Science.gov

Sample records for hind limb scaling

  1. Ontogenetic Scaling of Fore- and Hind Limb Posture in Wild Chacma Baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Biren A.; Horner, Angela M.; Thompson, Nathan E.; Barrett, Louise; Henzi, S. Peter

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale interspecific studies of mammals ranging between 0.04–280 kg have shown that larger animals walk with more extended limb joints. Within a taxon or clade, however, the relationship between body size and joint posture is less straightforward. Factors that may affect the lack of congruence between broad and narrow phylogenetic analyses of limb kinematics include limited sampling of (1) ranges of body size, and/or (2) numbers of individuals. Unfortunately, both issues are inherent in laboratory-based or zoo locomotion research. In this study, we examined the relationship between body mass and elbow and knee joint angles (our proxies of fore- and hind limb posture, respectively) in a cross-sectional ontogenetic sample of wild chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) habituated in the De Hoop Nature Reserve, South Africa. Videos were obtained from 33 individuals of known age (12 to ≥108 months) and body mass (2–29.5 kg) during walking trials. Results show that older, heavier baboons walk with significantly more extended knee joints but not elbow joints. This pattern is consistent when examining only males, but not within the female sample. Heavier, older baboons also display significantly less variation in their hind limb posture compared to lighter, young animals. Thus, within this ontogenetic sample of a single primate species spanning an order of magnitude in body mass, hind limb posture exhibited a postural scaling phenomenon while the forelimbs did not. These findings may further help explain 1) why younger mammals (including baboons) tend to have relatively stronger bones than adults, and 2) why humeri appear relatively weaker than femora (in at least baboons). Finally, this study demonstrates how field-acquired kinematics can help answer fundamental biomechanical questions usually addressed only in animal gait laboratories. PMID:23923046

  2. Ontogenetic scaling of fore- and hind limb posture in wild chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus).

    PubMed

    Patel, Biren A; Horner, Angela M; Thompson, Nathan E; Barrett, Louise; Henzi, S Peter

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale interspecific studies of mammals ranging between 0.04-280 kg have shown that larger animals walk with more extended limb joints. Within a taxon or clade, however, the relationship between body size and joint posture is less straightforward. Factors that may affect the lack of congruence between broad and narrow phylogenetic analyses of limb kinematics include limited sampling of (1) ranges of body size, and/or (2) numbers of individuals. Unfortunately, both issues are inherent in laboratory-based or zoo locomotion research. In this study, we examined the relationship between body mass and elbow and knee joint angles (our proxies of fore- and hind limb posture, respectively) in a cross-sectional ontogenetic sample of wild chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) habituated in the De Hoop Nature Reserve, South Africa. Videos were obtained from 33 individuals of known age (12 to ≥ 108 months) and body mass (2-29.5 kg) during walking trials. Results show that older, heavier baboons walk with significantly more extended knee joints but not elbow joints. This pattern is consistent when examining only males, but not within the female sample. Heavier, older baboons also display significantly less variation in their hind limb posture compared to lighter, young animals. Thus, within this ontogenetic sample of a single primate species spanning an order of magnitude in body mass, hind limb posture exhibited a postural scaling phenomenon while the forelimbs did not. These findings may further help explain 1) why younger mammals (including baboons) tend to have relatively stronger bones than adults, and 2) why humeri appear relatively weaker than femora (in at least baboons). Finally, this study demonstrates how field-acquired kinematics can help answer fundamental biomechanical questions usually addressed only in animal gait laboratories.

  3. Hind limb scaling of kangaroos and wallabies (superfamily Macropodoidea): implications for hopping performance, safety factor and elastic savings.

    PubMed

    McGowan, C P; Skinner, J; Biewener, A A

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine hind limb scaling of the musculoskeletal system in the Macropodoidea, the superfamily containing wallabies and kangaroos, to re-examine the effect of size on the locomotor mechanics and physiology of marsupial hopping. Morphometric musculoskeletal analyses were conducted of 15 species and skeletal specimens of 21 species spanning a size range from 0.8 to 80 kg that included representatives of 12 of the 16 extant genera of macropodoids. We found that unlike other groups, macropodoids are able to match force demands associated with increasing body size primarily through a combination of positive allometry in muscle area and muscle moment arms. Isometric scaling of primary hind limb bones suggests, however, that larger species experience relatively greater bone stresses. Muscle to tendon area ratios of the ankle extensors scale with strong positive allometry, indicating that peak tendon stresses also increase with increasing body size but to a lesser degree than previously reported. Consistent with previous morphological and experimental studies, large macropodoids are therefore better suited for elastic strain energy recovery but operate at lower safety factors, which likely poses an upper limit to body size. Scaling patterns for extant macropodoids suggest that extinct giant kangaroos (approximately 250 kg) were likely limited in locomotor capacity.

  4. The volume of vascular compartment in rat hind limb muscles

    PubMed Central

    Law, R. O.; Phelps, C. F.

    1966-01-01

    1. A non-recirculatory perfusion system has been developed suitable for the perfusion of the hind limbs of small experimental animals. 2. By means of it a solution of T. 1824-labelled serum albumin has been introduced into the vascular compartment of the hind limbs of female rats under isogravimetric conditions. Excision and analysis of certain muscles has been used to provide information concerning the percentage distribution of the labelled albumin within these muscles. 3. Experiments have been carried out in vivo employing [131I]labelled serum albumin and [51Cr]labelled erythrocytes in order to compare the vascular volumes determined under in vivo conditions and in perfusions, and to estimate the capillary haematocrit in vivo. 4. The physiological validity of the methods used and the results obtained has been discussed. PMID:5972152

  5. Pelvic and hind limb musculature of Staurikosaurus pricei (Dinosauria: Saurischia).

    PubMed

    Grillo, Orlando N; Azevedo, Sergio A K

    2011-03-01

    The study of pelvic and hind limb bones and muscles in basal dinosaurs is important for understanding the early evolution of bipedal locomotion in the group. The use of data from both extant and extinct taxa placed into a phylogenetic context allowed to make well-supported inferences concerning most of the hind limb musculature of the basal saurischian Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970 (Santa Maria Formation, Late Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil). Two large concavities in the lateral surface of the ilium represent the origin of the muscles iliotrochantericus caudalis plus iliofemoralis externus (in the anterior concavity) and iliofibularis (in the posterior concavity). Muscle ambiens has only one head and originates from the pubic tubercle. The origin of puboischiofemoralis internus 1 possibly corresponds to a fossa in the ventral margin of the pré-acetabular iliac process. This could represent an intermediate stage prior to the origin of a true pré-acetabular fossa. Muscles caudofemorales longus et brevis were likely well developed, and Staurikosaurus is unique in bearing a posteriorly projected surface for the origin of caudofemoralis brevis.

  6. Bone morphology of the hind limbs in two caviomorph rodents.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, F A P; Sesoko, N F; Rahal, S C; Teixeira, C R; Müller, T R; Machado, M R F

    2013-04-01

    In order to evaluate the hind limbs of caviomorph rodents a descriptive analysis of the Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766) and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) was performed using anatomical specimens, radiography, computed tomography (CT) and full-coloured prototype models to generate bone anatomy data. The appendicular skeleton of the two largest rodents of Neotropical America was compared with the previously reported anatomical features of Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) and domestic Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758). The structures were analyzed macroscopically and particular findings of each species reported. Features including the presence of articular fibular projection and lunulae were observed in the stifle joint of all rodents. Imaging aided in anatomical description and, specifically in the identification of bone structures in Cuniculus paca and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. The imaging findings were correlated with the anatomical structures observed. The data may be used in future studies comparing these animals to other rodents and mammalian species.

  7. New Australovenator hind limb elements pertaining to the holotype reveal the most complete Neovenatorid leg.

    PubMed

    White, Matt A; Benson, Roger B J; Tischler, Travis R; Hocknull, Scott A; Cook, Alex G; Barnes, David G; Poropat, Stephen F; Wooldridge, Sarah J; Sloan, Trish; Sinapius, George H K; Elliott, David A

    2013-01-01

    We report new skeletal elements pertaining to the same individual which represents the holotype of Australovenator wintonensis, from the 'Matilda Site' in the Winton Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of western Queensland. The discovery of these new elements means that the hind limb of Australovenator is now the most completely understood hind limb among Neovenatoridae. The new hind limb elements include: the left fibula; left metatarsal IV; left pedal phalanges I-2, II-1, III-4, IV-2, IV-3; and right pedal phalanges, II-2 and III-1. The detailed descriptions are supported with three dimensional figures. These coupled with the completeness of the hind limb will increase the utility of Australovenator in comparisons with less complete neovenatorid genera. These specimens and the previously described hind limb elements of Australovenator are compared with other theropods classified as neovenatorids (including Neovenator, Chilantaisaurus, Fukuiraptor, Orkoraptor and Megaraptor). Hind limb length proportion comparisons indicate that the smaller neovenatorids Australovenator and Fukuiraptor possess more elongate and gracile hind limb elements than the larger Neovenator and Chilantaisaurus. Greater stride lengths to body size exist in both Fukuiraptor and Australovenator with the femur discovered to be proportionally shorter the rest of the hind limb length. Additionally Australovenator is identified as possessing the most elongate metatarsus. The metatarsus morphology varies with body size. The larger neoventorids possess a metatarsus with greater width but shorter length compared to smaller forms.

  8. New Australovenator Hind Limb Elements Pertaining to the Holotype Reveal the Most Complete Neovenatorid Leg

    PubMed Central

    White, Matt A.; Benson, Roger B. J.; Tischler, Travis R.; Hocknull, Scott A.; Cook, Alex G.; Barnes, David G.; Poropat, Stephen F.; Wooldridge, Sarah J.; Sloan, Trish; Sinapius, George H. K.; Elliott, David A.

    2013-01-01

    We report new skeletal elements pertaining to the same individual which represents the holotype of Australovenator wintonensis, from the ‘Matilda Site’ in the Winton Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of western Queensland. The discovery of these new elements means that the hind limb of Australovenator is now the most completely understood hind limb among Neovenatoridae. The new hind limb elements include: the left fibula; left metatarsal IV; left pedal phalanges I-2, II-1, III-4, IV-2, IV-3; and right pedal phalanges, II-2 and III-1. The detailed descriptions are supported with three dimensional figures. These coupled with the completeness of the hind limb will increase the utility of Australovenator in comparisons with less complete neovenatorid genera. These specimens and the previously described hind limb elements of Australovenator are compared with other theropods classified as neovenatorids (including Neovenator, Chilantaisaurus, Fukuiraptor, Orkoraptor and Megaraptor). Hind limb length proportion comparisons indicate that the smaller neovenatorids Australovenator and Fukuiraptor possess more elongate and gracile hind limb elements than the larger Neovenator and Chilantaisaurus. Greater stride lengths to body size exist in both Fukuiraptor and Australovenator with the femur discovered to be proportionally shorter the rest of the hind limb length. Additionally Australovenator is identified as possessing the most elongate metatarsus. The metatarsus morphology varies with body size. The larger neoventorids possess a metatarsus with greater width but shorter length compared to smaller forms. PMID:23894328

  9. Developmental basis for hind-limb loss in dolphins and origin of the cetacean bodyplan

    PubMed Central

    Thewissen, J. G. M.; Cohn, M. J.; Stevens, L. S.; Bajpai, S.; Heyning, J.; Horton, W. E.

    2006-01-01

    Among mammals, modern cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) are unusual in the absence of hind limbs. However, cetacean embryos do initiate hind-limb bud development. In dolphins, the bud arrests and degenerates around the fifth gestational week. Initial limb outgrowth in amniotes is maintained by two signaling centers, the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA). Our data indicate that the cetacean hind-limb bud forms an AER and that this structure expresses Fgf8 initially, but that neither the AER nor Fgf8 expression is maintained. Moreover, Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which mediates the signaling activity of the ZPA, is absent from the dolphin hind-limb bud. We find that failure to establish a ZPA is associated with the absence of Hand2, an upstream regulator of Shh. Interpreting our results in the context of both the cetacean fossil record and the known functions of Shh suggests that reduction of Shh expression may have occurred ≈41 million years ago and led to the loss of distal limb elements. The total loss of Shh expression may account for the further loss of hind-limb elements that occurred near the origin of the modern suborders of cetaceans ≈34 million years ago. Integration of paleontological and developmental data suggests that hind-limb size was reduced by gradually operating microevolutionary changes. Long after locomotor function was totally lost, modulation of developmental control genes eliminated most of the hind-limb skeleton. Hence, macroevolutionary changes in gene expression did not drive the initial reduction in hind-limb size. PMID:16717186

  10. On the development of Cetacean extremities: I. Hind limb rudimentation in the Spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata).

    PubMed

    Sedmera, D; Misek, I; Klima, M

    1997-02-01

    The Cetacea are group of animals which have completely lost their hind limbs during the course of evolution as a result of their entirely aquatic mode of life. It is known, however, that during their embryonal period, the hind limb buds are temporarily present. The control mechanisms of this regression are not yet understood, and vestigial limbs can sometimes be found in adults. The aim of the present study is to describe the course of hind limb rudimentation during prenatal development of Stenella attenuata (Spotted dolphin) at tissue and cell levels and compare the results with other natural or experimentally induced amelias. Hind limb buds of dolphin embryos, CRL 10-30 mm, were examined histologically. Before total disappearance, they show histodifferentiation comparable with other mammals. Initially, they form the apical ectodermal ridge, which soon regresses. The mesenchyme undergoes the process of condensation to form anlagens of prospective skeletal elements. These condensations are surrounded by vascular plexuses. During the course of rudimentation, some mesenchymal cells die, while the others are incorporated into the body wall. Nerve ingrowth into rudimentary limb buds was also detected. The temporary presence of hind limb rudiments in cetacean embryos can be regarded as a good example of recapitulation of phylogenesis in ontogenesis. PMID:9143876

  11. Effect of electrically induced muscle contractions on posttraumatic edema formation in frog hind limbs.

    PubMed

    Taylor, K; Fish, D R; Mendel, F C; Burton, H W

    1992-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that repeated muscle contractions induced by high voltage pulsed current (HVPC) would limit volume increases in traumatized frog hind limbs. Twelve frogs were anesthetized, and both hind limbs of each frog were traumatized by impact. Limb volumes were measured via water displacement over a 24-hour period. Four 30-minute treatments of continuous 1-pulse per second HVPC were applied to one limb selected randomly. Stimulation produced muscle contractions that resulted in minimal joint movements. Volume changes from pretrauma limb volumes (in milliliters per kilogram) were analyzed by an analysis of variance for repeated measures. Our hypothesis was rejected (ie, repeated muscle contractions, as induced in this study, did not limit posttraumatic edema formation in frogs). Further investigation of the relative influences of limb position and varying pulse rates, pulse durations, and intensities of HVPC on edema formation may provide valuable insights on effective treatment of edema in humans.

  12. Forskolin inhibits histamine release by neurotensin in the rat perfused hind limb.

    PubMed

    Kérouac, R; St-Pierre, S; Rioux, F

    1984-08-01

    We have assessed the influence of forskolin, a potent activator of adenylate cyclase, on histamine release by neurotensin (NT) in the rat perfused hind limb. The results indicate that forskolin, in concentrations known to increase the cyclic AMP content of various tissues, markedly inhibits the histamine releasing effect of NT. The inhibitory action of forskolin was mimicked by a synthetic cyclic AMP derivative and by 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (IBMX), a potent phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Our results suggest that the inhibitory action of forskolin toward histamine release by NT in the rat hind limb mast cells results from the activation of a cyclic AMP-generating system in mast cells.

  13. Investigations on the role of leukotrienes in remote hind limb preconditioning-induced cardioprotection in rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baljeet; Randhawa, Puneet Kaur; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2016-05-01

    The cardioprotective effects of remote hind limb preconditioning (RIPC) are well established, but its mechanisms still remain to be explored. Therefore, the present study was aimed to explore the possible involvement of 5-lipoxygenase-derived leukotrienes in RIPC. The hind limb was tied by a pressure cuff and was subjected to four episodes of inflation and deflation (5min each) to induce remote hind-limb preconditioning. Thereafter, the hearts were isolated and were subjected to global ischemia (30min) followed by reperfusion (120min) on the Langendorff apparatus. The extent of myocardial injury was assessed by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) levels in the coronary effluent; the infarct size using TTC staining, and the hemodynamic parameters including LVDP, dp/dtmax and dp/dtmin. RIPC significantly decreased ischemia and reperfusion-induced increase in LDH, CK release, infarct size and improved LVDP, dp/dtmax and dp/dtmin. Administration of montelukast, leukotriene receptor antagonist (10 and 20mg/kg) and zileuton, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, (2.5 and 5mg/kg) abolished RIPC-induced cardioprotection. It may be concluded that hind limb ischemia stimulates 5-lipoxygenase to release leukotrienes which may elicit cardioprotection by humoral or neurogenic pathway. PMID:27058978

  14. Comparative anatomy and muscle architecture of selected hind limb muscles in the Quarter Horse and Arab.

    PubMed

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wakeling, J M; Wilson, A M; Payne, R C

    2008-02-01

    The Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance) are situated at either end of the equine athletic spectrum. Studies into the form and function of the leg muscles in human sprint and endurance runners have demonstrated that differences exist in their muscle architecture. It is not known whether similar differences exist in the horse. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab fresh hind limb cadavers were dissected to gain information on the muscle mass and architecture of the following muscles: gluteus medius; biceps femoris; semitendinosus; vastus lateralis; gastrocnemius; tibialis cranialis and extensor digitorum longus. Specifically, muscle mass, fascicle length and pennation angle were quantified and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and maximum isometric force were estimated. The hind limb muscles of the Quarter Horse were of a significantly greater mass, but had similar fascicle lengths and pennation angles when compared with those of the Arab; this resulted in the Quarter Horse hind limb muscles having greater PCSAs and hence greater isometric force potential. This study suggests that Quarter Horses as a breed inherently possess large strong hind limb muscles, with the potential to accelerate their body mass more rapidly than those of the Arab.

  15. Effects of immobilization on rat hind limb muscles under non-weight-bearing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaspers, Stephen R.; Fagan, Julie M.; Satarug, Soisungwan; Cook, Paul H.; Tischler, Marc E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of stretched and unstretched immobilization of a hind limb on the concentration and the metabolism of proteins in the hind-limb muscles of rats was investigated. The animals were divided into three groups: (1) weight-bearing controls, (2) tail-cast-suspended, and (3) suspended, with one hind limb immobilized with the ankle in dorsiflexion (30-40 deg angle) and the other freely moving. It was found that unloading the hind limbs for 6 days by tail cast suspension caused soleus to atrophy and reduced growth of the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles; unloading resulted in a higher degradation rate and lower synthesis rate in both in vitro and in vivo. Chronic stretch of the unloaded soleus not only prevented its atrophy but led to significant hypertrophy, relative to weight-bearing controls, with increases in both the sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein fractions. Immobilizing one ankle in dorsiflexion prevented the inhibition of growth in the plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles due to unloading.

  16. Effect of anodal high voltage pulsed current on edema formation in frog hind limbs.

    PubMed

    Fish, D R; Mendel, F C; Schultz, A M; Gottstein-Yerke, L M

    1991-10-01

    We have recently demonstrated that some forms of cathodal high voltage pulsed current (HVPC) curb posttraumatic edema formation in frog hind limbs. The purpose of this study was to determine, by assessing the capacity of anodal HVPC to curb posttraumatic edema formation, whether polarity is an important variable. Fourteen anesthetized bullfrogs were placed on large dispersive electrodes lining body slings that maintained the frogs' limbs in a dependent position throughout data collection. The frogs' feet were traumatized by impact following initial measurement of limb volumes. At the commencement of each of four 30-minute treatments, hind limbs were immersed in separate beakers and briefly stimulated until motor threshold was determined. One limb, randomly selected, received anodal HVPC at 90% of motor threshold and 120 pulses per second; the other limb served as a control. Treatments were followed by 30-minute rests. Limb volumes were measured by water displacement immediately after trauma and following each treatment and rest period. Data were expressed as changes from pretrauma volumes in milliliters per kilogram of body weight. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to test for treatment effect. Despite an aggressive series of treatments, virtually symmetrical bilateral edema occurred; therefore, no treatment effect was evident. This result contrasts with treatment effects previously reported for cathodal HVPC.

  17. Hind limb malformations in free-living northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) from Maine, Minnesota, and Vermont suggest multiple etiologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meteyer, C.U.; Loeffler, I.K.; Fallon, J.F.; Converse, K.A.; Green, E.; Helgen, J.C.; Kersten, S.; Levey, R.; Eaton-Poole, L.; Burkhart, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    Background Reports of malformed frogs have increased throughout the North American continent in recent years. Most of the observed malformations have involved the hind limbs. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the hind limb malformations in wild frogs as an important step toward understanding the possible etiologies. Methods During 1997 and 1998, 182 recently metamorphosed northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were collected from Minnesota, Vermont, and Maine. Malformed hind limbs were present in 157 (86%) of these frogs, which underwent necropsy and radiographic evaluation at the National Wildlife Health Center. These malformations are described in detail and classified into four major categories: (1) no limb (amelia); (2) multiple limbs or limb elements (polymelia, polydactyly, polyphalangy); (3) reduced limb segments or elements (phocomelia, ectromelia, ectrodactyly, and brachydactyly; and (4) distally complete but malformed limb (bone rotations, bridging, skin webbing, and micromelia). Results Amelia and reduced segments and/or elements were the most common finding. Frogs with bilateral hind limb malformations were not common, and in only eight of these 22 frogs were the malformations symmetrical. Malformations of a given type tended to occur in frogs collected from the same site, but the types of malformations varied widely among all three states, and between study sites within Minnesota. Conclusions Clustering of malformation type suggests that developmental events may produce a variety of phenotypes depending on the timing, sequence, and severity of the environmental insult. Hind limb malformations in free-living frogs transcend current mechanistic explanations of tetrapod limb development.

  18. Egg binding and hind limb paralysis in an African penguin--a case report.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Monique Anamarie

    2009-03-01

    This case report assesses the role acupuncture played in the rehabilitation therapy of an African penguin with bilateral hind limb paresis and paralysis following egg binding and a caesarean section. Egg binding is the failure of the oviduct to pass the egg down into the cloaca. In avian species the sciatic nerve runs through the middle of the kidney. Swelling of the kidney tissue due to the pressure exerted by the retained egg will cause pressure on the sciatic nerve which may lead to hind limb paresis/paralysis. Acupuncture was used to relieve any muscle, joint or nerve pain and to attempt to stimulate recovery of the sciatic nerve. Acupuncture was incorporated into a fairly intensive physical rehabilitation programme to help the penguin to walk again so that it could be re-introduced back into the sanctuary's captive colony.

  19. Identifying risk factors for poor hind limb cleanliness in Danish loose-housed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, B H; Thomsen, P T; Sørensen, J T

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify possible risk factors for poor cow hind limb cleanliness in Danish loose-housed, lactating dairy cows. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional study of 1315 cows in 42 commercial Danish dairy herds with primarily Danish Holstein cows. The effect of four cow-level factors (parity, days in milk, daily lying time and lameness) and eight herd-level factors (herd size, milk production, milking system, floor type, access to pasture grazing, floor scraping frequency, hoof bathing frequency and hoof washing frequency) on the risk of having dirtier hind limbs were analysed using ordinal logistic regression fitting a proportional odds model. Cow hind limb cleanliness was scored using an ordinal score from 1 to 4: 1 being clean and 4 being covered in dirt. The odds ratios (ORs) estimated from the proportional odds model depict the effect of a risk factor on the odds of having a higher rather than a lower cleanliness score. First parity cows had an increased risk of being dirtier compared with third parity or older cows (OR=1.70). Compared with late lactation, early and mid lactation were associated with an increased risk of being dirtier (OR=2.07 and 1.33, respectively). Decreasing the daily time lying by 30 min was associated with an increased risk of being dirtier (OR=1.05). Furthermore, an increased risk of being dirtier was found in herds with no pasture access (OR=3.75). PMID:22440353

  20. Transition of chytrid fungus infection from mouthparts to hind limbs during amphibian metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Taegan A; Rohr, Jason R

    2015-03-01

    The chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is implicated in worldwide amphibian declines. Bd has been shown to qualitatively transition from the mouthparts of tadpoles to the hindlimbs during metamorphosis, but we lack evidence of consistency in the timing of this transition across amphibian species. We also do not have predictive functions for the abundance of Bd in mouthparts and limbs as tadpoles develop or for the relationship between keratin and Bd abundance. Hence, researchers presently have little guidance on where to sample developing amphibians to maximize Bd detection, which could affect the accuracy of prevalence and abundance estimates for this deadly pathogen. Here, we show consistency in the timing of the transition of Bd from mouthparts to hind limbs across two frog species (Osteopilus septentrionalis and Mixophyes fasciolatus). Keratin and Bd simultaneously declined from the mouthparts starting at approximately Gosner stage 40. However, keratin on the hindlimbs began to appear at approximately stage 38 but, on average, Bd was not detectable on the hindlimbs until approximately stage 40, suggesting a lag between keratin and Bd arrival. Predictive functions for the relationships between developmental stage and keratin and developmental stage and Bd for mouthparts and hind limbs are provided so that researchers can optimize sampling designs and minimize erroneous conclusions associated with missing Bd infections or misestimating Bd abundance. PMID:25384612

  1. Coordinated, multi-joint, fatigue-resistant feline stance produced with intrafascicular hind limb nerve stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normann, R. A.; Dowden, B. R.; Frankel, M. A.; Wilder, A. M.; Hiatt, S. D.; Ledbetter, N. M.; Warren, D. A.; Clark, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    The production of graceful skeletal movements requires coordinated activation of multiple muscles that produce torques around multiple joints. The work described herein is focused on one such movement, stance, that requires coordinated activation of extensor muscles acting around the hip, knee and ankle joints. The forces evoked in these muscles by external stimulation all have a complex dependence on muscle length and shortening velocities, and some of these muscles are biarticular. In order to recreate sit-to-stand maneuvers in the anesthetized feline, we excited the hind limb musculature using intrafascicular multielectrode stimulation (IFMS) of the muscular branch of the sciatic nerve, the femoral nerve and the main branch of the sciatic nerve. Stimulation was achieved with either acutely or chronically implanted Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (USEAs) via subsets of electrodes (1) that activated motor units in the extensor muscles of the hip, knee and ankle joints, (2) that were able to evoke large extension forces and (3) that manifested minimal coactivation of the targeted motor units. Three hind limb force-generation strategies were investigated, including sequential activation of independent motor units to increase force, and interleaved or simultaneous IFMS of three sets of six or more USEA electrodes that excited the hip, knee and ankle extensors. All force-generation strategies evoked stance, but the interleaved IFMS strategy also reduced muscle fatigue produced by repeated sit-to-stand maneuvers compared with fatigue produced by simultaneous activation of different motor neuron pools. These results demonstrate the use of interleaved IFMS as a means to recreate coordinated, fatigue-resistant multi-joint muscle forces in the unilateral hind limb. This muscle activation paradigm could provide a promising neuroprosthetic approach for the restoration of sit-to-stand transitions in individuals who are paralyzed by spinal cord injury, stroke or disease.

  2. Potency of various peptides as histamine liberators in the rat hind limb.

    PubMed

    Rioux, F; Kérouac, R; St-Pierre, S

    1985-07-01

    The potency of several peptides and drugs as histamine liberators was assessed using the rat isolated hind limb preparation. Neurotensin (NT) and compound 48/80 (C48/80) were effective in concentrations as low as 10(-9) M and 10(-8) M, respectively. Threshold concentrations of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and substance P (SP) varied between 5 X 10(-7) to 5 X 10(-6) M while somatostatin (SS) was barely active at 6 X 10(-6) M. No histamine release could be detected following the use of high concentrations of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) (6 X 10(-6) M), dynorphin (DYN) (6 X 10(-6) M) bradykinin (BK), des-Arg9-BK or bombesin (BB) (at 10(-5) M). Poly-L-Lysine and the calcium ionophore A23187 were about 100 times less active than NT. Concanavalin A (Con A) was inactive at 10(-6) M. These results indicate that NT is more potent (on a molar basis) as histamine liberator in the rat hind limb preparation (which contains a large population of cutaneous and subcutaneous mast cells) than any of the other compounds tested. Histamine release by NT was inhibited by preexposure of the rat hind limb mast cells to a high concentration of SP (1.5 X 10(-6) M). This result adds further support to the hypothesis suggesting that NT and SP might share a common mechanism of action and/or act through common receptors at least in rat mast cells.

  3. The role of hind limb tendons in gibbon locomotion: springs or strings?

    PubMed

    Vereecke, Evie E; Channon, Anthony J

    2013-11-01

    Tendon properties have an important effect on the mechanical behaviour of muscles, with compliant tendons allowing near-isometric muscle contraction and facilitating elastic energy storage and recoil. Stiff tendons, in contrast, facilitate rapid force transfer and precise positional control. In humans, the long Achilles tendon contributes to the mechanical efficiency of running via elastic energy storage and recovery, and its presence has been linked to the evolution of habitual bipedalism. Gibbons also possess relatively long hind limb tendons; however, their role is as yet unknown. Based on their large dimensions, and inferring from the situation in humans, we hypothesize that the tendons in the gibbon hind limb will facilitate elastic energy storage and recoil during hind-limb-powered locomotion. To investigate this, we determined the material properties of the gibbon Achilles and patellar tendon in vitro and linked this with available kinematic and kinetic data to evaluate their role in leaping and bipedalism. Tensile tests were conducted on tendon samples using a material testing machine and the load-displacement data were used to calculate stiffness, Young's modulus and hysteresis. In addition, the average stress-in-life and energy absorption capacity of both tendons were estimated. We found a functional difference between the gibbon Achilles and patellar tendon, with the Achilles tendon being more suitable for elastic energy storage and release. The patellar tendon, in contrast, has a relatively high hysteresis, making it less suitable to act as elastic spring. This suggests that the gibbon Achilles tendon might fulfil a similar function as in humans, contributing to reducing the locomotor cost of bipedalism by acting as elastic spring, while the high stiffness of the patellar tendon might favour fast force transfer upon recoil and, possibly, enhance leaping performance.

  4. Muscular reconstruction and functional morphology of the hind limb of santacrucian (Early Miocene) sloths (Xenarthra, Folivora) of Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Néstor; Bargo, M Susana; Vizcaíno, Sergio F

    2015-05-01

    This article presents a morphofunctional analysis of the hind limb of Santacrucian (Early Miocene) sloths from southernmost Patagonia (Argentina). These fossil sloths were mid sized to large animals, ranging from 40 to 120 kg, and their postcranial skeleton was markedly different in shape compared with that of extant tree sloths, which vary from 2 to 10 kg. The functional anatomy of the hind limb of Santacrucian sloths was compared with that of living xenarthrans (tree sloths, anteaters, and armadillos), which involved reconstruction of the hind limb musculature and comparative and qualitative morphofunctional analyses, and hypotheses on the biological role of the hind limb in terms of preferences in substrate, posture, and strategies of locomotion were formulated. The hind limb of Santacrucian sloths bears strong resemblances to that of living South American anteaters in stoutness of skeletal elements, form of the characteristics related to muscular and ligamentous attachments, and conservative, pentadactylous strong-clawed pes. The musculature was very well developed, allowing powerful forces, principally in entire limb adduction, crus flexion and extension, pes extension, and toe prehension. These functional features, together with those of the forelimb, are congruent with climbing behavior, and support the hypothesis that Santacrucian sloths were good but slow climbing mammals. However, their climbing strategies were limited, owing principally to their comparatively large body size, and they relied to a large extent on their powerful musculature and curved manual and pedal unguals for both moving and standing on the arboreal supports. PMID:25644288

  5. Muscular reconstruction and functional morphology of the hind limb of santacrucian (Early Miocene) sloths (Xenarthra, Folivora) of Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Néstor; Bargo, M Susana; Vizcaíno, Sergio F

    2015-05-01

    This article presents a morphofunctional analysis of the hind limb of Santacrucian (Early Miocene) sloths from southernmost Patagonia (Argentina). These fossil sloths were mid sized to large animals, ranging from 40 to 120 kg, and their postcranial skeleton was markedly different in shape compared with that of extant tree sloths, which vary from 2 to 10 kg. The functional anatomy of the hind limb of Santacrucian sloths was compared with that of living xenarthrans (tree sloths, anteaters, and armadillos), which involved reconstruction of the hind limb musculature and comparative and qualitative morphofunctional analyses, and hypotheses on the biological role of the hind limb in terms of preferences in substrate, posture, and strategies of locomotion were formulated. The hind limb of Santacrucian sloths bears strong resemblances to that of living South American anteaters in stoutness of skeletal elements, form of the characteristics related to muscular and ligamentous attachments, and conservative, pentadactylous strong-clawed pes. The musculature was very well developed, allowing powerful forces, principally in entire limb adduction, crus flexion and extension, pes extension, and toe prehension. These functional features, together with those of the forelimb, are congruent with climbing behavior, and support the hypothesis that Santacrucian sloths were good but slow climbing mammals. However, their climbing strategies were limited, owing principally to their comparatively large body size, and they relied to a large extent on their powerful musculature and curved manual and pedal unguals for both moving and standing on the arboreal supports.

  6. Combined effects of soy isoflavones and milk basic protein on bone mineral density in hind-limb unloaded mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yu; Tousen, Yuko; Nishide, Yoriko; Tadaishi, Miki; Kato, Ken; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2016-03-01

    We examined whether the combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein both are reported to be effective for bone metabolism, prevents bone loss induced by skeletal hind-limb unloading in mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were divided into six groups (n = 6-8 each): (1) normally housed group, (2) loading group, (3) hind-limb unloading group fed a control diet, (4) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates diet, (5) hind-limb unloading group fed a 1.0% milk basic protein diet, and (6) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates and 1.0% milk basic protein diet. After 3 weeks, femoral bone mineral density was markedly reduced in unloading mice. The combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein showed cooperative effects in preventing bone loss and milk basic protein inhibited the increased expression of osteogenic genes in bone marrow cells in unloading mice. These results suggest that the combination of soy isoflavone and milk basic protein may be useful for bone health in subjects with disabling conditions as well as astronauts. PMID:27013781

  7. Combined effects of soy isoflavones and milk basic protein on bone mineral density in hind-limb unloaded mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yu; Tousen, Yuko; Nishide, Yoriko; Tadaishi, Miki; Kato, Ken; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether the combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein both are reported to be effective for bone metabolism, prevents bone loss induced by skeletal hind-limb unloading in mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were divided into six groups (n = 6–8 each): (1) normally housed group, (2) loading group, (3) hind-limb unloading group fed a control diet, (4) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates diet, (5) hind-limb unloading group fed a 1.0% milk basic protein diet, and (6) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates and 1.0% milk basic protein diet. After 3 weeks, femoral bone mineral density was markedly reduced in unloading mice. The combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein showed cooperative effects in preventing bone loss and milk basic protein inhibited the increased expression of osteogenic genes in bone marrow cells in unloading mice. These results suggest that the combination of soy isoflavone and milk basic protein may be useful for bone health in subjects with disabling conditions as well as astronauts. PMID:27013781

  8. Combined effects of soy isoflavones and milk basic protein on bone mineral density in hind-limb unloaded mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yu; Tousen, Yuko; Nishide, Yoriko; Tadaishi, Miki; Kato, Ken; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2016-03-01

    We examined whether the combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein both are reported to be effective for bone metabolism, prevents bone loss induced by skeletal hind-limb unloading in mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were divided into six groups (n = 6-8 each): (1) normally housed group, (2) loading group, (3) hind-limb unloading group fed a control diet, (4) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates diet, (5) hind-limb unloading group fed a 1.0% milk basic protein diet, and (6) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates and 1.0% milk basic protein diet. After 3 weeks, femoral bone mineral density was markedly reduced in unloading mice. The combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein showed cooperative effects in preventing bone loss and milk basic protein inhibited the increased expression of osteogenic genes in bone marrow cells in unloading mice. These results suggest that the combination of soy isoflavone and milk basic protein may be useful for bone health in subjects with disabling conditions as well as astronauts.

  9. Outbreak of hind limb paralysis in young CFW Swiss Webster mice.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Alejandro Victorio; Rozengurt, Nora

    2002-04-01

    An outbreak of paralysis among 16- to 20-week-old CFW Swiss Webster sentinel mice developed in one of our barrier facilities. Two months after arrival and over a period of four weeks, six of 400 mice purchased from an approved vendor, developed progressive hind limb paralysis without other clinical signs of disease. On the basis of the histopathologic changes and negative serologic test results, lymphoblastic lymphoma causing compression of the spinal cord was diagnosed. There were two leading features to this outbreak: its unusual epidemiologic presentation, and the localization of the lesions principally in the lumbar muscles. A presumptive diagnosis of retroviral infection with Abelson's murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) was established on the basis of histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings. Little is known about retroviral status in many commercial colonies, and few users report presence of spontaneous lymphomas. This report points out complications derived from commercially available animals that carry endogenous retroviruses. It also emphasizes the need of diagnosing and reporting clusters of hind limb paralysis or lymphomas in mice to assess the prevalence and relevance of retroviral infections in commercial colonies.

  10. Perivertebral B-cell lymphoma in a Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) with paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs.

    PubMed

    Kido, Nobuhide; Edamura, Kazuya; Inoue, Naomi; Shibuya, Hisashi; Sato, Tsuneo; Kondo, Masako; Shindo, Izumi

    2012-08-01

    A male Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) at Kanazawa Zoological Gardens (Kanagawa, Japan) exhibited paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass on the left ventral side of the 11th to 13th thoracic vertebrae, and the presence of myelitis or edema in the spinal cord. The koala was under anesthesia during the examination and suddenly developed ventricular fibrillation and died. Necropsy revealed a firm flat ovoid hemorrhagic mass on the vertebrae. Following a microscopic examination including immunohistochemistry, the perivertebral mass was diagnosed as B cell lymphoma. Therefore, neoplastic cell infiltration into the spinal cord may cause paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs.

  11. Pancreatic Histology and Associated Biochemical Changes in Rats on Hind-Limb Suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulsby, Michael; Johnson, Emily; Akel, Nisreen; Agarwal, Rakhee; Gaddy, Dana; Dobretsov, Maxim; Chowdhury, Parimal

    2011-06-01

    The pancreas plays an important role in regulating many of the key endocrine hormones and digestive enzymes that are required for nutrition and survival of the organism. This study examines the pancreatic histology and associated biochemical changes in rats on hind limb suspension (HLS) after exposure to simulated microgravity. Results show that MDA and glutathione levels were significantly increased in the suspended (HLS) groups as compared to the control group. Plasma insulin levels averaged 2.43±0.32 ng/ml in the control animals and decreased significantly to 1.47±0.24 ng/ml in the suspended group. Histopathology revealed increased vacuolation, pyknosis, membrane thickening, increase of zymogen granules and increase in islets (both in size and number) in the suspended group as compared to the control group.

  12. 3D reconstruction of digitized histological sections for vasculature quantification in the mouse hind limb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yiwen; Pickering, J. Geoffrey; Nong, Zengxuan; Gibson, Eli; Ward, Aaron D.

    2014-03-01

    In contrast to imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and micro computed tomography, digital histology reveals multiple stained tissue features at high resolution (0.25μm/pixel). However, the two-dimensional (2D) nature of histology challenges three-dimensional (3D) quantification and visualization of the different tissue components, cellular structures, and subcellular elements. This limitation is particularly relevant to the vasculature, which has a complex and variable structure within tissues. The objective of this study was to perform a fully automated 3D reconstruction of histology tissue in the mouse hind limb preserving the accurate systemic orientation of the tissues, stained with hematoxylin and immunostained for smooth muscle α actin. We performed a 3D reconstruction using pairwise rigid registrations of 5μm thick, paraffin-embedded serial sections, digitized at 0.25μm/pixel. Each registration was performed using the iterative closest points algorithm on blood vessel landmarks. Landmarks were vessel centroids, determined according to a signed distance map of each pixel to a decision boundary in hue-saturation-value color space; this decision boundary was determined based on manual annotation of a separate training set. Cell nuclei were then automatically extracted and corresponded to refine the vessel landmark registration. Homologous nucleus landmark pairs appearing on not more than two adjacent slides were chosen to avoid registrations which force curved or non-sectionorthogonal structures to be straight and section-orthogonal. The median accumulated target registration errors ± interquartile ranges for the vessel landmark registration, and the nucleus landmark refinement were 43.4+/-42.8μm and 2.9+/-1.7μm, respectively (p<0.0001). Fully automatic and accurate 3D rigid reconstruction of mouse hind limb histology imaging is feasible based on extracted vasculature and nuclei.

  13. Feasibility and repeatability of thermal quantitative sensory testing in normal dogs and dogs with hind limb osteoarthritis-associated pain

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Morika D.; Kirkpatrick, Amy E.; Griffith, Emily; Benito, Javier; Hash, Jon; Lascelles, B.D.X.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether thermal quantitative sensory testing (QST) can be performed in client-owned dogs, is repeatable and whether QST differs between normal dogs and dogs with hind limb osteoarthritis (OA). This clinical, prospective, observational study used clinically normal dogs (n = 23) and dogs with OA-associated hind limb pain (n = 9). Thermal QST was performed in standing dogs using a high-powered light source delivered by a previously validated system. Dogs were tested on two occasions, 2 weeks apart. Five tests were performed on each hind limb at each time point. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate the effects of leg, time point and OA/normal status on thermal threshold latencies (TTL). Additionally, paired t tests were used to compare the TTL of left and right limbs within groups and between time points. Thermal thresholds were successfully measured in 32 client-owned dogs without prior training. TTL were significantly different between normal and OA dogs (P = 0.012). There was no difference between limbs (P = 0.744) or time periods (P = 0.572), when analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance, and no interactions between group and limb, visit and limb, or visit and group. In conclusion, thermal thresholds can be measured in client owned dogs with no prior training and are repeatable from week to week. Further data are required to determine if OA results in thermal hypoalgesia as measured at the distal hind limb and whether this is an indication of central sensitization. PMID:24316154

  14. A reproducible radiation delivery method for unanesthetized rodents during periods of hind limb unloading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walb, M. C.; Black, P. J.; Payne, V. S.; Munley, M. T.; Willey, J. S.

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to the spaceflight environment has long been known to be a health challenge concerning many body systems. Both microgravity and/or ionizing radiation can cause acute and chronic effects in multiple body systems. The hind limb unloaded (HLU) rodent model is a ground-based analogue for microgravity that can be used to simulate and study the combined biologic effects of reduced loading with spaceflight radiation exposure. However, studies delivering radiation to rodents during periods of HLU are rare. Herein we report the development of an irradiation protocol using a clinical linear accelerator that can be used with hind limb unloaded, unanesthetized rodents that is capable of being performed at most academic medical centers. A 30.5 cm × 30.5 cm × 40.6 cm rectangular chamber was constructed out of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sheets (0.64 cm thickness). Five centimeters of water-equivalent material were placed outside of two PMMA inserts on either side of the rodent that permitted the desired radiation dose buildup (electronic equilibrium) and helped to achieve a flatter dose profile. Perforated aluminum strips permitted the suspension dowel to be placed at varying heights depending on the rodent size. Radiation was delivered using a medical linear accelerator at an accelerating potential of 10 MV. A calibrated PTW Farmer ionization chamber, wrapped in appropriately thick tissue-equivalent bolus material to simulate the volume of the rodent, was used to verify a uniform dose distribution at various regions of the chamber. The dosimetry measurements confirmed variances typically within 3%, with maximum variance <10% indicated through optically stimulated luminescent dosimeter (OSLD) measurements, thus delivering reliable spaceflight-relevant total body doses and ensuring a uniform dose regardless of its location within the chamber. Due to the relative abundance of LINACs at academic medical centers and the reliability of their dosimetry properties, this

  15. Effects of Hind Limb Unloading on Pharmacokinetics of Procainamide in Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risin, Semyon A.; Dasgupta, Amitava; Ramesh, Govindarajan T.; Risin, Diana

    2007-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of medications administered to astronauts could be altered by the conditions in space. It is prudent to expect that low gravity and free floating (and associated hemodynamic changes) could affect the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the drugs. Knowledge of these alterations is essential for adjusting the dosage and the regimen of drug administration. Among the medications of special interest are the cardiovascular drugs, especially the antiarrhythmic agents. In this study we used hind limb unloaded (HLU) mice as a model to investigate possible changes in the PK of a common antiarrhythmic drug procainamide (PA). Prior to drug administration the experimental animals were tail suspended for 24 hours and the control animals were kept free. PA (150-250 mg per kg) was given orally by a gavage procedure. After that the experimental mice were kept suspended for additional 1, 2, 3 and 6 hours. At these time points the serum concentration of PA and N-acetyl-procainamide (NAPA), an active metabolite which is formed by N-acetyltransferase in the liver, were measured by the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) on the AxSYM autoanalyzer (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL). The serum level of PA in HLU mice at 1 hour after administration was almost 40% lower than in controls. At 2-3 hours the difference still maintained, however, it was not statistically significant; at 6 hours no difference was detected. The level of NAPA in HLU mice was slightly lower at 1 and 2 hours but the difference did not reach statistical significance. The estimated PA half-life time in HLU mice was almost 55% longer than in control animals. These results confirm that hind limb unloading and related hemodynamic changes significantly alter the PK of PA. The effects are most likely primarily associated with a decrease in the drug absorption, especially within the first two hours after administration. At the same time prolongation of the PA half

  16. Three-dimensional kinematics of the pelvis and hind limbs in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and human bipedal walking.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Matthew C; Lee, Leng-Feng; Demes, Brigitte; Thompson, Nathan E; Larson, Susan G; Stern, Jack T; Umberger, Brian R

    2015-09-01

    The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is a facultative biped and our closest living relative. As such, the musculoskeletal anatomies of their pelvis and hind limbs have long provided a comparative context for studies of human and fossil hominin locomotion. Yet, how the chimpanzee pelvis and hind limb actually move during bipedal walking is still not well defined. Here, we describe the three-dimensional (3-D) kinematics of the pelvis, hip, knee and ankle during bipedal walking and compare those values to humans walking at the same dimensionless and dimensional velocities. The stride-to-stride and intraspecific variations in 3-D kinematics were calculated using the adjusted coefficient of multiple correlation. Our results indicate that humans walk with a more stable pelvis than chimpanzees, especially in tilt and rotation. Both species exhibit similar magnitudes of pelvis list, but with segment motion that is opposite in phasing. In the hind limb, chimpanzees walk with a more flexed and abducted limb posture, and substantially exceed humans in the magnitude of hip rotation during a stride. The average stride-to-stride variation in joint and segment motion was greater in chimpanzees than humans, while the intraspecific variation was similar on average. These results demonstrate substantial differences between human and chimpanzee bipedal walking, in both the sagittal and non-sagittal planes. These new 3-D kinematic data are fundamental to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanics, energetics and control of chimpanzee bipedalism.

  17. Local and distant trauma after hypervelocity ballistic impact to the pig hind limb.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Wei; Kang, Jian-Yi; Chen, Kui-Jun; Wang, Ai-Min; Wang, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    The development of high-energy weapons could increase the velocity of projectiles to well over 1000 m/s. The nature of the injuries caused by the ballistic impact of projectiles at velocities much faster than 1000 m/s is unclear. This study characterizes the mechanical and biochemical alterations caused by high-speed ballistic impact generated by spherical steel ball to the hind limbs of the pig. That the local and distal injuries caused by hypervelocity ballistic impact to the living body are also identified. It is showed that the severity of the injury was positively correlated with the velocity of the projectile. And 4000 m/s seems to be the critical velocity for the 5.6 mm spherical steel ball, which would cause severe damage to either local or distal organs, as below that speed the projectile penetrated the body while above that speed it caused severe damage to the body. In addition, vaporization prevented the projectile from penetrating the body and the consequent pressure wave seems to be the causal factor for the distant damage.

  18. Local and distant trauma after hypervelocity ballistic impact to the pig hind limb.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Wei; Kang, Jian-Yi; Chen, Kui-Jun; Wang, Ai-Min; Wang, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    The development of high-energy weapons could increase the velocity of projectiles to well over 1000 m/s. The nature of the injuries caused by the ballistic impact of projectiles at velocities much faster than 1000 m/s is unclear. This study characterizes the mechanical and biochemical alterations caused by high-speed ballistic impact generated by spherical steel ball to the hind limbs of the pig. That the local and distal injuries caused by hypervelocity ballistic impact to the living body are also identified. It is showed that the severity of the injury was positively correlated with the velocity of the projectile. And 4000 m/s seems to be the critical velocity for the 5.6 mm spherical steel ball, which would cause severe damage to either local or distal organs, as below that speed the projectile penetrated the body while above that speed it caused severe damage to the body. In addition, vaporization prevented the projectile from penetrating the body and the consequent pressure wave seems to be the causal factor for the distant damage. PMID:27652070

  19. System identification of muscle-joint interactions of the cat hind limb during locomotion.

    PubMed

    Harischandra, Nalin; Ekeberg, Orjan

    2008-08-01

    Neurophysiological experiments in walking cats have shown that a number of neural control mechanisms are involved in regulating the movements of the hind legs during locomotion. It is experimentally hard to isolate individual mechanisms without disrupting the natural walking pattern and we therefore introduce a different approach where we use a model to identify what control is necessary to maintain stability in the musculo-skeletal system. We developed a computer simulation model of the cat hind legs in which the movements of each leg are produced by eight limb muscles whose activations follow a centrally generated pattern with no proprioceptive feedback. All linear transfer functions, from each muscle activation to each joint angle, were identified using the response of the joint angle to an impulse in the muscle activation at 65 postures of the leg covering the entire step cycle. We analyzed the sensitivity and stability of each muscle action on the joint angles by studying the gain and pole plots of these transfer functions. We found that the actions of most of the hindlimb muscles display inherent stability during stepping, even without the involvement of any proprioceptive feedback mechanisms, and that those musculo-skeletal systems are acting in a critically damped manner, enabling them to react quickly without unnecessary oscillations. We also found that during the late swing, the activity of the posterior biceps/semitendinosus (PB/ST) muscles causes the joints to be unstable. In addition, vastus lateralis (VL), tibialis anterior (TA) and sartorius (SAT) muscle-joint systems were found to be unstable during the late stance phase, and we conclude that those muscles require neuronal feedback to maintain stable stepping, especially during late swing and late stance phases. Moreover, we could see a clear distinction in the pole distribution (along the step cycle) for the systems related to the ankle joint from that of the other two joints, hip or knee. A

  20. System identification of muscle-joint interactions of the cat hind limb during locomotion.

    PubMed

    Harischandra, Nalin; Ekeberg, Orjan

    2008-08-01

    Neurophysiological experiments in walking cats have shown that a number of neural control mechanisms are involved in regulating the movements of the hind legs during locomotion. It is experimentally hard to isolate individual mechanisms without disrupting the natural walking pattern and we therefore introduce a different approach where we use a model to identify what control is necessary to maintain stability in the musculo-skeletal system. We developed a computer simulation model of the cat hind legs in which the movements of each leg are produced by eight limb muscles whose activations follow a centrally generated pattern with no proprioceptive feedback. All linear transfer functions, from each muscle activation to each joint angle, were identified using the response of the joint angle to an impulse in the muscle activation at 65 postures of the leg covering the entire step cycle. We analyzed the sensitivity and stability of each muscle action on the joint angles by studying the gain and pole plots of these transfer functions. We found that the actions of most of the hindlimb muscles display inherent stability during stepping, even without the involvement of any proprioceptive feedback mechanisms, and that those musculo-skeletal systems are acting in a critically damped manner, enabling them to react quickly without unnecessary oscillations. We also found that during the late swing, the activity of the posterior biceps/semitendinosus (PB/ST) muscles causes the joints to be unstable. In addition, vastus lateralis (VL), tibialis anterior (TA) and sartorius (SAT) muscle-joint systems were found to be unstable during the late stance phase, and we conclude that those muscles require neuronal feedback to maintain stable stepping, especially during late swing and late stance phases. Moreover, we could see a clear distinction in the pole distribution (along the step cycle) for the systems related to the ankle joint from that of the other two joints, hip or knee. A

  1. A three-dimensional analysis of the morphological evolution and locomotor behaviour of the carnivoran hind limb

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The shape of the appendicular bones in mammals usually reflects adaptations towards different locomotor abilities. However, other aspects such as body size and phylogeny also play an important role in shaping bone design. We used 3D landmark-based geometric morphometrics to analyse the shape of the hind limb bones (i.e., femur, tibia, and pelvic girdle bones) of living and extinct terrestrial carnivorans (Mammalia, Carnivora) to quantitatively investigate the influence of body size, phylogeny, and locomotor behaviour in shaping the morphology of these bones. We also investigated the main patterns of morphological variation within a phylogenetic context. Results Size and phylogeny strongly influence the shape of the hind limb bones. In contrast, adaptations towards different modes of locomotion seem to have little influence. Principal Components Analysis and the study of phylomorphospaces suggest that the main source of variation in bone shape is a gradient of slenderness-robustness. Conclusion The shape of the hind limb bones is strongly influenced by body size and phylogeny, but not to a similar degree by locomotor behaviour. The slender-robust “morphological bipolarity” found in bone shape variability is probably related to a trade-off between maintaining energetic efficiency and withstanding resistance to stresses. The balance involved in this trade-off impedes the evolution of high phenotypic variability. In fact, both morphological extremes (slender/robust) are adaptive in different selective contexts and lead to a convergence in shape among taxa with extremely different ecologies but with similar biomechanical demands. Strikingly, this “one-to-many mapping” pattern of evolution between morphology and ecology in hind limb bones is in complete contrast to the “many-to-one mapping” pattern found in the evolution of carnivoran skull shape. The results suggest that there are more constraints in the evolution of the shape of the appendicular

  2. Osteology and radiographic anatomy of the pelvis and hind limb of healthy ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Makungu, M; Groenewald, H B; du Plessis, W M; Barrows, M; Koeppel, K N

    2014-06-01

    In family Lemuridae, anatomical variations exist. Considering its conservation status (near threatened) and presence of similarities between strepsirrhines and primitive animals, it was thought to be beneficial to describe the gross osteology and radiographic anatomy of the pelvis and hind limb of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) as a reference for clinical use and species identification. Radiography was performed in 14 captive adult ring-tailed lemurs. The radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from two adult animals. Additionally, computed tomography of the hind limbs was performed in one animal. The pelvic bone has a well-developed caudal ventral iliac spine. The patella has a prominent tuberosity on the cranial surface. The first metatarsal bone and digit 1 are markedly stouter than the other metatarsal bones and digits with medial divergence from the rest of the metatarsal bones and digits. Ossicles were seen in the lateral meniscus, inter-phalangeal joint of digit 1 and in the infrapatellar fat pad. Areas of mineral opacity were seen within the external genitalia, which are believed to be the os penis and os clitoris. Variations exist in the normal osteology and radiographic appearance of the pelvis and hind limb of different animal species. The use of only atlases from domestic cats and dogs for interpretative purposes may be misleading. PMID:23651234

  3. Osteology and radiographic anatomy of the pelvis and hind limb of healthy ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Makungu, M; Groenewald, H B; du Plessis, W M; Barrows, M; Koeppel, K N

    2014-06-01

    In family Lemuridae, anatomical variations exist. Considering its conservation status (near threatened) and presence of similarities between strepsirrhines and primitive animals, it was thought to be beneficial to describe the gross osteology and radiographic anatomy of the pelvis and hind limb of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) as a reference for clinical use and species identification. Radiography was performed in 14 captive adult ring-tailed lemurs. The radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from two adult animals. Additionally, computed tomography of the hind limbs was performed in one animal. The pelvic bone has a well-developed caudal ventral iliac spine. The patella has a prominent tuberosity on the cranial surface. The first metatarsal bone and digit 1 are markedly stouter than the other metatarsal bones and digits with medial divergence from the rest of the metatarsal bones and digits. Ossicles were seen in the lateral meniscus, inter-phalangeal joint of digit 1 and in the infrapatellar fat pad. Areas of mineral opacity were seen within the external genitalia, which are believed to be the os penis and os clitoris. Variations exist in the normal osteology and radiographic appearance of the pelvis and hind limb of different animal species. The use of only atlases from domestic cats and dogs for interpretative purposes may be misleading.

  4. A three-dimensional musculoskeletal model of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) pelvis and hind limb.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Matthew C; Lee, Leng-Feng; Larson, Susan G; Demes, Brigitte; Stern, Jack T; Umberger, Brian R

    2013-10-01

    Musculoskeletal models have become important tools for studying a range of muscle-driven movements. However, most work has been in modern humans, with few applications in other species. Chimpanzees are facultative bipeds and our closest living relatives, and have provided numerous important insights into our own evolution. A chimpanzee musculoskeletal model would allow integration across a wide range of laboratory-based experimental data, providing new insights into the determinants of their locomotor performance capabilities, as well as the origins and evolution of human bipedalism. Here, we described a detailed three-dimensional (3D) musculoskeletal model of the chimpanzee pelvis and hind limb. The model includes geometric representations of bones and joints, as well as 35 muscle-tendon units that were represented using 44 Hill-type muscle models. Muscle architecture data, such as muscle masses, fascicle lengths and pennation angles, were drawn from literature sources. The model permits calculation of 3D muscle moment arms, muscle-tendon lengths and isometric muscle forces over a wide range of joint positions. Muscle-tendon moment arms predicted by the model were generally in good agreement with tendon-excursion estimates from cadaveric specimens. Sensitivity analyses provided information on the parameters that model predictions are most and least sensitive to, which offers important context for interpreting future results obtained with the model. Comparisons with a similar human musculoskeletal model indicate that chimpanzees are better suited for force production over a larger range of joint positions than humans. This study represents an important step in understanding the integrated function of the neuromusculoskeletal systems in chimpanzee locomotion. PMID:24006347

  5. A Modified Heterotopic Swine Hind Limb Transplant Model for Translational Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation (VCA) Research

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Cooney, Damon S.; Shores, Jaimie T.; Sacks, Justin M.; Wimmers, Eric G.; Bonawitz, Steven C.; Gordon, Chad; Ruben, Dawn; Schneeberger, Stefan; Lee, W. P. Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation (VCA) such as hand and face transplants represent a viable treatment option for complex musculoskeletal trauma and devastating tissue loss. Despite favorable and highly encouraging early and intermediate functional outcomes, rejection of the highly immunogenic skin component of a VCA and potential adverse effects of chronic multi-drug immunosuppression continue to hamper widespread clinical application of VCA. Therefore, research in this novel field needs to focus on translational studies related to unique immunologic features of VCA and to develop novel immunomodulatory strategies for immunomodulation and tolerance induction following VCA without the need for long term immunosuppression. This article describes a reliable and reproducible translational large animal model of VCA that is comprised of an osteomyocutaneous flap in a MHC-defined swine heterotopic hind limb allotransplantation. Briefly, a well-vascularized skin paddle is identified in the anteromedial thigh region using near infrared laser angiography. The underlying muscles, knee joint, distal femur, and proximal tibia are harvested on a femoral vascular pedicle. This allograft can be considered both a VCA and a vascularized bone marrow transplant with its unique immune privileged features. The graft is transplanted to a subcutaneous abdominal pocket in the recipient animal with a skin component exteriorized to the dorsolateral region for immune monitoring. Three surgical teams work simultaneously in a well-coordinated manner to reduce anesthesia and ischemia times, thereby improving efficiency of this model and reducing potential confounders in experimental protocols. This model serves as the groundwork for future therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing and potentially eliminating the need for chronic multi-drug immunosuppression in VCA. PMID:24145603

  6. A three-dimensional musculoskeletal model of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) pelvis and hind limb.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Matthew C; Lee, Leng-Feng; Larson, Susan G; Demes, Brigitte; Stern, Jack T; Umberger, Brian R

    2013-10-01

    Musculoskeletal models have become important tools for studying a range of muscle-driven movements. However, most work has been in modern humans, with few applications in other species. Chimpanzees are facultative bipeds and our closest living relatives, and have provided numerous important insights into our own evolution. A chimpanzee musculoskeletal model would allow integration across a wide range of laboratory-based experimental data, providing new insights into the determinants of their locomotor performance capabilities, as well as the origins and evolution of human bipedalism. Here, we described a detailed three-dimensional (3D) musculoskeletal model of the chimpanzee pelvis and hind limb. The model includes geometric representations of bones and joints, as well as 35 muscle-tendon units that were represented using 44 Hill-type muscle models. Muscle architecture data, such as muscle masses, fascicle lengths and pennation angles, were drawn from literature sources. The model permits calculation of 3D muscle moment arms, muscle-tendon lengths and isometric muscle forces over a wide range of joint positions. Muscle-tendon moment arms predicted by the model were generally in good agreement with tendon-excursion estimates from cadaveric specimens. Sensitivity analyses provided information on the parameters that model predictions are most and least sensitive to, which offers important context for interpreting future results obtained with the model. Comparisons with a similar human musculoskeletal model indicate that chimpanzees are better suited for force production over a larger range of joint positions than humans. This study represents an important step in understanding the integrated function of the neuromusculoskeletal systems in chimpanzee locomotion.

  7. Effect of recovery mode following hind-limb suspension on soleus muscle composition in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNulty, A. L.; Otto, A. J.; Kasper, C. E.; Thomas, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different recovery modes from hind-limb suspension-induced hypodynamia on whole body and muscle (soleus) growth as well as soleus composition and size changes of different fiber types within this same muscle. Following 28 days of tail-suspension, rats were returned to their cages and sedentarily recovered (HS), or were exercised by running on a treadmill 5 days/wk, at progressively increasing workloads (HR) for one month. Sedentary and running control groups of animals (CS, CR) were also evaluated for comparative purposes. The exercise program, which was identical for CR and HR groups, had no effect on body wt., soleus wt., soleus muscle composition or fiber size in CR rats. Atrophied soleus muscle and reduced soleus wt./body wt. ratio (both 60% of control) had returned to control values by day 7 of recovery in both suspended groups despite the fact that whole body wt. gain was significantly reduced (p less than 0.05) in HR as compared to HS rats. Atrophied soleus Type I fiber mean cross-sectional area in both HR and HS groups demonstrated similar and significant (p less than 0.01) increases during recovery. Increases in Type IIa and IIc fiber area during this same period were significant only in the HR group. While the percentage area of muscle composed of Type I fibers increased in both hypodynamic groups during recovery, the reduction in area percentage of muscle made up of Type IIa fibers was again only significant in the HR group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  8. Fucoidan improves bioactivity and vasculogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells in murine hind limb ischemia associated with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Hee; Ryu, Jung Min; Han, Yong-Seok; Zia, Mohammad Farid; Kwon, Hyog Young; Noh, Hyunjin; Han, Ho Jae; Lee, Sang Hun

    2016-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease. Although mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is a promising strategy for treatment of ischemic diseases associated with CKD, the associated pathophysiological conditions lead to low survival and proliferation of transplanted MSCs. To address these limitations, we investigated the effects of fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, on the bioactivity of adipose tissue-derived MSCs and the potential of fucoidan-treated MSCs to improve neovascularization in ischemic tissues of CKD mice. Treatment of MSCs with fucoidan increased their proliferative potential and the expression of cell cycle-associated proteins, such as cyclin E, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 2, cyclin D1, and CDK4, via focal adhesion kinase and the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase-Akt axis. Moreover, fucoidan enhanced the immunomodulatory activity of MSCs through the ERK-IDO-1 signal cascade. Fucoidan was found to augment the proliferation, incorporation, and endothelial differentiation of transplanted MSCs at ischemic sites in CKD mice hind limbs. In addition, transplantation of fucoidan-treated MSCs enhanced the ratio of blood flow and limb salvage in CKD mice with hind limb ischemia. To our knowledge, our findings are the first to reveal that fucoidan enhances the bioactivity of MSCs and improves their neovascularization in ischemic injured tissues of CKD. In conclusion, fucoidan-treated MSCs may provide an important pathway toward therapeutic neovascularization in patients with CKD.

  9. Increased androgenic sensitivity in the hind limb muscular system marks the evolution of a derived gestural display

    PubMed Central

    Mangiamele, Lisa A.; Fuxjager, Matthew J.; Schuppe, Eric R.; Taylor, Rebecca S.; Hödl, Walter; Preininger, Doris

    2016-01-01

    Physical gestures are prominent features of many species’ multimodal displays, yet how evolution incorporates body and leg movements into animal signaling repertoires is unclear. Androgenic hormones modulate the production of reproductive signals and sexual motor skills in many vertebrates; therefore, one possibility is that selection for physical signals drives the evolution of androgenic sensitivity in select neuromotor pathways. We examined this issue in the Bornean rock frog (Staurois parvus, family: Ranidae). Males court females and compete with rivals by performing both vocalizations and hind limb gestural signals, called “foot flags.” Foot flagging is a derived display that emerged in the ranids after vocal signaling. Here, we show that administration of testosterone (T) increases foot flagging behavior under seminatural conditions. Moreover, using quantitative PCR, we also find that adult male S. parvus maintain a unique androgenic phenotype, in which androgen receptor (AR) in the hind limb musculature is expressed at levels ∼10× greater than in two other anuran species, which do not produce foot flags (Rana pipiens and Xenopus laevis). Finally, because males of all three of these species solicit mates with calls, we accordingly detect no differences in AR expression in the vocal apparatus (larynx) among taxa. The results show that foot flagging is an androgen-dependent gestural signal, and its emergence is associated with increased androgenic sensitivity within the hind limb musculature. Selection for this novel gestural signal may therefore drive the evolution of increased AR expression in key muscles that control signal production to support adaptive motor performance. PMID:27143723

  10. Curcumin and dexmedetomidine prevents oxidative stress and renal injury in hind limb ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Karahan, M A; Yalcin, S; Aydogan, H; Büyükfirat, E; Kücük, A; Kocarslan, S; Yüce, H H; Taskın, A; Aksoy, N

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin and dexmedetomidine have been shown to have protective effects in ischemia-reperfusion injury on various organs. However, their protective effects on kidney tissue against ischemia-reperfusion injury remain unclear. We aimed to determine whether curcumin or dexmedetomidine prevents renal tissue from injury that was induced by hind limb ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Fifty rats were divided into five groups: sham, control, curcumin (CUR) group (200 mg/kg curcumin, n = 10), dexmedetomidine (DEX) group (25 μg/kg dexmedetomidine, n = 10), and curcumin-dexmedetomidine (CUR-DEX) group (200 mg/kg curcumin and 25 μg/kg dexmedetomidine). Curcumin and dexmedetomidine were administered intraperitoneally immediately after the end of 4 h ischemia, just 5 min before reperfusion. The extremity re-perfused for 2 h and then blood samples were taken and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidative status (TOS) levels, and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured, and renal tissue samples were histopathologically examined. The TAC activity levels in blood samples were significantly lower in the control than the other groups (p < 0.01 for all comparisons). The TOS activity levels in blood samples were significantly higher in Control group and than the other groups (p <  0.01 for all comparison). The OSI were found to be significantly increased in the control group compared to others groups (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Histopathological examination revealed less severe lesions in the sham, CUR, DEX, and CUR-DEX groups, compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Rat hind limb ischemia-reperfusion causes histopathological changes in the kidneys. Curcumin and dexmedetomidine administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing oxidative stress and renal histopathologic injury in an acute hind limb I/R rat model. PMID:26983591

  11. Poly ADP-Ribose Polymerase Inhibition Ameliorates Hind Limb Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in a Murine Model of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Long, Chandler A.; Boloum, Valy; Albadawi, Hassan; Tsai, Shirling; Yoo, Hyung-Jin; Oklu, Rahmi; Goldman, Mitchell H.; Watkins, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes is known to increase poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP) activity and posttranslational poly-ADP-ribosylation of several regulatory proteins involved in inflammation and energy metabolism. These experiments test the hypothesis that PARP inhibition will modulate hind limb ischemia reperfusion (IR) in a mouse model of type-II diabetes; ameliorate the ribosylation and the activity/transnuclear localization of the key glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Methods db/db mice underwent 1.5hrs of hind limb ischemia followed by 1, 7, or 24hrs reperfusion. The treatment group received the PARP inhibitor PJ34 (PJ34) over a 24hrs period; the untreated group received Lactated ringer’s (LR) at the same time points. IR muscles were analyzed for indices of PARP activity, fiber injury, metabolic activity, inflammation, GAPDH activity /intracellular localization and poly-ADP-ribosylation of GAPDH. Results PARP activity was significantly lower in the PJ34 treated groups compared to the LR group at 7 and 24 hours reperfusion. There was significantly less muscle fiber injury in the PJ34 treated group compared to LR treated mice at 24 hrs reperfusion. PJ34 lowered levels of select proinflammatory molecules at 7hrs and 24hrs IR. There were significant increases in metabolic activity only at 24 hours IR in the PJ34 group, which temporally correlated with increase in GAPDH activity, decreased GAPDH poly ADP-ribosylation and nuclear translocation of GAPDH. Conclusions PJ34 reduced PARP activity, GAPDH ribosylation, GAPDH translocation, ameliorated muscle fiber injury, and increased metabolic activity following hind limb IR injury in a murine model of type-II diabetes. PARP inhibition might be a therapeutic strategy following IR in diabetic humans. PMID:23549425

  12. Valine partitioning and kinetics between the gastrointestinal tract and hind limbs in lambs with an adult Trichostrongylus colubriformis burden.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, E N; McNabb, W C; Sinclair, B R; Tavendale, M H; Roy, N C

    2011-11-01

    Intestinal parasitic infection increases the demand for AA because of increased protein synthesis in the intestine and increased luminal losses of AA, and these increased demands may be supported by increased mobilization of AA from the skeletal muscles. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of parasitic infection on valine kinetics within the gastrointestinal tract and hind limbs of lambs fed fresh forages. On d 1, lambs were given 6,000 stage-3 Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae per day for 6 d (n = 6) or kept as parasite-free controls (n = 6) and fed fresh lucerne (Medicago sativa; Exp. 1) or fresh sulla (Hedysarum coronarium; Exp. 2). On d 48, valine kinetics within the mesenteric- (MDV) and portal-drained viscera (PDV) and hind limbs were obtained by carrying out concurrent infusions of para-amminohippuric acid into the mesenteric vein and indocyanin green into the abdominal aorta (for blood flow), and [3,4-(3)H]valine into the jugular vein and [1-(13)C]valine into the abomasum for 8 h (for kinetics). During the infusions, blood was collected from the mesenteric and portal veins and from the mesenteric artery and vena cava, and plasma was harvested. After the 8-h infusion, lambs were euthanized, ileal digesta were collected, and tissues were sampled from the intestine and muscle (biceps femoris). Tissues, digesta, and plasma were analyzed for valine concentration, specific radioactivity, and isotopic enrichment. In both experiments, intestinal worm burdens on d 48 were greater in parasitized lambs (P = 0.0001 and 0.003). In Exp. 1, parasitic infection increased (P = 0.03) the total valine irreversible loss rate (ILR) in the MDV and PDV. In Exp. 2, luminal ILR of valine in the MDV was reduced (P = 0.01); however, ILR of valine in the PDV was unaffected. Despite these changes within the MDV and PDV, parasitic infection did not affect the ILR of valine within the hind limbs, and valine transport rates were largely unchanged. We suggest that

  13. Morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) evidenced by gross osteology, radiography and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Makungu, M; du Plessis, W M; Groenewald, H B; Barrows, M; Koeppel, K N

    2015-12-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is a quadrupedal arboreal animal primarily distributed in the Himalayas and southern China. It is a species commonly kept in zoological collections. This study was carried out to describe the morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda evidenced by gross osteology, radiography and computed tomography as a reference for clinical use and identification of skeletons. Radiography of the pelvis and right hind limb was performed in nine and seven animals, respectively. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. Computed tomography of the torso and hind limb was performed in one animal. The pelvic bone had a wide ventromedial surface of the ilium. The trochlea of the femur was wide and shallow. The patella was similar to that seen in feline species. The medial fabella was not seen radiographically in any animal. The cochlea grooves of the tibia were shallow with a poorly defined intermediate ridge. The trochlea of the talus was shallow and presented with an almost flattened medial ridge. The tarsal sesamoid bone was always present. The lateral process of the base of the fifth metatarsal (MT) bone was directed laterally. The MT bones were widely spaced. The morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda indicated flexibility of the pelvis and hind limb joints as an adaptation to an arboreal quadrupedal lifestyle.

