also more flexed in horses from this breed. In conclusion, differences between kinematic variables at the trot were observed in the three breeds studied here, mainly in forelimb joints. The most outstanding feature was the greater forelimb flexion recorded in AN horses than in the other breeds which is consistent with the elevated movements in this breed. In AA horses, the ARM of proximal joints involved in retraction protraction in both fore- and hind limbs was smaller. All the differences observed highlighted the idiosyncratic nature of the trot in each breed; this may influence the functional

  5. Behavior, Color Change and Time for Sexual Inversion in the Protogynous Grouper (Epinephelus adscensionis)

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Richard J.; Khan, Izhar A.; Holt, G. Joan

    2011-01-01

    Hermaphroditism, associated with territoriality and dominance behavior, is common in the marine environment. While male sex-specific coloration patterns have been documented in groupers, particularly during the spawning season, few data regarding social structure and the context for these color displays are available. In the present study, we define the social structure and male typical behavior of rock hind (Epinephelus adscensionis) in the wild. In addition, we detail the captive conditions and time period necessary to induce the onset of the sex-specific coloration and sexual change. At six oil production platform locations in the Gulf of Mexico, rock hind social group size and typical male rock hind social behavior were documented. We observed a rapid temporary color display in rock hind that could be turned on and off within three seconds and was used for confronting territory intruders and displays of aggression towards females. The male-specific “tuxedo” pattern consists of a bright yellow tail, a body with alternating dark brown and white patches and a dark bar extending from the upper mandible to the operculum. Identification and size ranges of male, female and intersex fish collected from oil platforms were determined in conjunction with gonadal histology. Rock hind social order is haremic with one dominant male defending a territory and a linear dominance hierarchy among individuals. In five captive experiments, the largest remaining female rock hind displayed the male specific color pattern within 32d after dominant male removal from the social group. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence in a grouper species of color patterning used to display territoriality and dominance outside of spawning aggregations. The behavioral paradigm described here is a key advance that will enable mechanistic studies of this complex sex change process. PMID:21647429

  6. Social rank, feeding and winter weight loss in red deer: any evidence of interference competition?

    PubMed

    Veiberg, Vebjørn; Loe, Leif Egil; Mysterud, Atle; Langvatn, Rolf; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2004-01-01

    During winter at northern latitudes, large herbivores often exploit patches of concentrated, relatively high quality forage, which may lead to interference competition. The factors affecting success in contests and subsequent dominance rank, such as age and body weight, remain key issues in ungulate behavioural ecology. Maternal effects on offspring body weight are well known, but few studies have investigated if mother's social rank influence offspring rank. Moreover, no study has related dominance rank in ungulates to weight loss during winter. Outcomes of social interactions (n=7,609), feeding time and spatial position in red deer (Cervus elaphus) hinds and calves, and weight loss of calves, were registered from 1981 to 1996 at six winter-feeding sites within the county of Sør-Trøndelag in Norway. The level of aggressiveness was higher among calves than among adult hinds, and the factors determining the outcome of contests also differed. The initiator won the majority of interactions (more than 90% in both hinds and calves). Social rank was related to both age and body weight in adult hinds, and related to body weight and mother rank in calves. The relationship between feeding time and rank was non-linear. Feeding time was correlated with rank only among high ranked hinds, while there was no such relationship among low ranked hinds or calves. There was no correlation between winter weight loss and social rank in calves. Our study therefore underlines that, although frequent aggression is observed at artificial feeding sites of northern herbivores, this is not necessarily sufficient to give rise to interference competition.

  7. Compensatory extension of gestation length with advance of conception in red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    García, Andrés José; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Carrión, Débora; Gaspar-López, Enrique; Gallego, Laureano

    2006-01-01

    Calving date in many mammals is matched to the time of greatest food availability. Out of season calving results in heavy penalties in terms of own and offspring survival or body condition. This study examined whether gestation length is affected by advancing fertilisation. Thirty-six red deer hinds (of the Iberian and Scottish subspecies) were subjected to a synchronisation treatment of oestrus, ovulation, and artificial insemination on three dates, with remaining non-pregnant females mated with an intact male in a last group. Gestation was longer the more the fertilisation was advanced; gestation lasted 241.5+/-1.3 days (d) in the first group, 237.4+/-1.2 d in the second, 235.1+/-1.3 d in the third, and 231.2+/-1.6 d in the last. Mean gestation lasted 234.2+/-0.7 d. Hinds gained less weight during gestation the more the fertilisation was advanced. The difference was due at least in part to net body weight of the hind after calving compared to that at mating, and calves did not differ in birth weight. As early born calves suffer greater mortality in the field, this enlargening of gestation might be a compensatory response of the hinds to match calving with food availability. Under natural conditions, similar small modifications of gestation length may help hinds to overcome short-term adverse conditions for calving. Because calf mortality is correlated with birth weight, hinds may have kept calf birth weight constant at the expense of greater body weight loss.

  8. The effect of timing electrical stimulation to robotic-assisted stepping on neuromuscular activity and associated kinematics.

    PubMed

    Askari, Sina; Chao, TeKang; de Leon, Ray D; Won, Deborah S

    2013-01-01

    Results of previous studies raise the question of how timing neuromuscular functional electrical stimulation (FES) to limb movements during stepping might alter neuromuscular control differently than patterned stimulation alone. We have developed a prototype FES system for a rodent model of spinal cord injury (SCI) that times FES to robotic treadmill training (RTT). In this study, one group of rats (n = 6) was trained with our FES+RTT system and received stimulation of the ankle flexor (tibialis anterior [TA]) muscle timed according to robot-controlled hind-limb position (FES+RTT group); a second group (n = 5) received a similarly patterned stimulation, randomly timed with respect to the rats' hind-limb movements, while they were in their cages (randomly timed stimulation [RS] group). After 4 wk of training, we tested treadmill stepping ability and compared kinematic measures of hind-limb movement and electromyography (EMG) activity in the TA. The FES+RTT group stepped faster and exhibited TA EMG profiles that better matched the applied stimulation profile during training than the RS group. The shape of the EMG profile was assessed by "gamma," a measure that quantified the concentration of EMG activity during the early swing phase of the gait cycle. This gamma measure was 112% higher for the FES+RTT group than for the RS group. The FES+RTT group exhibited burst-to-step latencies that were 41% shorter and correspondingly exhibited a greater tendency to perform ankle flexion movements during stepping than the RS group, as measured by the percentage of time the hind limb was either dragging or in withdrawal. The results from this study support the hypothesis that locomotor training consisting of FES timed to hind-limb movement improves the activation of hind-limb muscle more so than RS alone. Our rodent FES+RTT system can serve as a tool to help further develop this combined therapy to target appropriate neurophysiological changes for locomotor control.

  9. Hybridization between wapiti (Cervus elephus manitobensis) and sika deer (Cervus nippon): a comparison of two artificial insemination techniques.

    PubMed

    Willard, S T; Flores-Foxworth, G; Chapman, S; Drew, M L; Hughes, D M; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1998-09-01

    The present study compared pregnancy rates of sika deer (Cervus nippon) hinds artificially inseminated with frozen-thawed wapiti (Cervus elephus manitobensis) semen by laparoscopic intrauterine or transvaginal/cervical artificial insemination (AI) techniques. Estrous cycles of 59 sika hinds were synchronized with one-half of a norgestomet ear implant. Fourteen days after implant insertion, norgestomet ear implants were removed and hinds received 50 IU of PG-600 intramuscularly, a combination of 50 IU PMSG and 25 IU hCG. Hinds were then randomly allotted for laparoscopic (n = 25) or transvaginal/cervical (n = 34) AI. AI of the hinds with frozen-thawed wapiti semen (40 x 10(6) spermatozoa) was time-fixed to occur at 55 hr for transvaginal/cervical AI and 65 hr for laparoscopic AI postnorgestomet implant removal. Semen deposition for hinds inseminated by transvaginal/cervical AI occurred as follows: vagina. 8.8% (3/34); os cervix, 67.6% (23/34); intracervical, 20.5% (7/34); and uterus, 2.9% (1/34). On day 42 post-AI, transrectal ultrasonography was performed to determine pregnancy rates. Pregnancy rates were not significantly different (P > 0.10) between laparoscopic (8/25, 32.0%) and transvaginal/cervical AI (9/34, 26.4%), with an overall conception rate of 28.8% (17/59). These results indicate that transvaginal/cervical AI techniques can be as effective as laparoscopic AI under some circumstances. Further refinement of the transvaginal/cervical AI technique to improve pregnancy rates might lead to more widespread use of this technique when laparoscopic AI is not possible.

  10. Isomeric [RuCl2(dmso)2(indazole)2] complexes: ruthenium(II)-mediated coupling reaction of acetonitrile with 1H-indazole.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Erwin; Arion, Vladimir B; Rufińska, Anna; Chiorescu, Ion; Schmid, Wolfgang F; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2005-07-21

    Reaction of the antitumor complex trans-[Ru(III)Cl4(Hind)2]- (Hind = indazole) with an excess of dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso) in acetone afforded the complex trans,trans,trans-[Ru(II)Cl2(dmso)2(Hind)2] (1). Two other isomeric compounds trans,cis,cis-[Ru(II)Cl2(dmso)2(Hind)2] (2) and cis,cis,cis-[Ru(II)Cl2(dmso)2(Hind)2] (3) have been obtained on refluxing cis-[Ru(II)Cl(2)(dmso)(4)] with 2 equiv. of indazole in ethanol and methanol, respectively. Isomers 1 and 2 react with acetonitrile yielding the complexes trans-[Ru(II)Cl2(dmso)(Hind){HN=C(Me)ind}].CH3CN (4.CH3CN) and trans,cis-[Ru(II)Cl2(dmso)2{HN=C(Me)ind}].H2O (5.H2O), respectively, containing a cyclic amidine ligand resulting from insertion of the acetonitrile C triple bond N group in the N1-H bond of the N2-coordinated indazole ligand in the nomenclature used for 1H-indazole. These are the first examples of the metal-assisted iminoacylation of indazole. The products isolated have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, electrospray mass-spectrometry, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and solid-state 13C CP MAS NMR spectroscopy. The isomeric structures of 1-3 and the presence of a chelating amidine ligand in 4 and 5 have been confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The electrochemical behavior of 1-5 and the formation of 5 have been studied by cyclic voltammetry.

  11. Avulsion of the origin of the peroneus tertius tendon in a foal.

    PubMed

    Blikslager, A T; Bristol, D G

    1994-05-01

    A 3-month-old foal was examined because of lameness and fracture of the left lateral trochlear ridge of the femur. Arthroscopy of the left femoropatellar joint was elected. After induction of general anesthesia and placement of the foal in dorsal recumbency, it was noticed that the left hind limb was extended at the tibiotarsal joint and flexed at the femorotibial joint. Avulsion fracture at the origin of the peroneus tertius tendon was diagnosed. Fracture fragments were excised. The horse had mild left hind limb lameness at the time of follow-up evaluation 1 year after discharge.

  12. A new species of Metopiinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) parasitizing lepidopteran larvae in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Sheng, Mao-Ling; Xiong, Zi-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Metopiinae, Trieces etuokensis Sheng, sp. n., is described and illustrated. Specimens were reared from two species of Lepidoptera: Bazaria turensis (Ragonot, 1887) (Pyralidae) from Balong, Dulan, Qinghai Province, and an unidentified psychid (Psychidae) from Mukainor, Etuoke, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. The new species is characterized by a yellow face and clypeus, fore and middle femora and hind tibia mainly black, antennae slightly longer than head and mesosoma combined, with 17 flagellomeres, occipital carina entirely absent, and the hind femur being compressed, 2.5 times as its long as maximum width. PMID:28050159

  13. The combined influence of stretch, mobility and electrical stimulation in the prevention of muscle fiber atrophy caused hypokinesia and hypodynamia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldspink, G.; Goldspink, D.; Loughna, P.

    1984-01-01

    The morphological and biochemical changes which occur in the hind limb muscles of the rat in response to hypokinesia and hypodynamia were investigated. Hind limb cast fixation and suspension techniques were employed to study the musclar atrophy after five days of hypokinesia and hypodynamia induced by suspension, appreciable muscular atrophy was apparent, particularly in the anti-gravity muscles. The effect of passive stretching and electrical stimulation on muscle atrophy was studied. Changes in muscle protein mass were assessed with spectrophotometric and radioactive techniques. Passive stretch is shown to counteract muscle disuse atrophy. The change in the numbers of specific muscle fibers in atrophied muscles is discussed.

  14. Suspected disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in a 3-year-old Perro de Presa Canario dog

    PubMed Central

    Denstedt, Emily

    2014-01-01

    A 3-year-old intact male Perro de Presa Canario dog was presented with acutely inflamed and edematous right hind limb, scrotum, prepuce, and an enlarged left carpus. Two weeks later the dog returned with weight loss, draining tracts in the right hind limb, dermal nodules, a palpable abdominal mass, and uveitis in the left eye. The dog succumbed to his illness 2 days later and a widely disseminated round cell tumor compatible with histiocytic sarcoma was diagnosed following postmortem examination. PMID:24489399

  15. [Fundamental biological model for trials of wound ballistics].

