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Sample records for hindlimb muscle dynamics

  1. Dynamic Foot Stimulation Attenuates Soleus Muscle Atrophy Induced by Hindlimb Unloading in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyparos, Antonios; Feeback, Daniel L.; Layne, Charles S.; Martinez, Daniel A.; Clarke, Mark S. F.

    2004-01-01

    Unloading-induced myofiber atrophy is a phenomenon that occurs in the aging population, bed-ridden patients and astronauts. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not dynamic foot stimulation (DFS) applied to the plantar surface of the rat foot can serve as a countermeasure to the soleus muscle atrophy normally observed in hindlimb unloaded (HU) rats. Thirty mature adult (6-month-old) male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into ambulatory control (AMB), hindlimb unloaded alone (HU), or hindlimb unloaded with the application of DFS (HU+DFS) groups. A dynamic pattern of pressure was applied to the right foot of each HU animal using a specially fabricated boot containing an inflatable air bladder connected to a solenoid air pump controlled by a laptop computer. The anti-atrophic effects of DFS were quantified morphometrically in frozen cross-sections of soleus muscle stained using the metachromatic-ATPase fiber typing technique. Application of DFS during HU significantly counteracted the atrophic response observed in the soleus by preventing approximately 85% of the reduction in Type I myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA) observed during HU. However, DFS did not protect type II fibers of the soleus from HU-induced atrophy or any fiber type in the soleus muscle of the contralateral control leg of the DFS-treated HU animals. These results illustrate that the application of DFS to the rat foot is an effective countermeasure to soleus muscle atrophy induced by HU.

  2. Hindlimb suspension reduces muscle regeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Truong, Q.; Macius, A.; Schultz, E.

    1998-01-01

    Exposure of juvenile skeletal muscle to a weightless environment reduces growth and satellite cell mitotic activity. However, the effect of a weightless environment on the satellite cell population during muscle repair remains unknown. Muscle injury was induced in rat soleus muscles using the myotoxic snake venom, notexin. Rats were placed into hindlimb-suspended or weightbearing groups for 10 days following injury. Cellular proliferation during regeneration was evaluated using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Hindlimb suspension reduced (P < 0.05) regenerated muscle mass, regenerated myofiber diameter, uninjured muscle mass, and uninjured myofiber diameter compared to weightbearing rats. Hindlimb suspension reduced (P < 0.05) BrdU labeling in uninjured soleus muscles compared to weight-bearing muscles. However, hindlimb suspension did not abolish muscle regeneration because myofibers formed in the injured soleus muscles of hindlimb-suspended rats, and BrdU labeling was equivalent (P > 0.10) on myofiber segments isolated from the soleus muscles of hindlimb-suspended and weightbearing rats following injury. Thus, hindlimb suspension (weightlessness) does not suppress satellite cell mitotic activity in regenerating muscles before myofiber formation, but reduces growth of the newly formed myofibers.

  3. Muscle glucose uptake in the rat after suspension with single hindlimb weight bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stump, Craig S.; Woodman, Christopher R.; Fregosi, Ralph F.; Tipton, Charles M.

    1993-01-01

    An examination is conducted of the effect of nonweight-bearing conditions, and the systemic influences of simulated microgravity on rat hindlimb muscles. The results obtained suggest that the increases in hindlimb muscle glucose uptake and extracellular space associated with simulated microgravity persist with hindlimb weightbearing, despite the prevention of muscle atrophy. The mechanism (or mechanisms) responsible for these effects are currently unknown.

  4. Age effects on rat hindlimb muscle atrophy during suspension unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Joseph M.; Fell, Ronald D.; Geoghegan, Thomas E.; Ringel, Lisa C.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of hindlimb unloading on muscle mass and biochemical responses were examined and compared in adult (450-g) and juvenile (200-g) rats after 1, 7, or 14 days of whole-body suspension. Quantitatively and qualitatively the soleus, gastrocnemius, plantaris, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of the hindlimb exhibited a differential sensitivity to suspension and weightlessness unloading in both adults and juveniles. The red slow-twitch soleus exhibited the most pronounced atrophy under both conditions, with juvenile responses being greater than adult. In contrast, the fast-twitch EDL hypertrophied during suspension and atrophied during weightlessness, with no significant difference between adults and juveniles. Determination of biochemical parameters (total protein, RNA, and DNA) indicates a less rapid rate of response in adult muscles.

  5. Muscle regeneration during hindlimb unloading results in a reduction in muscle size after reloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Pulvermacher, P. M.; Schultz, E.

    2001-01-01

    The hindlimb-unloading model was used to study the ability of muscle injured in a weightless environment to recover after reloading. Satellite cell mitotic activity and DNA unit size were determined in injured and intact soleus muscles from hindlimb-unloaded and age-matched weight-bearing rats at the conclusion of 28 days of hindlimb unloading, 2 wk after reloading, and 9 wk after reloading. The body weights of hindlimb-unloaded rats were significantly (P < 0.05) less than those of weight-bearing rats at the conclusion of hindlimb unloading, but they were the same (P > 0.05) as those of weight-bearing rats 2 and 9 wk after reloading. The soleus muscle weight, soleus muscle weight-to-body weight ratio, myofiber diameter, number of nuclei per millimeter, and DNA unit size were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller for the injured soleus muscles from hindlimb-unloaded rats than for the soleus muscles from weight-bearing rats at each recovery time. Satellite cell mitotic activity was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the injured soleus muscles from hindlimb-unloaded rats than from weight-bearing rats 2 wk after reloading, but it was the same (P > 0.05) as in the injured soleus muscles from weight-bearing rats 9 wk after reloading. The injured soleus muscles from hindlimb-unloaded rats failed to achieve weight-bearing muscle size 9 wk after reloading, because incomplete compensation for the decrease in myonuclear accretion and DNA unit size expansion occurred during the unloading period.

  6. Hindlimb unloading increases oxidative stress and disrupts antioxidant capacity in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Lawler, John M; Song, Wook; Demaree, Scott R

    2003-07-01

    Skeletal muscle disuse with space-flight and ground-based models (e.g., hindlimb unloading) results in dramatic skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness. Pathological conditions that cause muscle wasting (i.e., heart failure, muscular dystrophy, sepsis, COPD, cancer) are characterized by elevated "oxidative stress," where antioxidant defenses are overwhelmed by oxidant production. However, the existence, cellular mechanisms, and ramifications of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle subjected to hindlimb unloading are poorly understood. Thus we examined the effects of hindlimb unloading on hindlimb muscle antioxidant enzymes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase), nonenzymatic antioxidant scavenging capacity (ASC), total hydroperoxides, and dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) oxidation, a direct indicator of oxidative stress. Twelve 6 month old Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups: 28 d of hindlimb unloading (n = 6) and controls (n = 6). Hindlimb unloading resulted in a small decrease in Mn-superoxide dismutase activity (10.1%) in the soleus muscle, while Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase increased 71.2%. In contrast, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, antioxidant enzymes that remove hydroperoxides, were significantly reduced in the soleus with hindlimb unloading by 54.5 and 16.1%, respectively. Hindlimb unloading also significantly reduced ASC. Hindlimb unloading increased soleus lipid hydroperoxide levels by 21.6% and hindlimb muscle DCFH-DA oxidation by 162.1%. These results indicate that hindlimb unloading results in a disruption of antioxidant status, elevation of hydroperoxides, and an increase in oxidative stress.

  7. Hindlimb unloading increases oxidative stress and disrupts antioxidant capacity in skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawler, John M.; Song, Wook; Demaree, Scott R.; Bloomfield, S. A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal muscle disuse with space-flight and ground-based models (e.g., hindlimb unloading) results in dramatic skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness. Pathological conditions that cause muscle wasting (i.e., heart failure, muscular dystrophy, sepsis, COPD, cancer) are characterized by elevated "oxidative stress," where antioxidant defenses are overwhelmed by oxidant production. However, the existence, cellular mechanisms, and ramifications of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle subjected to hindlimb unloading are poorly understood. Thus we examined the effects of hindlimb unloading on hindlimb muscle antioxidant enzymes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase), nonenzymatic antioxidant scavenging capacity (ASC), total hydroperoxides, and dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) oxidation, a direct indicator of oxidative stress. Twelve 6 month old Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups: 28 d of hindlimb unloading (n = 6) and controls (n = 6). Hindlimb unloading resulted in a small decrease in Mn-superoxide dismutase activity (10.1%) in the soleus muscle, while Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase increased 71.2%. In contrast, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, antioxidant enzymes that remove hydroperoxides, were significantly reduced in the soleus with hindlimb unloading by 54.5 and 16.1%, respectively. Hindlimb unloading also significantly reduced ASC. Hindlimb unloading increased soleus lipid hydroperoxide levels by 21.6% and hindlimb muscle DCFH-DA oxidation by 162.1%. These results indicate that hindlimb unloading results in a disruption of antioxidant status, elevation of hydroperoxides, and an increase in oxidative stress.

  8. Rat hindlimb muscle responses to suspension hypokinesia/hypodynamia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.; Deavers, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    Hypokinetic/hyupodynamic (H/H) whole body suspension of rats eliminates hindlimb load bearing functions while permitting continued use of the forelimbs. Responses of hindlimb muscles were assessed in terms of absolute and relative weights during 1 and 2 weeks of H/H suspension. Muscle mass loss was in the order soleus greater than gastrocnemius equal to plantaris greater than extensor digitorum longus (EDL). The soleus, a postural antigravity muscle composed mainly of slow twitch fibers, was most sensitive, losing 35 and 45 percent of its weight during the first and second weeks, respectively. The gastrocnemius and plantaris showed losses during the first week but no significant loss during the second wee. The EDL showed little or no weight loss. During post suspension recovery all muscles showed a weight gain. H/H suspended rats failed to grow; following removal from suspension they gained weight linearly, comparable to controls. Products of muscle metabolism including urea, ammonia, and 3-methylhistidine increased in the urine during H/H suspension and were significantly reduced approaching control levels during recovery. This suspension model offers considerable promise for comparison with H/H responses during weightlessness.