  14. The cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitor, etodolac, but not aspirin reduces neovascularization in a murine ischemic hind limb model.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kohei; Yamamoto, Yasutaka; Tsujimoto, Shunsuke; Uozumi, Naonori; Kita, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Akio; Shimizu, Takao; Hisatome, Ichiro

    2010-02-10

    Cyclooxygenase inhibitors are often prescribed to relieve severe ischemic leg pain in critical ischemic limb patients. Prescription of high doses of aspirin and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors is reported to increase cardiovascular events through suppression of the vasodilative prostanoid prostaglandin I(2) in endothelium. Here, we evaluated the influence of aspirin and etodolac, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, on neovascularization using a murine ischemia hind limb model. C57BL/6J mice were treated with aspirin or etodolac for twenty-eight days after induction of ischemia. We exploited a concentration of the agents that suppressed cyclooxygenase activity efficiently, especially in prostaglandin I(2) production. Recovery of limb blood perfusion and capillary density in ischemic limbs was significantly suppressed by etodolac treatment when compared to the aspirin treated group and untreated group. Production of 6-keto prostaglandin F(1alpha) and prostaglandin E(2) was lower in the aspirin treated group when compared with the etodolac-treated group. Also, these concentrations were lower in both treatment groups compared with the untreated group. Immunohistochemical analysis suggested cyclooxygenase-2 was expressed in endothelium but not in inflammatory cells in ischemic tissue from the acute to chronic phase. Cyclooxygenase-1 was expressed strongly in inflammatory cells in the acute phase. Furthermore, bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell transplantation improved neovascularization, whereas aspirin and etodolac did not inhibit these effects. Production of arachidonic acid metabolites by transplanted cells was independent of the improvement of neovascularization. In conclusion, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition reduces ischemia-induced neovascularization. PMID:19879866

  15. Passive hind-limb cycling improves cardiac function and reduces cardiovascular disease risk in experimental spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    West, Christopher R; Crawford, Mark A; Poormasjedi-Meibod, Malihe-Sadat; Currie, Katharine D; Fallavollita, Andre; Yuen, Violet; McNeill, John H; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes altered autonomic control and severe physical deconditioning that converge to drive maladaptive cardiac remodelling. We used a clinically relevant experimental model to investigate the cardio-metabolic responses to SCI and to establish whether passive hind-limb cycling elicits a cardio-protective effect. Initially, 21 male Wistar rats were evenly assigned to three groups: uninjured control (CON), T3 complete SCI (SCI) or T3 complete SCI plus passive hind-limb cycling (SCI-EX; 2 × 30 min day−1, 5 days week−1 for 4 weeks beginning 6 days post-SCI). On day 32, cardio-metabolic function was assessed using in vivo echocardiography, ex vivo working heart assessments, cardiac histology/molecular biology and blood lipid profiles. Twelve additional rats (n = 6 SCI and n = 6 SCI-EX) underwent in vivo echocardiography and basal haemodynamic assessments pre-SCI and at days 7, 14 and 32 post-SCI to track temporal cardiovascular changes. Compared with CON, SCI exhibited a rapid and sustained reduction in left ventricular dimensions and function that ultimately manifested as reduced contractility, increased myocardial collagen deposition and an up-regulation of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1) and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (Smad3) mRNA. For SCI-EX, the initial reduction in left ventricular dimensions and function at day 7 post-SCI was completely reversed by day 32 post-SCI, and there were no differences in myocardial contractility between SCI-EX and CON. Collagen deposition was similar between SCI-EX and CON. TGFβ1 and Smad3 were down-regulated in SCI-EX. Blood lipid profiles were improved in SCI-EX versus SCI. We provide compelling novel evidence that passive hind-limb cycling prevents cardiac dysfunction and reduces cardiovascular disease risk in experimental SCI. PMID:24535438

  16. Therapeutic angiogenesis. A single intraarterial bolus of vascular endothelial growth factor augments revascularization in a rabbit ischemic hind limb model.

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, S; Zheng, L P; Brogi, E; Kearney, M; Pu, L Q; Bunting, S; Ferrara, N; Symes, J F; Isner, J M

    1994-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a heparin-binding, endothelial cell-specific mitogen. Previous studies have suggested that VEGF is a regulator of naturally occurring physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis. In this study we investigated the hypothesis that the angiogenic potential of VEGF is sufficient to constitute a therapeutic effect. The soluble 165-amino acid isoform of VEGF was administered as a single intra-arterial bolus to the internal iliac artery of rabbits in which the ipsilateral femoral artery was excised to induce severe, unilateral hind limb ischemia. Doses of 500-1,000 micrograms of VEGF produced statistically significant augmentation of collateral vessel development by angiography as well as the number of capillaries by histology; consequent amelioration of the hemodynamic deficit in the ischemic limb was significantly greater in animals receiving VEGF than in nontreated controls (calf blood pressure ratio, 0.75 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.48 +/- 0.19, P < 0.05). Serial angiograms disclosed progressive linear extension of the collateral artery of origin (stem artery) to the distal point of parent vessel (reentry artery) reconstitution in seven of nine VEGF-treated animals. These findings establish proof of principle for the concept that the angiogenic activity of VEGF is sufficiently potent to achieve therapeutic benefit. Such a strategy might ultimately be applicable to patients with severe limb ischemia secondary to arterial occlusive disease. Images PMID:7509344

  17. Arboreal Day Geckos (Phelsuma madagascariensis) Differentially Modulate Fore- and Hind Limb Kinematics in Response to Changes in Habitat Structure

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Mingna V.; Higham, Timothy E.

    2016-01-01

    By using adhesion, geckos can move through incredibly challenging habitats. However, continually changing terrain may necessitate modulation of the adhesive apparatus in order to maximize its effectiveness over a range of challenges. Behaviorally modulating how the adhesive system is applied can occur by altering the alignment of the foot relative to the long axis of the body and/or the angles between the digits (interdigital angle). Given the directionality of the adhesive system, geckos likely vary the application of the system via these mechanisms as they run. We quantified 3D movements (using high-speed video) of the day gecko, Phelsuma madagascariensis, running on a range of ecologically relevant inclines (0°, 45°, 90°) and perch diameters (1.5 cm, 10 cm and broad). We measured the instantaneous sum of interdigital angles and foot alignment relative to the body, as well as other kinematic variables, throughout each stride and across treatments. Modulation of foot alignment at 45° and 90° was similar between the forelimb and hind limb, but differed at 0°, suggesting that P. madagascariensis is able to exert an adhesive force using multiple strategies. Both the sum of interdigital angles and alignment in the fore- and hind foot were modulated. Differences in modulation between the limbs are likely related to the underlying morphology. The modulation of interdigital angle and foot alignment suggests that aspects other than the mechanism of adhesion, such as joint morphology, are important for arboreal movement in geckos. Our study of foot usage in arboreal locomotion reveals patterns that may be widespread across pad-bearing lizards. In addition to understanding the constraints exerted by the adhesive apparatus, we highlight how biomechanical traits may respond to the evolution of novel adaptations and morphologies. PMID:27145027

  18. Arboreal Day Geckos (Phelsuma madagascariensis) Differentially Modulate Fore- and Hind Limb Kinematics in Response to Changes in Habitat Structure.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Mingna V; Higham, Timothy E

    2016-01-01

    By using adhesion, geckos can move through incredibly challenging habitats. However, continually changing terrain may necessitate modulation of the adhesive apparatus in order to maximize its effectiveness over a range of challenges. Behaviorally modulating how the adhesive system is applied can occur by altering the alignment of the foot relative to the long axis of the body and/or the angles between the digits (interdigital angle). Given the directionality of the adhesive system, geckos likely vary the application of the system via these mechanisms as they run. We quantified 3D movements (using high-speed video) of the day gecko, Phelsuma madagascariensis, running on a range of ecologically relevant inclines (0°, 45°, 90°) and perch diameters (1.5 cm, 10 cm and broad). We measured the instantaneous sum of interdigital angles and foot alignment relative to the body, as well as other kinematic variables, throughout each stride and across treatments. Modulation of foot alignment at 45° and 90° was similar between the forelimb and hind limb, but differed at 0°, suggesting that P. madagascariensis is able to exert an adhesive force using multiple strategies. Both the sum of interdigital angles and alignment in the fore- and hind foot were modulated. Differences in modulation between the limbs are likely related to the underlying morphology. The modulation of interdigital angle and foot alignment suggests that aspects other than the mechanism of adhesion, such as joint morphology, are important for arboreal movement in geckos. Our study of foot usage in arboreal locomotion reveals patterns that may be widespread across pad-bearing lizards. In addition to understanding the constraints exerted by the adhesive apparatus, we highlight how biomechanical traits may respond to the evolution of novel adaptations and morphologies.

  19. Arboreal Day Geckos (Phelsuma madagascariensis) Differentially Modulate Fore- and Hind Limb Kinematics in Response to Changes in Habitat Structure.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Mingna V; Higham, Timothy E

    2016-01-01

    By using adhesion, geckos can move through incredibly challenging habitats. However, continually changing terrain may necessitate modulation of the adhesive apparatus in order to maximize its effectiveness over a range of challenges. Behaviorally modulating how the adhesive system is applied can occur by altering the alignment of the foot relative to the long axis of the body and/or the angles between the digits (interdigital angle). Given the directionality of the adhesive system, geckos likely vary the application of the system via these mechanisms as they run. We quantified 3D movements (using high-speed video) of the day gecko, Phelsuma madagascariensis, running on a range of ecologically relevant inclines (0°, 45°, 90°) and perch diameters (1.5 cm, 10 cm and broad). We measured the instantaneous sum of interdigital angles and foot alignment relative to the body, as well as other kinematic variables, throughout each stride and across treatments. Modulation of foot alignment at 45° and 90° was similar between the forelimb and hind limb, but differed at 0°, suggesting that P. madagascariensis is able to exert an adhesive force using multiple strategies. Both the sum of interdigital angles and alignment in the fore- and hind foot were modulated. Differences in modulation between the limbs are likely related to the underlying morphology. The modulation of interdigital angle and foot alignment suggests that aspects other than the mechanism of adhesion, such as joint morphology, are important for arboreal movement in geckos. Our study of foot usage in arboreal locomotion reveals patterns that may be widespread across pad-bearing lizards. In addition to understanding the constraints exerted by the adhesive apparatus, we highlight how biomechanical traits may respond to the evolution of novel adaptations and morphologies. PMID:27145027

  20. Vasomotor responses in the hind limbs of foetal and new-born lambs to asphyxia and aortic chemoreceptor stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, G. S.; Lewis, B. V.; Milligan, J. E.; Roach, Margot R.; Talner, N. S.

    1968-01-01

    1. Hind limb blood flow was measured in lambs of from 91 days gestation (delivered by Caesarean section) to 1 month after birth (term is about 147 days), under chloralose anaesthesia. Vascular resistance/100 g wet wt. increased progressively with age. There was reflex femoral vascular tone from the earliest age studied, as shown by vasodilatation on cutting the sciatic nerve. 2. On asphyxia by cord occlusion reflex femoral vasoconstriction began earlier and was somewhat greater in older foetal lambs. At all ages, and after denervation of the hind limb, there was vasodilatation after local ischaemia, and a vasoconstriction of delayed onset during asphyxia attributed to release of noradrenaline into the circulation. The vasoconstrictor effect of noradrenaline in immature lambs was at least as great as at term or in the new-born. 3. Injections of minimal effective doses of cyanide were used to localize possible chemoreceptor sites in foetal lambs. Injection into the left atrium caused a rise of arterial pressure, femoral vasoconstriction and a complex change in heart rate (usually bradycardia) but rarely any respiratory movement. After atropine, cyanide caused a large tachycardia. All responses were much reduced or abolished by cervical vagotomy. 4. Injection of the same doses of cyanide into a jugular vein, the right ventricle, pulmonary or common carotid arteries of foetal lambs caused negligible cardiovascular or respiratory effects, whereas injection into the carotids of new-born lambs caused a profound hyperpnoea. 5. It is concluded that the aortic chemoreceptors are active in the foetus, are supplied from the left heart, and that they probably represent the primary defence in blood gas homeostasis by their effects on the circulation. PMID:4295757

  1. Ultrasound-induced microbubble destruction promotes targeted delivery of adipose-derived stem cells to improve hind-limb ischemia of diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Ye; Xie, Xiaoyun; Gao, Yuan; Gu, Guojun; Wang, Peijun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether ultrasound-induced microbubble destruction was able to promote targeted delivery of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to improve hind-limb ischemia of diabetic mice. Ischemia was induced in the lower limb of db/db mice which were then randomly divided into 5 groups: PBS group, Sham group, ultrasound + microbubble group (US+MB), US+MB+ASCs group and ASCs group. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound perfusion imaging showed the ratio of blood flow in ischemic hind-limb to that in contralateral limb increased over time in five groups. A significant enhancement in US+MB+ASCs group was observed compared with US+MB group (P<0.01). Immunofluorescence microscopy of hind-limb muscle showed the microvessel density (microvessels/skeletal muscle fibers) and arteriolar density in US+MB+ASCs group were higher than in US+MB group, and significantly higher than in other control groups (P<0.01). Masson staining indicated the degree of muscle fibrosis in US+MB+ASCs group was lower than in US+MB. 3 and 7 days after therapy, ELISA and RT-PCR showed the expression of VEGF, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and SDF-1 in US+MB+ASCs group was higher than in US+MB group, and dramatically increased as compared to other groups (P<0.01). 3 and 7 days after therapy, Western blot assay showed the protein expression of P-P13K, P-AKT, VEGF, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and SDF-1 in US+MB+ASCs group was higher than US+MB group (P<0.01). The bioeffects of ultrasound-induced microbubble cavitation is able to up-regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may improve the targeted delivery, adhesion and paracrine of ASCs, attenuating the hind-limb ischemia in diabetic mice. PMID:27398142

  2. Ultrasound-induced microbubble destruction promotes targeted delivery of adipose-derived stem cells to improve hind-limb ischemia of diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ye; Xie, Xiaoyun; Gao, Yuan; Gu, Guojun; Wang, Peijun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether ultrasound-induced microbubble destruction was able to promote targeted delivery of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to improve hind-limb ischemia of diabetic mice. Ischemia was induced in the lower limb of db/db mice which were then randomly divided into 5 groups: PBS group, Sham group, ultrasound + microbubble group (US+MB), US+MB+ASCs group and ASCs group. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound perfusion imaging showed the ratio of blood flow in ischemic hind-limb to that in contralateral limb increased over time in five groups. A significant enhancement in US+MB+ASCs group was observed compared with US+MB group (P<0.01). Immunofluorescence microscopy of hind-limb muscle showed the microvessel density (microvessels/skeletal muscle fibers) and arteriolar density in US+MB+ASCs group were higher than in US+MB group, and significantly higher than in other control groups (P<0.01). Masson staining indicated the degree of muscle fibrosis in US+MB+ASCs group was lower than in US+MB. 3 and 7 days after therapy, ELISA and RT-PCR showed the expression of VEGF, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and SDF-1 in US+MB+ASCs group was higher than in US+MB group, and dramatically increased as compared to other groups (P<0.01). 3 and 7 days after therapy, Western blot assay showed the protein expression of P-P13K, P-AKT, VEGF, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and SDF-1 in US+MB+ASCs group was higher than US+MB group (P<0.01). The bioeffects of ultrasound-induced microbubble cavitation is able to up-regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may improve the targeted delivery, adhesion and paracrine of ASCs, attenuating the hind-limb ischemia in diabetic mice. PMID:27398142

  3. Study of Hind Limb Tissue Gas Phase Formation in Response to Suspended Adynamia and Hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Bruce D.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that reduced joint/muscle activity (hypo kinesia) as well as reduced or null loading of limbs (adynamia) in gravity would result in reduced decompression-induced gas phase and symptoms of decompression sickness (DCS). Finding a correlation between the two phenomena would correspond to the proposed reduction in tissue gas phase formation in astronauts undergoing decompression during extravehicular activity (EVA) in microgravity. The observation may further explain the reported low incidence of DCS in space.

  4. Effects of stretching and disuse on amino acids in muscles of rat hind limbs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaspers, Stephen R.; Henriksen, Erik J.; Satarug, Soisungwan; Tischler, Marc E.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of disuse and passive stretch on the concentrations of amino acids and ammonia in the unloaded soleus muscle was investigated in hindquarter-suspended (for six days by casting one foot in dorsiflexion) tail-casted rats. For a comparison with the condition of unloading, amino acids and ammonia were also measured in shortened extensor digitorum longus in the same casted limb and in denervated leg muscles. The results obtained suggest that passive stretch diminishes some of the characteristic alterations of amino acid concentrations due to unloading. This effect of stretch is considered to be due to the maintenance of muscle tension.

  5. Effect of picroside II on erythrocyte deformability and lipid peroxidation in rats subjected to hind limb ischemia reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Çomu, Faruk Metin; Kılıç, Yiğit; Özer, Abdullah; Kirişçi, Mehmet; Dursun, Ali Doğan; Tatar, Tolga; Zor, Mustafa Hakan; Kartal, Hakan; Küçük, Ayşegül; Boyunağa, Hakan; Arslan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Ischemia reperfusion injury (I/R) in hind limb is a frequent and important clinical phenomenon. Many structural and functional damages are observed in cells and tissues in these kinds of injuries. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of picroside II on lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte deformability during I/R in rats. Methods Rats were randomly divided into four groups – each containing six animals (sham, I/R, sham + picroside II, and I/R + picroside II). The infrarenal section of the abdominal aorta was occluded with an atraumatic microvascular clamp in I/R groups. The clamp was removed after 120 minutes and reperfusion was provided for a further 120 minutes. Picroside II (10 mg·kg−1) was administered intraperitoneally to the animals in the appropriate groups (sham + picroside II, I/R + picroside II groups). All rats were euthanized by intraperitoneal administration of ketamine (100 mg·kg−1) and taking blood from the abdominal aorta. Erythrocytes were extracted from heparinized complete blood samples. Buffer (PT) and then erythrocytes (PE) were passed through the filtration system and the changes in pressure were measured to investigate the role of serum malondialdehyde and nitric oxide (NO) in lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte deformability index. Results Deformability index was significantly increased in the I/R group compared to groups sham, sham + picroside-II, and I/R + picroside-II (P<0.0001, P<0.0001, and P=0.007). Malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO levels were evaluated. MDA level and NO activity were also higher in the I/R group than in the other groups. Picroside II treatment before hind limb I/R prevented these changes. Conclusion These results support that deformability of erythrocytes is decreased in I/R injury and picroside II plays a critical role to prevent these alterations. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to evaluate and clarify the molecular mechanisms of action and clinical importance of these

  6. Young's modulus and SEM analysis of leg bones exposed to simulated microgravity by hind limb suspension (HLS)

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Niravkumar D.; Mehta, Rahul; Ali, Nawab; Soulsby, Michael; Chowdhury, Parimal

    2013-04-19

    The aim of this study was to determine composition of the leg bone tissue of rats that were exposed to simulated microgravity by Hind-Limb Suspension (HLS) by tail for one week. The leg bones were cross sectioned, cleaned of soft tissues, dried and sputter coated, and then placed horizontally on the stage of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for analysis. Interaction of a 17.5 keV electron beam, incident from the vertical direction on the sample, generated images using two detectors. X-rays emitted from the sample during electron bombardment were measured with an Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) feature of SEM using a liquid-nitrogen cooled Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 144 eV at 5.9 keV ({sub 25}Mn K{sub {alpha}} x-ray). K{sub {alpha}}- x-rays from carbon, oxygen, phosphorus and calcium formed the major peaks in the spectrum. Relative percentages of these elements were determined using a software that could also correct for ZAF factors namely Z(atomic number), A(X-ray absorption) and F(characteristic fluorescence). The x-rays from the control groups and from the experimental (HLS) groups were analyzed on well-defined parts (femur, tibia and knee) of the leg bone. The SEM analysis shows that there are definite changes in the hydroxyl or phosphate group of the main component of the bone structure, hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}], due to hind limb suspension. In a separate experiment, entire leg bones (both from HLS and control rats) were subjected to mechanical stress by mean of a variable force. The stress vs. strain graph was fitted with linear and polynomial function, and the parameters reflecting the mechanical strength of the bone, under increasing stress, were calculated. From the slope of the linear part of the graph the Young's modulus for HLS bones were calculated and found to be 2.49 times smaller than those for control bones.

  7. Young's modulus and SEM analysis of leg bones exposed to simulated microgravity by hind limb suspension (HLS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Niravkumar D.; Mehta, Rahul; Ali, Nawab; Soulsby, Michael; Chowdhury, Parimal

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine composition of the leg bone tissue of rats that were exposed to simulated microgravity by Hind-Limb Suspension (HLS) by tail for one week. The leg bones were cross sectioned, cleaned of soft tissues, dried and sputter coated, and then placed horizontally on the stage of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for analysis. Interaction of a 17.5 keV electron beam, incident from the vertical direction on the sample, generated images using two detectors. X-rays emitted from the sample during electron bombardment were measured with an Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) feature of SEM using a liquid-nitrogen cooled Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 144 eV at 5.9 keV (25Mn Kα x-ray). Kα- x-rays from carbon, oxygen, phosphorus and calcium formed the major peaks in the spectrum. Relative percentages of these elements were determined using a software that could also correct for ZAF factors namely Z(atomic number), A(X-ray absorption) and F(characteristic fluorescence). The x-rays from the control groups and from the experimental (HLS) groups were analyzed on well-defined parts (femur, tibia and knee) of the leg bone. The SEM analysis shows that there are definite changes in the hydroxyl or phosphate group of the main component of the bone structure, hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2], due to hind limb suspension. In a separate experiment, entire leg bones (both from HLS and control rats) were subjected to mechanical stress by mean of a variable force. The stress vs. strain graph was fitted with linear and polynomial function, and the parameters reflecting the mechanical strength of the bone, under increasing stress, were calculated. From the slope of the linear part of the graph the Young's modulus for HLS bones were calculated and found to be 2.49 times smaller than those for control bones.

  8. Real-time control of hind limb functional electrical stimulation using feedback from dorsal root ganglia recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, Tim M.; Wagenaar, Joost B.; Bauman, Matthew J.; Gaunt, Robert A.; Weber, Douglas J.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) approaches often utilize an open-loop controller to drive state transitions. The addition of sensory feedback may allow for closed-loop control that can respond effectively to perturbations and muscle fatigue. Approach. We evaluated the use of natural sensory nerve signals obtained with penetrating microelectrode arrays in lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) as real-time feedback for closed-loop control of FES-generated hind limb stepping in anesthetized cats. Main results. Leg position feedback was obtained in near real-time at 50 ms intervals by decoding the firing rates of more than 120 DRG neurons recorded simultaneously. Over 5 m of effective linear distance was traversed during closed-loop stepping trials in each of two cats. The controller compensated effectively for perturbations in the stepping path when DRG sensory feedback was provided. The presence of stimulation artifacts and the quality of DRG unit sorting did not significantly affect the accuracy of leg position feedback obtained from the linear decoding model as long as at least 20 DRG units were included in the model. Significance. This work demonstrates the feasibility and utility of closed-loop FES control based on natural neural sensors. Further work is needed to improve the controller and electrode technologies and to evaluate long-term viability.

  9. Segment and joint angles of hind limb during bipedal and quadrupedal walking of the bonobo (Pan paniscus).

    PubMed

    D'Août, Kristiaan; Aerts, Peter; De Clercq, Dirk; De Meester, Koen; Van Elsacker, Linda

    2002-09-01

    We describe segment angles (trunk, thigh, shank, and foot) and joint angles (hip, knee, and ankle) for the hind limbs of bonobos walking bipedally ("bent-hip bent-knee walking," 17 sequences) and quadrupedally (33 sequences). Data were based on video recordings (50 Hz) of nine subjects in a lateral view, walking at voluntary speed. The major differences between bipedal and quadrupedal walking are found in the trunk, thigh, and hip angles. During bipedal walking, the trunk is approximately 33-41 degrees more erect than during quadrupedal locomotion, although it is considerably more bent forward than in normal human locomotion. Moreover, during bipedal walking, the hip has a smaller range of motion (by 12 degrees ) and is more extended (by 20-35 degrees ) than during quadrupedal walking. In general, angle profiles in bonobos are much more variable than in humans. Intralimb phase relationships of subsequent joint angles show that hip-knee coordination is similar for bipedal and quadrupedal walking, and resembles the human pattern. The coordination between knee and ankle differs much more from the human pattern. Based on joint angles observed throughout stance phase and on the estimation of functional leg length, an efficient inverted pendulum mechanism is not expected in bonobos.

  10. RIP2-mediated LKB1 deletion causes axon degeneration in the spinal cord and hind-limb paralysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gao; Reynolds, Richard; Leclerc, Isabelle; Rutter, Guy A

    2011-03-01

    Axon degeneration is observed in neurodegenerative diseases and neuroinflammatory disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis. The molecular basis of this process remains largely unknown. Here, we show that mice deleted for the tumour suppressor LKB1 (also called STK11) in the spinal cord, some parts of the brain and in the endocrine pancreas (βLKB1KO mice) develop hind-limb dysfunction and axon degeneration at about 7 weeks. Demyelination and macrophage infiltration are observed in the white matter of these mice, predominantly in the bilateral and anterior funiculi of the thoracic segment of the spinal cord, suggesting damage to the ascending sensory signalling pathway owing to LKB1 deletion in the brain. Microtubule structures were also affected in the degenerated foci, with diminished neurofilament and tubulin expression. Deletion of both PRKAA1 genes, whose products AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 are also downstream targets of LKB1, with the same strategy was without effect. We thus define LKB1 as an intrinsic suppressor of axon degeneration and a possible target for strategies that can reverse this process. PMID:21135058

  11. Real-time control of hind limb functional electrical stimulation using feedback from dorsal root ganglia recordings

    PubMed Central

    Bruns, Tim M; Wagenaar, Joost B; Bauman, Matthew J; Gaunt, Robert A; Weber, Douglas J

    2013-01-01

    Objective Functional electrical stimulation (FES) approaches often utilize an open-loop controller to drive state transitions. The addition of sensory feedback may allow for closed-loop control that can respond effectively to perturbations and muscle fatigue. Approach We evaluated the use of natural sensory nerve signals obtained with penetrating microelectrode arrays in lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) as real-time feedback for closed-loop control of FES-generated hind limb stepping in anesthetized cats. Main results Leg position feedback was obtained in near real-time at 50 ms intervals by decoding the firing rates of more than 120 DRG neurons recorded simultaneously. Over 5 m of effective linear distance was traversed during closed-loop stepping trials in each of two cats. The controller compensated effectively for perturbations in the stepping path when DRG sensory feedback was provided. The presence of stimulation artifacts and the quality of DRG unit sorting did not significantly affect the accuracy of leg position feedback obtained from the linear decoding model as long as at least 20 DRG units were included in the model. Significance This work demonstrates the feasibility and utility of closed-loop FES control based on natural neural sensors. Further work is needed to improve the controller and electrode technologies and to evaluate long-term viability. PMID:23503062

  12. Protease-Activated Receptor (PAR)2, but Not PAR1, Is Involved in Collateral Formation and Anti-Inflammatory Monocyte Polarization in a Mouse Hind Limb Ischemia Model

    PubMed Central

    Nossent, Anne Yael; van Oeveren-Rietdijk, Annemarie M.; de Vries, Margreet R.; Spek, C. Arnold; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Hamming, Jaap F.; de Boer, Hetty C.; Versteeg, Henri H.; Quax, Paul H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims In collateral development (i.e. arteriogenesis), mononuclear cells are important and exist as a heterogeneous population consisting of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory/repair-associated cells. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)1 and PAR2 are G-protein-coupled receptors that are both expressed by mononuclear cells and are involved in pro-inflammatory reactions, while PAR2 also plays a role in repair-associated responses. Here, we investigated the physiological role of PAR1 and PAR2 in arteriogenesis in a murine hind limb ischemia model. Methods and Results PAR1-deficient (PAR1-/-), PAR2-deficient (PAR2-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice underwent femoral artery ligation. Laser Doppler measurements revealed reduced post-ischemic blood flow recovery in PAR2-/- hind limbs when compared to WT, while PAR1-/- mice were not affected. Upon ischemia, reduced numbers of smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive collaterals and CD31-positive capillaries were found in PAR2-/- mice when compared to WT mice, whereas these parameters in PAR1-/- mice did not differ from WT mice. The pool of circulating repair-associated (Ly6C-low) monocytes and the number of repair-associated (CD206-positive) macrophages surrounding collaterals in the hind limbs were increased in WT and PAR1-/- mice, but unaffected in PAR2-/- mice. The number of repair-associated macrophages in PAR2-/- hind limbs correlated with CD11b- and CD115-expression on the circulating monocytes in these animals, suggesting that monocyte extravasation and M-CSF-dependent differentiation into repair-associated cells are hampered. Conclusion PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in arteriogenesis and promotes the repair-associated response in ischemic tissues. Therefore, PAR2 potentially forms a new pro-arteriogenic target in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. PMID:23637930

  13. Longitudinal Evaluation of Mouse Hind Limb Bone Loss After Spinal Cord Injury using Novel, in vivo, Methodology

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Madonna M.; Grill, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is often accompanied by osteoporosis in the sublesional regions of the pelvis and lower extremities, leading to a higher frequency of fractures 1. As these fractures often occur in regions that have lost normal sensory function, the patient is at a greater risk of fracture-dependent pathologies, including death. SCI-dependent loss in both bone mineral density (BMD, grams/cm2) and bone mineral content (BMC, grams) has been attributed to mechanical disuse 2, aberrant neuronal signaling 3 and hormonal changes 4. The use of rodent models of SCI-induced osteoporosis can provide invaluable information regarding the mechanisms underlying the development of osteoporosis following SCI as well as a test environment for the generation of new therapies 5-7 (and reviewed in 8). Mouse models of SCI are of great interest as they permit a reductionist approach to mechanism-based assessment through the use of null and transgenic mice. While such models have provided important data, there is still a need for minimally-invasive, reliable, reproducible, and quantifiable methods in determining the extent of bone loss following SCI, particularly over time and within the same cohort of experimental animals, to improve diagnosis, treatment methods, and/or prevention of SCI-induced osteoporosis. An ideal method for measuring bone density in rodents would allow multiple, sequential (over time) exposures to low-levels of X-ray radiation. This study describes the use of a new whole-animal scanner, the IVIS Lumina XR (Caliper Instruments) that can be used to provide low-energy (1-3 milligray (mGy)) high-resolution, high-magnification X-ray images of mouse hind limb bones over time following SCI. Significant bone density loss was seen in the tibiae of mice by 10 days post-spinal transection when compared to uninjured, age-matched control (naïve) mice (13% decrease, p<0.0005). Loss of bone density in the distal femur was also detectable by day 10 post-SCI, while a loss

  14. Hind limb suspension and long-chain omega-3 PUFA increase mRNA endocannabinoid system levels in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hutchins-Wiese, Heather L; Li, Yong; Hannon, Kevin; Watkins, Bruce A

    2012-08-01

    Muscle disuse has numerous physiological consequences that end up with significant catabolic metabolism and ultimately tissue atrophy. What is not known is how muscle atrophy affects the endocannabinoid (EC) system. Arachidonic acid (AA) is the substrate for anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonylgycerol (2-AG), which act as agonists for cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 found in muscle. Diets with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been shown to reduce tissue levels of AA, AEA and 2-AG. Therefore, we hypothesized that hind limb suspension (HS)-induced muscle atrophy and intake of n-3 PUFA will change mRNA levels of the EC system. Mice were randomized and assigned to a moderate n-3 PUFA [11.7 g/kg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)+docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], high n-3 PUFA (17.6 g/kg EPA+DHA) or control diets for 12 days and then subjected to HS or continued weight bearing (WB) for 14 days. HS resulted in body weight, epididymal fat pad and quadriceps muscle loss compared to WB. Compared to WB, HS had greater mRNA levels of AEA and 2-AG synthesis enzymes and CB2 in the atrophied quadriceps muscle. The high n-3 PUFA diet resulted in greater mRNA levels of EC synthesis enzymes, and CB1 and CB2. The higher mRNA levels for EC with HS and dietary n-3 PUFA suggest that muscle disuse and diet induce changes in the EC system to sensitize muscle in response to metabolic and physiological consequences of atrophy.

  15. A flexible electrode array for muscle impedance measurements in the mouse hind limb: A tool to speed research in neuromuscular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Rutkove, S. B.

    2013-04-01

    Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is a bioelectrical impedance technique focused on the assessment of neuromuscular diseases using tetrapolar surface arrays. Recently, we have shown that reproducible and sensitive EIM measurements can be made on the gastrocnemius muscle of the mouse hind limb and that these are sensitive to disease alterations. A dedicated array would help speed data acquisition and provide additional sensitivity to disease-induced alterations. A flexible electrode array was developed with electrode sizes of 1mm × 1mm by Parlex, Inc. Tetrapolar electrode sets were arranged both parallel to (longitudinal) and orthogonally to (transverse) the major muscle fiber direction of the gastrocnemius muscle. Measurements were made with a dedicated EIM system. A total of 11 healthy animals and 7 animals with spinal muscular atrophy (a form of motor neuron disease) were evaluated after the fur was completely removed with a depilatory agent from the hind limb. Standard electrophysiologic testing (compound motor action potential amplitude and motor unit number estimation) was also performed. The flexible electrode array demonstrated high repeatability in both the longitudinal and transverse directions in the healthy and diseased animals (with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.94 and 0.89, respectively, for phase angle measured transversely). In addition, differences between healthy and diseased animals were identifiable. For example, the 50 kHz transverse phase angle was higher in the healthy as compared to the SMA animals (16.8° ± 0.5 vs. 14.3° ± 0.7, respectively) at 21 weeks of age (p = 0.01). Differences in anisotropy were also identifiable. Correlations to several standard neurophysiologic parameters also appeared promising. This novel flexible tetrapolar electrode array can be used on the mouse hind limb and provides multidirectional data that can be used to assess muscle health. This technique has the potential of finding widespread use in

  16. Effects of N-acetylcysteine and pentoxifylline on remote lung injury in a rat model of hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Hesaraki, Saeed; Razmara, Foad; Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Hajizadeh, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and pentoxifylline in a model of remote organ injury after hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats, the lungs being the remote organ system. Methods : Thirty-five male Wistar rats were assigned to one of five conditions (n = 7/group), as follows: sham operation (control group); hind-limb ischemia, induced by clamping the left femoral artery, for 2 h, followed by 24 h of reperfusion (I/R group); and hind-limb ischemia, as above, followed by intraperitoneal injection (prior to reperfusion) of 150 mg/kg of NAC (I/R+NAC group), 40 mg/kg of pentoxifylline (I/R+PTX group), or both (I/R+NAC+PTX group). At the end of the trial, lung tissues were removed for histological analysis and assessment of oxidative stress. Results : In comparison with the rats in the other groups, those in the I/R group showed lower superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels, together with higher malondialdehyde levels and lung injury scores (p < 0.05 for all). Interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration of the lungs was also markedly greater in the I/R group than in the other groups. In addition, I/R group rats showed various signs of interstitial edema and hemorrhage. In the I/R+NAC, I/R+PTX, and I/R+NAC+PTX groups, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione levels, malondialdehyde levels, and lung injury scores were preserved (p < 0.05 for all). The differences between the administration of NAC or pentoxifylline alone and the administration of the two together were not significant for any of those parameters (p > 0.05 for all). Conclusions : Our results suggest that NAC and pentoxifylline both protect lung tissue from the effects of skeletal muscle I/R. However, their combined use does not appear to increase the level of that protection. PMID:26982035

  17. 3,3',5-Triiodothyronine-induced differences in water-insoluble protein synthesis in primary epidermal cell cultures from the hind limb of premetamorphic Rana catesbeiana tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Ketola-Pirie, C A; Atkinson, B G

    1988-02-01

    Epidermal cells from the hind limb of premetamorphic tadpoles of the American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana (stages IX-XI) were maintained in primary culture for 120 hr. Cultures, maintained for 36 hr in medium supplemented with L-triiodothyronine (T3; 3 x 10(-10) mol T3/ml medium), synthesize water-insoluble proteins with Mrs of 59, 50, 48, and 43. The 59 and 48 kDa proteins synthesized by T3-supplemented cultures are not detectably synthesized by 36-hr-old cell cultures without added T3, but they are synthesized by both hormone-supplemented and unsupplemented cultures after 120 hr. These two proteins have Mrs and pIs which correspond with keratins detected in stratifying mammalian epidermis and are immunoprecipitated by antibodies prepared against human keratins. These observations indicate that T3 induces epidermal cell cultures from the hind limb of premetamorphic tadpoles to precociously synthesize water-insoluble proteins which (1) have Mrs and pIs similar to keratins from differentiating amphibian epidermal tissue and (2) are biochemically and immunologically similar to keratins associated with the differentiation of mammalian epidermal tissue.

  18. Comparative Anatomy of the Hind Limb Vessels of the Bearded Capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus) with Apes, Baboons, and Cebus capucinus: With Comments on the Vessels' Role in Bipedalism

    PubMed Central

    Aversi-Ferreira, Roqueline A. G. M. F.; de Abreu, Tainá; Pfrimer, Gabriel A.; Silva, Sylla F.; Ziermann, Janine M.; Carneiro-e-Silva, Frederico O.; Tomaz, Carlos; Tavares, Maria Clotilde H.; Maior, Rafael S.; Aversi-Ferreira, Tales A.

    2013-01-01

    Capuchin monkeys are known to exhibit sporadic bipedalism while performing specific tasks, such as cracking nuts. The bipedal posture and locomotion cause an increase in the metabolic cost and therefore increased blood supply to lower limbs is necessary. Here, we present a detailed anatomical description of the capuchin arteries and veins of the pelvic limb of Sapajus libidinosus in comparison with other primates. The arterial pattern of the bearded capuchin hind limb is more similar to other quadrupedal Cebus species. Similarities were also found to the pattern observed in the quadruped Papio, which is probably due to a comparable pelvis and the presence of the tail. Sapajus' traits show fewer similarities when compared to great apes and modern humans. Moreover, the bearded capuchin showed unique patterns for the femoral and the short saphenous veins. Although this species switches easily from quadrupedal to bipedal postures, our results indicate that the bearded capuchin has no specific or differential features that support extended bipedal posture and locomotion. Thus, the explanation for the behavioral differences found among capuchin genera probably includes other aspects of their physiology. PMID:24396829

  19. Proteomic analysis of fibroblastema formation in regenerating hind limbs of Xenopus laevis froglets and comparison to axolotl

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To gain insight into what differences might restrict the capacity for limb regeneration in Xenopus froglets, we used High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)/double mass spectrometry to characterize protein expression during fibroblastema formation in the amputated froglet hindlimb, and compared the results to those obtained previously for blastema formation in the axolotl limb. Results Comparison of the Xenopus fibroblastema and axolotl blastema revealed several similarities and significant differences in proteomic profiles. The most significant similarity was the strong parallel down regulation of muscle proteins and enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Regenerating Xenopus limbs differed significantly from axolotl regenerating limbs in several ways: deficiency in the inositol phosphate/diacylglycerol signaling pathway, down regulation of Wnt signaling, up regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and proteins involved in chondrocyte differentiation, lack of expression of a key cell cycle protein, ecotropic viral integration site 5 (EVI5), that blocks mitosis in the axolotl, and the expression of several patterning proteins not seen in the axolotl that may dorsalize the fibroblastema. Conclusions We have characterized global protein expression during fibroblastema formation after amputation of the Xenopus froglet hindlimb and identified several differences that lead to signaling deficiency, failure to retard mitosis, premature chondrocyte differentiation, and failure of dorsoventral axial asymmetry. These differences point to possible interventions to improve blastema formation and pattern formation in the froglet limb. PMID:25063185

  20. Systemic and regional hemorheological consequences of warm and cold hind limb ischemia-reperfusion in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, N; Szokoly, M; Acs, G; Brath, E; Lesznyak, T; Furka, I; Miko, I

    2004-01-01

    We have studied systemic and regional changes in hemorheological parameters after complete acute limb ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) in 24 mongrel dogs. Unilateral cooled and non-cooled vascular ischemia (3 h)-reperfusion (4 h), and sham-operations were performed. Blood samples were collected from the excluded region, during reperfusion and for 5 days. Whole blood and plasma viscosity (WBV, PV), relative cell transit time (RCTT) of erythrocytes, fibrinogen level and hematological parameters were determined. In I/R groups WBV of excluded blood was significantly higher compared to the base (p < 0.05), and RCTT increased during the reperfusion. On 2nd-3rd days RCTT increased significantly in both I/R groups. In each group PV and fibrinogen showed continuous increase during the postoperative period, prominently in cooled I/R group, and furthermore WBV corrected for hematocrit (40%) was the highest in cooled I/R group. These suggest that surgical acute limb I/R may cause hemorheological changes, which are more serious after cooling. (Grants: OTKA-T032571, 6003/1/2001/ETT.)

  1. Data set incongruence and correlated character evolution: an example of functional convergence in the hind-limbs of stifftail diving ducks.

    PubMed

    McCracken, K G; Harshman, J; McClellan, D A; Afton, A D

    1999-12-01

    The unwitting inclusion of convergent characters in phylogenetic estimates poses a serious problem for efforts to recover phylogeny. Convergence is not inscrutable, however, particularly when one group of characters tracks phylogeny and another set tracks adaptive history. In such cases, convergent characters may be correlated with one or a few functional anatomical units and readily identifiable by using comparative methods. Stifftail ducks (Oxyurinae) offer one such opportunity to study correlated character evolution and function in the context of phylogenetic reconstruction. Morphological analyses place stifftail ducks as part of a large clade of diving ducks that includes the sea ducks (Mergini), Hymenolaimus, Merganetta, and Tachyeres, and possibly the pochards (Aythyini). Molecular analyses, on the other hand, place stifftails far from other diving ducks and suggest, moreover, that stifftails are polyphyletic. Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences of eight stifftail species traditionally supposed to form a clade were compared with each other and with sequences from 50 other anseriform and galliform species. Stifftail ducks are not the sister group of sea ducks but lie outside the typical ducks (Anatinae). Of the four traditional stifftail genera, monophyly of Oxyura and its sister group relationship with Nomonyx are strongly supported. Heteronetta probably is the sister group of that clade, but support is weak. Biziura is not a true stifftail. Within Oxyura, Old World species (O. australis, O. leucocephala, O. maccoa) appear to form a clade, with New World species (O. jamaicensis, O. vittata) branching basally. Incongruence between molecules and morphology is interpreted to be the result of adaptive specialization and functional convergence in the hind limbs of Biziura and true stifftails. When morphological characters are divided into classes, only hind-limb characters are significantly in conflict with the molecular tree. Likewise, null models of

  2. Data set incongruence and correlated character evolution: An example of functional convergence in the hind-limbs of stifftail diving ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCracken, K.G.; Harshman, J.; Mcclellan, D.A.; Afton, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    The unwitting inclusion of convergent characters in phylogenetic estimates poses a serious problem for efforts to recover phylogeny. Convergence is not inscrutable, however, particularly when one group of characters tracks phylogeny and another set tracks adaptive history. In such cases, convergent characters may be correlated with one or a few functional anatomical units and readily identifiable by using comparative methods. Stifftail ducks (Oxyurinae) offer one such opportunity to study correlated character evolution and function in the context of phylogenetic reconstruction. Morphological analyses place stifftail ducks as part of a large clade of diving ducks that includes the sea ducks (Mergini), Hymenolaimus, Merganetta, and Tachyeres, and possibly the pochards (Aythyini). Molecular analyses, on the other hand, place stifftails far from other diving ducks and suggest, moreover, that stifftails are polyphyletic. Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences of eight stifftail species traditionally supposed to form a clade were compared with each other and with sequences from 50 other anseriform and galliform species. Stifftail ducks are not the sister group of sea ducks but lie outside the typical ducks (Anatinae). Of the four traditional stifftail genera, monophyly of Oxyura and its sister group relationship with Nomonyx are strongly supported. Heteronetta probably is the sister group of that clade, but support is weak. Biziura is not a true stifftail. Within Oxyura, Old World species (O. australis, O. leucocephala, O. mnccoa) appear to form a clade, with New World species (O. jamaicensis, O. vittata) branching basally. Incongruence between molecules and morphology is interpreted to be the result of adaptive specialization and functional convergence in the hind limbs of Biziura and true stifftails. When morphological characters are divided into classes, only hind-limb characters are significantly in conflict with the molecular tree. Likewise, null models of

  3. Forces loading the tarsal joint in the hind limb of the horse, determined from in vivo strain measurements of the third metatarsal bone.

    PubMed

    Schamhardt, H C; Hartman, W; Lammertink, J L

    1989-05-01

    Strain gauge rosettes were bonded to the dorsal, lateral, medial, and plantar aspects of the third metatarsal bone in the hind limbs of 6 ponies. The maximal compressive principal strain was approximately -600 X 10(-6) m/m, and exceeded the amplitudes of the tensile strains at all aspects of the bone. After transformation, the shear strain and the principal strains parallel and perpendicular to the bone were obtained. The first peak in the bending strain was higher in the dorsal and lateral aspects, and the second peak was higher in the medial and plantar aspects. Young modulus of elasticity was determined in a 4-point bending test at the dorsal and plantar sides; it averaged 19.5 GPa in tension and compression. Applying linear bending theory, the eccentricity of an axial force parallel or a bending force perpendicular to the bone were calculated. The position where the total force penetrated the tarsometatarsal joint surface was largely within the joint surface, indicating that the joint is merely loaded in (eccentric) compression.

  4. Effects of stimulus intensity, cervical cord tractotomies and cerebellectomy on somatosensory evoked potentials from skin and muscle afferents of cat hind limb.

    PubMed

    Schieppati, M; Ducati, A

    1981-04-01

    The somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) recorded from the sensory cortex were investigated by using graded stimulation of skin and muscle nerves from contralateral hind limb in the cat. Sections were made of the middle cervical cord to assess the pathways involved in mediating SEPs evoked by large and small diameter fibers. Dorsal column (DC) section caused a decrease of SEPs from skin group I afferents, and a small increase in those from group I muscle afferents. A subsequent section of dorso-lateral fasciculus (DLF) further decreased SEPs from skin and eliminated SEPs from muscle, evoked at low stimulus intensity. When the stimulus recruited group III fibres, SEPs were still present after DC and DLF section, both from skin and muscle nerves. Section of ALT in addition to DC confirmed a major role played by DLF (mainly spino-cervical tract of Morin) in transmitting impulses from muscle afferents; the role of DLF in mediating potentials evoked from skin is less remarkable than that of DC. Cerebellectomy did not change any SEP, however evoked. Previous results in the literature are discussed, taking into account the methodologies employed by various authors, and the possible interactions among pathways mediating SEPs.

  5. Transplantation of freshly isolated adipose tissue-derived regenerative cells enhances angiogenesis in a murine model of hind limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Harada, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Yasutaka; Tsujimoto, Shunsuke; Matsugami, Hiromi; Yoshida, Akio; Hisatome, Ichiro

    2013-02-01

    Therapeutic angiogenesis has emerged as one of the most promising therapies for severe ischemic cardiovascular diseases with no optional therapy. Several investigators have reported that transplantation of cultured adipose-derived regenerative cells (cADRCs) to ischemic tissues promotes neovascularization and blood perfusion recovery; however, cell therapy using cultured cells has several restrictions. To resolve this problem, the angiogenic capacity of freshly isolated ADRCs (fADRCs) obtained from Lewis rats was compared with cADRCs, both in vivo and in vitro. Flow cytometric analysis showed that fADRCs contained several cell types such as endothelial progenitor cells and endothelial cells; however, these cells were present in a very small proportion in cADRCs. Transplantation of fADRCs in mice significantly improved blood perfusion, capillary density, and production of several angiogenic factors in transplanted ischemic limbs compared with a saline-injected group, whereas these effects were not observed in the cADRCs-injected group. fADRCs also showed significantly higher expression levels of angiogenic factors than cADRCs in the in vitro study. Furthermore, fADRC stimulated tube formation more remarkably than cADRC in an in vitro tube formation assay. These results suggested that fADRCs have an effective angiogenic capacity, and they would be more valuable as a source for cell-based therapeutic angiogenesis than cADRCs or other stem/progenitor cells.

  6. Different effects of anoxia and hind-limb immobilization on sensorimotor development and cell numbers in the somatosensory cortex in rats.

    PubMed

    Marcuzzo, Simone; Dutra, Márcio Ferreira; Stigger, Felipe; do Nascimento, Patrícia Severo; Ilha, Jocemar; Kalil-Gaspar, Pedro Ivo; Achaval, Matilde

    2010-04-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of movement and posture disorders attributed to insults in the developing brain. In rats, CP-like motor deficits can be induced by early hind-limb sensorimotor restriction (SR; from postnatal days P2 to P28), associated or otherwise with perinatal anoxia (PA; on P0 and P1). In this study, we address the question of whether PA, early SR or a combination of both produces alterations to sensorimotor development. Developmental milestones (surface righting, cliff aversion, stability on an inclined surface, proprioceptive placing, auditory startle, eye opening) were assessed daily from P3 to P14. Motor skills (horizontal ladder and beam walking) were evaluated weekly (from P31 to P52). In addition, on P52, the thickness of the somatosensory (S1) and cerebellar cortices, and corpus callosum were measured, and the neuronal and glial cell numbers in S1 were counted. SR (with or without PA) significantly delayed the stability on an inclined surface and hastened the appearance of the placing reflex and impaired motor skills. No significant differences were found in the thickness measurements between the groups. Quantitative histology of S1 showed that PA, either alone or associated with SR, increased the number of glial cells, while SR alone reduced neuronal cell numbers. Finally, the combination of PA and SR increased the size of neuronal somata. We conclude that SR impairs the achievement of developmental milestones and motor skills. Moreover, both SR and PA induce histological alterations in the S1 cortex, which may contribute to sensorimotor deficits. PMID:19467580

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Acetaminophen in Hind Limbs Unloaded Mice: A Model System Simulating the Effects of Low Gravity on Astronauts in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Amanda; Risin, Semyon A.; Ramesh, Govindarajan T.; Dasgupta, Amitava; Risin, Diana

    2008-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of medications administered to astronauts could be altered by the conditions in Space. Low gravity and free floating (and associated hemodynamic changes) could affect the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the drugs. Knowledge of these alterations is essential for adjusting the dosage and the regimen of drug administration in astronauts. Acquiring of such knowledge has inherent difficulties due to limited opportunities for experimenting in Space. One of the approaches is to use model systems that simulate some of the Space conditions on Earth. In this study we used hind limbs unloaded mice (HLU) to investigate the possible changes in PK of acetaminophen, a widely used analgesic with high probability of use by astronauts. The HLU is recognized as an appropriate model for simulating the effects of low gravity on hemodynamic parameters. Mice were tail suspended (n = 24) for 24-96 hours prior to introduction of acetaminophen (150 - 300 mg/kg). The drug (in aqueous solution containing 10% ethyl alcohol by volume) was given orally by a gavage procedure and after the administration of acetaminophen mice were additionally suspended for 30 min, 1 and 2 hours. Control mice (n = 24) received the same dose of acetaminophen and were kept freely all the time. Blood specimens were obtained either from retroorbital venous sinuses or from heart. Acetaminophen concentration was measured in plasma by the fluorescent polarization immunoassay and the AxSYM analyzer (Abbott Laboratories). In control mice peak acetaminophen concentration was achieved at 30 min. By 1 hour the concentration decreased to less than 50% of the peak level and at 2 hours the drug was almost undetectable in the serum. HLU for 24 hours significantly altered the acetaminophen pharmacokinetic: at 30 min the acetaminophen concentrations were significantly (both statistically and medically significant) lower than in control mice. The concentrations also reduced less

  8. A Novel Intronic Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the Myosin heavy polypeptide 4 Gene Is Responsible for the Mini-Muscle Phenotype Characterized by Major Reduction in Hind-Limb Muscle Mass in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Scott A.; Bell, Timothy A.; Selitsky, Sara R.; Buus, Ryan J.; Hua, Kunjie; Weinstock, George M.; Garland, Theodore; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Pomp, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Replicated artificial selection for high levels of voluntary wheel running in an outbred strain of mice favored an autosomal recessive allele whose primary phenotypic effect is a 50% reduction in hind-limb muscle mass. Within the High Runner (HR) lines of mice, the numerous pleiotropic effects (e.g., larger hearts, reduced total body mass and fat mass, longer hind-limb bones) of this hypothesized adaptive allele include functional characteristics that facilitate high levels of voluntary wheel running (e.g., doubling of mass-specific muscle aerobic capacity, increased fatigue resistance of isolated muscles, longer hind-limb bones). Previously, we created a backcross population suitable for mapping the responsible locus. We phenotypically characterized the population and mapped the Minimsc locus to a 2.6-Mb interval on MMU11, a region containing ∼100 known or predicted genes. Here, we present a novel strategy to identify the genetic variant causing the mini-muscle phenotype. Using high-density genotyping and whole-genome sequencing of key backcross individuals and HR mice with and without the mini-muscle mutation, from both recent and historical generations of the HR lines, we show that a SNP representing a C-to-T transition located in a 709-bp intron between exons 11 and 12 of the Myosin heavy polypeptide 4 (Myh4) skeletal muscle gene (position 67,244,850 on MMU11; assembly, December 2011, GRCm38/mm10; ENSMUSG00000057003) is responsible for the mini-muscle phenotype, Myh4Minimsc. Using next-generation sequencing, our approach can be extended to identify causative mutations arising in mouse inbred lines and thus offers a great avenue to overcome one of the most challenging steps in quantitative genetics. PMID:24056412

  9. Thyroid hormone-induced differential synthesis of water-insoluble proteins in epidermal cell cultures from the hind limb of Rana catesbeiana tadpoles in stages XII-XV and XVI-XIX.

    PubMed

    Ketola-Pirie, C A; Atkinson, B G

    1990-08-01

    Hind limb epidermal cell cultures from stage XII-XV and XVI-XIX tadpoles of the American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana were maintained for 36 and 120 hr in medium containing either fetal calf serum or thyroid hormone (3,3',5-triiodothyronine, T3; 3 x 10(-10) mol/ml). T3 induces the precocious synthesis (within the first 36 hr) of a 59-kDa keratin associated with epidermal stratification in cultures from stages XII-XV. In epidermal cell cultures from stages XVI-XIX, T3 produces an overall pattern of water-insoluble proteins, including keratins, which is strikingly similar to temporally differentiated cultures (120 hr). A 73-kDa protein is among the water-insoluble proteins precociously synthesized by 36-hr-old cultures from stages XVI-XIX treated with T3. This protein, which is not immunoprecipitated by antibodies raised against keratins, corresponds in Mr and pI to a mammalian differentiation-specific desmosomal plaque protein. Immunoprecipitation of keratins from 120-hr-old cultures shows that many of the water-insoluble proteins synthesized are, indeed, keratins. Further, quantitation, by laser densitometry, of immunoprecipitated keratins from 120-hr cultures demonstrates that greater amounts of keratins, particularly the 65 and 59 kDa which are associated with a differentiated epidermis, are present in stages XVI-XIX. This study indicates that epidermal cell cultures from stages XVI-XIX respond more quickly to the differentiating effects of T3.

  10. Scale Effects between Body Size and Limb Design in Quadrupedal Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Kilbourne, Brandon M.; Hoffman, Louwrens C.

    2013-01-01

    Recently the metabolic cost of swinging the limbs has been found to be much greater than previously thought, raising the possibility that limb rotational inertia influences the energetics of locomotion. Larger mammals have a lower mass-specific cost of transport than smaller mammals. The scaling of the mass-specific cost of transport is partly explained by decreasing stride frequency with increasing body size; however, it is unknown if limb rotational inertia also influences the mass-specific cost of transport. Limb length and inertial properties – limb mass, center of mass (COM) position, moment of inertia, radius of gyration, and natural frequency – were measured in 44 species of terrestrial mammals, spanning eight taxonomic orders. Limb length increases disproportionately with body mass via positive allometry (length ∝ body mass0.40); the positive allometry of limb length may help explain the scaling of the metabolic cost of transport. When scaled against body mass, forelimb inertial properties, apart from mass, scale with positive allometry. Fore- and hindlimb mass scale according to geometric similarity (limb mass ∝ body mass1.0), as do the remaining hindlimb inertial properties. The positive allometry of limb length is largely the result of absolute differences in limb inertial properties between mammalian subgroups. Though likely detrimental to locomotor costs in large mammals, scale effects in limb inertial properties appear to be concomitant with scale effects in sensorimotor control and locomotor ability in terrestrial mammals. Across mammals, the forelimb's potential for angular acceleration scales according to geometric similarity, whereas the hindlimb's potential for angular acceleration scales with positive allometry. PMID:24260117

  11. Scale-independent stiffness measurement of upper limbs with lymphedema by a circular compression.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kataoka, Tsuyoshi; Kaneko, Makoto; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2012-01-01

    Lymphedema caused by the dissection of lymphatic node for treating a breast cancer produces serious swelling on the limbs and reduces the quality of life of the patient. For quantitative assessing the disease, this study newly proposed the stiffness measurement method of upper limb with lymphedema. A measurement system, where a roll-up belt was installed to circularly compress the limb by pulling the belt was developed. Both the belt tension and displacement were measured during the compresson of limb. Scale-independent stiffness index was newly derived from the bulk modulus and applied the measured force and displacement. The stiffness index of upper limb with lymphedema was measured. The index of affected limb was larger than that of healthy limb in a patient.

  12. Reliability, agreement, and validity of digital weighing scale with MatScan in limb load measurement.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Senthil N S; Omar, Baharudin; Htwe, Ohnmar; Joseph, Leonard H; Krishnan, Jagannathan; Jafarzedah Esfehani, Ali; Min, Lee L

    2014-01-01

    Limb loading measurements serve as an objective evaluation of asymmetrical weight bearing in the lower limb. Digital weighing scales (DWSs) could be used in clinical settings for measurement of static limb loading. However, ambiguity exists whether limb loading measurements of DWSs are comparable with a standard tool such as MatScan. A cross-sectional study composed of 33 nondisabled participants was conducted to investigate the reliability, agreement, and validity of DWSs with MatScan in static standing. Amounts of weight distribution and plantar pressure on the individual lower limb were measured using two DWSs (A, B) and MatScan during eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions. The results showed that intra- and interrater reliability (3, 1) were excellent (0.94-0.97) within and between DWS A and B. Bland-Altman plot revealed good agreement between DWS and MatScan in EO and EC conditions. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was significant and identified as 0.68 (p = 0.01). The measurements obtained with DWSs are valid and in agreement with MatScan measurements. Hence, DWSs could be used interchangeably with MatScan and could provide clinicians an objective measurement of limb loading suitable for clinical settings.

  13. Scaling of Haversian canal surface area to secondary osteon bone volume in ribs and limb bones.

    PubMed

    Skedros, John G; Knight, Alex N; Clark, Gunnar C; Crowder, Christian M; Dominguez, Victoria M; Qiu, Shijing; Mulhern, Dawn M; Donahue, Seth W; Busse, Björn; Hulsey, Brannon I; Zedda, Marco; Sorenson, Scott M

    2013-06-01

    Studies of secondary osteons in ribs have provided a great deal of what is known about remodeling dynamics. Compared with limb bones, ribs are metabolically more active and sensitive to hormonal changes, and receive frequent low-strain loading. Optimization for calcium exchange in rib osteons might be achieved without incurring a significant reduction in safety factor by disproportionally increasing central canal size with increased osteon size (positive allometry). By contrast, greater mechanical loads on limb bones might favor reducing deleterious consequences of intracortical porosity by decreasing osteon canal size with increased osteon size (negative allometry). Evidence of this metabolic/mechanical dichotomy between ribs and limb bones was sought by examining relationships between Haversian canal surface area (BS, osteon Haversian canal perimeter, HC.Pm) and bone volume (BV, osteonal wall area, B.Ar) in a broad size range of mature (quiescent) osteons from adult human limb bones and ribs (modern and medieval) and various adult and subadult non-human limb bones and ribs. Reduced major axis (RMA) and least-squares (LS) regressions of HC.Pm/B.Ar data show that rib and limb osteons cannot be distinguished by dimensional allometry of these parameters. Although four of the five rib groups showed positive allometry in terms of the RMA slopes, nearly 50% of the adult limb bone groups also showed positive allometry when negative allometry was expected. Consequently, our results fail to provide clear evidence that BS/BV scaling reflects a rib versus limb bone dichotomy whereby calcium exchange might be preferentially enhanced in rib osteons.

  14. Limb-Bone Scaling Indicates Diverse Stance and Gait in Quadrupedal Ornithischian Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Maidment, Susannah C. R.; Linton, Deborah H.; Upchurch, Paul; Barrett, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The most primitive ornithischian dinosaurs were small bipeds, but quadrupedality evolved three times independently in the clade. The transition to quadrupedality from bipedal ancestors is rare in the history of terrestrial vertebrate evolution, and extant analogues do not exist. Constraints imposed on quadrupedal ornithischians by their ancestral bipedal bauplan remain unexplored, and consequently, debate continues about their stance and gait. For example, it has been proposed that some ornithischians could run, while others consider that none were cursorial. Methodology/Principal Findings Drawing on biomechanical concepts of limb bone scaling and locomotor theory developed for extant taxa, we use the largest dataset of ornithischian postcranial measurements so far compiled to examine stance and gait in quadrupedal ornithischians. Differences in femoral midshaft eccentricity in hadrosaurs and ceratopsids may indicate that hadrosaurs placed their feet on the midline during locomotion, while ceratopsids placed their feet more laterally, under the hips. More robust humeri in the largest ceratopsids relative to smaller taxa may be due to positive allometry in skull size with body mass in ceratopsids, while slender humeri in the largest stegosaurs may be the result of differences in dermal armor distribution within the clade. Hadrosaurs are found to display the most cursorial morphologies of the quadrupedal ornithischian cades, indicating higher locomotor performance than in ceratopsids and thyreophorans. Conclusions/Significance Limb bone scaling indicates that a previously unrealised diversity of stances and gaits were employed by quadrupedal ornithischians despite apparent convergence in limb morphology. Grouping quadrupedal ornithischians together as a single functional group hides this disparity. Differences in limb proportions and scaling are likely due to the possession of display structures such as horns, frills and dermal armor that may have affected

  15. Ontogenetic scaling patterns and functional anatomy of the pelvic limb musculature in emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae)

    PubMed Central

    Main, Russell P.; Hutchinson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) are exclusively terrestrial, bipedal and cursorial ratites with some similar biomechanical characteristics to humans. Their growth rates are impressive, as their body mass increases eighty-fold from hatching to adulthood whilst maintaining the same mode of locomotion throughout life. These ontogenetic characteristics stimulate biomechanical questions about the strategies that allow emus to cope with their rapid growth and locomotion, which can be partly addressed via scaling (allometric) analysis of morphology. In this study we have collected pelvic limb anatomical data (muscle architecture, tendon length, tendon mass and bone lengths) and calculated muscle physiological cross sectional area (PCSA) and average tendon cross sectional area from emus across three ontogenetic stages (n = 17, body masses from 3.6 to 42 kg). The data were analysed by reduced major axis regression to determine how these biomechanically relevant aspects of morphology scaled with body mass. Muscle mass and PCSA showed a marked trend towards positive allometry (26 and 27 out of 34 muscles respectively) and fascicle length showed a more mixed scaling pattern. The long tendons of the main digital flexors scaled with positive allometry for all characteristics whilst other tendons demonstrated a less clear scaling pattern. Finally, the two longer bones of the limb (tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus) also exhibited positive allometry for length, and two others (femur and first phalanx of digit III) had trends towards isometry. These results indicate that emus experience a relative increase in their muscle force-generating capacities, as well as potentially increasing the force-sustaining capacities of their tendons, as they grow. Furthermore, we have clarified anatomical descriptions and provided illustrations of the pelvic limb muscle–tendon units in emus. PMID:25551028

  16. Ontogenetic scaling patterns and functional anatomy of the pelvic limb musculature in emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae).

    PubMed

    Lamas, Luis P; Main, Russell P; Hutchinson, John R

    2014-01-01

    Emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) are exclusively terrestrial, bipedal and cursorial ratites with some similar biomechanical characteristics to humans. Their growth rates are impressive, as their body mass increases eighty-fold from hatching to adulthood whilst maintaining the same mode of locomotion throughout life. These ontogenetic characteristics stimulate biomechanical questions about the strategies that allow emus to cope with their rapid growth and locomotion, which can be partly addressed via scaling (allometric) analysis of morphology. In this study we have collected pelvic limb anatomical data (muscle architecture, tendon length, tendon mass and bone lengths) and calculated muscle physiological cross sectional area (PCSA) and average tendon cross sectional area from emus across three ontogenetic stages (n = 17, body masses from 3.6 to 42 kg). The data were analysed by reduced major axis regression to determine how these biomechanically relevant aspects of morphology scaled with body mass. Muscle mass and PCSA showed a marked trend towards positive allometry (26 and 27 out of 34 muscles respectively) and fascicle length showed a more mixed scaling pattern. The long tendons of the main digital flexors scaled with positive allometry for all characteristics whilst other tendons demonstrated a less clear scaling pattern. Finally, the two longer bones of the limb (tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus) also exhibited positive allometry for length, and two others (femur and first phalanx of digit III) had trends towards isometry. These results indicate that emus experience a relative increase in their muscle force-generating capacities, as well as potentially increasing the force-sustaining capacities of their tendons, as they grow. Furthermore, we have clarified anatomical descriptions and provided illustrations of the pelvic limb muscle-tendon units in emus. PMID:25551028

  17. A mass-length scaling law for modeling muscle strength in the lower limb.

    PubMed

    Correa, Tomas A; Pandy, Marcus G

    2011-11-10

    Musculoskeletal computer models are often used to study muscle function in children with and without impaired mobility. Calculations of muscle forces depend in part on the assumed strength of each muscle, represented by the peak isometric force parameter, which is usually based on measurements obtained from cadavers of adult donors. The aim of the present study was twofold: first, to develop a method for scaling lower-limb peak isometric muscle forces in typically-developing children; and second, to determine the effect of this scaling method on model calculations of muscle forces obtained for normal gait. Muscle volumes were determined from magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained from ten children aged from 7 to 13yr. A new mass-length scaling law was developed based on the assumption that muscle volume and body mass are linearly related, which was confirmed by the obtained volume and body mass data. Two musculoskeletal models were developed for each subject: one in which peak isometric muscle forces were estimated using the mass-length scaling law; and another in which these parameters were determined directly from the MR-derived muscle volumes. Musculoskeletal modeling and quantitative gait analysis were then used to calculate lower-limb muscle forces in normal walking. The patterns of muscle forces predicted by the model with scaled peak isometric force values were similar to those predicted by the MR-based model, implying that assessments of muscle function obtained from these two methods are practically equivalent. These results support the use of mass-length scaling in the development of subject-specific musculoskeletal models of children.

  18. Sizing the Jurassic theropod dinosaur Allosaurus: assessing growth strategy and evolution of ontogenetic scaling of limbs.

    PubMed

    Bybee, Paul J; Lee, Andrew H; Lamm, Ellen-Thérèse

    2006-03-01

    Allosaurus is one of the most common Mesozoic theropod dinosaurs. We present a histological analysis to assess its growth strategy and ontogenetic limb bone scaling. Based on an ontogenetic series of humeral, ulnar, femoral, and tibial sections of fibrolamellar bone, we estimate the ages of the largest individuals in the sample to be between 13-19 years. Growth curve reconstruction suggests that maximum growth occurred at 15 years, when body mass increased 148 kg/year. Based on larger bones of Allosaurus, we estimate an upper age limit of between 22-28 years of age, which is similar to preliminary data for other large theropods. Both Model I and Model II regression analyses suggest that relative to the length of the femur, the lengths of the humerus, ulna, and tibia increase in length more slowly than isometry predicts. That pattern of limb scaling in Allosaurus is similar to those in other large theropods such as the tyrannosaurids. Phylogenetic optimization suggests that large theropods independently evolved reduced humeral, ulnar, and tibial lengths by a phyletic reduction in longitudinal growth relative to the femur.

  19. Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD): Addressing the Challenges in ITM Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastes, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) mission of opportunity will perform unprecedented imaging of the Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere from geostationary orbit. GOLD will fly an ultraviolet (UV) imager on a commercial communications satellite in order to answer fundamental scientific questions about how the thermosphere-ionosphere (T-I) system responds to geomagnetic storms and solar radiation from above and upward propagating tides from below. GOLD will conduct simultaneous measurements of temperature and composition in the T-I system on a global scale, across a hemisphere, at a half hour cadence. These continuous, synoptic measurements of temperature and composition allow the separation of temporal and spatial variability. GOLD's far-ultraviolet imaging spectrograph will perform breakthrough measurements needed to address compelling issues concerning the global response of the T-I system to external and internal influences. This talk will discuss the mission, it's capabilities and the planned observations.