    PubMed

    Krajsa, J; Hirt, M

    2006-10-01

    The aim of our experiment was the testing of effects of common ammunition on usable and slightly accessible biological tissue thereby to create fundamental simple biological model for trials of wounded ballistic. Like objective tissue was elected biological material - pork and beef hind-limbs, pork head, pork bodily cavity. It was discovered that objective tissue is able to react to singles types of shots in all spectrum results namely simple smooth penetration wound as well as splintery fracture in dependence on kind of using ammunition. Pork hind-limb was evaluated like the most suitable biological material for given object.

  16. Osteitis of the apex of the third phalanx following foot trimming in a dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P N

    1998-03-01

    An adult Ayrshire cow was presented with bilateral hind-limb lameness 5 weeks after routine claw trimming. Examination under intravenous regional anaesthesia revealed ulceration of the sole at the toe of both the right lateral and left medial claws of the hind limbs. Radiographic examination showed osteolysis and pathological fractures of the 3rd phalanx of both affected claws. Wooden blocks were fixed to the 2 healthy claws and the bone fragments were removed using a different technique for each claw. Full recovery followed within 11 weeks. The aetiological factors and treatment options for this condition, which was considered to be caused primarily by incorrect claw trimming, are discussed.

  17. Active specific immunotherapy using the immune reaction of a low-dose irradiated tumor tissue. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Y.; Imanaka, K.; Ashida, C.; Takashima, H.; Imajo, Y.; Kimura, S.

    1983-04-01

    Active specific immunotherapy using the immune reaction of a low-dose irradiated tumor tissue was studied on the transplanted MM46 tumor of female C3H/He mice after radiotherapy. MM46 tumor cells were inoculated into the right hind paws of mice. On the 5th day, irradiation with the dose irradiated tumor tissue (2000 rad on the fifth day), were injected into the left hind paws of the tumor-bearing mice. Effectiveness of this active specific immunotherapy against tumor was evaluated by the regression of tumor and survival rate of mice. Tumor was markedly regressed and survival rate was significantly increased by the active specific immunitherapy.

  18. Total hip replacement in two dogs with unsuccessful femoral head ostectomy

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Su-Young

    2015-01-01

    An English setter (case 1) and a Tibetan mastiff (case 2) presented with intermittent weight-bearing lameness on the right hind limb when trotting. The dogs had a history of femoral head and neck ostectomy (FHNO). Orthopedic examination revealed pain and crepitus on the right hip joint. The dogs underwent total hip replacement (THR). At the 2-year (case 1) and 1-year (case 2) follow-up, both dogs had resumed normal activity without lameness. The muscle mass and range of motion were significantly improved in the affected hind limb. In conclusion, FHNO with poor functional outcomes can be successfully ameliorated with THR. PMID:25269715

  19. Reactions of potent antitumor complex trans-[Ru(III)Cl4(indazole)2]- with a DNA-relevant nucleobase and thioethers: insight into biological action.

    PubMed

    Egger, Alexander; Arion, Vladimir B; Reisner, Erwin; Cebrián-Losantos, Berta; Shova, Sergiu; Trettenhahn, Günter; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2005-01-10

    Reactions of the complex trans-[RuCl(4)(Hind)(2)](-) (Hind = indazole), which is of clinical relevance today, with both the DNA model nucleobase 9-methyladenine (made) and the thioethers R(2)S (R = Me, Et), as models of the methionine residue in biological molecules possibly acting as nitrogen-competing sulfur-donor ligands for ruthenium atom, have been investigated to get insight into details of mechanism leading to antitumor activity. Three novel ruthenium complexes, viz., [Ru(III)Cl(3)(Hind)(2)(made)], 1, [Ru(II)Cl(2)(Hind)(2)(Me(2)S)(2)], 2, and [Ru(II)Cl(2)(Hind)(2)(Et(2)S)(2)], 3, have been isolated as solids. Oxidation of 2 and 3 with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of 12 M HCl in chloroform afforded the monothioether adducts, viz., [Ru(III)Cl(3)(Hind)(2)(Me(2)S)], 4, and [Ru(III)Cl(3)(Hind)(2)(Et(2)S)], 5. By dissolution of 2 or 3 in DMSO, replacement of both R(2)S ligands by DMSO molecules occurred with isolation of trans,trans,trans-[Ru(II)Cl(2)(Hind)(2)(DMSO)(2)], 6. The products were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-vis, electrospray mass spectrometry, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray crystallography (1.CH(2)Cl(2).CH(3)OH and 1.1.1H(2)O.0.9CH(3)OH, 2, and 5). The first crystallographic evidence for the monofunctional coordination of the 9-methyladenine ligand to ruthenium via N7 and the self-pairing of the complex molecules via H-bonding, using the usual Watson-Crick pairing donor and acceptor sites of two adjacent 9-methyladenine ligands, is reported. The electrochemical behavior of 1-5 has been studied in DMF and DMSO by cyclic voltammetry. The redox potential values have been interpreted on the basis of the Lever's parametrization method. The E(L) parameter was estimated for 9-methyladenine at 0.18 V, showing that this ligand behaves as a weaker net electron donor than imidazole (E(L) = 0.12 V). The kinetics of the reductively induced stepwise replacement of chlorides by DMF in 4 and 5 were studied by digital simulation of the cyclic

  20. A new species of Rhagovelia Mayr, 1865 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Veliidae) from Pará State, with an updated key to Brazilian species of the robusta group.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Oséias Martins; Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo; Galvão, Cleber

    2016-09-29

    Rhagovelia brunae Magalhães & Moreira sp. nov., collected in the State of Pará, Brazil, is described, illustrated, and compared with congeners. The new species belongs to the robusta group and can be differentiated from others by the general color black, abdominal sternum VII with black denticles laterally, male hind trochanter with 1-4 subequal spines plus a longer spine, and male hind femur lacking a medium spine between the proximal and distal rows of spines. Additionally, an updated identification key to species of the robusta group occurring in Brazil is presented.

  1. Identification and Function of Ets Target Genes Involved in Lung Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Progression and Metastasis”. Jun Li1, Julian Carretero2, Carl J O’Hara3, Anne Hinds1, Guetchyn Millien1, Mary C...Primary Adenocarcinoma in Lung” Anita Malek , MD; Hasmeena Kathuria, MD; and Carl O’Hara, MD 12 Conclusions In this progress report, we...Expression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Progression and Metastasis Jun Li1, Julian Carretero2, Carl J O’Hara3, Anne Hinds1, Guetchyn Millien1

  2. Establishment of a new genus for Abraximorpha heringi and A. pieridoides
    (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrginae: Tagiadini).

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhen-Fu; Chiba, Hideyuki; Wang, Min; Fan, Xiao-Ling

    2016-10-04

    A new hesperiid genus, Albiphasma gen. nov., is described with Abraximorpha heringi as the type species. The new genus consists of two species: Al. heringi comb. nov. and Al. pieridoides comb. nov. The genitalia and hair tuft on the hind tibiae suggest that the new genus is related to the genus Pintara rather than the genus Abraximorpha to which the two species have been assigned. The geographic distribution is currently restricted to southern China and Vietnam. The adult, hind leg, wing venation and male genitalia of Al. heringi as well as relevant species are illustrated.

  3. Peripheral competition in the control of sensory neuron numbers in Xenopus frogs reared with a single bilaterally innervated hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Lamb, A H; Ferns, M J; Klose, K

    1989-01-01

    Sensory neurons were counted in the hind-limb innervating spinal ganglia on both sides of juvenile Xenopus frogs which, as tadpoles, had had one hind limb bud amputated prior to innervation, and a channel made to allow innervation of the remaining limb bud from both sides. The total number of sensory neurons surviving on the two sides approximated the number on one side of normal frogs, the ipsilateral and contralateral numbers being negatively correlated. These effects differ markedly from the effects on motoneuron numbers, suggesting different control mechanisms of cell death in the two neuronal classes.

  4. Two new species of Chrysotus Meigen (Diptera, Dolichopodidae) from Siberia, with a key to the Siberian species.

    PubMed

    Negrobov, Oleg P; Barkalov, Anatolij V; Selivanova, Olga V

    2014-06-16

    Two new species from the southern tundra of the Taimyr Peninsula (Russia) are described. Chrysotus tricaudatus Negrobov, Barkalov & Selivanova sp. nov. is similar to C. albibarbus Loew, but can be distinguished by its brown palpus with black setae, yellow hind tibia and base of hind tarsus, and features of the male genitalia. Chrysotus komovi Negrobov, Barkalov & Selivanova sp. nov. is similar to C. obscuripes Zetterstedt, but can be distinguished by features of the male genitalia. A key to all Siberian species of the genus is also presented along with figures of diagnostic morphological characters. 

  5. Numerical and experimental investigation into the aerodynamics of dragonfly flight.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, David; Wang, Z. Jane

    2004-11-01

    Dragonflies have a unique feature in that they drive two pairs of wings independently and modulate the phase delay between them during different modes of flight. To investigate the role of fore-hind wing interactions, we developed a computational tool to simulate flows around multiple wings. We also performed an experiment on tethered dragonflies in order to measure the 3D wing motions and vertical forces. In this talk we report on the comparison of the computed and experimental forces, wing inertia and fluid forces, the passive mechanism of wing rotation, and the effect of fore-hind wing interactions.

  6. Restriction endonuclease analysis of a porcine isolate of bovine herpesvirus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Várady, E; Tuboly, T; Derbyshire, J B

    1994-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) isolated from a stillborn porcine fetus, from the Cooper reference strain of BHV-1, and from an Ontario bovine respiratory isolate. Each DNA was digested with the restriction endonucleases HindIII, EcoRI, HpaI and BamHI. Except for very minor differences in the patterns produced after digestion with EcoRI and HindIII, the DNA of the porcine isolate reacted in a similar manner to the bovine viruses, and it was concluded that the porcine virus is genetically similar to bovine isolates of BHV-1. Images Fig. 1. PMID:8143256

  7. Artificial insemination, hybridization and pregnancy detection in sika deer (Cervus nippon ).

    PubMed

    Willard, S T; Hughes, D M; Bringans, M; Sasser, R G; White, D R; Jaques, J T; Godfrey, R W; Welsh, T H; Randel, R D

    1996-10-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) was performed on sika hinds (Cervus nippon ) receiving various dosages of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG; Year 1: 0, 50 and 100 IU; Year 2: 100 and 150 IU) and using semen collected from elk and 1 2 elk x 1 2 sika stags. The time from synchronization device removal (CIDR vs norgestomet) to estrus was determined through observations of mounting activity. Methods for pregnancy detection, serum progesterone (P4), estrone sulfate (E1S), pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) and ultrasonography, following AI (Year 1: AI, Days 28 and 48 after AI; Year 2: AI, Days 42, 53 and 100 after AI) and a 90-d natural breeding season were investigated. From available production data, body weights were compared among sika and 1 4 elk x 3 4 sika hybrids relative to age. Pregnancy rates tended (P < 0.10) to differ relative to PMSG treatment and sire; administration of 0 IU PMSG resulted in fewer hinds becoming pregnant to AI than 50 or 100 IU of PMSG. Hinds receiving 100 IU of PMSG had higher (P < 0.05) pregnancy rates than hinds receiving 150 IU PMSG. Time to standing estrus did not differ (P > 0.10) between the CIDR and norgestomet groups. Pregnancy rates 50 d after a 90-d breeding season were similar (P > 0.10) between ultrasound (70.9%) and PSPB (61.6%). Serum P4 after 90 d in breeding groups and 50 d after stag removal were higher (P < 0.05) for pregnant than open hinds. Pregnancy rates (Year 1) 48 d after AI were similar (P > 0.10) between ultrasound (49.0%) and PSPB (37.3%). Serum P4 28 and 48 d after AI were higher (P < 0.05) for pregnant than open hinds. Serum E1S was higher (P < 0.01) for pregnant than open hinds 48 d after AI. Pregnancy rates (Year 2) 100 d after AI did not differ (P > 0.10) between ultrasound and PSPB (66.7%). Serum P4 was higher (P < 0.03) in pregnant than open hinds at 42, 53 and 100 d after AI. At 100 d after AI, pregnant hinds had higher (P < 0.002) serum E1S than open hinds. At 6 to 8 and 11 to 13 mo of age, 1 4 elk x

  8. Mississippi's Public Community and Junior Colleges Statistical Data, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges, Jackson.