  9. Effect of hindlimb immobilization on the fatigability of skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzmann, F. A.; Kim, D. H.; Fitts, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of 6 weeks of disuse atrophy produced by hindlimb immobilization was studied in situ (33.5 C) in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles of rats. The results indicate that disuse causes preferential alterations in the isometric contractile properties of slow-twitch, as opposed to fast-twitch, skeletal muscles. During continuous contractile activity, atrophied muscles were found to have lower ATP levels and an apparent increase in their dependence on anaerobic metabolism, as reflected by the more extensive depletion of glycogen and enhanced lactate formation. Although the atrophied muscles were determined to have fewer cross bridges and thus generated lower tension, the pattern of decline in active cross-bridge formation and tetanic tension during contractile activity was found to proceed in a manner similar to controls.

  10. (-)-Epicatechin Attenuates Degradation of Mouse Oxidative Muscle Following Hindlimb Suspension.

    PubMed

    Lee, Icksoo; Hüttemann, Maik; Malek, Moh H

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a 14-day hindlimb suspension (HS) with and without (-)-epicatechin supplementation to determine whether (-)-epicatechin treatment can attenuate the loss in muscle degradation, angiogenesis, and mitochondrial signaling in oxidative skeletal muscle. Adult mice were randomized into 3 groups: (a) control (C); (b) HS with vehicle (HS-V); and (c) HS with (-)-epicatechin (HS-(-)-Epi). Animals in the HS-(-)-Epi group received (-)-epicatechin (1.0 mg · kg(-1) of body mass) twice daily through oral gavage. For markers related to muscle degradation, the HS-V group had significantly higher protein expression compared with the control and HS-(-)-Epi groups. Moreover, protein expression for myosin heavy chain type I was significantly reduced by approximately 45% in the HS-V group compared with the control and HS-(-)-Epi groups. In addition, capillarity contact and capillary-to-fiber ratio were significantly higher in the HS-(-)-Epi group compared with the HS-V group. Furthermore, protein expression for thrombospondin-1 was significantly higher in HS-V group compared with the control and HS-(-)-Epi groups. Hindlimb suspension also significantly reduced protein expression for mitochondrial signaling compared with the control and HS-(-)-Epi groups. These findings suggest that (-)-epicatechin supplementation attenuates degradation in oxidative muscles after HS.

  11. The growth patterns of three hindlimb muscles in the chicken.

    PubMed Central

    Helmi, C; Cracraft, J

    1977-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the growth patterns of three hindlimb muscles of the chicken relative to the functional-biomechanical demands of increasing body size. The biceps femoris, a bipennate non-postural muscle, grew relatively faster in terms of wet and dry weight than did the parallel-fibred adductor superficialis or the unipennate adductor profundus, both postural muscles. All three muscles exhibited positive allometry (relative to body weight) in muscle length but only biceps femoris and adductor profundus showed positive allometry in cross sectional area adductor superficialis having isometric growth in this parameter. In biceps femoris and adductor superficialis the lengths of the longest and shortest fasciculi grew at equal rates, whereas in adductor profundus the shortest fasciculi grew faster than the longest. We conclude that muscle weight alone is an insufficient indicator of changing function in growing muscle. Hence, growth studies should include other functionally relevant parameters such as cross sectional area, which is proportional to the force-producing capabilities of the muscle, or fibre (fasciculus) length, which is indicative of the absolute amount of stretching or shortening that is possible and of the contraction velocity. PMID:885779

  12. Recovery in skeletal muscle contractile function after prolonged hindlimb immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, R. H.; Brimmer, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of three-month hindlimb immobilization (IM) in rats on contractile properties of slow-twitch soleus (SOL), fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus, and fast-twitch superficial region of the vastus lateralis were measured after 0, 14, 28, 60, and 90 days of recovery on excized, horizontally suspended muscles stimulated electrically to maximal twitch tension. IM caused decreases in muscle-to-body weight ratios for all muscles, with no complete recovery even after 90 days. The contractile properties of the fast-twitch muscles were less affected by IM than those of the slow-twitch SOL. The SOL isometric twitch duration was shortened, due to reduced contraction and half-relaxation time, both of which returned to control levels after 14 days of recovery. The peak tetanic tension, P(O), g/sq cm,, decreased with IM by 46 percent in the SOL, but recovered by the 28th day. The maximum shortening velocity was not altered by IM in any of the muscles. Thus, normal contractile function could recover after prolonged limb IM.

  13. l-Carnitine supplement reduces skeletal muscle atrophy induced by prolonged hindlimb suspension in rats.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jiwoong; Park, Jonghoon; Chang, Hyukki; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-12-01

    l-Carnitine was recently found to downregulate the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) and increase insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations in animal models. However, the effect of l-carnitine administration on disuse muscle atrophy induced by hindlimb suspension has not yet been studied. Thus, we hypothesized that l-carnitine may have a protective effect on muscle atrophy induced by hindlimb suspension via the Akt1/mTOR and/or UPP. Male Wistar rats were assigned to 3 groups: hindlimb suspension group, hindlimb suspension with l-carnitine administration (1250 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) group, and pair-fed group adjusted hindlimb suspension. l-Carnitine administration for 2 weeks of hindlimb suspension alleviated the decrease in weight and fiber size in the soleus muscle. In addition, l-carnitine suppressed atrogin-1 mRNA expression, which has been reported to play a pivotal role in muscle atrophy. The present study shows that l-carnitine has a protective effect against soleus muscle atrophy caused by hindlimb suspension and decreased E3 ligase messenger RNA expression, suggesting the possibility that l-carnitine protects against muscle atrophy, at least in part, through the inhibition of the UPP. These observations suggest that l-carnitine could serve as an effective supplement in the decrease of muscle atrophy caused by weightlessness in the fields of clinical and rehabilitative research.

  14. Adaptive control for backward quadrupedal walking. II. Hindlimb muscle synergies.

    PubMed

    Buford, J A; Smith, J L

    1990-09-01

    1. To compare the basic hindlimb synergies for backward (BWD) and forward (FWD) walking, electromyograms (EMG) were recorded from selected flexor and extensor muscles of the hip, knee, and ankle joints from four cats trained to perform both forms of walking at a moderate walking speed (0.6 m/s). For each muscle, EMG measurements included burst duration, burst latencies referenced to the time of paw contact or paw off, and integrated burst amplitudes. To relate patterns of muscle activity to various phases of the step cycle, EMG records were synchronized with kinematic data obtained by digitizing high-speed ciné film. 2. Hindlimb EMG data indicate that BWD walking in the cat was characterized by reciprocal flexor and extensor synergies similar to those for FWD walking, with flexors active during swing and extensors active during stance. Although the underlying synergies were similar, temporal parameters (burst latencies and durations) and amplitude levels for specific muscles were different for BWD and FWD walking. 3. For both directions, iliopsoas (IP) and semitendinosus (ST) were active as the hip and knee joints flexed at the onset of swing. For BWD walking, IP activity decreased early, and ST activity continued as the hip extended and the knee flexed. For FWD walking, in contrast, ST activity ceased early, and IP activity continued as the hip flexed and the knee extended. For both directions, tibialis anterior (TA) was active throughout swing as the ankle flexed and then extended. A second ST burst occurred at the end of swing for FWD walking as hip flexion and knee extension slowed for paw contact. 4. For both directions, knee extensor (vastus lateralis, VL) activity began at paw contact. Ankle extensor (lateral gastrocnemius, LG) activity began during midswing for BWD walking but just before paw contact for FWD walking. At the ankle joint, flexion during the E2 phase (yield) of stance was minimal or absent for BWD walking, and ankle extension during BWD

  15. Rat rotator cuff muscle responds differently from hindlimb muscle to a combined tendon-nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michael R; Ravishankar, Bharat; Laron, Dominique; Kim, Hubert T; Liu, Xuhui; Feeley, Brian T

    2015-07-01

    Rotator cuff tears (RCTs) are among the most common musculoskeletal injuries seen by orthopaedic surgeons. Clinically, massive cuff tears lead to unique pathophysiological changes in rotator cuff muscle, including atrophy, and massive fatty infiltration, which are rarely seen in other skeletal muscles. Studies in a rodent model for RCT have demonstrated that these histologic findings are accompanied by activation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) pathways following combined tendon-nerve injury. The purpose of this study was to compare the histologic and molecular features of rotator cuff muscle and gastrocnemius muscle--a major hindlimb muscle, following combined tendon-nerve injury. Six weeks after injury, the rat gastrocnemius did not exhibit notable fatty infiltration compared to the rotator cuff. Likewise, the adipogenic markers SREBP-1 and PPARγ as well as the TGF-β canonical pathway were upregulated in the rotator cuff, but not the gastrocnemius. Our study suggests that the rat rotator cuff and hindlimb muscles differ significantly in their response to a combined tendon-nerve injury. Clinically, these findings highlight the unique response of the rotator cuff to injury, and may begin to explain the poor outcomes of massive RCTs compared to other muscle-tendon injuries.

  16. Comparative anatomy, evolution, and homologies of tetrapod hindlimb muscles, comparison with forelimb muscles, and deconstruction of the forelimb-hindlimb serial homology hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Rui; Molnar, Julia

    2014-06-01

    For more than two centuries, the idea that the forelimb and hindlimb are serially homologous structures has been accepted without serious question. This study presents the first detailed analysis of the evolution and homologies of all hindlimb muscles in representatives of each major tetrapod group and proposes a unifying nomenclature for these muscles. These data are compared with information obtained previously about the forelimb muscles of tetrapods and the muscles of other gnathostomes in order to address one of the most central and enigmatic questions in evolutionary and comparative anatomy: why are the pelvic and pectoral appendages of gnathostomes generally so similar to each other? An integrative analysis of the new myological data, combined with a review of recent paleontological, developmental, and genetic works and of older studies, does not support serial homology between the structures of these appendages. For instance, many of the strikingly similar forelimb and hindlimb muscles found in each major extant tetrapod taxon were acquired at different geological times and/or have different embryonic origins. These similar muscles are not serial homologues, but the result of evolutionary parallelism/convergence due to a complex interplay of ontogenetic, functional, topological, and phylogenetic constraints/factors.