  20. Dynamic strain similarity in vertebrates; an alternative to allometric limb bone scaling.

    PubMed

    Rubin, C T; Lanyon, L E

    1984-03-21

    Galileo (1638) observed that "nature cannot grow a tree nor construct an animal beyond a certain size, while retaining the proportions which suffice in the case of a smaller structure". However, subsequent measurement has shown that limb bone dimensions are scaled geometrically with body size (Alexander et al., 1979a), and that the material properties of their constituent bone tissue are similar in animals over a wide range of body weight (Sedlin & Hirsch, 1966; Yamada, 1970; Burstein et al., 1972; Biewener, 1982). If, as suggested in previous scaling arguments (McMahon, 1973; Biewener, 1982), vigorous locomotion involved the same proportional forces over a wide range of animal size, this would create a paradox since large animals would be in far greater danger of skeletal failure than small ones. However, in vivo strain gauge implantations have shown that, during high speed running, axial force as a proportion of body weight (G) in the limb bones of animals decreases as a function of body size from 6.9 G in a 7 kg turkey to 2.8 G in a small (130 kg) horse. Estimates of axial force in larger animals suggest that this is further reduced to 0.8 G in a 2500 kg elephant. Nevertheless, it appears that, regardless of animal size or locomotory style, the peak stresses in the bones of these animals are remarkably similar. Therefore, throughout the range of animals considered (350 times differences in mass), we suggest that similar safety factors to failure are maintained, not by allometrically scaling bone dimensions, but rather by allometrically scaling the magnitude of the peak forces applied to them during vigorous locomotion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6717041

  1. Hinds Community College MSEIP program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Student Assistant Antoinette Davis (left) of Utica; Carmella Forsythe, 13, of Clinton; Terri Henderson, 14, of Clinton; Tyra Greer, 12, of Port Gibson; and Kala Battle, 14, of Edwards, answer curriculum questions about NASA's Return to Flight mission exhibit at StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) near Bay St. Louis, Miss. The girls were on a field trip to StenniSphere with fellow participants in Hinds Community College's MSEIP (Minority Science Engineering Improvement Program) summer program. MSEIP encourages students to pursue and prepare for careers in science, technology, engineering and math.

  2. SMALL-SCALE STRUCTURING OF ELLERMAN BOMBS AT THE SOLAR LIMB

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C. J.; Doyle, J. G.; Scullion, E. M.; Freij, N.; Erdélyi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) have been widely studied in recent years due to their dynamic, explosive nature and apparent links to the underlying photospheric magnetic field implying that they may be formed by magnetic reconnection in the photosphere. Despite a plethora of researches discussing the morphologies of EBs, there has been a limited investigation of how these events appear at the limb, specifically, whether they manifest as vertical extensions away from the disk. In this article, we make use of high-resolution, high-cadence observations of an Active Region at the solar limb, collected by the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter (CRISP) instrument, to identify EBs and infer their physical properties. The upper atmosphere is also probed using the Solar Dynamic Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA). We analyze 22 EB events evident within these data, finding that 20 appear to follow a parabolic path away from the solar surface at an average speed of 9 km s{sup –1}, extending away from their source by 580 km, before retreating back at a similar speed. These results show strong evidence of vertical motions associated with EBs, possibly explaining the dynamical ''flaring'' (changing in area and intensity) observed in on-disk events. Two in-depth case studies are also presented that highlight the unique dynamical nature of EBs within the lower solar atmosphere. The viewing angle of these observations allows for a direct linkage between these EBs and other small-scale events in the Hα line wings, including a potential flux emergence scenario. The findings presented here suggest that EBs could have a wider-reaching influence on the solar atmosphere than previously thought, as we reveal a direct linkage between EBs and an emerging small-scale loop, and other near-by small-scale explosive events. However, as previous research found, these extensions do not appear to impact upon the Hα line core, and are not observed by the SDO/AIA EUV filters.

  3. Murine Hind Limb Long Bone Dissection and Bone Marrow Isolation.

    PubMed

    Amend, Sarah R; Valkenburg, Kenneth C; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of the bone and the bone marrow is critical in many research fields including basic bone biology, immunology, hematology, cancer metastasis, biomechanics, and stem cell biology. Despite the importance of the bone in healthy and pathologic states, however, it is a largely under-researched organ due to lack of specialized knowledge of bone dissection and bone marrow isolation. Mice are a common model organism to study effects on bone and bone marrow, necessitating a standardized and efficient method for long bone dissection and bone marrow isolation for processing of large experimental cohorts. We describe a straightforward dissection procedure for the removal of the femur and tibia that is suitable for downstream applications, including but not limited to histomorphologic analysis and strength testing. In addition, we outline a rapid procedure for isolation of bone marrow from the long bones via centrifugation with limited handling time, ideal for cell sorting, primary cell culture, or DNA, RNA, and protein extraction. The protocol is streamlined for rapid processing of samples to limit experimental error, and is standardized to minimize user-to-user variability. PMID:27168390

  4. Murine Hind Limb Long Bone Dissection and Bone Marrow Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Amend, Sarah R.; Valkenburg, Kenneth C.; Pienta, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of the bone and the bone marrow is critical in many research fields including basic bone biology, immunology, hematology, cancer metastasis, biomechanics, and stem cell biology. Despite the importance of the bone in healthy and pathologic states, however, it is a largely under-researched organ due to lack of specialized knowledge of bone dissection and bone marrow isolation. Mice are a common model organism to study effects on bone and bone marrow, necessitating a standardized and efficient method for long bone dissection and bone marrow isolation for processing of large experimental cohorts. We describe a straightforward dissection procedure for the removal of the femur and tibia that is suitable for downstream applications, including but not limited to histomorphologic analysis and strength testing. In addition, we outline a rapid procedure for isolation of bone marrow from the long bones via centrifugation with limited handling time, ideal for cell sorting, primary cell culture, or DNA, RNA, and protein extraction. The protocol is streamlined for rapid processing of samples to limit experimental error, and is standardized to minimize user-to-user variability. PMID:27168390

  5. Rasch Analysis of the General Self-Efficacy Scale in Workers with Traumatic Limb Injuries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tzu-Yi; Yu, Wan-Hui; Huang, Chien-Yu; Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2016-09-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to apply Rasch analysis to examine the unidimensionality and reliability of the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) in workers with traumatic limb injuries. Furthermore, if the items of the GSE fitted the Rasch model's assumptions, we transformed the raw sum ordinal scores of the GSE into Rasch interval scores. Methods A total of 1076 participants completed the GSE at 1 month post injury. Rasch analysis was used to examine the unidimensionality and person reliability of the GSE. The unidimensionality of the GSE was verified by determining whether the items fit the Rasch model's assumptions: (1) item fit indices: infit and outfit mean square (MNSQ) ranged from 0.6 to 1.4; and (2) the eigenvalue of the first factor extracted from principal component analysis (PCA) for residuals was <2. Person reliability was calculated. Results The unidimensionality of the 10-item GSE was supported in terms of good item fit statistics (infit and outfit MNSQ ranging from 0.92 to 1.32) and acceptable eigenvalues (1.6) of the first factor of the PCA, with person reliability = 0.89. Consequently, the raw sum scores of the GSE were transformed into Rasch scores. Conclusions The results indicated that the items of GSE are unidimensional and have acceptable person reliability in workers with traumatic limb injuries. Additionally, the raw sum scores of the GSE can be transformed into Rasch interval scores for prospective users to quantify workers' levels of self-efficacy and to conduct further statistical analyses.

  6. Increased SCE levels in Mediterranean Italian buffaloes affected by limb malformation (transversal hemimelia).

    PubMed

    Peretti, V; Ciotola, F; Albarella, S; Restucci, B; Meomartino, L; Ferretti, L; Barbieri, V; Iannuzzi, L

    2008-01-01

    In recent years some buffalo farms in Campania have reported the birth of calves with limb malformation, especially with transversal hemimelia. We investigated 20 Mediterranean Italian buffaloes (8 males and 12 females) from one day to six months of age, of which 10 were affected by transversal hemimelia (group 1) and 10 were healthy controls (group 2). The following clinical and radiological patterns were observed in the malformed animals: hind limbs amputated, the right amputated off the second tarsus bones and the left amputated off the proximal epiphysis metatarsus, and the right thoracic limb hypoplasic (1 female); left hind limb amputated off the proximal epiphysis metatarsus (2 females and 1 male); left hind limb amputated off the third tarsus bones (1 female); left hind limb amputated off the tibia (1 female and 1 male); left hind limb amputated off the distal epiphysis metatarsus (1 female); left hind limb amputated off the first phalanx (1 male); right hind limb amputated off the proximal epiphysis metatarsus (1 male). In their malformed limbs all the animals presented more or less developed outlines of claws. The mean rate of SCE/cell in animals with transversal hemimelia was 8.80 +/- 3.19, that of the controls 6.61 +/- 2.73. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). PMID:18467846

  7. Scaling and kinematics optimisation of the scapula and thorax in upper limb musculoskeletal models

    PubMed Central

    Prinold, Joe A.I.; Bull, Anthony M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate representation of individual scapula kinematics and subject geometries is vital in musculoskeletal models applied to upper limb pathology and performance. In applying individual kinematics to a model׳s cadaveric geometry, model constraints are commonly prescriptive. These rely on thorax scaling to effectively define the scapula׳s path but do not consider the area underneath the scapula in scaling, and assume a fixed conoid ligament length. These constraints may not allow continuous solutions or close agreement with directly measured kinematics. A novel method is presented to scale the thorax based on palpated scapula landmarks. The scapula and clavicle kinematics are optimised with the constraint that the scapula medial border does not penetrate the thorax. Conoid ligament length is not used as a constraint. This method is simulated in the UK National Shoulder Model and compared to four other methods, including the standard technique, during three pull-up techniques (n=11). These are high-performance activities covering a large range of motion. Model solutions without substantial jumps in the joint kinematics data were improved from 23% of trials with the standard method, to 100% of trials with the new method. Agreement with measured kinematics was significantly improved (more than 10° closer at p<0.001) when compared to standard methods. The removal of the conoid ligament constraint and the novel thorax scaling correction factor were shown to be key. Separation of the medial border of the scapula from the thorax was large, although this may be physiologically correct due to the high loads and high arm elevation angles. PMID:25011621

  8. LARGE-SCALE EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET DISTURBANCES ASSOCIATED WITH A LIMB CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Y.; Auchere, F.; Vial, J.-C.; Tang, Y. H.; Zong, W. G.

    2010-01-10

    We present composite observations of a coronal mass ejection (CME) and the associated large-scale extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) disturbances on 2007 December 31 by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) and COR1 coronagraph on board the recent Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory mission. For this limb event, the EUV disturbances exhibit some typical characteristics of EUV Imaging Telescope waves: (1) in the 195 A bandpass, diffuse brightenings are observed propagating oppositely away from the flare site with a velocity of approx260 km s{sup -1}, leaving dimmings behind; (2) when the brightenings encounter the boundary of a polar coronal hole, they stop there to form a stationary front. Multi-temperature analysis of the propagating EUV disturbances favors a heating process over a density enhancement in the disturbance region. Furthermore, the EUVI-COR1 composite display shows unambiguously that the propagation of the diffuse brightenings coincides with a large lateral expansion of the CME, which consequently results in a double-loop-structured CME leading edge. Based on these observational facts, we suggest that the wave-like EUV disturbances are a result of magnetic reconfiguration related to the CME liftoff rather than true waves in the corona. Reconnections between the expanding CME magnetic field lines and surrounding quiet-Sun magnetic loops account for the propagating diffuse brightenings; dimmings appear behind them as a consequence of volume expansion. X-ray and radio data provide us with complementary evidence.

  9. Cellular basis of differential limb growth in postnatal gray short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica).

    PubMed

    Beiriger, Anastasia; Sears, Karen E

    2014-06-01

    While growth has been studied extensively in invertebrates, the mechanisms by which it is controlled in vertebrates, particularly in mammals, remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigate the cellular basis of differential limb growth in postnatal Monodelphis domestica, the gray short-tailed opossum, to gain insights into the mechanisms regulating mammalian growth. Opossums are an ideal model for the study of growth because they are born with relatively large, well-developed forelimbs and small hind limbs that must "catch up" to the forelimb before the animal reaches adulthood. Postnatal Days 1-17 were identified as a key period of growth for the hind limbs, during which they undergo accelerated development and nearly quadruple in length. Histology performed on fore- and hind limbs from this period indicates a higher rate of cellular differentiation in the long bones of the hind limbs. Immunohistochemical assays indicate that cellular proliferation is also occurring at a significantly greater rate in the long bones of the hind limb at 6 days after birth. Taken together, these results suggest that a faster rate of cellular proliferation and differentiation in the long bones of the hind limb relative to those of the forelimb generates a period of accelerated growth through which the adult limb phenotype of M. domestica is achieved. Assays for gene expression suggest that the molecular basis of this differential growth differs from that previously identified for differential pre-natal growth in opossum fore- and hind limbs.

  10. Polymelous layer chick displaying additional malformations of the hind gut: case report and in-depth review of related literature.

    PubMed

    Hirschberg, R M; Saleh, M; Kaiser, S; Lierz, M; Hafez, H M; Bragulla, H H

    2012-08-01

    A case report of a male 6-day-old male layer chick featuring incomplete polymelia of the hind limbs and hindgut malformations is presented. The chick was submitted to computed tomography (CT) examination and subsequent anatomical dissection. Apart from the two supernumerary hind limbs, the anatomical dissection revealed additional hindgut alterations: three uniform-sized caeca flanked the ileum, and the rectum branched into paired cloacae. The supernumerary hind limbs were localized caudal to the normal hind limbs in an inverted position and were attached to pelvic girdle elements and to a curtate pygostyle. They featured a prominent unpaired femur besides paired tibiotarsi, tarsometatarsi and species-specific phalanges of the toes. Additionally, two separate bones attached to the caudoventral aspect of the regular hip bones were developed. The supernumerary limbs were in part mobile and received nerve and vascular supply. Digital 3D-reconstruction based on the CT datasets revealed the osseous components of the malformed body parts. The possible morphogenesis including an in-depth literature review and the clinical implications of the reported malformations are discussed. PMID:22250842

  11. Inertial properties of equine limb segments.

    PubMed

    Nauwelaerts, Sandra; Allen, Whitney A; Lane, Jasmine M; Clayton, Hilary M

    2011-05-01

    Quantifying the dynamics of limb movements requires knowledge of the mass distribution between and within limb segments. We measured segment masses, positions of segmental center of mass and moments of inertia of the fore and hind limb segments for 38 horses of different breeds and sizes. After disarticulation by dissections, segments were weighed and the position of the center of mass was determined by suspension. Moment of inertia was measured using a trifilar pendulum. We found that mass distribution does not change with size for animals under 600 kg and report ratios of segmental masses to total body mass. For all segments, the scaling relationship between segmental mass and moment of inertia was predicted equally well or better by a 5/3 power fit than by the more classic mass multiplied by segmental length squared fit. Average values taken from previous studies generally confirmed our data but scaling relationships often needed to be revised. We did not detect an effect of morphotype on segment inertial properties. Differences in segmental inertial properties between published studies may depend more on segmental segmentation techniques than on size or body type of the horse. PMID:21355866

  12. 4. EAST ELEVATION OF HINDS PLANT. NOTE BUTTRESSING AS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EAST ELEVATION OF HINDS PLANT. NOTE BUTTRESSING AS ON EAGLE MOUNTAIN FOR SEISMIC REINFORCEMENT. - Hinds Pump Plant, East of Joshua Tree National Monument, 5 miles north of Route 10, Hayfield, Riverside County, CA

  13. Hind, John R (1823-1895)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    English astronomer, discovered in 1852 a small nebula in Taurus which, in 1861, was found by HEINRICH D'ARREST to have disappeared. By the end of the year, D'Arrest and OTTO WILHELM STRUVE had recovered it. Hind's variable nebula, as it came to be called, demonstrated that at least some nebulae were small, as nothing larger than a light year in dimension can disappear in a year. The nebula is a ...

  14. One-sided limb preference is linked to alternating-limb locomotion in anuran amphibians.

    PubMed

    Malashichev, Yegor B

    2006-11-01

    Amphibians provide a unique opportunity for identifying possible links between lateralized behaviors, locomotion, and phylogeny and for addressing the origin of lateralized behaviors of higher vertebrates. Five anuran species with different locomotive habits were tested for forelimb and hind limb preferences during 2 stereotyped behavior sequences--wiping a foreign object off their snout and righting themselves from the overturned position. The experiments were analyzed in a broader context of previous findings on anuran lateralization involving 11 anuran species that were studied within the same experimental paradigms. This analysis shows that one-sided forelimb and hind limb motor lateralization in anurans is strongly associated with alternating-limb locomotion and other unilateral limb activity. Conclusions reached for anuran amphibians may be applicable to other vertebrates possessing paired appendages-the degree of lateralization in motor response depends on the mode of locomotion used by a species.

  15. Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD): From Simulations to Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastes, R.; McClintock, W. E.; Anderson, D. N.; Burns, A. G.; England, S.; Solomon, S. C.; Jones, S.; Talaat, E. R.; Aksnes, A.; Andersson, L.; Codrescu, M.; Daniell, R. E.; Harvey, J.; Krywonos, A.; Lumpe, J. D., Jr.; Richmond, A. D.; Rusch, D. W.; Siegmund, O.; Strickland, D. J.; Woods, T. N.; Budzien, S. A.; Dymond, K.; Eparvier, F. G.; Lieberman, R. S.; Martinis, C. R.; Oberheide, J.

    2015-12-01

    The GOLD mission is scheduled to launch a far ultraviolet (FUV), imaging spectrograph into geostationary orbit over the Americas in late 2017. Laboratory observations by an optical breadboard of the GOLD imager show performance that matches the expected performance of the flight instrument and that exceeds the requirements. Excellent agreement is seen between these laboratory observations and model calculations of the N2 LBH spectrum. Such laboratory data, as well as model simulations of the expected observations, will be used in the development and testing of the data processing to be used during flight. Simulated observations of increasing realism are being developed. These simulations are a valuable tool for developing and understanding GOLD's observations of the neutral temperatures on the disk and limb, neutral composition (O/N2 density) on the disk, molecular oxygen density profile and the nighttime ionosphere at low latitudes. Simulations will also be used test observing plans and software for data reduction. The contract for accommodation of the GOLD instrument on the SES-14 satellite was signed in April 2015. That made GOLD the first NASA mission of opportunity to establish a contract for commercial launch into geostationary orbit. The host satellite, a Eurostar 3000 built by Airbus Defence & Space for SES, will use electric propulsion for transfer to geostationary orbit. Securing a contract for hosting has allowed the interfaces to the spacecraft to be defined and the instrument design to be completed. This presentation describes the current status of the GOLD instrument, the future development of the mission, and the simulations of the GOLD measurements.

  16. Scaling lower-limb isokinetic strength for biological maturation and body size in adolescent basketball players.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Humberto Moreira; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel; Valente-dos-Santos, João; Gonçalves, Rui Soles; Philippaerts, Renaat; Malina, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The relationships between knee joint isokinetic strength, biological maturity status and body size were examined in 14-16-year-old basketball players, considering proportional allometric modeling. Biological maturity status was assessed with maturity offset protocol. Stature, body mass, sitting height, and estimated thigh volume were measured by anthropometry. Maximal moments of force of concentric and eccentric muscular actions for the knee extensors and flexors were assessed by isokinetic dynamometry at 60° s(-1). Regression analysis revealed a linear relation between maximal moments of force of the knee extensors in both muscular actions and knee flexors in concentric actions were moderately high (0.55 ≤ r ≤ 0.64). As for knee flexors in eccentric actions, a squared term of maturity indicator was significant indicating that the relationship with maturity offset tended to plateau approximately 2 years after PHV. Incorporating maturity indicator term with body size term (body mass or thigh volume) in the allometric models revealed that the size exponents for both body mass and thigh volume were reduced compared with simple allometric modeling. The results indicate a significant inter-individual variation in lower-limb isokinetic strength performance at 60° s(-1) in concentric and eccentric muscular actions in late adolescent basketball players. The variability in performance is related to inter-individual variation in estimated time before or after peak height velocity, as well as differences in body size. Proportional allometric models indicate that the influence of estimated time from age at peak height velocity on isokinetic strength performance is mostly mediated by corresponding changes in overall body mass.

  17. Limb regeneration.

    PubMed

    Simon, András; Tanaka, Elly M

    2013-01-01

    Limb regeneration is observed in certain members of the animal phyla. Some animals keep this ability during their entire life while others lose it at some time during development. How do animals regenerate limbs? Is it possible to find unifying, conserved mechanisms of limb regeneration or have different species evolved distinct means of replacing a lost limb? How is limb regeneration similar or different to limb development? Studies on many organisms, including echinoderms, arthropods, and chordates have provided significant knowledge about limb regeneration. In this focus article, we concentrate on tetrapod limb regeneration as studied in three model amphibians: newts, axolotls, and frogs. We review recent progress on tissue interactions during limb regeneration, and place those findings into an evolutionary context. PMID:24009038

  18. How do the substrate reaction forces acting on a gecko's limbs respond to inclines?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhouyi; Dai, Zhendong; Li, Wei; Ji, Aihong; Wang, Wenbao

    2015-02-01

    Locomotion is an essential character of animals, and excellent moving ability results from the delicate sensing of the substrate reaction forces (SRF) acting on body and modulating the behavior to adapt the motion requirement. The inclined substrates present in habitats pose a number of functional challenges to locomotion. In order to effectively overcome these challenges, climbing geckos execute complex and accurate movements that involve both the front and hind limbs. Few studies have examined gecko's SRF on steeper inclines of greater than 90°. To reveal how the SRFs acting on the front and hind limbs respond to angle incline changes, we obtained detailed measurements of the three-dimensional SRFs acting on the individual limbs of the tokay gecko while it climbed on an inclined angle of 0-180°. The fore-aft forces acting on the front and hind limbs show opposite trends on inverted inclines of greater than 120°, indicating propulsion mechanism changes in response to inclines. When the incline angles change, the forces exerted in the normal and fore-aft directions by gecko's front and hind limbs are reassigned to take full advantage of limbs' different roles in overcoming resistance and in propelling locomotion. This also ensures that weight acts in the angle range between the forces generated by the front and hind limbs. The change in the distribution of SRF with a change in the incline angle is directly linked to the favorable trade-off between locomotive maneuverability and stability.

  19. Artificial Limbs

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which is ... activities such as walking, eating, or dressing. Some artificial limbs let you function nearly as well as before.

  20. Limb Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... accidents and military combat Cancer Birth defects Some amputees have phantom pain, which is the feeling of ... problems, if you wear an artificial limb. Many amputees use an artificial limb. Learning how to use ...

  1. Posterior Ankle and Hind Foot Arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gökkuş, Kemal; Aydın, Ahmet Turan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: While anterior ankle arthroscopy is a widely accepted technique, posterior ankle/hind foot arthroscopy is still a relatively new procedure. The arthroscopic visualisation was often initially limited and vulnerabilty of the posteromedial neurovascular structures to injury scared orthopaedic surgeons. The goal of this review is to highlight the indications, and to present the long term follow up results of posterior ankle/hind foot arthroscopy. Methods: The study included 21 ankles in 21 patients (12 male and 9 female ).The mean age was 37.7 , the mean duration of preoperative symptoms 12.8 months . Arthroscopy performed with the patient prone , under general and spinal anesthesia with tourniquet hemostasis . Preoperative intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis is performed (cefazolin 1g) , sand bag placed under ipsilateral anteresuperior iliac spine to correct natural external rotated posture of the ankle and ankle is left hanging of the table so that it can moved freely during surgery. We applied noninvasive distraction method with simple rope which tied and knotted waist of the surgeon . The posterolateral and posteromedial portals which described by Van Dijk was utilized . The arthroscopic visualisation was often initially limited and careful debritement of some adipose tissue of the kager fat pad (Kager's fat pad, also known as the pre-Achilles fat pad) was necessary to create more space to aid visualization .The most valuable point to stay clear from trouble is to understand , know and aware where the flexor hallucis longus tendon exist .So neurovascular structures located beyond this tendon. Principally the process must advance into lateral to medial manner. The mean follow up period was 55 months. The most common preoperative diagnoses were osteochondral lesions of talus (ten ),painful os trigonum syndrome with (five )or without (three) FHL tenosynovitis (total eight ), posterior talofibular ligament thickenning (two ), Haglund’s deformity (one

  2. Ontogeny of joint mechanics in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis): functional implications for mammalian limb growth and locomotor development.

    PubMed

    Young, Jesse W

    2009-05-01

    Juvenile animals must often compete against adults for common resources, keep pace during group travel and evade common predators, despite reduced body size and an immature musculoskeletal system. Previous morphometric studies of a diverse array of mammals, including jack rabbits, cats and capuchin monkeys, have identified growth-related changes in anatomy, such as negative allometry of limb muscle mechanical advantage, which should theoretically permit young mammals to overcome such ontogenetic limits on performance. However, it is important to evaluate the potential impact of such ;compensatory' growth trajectories within the context of developmental changes in locomotor behavior. I used standard kinematic and kinetic techniques to investigate the ontogenetic scaling of joint postures, substrate reaction forces, joint load arm lengths and external joint moments in an ontogenetic sample of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis). Results indicated that young squirrel monkeys were frequently able to limit forelimb and hind limb joint loading via a combination of changes in limb posture and limb force distribution, potentially compensating for limited muscularity at younger ages. These results complement previous morphometric studies and suggest that immature mammals may utilize a combination of behavioral and anatomical mechanisms to mitigate ontogenetic limits on locomotor performance. However, ontogenetic changes in joint posture, not limb length per se, explained most of the variation in load arm lengths and joint loading in growing squirrel monkeys, indicating the importance of incorporating both anatomical and performance measures when studying the ontogeny of limb joint mechanics.

  3. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-15

    The basic goal of the Limestone Injection Mitigation Burner (LIMB) demonstration is to extend LIMB technology development to a full- scale application on a representative wall-fired utility boiler. The successful retrofit of LIMB to an existing boiler is expected to demonstrate that (a) reductions of 50 percent or greater in SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions can be achieved at a fraction of the cost of add-on FGD systems, (b) boiler reliability, operability, and steam production can be maintained at levels existing prior to LIMB retrofit, and (c) technical difficulties attributable to LIMB operation, such as additional slagging and fouling, changes in ash disposal requirements, and an increased particulate load, can be resolved in a cost-effective manner. The primary fuel to be used will be an Ohio bituminous coal having a nominal sulfur content of 3 percent or greater.

  4. Space-time integrity of improved stratospheric and mesospheric sounder and microwave limb sounder temperature fields at Kelvin wave scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, E. M.; Stanford, J. L.; Ziemke, J. R.; Allen, D. R.; Taylor, F. W.; Rodgers, C. D.; Lawrence, B. N.; Fishbein, E. F.; Elson, L. S.; Waters, J. W.

    1995-07-01

    Space-time analyses, which are sensitive to details of retrieval and gridding processes not seen in zonal and time means, are used to investigate the integrity of version 8 gridded retrieved temperatures from the improved stratospheric and mesospheric sounder (ISAMS) on the upper atmosphere research satellite (UARS). This note presents results of such analyses applied to ISAMS tropical data. Comparisons are made with microwave limb sounder (MLS), also on UARS, temperatures. Prominent zonal wave number 1 features are observed with characteristics similar to those expected for Kelvin waves. Time versus longitude plots reveal quasi-regular eastward phase progression from November 1991 to mid-January 1992. The perturbations extend throughout the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere (altitudes of 32-64 km), exhibiting peak-to-peak amplitudes of up to 2°-3° K and periods from ˜ 2 weeks in midstratosphere to ˜ 1 week at higher altitudes. Faster Kelvin waves with periods of 3-5 days are also found in the lower mesosphere. Height versus time plots reveal downward phase and upward group velocities, consistent with forcing from below. Vertical wavelengths are ˜ 20 km for the slower mode and about twice this scale for the faster 3 to 5-day mode. The features are trapped within ±10°-15° of the equator. Kelvin wave signatures in ISAMS and MLS temperatures are compared at 10 and 1 hPa. Good agreement is found, illustrating the internal consistency and ability of both ISAMS and MLS temperature grids to capture relatively small amplitude features with space-time scales of fast, zonally asymmetric equatorial modes.

  5. Trace gas retrieval for limb DOAS under changing atmospheric conditions: The X-gas scaling method vs optimal estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueneke, Tilman; Grossmann, Katja; Knecht, Matthias; Raecke, Rasmus; Stutz, Jochen; Werner, Bodo; Pfeilsticker, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Changing atmospheric conditions during DOAS measurements from fast moving aircraft platforms pose a challenge for trace gas retrievals. Traditional inversion techniques to retrieve trace gas concentrations from limb scattered UV/vis spectroscopy, like optimal estimation, require a-priori information on Mie extinction (e.g., aerosol concentration and cloud cover) and albedo, which determine the atmospheric radiative transfer. In contrast to satellite applications, cloud filters can not be applied because they would strongly reduce the usable amount of expensively gathered measurement data. In contrast to ground-based MAX-DOAS applications, an aerosol retrieval based on O4 is not able to constrain the radiative transfer in air-borne applications due to the rapidly decreasing amount of O4 with altitude. Furthermore, the assumption of a constant cloud cover is not valid for fast moving aircrafts, thus requiring 2D or even 3D treatment of the radiative transfer. Therefore, traditional techniques are not applicable for most of the data gathered by fast moving aircraft platforms. In order to circumvent these limitations, we have been developing the so-called X-gas scaling method. By utilising a proxy gas X (e.g. O3, O4, …), whose concentration is either a priori known or simultaneously in-situ measured as well as remotely measured, an effective absorption length for the target gas is inferred. In this presentation, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the novel approach along with some sample cases. A particular strength of the X-gas scaling method is its insensitivity towards the aerosol abundance and cloud cover as well as wavelength dependent effects, whereas its sensitivity towards the profiles of both gases requires a priori information on their shapes.

  6. 5. HINDS PUMPING FLOOR FROM WEST END TOP OF UNIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. HINDS PUMPING FLOOR FROM WEST END TOP OF UNIT #9 (LENS STOPPED DOWN ALL THE WAY FOR DEPTH OF FIELD ENHANCEMENT). - Hinds Pump Plant, East of Joshua Tree National Monument, 5 miles north of Route 10, Hayfield, Riverside County, CA

  7. Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD): Hosted Payload Accommodation on a Commercial Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lankton, M.; Eastes, R.; McClintock, W. E.; Pang, R.; Caffrey, R.; Krywonos, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Global-Scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) mission will perform unprecedented imaging of the Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere (TI) system from geostationary (GEO) orbit. Flying as a hosted payload on a commercial communications satellite, GOLD takes advantage of the resource margins available in the early years of the commercial mission's planned 15-year life. This hosted payload approach is a pathfinder for cost-effective NASA science missions. The affordable ride to GEO makes it possible for an Explorer-class Mission of Opportunity to perform Far UltraViolet (FUV) imaging of nearly a complete hemisphere on a 30-minute cadence. This global-scale, high cadence imaging will enable GOLD to distinguish between spatial and temporal variations in the TI system caused by geomagnetic storms, variations in solar EUV, and forcing from the lower atmosphere. The most significant difference between developing instrumentation for a NASA-owned mission and accomplishing the same task for a commercial satellite is that communications satellites are procured on a faster schedule - 24 to 36 months from satellite contract to launch - than the instrument development. GOLD has partnered with SES Government Solutions (SES-GS), the comsat mission owner-operator, to define instrument interfaces and requirements that will be included in the eventual Request for Proposal to candidate spacecraft vendors. SES-GS launches 3 to 4 missions per year, which allows the GOLD-SES-GS partnership to match the instrument's launch readiness date with a suitable mission. In addition to making geostationary orbit accessible to a science instrument at relatively low cost, commercial communications satellites provides a host platform with very high reliability and long life, easy access to continuous high-speed data downlink and near-real-time data delivery, and stable pointing. SES-GS operates their satellite from established Telemetry, Tracking and Control (TT&C) centers. The GOLD Science

  8. HD 38452 - J. R. Hind's star that changed colour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Brian; Sneden, Christopher

    1988-01-01

    In 1851, John Russell Hind announced that a star previously observed by him to be very red had become bluish white in color. It is shown that this star, HD 38451, is a ninth magnitude shell star which presumably was ejecting a shell when Hind first observed it. From high dispersion coude spectra, low dispersion IUE spectra, and ground-based photometry, HD 38451 is found to be a normal A21V shell star. Its current values of E(B-V) of about 0.14 is probably caused by interstellar rather than circumstellar reddening. There remains a problem to reconcile the large amount of reddening present when Hind first observed the star with its evidently small diminution in visual brightness at that time.

  9. HD 38451 - J. R. Hind's star that changed colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian; Sneden, Christopher

    1988-09-01

    In 1851, John Russell Hind announced that a star previously observed by him to be very red had become bluish white in color. It is shown that this star, HD 38451, is a ninth magnitude shell star which presumably was ejecting a shell when Hind first observed it. From high dispersion coude spectra, low dispersion IUE spectra, and ground-based photometry, HD 38451 is found to be a normal A21V shell star. Its current values of E(B-V) of about 0.14 is probably caused by interstellar rather than circumstellar reddening. There remains a problem to reconcile the large amount of reddening present when Hind first observed the star with its evidently small diminution in visual brightness at that time.

  10. Intraspecific scaling of the minimum metabolic cost of transport in leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus): links with limb kinematics, morphometrics and posture

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Kayleigh A.; Nudds, Robert L.; Codd, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The minimum metabolic cost of transport (CoTmin; J kg−1 m−1) scales negatively with increasing body mass (∝Mb−1/3) across species from a wide range of taxa associated with marked differences in body plan. At the intraspecific level, or between closely related species, however, CoTmin does not always scale with Mb. Similarity in physiology, dynamics of movement, skeletal geometry and posture between closely related individuals is thought to be responsible for this phenomenon, despite the fact that energetic, kinematic and morphometric data are rarely collected together. We examined the relationship between these integrated components of locomotion in leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) selectively bred for large and bantam (miniature) varieties. Interspecific allometry predicts a CoTmin ∼16% greater in bantams compared with the larger variety. However, despite 38% and 23% differences in Mb and leg length, respectively, the two varieties shared an identical walking CoTmin, independent of speed and equal to the allometric prediction derived from interspecific data for the larger variety. Furthermore, the two varieties moved with dynamic similarity and shared geometrically similar appendicular and axial skeletons. Hip height, however, did not scale geometrically and the smaller variety had more erect limbs, contrary to interspecific scaling trends. The lower than predicted CoTmin in bantams for their Mb was associated with both the more erect posture and a lower cost per stride (J kg−1 stride−1). Therefore, our findings are consistent with the notion that a more erect limb is associated with a lower CoTmin and with the previous assumption that similarity in skeletal shape, inherently linked to walking dynamics, is associated with similarity in CoTmin. PMID:25657211

  11. Global Gene Expression Analysis of Murine Limb Development

    PubMed Central

    Taher, Leila; Collette, Nicole M.; Murugesh, Deepa; Maxwell, Evan; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Loots, Gabriela G.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed information about stage-specific changes in gene expression is crucial for understanding the gene regulatory networks underlying development and the various signal transduction pathways contributing to morphogenesis. Here we describe the global gene expression dynamics during early murine limb development, when cartilage, tendons, muscle, joints, vasculature and nerves are specified and the musculoskeletal system of limbs is established. We used whole-genome microarrays to identify genes with differential expression at 5 stages of limb development (E9.5 to 13.5), during fore- and hind-limb patterning. We found that the onset of limb formation is characterized by an up-regulation of transcription factors, which is followed by a massive activation of genes during E10.5 and E11.5 which levels off at later time points. Among the 3520 genes identified as significantly up-regulated in the limb, we find ∼30% to be novel, dramatically expanding the repertoire of candidate genes likely to function in the limb. Hierarchical and stage-specific clustering identified expression profiles that are likely to correlate with functional programs during limb development and further characterization of these transcripts will provide new insights into specific tissue patterning processes. Here, we provide for the first time a comprehensive analysis of developmentally regulated genes during murine limb development, and provide some novel insights into the expression dynamics governing limb morphogenesis. PMID:22174793

  12. Global gene expression analysis of murine limb development.

    PubMed

    Taher, Leila; Collette, Nicole M; Murugesh, Deepa; Maxwell, Evan; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Loots, Gabriela G

    2011-01-01

    Detailed information about stage-specific changes in gene expression is crucial for understanding the gene regulatory networks underlying development and the various signal transduction pathways contributing to morphogenesis. Here we describe the global gene expression dynamics during early murine limb development, when cartilage, tendons, muscle, joints, vasculature and nerves are specified and the musculoskeletal system of limbs is established. We used whole-genome microarrays to identify genes with differential expression at 5 stages of limb development (E9.5 to 13.5), during fore- and hind-limb patterning. We found that the onset of limb formation is characterized by an up-regulation of transcription factors, which is followed by a massive activation of genes during E10.5 and E11.5 which levels off at later time points. Among the 3520 genes identified as significantly up-regulated in the limb, we find ~30% to be novel, dramatically expanding the repertoire of candidate genes likely to function in the limb. Hierarchical and stage-specific clustering identified expression profiles that are likely to correlate with functional programs during limb development and further characterization of these transcripts will provide new insights into specific tissue patterning processes. Here, we provide for the first time a comprehensive analysis of developmentally regulated genes during murine limb development, and provide some novel insights into the expression dynamics governing limb morphogenesis.

  13. Cellular proliferation in the skin of X-rayed newt limbs (with a note on x-ray-induced limb regression)

    SciTech Connect

    Wertz, R.L.

    1982-07-01

    Left hind limbs, including the pelvis, of adult newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) were locally irradiated with a dose of x-rays that inhibited regeneration (2,000 R). This x-ray dose and other doses (700-2,000 R) capable of inhibiting limb regeneration also cause limb regression prior to amputation. Before limb regression occurred, there was a latent period of 3 to 6 weeks. Limb regression was characterized by necrotic wasting and resorption of distal elements. The degree of loss was variable and dependent upon dosage. After this further degenerative changes were not noted. Proliferation of epidermal cells was examined 4 days after irradiation prior to limb regression or after x-ray-induced degeneration of the limbs had ended. Proliferative activity in x-rayed limbs was also compared at various stages of contralateral control limb regeneration. Limbs examined after x-ray-induced limb regression had ended showed levels of (/sup 3/H)-thymidine incorporation into DNA comparable to normal epidermis. In contrast, limbs examined 4 days after irradiation had lower levels of DNA synthesis (P much less than 0.01). Amputation of limbs in both groups caused an increase in DNA synthesis (P much less than 0.01). Histological examination showed that cellular proliferation was associated primarily with the epidermis. These results indicate that epidermal cell proliferation was not resistant to x-rays. However, levels of normal cell division were observed after amputation of after cessation of x-ray-induced limb regression.

  14. Reloading partly recovers bone mineral density and mechanical properties in hind limb unloaded rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fan; Li, Dijie; Arfat, Yasir; Chen, Zhihao; Liu, Zonglin; Lin, Yu; Ding, Chong; Sun, Yulong; Hu, Lifang; Shang, Peng; Qian, Airong

    2014-12-01

    Skeletal unloading results in decreased bone formation and bone mass. During long-term space flight, the decreased bone mass is impossible to fully recover. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the effective countermeasures to prevent spaceflight-induced bone loss. Hindlimb Unloading (HLU) simulates effects of weightlessness and is utilized extensively to examine the response of musculoskeletal systems to certain aspects of space flight. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a 4-week HLU in rats and subsequent reloading on the bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties of load-bearing bones. After HLU for 4 weeks, the rats were then subjected to reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks, and then the BMD of the femur, tibia and lumbar spine in rats were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) every week. The mechanical properties of the femur were determined by three-point bending test. Dry bone and bone ash of femur were obtained through Oven-Drying method and were weighed respectively. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum calcium were examined through ELISA and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results showed that 4 weeks of HLU significantly decreased body weight of rats and reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks or 3 weeks did not recover the weight loss induced by HLU. However, after 2 weeks of reloading, BMD of femur and tibia of HLU rats partly recovered (+10.4%, +2.3%). After 3 weeks of reloading, the reduction of BMD, energy absorption, bone mass and mechanical properties of bone induced by HLU recovered to some extent. The changes in serum ALP and serum calcium induced by HLU were also recovered after reloading. Our results indicate that a short period of reloading could not completely recover bone after a period of unloading, thus some interventions such as mechanical vibration or pharmaceuticals are necessary to help bone recovery.

  15. Functional MMP-10 is required for efficient tissue repair after experimental hind limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Rodriguez, Violeta; Orbe, Josune; Martinez-Aguilar, Esther; Rodriguez, Jose A; Fernandez-Alonso, Leopoldo; Serneels, Jens; Bobadilla, Miriam; Perez-Ruiz, Ana; Collantes, Maria; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Paramo, Jose A; Roncal, Carmen

    2015-03-01

    We studied the role of matrix metalloproteinase-10 (MMP-10) during skeletal muscle repair after ischemia using a model of femoral artery excision in wild-type (WT) and MMP-10 deficient (Mmp10(-/-)) mice. Functional changes were analyzed by small animal positron emission tomography and tissue morphology by immunohistochemistry. Gene expression and protein analysis were used to study the molecular mechanisms governed by MMP-10 in hypoxia. Early after ischemia, MMP-10 deficiency resulted in delayed tissue reperfusion (10%, P < 0.01) and in increased necrosis (2-fold, P < 0.01), neutrophil (4-fold, P < 0.01), and macrophage (1.5-fold, P < 0.01) infiltration. These differences at early time points resulted in delayed myotube regeneration in Mmp10(-/-) soleus at later stages (regenerating myofibers: 30 ± 9% WT vs. 68 ± 10% Mmp10(-/-), P < 0.01). The injection of MMP-10 into Mmp10(-/-) mice rescued the observed phenotype. A molecular analysis revealed higher levels of Cxcl1 mRNA (10-fold, P < 0.05) and protein (30%) in the ischemic Mmp10(-/-) muscle resulting from a lack of transcriptional inhibition by MMP-10. This was further confirmed using siRNA against MMP-10 in vivo. Our results demonstrate an important role of MMP-10 for proper muscle repair after ischemia, and suggest that chemokine regulation such as Cxcl1 by MMP-10 is involved in muscle regeneration. PMID:25414484

  16. Acute hind limb paralysis secondary to an extradural spinal cord Cryptococcus gattii lesion in a dog.

    PubMed

    Kurach, Lindsey; Wojnarowicz, Chris; Wilkinson, Tom; Sereda, Colin

    2013-05-01

    A 2-year-old, spayed female, German short-haired pointer was presented with a 1-day history of non-ambulatory paraplegia with absent deep pain perception. A computed tomography scan revealed an irregular eighth thoracic vertebral body and an extradural compressive lesion. Decompression was performed and abnormal tissues were submitted for analysis. Findings were consistent with a Cryptococcus gattii infection. PMID:24155428

  17. Morphological changes in neurons of the hind limb reflex arc during long term immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tkachenko, Z. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Twelve adult rabbits were immobilized for 9 to 31 days, followed by histological study of the nerve processes of lumbar vertebra 7 and sacral vertebra 1, the sciatic nerve and the motor endings of the thigh muscles. In the spinal ganglia, dystrophic changes of increasing severity with immobilization time were found, including pericellular edema, vacuolized neuroplasm, pycnotic changes, cytolysis and destruction. Chromatophilic matter decreased and was partly bleached, and amitotic division occurred. A portion of the sciatic nerve fibers were argentophilic, and some fragmentary decomposition occurred. Considerable dystrophic changes occurred in the motor nerve endings.

  18. Acute hind limb paralysis secondary to an extradural spinal cord Cryptococcus gattii lesion in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Kurach, Lindsey; Wojnarowicz, Chris; Wilkinson, Tom; Sereda, Colin

    2013-01-01

    A 2-year-old, spayed female, German short-haired pointer was presented with a 1-day history of non-ambulatory paraplegia with absent deep pain perception. A computed tomography scan revealed an irregular eighth thoracic vertebral body and an extradural compressive lesion. Decompression was performed and abnormal tissues were submitted for analysis. Findings were consistent with a Cryptococcus gattii infection. PMID:24155428

  19. Physiological properties of tandem muscle spindles in neck and hind-limb muscles.

    PubMed

    Price, R F; Dutia, M B

    1989-01-01

    Although tandem muscle spindle complexes are found in small but significant numbers in most muscles, experimental investigation of their properties has been problematic because of the difficulty of distinguishing their afferents from those of "normal" single spindles. Of particular interest are the afferents from b2c capsules of tandem spindles, which unlike normal spindles contain only a static b2 nuclear bag fibre and some nuclear chain fibres. The absence of a dynamic b1 nuclear bag fibre from b2c spindles has engendered much speculation as to their response properties and their possible role in motor control. We have recently developed a method for the identification of afferents from b2c spindles in electrophysiological experiments, using infusion or topical application of succinylcholine (SCh). SCh causes the contraction of the dynamic b1 and static b2 nuclear bag intrafusal fibres, and paralyses the nuclear chain fibres. Afferents from b2c spindles are characterized by a strong "biasing" of their discharge rate to about 100 impulses per second (i.p.s.) when activated by SCh (reflecting the contraction of the static b2 fibre), while primary afferents from normal b1b2c spindles show a large increase in dynamic sensitivity as well as "biasing" (reflecting the contraction of both dynamic b1 and static b2 bag fibres). Histological examination of tenuissimus spindles activated by SCh has confirmed this relationship between the pattern of activation by SCh and the number of intrafusal nuclear bag fibres in the spindle. In this paper we review the value of SCh as a means of testing spindle afferents for functional inputs from sensory terminals on the nuclear bag fibres, and discuss the properties of b2c afferents from tandem spindles in the context of their possible function.

  20. Conditional effect of selenium on the mammalian hind gut microbiota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenium (Se) status is linked to cancer risk in humans and other mammals. Because Se is used by certain microbial species which contain selenoproteins, and because hind gut microfloral composition is linked to cancer development, we proposed that supranutritional Se could reduce tumorigenisis by af...

  1. Edge detection of red hind grouper vocalizations in the littorals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Cameron A.; Beaujean, Pierre-Philippe

    2016-05-01

    Littoral regions typically present to passive sensors as a high noise acoustic environment, particularly with respect to port and harbor regions where tidal variation, often characterized as pink, mixes with reverberation from on-shore business and commercial shipping, often characterized as white. Some fish in these regions, in particular epiphenalius Guttatus or more commonly the red hind grouper, emit relatively narrowband tones in low frequencies to communicate with other fish in such regions. The impact of anthropogenic noise sources on the red Hind and other fish is a topical area of interest for wildlife fisheries, private sportsmen and military offices that is not considered here; the fact that fish species continue to populate and communicate in these regions in the presence of high noise content lends some study to the signal content and modeling of a potential biologically inspired receiver structure.

  2. 5-AZA-2'-DEOXYCYTIDINE INDUCED CYTOTOXICITY AND LONG BONE REDUCTION DEFECTS IN THE MURINE LIMB

    EPA Science Inventory

    The antineoplastic drug 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (dAZA) is a DNA hypomethylating agent that can be used to induce hind limb phocomelia in the offspring of CD-1 Swiss Webster mice. Previously, our laboratory investigated the possibility that dAZA induced alterations in gene express...

  3. Hind Right Approach Pancreaticoduodenectomy: From Skill to Indications

    PubMed Central

    Georgescu, Stefan; Ursulescu, Corina

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pancreaticoduodenectomy is the potentially curative treatment for malignant and several benign conditions of the pancreatic head and periampullary region. While performing pancreaticoduodenectomy, early neck division may be impossible or inadequate in case of hepatic artery anatomic variants, suspected involvement of the superior mesenteric vessels, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, and pancreatic head bleeding pseudoaneurysm. Our work aims to highlight a particular hind right approach pancreaticoduodenectomy in selected indications and assess the preliminary results. Methods. We describe our early hind right approach to the retropancreatic vasculature during pancreaticoduodenectomy by mesopancreas dissection before any pancreatic or digestive transection. Results. We used this approach in 52 patients. Thirty-two had hepatic artery anatomic variant and 2 had bleeding pancreatic head pseudoaneurysm. The hepatic artery variant was preserved in all cases out of 2 in which arterial reconstruction was performed. In nine patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms the pancreaticoduodenectomy was extended to the body in 6 and totalized in 3 patients. Seven patients with adenocarcinoma involving the portomesenteric axis required venous resection and reconstruction. Conclusions. Early hind right approach is advocated in selected cases of pancreaticoduodenectomy to improve locoregional vascular control and determine, safely and early, whether there is mesopancreas involvement. PMID:25221601

  4. Propulsive forces of mudskipper fins and salamander limbs during terrestrial locomotion: implications for the invasion of land.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Sandy M; Blob, Richard W

    2013-08-01

    The invasion of land was a pivotal event in vertebrate evolution that was associated with major appendicular modifications. Although fossils indicate that the evolution of fundamentally limb-like appendages likely occurred in aquatic environments, the functional consequences of using early digited limbs, rather than fins, for terrestrial propulsion have had little empirical investigation. Paleontological and experimental analyses both have led to the proposal of an early origin of "hind limb-driven" locomotion among tetrapods or their ancestors. However, the retention of a pectoral appendage that had already developed terrestrial adaptations has been proposed for some taxa, and few data are available from extant functional models that can provide a foundation for evaluating the relative contributions of pectoral and pelvic appendages to terrestrial support among early stem tetrapods. To examine these aspects of vertebrate locomotor evolution during the invasion of land, we measured three-dimensional ground reaction forces (GRFs) produced by isolated pectoral fins of mudskipper fishes (Periophthalmus barbarus) during terrestrial crutching, and compared these to isolated walking footfalls by the forelimbs and hind limbs of tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum), a species with subequally-sized limbs that facilitate comparisons to early tetrapods. Pectoral appendages of salamanders and mudskippers exhibited numerous differences in GRFs. Compared with salamander forelimbs, isolated fins of mudskippers bear lower vertical magnitudes of GRFs (as a proportion of body weight), and had GRFs that were oriented more medially. Comparing the salamanders' forelimbs and hind limbs, although the peak net GRF occurs later in stance for the forelimb, both limbs experience nearly identical mediolateral and vertical components of GRF, suggesting comparable contributions to support. Thus, forelimbs could also have played a significant locomotor role among basal tetrapods that had limbs

  5. A small-scale H-alpha eruption in the north polar limb of the Sun observed by New Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.-H.; Park, Y.-D.; Bong, S.-Ch.; Cho, K.-S.; Chae, J.

    2010-12-01

    The 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) is the recently constructed world's largest optical solar telescope on the ground. Up to date it has been partly operated, i.e., observations that have been made at Nasmyth focus only without adaptive optic (AO) system. The AO system is planned to be installed this summer. Using the NST, we have observed the north polar limb in H-alpha line center wavelength on 2009 August 26. A remarkable H-alpha eruption was observed from 18:20 UT to 18:45 UT with a relatively slower speed of about 10 km/s in its early stage. The eruption was then slightly accelerated up to 20-30 km/s and appeared to be deflected along the pre-existing magnetic field. The eruption also showed several interesting characteristics such as bifurcation, rotation, horizontal oscillation, and direction and thickness changes of its structure during its evolution. In this talk, we report on the observational properties of the small-scale eruption observed by the NST and discuss their implications for magnetic reconnection.

  6. How well can interannual to decadal-scale variability in stratospheric ozone and water vapor be quantified using limb-based satellite measurements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. M.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Hurst, D. F.; Hassler, B.; Read, W. G.

    2015-12-01

    Vertical profiles of ozone and humidity from the upper troposphere to stratosphere have been retrieved from a number of limb sounding and solar occultation satellite instruments since the 1980's. In particular, measurements from the SAGE instruments, UARS MLS, UARS HALOE, and most recently Aura MLS, have provided overlapping data since 1984. In order to quantify interannual- to decadal-scale variability in water vapor and ozone, it is necessary to have a uniform and homogenous record over the period of interest. With this in mind, we merged the aforementioned satellite measurements to create the Stratospheric Water and Ozone Satellite Homogenized (SWOOSH) data set, which contains vertically resolved zonal-mean (2.5°) monthly-mean water vapor and ozone concentration at levels covering the stratosphere. In this presentation, we describe the process of merging the satellite data sets, which involves adjusting the data to a reference measurement using offsets calculated from coincident observations taken during instrument overlap periods. Uncertainties associated with individual measurement precision, geophysical variability, and the merging process are quantified and compared to one another. We show that while the SWOOSH data can be used to quantify interannual variability, quantifying long-term trends in SWOOSH is complicated by the various sources of uncertainty, as well as by potential drifts of individual instruments. The issue of satellite-derived trends is discussed in relation to the long-term record of balloon-borne frostpoint hygrometer measurements from Boulder, CO.

  7. A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab)

    PubMed Central

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C

    2010-01-01

    Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output. PMID

  8. A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab).

    PubMed

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C

    2010-07-01

    Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output.

  9. Hip Anatomy and Ontogeny of Lower Limb Musculature in Three Species of Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Jeremy J.; Searight, Katherine J.; Stump, Madeliene Atzeva; Kehrer, Matthew B.; Shanafelt, Colleen; Graham, Eric; Smith, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    The hip region is examined to determine what aspects of musculoskeletal anatomy are precociously developed in primate species with highly specialized modes of locomotion. Muscles of the hind limb were removed and weighed in each specimen, and the hip joint of selected specimens was studied in stained serial sections. No perinatal differences among species are evident, but in adults, the hip joint of Galago moholi (a leaping specialist) appears to have proportionally thick articular cartilage (relative to the subchondral plate) compared to two species of cheirogaleids. Muscle mass distribution in the hind limbs confirms previous observations that the quadriceps femoris muscle is especially large in Galago (in percent mass of the entire hind limb), while the hip region is smaller compared to the more quadrupedal cheirogaleids. Across age groups, the species with the least specialized locomotion as adults, Cheirogaleus medius, shows little or no change in proximal to distal percentage distribution of muscle mass. Galago has a larger percentage mass gain in the thigh. We suggest that muscle mass gain to specific limb segments may be a critical milestone for primates with extremely specialized modes of locomotion. PMID:22567295

  10. DUE AvalRS: Remote Sensing Derive Avalanche Inventory Data for Decision Support and Hind-Cast After Avalanche Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frauenfelder, Regula; Kronholm, Kalle; Solberg, Rune; Larsen, Siri Oyen; Salberg, Arnt-Borre; Larsen, Jan Otto; Bjordal, Heidi

    2010-12-01

    Each year, snow avalanches hit populated areas and parts of the transport network in the Norwegian mountain regions, leading to loss of lives and the damaging of buildings and infrastructure. We present the results of a feasibility study on the operation of a service providing the National Public Roads Administration (NPRA) with hind-cast avalanche inventory data on a local-to-regional scale during the course of the winter season, and as soon as possible after major avalanche events. We have explored the use of imagery from high-resolution and very-high-resolution space-borne satellites applying manual mapping and automated image segmentation.

  11. Observation of limb movements reduces phantom limb pain in bilateral amputees

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Monica L; Murphy, Ian C; Griffin, Sarah C; Alphonso, Aimee L; Hussey-Anderson, Lindsey; Hughes, Katie E; Weeks, Sharon R; Merritt, Victoria; Yetto, Joseph M; Pasquina, Paul F; Tsao, Jack W

    2014-01-01

    Background Mirror therapy has been demonstrated to reduce phantom limb pain (PLP) experienced by unilateral limb amputees. Research suggests that the visual feedback of observing a limb moving in the mirror is critical for therapeutic efficacy. Objective Since mirror therapy is not an option for bilateral lower limb amputees, the purpose of this study was to determine if direct observation of another person’s limbs could be used to relieve PLP. Methods We randomly assigned 20 bilateral lower limb amputees with PLP to visual observation (n = 11) or mental visualization (n = 9) treatment. Treatment consisted of seven discrete movements which were mimicked by the amputee’s phantom limbs moving while visually observing the experimenter’s limbs moving, or closing the eyes while visualizing and attempting the movements with their phantom limbs, respectively. Participants performed movements for 20 min daily for 1 month. Response to therapy was measured using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) and the McGill Short-Form Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). Results Direct visual observation significantly reduced PLP in both legs (P < 0.05). Amputees assigned to the mental visualization condition did not show a significant reduction in PLP. Interpretation Direct visual observation therapy is an inexpensive and effective treatment for PLP that is accessible to bilateral lower limb amputees. PMID:25493277

  12. Regeneration of limb joints in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jangwoo; Gardiner, David M

    2012-01-01

    In spite of numerous investigations of regenerating salamander limbs, little attention has been paid to the details of how joints are reformed. An understanding of the process and mechanisms of joint regeneration in this model system for tetrapod limb regeneration would provide insights into developing novel therapies for inducing joint regeneration in humans. To this end, we have used the axolotl (Mexican Salamander) model of limb regeneration to describe the morphology and the expression patterns of marker genes during joint regeneration in response to limb amputation. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the mechanisms of joint formation whether it be development or regeneration are conserved. We also have determined that defects in the epiphyseal region of both forelimbs and hind limbs in the axolotl are regenerated only when the defect is small. As is the case with defects in the diaphysis, there is a critical size above which the endogenous regenerative response is not sufficient to regenerate the joint. This non-regenerative response in an animal that has the ability to regenerate perfectly provides the opportunity to screen for the signaling pathways to induce regeneration of articular cartilage and joints.

  13. A comparative study of trabecular bone mass distribution in cursorial and non-cursorial limb joints.

    PubMed

    Chirchir, Habiba

    2015-05-01

    Skeletal design among cursorial animals is a compromise between a stable body that can withstand locomotor stress and a light design that is energetically inexpensive to grow, maintain, and move. Cursors have been hypothesized to reduce distal musculoskeletal mass to maintain a balance between safety and energetic cost due to an exponential increase in energetic demand observed during the oscillation of the distal limb. Additionally, experimental research shows that the cortical bone in distal limbs experiences higher strains and remodeling rates, apparently maintaining lower mass at the expense of a smaller safety factor. This study tests the hypothesis that the trabecular bone mass in the distal limb epiphyses of cursors is relatively lower than that in the proximal limb epiphyses to minimize the energetic cost of moving the limb. This study utilized peripheral quantitative computed tomography scanning to measure the trabecular mass in the lower and upper limb epiphyses of hominids, cercopithecines, and felids that are considered cursorial and non-cursorial. One-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc corrections was used to test for significant differences in trabecular mass across limb epiphyses. The results indicate that overall, both cursors and non-cursors exhibit varied trabecular mass in limb epiphyses and, in certain instances, conform to a proximal-distal decrease in mass irrespective of cursoriality. Specifically, hominid and cercopithecine hind limb epiphyses exhibit a proximal-distal decrease in mass irrespective of cursorial adaptations. These results suggest that cursorial mammals employ other energy saving mechanisms to minimize energy costs during running.

  14. Accuracy and Precision of Equine Gait Event Detection during Walking with Limb and Trunk Mounted Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Emil; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Pfau, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    The increased variations of temporal gait events when pathology is present are good candidate features for objective diagnostic tests. We hypothesised that the gait events hoof-on/off and stance can be detected accurately and precisely using features from trunk and distal limb-mounted Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). Four IMUs were mounted on the distal limb and five IMUs were attached to the skin over the dorsal spinous processes at the withers, fourth lumbar vertebrae and sacrum as well as left and right tuber coxae. IMU data were synchronised to a force plate array and a motion capture system. Accuracy (bias) and precision (SD of bias) was calculated to compare force plate and IMU timings for gait events. Data were collected from seven horses. One hundred and twenty three (123) front limb steps were analysed; hoof-on was detected with a bias (SD) of −7 (23) ms, hoof-off with 0.7 (37) ms and front limb stance with −0.02 (37) ms. A total of 119 hind limb steps were analysed; hoof-on was found with a bias (SD) of −4 (25) ms, hoof-off with 6 (21) ms and hind limb stance with 0.2 (28) ms. IMUs mounted on the distal limbs and sacrum can detect gait events accurately and precisely. PMID:22969392

  15. Critical Limb Ischemia in Association with Charcot Neuroarthropathy: Complex Endovascular Therapy for Limb Salvage

    SciTech Connect

    Palena, Luis Mariano; Brocco, Enrico; Manzi, Marco

    2013-05-09

    Charcot neuroarthropathy is a low-incidence complication of diabetic foot and is associated with ankle and hind foot deformity. Patients who have not developed deep ulcers are managed with offloading and supportive bracing or orthopedic arthrodesis. In patients who have developed ulcers and severe ankle instability and deformity, below-the-knee amputation is often indicated, especially when deformity and cutaneous involvement result in osteomyelitis. Ischemic association has not been described but can be present as a part of peripheral arterial disease in the diabetic population. In this extreme and advanced stage of combined neuroischemic diabetic foot disease, revascularization strategies can support surgical and orthopedic therapy, thus preventing osteomyelitis and leading to limb and foot salvage.

  16. Dependence of gait pattern on the type of coupling between hind- and forelimb generators: modelling study.

    PubMed

    Zmysłowski, W; Kasicki, S

    1982-01-01

    Dependence of gait pattern on the way of possible coupling between fore and hindlimb girdles was investigated. This dependence was analysed using the analog model of neuronal net of spinal generator. Both nets (i.e., for fore and hind girdles) could be synchronized by any coupling between the executive and intrinsic elements. However, only few of them assured generation of patterns corresponding to physiological gaits. Patterns corresponding to walk and trot were obtained with inhibitory connections from hind intrinsic elements to fore executive ones. Pace was obtained at the coupling connections directed from hind executive elements to fore ones. To obtain gallop it was necessary to couple fore executive elements with hind ones by inhibitory connections.

  17. Ontogenetic changes in limb bone structural proportions in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei).

    PubMed

    Ruff, Christopher B; Burgess, M Loring; Bromage, Timothy G; Mudakikwa, Antoine; McFarlin, Shannon C

    2013-12-01

    Behavioral studies indicate that adult mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei) are the most terrestrial of all nonhuman hominoids, but that infant mountain gorillas are much more arboreal. Here we examine ontogenetic changes in diaphyseal strength and length of the femur, tibia, humerus, radius, and ulna in 30 Virunga mountain gorillas, including 18 immature specimens and 12 adults. Comparisons are also made with 14 adult western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), which are known to be more arboreal than adult mountain gorillas. Infant mountain gorillas have significantly stronger forelimbs relative to hind limbs than older juveniles and adults, but are nonsignificantly different from western lowland gorilla adults. The change in inter-limb strength proportions is abrupt at about two years of age, corresponding to the documented transition to committed terrestrial quadrupedalism in mountain gorillas. The one exception is the ulna, which shows a gradual increase in strength relative to the radius and other long bones during development, possibly corresponding to the gradual adoption of stereotypical fully pronated knuckle-walking in older juvenile gorillas. Inter-limb bone length proportions show a contrasting developmental pattern, with hind limb/forelimb length declining rapidly from birth to five months of age, and then showing no consistent change through adulthood. The very early change in length proportions, prior to significant independent locomotion, may be related to the need for relatively long forelimbs for climbing in a large-bodied hominoid. Virunga mountain gorilla older juveniles and adults have equal or longer forelimb relative to hind limb bones than western lowland adults. These findings indicate that both ontogenetically and among closely related species of Gorilla, long bone strength proportions better reflect actual locomotor behavior than bone length proportions.

  18. Passive exercise of the hind limbs after complete thoracic transection of the spinal cord promotes cortical reorganization.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Alessandro; Foffani, Guglielmo; Knudsen, Eric B; Shumsky, Jed; Moxon, Karen A

    2013-01-01

    Physical exercise promotes neural plasticity in the brain of healthy subjects and modulates pathophysiological neural plasticity after sensorimotor loss, but the mechanisms of this action are not fully understood. After spinal cord injury, cortical reorganization can be maximized by exercising the non-affected body or the residual functions of the affected body. However, exercise per se also produces systemic changes - such as increased cardiovascular fitness, improved circulation and neuroendocrine changes - that have a great impact on brain function and plasticity. It is therefore possible that passive exercise therapies typically applied below the level of the lesion in patients with spinal cord injury could put the brain in a more plastic state and promote cortical reorganization. To directly test this hypothesis, we applied passive hindlimb bike exercise after complete thoracic transection of the spinal cord in adult rats. Using western blot analysis, we found that the level of proteins associated with plasticity - specifically ADCY1 and BDNF - increased in the somatosensory cortex of transected animals that received passive bike exercise compared to transected animals that received sham exercise. Using electrophysiological techniques, we then verified that neurons in the deafferented hindlimb cortex increased their responsiveness to tactile stimuli delivered to the forelimb in transected animals that received passive bike exercise compared to transected animals that received sham exercise. Passive exercise below the level of the lesion, therefore, promotes cortical reorganization after spinal cord injury, uncovering a brain-body interaction that does not rely on intact sensorimotor pathways connecting the exercised body parts and the brain. PMID:23349859

  19. Hind Limb Unloading Model Alters Nuclear Factor kappa B and Activator Protein-1 Signaling in Mouse Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Govindarajan; Vani, Vani; Renard, Renard; Vera, Vera; Wilosn, Wilosn; Ramesh, Govindarajan

    Microgravity induces inflammatory response and also modulates immune functions, which may increase oxidative stress. Exposure to the microgravity environment induces adverse neurological effects. However, there is little research exploring the etiology of neurological effects of exposure to this environment. To explore this area we evaluated changes in Nuclear Factor kappa B, Activator Protein 1, MAPP kinase and N terminal c-Jun kinase in mouse brain exposed to a simulated microgravity environment using the hindlimb unloading model. BALB/c male mice were randomly assigned to hindlimb unloading group (n=12) and control group (n=12) to simulate a microgravity environment, for 7 days. Changes observed in NF-κB, AP- 1 DNA binding, MAPKK and N terminal c-Jun kinase were measured using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and western blot analysis and compared to unexposed brain regions. Hindlimb unloading exposed mice showed significant increases in generated NF-κB, AP-1, MAPKK and Kinase in all regions of the brain exposed to hindlimb unloading as compared to the control brain regions. Results suggest that exposure to simulated microgravity can induce expression of certain transcription factors and protein kinases. This work was supported by funding from NASA NCC 9-165. 504b030414000600080000002100828abc13fa0000001c020000130000005b436f6e74656e745f54797065735d2e78

  20. Three-dimensional simulations of near-surface convection in main-sequence stars. IV. Effect of small-scale magnetic flux concentrations on centre-to-limb variation and spectral lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeck, B.; Schüssler, M.; Cameron, R. H.; Reiners, A.

    2015-09-01

    Context. Magnetic fields affect the local structure of the photosphere of stars. They can considerably influence the radiative properties near the optical surface, flow velocities, and the temperature and pressure profiles. This has an impact on observables such as limb darkening and spectral line profiles. Aims: We aim at understanding qualitatively the influence of small magnetic flux concentrations in unipolar plage regions on the centre-to-limb variation of the intensity and its contrast and on the shape of spectral line profiles in cool main-sequence stars. Methods: We analyse the bolometric and continuum intensity and its angular dependence of 24 radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the near-surface layers of main-sequence stars with six different sets of stellar parameters (spectral types F to early M) and four different average magnetic field strengths (including the non-magnetic case). We also calculated disc-integrated profiles of three spectral lines. Results: The small magnetic flux concentrations formed in the magnetic runs of simulations have a considerable impact on the intensity and its centre-to-limb variation. In some cases, the difference in limb darkening between magnetic and non-magnetic runs is larger than the difference between the spectral types. Spectral lines are not only broadened owing to the Zeeman effect, but are also strongly affected by the modified thermodynamical structure and flow patterns. This indirect magnetic impact on the line profiles is often bigger than that of the Zeeman effect. Conclusions: The effects of the magnetic field on the radiation leaving the star can be considerable and is not restricted to spectral line broadening and polarisation by the Zeeman effect. The inhomogeneous structure of the magnetic field on small length scales and its impact on (and spatial correlation with) the local thermodynamical structure and the flow field near the surface influence the measurement of the global field properties

  1. Acute modification of biomechanical properties of the bone-ligament insertion to rat limb unweighting.

    PubMed

    Vanderby, R; Vailas, A C; Graf, B K; Thielke, R J; Ulm, M J; Kohles, S S; Kunz, D N

    1990-05-01

    We investigated the acute adaptation of the rat femur-medial collateral ligament-tibia (FMT) complex to 7 days of limb unweighting by means of a hind-limb suspension protocol. Male, young adult, Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either control or suspended groups. Rats deprived of hind limb-to-ground contact forces had a 42% decrease in soleus muscle mass compared with the control group. Medial collateral ligament (MCL) length and cross-sectional area were measured, and each FMT complex was tension tested to failure. All failed at their tibia-MCL insertion. The ultimate load in the FMT and the peak Kirchhoff stress in the MCL (occurring immediately before insertion site failure) were significantly reduced in the suspended group. The suspended MCLs were 9.7% larger in area and 5.7% shorter in length than the controls under the same preload (0.25 N). We found no significant differences between the control and suspended MCLs in Green strain, stretch, or deformation immediately before insertion site failure, nor did we find a significant difference in the MCL tangent modulus. This study indicates that even acute periods of limb unweighting can structurally compromise bone-ligament insertions. Further, this study implies that the adaptations responsible for this structural compromise must involve acute changes in the intrinsic zone (or zones) of the bone-ligament insertion.

  2. LIMB demonstration project extension

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-21

    The purpose of the DOE limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension is to extend the data base on LIMB technology and to expand DOE's list of Clean Coal Technologies by demonstrating the Coolside process as part of the project. The main objectives of this project are: to demonstrate the general applicability of LIMB technology by testing 3 coals and 4 sorbents (total of 12 coal/sorbent combinations) at the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant; and to demonstrate that Coolside is a viable technology for improving precipitator performance and reducing sulfur dioxide emissions while acceptable operability is maintained. Progress is reported. 3 figs.

  3. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiyu; Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems. PMID:27547607

  4. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Tong, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Summary The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems. PMID:27547607

  5. Analysis of the HindIII-catalyzed reaction by time-resolved crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Tomoki; Watanabe, Nobuhisa

    2015-02-01

    A time-resolved study using the freeze-trap method elucidates the mechanism of the DNA-cleaving reaction of HindIII. In order to investigate the mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by HindIII, structures of HindIII–DNA complexes with varying durations of soaking time in cryoprotectant buffer containing manganese ions were determined by the freeze-trap method. In the crystal structures of the complexes obtained after soaking for a longer duration, two manganese ions, indicated by relatively higher electron density, are clearly observed at the two metal ion-binding sites in the active site of HindIII. The increase in the electron density of the two metal-ion peaks followed distinct pathways with increasing soaking times, suggesting variation in the binding rate constant for the two metal sites. DNA cleavage is observed when the second manganese ion appears, suggesting that HindIII uses the two-metal-ion mechanism, or alternatively that its reactivity is enhanced by the binding of the second metal ion. In addition, conformational change in a loop near the active site accompanies the catalytic reaction.

  6. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiyu; Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems.