    This document presents the 1998-1999 statistical data for the following 15 Mississippi (MS) public community and junior colleges: Coahoma, Copiah-Lincoln, East Central, East MS, Hinds, Holmes, Itawamba, Jones, Meridian, MS Delta, MS Gulf Coast, Northeast MS, Northwest MS, Pearl River, and Southwest MS. It begins with a list of State Board members…

  9. Further Development of a Tissue Engineered Muscle Repair Construct In Vitro for Enhanced Functional Recovery Following Implantation In Vivo in a Murine Model of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    strength deficits and EC coupling failure after eccentric contractions. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 298, C365, 2010. 31. Corona, B.T., Rouviere , C...and Roy, R.R. Architecture of the hind limb muscles of cats: functional significance. J Morphol 173, 185, 1982. 36. Corona, B.T., Rouviere , C

  10. Identifying Developmental Cascades among Differentiated Dimensions of Social Competence and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Bethany L.; Perry, Nicole B.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; Shanahan, Lilly

    2015-01-01

    This study used data from 356 children, their mothers, teachers, and peers to examine the longitudinal and dynamic associations among 3 dimensions of social competence derived from Hinde's (1987) framework of social complexity: social skills, peer group acceptance, and friendship quality. Direct and indirect associations among each discrete…

  11. Monitoring changes in skin temperature associated with exercise in horses on a water treadmill by use of infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Yarnell, Kelly; Fleming, Jennifer; Stratton, Tim D; Brassington, Rebecca

    2014-10-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) was used to assess surface temperature change as an indirect measure of muscle activity and exercise associated changes in blood flow in the working hind limb muscles of horses (n=7) undergoing water treadmill exercise. Three treatments were investigated including the treadmill ran dry (TD), water at the height of the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) and water at the height of the carpus (CP). Maximum skin surface temperature was recorded from the region of the semitendinosus muscle during exercise at each water height. There was a significant difference in surface hind limb temperature between exercise on the water treadmill ran dry and with water at the height of the PIP and CP (P<0.0001) with hotter temperatures recorded during the TD treatment. There was a greater increase in surface temperature of the hind limbs from pre exercise to maximum temperature during the PIP and CP treatments when compared to the TD treatment, however, this was not significant (P=0.58). There was no significant difference in surface hind limb temperature found between exercise in water at the height of the PIP and water at the height of the CP. The findings from this study suggest that IRT is able to non-invasively detect muscle activity and associated changes in blood flow whilst horses are exercised on a water treadmill. IRT could potentially be used as an alternative method to assess muscle activity and temperature change in an aquatic environment where existing methods present methodological challenges.

  12. Chronic maternal low-protein diet in mice affects anxiety, night-time energy expenditure and sleep patterns, but not circadian rhythm in male offspring

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Offspring of murine dams chronically fed a protein-restricted diet have an increased risk for metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Previously we showed that adult offspring, developmentally exposed to a chronic maternal low-protein (MLP) diet, had lower body and hind-leg muscle weights and decre...

  13. Campus Communications in the Age of Crises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Recent catastrophes have brought about numerous critiques and changes to campus communications. In this article, the author shares the lessons she has learned from the crises she experienced during her 18 years of being the president of Trinity (Washington) University. Furthermore, Joan Hinde Stewart, president of Hamilton College, adds her…

  14. 77 FR 25143 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... existing deepwater Coral Habitat Areas of Particular Concern, and measures to reduce bycatch mortality on speckled hind and Warsaw grouper through the creation or expansion of marine protected areas. The AP will... Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  15. The Johns Hopkins RTR Consortium: A Collaborative Approach to Advance Translational Science and Standardize Clinical Monitoring of Restorative Transplantation - Immunomodulation and Tolerance Induction after VCA using Biologic Agent (cTLA4-Ig) and Donor Bone Marrow Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    the heterotopic hind limb allotransplants is a complex endeavor requiring expertise in surgical principles, microvascular surgery , and transplant... surgery . Preoperative planning and coordination is paramount to success, as well as diligent postoperative care of the animals. Moreover, all co...of the project to other laboratory members. Attendance at conferences and seminars is planned to further develop members of the project. d. How

  16. Further Reflections on an Evolutionary Theory of Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Responds to Maccoby's and Hinde's commentaries on the Belsky, et al. article in this issue. Highlights several points of concurrence and disagreement. Draws attention to the potential benefits of asking questions about proximal and ultimate causation simultaneously and, thus, the need for child developmentalists to think about both the how and why…

  17. A thymic carcinoid in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Powe, Joshua; Castleman, William; Fiorello, Christine

    2005-09-01

    An 18-yr-old Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) presented with acute onset hind limb paresis. Radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging revealed a caudal abdominal aortic thrombus and a cranial mediastinal mass. Necropsy confirmed aortic thrombosis. Necrotizing enteritis and multifocal renal thrombosis were also noted. The cranial mediastinum contained a bilobed mass that histologically and ultrastructurally was consistent with a carcinoid.

  18. 77 FR 27374 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... in relation to MFMT were for the 1999 and 1990 fishing years for speckled hind and warsaw grouper... and warsaw grouper occurs only once in these documents. In the preamble's classification section of... of the Council's Advisory Panels and SSC. The Council will be holding public workshops in 2012 where...

  19. Effects of body mass index on plantar pressure and balance.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Se-Won; Park, Woong-Sik; Lee, Jeong-Woo

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] To suggest physiotherapy programs and to determine foot stability based on the results of plantar pressure and spontaneity balance in the normal group and in the obesity group according to the body mass index (BMI). [Subjects and Methods] The plantar pressure and balance of 20 females college students in their 20s were measured according to their BMI. BMI was measured by using BMS 330. The peak plantar pressure was measured in a static position in the forefoot and hind-foot areas. To study balance, the spontaneity balance of each foot was measured on both stable and unstable surfaces. [Results] In terms of plantar pressure, no significant change was observed in the forefoot and hind-foot peak pressure. In terms of spontaneity balance, no significant difference in foot position interaction was observed on both stable and unstable surfaces, while a significant difference was observed in the foot position between the groups. [Conclusion] The index of hind-foot spontaneity balance was low, particularly in the obesity group. This meant significant hind-foot swaying. The forefoot body weight support percentage increased to reinforce the reduced spontaneity balance index.

  20. Na+ Dysregulation Coupled with Ca2+ Entry through NCX1 Promotes Muscular Dystrophy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Burr, Adam R.; Millay, Douglas P.; Goonasekera, Sanjeewa A.; Park, Ki Ho; Sargent, Michelle A.; Collins, James; Altamirano, Francisco; Philipson, Kenneth D.; Allen, Paul D.; Ma, Jianjie; López, José Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Unregulated Ca2+ entry is thought to underlie muscular dystrophy. Here, we generated skeletal-muscle-specific transgenic (TG) mice expressing the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger 1 (NCX1) to model its identified augmentation during muscular dystrophy. The NCX1 transgene induced dystrophy-like disease in all hind-limb musculature, as well as exacerbated the muscle disease phenotypes in δ-sarcoglycan (Sgcd−/−), Dysf−/−, and mdx mouse models of muscular dystrophy. Antithetically, muscle-specific deletion of the Slc8a1 (NCX1) gene diminished hind-limb pathology in Sgcd−/− mice. Measured increases in baseline Na+ and Ca2+ in dystrophic muscle fibers of the hind-limb musculature predicts a net Ca2+ influx state due to reverse-mode operation of NCX1, which mediates disease. However, the opposite effect is observed in the diaphragm, where NCX1 overexpression mildly protects from dystrophic disease through a predicted enhancement in forward-mode NCX1 operation that reduces Ca2+ levels. Indeed, Atp1a2+/− (encoding Na+-K+ ATPase α2) mice, which have reduced Na+ clearance rates that would favor NCX1 reverse-mode operation, showed exacerbated disease in the hind limbs of NCX1 TG mice, similar to treatment with the Na+-K+ ATPase inhibitor digoxin. Treatment of Sgcd−/− mice with ranolazine, a broadly acting Na+ channel inhibitor that should increase NCX1 forward-mode operation, reduced muscular pathology. PMID:24662047

  1. 78 FR 65972 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Scoping Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ..., Bajo de Sico, and Tourmaline Bank. The goal of modifying the closures is to protect the red hind... Closed Areas off Puerto Rico: Abrir La Sierra Bank, Bajo de Sico, and Tourmaline Bank,'' considers the... Abrir La Sierra to 12 months. Action 2: Modify the length of the closed season for Tourmaline Bank...

  2. Stress: Family, Economic, and Management Considerations. Papers of the Annual Conference of the Western Region Home Management Family Economics Educators (28th, Salt Lake City, Utah, November 3-5, 1988). Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holyoak, Arlene, Ed.

    These proceedings consist of 16 papers, some of which are followed by discussants' comments. They include: "Growing Older in a Rural Retirement Community" (Brokaw, Peters, Tripple; discussants Olson, Tucker; "An Interactive Computer Model for Achieving Personal Financial Goals" (Dilbeck, Hinds, Ulivi; discussants Burton, Peterson); "The Economics…

  3. Fine mapping for Weaver Syndrome in the Brown Swiss breed with the identification of possible casual mutations across NRCAM, PNPLA8, and CTTNBP2 and Developement of a diagnostic SNP haplotype

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bovine Progressive Degenerative Myeloencephalopathy (Weaver Syndrome) is a recessive neurological disease that has been observed in the Brown Swiss cattle breed since the 1970’s in North America and Europe. Bilateral hind leg weakness and ataxia appear in afflicted animals at 6 to 18 months of age,...

  4. Cycles of Frankliniella spp. thrips abundance on North Florida uncultivated reproductive hosts: Predicting possible sources of pest outbreaks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Frankliniella spp. thrips damage a wide variety of crops, feed on a broad range of hosts, and often migrate into cropping systems from adjacent vegetation. In order to determine potential sources of Frankliniella spp. thrips, cycles of abundance of F. occidentalis (Pergande), F. fusca (Hinds), F. b...

  5. 5-AZA-2'-DEOXYCYTIDINE INDUCED CYTOTOXICITY AND LONG BONE REDUCTION DEFECTS IN THE MURINE LIMB

    EPA Science Inventory

    The antineoplastic drug 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (dAZA) is a DNA hypomethylating agent that can be used to induce hind limb phocomelia in the offspring of CD-1 Swiss Webster mice. Previously, our laboratory investigated the possibility that dAZA induced alterations in gene express...

  6. A remarkable new species of Eutrichopoda Townsend, 1908 (Diptera: Tachinidae: Phasiinae).

    PubMed

    Dios, Rodrigo De Vilhena Perez; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo

    2016-06-08

    A new Tachinidae species, Eutrichopoda flavipenna sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae: Phasiinae), from Brazil and Paraguay is described and illustrated by photographs and line drawings. The remarkable yellow, feather-like setae on the hind tibia distinguishes the new species from all other species in the tribe Trichopodini.

  7. Stress: Family, Economic, and Management Considerations. Papers of the Annual Conference of the Western Region Home Management Family Economics Educators (28th, Salt Lake City, Utah, November 3-5, 1988). Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holyoak, Arlene, Ed.

    These proceedings consist of 16 papers, some of which are followed by discussants' comments. They include: "Growing Older in a Rural Retirement Community" (Brokaw, Peters, Tripple; discussants Olson, Tucker; "An Interactive Computer Model for Achieving Personal Financial Goals" (Dilbeck, Hinds, Ulivi; discussants Burton, Peterson); "The Economics…

  8. Bibliography: ARI Research on Command and Control (1970-80)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    assistance in compiling and editing the abstracts provided in this document and their contribution is gratefully acknowledged. Ivi I CONTENTS Pago II... gestions for implementing these research firdings. Sidorsky, R. C. Color coding in tactical displays: Help or hindAnce. Technical Report 496

  9. Caprine herpesvirus-2 in association with naturally occurring malignant catarrhal fever in captive sika deer (Cervus nippon).

    PubMed

    Keel, M Kevin; Patterson, J Gage; Noon, Ted H; Bradley, Gregory A; Collins, James K

    2003-03-01

    Three female sika deer from a single captive herd were submitted for postmortem examination over a 139-day period. The first 2 deer submitted were reported to have lost body mass for 20 days to 1 month before euthanasia. One of these deer had diarrhea, the other had a crusting dermatitis on the nasal planum and inner aspects of both pinnae. The third hind did not have any signs of disease before it was found seizuring and was immediately euthanatized. Microscopically, all 3 animals had a lymphocytic vasculitis typical of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), with the most severe lesions in the brain. All 3 deer were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2) and were negative for ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV-2). Two healthy goats that were housed adjacent to the deer were also PCR positive for CpHV-2 and PCR negative for OHV-2. The CpHV-2, PCR amplicons from the hinds, and the 2 healthy goats had an identical single base polymorphism. A male sika deer that was housed with the hinds and a fawn from 1 of the hinds remained asymptomatic and were PCR negative for CpHV-2. This represents the first report of mortality with MCF-like lesions in association with CpHV-2.

  10. Wildlife of southern forests habitat & management (Chapter 15): Rabbits

    Treesearch

    James G. Dickson

    2003-01-01

    Rabbits, or lagomorphs, resemble rodents. But unlike rodents they have relatively large hind legs, large ears, a short fluffy tail, and 2 sets of upper incisors. Like rodents their incisors grow continually. They can either walk or hop, and are fleet and elusive when evading predators. They normally are silent but are capable of several different vocalizations. Rabbits...