  17. Effects of insulin and exercise on rat hindlimb muscles after simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stump, Craig S.; Balon, Thomas W.; Tipton, Charles M.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of simulated microgravity on the insulin- and exercise-stimulated glucose uptake and metabolism in the hindlimb muscles of rats was investigated using three groups of rats suspended at 45 head-down tilt (SUS) for 14 days: (1) cage control, (2) exercising (treadmill running) control, and (3) rats subjected to suspension followed by exercise (SUS-E). It was found that the suspension of rats with hindlimbs non-weight bearing led to enhanced muscle responses to insulin and exercise, when these stimuli were applied separately. However, the insulin affect appeared to be impaired after exercise for the SUS-E rats, especially for the soleus muscle.

  18. The scaling of postcranial muscles in cats (Felidae) II: hindlimb and lumbosacral muscles.

    PubMed

    Cuff, Andrew R; Sparkes, Emily L; Randau, Marcela; Pierce, Stephanie E; Kitchener, Andrew C; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R

    2016-07-01

    In quadrupeds the musculature of the hindlimbs is expected to be responsible for generating most of the propulsive locomotory forces, as well as contributing to body support by generating vertical forces. In supporting the body, postural changes from crouched to upright limbs are often associated with an increase of body mass in terrestrial tetrapods. However, felids do not change their crouched limb posture despite undergoing a 300-fold size increase between the smallest and largest extant species. Here, we test how changes in the muscle architecture (masses and lengths of components of the muscle-tendon units) of the hindlimbs and lumbosacral region are related to body mass, to assess whether there are muscular compensations for the maintenance of a crouched limb posture at larger body sizes. We use regression and principal component analyses to detect allometries in muscle architecture, with and without phylogenetic correction. Of the muscle lengths that scale allometrically, all scale with negative allometry (i.e. relative shortening with increasing body mass), whereas all tendon lengths scale isometrically. Only two muscles' belly masses and two tendons' masses scale with positive allometry (i.e. relatively more massive with increasing body mass). Of the muscles that scale allometrically for physiological cross-sectional area, all scale positively (i.e. relatively greater area with increasing body mass). These muscles are mostly linked to control of hip and thigh movements. When the architecture data are phylogenetically corrected, there are few significant results, and only the strongest signals remain. None of the vertebral muscles scaled significantly differently from isometry. Principal component analysis and manovas showed that neither body size nor locomotor mode separate the felid species in morphospace. Our results support the inference that, despite some positively allometric trends in muscle areas related to thigh movement, larger cats have

  19. Effects of hypokinesia and hypodynamia upon protein turnover in hindlimb muscles of the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughna, Paul T.; Goldspink, David F.; Goldspink, Geoffrey

    1987-01-01

    Hypokinesia/hypodynamia was induced in the hindlimb muscles of the rat, using a suspension technique. This caused differing degrees of atrophy in different muscles. However, this atrophy was reduced in muscles held in a lenghthened position. The greatest degree of wasting was observed in the unstretched soleus, a slow postural muscle, where both Type 1 and Type 2a fibers atrophied to the same degree. However, wasting of the gastrocnemius muscle was associated with a reduction in the size of the Type 2b fibers. In both slow-postural and fast-phasic hindlimb muscles, atrophy was brought about by a reduction in the rate of protein synthesis in conjunction with an elevation in the rate of protein degradation. When inactive muscles were passively stretched, both protein synthesis and degradation were dramatically elevated. Even periods of stretch of as little as 0.5 h/d were found to significantly decrease atrophy in inactive muscles.

  20. Differences in Age-Related Alterations in Muscle Contraction Properties in Rat Tongue and Hindlimb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Nadine P.; Ota, Fumikazu; Nagai, Hiromi; Russell, John A.; Leverson, Glen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Because of differences in muscle architecture and biomechanics, the purpose of this study was to determine whether muscle contractile properties of rat hindlimb and tongue were differentially affected by aging. Method: Deep peroneal and hypoglossal nerves were stimulated in 6 young and 7 old Fischer 344-Brown Norway rats to allow…

  1. Coexistence of twitch potentiation and tetanic force decline in rat hindlimb muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Lucinda L.; Enoka, Roger M.; Volz, Kathryn A.; Stuart, Douglas G.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of whole-muscle fatigue on the isometric twitch was investigated in various hindlimb muscles of anesthetized rats, using an experimental protocol designed to assess the levels of fatigability in motor units. The results of EMG and force measurements revealed the existence of a linear relationship between fatigability and the magnitude of the twitch force following the fatigue test in both soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles.

  2. Musculoskeletal Geometry, Muscle Architecture and Functional Specialisations of the Mouse Hindlimb

    PubMed Central

    Charles, James P.; Cappellari, Ornella; Spence, Andrew J.; Hutchinson, John R.; Wells, Dominic J.

    2016-01-01

    Mice are one of the most commonly used laboratory animals, with an extensive array of disease models in existence, including for many neuromuscular diseases. The hindlimb is of particular interest due to several close muscle analogues/homologues to humans and other species. A detailed anatomical study describing the adult morphology is lacking, however. This study describes in detail the musculoskeletal geometry and skeletal muscle architecture of the mouse hindlimb and pelvis, determining the extent to which the muscles are adapted for their function, as inferred from their architecture. Using I2KI enhanced microCT scanning and digital segmentation, it was possible to identify 39 distinct muscles of the hindlimb and pelvis belonging to nine functional groups. The architecture of each of these muscles was determined through microdissections, revealing strong architectural specialisations between the functional groups. The hip extensors and hip adductors showed significantly stronger adaptations towards high contraction velocities and joint control relative to the distal functional groups, which exhibited larger physiological cross sectional areas and longer tendons, adaptations for high force output and elastic energy savings. These results suggest that a proximo-distal gradient in muscle architecture exists in the mouse hindlimb. Such a gradient has been purported to function in aiding locomotor stability and efficiency. The data presented here will be especially valuable to any research with a focus on the architecture or gross anatomy of the mouse hindlimb and pelvis musculature, but also of use to anyone interested in the functional significance of muscle design in relation to quadrupedal locomotion. PMID:27115354

  3. Acute effects of hindlimb unweighting on satellite cells of growing skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Edward; Darr, Kevin C.; Macius, Allison

    1994-01-01

    The proliferative behavior of satellite cells in growing rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles was examined at short periods after initiation of hindlimb unweighting. Mitotic activity of satellite cells in both muscles decreased below weight-bearing control levels within 24 h of initiation of hindlimb unweighting. This satellite cell response was equal to or greater than 48 h before any atrophic morphological changes that take place in the muscles. Suppression of mitotic activity was most severe in the soleus muscle where continuous infusion of label demonstrated that virtually all mitotic activity was abolished between 3 and 5 days. The results of this study suggest that satellite cell mitotic activity is a sensitive indicator of primary atrophic changes occurring in growing myofibers and may be a predictor of future morphological changes.

  4. A brain-machine-muscle interface for restoring hindlimb locomotion after complete spinal transection in rats.

    PubMed

    Alam, Monzurul; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Zicong; Li, Yan; He, Jufang

    2014-01-01

    A brain-machine interface (BMI) is a neuroprosthetic device that can restore motor function of individuals with paralysis. Although the feasibility of BMI control of upper-limb neuroprostheses has been demonstrated, a BMI for the restoration of lower-limb motor functions has not yet been developed. The objective of this study was to determine if gait-related information can be captured from neural activity recorded from the primary motor cortex of rats, and if this neural information can be used to stimulate paralysed hindlimb muscles after complete spinal cord transection. Neural activity was recorded from the hindlimb area of the primary motor cortex of six female Sprague Dawley rats during treadmill locomotion before and after mid-thoracic transection. Before spinal transection there was a strong association between neural activity and the step cycle. This association decreased after spinal transection. However, the locomotive state (standing vs. walking) could still be successfully decoded from neural recordings made after spinal transection. A novel BMI device was developed that processed this neural information in real-time and used it to control electrical stimulation of paralysed hindlimb muscles. This system was able to elicit hindlimb muscle contractions that mimicked forelimb stepping. We propose this lower-limb BMI as a future neuroprosthesis for human paraplegics.

  5. A Brain-Machine-Muscle Interface for Restoring Hindlimb Locomotion after Complete Spinal Transection in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Monzurul; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Zicong; Li, Yan; He, Jufang

    2014-01-01

    A brain-machine interface (BMI) is a neuroprosthetic device that can restore motor function of individuals with paralysis. Although the feasibility of BMI control of upper-limb neuroprostheses has been demonstrated, a BMI for the restoration of lower-limb motor functions has not yet been developed. The objective of this study was to determine if gait-related information can be captured from neural activity recorded from the primary motor cortex of rats, and if this neural information can be used to stimulate paralysed hindlimb muscles after complete spinal cord transection. Neural activity was recorded from the hindlimb area of the primary motor cortex of six female Sprague Dawley rats during treadmill locomotion before and after mid-thoracic transection. Before spinal transection there was a strong association between neural activity and the step cycle. This association decreased after spinal transection. However, the locomotive state (standing vs. walking) could still be successfully decoded from neural recordings made after spinal transection. A novel BMI device was developed that processed this neural information in real-time and used it to control electrical stimulation of paralysed hindlimb muscles. This system was able to elicit hindlimb muscle contractions that mimicked forelimb stepping. We propose this lower-limb BMI as a future neuroprosthesis for human paraplegics. PMID:25084446

  6. Insulin effect on amino acid uptake by unloaded rat hindlimb muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaspers, S. R.; Tischler, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of insulin on the uptake of alpha-amino-isobutyric acid (AIB) by unloaded rat hindlimb muscles was investigated using soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from intact and adrenalectomized (ADX) rats that were tail-casted for six days. It was found that, at insulin levels above 0.00001 units/ml, the in vitro rate of AIB uptake by muscles from intact animals was stimulated more in the weight bearing muscles than in unloaded ones. In ADX animals, this differential response to insulin was abolished.