  7. The Hydraulic Mechanism of the Unfolding of Hind Wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (Order: Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiyu; Ling, Mingze; Wu, Wei; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin

    2014-01-01

    In most beetles, the hind wings are thin and fragile; when at rest, they are held over the back of the beetle. When the hind wing unfolds, it provides the necessary aerodynamic forces for flight. In this paper, we investigate the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process of the hind wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (Oder: Coleoptera). The wing unfolding process of Dorcus titanus platymelus was examined using high speed camera sequences (400 frames/s), and the hydraulic pressure in the veins was measured with a biological pressure sensor and dynamic signal acquisition and analysis (DSA) during the expansion process. We found that the total time for the release of hydraulic pressure during wing folding is longer than the time required for unfolding. The pressure is proportional to the length of the wings and the body mass of the beetle. A retinal camera was used to investigate the fluid direction. We found that the peak pressures correspond to two main cross-folding joint expansions in the hind wing. These observations strongly suggest that blood pressure facilitates the extension of hind wings during unfolding. PMID:24722572

  8. The hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding of hind wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (order: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiyu; Ling, Mingze; Wu, Wei; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin

    2014-01-01

    In most beetles, the hind wings are thin and fragile; when at rest, they are held over the back of the beetle. When the hind wing unfolds, it provides the necessary aerodynamic forces for flight. In this paper, we investigate the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process of the hind wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (Oder: Coleoptera). The wing unfolding process of Dorcus titanus platymelus was examined using high speed camera sequences (400 frames/s), and the hydraulic pressure in the veins was measured with a biological pressure sensor and dynamic signal acquisition and analysis (DSA) during the expansion process. We found that the total time for the release of hydraulic pressure during wing folding is longer than the time required for unfolding. The pressure is proportional to the length of the wings and the body mass of the beetle. A retinal camera was used to investigate the fluid direction. We found that the peak pressures correspond to two main cross-folding joint expansions in the hind wing. These observations strongly suggest that blood pressure facilitates the extension of hind wings during unfolding. PMID:24722572

  9. Out on a Limb: Investigating the Anatomy of Tree Limbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Edward L.

    2008-01-01

    The author presents several upper elementary science activities involving tree limbs that were collected after severe weather conditions. The activities involved 3rd-grade students arranging tree limb pieces in the correct order from the trunk to the tip of the limb, measuring the pieces, determining the age of a tree limb by its rings,…

  10. Effect of upper limb deformities on gross motor and upper limb functions in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Sook; Sim, Eun Geol; Rha, Dong-Wook

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the nature and extent of upper limb deformities via the use of various classifications, and to analyze the relationship between upper limb deformities and gross motor or upper limb functionality levels. Upper extremity data were collected from 234 children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) who were admitted to the university hospital for intensive rehabilitation. Upper limb deformities were classified according to the Zancolli classification for finger and wrist extension ability, the Gshwind and Tonkin classification for supination ability, and the House classification for thumb-in-palm deformity. Digital deformity was also classified. Upper limb function was assessed using the Upper Extremity Rating Scale (UERS) and the Upper Limb Physician's Rating Scale (ULPRS). Gross motor function was assessed using the Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS). Among the 234 children observed, 70.5% had a limitation in forearm supination, and 62.8% had problems with wrist and finger extension in at least one limb. Thumb-in-palm deformity of at least one hand was found in 47.0% of patients. Swan neck deformity was the most common finger deformity. Upper limb functional measures, the ULPRS and the UERS, significantly correlated with the degree of upper limb deformity, as assessed by the Gschwind and Tonkin, Zancolli, and House classifications. Further, the degree of upper limb deformity was significantly related to the GMFCS level in children with bilateral CP, but not in children with unilateral CP. Limitation of forearm supination was the most common upper limb deformity in children with spastic CP. The degree of upper limb deformity significantly affected upper limb function in these children. PMID:21821392

  11. Upper limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    Bogucki, A

    2001-04-30

    This article discusses the technical and medical difficulties involved in managing prostheses of the upper limb. The level of amputation governs the type of prosthesis construction chosen, but does not affect emotional acceptance. The factors determining therapeutic success include the quality of the stump, the skill involved in prosthetic socket fabrication, and the proper selection of modular components, as well as good rehabilitation and professional care for the patient with amputated upper limb. PMID:17987000

  12. Hox gene expression leads to differential hind leg development between honeybee castes.

    PubMed

    Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Barchuk, Angel Roberto; Moda, Livia Maria; Simoes, Zila Luz Paulino

    2012-01-01

    Beyond the physiological and behavioural, differences in appendage morphology between the workers and queens of Apis mellifera are pre-eminent. The hind legs of workers, which are highly specialized pollinators, deserve special attention. The hind tibia of worker has an expanded bristle-free region used for carrying pollen and propolis, the corbicula. In queens this structure is absent. Although the morphological differences are well characterized, the genetic inputs driving the development of this alternative morphology remain unknown. Leg phenotype determination takes place between the fourth and fifth larval instar and herein we show that the morphogenesis is completed at brown-eyed pupa. Using results from the hybridization of whole genome-based oligonucleotide arrays with RNA samples from hind leg imaginal discs of pre-pupal honeybees of both castes we present a list of 200 differentially expressed genes. Notably, there are castes preferentially expressed cuticular protein genes and members of the P450 family. We also provide results of qPCR analyses determining the developmental transcription profiles of eight selected genes, including abdominal-A, distal-less and ultrabithorax (Ubx), whose roles in leg development have been previously demonstrated in other insect models. Ubx expression in workers hind leg is approximately 25 times higher than in queens. Finally, immunohistochemistry assays show that Ubx localization during hind leg development resembles the bristles localization in the tibia/basitarsus of the adult legs in both castes. Our data strongly indicate that the development of the hind legs diphenism characteristic of this corbiculate species is driven by a set of caste-preferentially expressed genes, such as those encoding cuticular protein genes, P450 and Hox proteins, in response to the naturally different diets offered to honeybees during the larval period.

  13. Hox Gene Expression Leads to Differential Hind Leg Development between Honeybee Castes

    PubMed Central

    Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Barchuk, Angel Roberto; Moda, Livia Maria; Simoes, Zila Luz Paulino

    2012-01-01

    Beyond the physiological and behavioural, differences in appendage morphology between the workers and queens of Apis mellifera are pre-eminent. The hind legs of workers, which are highly specialized pollinators, deserve special attention. The hind tibia of worker has an expanded bristle-free region used for carrying pollen and propolis, the corbicula. In queens this structure is absent. Although the morphological differences are well characterized, the genetic inputs driving the development of this alternative morphology remain unknown. Leg phenotype determination takes place between the fourth and fifth larval instar and herein we show that the morphogenesis is completed at brown-eyed pupa. Using results from the hybridization of whole genome-based oligonucleotide arrays with RNA samples from hind leg imaginal discs of pre-pupal honeybees of both castes we present a list of 200 differentially expressed genes. Notably, there are castes preferentially expressed cuticular protein genes and members of the P450 family. We also provide results of qPCR analyses determining the developmental transcription profiles of eight selected genes, including abdominal-A, distal-less and ultrabithorax (Ubx), whose roles in leg development have been previously demonstrated in other insect models. Ubx expression in workers hind leg is approximately 25 times higher than in queens. Finally, immunohistochemistry assays show that Ubx localization during hind leg development resembles the bristles localization in the tibia/basitarsus of the adult legs in both castes. Our data strongly indicate that the development of the hind legs diphenism characteristic of this corbiculate species is driven by a set of caste-preferentially expressed genes, such as those encoding cuticular protein genes, P450 and Hox proteins, in response to the naturally different diets offered to honeybees during the larval period. PMID:22848371

  14. Homology, limbs, and genitalia.

    PubMed

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2002-01-01

    Similarities in genetic control between the main body axis and its appendages have been generally explained in terms of genetic co-option. In particular, arthropod and vertebrate appendages have been explained to invoke a common ancestor already provided with patterned body outgrowths or independent recruitment in limb patterning of genes or genetic cassettes originally used for purposes other than axis patterning. An alternative explanation is that body appendages, including genitalia, are evolutionarily divergent duplicates (paramorphs) of the main body axis. However, are all metazoan limbs and genitalia homologous? The concept of body appendages as paramorphs of the main body axis eliminates the requirement for the last common ancestor of limb-bearing animals to have been provided with limbs. Moreover, the possibility for an animal to express complex organs ectopically demonstrates that positional and special homology may be ontogenetically and evolutionarily uncoupled. To assess the homology of animal genitalia, we need to take into account three different sets of mechanisms, all contributing to their positional and/or special homology and respectively involved (1) in the patterning of themain body axis, (2) in axis duplication, followed by limb patterning mechanisms diverging away from those still patterning the main body axis (axis paramorphism), and (3) in controlling the specification of sexual/genital features, which often, but not necessarily, come into play by modifying already developed and patterned body appendages. This analysis demonstrates that a combinatorial approach to homology helps disentangling phylogenetic and ontogenetic layers of homology.

  15. 78 FR 54512 - Illinois Central Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Hinds County, Miss.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board Illinois Central Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Hinds County... part 1152 subpart F--Exempt Abandonments to abandon approximately 0.16 miles of rail line between... exemption, any employee adversely affected by the abandonment shall be protected under Oregon Short...

  16. Analysis of the HindIII-catalyzed reaction by time-resolved crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Tomoki; Watanabe, Nobuhisa

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by HindIII, structures of HindIII–DNA complexes with varying durations of soaking time in cryoprotectant buffer containing manganese ions were determined by the freeze-trap method. In the crystal structures of the complexes obtained after soaking for a longer duration, two manganese ions, indicated by relatively higher electron density, are clearly observed at the two metal ion-binding sites in the active site of HindIII. The increase in the electron density of the two metal-ion peaks followed distinct pathways with increasing soaking times, suggesting variation in the binding rate constant for the two metal sites. DNA cleavage is observed when the second manganese ion appears, suggesting that HindIII uses the two-metal-ion mechanism, or alternatively that its reactivity is enhanced by the binding of the second metal ion. In addition, conformational change in a loop near the active site accompanies the catalytic reaction. PMID:25664735

  17. Sequence and transcriptional analysis of the vaccinia virus HindIII I fragment.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J F; Stunnenberg, H G

    1988-06-01

    The complete sequence of the vaccinia virus HindIII I fragment, which is composed of 6,498 base pairs, encodes six complete and two incomplete open reading frames (ORFs). Computer analysis revealed an amino acid sequence homology between ORF I 4 and the large subunit of the ribonucleotide reductase complex. The two small polypeptides derived from ORFs I 2 and I 5, with molecular weights of 8,500 and 8,700, respectively, have a very high hydrophobic amino acid sequence composition. S1 analysis revealed that ORF I 4 is expressed at early stages of infection, ORFs I 1, I 2, I 5, and I 7 are expressed in the late phase of infection, and ORF I 3 is constitutively expressed. Screening a vaccinia virus genomic library revealed a large vaccinia virus insert overlapping the HindIII I and O fragments which contains a previously undetected HindIII P fragment of approximately 300 base pairs. S1 analysis revealed an early (O1) and a late (O2) start site of transcription initiation located within the HindIII O fragment.

  18. Limb salvage surgery.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Dinesh

    2013-05-01

    The threat of lower limb loss is seen commonly in severe crush injury, cancer ablation, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease and neuropathy. The primary goal of limb salvage is to restore and maintain stability and ambulation. Reconstructive strategies differ in each condition such as: Meticulous debridement and early coverage in trauma, replacing lost functional units in cancer ablation, improving vascularity in ischaemic leg and providing stable walking surface for trophic ulcer. The decision to salvage the critically injured limb is multifactorial and should be individualised along with laid down definitive indications. Early cover remains the standard of care, delayed wound coverage not necessarily affect the final outcome. Limb salvage is more cost-effective than amputations in a long run. Limb salvage is the choice of procedure over amputation in 95% of limb sarcoma without affecting the survival. Compound flaps with different tissue components, skeletal reconstruction; tendon transfer/reconstruction helps to restore function. Adjuvant radiation alters tissue characters and calls for modification in reconstructive plan. Neuropathic ulcers are wide and deep often complicated by osteomyelitis. Free flap reconstruction aids in faster healing and provides superior surface for offloading. Diabetic wounds are primarily due to neuropathy and leads to six-fold increase in ulcerations. Control of infections, aggressive debridement and vascular cover are the mainstay of management. Endovascular procedures are gaining importance and have reduced extent of surgery and increased amputation free survival period. Though the standard approach remains utilising best option in the reconstruction ladder, the recent trend shows running down the ladder of reconstruction with newer reliable local flaps and negative wound pressure therapy.

  19. Limb salvage surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    The threat of lower limb loss is seen commonly in severe crush injury, cancer ablation, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease and neuropathy. The primary goal of limb salvage is to restore and maintain stability and ambulation. Reconstructive strategies differ in each condition such as: Meticulous debridement and early coverage in trauma, replacing lost functional units in cancer ablation, improving vascularity in ischaemic leg and providing stable walking surface for trophic ulcer. The decision to salvage the critically injured limb is multifactorial and should be individualised along with laid down definitive indications. Early cover remains the standard of care, delayed wound coverage not necessarily affect the final outcome. Limb salvage is more cost-effective than amputations in a long run. Limb salvage is the choice of procedure over amputation in 95% of limb sarcoma without affecting the survival. Compound flaps with different tissue components, skeletal reconstruction; tendon transfer/reconstruction helps to restore function. Adjuvant radiation alters tissue characters and calls for modification in reconstructive plan. Neuropathic ulcers are wide and deep often complicated by osteomyelitis. Free flap reconstruction aids in faster healing and provides superior surface for offloading. Diabetic wounds are primarily due to neuropathy and leads to six-fold increase in ulcerations. Control of infections, aggressive debridement and vascular cover are the mainstay of management. Endovascular procedures are gaining importance and have reduced extent of surgery and increased amputation free survival period. Though the standard approach remains utilising best option in the reconstruction ladder, the recent trend shows running down the ladder of reconstruction with newer reliable local flaps and negative wound pressure therapy. PMID:24501463

  20. Production of prostaglandins in placentae and corpus luteum in pregnant hinds of red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Korzekwa, A J; Szczepańska, A; Bogdaszewski, M; Nadolski, P; Malż, P; Giżejewski, Z

    2016-03-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are synthesized from arachidonic acid by prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2) and specific terminal PG synthases such as PGES and PGFS. The role of PGs in the reproductive processes of domestic ruminants is well recognized, whereas in cervidae, it is almost unknown, although it is noteworthy because some species of this family are valued in meat production and trophies. The aim of this study was to determine an effective marker of pregnancy and investigate the production and secretion of PGs in placenta and CL tissue in pregnancy. In the preliminary experiment, the levels of progesterone and 17-β estradiol (RIA; N = 14 divided into seven pregnant and seven nonpregnant hinds) were measured in the peripheral blood. In the main experiment, a comparison of messenger RNA (real-time polymerase chain reaction) and protein expression (Western blotting) of PTGS2, PGES, and PGFS, the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and PGF2α in the placentae and CL in pregnant hinds (aged 3-4 years, ca. 100 days of pregnancy, N = 6). In pregnant hinds, the level of progesterone in the blood was higher than that in nonpregnant hinds (P < 0.05), whereas the level of E2 was similar in all animals (P > 0.05). The highest messenger RNA expression of PTGS2, PGES, and PGFS was observed in the placentae than in the CL (P < 0.05). The protein expression of PTGS2 and PGES was elevated in the placentae compared with the CL (P < 0.05). The PGE2 output was the highest in cotyledonary tissue (P < 0.05). Pregnancy development in hinds around 100 days is regulated by arachidonic acid metabolites, especially PGE2 produced by the placentae, which production increases in pregnancy. Further studies are required to unravel the mechanisms involved in the regulation of PG and biosynthetic enzymes in uteroplacental and ovarian tissues during pregnancy in red deer females. PMID:26553568

  1. Artificial limb connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    Connection simplifies and eases donning and removing artificial limb; eliminates harnesses and clamps; and reduces skin pressures by allowing bone to carry all tensile and part of compressive loads between prosthesis and stump. Because connection is modular, it is easily modified to suit individual needs.

  2. Accessories to Limb Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Han, Yanchao; Poss, Kenneth D

    2016-05-23

    In a recent issue of Nature, Nacu et al. (2016) identified FGF and HH ligands as interacting molecular influences that are necessary and sufficient to induce the formation of supernumerary limbs from blastemal tissue in axolotl salamanders. PMID:27219058

  3. Differentiation of cartilaginous anlagen in entire embryonic mouse limbs cultured in a rotating bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montufar-Solis, D.; Oakley, C. R.; Jefferson, Y.; Duke, P. J.

    2003-10-01

    Mechanisms involved in development of the embryonic limb have remained the same throughout eons of genetic and environmental evolution under Earth gravity (lg). During the spaceflight era it has been of interest to explore the ancient theory that form of the skeleton develops in response to gravity, and that changes in gravitational forces can change the developmental pattern of the limb. This has been shown in vivo and in vitro, allowing the hypergravity of centrifugation and microgravity of space to be used as tools to increase our knowledge of limb development. In recapitulations of spaceflight experiments, premetatarsals were cultured in suspension in a bioreactor, and found to be shorter and less differentiated than those cultured in standard culture dishes. This study only measured length of the metatarsals, and did not account for possible changes due to the skeletal elements having a more in vivo 3D shape while in suspension vs. flattened tissues compressed by their own weight. A culture system with an outcome closer to in vivo and that supports growth of younger limb buds than traditional systems will allow studies of early Hox gene expression, and contribute to the understanding of very early stages of development. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if entire limb buds could be cultured in the bioreactor, and to compare the growth and differentiation with that of culturing in a culture dish system. Fore and hind limbs from E11-E13 ICR mouse embryos were cultured for six days, either in the bioreactor or in center-well organ culture dishes, fixed, and embedded for histology. E13 specimens grown in culture dishes were flat, while bioreactor culture specimens had a more in vivo-like 3D limb shape. Sections showed excellent cartilage differentiation in both culture systems, with more cell maturation, and hypertrophy in the specimens cultured in the bioreactor. Younger limb buds fused together during culture, so an additional set of El 1

  4. How spinalized rats can walk: biomechanics, cortex and hindlimb muscle scaling – implications for rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Giszter, Simon F; Hockensmith, Greg; Ramakrishnan, Arun; Udoekwere, Ubong Ime

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal spinalized (NST) rats can achieve autonomous weight supported locomotion never seen after adult injury. Mechanisms that support function in NST rats include increased importance of cortical trunk control, and altered biomechanical control strategies for stance and locomotion. Hindlimbs are isolated from perturbations in quiet stance and act in opposition to forelimbs in locomotion in NST rats. Control of roll and yaw of the hindlimbs is crucial in their locomotion. The biomechanics of the hind limbs of NST rats are also likely crucial. We present new data showing the whole leg musculature scales proportional to normal rat musculature in NST rats, regardless of function. This scaling is a prerequisite for the NST rats to most effectively use pattern generation mechanisms and motor patterns that are similar to those present in intact rats. Pattern generation may be built into the lumbar spinal cord by evolution and matched to the limb biomechanics, so preserved muscle scaling may be essential to the NST function observed. PMID:20536943

  5. Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) Mission: Science from Geostationary Orbit on-board a Commercial Communications Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastes, R.; Deaver, T.; Krywonos, A.; Lankton, M. R.; McClintock, W. E.; Pang, R.

    2011-12-01

    Geostationary orbits are ideal for many science investigations of the Earth system on global scales. These orbits allow continuous observations of the same geographic region, enabling spatial and temporal changes to be distinguished and eliminating the ambiguity inherent to observations from low Earth orbit (LEO). Just as observations from geostationary orbit have revolutionized our understanding of changes in the troposphere, they will dramatically improve our understanding of the space environment at higher altitudes. However, geostationary orbits are infrequently used for science missions because of high costs. Geostationary satellites are large, typically weighing tons. Consequently, devoting an entire satellite to a science mission requires a large financial commitment, both for the spacecraft itself and for sufficient science instrumentation to justify a dedicated spacecraft. Furthermore, the small number of geostationary satellites produced for scientific missions increases the costs of each satellite. For these reasons, it is attractive to consider flying scientific instruments on satellites operated by commercial companies, some of whom have fleets of ~40 satellites. However, scientists' lack of understanding of the capabilities of commercial spacecraft as well as commercial companies' concerns about risks to their primary mission have impeded the cooperation necessary for the shared use of a spacecraft. Working with a commercial partner, the GOLD mission has successfully overcome these issues. Our experience indicates that there are numerous benefits to flying on commercial communications satellites (e.g., it is possible to downlink large amounts of data) and the costs are low if the experimental requirements adequately match the capabilities and available resources of the host spacecraft. Consequently, affordable access to geostationary orbit aboard a communications satellite now appears possible for science payloads.

  6. Evolutionary patterns of hind wing morphology in dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).

    PubMed

    Bai, Ming; Beutel, Rolf G; Song, Ke-Qing; Liu, Wan-Gang; Malqin, Hinggan; Li, Sha; Hu, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2012-09-01

    The shape of wings can be a good predictor of adaptations to different selective pressures and the value of wing features in taxonomy and phylogeny has long been recognized. In our investigation of the hind wing evolution of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae) we use geometric morphometrics combined with a cladistic approach. The variations of entire hind wings and of three specific regions of 80 dung beetle species were investigated using 19 landmarks and outline data. Extensive evidence indicates that the wing as a whole and the three separate regions were under different selective pressures. The detailed evolutionary patterns of the three regions and the reconstruction of the ancestral forms were computed by mapping the geometric morphometrics data onto a tree based on a cladistic character analysis.

  7. Terrestrial Water Storage Variations from GRACE for the Validation of CMIP5 Coupled Climate Model Hind-Casts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liangjing; Dobslaw, Henryk; Dahle, Christoph; Thomas, Maik

    2013-04-01

    Land-atmosphere feedbacks are increasingly recognized as important drivers for multi-year climate variability. For example, water stored in the root-zone modifies surface albedo by determining vegetation grow, and ultimately limits the amount of water available for evapo-transpiration. Modern climate models therefore require a realistic representation of the terrestrial branch of the hydrological cycle in order to be able to reliably simulate such feedbacks. Temporal gravity field variations that are observed by the satellite mission GRACE for more than one decade now, provide quantitative information about changes in the terrestrially stored water. in this contribution, we derive basin-scale water mass anomalies from the recent release 05 of GRACE gravity field coefficients from GFZ Potsdam, augmented by degree-one coefficients obtained from a method suggested by Swenson et al. (2008). Correlated errors are removed using an anisotropic filter from Kusche (2007), and the impact of random noise is minimized using the spatiospectral localization method developed by Simons and Dahlen (2007). We use those estimates of terrestrial water storage anomalies to validate an ensemble of hind-casts performed with the MPI_ESM model of the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology on seasonal to interannual time-scales, and discuss where GRACE-type observations might contribute to further improvements of those types of coupled Earth System Models in the future.

  8. Selection for nutrients by red deer hinds feeding on a mixed forest edge.

    PubMed

    Verheyden-Tixier, Hélène; Renaud, Pierre-Cyril; Morellet, Nicolas; Jamot, Jacqueline; Besle, Jean-Michel; Dumont, Bertrand

    2008-06-01

    We studied the nutritional behaviour of hinds foraging on a mixed-forest edge by direct observation of their choices at each season and by measuring nutrient concentration in the plants. We compared nutrient concentrations in the observed diets with those in the total available vegetation, and with those of 1,000 randomly simulated diets in which we included only those plants that were actually eaten by the animal. Whether the available or the consumed feeds were used as the basis for comparisons had important consequences due to the presence of conifers and ferns, which were high in soluble sugars but were never eaten by the animals (potentially due to their toxicity). The selected diets were lower in sugars than the total available vegetation in summer, but were actually higher in sugars than the random diets generated from consumed forage species only. Hind diets contained more soluble sugars but not more protein than simulated diets in all seasons. Contrary to our prediction, anti-nutritional compounds (ADL and tannins) were avoided only in winter. Compared to simulated diets, hinds consumed more tannins in spring and summer and more ADL in summer and autumn. We suggest that this was a consequence of selection for soluble sugars, because the preferred plant species, which had high soluble sugar concentrations, also contained a large proportion of the anti-nutritional compounds eaten. In winter, the grass-dominated diets contained more fibre (NDF) and less ADL than the simulated diets, indicating that hinds orient their feeding towards digestible fibres. The switch from a browser to a grazer diet was related to a change in the availability of the nutrients, mainly soluble sugars. In our study, grasses contained more soluble sugars and proteins than deciduous browse during winter. This calls into question the dichotomy usually assumed in the literature between grass and browse in terms of nutrient content.

  9. Regeneration inducers in limb regeneration.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Akira; Mitogawa, Kazumasa; Makanae, Aki

    2015-08-01

    Limb regeneration ability, which can be observed in amphibians, has been investigated as a representative phenomenon of organ regeneration. Recently, an alternative experimental system called the accessory limb model was developed to investigate early regulation of amphibian limb regeneration. The accessory limb model contributed to identification of limb regeneration inducers in urodele amphibians. Furthermore, the accessory limb model may be applied to other species to explore universality of regeneration mechanisms. This review aims to connect the insights recently gained to emboss universality of regeneration mechanisms among species. The defined molecules (BMP7 (or2) + FGF2 + FGF8) can transform skin wound healing to organ (limb) regeneration responses. The same molecules can initiate regeneration responses in some species. PMID:26100345

  10. Sunrise, Earth Limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This sunrise scene (5.5S, 29.5E) was taken early in the morning, when the sun was still below the horizon and not yet illuminating the dark band of low level clouds on the Earth limb. Ranging from 13 to 18 km. above these low level clouds is a brown layer at the tropopause, an atmospheric temperature inversion which isolates the troposphere from the stratosphere and effectively concentrates particulates from both above and below this level.

  11. DNA sequence analysis of the Hind III M fragment from Chinese vaccine strain of vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, V J; Jin, Q; Jin, D Y; Hou, Y D

    1989-01-01

    The complete DNA sequence of the Hind III M fragment of vaccinia virus (VV) Tian Tan strain genome was determined by the dideoxynucleotide chain termination method. Three open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in the complementary strand of the sequence, comprised of 2218bp. Among them, ORF K1 initiates its transcription at -45 of the Hind III K fragment. The deduced peptide encoded by K1 contains 284 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 32.48 KDa. Its sequence is homologous to the host range protein of VV Copenhagen strain; the variation is only 2.46% at the amino acid level. ORF M2 could encode a peptide of 21.94 KDa with 196 amino acids. This gene was shown to be homologous to that of the 23 KDa peptide of herpes simplex virus type I. A non-coding region of 204bp located between K1 and M2 is rich in palindromic structures. ORF M1 extends its 3' terminus into the Hind III N fragment. Within the M fragment, M1 can only encode 212 amino acids. The major part of ORF M1 is very similar to the M portion of a possible alpha-amanitin resistance gene isolated from VV-WR strain. This work provides a molecular foundation in the construction of a new insertion vector for the preparation of a recombinant vaccinia virus to be used as a polyvalent live vaccine.

  12. Diversity of limb-bone safety factors for locomotion in terrestrial vertebrates: evolution and mixed chains.

    PubMed

    Blob, Richard W; Espinoza, Nora R; Butcher, Michael T; Lee, Andrew H; D'Amico, Angela R; Baig, Faraz; Sheffield, K Megan

    2014-12-01

    During locomotion over land, vertebrates' limb bones are exposed to loads. Like most biological structures, limb bones have a capacity to withstand greater loads than they usually experience, termed a safety factor (SF). How diverse are limb-bone SFs, and what factors correlate with such variation? We have examined these questions from two perspectives. First, we evaluated locomotor SF for the femur in diverse lineages, including salamanders, frogs, turtles, lizards, crocodilians, and marsupials (opossums). Comparisons with values for hind-limb elements in running birds and eutherian mammals indicate phylogenetic diversity in limb-bone SF. A high SF (∼7) is primitive for tetrapods, but low magnitudes of load and elevated strength of bones contribute to different degrees across lineages; moreover, birds and eutherians appear to have evolved lower SFs independently. Second, we tested the hypothesis that SFs would be similar across limb bones within a taxon by comparing data from the humerus and femur of alligators. Both in bending and in torsion, we found a higher SF for the humerus than for the femur. Such a "mixed chain" of different SFs across elements has been predicted if bones have differing variabilities in load, different costs to maintain, or high SF values in general. Although variability in load is similar for the humerus and femur, a high SF may be less costly for the humerus because it is smaller than the femur. The high SFs of alligators also might facilitate differences in SF among their limb bones. Beyond these specific findings, however, a more general implication of our results is that evaluations of the diversity of limb-bone SFs can provide important perspective to direct future research. In particular, more complete understanding of variation in SF could provide insight into factors that promoted the evolutionary radiation of terrestrial locomotor function in vertebrates.

  13. CRISM Limb Observations of Aerosols and Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, M.J.; Clancy, R.T.; Seelos, F.; Murchie, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Near-infrared spectra taken in a limb-viewing geometry by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on-board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) provide a useful tool for probing atmospheric structure. Here we describe preliminary work on the retrieval of vertical profiles of aerosols and water vapor from the CRISM limb observations. The first full set of CRISM limb observations was taken in July 2009, with subsequent limb observations planned once every two months. Each set of limb observations contains about four dozen scans across the limb giving pole-to-pole coverage for two orbits at roughly 100 and 290 W longitude. Radiative transfer modeling taking account of aerosol scattering in the limb-viewing geometry is used to model the observations. The retrievals show the height to which dust and water vapor extend and the location and height of water ice clouds. Results from the First set of CRISM limb observations (July 2009, Ls=300) show dust aerosol well-mixed to about three scale heights above the surface with thin water ice clouds above the dust near the equator and at mid-northern latitudes. Water vapor is concentrated at high southern latitudes.

  14. Experimental investigation of crustacean swimming with variation of limb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hong Kuan; Samaee, Milad; Donnell, Geoffrey; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Guy, Robert; Lewis, Timothy

    2015-11-01

    Crustaceans such as crayfish and krill swim by rhythmically paddling a set of four to five limbs (known as swimmerets or pleopods) originating from their abdomen. The limb motion in these animals has been observed to follow tail-to-head metachronal wave pattern with an approximate quarter-period inter-limb phase difference. The goal of this study is to investigate the hydrodynamics of this swimming mechanism as a function of inter-limb phase difference, inclusion of hinges in the limbs, and Reynolds number (Re). 2D PIV measurements were conducted on a scaled robotic model of metachronal paddling, consisting of a rectangular tank fitted with stepper motors coupled to a four-bar linkage that actuated four paddles immersed in water-glycerin fluid medium. The inter-limb phase difference was varied from 0% (synchronous paddling) through 50% across Re range of O(10-1000). Two types of limb models were used, including a simple flat plate and a `split-paddle' structure with two flat plates connected halfway with hinges. The results of the study show that limb models with hinges generated increased horizontal (thrust-producing direction) fluid velocity compared to the simple flat plate paddles, suggesting that asymmetry between power and return strokes is important to augment thrust.

  15. Heterochronic shifts in the ossification sequences of surface- and subsurface-dwelling skinks are correlated with the degree of limb reduction.

    PubMed

    Hugi, Jasmina; Hutchinson, Mark N; Koyabu, D; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2012-06-01

    Scincid lizards exhibit a variety of limb anatomies which reflect the functional requirements of different modes of life. Besides surface dwellers which show neither body elongation nor limb reduction, there are numerous examples that can be arranged as increasingly serpentiform taxa moving in sand, humus or leaf litter. We explored the question of whether limb reduction and body elongation in skinks are linked to heterochronic shifts in the ossification sequences. The study material comprises skinks showing four different morphotypes: Liopholis whitii, Lerista bougainvillii, Hemiergis peronii and Saiphos equalis. Results showed that (i) scincid lizards with limb reductions exhibit an earlier onset of ossification in the cervical vertebrae, and (ii) ossification starts earlier in the pectoral girdle (scapula and coracoid) and pelvic girdle (ilium, ischium and pubis) relative to the timing of the onset in elements of the forelimbs and hind limbs. Furthermore, they show (iii) an earlier strengthening of the premaxilla, which first completes the anterior part of the dorsal cranial roof, and (iv) an earlier onset of ossification in the forelimb elements than in the equivalent elements of the hind limbs. The species showing the least limb reduction (L. bougainvillii) had the greatest developmental similarity to the normally proportioned surface-dwelling species (L. whitii). S. equalis, as the morphotype with the greatest deviation from the normally proportioned, pentadactyle form, varies the most from L. whitii. The heterochronic shifts in the ossification sequences are linked to a shift in the emphasis from limbed locomotion to trunk locomotion in the species with body elongation and/or limb reduction. PMID:22502802

  16. Molecular anatomy of the developing limb in the coquí frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui Limb bud development in the coquí frog

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Joshua B; Kerney, Ryan; Hanken, James; Tabin, Clifford J

    2011-01-01

    The vertebrate limb demonstrates remarkable similarity in basic organization across phylogenetically disparate groups. To gain further insight into how this morphological similarity is maintained in different developmental contexts, we explored the molecular anatomy of size-reduced embryos of the Puerto Rican coquí frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui. This animal demonstrates direct development, a life history strategy marked by rapid progression from egg to adult and absence of a free-living, aquatic larva. Nonetheless, coquí exhibits a basal anuran limb structure, with four toes on the forelimb and five toes on the hind limb. We investigated the extent to which coquí limb bud development conforms to the model of limb development derived from amniote studies. Towards this end, we characterized dynamic patterns of expression for 13 critical patterning genes across three principle stages of limb development. As expected, most genes demonstrate expression patterns that are essentially unchanged compared to amniote species. For example, we identified an EcFgf8-expression domain within the apical ectodermal ridge (AER). This expression pattern defines a putatively functional AER signalling domain, despite the absence of a morphological ridge in coquí embryos. However, two genes, EcMeis2 and EcAlx4, demonstrate altered domains of expression, which imply a potential shift in gene function between coquí frogs and amniote model systems. Unexpectedly, several genes thought to be critical for limb patterning in other systems, including EcFgf4, EcWnt3a, EcWnt7a and EcGremlin, demonstrated no evident expression pattern in the limb at the three stages we analyzed. The absence of EcFgf4 and EcWnt3a expression during limb patterning is perhaps not surprising, given that neither gene is critical for proper limb development in the mouse, based on knock-out and expression analyses. In contrast, absence of EcWnt7a and EcGremlin is surprising, given that expression of these molecules

  17. Passive resting state and history of antagonist muscle activity shape active extensions in an insect limb

    PubMed Central

    Ache, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Limb movements can be driven by muscle contractions, external forces, or intrinsic passive forces. For lightweight limbs like those of insects or small vertebrates, passive forces can be large enough to overcome the effects of gravity and may even generate limb movements in the absence of active muscle contractions. Understanding the sources and actions of such forces is therefore important in understanding motor control. We describe passive properties of the femur-tibia joint of the locust hind leg. The resting angle is determined primarily by passive properties of the relatively large extensor tibiae muscle and is influenced by the history of activation of the fast extensor tibiae motor neuron. The resting angle is therefore better described as a history-dependent resting state. We selectively stimulated different flexor tibiae motor neurons to generate a range of isometric contractions of the flexor tibiae muscle and then stimulated the fast extensor tibiae motor neuron to elicit active tibial extensions. Residual forces in the flexor muscle have only a small effect on subsequent active extensions, but the effect is larger for distal than for proximal flexor motor neurons and varies with the strength of flexor activation. We conclude that passive properties of a lightweight limb make substantial and complex contributions to the resting state of the limb that must be taken into account in the patterning of neuronal control signals driving its active movements. Low variability in the effects of the passive forces may permit the nervous system to accurately predict their contributions to behavior. PMID:22357791

  18. Contribution of different limb controllers to modulation of motor cortex neurons during locomotion.

    PubMed

    Zelenin, Pavel V; Deliagina, Tatiana G; Orlovsky, Grigori N; Karayannidou, Anastasia; Dasgupta, Namrata M; Sirota, Mikhail G; Beloozerova, Irina N

    2011-03-23

    During locomotion, neurons in motor cortex exhibit profound step-related frequency modulation. The source of this modulation is unclear. The aim of this study was to reveal the contribution of different limb controllers (locomotor mechanisms of individual limbs) to the periodic modulation of motor cortex neurons during locomotion. Experiments were conducted in chronically instrumented cats. The activity of single neurons was recorded during regular quadrupedal locomotion (control), as well as when only one pair of limbs (fore, hind, right, or left) was walking while another pair was standing. Comparison of the modulation patterns in these neurons (their discharge profile with respect to the step cycle) during control and different bipedal locomotor tasks revealed several groups of neurons that receive distinct combinations of inputs from different limb controllers. In the majority (73%) of neurons from the forelimb area of motor cortex, modulation during control was determined exclusively by forelimb controllers (right, left, or both), while in the minority (27%), hindlimb controllers also contributed. By contrast, only in 30% of neurons from the hindlimb area was modulation determined exclusively by hindlimb controllers (right or both), while in 70% of them, the controllers of forelimbs also contributed. We suggest that such organization of inputs allows the motor cortex to contribute to the right-left limbs' coordination within each of the girdles during locomotion, and that it also allows hindlimb neurons to participate in coordination of the movements of the hindlimbs with those of the forelimbs.

  19. Radiographic features of the limbs of juvenile and subadult loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta)

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Ana Luisa; Marco, Ignasi; Zamora, Maria Angeles; Parga, Maria Luz; Lavín, Santiago; Alegre, Ferran; Cuenca, Rafaela

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to provide the normal radiographic anatomic appearance of the limbs of the loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta. Dorsopalmar and dorsoplantar radiographs were taken of the forelimbs and hindlimbs of 15 juvenile and 15 subadult loggerhead sea turtles, 17 alive and 13 dead. For comparison, computed tomographic, gross anatomic, osteologic, and histologic studies were performed on the limbs of 5 of the sea turtles. Bones from the distal part of the fore and hind flippers were seen in detail with a mammographic film–screen combination. The pectoral and pelvic girdles, superimposed by the carapace, were better seen on standard radiographs with the use of rare-earth intensifying screens. Mammographic radiographs of the manus of 5 small juvenile turtles showed active growth zones. Visualization of bone contours in the distal part of the limbs was clearer than in mammals owing to the very few superimpositions. The presence of a substantial amount of cartilage in the epiphyses produced better visibility of limb ends. We conclude that use of a mammography film–screen combination is the best way to evaluate the bony and joint structures of the limbs of sea turtles. Radiography provides reliable images for clinical purposes. Considering the low cost and logistics of this technique, it is a practical ancillary test for marine animal rehabilitation centers to use. PMID:17955906

  20. Interaction of the elytra and hind wing of a rhinoceros beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus) during a take-off mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seungyoung; Oh, Sehyeong; Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Boogeon; Park, Hyungmin; Kim, Sun-Tae

    2015-11-01

    The elytra are a pair of hardened wings that cover the abdomen of a beetle to protect beetle's hind wings. During the take-off, these elytra open and flap in phase with the hind wings. We investigate the effect of the elytra flapping on beetle's aerodynamic performance. Numerical simulations are performed at Re=10,000 (based on the wingtip mean velocity and mean chord length of the hind wing) using an immersed boundary method. The simulations are focused on a take-off, and the wing kinematics used is directly obtained from the experimental observations using high speed cameras. The simulation result shows three-dimensional vortical structures generated by the hind wing of the beetle and their interaction with the elytra. The presence of elytra has a negative effect on the lift generation by the hind wings, but the lift force on the elytra themselves is negligible. Further discussions on the elytra - hind wing interaction will be provided during the presentation. Supported by UD130070ID.

  1. Limb lengthening in achondroplasia

    PubMed Central

    Chilbule, Sanjay K; Dutt, Vivek; Madhuri, Vrisha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stature lengthening in skeletal dysplasia is a contentious issue. Specific guidelines regarding the age and sequence of surgery, methods and extent of lengthening at each stage are not uniform around the world. Despite the need for multiple surgeries, with their attendant complications, parents demanding stature lengthening are not rare, due to the social bias and psychological effects experienced by these patients. This study describes the outcome and complications of extensive stature lengthening performed at our center. Materials and Methods: Eight achondroplasic and one hypochondroplasic patient underwent bilateral transverse lengthening for tibiae, humeri and femora. Tibia lengthening was carried out using a ring fixator and bifocal corticotomy, while a monolateral pediatric limb reconstruction system with unifocal corticotomy was used for the femur and humerus. Lengthening of each bone segment, height gain, healing index and complications were assessed. Subgroup analysis was carried out to assess the effect of age and bone segment on the healing index. Results: Nine patients aged five to 25 years (mean age 10.2 years) underwent limb lengthening procedures for 18 tibiae, 10 femora and 8 humeri. Four patients underwent bilateral lengthening of all three segments. The mean length gain for the tibia, femur and humerus was 15.4 cm (100.7%), 9.9 cm (52.8%) and 9.6 cm (77.9%), respectively. Healing index was 25.7, 25.6 and 20.6 days/cm, respectively, for the tibia, femur and humerus. An average of 33.3% height gain was attained. Lengthening of both tibia and femur added to projected height achieved as the 3rd percentile of standard height in three out of four patients. In all, 33 complications were encountered (0.9 complications per segment). Healing index was not affected by age or bone segment. Conclusion: Extensive limb lengthening (more than 50% over initial length) carries significant risk and should be undertaken only after due consideration. PMID

  2. Lipotyphla limb myology comparison.

    PubMed

    Neveu, Pauline; Gasc, Jean-Pierre

    2002-05-01

    Fore- and hindlimb muscles were dissected in four species of Lipotyphla: the western European hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus (Erinaceidae, Erinaceinae); the moonrat Echinosorex gymnura (Erinaceidae, Hylomyinae or Galericinae); the tailless tenrec Tenrec ecaudatus (Tenrecidae, Tenrecinae); and the common European white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula (Soricidae, Soricinae). This work completely reviews the limb musculature of these walking mammals. Twelve myological characters were evaluated in order to disclose phylogenetic relationships. The cladogram obtained supported previous ones based on cranial and dental characters. This study shows that myological characters are valuable in phylogenetic analyses.

  3. Spatial distribution and conservation of speckled hind and warsaw grouper in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Nicholas A; Karnauskas, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    There is broad interest in the development of efficient marine protected areas (MPAs) to reduce bycatch and end overfishing of speckled hind (Epinephelus drummondhayi) and warsaw grouper (Hyporthodus nigritus) in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S. We assimilated decades of data from many fishery-dependent, fishery-independent, and anecdotal sources to describe the spatial distribution of these data limited stocks. A spatial classification model was developed to categorize depth-grids based on the distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper point observations and identified benthic habitats. Logistic regression analysis was used to develop a quantitative model to predict the spatial distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper as a function of depth, latitude, and habitat. Models, controlling for sampling gear effects, were selected based on AIC and 10-fold cross validation. The best-fitting model for warsaw grouper included latitude and depth to explain 10.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 28-33%. The best-fitting model for speckled hind, per cross-validation, included latitude and depth to explain 36.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 25-27%. The best-fitting speckled hind model, per AIC, also included habitat, but had false prediction rates up to 36%. Speckled hind and warsaw grouper habitats followed a shelf-edge hardbottom ridge from North Carolina to southeast Florida, with speckled hind more common to the north and warsaw grouper more common to the south. The proportion of habitat classifications and model-estimated stock contained within established and proposed MPAs was computed. Existing MPAs covered 10% of probable shelf-edge habitats for speckled hind and warsaw grouper, protecting 3-8% of speckled hind and 8% of warsaw grouper stocks. Proposed MPAs could add 24% more probable shelf-edge habitat, and protect an additional 14-29% of speckled

  4. Spatial Distribution and Conservation of Speckled Hind and Warsaw Grouper in the Atlantic Ocean off the Southeastern U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Nicholas A.; Karnauskas, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    There is broad interest in the development of efficient marine protected areas (MPAs) to reduce bycatch and end overfishing of speckled hind (Epinephelus drummondhayi) and warsaw grouper (Hyporthodus nigritus) in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S. We assimilated decades of data from many fishery-dependent, fishery-independent, and anecdotal sources to describe the spatial distribution of these data limited stocks. A spatial classification model was developed to categorize depth-grids based on the distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper point observations and identified benthic habitats. Logistic regression analysis was used to develop a quantitative model to predict the spatial distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper as a function of depth, latitude, and habitat. Models, controlling for sampling gear effects, were selected based on AIC and 10-fold cross validation. The best-fitting model for warsaw grouper included latitude and depth to explain 10.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 28–33%. The best-fitting model for speckled hind, per cross-validation, included latitude and depth to explain 36.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 25–27%. The best-fitting speckled hind model, per AIC, also included habitat, but had false prediction rates up to 36%. Speckled hind and warsaw grouper habitats followed a shelf-edge hardbottom ridge from North Carolina to southeast Florida, with speckled hind more common to the north and warsaw grouper more common to the south. The proportion of habitat classifications and model-estimated stock contained within established and proposed MPAs was computed. Existing MPAs covered 10% of probable shelf-edge habitats for speckled hind and warsaw grouper, protecting 3–8% of speckled hind and 8% of warsaw grouper stocks. Proposed MPAs could add 24% more probable shelf-edge habitat, and protect an additional 14–29% of

  5. Spatial distribution and conservation of speckled hind and warsaw grouper in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Nicholas A; Karnauskas, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    There is broad interest in the development of efficient marine protected areas (MPAs) to reduce bycatch and end overfishing of speckled hind (Epinephelus drummondhayi) and warsaw grouper (Hyporthodus nigritus) in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S. We assimilated decades of data from many fishery-dependent, fishery-independent, and anecdotal sources to describe the spatial distribution of these data limited stocks. A spatial classification model was developed to categorize depth-grids based on the distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper point observations and identified benthic habitats. Logistic regression analysis was used to develop a quantitative model to predict the spatial distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper as a function of depth, latitude, and habitat. Models, controlling for sampling gear effects, were selected based on AIC and 10-fold cross validation. The best-fitting model for warsaw grouper included latitude and depth to explain 10.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 28-33%. The best-fitting model for speckled hind, per cross-validation, included latitude and depth to explain 36.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 25-27%. The best-fitting speckled hind model, per AIC, also included habitat, but had false prediction rates up to 36%. Speckled hind and warsaw grouper habitats followed a shelf-edge hardbottom ridge from North Carolina to southeast Florida, with speckled hind more common to the north and warsaw grouper more common to the south. The proportion of habitat classifications and model-estimated stock contained within established and proposed MPAs was computed. Existing MPAs covered 10% of probable shelf-edge habitats for speckled hind and warsaw grouper, protecting 3-8% of speckled hind and 8% of warsaw grouper stocks. Proposed MPAs could add 24% more probable shelf-edge habitat, and protect an additional 14-29% of speckled

  6. Acute and chronic nociceptive phases observed in a rat hind paw ischemia/reperfusion model depend on different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Klafke, J Z; da Silva, M A; Rossato, M F; de Prá, S Dal Toé; Rigo, F K; Walker, C I B; Bochi, G V; Moresco, R N; Ferreira, J; Trevisan, G

    2016-02-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1) may be evoked by ischemia/reperfusion, eliciting acute and chronic pain that is difficult to treat. Despite this, the underlying mechanism of CRPS1 has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the goal of this study is to evaluate the involvement of inflammation, oxidative stress, and the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel, a chemosensor of inflammation and oxidative substances, in an animal model of chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP). Male Wistar rats were subjected to 3 h hind paw ischemia/reperfusion (CPIP model). Different parameters of nociception, inflammation, ischemia, and oxidative stress were evaluated at 1 (acute) and 14 (chronic) days after CPIP. The effect of a TRPA1 antagonist and the TRPA1 immunoreactivity were also observed after CPIP. In the CPIP acute phase, we observed mechanical and cold allodynia; increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (hind paw), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) (serum), protein carbonyl (hind paw and spinal cord), lactate (serum), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, hind paw and spinal cord); and higher myeloperoxidase (MPO) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activities (hind paw). In the CPIP chronic phase, we detected mechanical and cold allodynia and increased levels of IMA (serum), protein carbonyl (hind paw and spinal cord), and 4-HNE (hind paw and spinal cord). TRPA1 antagonism reduced mechanical and cold allodynia 1 and 14 days after CPIP, but no change in TRPA1 immunoreactivity was observed. Different mechanisms underlie acute (inflammation and oxidative stress) and chronic (oxidative stress) phases of CPIP. TRPA1 activation may be relevant for CRPS1/CPIP-induced acute and chronic pain.

  7. Acute and chronic nociceptive phases observed in a rat hind paw ischemia/reperfusion model depend on different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Klafke, J Z; da Silva, M A; Rossato, M F; de Prá, S Dal Toé; Rigo, F K; Walker, C I B; Bochi, G V; Moresco, R N; Ferreira, J; Trevisan, G

    2016-02-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1) may be evoked by ischemia/reperfusion, eliciting acute and chronic pain that is difficult to treat. Despite this, the underlying mechanism of CRPS1 has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the goal of this study is to evaluate the involvement of inflammation, oxidative stress, and the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel, a chemosensor of inflammation and oxidative substances, in an animal model of chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP). Male Wistar rats were subjected to 3 h hind paw ischemia/reperfusion (CPIP model). Different parameters of nociception, inflammation, ischemia, and oxidative stress were evaluated at 1 (acute) and 14 (chronic) days after CPIP. The effect of a TRPA1 antagonist and the TRPA1 immunoreactivity were also observed after CPIP. In the CPIP acute phase, we observed mechanical and cold allodynia; increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (hind paw), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) (serum), protein carbonyl (hind paw and spinal cord), lactate (serum), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, hind paw and spinal cord); and higher myeloperoxidase (MPO) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activities (hind paw). In the CPIP chronic phase, we detected mechanical and cold allodynia and increased levels of IMA (serum), protein carbonyl (hind paw and spinal cord), and 4-HNE (hind paw and spinal cord). TRPA1 antagonism reduced mechanical and cold allodynia 1 and 14 days after CPIP, but no change in TRPA1 immunoreactivity was observed. Different mechanisms underlie acute (inflammation and oxidative stress) and chronic (oxidative stress) phases of CPIP. TRPA1 activation may be relevant for CRPS1/CPIP-induced acute and chronic pain. PMID:26490459

  8. Evaluation of Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-03-06

    Becker Muscular Dystrophy; Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy, Type 2A (Calpain-3 Deficiency); Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy, Type 2B (Miyoshi Myopathy, Dysferlin Deficiency); Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy, Type 2I (FKRP-deficiency)

  9. Optimal freezing and thawing for the survival of peripheral nerves in severed rabbit limbs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zexing; Qiao, Lin; Zhao, Yandong; Zhang, Shuming

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the optimal freezing and thawing procedures for the survival of peripheral nerves in severed rabbit limbs. Twenty New Zealand White rabbits were randomized into four groups: normal control, slow-freezing fast-thawing, slow-freezing slow-thawing, fast-freezing fast-thawing, with five animals in each group. The hind limbs of the rabbits were severed at 1 cm above the knee joint. The severed limbs were cryopreserved with various freezing and thawing procedures. The sciatic nerves were harvested and trypsinized into single nerve fibers for morphological evaluation. The cell viability of the nerve fibers was examined by staining with Calcein-AM and propidium iodide. The fluorescent intensity of the nerve fibers was measured with a laser scanning confocal microscope. The morphology of the nerve fibers in the slow-freezing fast-thawing group was very similar with that of the normal control group, with only mild demyelination. The slow-freezing fast-thawing group and slow-freezing slow-thawing group showed severely damaged nerve fibers. The fluorescent intensities of the nerve fibers was significantly different among the four groups, with a decreasing order of normal control, slow-freezing fast-thawing, slow-freezing slow-thawing, and fast-freezing fast-thawing (P < 0.05). Of the various cryopreservative procedures, slow-freezing fast thawing has the minimal effects on the survival of nerve fibers in severed rabbit limbs.

  10. Chondrogenesis of the limbs and mesopodial ossification of Podocnemis expansa Schweigger, 1812 (Testudines: Podocnemidae).

    PubMed

    Vieira, Lucélia Gonçalves; Santos, André L Q; Lima, Fabiano Campos; Moura, Lea Resende

    2011-04-01

    We address the chondrogenic formation of the limbs and the mesopodial ossification pattern of the Pleurodira Podocnemis expansa, to resolve the homology of these elements as well as the pattern of connection of the autopodial elements and the origin of the digital arch. Embryos and juveniles of P. expansa were cleared and stained for cartilage and bone. The fore- and hind-limbs were also studied histologically. We describe the development of the stylopodium and zeugopodium originating from a Y-shaped cartilaginous condensation, and the differentiation of the primary axis and the digital arch in the initial stages of limb development. The most pronounced changes were observed in the chondrogenic pattern and ossification of the mesopodium, although development of the digits is similar and we found no ontogenetic reduction such as that described for other Testudines. In this study, as in previous research involving several groups of reptilian sauropsids, we found an inconsistent pattern between the chondrogenic formation and mesopodial ossification of the limbs, indicating that these developmental events are dissociated. In summary, the chondrogenic and ossification sequences of these elements do not follow the same pattern. In addition, the differences found between P. expansa and other species to which it was compared clearly indicate that these events follow more than one pattern in Testudines. PMID:21290416

  11. Whole body vibration induces forepaw and hind paw behavioral sensitivity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Baig, Hassam A; Guarino, Benjamin B; Lipschutz, Daniel; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2013-11-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) has been linked to neck and back pain, but the biomechanical and physiological mechanisms responsible for its development and maintenance are unknown. A rodent model of WBV was developed in which rats were exposed to different WBV paradigms, either daily for 7 consecutive days (repeated WBV) or two single exposures at Day 0 and 7 (intermittent WBV). Each WBV session lasted for 30 min and was imposed at a frequency of 15 Hz and RMS platform acceleration of 0.56 ± 0.07 g. Changes in the withdrawal response of the forepaw and hind paw were measured, and were used to characterize the onset and maintenance of behavioral sensitivity. Accelerations and displacements of the rat and deformations in the cervical and lumbar spines were measured during WBV to provide mechanical context for the exposures. A decrease in withdrawal threshold was induced at 1 day after the first exposure in both the hind paw and forepaw. Repeated WBV exhibited a sustained reduction in withdrawal threshold in both paws and intermittent WBV induced a sustained response only in the forepaw. Cervical deformations were significantly elevated which may explain the more robust forepaw response. Findings suggest that a WBV exposure leads to behavioral sensitivity.

  12. The D1 family dopamine receptor, DopR, potentiates hind leg grooming behavior in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pitmon, E.; Stephens, G.; Parkhurst, S. J.; Wolf, F. W.; Kehne, G.; Taylor, M.

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila groom away debris and pathogens from the body using their legs in a stereotyped sequence of innate motor behaviors. Here, we investigated one aspect of the grooming repertoire by characterizing the D1 family dopamine receptor, DopR. Removal of DopR results in decreased hind leg grooming, as substantiated by quantitation of dye remaining on mutant and RNAi animals vs. controls and direct scoring of behavioral events. These data are also supported by pharmacological results that D1 receptor agonists fail to potentiate grooming behaviors in headless DopR flies. DopR protein is broadly expressed in the neuropil of the thoracic ganglion and overlaps with TH‐positive dopaminergic neurons. Broad neuronal expression of dopamine receptor in mutant animals restored normal grooming behaviors. These data provide evidence for the role of DopR in potentiating hind leg grooming behaviors in the thoracic ganglion of adult Drosophila. This is a remarkable juxtaposition to the considerable role of D1 family dopamine receptors in rodent grooming, and future investigations of evolutionary relationships of circuitry may be warranted. PMID:26749475

  13. Glutaminase Increases in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons after Unilateral Adjuvant-Induced Hind Paw Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, E. Matthew; Zhang, Zijia; Schechter, Ruben; Miller, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate is a neurotransmitter used at both the peripheral and central terminals of nociceptive primary sensory neurons, yet little is known concerning regulation of glutamate metabolism during peripheral inflammation. Glutaminase (GLS) is an enzyme of the glutamate-glutamine cycle that converts glutamine into glutamate for neurotransmission and is implicated in producing elevated levels of glutamate in central and peripheral terminals. A potential mechanism for increased levels of glutamate is an elevation in GLS expression. We assessed GLS expression after unilateral hind paw inflammation by measuring GLS immunoreactivity (ir) with quantitative image analysis of L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after one, two, four, and eight days of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) compared to saline injected controls. No significant elevation in GLS-ir occurred in the DRG ipsilateral to the inflamed hind paw after one or two days of AIA. After four days AIA, GLS-ir was elevated significantly in all sizes of DRG neurons. After eight days AIA, GLS-ir remained elevated in small (<400 µm2), presumably nociceptive neurons. Western blot analysis of the L4 DRG at day four AIA confirmed the elevated GLS-ir. The present study indicates that GLS expression is increased in the chronic stage of inflammation and may be a target for chronic pain therapy. PMID:26771651

  14. Scales

    MedlinePlus

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...

  15. Limb positioning and shear flows in tetrapods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boryskina, O. P.; Al-Kilani, A.; Fleury, V.

    2011-08-01

    There is increasing evidence that animal morphogenesis consists of a large scale tissue flow, which defines the gross characteristics of the animal body at a very early developmental stage. We have studied the vertebrate embryo cell trajectories between a moment when it is flat and formless, to a moment when the body plan is recognizable (chicken embryo days 2-3 of development). We find that a large vortex flow patterns the vertebrate bauplan, and especially the limb territories, both hindlimbs and forelimbs. In vivo velocity measurements show that the vortices are dragged by a localized shear oriented along the median axis. A simple hydrodynamic model accounts for the lenticular shape of the limb plates. On the hindlimb plate, the flow propagates in the form of a solid-body vortex on the limb plate, dragged by a Poiseuille flow along the backbone. In vivo tonometry measurements show that there exist stress gradients in the embryonic tissue, and that the flow pattern is congruent with the direction of decrease of stress magnitude.

  16. Management of Major Limb Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Management of major limb injuries is a daunting challenge, especially as many of these patients have severe associated injuries. In trying to save life, often the limb is sacrificed. The existing guidelines on managing such trauma are often confusing. There is scope to lay down such protocols along with the need for urgent transfer of such patients to a multispecialty center equipped to salvage life and limb for maximizing outcome. This review article comprehensively deals with the issue of managing such major injuries. PMID:24511296

  17. Simulation of Upper Limb Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uherčík, Filip; Hučko, Branislav

    2011-12-01

    The paper deals with controlling an upper limb prosthesis based on the measurement of myoelectric signals (MES) while drinking. MES signals have been measured on healthy limbs to obtain the same response for the prosthesis. To simulate the drinking motion of a healthy upper limb, the program ADAMS was used, with all degrees of freedom and a hand after trans-radial amputation with an existing hand prosthesis. Modification of the simulation has the exact same logic of control, where the muscle does not have to be strenuous all the time, but it is the impulse of the muscle which drives the motor even though the impulse disappears and passed away.

  18. Prevalence and Characteristics of Phantom Limb Pain and Residual Limb Pain in the Long Term after Upper Limb Amputation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, Deirdre M.; MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe the prevalence and characteristics of phantom limb pain and residual limb pain after upper limb amputation. One-hundred and forty-one participants (139 males; mean age 74.8 years; mean time since amputation 50.1 years) completed a self-report questionnaire assessing residual and phantom limb pain experience. Prevalence…

  19. Pediatric limb differences and amputations.

    PubMed

    Le, Joan T; Scott-Wyard, Phoebe R

    2015-02-01

    Congenital limb differences are uncommon birth defects that may go undetected even with prenatal screening ultrasound scans and often go undetected until birth. For children with congenital limb differences, a diagnostic evaluation should be done to rule out syndromes involving other organ systems or known associations. The most common etiology of acquired amputation is trauma. Postamputation complications include pain and terminal bony overgrowth. A multidisciplinary approach to management with the child and family can lead to a successful, functional, and fulfilling life.

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of the sixblotch hind Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Pisces: Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Sheng-Tai; Chen, Kao-Sung; Tseng, Chen-Te; Wu, Chi-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the sixblotch hind, Cephalopholis sexmaculata was presented in this study. This mitochondrial genome consists of 16,589 bp, with 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a noncoding control region (CR), and its gene arrangement is identical to most vertebrates. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is A, 29.35%; G, 16.08%; C, 28.56%; and T, 26.01%. The COI gene started with GTG codon and the ATP6 gene started with CTG codon. The complete mitogenomic data may provide informative for further phylogenetic approach of species of Cephalopholis and related genera belong to the Epinephelidae groupers. PMID:24938086

  1. Determining the size of American alligators using hind-foot track length

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkinson, Philip M.; Rice, Kenneth G.

    2000-01-01

    Size distribution information is useful for crocodilian management, but can be hard to obtain. Indirect and less costly demographic inferences made from track measurements may be valuable for management decisions. We related hind-foot lengths (HF) with total length (TL) to determine if we could indirectly assess alligator size using track length. Regression showed that HF was an excellent predictor (F1,246= 15722.9, R2=0.98, P<0.01) of TL and track length was an exceptional predictor of HF (F1,14=7520.3, R2= 1.00, P<0.01). The correlation between track length and HF length also was significant (N= 15, r=0.99, P <0.01). Thus, alligator size can be accurately estimated from measures of track length at sites where capture and direct measurement is impractical.

  2. Ethical issues in limb transplants.

    PubMed

    Dickenson, D; Widdershoven, G

    2001-04-01

    On one view, limb transplants cross technological frontiers but not ethical ones; the only issues to be resolved concern professional competence, under the assumption of patient autonomy. Given that the benefits of limb transplant do not outweigh the risks, however, the autonomy and rationality of the patient are not necessarily self-evident. In addition to questions of resource allocation and informed consent, limb, and particularly hand, allograft also raises important issues of personal identity and bodily integrity. We present two linked schemas for exploring ethical issues in limb transplants. The first, relying on conventional concepts in biomedical ethics, asks whether the procedure is research or therapy, whether the costs outweigh the benefits, and whether it should be up to the patient to decide. The second introduces more speculative and theoretically challenging questions, including bodily integrity, the argument from unnaturalness, and the function of the hand in expressing personal identity and intimacy. We conclude that limb transplants are not ruled out a priori, unlike some procedures that are prima facie wrong to perform, such as amputation of healthy limbs to relieve body dysmorphic disorders. However, their legitimacy is not proven by appeals to the interests of scientific research, cost-benefit, or patient autonomy.

  3. Proximodistal patterning during limb regeneration.

    PubMed

    Echeverri, Karen; Tanaka, Elly M

    2005-03-15

    Regeneration is an ability that has been observed extensively throughout metazoan phylogeny. Amongst vertebrates, the urodele amphibians stand out for their exceptional capacity to regenerate body parts such as the limb. During this process, only the missing portion of the limb is precisely replaced--amputation in the upper arm results in regeneration of the entire limb, while amputation at the wrist produces a hand. Limb regeneration occurs through the formation of a local proliferative zone called the blastema. Here, we examine how proximodistal identity is established in the blastema. Using cell marking and transplantation experiments, we show that distal identities have already been established in the earliest stages of blastemas examined. Transplantation of cells into new environments is not sufficient to respecify cell identity. However, overexpression of the CD59, a cell surface molecule previously implicated in proximodistal identity during limb regeneration, causes distal blastema cells to translocate to a more proximal location and causes defects in the patterning of the distal elements of the regenerate. We suggest a model for the limb regeneration blastema where by 4 days post-amputation the blastema is already divided into distinct growth zones; the cells of each zone are already specified to give rise to upper arm, lower arm, and hand. PMID:15733667

  4. Atmospheric Waves in MGS TES Limb-Scan Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banfield, D. J.; Conrath, B. J.; Kaelberer, M. S.; Smith, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    We have quantified the expression of the lowest zonal wavenumber forced and traveling waves evident in the MGS TES Limb-scan temperature retrievals. The results were found to be broadly consistent with the vertically limited and vertically smoothed (although better spatially and temporally resolved) results from the more numerous MGS TES nadir temperature retrievals (e.g., Wilson et al., 2002, Banfield et al., 2003, Banfield et al. 2004). The MGS TES Limb-scan retrievals were used to compute a measure of the Diurnal Kelvin Waves (DK1 And DK2). The structures revealed are consistent with theory, and indicative of the importance of these wave modes at aerobraking altitudes (e.g., Wilson 2000, Forbes & Hagan, 2000, Wilson, 2002). The stationary wave structures revealed in the limb retrievals show the winter polar waves in both hemispheres continue to have their maximum amplitude aligned along the polar vortices, even for altitudes above 4 scale heights. The phase structures in and above the stationary waves revealed by the limb retrievals are consistent with the nadir results and the heat fluxes computed in those analyses (Banfield et al., 2003). The winter polar vortex zonal wavenumber 1 traveling waves continue along the edge of the polar vortex, reaching to 6 or more scale heights altitude in the northern winter and extending between 60N and the north pole. The peak amplitudes for these zonal wavenumber 1 traveling waves were found to lie at about 4 scale heights altitude. The limb retrievals revealed more clear evidence of a northern fall equinoctial global traveling wave mode having expression not only in the mid-latitudes in both hemispheres, but also out of phase above the tropics at altitudes above 4 scale heights. Zonal wavenumber 2 & 3 traveling waves could not be reliably retrieved from the limb retrievals.

  5. Differentiation of cartilaginous anlage in entire embryonic mouse limbs cultured in a rotating bioreactor.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, P.; Oakley, C.; Montufar-Solis, D.

    The embryonic mammalian limb is sensitive both in vivo and in vitro to changes in gravitational force. Hypergravity of centrifugation and microgravity of space decreased size of elements due to precocious or delayed chondrogenesis respectively. In recapitulating spaceflight experiments, premetatarsals were cultured in suspension in a low stress, low sheer rotating bioreactor, and found to be shorter than those cultured in standard culture dishes, and cartilage development was delayed. This study only measured length of the metatarsals, and did not account for possible changes in width and/or in form of the skeletal elements. Shorter cartilage elements in limbbuds cultured in the bioreactor may be due to the ability of the system to reproduce a more in vivo 3D shape than traditional organ cultures. Tissues subjected to traditional organ cultures become flattened by their own weight, attachment to the filter, and restrictions imposed by nutrient diffusion. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if entire limb buds could be successfully cultured in the bioreactor, and to compare the effects on 3D shape with that of culturing in a culture dish system. Fore and hind limbs from E11-E13 ICR mouse embryos were placed either in the bioreactor, in Trowell culture, or fixed as controls. Limbbuds were cultured for six days, fixed, and processed either as whole mounts or embedded for histology. Qualitative analysis revealed that the Trowell culture specimens were flattened, while bioreactor culture specimens had a more in vivo-like 3D limb shape. Sections of limbbuds from both types of cultures had excellent cartilage differentiation, with apparently more cell maturation, and hypertrophy in the specimens cultured in the bioreactor. Morphometric quantitation of the cartilaginous elements for comparisons of the two culture systems was complicated due to some limb buds fusing together during culture. This problem was especially noticeable in the younger limbs, and

  6. Limb Preservation With Isolated Limb Infusion for Locally Advanced Nonmelanoma Cutaneous and Soft-Tissue Malignant Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Turaga, Kiran K.; Beasley, Georgia M.; Kane, John M.; Delman, Keith A.; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Gonzalez, Ricardo J.; Letson, G. Douglas; Cheong, David; Tyler, Douglas S.; Zager, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the efficacy of isolated limb infusion (ILI) in limb preservation for patients with locally advanced soft-tissue sarcomas and nonmelanoma cutaneous malignant neoplasms. Background Locally advanced nonmelanoma cutaneous and soft-tissue malignant neoplasms, including soft-tissue sarcomas of the extremities, can pose significant treatment challenges. We report our experience, including responses and limb preservation rates, using ILI in cutaneous and soft-tissue malignant neoplasms. Methods We identified 22 patients with cutaneous and soft-tissue malignant neoplasms who underwent 26 ILIs with melphalan and actinomycin from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2009, from 5 institutions. Outcome measures included limb preservation and in-field response rates. Toxicity was measured using the Wieberdink scale and serum creatinine phosphokinase levels. Results The median age was 70 years (range, 19-92 years), and 12 patients (55%) were women. Fourteen patients (64%) had sarcomas, 7 (32%) had Merkel cell carcinoma, and 1 (5%) had squamous cell carcinoma. The median length of stay was 5.5 days (interquartile range, 4-8 days). Twenty-five of the 26 ILIs (96%) resulted in Wieberdink grade III or less toxicity, and 1 patient (4%) developed grade IV toxicity. The median serum creatinine phosphokinase level was 127 U/L for upper extremity ILIs and 93 U/L for lower extremity ILIs. Nineteen of 22 patients (86%) underwent successful limb preservation. The 3-month in-field response rate was 79% (21% complete and 58% partial), and the median follow-up was 8.6 months (range, 1-63 months). Five patients underwent resection of disease after an ILI, of whom 80% are disease free at a median of 8.6 months. Conclusions Isolated limb infusion provides an attractive alternative therapy for regional disease control and limb preservation in patients with limb-threatening cutaneous and soft-tissue malignant neoplasms. Short-term response rates appear encouraging, yet

  7. Influence of adjustments to amputation and artificial limb on quality of life in patients following lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Richa; van den Heuvel, Wim J A; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the relationship between adjustments to amputation and artificial limb, and quality of life (QoL), and to analyse the influence of sociodemographic, medical and amputation-related factors on this relationship. Patients with unilateral and noncongenital lower limb amputation who were using artificial limb were interviewed (n=368) using structured questionnaires. The Trinity Amputation and Prosthesis Experience Scales (TAPES) were used to assess adjustments to amputation and artificial limb and the MOS Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess the physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summary of QoL. Absence of comorbidity and residual stump pain, being employed, young age, less functional restriction, being more adjusted to limitation, increased social adjustment and less restriction in athletic activity were related to better PCS scores. Absence of comorbidity and phantom limb pain, nonuse of assistive device, being more adjusted to limitation, increased social adjustment and being less functionally restricted were related to higher MCS scores. Comorbidity had a modifying effect on both PCS and MCS scores. In addition, age, being employed and residual stump pain had a modifying influence on PCS, whereas assistive device use and phantom limb pain had a modifying influence on MCS. Our findings show that TAPES subscales have a modifying effect on the associations between several background (sociodemographic and amputation characteristics) and QoL (PCS and MCS). This indicates that adjustments to amputation and artificial limb are the key determinants of QoL in individuals following lower limb amputation.

  8. Percutaneous isolated limb perfusion with thrombolytics for severe limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahsan T; Kalapatapu, Venkat R; Bledsoe, Shelly; Moursi, Mohammed M; Eidt, John F

    2005-01-01

    Patients with severe tibioperoneal disease are poor candidates for a distal bypass. Absence of a distal target, lack of conduit, or multiple medical problems can make these patients a prohibitive risk for revascularization. Acute on chronic ischemia in this group poses a greater challenge. Thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemia can be prolonged and carries a significant risk of bleeding if continued beyond 24 hours. However, if the ischemic limbs can be isolated from the systemic circulation, a higher dose of the lytic agent can be given with lower risk. These are the initial results of a series of 10 patients who underwent percutaneous isolated limb perfusion with a high dose of thrombolytics for severe ischemia. Ten patients (lower extremity 8 and upper extremity 2) presented with severe limb-threatening ischemia. Mean ankle/brachial index (ABI) was 0.15 for the lower extremity, and there were no recordable digital pressures in patients with upper extremity ischemia. No distal target was visible on the initial arteriogram. These patients were then taken to the operating room, and under anesthesia, catheters were placed in an antegrade fashion via femoral approach in the popliteal artery and vein percutaneously. For upper extremity, the catheters were placed in the brachial artery and vein. A proximal tourniquet was then applied. This isolated the limb from the systemic circulation. Heparinized saline was infused through the arterial catheter while the venous catheter was left open. A closed loop or an isolated limb perfusion was confirmed when effluent became clear coming out of the venous port. A high dose of thrombolytic agent (urokinase 500,000 to 1,000,000 U) was infused into the isolated limb via the arterial catheter and drained out of the venous catheter. After 45 minutes, arterial flow was reestablished. In 4 patients, Reopro((R)) was used in addition to thrombolytics. Postprocedure angiograms showed minimal changes, but patients exhibited marked

  9. [Detection of carriers of hemophilia A by testing for HindIII polymorphism in the factor VIII gene by PCR].