  11. 75 FR 82280 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... (injuries sustained in response to the sudden pressure change when brought to the surface from depth), in... often caught with speckled hind and warsaw grouper in deeper waters would reduce the incentive to target... deeper waters is common in the southern area of the Council's jurisdiction i.e., southeast Florida...

  12. Temporospatial and kinetic characteristics of sheep walking on a pressure sensing walkway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jongmin; Breur, Gert J.

    2008-01-01

    The walking gait of sheep was analyzed in terms of temporospatial and kinetic parameters and weight distribution among the 4 limbs. Eighteen mature female Suffolk-mix sheep walked comfortably with a halter-guide over a 1.5-m pressure sensing walkway. Six valid trials were acquired for each sheep without any previous selection or habituation. Stance phases of the forelimb and hind limb were 66.3% and 68.9%, respectively, of total gait cycle, and limb velocity was 1.06 m/s in both forelimbs and hind limbs while walking. The mean peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse (VI) as percentage of body weight in the forelimbs were 52.5% and 19.9%, respectively, and those of the hind limbs were 38.5% and 14.9%, respectively. More body weight was loaded on the forelimbs than the hind limbs, at 59% and 41% of body weight, respectively. The walking gait of sheep measured with the pressure sensing (PS) walkway was similar to that reported in dogs and horses. The PS walkway enabled collection of temporospatial and kinetic data, and simplified the process of data collection. PMID:18214162

  13. Mesh skin graft and digital pad transfer to reconstruct the weight-bearing surface in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Rahal, Sheila C.; Mortari, Ana C.; Morishin Filho, Milton M.

    2007-01-01

    A 2-month-old dog was presented with injuries involving both hind paws. Only the 5th digit and its digital pad were present on the right paw. Following a full-thickness skin graft, the 5th digital pad was transferred distal to the metatarsal bones. The transferred pad permitted weight-bearing on the limb. PMID:18189047

  14. Roundtable: What Is Temperament? Four Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, H. Hill; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Four current approaches to understanding temperament are discussed. Theorists representing four postions--Goldsmith, Buss and Plomin, Rothbart, and Thomas and Chess--outline their views by reponding to six common questions. Commentaries highlighting differences and similarities between the positions are offered by Hinde and McCall. (Author/BN)

  15. Development of a high-density intra-specific linkage map of lettuce using genotyping by sequencing (GBS)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) has been developed as an affordable application of next-generation sequencing for the purposes of discovering and genotyping SNPs in a variety of crop species and populations. In this study we employed a double restriction enzyme digestion protocol (HindIII and NlaIII)...

  16. Genetic variability in the pistachio late blight fungus, Alternaria alternata

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic variation in the pistachio late blight fungus, Alternaria alternata, was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in the rDNA region. Southern hybridization of EcoRI, HindIII, and Xbal digested fungal DNA with a RNA probe derived from Alt1, an rDNA clone isolated from ...

  17. Generation of BAC-end sequences for rainbow trout genome analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For non-sequenced genomes, BAC end sequences (BES) provide a valuable sample of repetitive elements and gene content. Here we report the results of BAC end sequencing of just over half of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Swanson HindIII library. We sequenced 177,860 BAC ends that generated 17...

  18. Differences in the timing of prechondrogenic limb development in mammals: the marsupial-placental dichotomy resolved.

    PubMed

    Sears, Karen E

    2009-08-01

    In contrast to placentals, marsupials are born with forelimbs that are greatly developmentally advanced relative to their hind limbs. Despite significant interest, we still do not know why this is the case, or how this difference is achieved developmentally. Studies of prechondrogenic and chondrogenic limbs have supported the traditional hypothesis that marsupial forelimb development is accelerated in response to the functional requirements of the newborn's crawl to the teat. However, limb ossification studies have concluded that, rather than the forelimb being accelerated, hind limb development is delayed. By increasing the taxonomic coverage and number of prechondrogenic events relative to previous studies, and combining traditional phylogenetic analyses of event sequences with novel analyses of relative developmental rates, this study demonstrates that the timing of limb development in marsupials is more complex than commonly thought. The marsupial phenotype was derived through two independent evolutionary changes in developmental rate: (1) an acceleration of the forelimb's first appearance and (2) a delay of hind limb development from the bud stage onward. Surprisingly, this study also provides some support for an evolutionary acceleration of the marsupial hind limb's first appearance. Further study is needed on the developmental and genetic mechanisms driving these major evolutionary transitions.

  19. Army Rotary-Wing Aggressors: The Key to Counter-Helicopter Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Stendhal Airfields in East Germany where, so far as is known, the first photography of the aircraft reached the West.វ> FIGURE 5 (Source: Mike Spick...1976, supplementing the existing attack regiments at Stendhal and Parch~m Airfields. The HIND-D soon earned the nickname Gorbach (Hunchback) due to

  20. Dynamic Pattern Formation for Wings of Pterygota in an Eclosion ---Pattern Analysis for Wings with the Imago---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seino, M.; Kakazu, Y.

    The vein and cell patterns for the fore and hind wing of Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Odonata are analyzed and discussed. For vein patterns of them, the fractal properties are shown and the inequality between four orders is obtained. The nature of wings observed by mass distributions for fractal dimensions of the vein pattern is presented.

  1. Assessment of temperament in Rusa timorensis and its relationship to stress.

    PubMed

    Mahre, M B; Wahid, H; Rosnina, Y; Jesse, F F A

    2015-03-01

    The delayed domestication of may be associated with their poor temperament and to date there is no published information on the temperament of the farmed Understanding of the temperament and selection program for its evaluation in a breeding herd is important not only for farming but also to other types of animal production. We investigated the temperament of ( = 17) raised in the tropics and determined its relationship with stress. A distance of 13.2 m was fixed for the measurement of flight times. hinds with rapid speed are considered temperamental. Each hind was earmarked for a crush test score between 1 and 5; 1 represents calm and 5 represents highly agitated . Stress was determined by measuring plasma cortisol using a cortisol RIA kit and live weight gain was determined by weighing the animals weekly. The hinds were aged using their date of birth records. We found a strong negative correlation between flight time, crush score, and plasma cortisol concentration ( < 0.05). Animals with very poor temperament have elevated plasma cortisol level and lower weight gain ( < 0.05). It was concluded that flight time, crush score, and plasma cortisol concentration could be used for selecting hinds based on temperament for the breeding herd. This method is quick and easy to implement on a farm; therefore, it remains the test choice for selecting animals based on temperament for the breeding herd.

  2. Use of magnetic resonance imaging-guided biopsy of a vertebral body mass to diagnose osteosarcoma in a Rottweiler.

    PubMed

    Krimins, Rebecca A; Fritz, Jan; Gainsburg, Larry A; Gavin, Patrick R; Ihms, Elizabeth A; Huso, David L; Kraitchman, Dara L

    2017-04-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 9-year-old spayed female Rottweiler with hind limb ataxia was examined because of anorexia and an acute onset of hind limb paresis. CLINICAL FINDINGS Neurologic evaluation revealed hind limb ataxia and symmetric paraparesis with bilaterally abnormal hind limb postural reactions including hopping, hemiwalking, hemistanding, and delayed proprioception, which were suggestive of a lesion somewhere in the T3-L3 segment of the spinal cord. Thoracolumbar radiography revealed an abnormal radiopacity suggestive of a mass at T11. Two 3.5-cm-long osseous core biopsy specimens of the mass were obtained by MRI guidance. Histologic appearance of the specimens was consistent with osteosarcoma. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME The owners of the dog declined further treatment owing to a poor prognosis. The dog was euthanized within 12 months after diagnosis because of a declining quality of life. CLINICAL RELEVANCE The acquisition of biopsy specimens by MRI guidance is an emerging technique in veterinary medicine. As evidenced by the dog of this report, MRI-guided biopsy can be used to safely obtain diagnostic biopsy specimens from tissues at anatomic locations that are difficult to access. This technique can potentially be used to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of disease, which could improve patient outcome. The MRI guidance technique described may also be useful for local administration of chemotherapeutics or radiofrequency ablation or cryoablation of various neoplasms of the vertebral column.

  3. 76 FR 32025 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Proposed Rulemaking To Revise Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... to draw the hind-flippers under the body for movement on land. The Hawaiian monk seal falls within..., they may develop a red or green tinge from algal growth on their pelage (Kenyon and Rice, 1959). Monk... movement among the NWHI, among the MHI, and, on rare occurrence, from the NWHI to the MHI (Littnan et...

  4. Increased plasma d-lactic acid associated with impaired memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Hanstock, T L; Mallet, P E; Clayton, E H

    2010-12-02

    d-Lactic acidosis is associated with memory impairment in humans. Recent research indicates that d-lactic acid may inhibit the supply of energy from astrocytes to neurons involved with memory formation. However, little is known about the effects of increased hind-gut fermentation due to changes in diet on circulating lactic acid concentrations and memory. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were fed three dietary treatments: a commercial rat and mouse chow, a soluble carbohydrate based diet or a fermentable carbohydrate based diet. The parameters estimating memory were examined by employing the object recognition test. Physical parameters of fermentation including hind-gut and plasma lactic acid concentrations were examined after sacrifice, either 3 or 21h after feeding. Increased fermentation in the hind-gut of rats, indicated by lower caecum pH, was associated with increased plasma l-lactic acid (r=-0.41, p=0.020) and d-lactic acid (r=-0.33, p=0.087). Memory, being able to discriminate between a familiar and a novel object during the object recognition test, was reduced with increasing plasma d-lactic acid (r=-0.51, p=0.021). Memory impairment was associated with alterations in plasma d-lactic acid following the fermentation of carbohydrate in the hind-gut. Further work is still required to determine whether these effects are mediated centrally or via direct connections through the enteric nervous system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An Integrative Wave Model for the Marginal Ice Zone based on a Rheological Parameterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Key individuals are the PI, a postdoc, and Erick Rogers. Task 8: The modified WW3 will be tested using both hind- and fore- casts . WORK... slurry . Fig. 2. Reflection and transmission coefficients with respect to wave period. (a) From open water to an ice cover; (b) between two

  6. Bacterial diskospondylitis in juvenile mink from 2 Ontario mink farms

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Jorge; Vidaña, Beatriz; Cruz-Arambulo, Robert; Slavic, Durda; Tapscott, Brian; Brash, Marina L.

    2013-01-01

    Nine juvenile mink with hind-limb paresis/paralysis from 2 Ontario farms were submitted for necropsy. Diagnostic tests revealed spinal compression and severe thoracic diskospondylitis with intralesional Gram-positive coccoid bacterial colonies. Streptococcus canis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, and hemolytic Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from vertebral lesions. PMID:24155490

  7. Na+ dysregulation coupled with Ca2+ entry through NCX1 promotes muscular dystrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Burr, Adam R; Millay, Douglas P; Goonasekera, Sanjeewa A; Park, Ki Ho; Sargent, Michelle A; Collins, James; Altamirano, Francisco; Philipson, Kenneth D; Allen, Paul D; Ma, Jianjie; López, José Rafael; Molkentin, Jeffery D

    2014-06-01

    Unregulated Ca(2+) entry is thought to underlie muscular dystrophy. Here, we generated skeletal-muscle-specific transgenic (TG) mice expressing the Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger 1 (NCX1) to model its identified augmentation during muscular dystrophy. The NCX1 transgene induced dystrophy-like disease in all hind-limb musculature, as well as exacerbated the muscle disease phenotypes in δ-sarcoglycan (Sgcd(-/-)), Dysf(-/-), and mdx mouse models of muscular dystrophy. Antithetically, muscle-specific deletion of the Slc8a1 (NCX1) gene diminished hind-limb pathology in Sgcd(-/-) mice. Measured increases in baseline Na(+) and Ca(2+) in dystrophic muscle fibers of the hind-limb musculature predicts a net Ca(2+) influx state due to reverse-mode operation of NCX1, which mediates disease. However, the opposite effect is observed in the diaphragm, where NCX1 overexpression mildly protects from dystrophic disease through a predicted enhancement in forward-mode NCX1 operation that reduces Ca(2+) levels. Indeed, Atp1a2(+/-) (encoding Na(+)-K(+) ATPase α2) mice, which have reduced Na(+) clearance rates that would favor NCX1 reverse-mode operation, showed exacerbated disease in the hind limbs of NCX1 TG mice, similar to treatment with the Na(+)-K(+) ATPase inhibitor digoxin. Treatment of Sgcd(-/-) mice with ranolazine, a broadly acting Na(+) channel inhibitor that should increase NCX1 forward-mode operation, reduced muscular pathology.

  8. Sequencing the Pig Genome Using a Mapped BAC by BAC Approach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have generated a highly contiguous physical map covering >98% of the pig genome in just 176 contigs. The map is localised to the genome through integration with the UIUC RH map as well BAC end sequence alignments to the human genome. Over 265k HindIII restriction digest fingerprints totalling 1...