  7. Response of rat hindlimb muscles to 12 hours recovery from tail-cast suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Henriksen, E. J.; Jacob, S.; Cook, P.; Jaspers, S.

    1985-01-01

    Previous work has shown a number of biochemical changes which accompany atrophy or reduced muscle growth in hindlimb of tail-casted, suspended rats. These results clearly show that altered muscle growth was due to changes in protein turnover. Accordingly, the rise in soleus tyrosine following unloading reflects the more negative protein balance. Other major changes we found included slower synthesis of glutamine as indicated by lower ratios of glutamine/glutamate and reduced levels of aspartate which coincide with slower aspartate and ammonia metabolism in vitro. In conjunction with the study of SL-3 rats, which were subjected to 12 h of post-flight gravity, a study of the effects of 12 h eight bearing on metabolism of 6-day unloaded hindlimb muscles was carried out.

  8. Contractile function of single muscle fibers after hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardetto, P. R.; Schluter, J. M.; Fitts, R. H.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of two weeks of hind-limb suspension (HS) on the functional properties of slow-twitch and fast-twitch single fibers isolated from the predominantly slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch gastrocnemius of the suspended leg of rats were investigated. Single fibers were suspended between a motor arm and force transducer, and, after their functional properties were studied, the fiber type was established by the myosin heavy chain analysis. It was found that, after HS, the greatest decrease in diameter and a reduction in peak tension occurred in slow-twitch fibers from soleus, followed by slow-twitch fibers from gastrocnemius. Fast-twitch fibers from the red gastrocnemius showed a significant reduction in diameter but no change in peak tension. No effect of HS was observed on the diameter of the fast-twitch fibers from the white gastsrocnemius (which is known to contain 87 percent fast glycolytic fibers).

  9. Intracellular Ca2+ transients in mouse soleus muscle after hindlimb unloading and reloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingalls, C. P.; Warren, G. L.; Armstrong, R. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether altered intracellular Ca(2+) handling contributes to the specific force loss in the soleus muscle after unloading and/or subsequent reloading of mouse hindlimbs. Three groups of female ICR mice were studied: 1) unloaded mice (n = 11) that were hindlimb suspended for 14 days, 2) reloaded mice (n = 10) that were returned to their cages for 1 day after 14 days of hindlimb suspension, and 3) control mice (n = 10) that had normal cage activity. Maximum isometric tetanic force (P(o)) was determined in the soleus muscle from the left hindlimb, and resting free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), tetanic [Ca(2+)](i), and 4-chloro-m-cresol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) were measured in the contralateral soleus muscle by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Unloading and reloading increased resting [Ca(2+)](i) above control by 36% and 24%, respectively. Although unloading reduced P(o) and specific force by 58% and 24%, respectively, compared with control mice, there was no difference in tetanic [Ca(2+)](i). P(o), specific force, and tetanic [Ca(2+)](i) were reduced by 58%, 23%, and 23%, respectively, in the reloaded animals compared with control mice; however, tetanic [Ca(2+)](i) was not different between unloaded and reloaded mice. These data indicate that although hindlimb suspension results in disturbed intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, changes in tetanic [Ca(2+)](i) do not contribute to force deficits. Compared with unloading, 24 h of physiological reloading in the mouse do not result in further changes in maximal strength or tetanic [Ca(2+)](i).

  10. Recovery of skeletal muscle after 3 mo of hindlimb immobilization in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, F. W.; Seider, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    During immobilization, skeletal muscle undergoes decreases in size and strength with concomitant atrophic and degenerative changes in slow-twitch muscle fibers. Currently there are no objective data in slow-twitch muscle demonstrating recovery of biochemical or physiological indices following termination of immobilization. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the soleus, a slow-twitch muscle, could recover normal biochemical or physiological levels following termination of immobilization. Adenosine triphosphate, glycogen, and protein concentration (mg/g wet wt) all significantly decreased following 90 days of hindlimb immobilization, but these three values returned to control levels by the 60th recovery day. Similarly, soleus muscle wet weight and protein content (mg protein/muscle) returned to control levels by the 14th recovery day. In contrast, maximal isometric tension did not return to normal until the 120th day. These results indicate that following muscular atrophy, which was achieved through 90 days of hindlimb immobilization, several biochemical and physiological values in skeletal muscle are recovered at various times after the end of immobilization.

  11. Fiber-type composition of hindlimb muscles in the turtle, Pseudemys (Trachemys) scripta elegans.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, D H; Callister, R J; Stuart, D G

    1995-08-01

    A description is provided of the fiber-type composition of several hindlimb muscles of the adult turtle, Pseudemys (Trachemys) scripta elegans. In addition, cross-section areas of each fiber type and an estimation of the relative (weighted) cross-section area (wCSA) occupied by the different fiber types are also provided. Seven muscles were selected for study, based on their suitability for future neurophysiological analysis as components of the segmental motor system, and on their homologies with muscles in other vertebrates. The test muscles were iliofibularis (ILF), ambiens (AMB), external gastrocnemius (EG), extensor digitorum communis (EDC), flexor digitorum longus (FDL), tibialis anterior (TA), and peroneus anterior (PA). Serial sections of these muscles were stained for myosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), NADH-diaphorase, and alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (alpha-GPDH), thereby enabling fiber-type classification on the basis of indirect markers for contraction speed and oxidative (aerobic) vs. glycolytic (anaerobic) metabolism. All muscles contained three fiber types: slow oxidative (SO; possibly including some non-twitch tonic fibers); fast oxidative glycolytic (FOG); and fast glycolytic (Fg). There were at least 30% FOG and 50% FOG + Fg fibers in the seven muscles, the extreme distributions being the predominantly glycolytic ILF vs. the predominantly oxidative FDL muscle (ILF--15.5% SO, 35.2% FOG, 49.3% Fg vs. FDL--49.1% SO, 41.1% FOG, 9.8% Fg). As in other species, the test muscles exhibited varying degrees of regional concentration (compartmentalization) of the different fiber types. This feature was most striking in ILF. Pronounced compartmentalization was also observed in AMB, EG, PA, TA, and EDC, whereas the distribution of fiber types in the highly oxidative FDL was homogeneous. In five of the seven muscles, fiber size was ranked with Fg > FOG > SO. In terms of wCSA, which provides a coarse-grain measure of the different fiber types

  12. Myosin heavy chain composition of tiger (Panthera tigris) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) hindlimb muscles.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, Jon-Philippe K; Roy, Roland R; Rugg, Stuart; Talmadge, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    Felids have a wide range of locomotor activity patterns and maximal running speeds, including the very fast cheetah (Acinonyx jubatas), the roaming tiger (Panthera tigris), and the relatively sedentary domestic cat (Felis catus). As previous studies have suggested a relationship between the amount and type of activity and the myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition of a muscle, we assessed the MHC isoform composition of selected hindlimb muscles from these three felid species with differing activity regimens. Using gel electrophoresis, western blotting, histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry with MHC isoform-specific antibodies, we compared the MHC composition in the tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius (MG), plantaris (Plt), and soleus muscles of the tiger, cheetah, and domestic cat. The soleus muscle was absent in the cheetah. At least one slow (type I) and three fast (types IIa, IIx, and IIb) MHC isoforms were present in the muscles of each felid. The tiger had a high combined percentage of the characteristically slower isoforms (MHCs I and IIa) in the MG (62%) and the Plt (86%), whereas these percentages were relatively low in the MG (44%) and Plt (55%) of the cheetah. In general, the MHC isoform characteristics of the hindlimb muscles matched the daily activity patterns of these felids: the tiger has daily demands for covering long distances, whereas the cheetah has requirements for speed and power.

  13. Effect of anabolic steroids on skeletal muscle mass during hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsika, R. W.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of treatment with an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) on the muscle mass of plantaris and soleus of a rats in hindlimb suspension, and on the isomyosin expression in these muscles, was investigated in young female rats divided into four groups: normal control (NC), normal steroid (NS), normal suspension (N-sus), and suspension steroid (sus-S). Steroid treatment of suspended animals (sus-S vs N-sus) was found to partially spare body weight and muscle weight, as well as myofibril content of plantaris (but not soleus), but did not modify the isomyosin pattern induced by suspension. In normal rats (NS vs NC), steroid treatment did enhance body weight and plantaris muscle weight; the treatment did not alter isomyosin expression in either muscle type.

  14. Effect of hindlimb suspension and clenbuterol treatment on polyamine levels in skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abukhalaf, Imad K.; von Deutsch, Daniel A.; Wineski, Lawrence E.; Silvestrov, Natalia A.; Abera, Saare A.; Sahlu, Sinafikish W.; Potter, David E.; Thierry-Palmer, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Polyamines are unbiquitous, naturally occurring small aliphatic, polycationic, endogenous compounds. They are involved in many cellular processes and may serve as secondary or tertiary messengers to hormonal regulation. The relationship of polyamines and skeletal muscle mass of adductor longus, extensor digitorum longus, and gastrocnemius under unloading (hindlimb suspension) conditions was investigated. Unloading significantly affected skeletal muscle polyamine levels in a fiber-type-specific fashion. Under loading conditions, clenbuterol treatment increased all polyamine levels, whereas under unloading conditions, only the spermidine levels were consistently increased. Unloading attenuated the anabolic effects of clenbuterol in predominately slow-twitch muscles (adductor longus), but had little impact on clenbuterol's action as a countermeasure in fast- twitch muscles such as the extensor digitorum longus. Spermidine appeared to be the primary polyamine involved in skeletal muscle atrophy/hypertrophy. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Effect of anabolic steroids on skeletal muscle mass during hindlimb suspension.