    PubMed

    Surin, V L; Aseev, M V; Zhukova, E L; Baranov, V S; Solov'ev, G Ia; Grineva, N I; Andreeva, T A; Izhevskaia, V L; Likhacheva, E A; Pliushch, O P

    1990-10-01

    Representatives of 62 families from Moscow and Leningrad with haemophilia A observed in the pedigree were tested for HindIII polymorphism in the factor VIII gene. The proposed scheme of investigation was based on intron 19 of the FVIII gene amplification by the PCR technique followed by restriction analysis with the inner control of hydrolysis. 207 unrelated X-chromosomes were analysed, the frequency of the incidence of the polymorphic HindIII site in the given population found to be 0.29. The frequency of incidence of the HindIII heterozygotes calculated according to Hardy-Weinberg equation was 0.41. This value evidences for relatively high informativity of this polymorphism for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis of haemophilia A. 23 families (37%) out of 62 examined in the study were informative for this criteria. The new scheme proved to be effective in testing HindIII polymorphism for haemophilia A carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis. The whole procedure takes one day, the radiolabelled probes are not used. The scheme described was inculcated in the All-Union Research Center for Haematology, Ministry of Health, USSR, Moscow, Research Institute for Obstetrics and Gynecology, Leningrad, Institute of Medical Genetics, Greifswald, DDR. PMID:2149345

  10. 77 FR 25687 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Speckled Hind as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... number of coral stressors, including coral bleaching, disease, tropical storms, coastal development and... speckled hind. A negative finding for goliath grouper was made on June 1, 2011 (76 FR 31592), while the... FR 4722; February 7, 1996). A species, subspecies, or DPS is ``endangered'' if it is in danger...

  11. Protein synthesis rates in atrophied gastrocnemius muscles after limb immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, K. R.; Seider, M. J.; Booth, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    Noting that protein synthesis declines in the gastrocnemius 6 hr after immobilization, the study sought to detect an increase of protein synthesis when the limb was freed, and to examine the effects of exercise on the rate of increase. Rats were used as subjects, with their hind legs in plaster of Paris in plantar flexion to eliminate strain on the gastrocnemius. Periods of immobilization were varied and samples of blood from the muscle were taken to track protein synthesis rates for different groups in immobilization and exercise regimens (running and weightlifting). Synthesis rates declined 3.6% during time in the cast, then increased 6.3%/day after the casts were removed. Both running and weightlifting were found to increase the fractional rate of protein formation in the gastrocnemius muscle when compared with contralateral muscles that were not exercised and were used as controls, suggesting that the mechanism controlling protein synthesis in skeletal muscles is rapidly responsive to changes in muscular contractile activity.

  12. The phantom limb in dreams.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Mulder and colleagues [Mulder, T., Hochstenbach, J., Dijkstra, P. U., Geertzen, J. H. B. (2008). Born to adapt, but not in your dreams. Consciousness and Cognition, 17, 1266-1271.] report that a majority of amputees continue to experience a normally-limbed body during their night dreams. They interprete this observation as a failure of the body schema to adapt to the new body shape. The present note does not question this interpretation, but points to the already existing literature on the phenomenology of the phantom limb in dreams. A summary of published investigations is complemented by a note on phantom phenomena in the dreams of paraplegic patients and persons born without a limb. Integration of the available data allows the recommendation for prospective studies to consider dream content in more detail. For instance, "adaptation" to the loss of a limb can also manifest itself by seeing oneself surrounded by amputees. Such projective types of anosognosia ("transitivism") in nocturnal dreams should also be experimentally induced in normally-limbed individuals, and some relevant techniques are mentioned.

  13. The effects of topical oxygen therapy on equine distal limb dermal wound healing.

    PubMed

    Tracey, Alexandra K; Alcott, Cody J; Schleining, Jennifer A; Safayi, Sina; Zaback, Peter C; Hostetter, Jesse M; Reinertson, Eric L

    2014-12-01

    Topical oxygen therapy (TOT) has been used in human medicine to promote healing in chronic wounds. To test the efficacy and safety of TOT in horses, an experimental wound model was created by making 1 standardized dermal wound on each limb of 4 healthy horses (n = 16). Each wound was fitted with an oxygen delivery cannula and covered with a bandage. One limb of each front and hind pair was randomly assigned to the treatment group (fitted with an oxygen concentrator device), with the contralateral limb assigned to the control group (no device). Wound area, epithelial area, and contraction were measured every 3 to 4 d. Biopsy samples and culture swabs were taken on days 16 and 32 to evaluate angiogenesis, fibroplasia, epithelial hyperplasia, inflammation and bacterial growth. Mean healing time in treated wounds (45 d, range: 38 to 52 d) was not significantly different from that in the paired control wounds (50 d, range: 38 to 62 d). Topical oxygen therapy had little effect on dermal wound healing in this experimental wound model in healthy horses.

  14. The effects of topical oxygen therapy on equine distal limb dermal wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Tracey, Alexandra K.; Alcott, Cody J.; Schleining, Jennifer A.; Safayi, Sina; Zaback, Peter C.; Hostetter, Jesse M.; Reinertson, Eric L.

    2014-01-01

    Topical oxygen therapy (TOT) has been used in human medicine to promote healing in chronic wounds. To test the efficacy and safety of TOT in horses, an experimental wound model was created by making 1 standardized dermal wound on each limb of 4 healthy horses (n = 16). Each wound was fitted with an oxygen delivery cannula and covered with a bandage. One limb of each front and hind pair was randomly assigned to the treatment group (fitted with an oxygen concentrator device), with the contralateral limb assigned to the control group (no device). Wound area, epithelial area, and contraction were measured every 3 to 4 d. Biopsy samples and culture swabs were taken on days 16 and 32 to evaluate angiogenesis, fibroplasia, epithelial hyperplasia, inflammation and bacterial growth. Mean healing time in treated wounds (45 d, range: 38 to 52 d) was not significantly different from that in the paired control wounds (50 d, range: 38 to 62 d). Topical oxygen therapy had little effect on dermal wound healing in this experimental wound model in healthy horses. PMID:25477541

  15. Low-Level Laser Therapy (904 nm) Counteracts Motor Deficit of Mice Hind Limb following Skeletal Muscle Injury Caused by Snakebite-Mimicking Intramuscular Venom Injection.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Willians Fernando; Kenzo-Kagawa, Bruno; Cogo, José Carlos; Baranauskas, Vitor; Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice da

    2016-01-01

    Myotoxins present in Bothrops venom disrupt the sarcolemma of muscle fibers leading to the release of sarcoplasmic proteins and loss of muscle homeostasis. Myonecrosis and tissue anoxia induced by vascularization impairment can lead to amputation or motor functional deficit. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamic behavior of motor function in mice subjected to injection of Bothrops jararacussu venom (Bjssu) and exposed to low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Male Swiss mice received Bjssu injection (830 μg/kg) into the medial portion of the right gastrocnemius muscle. Three hours later the injected region was irradiated with diode semiconductor Gallium Arsenide (GaAs- 904 nm, 4 J/cm²) laser following by irradiation at 24, 48 and 72 hours. Saline injection (0.9% NaCl) was used as control. Gait analysis was performed 24 hours before Bjssu injection and at every period post-Bjssu using CatWalk method. Data from spatiotemporal parameters Stand, Maximum Intensity, Swing, Swing Speed, Stride Length and Step Cycle were considered. The period of 3 hours post venom-induced injury was considered critical for all parameters evaluated in the right hindlimb. Differences (p<0.05) were concentrated in venom and venom + placebo laser groups during the 3 hours post-injury period, in which the values of stand of most animals were null. After this period, the gait characteristics were re-established for all parameters. The venom + laser group kept the values at 3 hours post-Bjssu equal to that at 24 hours before Bjssu injection indicating that the GaAs laser therapy improved spatially and temporally gait parameters at the critical injury period caused by Bjssu. This is the first study to analyze with cutting edge technology the gait functional deficits caused by snake envenoming and gait gains produced by GaAs laser irradiation. In this sense, the study fills a gap on the field of motor function after laser treatment following snake envenoming. PMID:27392016

  16. Low-Level Laser Therapy (904 nm) Counteracts Motor Deficit of Mice Hind Limb following Skeletal Muscle Injury Caused by Snakebite-Mimicking Intramuscular Venom Injection.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Willians Fernando; Kenzo-Kagawa, Bruno; Cogo, José Carlos; Baranauskas, Vitor; Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice da

    2016-01-01

    Myotoxins present in Bothrops venom disrupt the sarcolemma of muscle fibers leading to the release of sarcoplasmic proteins and loss of muscle homeostasis. Myonecrosis and tissue anoxia induced by vascularization impairment can lead to amputation or motor functional deficit. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamic behavior of motor function in mice subjected to injection of Bothrops jararacussu venom (Bjssu) and exposed to low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Male Swiss mice received Bjssu injection (830 μg/kg) into the medial portion of the right gastrocnemius muscle. Three hours later the injected region was irradiated with diode semiconductor Gallium Arsenide (GaAs- 904 nm, 4 J/cm²) laser following by irradiation at 24, 48 and 72 hours. Saline injection (0.9% NaCl) was used as control. Gait analysis was performed 24 hours before Bjssu injection and at every period post-Bjssu using CatWalk method. Data from spatiotemporal parameters Stand, Maximum Intensity, Swing, Swing Speed, Stride Length and Step Cycle were considered. The period of 3 hours post venom-induced injury was considered critical for all parameters evaluated in the right hindlimb. Differences (p<0.05) were concentrated in venom and venom + placebo laser groups during the 3 hours post-injury period, in which the values of stand of most animals were null. After this period, the gait characteristics were re-established for all parameters. The venom + laser group kept the values at 3 hours post-Bjssu equal to that at 24 hours before Bjssu injection indicating that the GaAs laser therapy improved spatially and temporally gait parameters at the critical injury period caused by Bjssu. This is the first study to analyze with cutting edge technology the gait functional deficits caused by snake envenoming and gait gains produced by GaAs laser irradiation. In this sense, the study fills a gap on the field of motor function after laser treatment following snake envenoming.

  17. Low-Level Laser Therapy (904 nm) Counteracts Motor Deficit of Mice Hind Limb following Skeletal Muscle Injury Caused by Snakebite-Mimicking Intramuscular Venom Injection

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Willians Fernando; Kenzo-Kagawa, Bruno; Cogo, José Carlos; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice

    2016-01-01

    Myotoxins present in Bothrops venom disrupt the sarcolemma of muscle fibers leading to the release of sarcoplasmic proteins and loss of muscle homeostasis. Myonecrosis and tissue anoxia induced by vascularization impairment can lead to amputation or motor functional deficit. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamic behavior of motor function in mice subjected to injection of Bothrops jararacussu venom (Bjssu) and exposed to low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Male Swiss mice received Bjssu injection (830 μg/kg) into the medial portion of the right gastrocnemius muscle. Three hours later the injected region was irradiated with diode semiconductor Gallium Arsenide (GaAs– 904 nm, 4 J/cm²) laser following by irradiation at 24, 48 and 72 hours. Saline injection (0.9% NaCl) was used as control. Gait analysis was performed 24 hours before Bjssu injection and at every period post-Bjssu using CatWalk method. Data from spatiotemporal parameters Stand, Maximum Intensity, Swing, Swing Speed, Stride Length and Step Cycle were considered. The period of 3 hours post venom-induced injury was considered critical for all parameters evaluated in the right hindlimb. Differences (p<0.05) were concentrated in venom and venom + placebo laser groups during the 3 hours post-injury period, in which the values of stand of most animals were null. After this period, the gait characteristics were re-established for all parameters. The venom + laser group kept the values at 3 hours post-Bjssu equal to that at 24 hours before Bjssu injection indicating that the GaAs laser therapy improved spatially and temporally gait parameters at the critical injury period caused by Bjssu. This is the first study to analyze with cutting edge technology the gait functional deficits caused by snake envenoming and gait gains produced by GaAs laser irradiation. In this sense, the study fills a gap on the field of motor function after laser treatment following snake envenoming. PMID:27392016

  18. Hind limb muscle atrophy precedes cerebral neuronal degeneration in G93A-SOD1 mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a longitudinal MRI study.

    PubMed

    Marcuzzo, Stefania; Zucca, Ileana; Mastropietro, Alfonso; de Rosbo, Nicole Kerlero; Cavalcante, Paola; Tartari, Silvia; Bonanno, Silvia; Preite, Lorenzo; Mantegazza, Renato; Bernasconi, Pia

    2011-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, fatal, neurodegenerative disorder caused by the degeneration of motor neurons in the CNS, which results in complete paralysis of skeletal muscles. Recent experimental studies have suggested that the disease could initiate in skeletal muscle, rather than in the motor neurons. To establish the timeframe of motor neuron degeneration in relation to muscle atrophy in motor neuron disease, we have used MRI to monitor changes throughout disease in brain and skeletal muscle of G93A-SOD1 mice, a purported model of ALS. Longitudinal MRI examination of the same animals indicated that muscle volume in the G93A-SOD1 mice was significantly reduced from as early as week 8 of life, 4 weeks prior to clinical onset. Progressive muscle atrophy from week 8 onwards was confirmed by histological analysis. In contrast, brain MRI indicated that neurodegeneration occurs later in G93A-SOD1 mice, with hyperintensity MRI signals detected only at weeks 10-18. Neurodegenerative changes were observed only in the motor nuclei areas of the brainstem; MRI changes indicative of neurodegeneration were not detected in the motor cortex where first motor neurons originate, even at the late disease stage. This longitudinal MRI study establishes unequivocally that, in the experimental murine model of ALS, muscle degeneration occurs before any evidence of neurodegeneration and clinical signs, supporting the postulate that motor neuron disease can initiate from muscle damage and result from retrograde dying-back of the motor neurons. PMID:21620832

  19. Automated lower limb prosthesis design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Gulab H.; Commean, Paul K.; Smith, Kirk E.; Vannier, Michael W.

    1994-09-01

    The design of lower limb prostheses requires definitive geometric data to customize socket shape. Optical surface imaging and spiral x-ray computed tomography were applied to geometric analysis of limb residua in below knee (BK) amputees. Residua (limb remnants after amputation) of BK amputees were digitized and measured. Surface (optical) and volumetric (CT) data of the residuum were used to generate solid models and specify socket shape in (SDRC I-DEAS) CAD software. Volume measurements on the solid models were found to correspond within 2% of surface models and direct determinations made using Archimedean weighing. Anatomic 3D reconstruction of the residuum by optical surface and spiral x-ray computed tomography imaging are feasible modalities for prosthesis design.

  20. Congenital Anomalies of the Limbs

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, G.; Mongeau, M.; Moreault, P.; Dupuis, M.; Hebert, B.; Corriveau, C.

    1964-01-01

    As a preparatory step towards the development of a complete habilitation program for children with congenital limb anomalies associated with maternal ingestion of thalidomide, the medical records of all patients with congenital limb anomalies referred to the Rehabilitation Institute of Montreal in the past decade were studied, and an examination and a thorough reassessment were made of 41 patients (21 males and 20 females). In this paper, Part I, the medical and prosthetic aspects are dealt with and a form of management is described for each type of anomaly. The conclusions are reached that prosthetic fitting and training should be initiated very early in life and that co-operation of the parent is essential to successful habilitation of a child with congenital limb anomalies. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:14154297

  1. Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    The common approach to scaling, according to Christopher Dede, a professor of learning technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, is to jump in and say, "Let's go out and find more money, recruit more participants, hire more people. Let's just keep doing the same thing, bigger and bigger." That, he observes, "tends to fail, and fail…

  2. Apparatus for determining changes in limb volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhagat, P. K.; Wu, V. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Measuring apparatus for determining changes in the volume of limbs or other boty extremities by determining the cross-sectional area of such limbs many comprise a transmitter including first and second transducers for positioning on the surface of the limb at a predetermined distance there between, and a receiver including a receiver crystal for positioning on the surface of the limb. The distance between the receiver crystal and the first and second transducers are represented by respective first and second chords of the cross-section of the limb and the predetermined distance between the first and second transducers is represented by a third chord of the limb cross section.

  3. Evaluation of lower limb disability in joint hypermobility syndrome.

    PubMed

    Celletti, Claudia; Castori, Marco; Grammatico, Paola; Camerota, Filippo

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate degree and possible major determinants of lower limb disability in joint hypermobility syndrome. Forty patients with joint hypermobility syndrome were studied. Lower limb function was evaluated with the lower limb functional scale (LEFS). Intensity of pain was estimated by the numeric rating scale. Rough results were compared with previously published data for osteoarthritis patients. Within the studied population, comparisons were performed by age, sex, numeric rating scale and Beighton scores. In joint hypermobility syndrome, LEFS score was similar to osteoarthritis, but in the former, comparable values were observed with a ~10 year earlier onset. LEFS scores resulted significantly related to age, pain intensity and Beighton score. No correlation with sex was observed. This study demonstrated that, in joint hypermobility syndrome, disability of lower limbs is remarkable and related to the increase in pain and age and to the decrease in residual joint hypermobility. These preliminary results may be relevant for the identification of more efficient and tailored treatment programs. PMID:21792643

  4. Radiographic protocol and normal anatomy of the hind feet in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    PubMed

    Dudley, Robert J; Wood, Simon P; Hutchinson, John R; Weller, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Foot pathology is a common and important health concern in captive rhinoceroses worldwide, but osteopathologies are rarely diagnosed, partly because of a lack of radiographic protocols. Here, we aimed to develop the first radiographic protocol for rhinoceros feet and describe the radiographic anatomy of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) hind foot (pes). Computed tomographic images were obtained of nine cadaver pedes from seven different white rhinoceroses and assessed for pathology. A single foot deemed free of pathology was radiographed using a range of different projections and exposures to determine the best protocol. 3D models were produced from the CT images and were displayed with the real radiographs to describe the normal radiographic anatomy of the white rhinoceros pes. An optimal radiographic projection was determined for each bone in the rhinoceros pes focusing on highlighting areas where pathology has been previously described. The projections deemed to be most useful were D60Pr-PlDiO (digit III), D45Pr45M-PlDiLO (digit II), and D40Pr35L-PlDiLO (digit IV). The primary beam was centered 5-7 cm proximal to the cuticle on the digit of interest. Articular surfaces, ridges, grooves, tubercles, processes and fossae were identified. The radiographic protocol we have developed along with the normal radiographic anatomy we have described will allow for more accessible and effective diagnosis of white rhinoceros foot osteopathologies.

  5. A gigantic new dinosaur from Argentina and the evolution of the sauropod hind foot.

    PubMed

    González Riga, Bernardo J; Lamanna, Matthew C; Ortiz David, Leonardo D; Calvo, Jorge O; Coria, Juan P

    2016-01-01

    Titanosauria is an exceptionally diverse, globally-distributed clade of sauropod dinosaurs that includes the largest known land animals. Knowledge of titanosaurian pedal structure is critical to understanding the stance and locomotion of these enormous herbivores and, by extension, gigantic terrestrial vertebrates as a whole. However, completely preserved pedes are extremely rare among Titanosauria, especially as regards the truly giant members of the group. Here we describe Notocolossus gonzalezparejasi gen. et sp. nov. from the Upper Cretaceous of Mendoza Province, Argentina. With a powerfully-constructed humerus 1.76 m in length, Notocolossus is one of the largest known dinosaurs. Furthermore, the complete pes of the new taxon exhibits a strikingly compact, homogeneous metatarsus--seemingly adapted for bearing extraordinary weight--and truncated unguals, morphologies that are otherwise unknown in Sauropoda. The pes underwent a near-progressive reduction in the number of phalanges along the line to derived titanosaurs, eventually resulting in the reduced hind foot of these sauropods. PMID:26777391

  6. A gigantic new dinosaur from Argentina and the evolution of the sauropod hind foot

    PubMed Central

    González Riga, Bernardo J.; Lamanna, Matthew C.; Ortiz David, Leonardo D.; Calvo, Jorge O.; Coria, Juan P.

    2016-01-01

    Titanosauria is an exceptionally diverse, globally-distributed clade of sauropod dinosaurs that includes the largest known land animals. Knowledge of titanosaurian pedal structure is critical to understanding the stance and locomotion of these enormous herbivores and, by extension, gigantic terrestrial vertebrates as a whole. However, completely preserved pedes are extremely rare among Titanosauria, especially as regards the truly giant members of the group. Here we describe Notocolossus gonzalezparejasi gen. et sp. nov. from the Upper Cretaceous of Mendoza Province, Argentina. With a powerfully-constructed humerus 1.76 m in length, Notocolossus is one of the largest known dinosaurs. Furthermore, the complete pes of the new taxon exhibits a strikingly compact, homogeneous metatarsus—seemingly adapted for bearing extraordinary weight—and truncated unguals, morphologies that are otherwise unknown in Sauropoda. The pes underwent a near-progressive reduction in the number of phalanges along the line to derived titanosaurs, eventually resulting in the reduced hind foot of these sauropods. PMID:26777391

  7. Learning about Vertebrate Limb Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Jennifer O.; Noll, Matthew; Olsen, Shayna

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an upper-level undergraduate laboratory exercise that enables students to replicate a key experiment in developmental biology. In this exercise, students have the opportunity to observe live chick embryos and stain the apical ectodermal ridge, a key tissue required for development of the vertebrate limb. Impressively, every…

  8. Acute limb ischemia: contemporary approach.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Ikuo; Chiyoya, Mari; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Wakako

    2015-10-01

    Acute limb ischemia is a critical condition with high mortality and morbidity even after surgical or endovascular intervention. Early recognition is important, but a delayed presentation is not uncommon. Viability of the limb is assessed by motor and sensory function and with interrogating Doppler flow signals in pedal arteries and popliteal veins as categorized by Rutherford. Category IIa indicates mild-to-moderate threat to limb salvage over a time frame without revascularization. Limb ischemia is critical without prompt revascularization in category IIb. Because the risk of reperfusion injury is high in this group of patients, perioperative management is important. In category III, reperfusion is not indicated except for embolism within several hours of onset. Intimal injury should be avoided by careful tactile control of a balloon with a smaller size catheter and under radiographic monitoring. Adjunctive treatment with catheter-directed thrombolysis or bypass surgery is sometimes necessary. Endovascular treatment is a promising option for thrombotic occlusion of an atherosclerotic artery. Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a serious problem. Controlled reperfusion with low-pressure perfusion at a reduced temperature and use of a leukocyte filter should be considered. The initial reperfusate is hyperosmolar, hypocalcemic, slightly alkaline, and contains free radical scavengers such as allopurinol. Immediate hemodialysis is necessary for acute renal injury caused by myoglobinemia. Compartment syndrome should be managed with assessment of intra-compartment pressure and fasciotomy.

  9. Formation and ossification of limb elements in Trachemys scripta and a discussion of autopodial elements in turtles.

    PubMed

    Sheil, Christopher A; Portik, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Though sequences of formation and ossification of bony elements have been described for many taxa, controversy surrounds the formation of limb elements in turtles. Three hypotheses for patterns of formation of autopodial elements have been proposed, differing primarily in the origin of Distal Carpal/Tarsal 3, the digital arch, and Centrale 4. Patterns of formation and ossification of limb elements are described for Trachemys scripta. These patterns are compared to similar data for representatives of four families of turtles (Cheloniidae, Chelydridae, Emydidae, and Trionychidae). Hypotheses of limb formation are compared in the context of new and published data. Three species (Trachemys scripta, Chrysemys picta, and Chelydra serpentina) suggest that Distal Carpal 3 forms by branching from the ulnare, whereas Distal Carpal 3 may branch from Distal Carpal 4 in Macrochelys temminckii and Chelonia mydas; data from Graptemys nigrinoda, Apalone spinifera, and Eretmochelys imbricata did not provide evidence for the origin of Distal Carpal 3. Centrale 4 was not observed to branch from the ulnare and apparently arises by de-novo condensation. Distal Carpal 4 did not branch from Centrale 4 in any species. Until the developmental origins of Distal Carpal 3 and Centrale 4 are understood, interspecific variation in the origin of these elements remains, and may explain some of the observed differences. Trends of ossification in the fore- and hind limb autopodium also are summarized. Homology of elements in pedal Digit V is discussed, and we suggest that the hooked proximal element of this digit be recognized as Distal Tarsal 5. PMID:18624573

  10. Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  11. Scales

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  12. Psychophysical correlates of phantom limb experience.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, J

    1992-01-01

    Phantom limb phenomena were correlated with psychophysiological measures of peripheral sympathetic nervous system activity measured at the amputation stump and contralateral limb. Amputees were assigned to one of three groups depending on whether they reported phantom limb pain, non-painful phantom limb sensations, or no phantom limb at all. Skin conductance and skin temperature were recorded continuously during two 30 minute sessions while subjects continuously monitored and rated the intensity of any phantom limb sensation or pain they experienced. The results from both sessions showed that mean skin temperature was significantly lower at the stump than the contralateral limb in the groups with phantom limb pain and non-painful phantom limb sensations, but not among subjects with no phantom limb at all. In addition, stump skin conductance responses correlated significantly with the intensity of non-painful phantom limb paresthesiae but not other qualities of sensation or pain. Between-limb measures of pressure sensitivity were not significantly different in any group. The results suggest that the presence of a phantom limb, whether painful or painless, is related to the sympathetic-efferent outflow of cutaneous vasoconstrictor fibres in the stump and stump neuromas. The hypothesis of a sympathetic-efferent somatic-afferent mechanism involving both sudomotor and vasoconstrictor fibres is proposed to explain the relationship between stump skin conductance responses and non-painful phantom limb paresthesiae. It is suggested that increases in the intensity of phantom limb paresthesiae follow bursts of sympathetic activity due to neurotransmitter release onto apposing sprouts of large diameter primary afferents located in stump neuromas, and decreases correspond to periods of relative sympathetic inactivity. The results of the study agree with recent suggestions that phantom limb pain is not a unitary syndrome, but a symptom class with each class subserved by

  13. Restriction endonucleases HindII and TaqI cleave DNA with mismatched nucleotides within their recognition sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Jiricny, J; Martin, D

    1986-01-01

    Restriction endonucleases HindII and TaqI, but not SalI, were found to efficiently cleave synthetic hexadecanucleotide duplexes which contained either an A/C or a G/T mismatch within their respective restriction sites. Double-stranded M13 DNAs with identical mismatches were also cleaved under the assay conditions. These results suggest that the distortion of the DNA duplex, caused by these purine/pyrimidine mismatches is not sufficiently large so as to interfere with the recognition and the subsequent cleavage of the DNA by these two enzymes. HindII and SalI, but not TaqI, were furthermore shown to hydrolyze the two strands of the duplex with different rates. The differences between the mode of recognition of their respective restriction sites by these three enzymes are discussed. Images PMID:3008080

  14. Benefits for Dominant Red Deer Hinds under a Competitive Feeding System: Food Access Behavior, Diet and Nutrient Selection

    PubMed Central

    Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J.; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Bartošová, Jitka; Bartoš, Ludek; Gallego, Laureano

    2012-01-01

    Social dominance is widely known to facilitate access to food resources in many animal species such as deer. However, research has paid little attention to dominance in ad libitum access to food because it was thought not to result in any benefit for dominant individuals. In this study we assessed if, even under ad libitum conditions, social rank may allow dominant hinds to consume the preferred components of food. Forty-four red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus) were allowed to consume ad libitum meal consisting of pellets of sunflower, lucerne and orange, and seeds of cereals, corn, cotton, and carob tree. The meal was placed only in one feeder, which reduced accessibility to a few individuals simultaneously. During seven days, feeding behavior (order of access, time to first feeding bout, total time spent feeding, and time per feeding bout) were assessed during the first hour. The relative abundance of each meal component was assessed at times 0, 1 and 5 h, as well as its nutritional composition. Social rank was positively related to the amount of time spent feeding during the 1st h (P = 0.048). Selection indices were positively correlated with energy (P = 0.018 during the 1st h and P = 0.047 from 1st to 5th) and fat (only during the 1st h; P = 0.036), but also negatively with certain minerals. Thus, dominant hinds could select high energy meal components for longer time under an ad libitum but restricted food access setting. Selection indices showed a higher selectivity when food availability was higher (1st hour respect to 1st to 5th). Finally, high and low ranking hinds had longer time per feeding bout than mid ones (P = 0.011), suggesting complex behavioral feeding tactics of low ranking social ungulates. PMID:22403707

  15. Benefits for dominant red deer hinds under a competitive feeding system: food access behavior, diet and nutrient selection.

    PubMed

    Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Bartošová, Jitka; Bartoš, Ludek; Gallego, Laureano

    2012-01-01

    Social dominance is widely known to facilitate access to food resources in many animal species such as deer. However, research has paid little attention to dominance in ad libitum access to food because it was thought not to result in any benefit for dominant individuals. In this study we assessed if, even under ad libitum conditions, social rank may allow dominant hinds to consume the preferred components of food. Forty-four red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus) were allowed to consume ad libitum meal consisting of pellets of sunflower, lucerne and orange, and seeds of cereals, corn, cotton, and carob tree. The meal was placed only in one feeder, which reduced accessibility to a few individuals simultaneously. During seven days, feeding behavior (order of access, time to first feeding bout, total time spent feeding, and time per feeding bout) were assessed during the first hour. The relative abundance of each meal component was assessed at times 0, 1 and 5 h, as well as its nutritional composition. Social rank was positively related to the amount of time spent feeding during the 1(st) h (P = 0.048). Selection indices were positively correlated with energy (P = 0.018 during the 1(st) h and P = 0.047 from 1(st) to 5(th)) and fat (only during the 1(st) h; P = 0.036), but also negatively with certain minerals. Thus, dominant hinds could select high energy meal components for longer time under an ad libitum but restricted food access setting. Selection indices showed a higher selectivity when food availability was higher (1(st) hour respect to 1(st) to 5(th)). Finally, high and low ranking hinds had longer time per feeding bout than mid ones (P = 0.011), suggesting complex behavioral feeding tactics of low ranking social ungulates.

  16. Possible living fossil in Bolivia: A new genus of flea beetles with modified hind legs (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini).

    PubMed

    Konstantinov, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    A new genus (Chanealtica) with three new species (Chanealtica cuevas, Chanealtica ellimon, and Chanealtica maxi) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is compared with Aphthonoides Jacoby, 1885, Argopistes Motschulsky, 1860, Metroserrapha Bechyne, 1958, Psylliodes Berthold, 1827 and Psyllototus Nadein, 2010. Remarkably, based on the available characters, among all the flea beetles, Chanealtica is mostly similar to an extinct genus Psyllototus. A discussion of diversity and function of the hind leg in flea beetles is provided.

  17. Possible living fossil in Bolivia: A new genus of flea beetles with modified hind legs (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini)

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinov, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new genus (Chanealtica) with three new species (Chanealtica cuevas, Chanealtica ellimon, and Chanealtica maxi) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is compared with Aphthonoides Jacoby, 1885, Argopistes Motschulsky, 1860, Metroserrapha Bechyne, 1958, Psylliodes Berthold, 1827 and Psyllototus Nadein, 2010. Remarkably, based on the available characters, among all the flea beetles, Chanealtica is mostly similar to an extinct genus Psyllototus. A discussion of diversity and function of the hind leg in flea beetles is provided. PMID:27408546

  18. From fins to limbs to fins: limb evolution in fossil marine reptiles.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Michael W

    2002-10-15

    Limb osteology and ontogenetic patterns of limb ossification are reviewed for extinct lineages of aquatically adapted diapsid reptiles. Phylogenies including these fossil taxa show that paddle-like limbs were independently derived, and that the varied limb morphologies were produced by evolutionary modifications to different aspects of the limb skeleton. Ancient marine reptiles modify the limb by reducing the relative size of the epipodials, modifying the perichondral and periosteal surface of elements distal to the propodials, and evolving extremes of hyperphalangy and hyperdactyly. Developmental genetic models illuminate gene systems that may have controlled limb evolution in these animals. PMID:12357467

  19. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension. Quarterly report no. 10, August, September, and October, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-15

    The basic goal of the Limestone Injection Mitigation Burner (LIMB) demonstration is to extend LIMB technology development to a full- scale application on a representative wall-fired utility boiler. The successful retrofit of LIMB to an existing boiler is expected to demonstrate that (a) reductions of 50 percent or greater in SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions can be achieved at a fraction of the cost of add-on FGD systems, (b) boiler reliability, operability, and steam production can be maintained at levels existing prior to LIMB retrofit, and (c) technical difficulties attributable to LIMB operation, such as additional slagging and fouling, changes in ash disposal requirements, and an increased particulate load, can be resolved in a cost-effective manner. The primary fuel to be used will be an Ohio bituminous coal having a nominal sulfur content of 3 percent or greater.

  20. Effect of Royal Jelly on Formalin Induced-Inflammation in Rat Hind Paw

    PubMed Central

    Arzi, Ardeshir; Olapour, Samaneh; Yaghooti, Hamid; Sistani Karampour, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Royal Jelly (RJ), a food item secreted by worker honeybees, is a mixture that contains protein, glucose, lipid, vitamins, and minerals; it is widely used as a commercial medical product. Previous studies have shown that RJ has a number of physiological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antiallergic and antioxidant activities. Objectives: In the present study, the anti-inflammatory properties of RJ were investigated in formalin-induced rat paw edema. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into five equal groups (n = 6) as follows: test groups received different doses (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, ip) of RJ and a negative control group received normal saline (5 mL/kg) and a positive control group received aspirin (300 mg/kg, i.p). Edema was induced on the right hind paw of the rat by a subplantar injection of 100 µL of formalin (2.5%) after 30 minutes. Paw edema was measured in the rats received the drugs, saline and aspirin before and after the formalin injection during 5 hours, using a plethysmometer. Results: The results showed that RJ has a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect and the highest anti-inflammatory effect was observed in the doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg. Conclusions: Royal jelly has potent anti-inflammatory effects compared to aspirin and it could be used in the treatment of inflammation. However, further studies are required to determine the active components in RJ responsible for this effect and its mechanism of action. PMID:25866724

  1. Evolutionary Constraints in Hind Wing Shape in Chinese Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae)

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ming; McCullough, Erin; Song, Ke-Qing; Liu, Wan-Gang; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2011-01-01

    paper sheds new light on the evolution of dung beetle hind wings. PMID:21738727

  2. Noninvasive Multimodal Imaging to Predict Recovery of Locomotion after Extended Limb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Radowsky, Jason S.; Caruso, Joseph D.; Luthra, Rajiv; Bradley, Matthew J.; Elster, Eric A.; Forsberg, Jonathan A.; Crane, Nicole J.

    2015-01-01

    Acute limb ischemia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality following trauma both in civilian centers and in combat related injuries. Rapid determination of tissue viability and surgical restoration of blood flow are desirable, but not always possible. We sought to characterize the response to increasing periods of hind limb ischemia in a porcine model such that we could define a period of critical ischemia (the point after which irreversible neuromuscular injury occurs), evaluate non-invasive methods for characterizing that ischemia, and establish a model by which we could predict whether or not the animal’s locomotion would return to baselines levels post-operatively. Ischemia was induced by either application of a pneumatic tourniquet or vessel occlusion (performed by clamping the proximal iliac artery and vein at the level of the inguinal ligament). The limb was monitored for the duration of the procedure with both 3-charge coupled device (3CCD) and infrared (IR) imaging for tissue oxygenation and perfusion, respectively. The experimental arms of this model are effective at inducing histologically evident muscle injury with some evidence of expected secondary organ damage, particularly in animals with longer ischemia times. Noninvasive imaging data shows excellent correlation with post-operative functional outcomes, validating its use as a non-invasive means of viability assessment, and directly monitors post-occlusive reactive hyperemia. A classification model, based on partial-least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) of imaging variables only, successfully classified animals as “returned to normal locomotion” or “did not return to normal locomotion” with 87.5% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity after cross-validation. PLSDA models generated from non-imaging data were not as accurate (AUC of 0.53) compared the PLSDA model generated from only imaging data (AUC of 0.76). With some modification, this limb ischemia model could also serve as a

  3. Magnetic Fields in Limb Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozitsky, V. G.; Lozitska, N. I.; Botygina, O. A.

    2013-02-01

    Two limb solar flares, of 14 July 2005 and 19 July 2012, of importance X1.2 and M7.7, are analyzed at present work. Magnetic field strength in named flares are investigated by Stokes I±V profiles of Hα and D3 HeI lines. There are direct evidences to the magnetic field inhomogeneity in flares, in particular, non-paralelism of bisectors in I+V and I-V profiles. In some flare places, the local maximums of bisectors splitting were found in both lines. If these bisector splittings are interpreted as Zeeman effect manifestation, the following magnetic field strengths reach up to 2200 G in Hα and 1300 G in D3. According to calculations, the observed peculiarities of line profiles may indicate the existence of optically thick emissive small-scale elements with strong magnetic fields and lowered temperature.

  4. Managing residual limb hyperhidrosis in wounded warriors.

    PubMed

    Pace, Sarah; Kentosh, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    Residual limb dermatologic problems are a common concern among young active traumatic amputee patients who strive to maintain an active lifestyle. Hyperhidrosis of residual limbs is a recognized inciting factor that often contributes to residual limb dermatoses and is driven by the design of the prosthetic liner covering the residual limb. Treatment of hyperhidrosis in this population presents a unique challenge. Several accepted treatments of hyperhidrosis can offer some relief but have been limited by lack of results or side-effect profiles. Microwave thermal ablation has presented an enticing potential for residual limb hyperhidrosis. PMID:27416083

  5. Construction and validation of a microprocessor controlled extracorporal circuit in rats for the optimization of isolated limb perfusion.

    PubMed

    Gürtler, Ulrich; Fuchs, Peter; Stangelmayer, Achim; Bernhardt, Günther; Buschauer, Armin; Spruss, Thilo

    2004-12-01

    Although a few experimental approaches to isolated limb perfusion (ILP) are described in the literature, none of these animal models mimics the clinical perfusion techniques adequately to improve the technique of ILP on the basis of valid preclinical data. Therefore, we developed an ILP setup in rats allowing online monitoring of essential perfusion parameters such as temperature (in perfusate, various tissues, and rectum), pH (perfusate), perfusion pressure, and O(2) concentration (in perfusate, tissue), by a tailor-made data acquisition system. This setup permits close supervision of vital parameters during ILP. Various interdependencies, concerning the flow rate and the pressure of perfusate as well as tissue oxygenation were registered. For the measurement of pO(2) values in the perfusate and in different regions of the perfused hind limb, a novel type of microoptode based on quenching of a fluorescent dye was devised. Stable normothermic (37 degrees C) perfusion conditions were maintained at a constant perfusion pressure in the range of 40-60 mm Hg by administration of the spasmo lytic moxaverine (0.5 mg/mL of perfusate as initial dose) at a perfusate flow rate of 0.5 mL/min for 60 min. At the end of an ILP, there were no signs of tissue damage, neither concerning laboratory data (K(+), myoglobin, creatine kinase, lactic dehydrogenase) nor histopathological criteria. The reported ILP model is not only well suited to investigate the effects of hyperthermia but also to assess the efficacy of new antineoplastic approaches, when nude rats, bearing human tumours in the hind limbs, are used.

  6. Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at Riverland Dingo Observatory (RDO): 501 Urhixidur, 1897 Hind, 1928 Summa, 6261 Chione, and (68216) 2001 CV 26.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Lightcurves for five asteroids selected from the Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL) were obtained at Riverland Dingo Observatory (RDO) from 2012 July-September: 501 Urhixidur, 1897 Hind, 1928 Summa, 6261 Chione, and (68216) 2001 CV26.

  7. Orthoses of the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Bogucki, A

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the medical indications and contemporary technological capabilities in the orthotic treatment of the upper limb. The devices that today constitute an integral part of therapeutic procedures are presented, as well as the potential created by the application of low-temperature thermoplastic materials. Therapeutic success is conditioned by professional cooperation between the physician, the kinesitherapist, the orthotic technician, and the patient. PMID:17984921

  8. Gremlin1 induces anterior-posterior limb bifurcations in developing Xenopus limbs but does not enhance limb regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Hsuan; Keenan, Samuel R; Lynn, Jeremy; McEwan, James C; Beck, Caroline W

    2015-11-01

    Gremlin1 (grem1) has been previously identified as being significantly up-regulated during regeneration of Xenopus laevis limbs. Grem1 is an antagonist of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) with a known role in limb development in amniotes. It forms part of a self-regulating feedback loop linking epithelial (FGF) and mesenchymal (shh) signalling centres, thereby controlling outgrowth, anterior posterior and proximal distal patterning. Spatiotemporal regulation of the same genes in developing and regenerating Xenopus limb buds supports conservation of this mechanism. Using a heat shock inducible grem1 (G) transgene to created temperature regulated stable lines, we have shown that despite being upregulated in regeneration, grem1 overexpression does not enhance regeneration of tadpole hindlimbs. However, both the regenerating and contralateral, developing limb of G transgenics developed skeletal defects, suggesting that overexpressing grem1 negatively affects limb patterning. When grem1 expression was targeted earlier in limb bud development, we saw dramatic bifurcations of the limbs resulting in duplication of anterior posterior (AP) pattern, forming a phenotypic continuum ranging from duplications arising at the level of the femoral head to digit bifurcations, but never involving the pelvis. Intriguingly, the original limbs have AP pattern inversion due to de-restricted Shh signalling. We discuss a possible role for Grem1 regulation of limb BMPs in regulation of branching pattern in the limbs.

  9. Gremlin1 induces anterior-posterior limb bifurcations in developing Xenopus limbs but does not enhance limb regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Hsuan; Keenan, Samuel R; Lynn, Jeremy; McEwan, James C; Beck, Caroline W

    2015-11-01

    Gremlin1 (grem1) has been previously identified as being significantly up-regulated during regeneration of Xenopus laevis limbs. Grem1 is an antagonist of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) with a known role in limb development in amniotes. It forms part of a self-regulating feedback loop linking epithelial (FGF) and mesenchymal (shh) signalling centres, thereby controlling outgrowth, anterior posterior and proximal distal patterning. Spatiotemporal regulation of the same genes in developing and regenerating Xenopus limb buds supports conservation of this mechanism. Using a heat shock inducible grem1 (G) transgene to created temperature regulated stable lines, we have shown that despite being upregulated in regeneration, grem1 overexpression does not enhance regeneration of tadpole hindlimbs. However, both the regenerating and contralateral, developing limb of G transgenics developed skeletal defects, suggesting that overexpressing grem1 negatively affects limb patterning. When grem1 expression was targeted earlier in limb bud development, we saw dramatic bifurcations of the limbs resulting in duplication of anterior posterior (AP) pattern, forming a phenotypic continuum ranging from duplications arising at the level of the femoral head to digit bifurcations, but never involving the pelvis. Intriguingly, the original limbs have AP pattern inversion due to de-restricted Shh signalling. We discuss a possible role for Grem1 regulation of limb BMPs in regulation of branching pattern in the limbs. PMID:26527308

  10. Nucleotide sequence of the BamHI repetitive sequence, including the HindIII fundamental unit, as a possible mobile element from the Japanese monkey Macaca fuscata.

    PubMed

    Prassolov, V S; Kuchino, Y; Nemoto, K; Nishimura, S

    1986-01-01

    Clustered repeat units produced by BamHI digestion of genomic DNA from the Japanese monkey Macaca fuscata [JMr(BamHI)] were sequenced by dideoxy DNA sequencing. The nucleotide sequences of several individual repeats showed that the BamHI repeat contains the 170-bp HindIII element as an integral part, and that it has more than 90% homology with the HindIII repeat element [AGMr(HindIII)] found in the genomic DNA of the African green monkey. In the JMr(BamHI) repeat unit, the 170-bp HindIII element is flanked by a 6-bp inverted repeat, which is part of a 22-bp direct repeat. This latter repeat of 22-bp asymmetrically overlaps the border between the internal AGMr(HindIII)-like region and adjacent regions of the JMr(BamHI) repeat. A similar structural feature of the BamHI repeat unit has been found in the genomic DNA of the baboon, but not in that of the African green monkey. These results show clearly that the BamHI repeat of the modern Japanese monkey originated as a result of insertion of an AGMr(HindIII) element into a certain site(s) of the genomic DNA of an ancestor of the modern Japanese monkey before Macaca-Cercocebus divergence.

  11. Lack of association between the HindIII RFLP of the osteocalcin (BGP) gene and bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy pre- and postmenopausal Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xiao-Yang; Cao, Chi-Ke; Xu, Fu-Hua; Liu, Man-Yuan; Li, Miao-Xin; Qin, Yue-Juan; Zhou, Qi; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2004-01-01

    In Caucasian populations, the polymorphic restriction endonuclease HindIII marker of the osteocalcin (also known as BGP, for bone Gla protein) gene has recently been reported to be associated with bone mass, a major risk determinant of osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the BGP HindIII polymorphism and bone mineral density (BMD) in 388 premenopausal (31.18 +/- 5.92 years) and 169 postmenopausal (58.90 +/- 6.27 years) Chinese women. The BMD of spine and hip was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). All the study subjects were genotyped at the HindIII site of the BGP gene by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) detecting methods. The BGP alleles were designated according to the absence ( H) or presence ( h) of the HindIII restriction site. We did not find any significant difference in spine and hip BMD across BGP genotypes in either pre- or postmenopausal women or the combined group. Our result is not consistent with recent reports that the HindIII marker of the BGP gene is associated with osteoporosis. The different findings may reflect inter-population differences in the association (i.e., linkage disequilibrium) of molecular markers with BMD, and indicate the limit of using the HindIII marker of the BGP gene as a genetic marker to discern women susceptible to low BMD and thus osteoporosis in Chinese.

  12. Exposure of the cat limb to @5C for 5 hours increases capillary permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.X.; Porter, L.P.; Wolf, M.B. )

    1991-03-11

    The authors previous study showed that 1 hr exposure to {approximately}5C temperatures did not decrease the solvent drag reflection coefficient ({sigma}{sub f}) for total plasma proteins in the isolated, constant-flow perfused cat hind limb. The present study determined if 5 hrs of cold exposure could increase permeability (decrease {sigma}{sub f}). {sigma}{sub f} was measured with their IMB method after lowering limb temperature to 3-6C by cooling the perfusing blood and the ambient air. To prevent edema at this low temperature, venous pressure had to be lowered to just above venous collapse and flow to {lt}2 ml/min/100g. 1 hr exposure to {approximately}5C did not reduce {sigma}{sub f} from the 37C control, but 5 hrs of exposure at {approximately}5C significantly reduced {sigma}{sub f} from 0.87 to 0.69. Hence, 5 hrs of perfusion at these low temperatures can cause a non-freezing cold injury with an increase in capillary permeability and edema formation. Also, the edema is enhanced by an increase in capillary hydrostatic pressure secondary to a venous resistance increase.

  13. Neovascularization Capacity of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells From Critical Limb Ischemia Patients Is Equivalent to Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Gremmels, Hendrik; Teraa, Martin; Quax, Paul HA; den Ouden, Krista; Fledderus, Joost O; Verhaar, Marianne C

    2014-01-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is often poorly treatable by conventional management and alternatives such as autologous cell therapy are increasingly investigated. Whereas previous studies showed a substantial impairment of neovascularization capacity in primary bone-marrow (BM) isolates from patients, little is known about dysfunction in patient-derived BM mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). In this study, we have compared CLI-MSCs to healthy controls using gene expression profiling and functional assays for differentiation, senescence and in vitro and in vivo pro-angiogenic ability. Whereas no differentially expressed genes were found and adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation did not significantly differ between groups, chondrogenic differentiation was impaired in CLI-MSCs, potentially as a consequence of increased senescence. Migration experiments showed no differences in growth factor sensitivity and secretion between CLI- and control MSCs. In a murine hind-limb ischemia model, recovery of perfusion was enhanced in MSC-treated mice compared to vehicle controls (71 ± 24% versus 44 ± 11%; P < 1 × 10−6). CLI-MSC- and control-MSC–treated animals showed nearly identical amounts of reperfusion (ratio CLI:Control = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.82–1.14), meeting our criteria for statistical equivalence. The neovascularization capacity of MSCs derived from CLI-patients is not compromised and equivalent to that of control MSCs, suggesting that autologous MSCs are suitable for cell therapy in CLI patients. PMID:25174586

  14. Psychophysical Evaluation of the Capability for Phantom Limb Movement in Forearm Amputees.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Noritaka; Mita, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    A phantom limb is the sensation that an amputated limb is still attached to the body and is moving together with other body parts. Phantom limb phenomenon is often described on the basis of the patient's subjective sense, for example as represented using a visual analog scale (VAS). The aim of this study was to propose a novel quantification method for behavioral aspect of phantom limb by psychophysics. Twelve unilateral forearm amputees were asked to perform phantom wrist motion with various motion frequencies (60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240% of preferred speed). The attainment of phantom limb motion in each session was rated by the VAS ranging from 0 (hard) to 10 (easy). The relationship between the VAS and motion frequency was mathematically fitted by quadric function, and the value of shift and the degree of steepness were obtained as evaluation variables for the phantom limb movement. In order to test whether the proposed method can reasonably quantify the characteristics of phantom limb motion, we compared the variables among three different phantom limb movement conditions: (1) unilateral (phantom only), (2) bimanual, and (3) bimanual wrist movement with mirror reflection-induced visual feedback (MVF). While VAS rating showed a larger extent of inter- and intra-subject variability, the relationship of the VAS in response to motion frequency could be fitted by quadric curve, and the obtained parameters based on quadric function well characterize task-dependent changes in phantom limb movement. The present results suggest the potential usefulness of psychophysical evaluation as a validate assessment tool of phantom limb condition. PMID:27227973

  15. Psychophysical Evaluation of the Capability for Phantom Limb Movement in Forearm Amputees

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Noritaka; Mita, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    A phantom limb is the sensation that an amputated limb is still attached to the body and is moving together with other body parts. Phantom limb phenomenon is often described on the basis of the patient’s subjective sense, for example as represented using a visual analog scale (VAS). The aim of this study was to propose a novel quantification method for behavioral aspect of phantom limb by psychophysics. Twelve unilateral forearm amputees were asked to perform phantom wrist motion with various motion frequencies (60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240% of preferred speed). The attainment of phantom limb motion in each session was rated by the VAS ranging from 0 (hard) to 10 (easy). The relationship between the VAS and motion frequency was mathematically fitted by quadric function, and the value of shift and the degree of steepness were obtained as evaluation variables for the phantom limb movement. In order to test whether the proposed method can reasonably quantify the characteristics of phantom limb motion, we compared the variables among three different phantom limb movement conditions: (1) unilateral (phantom only), (2) bimanual, and (3) bimanual wrist movement with mirror reflection-induced visual feedback (MVF). While VAS rating showed a larger extent of inter- and intra-subject variability, the relationship of the VAS in response to motion frequency could be fitted by quadric curve, and the obtained parameters based on quadric function well characterize task-dependent changes in phantom limb movement. The present results suggest the potential usefulness of psychophysical evaluation as a validate assessment tool of phantom limb condition. PMID:27227973

  16. Mangling upper limb injuries in industry.

    PubMed

    Ring, D; Jupiter, J B

    1999-01-01

    The salvage of upper limbs mangled by industrial machinery became possible with the development of predictable techniques of vascular and microvascular anastamosis. Unfortunately, many of these salvaged limbs are associated with fair and poor functional outcomes. The quality of the skeletal fixation can have a substantial effect on the functional outcome and should be a major focus of the limb repair process. Internal plate fixation facilitates wound care and limb mobilization without tethering muscle-tendon units and is safe in the majority of severe upper limb injuries provided that all devitalized tissue is debrided and, if necessary, reconstructed using microvascular tissue transfers. Injury patterns, especially those which involve associated injury of the elbow or forearm ligaments, must be identified and treated appropriately. Internal fixation should restore anatomical alignment and provide sufficient stability to allow immediate active mobilization of the limb without contributing to devascularization of the soft tissues or skeleton. PMID:10562855

  17. Vertical Distribution of Aersols and Water Vapor Using CRISM Limb Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd

    2011-01-01

    Near-infrared spectra taken in a limb-viewing geometry by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on-board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) provide a useful tool for probing atmospheric structure. Specifically, the observed radiance as a function of wavelength and height above the limb allows the vertical distribution of both dust and ice aerosols to be retrieved. These data serve as an important supplement to the aerosol profiling provided by the MRO/MCS instrument allowing independent validation and giving additional information on particle physical and scattering properties through multi-wavelength studies. A total of at least ten CRISM limb observations have been taken so far covering a full Martian year. Each set of limb observations nominally contains about four dozen scans across the limb giving pole-to-pole coverage for two orbits at roughly 100 and 290 W longitude over the Tharsis and Syrtis/Hellas regions, respectively. At each longitude, limb scans are spaced roughly 10 degrees apart in latitude, with a vertical spatial resolution on the limb of roughly 800 m. Radiative transfer modeling is used to model the observations. We compute synthetic CRISM limb spectra using a discrete-ordinates radiative transfer code that accounts for multiple scattering from aerosols and accounts for spherical geometry of the limb observations by integrating the source functions along curved paths in that coordinate system. Retrieved are 14-point vertical profiles for dust and water ice aerosols with resolution of 0.4 scale heights between one and six scale heights above the surface. After the aerosol retrieval is completed, the abundances of C02 (or surface pressure) and H20 gas are retrieved by matching the depth of absorption bands at 2000 nm for carbon dioxide and at 2600 run for water vapor. In addition to the column abundance of water vapor, limited information on its vertical structure can also be retrieved depending on the signal

  18. Endovascular Techniques in Limb Salvage: Stents

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Hosam F.

    2013-01-01

    In patients with critical limb ischemia, the first-line approach for limb salvage has shifted over the past decade from bypass surgery to endovascular intervention. Stenting for the treatment of lower-extremity arterial occlusive disease is an important tool and continues to evolve, with new stent designs and technologies that have been developed to provide superior patency rates and limb salvage. In this article, we discuss the role of peripheral stenting in the treatment of patients with critical limb ischemia, including a review of the relevant current literature and the future directions of such interventions. PMID:23805339

  19. Validation of NIRS in measuring tissue hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation on ex vivo and isolated limb models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaorong; Zhu, Wen; Padival, Vikram; Xia, Mengna; Cheng, Xuefeng; Bush, Robin; Christenson, Linda; Chan, Tim; Doherty, Tim; Iatridis, Angelo

    2003-07-01

    Photonify"s tissue spectrometer uses Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for real-time, noninvasive measurement of hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation [SO2] of biological tissues. The technology was validated by a series of ex vivo and animal studies. In the ex vivo experiment, a close loop blood circulation system was built, precisely controlling the oxygen saturation and the hemoglobin concentration of a liquid phantom. Photonify"s tissue spectrometer was placed on the surface of the liquid phantom for real time measurement and compared with a gas analyzer, considered the gold standard to measure oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration. In the animal experiment, the right hind limb of each dog accepted onto the study was surgically removed. The limb was kept viable by connecting the femoral vein and artery to a blood-primed extracorporeal circuit. Different concentrations of hemoglobin were obtained by adding designated amount of saline solution into the perfusion circuit. Photonify"s tissue spectrometers measured oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration at various locations on the limb and compared with gas analyzer results. The test results demonstrated that Photonify"s tissue spectrometers were able to detect the relative changes in tissue oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration with a high linear correlation compared to the gas analyzer

  20. The accessory limb model: an alternative experimental system of limb regeneration.

    PubMed

    Endo, Tetsuya; Gardiner, David M; Makanae, Aki; Satoh, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Accessory limb model (ALM) was developed as an experimental model and functional assay for limb regeneration. The ALM provides several ways to identify pathways and test for signaling molecules that regulate limb regeneration. Here, we summarize the history of the ALM and describe the specific details involved in inducing ectopic blastemas and limbs from a skin wound on the side of the arm. PMID:25740480

  1. Extracellular Control of Limb Regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calve, S.; Simon, H.-G.

    Adult newts possess the ability to completely regenerate organs and appendages. Immediately after limb loss, the extracellular matrix (ECM) undergoes dramatic changes that may provide mechanical and biochemical cues to guide the formation of the blastema, which is comprised of uncommitted stem-like cells that proliferate to replace the lost structure. Skeletal muscle is a known reservoir for blastema cells but the mechanism by which it contributes progenitor cells is still unclear. To create physiologically relevant culture conditions for the testing of primary newt muscle cells in vitro, the spatio-temporal distribution of ECM components and the mechanical properties of newt muscle were analyzed. Tenascin-C and hyaluronic acid (HA) were found to be dramatically upregulated in the amputated limb and were co-expressed around regenerating skeletal muscle. The transverse stiffness of muscle measured in situ was used as a guide to generate silicone-based substrates of physiological stiffness. Culturing newt muscle cells under different conditions revealed that the cells are sensitive to both matrix coating and substrate stiffness: Myoblasts on HA-coated soft substrates display a rounded morphology and become more elongated as the stiffness of the substrate increases. Coating of soft substrates with matrigel or fibronectin enhanced cell spreading and eventual cell fusion.

  2. Thermographic evaluation of hind paw skin temperature and functional recovery of locomotion after sciatic nerve crush in rats

    PubMed Central

    Z. Sacharuk, Viviane; A. Lovatel, Gisele; Ilha, Jocemar; Marcuzzo, Simone; Severo do Pinho, Alexandre; L. Xavier, Léder; A. Zaro, Milton; Achaval, Matilde

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Peripheral nerves are often damaged by direct mechanical injury, diseases, and tumors. The peripheral nerve injuries that result from these conditions can lead to a partial or complete loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic functions, which in turn are related to changes in skin temperature, in the involved segments of the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in hind paw skin temperature after sciatic nerve crush in rats in an attempt to determine whether changes in skin temperature correlate with the functional recovery of locomotion. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (n = 7), sham (n = 25), and crush (n = 25). All groups were subjected to thermographic, functional, and histological assessments. RESULTS: ΔT in the crush group was different from the control and sham groups at the 1st, 3rd and 7rd postoperative days (p<0.05). The functional recovery from the crush group returned to normal values between the 3rd and 4th week post-injury, and morphological analysis of the nerve revealed incomplete regeneration at the 4th week after injury. DISCUSSION: This study is the first demonstration that sciatic nerve crush in rats induces an increase in hind paw skin temperature and that skin temperature changes do not correlate closely with functional recovery PMID:21876984

  3. Transcription and translation mapping of the 13 genes in the vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment.

    PubMed

    Lee-Chen, G J; Niles, E G

    1988-03-01

    The vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment is 160,060 bp in length and encodes 13 complete open reading frames [Niles et al. (1986) Virology 153, 96-112; S. L. Weinrich and D. E. Hruby (1986). Nucleic Acids Res. 14, 3003-3016]. We have employed a two-step Northern hybridization protocol using single-stranded DNA probes from M13 recombinants in order to identify the mRNA products from the 13 genes. Six of these genes are expressed only at early times after infection; six are transcribed only at late times; one gene is expressed at both early and late times after virus infection. The D11 gene is transcribed into two late mRNA species, one full-length and the other derived from the 3' one-third of the coding sequence. Translation of hybrid-selected mRNA was carried out in an attempt to identify the protein products encoded by each mRNA. Protein products were found for each early gene but translation was successful for only two of the eight late mRNAs. With the completion of the physical map it is apparent that the early and late genes in the HindIII D fragment are arranged in order to minimize potential interference caused by the expression of closely packed viral genes.

  4. Allometric scaling for chemical restraint in greater Rheas (Rhea americana) with Tiletamine and Zolazepam

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chemical restraint is of great importance in the clinical practice of wildlife animals. In such, interspecific allometric scaling proposes pharmacological doses to a wide range of species, based on previously known doses for domestic animals and the target animal’s body mass. The objective was to compare chemical restraint responses in the greater rhea (Rhea americana) with conventional doses of tiletamine/zolazepam, found in the literature for the species, and with doses calculated through interspecific allometric scaling extrapolation. From the Federal University of Piauí, six adult greater rheas (Rhea americana), three males and three females, were randomly selected to be subjects in this research. All six animals were submitted to two chemical restraint protocols with tiletamine and zolazepam, per intramuscular injection in the hind limb. The first protocol was composed of doses found on the literature for the species, while the second protocol used doses calculated by interspecific allometric scaling, with the domestic dog as model animal. Heart and respiratory rates, body temperature, eyelid reflex, digital pinch and metatarsal reflex were registered along with latency and ambulation times. Results The use of interspecific allometric scaling for chemical restraint with the combination tiletamine and zolazepam showed satisfying results, with great similarity to results obtained with conventional doses in Greater rheas. Conclusions Literature on chemical restraint and use of tiletamine and zolazepam in rheas is scarce. Chemical restraint is of extreme importance on these animals, due to their aggressive nature and low level of domesticity. This research may further establish the interspecific allometric scaling method as a viable tool for the veterinary physician in formulating anesthetic and chemical restraint protocols for wildlife animals. PMID:24625103

  5. 49 CFR 572.20 - Limbs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limbs. 572.20 Section 572.20 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 3-Year-Old Child § 572.20 Limbs. The...

  6. Interhemispheric sensorimotor integration; an upper limb phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Ruddy, Kathy L; Jaspers, Ellen; Keller, Martin; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2016-10-01

    Somatosensory information from the limbs reaches the contralateral Primary Sensory Cortex (S1) with a delay of 23ms for finger, and 40ms for leg (somatosensory N20/N40). Upon arrival of this input in the cortex, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) are momentarily inhibited. This phenomenon is called 'short latency afferent inhibition (SAI)' and can be used as a tool for investigating sensorimotor interactions in the brain. We used SAI to investigate the process of sensorimotor integration in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the stimulated limb. We hypothesized that ipsilateral SAI would occur with a delay following the onset of contralateral SAI, to allow for transcallosal conduction of the signal. We electrically stimulated the limb either contralateral or ipsilateral to the hemisphere receiving TMS, using a range of different interstimulus intervals (ISI). We tested the First Dorsal Interosseous (FDI) muscle in the hand, and Tibialis Anterior (TA) in the lower leg, in three separate experiments. Ipsilateral SAI was elicited in the upper limb (FDI) at all ISIs that were greater than N20+18ms (all p<.05) but never at any earlier timepoint. No ipsilateral SAI was detected in the lower limb (TA) at any of the tested ISIs. The delayed onset timing of ipsilateral SAI suggests that transcallosal communication mediates this inhibitory process for the upper limb. The complete absence of ipsilateral SAI in the lower limb warrants consideration of the potential limb-specific differences in demands for bilateral sensorimotor integration. PMID:27425210

  7. Effects of Limb Posture on Reactive Hyperemia

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Anandi; Lucassen, Elisabeth B.; Hogeman, Cindy; Blaha, Cheryl; Leuenberger, Urs A.

    2012-01-01

    To examine the role of limb posture on vascular conductance during rapid changes in vascular transmural pressure, we determined brachial (n = 10) and femoral (n = 10) artery post-occlusive reactive hyperemic blood flow (RHBF, ultrasound/Doppler) and vascular conductance in healthy humans with each limb at three different positions – horizontal, up and down. Limb posture was varied by raising or lowering the arm or leg from the horizontal position by 45°. In both limbs, peak RHBF and vascular conductance was highest in the down or horizontal position and lowest in the up position (arm up 338 ± 38, supine 430 ± 52, down 415 ± 52 ml/min, P < 0.05; leg up 1208 ± 88, supine 1579 ± 130, down 1767 ± 149 ml/min, P < 0.05). In contrast, the maximal dynamic fall in blood flow following peak RHBF (in ml/s/s) in both limbs was highest in the limb down position and lowest with the limb elevated (P < 0.05). These data suggest that the magnitude and temporal pattern of limb reactive hyperemia is in part related to changes in vascular transmural pressure and independent of systemic blood pressure and sympathetic control. PMID:21161263

  8. Interhemispheric sensorimotor integration; an upper limb phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Ruddy, Kathy L; Jaspers, Ellen; Keller, Martin; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2016-10-01

    Somatosensory information from the limbs reaches the contralateral Primary Sensory Cortex (S1) with a delay of 23ms for finger, and 40ms for leg (somatosensory N20/N40). Upon arrival of this input in the cortex, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) are momentarily inhibited. This phenomenon is called 'short latency afferent inhibition (SAI)' and can be used as a tool for investigating sensorimotor interactions in the brain. We used SAI to investigate the process of sensorimotor integration in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the stimulated limb. We hypothesized that ipsilateral SAI would occur with a delay following the onset of contralateral SAI, to allow for transcallosal conduction of the signal. We electrically stimulated the limb either contralateral or ipsilateral to the hemisphere receiving TMS, using a range of different interstimulus intervals (ISI). We tested the First Dorsal Interosseous (FDI) muscle in the hand, and Tibialis Anterior (TA) in the lower leg, in three separate experiments. Ipsilateral SAI was elicited in the upper limb (FDI) at all ISIs that were greater than N20+18ms (all p<.05) but never at any earlier timepoint. No ipsilateral SAI was detected in the lower limb (TA) at any of the tested ISIs. The delayed onset timing of ipsilateral SAI suggests that transcallosal communication mediates this inhibitory process for the upper limb. The complete absence of ipsilateral SAI in the lower limb warrants consideration of the potential limb-specific differences in demands for bilateral sensorimotor integration.

  9. 21 CFR 890.3475 - Limb orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Limb orthosis. 890.3475 Section 890.3475 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3475 Limb orthosis. (a)...

  10. 21 CFR 890.3475 - Limb orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limb orthosis. 890.3475 Section 890.3475 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3475 Limb orthosis. (a)...

  11. 21 CFR 890.3475 - Limb orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limb orthosis. 890.3475 Section 890.3475 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3475 Limb orthosis. (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 890.3475 - Limb orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Limb orthosis. 890.3475 Section 890.3475 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3475 Limb orthosis. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 890.3475 - Limb orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Limb orthosis. 890.3475 Section 890.3475 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3475 Limb orthosis. (a)...

  14. The Floating Upper Limb: Multiple Injuries Involving Ipsilateral, Proximal, Humeral, Supracondylar, and Distal Radial Limb

    PubMed Central

    Manaan, Qazi; Bashir, Adil; Zahoor, Adnan; Mokhdomi, Taseem A.

    2016-01-01

    Floating arm injury represents a common yet complicated injury of the childhood severely associated with limb deformation and even morbidity, if not precisely addressed and credibly operated. Here, we report a rare floating upper limb case of a 9-year-old boy with multiple injuries of ipsilateral proximal humeral, supracondylar and distal radial limb. This is the first report to document such a combined floating elbow and floating arm injury in the same limb. In this report, we discuss the surgical procedures used and recovery of the patient monitored to ascertain the effectiveness of the method in limb reorganisation. PMID:27583121

  15. The Floating Upper Limb: Multiple Injuries Involving Ipsilateral, Proximal, Humeral, Supracondylar, and Distal Radial Limb.

    PubMed

    Manaan, Qazi; Bashir, Adil; Zahoor, Adnan; Mokhdomi, Taseem A; Danish, Qazi

    2016-09-01

    Floating arm injury represents a common yet complicated injury of the childhood severely associated with limb deformation and even morbidity, if not precisely addressed and credibly operated. Here, we report a rare floating upper limb case of a 9-year-old boy with multiple injuries of ipsilateral proximal humeral, supracondylar and distal radial limb. This is the first report to document such a combined floating elbow and floating arm injury in the same limb. In this report, we discuss the surgical procedures used and recovery of the patient monitored to ascertain the effectiveness of the method in limb reorganisation. PMID:27583121

  16. Titan's aerosol optical properties with VIMS observations at the limb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rannou, Pascal; Seignovert, Benoit; Le Mouelic, Stephane; Sotin, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The study of Titan properties with remote sensing relies on a good knowledge of the atmosphere properties. The in-situ observations made by Huygens combined with recent advances in the definition of methane properties enable to model and interpret observations with a very good accuracy. Thanks to these progresses, we can analyze in this work the observations made at the limb of Titan in order to retrieve information on the haze properties as its vertical profiles but also the spectral behaviour between 0.88 and 5.2 µm. To study the haze layer and more generally the source of opacities in the stratosphere, we use some observation made at the limb of Titan by the VIMS instrument onboard Cassini. We used a model in spherical geometry and in single scattering, and we accounted for the multiple scattering with a parallel plane model that evaluate the multiple scattering source function at the plane of the limb. Our scope is to retrieve informations about the vertical distribution of the haze, its spectral properties, but also to obtain details about the shape of the methane windows to desantangle the role of the methane and of the aerosols. We started our study at the latitude of 55°N, with a image taken in 2006 with a relatively high spatial resolution (for VIMS). Our preliminary results shows the spectral properties of the aerosols are the same whatever the altitude. This is a consequence of the large scale mixing. From limb profile between 0.9 and 5.2 µm, we can probe the haze layer from about 500 km (at 0.9 µm) to the ground (at 5.2 µm). We find that the vertical profile of the haze layer shows three distinct scale heights with transitions around 250 km and 350 km. We also clearly a transition around 70-90 km that may be due to the top of a condensation layer.

  17. [Psychological adjustment following lower limb amputation].

    PubMed

    Panyi, Lilla Krisztina; Lábadi, Beatrix

    2015-09-27

    Rehabilitation of lower limb amputees and the fitting of their prosthesis depend highly on the psychological adjustment process and motivational state of the patient. The loss of a limb is extremely challenging and can cause various physical and psychological problems. Depression, anxiety, decreased well-being and quality of life, body image dissatisfaction and changes in self-concept and identity are frequent after lower limb amputation. In the interest of adjustment patients have to cope with the emerging changes and difficulties in their lifes as well as the problems in psychological functioning. It is important for them to accept the alterations in their body and identity, and integrate them in a new self-concept in which process motivation is a fundamental issue. The aim of this article is to review the literature on psychological consequences of lower limb amputation, and to propose an integrative way of rehabilitation for lower limb amputees. PMID:26550913

  18. Caring for patients with limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Virani, Anila; Werunga, Jane; Ewashen, Carol; Green, Theresa

    2015-10-01

    This article provides an overview of the care of patients undergoing limb amputation. Absence of a limb can be congenital or the result of trauma or complications of chronic diseases. While the economic burden of limb amputation is significant, nurses have an important role in limiting other losses attributable to limb loss, such as long-term disability leading to loss of employment and delayed return to work or school. Comprehensive nursing assessments and appropriate interventions, pre and post-operatively, as well as early discharge planning and community reintegration can help avoid some of these losses. Nurses should be aware of the resources available in communities and work in multidisciplinary teams to ensure optimal outcomes for patients following limb amputation and their families.