  9. Postanesthetic hemorrhagic myelopathy or myelomalacia.

    PubMed

    Trim, C M

    1997-04-01

    Hemorrhagic myelopathy or myelomalacia is an uncommon cause of failure to stand after general anesthesia. Affected horses are usually young and have been anesthetized for relatively short times in dorsal recumbency. Clinical signs involve the hind limbs and include loss of deep pain perception. Etiology of this condition is not known. Differentiation from other forms of neuropathy and myopathy is important to the prognosis.

  10. A distinct Mendelian autosomal recessive syndrome involving the association of anotia, palate agenesis, bifid tongue, and polydactyly in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Villagómez, D A; Alonso, R A

    1998-01-01

    A presumed genetic syndrome is described in a family of St. Bernards. Four identically affected littermates presented the association of palate agenesis, anotia, incomplete bifid tongue, preaxial hind paw polydactyly, and an extra thoracic vertebra and rib. Pedigree analysis is compatible with an autosomal recessive gene. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9789676

  11. Experiment K-7-21: Effect of Microgravity on 1: Metabolic Enzymes of Type 1 and Type 2 Muscle Fibers, and on 2: Metabolic Enzymes, Neurotransmitter Amino Acids, and Neurotransmitter Associated Enzymes in Selected Regions of the Central Nervous System. Part 1; Metabolic Enzymes of Individual Muscle Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, O. H.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Krasnov, I. B.; Carter, J. G.; Chi, M. M.-Y.; Choksi, R.; Manchester, J. K.; McDougal, D. B.; Nemeth, P. M.; Pusateri, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    Individual fibers of any given muscle vary widely in enzyme composition, a fact obscured when enzyme levels of whole muscle are measured. Therefore, the purpose of this part of the study was to assess the effects of microgravity and hind limb suspension on the enzyme patterns within a slow twitch muscle (soleus) and a fast twitch muscle (tibialis anterior).

  12. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of porcupine quill foreign bodies in the plantar flexor tendon sheath region in a heifer.

    PubMed

    Mulon, Pierre-Yves; Achard, Damien; Babkine, Marie

    2010-08-01

    A 17-month-old Holstein heifer was presented for persistent enlargement above the right hind fetlock of 1-month's duration. Diffuse plantar soft tissue swelling was present on the radiographs and ultrasonography revealed the presence of multiple porcupine quill extremities embedded in the subcutaneous tissue within the flexor tendon sheath wall. Surgical removal was performed.

  13. Campus Communications in the Age of Crises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Recent catastrophes have brought about numerous critiques and changes to campus communications. In this article, the author shares the lessons she has learned from the crises she experienced during her 18 years of being the president of Trinity (Washington) University. Furthermore, Joan Hinde Stewart, president of Hamilton College, adds her…

  14. Transformation of NIH 3T3 cells with cloned fragments of human cytomegalovirus strain AD169.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, J A; Fleckenstein, B; Galloway, D A; McDougall, J K

    1982-01-01

    NIH 3T3 cells were transfected with restriction endonuclease and cloned human cytomegalovirus DNA fragments to identify the transforming region(s). Cleavage of human cytomegalovirus strain AD169 DNA with XbaI and HindIII left a transforming region intact whereas EcoRI inactivated this function. Transfection of cells with cosmids containing human cytomegalovirus DNA spanning the entire genome resulted in transformation by one cosmid, pCM1058, with the AD169 HindIII DNA fragments E, R, T, and a'. Cells were selected for their growth in 1.2% methylcellulose. The clones isolated had a significant replating efficiency and were oncogenic in BALB/c nu/nu mice. Transfection of cosmids and plasmids containing subsets of the viral sequences in pCM1058 identified a common region possessed by all of the transforming recombinant molecules. This region was in the HindIII E fragment with the left boundary defined by the EcoRI d-R junction and the right boundary defined by the HindIII E-T junction. Further mapping and transfection experiments determined that the transforming region was contained without a 2.9-kilobase fragment between map units 0.123 and 0.14 on the prototype molecule of the AD169 strain. Images PMID:6287019

  15. Pathophysiology of Non-Freezing Cold Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    infantry and marine operations carried out in inclement weather conditions. The term NFCI is used to identify the syndrome that results from damage to...during the entire experiment. An electric clipper was used to remove hair from the hind limb as well as from the front of the neck area. A tracheostomy

  16. Teachers Think Aloud about Picture Books for Teaching Social Studies in the Primary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Judith Marie

    2012-01-01

    Social studies has long been relegated to the sidelines in the elementary grades. Teachers have often used children's literature to teach social studies (e.g., Hicks, 1996; Hinde, 2005, 2009; Kent & Simpson, 2008) but there are concerns that this integration shortchanges social studies learning (e.g., Alleman & Brophy, 1993, 1994; Brophy,…

  17. Identifying Developmental Cascades among Differentiated Dimensions of Social Competence and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Bethany L.; Perry, Nicole B.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; Shanahan, Lilly

    2015-01-01

    This study used data from 356 children, their mothers, teachers, and peers to examine the longitudinal and dynamic associations among 3 dimensions of social competence derived from Hinde's (1987) framework of social complexity: social skills, peer group acceptance, and friendship quality. Direct and indirect associations among each discrete…

  18. Bacterial diskospondylitis in juvenile mink from 2 Ontario mink farms.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Jorge; Vidaña, Beatriz; Cruz-Arambulo, Robert; Slavic, Durda; Tapscott, Brian; Brash, Marina L

    2013-09-01

    Nine juvenile mink with hind-limb paresis/paralysis from 2 Ontario farms were submitted for necropsy. Diagnostic tests revealed spinal compression and severe thoracic diskospondylitis with intralesional Gram-positive coccoid bacterial colonies. Streptococcus canis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, and hemolytic Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from vertebral lesions.

  19. Teachers Think Aloud about Picture Books for Teaching Social Studies in the Primary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Judith Marie

    2012-01-01

    Social studies has long been relegated to the sidelines in the elementary grades. Teachers have often used children's literature to teach social studies (e.g., Hicks, 1996; Hinde, 2005, 2009; Kent & Simpson, 2008) but there are concerns that this integration shortchanges social studies learning (e.g., Alleman & Brophy, 1993, 1994; Brophy,…

  20. Vaccine-associated fibrosarcoma with keloidal differentiation in a cat.

    PubMed

    Gumber, Sanjeev; Wakamatsu, Nobuko

    2011-09-01

    A 6-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat was presented with a history of subcutaneous mass of the lateral left hind limb. The subcutaneous mass developed over a period of approximately 16 months subsequent to administration of Feline leukemia virus vaccines. Based on the histopathological and immunohistochemical examination, the subcutaneous mass was diagnosed as vaccine-associated fibrosarcoma with keloidal differentiation.

  1. 5-AZA-2'-DEOXYCYTIDINE INDUCED CYTOTOXICITY AND LONG BONE REDUCTION DEFECTS IN THE MURINE LIMB

    EPA Science Inventory

    The antineoplastic drug 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (dAZA) is a DNA hypomethylating agent that can be used to induce hind limb phocomelia in the offspring of CD-1 Swiss Webster mice. Previously, our laboratory investigated the possibility that dAZA induced alterations in gene express...

  2. Effects of body mass index on plantar pressure and balance

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Se-Won; Park, Woong-Sik; Lee, Jeong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To suggest physiotherapy programs and to determine foot stability based on the results of plantar pressure and spontaneity balance in the normal group and in the obesity group according to the body mass index (BMI). [Subjects and Methods] The plantar pressure and balance of 20 females college students in their 20s were measured according to their BMI. BMI was measured by using BMS 330. The peak plantar pressure was measured in a static position in the forefoot and hind-foot areas. To study balance, the spontaneity balance of each foot was measured on both stable and unstable surfaces. [Results] In terms of plantar pressure, no significant change was observed in the forefoot and hind-foot peak pressure. In terms of spontaneity balance, no significant difference in foot position interaction was observed on both stable and unstable surfaces, while a significant difference was observed in the foot position between the groups. [Conclusion] The index of hind-foot spontaneity balance was low, particularly in the obesity group. This meant significant hind-foot swaying. The forefoot body weight support percentage increased to reinforce the reduced spontaneity balance index. PMID:27942127

  3. Milk drop due to leptospirosis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    2015-03-07

    Leptospiral milk drop in dairy cows. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mastitis in a cow. Systemic pasteurellosis in lambs. Encephalopathy due to water deprivation/salt poisoning suspected in weaned lambs. Biliary cystadenoma in a red deer hind. These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for November 2014 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). British Veterinary Association.

  4. Radiographic and computed tomographic evaluation and gait analysis of Brazilian minipigs with syndactyly.

    PubMed

    Justolin, Pedro L T; Rahal, Sheila C; Agostinho, Felipe S; Mamprim, Maria J; Teixeira, Carlos R; Doiche, Danuta P; Babicsak, Vivian R

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize a population of Brazilian minipigs with naturally occurring syndactyly by use of plain radiographs and CT images and to evaluate kinetic and temporospatial variables by use of a pressure-sensing walkway. ANIMALS 10 Brazilian minipigs from 6 to 8 months of age (group 1, 5 healthy pigs [body weight, 10.5 to 18.5 kg]; group 2, 5 pigs with syndactyly [body weight, 7.5 to 18.0 kg]). PROCEDURES Forelimbs and hind limbs of all pigs were assessed by use of radiography and CT. Gait was analyzed by use of a pressure-sensing walkway. RESULTS All limbs of all pigs of group 2 had syndactyly. Two forelimbs had complex-1 syndactyly, and 8 forelimbs had complex-2 syndactyly. Four hind limbs had simple syndactyly, 1 hind limb had complex-1 syndactyly, and 5 hind limbs had complex-2 syndactyly. Kinetic and temporospatial values and symmetry indices did not differ between groups. Plantar and palmar surfaces of healthy pigs had 2 areas of maximum pressure, whereas plantar and palmar surfaces of pigs with syndactyly had only 1 area of maximum pressure. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this population of pigs, the most common type of syndactyly was complex-2, and comparison with the healthy group revealed no alteration in kinetic and temporospatial variables. Therefore, results suggested that syndactyly in young minipigs did not cause locomotor disturbances.

  5. [Effects of ablation of the hindlimb on the organization of the ventral horn of the spinal cord in the lumbar region of green lizard embryos (Lacerta viridis Laur.)].

    PubMed

    Raynaud, A; Clairambault, P

    1978-01-01

    After extirpation of an hind limb in embryos of Lacerta viridis, numerous motor neuroblasts degenerate on the operated side, in the ventral horn of the lumbar spinal cord and the corresponding motor column is reduced or disappears. The lumbar spinal ganglia are affected and reduced on the operated side.

  6. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, ROACH & ANT SPRAY, 01 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... r. t"414 ins.cn hiM. AIIO "hind ani IM ~ .. th ~_inetl. ",'rite,ato". Iln~s. Ito .... l •• -:c. 5gr.y Ot"-r loc..aJilM ., ••• i"'IIte4 .It'" t""-II peUI ..... It tre.t -.,t IS r ... i rd . ...

  7. Experiment K-7-21: Effect of Microgravity on 1: Metabolic Enzymes of Type 1 and Type 2 Muscle Fibers, and on 2: Metabolic Enzymes, Neurotransmitter Amino Acids, and Neurotransmitter Associated Enzymes in Selected Regions of the Central Nervous System. Part 1; Metabolic Enzymes of Individual Muscle Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, O. H.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Krasnov, I. B.; Carter, J. G.; Chi, M. M.-Y.; Choksi, R.; Manchester, J. K.; McDougal, D. B.; Nemeth, P. M.; Pusateri, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    Individual fibers of any given muscle vary widely in enzyme composition, a fact obscured when enzyme levels of whole muscle are measured. Therefore, the purpose of this part of the study was to assess the effects of microgravity and hind limb suspension on the enzyme patterns within a slow twitch muscle (soleus) and a fast twitch muscle (tibialis anterior).

  8. Validation of a new radiographic protocol for Asian elephant feet and description of their radiographic anatomy.

    PubMed

    Mumby, C; Bouts, T; Sambrook, L; Danika, S; Rees, E; Parry, A; Rendle, M; Masters, N; Weller, R

    2013-10-05

    Foot problems are extremely common in elephants and radiography is the only imaging method available but the radiographic anatomy has not been described in detail. The aims of this study were to develop a radiographic protocol for elephant feet using digital radiography, and to describe the normal radiographic anatomy of the Asian elephant front and hind foot. A total of fifteen cadaver foot specimens from captive Asian elephants were radiographed using a range of projections and exposures to determine the best radiographic technique. This was subsequently tested in live elephants in a free-contact setting. The normal radiographic anatomy of the Asian elephant front and hind foot was described with the use of three-dimensional models based on CT reconstructions. The projection angles that were found to be most useful were 65-70° for the front limb and 55-60° in the hind limb. The beam was centred 10-15 cm proximal to the cuticle in the front and 10-15 cm dorsal to the plantar edge of the sole in the hind foot depending on the size of the foot. The protocol developed can be used for larger-scale diagnostic investigations of captive elephant foot disorders, while the normal radiographic anatomy described can improve the diagnostic reliability of elephant feet radiography.

  9. [Construction of T7 phage display library from the anther of Honglian hybrid line of rice].