    PubMed

    Tsika, R W; Herrick, R E; Baldwin, K M

    1987-11-01

    The efficacy of anabolic steroid treatment [0.3 or 0.9 mg nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) per day] was examined in the context of sparing rodent fast-twitch plantaris and slow-twitch soleus muscle weight, sparing subcellular protein, and altering isomyosin expression in response to hindlimb suspension. Female rats were assigned to four groups (7 rats/group for 6 wk): 1) normal control (NC), 2) normal steroid (NS), 3) normal suspension (N-SUS), and 4) suspension steroid (SUS-S). Compared with control values for the plantaris and soleus muscles, suspension induced 1) smaller body and muscle weight (P less than 0.05), 2) losses in myofibril content (mg/muscle, P less than 0.05), and 3) shifts in the relative expression (expressed as %of total isomyosin) of isomyosins which favored lesser slow myosin and greater fast myosin isotypes (P less than 0.05). Steroid treatment of suspended animals (SUS-S vs. N-SUS) partially spared body and muscle weight (P less than 0.05) and spared plantaris but not soleus myofibril content (mg/muscle, P less than 0.05). However, steroid treatment did not modify the isomyosin pattern induced by suspension. In normal rats (NS vs. NC), steroid treatment enhanced body and plantaris muscle weight but not soleus weight (P less than 0.05) and did not alter isomyosin expression in either muscle type. Collectively these data suggest that in young female rats anabolic steroids 1) enhance the body weight and the weight of a fast-twitch ankle extensor in normal rats, 2) ameliorate the loss in body weight, fast-twitch muscle weight and protein content and slow-twitch muscle weight associated with hindlimb suspension.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Time course changes in [Ca2+]i, force, and protein content in hindlimb-suspended mouse soleus muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingalls, C. P.; Wenke, J. C.; Armstrong, R. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to reduced gravitational forces during spaceflight is associated with significant reductions in skeletal muscle mass and strength. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that increases in resting cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) would precede reductions in protein content and maximal isometric tetanic force (Po) in mouse soleus muscle after initiation of hindlimb suspension. METHODS: Female ICR mice (n = 42) were hindlimb suspended for 1, 2, 3, 5, or 7 d; weight-matched mice were used as controls. Following the hindlimb suspension, the left soleus muscle was used to determine Po in vitro and the right soleus muscle was used to determine protein content and [Ca2+]i via confocal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS: Compared with controls, [Ca2+]i was elevated by 38% at 2 d, and 117% at 7 d. Compared with controls, soleus muscle total and myofibrillar protein contents were reduced 27-29% and 30-34%, respectively, at 5-7 d after initiation of hindlimb suspension. Compared with controls, soleus muscle Po was decreased by 24% at 3 d, and 38% at 7 d. CONCLUSION: It appears that resting cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis is disturbed soon after the initiation of hindlimb suspension, and these elevations in [Ca2+]i may play a role in initiating soleus muscle atrophy.

  17. NEUROMUSCULAR ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF THE HINDLIMB MUSCLES FOR MOVEMENT THERAPY IN A RODENT MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Ichihara, Kazuhiko; Venkatasubramanian, Ganapriya; Abbas, James J.; Jung, Ranu

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can provide functional movements in people after central nervous system injury. The neuroplastic effects of long-term NMES induced repetitive limb movement are not well understood. A rodent model of neurotrauma in which NMES can be implemented may be effective for such investigations. We present a rodent model for NMES of the flexor and extensor muscles of the hip, knee, and ankle hindlimb muscles. Custom fabricated intramuscular stimulating electrodes for rodents were implanted near identified motor points of targeted muscles in ten adult, female Long Evans rats. The effects of altering NMES pulse stimulation parameters were characterized using strength duration curves, isometric joint torque recruitment curves and joint angle measures. The data indicate that short pulse widths have the advantage of producing graded torque recruitment curves when current is used as the control parameter. A stimulus frequency of 75Hz or more produces fused contractions. The data demonstrate ability to accurately implant the electrodes and obtain selective, graded, repeatable, strong muscle contractions. Knee and ankle angular excursions comparable to those obtained in normal treadmill walking in the same rodent species can be obtained by stimulating the target muscles. Joint torques (normalized to body weight) obtained were larger than those reported in the literature for small tailed therian mammals and for peak isometric ankle plantarflexion in a different rodent species. This model system could be used for investigations of NMES assisted hindlimb movement therapy. PMID:18848960

  18. Long-term measurement of muscle function in the dog hindlimb using a new apparatus.

    PubMed

    Hargens, A R; Mortensen, W W; Gershuni, D H; Crenshaw, A G; Lieber, R L; Akeson, W H

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an apparatus for reliable, reproducible, and minimally invasive measurements of long-term, myoneural function. Twenty conditioned dogs were anesthetized and placed supine with one hindlimb secured in a boot apparatus. The hindpaw was attached to a force transducer that was connected to a recorder for continuous monitoring of torque. Muscles within the anterolateral compartment were stimulated by percutaneous electrodes over the peroneal nerve near the fibular head. This elicited isometric dorsiflexion of the hindpaw. Twitch and tetanic torques correlated positively with dog weight whereas other skeletal-muscle function parameters (time to peak tension, one-half relaxation time, and endurance) were independent of dog weight. Muscle function results were consistent with an overall compartmental composition of 30% Type I and 70% Type II fibers. Repetitive testing of twitch and tetanic torques in the dog legs yielded coefficients of variance of 3-4% (intraday) and 7% (interday). Thus, about one-half of the interday variability may be accounted for by diet, exercise, and other physiological conditions that change daily. The apparatus was also used to detect myoneural degeneration following tourniquet ischemia. The results indicate that this procedure for evaluating muscle function yields reliable and quantitative results noninvasively, and thus allows long-term testing of muscle function in normal and diseased hindlimbs of dogs.

  19. Nonnutritive flow impairs uptake of fatty acid by white muscles of the perfused rat hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Clerk, L H; Smith, M E; Rattigan, S; Clark, M G

    2003-03-01

    Triglyceride hydrolysis by the perfused rat hindlimb is enhanced with serotonin-induced nonnutritive flow (NNF) and may be due to the presence of nonnutritive route-associated connective tissue fat cells. Here, we assess whether NNF influences muscle uptake of 0.55 mM palmitate in the perfused hindlimb. Comparisons were made with insulin-mediated glucose uptake. NNF induced during 60 nM insulin infusion inhibited hindlimb oxygen uptake from 22.0 +/- 0.5 to 9.7 +/- 0.8 micromol x g(-1) x h(-1) (P < 0.001), 1-methylxanthine metabolism (indicator of nutritive flow) from 5.8 +/- 0.4 to 3.8 +/- 0.4 nmol x min(-1) x g(-1) (P = 0.004), glucose uptake from 29.2 +/- 1.7 to 23.1 +/- 1.8 micromol x g(-1) x h(-1) (P = 0.005) and muscle 2-deoxyglucose uptake from 82.1 +/- 4.6 to 41.6 +/- 6.7 micromol x g(-1) x h(-1) (P < 0.001). Palmitate uptake, unaffected by insulin alone, was inhibited by NNF in extensor digitorum longus, white gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles; average inhibition was from 13.9 +/- 1.2 to 6.9 +/- 1.4 micromol x g(-1) x h(-1) (P = 0.02). Thus NNF impairs both fatty acid and glucose uptake by muscle by restricting flow to myocytes but, as shown previously, favors triglyceride hydrolysis and uptake into nearby connective tissue fat cells. The findings have implications for lipid partitioning in limb muscles between myocytes and attendant adipocytes.

  20. A Mathematical Model of Oxygen Transport in Skeletal Muscle During Hindlimb Unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Causey, Laura; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Weinbaum, Sheldon

    2014-01-01

    During hindlimb unloading (HU) dramatic fluid shifts occur within minutes of the suspension, leading to a less precise matching of blood flow to O2 demands of skeletal muscle. Vascular resistance directs blood away from certain muscles, such as the soleus (SOL). The muscle volume gradually reduces in these muscles so that eventually the relative blood flow returns to normal. It is generally believed that muscle volume change is not due to O2 depletion, but a consequence of disuse. However, the volume of the unloaded rat muscle declines over the course of weeks, whereas the redistribution of blood flow occurs immediately. Using a Krogh Cylinder Model, the distribution of O2 was predicted in two skeletal muscles: SOL and gastrocnemius (GAS). Effects of the muscle blood flow, volume, capillary density, and O2 uptake, are included to calculate the pO2 at rest and after 10 min and 15 days of unloading. The model predicts that 32 percent of the SOL muscle tissue has a pO2 1.25 mm Hg within 10 min, whereas the GAS maintains normal O2 levels, and that equilibrium is reached only as the SOL muscle cells degenerate. The results provide evidence that there is an inadequate O2 supply to the mitochondria in the SOL muscle after 10 min HU.

  1. Quantification of fibre type regionalisation: an analysis of lower hindlimb muscles in the rat

    PubMed Central

    WANG, L. C.; KERNELL, D.

    2001-01-01

    Newly developed concepts and methods for the quantification of fibre type regionalisation were used for comparison between all muscles traversing the ankle of the rat lower hindlimb (n = 12). For each muscle, cross-sections from the proximodistal midlevel were stained for myofibrillar ATPase and classified as type I (‘slow’) or II (‘fast’). For the 11 ‘fast’ muscles (i.e. all except soleus), the muscle outline and the position of each type I fibre were digitised for further computer processing. Two potentially independent aspects of type I fibre regionalisation were evaluated quantitatively: (1) the degree to which type I fibres were restricted to a limited portion of the total cross-sectional area (‘area-regionalisation’) ; (2) the extent and direction of the difference (if any) between the centre of the muscle cross-section and the calculated centre for the type I fibre cluster (‘vector regionalisation’). Statistical analysis showed that type I fibres were vector regionalised in practically all investigated muscles and area regionalised within most of them, the only consistent exceptions being peroneus brevis and peroneus digitorum 4, 5. In muscles with a high degree of area regionalisation the population of type I fibres also had a markedly eccentric intramuscular position (i.e. high vector regionalisation). A significant relationship was observed between the relative position of a muscle within the hindlimb (transverse plane) and the direction and degree of its type I fibre eccentricity. On average, the degree of type I fibre eccentricity was greater for muscles remote from the limb centre than for those situated more centrally. In addition, the intramuscular concentration of type I fibres was typically greatest towards the centre of the limb, the most striking exception being tibialis posterior. For the slow soleus muscle, which is centrally placed within the limb, our analysis concerned the type II fibres, which were found to be weakly

  2. Effect of seven days of spaceflight on hindlimb muscle protein, RNA and DNA in adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of seven days of spaceflight on skeletal muscle (soleus, gastrocnemius, EDL) content of protein, RNA and DNA were determined in adult rats. Whereas total protein contents were reduced in parallel with muscle weights, myofibrillar protein appeared to be more affected. There were no significant changes in absolute DNA contents, but a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in DNA concentration (microgram/milligram) in soleus muscles from flight rats. Absolute RNA contents were significantly (P less than 0.025) decreased in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of flight rats, with RNA concentrations reduced 15-30 percent. These results agree with previous ground-based observations on the suspended rat with unloaded hindlimbs and support continued use of this model.