  19. Planar Cell Polarity in vertebrate limb morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Bo; Yang, Yingzi

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the vertebrate limb development have contributed significantly to understanding the fundamental mechanisms underlying growth, patterning and morphogenesis of a complex multicellular organism. In the limb, well-defined signaling centers interact to coordinate limb growth and patterning along the three axes. Recent analyses of live imaging and mathematical modeling have provided evidence that polarized cell behaviors governed by morphogen gradients play an important role in shaping the limb bud. Furthermore, the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway that controls uniformly polarized cellular behaviors in a field of cells has emerged to be critical for directional morphogenesis in the developing limb. Directional information coded in the morphogen gradient may be interpreted by responding cells through regulating the activities of PCP components in a Wnt morphogen dose-dependent manner. PMID:23747034

  20. Stress fractures of the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Brukner, P

    1998-12-01

    Stress fractures are commonly found in the lower limb, but also occur in the upper limb, and are particularly associated with upper limb-dominated sports such as tennis and swimming and those involving throwing activities. Stress fractures of the clavicle and scapula are rare but have been reported, whereas those of the humerus are more frequent and have been described mainly in adolescent baseball pitchers. Olecranon stress fractures occur in throwers and gymnasts. Stress fractures of the ulna and radius have also been reported in a number of different upper limb-dominated sports. In all cases, these fractures heal with conservative management. The physician should consider stress fracture as a possible diagnosis in cases of upper limb pain of bony origin where the pain is associated with overuse.

  1. On stellar limb darkening and exoplanetary transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, Ian D.

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines how to compare stellar limb-darkening coefficients evaluated from model atmospheres with those derived from photometry. Different characterizations of a given model atmosphere can give quite different numerical results (even for a given limb-darkening 'law'), while light-curve analyses yield limb-darkening coefficients that are dependent on system geometry, and that are not directly comparable to any model-atmosphere representation. These issues are examined in the context of exoplanetary transits, which offer significant advantages over traditional binary-star eclipsing systems in the study of stellar limb darkening. 'Like for like' comparisons between light-curve analyses and new model-atmosphere results, mediated by synthetic photometry, are conducted for a small sample of stars. Agreement between the resulting synthetic-photometry/atmosphere-model (SPAM) limb-darkening coefficients and empirical values ranges from very good to quite poor, even though the targets investigated show only a small dispersion in fundamental stellar parameters.

  2. Slow Movements of Bio-Inspired Limbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babikian, Sarine; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.; Kanso, Eva

    2016-10-01

    Slow and accurate finger and limb movements are essential to daily activities, but the underlying mechanics is relatively unexplored. Here, we develop a mathematical framework to examine slow movements of tendon-driven limbs that are produced by modulating the tendons' stiffness parameters. Slow limb movements are driftless in the sense that movement stops when actuations stop. We demonstrate, in the context of a planar tendon-driven system representing a finger, that the control of stiffness suffices to produce stable and accurate limb postures and quasi-static (slow) transitions among them. We prove, however, that stable postures are achievable only when tendons are pretensioned, i.e., they cannot become slack. Our results further indicate that a non-smoothness in slow movements arises because the precision with which individual stiffnesses need to be altered changes substantially throughout the limb's motion.

  3. Phantom Limb Sensation (PLS) and Phantom Limb Pain (PLP) among Young Landmine Amputees

    PubMed Central

    POOR ZAMANY NEJATKERMANY, Mahtab; MODIRIAN, Ehsan; SOROUSH, Mohammadreza; MASOUMI, Mehdi; HOSSEINI, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency of phantom limb sensation (PLS) and phantom limb pain (PLP) in children and young adults suffering landmine-related amputation. Materials & Methods All youths with amputation due to landmine explosions participated in this study. The proportions of patients with phantom limb sensation/pain, intensity and frequency of pain were reported. Chi square test was used to examine the relationship between variables. Comparison of PLP and PLS between upper and lower amputation was done by unpaired t-test. Results There were 38 male and 3 female with the mean age of 15.8±2.4yr. The mean interval between injury and follow-up was 90.7±39.6 months. Twelve (44.4%) upper limb amputees and 11 (26.8%) lower limb amputees had PLS. Nine (33.3%) upper limb amputees and 7 (17.1%) lower limb amputees experienced PLP. Of 27 upper limb amputees, 6 (14.6%) and among 15 lower limb amputees, 6 (14.6%) had both PLS and PLP. One case suffered amputation of upper and lower limbs and was experiencing PLS and PLP in both parts. PLS had a significant difference between the upper and lower amputated groups. Significant relationship was observed between age of casualty and duration of injury with PLP. Conclusion Phantom limb sensation and pain in young survivors of landmine explosions appear to be common, even years after amputation. PMID:27375755

  4. Assessing upper limb function in nonambulant SMA patients: development of a new module.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, Elena; Bianco, Flaviana; Martinelli, Diego; Glanzman, Allan M; Messina, Sonia; De Sanctis, Roberto; Main, Marion; Eagle, Michelle; Florence, Julaine; Krosschell, Kristin; Vasco, Gessica; Pelliccioni, Marco; Lombardo, Marilena; Pane, Marika; Finkel, Richard; Muntoni, Francesco; Bertini, Enrico; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2011-06-01

    We report the development of a module specifically designed for assessing upper limb function in nonambulant SMA patients, including young children and those with severe contractures. The application of the module to a preschool cohort of 40 children (age 30-48 months) showed that all the items could be completed by 30 months. The module was also used in 45 nonambulant SMA patients (age 30 months to 27 years). Their scores were more variable than in the preschool cohort, ranging from 0 to 18. The magnitude of scores was not related to age (r=-0.19). The upper limb scores had a good correlation with the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale, r=0.75, but the upper limb function did not always strictly follow the overall gross motor function. These findings suggest that even some of the very weak nonambulant children possess upper limb skills that can be measured.

  5. Calibration of the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarnot, R. F.; Cofield, R. E.; Waters, J. W.; Flower, D. A.; Peckham, G. E.

    1996-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) is a three-radiometer, passive, limb emission instrument onboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Radiometric, spectral and field-of-view calibrations of the MLS instrument are described in this paper. In-orbit noise performance, gain stability, spectral baseline and dynamic range are described, as well as use of in-flight data for validation and refinement of prelaunch calibrations. Estimated systematic scaling uncertainties (3 sigma) on calibrated limb radiances from prelaunch calibrations are 2.6% in bands 1 through 3, 3.4% in band 4, and 6% in band 5. The observed systematic errors in band 6 are about 15%, consistent with prelaunch calibration uncertainties. Random uncertainties on individual limb radiance measurements are very close to the levels predicted from measured radiometer noise temperature, with negligible contribution from noise and drifts on the regular in-flight gain calibration measurements.

  6. Improvement of the microcirculation in the acute ischemic rat limb during intravenous infusion of drag-reducing polymers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Feng; Zha, Daogang; Du, Rongsheng; Chen, Xianghui; Zhou, Bingjie; Xiu, Jiancheng; Bin, Jianping; Liu, Yili

    2011-01-01

    Drag-reducing polymers (DRPs) are blood-soluble macromolecules that can increase blood flow and reduce vascular resistance. The purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of DRPs on microcirculation in rat hind limb during acute femoral artery occlusion. Two groups of 20 male Wistar rats were subjected to either hemodynamic measurement or contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEU) imaging during peripheral ischemia. Both groups were further subdivided into a DRP-treated group or a saline-treated group. Polyethylene oxide (PEO) was chosen as the test DRP, and rats were injected with either 10 ppm PEO solution or saline through the caudal vein at a constant rate of 5 ml/h for 20 min. Abdominal aortic flow, iliac artery pressure, iliac vein pressure, heart rate, carotid artery pressure and central venous pressure (CVP) were monitored, and vascular resistance was calculated by (iliac artery pressure-iliac vein pressure)/abdominal aortic blood flow. Flow perfusion and capillary volume of skeletal muscle were measured by CEU. During PEO infusion, abdominal aortic blood flow increased (p<0.001) and vascular resistance decreased (p<0.001) compared to rats that received saline during peripheral ischemia. There was no significant change in ischemic skeletal capillary volume (A) with DRP treatment (p>0.05), but red blood cell velocity (β) and capillary blood flow (A×β) increased significantly (p<0.05) during PEO infusion. In addition, A, β and A×β all increased (p<0.05) in the contralateral hind limb muscle. In contrast, PEO had no significant influence on heart rate, mean carotid artery blood pressure or CVP. Intravenous infusion of drag reducing polymers may offer a novel hydrodynamic approach for improving microcirculation during acute peripheral ischemia.

  7. Lunar western limb pyroclastic deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Hawke, B. Ray

    1991-01-01

    It has become increasingly evident that the lunar pyroclastic volcanism played an important role in the formation and resurfacing of many areas of the Moon. On-going analysis of lunar Orbiter and Apollo photographs continues to locate and identify pyroclastic deposits and suggests that they just may be more ubiquitous than once thought. Located near mare/highland boundaries, many of these deposits formed contemporaneously with effusive mare volcanism. The mantling deposits formed as products of fire-fountaining. Probable source vents for these deposits include irregular depressions at the head of associated sinuous rilles and/or along irregular fractures in the floors of ancient craters. Here, researchers provide a brief synopsis of the nature of the dark mantling deposits and briefly discuss several newly identified deposits on the western limb.

  8. TES Limb-Geometry Observations of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on-board Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) has a pointing mirror that allows observations in the plane of the orbit anywhere from directly nadir to far above either the forward or aft limbs for details about the TES instrument). Nadir-geometry observations are defined as those where the field-of-view contains the surface of Mars (even if the actual observation is at a high emission angle far from true nadir). Limb-geometry observations are defined as those where the line-of-sight of the observations does not intersect the surface. At a number of points along the MGS orbit (typically every 10 deg. or 20 deg. of latitude) a limb sequence is taken, which includes a stack of overlapping TES spectra from just below the limb to more than 120 km above the limb. A typical limb sequence has approx. 20 individual spectra, and the projected size of a TES pixel at the limb is 13 km.

  9. Novel Dynamics Observed in a Spiking Neural Network Model of the NTS in the Rat Hind-brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jingyi; Schaffer, J. David; Dilorenzo, Patricia; Laramee, Craig

    2012-02-01

    The Nucleus of the Solitary Tract (NTS) is a hind-brain structure in the rat that is the first way-station in taste processing. Its structure and function are poorly understood. Recently our group produced a model, implemented as a spiking neural network (SNN), that successfully replicated experimental data. The model's topology was manually devised and the parameters were set by a genetic algorithm. In order to better understand its information processing capabilities, we probed the model with a variety of input spike patterns and observed a striking winner-take-all decision-making dynamic. We show how the topology and tuned parameters enable this decision to depend on precise spike timing events. It is curious that the experimental data upon which the model was originally evolved did not include winner-take-all examples; this was an emergent capability. It remains for additional experiments on rats to confirm or reject this model prediction.

  10. Murine cytomegalovirus with a deletion of genes spanning HindIII-J and -I displays altered cell and tissue tropism.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, V J; Stenberg, R M; Staley, T L; Virgin, H W; MacDonald, M R; Paetzold, S; Farrell, H E; Rawlinson, W D; Campbell, A E

    1996-03-01

    Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) gene products dispensable for growth in cell culture are likely to have important functions within the infected host, influencing tissue tropism, dissemination, or immunological responses against the virus. To identify such genes, our strategy was to delete large regions of the MCMV genome likely to contain genes nonessential for virus replication in NIH 3T3 cells. Mutant virus RV7 contained a deletion of 7.7 kb spanning portions of MCMV HindIII-J and -I. This virus grew comparably to wild-type (WT) virus in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, primary embryo fibroblasts, and bone marrow macrophages. However, RV7 failed to replicate in target organs of immunocompetent BALB/c mice and severe combined immunodeficient mice, which are exquisitely sensitive to MCMV infection. This defect in vivo growth may be related to the observation that RV7 grew poorly in the peritoneal macrophage cell line IC-21, which is highly permissive for growth of WT MCMV. Two other mutant viruses with an insertion or smaller deletion in the region common to the RV7 deletion grew comparably to WT virus in the macrophage cell line and replicated in salivary gland tissue. The poor growth of RV7 in IC-21 cells was due to a block in immediate-early gene expression, as levels of RNA from immediate-early gene IE1 were reduced eightfold compared with levels for WT virus in macrophages infected with RV7. Consequently, levels of RNA from early and late genes were also reduced. The lower expression of IE1 in RV7-infected IC-21 macrophages was not due to defective entry of virus into the cells, as equal amounts of viral DNA were present in cells 3 h after infection with RV7 or WT MCMV. These studies demonstrate that deletion of sequences in HindIII-J and -I confer altered cell and tissue tropism. PMID:8627652

  11. Murine cytomegalovirus with a deletion of genes spanning HindIII-J and -I displays altered cell and tissue tropism.

    PubMed Central

    Cavanaugh, V J; Stenberg, R M; Staley, T L; Virgin, H W; MacDonald, M R; Paetzold, S; Farrell, H E; Rawlinson, W D; Campbell, A E

    1996-01-01

    Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) gene products dispensable for growth in cell culture are likely to have important functions within the infected host, influencing tissue tropism, dissemination, or immunological responses against the virus. To identify such genes, our strategy was to delete large regions of the MCMV genome likely to contain genes nonessential for virus replication in NIH 3T3 cells. Mutant virus RV7 contained a deletion of 7.7 kb spanning portions of MCMV HindIII-J and -I. This virus grew comparably to wild-type (WT) virus in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, primary embryo fibroblasts, and bone marrow macrophages. However, RV7 failed to replicate in target organs of immunocompetent BALB/c mice and severe combined immunodeficient mice, which are exquisitely sensitive to MCMV infection. This defect in vivo growth may be related to the observation that RV7 grew poorly in the peritoneal macrophage cell line IC-21, which is highly permissive for growth of WT MCMV. Two other mutant viruses with an insertion or smaller deletion in the region common to the RV7 deletion grew comparably to WT virus in the macrophage cell line and replicated in salivary gland tissue. The poor growth of RV7 in IC-21 cells was due to a block in immediate-early gene expression, as levels of RNA from immediate-early gene IE1 were reduced eightfold compared with levels for WT virus in macrophages infected with RV7. Consequently, levels of RNA from early and late genes were also reduced. The lower expression of IE1 in RV7-infected IC-21 macrophages was not due to defective entry of virus into the cells, as equal amounts of viral DNA were present in cells 3 h after infection with RV7 or WT MCMV. These studies demonstrate that deletion of sequences in HindIII-J and -I confer altered cell and tissue tropism. PMID:8627652

  12. Radioprotection by WR-151327 against the late normal tissue damage in mouse hind legs from gamma ray radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushita, Satoru; Ando, Koichi; Koike, Sachiko

    1994-11-15

    To evaluate the protective effect of WR-151327 on late radiation-induced damaged to normal tissues in mice, the right hind legs of mice with or without WR-151327 administration (400 mg/kg) were irradiated with {sup 137}Cs gamma rays. Leg contracture and skin shrinkage assays were performed at 380 days after irradiation. The mice were killed on day 400 postirradiation and histological sections of the legs were made. The thickness of the dermis, epidermis, and skin (dermis plus epidermis) was measured. The muscular area of the legs and the posterior knee angle between the femur and tibia were also measured. The left hind legs were similarly assessed as nonirradiated controls. Group means and standard deviations were calculated and dose-response curves were drawn for every endpoint. Then, the dose modifying factor (DMF) for each endpoint and the correlations among endpoints were determined. Latae damage assayed by leg contracture and skin shrinkage progressed with increasing radiation dose. However, it was reduced by drug treatment. The significant effect was indicated for skin shrinkage by a DMF of 1.8 at 35%. The DMF for leg contracture was 1.3 at 6 mm. In the irradiated legs, epidermal hyperplasia and dermal fibrosis in the skin, muscular atrophy, and extension disturbance of the knee joint were observed. These changes progressed with increasing radiation dose. Skin damage assayed by the present endpoints was also reduced by drug treatment by DMFs of 1.4 to 1.7. However, DMFs for damage to the muscle and knee were not determined because no isoeffect was observed. There were good correlations between leg contracture or skin shrinkage and the other endpoints in both untreated and drug-treated mice. WR-151327 has the potential to protect against radiation-induced late normal tissue damage. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Transducers for ultrasonic limb plethysmography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickell, W. T.; Wu, V. C.; Bhagat, P. K.

    1983-01-01

    The design, construction, and performance characteristics of ultasonic transducers suitable for limb plethysmography are presented. Both 3-mm-diameter flat-plate and 12-mm-diameter hemispheric ceramic transducers operating at 2 MHz were fitted in 1-mm thick epoxy-resin lens/acoustic-coupling structures and mounted in exercie-EKG electrode housings for placement on the calf using adhesive collars. The effects of transducer directional characteristics on performance under off-axis rotation and the electrical impedances of the transducers were measured: The flat transducer was found to be sensitive to rotation and have an impedance of 800 ohms; the hemispheric transducer, to be unaffected by rotation and have an impedance of 80 ohms. The use of hemispheric transducers as both transmitter and receiver, or of a flat transducer as transmitter and a hemispheric transducer as receiver, was found to produce adequate dimensional measurements, with minimum care in transducer placement, in short-term physiological experiments and long-term (up to 7-day) attachment tests.

  14. A bioinformatics expert system linking functional data to anatomical outcomes in limb regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Daniel; Feldman, Erica B.; Shah, Michelle; Malone, Taylor J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Amphibians and molting arthropods have the remarkable capacity to regenerate amputated limbs, as described by an extensive literature of experimental cuts, amputations, grafts, and molecular techniques. Despite a rich history of experimental effort, no comprehensive mechanistic model exists that can account for the pattern regulation observed in these experiments. While bioinformatics algorithms have revolutionized the study of signaling pathways, no such tools have heretofore been available to assist scientists in formulating testable models of large‐scale morphogenesis that match published data in the limb regeneration field. Major barriers to preventing an algorithmic approach are the lack of formal descriptions for experimental regenerative information and a repository to centralize storage and mining of functional data on limb regeneration. Establishing a new bioinformatics of shape would significantly accelerate the discovery of key insights into the mechanisms that implement complex regeneration. Here, we describe a novel mathematical ontology for limb regeneration to unambiguously encode phenotype, manipulation, and experiment data. Based on this formalism, we present the first centralized formal database of published limb regeneration experiments together with a user‐friendly expert system tool to facilitate its access and mining. These resources are freely available for the community and will assist both human biologists and artificial intelligence systems to discover testable, mechanistic models of limb regeneration. PMID:25729585

  15. Major ozonated autohemotherapy promotes the recovery of upper limb motor function in patients with acute cerebral infarction★

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaona; Li, Zhensheng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Peng, Haiyan; Huang, Yongjun; Luo, Gaoquan; Peng, Kairun

    2013-01-01

    Major ozonated autohemotherapy is classically used in treating ischemic disorder of the lower limbs. In the present study, we performed major ozonated autohemotherapy treatment in patients with acute cerebral infarction, and assessed outcomes according to the U.S. National Institutes of Health Stroke Score, Modified Rankin Scale, and transcranial magnetic stimulation motor-evoked potential. Compared with the control group, the clinical total effective rate and the cortical potential rise rate of the upper limbs were significantly higher, the central motor conduction time of upper limb was significantly shorter, and the upper limb motor-evoked potential amplitude was significantly increased, in the ozone group. In the ozone group, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Score was positively correlated with the central motor conduction time and the motor-evoked potential amplitude of the upper limb. Central motor conduction time and motor-evoked potential amplitude of the upper limb may be effective indicators of motor-evoked potentials to assess upper limb motor function in cerebral infarct patients. Furthermore, major ozonated autohemotherapy may promote motor function recovery of the upper limb in patients with acute cerebral infarction. PMID:25206688

  16. Upper limb prosthetic use in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Burger, H; Marincek, C

    1994-04-01

    The article deals with the use of different types of upper limb prostheses in Slovenia. Four hundred and fourteen upper limb amputees were sent a questionnaire on the type of their prosthesis, its use and reasons for non-use, respectively. The replies were subject to statistical analysis. Most of the questioned upper limb amputees (70%) wear a prosthesis only for cosmesis. The use of a prosthesis depends on the level of upper limb amputation, loss of the dominant hand, and time from amputation. Prosthetic success appears to be unrelated to age at the time of amputation and the rehabilitation programme. The most frequent reason for not wearing a prosthesis is heat and consequent sweating of the stump. More than a third of amputees are dissatisfied with their prostheses.

  17. Development of limb volume measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhagat, P. K.; Kadaba, P. K.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the reductions in orthostatic tolerance associated with weightlessness are not well established. Contradictory results from measurements of leg volume changes suggest that altered venomotor tone and reduced blood flow may not be the only contributors to orthostatic intolerance. It is felt that a more accurate limb volume system which is insensitive to environmental factors will aid in better quantification of the hemodynamics of the leg. Of the varous limb volume techniques presently available, the ultrasonic limb volume system has proven to be the best choice. The system as described herein is free from environmental effects, safe, simple to operate and causes negligible radio frequency interference problems. The segmental ultrasonic ultrasonic plethysmograph is expected to provide a better measurement of limb volume change since it is based on cross-sectional area measurements.

  18. Zika Linked to Deformed Limbs in Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160324.html Zika Linked to Deformed Limbs in Newborns Cause isn' ... 2016 TUESDAY, Aug. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus has already been linked to serious birth ...

  19. CONGENITAL DEFORMITIES OF THE UPPER LIMBS.

    PubMed Central

    Bisneto, Edgard Novaes França

    2015-01-01

    This article, divided into three parts, had the aims of reviewing the most common upper-limb malformations and describing their treatments. In this first part, failure of formation is discussed. The bibliography follows after the first part. PMID:27047864

  20. Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) and Limb Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... and limb loss by NLLIC Staff http://www.amputee-coalition.org/fact_sheets/dysvascular.html Back to Top Last updated: 07/23/2012 © Amputee Coalition. Local reproduction for use by Amputee Coalition ...

  1. Tips for Taking Care of Your Limb

    MedlinePlus

    ... Technorati Yahoo MyWeb by Paddy Rossbach, RN, Former Amputee Coalition President & CEO, and Terrence P. Sheehan, MD ... crisis. Limb Care If you are a new amputee, it's better to take a bath or shower ...

  2. A Cognitive Overview of Limb Apraxia.

    PubMed

    Bartolo, Angela; Ham, Heidi Stieglitz

    2016-08-01

    Since the first studies on limb apraxia carried out by Hugo Liepmann more than a century ago, research interests focused on the way humans process manual gestures by assessing gesture production after patients suffered neurologic deficits. Recent reviews centered their attention on deficits in gesture imitation or processing object-related gestures, namely pantomimes and transitive gestures, thereby neglecting communicative/intransitive gestures. This review will attempt to reconcile limb apraxia in its entirety. To this end, the existing cognitive models of praxis processing that have been designed to account for the complexity of this disorder will be taken into account, with an attempt to integrate in these models the latest findings in the studies of limb apraxia, in particular on meaningful gestures. Finally, this overview questions the very nature of limb apraxia when other cognitive deficits are observed. PMID:27349561

  3. Observations of Gravity Waves with the UARS Microwave Limb Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, D. L.; Waters, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    From Introduction: Observations (of gravity waves-GW) from radar, lidar, balloon and rocket yield good temporal and vertical resolutions usually at one geographical location while aircraft observations provide good horizontal resolution but for a short period of time. It is difficult in general for space-borne sensors to obtain the same resolutions, but observations of GWs at somewhat larger scales are feasible, for example using saturated radiances from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS)[Wu and Waters, 1996].

  4. Cleavage maps for human cytomegalovirus DNA strain AD169 for restriction endonucleases EcoRI, BglII, and HindIII.

    PubMed Central

    Spector, D H; Hock, L; Tamashiro, J C

    1982-01-01

    We have used cloned EcoRI fragments of the human CMV (HCMV) genome, strain AD169, to prepare restriction endonuclease maps of the DNA. Individual 32P-labeled cloned fragments were hybridized to Southern blots of HCMV DNA cleaved to completion with the restriction endonucleases BglII and HindIII and cleaved partially with EcoRI. By determining which EcoRI fragments hybridized to the same band on a Southern blot, we were able to establish linkage groups. This information coupled with the data derived from digestion of the cloned fragments with the enzymes BglII and HindIII (Tamashiro et al., J. Virol. 42:547-557, 1982) provided the basis for the construction of detailed maps for the enzymes EcoRI, BglII, and HindIII. We also identified the EcoRI fragments derived from the termini of this genome and mapped them with respect to the BglII and HindIII terminal fragments. From our mapping data, we conclude that the genome of HCMV is approximately 240 kilobases in length and is divided into long (198 kilobases) and short (42 kilobases) regions. Both regions consist of a unique sequence bounded by inverted repeats (11 to 12 kilobases for the long region and 2 to 3 kilobases for the short region). Furthermore, the long and short regions can invert relative to each other. Images PMID:6283173

  5. Insights into the dynamics of hind leg development in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) queen and worker larvae - A morphology/differential gene expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carolina Gonçalves; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is a hallmark of the caste systems of social insects, expressed in their life history and morphological traits. These are best studied in bees. In their co-evolution with angiosperm plants, the females of corbiculate bees have acquired a specialized structure on their hind legs for collecting pollen. In the highly eusocial bees (Apini and Meliponini), this structure is however only present in workers and absent in queens. By means of histological sections and cell proliferation analysis we followed the developmental dynamics of the hind legs of queens and workers in the fourth and fifth larval instars. In parallel, we generated subtractive cDNA libraries for hind leg discs of queen and worker larvae by means of a Representational Difference Analysis (RDA). From the total of 135 unique sequences we selected 19 for RT-qPCR analysis, where six of these were confirmed as differing significantly in their expression between the two castes in the larval spinning stage. The development of complex structures such as the bees’ hind legs, requires diverse patterning mechanisms and signaling modules, as indicated by the set of differentially expressed genes related with cell adhesion and signaling pathways. PMID:26500430

  6. Fatty liver accompanies an increase of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the hind gut of C57/BL mice fed a high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-fat diets can produce obesity and have been linked to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which also induces changes in the gut microbiome. This study tested the hypothesis that high-fat feeding increases certain predominate hind gut bacteria in a C57BL/6 mouse model o...

  7. Insights into the dynamics of hind leg development in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) queen and worker larvae - A morphology/differential gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carolina Gonçalves; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is a hallmark of the caste systems of social insects, expressed in their life history and morphological traits. These are best studied in bees. In their co-evolution with angiosperm plants, the females of corbiculate bees have acquired a specialized structure on their hind legs for collecting pollen. In the highly eusocial bees (Apini and Meliponini), this structure is however only present in workers and absent in queens. By means of histological sections and cell proliferation analysis we followed the developmental dynamics of the hind legs of queens and workers in the fourth and fifth larval instars. In parallel, we generated subtractive cDNA libraries for hind leg discs of queen and worker larvae by means of a Representational Difference Analysis (RDA). From the total of 135 unique sequences we selected 19 for RT-qPCR analysis, where six of these were confirmed as differing significantly in their expression between the two castes in the larval spinning stage. The development of complex structures such as the bees' hind legs, requires diverse patterning mechanisms and signaling modules, as indicated by the set of differentially expressed genes related with cell adhesion and signaling pathways. PMID:26500430

  8. Chemical activation of RARβ induces post-embryonically bilateral limb duplication during Xenopus limb regeneration.

    PubMed

    Cuervo, Rodrigo; Chimal-Monroy, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The anuran amphibian Xenopus laevis can regenerate its limbs for a limited time during the larval stage, while limbs are still developing. Using this regeneration model, we evaluated the proximo-distal blastema cell identity when endogenous retinoids were increased by CYP26 inhibition or when RAR-specific agonists altered RA signaling. Simultaneous proximo-distal and antero-posterior limb duplications were generated, and the RAR-specific agonist can modify blastema identity after amputation, because chemical activation of RARβ produced bilateral hindlimb duplications that resulted in a drastic duplication phenotype of regenerating limbs. PMID:23703360

  9. Chemical activation of RARβ induces post-embryonically bilateral limb duplication during Xenopus limb regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Cuervo, Rodrigo; Chimal-Monroy, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The anuran amphibian Xenopus laevis can regenerate its limbs for a limited time during the larval stage, while limbs are still developing. Using this regeneration model, we evaluated the proximo-distal blastema cell identity when endogenous retinoids were increased by CYP26 inhibition or when RAR-specific agonists altered RA signaling. Simultaneous proximo-distal and antero-posterior limb duplications were generated, and the RAR-specific agonist can modify blastema identity after amputation, because chemical activation of RARβ produced bilateral hindlimb duplications that resulted in a drastic duplication phenotype of regenerating limbs. PMID:23703360

  10. Upper limb module in non-ambulant patients with spinal muscular atrophy: 12 month changes.

    PubMed

    Sivo, Serena; Mazzone, Elena; Antonaci, Laura; De Sanctis, Roberto; Fanelli, Lavinia; Palermo, Concetta; Montes, Jacqueline; Pane, Marika; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that in non-ambulant patients affected by spinal muscular atrophy the Upper Limb Module can increase the range of activities assessed by the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded. The aim of this study was to establish 12-month changes in the Upper Limb Module in a cohort of non-ambulant spinal muscular atrophy patients and their correlation with changes on the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded. The Upper Limb Module scores ranged between 0 and 17 (mean 10.23, SD 4.81) at baseline and between 1 and 17 at 12 months (mean 10.27, SD 4.74). The Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded scores ranged between 0 and 34 (mean 12.43, SD 9.13) at baseline and between 0 and 34 at 12 months (mean 12.08, SD 9.21). The correlation betweeen the two scales was 0.65 at baseline and 0.72 on the 12 month changes. Our results confirm that the Upper Limb Module can capture functional changes in non-ambulant spinal muscular atrophy patients not otherwise captured by the other scale and that the combination of the two measures allows to capture changes in different subgroups of patients in whom baseline scores and functional changes may be influenced by several variables such as age.

  11. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  12. Clouds above the Martin Limb: Viking observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, L. J.; Baum, W. A.; Wasserman, L. H.; Kreidl, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Whenever Viking Orbiter images included the limb of Mars, they recorded one or more layers of clouds above the limb. The height above the limb and the brightness (reflectivity) of these clouds were determined in a selected group of these images. Normalized individual brightness profiles of three separate traverses across the limb of each image are shown. The most notable finding is that some of these clouds can be very high. Many reach heights of over 60 km, and several are over 70 km above the limb. Statistically, the reflectivity of the clouds increases with phase angle. Reflectivity and height both appear to vary with season, but the selected images spanned only one Martian year, so the role of seasons cannot be isolated. Limb clouds in red-filter images tend to be brighter than violet-filter images, but both season and phase appear to be more dominant factors. Due to the limited sample available, the possible influences of latitude and longitude are less clear. The layering of these clouds ranges from a single layer to five or more layers. Reflectivity gradients range from smooth and gentle to steep and irregular.

  13. Regenerative Engineering and Bionic Limbs

    PubMed Central

    James, Roshan; Laurencin, Cato T.

    2015-01-01

    Amputations of the upper extremity are severely debilitating, current treatments support very basic limb movement, and patients undergo extensive physiotherapy and psychological counselling. There is no prosthesis that allows the amputees near-normal function. With increasing number of amputees due to injuries sustained in accidents, natural calamities and international conflicts, there is a growing requirement for novel strategies and new discoveries. Advances have been made in technological, material and in prosthesis integration where researchers are now exploring artificial prosthesis that integrate with the residual tissues and function based on signal impulses received from the residual nerves. Efforts are focused on challenging experts in different disciplines to integrate ideas and technologies to allow for the regeneration of injured tissues, recording on tissue signals and feed-back to facilitate responsive movements and gradations of muscle force. A fully functional replacement and regenerative or integrated prosthesis will rely on interface of biological process with robotic systems to allow individual control of movement such as at the elbow, forearm, digits and thumb in the upper extremity. Regenerative engineering focused on the regeneration of complex tissue and organ systems will be realized by the cross-fertilization of advances over the past thirty years in the fields of tissue engineering, nanotechnology, stem cell science, and developmental biology. The convergence of toolboxes crated within each discipline will allow interdisciplinary teams from engineering, science, and medicine to realize new strategies, mergers of disparate technologies, such as biophysics, smart bionics, and the healing power of the mind. Tackling the clinical challenges, interfacing the biological process with bionic technologies, engineering biological control of the electronic systems, and feed-back will be the important goals in regenerative engineering over the next

  14. DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT INJECTION TECHNOLOGY ON A WALL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER (EDGEWATER LIMB DEMONSTRATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the full-scale demonstration of Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology on the coal-fired, 105 MW, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station. eveloped as a technology aimed at moderate levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen ...

  15. Does the crossed-limb deficit affect the uncrossed portions of limbs?

    PubMed

    Azañón, Elena; Radulova, Svetla; Haggard, Patrick; Longo, Matthew R

    2016-09-01

    When locating touch, we remap its location from skin-based to external coordinates as a function of body posture. While remapping is thought to occur whenever there is tactile input, research has focused on a special case, the crossed-hands deficit, where tactile localization is impaired when the limbs are crossed compared with uncrossed. To date, these studies have always stimulated portions of the limbs that are crossed, such as a finger of each hand. It is therefore unknown whether the deficit induced by arm crossing is specific to the crossed portion of the limb or affects the limb as a whole. In Experiments 1 and 2, we stimulated the shoulders and elbows and found that tactile localization, measured with temporal order judgments, was unaffected by crossing the forearms. In Experiment 3, a crossed-limbs deficit was observed for touches on a single skin location when that location was distal-but not proximal-to the crossing point of the arms. In Experiment 4, we found a similar crossed-limbs deficit irrespective of how far distally to the crossing point touch was applied. Together, these results demonstrate that crossing the limbs affects tactile perception only distal to the point of crossing. The process of remapping tactile events does not take into account the end-point location of the limb, but an extremely precise metric description of the touch relative to the configuration of both arms. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26986180

  16. Drug dosage in isolated limb perfusion: evaluation of a limb volume model for extremity volume calculation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exact drug dosing in isolated limb perfusion (ILP) and infusion (ILI) is essential. We developed and evaluated a model for calculating the volume of extremities and compared this model with body weight- and height-dependent parameters. Methods The extremity was modeled by a row of coupled truncated cones. The sizes of the truncated cone bases were derived from the circumference measurements of the extremity at predefined levels (5 cm). The resulting volumes were added. This extremity volume model was correlated to the computed tomography (CT) volume data of the extremity (total limb volume). The extremity volume was also correlated with the patient’s body weight, body mass index (BMI) and ideal body weight (IBW). The no-fat CT limb volume was correlated with the circumference-measured limb volume corrected by the ideal-body-weight to actual-body-weight ratio (IBW corrected-limb-volume). Results The correlation between the CT volume and the volume measured by the circumference was high and significant. There was no correlation between the limb volume and the bare body weight, BMI or IBW. The correlation between the no-fat CT volume and IBW-corrected limb volume was high and significant. Conclusions An appropriate drug dosing in ILP can be achieved by combining the limb volume with the simple circumference measurements and the IBW to body-weight ratio. PMID:24684972

  17. Cross-sectional study of alteration of phantom limb pain with visceral stimulation in military personnel with amputation.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Michael; Bennett Britton, Thomas M; Drew, Benjamin T; Phillip, Rhodri D

    2015-01-01

    While phantom limb pain is a well-recognized phenomenon, clinical experience has suggested that the augmentation of phantom limb pain with visceral stimulation is an issue for many military personnel with amputation (visceral stimulation being the sensation of the bowel or bladder either filling or evacuating). However, the prevalence of this phenomenon is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the alteration in phantom limb pain and the effect that visceral stimulation has on phantom limb pain intensity. A cross-sectional study of 75 military personnel who have lost one or both lower limbs completed a questionnaire to assess the prevalence of the alteration of phantom limb pain with visceral stimulation. Included in the questionnaire was a pain visual analog scale (VAS) graded from 0 to 10. Patients recorded the presence and intensity of phantom limb pain. They also recorded whether and how this pain altered with a need to micturate or micturition, and/or a need to defecate or defecation, again using a pain VAS. Time since amputation, level of amputation, and medications were also recorded. Patients reported a phantom limb pain prevalence of 85% with a mean VAS of 3.6. In all, 56% of patients reported a change in the severity of phantom limb pain with visceral stimuli. The mean increase in VAS for visceral stimulation was 2.5 +/- 1.6 for bladder stimulation and 2.9 +/- 2.0 for bowel stimulation. Of the patients questioned, 65% reported an improvement in symptoms over time. VAS scores were highest in the subgroup less than 6 mo postamputation. An increase in phantom limb pain with visceral stimulation is a common problem for military personnel with amputation. PMID:26360529

  18. Effect of vibration on osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities: Analysis of bone metabolism using goldfish scale as a model for bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, N.; Kitamura, K.; Nemoto, T.; Shimizu, N.; Wada, S.; Kondo, T.; Tabata, M. J.; Sodeyama, F.; Ijiri, K.; Hattori, A.

    In osteoclastic activity during space flight as well as hind limb unloading by tail suspension, inconsistent results have been reported in an in vivo study. The bone matrix plays an important role in the response to physical stress. However, there is no suitable in vitro co-culture system of osteoblasts and osteoclasts including bone matrix. On the other hand, fish scale is a calcified tissue that contains osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and bone matrix, all of which are similar to those found in human bones. Recently, we developed a new in vitro model system using goldfish scale. This system can detect the activities of osteoclasts and osteoblasts with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase as the respective markers and precisely analyze the co-relationship between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Using this system, we analyzed the bone metabolism under various degrees of acceleration (0.5-, 1-, 2-, 4-, and 6-G) by vibration with a G-load apparatus. After loading for 5 and 10 min, the scales were incubated for 6 and 24 h. The osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities were then measured. The osteoblastic activities gradually increased corresponding to 1-G to 6-G acceleration. In addition, ER mRNA expression was the highest under 6-G acceleration. On the other hand, the osteoclastic activity decreased at 24 h of incubation under low acceleration (0.5- and 1-G). This change coincided with TRAP mRNA expression. Under 2-G acceleration, the strength of suppression in osteoclastic activity was the highest. The strength of the inhibitory action under 4- and 6-G acceleration was lower than that under 2-G acceleration. In our co-culture system, osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the scale sensitively responded to several degrees of acceleration. Therefore, we strongly believe that our in vitro co-culture system is useful for the analysis of bone metabolism under loading or unloading.

  19. IGF-1 and Chondroitinase ABC Augment Nerve Regeneration after Vascularized Composite Limb Allotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kostereva, Nataliya V.; Wang, Yong; Fletcher, Derek R.; Unadkat, Jignesh V.; Schnider, Jonas T.; Komatsu, Chiaki; Yang, Yang; Stolz, Donna B.; Davis, Michael R.; Plock, Jan A.; Gorantla, Vijay S.

    2016-01-01

    Impaired nerve regeneration and inadequate recovery of motor and sensory function following peripheral nerve repair remain the most significant hurdles to optimal functional and quality of life outcomes in vascularized tissue allotransplantation (VCA). Neurotherapeutics such as Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) and chondroitinase ABC (CH) have shown promise in augmenting or accelerating nerve regeneration in experimental models and may have potential in VCA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of low dose IGF-1, CH or their combination (IGF-1+CH) on nerve regeneration following VCA. We used an allogeneic rat hind limb VCA model maintained on low-dose FK506 (tacrolimus) therapy to prevent rejection. Experimental animals received neurotherapeutics administered intra-operatively as multiple intraneural injections. The IGF-1 and IGF-1+CH groups received daily IGF-1 (intramuscular and intraneural injections). Histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate outcomes at five weeks. Overall, compared to controls, all experimental groups showed improvements in nerve and muscle (gastrocnemius) histomorphometry. The IGF-1 group demonstrated superior distal regeneration as confirmed by Schwann cell (SC) immunohistochemistry as well as some degree of extrafascicular regeneration. IGF-1 and CH effectively promote nerve regeneration after VCA as confirmed by histomorphometric and immunohistochemical outcomes. PMID:27272754

  20. Control of Dynamic Limb Motion Using Fatigue-Resistant Asynchronous Intrafascicular Multi-Electrode Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, Mitchell A.; Mathews, V John; Clark, Gregory A.; Normann, Richard A.; Meek, Sanford G.

    2016-01-01

    Asynchronous intrafascicular multi-electrode stimulation (aIFMS) of small independent populations of peripheral nerve motor axons can evoke selective, fatigue-resistant muscle forces. We previously developed a real-time proportional closed-loop control method for aIFMS generation of isometric muscle force and the present work extends and adapts this closed-loop controller to the more demanding task of dynamically controlling joint position in the presence of opposing joint torque. A proportional-integral-velocity controller, with integrator anti-windup strategies, was experimentally validated as a means to evoke motion about the hind-limb ankle joint of an anesthetized feline via aIFMS stimulation of fast-twitch plantar-flexor muscles. The controller was successful in evoking steps in joint position with 2.4% overshoot, 2.3-s rise time, 4.5-s settling time, and near-zero steady-state error. Controlled step responses were consistent across changes in step size, stable against external disturbances, and reliable over time. The controller was able to evoke smooth eccentric motion at joint velocities up to 8 deg./s, as well as sinusoidal trajectories with frequencies up to 0.1 Hz, with time delays less than 1.5 s. These experiments provide important insights toward creating a robust closed-loop aIFMS controller that can evoke precise fatigue-resistant motion in paralyzed individuals, despite the complexities introduced by aIFMS. PMID:27679557

  1. Control of Dynamic Limb Motion Using Fatigue-Resistant Asynchronous Intrafascicular Multi-Electrode Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, Mitchell A.; Mathews, V John; Clark, Gregory A.; Normann, Richard A.; Meek, Sanford G.

    2016-01-01

    Asynchronous intrafascicular multi-electrode stimulation (aIFMS) of small independent populations of peripheral nerve motor axons can evoke selective, fatigue-resistant muscle forces. We previously developed a real-time proportional closed-loop control method for aIFMS generation of isometric muscle force and the present work extends and adapts this closed-loop controller to the more demanding task of dynamically controlling joint position in the presence of opposing joint torque. A proportional-integral-velocity controller, with integrator anti-windup strategies, was experimentally validated as a means to evoke motion about the hind-limb ankle joint of an anesthetized feline via aIFMS stimulation of fast-twitch plantar-flexor muscles. The controller was successful in evoking steps in joint position with 2.4% overshoot, 2.3-s rise time, 4.5-s settling time, and near-zero steady-state error. Controlled step responses were consistent across changes in step size, stable against external disturbances, and reliable over time. The controller was able to evoke smooth eccentric motion at joint velocities up to 8 deg./s, as well as sinusoidal trajectories with frequencies up to 0.1 Hz, with time delays less than 1.5 s. These experiments provide important insights toward creating a robust closed-loop aIFMS controller that can evoke precise fatigue-resistant motion in paralyzed individuals, despite the complexities introduced by aIFMS.

  2. Control of Dynamic Limb Motion Using Fatigue-Resistant Asynchronous Intrafascicular Multi-Electrode Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Mitchell A; Mathews, V John; Clark, Gregory A; Normann, Richard A; Meek, Sanford G

    2016-01-01

    Asynchronous intrafascicular multi-electrode stimulation (aIFMS) of small independent populations of peripheral nerve motor axons can evoke selective, fatigue-resistant muscle forces. We previously developed a real-time proportional closed-loop control method for aIFMS generation of isometric muscle force and the present work extends and adapts this closed-loop controller to the more demanding task of dynamically controlling joint position in the presence of opposing joint torque. A proportional-integral-velocity controller, with integrator anti-windup strategies, was experimentally validated as a means to evoke motion about the hind-limb ankle joint of an anesthetized feline via aIFMS stimulation of fast-twitch plantar-flexor muscles. The controller was successful in evoking steps in joint position with 2.4% overshoot, 2.3-s rise time, 4.5-s settling time, and near-zero steady-state error. Controlled step responses were consistent across changes in step size, stable against external disturbances, and reliable over time. The controller was able to evoke smooth eccentric motion at joint velocities up to 8 deg./s, as well as sinusoidal trajectories with frequencies up to 0.1 Hz, with time delays less than 1.5 s. These experiments provide important insights toward creating a robust closed-loop aIFMS controller that can evoke precise fatigue-resistant motion in paralyzed individuals, despite the complexities introduced by aIFMS.

  3. Control of Dynamic Limb Motion Using Fatigue-Resistant Asynchronous Intrafascicular Multi-Electrode Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Mitchell A; Mathews, V John; Clark, Gregory A; Normann, Richard A; Meek, Sanford G

    2016-01-01

    Asynchronous intrafascicular multi-electrode stimulation (aIFMS) of small independent populations of peripheral nerve motor axons can evoke selective, fatigue-resistant muscle forces. We previously developed a real-time proportional closed-loop control method for aIFMS generation of isometric muscle force and the present work extends and adapts this closed-loop controller to the more demanding task of dynamically controlling joint position in the presence of opposing joint torque. A proportional-integral-velocity controller, with integrator anti-windup strategies, was experimentally validated as a means to evoke motion about the hind-limb ankle joint of an anesthetized feline via aIFMS stimulation of fast-twitch plantar-flexor muscles. The controller was successful in evoking steps in joint position with 2.4% overshoot, 2.3-s rise time, 4.5-s settling time, and near-zero steady-state error. Controlled step responses were consistent across changes in step size, stable against external disturbances, and reliable over time. The controller was able to evoke smooth eccentric motion at joint velocities up to 8 deg./s, as well as sinusoidal trajectories with frequencies up to 0.1 Hz, with time delays less than 1.5 s. These experiments provide important insights toward creating a robust closed-loop aIFMS controller that can evoke precise fatigue-resistant motion in paralyzed individuals, despite the complexities introduced by aIFMS. PMID:27679557

  4. Dissociated lower limb muscle involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Simon, Neil G; Lee, Michael; Bae, Jong Seok; Mioshi, Eneida; Lin, Cindy S-Y; Pfluger, Casey M; Henderson, Robert D; Vucic, Steve; Swash, Michael; Burke, David; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2015-06-01

    It has been suggested that corticomotoneuronal drive to ankle dorsiflexors is greater than to ankle plantar flexor muscles, despite the finding that plantar flexors are no less active than TA during walking and standing. The present study was undertaken to determine whether there was differential involvement of distal lower limb muscles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms of selective muscle involvement. Prospective studies were undertaken in 52 ALS patients, including clinical assessment, disease staging (revised ALS functional rating scale), Medical Research Council sum score, and a scale of upper motor neurone (UMN) dysfunction. Motor unit number estimates (MUNE) and compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) from ankle dorsiflexors and plantar flexors were used to provide objective measures. A novel 'split leg index' was calculated as follows: SLI = CMAPDF ÷ CMAPPF. In ALS, there was significantly greater reduction of MUNE and CMAP amplitude recorded from plantar flexors when compared to dorsiflexors, suggesting preferential involvement of plantar flexor muscles, underpinning a 'split leg' appearance. The SLI correlated with clinical plantar flexor strength (R= -0.56, p < 0.001). In no patient did the SLI suggest preferential dorsiflexor involvement. In subgroup analyses, mean SLI was greatest in lower limb-onset ALS. In conclusion, the present study has established dissociated involvement of muscles acting around the ankle in ALS. We suggest this reflects underlying differences in cortical, descending or local spinal modulation of these muscles. PMID:25845764

  5. Running With an Elastic Lower Limb Exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Michael S; Kota, Sridhar; Young, Aaron; Ferris, Daniel P

    2016-06-01

    Although there have been many lower limb robotic exoskeletons that have been tested for human walking, few devices have been tested for assisting running. It is possible that a pseudo-passive elastic exoskeleton could benefit human running without the addition of electrical motors due to the spring-like behavior of the human leg. We developed an elastic lower limb exoskeleton that added stiffness in parallel with the entire lower limb. Six healthy, young subjects ran on a treadmill at 2.3 m/s with and without the exoskeleton. Although the exoskeleton was designed to provide ~50% of normal leg stiffness during running, it only provided 24% of leg stiffness during testing. The difference in added leg stiffness was primarily due to soft tissue compression and harness compliance decreasing exoskeleton displacement during stance. As a result, the exoskeleton only supported about 7% of the peak vertical ground reaction force. There was a significant increase in metabolic cost when running with the exoskeleton compared with running without the exoskeleton (ANOVA, P < .01). We conclude that 2 major roadblocks to designing successful lower limb robotic exoskeletons for human running are human-machine interface compliance and the extra lower limb inertia from the exoskeleton.

  6. Alignment of lower-limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, M S; Spence, W D; Solomonidis, S E; Paul, J P

    1986-04-01

    Alignment of a prosthesis is defined as the position of the socket relative to the other prosthetic components of the limb. During dynamic alignment the prosthetist, using subjective judgment and feedback from the patient, aims to achieve the most suitable limb geometry for best function and comfort. Until recently it was generally believed that a patient could only be satisfied with a unique "optimum alignment." The purpose of this systematic study of lower-limb alignment parameters was to gain an understanding of the factors that make a limb configuration or optimum alignment, acceptable to the patient, and to obtain a measure of the variation of this alignment that would be acceptable to the amputee. In this paper, the acceptable range of alignments for 10 below- and 10 above-knee amputees are established. Three prosthetists were involved in the majority of the 183 below-knee and 100 above-knee fittings, although several other prosthetists were also involved. The effects of each different prosthetist on the established range of alignment for each patient are reported to be significant. It is now established that an amputee can tolerate several alignments ranging in some parameters by as much as 148 mm in shifts and 17 degrees in tilts. This paper describes the method of defining and measuring the alignment of lower-limb prostheses. It presents quantitatively established values for bench alignment position and the range of adjustment required for incorporation into the design of new alignment units.

  7. Pbx Homeodomain Proteins: TALEnted regulators of Limb Patterning and Outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Capellini, Terence D.; Zappavigna, Vincenzo; Selleri, Licia

    2011-01-01

    Limb development has long provided an excellent model for understanding the genetic principles driving embryogenesis. Studies utilizing chick and mouse have led to new insights into limb patterning and morphogenesis. Recent research has centered on the regulatory networks underlying limb development. Here, we discuss the hierarchical, overlapping, and iterative roles of Pbx family members in appendicular development that have emerged from genetic analyses in the mouse. Pbx genes are essential in determining limb bud positioning, early bud formation, limb axes establishment and coordination, and patterning and morphogenesis of most elements of the limb and girdle. Pbx proteins directly regulate critical effectors of limb and girdle development, including morphogen-encoding genes like Shh in limb posterior mesoderm, and transcription factor-encoding genes like Alx1 in pre-scapular domains. Interestingly, at least in limb buds, Pbx appear to act not only as Hox cofactors, but also in the upstream control of 5' HoxA/D gene expression. PMID:21416555

  8. Biomechanical Properties of Insect Wings: The Stress Stiffening Effects on the Asymmetric Bending of the Allomyrina dichotoma Beetle's Hind Wing

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ngoc San; Truong, Quang Tri; Goo, Nam Seo; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2013-01-01

    Although the asymmetry in the upward and downward bending of insect wings is well known, the structural origin of this asymmetry is not yet clearly understood. Some researchers have suggested that based on experimental results, the bending asymmetry of insect wings appears to be a consequence of the camber inherent in the wings. Although an experimental approach can reveal this phenomenon, another method is required to reveal the underlying theory behind the experimental results. The finite element method (FEM) is a powerful tool for evaluating experimental measurements and is useful for studying the bending asymmetry of insect wings. Therefore, in this study, the asymmetric bending of the Allomyrina dichotoma beetle's hind wing was investigated through FEM analyses rather than through an experimental approach. The results demonstrated that both the stressed stiffening of the membrane and the camber of the wing affect the bending asymmetry of insect wings. In particular, the chordwise camber increased the rigidity of the wing when a load was applied to the ventral side, while the spanwise camber increased the rigidity of the wing when a load was applied to the dorsal side. These results provide an appropriate explanation of the mechanical behavior of cambered insect wings, including the bending asymmetry behavior, and suggest an appropriate approach for analyzing the structural behavior of insect wings. PMID:24339878

  9. Illusory limb movements in anosognosia for hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, T.; Roane, D.; Ali, J.

    2000-01-01

    To clarify the relation between anosognosia for hemiplegia and confabulation, 11 patients with acute right cerebral infarctions and left upper limb hemiparesis were assessed for anosognosia for hemiplegia, illusory limb movements (ILMs), hemispatial neglect, asomatognosia, and cognitive impairment. Five of 11 patients had unequivocal confabulation as evidenced by ILMs. The presence of ILMs was associated with the degree of anosognosia (p=0.002), with hemispatial neglect (p<0.05), and with asomatognosia (p<0.01). The results confirm that a strong relation exists between anosognosia for hemiplegia and confabulations concerning the movement of the plegic limb. There is also a strong relation between ILMs and asomatognosia.

 PMID:10727491

  10. Gradients of signalling in the developing limb.

    PubMed

    Towers, Matthew; Wolpert, Lewis; Tickle, Cheryll

    2012-04-01

    The developing limb is one of the first systems where it was proposed that a signalling gradient is involved in pattern formation. This gradient for specifying positional information across the antero-posterior axis is based on Sonic hedgehog signalling from the polarizing region. Recent evidence suggests that Sonic hedgehog signalling also specifies positional information across the antero-posterior axis by a timing mechanism acting in parallel with graded signalling. The progress zone model for specifying proximo-distal pattern, involving timing to provide cells with positional information, continues to be challenged, and there is further evidence that graded signalling by retinoic acid specifies the proximal part of the limb. Other recent papers present the first evidence that gradients of signalling by Wnt5a and FGFs govern cell behaviour involved in outgrowth and morphogenesis of the developing limb.

  11. Local autonomic failure affecting a limb.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, R H; Robinson, B J

    1987-01-01

    Three patients are described who presented with autonomic failure affecting predominantly one limb. Physiological studies revealed that there was sweating loss in the limb which appeared to be due to a preganglionic autonomic lesion and not to a sweat gland abnormality. In all three patients there was also evidence of failure of vasomotor control. There was no evidence of more generalised autonomic failure or neurological deficit. In two patients the condition appeared to be static and, according to the patients' accounts was life long. In the third the sweating loss was present for three years prior to pain loss becoming evident from C2/3 to T1 on the same side as the sweating loss. These patients, together with two recent case reports, indicate that isolated local autonomic failure, probably from a discrete cord lesion, can be a cause of presenting symptoms related to sweating loss or to change in temperature in a limb. PMID:3612155

  12. Phantom limb pain: a nursing perspective.

    PubMed

    Virani, Anila; Green, Theresa; Turin, Tanvir C

    2014-09-01

    Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a neuropathic pain condition occurring after amputation of a limb. PLP affects amputees' quality of life and results in loss of productivity and psychological distress. The origin of pain from a non-existing limb creates a challenging situation for both patients and nurses. It is imperative to provide patients and nurses with the knowledge that PLP is a real phenomenon that requires care and treatment. This knowledge will lead to reduced problems for patients by allowing them to talk about PLP and ask for help when needed. Understanding of this phenomenon will enable nurses to appreciate the unique features of this form of neuropathic pain and apply appropriate techniques to promote effective pain management. Performing accurate and frequent assessments to understand the unique characteristics of PLP, displaying a non-judgemental attitude towards patients and teaching throughout the peri-operative process are significant nursing interventions.

  13. Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy (LGMD): Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kalyan, Meenakshi; Gaikwad, Anu N.; Makadia, Ankit; Shah, Harshad

    2015-01-01

    We report a young male of autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) with positive family history presented with gradual onset proximal muscle weakness in all four limbs since eight years and thinning of shoulders, arms and thighs. Neurological examination revealed atrophy of both shoulders with wasting of both deltoids thinning of thighs and pseudo hypertrophy of both calves, hypotonia in all four limbs. Gower’s sign was positive. Winging of scapula was present. Power was 3/5 at both shoulders, 4/5 at both elbows, 5/5 at both wrists, 3/5 at both hip joints, 3/5 at both knees, 5/5 at both ankles. All deep tendon reflexes and superficial reflexes were present with plantars bilateral flexors. Electromyography (EMG) showed myopathic pattern. He had elevated creatinine phosphokinase levels and muscle biopsy findings consistent with muscular dystrophy. PMID:25738022

  14. Body Image and Self-Esteem in Lower-Limb Amputees

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Lukas A.; Sevelda, Florian; Fraberger, Georg; Bluder, Olivia; Kickinger, Wolfgang; Holzer, Gerold

    2014-01-01

    Background Limb amputation is often an inevitable procedure in the advanced condition of various diseases and poses a dramatic impact on a patient's life. The aim of the present study is to analyze the impact of lower-limb amputations on aesthetic factors such as body image and self-esteem as well as quality of life (QoL). Methods 298 patients (149 uni- or bilateral lower-limb amputees and 149 controls) were included in this cross-sectional study in three centers. Demographic data was collected and patients received a 118-item questionnaire including the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ), the Rosenberg Self-esteem (RSE) scale and the SF-36 Health Survey (QoL). ANOVA and student's t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results Unilateral lower-limb amputees showed a significant lower MBSRQ score of 3.07±0.54 compared with 3.41±0.34 in controls (p<0.001) and a lower score in the RSE compared to controls (21.63±4.72 vs. 21.46±5.86). However, differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.36). Patients with phantom pain sensation had a significantly reduced RSE (p = 0.01). The SF-36 health survey was significantly lower in patients with lower-limb amputation compared to controls (42.17±14.47 vs. 64.05±12.39) (p<0.001). Conclusion This study showed that lower-limb amputations significantly influence patients' body image and QoL. Self-esteem seems to be an independent aspect, which is not affected by lower-limb amputation. However, self-esteem is influenced significantly by phantom pain sensation. PMID:24663958

  15. Inter-rater Reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale for Spasticity in Hemiplegic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, R. L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study tested the interrater reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale in measuring upper and lower limb spasticity in 34 hemiplegic adult patients examined by 2 physiotherapists and 2 doctors. Findings indicated satisfactory reliability for upper limb spasticity but less satisfactory results for lower limb spasticity. (DB)

  16. Sonic hedgehog: restricted expression and limb dysmorphologies

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Robert E; Heaney, Simon JH; Lettice, Laura A

    2003-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog, SHH, is required for patterning the limb. The array of skeletal elements that compose the hands and feet, and the ordered arrangement of these bones to form the pattern of fingers and toes are dependent on SHH. The mechanism of action of SHH in the limb is not fully understood; however, an aspect that appears to be important is the localized, asymmetric expression of Shh. Shh is expressed in the posterior margin of the limb bud in a region defined as the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA). Analysis of mouse mutants which have polydactyly (extra toes) shows that asymmetric expression of Shh is lost due to the appearance of an ectopic domain of expression in the anterior limb margin. One such polydactylous mouse mutant, sasquatch (Ssq), maps to the corresponding chromosomal region of the human condition pre-axial polydactyly (PPD) and thus represents a model for this condition. The mutation responsible for Ssq is located 1 Mb away from the Shh gene; however, the mutation disrupts a long-range cis-acting regulator of Shh expression. By inference, human pre-axial polydactyly results from a similar disruption of Shh expression. Other human congenital abnormalities also map near the pre-axial polydactyly locus, suggesting a major chromosomal region for limb dysmorphologies. The distinct phenotypes range from loss of all bones of the hands and feet to syndactyly of the soft tissue and fusion of the digits. We discuss the role played by Shh expression in mouse mutant phenotypes and the human limb dysmorphologies. PMID:12587915

  17. Sonic hedgehog: restricted expression and limb dysmorphologies.

    PubMed

    Hill, Robert E; Heaney, Simon J H; Lettice, Laura A

    2003-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog, SHH, is required for patterning the limb. The array of skeletal elements that compose the hands and feet, and the ordered arrangement of these bones to form the pattern of fingers and toes are dependent on SHH. The mechanism of action of SHH in the limb is not fully understood; however, an aspect that appears to be important is the localized, asymmetric expression of Shh. Shh is expressed in the posterior margin of the limb bud in a region defined as the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA). Analysis of mouse mutants which have polydactyly (extra toes) shows that asymmetric expression of Shh is lost due to the appearance of an ectopic domain of expression in the anterior limb margin. One such polydactylous mouse mutant, sasquatch (Ssq), maps to the corresponding chromosomal region of the human condition pre-axial polydactyly (PPD) and thus represents a model for this condition. The mutation responsible for Ssq is located 1 Mb away from the Shh gene; however, the mutation disrupts a long-range cis-acting regulator of Shh expression. By inference, human pre-axial polydactyly results from a similar disruption of Shh expression. Other human congenital abnormalities also map near the pre-axial polydactyly locus, suggesting a major chromosomal region for limb dysmorphologies. The distinct phenotypes range from loss of all bones of the hands and feet to syndactyly of the soft tissue and fusion of the digits. We discuss the role played by Shh expression in mouse mutant phenotypes and the human limb dysmorphologies.

  18. The effect of limb crossing and limb congruency on multisensory integration in peripersonal space for the upper and lower extremities.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel; Forget, Joachim; Blanke, Olaf

    2013-06-01

    The present study investigated how multisensory integration in peripersonal space is modulated by limb posture (i.e. whether the limbs are crossed or uncrossed) and limb congruency (i.e. whether the observed body part matches the actual position of one's limb). This was done separately for the upper limbs (Experiment 1) and the lower limbs (Experiment 2). The crossmodal congruency task was used to measure peripersonal space integration for the hands and the feet. It was found that the peripersonal space representation for the hands but not for the feet is dynamically updated based on both limb posture and limb congruency. Together these findings show how dynamic cues from vision, proprioception, and touch are integrated in peripersonal limb space and highlight fundamental differences in the way in which peripersonal space is represented for the upper and lower extremity. PMID:23579198

  19. Solar limb brightening at 350 microns

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.; Hildebrand, R.H.; Keene, J.; Whitcomb, S.E.

    1981-09-01

    We have used the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility at Mauna Kea to observe the intensity profile of the quiet solar limb in the 300--400 ..mu..m continuum. We find a significant resolved brightening of several percent over the outer 60'' of the solar limb in this band. However, the magnitude of the brightening is considerably less than that indicated by earlier observations of a total solar eclipse in integrated Sun--Moon radiation by Beckman, Lesurf, and Ross in the 1.2 mm continuum.

  20. Electrodiagnostic testing in diabetic neuropathy: Which limb?

    PubMed

    Rota, E; Cocito, D

    2015-10-01

    Electrodiagnosis of subclinical diabetic neuropathies by nerve conduction studies remains challenging. The question arises about which nerves should be tested and what the best electrodiagnostic protocol to make an early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathies would be. On the basis of our findings and other evidence, which highlighted the remarkable prevalence of electrophysiological abnormalities in nerve conduction studies of the upper limbs, often in the presence of normal lower limb conduction parameters, we suggest that both ulnar and median nerves, in their motor and sensitive component, should be the two target nerves for electrodiagnostic protocols in diabetic neuropathies.

  1. Deciphering skeletal patterning: clues from the limb.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Francesca V; Martin, Gail R

    2003-05-15

    Even young children can distinguish a Tyrannosaurus rex from a Brontosaurus by observing differences in bone size, shape, number and arrangement, that is, skeletal pattern. But despite our extensive knowledge about cartilage and bone formation per se, it is still largely a mystery how skeletal pattern is established. Much of what we do know has been learned from studying limb development in chicken and mouse embryos. Based on the data from such studies, models for how limb skeletal pattern is established have been proposed and continue to be hotly debated.

  2. Phantom limb perception interferes with motor imagery after unilateral upper-limb amputation

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Yuanyuan; Guo, Xiaoli; Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Flor, Herta; Tong, Shanbao

    2016-01-01

    A potential contributor to impaired motor imagery in amputees is an alteration of the body schema as a result of the presence of a phantom limb. However, the nature of the relationship between motor imagery and phantom experiences remains unknown. In this study, the influence of phantom limb perception on motor imagery was investigated using a hand mental rotation task by means of behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Compared with healthy controls, significantly prolonged response time for both the intact and missing hand were observed specifically in amputees who perceived a phantom limb during the task but not in amputees without phantom limb perception. Event-related desynchronization of EEG in the beta band (beta-ERD) in central and parietal areas showed an angular disparity specifically in amputees with phantom limb perception, with its source localized in the right inferior parietal lobule. The response time as well as the beta-ERD values were significantly positively correlated with phantom vividness. Our results suggest that phantom limb perception during the task is an important interferential factor for motor imagery after amputation and the interference might be related to a change of the body representation resulting from an unnatural posture of the phantom limb. PMID:26879749

  3. Phantom limb perception interferes with motor imagery after unilateral upper-limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Yuanyuan; Guo, Xiaoli; Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Flor, Herta; Tong, Shanbao

    2016-01-01

    A potential contributor to impaired motor imagery in amputees is an alteration of the body schema as a result of the presence of a phantom limb. However, the nature of the relationship between motor imagery and phantom experiences remains unknown. In this study, the influence of phantom limb perception on motor imagery was investigated using a hand mental rotation task by means of behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Compared with healthy controls, significantly prolonged response time for both the intact and missing hand were observed specifically in amputees who perceived a phantom limb during the task but not in amputees without phantom limb perception. Event-related desynchronization of EEG in the beta band (beta-ERD) in central and parietal areas showed an angular disparity specifically in amputees with phantom limb perception, with its source localized in the right inferior parietal lobule. The response time as well as the beta-ERD values were significantly positively correlated with phantom vividness. Our results suggest that phantom limb perception during the task is an important interferential factor for motor imagery after amputation and the interference might be related to a change of the body representation resulting from an unnatural posture of the phantom limb. PMID:26879749

  4. The Lower Limb Functional Index - A reliable and valid functional outcome assessment in burns.

    PubMed

    Gittings, Paul M; Heberlien, Nicholas; Devenish, Neale; Parker, Matthew; Phillips, Michael; Wood, Fiona M; Edgar, Dale W

    2016-09-01

    Lower limb injuries account for up to 40% of all burns in Western Australia and affect physical function. Lower limb specific functional assessments are available to monitor recovery, yet no scale has been assessed for use in burns. The Lower Limb Functional Index (LLFI) which is validated in musculoskeletal patients was investigated for applicability in burn. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha, principal components analysis and Rasch analysis. Validity was assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficient with quality of life assessments (BSHS-B & SF-36) and physical assessments (TUG & ankle ROM). Regression analysis was performed with burn severity measures, time of recovery and location of the burn. The LLFI-10 was applied 1368 times on 739 patients at regular time points. It was internally consistent (α>0.8) and unidimensional. Associations were demonstrated with the BSHS-B and SF-36 (rho=-0.56 to -0.72, p<0.001), TUG (rho=0.41, p<0.001) and ankle ROM (rho=-0.31 to -0.35, p<0.001). The LLFI-10 also showed associations (p<0.001) with time since injury (rho=-0.29), age (rho=0.12) and TBSA (rho=0.12). The LLFI-10 is a reliable and valid tool to assess function in lower limb burns. This study supports the use of the LLFI-10 as part of a battery of assessment for lower limb burn recovery. PMID:27126812

  5. Neural coupling between upper and lower limbs during recumbent stepping.

    PubMed

    Huang, Helen J; Ferris, Daniel P

    2004-10-01

    During gait rehabilitation, therapists or robotic devices often supply physical assistance to a patient's lower limbs to aid stepping. The expensive equipment and intensive manual labor required for these therapies limit their availability to patients. One alternative solution is to design devices where patients could use their upper limbs to provide physical assistance to their lower limbs (i.e., self-assistance). To explore potential neural effects of coupling upper and lower limbs, we investigated neuromuscular recruitment during self-driven and externally driven lower limb motion. Healthy subjects exercised on a recumbent stepper using different combinations of upper and lower limb exertions. The recumbent stepper mechanically coupled the upper and lower limbs, allowing users to drive the stepping motion with upper and/or lower limbs. We instructed subjects to step with 1) active upper and lower limbs at an easy resistance level (active arms and legs); 2) active upper limbs and relaxed lower limbs at easy, medium, and hard resistance levels (self-driven); and 3) relaxed upper and lower limbs while another person drove the stepping motion (externally driven). We recorded surface electromyography (EMG) from six lower limb muscles. Self-driven EMG amplitudes were always higher than externally driven EMG amplitudes (P < 0.05). As resistance and upper limb exertion increased, self-driven EMG amplitudes also increased. EMG bursts during self-driven and active arms and legs stepping occurred at similar times. These results indicate that active upper limb movement increases neuromuscular activation of the lower limbs during cyclic stepping motions. Neurologically impaired humans that actively engage their upper limbs during gait rehabilitation may increase neuromuscular activation and enhance activity-dependent plasticity. PMID:15180979

  6. Vertical Distribution of Aerosols and Water Vapor Using CRISM Limb Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. D.; Wolff, M. J.; Clancy, R. T.; CRISM Science; Operations Teams

    2011-12-01

    Near-infrared spectra taken in a limb-viewing geometry by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on-board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) provide a useful tool for probing atmospheric structure. Specifically, the observed radiance as a function of wavelength and height above the limb allows the vertical distribution of both dust and ice aerosols to be retrieved. These data serve as an important supplement to the aerosol profiling provided by the MRO/MCS instrument allowing independent validation and giving additional information on particle physical and scattering properties through multi-wavelength studies. A total of at least ten CRISM limb observations have been taken so far covering a full Martian year. Each set of limb observations nominally contains about four dozen scans across the limb giving pole-to-pole coverage for two orbits at roughly 100 and 290 W longitude over the Tharsis and Syrtis/Hellas regions, respectively. At each longitude, limb scans are spaced roughly 10 degrees apart in latitude, with a vertical spatial resolution on the limb of roughly 800 m. Radiative transfer modeling is used to model the observations. We compute synthetic CRISM limb spectra using a discrete-ordinates radiative transfer code that accounts for multiple scattering from aerosols and accounts for spherical geometry of the limb observations by integrating the source functions along curved paths in that coordinate system. Retrieved are 14-point vertical profiles for dust and water ice aerosols with resolution of 0.4 scale heights between one and six scale heights above the surface. After the aerosol retrieval is completed, the abundances of CO2 (or surface pressure) and H2O gas are retrieved by matching the depth of absorption bands at 2000 nm for carbon dioxide and at 2600 nm for water vapor. In addition to the column abundance of water vapor, limited information on its vertical structure can also be retrieved depending on the signal available

  7. A new negroid-specific HindIII polymorphism in the serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) gene increases the usefulness of the SAA locus in linkage studies

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, G.; Ramsay, M.; Jenkins, T. ); Kluve-Beckerman, B. )

    1993-01-01

    The cDNA probe pSAA82 detects three serum amyloid A (SAA) loci on chromosome 11p. SAA1 and SAA2 have 90% nucleotide identity in exon and intron sequences (1), whereas SAA3 has an average of 70% identity with SAA1 and SAA2 (3). The chromosomal organization of the loci is not yet known. A two-allele polymorphic HindIII site was found within intron 2 of the SAA2 locus (1) with fragments of 3.0 (a2) and 5.0 kb (a1) (previously sized as 2.8 and 4.6 kb, respectively) which occur in Caucasoids, Negroids, and San (formerly [open quote]Bushmen[close quotes]) (2). The discovery of a further, Negroid-specific, polymorphic HindIII restriction site, detected with the same probe, increases its usefulness. This RFLP is associated with the SAA1 locus (6) and is characterized by the presence of two allelic fragments of 3.6 (b1) and 1.4 kb (b2). This HindIII site is also thought to occur within intron 2 because of the strong evolutionary conservation between the SAA1 and SAA2 genes. The polymorphism may therefore either predate the gene duplication event or be present as a result of gene conversion. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Detection of hemophilia a carriers in Azeri Turkish population of Iran: usefulness of HindIII and BclI markers.