    PubMed

    Hu, Chao-Feng; Peng, Xiao-Jue; Zhou, Yang-Yong; Tan, Yan-Ping; Li, Shao-Qing; Zhu, Ying-Guo

    2008-06-01

    Phage display is a powerful method to study protein-protein interactions. In order to study the molecular mechanism of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration in Honglian rice, the mRNA was isolated with PolyA Tract mRNA Isolation Kit from the anther of F1 hybrid rice and the double strand (ds) cDNA was synthesized by reverse transcription. Then the directional EcoRI /Hind III linkers were ligated into the ends of ds cDNA and the ds cDNA was further digested with EcoR I and Hind, which resulted in ds cDNA with EcoR I and Hind III ends. The digested ds cDNA fragments longer than 300 bp in length were fractionated with Mini Column, then ligated into the T7 Select 10-3b vertor with EcoR I and Hind III ends. After packaging in vitro, the T7 Select 10-3b vertor was transformed into BL T5403 to construct the T7 phage display library. Analysis showed that the library contained 1.03 x 106 clones per microliter, and approximately 100% of the clones in library was recombinant. The titer of the amplied library was 2.14 x 1012 pfu/mL, and the insert length of the recombinants over 300 bp was about 97%.

  10. Closing the Gap between Research Evidence and Clinical Practice: Jordanian Nurses' Perceived Barriers to Research Utilisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khalaileh, Murad; Al Qadire, Mohammad; Musa, Ahmad S.; Al-Khawaldeh, Omar A.; Al Qudah, Hani; Alhabahbeh, Atalla

    2016-01-01

    Background: The nursing profession is a combination of theory and practical skill, and nurses are required to generate and develop knowledge through implementing research into clinical practice. Considerable number of barriers could hind implementing research findings into practice. Barriers to research utilisation are not identified in the…

  11. A remarkable new pygmy grasshopper (Orthoptera, Tetrigidae) in Miocene amber from the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Heads, Sam W.; Thomas, M. Jared; Wang, Yinan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of pygmy grasshopper (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae) is described from Early Miocene (Burdigalian) Dominican amber. Electrotettix attenboroughi Heads & Thomas, gen. et sp. n. is assigned to the subfamily Cladonotinae based on the deeply forked frontal costa, but is remarkable for the presence of tegmina and hind wings, hitherto unknown in this subfamily. PMID:25147472

  12. High-resolution genetic mapping of maize pan-genome sequence anchors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In addition to single-nucleotide polymorphisms, structural variation is abundant in many plant genomes. The structural variation across a species can be represented by a ‘pan-genome’, which is essential to fully understand the genetic control of phenotypes. However, the pan-genome’s complexity hinde...

  13. The etiology of digital dermatitis in ruminants: recent perspectives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Digital dermatitis is a multifactorial polymicrobial infectious disease originally described in dairy cattle but is increasingly recognized in beef cattle, sheep and more recently, elk. Clinical bovine lesions typically appear on the plantar surface of the hind foot from the interdigital space and h...

  14. 76 FR 29810 - Mississippi Disaster #MS-00048

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Mississippi Disaster MS-00048 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Mississippi (FEMA...): Mississippi: Amite, Attala, Copiah, Franklin, Hinds, Holmes, Leflore, Lincoln, Madison, Marshall,...

  15. Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library for hexaploid wheat line 92R137

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For map-based cloning of genes conferring important traits in the hexaploid wheat line 92R137, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, including two sub libraries, was constructed using the genomic DNA of 92R137 digested with restriction enzymes HindIII and BamHI. The BAC library was compos...

  16. Identification of BRCA1 and 2 Other Tumor Suppressor Genes on Chromosome 17 Through Positional Cloning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-01

    Molecular cloning , DNA sequence analysis, and1 biochemical characterization of a novel 65-kDa FK506-hinding protein (FKBP65). J Biol Chem 270, 29336...S., Wong, K., Chan, R., Lau, C., Tsao, S., Knapp, R., and Berkowitz, R. (1994). Molecular cloning of differentially expressed genes in human

  17. Relationship between the onset of oestrus, the preovulatory surge in luteinizing hormone and ovulation following oestrous synchronization and superovulation of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Asher, G W; Fisher, M W; Jabbour, H N; Smith, J F; Mulley, R C; Morrow, C J; Veldhuizen, F A; Langridge, M

    1992-09-01

    The timing of ovulation relative to the onset of oestrus and the preovulatory surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) was studied in red deer following treatments to synchronize oestrus and induce either a monovulatory or superovulatory response. Mature hinds (n = 36) were allocated randomly to two mating groups (n = 16 + 20), with respective treatments staggered by 4 weeks during the 1990 rut (March-April). Each hind was treated with an intravaginal controlled internal drug releasing (CIDR)-type S device for 14 days. Treatments to induce a monovulatory response included CIDR device alone (treatment A; n = 4 + 8) and additional injection of 200 iu pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) at device removal (treatment B; n = 4 + 4). Treatments to induce a superovulatory response included injections of 200 iu PMSG and 0.5 units ovine follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) at about time of removal of CIDR devices (treatment C; n = 4 + 4) and further treatment with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue 18 h after removal of CIDR devices (treatment D; n = 4 + 4). The hinds were run with crayon-harnessed stags from insertion of CIDR devices (12 March or 9 April) and blood samples were taken every second day to determine plasma progesterone. Further blood samples were collected for determination of plasma LH and progesterone via indwelling jugular cannulae every 2 h for 72 h from removal of CIDR devices. Hinds were allocated randomly to an initial ovarian examination by laparoscopy at either 16 or 20 h (A and B), or 12 or 16 h (C and D) after the onset of oestrus, with laparoscopy repeated at intervals of 8 h until either ovulation was recorded (A and B), or for four successive occasions (C and D). All hinds received cloprostenol injections 15 days after device removal. A total of 28 hinds (78%) exhibited oestrus and a preovulatory LH surge, with mean (+/- SEM) times to onset of oestrus of 44.6 +/- 1.0 h (A; n = 7), 37.4 +/- 2.0 h (B; n = 7), 16.3 +/- 1.7 h (C; n = 6) or

  18. Does mating behaviour affect connectivity in marine fishes? Comparative population genetics of two protogynous groupers (Family Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Portnoy, D S; Hollenbeck, C M; Renshaw, M A; Cummings, N J; Gold, J R

    2013-01-01

    Pelagic larval duration (PLD) has been hypothesized to be the primary predictor of connectivity in marine fishes; however, few studies have examined the effects that adult reproductive behaviour may have on realized dispersal. We assessed gene flow (connectivity) by documenting variation in microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA sequences in two protogynous species of groupers, the aggregate spawning red hind, Epinephelus guttatus, and the single-male, harem-spawning coney, Cephalopholis fulva, to ask whether reproductive strategy affects connectivity. Samples of both species were obtained from waters off three islands (Puerto Rico, St. Thomas and St. Croix) in the Caribbean Sea. Despite the notion that aggregate spawning of red hind may facilitate larval retention, stronger signals of population structure were detected in the harem-spawning coney. Heterogeneity and/or inferred barriers, based on microsatellites, involved St. Croix (red hind and coney) and the west coast of Puerto Rico (coney). Heterogeneity and/or inferred barriers, based on mitochondrial DNA, involved St. Croix (coney only). Genetic divergence in both species was stronger for microsatellites than for mitochondrial DNA, suggesting sex-biased dispersal in both species. Long-term migration rates, based on microsatellites, indicated asymmetric gene flow for both species in the same direction as mean surface currents in the region. Red hind had higher levels of variation in microsatellites and lower levels of variation in mitochondrial DNA. Long-term effective size and effective number of breeders were greater for red hind; estimates of θ(f) , a proxy for long-term effective female size, were the same in both species. Patterns of gene flow in both species appear to stem in part from shared aspects of larval and adult biology, local bathymetry and surface current patterns. Differences in connectivity and levels of genetic variation between the species, however, likely stem from differences in behaviour

  19. Resilin and chitinous cuticle form a composite structure for energy storage in jumping by froghopper insects

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Malcolm; Shaw, Stephen R; Sutton, Gregory P

    2008-01-01

    Background Many insects jump by storing and releasing energy in elastic structures within their bodies. This allows them to release large amounts of energy in a very short time to jump at very high speeds. The fastest of the insect jumpers, the froghopper, uses a catapult-like elastic mechanism to achieve their jumping prowess in which energy, generated by the slow contraction of muscles, is released suddenly to power rapid and synchronous movements of the hind legs. How is this energy stored? Results The hind coxae of the froghopper are linked to the hinges of the ipsilateral hind wings by pleural arches, complex bow-shaped internal skeletal structures. They are built of chitinous cuticle and the rubber-like protein, resilin, which fluoresces bright blue when illuminated with ultra-violet light. The ventral and posterior end of this fluorescent region forms the thoracic part of the pivot with a hind coxa. No other structures in the thorax or hind legs show this blue fluorescence and it is not found in larvae which do not jump. Stimulating one trochanteral depressor muscle in a pattern that simulates its normal action, results in a distortion and forward movement of the posterior part of a pleural arch by 40 μm, but in natural jumping, the movement is at least 100 μm. Conclusion Calculations showed that the resilin itself could only store 1% to 2% of the energy required for jumping. The stiffer cuticular parts of the pleural arches could, however, easily meet all the energy storage needs. The composite structure therefore, combines the stiffness of the chitinous cuticle with the elasticity of resilin. Muscle contractions bend the chitinous cuticle with little deformation and therefore, store the energy needed for jumping, while the resilin rapidly returns its stored energy and thus restores the body to its original shape after a jump and allows repeated jumping. PMID:18826572

  20. Unusual chromosomal distribution of a major satellite DNA from Discoglossus pictus (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Amor, N; Odierna, G; Chinali, G; Said, K; Picariello, O

    2009-01-01

    A new highly abundant satellite DNA from Discoglossus pictus (Dp-sat1) was isolated and characterized. The repetitive unit (0.51 kb) has 2 HindIII sites and only one SpeI site: digestion of genomic DNA with HindIII produces 3 fragments: HA (0.17 kb), HB (0.34 kb), and HC = HA + HB (0.51 kb), while digestion with SpeI produces the whole repetitive unit (0.51 kb) that contains both HindIII sites. Sequence analysis of cloned repeats indicates an average A + T content of 71%, with many A- and T-runs. Southern blot analysis shows an arrangement of multiple bands of the 0.51 kb monomer in SpeI-digested DNA, while HindIII-digested DNA shows a ladder composed of all the possible combinations of the 3 digested fragments. Quantitative dot-blot indicates that Dp-sat1 accounts for about 6% of the D. pictus genome: this value represents about 1.5 x 10(6) copies of repetitive units per nucleus. This satellite DNA is also a major repetitive DNA in 4 other Discoglossus species, in which the repetitive unit presents the same size and restriction sites except in D. montalentii where it contains a unique HindIII site. This satellite DNA was absent in all the other tested archaeo- and neo-bratrachian species, as well as non-amphibian species. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis shows that Dp-sat1 is localized only in peri- and/or para-centromeric areas of the 7 small chromosome pairs, while no labeling was observed in the 7 large chromosome pairs. Remarkably, Dp-sat1 heterochromatin is found only at one pole of the nucleus, suggesting that during interphase all 7 small chromosome pairs are located in the same nuclear region.

  1. Wing-wake interaction reduces power consumption in insect tandem wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    2009-05-01

    Insects are capable of a remarkable diversity of flight techniques. Dragonflies, in particular, are notable for their powerful aerial manoeuvres and endurance during prey catching or territory flights. While most insects such as flies, bees and wasps either reduced their hinds wings or mechanically coupled fore and hind wings, dragonflies have maintained two independent-controlled pairs of wings throughout their evolution. An extraordinary feature of dragonfly wing kinematics is wing phasing, the shift in flapping phase between the fore and hind wing periods. Wing phasing has previously been associated with an increase in thrust production, readiness for manoeuvrability and hunting performance. Recent studies have shown that wing phasing in tandem wings produces a twofold modulation in hind wing lift, but slightly reduces the maximum combined lift of fore and hind wings, compared to two wings flapping in isolation. Despite this disadvantage, however, wing phasing is effective in improving aerodynamic efficiency during flight by the removal of kinetic energy from the wake. Computational analyses demonstrate that this increase in flight efficiency may save up to 22% aerodynamic power expenditure compared to insects flapping only two wings. In terms of engineering, energetic benefits in four-wing flapping are of substantial interest in the field of biomimetic aircraft design, because the performance of man-made air vehicles is often limited by high-power expenditure rather than by lift production. This manuscript provides a summary on power expenditures and aerodynamic efficiency in flapping tandem wings by investigating wing phasing in a dynamically scaled robotic model of a hovering dragonfly.