  3. Hindlimb unloading induces a collagen isoform shift in the soleus muscle of the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T. A.; Lesniewski, L. A.; Muller-Delp, J. M.; Majors, A. K.; Scalise, D.; Delp, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether hindlimb unloading (HU) alters the extracellular matrix of skeletal muscle, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 0 (n = 11), 1 (n = 11), 14 (n = 13), or 28 (n = 11) days of unloading. Remodeling of the soleus and plantaris muscles was examined biochemically for collagen abundance via measurement of hydroxyproline, and the percentage of cross-sectional area of collagen was determined histologically with picrosirius red staining. Total hydroxyproline content in the soleus and plantaris muscles was unaltered by HU at any time point. However, the relative proportions of type I collagen in the soleus muscle decreased relative to control (Con) with 14 and 28 days HU (Con 68 +/- 5%; 14 days HU 53 +/- 4%; 28 days HU 53 +/- 7%). Correspondingly, type III collagen increased in soleus muscle with 14 and 28 days HU (Con 32 +/- 5%; 14 days HU 47 +/- 4%; 28 days HU 48 +/- 7%). The proportion of type I muscle fibers in soleus muscle was diminished with HU (Con 96 +/- 2%; 14 days HU 86 +/- 1%; 28 days HU 83 +/- 1%), and the proportion of hybrid type I/IIB fibers increased (Con 0%; 14 days HU 8 +/- 2%; 28 days HU 14 +/- 2%). HU had no effect on the proportion of type I and III collagen or muscle fiber composition in plantaris muscle. The data demonstrate that HU induces a shift in the relative proportion of collagen isoform (type I to III) in the antigravity soleus muscle, which occurs concomitantly with a slow-to-fast myofiber transformation.

  4. Atrophy and growth failure of rat hindlimb muscles in tail-cast suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaspers, S. R.; Tischler, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    The primary objective of the present study is related to an evaluation of a modified tail-cast suspension model as a means of identifying metabolic factors which control or are associated with muscle atrophy and growth failure. Two different control conditions (normal and tail-casted weight bearing) were studied to determine the appropriate control for tail-cast suspension. A description is presented of a model which is most useful for studying atrophy of hindlimb muscles under certain conditions. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were employed in the experiments. Attention is given to growth rate and urinary excretion of urea and ammonia in different types of rats, the relationship between body weight and skeletal muscle weight, and the relationship between animal body weight and rates of protein synthesis and protein degradation.

  5. Electrophysiological, histochemical, and hormonal adaptation of rat muscle after prolonged hindlimb suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtidou-Papadeli, Chrysoula; Kyparos, Antonios; Albani, Maria; Frossinis, Athanasios; Papadelis, Christos L.; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Vivas, Ana; Guiba-Tziampiri, Olympia

    2004-05-01

    The perspective of long-duration flights for future exploration, imply more research in the field of human adaptation. Previous studies in rat muscles hindlimb suspension (HLS), indicated muscle atrophy and a change of fibre composition from slow-to-fast twitch types. However, the contractile responses to long-term unloading is still unclear. Fifteen adult Wistar rats were studied in 45 and 70 days of muscle unweighting and soleus (SOL) muscle as well as extensor digitorum longus (EDL) were prepared for electrophysiological recordings (single, twitch, tetanic contraction and fatigue) and histochemical stainings. The loss of muscle mass observed was greater in the soleus muscle. The analysis of electrophysiological properties of both EDL and SOL showed significant main effects of group, of number of unweighting days and fatigue properties. Single contraction for soleus muscle remained unchanged but there was statistically significant difference for tetanic contraction and fatigue. Fatigue index showed a decrease for the control rats, but increase for the HLS rats. According to the histochemical findings there was a shift from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism during HLS. The data suggested that muscles atrophied, but they presented an adaptation pattern, while their endurance in fatigue was decreased.

  6. Dynamic "Range of Motion" Hindlimb Stretching Disrupts Locomotor Function in Rats with Moderate Subacute Spinal Cord Injuries.

    PubMed

    Keller, Anastasia; Rees, Kathlene; Prince, Daniella; Morehouse, Johnny; Shum-Siu, Alice; Magnuson, David

    2017-04-12

    Joint contractures and spasticity are two common secondary complications of a severe spinal cord injury (SCI), which can significantly reduce quality of life, and stretching is one of the top strategies for rehabilitation of these complications. We have previously shown that a daily static stretching protocol administered to rats at either acute or chronic time points after a moderate or moderate-severe T10 SCI significantly disrupts their hindlimb locomotor function. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of dynamic range of motion (ROM) stretching on the locomotor function of rats with SCI as an alternative to static stretching. Starting at 6 weeks post-injury (T10 moderate contusion) eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to hindlimb stretching for 4 weeks. Our standard stretching protocol (six maneuvers to stretch the major hindlimb muscle groups) was modified from 1 min static stretch-and-hold at the end ROM of each stretch position to a dynamic 2 sec hold, 1 sec release rhythm repeated for a duration of 1 min. Four weeks of daily (5 days/week) dynamic stretching led to significant disruption of locomotor function as assessed by the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) Open Field Locomotor Scale and three-dimensional (3D) kinematic and gait analyses. In addition, we identified and analyzed an apparently novel hindlimb response to dynamic stretch that resembles human clonus. The results of the current study extend the observation of the stretching phenomenon to a new modality of stretching that is also commonly used in SCI rehabilitation. Although mechanisms and clinical relevance still need to be established, our findings continue to raise concerns that stretching as a therapy can potentially hinder aspects of locomotor recovery.

  7. The mechanical actions of muscles predict the direction of muscle activation during postural perturbations in the cat hindlimb

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, T. Richard

    2013-01-01

    Humans and cats respond to balance challenges, delivered via horizontal support surface perturbations, with directionally selective muscle recruitment and constrained ground reaction forces. It has been suggested that this postural strategy arises from an interaction of limb biomechanics and proprioceptive networks in the spinal cord. A critical experimental validation of this hypothesis is to test the prediction that the principal directions of muscular activation oppose the directions responding muscles exert their forces on the environment. Therefore, our objective was to quantify the endpoint forces of a diverse set of cat hindlimb muscles and compare them with the directionally sensitive muscle activation patterns generated in the intact and decerebrate cat. We hypothesized that muscles are activated based on their mechanical advantage. Our primary expectation was that the principal direction of muscle activation during postural perturbations will be directed oppositely (180°) from the muscle endpoint ground reaction force. We found that muscle activation during postural perturbations was indeed directed oppositely to the endpoint reaction forces of that muscle. These observations indicate that muscle recruitment during balance challenges is driven, at least in part, by limb architecture. This suggests that sensory sources that provide feedback about the mechanical environment of the limb are likely important to appropriate and effective responses during balance challenges. Finally, we extended the analysis to three dimensions and different stance widths, laying the groundwork for a more comprehensive study of postural regulation than was possible with measurements confined to the horizontal plane and a single stance configuration. PMID:24304861

  8. The mechanical actions of muscles predict the direction of muscle activation during postural perturbations in the cat hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Honeycutt, Claire F; Nichols, T Richard

    2014-03-01

    Humans and cats respond to balance challenges, delivered via horizontal support surface perturbations, with directionally selective muscle recruitment and constrained ground reaction forces. It has been suggested that this postural strategy arises from an interaction of limb biomechanics and proprioceptive networks in the spinal cord. A critical experimental validation of this hypothesis is to test the prediction that the principal directions of muscular activation oppose the directions responding muscles exert their forces on the environment. Therefore, our objective was to quantify the endpoint forces of a diverse set of cat hindlimb muscles and compare them with the directionally sensitive muscle activation patterns generated in the intact and decerebrate cat. We hypothesized that muscles are activated based on their mechanical advantage. Our primary expectation was that the principal direction of muscle activation during postural perturbations will be directed oppositely (180°) from the muscle endpoint ground reaction force. We found that muscle activation during postural perturbations was indeed directed oppositely to the endpoint reaction forces of that muscle. These observations indicate that muscle recruitment during balance challenges is driven, at least in part, by limb architecture. This suggests that sensory sources that provide feedback about the mechanical environment of the limb are likely important to appropriate and effective responses during balance challenges. Finally, we extended the analysis to three dimensions and different stance widths, laying the groundwork for a more comprehensive study of postural regulation than was possible with measurements confined to the horizontal plane and a single stance configuration.