    PubMed

    Moharrami, Tamouchin; Derakhshan, Sima Mansoori; Pourfeizi, Abbas Ali H; Khaniani, Mahmoud Shekari

    2015-11-01

    Hemophilia A (HA) is an inherited X-linked coagulation disorder caused by the deficiency of factor VIII (FVIII). Linkage analysis is a common indirect method for the detection of female carriers in families with HA. In the current study, 173 patients from 30 unrelated families with HA were recruited from the Azeri Turkish population of northwest Iran and analyzed for BclI and HindIII markers by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. We investigated the potential of using these markers for the detection of mutation in carriers through linkage analysis, which would be of tremendous use in prenatal diagnosis. Among the tested women, 47% and 35% were found to be heterozygous for BclI and HindIII polymorphic markers, respectively. The BclI and HindIII markers were informative for the detection of 63% and 17% potential carriers, respectively, demonstrating the effectiveness of the BclI marker for the detection of HA carriers among the Azeri Turkish population.

  9. Cosmesis: The Art of Making Artificial Limbs Look Lifelike

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Google Bookmarks Technorati Yahoo MyWeb Cosmesis: The Art of Making Artificial Limbs Look Lifelike Translated into ... Original article by Rick Bowers Cosmesis is the art of making artificial limbs look lifelike. Artificial hands ...

  10. Developmental mechanisms of vertebrate limb evolution.

    PubMed

    Cohn, M J

    2001-01-01

    Over the past few years, our understanding of the evolution of limbs has been improved by important new discoveries in the fossil record. Additionally, rapid progress has been made in identifying the molecular basis of vertebrate limb development. It is now possible to integrate these two areas of research in order to identify the molecular developmental mechanisms underlying the evolution of paired appendages in vertebrates. After the origin of paired appendages, several vertebrate lineages reduced or eliminated fins and limbs and returned to the limbless condition. Examples include eels, caecilians, snakes, slow worms and several marine mammals. Analyses of fossil and extant vertebrates show that evolution of limblessness frequently occurred together with elongation of the trunk and loss of clear morphological boundaries in the vertebral column. This may be suggestive of a common developmental mechanism linking these two processes. We have addressed this question by analysing python embryonic development at tissue, cellular and molecular levels, and we have identified a developmental mechanism which may account for evolution of limb loss in these animals.

  11. Limb disparity and wing shape in pterosaurs.

    PubMed

    Dyke, G J; Nudds, R L; Rayner, J M V

    2006-07-01

    The limb proportions of the extinct flying pterosaurs were clearly distinct from their living counterparts, birds and bats. Within pterosaurs, however, we show that further differences in limb proportions exist between the two main groups: the clade of short-tailed Pterodactyloidea and the paraphyletic clades of long-tailed rhamphorhynchoids. The hindlimb to forelimb ratios of rhamphorhynchoid pterosaurs are similar to that seen in bats, whereas those of pterodactyloids are much higher. Such a clear difference in limb ratios indicates that the extent of the wing membrane in rhamphorhynchoids and pterodactyloids may also have differed; this is borne out by simple ternary analyses. Further, analyses also indicate that the limbs of Sordes pilosus, a well-preserved small taxon used as key evidence for inferring the extent and shape of the wing membrane in all pterosaurs, are not typical even of its closest relatives, other rhamphorhynchoids. Thus, a bat-like extensive hindlimb flight membrane, integrated with the feet and tail may be applicable only to a small subset of pterosaur diversity. The range of flight morphologies seen in these extinct reptiles may prove much broader than previously thought.

  12. Use and Usefulness of Lower Limb Prostheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buijk, Catharina A.

    1988-01-01

    Adults (n=181) in the Netherlands were surveyed concerning their use of lower limb prostheses. Results are analyzed in terms of age and sex of users, reason for amputation, level of amputation, description of prosthesis, amount of time able to walk or stand, satisfaction with the prosthesis, and user recommendations. (JDD)

  13. Caring for patients with lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Deborah

    In 2014 a National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death report examined the care of people requiring lower limb amputation as a consequence of complications associated with vascular disease or diabetes. It suggests that less than half of patients who undergo surgery receive good care. This article summarises the key findings of the report and the implications for nursing practice.

  14. Upper Limb Motor Impairment Post Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis Understanding upper limb impairment after stroke is essential to planning therapeutic efforts to restore function. However determining which upper limb impairment to treat and how is complex for two reasons: 1) the impairments are not static, i.e. as motor recovery proceeds, the type and nature of the impairments may change; therefore the treatment needs to evolve to target the impairment contributing to dysfunction at a given point in time. 2) multiple impairments may be present simultaneously, i.e., a patient may present with weakness of the arm and hand immediately after a stroke, which may not have resolved when spasticity sets in a few weeks or months later; hence there may be a layering of impairments over time making it difficult to decide what to treat first. The most useful way to understand how impairments contribute to upper limb dysfunction may be to examine them from the perspective of their functional consequences. There are three main functional consequences of impairments on upper limb function are: (1) learned nonuse, (2) learned bad-use, and (3) forgetting as determined by behavioral analysis of tasks. The impairments that contribute to each of these functional limitations are described. PMID:26522900

  15. Developmental mechanisms of vertebrate limb evolution.

    PubMed

    Cohn, M J

    2001-01-01

    Over the past few years, our understanding of the evolution of limbs has been improved by important new discoveries in the fossil record. Additionally, rapid progress has been made in identifying the molecular basis of vertebrate limb development. It is now possible to integrate these two areas of research in order to identify the molecular developmental mechanisms underlying the evolution of paired appendages in vertebrates. After the origin of paired appendages, several vertebrate lineages reduced or eliminated fins and limbs and returned to the limbless condition. Examples include eels, caecilians, snakes, slow worms and several marine mammals. Analyses of fossil and extant vertebrates show that evolution of limblessness frequently occurred together with elongation of the trunk and loss of clear morphological boundaries in the vertebral column. This may be suggestive of a common developmental mechanism linking these two processes. We have addressed this question by analysing python embryonic development at tissue, cellular and molecular levels, and we have identified a developmental mechanism which may account for evolution of limb loss in these animals. PMID:11277086

  16. What Determines Limb Selection for Reaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbig, Casi Rabb; Gabbard, Carl

    2004-01-01

    While motor dominance appears to drive limb selection for reaching movements at the midline and ipsilateral (dominant) side, this study examined the possible determinants associated with what drives the programming of movements in response to stimuli presented in contralateral space. Experiment 1 distinguished between object proximity and a…

  17. Developmental basis of limb homology in lizards.

    PubMed

    Fabrezi, Marissa; Abdala, Virginia; Oliver, María Inés Martínez

    2007-07-01

    Shubin and Alberch (Evol Biol 1986;20:319-387) proposed a scheme of tetrapod limb development based on cartilage morphogenesis that provides the arguments to interpret the homologies of skeletal elements and sets the basis to explain limb specialization through later developmental modification. Morphogenetic evidence emerged from the study of some reptiles, but the availability of data for lizards is limited. Here, the study of adult skeletal variation in 41 lizard taxa and ontogeny in species of Liolaemus and Tupinambis attempts to fill in this gap and provides supporting evidence for the Shubin-Alberch scheme. Six questions are explored. Is there an intermedium in the carpus? Are there two centralia in the carpus? Is there homology among proximal tarsalia of reptiles? Does digit V belong to the digital arch? Is the pisiform an element of the autopodium plan? And should the ossification processes be similar to cartilage morphogenesis? We found the following answers. Some taxa exhibit an ossified element that could represent an intermedium. There is one centrale in the carpus. Development of proximal tarsalia seems to be equivalent with that observed among reptiles. Digit V could arise from the digital arch. Pisiform does not arise as part of the limb plan. And different patterns of ossification occur following a single and conservative cartilaginous configuration. Lizard limb development shows an early pattern common to other reptiles with clear primary axis and digital arch. The pattern then becomes lizard-specific with specialization involving some reduction in prechondrogenic elements. PMID:17415759

  18. Bothrops lanceolatus (Fer de lance) venom induces oedema formation and increases vascular permeability in the mouse hind paw.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, A L; de Souza, A O; da Cruz-Höfling, M A; Flores, C A; Bon, C

    2000-02-01

    The ability of snake venoms to increase vascular permeability and to induce oedema through the release of pharmacologically active substances is well known. We have studied the oedema and vascular permeability induced by Bothrops lanceolatus venom in male Swiss white mice. Paw oedema was induced by the subplantar injection of B. lanceolatus venom (125-1000 ng/paw) and was quantified as the increase in paw weight. Changes in vascular permeability were assessed by measuring the amount of Evans blue dye extravasation. The oedema and the increase in vascular permeability were maximal within 2 h and had resolved after 24 h. The administration of the vasodilator iloprost (20 ng/paw) immediately after B. lanceolatus venom potentiated the oedema and the increase in vascular permeability by approximately four-fold. Pretreating the mice with indomethacin, dexamethasone, NDGA or BW A4C inhibited the venom-induced oedema and the increase in vascular permeability. In contrast, histamine, serotonin and PAF-acether antagonists (mepyramine, cyproheptadine and WEB 2086, respectively) were ineffective. Histological examination showed that B. lanceolatus venom (250 ng and 500 ng/paw) caused thickening of the inner dermal layers which was accompanied by extensive intercellular spaces indicative of oedema. In addition, there was a marked infiltration of inflammatory cells, particularly neutrophils, into the underlying muscle layer. The latter, however, remained morphologically unaffected during the 3 h of observation. Venom doses larger than 500 ng/paw produced intense haemorrhage. These results indicate that B. lanceolatus venom induces oedema and increases vascular permeability in the mouse hind paw. The principal mediators of this inflammatory response are cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase products. PMID:10665802

  19. Geophysical implications of Io limb profile data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, F.; Thomas, P. C.

    2013-12-01

    Limb profiles can be used both to determine a body's long-wavelength shape, and to infer its averaged elastic thickness [1]. Here we apply previously-developed techniques [1] to analyze Galileo limb profiles for Io [2], for comparison with control-point network analysis [3]. We determine Io's long-wavelength topography at spherical harmonic degrees 3 and 4. The amplitude of the topography is +/- 0.5 km, small compared to the degree-2 (tidal and rotational) shape. The l=4 components contain 4 times more power than l=3, consistent with tidal heating playing a role in producing topography [e.g. 4]. However, the topographic pattern is anti-symmetric about the equator, which is not expected from tidal models. Nor does the topography correlate with the global pattern of volcanoes and mountains [5]. The variation in limb profile roughness with wavelength can be used to infer an elastic thickness [1,6]. In the case of Io, despite local mountains, overall the topography is quite smooth. The highest-resolution limb profiles suggest an elastic thickness of about 50 km, higher than that of other outer solar system satellites [1]. This value is consistent with previous estimates based on the existence of mountains [7] and expectations of a thick, cold lid resulting from Io's heat loss being dominated by erupting melt [8]. [1] Nimmo et al. JGR 2011 [2] Thomas et al. Icarus 1998 [3] Oberst and Schuster JGR 2004 [4] Ross et al. Icarus 1990 [5] Kirchoff et al. EPSL 2011 [6] Araki et al. Science 2009 [7] Carr et al. Icarus 1998 [8] O'Reilly and Davies GRL 1981 Io long-wavelength topography, obtained from limb profile data and expanded from l=m=3 to l=m=4. Contour interval 0.1 km.

  20. Internal models of limb dynamics and the encoding of limb state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Eun Jung; Shadmehr, Reza

    2005-09-01

    Studies of reaching suggest that humans adapt to novel arm dynamics by building internal models that transform planned sensory states of the limb, e.g., desired limb position and its derivatives, into motor commands, e.g., joint torques. Earlier work modeled this computation via a population of basis elements and used system identification techniques to estimate the tuning properties of the bases from the patterns of generalization. Here we hypothesized that the neural representation of planned sensory states in the internal model might resemble the signals from the peripheral sensors. These sensors normally encode the limb's actual sensory state in which movement errors occurred. We developed a set of equations based on properties of muscle spindles that estimated spindle discharge as a function of the limb's state during reaching and drawing of circles. We then implemented a simulation of a two-link arm that learned to move in various force fields using these spindle-like bases. The system produced a pattern of adaptation and generalization that accounted for a wide range of previously reported behavioral results. In particular, the bases showed gain-field interactions between encoding of limb position and velocity, very similar to the gain fields inferred from behavioral studies. The poor sensitivity of the bases to limb acceleration predicted behavioral results that were confirmed by experiment. We suggest that the internal model of limb dynamics is computed by the brain with neurons that encode the state of the limb in a manner similar to that expected of muscle spindle afferents.

  1. 7 CFR 51.1220 - Leaf or limb rub injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf or limb rub injury. 51.1220 Section 51.1220... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Peaches Definitions § 51.1220 Leaf or limb rub injury. “Leaf or limb rub injury” means that the scarring is not smooth, not light colored, or aggregates...

  2. The axolotl limb blastema: cellular and molecular mechanisms driving blastema formation and limb regeneration in tetrapods.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Catherine; Bryant, Susan V; Gardiner, David M

    2015-04-01

    The axolotl is one of the few tetrapods that are capable of regenerating complicated biological structures, such as complete limbs, throughout adulthood. Upon injury the axolotl generates a population of regeneration-competent limb progenitor cells known as the blastema, which will grow, establish pattern, and differentiate into the missing limb structures. In this review we focus on the crucial early events that occur during wound healing, the neural-epithelial interactions that drive the formation of the early blastema, and how these mechanisms differ from those of other species that have restricted regenerative potential, such as humans. We also discuss how the presence of cells from the different axes of the limb is required for the continued growth and establishment of pattern in the blastema as described in the polar coordinate model, and how this positional information is reprogrammed in blastema cells during regeneration. Multiple cell types from the mature limb stump contribute to the blastema at different stages of regeneration, and we discuss the contribution of these types to the regenerate with reference to whether they are "pattern-forming" or "pattern-following" cells. Lastly, we explain how an engineering approach will help resolve unanswered questions in limb regeneration, with the goal of translating these concepts to developing better human regenerative therapies. PMID:27499868

  3. Effects of prosthetic limb prescription on 3-year mortality among Veterans with lower-limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Kurichi, Jibby E; Kwong, Pui; Vogel, W Bruce; Xie, Dawei; Cowper Ripley, Diane; Bates, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the relationship between receipt of a prescription for a prosthetic limb and 3 yr mortality postsurgery among Veterans with lower-limb amputation (LLA). We conducted a retrospective observational study that included 4,578 Veterans hospitalized for LLA and discharged in fiscal years 2003 and 2004. The outcome was time to all-cause mortality from the amputation surgical date up to the 3 yr anniversary of the surgical date. Of the Veterans with LLA, 1,300 (28.4%) received a prescription for a prosthetic limb within 1 yr after the surgical amputation. About 46% (n = 2,086) died within 3 yr of the surgical anniversary. Among those who received a prescription for a prosthetic limb, only 25.2% died within 3 yr of the surgical anniversary. After adjustment, Veterans who received a prescription for a prosthetic limb were less likely to die after the surgery than Veterans without a prescription, with a hazard ratio of 0.68 (95% confidence interval: 0.60-0.77). Findings demonstrated that Veterans with LLA who received a prescription for a prosthetic limb within 1 yr after the surgical amputation were less likely to die within 3 yr of the surgical amputation after controlling for patient-, treatment-, and facility-level characteristics. PMID:26348602

  4. Prevention of limb amputation in patients with limbs ulcers by autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cell implantation.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Akio; Horie, Takashi; Tsuda, Ichirou; Ikeda, Atushi; Egawa, Hirotoshi; Imamura, Emi; Iida, Jun-Ichi; Sakata, Hiromi; Tamaki, Tohru; Kukita, Kazutaka; Meguro, Jun-ichi; Yonekawa, Motoki; Kasai, Masaharu

    2005-02-01

    There are many cases of amputation of ischemic limbs of dialysis patients due to diabetes, despite the availability of medicine therapy and vascular by-pass operations. As there is extensive ruin of the vascular bed due to diabetes, vascular regeneration therapy by stem cell implantation is effective. Thirty patients with ischemic limbs due to diabetes (not including type-I) and on dialysis for chronic renal failure (19 cases), diabetes (5 cases), dialysis patients without diabetes (4 cases), and arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO, 2 cases) were treated by autologous peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) implantation where imminent amputation was under consideration. Granulocyte Colony Stimulate Factor (G-CSF: 5 microg/kg/day) was administered subcutaneously for 4 days before PBSC collection, that was carried out using a centrifuge (Spectra and/or CS3000) via the vein. The collected PBSC, containing 4.2 x 10(7) of CD 34 positive cells, was divided into units of 0.5-1.0 mL and implanted, without any purification, to the ischemic area of the limbs in about 65 points. In 21 cases, normalization of limb temperature was observed by thermograph, and symptoms also improved. The result of this first attempt of PBSC implantation is that we were able to save 22 ischemic limbs. This is the first large report of the application of regenerative medicine to peripheral ischemic limbs. PMID:15828908

  5. The axolotl limb blastema: cellular and molecular mechanisms driving blastema formation and limb regeneration in tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    McCusker, Catherine; Bryant, Susan V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The axolotl is one of the few tetrapods that are capable of regenerating complicated biological structures, such as complete limbs, throughout adulthood. Upon injury the axolotl generates a population of regeneration‐competent limb progenitor cells known as the blastema, which will grow, establish pattern, and differentiate into the missing limb structures. In this review we focus on the crucial early events that occur during wound healing, the neural−epithelial interactions that drive the formation of the early blastema, and how these mechanisms differ from those of other species that have restricted regenerative potential, such as humans. We also discuss how the presence of cells from the different axes of the limb is required for the continued growth and establishment of pattern in the blastema as described in the polar coordinate model, and how this positional information is reprogrammed in blastema cells during regeneration. Multiple cell types from the mature limb stump contribute to the blastema at different stages of regeneration, and we discuss the contribution of these types to the regenerate with reference to whether they are “pattern‐forming” or “pattern‐following” cells. Lastly, we explain how an engineering approach will help resolve unanswered questions in limb regeneration, with the goal of translating these concepts to developing better human regenerative therapies. PMID:27499868

  6. Removing visual feedback for a single limb alters between-limb force tremor relationships during isometric bilateral contractions.

    PubMed

    Kenway, Leanne C; Bisset, Leanne M; Kavanagh, Justin J

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how force tremor and muscle activity are altered between limbs when a visual target is removed for one limb during bilateral index finger abduction. Isometric index finger abduction force was examined in healthy adults (23 ± 4 years) when both index fingers abducted simultaneously. Abduction forces ranged from 5 to 20% maximum voluntary contraction, and these target forces were displayed on a PC monitor in front of the subject. Force tremor and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) activity were first collected while subjects viewed visual targets for both index fingers and then when the visual target was removed for the non-dominant index finger. Subjects successfully matched the force amplitudes generated for both limbs regardless of visual condition. When the visual target was removed for one limb, force tremor increased in this limb (p < 0.01). Different power spectral profiles were evident for each FDI EMG when targets were available for both limbs (p < 0.05); however, when one target was removed, the pattern of FDI EMG for the limb without a visual target closely reflected FDI EMG for the limb which had the visual target. The CNS actively modulates muscle activity in each limb to perform visually guided isometric contractions. Given that the goal was to match force output with both limbs, the requirements of the task must be established from the limb that had a visual target, and a copy of those motor commands appears to have been sent to the FDI of the limb without a visual target.

  7. Effect of Upper Limb Deformities on Gross Motor and Upper Limb Functions in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Eun Sook; Sim, Eun Geol; Rha, Dong-wook

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the nature and extent of upper limb deformities via the use of various classifications, and to analyze the relationship between upper limb deformities and gross motor or upper limb functionality levels. Upper extremity data were collected from 234 children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) who were…

  8. Clustering-based limb identification for pressure ulcer risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Baran Pouyan, M; Nourani, M; Pompeo, M

    2015-01-01

    Bedridden patients have a high risk of developing pressure ulcers. Risk assessment for pressure ulceration is critical for preventive care. For a reliable assessment, we need to identify and track the limbs continuously and accurately. In this paper, we propose a method to identify body limbs using a pressure mat. Three prevalent sleep postures (supine, left and right postures) are considered. Then, predefined number of limbs (body parts) are identified by applying Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering on key attributes. We collected data from 10 adult subjects and achieved average accuracy of 93.2% for 10 limbs in supine and 7 limbs in left/right postures.

  9. The Effect of an Upper Limb Rehabilitation Robot on Hemispatial Neglect in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness of an upper limb rehabilitation robot therapy on hemispatial neglect in stroke patients. Methods Patients were randomly divided into an upper limb rehabilitation robot treatment group (robot group) and a control group. The patients in the robot group received left upper limb training using an upper limb rehabilitation robot. The patients sat on the right side of the robot, so that the monitor of the robot was located on the patients' left side. In this position, patients could focus continuously on the left side. The control group received conventional neglect treatment, such as visual scanning training and range of motion exercises, administered by occupational therapists. Both groups received their respective therapies for 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week for 3 weeks. Several tests were used to evaluate treatment effects before and after the 3-week treatment. Results In total, 38 patients (20 in the robot group and 18 in the control group) completed the study. After completion of the treatment sessions, both groups showed significant improvements in the Motor-Free Visual Perception Test 3rd edition (MVPT-3), the line bisection test, the star cancellation test, the Albert's test, the Catherine Bergego scale, the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index. The changes in all measurements showed no significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion This present study showed that the upper limb robot treatment had benefits for hemispatial neglect in stroke patients that were similar to conventional neglect treatment. The upper limb robot treatment could be a therapeutic option in the treatment of hemispatial neglect after stroke.

  10. The Effect of an Upper Limb Rehabilitation Robot on Hemispatial Neglect in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness of an upper limb rehabilitation robot therapy on hemispatial neglect in stroke patients. Methods Patients were randomly divided into an upper limb rehabilitation robot treatment group (robot group) and a control group. The patients in the robot group received left upper limb training using an upper limb rehabilitation robot. The patients sat on the right side of the robot, so that the monitor of the robot was located on the patients' left side. In this position, patients could focus continuously on the left side. The control group received conventional neglect treatment, such as visual scanning training and range of motion exercises, administered by occupational therapists. Both groups received their respective therapies for 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week for 3 weeks. Several tests were used to evaluate treatment effects before and after the 3-week treatment. Results In total, 38 patients (20 in the robot group and 18 in the control group) completed the study. After completion of the treatment sessions, both groups showed significant improvements in the Motor-Free Visual Perception Test 3rd edition (MVPT-3), the line bisection test, the star cancellation test, the Albert's test, the Catherine Bergego scale, the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index. The changes in all measurements showed no significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion This present study showed that the upper limb robot treatment had benefits for hemispatial neglect in stroke patients that were similar to conventional neglect treatment. The upper limb robot treatment could be a therapeutic option in the treatment of hemispatial neglect after stroke. PMID:27606267

  11. RESIDUAL LIMB VOLUME CHANGE: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF MEASUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Fatone, S

    2014-01-01

    Management of residual limb volume affects decisions regarding timing of fit of the first prosthesis, when a new prosthetic socket is needed, design of a prosthetic socket, and prescription of accommodation strategies for daily volume fluctuations. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess what is known about measurement and management of residual limb volume change in persons with lower-limb amputation. Publications that met inclusion criteria were grouped into three categories: (I) descriptions of residual limb volume measurement techniques; (II) studies on people with lower-limb amputation investigating the effect of residual limb volume change on clinical care; and (III) studies of residual limb volume management techniques or descriptions of techniques for accommodating or controlling residual limb volume. The review showed that many techniques for the measurement of residual limb volume have been described but clinical use is limited largely because current techniques lack adequate resolution and in-socket measurement capability. Overall, there is limited evidence regarding the management of residual limb volume, and the evidence available focuses primarily on adults with trans-tibial amputation in the early post-operative phase. While we can draw some insights from the available research about residual limb volume measurement and management, further research is required. PMID:22068373

  12. Imparting regenerative capacity to limbs by progenitor cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Gufa; Chen, Ying; Slack, Jonathan M.W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The frog Xenopus can normally regenerate its limbs at early developmental stages but loses the ability during metamorphosis. This behavior provides a potential gain-of-function model for measures that can enhance limb regeneration. Here we show that frog limbs can be caused to form multidigit regenerates after receiving transplants of larval limb progenitor cells. It is necessary to activate Wnt/β -catenin signaling in the cells, and to add Sonic hedgehog, FGF10 and thymosin β4. These factors promote survival and growth of the grafted cells and also provide pattern information. The eventual regenerates are not composed solely of donor tissue; the host cells also make a substantial contribution despite their lack of regeneration-competence. Cells from adult frog legs or from regenerating tadpole tails do not promote limb regeneration, demonstrating the necessity for limb progenitor cells. These findings have obvious implications for the development of a technology to promote limb regeneration in mammals. PMID:23273877

  13. One of the most urgent vascular circumstances: Acute limb ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Muslum; Kirma, Cevat

    2013-01-01

    Acute limb ischemia is a sudden decrease in limb perfusion that threatens limb viability and requires urgent evaluation and management. Most of the causes of acute limb ischemia are thrombosis of a limb artery or bypass graft, embolism from the heart or a disease artery, dissection, and trauma. Assessment determines whether the limb is viable or irreversibly damaged. Prompt diagnosis and revascularization by means of catheter-based thrombolysis or thrombectomy and by surgery reduce the risk of limb loss and mortality. Amputation is performed in patients with irreversible damage. Despite urgent revascularization, amputation rate is 10%–15% in patients during hospitalization, mostly above the knee, and mortality within 1 year is 10%–15% due to the coexisting conditions. PMID:26770694

  14. SPORTS INJURIES OF THE UPPER LIMBS

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rogerio Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Sports injuries of the upper limbs are very common in physical activities and therefore, they need to be studied in detail, taking into consideration specific aspects of the types of sports practiced. Special attention should be paid to the dynamics of the shoulder girdle and the entire scapular belt, since the most appropriate treatment for athletes can only be provided in this manner. This can also help to prevent recurrences, which can occur in some cases because athletes always seek to return to their pre-injury level of sports activity. This article will focus primarily on the management of upper-limb tendon injuries, from the physiopathology through to the new methods of injury treatment that are more prevalent in sports practice in Brazil. PMID:27022529

  15. Sensitive Broadband Receivers for Microwave Limb Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, J. S.; Lee, K. A.; Kawamura, J.; Chattopadhyay, G.; Stek, P. C.

    2007-12-01

    Microwave limb sounding is a proven remote-sensing technique that resolves the spectra of microwave thermal emission along a limb view of the earth's atmosphere with a cold space background. The temperature and composition of the atmosphere as a function of altitude is retrieved by analyzing the spectra returned from a vertical scan of the limb. The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument on the NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) was the first experiment to study the microwave limb from space, and was followed by the current EOS MLS instrument on the Aura spacecraft. We are developing a new class of highly-sensitive broadband receivers for a next-generation microwave limb sounder that scans the limb in elevation and azimuth to generate a 3-D map of atmospheric composition. Sensitive receivers are needed to reduce integration times to allow the addition of rapid horizontal scanning while maintaining high measurement precision. The Scanning Microwave Limb Sounder (SMLS) will sample a 6000 km cross track swath with 50 km resolution while doubling the vertical resolution of its predecessor, Aura MLS. The wide swath allows for six or more daily samples for most of the mid latitudes. These frequent measurements, combined with the good horizontal and high vertical resolution of SMLS are key to enabling the study of fast processes in the upper troposphere affecting chemistry, climate, and air quality. Two receivers are being developed for SMLS: a 230 GHz channel will be used to study the upper troposphere and a 640 GHz channel will focus on measurements of the stratosphere. Both receivers feature broad tunable bandwidth (100 GHz each) to enable measurements of many important species including water, ozone, CO, HCN, NO, SO2, and acetone. Each receiver will downconvert the signal using a superconductor-insulator- superconductor (SIS) heterodyne mixer to achieve sensitivities of 100 K and 200 K for the 230 GHz and 640 GHz channels, respectively. The high spectral

  16. The upper limb of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Steven E; Holliday, Trenton W; Carlson, Kristian J; Jashashvili, Tea; Macias, Marisa E; Mathews, Sandra; Sparling, Tawnee L; Schmid, Peter; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    The evolution of the human upper limb involved a change in function from its use for both locomotion and prehension (as in apes) to a predominantly prehensile and manipulative role. Well-preserved forelimb remains of 1.98-million-year-old Australopithecus sediba from Malapa, South Africa, contribute to our understanding of this evolutionary transition. Whereas other aspects of their postcranial anatomy evince mosaic combinations of primitive (australopith-like) and derived (Homo-like) features, the upper limbs (excluding the hand and wrist) of the Malapa hominins are predominantly primitive and suggest the retention of substantial climbing and suspensory ability. The use of the forelimb primarily for prehension and manipulation appears to arise later, likely with the emergence of Homo erectus. PMID:23580536

  17. Spinal Cord Stimulation for Chronic Limb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Naoum, Joseph J.; Arbid, Elias J.

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of chronic limb ischemia involves the restoration of pulsatile blood flow to the distal extremity. Some patients cannot be treated with endovascular means or with open surgery; some may have medical comorbidities that render them unfit for surgery, while others may have persistent ischemia or pain even in the face of previous attempts at reperfusion. In spinal cord stimulation (SCS), a device with electrodes is implanted in the epidural space to stimulate sensory fibers. This activates cell-signaling molecules that in turn cause the release of vasodilatory molecules, a decrease in vascular resistance, and relaxation of smooth muscle cells. SCS also suppresses sympathetic vasoconstriction and pain transmission. When patient selection is based on microcirculatory parameters, SCS therapy can significantly improve pain relief, halt the progression of ulcers, and potentially achieve limb salvage. PMID:23805343

  18. Lower-Limb Rehabilitation Robot Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhabba, E. M.; Shafie, A. A.; Khan, M. R.; Ariffin, K.

    2013-12-01

    It is a general assumption that robotics will play an important role in therapy activities within rehabilitation treatment. In the last decade, the interest in the field has grown exponentially mainly due to the initial success of the early systems and the growing demand caused by increasing numbers of stroke patients and their associate rehabilitation costs. As a result, robot therapy systems have been developed worldwide for training of both the upper and lower extremities. This paper investigates and proposes a lower-limb rehabilitation robot that is used to help patients with lower-limb paralysis to improve and resume physical functions. The proposed rehabilitation robot features three rotary joints forced by electric motors providing linear motions. The paper covers mechanism design and optimization, kinematics analysis, trajectory planning, wearable sensors, and the control system design. The design and control system demonstrate that the proposed rehabilitation robot is safe and reliable with the effective design and better kinematic performance.

  19. Ultrasound of lower limb sports injuries

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Neeraj B

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal ultrasound utilises high-frequency linear transducers to produce high-resolution images of soft tissue structures. It is an increasingly useful tool in the assessment of both acute and chronic musculoskeletal injuries; it is relatively cheap, portable and can be used to facilitate targeted injections. In this review paper, we aim to provide a summary on the normal and abnormal appearances of skeletal tissue in the setting of acute and chronic lower limb sporting injuries. PMID:27433251

  20. Stenting in Acute Lower Limb Arterial Occlusions

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, Jowad; Munneke, Graham; Morgan, Robert; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2008-07-15

    Management of critical limb ischemia of acute onset includes surgical embolectomy, bypass grafting, aspiration thrombectomy, thrombolysis, and mechanical thrombectomy followed by treatment of the underlying cause. We present our experience with the use of stents to treat acute embolic/thrombotic occlusions in one iliac and three femoropopliteal arteries. Although this is a small case series, excellent immediate and midterm results suggest that stenting of acute occlusions of the iliac, superficial femoral, and popliteal arteries is a safe and effective treatment option.

  1. Cerebral aqueduct stenosis presenting with limb pain.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, A C; Trounce, J Q

    1998-05-01

    Two children are reported with hydrocephalus and aqueduct stenosis who presented with back and limb pains. Neither had the classic symptoms of headache and vomiting. The children had enlarged heads and later developed ataxic gait and papilloedema. The cause of the pains is uncertain but similar symptoms have been reported in subjects with benign intracranial hypertension and may relate to spinal nerve root pouch distension. Operative ventricular drainage resulted in rapid improvement of all symptoms in both children.

  2. New perspectives on nursing lower limb amputees.

    PubMed

    Crowther, H

    1982-09-01

    New perspectives on nursing lower limb amputees arise from the author's researches into amputee rehabilitation and a summary of other recent research findings. These are dealt with in the context of basic amputee treatment and the nursing process. There is new material on the psychological and neurological sequelae of amputation, the practical problems of loss of a limb and the prosthetic dimension of treatment. The patients' reactions to lower limb amputation were found to vary from intense grief to intense relief, many noting it to be of minor or moderate consequence. The model of sudden and shocking loss is largely incorrect. Attention is drawn to an unrecognized ordinariness which should become part of amputee nursing. Patients have many practical problems. These are social and economic, personal and domestic. The ward environment is unsuited to these needs but, working closely with therapists, nurses can do much to facilitate amputee rehabilitation. The modern purpose of amputation surgery is prosthetic replacement. Nurses should be working with some urgency towards uniting patient and prosthesis. Pain and discomfort are underestimated and research shows them to be a major characteristic of amputation continually and for many years after surgery. A variety of pain syndromes are involved. PMID:6924673

  3. OMPS Limb Profiler Instrument Performance Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaross, Glen R.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Chen, Grace; Kowitt, Mark; Haken, Michael; Chen, Zhong; Xu, Philippe; Warner, Jeremy; Kelly, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Following the successful launch of the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) spacecraft, the NASA OMPS Limb team began an evaluation of instrument and data product performance. The focus of this paper is the instrument performance in relation to the original design criteria. Performance that is closer to expectations increases the likelihood that limb scatter measurements by SNPP OMPS and successor instruments can form the basis for accurate long-term monitoring of ozone vertical profiles. The team finds that the Limb instrument operates mostly as designed and basic performance meets or exceeds the original design criteria. Internally scattered stray light and sensor pointing knowledge are two design challenges with the potential to seriously degrade performance. A thorough prelaunch characterization of stray light supports software corrections that are accurate to within 1% in radiances up to 60 km for the wavelengths used in deriving ozone. Residual stray light errors at 1000nm, which is useful in retrievals of stratospheric aerosols, currently exceed 10%. Height registration errors in the range of 1 km to 2 km have been observed that cannot be fully explained by known error sources. An unexpected thermal sensitivity of the sensor also causes wavelengths and pointing to shift each orbit in the northern hemisphere. Spectral shifts of as much as 0.5nm in the ultraviolet and 5 nm in the visible, and up to 0.3 km shifts in registered height, must be corrected in ground processing.

  4. Advanced upper limb prosthetic devices: implications for upper limb prosthetic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Meucci, Marissa R; Lieberman-Klinger, Shana; Fantini, Christopher; Kelty, Debra L; Disla, Roxanne; Sasson, Nicole

    2012-04-01

    The number of catastrophic injuries caused by improvised explosive devices in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars has increased public, legislative, and research attention to upper limb amputation. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has partnered with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and DEKA Integrated Solutions to optimize the function of an advanced prosthetic arm system that will enable greater independence and function. In this special communication, we examine current practices in prosthetic rehabilitation including trends in adoption and use of prosthetic devices, financial considerations, and the role of rehabilitation team members in light of our experiences with a prototype advanced upper limb prosthesis during a VA study to optimize the device. We discuss key challenges in the adoption of advanced prosthetic technology and make recommendations for service provision and use of advanced upper limb prosthetics. Rates of prosthetic rejection are high among upper limb amputees. However, these rates may be reduced with sufficient training by a highly specialized, multidisciplinary team of clinicians, and a focus on patient education and empowerment throughout the rehabilitation process. There are significant challenges emerging that are unique to implementing the use of advanced upper limb prosthetic technology, and a lack of evidence to establish clinical guidelines regarding prosthetic prescription and treatment. Finally, we make recommendations for future research to aid in the identification of best practices and development of policy decisions regarding insurance coverage of prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:22464092

  5. Advanced upper limb prosthetic devices: implications for upper limb prosthetic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Meucci, Marissa R; Lieberman-Klinger, Shana; Fantini, Christopher; Kelty, Debra L; Disla, Roxanne; Sasson, Nicole

    2012-04-01

    The number of catastrophic injuries caused by improvised explosive devices in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars has increased public, legislative, and research attention to upper limb amputation. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has partnered with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and DEKA Integrated Solutions to optimize the function of an advanced prosthetic arm system that will enable greater independence and function. In this special communication, we examine current practices in prosthetic rehabilitation including trends in adoption and use of prosthetic devices, financial considerations, and the role of rehabilitation team members in light of our experiences with a prototype advanced upper limb prosthesis during a VA study to optimize the device. We discuss key challenges in the adoption of advanced prosthetic technology and make recommendations for service provision and use of advanced upper limb prosthetics. Rates of prosthetic rejection are high among upper limb amputees. However, these rates may be reduced with sufficient training by a highly specialized, multidisciplinary team of clinicians, and a focus on patient education and empowerment throughout the rehabilitation process. There are significant challenges emerging that are unique to implementing the use of advanced upper limb prosthetic technology, and a lack of evidence to establish clinical guidelines regarding prosthetic prescription and treatment. Finally, we make recommendations for future research to aid in the identification of best practices and development of policy decisions regarding insurance coverage of prosthetic rehabilitation.

  6. High altitude Venus haze from Pioneer Venus limb scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, W. A.; Opstbaum, R.

    1983-04-01

    High-resolution limb scans of Venus made with the Orbiter Cloud Photopolarimeter aboard Pioneer Venus have been used to observe the high altitude Venus haze and its variation over almost one half a Venusian year. A model for a spherical atmosphere with tangential viewing geometry was used to analyze the observations and derive the haze properties. Values are found for the particle size and refractive index, particle number density and scale height, and eddy diffusion coefficient. Single scattering computations show good agreement with observed intensities for particles smaller than 0.3 micron radius and refractive index less than 1.7, consistent with, but not limited to, concentrated sulfuric acid. Particle scale height in the 0.5 to 2 mbar pressure regions varies between 1 and 3 km over the season, latitude, and local time ranges of the observations. Detached layers of haze are sometimes present. An average particle scale height of 2.2 km at 84 km altitude yields an eddy diffusion coefficient of 130,000 sq cm/sec.

  7. Transmission of group II heteronymous pathways is enhanced in rigid lower limb of de novo patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Simonetta Moreau, M; Meunier, S; Vidailhet, M; Pol, S; Galitzky, M; Rascol, O

    2002-09-01

    A potent heteronymous excitation of quadriceps motoneurones via common peroneal group II afferents has recently been demonstrated in normal subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this group II excitation contributes to rigidity in Parkinson's disease. The early and late facilitations of the quadriceps H reflex elicited by a conditioning volley to the common peroneal nerve (CPN) at twice motor threshold, attributed to non-monosynaptic group I and group II excitations, respectively, were investigated. The comparison was drawn between results obtained in 20 "de novo" patients with Parkinson's disease (hemiparkinsonian, 17; bilateral, three) and 20 age-matched normal subjects. There was no statistically significant effect of "group" (patients/controls), "duration", "global severity" [Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)] or "side" (unilaterally versus bilaterally affected) factors on either group I or group II facilitations. To further the analysis, the factors of status (affected or non-affected limb), akinesia (lower limb akinesia score) and rigidity (lower limb rigidity score) were entered in a general linear model to explain the variations of the quadriceps H reflex facilitation. Rigidity was the only factor useful in predicting the value of the group II facilitation of the quadriceps H reflex (P < 0.007). Group I and group II facilitation was then compared between the rigid, non-rigid and control lower limbs [multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA)]. Results are represented as mean +/- SEM (standard error of the mean). Group II facilitation was enhanced in the rigid lower limb of unilaterally affected patients (153.2 +/- 7% of control H reflex) compared with non-rigid lower limbs (124 +/- 4% of control H reflex; P < 0.007) or control lower limbs (126.1 +/- 4.1%; P < 0.01). There was no difference between the non-rigid lower limbs of the unilaterally affected patients and the control lower limbs, but a difference was observed

  8. Thalidomide induces limb defects by preventing angiogenic outgrowth during early limb formation.

    PubMed

    Therapontos, Christina; Erskine, Lynda; Gardner, Erin R; Figg, William D; Vargesson, Neil

    2009-05-26

    Thalidomide is a potent teratogen that induces a range of birth defects, most commonly of the developing limbs. The mechanisms underpinning the teratogenic effects of thalidomide are unclear. Here we demonstrate that loss of immature blood vessels is the primary cause of thalidomide-induced teratogenesis and provide an explanation for its action at the cell biological level. Antiangiogenic but not antiinflammatory metabolites/analogues of thalidomide induce chick limb defects. Both in vitro and in vivo, outgrowth and remodeling of more mature blood vessels is blocked temporarily, whereas newly formed, rapidly developing, angiogenic vessels are lost. Such vessel loss occurs upstream of changes in limb morphogenesis and gene expression and, depending on the timing of drug application, results in either embryonic death or developmental defects. These results explain both the timing and relative tissue specificity of thalidomide embryopathy and have significant implications for its use as a therapeutic agent.

  9. Altitude profile of aerosols on Mars from measurements of its thermal radiation on limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moroz, V. I.; Titov, D. V.; Gektin, Yu. M.; Naraeva, M. K.; Selivanov, A. S.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the thermal (range 7 - 13 micrometers) radiation of Mars with the high space resolution (approximately 2 km) were made by the TERMOSKAN experiment of the Phobos mission. Some of the results were published earlier but only the surface radiation was analyzed in detail. However some part of these measurements was made near the limb of the planet. The atmosphere gives an important input here in the planetary thermal radiation. Beyond the limb the atmosphere is the only source. The task of this work is to estimate some characteristics of the atmosphere using brightness profiles of the thermal radiation near the limb. An appropriate model of the temperature profile T(h) is necessary for such an analysis. A set of T(h) models (nominal, maximal and minimal) was defined using various sources including MARSGRAM, Viking-1 lander data, its theoretical considerations and boundary layer models. On the next step the possible input of the atmospheric gaseous emissions (wing of CO2 15 micrometer band) was estimated. It was found that even for the maximal T(h) this input is no more than a few percents of the measured radiation beyond the limb. Consequently the aerosols are responsible for almost all measured emission. The analysis of the observed profile showed that these aerosols have two components: (1) exponential with the scale height about 10 km and (2) some layered structure (two layers with maxima about 23 and 33 km consisted probably of ice).

  10. The utility of scores in the decision to salvage or amputation in severely injured limbs

    PubMed Central

    Shanmuganathan, Rajasekaran

    2008-01-01

    The decision to amputate or salvage a severely injured limb can be very challenging to the trauma surgeon. A misjudgment will result in either an unnecessary amputation of a valuable limb or a secondary amputation after failed salvage. Numerous scores have been proposed to provide guidelines to the treating surgeon, the notable of which are Mangled extremity severity score (MESS); the predictive salvage index (PSI); the Limb Salvage Index (LSI); the Nerve Injury, Ischemia, Soft tissue injury, Skeletal injury, Shock and Age of patient (NISSSA) score; and the Hannover fracture scale-97 (HFS-97). These scores have all been designed to evaluate limbs with combined orthopaedic and vascular injuries and have a poor sensitivity and specificity in evaluating IIIB injuries. Recently the Ganga Hospital Score (GHS) has been proposed which is specifically designed to evaluate a IIIB injury. Another notable feature of GHS is that it offers guidelines in the choice of the appropriate reconstruction protocol. The basis of the commonly used scores with their utility have been discussed in this paper. PMID:19753223

  11. Lower limb cellulitis and its mimics: part II. Conditions that simulate lower limb cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Hirschmann, Jan V; Raugi, Gregory J

    2012-08-01

    Several common conditions can mimic cellulitis, creating a potential for misdiagnosis and incorrect management. The most common disorders mistaken for lower limb cellulitis include venous eczema, lipodermatosclerosis, irritant dermatitis, and lymphedema. The dermatologist is often consulted when a patient has failed to respond to therapy, and a thorough knowledge of the differential diagnosis is essential. This article focuses on entities that can mimic cellulitis, with an emphasis of elements of the history and physical examination that can help to distinguish between lower limb cellulitis and its simulators.

  12. Progressive specification rather than intercalation of segments during limb regeneration.

    PubMed

    Roensch, Kathleen; Tazaki, Akira; Chara, Osvaldo; Tanaka, Elly M

    2013-12-13

    An amputated salamander limb regenerates the correct number of segments. Models explaining limb regeneration were largely distinct from those for limb development, despite the presence of common patterning molecules. Intercalation has been an important concept to explain salamander limb regeneration, but clear evidence supporting or refuting this model was lacking. In the intercalation model, the first blastema cells acquire fingertip identity, creating a gap in positional identity that triggers regeneration of the intervening region from the stump. We used HOXA protein analysis and transplantation assays to show that axolotl limb blastema cells acquire positional identity in a proximal-to-distal sequence. Therefore, intercalation is not the primary mechanism for segment formation during limb regeneration in this animal. Patterning in development and regeneration uses similar mechanisms. PMID:24337297

  13. The making of differences between fins and limbs

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Tohru; Tamura, Koji

    2013-01-01

    ‘Evo-devo’, an interdisciplinary field based on developmental biology, includes studies on the evolutionary processes leading to organ morphologies and functions. One fascinating theme in evo-devo is how fish fins evolved into tetrapod limbs. Studies by many scientists, including geneticists, mathematical biologists, and paleontologists, have led to the idea that fins and limbs are homologous organs; now it is the job of developmental biologists to integrate these data into a reliable scenario for the mechanism of fin-to-limb evolution. Here, we describe the fin-to-limb transition based on key recent developmental studies from various research fields that describe mechanisms that may underlie the development of fins, limb-like fins, and limbs. PMID:23256837

  14. Experiment M411: Two color earth limb photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, M.

    1971-01-01

    Some simple calculations were made regarding the scattered light phenomenon of a sunlit earth limb. It was assumed that the light was to be scattered by an atmosphere irradiated by a zenith sun. Calculations were made with several different scattering coefficients assignable to various wavelengths of the extended visual region. The dependence of the excess blue-limb elevation was less obviously determined by the scattering angle than was suspected. It is reasonable to surmise that the variation of the values of excess blue-limb elevation originated principally from the red-limb variance, because the form of the blue-limb profiles (at least in their upper part) was more regular than was that of the red-limb profiles.

  15. Association of growth, feeding practices and exercise conditions with the severity of the osteoarticular status of limbs in French foals.

    PubMed

    Lepeule, Johanna; Bareille, Nathalie; Robert, Céline; Valette, Jean-Paul; Jacquet, Sandrine; Blanchard, Géraldine; Denoix, Jean-Marie; Seegers, Henri

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for the severity of Juvenile OsteoChondral Conditions (JOCC) in limbs of French foals. Twenty-one farms in Normandy, France, were sampled and enrolled in a cohort study including 378 foals from three breeds, followed from the 8th month of pregnancy of the mares until the foals were approximately 6months old. Data on growth, feeding practices and exercise conditions were regularly collected. The carpus, the front and hind digits, the hock and the stifle of the foals were radiographed at the end of follow-up. JOCC severity in each foal was described using a global appraisal of its osteoarticular status (OAS) depending on the number and the severity of radiographic findings. Of the 378 foals, 53% had a good OAS, 34% had an intermediate OAS and 13% had a poor OAS. The breed (Selle Français and French Trotter Standardbred vs. Thoroughbred), a high girth perimeter at early age and an irregular exercise were significantly associated with a poor OAS. This study contributes to the understanding of the development of JOCC. An increased growth and reduced or irregular physical activity during the first weeks of life would be responsible for more severe lesions. Growth and exercise conditions should be carefully monitored to reduce the prevalence of severe JOCC in foals.

  16. Progressive limb ataxia following inferior olive lesions

    PubMed Central

    Horn, K M; Deep, A; Gibson, A R

    2013-01-01

    Cerebellar climbing fibres originate in the inferior olive (IO). Temporary IO inactivation produces movement deficits. Does permanent inactivation produce similar deficits and, if so, do they recover? The excitotoxin, kainic acid, was injected into the rostral IO of three cats. Behaviour was measured during reaching and locomotion. Two cats were injected during the reaching task. Within minutes, grasping became difficult and the trajectories of the reaches showed higher arcing than normally seen. During locomotion, both cats showed head and trunk deviation to the injected side, walking paths curved to the injected side, and the paws were lifted higher than normal. Limbs contralateral to the injections became rigid. Within 1 day, posture had normalized, locomotion was unsteady and high lifting of the paws had reversed to a tendency to drag the dorsum of the paws. Passive body movement produced vestibular signs. Over a few days, locomotion normalized and vestibular signs disappeared. Reach trajectories were normal but grasping deficits persisted. Over the first week, the amplitude of limb lift during reaching and locomotion began to increase. The increase continued over time and, after several months, limb movements became severely ataxic. The effects followed the somatotopy of the rostral IO: a loss of cells in medial rostral IO only affected the forelimb, whereas a loss of cells in medial and lateral IO affected both forelimb and hindlimb. Deficits produced by IO lesions involve multiple mechanisms; some recover rapidly, some appear stable, and some worsen over time. The nature of the progressive deficit suggests a gradual loss of Purkinje cell inhibition on cerebellar nuclear cells. PMID:23027819

  17. Powered lower limb orthoses for gait rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Daniel P.; Sawicki, Gregory S.; Domingo, Antoinette

    2006-01-01

    Bodyweight supported treadmill training has become a prominent gait rehabilitation method in leading rehabilitation centers. This type of locomotor training has many functional benefits but the labor costs are considerable. To reduce therapist effort, several groups have developed large robotic devices for assisting treadmill stepping. A complementary approach that has not been adequately explored is to use powered lower limb orthoses for locomotor training. Recent advances in robotic technology have made lightweight powered orthoses feasible and practical. An advantage to using powered orthoses as rehabilitation aids is they allow practice starting, turning, stopping, and avoiding obstacles during overground walking. PMID:16568153

  18. Retrieval of GOMOS bright limb ozone profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tukiainen, Simo; Verronen, Pekka T.; Kyrola, Erkki; Tamminen, Johanna

    GOMOS is a stellar occultation instrument on board the ENVISAT satellite. During day time occultations limb scattered sunlight spectra are also recorded. These can be used to retrieve vertical profiles of ozone between 15-70 km. The retrieval method is the modified onion peeling inversion method that we have used earlier for retrievals from the OSIRIS instrument. In the retrieval we use an accurate single scattering modeling and look up tables for the multiple scattering modeling. The look up tables are produced using the Monte Carlo radiative transfer model Siro. We present here examples of the retrievals and compare our results with GOMOS occultation retrievals and OSIRIS retrievals.

  19. Proximal monomelic amyotrophy of the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Amir, D; Magora, A; Vatine, J J

    1987-07-01

    A 30-year-old patient of Central European origin, suffering from monomelic amyotrophy, is presented. The disease was characterized by proximal weakness of one upper limb, mainly of the shoulder girdle, accompanied by atrophy. The electrodiagnostic examination revealed signs of partial denervation in the presence of normal motor and sensory conduction. The disease, which is probably of the anterior horn cells, had a benign course and good prognosis, as evident from repeated examinations during a follow-up of eight years. PMID:3606370

  20. Acupuncture for Limb Conditions: Pinpointing the Evidence.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Acupuncture therapies include a range of interventions and are commonly used for managing musculoskeletal disorders of the extremities; however, their use is still controversial. A study published in the June 2016 issue of JOSPT conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials on the effectiveness of various acupuncture therapies for any musculoskeletal condition affecting the limbs. Importantly, the review critically appraised the quality of the evidence to reveal risks of bias. In this Perspectives for Practice, the authors explain the impact of their findings for clinicians treating patients with such musculoskeletal conditions. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(6):430. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0502. PMID:27245489

  1. Music Upper Limb Therapy—Integrated: An Enriched Collaborative Approach for Stroke Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Preeti; Geller, Daniel; Guerrero, Nina; Aluru, Viswanath; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Teresi, Jeanne A.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Palumbo, Anna; Turry, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. It leads to a sudden and overwhelming disruption in one’s physical body, and alters the stroke survivors’ sense of self. Long-term recovery requires that bodily perception, social participation and sense of self are restored; this is challenging to achieve, particularly with a single intervention. However, rhythmic synchronization of movement to external stimuli facilitates sensorimotor coupling for movement recovery, enhances emotional engagement and has positive effects on interpersonal relationships. In this proof-of-concept study, we designed a group music-making intervention, Music Upper Limb Therapy-Integrated (MULT-I), to address the physical, psychological and social domains of rehabilitation simultaneously, and investigated its effects on long-term post-stroke upper limb recovery. The study used a mixed-method pre-post design with 1-year follow up. Thirteen subjects completed the 45-min intervention twice a week for 6 weeks. The primary outcome was reduced upper limb motor impairment on the Fugl-Meyer Scale (FMS). Secondary outcomes included sensory impairment (two-point discrimination test), activity limitation (Modified Rankin Scale, MRS), well-being (WHO well-being index), and participation (Stroke Impact Scale, SIS). Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences between pre- and post-intervention, and 1-year follow up scores. Significant improvement was found in upper limb motor impairment, sensory impairment, activity limitation and well-being immediately post-intervention that persisted at 1 year. Activities of daily living and social participation improved only from post-intervention to 1-year follow up. The improvement in upper limb motor impairment was more pronounced in a subset of lower functioning individuals as determined by their pre-intervention wrist range of motion. Qualitatively, subjects reported new feelings of ownership of their impaired limb, more

  2. Advancement of reproductive activity, seasonal reduction in prolactin secretion and seasonal pelage changes in pubertal red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus) subjected to artificially shortened daily photoperiod or daily melatonin treatments.

    PubMed

    Webster, J R; Barrell, G K

    1985-01-01

    Prepubertal red deer hinds were subjected to shortened daily photoperiod (8 h light per day, N = 3) or a daily (afternoon) melatonin injection (N = 4) for 83 days starting on 8 January, 2 weeks after the summer solstice. Compared with control hinds (N = 3) these treatments caused premature moulting of summer pelage, reduced serum prolactin concentrations to barely detectable levels about 34 days earlier than usual and advanced the date of mating. Calves were born earlier (P less than 0.005) in the hinds exposed to a shortened photoperiod (12 November +/- 1.7 days) and melatonin treatment (11 November +/- 3.2 days) than in control hinds (13 December +/- 7.9 days). Serum progesterone levels recorded before the first detected oestrus indicated that silent ovulations had occurred in many of the hinds (6 of 10) in this experiment. This study demonstrated the role of shortened daily photoperiod in red deer and indicated that the effects of reduced photoperiod observed were mediated by melatonin. PMID:3968657

  3. Calibration of the Shuttle Ozone Limb Sounding Experiment (SOLSE) and the Limb Ozone Retrieval Experiment (LORE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janz, S. J.; Hilsenrath, E.; McPeters, R.; Heath, D. F.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The calibration and characterization of two new instruments designed to retrieve ozone profiles into the lower stratosphere will be presented. These instruments will fly as a single payload on the Space Shuttle Columbia currently scheduled to lift off July 11, 2002. The purpose of SOLSE (Shuttle Ozone Limb Sounding Experiment) and LORE (Limb Ozone Retrieval Experiment) is to provide a thorough test of the limb ozone retrieval technique, which is being employed on several satellite instruments currently deployed or planned for deployment in the near future. OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System) and SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography) are already in orbit, while OMPS (the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite) is planned as the primary US ozone monitoring instrument in the next decade.. SOLSE is a Czerny-Turner spectrograph utilizing a 1k x 1k cooled CCD at the focal plane and covering the spectral range of 310-380 nm in the ultraviolet and 535-865 nm in the visible to near infrared. LORE is a 5 channel filter radiometer with center band wavelengths of 322, 350, 603, 675, and 1000 nm. The focus of this paper will be on measurements of the SOLSE spectrograph performance in the limb-viewing configuration including stray light rejection, spatial and spectral resolution and absolute radiometric response.

  4. Characteristics of lower limb muscle activity during upper limb elevation in badminton players

    PubMed Central

    Masu, Yujiro; Nagai, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To clarify the characteristics of postural control in badminton players by examining their lower-limb muscle activity during upper-limb elevation. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen badminton players and 14 non-players were studied. The subjects were instructed to perform an upper-limb elevation task in order to measure the activities of the biceps femoris and biceps brachii. [Results] When elevating the dominant hand, the mean biceps femoris integrated electromyogram showed markedly higher values in the player group, for the contralateral compared with the ipsilateral leg. Similarly, when elevating the dominant hand, the difference in the maximum integrated electromyogram response time between the ipsilateral and contralateral legs was significantly smaller in the players compared with non-players. [Conclusion] It may be possible to reduce the time needed to elevate the dominant hand by shifting lower-limb activity from the ipsilateral to the contralateral leg more quickly, while increasing the rate of rise in contralateral leg muscle activity. PMID:27799681

  5. New insights into long-bone biomechanics: are limb safety factors invariable across mammalian species?

    PubMed

    Kokshenev, Valery B

    2007-01-01

    The most common function of limb bones is to provide stiff levers acting against muscles and gravity; however, a general mechanical description is not yet available. This research attempts such a description by modeling the bone's intrinsic biomechanics through elastic stability of solid long cylinders considered in non-critical, transient and critical mechanical regimes distinguished conventionally through maximal resisting elastic strains. The non-critical regime controls bones' adaptation through the safety factor (bone strength related to the peak functional stress) S2. This is ensured by bone-diameter (d=1/3+beta) and bone-length (l=1/3-beta) scaling exponents generally following from compressive-stress constraints. Prange's index (0limb-compressive stress in running animals remains almost weight-independent. The transient regime (1limb bones by avoiding critical-stress bending via non-critical torsion and critical torsion via moderate bending. A physical description of the transient regime suggests a united mechanical pattern. Established under most general consideration, the scaling rules for peak strains, forces, momenta, and stresses challenge locomotor patterns distinguished in small mammals and birds, lizards, primates and non-primate mammals. Taking into account that all scaling rules are limited by S=1 associated with critical regime, reliable estimates for critical body masses are obtained for living elephants and extinct dinosaurs. Our study of the variable limb safety factor provides evidence that land-dwelling and land-moving giants are biomechanically accommodated to the peak bending and torsion functional stresses, respectively.

  6. Inter-limb differences in quadriceps strength and volitional activation.

    PubMed

    Pietrosimone, Brian G; Park, Chang M; Gribble, Phillip A; Pfile, Kate R; Tevald, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    In this crossover study, we wished to determine if normalized inter-limb differences in strength differed from inter-limb differences in voluntary activation at 30°, 70°, and 90° of knee flexion. We also assessed the relationship between inter-limb differences in torque with the inter-limb differences in activation. Twenty-five healthy volunteers were used for final data analyses; the order of leg tested, joint angle, and measurement technique (isokinetic strength, voluntary activation) were randomly assigned. Quadriceps strength was measured isokinetically at 1.05 rad · s(-1), while quadriceps voluntary activation was assessed via the central activation ratio. Absolute values of inter-limb differences for both measures were calculated by subtracting the non-dominant leg values from those of the dominant leg. Inter-limb isokinetic strength differences were greater than inter-limb central activation ratio differences at all joint angles (P = 0.003). Interestingly, inter-limb deficits between measures were not strongly correlated, suggesting that these measurements may be evaluating completely different phenomena within the neuromuscular system. These measurement techniques may provide unique information regarding neuromuscular function, suggesting that researchers and clinicians must utilize information from both techniques to determine the true clinical nature of inter-limb deficits.

  7. Fundamental ratios and logarithmic periodicity in human limb bones.

    PubMed

    Pietak, Alexis; Ma, Siyan; Beck, Caroline W; Stringer, Mark D

    2013-05-01

    Fundamental mathematical relationships are widespread in biology yet there is little information on this topic with regard to human limb bone lengths and none related to human limb bone volumes. Forty-six sets of ipsilateral upper and lower limb long bones and third digit short bones were imaged by computed tomography. Maximum bone lengths were measured manually and individual bone volumes calculated from computed tomography images using a stereologic method. Length ratios of femur : tibia and humerus : ulna were remarkably similar (1.21 and 1.22, respectively) and varied little (<7%) between individuals. The volume ratio of femur : tibia was approximately half that of humerus : ulna (1.58 and 3.28, respectively; P < 0.0001). Lower limb bone volume ratios varied much more than upper limb ratios. The relationship between bone length and volume was found to be well described by power laws, with R(2) values ranging from 0.983 to 0.995. The most striking finding was a logarithmic periodicity in bone length moving from distal to proximal up the limb (upper limb λ = 0.72, lower limb λ = 0.93). These novel data suggest that human limb bone lengths and volumes follow fundamental and highly conserved mathematical relationships, which may contribute to our understanding of normal and disordered growth, stature estimation, and biomechanics.

  8. Influence of limb length on a stepping exercise.

    PubMed

    Shahnawaz, H

    1978-03-01

    The effect of limb length on responses to the step-test exercise was studied in 10 subjects of various heights; oxygen consumption values served as an indicator. Mean oxygen consumption was found to be significantly related to limb length in the step-test exercise. This was demonstrated when subjects with different limb lengths were tested as a standard work load (i.e., 10 m/min x body wt) but at seven different bench heights and correspondingly adjusted stepping rates. The minimum values for oxygen consumption were obtained when the bench height was near 50% (45-55%) of subject's limb length. PMID:632174

  9. Fundamental ratios and logarithmic periodicity in human limb bones

    PubMed Central

    Pietak, Alexis; Ma, Siyan; Beck, Caroline W; Stringer, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental mathematical relationships are widespread in biology yet there is little information on this topic with regard to human limb bone lengths and none related to human limb bone volumes. Forty-six sets of ipsilateral upper and lower limb long bones and third digit short bones were imaged by computed tomography. Maximum bone lengths were measured manually and individual bone volumes calculated from computed tomography images using a stereologic method. Length ratios of femur : tibia and humerus : ulna were remarkably similar (1.21 and 1.22, respectively) and varied little (<7%) between individuals. The volume ratio of femur : tibia was approximately half that of humerus : ulna (1.58 and 3.28, respectively; P < 0.0001). Lower limb bone volume ratios varied much more than upper limb ratios. The relationship between bone length and volume was found to be well described by power laws, with R2 values ranging from 0.983 to 0.995. The most striking finding was a logarithmic periodicity in bone length moving from distal to proximal up the limb (upper limb λ = 0.72, lower limb λ = 0.93). These novel data suggest that human limb bone lengths and volumes follow fundamental and highly conserved mathematical relationships, which may contribute to our understanding of normal and disordered growth, stature estimation, and biomechanics. PMID:23521756

  10. Prenatal imaging of distal limb abnormalities using OCT in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Irina V.; Syed, Saba H.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Overbeek, Paul; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the limbs are common birth defects. These include missing or extra fingers or toes, abnormal limb length, and abnormalities in patterning of bones, cartilage or muscles. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a 3-D imaging modality, which can produce high-resolution (~8 μm) images of developing embryos with an imaging depth of a few millimeters. Here we demonstrate the capability of OCT to perform 3D imaging of limb development in normal embryos and a mouse model with congenital abnormalities. Our results suggest that OCT is a promising tool to analyze embryonic limb development in mammalian models of congenital defects.

  11. Telescope beam-profile diagnostics and the solar limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, Charles A.; Roellig, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    The basic method is described for determining the solar limb brightness profile properly corrected for spurious limb darkening caused by the far wings of the resolving beams encountered in large far-infrared and radio telescopes. When the far wings of the beam can be independently measured this problem is usually amenable to standard deconvolution procedures. Under a broad range of well-defined cases, solutions to the deconvolution problem are unique to within the discrimination provided by the core of the beam profile. The theory is applied to solar limb scans made recently on the James Clerk Maxwell Telscope to show solar limb brightening in 850 micron radiation.

  12. ATHLETE: A Limbed Vehicle for Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Human-Robot Systems project funded by NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed a vehicle called ATHLETE: the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer. Each vehicle is based on six wheels at the ends of six multi-degree-of-freedom limbs. Because each limb has enough degrees of freedom for use as a general-purpose leg, the wheels can be locked and used as feet to walk out of excessively soft or other extreme terrain. Since the vehicle has this alternative mode of traversing through or at least out of extreme terrain, the wheels and wheel actuators can be sized for nominal terrain. There are substantial mass savings in the wheel and wheel actuators associated with designing for nominal instead of extreme terrain. These mass savings are comparable-to or larger-than the extra mass associated with the articulated limbs. As a result, the entire mobility system, including wheels and limbs, can be about 25% lighter than a conventional mobility chassis. A side benefit of this approach is that each limb has sufficient degrees-of-freedom to use as a general-purpose manipulator (hence the name "limb" instead of "leg"). Our prototype ATHLETE vehicles have quick-disconnect tool adapters on the limbs that allow tools to be drawn out of a "tool belt" and maneuvered by the limb.

  13. Telescope beam-profile diagnostics and the solar limb

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.A.; Roellig, T.L. NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA )

    1991-07-01

    The basic method is described for determining the solar limb brightness profile properly corrected for spurious limb darkening caused by the far wings of the resolving beams encountered in large far-infrared and radio telescopes. When the far wings of the beam can be independently measured this problem is usually amenable to standard deconvolution procedures. Under a broad range of well-defined cases, solutions to the deconvolution problem are unique to within the discrimination provided by the core of the beam profile. The theory is applied to solar limb scans made recently on the James Clerk Maxwell Telscope to show solar limb brightening in 850 micron radiation. 16 refs.

  14. Structural rRNA characters support monophyly of raptorial limbs and paraphyly of limb specialization in water fleas.

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Timothy D; Taylor, Derek J

    2003-01-01

    The evolutionary success of arthropods has been attributed partly to the diversity of their limb morphologies. Large morphological diversity and increased specialization are observed in water flea (Cladocera) limbs, but it is unclear whether the increased limb specialization in different cladoceran orders is the result of shared ancestry or parallel evolution. We inferred a robust among-order cladoceran phylogeny using small-subunit and large-subunit rRNA nuclear gene sequences, signature sequence regions, novel stem-loops and secondary structure morphometrics to assess the phylogenetic distribution of limb specialization. The sequence-based and structural rRNA morphometric phylogenies were congruent and suggested monophyly of orders with raptorial limbs, but paraphyly of orders with reduced numbers of specialized limbs. These results highlight the utility of complex molecular structural characters in resolving ancient rapid radiations. PMID:12803902

  15. Paleoseismological Findings on the Eastern Limb of the Manyas Bend, NW Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmacı, Hasan; Yiǧit Duman, Tamer; Kara, Meryem; Özaksoy, Volkan; Kop, Alican; Özalp, Selim; Yurtseven, Eylem; Emre, Ömer

    2016-04-01

    Different tectonic regimes have been developed during the neotectonics of Turkey and the surroundings. Southern Marmara Region is a transition zone between strike slip and extensional tectonic deformations. Current deformations at this region accommodated by strike slip faults with reverse and normal component. Fault zone and segments at this region form structure that large bend concave geometry to the south. This structure is called as Manyas Bend. The bend structure is formed by Manyas fault (40-km) at apex, Yenice-Gönen fault (70-km) at west limb, Mustafakemalpaşa (47-km) and Orhaneli (30-km) faults at east limb. Total length of Mustafakemalpaşa and Orhaneli fault have 87 km length and NW-SE direction. These two fault segments that form east limb of the bend in a zone of 11 km width. In this zone 4-5 km length right lateral strike slip faults separated from each other with en-echelon structures. This fault systems are the source of the instrumental and historical earthquakes in this region. When analyzed the instrumental and historical earthquakes, it is observed that seismic activity is quite intense in this region. Paleoseismological trench surveys were carried out on these fault segments to investigate seismic activity of the faults of the eastern limb of the bend. Three earthquake that accompanied with surface rupture at each two fault segments were dated as a Holocene. Some of the earthquakes that determined at trenches can be correlated with known historical earthquake in this region. Findings obtained from this study contribute to paleoseismological behavior of the faults of the Manyas Bends of eastern limb and regional-scale seismic hazard studies.

  16. Characterizing upper limb muscle volume and strength in older adults: a comparison with young adults.

    PubMed

    Vidt, Meghan E; Daly, Melissa; Miller, Michael E; Davis, Cralen C; Marsh, Anthony P; Saul, Katherine R

    2012-01-10

    Aging is associated with the loss of muscle volume (MV) and force leading to difficulties with activities of daily living. However, the relationship between upper limb MV and joint strength has not been characterized for older adults. Quantifying this relationship may help our understanding of the functional declines of the upper limb that older adults experience. Our objective was to assess the relationship between upper limb MV and maximal isometric joint moment-generating capacity (IJM) in a single cohort of healthy older adults (age ≥ 65 years) for 6 major functional groups (32 muscles). MV was determined from MRI for 18 participants (75.1±4.3 years). IJM at the shoulder (abduction/adduction), elbow (flexion/extension), and wrist (flexion/extension) was measured. MV and IJM measurements were compared to previous reports for young adults (28.6±4.5 years). On average older adults had 16.5% less total upper limb MV compared to young adults. Additionally, older adult wrist extensors composed a significantly increased percentage of upper limb MV. Older adult IJM was reduced across all joints, with significant differences for shoulder abductors (p<0.0001), adductors (p=0.01), and wrist flexors (p<0.0001). Young adults were strongest at the shoulder, which was not the case for older adults. In older adults, 40.6% of the variation in IJM was accounted for by MV changes (p≤0.027), compared to 81.0% in young adults. We conclude that for older adults, MV and IJM are, on average, reduced but the significant linear relationship between MV and IJM is maintained. These results suggest that older adult MV and IJM cannot be simply scaled from young adults.

  17. [Arterial surgery of the upper limb].