  2. Wing-wake interaction reduces power consumption in insect tandem wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    Insects are capable of a remarkable diversity of flight techniques. Dragonflies, in particular, are notable for their powerful aerial manoeuvres and endurance during prey catching or territory flights. While most insects such as flies, bees and wasps either reduced their hinds wings or mechanically coupled fore and hind wings, dragonflies have maintained two independent-controlled pairs of wings throughout their evolution. An extraordinary feature of dragonfly wing kinematics is wing phasing, the shift in flapping phase between the fore and hind wing periods. Wing phasing has previously been associated with an increase in thrust production, readiness for manoeuvrability and hunting performance. Recent studies have shown that wing phasing in tandem wings produces a twofold modulation in hind wing lift, but slightly reduces the maximum combined lift of fore and hind wings, compared to two wings flapping in isolation. Despite this disadvantage, however, wing phasing is effective in improving aerodynamic efficiency during flight by the removal of kinetic energy from the wake. Computational analyses demonstrate that this increase in flight efficiency may save up to 22% aerodynamic power expenditure compared to insects flapping only two wings. In terms of engineering, energetic benefits in four-wing flapping are of substantial interest in the field of biomimetic aircraft design, because the performance of man-made air vehicles is often limited by high-power expenditure rather than by lift production. This manuscript provides a summary on power expenditures and aerodynamic efficiency in flapping tandem wings by investigating wing phasing in a dynamically scaled robotic model of a hovering dragonfly.

  3. GH/IGF-I Transgene Expression on Muscle Homeostasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    We propose to test the hypothesis that the growth hormone/ insulin like growth factor-I axis through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms may provide long term muscle homeostasis under conditions of prolonged weightlessness. As a key alternative to hormone replacement therapy, ectopic production of hGH, growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), and IGF-I will be studied for its potential on muscle mass impact in transgenic mice under simulated microgravity. Expression of either hGH or IGF-I would provide a chronic source of a growth-promoting protein whose biosynthesis or secretion is shut down in space. Muscle expression of the IGF-I transgene has demonstrated about a 20% increase in hind limb muscle mass over control nontransgenic litter mates. These recent experiments, also establish the utility of hind-limb suspension in mice as a workable model to study atrophy in weight bearing muscles. Thus, transgenic mice will be used in hind-limb suspension models to determine the role of GH/IGF-I on maintenance of muscle mass and whether concentric exercises might act in synergy with hormone treatment. As a means to engineer and ensure long-term protein production that would be workable in humans, gene therapy technology will be used by to monitor muscle mass preservation during hind-limb suspension, after direct intramuscular injection of a genetically engineered muscle-specific vector expressing GHRH. Effects of this gene-based therapy will be assessed in both fast twitch (medial gastrocnemius) and slow twitch muscle (soleus). End-points include muscle size, ultrastructure, fiber type, and contractile function, in normal animals, hind limb suspension, and reambutation.

  4. Effects of sensor position on kinematic data obtained with an inertial sensor system during gait analysis of trotting horses.

    PubMed

    Moorman, Valerie J; Frisbie, David D; Kawcak, Christopher E; McIlwraith, C Wayne

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of altering location of right forelimb and pelvic sensors on kinematic data obtained with a commonly used inertial sensor system during gait analysis of trotting horses. DESIGN Experimental study. ANIMALS 12 horses with mild to moderate lameness of at least 1 hind limb, with or without lameness of the forelimbs. PROCEDURES All horses were examined while trotting on a high-speed treadmill. The right forelimb sensor was tested at 3 anatomic locations in random order: dorsal midline and 2 cm medial and lateral to that midline. During another treadmill session, the pelvic sensor was tested at 5 anatomic locations in random order: dorsal midline, 2 cm to the right and left of midline, and 2 cm cranial and caudal to the tubera sacrale on the midline. Laterality of the pelvic sensor was analyzed in 2 ways: sensor toward the right or left and sensor toward or away from the lame or lamest hind limb. Maximum and minimum differences in head and pelvic motion and vector sum values were ranked and compared with values for the midline location by means of mixed-model ANOVA. RESULTS Altering the location of the right forelimb sensor by 2 cm medially or laterally had no significant effect on forelimb or hind limb kinematics. However, location of the pelvic sensor had a significant effect on minimum difference in pelvic motion, regardless of whether the data were analyzed by laterality (right vs left) or toward versus away from the lame hind limb. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this study indicated that a 2-cm change in the location of the pelvic sensor during kinematic gait analysis had a significant effect on hind limb kinematic data of the system used. Therefore, placement of this sensor needs to be anatomically accurate.

  5. Aerodynamic forces and flow structures of the leading edge vortex on a flapping wing considering ground effect.

    PubMed

    Van Truong, Tien; Byun, Doyoung; Kim, Min Jun; Yoon, Kwang Joon; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this work is to provide an insight into the aerodynamic performance of the beetle during takeoff, which has been estimated in previous investigations. We employed a scaled-up electromechanical model flapping wing to measure the aerodynamic forces and the three-dimensional flow structures on the flapping wing. The ground effect on the unsteady forces and flow structures were also characterized. The dynamically scaled wing model could replicate the general stroke pattern of the beetle's hind wing kinematics during takeoff flight. Two wing kinematic models have been studied to examine the influences of wing kinematics on unsteady aerodynamic forces. In the first model, the angle of attack is asymmetric and varies during the translational motion, which is the flapping motion of the beetle's hind wing. In the second model, the angle of attack is constant during the translational motion. The instantaneous aerodynamic forces were measured for four strokes during the beetle's takeoff by the force sensor attached at the wing base. Flow visualization provided a general picture of the evolution of the three-dimensional leading edge vortex (LEV) on the beetle hind wing model. The LEV is stable during each stroke, and increases radically from the root to the tip, forming a leading-edge spiral vortex. The force measurement results show that the vertical force generated by the hind wing is large enough to lift the beetle. For the beetle hind wing kinematics, the total vertical force production increases 18.4% and 8.6% for the first and second strokes, respectively, due to the ground effect. However, for the model with a constant angle of attack during translation, the vertical force is reduced during the first stroke. During the third and fourth strokes, the ground effect is negligible for both wing kinematic patterns. This finding suggests that the beetle's flapping mechanism induces a ground effect that can efficiently lift its body from the ground during takeoff.

  6. Drastic decrease in isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration and limb movement forces after thoracic spinal cooling and chronic spinal transection in rats.

    PubMed

    Jinks, Steven L; Dominguez, Carmen L; Antognini, Joseph F

    2005-03-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury may undergo multiple surgical procedures; however, it is not clear how spinal cord injury affects anesthetic requirements and movement force under anesthesia during both acute and chronic stages of the injury. The authors determined the isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) necessary to block movement in response to supramaximal noxious stimulation, as well as tail-flick and hind paw withdrawal latencies, before and up to 28 days after thoracic spinal transection. Tail-flick and hind paw withdrawal latencies were measured in the awake state to test for the presence of spinal shock or hyperreflexia. The authors measured limb forces elicited by noxious mechanical stimulation of a paw or the tail at 28 days after transection. Limb force experiments were also conducted in other animals that received a reversible spinal conduction block by cooling the spinal cord at the level of the eighth thoracic vertebra. A large decrease in MAC (to hind paw withdrawal latencies were facilitated or unchanged, whereas reflex latencies under isoflurane were depressed or absent. However, at 80-90% of MAC, noxious stimulation of the hind paw elicited ipsilateral limb withdrawals in all animals. Hind limb forces were reduced (by >/= 90%) in both chronic and acute cold-block spinal animals. The immobilizing potency of isoflurane increases substantially after spinal transection, despite the absence of a baseline motor depression, or "spinal shock." Therefore, isoflurane MAC is determined by a spinal depressant action, possibly counteracted by a supraspinal facilitatory action. The partial recovery in MAC at later time points suggests that neuronal plasticity after spinal cord injury influences anesthetic requirements.

  7. Gestation length in red deer: genetically determined or environmentally controlled?

    PubMed

    Asher, G W

    2007-01-01

    The red deer (Cervus elaphus) of European origin (e.g. subspecies scoticus, hispanicus, hippelaphus) is a medium sized (100-150kg mature hind weight) ruminant that exhibits highly seasonally patterns of autumn conceptions and summer births. Historic data indicate average (+/- s.d.) gestation length of 233-234 (+/- 2-4) days. Recently, however, there has been growing awareness that there is considerably greater variation in gestation length than earlier indicated and that there is a significant element of environmental, and possibly even social, control over the duration of pregnancy in this species. Imposition of variable levels of nutrition over late pregnancy of red deer hinds has been observed to influence fetal growth trajectory and gestation length, with no apparent effect on birth weight. This supports a hypothesis that under conditions of modest feed imbalance, variation in gestation length compensates for variation in fetal growth trajectory to ensure optimisation of birth weight. More recent studies on primiparous (24 month old) red deer hinds have identified surprisingly large variation in gestation length (193-263 days) compared with adult hinds (228-243 days), with earlier conceiving individuals within the primiparous cohort expressing significantly longer gestation than the later conceiving hinds, resulting in a higher level of calving synchrony than expected from known conception dates. This introduces an intriguing hypothesis of social indicative effects on parturition timing to promote within-cohort birth synchrony. Collectively, these data debunk the commonly held notion that gestation length of red deer is genetically fixed within strict limits. A review of the literature points to this as possibly a common phenomenon across a range of non-domesticated ruminant species but this conclusion is not supported by numerous conflicting studies on domestic sheep and cattle.

  8. Saddle pressure patterns of three different training saddles (normal tree, flexible tree, treeless) in Thoroughbred racehorses at trot and gallop.

    PubMed

    Latif, S N; Von Peinen, K; Wiestner, T; Bitschnau, C; Renk, B; Weishaupt, M A

    2010-11-01

    To a large extent the success of a racehorse depends on effective and health preserving training methods. An important issue is the prevention of back pain. The influence of different types of training saddles (normal tree: S(A), treeless: S(B), flexible tree: S(C)) on the saddle pressure patterns in racehorses have not previously been investigated. It is commonly assumed that S(A) limits the motion of the back especially in the lower thoracic region during gallop. S(A) produces higher pressures in the caudal part of the saddle at trot (rising trot), canter and gallop (both in a jockey seat) compared to S(B) and S(C). Saddle pressures were measured in 8 racehorses ridden on a training track at trot (3.5 m/s), canter (6.4 m/s) and gallop (12.6 m/s). Each horse performed the protocol with each saddle. To analyse the pressure distribution over the horse's back the pressure picture was divided into thirds (TD(front), TD(mid), TD(hind)). The stride-mean loaded areas, forces and mean and peak pressures were determined. At canter and gallop, all 3 saddles were mainly loaded in TD(front) (>80% of the rider's weight), with a decreasing gradient to TD(mid) and TD(hind) (<3%), which was least pronounced in S(C). At trot, the load was shifted towards TD(mid) and TD(hind) (10-15%, each). High peak pressures occurred in TD(front) at canter and gallop and in TD(hind) at trot. The type of tree had no influence on the pressure picture of the caudal third at gallop. The high peak pressures observed in TD(hind) at trot in all saddles may limit the activity of the horse's back, which is of particular importance since trot is an integral part of the daily work. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  9. Superovulation in waptiti (Cervus elaphus) during the anovulatory season.

    PubMed

    McCorkell, Robert B; Woodbury, Murray R; Adams, Gregg P

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of three previously unreported ovarian superovulatory treatment protocols in wapiti. Protocols were initiated specifically at the time of ovarian follicular wave emergence, and intended to enable determination of the effects of frequency of treatment (i.e., animal handling) and LH supplementation on ovarian response. Thirteen parous wapiti hinds, 2 to 4 y of age, were used late in the anovulatory season (July). The ovaries were examined daily by transrectal ultrasonography. Hinds were given 5 mg estradiol 17-β im (day of treatment designated as Day 0) to induce a new wave of ovarian follicular development. On the expected day of wave emergence (Day 3), hinds were assigned randomly to three treatment groups and given: (1) 100 mg FSH im once a day for 4 days (N = 5); (2) 200 mg FSH sc on Day 3 and Day 5 (N = 4); or (3) 200 mg FSH plus 2.5 mg LH sc on Day 3 and Day 5 (N = 4). All hinds were given 10 mg LH im on Day 6 to induce ovulation. The mean (± SEM) number of ovulations per animal in the respective groups was 6.2 ± 2.0, 15.5 ± 5.9, and 14.8 ± 2.7. In conclusion, the technique of inducing follicular wave emergence to initiate superovulatory treatment at the time of wave emergence was effective in wapiti during the anovulatory season. The most efficient and effective method of ovarian superovulation in this study involved administration of estradiol 17-β on Day 0, followed by 200 mg FSH sc on Days 3 and 5, and induction of ovulation (10 mg of LH) on the evening of Day 6. Compared with conventional methods that require 14 days and handling the hinds six times, the protocol used herein reduced the treatment period to 8 days and the number of animal handlings to four.