  9. Adaptations in Muscle Activity to Induced, Short-Term Hindlimb Lameness in Trotting Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Stefanie; Nolte, Ingo; Schilling, Nadja

    2013-01-01

    Muscle tissue has a great intrinsic adaptability to changing functional demands. Triggering more gradual responses such as tissue growth, the immediate responses to altered loading conditions involve changes in the activity. Because the reduction in a limb’s function is associated with marked deviations in the gait pattern, understanding the muscular responses in laming animals will provide further insight into their compensatory mechanisms as well as help to improve treatment options to prevent musculoskeletal sequelae in chronic patients. Therefore, this study evaluated the changes in muscle activity in adaptation to a moderate, short-term, weight-bearing hindlimb lameness in two leg and one back muscle using surface electromyography (SEMG). In eight sound adult dogs that trotted on an instrumented treadmill, bilateral, bipolar recordings of the m. triceps brachii, the m. vastus lateralis and the m. longissimus dorsi were obtained before and after lameness was induced. Consistent with the unchanged vertical forces as well as temporal parameters, neither the timing nor the level of activity changed significantly in the m. triceps brachii. In the ipsilateral m. vastus lateralis, peak activity and integrated SEMG area were decreased, while they were significantly increased in the contralateral hindlimb. In both sides, the duration of the muscle activity was significantly longer due to a delayed offset. These observations are in accordance with previously described kinetic and kinematic changes as well as changes in muscle mass. Adaptations in the activity of the m. longissimus dorsi concerned primarily the unilateral activity and are discussed regarding known alterations in trunk and limb motions. PMID:24236207

  10. Hindlimb unloading-induced muscle atrophy and phenotype transition is attenuated in Smad3+/- mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. P.; Zhang, P.; Liu, S. H.; Wang, F.; Ge, X.; Wu, Y.; Fan, M.

    Currently it has been well defined that the microgravity-induced muscle disuse characterized by atrophy and slow-to-fast phenotype transition of the postural muscles such as soleus muscle but the basic mechanism underlying the atrophy and phenotype transition of soleus muscle is still unclear To investigate the developmental mechanisms of muscle atrophy and its phenotype transition under microgravity the soleus muscle of Smad3 and Smad3 - mice after 14 days hindlimb unloading was examined Using histology and immunohistochemistry assay we found that the soleus muscle volume and fiber number appeared a remarkable increases in Smad3 - mice compared to those in Smad3 control In addition Western blot analysis showed that the expression level of myosin heavy chain MHC -slow myofiber specific protein in soleus muscle was visibly higher in Smad3 - mice than in Smad3 mice In contrast the expression level of MHC-fast myofiber specific protein in soleus muscle was visibly lower in Smad3 - mice than in Smad3 mice Furthermore RT-PCR revealed that the expression of Smad3 and myogenic regulatory factor MRF mRNA was inversely regulated Finally we determined that either Smad3 mRNA or Smad3 protein were selectively distributed in quiescent satellite cells in vivo and in reserve cells in vitro Therefore our findings suggested that Smad3 might be a key transcriptional factor for soleus muscle atrophy and slow-to-fast phenotype transition of the slow muscle under microgravity In the future an agent that regulates Smad3 expression may be used to prevent

  11. Apoptosis: a mechanism contributing to remodeling of skeletal muscle in response to hindlimb unweighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, D. L.; Linderman, J. K.; Roy, R. R.; Bigbee, A. J.; Grindeland, R. E.; Mukku, V.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1997-01-01

    The role of apoptosis in the elimination of myonuclei during hindlimb unloading-induced atrophy and the inhibition of apoptosis in the prevention of muscle atrophy were examined. The number of nuclei demonstrating double-stranded DNA fragmentation seen by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TDT) histochemical staining, an indicator of apoptosis, was significantly increased after 14 days of suspension. Double staining with TDT and antilaminin immunohistochemistry revealed that some TDT-positive nuclei were within the fiber lamina and were most likely myonuclei. The number of fibers containing morphologically abnormal nuclei was also significantly greater in suspended compared with control rats. Combined treatment with growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I (GH/ IGF-I) and resistance exercise attenuated the increase in TDT-positive nuclei (approximately 26%, P > 0.05) and significantly decreased the number of fibers with morphologically abnormal nuclei. The data suggest that 1) "programmed nuclear death" contributes to the elimination of myonuclei and/or satellite cells from atrophying fibers, and 2) GH/IGF-I administration plus muscle loading ameliorates the apoptosis associated with hindlimb unloading.

  12. The analysis of antioxidant expression during muscle atrophy induced by hindlimb suspension in mice.

    PubMed

    Nuoc, Tran-Non; Kim, Suhee; Ahn, Sun Hee; Lee, Jin-Sil; Park, Byung-Ju; Lee, Tae-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to acceleration of muscle atrophy. However, it is still not completely understood what triggers the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during muscle atrophy. The objective of this study was to investigate redox balance during muscle atrophy. ROS generators and antioxidants were analyzed in atrophied soleus muscles after 2 weeks of hindlimb suspension (HLS) in mice. The HLS group showed an increase in lipid peroxidation, upregulated NOX1 and NOXO1, and downregulated mitochondrial complex I subunits NDUFS5 and NDUFV2. Additionally, HLS mice demonstrated a decrease in Prdx5 and MnSOD, but an increase in GPX2 and GPX3 in both mRNA and protein levels. As expected, MnSOD activity declined in the HLS group, while GPX activity was enhanced. These results suggest that redox imbalance occurs during muscle atrophy through NOX1 activation, mitochondrial complex I deficiency, and disturbance of antioxidants. Antioxidants altered by HLS may represent potential therapeutic targets for the protection against muscle atrophy.

  13. Increased myogenic repressor Id mRNA and protein levels in hindlimb muscles of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Alway, Stephen E; Degens, Hans; Lowe, Dawn A; Krishnamurthy, Gururaj

    2002-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if levels of repressors to myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) differ between muscles from young adult and aged animals. Total RNA from plantaris, gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles of Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats aged 9 mo (young adult, n = 10) and 37 mo (aged, n = 10) was reverse transcribed and then amplified by PCR. To obtain a semiquantitative measure of the mRNA levels, PCR signals were normalized to cyclophilin or 18S signals from the corresponding reverse transcription product. Normalization to cyclophilin and 18S gave similar results. The mRNA levels of MyoD and myogenin were approximately 275-650% (P < 0.001) and approximately 500-1,100% (P < 0.001) greater, respectively, in muscles from aged compared with young adults. In contrast, the protein levels were lower in plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles and similar in the soleus muscle of aged vs. young adult rats. Id repressor mRNA levels were approximately 300-900% greater in fast and slow muscles of aged animals (P < or = 0.02), and Mist 1 mRNA was approximately 50% greater in the plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles (P < 0.01). The mRNA level of Twist mRNA was not significantly affected by aging. Id-1, Id-2, and Id-3 protein levels were approximately 17-740% greater (P < 0.05) in hindlimb muscles of aged rats compared with young adult rats. The elevated levels of Id mRNA and protein suggest that MRF repressors may play a role in gene regulation of fast and slow muscles in aged rats.

  14. Temporal changes in sarcomere lesions of rat adductor longus muscles during hindlimb reloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krippendorf, B. B.; Riley, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    Focal sarcomere disruptions were previously observed in adductor longus muscles of rats flown approximately two weeks aboard the Cosmos 1887 and 2044 biosatellite flights. These lesions, characterized by breakage and loss of myofilaments and Z-line streaming, resembled damage induced by unaccustomed exercise that includes eccentric contractions in which muscles lengthen as they develop tension. We hypothesized that sarcomere lesions in atrophied muscles of space flow rats were not produced in microgravity by muscle unloading but resulted from muscle reloading upon re-exposure to terrestrial gravity. To test this hypothesis, we examined temporal changes in sarcomere integrity of adductor longus muscles from rats subjected to 12.5 days of hindlimb suspension unloading and subsequent reloading by return to vivarium cages for 0, 6, 12, or 48 hours of normal weightbearing. Our ultrastructural observations suggested that muscle unloading (0 h reloading) induced myofibril misalignment associated with myofiber atrophy. Muscle reloading for 6 hours induced focal sarcomere lesions in which cross striations were abnormally widened. Such lesions were electron lucent due to extensive myofilament loss. Lesions in reloaded muscles showed rapid restructuring. By 12 hours of reloading, lesions were moderately stained foci and by 48 hours darkly stained foci in which the pattern of cross striations was indistinct at the light and electron microscopic levels. These lesions were spanned by Z-line-like electron dense filamentous material. Our findings suggest a new role for Z-line streaming in lesion restructuring: rather than an antecedent to damage, this type of Z-line streaming may be indicative of rapid, early sarcomere repair.

  15. Hindlimb muscle fibre size and glycogen stores in bank voles with increased aerobic exercise metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jaromin, Ewa; Wyszkowska, Julia; Labecka, Anna Maria; Sadowska, Edyta Teresa; Koteja, Paweł

    2016-02-01

    To test hypotheses concerning physiological factors limiting the rate of aerobic exercise metabolism, we used a unique experimental evolution model: lines of bank voles selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism (A) and unselected, control lines (C). We investigated putative adaptations that result in the increased performance of the hindlimb muscle (gastrocnemius joined with plantaris). The body mass-adjusted muscle mass was higher in A-lines (0.093 g) than in C-lines (0.083 g; P=0.01). However, selection did not affect mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area (P=0.34) or glycogen content assessed with a histochemical periodic acid-Schiff reaction (PAS; P=0.82). The results suggest that the increased aerobic performance is achieved by an increase of total muscle mass, without major qualitative changes in the muscle fibre architecture. However, such a conclusion should be treated with caution, because other modifications, such as increased density of capillaries or mitochondria, could occur.

  16. Effects of Microgravity On Oxidative and Antioxidant Enzymes In Mouse Hindlimb Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girten, B.; Hoopes, R.; Steele, M.; Morony, S.; Bateman, T. A.; Sun, S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Gastrocnemius muscle of mice were analyzed in order to examine the effects of 12 days of microgravity on the oxidative enzyme climate synthase (CS) and the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). The female C57BL/6J mice utilized for this study were part of the Commercial Biomedical Testing Module (CBTM) payload that flew aboard STS-108. Mice were housed in Animal Enclosure Modules (AEMs) provided by NASA Ames. The flight (FLT) group and the ground control (CON) group each had 12 mice per group. The AEMs that held the CON group operated on a 48-hour delay from the FLT group and were located inside the Orbital Environmental Simulator (OES) at Kennedy Space Center. The temperature, CO2 and relative humidity inside the OES was regulated based on downlinked information from the shuttle middeck. Student T tests were used to compare groups and a p < 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. Results indicated that CS levels for the FLT group were significantly lower than the CON group while the SOD levels were significantly higher. The CS FLT mean was 19% lower and the SOD FLT mean was 17% higher than the respective CON group means. Although these findings are among the first muscle enzyme values reported for mice from a shuttle mission, these results are similar to some results previously reported for rats exposed to microgravity or hindlimb suspension. The changes seen during the CBTM payload are reflective of the deconditioning that takes place with disuse of the hindlimbs and indicate that muscle enzyme changes induced by disuse deconditioning are similar in both rodent species.