    PubMed

    Perrault, L; Lassonde, J; Laurendeau, F

    1991-01-01

    Arterial surgery of the upper limb represents 2.5% of peripheral vascular procedures in our center. From 1976 to 1989, 58 procedures were performed in 45 patients. There were 26 men and 19 women with average age of 52 years, ranging from 6 to 92 years. These patients were grouped in three categories according to etiology: 1) trauma; 2) acute non traumatic ischemia and 3) chronic ischemia. Sixteen patients (35.5%) were operated on for arterial trauma including three false aneurysms. Blunt trauma was the cause in 9 patients, penetrating in 6 and iatrogenic in one. Angioplasty and primary end to end anastomosis were used in 6, bypass in 4, simple ligation in 3, thrombectomy in 3. The outcome was excellent in 15/16 (93%). Non traumatic acute ischemia occurred in 16 patients (35.5%) and was due to emboli of cardiac origin in 92%. All patients were treated by thromboembolectomy. This group had a high mortality (5/16, 31%) because of associated medical conditions. The third group of 13 patients (29%) underwent surgery for chronic ischemia of the upper limb localized to the subclavian artery in 92%. They were treated with carotid subclavian bypasses in 9, other types of bypass in 3 and endarterectomy in 1. Excellent results were obtained in 10/13 (78%). Overall, satisfactory results were obtained in 90% of surviving patients. Operative mortality was 11.1% and the amputation rate was 13%.

  18. [Treatment of varicose veins and limb lymphedema].

    PubMed

    Vignes, S

    2014-02-01

    Two questions arise when considering the treatment of varicose veins and the development of lymphedema: can the treatment cause lymphedema? Can it worsen it? Primary lymphedema is rarely associated with varicose veins except in the lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome. Data available in the literature is essentially based on surgical treatment. Stripping on a normal limb may induce chronic lymphedema in almost 0.1% of cases. The risk of lymphedema after stripping in patients with previous pelvic surgery including lymph node excision and/or radiotherapy remains unknown. In patients with lower limb lymphedema wearing strong elastic compression stockings, stripping provides little clinical improvement and can worsen volume. The main objective is also to avoid venous complications. Lymphatic lesions related to stripping can be evaluated by lymphography or lymphoscintigraphy. New techniques for treating varicose veins (sclerotherapy, endovenous laser treatment, radiofrequency ablation) seem to induce fewer lymphatic complications. Further studies are required to confirm these results. Indications for treatment should be unquestionable and patients must be alerted to the potential risk of lymphedema or its worsening. PMID:24315933

  19. Limb salvage: When, where, and how?

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    From an era where amputation was the only option to the current day function preserving resections and complex reconstructions has been a major advance in the treatment of musculoskeletal sarcomas. The objectives of extremity reconstruction after oncologic resection include providing skeletal stability where necessary, adequate wound coverage to allow early subsequent adjuvant therapy, optimising the aesthetic outcome and preservation of functional capability with early return to function. This article highlights the concepts of surgical margins in oncology, discusses the principles governing safe surgical resection in these tumors and summarises the current modalities and recent developments relevant to reconstruction after limb salvage. The rationale of choice of a particular resection modality and the unique challenges of reconstruction in skeletally immature individuals are also discussed. Striking the right balance between adequate resection, while yet retaining or reconstructing tissue for acceptable function and cosmesis is a difficult task. Complications are not uncommon and patients and their families need to be counseled regarding the potential setbacks that may occur in the course of their eventual road to recovery, Limb salvage entails a well orchestrated effort involving various specialties and better outcomes are likely to be achieved with centralization of expertise at regional centers. PMID:25593356

  20. [Treatment of varicose veins and limb lymphedema].

    PubMed

    Vignes, S

    2014-02-01

    Two questions arise when considering the treatment of varicose veins and the development of lymphedema: can the treatment cause lymphedema? Can it worsen it? Primary lymphedema is rarely associated with varicose veins except in the lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome. Data available in the literature is essentially based on surgical treatment. Stripping on a normal limb may induce chronic lymphedema in almost 0.1% of cases. The risk of lymphedema after stripping in patients with previous pelvic surgery including lymph node excision and/or radiotherapy remains unknown. In patients with lower limb lymphedema wearing strong elastic compression stockings, stripping provides little clinical improvement and can worsen volume. The main objective is also to avoid venous complications. Lymphatic lesions related to stripping can be evaluated by lymphography or lymphoscintigraphy. New techniques for treating varicose veins (sclerotherapy, endovenous laser treatment, radiofrequency ablation) seem to induce fewer lymphatic complications. Further studies are required to confirm these results. Indications for treatment should be unquestionable and patients must be alerted to the potential risk of lymphedema or its worsening.

  1. Effect of limb immobilization on skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Current knowledge and questions remaining concerning the effects of limb immobilization on skeletal muscle is reviewed. The most dramatic of these effects is muscle atrophy, which has been noted in cases of muscles fixed at or below their resting length. Immobilization is also accompanied by a substantial decrease in motoneuronal discharges, which results in the conversion of slow-twitch muscle to muscle with fast-twitch characteristics. Sarcolemma effects include no change or a decrease in resting membrane potential, the appearance of extrajunctional acetylcholine receptors, and no change in acetylcholinesterase activity. Evidence of changes in motoneuron after hyperpolarization characteristics suggests that the muscle inactivity is responsible for neuronal changes, rather than vice versa. The rate of protein loss from atrophying muscles is determined solely by the first-order rate constant for degradation. Various other biochemical and functional changes have been noted, including decreased insulin responsiveness and protein synthesis. The model of limb immobilization may also be useful for related studies of muscle adaptation.

  2. Effect of feeding growing-fattening rabbits a diet supplemented with whole white lupin (Lupinus albus cv. Amiga) seeds on fatty acid composition and indexes related to human health in hind leg meat and perirenal fat.

    PubMed

    Volek, Zdeněk; Marounek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    A total of 20 weaned rabbits (33 days old) (10 per treatment) were fed one of two diets that included 150 g of sunflower meal (SF)/kg of diet or 120 g of whole white lupin (WL)/kg of diet for 42 days. The WL diet contained less saturated fatty acids (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) but more monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) than the SF diet. The WL diet significantly decreased SFA and PUFA content, as well as the PUFA n-6/PUFA n-3 ratio and saturation, atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in hind leg meat. The fatty acid composition in perirenal fat was similar to that of hind leg meat; however, significantly higher MUFA levels were observed in rabbits fed the WL diet. Thus, feeding rabbits the WL diet affected the fatty acid profile of hind leg meat and perirenal fat in a favourable manner.

  3. An injectable elastin-based gene delivery platform for dose-dependent modulation of angiogenesis and inflammation for critical limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Dash, Biraja C; Thomas, Dilip; Monaghan, Michael; Carroll, Oliver; Chen, Xizhe; Woodhouse, Kimberly; O'Brien, Timothy; Pandit, Abhay

    2015-10-01

    Critical limb ischemia is a major clinical problem. Despite rigorous treatment regimes, there has been only modest success in reducing the rate of amputations in affected patients. Reduced level of blood flow and enhanced inflammation are the two major pathophysiological changes that occur in the ischemic tissue. The objective of this study was to develop a controlled dual gene delivery system capable of delivering therapeutic plasmid eNOS and IL-10 in a temporal manner. In order to deliver multiple therapeutic genes, an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) based injectable system was designed. The injectable system was comprised of hollow spheres and an in situ-forming gel scaffold of elastin-like polypeptide capable of carrying gene complexes, with an extended manner release profile. In addition, the ELP based injectable system was used to deliver human eNOS and IL-10 therapeutic genes in vivo. A subcutaneous dose response study showed enhanced blood vessel density in the treatment groups of eNOS (20 μg) and IL-10 (10 μg)/eNOS (20 μg) and reduced inflammation with IL-10 (10 μg) alone. Next, we carried out a hind-limb ischemia model comparing the efficacy of the following interventions; Saline; IL-10, eNOS and IL-10/eNOS. The selected dose of eNOS, exhibited enhanced angiogenesis. IL-10 treatment groups showed reduction in the level of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that eNOS up-regulated major proangiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factors, platelet derived growth factor B, and fibroblast growth factor 1, which may explain the mechanism of this approach. These factors help in formation of a stable vascular network. Thus, ELP injectable system mediating non-viral delivery of human IL10-eNOS is a promising therapy towards treating limb ischemia.

  4. Limb dominance changes in walking evolution explored by asymmetric correlations in gait dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeverria, Juan C.; Rodriguez, Eduardo; Velasco, Alejandra; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose

    2010-04-01

    Fluctuations in the stride interval time series of unconstrained walking are not random but seem to exhibit long-range correlations that decay as a power law (Hausdorff et al. (1995) [35]). Here, we examine whether asymmetries are present in the long-range correlations of different gait parameters (stride, swing and stance intervals) for the left and right limbs. Gait dynamics corresponding to 16 healthy subjects were obtained from the Physionet database, which contains stride, stance and swing intervals for both left and right limbs. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) revealed the presence of asymmetric long-range correlations in all gait cycle variables investigated. A rich variety of scaling exponent dynamics was found, with the presence of synchronicity, decreased correlations and dominant correlations. The results are discussed in terms of the hypothesis that reduced strength of long-range correlations reflect both enhanced stability and adaptability.

  5. Silurian horseshoe crab illuminates the evolution of arthropod limbs.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Derek E G; Siveter, Derek J; Siveter, David J; Sutton, Mark D; Garwood, Russell J; Legg, David

    2012-09-25

    The basic arrangement of limbs in euarthropods consists of a uniramous head appendage followed by a series of biramous appendages. The body is divided into functional units or tagmata which are usually distinguished by further differentiation of the limbs. The living horseshoe crabs are remnants of a much larger diversity of aquatic chelicerates. The limbs of the anterior and posterior divisions of the body of living horseshoe crabs differ in the loss of the outer and inner ramus, respectively, of an ancestral biramous limb. Here we report a new fossil horseshoe crab from the mid-Silurian Lagerstätte in Herefordshire, United Kingdom (approximately 425 Myr B.P.), a site that has yielded a remarkably preserved assemblage of soft-bodied fossils. The limbs of the new form can be homologized with those of living Limulus, but retain an ancestral biramous morphology. Remarkably, however, the two limb branches originate separately, providing fossil evidence to suggest that repression or loss of gene expression might have given rise to the appendage morphology of Limulus. Both branches of the prosomal limbs of this new fossil are robust and segmented in contrast to their morphology in Cambrian arthropods, revealing that a true biramous limb was once present in chelicerates as well as in the mandibulates. PMID:22967511

  6. Additivity in perception of affect from limb motion.

    PubMed

    Etemad, S Ali; Arya, Ali; Parush, Avi

    2014-01-13

    In this study, the notion of additivity in perception of affect from limb motion is investigated. Specifically, we examine whether the impact of multiple limbs in perception of affect is equal to the sum of the impacts of each individual limb. Several neutral, happy, and sad walking sequences are first aligned and averaged. Four distinct body regions or limbs are defined for this study: arms and hands, legs and feet, head and neck, and torso. The three average walks are used to create the stimuli. The motion of each limb and combination of limbs from the neutral sequence are replaced with those of the happy and sad sequences. Through collecting perceptual ratings for when individual limbs contain affective features, and comparing the sums of these ratings to instances where multiple limbs of the body simultaneously contain affective features, additivity is investigated. We find that while the results are highly correlated, additivity does not hold in the classical sense. Based on the results, a mathematical model is proposed for describing the observed relationship.

  7. Capillary-venous malformation in the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Uihlein, Lily Changchien; Liang, Marilyn G; Fishman, Steven J; Alomari, Ahmad I; Mulliken, John B

    2015-01-01

    We present a group of patients with regional capillary malformations of the upper limbs and few additional findings other than prominent veins. We believe that this entity is the upper extremity equivalent of capillary-venous malformation of the lower limb and, likewise, belongs at the minor end of the spectrum of vascular disorders with overgrowth. PMID:25557931

  8. Silurian horseshoe crab illuminates the evolution of arthropod limbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Derek E. G.; Siveter, Derek J.; Siveter, David J.; Sutton, Mark D.; Garwood, Russell J.; Legg, David

    2012-09-01

    The basic arrangement of limbs in euarthropods consists of a uniramous head appendage followed by a series of biramous appendages. The body is divided into functional units or tagmata which are usually distinguished by further differentiation of the limbs. The living horseshoe crabs are remnants of a much larger diversity of aquatic chelicerates. The limbs of the anterior and posterior divisions of the body of living horseshoe crabs differ in the loss of the outer and inner ramus, respectively, of an ancestral biramous limb. Here we report a new fossil horseshoe crab from the mid-Silurian Lagerstätte in Herefordshire, United Kingdom (approximately 425 Myr B.P.), a site that has yielded a remarkably preserved assemblage of soft-bodied fossils. The limbs of the new form can be homologized with those of living Limulus, but retain an ancestral biramous morphology. Remarkably, however, the two limb branches originate separately, providing fossil evidence to suggest that repression or loss of gene expression might have given rise to the appendage morphology of Limulus. Both branches of the prosomal limbs of this new fossil are robust and segmented in contrast to their morphology in Cambrian arthropods, revealing that a true biramous limb was once present in chelicerates as well as in the mandibulates.

  9. Silurian horseshoe crab illuminates the evolution of arthropod limbs.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Derek E G; Siveter, Derek J; Siveter, David J; Sutton, Mark D; Garwood, Russell J; Legg, David

    2012-09-25

    The basic arrangement of limbs in euarthropods consists of a uniramous head appendage followed by a series of biramous appendages. The body is divided into functional units or tagmata which are usually distinguished by further differentiation of the limbs. The living horseshoe crabs are remnants of a much larger diversity of aquatic chelicerates. The limbs of the anterior and posterior divisions of the body of living horseshoe crabs differ in the loss of the outer and inner ramus, respectively, of an ancestral biramous limb. Here we report a new fossil horseshoe crab from the mid-Silurian Lagerstätte in Herefordshire, United Kingdom (approximately 425 Myr B.P.), a site that has yielded a remarkably preserved assemblage of soft-bodied fossils. The limbs of the new form can be homologized with those of living Limulus, but retain an ancestral biramous morphology. Remarkably, however, the two limb branches originate separately, providing fossil evidence to suggest that repression or loss of gene expression might have given rise to the appendage morphology of Limulus. Both branches of the prosomal limbs of this new fossil are robust and segmented in contrast to their morphology in Cambrian arthropods, revealing that a true biramous limb was once present in chelicerates as well as in the mandibulates.

  10. Additivity in perception of affect from limb motion.

    PubMed

    Etemad, S Ali; Arya, Ali; Parush, Avi

    2014-01-13

    In this study, the notion of additivity in perception of affect from limb motion is investigated. Specifically, we examine whether the impact of multiple limbs in perception of affect is equal to the sum of the impacts of each individual limb. Several neutral, happy, and sad walking sequences are first aligned and averaged. Four distinct body regions or limbs are defined for this study: arms and hands, legs and feet, head and neck, and torso. The three average walks are used to create the stimuli. The motion of each limb and combination of limbs from the neutral sequence are replaced with those of the happy and sad sequences. Through collecting perceptual ratings for when individual limbs contain affective features, and comparing the sums of these ratings to instances where multiple limbs of the body simultaneously contain affective features, additivity is investigated. We find that while the results are highly correlated, additivity does not hold in the classical sense. Based on the results, a mathematical model is proposed for describing the observed relationship. PMID:24269980

  11. A feasibility study of limb volume measuring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafferty, J. F.; Carter, W. M.

    1974-01-01

    Evaluation of the various techniques by which limb volume can be measured indicates that the odometric (electromechanical) method and the reflective scanner (optical) have a high probability of meeting the specifications of the LBNP experiments. Both of these methods provide segmental measurements from which the cross sectional area of the limb can be determined.

  12. Cross cultural adaptation and validation of a Spanish version of the lower limb functional index

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Lower Limb Functional Index (LLFI) is a relatively recently published regional outcome measure. The development article showed the LLFI had robust and valid clinimetric properties with sound psychometric and practical characteristics when compared to the Lower Limb Extremity Scale (LEFS) criterion standard. Objective The purpose of this study was cross cultural adaptation and validation of the LLFI Spanish-version (LLFI-Sp) in a Spanish population. Methods A two stage observational study was conducted. The LLFI was initially cross-culturally adapted to Spanish through double forward and single backward translation; then subsequently validated for the psychometric characteristics of validity, internal consistency, reliability, error score and factor structure. Participants (n = 136) with various lower limb conditions of >12 weeks duration completed the LLFI-Sp, Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and the Euroqol Health Questionnaire 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D-3 L). The full sample was employed to determine internal consistency, concurrent criterion validity, construct validity and factor structure; a subgroup (n = 45) determined reliability at seven days concurrently completing a global rating of change scale. Results The LLFI-Sp demonstrated high but not excessive internal consistency (α = 0.91) and high reliability (ICC = 0.96). The factor structure was one-dimensional which supported the construct validity. Criterion validity with the WOMAC was strong (r = 0.77) and with the EQ-5D-3 L fair and inversely correlated (r = -0.62). The study limitations included the lack of longitudinal data and the determination of responsiveness. Conclusions The LLFI-Sp supports the findings of the original English version as being a valid lower limb regional outcome measure. It demonstrated similar psychometric properties for internal consistency, validity, reliability, error score and factor structure. PMID

  13. Climatic and Altitudinal Influences on Variation in Macaca Limb Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Karen J.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares limb lengths and joint diameters in the skeletons of six macaque species (Macaca assamensis, M. fascicularis, M. fuscata, M. mulatta, M. nemestrina, and M. thibetana) from a broad range of habitats and climates in order to test whether ambient temperatures, latitude, and altitude influence interspecific variation in limb morphology in this widely dispersed genus. Analysis of variance, principal component analysis, and partial correlation analysis reveal that species from temperate latitudes and high elevations tend to have short limbs and large joint diameters for their sizes while species from tropical latitudes and low elevations tend to have long limbs and small joint diameters. Interspecific variations in intra- and interlimb length proportions also reflect phylogeny and subtle differences in locomotion. The results of this study suggest that climatic conditions are important factors among many ecological variables that influence limb morphology in this geographically widespread genus. PMID:22567298

  14. Glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in muscles from immobilized limbs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, W. F.; Watson, P. A.; Booth, F. W.

    1984-01-01

    Defects in glucose metabolism in muscles of immobilized limbs of mice were related to alterations in insulin binding, insulin responsiveness, glucose supply, and insulin activation of glycogen synthase. These were tested by in vitro methodology. A significant lessening in the insulin-induced maximal response of 2-deoxyglucose uptake into the mouse soleus muscle occurred between the 3rd and 8th h of limb immobilization, suggesting a decreased insulin responsiveness. Lack of change in the specific binding of insulin to muscles of 24-h immobilized limbs indicates that a change in insulin receptor number did not play a role in the failure of insulin to stimulate glucose metabolism. Its inability to stimulate glycogen synthesis in muscle from immobilized limbs is due, in part, to a lack of glucose supply to glycogen synthesis and also to the ineffectiveness of insulin to increase the percentage of glycogen synthase in its active form in muscles from 24-h immobilized limbs.

  15. Pyroclastic deposits on the western limb of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Hawke, B. R.

    1992-01-01

    A geologic characterization is presented of 17 newly identified localized pyroclastic deposits on the western limb of the moon. The results show that lunar pyroclastic deposits are more pervasive on the western limb of the moon than once thought. The western limb dark-mantle deposits in the proximal zone are probably related to faults and fractures associated with the Cordillera ring of Orientale Basin. All the localized pyroclastic deposits on the western limb for which near-infrared reflectance spectra have been obtained exhibit parameter that allowed them to be assigned to the three spectral groups described elsewhere. Western limb pyroclastic deposits appear to represent various stages in a formational sequence in which an initial explosive phase is followed by varying amounts of mare flooding. In view of their sequential formation, both the pyroclastic and mare materials associated with individual volcanic complexes may be the products of the same parent magmas and have very similar compositions.

  16. Next generation limb development and evolution: old questions, new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, Aimée

    2015-11-15

    The molecular analysis of limb bud development in vertebrates continues to fuel our understanding of the gene regulatory networks that orchestrate the patterning, proliferation and differentiation of embryonic progenitor cells. In recent years, systems biology approaches have moved our understanding of the molecular control of limb organogenesis to the next level by incorporating next generation 'omics' approaches, analyses of chromatin architecture, enhancer-promoter interactions and gene network simulations based on quantitative datasets into experimental analyses. This Review focuses on the insights these studies have given into the gene regulatory networks that govern limb development and into the fin-to-limb transition and digit reductions that occurred during the evolutionary diversification of tetrapod limbs. PMID:26577204

  17. Therapeutic Angiogenesis in Critical Limb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Ouma, Geoffrey O.; Zafrir, Barak; Mohler, Emile R.; Flugelman, Moshe Y.

    2013-01-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a severe form of peripheral artery disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. The primary therapeutic goals in treating CLI are to reduce the risk of adverse cardiovascular events, relieve ischemic pain, heal ulcers, prevent major amputation, and improve quality of life (QoL) and survival. These goals may be achieved by medical therapy, endovascular intervention, open surgery, or amputation and require a multidisciplinary approach including pain management, wound care, risk factors reduction, and treatment of comorbidities. No-option patients are potential candidates for the novel angiogenic therapies. The application of genetic, molecular, and cellular-based modalities, the so-called therapeutic angiogenesis, in the treatment of arterial obstructive diseases has not shown consistent efficacy. This article summarizes the current status related to the management of patients with CLI and discusses the current findings of the emerging modalities for therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:23129733

  18. A Brief History of Infrared Limb Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gille, J.

    2007-05-01

    I shall give a brief and non-technical description of the development of this technique, in which I have been deeply involved. I think it makes an interesting story, and also illustrates some general principles. Limb scanning allows the detailed observation of the composition and structure of the upper troposphere and stratosphere. It began with some serendipitous consulting, went on to a speculative paper, and a successful proposal. However, things turned out to be more difficult than first imagined. A major technical barrier surfaced, but a breakthrough in data processing overcame it. After many smaller but no less challenging and interesting difficulties, there were some notable successes. After a brief look at the future, I'll close with some general thoughts.

  19. Diagnosing limb paresis and paralysis in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Crilly, James Patrick; Rzechorzek, Nina; Scott, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Paresis and paralysis are uncommon problems in sheep but are likely to prompt farmers to seek veterinary advice. A thorough and logical approach can aid in determining the cause of the problem and highlighting the benefit of veterinary involvement. While this may not necessarily alter the prognosis for an individual animal, it can help in formulating preventive measures and avoid the costs – both in economic and in welfare terms – of misdirected treatment. Distinguishing between central and peripheral lesions is most important, as the relative prognoses are markedly different, and this can often be achieved with minimal equipment. This article describes an approach to performing a neurological examination of the ovine trunk and limbs, the ancillary tests available and the common and important causes of paresis and paralysis in sheep. PMID:26752801

  20. Neuromuscular function in limb girdle dystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Belanger, A Y; McComas, A J

    1985-01-01

    The contractile properties of ankle dorsiflexor and plantarflexor muscles in 20 patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy have been compared with those in matched controls. Twitch and voluntary torques were significantly smaller in the patient population and in nine patients it was impossible to record a twitch from tibialis anterior, a dorsiflexor muscle studied in detail. The disease process evidently ran a more rapid course in tibialis anterior than in plantarflexor muscles and this susceptibility was related to some aspect of the muscle other than its fibre type composition. Surviving fibres in dorsiflexor and plantarflexor muscles did not reveal evidence of excitation-contraction uncoupling; they exhibited normal post-activation potentiation and fatigue properties. Some patients were initially incapable of exciting their motor units maximally during voluntary contractions. A finding of possible pathogenetic significance was that one patient, with prominent calves, developed exceptionally large voluntary torque in his plantarflexor muscles. PMID:4087001

  1. The effect of lower limb rehabilitation gymnastics on postoperative rehabilitation in elderly patients with femoral shaft fracture: A retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Si-Dong; Ning, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Li-Hong; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Ding, Wen-Yuan; Yang, Da-Long

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of lower limb rehabilitation gymnastics on postoperative rehabilitation in elderly patients with femoral shaft fracture after undergoing intramedullary nail fixation surgery.We collected medical records of elderly patients aged ≥ 60 years with femoral shaft fracture between 03/2010 and 03/2015 in Longyao County Hospital. Totally, 160 patients were identified and divided into the intervention group (n = 80) and the control group (n = 80). During the postoperative period, the intervention group received lower limb rehabilitation gymnastics treatment for 3 months, but the control group did not. All patients were routinely asked to return hospital for a check in the 1st postoperative week, as well as the 2nd week, the 1st month, and the 3rd month, after surgery. The clinical rehabilitation effect was evaluated by checking lower limb action ability, detecting the lower limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT), scoring muscle strength of quadriceps and visual analog scale (VAS) score, and performing satisfaction survey.At the 1st week and 2nd week after surgery, the clinical rehabilitation effect in the intervention group was better regarding lower limb action ability, lower limb DVT, muscle strength of quadriceps, VAS score, and patient satisfaction, as compared with the control group. However, there was no significant difference at the 1st month and the 3rd month after surgery when comparing the intervention group to the control group.In the early postoperative stage, lower limb rehabilitation gymnastics can effectively improve the recovery of lower limb function, beneficial to reducing postoperative complications such as lower limb DVT and muscle atrophy, and increasing patient satisfaction rate. PMID:27537579

  2. The effect of lower limb rehabilitation gymnastics on postoperative rehabilitation in elderly patients with femoral shaft fracture: A retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Si-Dong; Ning, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Li-Hong; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Ding, Wen-Yuan; Yang, Da-Long

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of lower limb rehabilitation gymnastics on postoperative rehabilitation in elderly patients with femoral shaft fracture after undergoing intramedullary nail fixation surgery.We collected medical records of elderly patients aged ≥ 60 years with femoral shaft fracture between 03/2010 and 03/2015 in Longyao County Hospital. Totally, 160 patients were identified and divided into the intervention group (n = 80) and the control group (n = 80). During the postoperative period, the intervention group received lower limb rehabilitation gymnastics treatment for 3 months, but the control group did not. All patients were routinely asked to return hospital for a check in the 1st postoperative week, as well as the 2nd week, the 1st month, and the 3rd month, after surgery. The clinical rehabilitation effect was evaluated by checking lower limb action ability, detecting the lower limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT), scoring muscle strength of quadriceps and visual analog scale (VAS) score, and performing satisfaction survey.At the 1st week and 2nd week after surgery, the clinical rehabilitation effect in the intervention group was better regarding lower limb action ability, lower limb DVT, muscle strength of quadriceps, VAS score, and patient satisfaction, as compared with the control group. However, there was no significant difference at the 1st month and the 3rd month after surgery when comparing the intervention group to the control group.In the early postoperative stage, lower limb rehabilitation gymnastics can effectively improve the recovery of lower limb function, beneficial to reducing postoperative complications such as lower limb DVT and muscle atrophy, and increasing patient satisfaction rate.

  3. Assimilation of the Microwave Limb Sounder Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargan, K.; Read, W.; Livesey, N.; Wagner, P.; Nguyen. H.; Pawson, S.

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that the assimilation of limb-sounder data can significantly improve the representation of ozone in NASA's GEOS Data Assimilation Systems (GEOS-DAS), particularly in the stratosphere. The studies conducted so far utilized retrieved data from the MIPAS, POAM, ILAS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) instruments. Direct assimilation of the radiance data can be seen as the natural next step to those studies. The motivation behind working with radiances is twofold. First, retrieval algorithms use a priori data which are either climatological or are obtained from previous analyses. This introduces additional uncertainty and, in some cases, may lead to "self-contamination"- when the a priori is taken from the same assimilation system in which subsequently ingests the retrieved observations. Second, radiances can be available in near real time thus providing an opportunity for operational assimilation, which could help improve the use of infrared radiance instruments from operational satellite instruments. In this presentation we summarize our ongoing work on an implementation of the assimilation of EOS MLS radiances into the GEOS-5 DAS. This work focuses on assimilation of band 7 brightness temperatures which are sensitive to ozone. Our implementation uses the MLS Callable Forward Model developed by the MLS team at NASA JPL as the observation operator. We will describe our approach and recent results which are not yet final. In particular, we will demonstrate that this approach has a potential to improve the vertical structure of ozone in the lower tropical stratosphere as compared with the retrieved MLS product. We will discuss the computational efficiency of this implementation.

  4. Limb apraxia and the "affordance competition hypothesis".

    PubMed

    Rounis, Elisabeth; Humphreys, Glyn

    2015-01-01

    Limb apraxia, a disorder of higher order motor control, has long been a challenge for clinical assessment and understanding (Leiguarda and Marsden, 2000). The deficits originally described in limb apraxia (Liepmann, 1920) have been classified by the nature of the errors made by the patients leading to, namely, ideational and ideomotor apraxia. The dual stream hypothesis (Goodale and Milner, 1992) has been used to explain these categories: ideational apraxia is thought to relate to a deficit in the concept of a movement (coded in the ventral stream). Patients have difficulty using objects, sequencing actions to interact with them or pantomiming their use. Ideomotor apraxia, on the other hand, is thought to arise from problems in the accurate implementation of movements within the dorsal stream. One of the limitations on understanding apraxia is the failure by the clinical literature to draw on knowledge of the factors determining actions in the environment. Here we emphasize the role of affordance. There is much recent work indicating that our responses to stimuli are strongly influenced by the actions that the objects "afford", based on their physical properties and the intentions of the actor (e.g., Tucker and Ellis, 1998). The concept of affordance, originally suggested by Gibson (1979) has been incorporated in a recent model of interactive behavior that draws from findings in non-human primates, namely the "affordance competition hypothesis" (Cisek, 2007). This postulates that interactive behavior arises by a process of competition between possible actions elicited by the environment. In this paper we argue that "affordance competition" may play a role in apraxia. We review evidence that at least some aspects of apraxia may reflect an abnormal sensitivity to competition when multiple affordances are present (Riddoch et al., 1998) and/or a poor ability to exert cognitive control over this competition when it occurs. This framework suggests a new way of

  5. Geographic variation in gorilla limb bones.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Rebecca S; Pearman, Tessa L

    2016-06-01

    Gorilla systematics has received increased attention over recent decades from primatologists, conservationists, and paleontologists. Studies of geographic variation in DNA, skulls, and teeth have led to new taxonomic proposals, such as recognition of two gorilla species, Gorilla gorilla (western gorilla) and Gorilla beringei (eastern gorilla). Postcranial differences between mountain gorillas (G. beringei beringei) and western lowland gorillas (G. g. gorilla) have a long history of study, but differences between the limb bones of the eastern and western species have not yet been examined with an emphasis on geographic variation within each species. In addition, proposals for recognition of the Cross River gorilla as Gorilla gorilla diehli and gorillas from Tshiaberimu and Kahuzi as G. b. rex-pymaeorum have not been evaluated in the context of geographic variation in the forelimb and hindlimb skeletons. Forty-three linear measurements were collected from limb bones of 266 adult gorillas representing populations of G. b. beringei, Gorilla beringei graueri, G. g. gorilla, and G. g. diehli in order to investigate geographic diversity. Skeletal elements included the humerus, radius, third metacarpal, third proximal hand phalanx, femur, tibia, calcaneus, first metatarsal, third metatarsal, and third proximal foot phalanx. Comparisons of means and principal components analyses clearly differentiate eastern and western gorillas, indicating that eastern gorillas have absolutely and relatively smaller hands and feet, among other differences. Gorilla subspecies and populations cluster consistently by species, although G. g. diehli may be similar to the eastern gorillas in having small hands and feet. The subspecies of G. beringei are distinguished less strongly and by different variables than the two gorilla species. Populations of G. b. graueri are variable, and Kahuzi and Tshiaberimu specimens do not cluster together. Results support the possible influence of

  6. Geographic variation in gorilla limb bones.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Rebecca S; Pearman, Tessa L

    2016-06-01

    Gorilla systematics has received increased attention over recent decades from primatologists, conservationists, and paleontologists. Studies of geographic variation in DNA, skulls, and teeth have led to new taxonomic proposals, such as recognition of two gorilla species, Gorilla gorilla (western gorilla) and Gorilla beringei (eastern gorilla). Postcranial differences between mountain gorillas (G. beringei beringei) and western lowland gorillas (G. g. gorilla) have a long history of study, but differences between the limb bones of the eastern and western species have not yet been examined with an emphasis on geographic variation within each species. In addition, proposals for recognition of the Cross River gorilla as Gorilla gorilla diehli and gorillas from Tshiaberimu and Kahuzi as G. b. rex-pymaeorum have not been evaluated in the context of geographic variation in the forelimb and hindlimb skeletons. Forty-three linear measurements were collected from limb bones of 266 adult gorillas representing populations of G. b. beringei, Gorilla beringei graueri, G. g. gorilla, and G. g. diehli in order to investigate geographic diversity. Skeletal elements included the humerus, radius, third metacarpal, third proximal hand phalanx, femur, tibia, calcaneus, first metatarsal, third metatarsal, and third proximal foot phalanx. Comparisons of means and principal components analyses clearly differentiate eastern and western gorillas, indicating that eastern gorillas have absolutely and relatively smaller hands and feet, among other differences. Gorilla subspecies and populations cluster consistently by species, although G. g. diehli may be similar to the eastern gorillas in having small hands and feet. The subspecies of G. beringei are distinguished less strongly and by different variables than the two gorilla species. Populations of G. b. graueri are variable, and Kahuzi and Tshiaberimu specimens do not cluster together. Results support the possible influence of

  7. Limb bone morphology, bone strength, and cursoriality in lagomorphs

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jesse W; Danczak, Robert; Russo, Gabrielle A; Fellmann, Connie D

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of this study is to broadly evaluate the relationship between cursoriality (i.e. anatomical and physiological specialization for running) and limb bone morphology in lagomorphs. Relative to most previous studies of cursoriality, our focus on a size-restricted, taxonomically narrow group of mammals permits us to evaluate the degree to which ‘cursorial specialization’ affects locomotor anatomy independently of broader allometric and phylogenetic trends that might obscure such a relationship. We collected linear morphometrics and μCT data on 737 limb bones covering three lagomorph species that differ in degree of cursoriality: pikas (Ochotona princeps, non-cursorial), jackrabbits (Lepus californicus, highly cursorial), and rabbits (Sylvilagus bachmani, level of cursoriality intermediate between pikas and jackrabbits). We evaluated two hypotheses: cursoriality should be associated with (i) lower limb joint mechanical advantage (i.e. high ‘displacement advantage’, permitting more cursorial species to cycle their limbs more quickly) and (ii) longer, more gracile limb bones, particularly at the distal segments (as a means of decreasing rotational inertia). As predicted, highly cursorial jackrabbits are typically marked by the lowest mechanical advantage and the longest distal segments, non-cursorial pikas display the highest mechanical advantage and the shortest distal segments, and rabbits generally display intermediate values for these variables. Variation in long bone robusticity followed a proximodistal gradient. Whereas proximal limb bone robusticity declined with cursoriality, distal limb bone robusticity generally remained constant across the three species. The association between long, structurally gracile limb bones and decreased maximal bending strength suggests that the more cursorial lagomorphs compromise proximal limb bone integrity to improve locomotor economy. In contrast, the integrity of distal limb bones is maintained with

  8. Structure design of lower limb exoskeletons for gait training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Ziqiang; Tao, Chunjing; Ji, Run

    2015-09-01

    Due to the close physical interaction between human and machine in process of gait training, lower limb exoskeletons should be safe, comfortable and able to smoothly transfer desired driving force/moments to the patients. Correlatively, in kinematics the exoskeletons are required to be compatible with human lower limbs and thereby to avoid the uncontrollable interactional loads at the human-machine interfaces. Such requirement makes the structure design of exoskeletons very difficult because the human-machine closed chains are complicated. In addition, both the axis misalignments and the kinematic character difference between the exoskeleton and human joints should be taken into account. By analyzing the DOF(degree of freedom) of the whole human-machine closed chain, the human-machine kinematic incompatibility of lower limb exoskeletons is studied. An effective method for the structure design of lower limb exoskeletons, which are kinematically compatible with human lower limb, is proposed. Applying this method, the structure synthesis of the lower limb exoskeletons containing only one-DOF revolute and prismatic joints is investigated; the feasible basic structures of exoskeletons are developed and classified into three different categories. With the consideration of quasi-anthropopathic feature, structural simplicity and wearable comfort of lower limb exoskeletons, a joint replacement and structure comparison based approach to select the ideal structures of lower limb exoskeletons is proposed, by which three optimal exoskeleton structures are obtained. This paper indicates that the human-machine closed chain formed by the exoskeleton and human lower limb should be an even-constrained kinematic system in order to avoid the uncontrollable human-machine interactional loads. The presented method for the structure design of lower limb exoskeletons is universal and simple, and hence can be applied to other kinds of wearable exoskeletons.

  9. Limb bone morphology, bone strength, and cursoriality in lagomorphs.

    PubMed

    Young, Jesse W; Danczak, Robert; Russo, Gabrielle A; Fellmann, Connie D

    2014-10-01

    The primary aim of this study is to broadly evaluate the relationship between cursoriality (i.e. anatomical and physiological specialization for running) and limb bone morphology in lagomorphs. Relative to most previous studies of cursoriality, our focus on a size-restricted, taxonomically narrow group of mammals permits us to evaluate the degree to which 'cursorial specialization' affects locomotor anatomy independently of broader allometric and phylogenetic trends that might obscure such a relationship. We collected linear morphometrics and μCT data on 737 limb bones covering three lagomorph species that differ in degree of cursoriality: pikas (Ochotona princeps, non-cursorial), jackrabbits (Lepus californicus, highly cursorial), and rabbits (Sylvilagus bachmani, level of cursoriality intermediate between pikas and jackrabbits). We evaluated two hypotheses: cursoriality should be associated with (i) lower limb joint mechanical advantage (i.e. high 'displacement advantage', permitting more cursorial species to cycle their limbs more quickly) and (ii) longer, more gracile limb bones, particularly at the distal segments (as a means of decreasing rotational inertia). As predicted, highly cursorial jackrabbits are typically marked by the lowest mechanical advantage and the longest distal segments, non-cursorial pikas display the highest mechanical advantage and the shortest distal segments, and rabbits generally display intermediate values for these variables. Variation in long bone robusticity followed a proximodistal gradient. Whereas proximal limb bone robusticity declined with cursoriality, distal limb bone robusticity generally remained constant across the three species. The association between long, structurally gracile limb bones and decreased maximal bending strength suggests that the more cursorial lagomorphs compromise proximal limb bone integrity to improve locomotor economy. In contrast, the integrity of distal limb bones is maintained with increasing

  10. A 405-kb cosmid contig and HindIII restriction map of the progressive myoclonus epilepsy type 1 (EPM1) candidate region in 21q22.3

    SciTech Connect

    Lafreniere, R.G.; Rouleau, G.A.; De Jong, P.J.

    1995-09-01

    As a step toward identifying the molecular defect in patients afflicted with progressive myoclonus epilepsy type 1 (EPM1), we have assembled a cosmid contig of the candidate EPM1 region in 21q22.3. The contig constitutes a collection of 87 different cosmids spanning 405 kb based on a derived HindIII restriction map. Potential CpG-rich islands have been identified based on the restriction map generated from eight different rare-cutting enzymes. This contig contains the genetic material required for the isolation of expressed sequences and the identification of the gene defective in EPM1 and possibly other disorders mapping to this region. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  11. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT OF BILATERAL CUTANEOUS SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF THE HIND FEET PADS IN A SOUTHERN WHITE RHINOCEROS (CERATOTHERIUM SIMUM SIMUM).

    PubMed

    Greunz, Eva Maria; Simon, Marie; Lemberger, Karin; Galateanu, Gabriela; Hermes, Robert; Leclerc, Antoine

    2016-06-01

    The current report describes the temporary regression, due to intensive symptomatic treatment, of ulcerative skin lesions caused by squamous cell carcinoma in a white rhinoceros. A captive, 40-yr-old southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) developed profound, ulcerative skin lesions on the pads of both hind feet. At the peak of the disease, at least one quarter of the pads was affected. A diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma was made via biopsy. Treatment included anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, and local care. The lesions regressed on both feet until they seemed clinically healed. It was presumed that long-term, anti-inflammatory treatment and local bandaging had induced the temporary regression of the lesions. Two years later, however, a small ulcerative lesion reappeared on one pad and post mortem examination confirmed that the carcinoma was also histologically present in the clinically intact tissue. No metastasis was found and computed tomography showed normal digital bones. PMID:27468043

  12. Filamentous coliphage M13 as a cloning vehicle: insertion of a HindII fragment of the lac regulatory region in M13 replicative form in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Messing, J; Gronenborn, B; Müller-Hill, B; Hans Hopschneider, P

    1977-01-01

    A HindII restriction fragment comprising the Escherichia coli lac regulatory region and the genetic information for the alpha peptide of beta-galactosidase (beta-D-galactosidegalactohydrolase, EC. 3.2.1.23) has been inserted into 1 of the 10 Bsu I cleavage sites of M13 by blunt end ligation. A stable hybrid phage was isolated and identified by its ability to complement the lac alpha function. Further characterization of the hybrid phage includes retransformation studies, agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA-DNA hybridization, and heteroduplex mapping. The insertion point has been localized at 0.083 map unit on thewild-type circular map-i.e., within the intergenic region. The results prove that part of the intergenic region is nonessential and that the phage can be used as a cloning vehicle. Images PMID:333444

  13. Endovascular Revascularization for Patients with Critical Limb Ischemia: Impact on Wound Healing and Long Term Clinical Results in 189 Limbs

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jae-Ik; Han, Seung Hwan; Lim, Sang Hyun; Hong, You Sun; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Ji Dae; Kim, Jun-Su

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact on wound healing and long-term clinical outcomes of endovascular revascularization in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Materials and Methods This is a retrospective study on 189 limbs with CLI treated with endovascular revascularization between 2008 and 2010 and followed for a mean 21 months. Angiographic outcome was graded to technical success (TS), partial failure (PF) and complete technical failure. The impact on wound healing of revascularization was assessed with univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models. Analysis of long-term event-free limb survival, and limb salvage rate (LSR) was performed by Kaplan-Meier method. Results TS was achieved in 89% of treated limbs, whereas PF and CF were achieved in 9% and 2% of the limbs, respectively. Major complications occurred in 6% of treated limbs. The 30-day mortality was 2%. Wound healing was successful in 85% and failed in 15%. Impact of angiographic outcome on wound healing was statistically significant. The event-free limb survival was 79.3% and 69.5% at 1- and 3-years, respectively. The LSR was 94.8% and 92.0% at 1- and 3-years, respectively. Conclusion Endovascular revascularization improve wound healing rate and provide good long-term LSRs in CLI. PMID:23690709

  14. LIMB DEFECTS INDUCED BY RETINOIC ACID SIGNALING ANTAGONISM AND SYNTHESIS INHIBITION ARE CONSISTENT WITH ETHANOL-INDUCED LIMB DEFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limb defects induced by retinoic acid signaling antagonism and synthesis inhibition are consistent with ethanol-induced limb defects

    Johnson CS1, Sulik KK1,2, Hunter, ES III3
    1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC....

  15. Effects of Feed Supplementation on Mineral Composition, Mechanical Properties and Structure in Femurs of Iberian Red Deer Hinds (Cervus elaphus hispanicus)

    PubMed Central

    Olguin, Cesar A.; Landete-Castillejos, Tomas; Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J.; Gallego, Laureano

    2013-01-01

    Few studies in wild animals have assessed changes in mineral profile in long bones and their implications for mechanical properties. We examined the effect of two diets differing in mineral content on the composition and mechanical properties of femora from two groups each with 13 free-ranging red deer hinds. Contents of Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, B and Sr, Young’s modulus of elasticity (E), bending strength and work of fracture were assessed in the proximal part of the diaphysis (PD) and the mid-diaphysis (MD). Whole body measures were also recorded on the hinds. Compared to animals on control diets, those on supplemented diets increased live weight by 6.5 kg and their kidney fat index (KFI), but not carcass weight, body or organ size, femur size or cortical thickness. Supplemental feeding increased Mn content of bone by 23%, Cu by 9% and Zn by 6%. These differences showed a mean fourfold greater content of these minerals in supplemental diet, whereas femora did not reflect a 5.4 times greater content of major minerals (Na and P) in the diet. Lower content of B and Sr in supplemented diet also reduced femur B by 14% and Sr by 5%. There was a subtle effect of diet only on E and none on other mechanical properties. Thus, greater availability of microminerals but not major minerals in the diet is reflected in bone composition even before marked body effects, bone macro-structure or its mechanical properties are affected. PMID:23750262

  16. Fatty liver accompanies an increase in lactobacillus species in the hind gut of C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huawei; Liu, Jun; Jackson, Matthew I; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Yan, Lin; Combs, Gerald F

    2013-05-01

    High-fat (HF) diets can produce obesity and have been linked to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and changes in the gut microbiome. To test the hypothesis that HF feeding increases certain predominant hind gut bacteria and development of steatohepatitis, C57BL/6 mice were fed an HF (45% energy) or low-fat (LF) (10% energy) diet for 10 wk. At the end of the feeding period, body weights in the HF group were 34% greater than those in the LF group (P < 0.05). These changes were associated with dramatic increases in lipid droplet number and size, inflammatory cell infiltration, and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase protein concentration in the livers of mice fed the HF diet. Consistent with the fatty liver phenotype, plasma leptin and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations were also elevated in mice fed the HF diet, indicative of chronic inflammation. Eight of 12 pairs of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for bacterial species that typically predominate hind gut microbial ecology generated specific PCR products from the fecal DNA samples. The amount of DNA from Lactobacillus gasseri and/or Lactobacillus taiwanensis in the HF group was 6900-fold greater than that in the LF group. Many of these bacteria are bile acid resistant and are capable of bile acid deconjugation. Because bile acids are regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism, the marked increase of gut L. gasseri and/or L. taiwanensis species bacteria with HF feeding may play a role in development of steatohepatitis in this model.

  17. A HindIII polymorphism detected by cDMD 4-5a at the DMD locus in a family with Becker muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Gibb, M.F.; Greenberg, C.R.; Carson, N.L.

    1994-09-01

    Deletions within the dystrophin gene can be detected by hybridizing a series of cDNA probes to HindIII-digested DNA, with the absence of one or more fragments indicating the presence of a deletion. However, incorrect interpretations can be made if the absence of a fragment is due to a polymorphism rather than a deletion. Otto and Rothbery reported that the 5.2 kb fragment detected by cM 4-5a could be resolved, with extended electrophoresis, into two fragments estimated to be 5.2 and 5.15 kb in size. They concluded that the extra fragment of this doublet appears to be polymorphic, inherited in a Mendelian dominant fashion. The mother, who is an obligate carrier of BMD, does not have the upper fragment as is the case for her normal and affected sons. The father, who clinically has no evidence of neuromuscular disease, does have the upper fragment as do all their daughters. Given a dominant pattern of inheritance, the daughters should be heterozygous. Analysis of one grandson, who was predicted to have inherited the grandpaternal dystrophin gene, showed that he did have the upper fragment, consistent with our conclusions. To date, we have been unable to analyze a grandson that has inherited the grandmaternal allele; however, presuably he would not have the upper fragment of this doublet. We conclude that there likely is a dominant HindIII polymorphism detected with the cDMD 4-5a probe at the DMD locus. Population studies will be required to determine the frequency of this polymorphism; however, it should be noted that absence of the upper fragment of this doublet in a male with BMD/DMD does not necessarily correspond to the presence of a deletion.

  18. Nucleotide sequence and molecular genetic analysis of the vaccinia virus HindIII N/M region encoding the genes responsible for resistance to alpha-amanitin.

    PubMed

    Tamin, A; Villarreal, E C; Weinrich, S L; Hruby, D E

    1988-07-01

    The genomic location of the gene(s) which provides vaccinia virus (VV) alpha-amanitin-resistant mutants with a drug-resistant phenotype have been mapped to the HindIII N/M region of the genome by the use of marker rescue techniques [E. C. Villarreal and D. E. Hruby (1986) J. Virol. 57, 65-70]. Nucleotide sequencing of a 2356-bp HindIII-Sau3A fragment of the vaccinia virus genome encompassing this region reveals the presence of two complete leftward-reading open reading frames (ORFs, N2 and M1) and two incomplete ORFs (N1 and M2). By computer analysis the N2 and M1 ORFs would be predicted to encode soluble VV polypeptides with molecular weights of approximately 20 and 48 kDa, respectively. The N2 and M1 ORFs have extremely A-T-rich 5'-proximal sequences, consistent with previous data regarding the location and A-T-richness of viral early promoters. Likewise, the consensus signal believed to be involved in terminating VV early gene transcription, TTTTTNT, was evident at the 3'-boundary of both the N2 and M1 ORFs suggesting that these genes may be VV early genes. The in vivo transcriptional activity, orientation, and limits of these putative transcriptional units were investigated by Northern blot, nuclease S1, and primer extension analysis. Both N2- and M1-specific transcripts were detected in the cytoplasm of VV-infected cells, suggesting that these loci are bonafide viral genes. Time-course nuclease S1 experiments revealed that the N2 gene was transcribed exclusively prior to VV DNA replication. In contrast, the M1 gene was transcribed throughout infection, although different start sites were used at early versus late times postinfection. These results are discussed in relation to the drug-resistant phenotype and future experiments to identify the viral gene product responsible.

  19. Structure of the transcription initiation and termination sequences of seven early genes in the vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment.

    PubMed

    Lee-Chen, G J; Bourgeois, N; Davidson, K; Condit, R C; Niles, E G

    1988-03-01

    The vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment is 16,060 bp in length and encodes 13 complete genes [E.G. Niles et al. (1986). Virology 153, 96-112; S. L. Weinrich and D. E. Hruby (1986). Nucleic Acids Res. 14, 3003-3016]. Six of these genes are expressed only at early times after infection and one gene is expressed at both early and late times [G. -J. Lee-Chen and E. G. Niles (1988). Virology 163, 52-63]. Transcript mapping by S1 nuclease protection studies was carried out and compared to the results of primer extension analyses, in order to locate map positions of the 5' termini of each early mRNA. The lengths of the products of in vitro transcription, from DNA templates which possess the transcription start regions of each of the early genes, were determined and compared to the lengths of DNA products generated by S1 nuclease protection and primer extension, in order to demonstrate that the 5' termini identified by S1 mapping and primer extension are due to transcription initiation and not to mRNA processing. For each of the early genes in the HindIII D fragment, transcription starts within 25 nucleotides of the translation initiation codon. The precise location of the 3' termini of each early transcript was identified by S1 nuclease mapping. In all but one case, the 3' ends map within 75 nucleotides of the putative transcription termination signal TTTTTNT [G. Rohrmann, L. Yuen, and B. Moss (1986).

  20. The Aerosol Limb Imager: acousto-optic imaging of limb scattered sunlight for stratospheric aerosol profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elash, B. J.; Bourassa, A. E.; Loewen, P. R.; Lloyd, N. D.; Degenstein, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Aerosol Limb Imager (ALI) is an optical remote sensing instrument designed to image scattered sunlight from the atmospheric limb. These measurements are used to retrieve spatially resolved information of the stratospheric aerosol distribution, including spectral extinction coefficient and particle size. Here we present the design, development and test results of an ALI prototype instrument. The long term goal of this work is the eventual realization of ALI on a satellite platform in low earth orbit, where it can provide high spatial resolution observations, both in the vertical and cross-track. The instrument design uses a large aperture Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter (AOTF) to image the sunlit stratospheric limb in a selectable narrow wavelength band ranging from the visible to the near infrared. The ALI prototype was tested on a stratospheric balloon flight from the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) launch facility in Timmins, Canada, in September 2014. Preliminary analysis of the hyperspectral images indicate that the radiance measurements are of high quality, and we have used these to retrieve vertical profiles of stratospheric aerosol extinction coefficient from 650-1000 nm, along with one moment of the particle size distribution. Those preliminary results are promising and development of a satellite prototype of ALI within the Canadian Space Agency is ongoing.

  1. Validation of UARS Microwave Limb Sounder ClO measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, J. W.; Read, W. G.; Froidevaux, L.; Lungu, T. A.; Perun, V. S.; Stachnik, R. A.; Jarnot, R. F.; Cofield, R. E.; Fishbein, E. F.; Flower, D. A.; Burke, J. R.; Hardy, J. C.; Nakamura, L. L.; Ridenoure, B. P.; Shippony, Z.; Thurstans, R. P.; Avallone, L. M.; Toohey, D. W.; Dezafra, R. L.; Shindell, D. T.

    1996-04-01

    Validation of stratospheric ClO measurements by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) is described. Credibility of the measurements is established by (1) the consistency of the measured ClO spectral emission line with the retrieved ClO profiles and (2) comparisons of ClO from MLS with that from correlative measurements by balloon-based, ground-based, and aircraft-based instruments. Values of "noise" (random), "scaling" (multiplicative), and "bias" (additive) uncertainties are determined for the Version 3 data, the first version publicly released, and known artifacts in these data are identified. Comparisons with correlative measurements indicate agreement to within the combined uncertainties expected for MLS and the other measurements being compared. It is concluded that MLS Version 3 ClO data, with proper consideration of the uncertainties and "quality" parameters produced with these data, can be used for scientific analyses at retrieval surfaces between 46 and 1 hPa (approximately 20-50 km in height). Future work is planned to correct known problems in the data and improve their quality.

  2. Validation of UARS Microwave Limb Sounder ClO Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, J. W.; Read, W. G.; Froidevaux, L.; Lungu, T. A.; Perun, V. S.; Stachnik, R. A.; Jarnot, R. F.; Cofield, R. E.; Fishbein, E. F.; Flower, D. A.; Burke, J. R.; Hardy, J. C.; Nakamura, L. L.; Ridenoure, B. P.; Shippony, Z.; Thurstans, R. P.; Thurstans, R. P.; Avallone, L. M.; Toohey, D. W.; deZafra, R. L.; Shindell, D. T.

    1996-01-01

    Validation of stratospheric ClO measurements by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) is described. Credibility of the measurements is established by (1) the consistency of the measured ClO spectral emission line with the retrieved ClO profiles and (2) comparisons of ClO from MLS with that from correlative measurements by balloon-based, ground-based, and aircraft-based instruments. Values of "noise" (random), "scaling" (multiplicative), and "bias" (additive) uncertainties are determined for the Version 3 data, in the first version public release of the known artifacts in these data are identified. Comparisons with correlative measurements indicate agreement to within the combined uncertainties expected for MLS and the other measurements being compared. It is concluded that MLS Version 3 ClO data, with proper consideration of the uncertainties and "quality" parameters produced with these data, can be used for scientific analyses at retrieval surfaces between 46 and 1 hPa (approximately 20-50 km in height). Future work is planned to correct known problems in the data and improve their quality.

  3. Modeling rate sensitivity of exercise transient responses to limb motion.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Stanley M; Kato, Takahide

    2014-10-01

    Transient responses of ventilation (V̇e) to limb motion can exhibit predictive characteristics. In response to a change in limb motion, a rapid change in V̇e is commonly observed with characteristics different than during a change in workload. This rapid change has been attributed to a feed-forward or adaptive response. Rate sensitivity was explored as a specific hypothesis to explain predictive V̇e responses to limb motion. A simple model assuming an additive feed-forward summation of V̇e proportional to the rate of change of limb motion was studied. This model was able to successfully account for the adaptive phase correction observed during human sinusoidal changes in limb motion. Adaptation of rate sensitivity might also explain the reduction of the fast component of V̇e responses previously reported following sudden exercise termination. Adaptation of the fast component of V̇e response could occur by reduction of rate sensitivity. Rate sensitivity of limb motion was predicted by the model to reduce the phase delay between limb motion and V̇e response without changing the steady-state response to exercise load. In this way, V̇e can respond more quickly to an exercise change without interfering with overall feedback control. The asymmetry between responses to an incremental and decremental ramp change in exercise can also be accounted for by the proposed model. Rate sensitivity leads to predicted behavior, which resembles responses observed in exercise tied to expiratory reserve volume.

  4. Papers Delivered at the Junior/Senior College English Workshop (Hinds Junior College, February 5, 1972) and the Workshop for English Teachers (University of Mississippi, February 12, 1972) and a Research Paper Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhail, Augustine H., Comp.

    The following are nine papers delivered at the annual workshop for junior and senior college English teachers held at Hinds Jr. College on February 5, 1972: "The Role of Grammar in the Classroom" -Mrs. Elba Patterson; "Grammar in the English Class" -Dr. Gerald Walton; "Creative Writing and Freshman English" Gordon Weaver; "Attitudes Toward the…

  5. Twist1 activity thresholds define multiple functions in limb development

    PubMed Central

    Krawchuk, Dayana; Weiner, Shoshana J.; Chen, You-Tzung; Lu, Benson; Costantini, Frank; Behringer, Richard R.; Laufer, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Summary The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Twist1 is essential for normal limb development. Twist1−/− embryos die at midgestation. However, studies on early limb buds found that Twist1−/− mutant limb mesenchyme has an impaired response to FGF signaling from the apical ectodermal ridge, which disrupts the feedback loop between the mesenchyme and AER, and reduces and shifts anteriorly Shh expression in the zone of polarizing activity. We have combined Twist1 null, hypomorph and conditional alleles to generate a Twist1 allelic series that survives to birth. As Twist1 activity is reduced, limb skeletal defects progress from preaxial polydactyly to girdle reduction combined with hypoplasia, aplasia or mirror symmetry of all limb segments. With reduced Twist1 activity there is striking and progressive upregulation of ectopic Shh expression in the anterior of the limb, combined with an anterior shift in the posterior Shh domain, which is expressed at normal intensity, and loss of the posterior AER. Consequently limb outgrowth is initially impaired, before an ectopic anterior Shh domain expands the AER, promoting additional growth and repatterning. Reducing the dosage of FGF targets of the Etv gene family, which are known repressors of Shh expression in the anterior limb mesenchyme, strongly enhances the anterior skeletal phenotype. Conversely this and other phenotypes are suppressed by reducing the dosage of the Twist1 antagonist Hand2. Our data support a model whereby multiple Twist1 activity thresholds contribute to early limb bud patterning, and suggest how particular combinations of skeletal defects result from differing amounts of Twist1 activity. PMID:20732316

  6. Tomographic retrieval for scattered light limb measurements: multiple spectral fit windows to improve the spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pukite, Janis; Dörner, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) on the ENVISAT satellite probed the atmosphere at the day side of Earth in alternating sequences of nadir and limb measurements from August 2002 to April 2012. Limb measurements allow the retrieval of stratospheric profiles of various trace gases on a global scale. It has been shown that combining measurements of the same air volume from different viewing positions along the orbit, 2D distribution fields of stratospheric trace gases can be acquired in one inversion step. Since the atmospheric scattering and absorption processes are wavelength dependent, the spatial sensitivity for limb observations also varies with wavelength. In general, for longer wavelengths, photons from more remote areas along the line of sight are contributing stronger to the measurement than for shorter wavelengths because of the lower probability of Rayleigh scattering. In addition, the radiative transfer is modified by the ozone absorption structures making longer light paths less probable within strong ozone absorption bands. In this study, additional information on the spatial distribution of NO2 is investigated by analysing results obtained by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) in various spectral fit windows. Combing the fit results in one profile retrieval algorithm helps to improve the spatial sensitivity and resolution of the measurements. The largest improvements for the spatial resolution and sensitivity are expected for the upper troposphere/ lower stratosphere (UTLS) region where the variation of the spatial sensitivity with wavelength is strongest.

  7. Transcranial Motor Evoked Potentials of Lower Limbs Can Prognosticate Ambulation in Hemiplegic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in lower limbs and ambulatory outcomes of hemiplegic stroke patients. Methods Medical records of hemiplegic patients with the first ever stroke who received inpatient rehabilitation from January 2013 to May 2014 were reviewed. Patient who had diabetes, quadriplegia, bilateral lesion, brainstem lesion, severe musculoskeletal problem, and old age over 80 years were excluded. MEPs in lower limbs were measured when they were transferred to the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine. Subjects were categorized into three groups (normal, abnormal, and absent response) according to MEPs findings. Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Functional Ambulation Category (FAC) at initial and discharge were compared among the three groups by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Correlation was determined using a linear regression model. Results Fifty-eight hemiplegic patients were included. BBS and FAC at discharge were significantly (ANOVA, p<0.001) different according to MEPs findings. In linear regression model of BBS and FAC using stepwise selection, patients' age (p<0.01), BBS at admission (p<0.01), and MEPs (p<0.01) remained significant covariates. In regression assumption model of BBS and FAC at admission, MEPs and gender were significant covariates. Conclusion Initial MEPs of lower limbs can prognosticate the ambulatory outcomes of hemiplegic patients. PMID:27446774

  8. Complex muscle vibration patterns to induce gait-like lower-limb movements: proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Duclos, Cyril; Kemlin, Claire; Lazert, David; Gagnon, Dany; Dyer, Joseph-Omer; Forget, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Muscle vibrations can induce motor responses and illusions of complex movements. However, inducing gait-like cyclical movements and illusions requires the application of multiple fast alternating vibrations to lower-limb muscles. The objectives were (1) to test the feasibility of delivering complex vibrations in a time-organized manner and (2) to illustrate the possibility of inducing alternate gait-in-place-like movements using these vibrations. Patterns of vibration, produced by 12 vibrators applied bilaterally on the flexor and extensor muscle groups of the lower limbs, were based on normal gait kinematics. We tested 1 s and 2 s cycle patterns of vibration. Vibrator responses were assessed using auto- and crosscorrelations and frequency analyses based on accelerometry measurements, and compared between patterns. High auto- (>0.8) and crosscorrelation (>0.6) coefficients demonstrated a good response by the vibrators to the control signal. Vibrations induced cyclical, low-amplitude stepping-in-place movements that mimicked alternate walking movements with both legs, with 1 s and 2 s cycle durations, in one nondisabled participant and one participant with American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale B spinal cord injury standing, relaxed, with body-weight support. Electromechanical vibrators can deliver complex cyclical vibrations and trigger gait-like lower-limb movements. These results warrant the application of these vibration patterns on individuals with sensorimotor impairments to test their potential in gait rehabilitation.

  9. A 3-D tomographic trajectory retrieval for the air-borne limb-imager GLORIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungermann, J.; Blank, J.; Lotz, J.; Leppkes, K.; Guggenmoser, T.; Kaufmann, M.; Preusse, P.; Naumann, U.; Riese, M.

    2011-06-01

    Infrared limb sounding from aircraft can provide 2-D curtains of multiple trace gas species. However, conventional limb sounders view perpendicular to the aircraft axis and are unable to resolve the observed airmass along their line-of-sight. GLORIA (Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere) is a new remote sensing instrument able to adjust its horizontal view angle with respect to the aircraft flight direction from 45° to 135°. This will allow for tomographic measurements of mesoscale structures for a wide variety of atmospheric constituents. Many flights of the GLORIA instrument will not follow closed curves that allow measuring an airmass from all directions. Consequently, it is examined by means of simulations, what results can be expected from tomographic evaluation of measurements made during a straight flight. It is demonstrated that the achievable resolution and stability is enhanced compared to conventional retrievals. In a second step, it is shown that the incorporation of channels exhibiting different optical depth can greatly enhance the 3-D retrieval quality enabling the exploitation of previously unused spectral samples. A second problem for tomographic retrievals is that advection, which can be neglected for conventional retrievals, plays an important role for the time-scales involved in a tomographic measurement flight. This paper presents a method to diagnose the effect of a time-varying atmosphere on a 3-D retrieval and demonstrates an effective way to compensate for effects of advection by incorporating wind-fields from meteorological datasets as a priori information.

  10. Chromospheric Multi-Wavelength Observations near the Solar Limb: Techniques and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, C.; Rezaei, R.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of chromospheric spectral lines near and beyond the solar limb provide information on the solar chromosphere without any photospheric contamination. For ground-based observations near and off the limb with real-time image correction by adaptive optics (AO), some technical requirements have to be met, such as an AO lock point that is independent of the location of the field of view observed by the science instruments, both for 1D and 2D instruments. We show how to obtain simultaneous AO-corrected spectra in Ca II H, Hα, Ca II IR at 854 nm, and He I at 1083 nm with the instrumentation at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope in Izaña, Tenerife. We determined the spectral properties of an active-region macrospicule inside the field of view in the four chromospheric lines, including its signature in polarization in He I at 1083 nm. Compared to the line-core intensities, the Doppler shifts of the lines change on a smaller spatial scale in the direction parallel to the limb, suggesting the presence of coherent rotating structures or the passage of upwards propagating helical waves on the surfaces of expanding flux tubes.

  11. The Quest toward limb regeneration: a regenerative engineering approach

    PubMed Central

    Laurencin, Cato T.; Nair, Lakshmi S.

    2016-01-01

    The Holy Grail to address the clinical grand challenge of human limb loss is to develop innovative strategies to regrow the amputated limb. The remarkable advances in the scientific understanding of regeneration, stem cell science, material science and engineering, physics and novel surgical approaches in the past few decades have provided a regenerative tool box to face this grand challenge and address the limitations of human wound healing. Here we discuss the convergence approach put forward by the field of Regenerative Engineering to use the regenerative tool box to design and develop novel translational strategies to limb regeneration. PMID:27047679

  12. [Angiosome-directed revascularization of critical limb ischaemia].

    PubMed

    Houlind, Kim

    2015-07-27

    Critical limb ischaemia is the major cause of amputation in the developed world. When performing revascularization of the lower limb, guidelines recommend grafting of the "least diseased distal artery with the best continuous run-off to the ankle/foot... regardless of location" often implying indirect perfusion of the ischaemic area through collaterals. An alter-native strategy, called the "angiosome model", advocates a strategy which provides blood supply directly to the ischaemic area. This paper reviews the current evidence of indirect versus angiosome-directed revascularization of the lower limb.

  13. Heterogeneity of nonlethal severe short-limbed dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Romeo, G; Zonana, J; Rimoin, D L; Lachman, R S; Scott, C I; Kaveggia, E G; Spranger, J W; Opitz, J M

    1977-12-01

    The Grebe syndrome is a nonlethal form of severe short-limbed dwarfism which was previously called "achondrogenesis-Brazilian or Grebe type". We have studied three patients with severe short-limbed dwarfism originally considered to have this syndrome. On re-evaluation of their clinical and radiographic features, only one of them had the typical features of the Grebe chondrodysplasia, whereas the other two appear to have clearly distinct, previously unreported skeletal dysplasias. These patients illustrate the heterogeneity that exists among the nonlethal forms of severe short-limbed dwarfism. PMID:925797

  14. Limb-darkening and the structure of the Jovian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, W. I.; Sagan, C.

    1978-01-01

    By observing the transit of various cloud features across the Jovian disk, limb-darkening curves were constructed for three regions in the 4.6 to 5.1 mu cm band. Several models currently employed in describing the radiative or dynamical properties of planetary atmospheres are here examined to understand their implications for limb-darkening. The statistical problem of fitting these models to the observed data is reviewed and methods for applying multiple regression analysis are discussed. Analysis of variance techniques are introduced to test the viability of a given physical process as a cause of the observed limb-darkening.

  15. Demographics of Lower Limb Amputations in the Pakistan Military: A Single Center, Three-Year Prospective Survey.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Farooq A; Ayaz, Saeed B; Mansoor, Sahibzada N; Qureshi, Ali R; Fahim, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : The Pakistan military has been actively engaged in the war against terror for more than a decade. Many officers and soldiers have lost their limbs in this war. But the data on traumatic lower limb amputations in Pakistan is sparse. The aim of this study is to prospectively document the epidemiological profile of lower limb military amputees presenting at the largest rehabilitation centre of Pakistan over a three-year period. MATERIALS & METHODS : A prospective three-year survey was conducted at the Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM), Pakistan. One hundred twenty-three consecutive patients with lower limb amputations were enrolled in the survey. The demographic data, etiology, associated injuries, complications profile, and type of prosthesis provided were documented. The data analysis was done using the statistical analysis tool SPSS V 20 (IBM®,NY, USA). RESULTS : All patients were male. Most had traumatic amputation (119), were between 20-40 years (106), with unilateral amputation (115). Mine blast injury was the leading cause in 73 (59.3%) and most (58.5%) were fitted with modular prosthesis. Transtibial amputation was the commonest level (65), followed by transfemoral (30). The time of surgical amputation was not documented in 87% of the patients. Half of the patients (54%) had associated injuries. Seventy-nine patients had at least one complication with phantom pain being the commonest in 25% cases. CONCLUSIONS : This is the largest prospective demographic survey of lower limb amputees in Pakistan military to date. Scores of soldiers and civilians in Pakistan have suffered lower limb amputation. The availability of demographic data can improve the trauma and rehabilitation services for better understanding and management of such cases. There is a need to conduct large scale community-based epidemiological surveys to direct future policies and develop amputee rehabilitation services in the public sector. PMID:27186448

  16. IS PAIN IN ONE KNEE ASSOCIATED WITH ISOMETRIC MUSCLE STRENGTH IN THE CONTRALATERAL LIMB? - DATA FROM THE OSTEOARTHRITIS INITIATIVE (OAI)

    PubMed Central

    Steidle, E.; Wirth, W.; Glass, N.; Ruhdorfer, A.; Cotofana, S.; Eckstein, F.; Segal, N. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Knee pain and muscle weakness confer risk for knee osteoarthritis incidence and progression. The purpose of this study was to determine whether unilateral knee pain influences contralateral thigh muscle strength. Design Of 4796 Osteoarthritis Initiative participants, 224 (mean±SD age 63.9±8.9 years) cases could be matched to a control. Cases were defined as having unilateral knee pain (numerical rating scale (NRS)≥4/10; ≥infrequent pain) and one pain-free knee (NRS 0–1; ≤infrequent pain; WOMAC≤1). Controls were defined as having bilaterally pain-free knees (NRS 0–1; ≤infrequent pain; WOMAC≤1). Maximal isometric muscle strength [N] was compared between limbs in participants with unilateral pain (cases), and between pain-free limbs of cases and controls. Results Knee extensor/flexor strength in pain-free limbs of cases was lower than in bilaterally pain-free controls (−5.5%/–8.4%; p=0.043/p=0.022). Within cases, maximum extensor/flexor strength was significantly lower in the painful than in the pain-free limb (−6.4%/4.1%; p<0.0001/p=0.015). Conclusions These results suggest that strength in limbs without knee pain is associated with the pain status of the contralateral knee. The strength difference between unilateral pain-free cases and matched bilateral pain-free controls was similar to that between limbs in persons with unilateral knee pain. Lower strength due to contralateral knee pain might be centrally mediated. PMID:25768069

  17. Demographics of Lower Limb Amputations in the Pakistan Military: A Single Center, Three-Year Prospective Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Saeed B; Mansoor, Sahibzada N; Qureshi, Ali R; Fahim, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  The Pakistan military has been actively engaged in the war against terror for more than a decade. Many officers and soldiers have lost their limbs in this war. But the data on traumatic lower limb amputations in Pakistan is sparse. The aim of this study is to prospectively document the epidemiological profile of lower limb military amputees presenting at the largest rehabilitation centre of Pakistan over a three-year period. Materials & methods  A prospective three-year survey was conducted at the Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM), Pakistan. One hundred twenty-three consecutive patients with lower limb amputations were enrolled in the survey. The demographic data, etiology, associated injuries, complications profile, and type of prosthesis provided were documented. The data analysis was done using the statistical analysis tool SPSS V 20 (IBM®,NY, USA).  Results  All patients were male. Most had traumatic amputation (119), were between 20–40 years (106), with unilateral amputation (115). Mine blast injury was the l