  10. Successful intrauterine insemination of Eld's deer (Cervus eldi thamin) with frozen-thawed spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Monfort, S L; Asher, G W; Wildt, D E; Wood, T C; Schiewe, M C; Williamson, L R; Bush, M; Rall, W F

    1993-11-01

    This study tested the efficacy of assisted reproduction (synchronization of oestrus and intrauterine artificial insemination (AI)) in contributing to the captive propagation of an endangered species, the Eld's deer (Cervus eldi thamin). Semen was collected from males preselected on the basis of under-represented genotype. Motility of spermatozoa after thawing from ejaculates diluted with BF5F extender (8% glycerol), frozen on dry ice in 0.5 ml straws and stored in liquid nitrogen was 60-70%. Intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices (controlled internal drug release, CIDR-type G) were inserted into 20 adult Eld's deer hinds for 14 days. In all hinds, semen (7.5-10 x 10(6) motile spermatozoa per uterine horn) was deposited by laparoscopy performed 70 h after removal of the CIDR device. Ovarian activity, before and after AI, was monitored by analysing pregnanediol-3 alpha-glucuronide (PdG) concentrations in voided urine collected three to seven times per week. During the period of CIDR device insertion, urinary PdG profiles were equal to, or above, normal luteal phase concentrations in all hinds. Within 48 h of device withdrawal, PdG concentrations returned to baseline values in 17 of the 20 females, and the onset of behavioural oestrus occurred at this time in 12 hinds. On the basis of sustained increases in urinary PdG, 9 of the 20 hinds were diagnosed as pregnant by 90 days after AI, all of which delivered offspring after a mean gestation of 241.1 days (range, 235-245). Seven singletons (two females, five males) were born alive and survived, and one singleton and one set of twins were stillborn (three females).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab).

    PubMed

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C

    2010-07-01

    Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output.

  12. Sperm collection from shot red deer stags (Cervus elaphus) and the utilisation of sperm frozen and subsequently thawed.

    PubMed

    Zomborszky, Z; Zubor, T; Tóth, J; Horn, P

    1999-01-01

    Sperm samples were collected from the epididymides of 11 hunter-killed stags (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus) within 2 to 17 h post mortem in September 1991. Progressively motile spermatozoa were diluted and deep-frozen in tris-yolk extender by a procedure routinely used for bovine semen. The pre-freezing motility of spermatozoa from 6 stags was higher than 80%, while the sperm of 5 animals was found to be unsuitable for dilution. In the post-thawed sperm of six stags 40-50% of the spermatozoa showed progressive motility and the number of viable spermatozoa ranged from 8.6 to 26.7 x 10(6) per 0.25 ml straw. Two years later, three hinds were superovulated by the use of a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (CIDR type G, Carter, Holt Harvey Plastic Products Group Ltd., Hamilton, New Zealand) for a period of 14 days and with follicle stimulating hormone (Folicotropin inj., Spofa, Prague). Each hind was inseminated artificially 60 h after the withdrawal of CIDR with thawed sperm injected into the uterus via the vagina. Seven days later the uteri were flushed out, as a result of which 3 early blastocysts + 1 ovum, 3 morulae + 4 ova, and 1 morula + 7 ova, respectively, were recovered from the three hinds. Deer embryos were frozen according to a glycerol-based freezing protocol. A further two years later two hinds were oestrus-synchronised with CIDR type G and 300 IU PMSG (Folligon inj., Intervet, NL), and two of the thawed embryos were transplanted into two recipient hinds 7 days after heat. One of these gave birth to a normal stag fawn in June 1996. This was the first deer born in Hungary from embryo transfer. The results obtained indicate that sperm from top stags shot in the course of hunting can prove useful for the preservation of genetic material or in the development of the farmed deer system.

  13. A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab)

    PubMed Central

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C

    2010-01-01

    Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output. PMID

  14. Genetic association analyses of fast plasma glucose level in pre-menopausal Chinese women: potential interaction between osteocalcin and oestrogen receptor α.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; He, Lu-Ling; Xiong, Chao-Peng; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Liu, Chang-Le; Peng, Lu-Lu; Cheng, Ya-Jun; Jiang, Fu-Qing; Tan, Li-Ping; Tang, Lan; Peng, Wei; Tu, Yun-Ming; Yang, Yu-Ping; Luo, Dan; Zou, Lin; Liang, Shang-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels are usually tightly regulated within a narrow physiologic range. Variation of FPG levels is clinically important and is strongly heritable. Several lines of evidence suggest the importance of the oestrogen receptor α (ER-α) and osteocalcin (also known as BGP, for bone Gla protein) in determining FPG; however, whether their polymorphisms are associated with FPG variation is not well understood. To investigate whether ER-a PvuII and BGP HindIII genetic polymorphisms and their potential interaction are associated with FPG variation. The study subjects were 328 unrelated pre-menopausal Chinese women aged 21 years and over (mean age ± SD, 33.2 ± 5.9 years), with an average FPG of 4.92 (SD = 0.81). All subjects were genotyped at the ER-α PvuII and BGP HindIII loci using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The ER-α PvuII genotypes were significantly associated with FPG (p = 0.007). In addition, a significant interaction was observed of the ER-α PvuII polymorphism with BGP HindIII polymorphism on FPG variation (p = 0.013), although the BGP HindIII polymorphism was not shown to be individually associated with FPG. The PvuII polymorphism of the ER-α gene and its potential interaction with the HindIII polymorphism of the BGP gene were associated with FPG in pre-menopausal Chinese women.

  15. Association between hygiene scores and somatic cell scores in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Reneau, Jeffrey K; Seykora, Anthony J; Heins, Bradley J; Endres, Marcia I; Farnsworth, Ralph J; Bey, Russell F

    2005-10-15

    To develop a simple system for scoring hygiene in dairy cattle and determine whether hygiene scores were associated with individual cow somatic cell scores (SCSs). Observational study. 1,191 cows. With the aid of a chart containing line drawings and descriptive text, hygiene scores ranging from 1 (clean) to 5 (dirty) were assigned for 5 body areas: tail head, thigh (lateral aspect), abdomen (ventral aspect), udder, and hind limbs (lower portion). To determine repeatability, hygiene scores were assigned to 75 cows twice by 4 experienced evaluators. To determine accuracy and ease of use, hygiene scores assigned by 14 college students to 23 cows were compared with scores assigned by 2 faculty members. To determine association with SCSs, hygiene scores were assigned to each of 1,093 cows by a single observer. Mean correlation coefficients for hygiene scores assigned twice by 4 experienced evaluators were > or = 0.884, indicating high repeatability. Students indicated that the scoring system was easy to use, and mean correlation coefficient for student and faculty member scores was 0.804. Hygiene scores for the tail head, thigh (lateral aspect), and abdomen (ventral aspect) were not significantly associated with SCS. However, hygiene scores for the udder and hind limbs (lower portion) and udder-hind limb composite scores were significantly associated with SCS, with SCS increasing as scores increased. Results suggest that the hygiene scoring system was repeatable, accurate, and easy to use. However, only hygiene scores for the udder and hind limbs and the udder-hind limb composite score were significantly associated with SCS.

  16. The Redox Enzyme p66Shc Contributes to Diabetes and Ischemia-Induced Delay in Cutaneous Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Fadini, Gian Paolo; Albiero, Mattia; Menegazzo, Lisa; Boscaro, Elisa; Pagnin, Elisa; Iori, Elisabetta; Cosma, Chiara; Lapolla, Annunziata; Pengo, Vittorio; Stendardo, Massimo; Agostini, Carlo; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Giorgio, Marco; Avogaro, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The redox enzyme p66Shc produces hydrogen peroxide and triggers proapoptotic signals. Genetic deletion of p66Shc prolongs life span and protects against oxidative stress. In the present study, we evaluated the role of p66Shc in an animal model of diabetic wound healing. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Skin wounds were created in wild-type (WT) and p66Shc−/− control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice with or without hind limb ischemia. Wounds were assessed for collagen content, thickness and vascularity of granulation tissue, apoptosis, reepithelialization, and expression of c-myc and β-catenin. Response to hind limb ischemia was also evaluated. RESULTS Diabetes delayed wound healing in WT mice with reduced granulation tissue thickness and vascularity, increased apoptosis, epithelial expression of c-myc, and nuclear localization of β-catenin. These nonhealing features were worsened by hind limb ischemia. Diabetes induced p66Shc expression and activation; wound healing was significantly faster in p66Shc−/− than in WT diabetic mice, with or without hind limb ischemia, at 1 and 3 months of diabetes duration and in both SV129 and C57BL/6 genetic backgrounds. Deletion of p66Shc reversed nonhealing features, with increased collagen content and granulation tissue thickness, and reduced apoptosis and expression of c-myc and β-catenin. p66Shc deletion improved response to hind limb ischemia in diabetic mice in terms of tissue damage, capillary density, and perfusion. Migration of p66Shc−/− dermal fibroblasts in vitro was significantly faster than WT fibroblasts under both high glucose and hypoxia. CONCLUSIONS p66Shc is involved in the delayed wound-healing process in the setting of diabetes and ischemia. Thus, p66Shc may represent a potential therapeutic target against this disabling diabetes complication. PMID:20566667

  17. Effect of exogenous gonadotrophins on oestrus, the LH surge and the timing and rate of ovulation in red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Jabbour, H N; Veldhuizen, F A; Mulley, R C; Asher, G W

    1994-03-01

    Red deer hinds (n = 38) were treated in the breeding season with five different gonadotrophin regimens to investigate the temporal relationship between oestrus, ovulation and the LH surge. All hinds were treated with progesterone-impregnated controlled internal drug release (CIDR) devices to synchronize oestrus. The five treatments were as follows: treatment 1, controls; treatments 2, 3 and 4, 1200 iu pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) was administered i.m. 72 h before CIDR device withdrawal (treatments 3 an 4 were also injected i.v. with 0.4 mg synthetic GnRH 12 or 18 h after CIDR device withdrawal, respectively); treatment 5, 200 iu PMSG was administered i.m. 72 h before CIDR device withdrawal and 0.5 iu FSH was administered in eight equal doses at intervals of 12 h starting from the time of PMSG injection. The hinds were run with crayon-harnessed stages to determine the time of oestrus onset. Blood samples were collected every 2 days for 26 days after CIDR device removal to determine concentrations of plasma progesterone and every 2 h for 72 h after CIDR device removal to determine plasma LH profiles. Laparoscopy for ovary examination was performed 6 or 12 h after oestrus onset and was repeated twice at intervals of 12 h. Final ovulation rate was determined on day 7 after CIDR device removal. All hinds received 500 micrograms cloprostenol i.m. on day 13. A total of 30 and 34 hinds exhibited oestrus and ovulation, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Multi-functional foot use during running in the zebra-tailed lizard (Callisaurus draconoides).

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Hsieh, S Tonia; Goldman, Daniel I

    2012-09-15

    A diversity of animals that run on solid, level, flat, non-slip surfaces appear to bounce on their legs; elastic elements in the limbs can store and return energy during each step. The mechanics and energetics of running in natural terrain, particularly on surfaces that can yield and flow under stress, is less understood. The zebra-tailed lizard (Callisaurus draconoides), a small desert generalist with a large, elongate, tendinous hind foot, runs rapidly across a variety of natural substrates. We use high-speed video to obtain detailed three-dimensional running kinematics on solid and granular surfaces to reveal how leg, foot and substrate mechanics contribute to its high locomotor performance. Running at ~10 body lengths s(-1) (~1 m s(-1)), the center of mass oscillates like a spring-mass system on both substrates, with only 15% reduction in stride length on the granular surface. On the solid surface, a strut-spring model of the hind limb reveals that the hind foot saves ~40% of the mechanical work needed per step, significant for the lizard's small size. On the granular surface, a penetration force model and hypothesized subsurface foot rotation indicates that the hind foot paddles through fluidized granular medium, and that the energy lost per step during irreversible deformation of the substrate does not differ from the reduction in the mechanical energy of the center of mass. The upper hind leg muscles must perform three times as much mechanical work on the granular surface as on the solid surface to compensate for the greater energy lost within the foot and to the substrate.

  19. Successful low dose insemination of flow cytometrically sorted Sika (Cervus nippon) sperm in Wapiti (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Gao, Q H; Wei, H J; Han, C M; Du, H Z; Zhang, Z G; Zhao, W G; Zhang, Y; Li, S

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine a practical method in Wapiti (Cervus elaphus) of using predetermined sexed Sika (Cervus nippon) semen. Semen was collected by electro-ejaculation from one stag of proven fertility and transported to the laboratory where it was retained as unsorted (control) or was separated into X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm using a modified high-speed cell sorter. Wapiti hinds (n=81) were inseminated into the uterus by rectum manipulation with 1 x 10(6) (X1 and Y1 group, respectively) or 2 x 10(6) (X2 and Y2 group, respectively) of sorted frozen-thawed and 1 x 10(7) non-sorted frozen-thawed (a commercial dose control) Sika motile sperm 60-66h after removal of intra-vaginal progesterone-impregnated CIDR devices and administration of 700IU of PMSG at the time of CIDR removal. The percentage of hinds calving after insemination was similar for X1 (38.5%), X2 (41.7%), Y1 (44.4%), Y2 (38.9%) groups (P>0.05), but higher for control (75%) treatment (P<0.05). Ultimately 15 out of the 16 Sika and Wapi