  17. Sarcomere length and capillary curvature of rat hindlimb muscles in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ledvina, M A; Segal, S S

    1995-06-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscle fibers have been reported to develop maximum force at a sarcomere length (Ls) of approximately 2.5 microns. However, the functional range of muscle length (Lm) and Ls encountered by skeletal muscle in vivo is not well defined. Changes in Ls markedly influence capillary geometry, but this effect has been shown only in fixed preparations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of limb position on Lm, Ls, and capillary geometry in living undisturbed hindlimb muscles. We tested the hypothesis that maximal excursion of the foot would have similar effects on Ls and capillary geometry of antagonistic soleus (Sol) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles in vivo. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 9; 243 +/- 3 g) were anesthetized (pentobarbital sodium; 35 mg/kg). The right Sol and EDL muscles were exposed and irrigated with physiological saline solution (34 degrees C; pH 7.4). Sarcomeres and capillaries were observed with video microscopy (total magnification x 1,900; spatial resolution < 1 micron); sarcomeres were labeled with a fluorescent dye [4-(4-diethylaminostyryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide]. As foot angle increased from 30 degrees (maximal dorsiflexion) to 170 degrees (maximal plantarflexion), Lm and Ls increased for EDL muscles (27.51 +/- 0.42 to 30.97 +/- 0.25 mm and 2.33 +/- 0.01 to 3.09 +/- 0.05 microns, respectively; P < 0.05) and decreased for Sol muscles (26.09 +/- 0.38 to 20.27 +/- 0.34 mm and 3.17 +/- 0.03 to 2.22 +/- 0.04 microns, respectively; P < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Is salamander hindlimb regeneration similar to that of the forelimb? Anatomical and morphogenetic analysis of hindlimb muscle regeneration in GFP-transgenic axolotls as a basis for regenerative and developmental studies

    PubMed Central

    Diogo, R; Murawala, P; Tanaka, E M

    2014-01-01

    The axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum is one of the most used model organisms in developmental and regenerative studies because it is commonly said that it can reconstitute a normal and fully functional forelimb/hindlimb after amputation. However, there is not a publication that has described in detail the regeneration of the axolotl hindlimb muscles. Here we describe and illustrate, for the first time, the regeneration of the thigh, leg and foot muscles in transgenic axolotls that express green fluorescent protein in muscle fibers and compare our results with data obtained by us and by other authors about axolotl forelimb regeneration and about fore-and hindlimb ontogeny in axolotls, frogs and other tetrapods. Our observations and comparisons point out that: (1) there are no muscle anomalies in any regenerated axolotl hindlimbs, in clear contrast to our previous study of axolotl forelimb regeneration, where we found muscle anomalies in 43% of the regenerated forelimbs; (2) during axolotl hindlimb regeneration there is a proximo-distal and a tibio-fibular morphogenetic gradient in the order of muscle regeneration and differentiation, but not a ventro-dorsal gradient, whereas our previous studies showed that in axolotl forelimb muscle regeneration there are proximo-distal, radio-ulnar and ventro-dorsal morphogenetic gradients. We discuss the broader implications of these observations for regenerative, evolutionary, developmental and morphogenetic studies. PMID:24325444

  19. Is salamander hindlimb regeneration similar to that of the forelimb? Anatomical and morphogenetic analysis of hindlimb muscle regeneration in GFP-transgenic axolotls as a basis for regenerative and developmental studies.

    PubMed

    Diogo, R; Murawala, P; Tanaka, E M

    2014-04-01

    The axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum is one of the most used model organisms in developmental and regenerative studies because it is commonly said that it can reconstitute a normal and fully functional forelimb/hindlimb after amputation. However, there is not a publication that has described in detail the regeneration of the axolotl hindlimb muscles. Here we describe and illustrate, for the first time, the regeneration of the thigh, leg and foot muscles in transgenic axolotls that express green fluorescent protein in muscle fibers and compare our results with data obtained by us and by other authors about axolotl forelimb regeneration and about fore- and hindlimb ontogeny in axolotls, frogs and other tetrapods. Our observations and comparisons point out that: (1) there are no muscle anomalies in any regenerated axolotl hindlimbs, in clear contrast to our previous study of axolotl forelimb regeneration, where we found muscle anomalies in 43% of the regenerated forelimbs; (2) during axolotl hindlimb regeneration there is a proximo-distal and a tibio-fibular morphogenetic gradient in the order of muscle regeneration and differentiation, but not a ventro-dorsal gradient, whereas our previous studies showed that in axolotl forelimb muscle regeneration there are proximo-distal, radio-ulnar and ventro-dorsal morphogenetic gradients. We discuss the broader implications of these observations for regenerative, evolutionary, developmental and morphogenetic studies.

  20. Adaptation of fibers in fast-twitch muscles of rats to spaceflight and hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Bian; Ohira, Yoshi; Roy, Roland R.; Nguyen, Quyet; Il'ina-Kakueva, E. I.; Oganov, V.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1992-01-01

    The adaptation of single fibers in medial gastrocnemius (MG), a fast-twitch extensor, and in tibialis anterior (TA), a fast-twitch flexor, was studied after 14 days of spaceflight onboard Cosmos 2044 or hindlimb suspension. Quantitative myosin ATPase activities of single fibers were measured in flight and suspended rats. Each of the enzyme and size measurements were directly correlated within each fiber with respect to its qualitative myosin ATPase staining properties and its expression of fast, slow, or both myosin heavy chains (MHC). The percentage of slow- and fast-twitch fibers of the MG and TA were found to be unchanged. Mean fiber size of all fibers was unaffected after flight or suspension. The ATPase activity in the MG was higher in flight than in control or suspended rats. In comparison to Cosmos 1887 spaceflight, the adaptations in the muscle fibers of the MG were more moderate.

  1. The Effects of Ligustrazine on the Ca2+ Concentration of Soleus and Gastrocnemius Muscle Fibers in Hindlimb Unloaded Rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yunfang; Goswami, Nandu; Du, Bei; Hu, Huanxin; Wu, Xue

    Background:Spaceflight or inactivity (bed rest, limb immobilization, hindlimb unloading) causes skeletal muscle atrophy. Recent studies show that an increase in protein degradation is an important mechanism for disuse atrophy. Furthermore, the calcium overload of disuse-atrophied muscle fiber has been shown to initiate the skeletal muscle proteolysis in disuse atrophy. Ligustrazine (tetramethylpyrazine, TMP), one of the important active ingredient extracted from Chuanxiong, has been shown by our group to increase muscle fiber cross-sectional area in atrophied soleus induced by 14 days hindlimb unloading. However, the underlying mechanisms of ligustrazine effects on disuse-atrophied muscle fibers remain unknown. Objective: We investigated the effects of ligustrazine on the cytoplasmic calcium overloading in soleus and gastrocnemius in 14 days hindlimb unloaded (HU) rats. Methods: Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were matched for body mass and randomly assigned to three groups (n=8, each group): 1) synchronous control (CON); HU + intragastric water instillation (HU+W); HU + intragastric 60.0 mg kg-1 ligustrazine instillation (HU+Tmp). Laser scanning confocal microscope assessed the concentrations of cytoplasmic calcium ions. Spaceflight disuse atrophy was simulated by hindlimb unloading, provided by tail suspension. Results: 1) Compared with CON, the concentration of soleus intracellular calcium ion in HU+W and HU+Tmp increased 330% and 86% respectively(P<0.01). Compared with HU+W, the concentration of soleus intracellular calcium ion in HU+Tmp decreased by 130%(P<0.01). 2) Compared with CON, the concentration of gastrocnemius intracellular calcium ion in HU+W and HU+Tmp increased 189.8% and 32.1% respectively(P<0.01). Compared with HU+W, the concentration of gastrocnemius intracellular calcium ion in HU+Tmp decreased by 119.3% (P<0.01). Conclusion: After 14 days of hindlimb unloading, cytoplasmic calcium of soleus (slow-twitch muscle) and gastrocnemius (fast

  2. Development of contractile and energetic capacity in anuran hindlimb muscle during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Cheol; Kim, Han Suk; Yamashita, Masamichi; Choi, Inho

    2003-01-01

    Anuran larvae undergo water-to-land transition during late metamorphosis. We investigated the development of the iliofibularis muscle in bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana) between Gosner's stage 37 and stage 46 (the last stage). The tadpoles began staying in shallow water at least as early as stage 37, kicking from stage 39, active hindlimb swimming from stage 41, and emerging onto shore from stage 42. For control tadpoles kept in water throughout metamorphosis, muscle mass and length increased two- to threefold between stages 37 and 46, with rapid increases at stage 40. Large, steady increases were found in femur mass, tetanic tension, contraction rate, and power between stages 37 and 46. Concentrations of ATP and creatine phosphate and rates of the phosphagen depletion and the activity of creatine kinase increased significantly, mainly after stage 43. Shortening velocity, tetanic rise time, and half-relaxation time varied little. Energy charge (the amount of metabolically available energy stored in the adenine nucleotide pool) remained unchanged until stage 43 but decreased at stage 46. Compared with the control, experimental tadpoles that were allowed access to both water and land exhibited 1.2- to 1.8-fold greater increases in femur mass, tetanic tension, power, phosphagen depletion rates, and creatine kinase activities at late metamorphic stages but no significant differences for other parameters measured. In sum, most hindlimb development proceeds on the basis of the increasingly active use of limbs for locomotion in water. The further increases in tension, mechanical power, and "chemical power" on emergence would be advantageous for terrestrial antigravity performance.

  3. Effect of recovery mode following hind-limb suspension on soleus muscle composition in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNulty, A. L.; Otto, A. J.; Kasper, C. E.; Thomas, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different recovery modes from hind-limb suspension-induced hypodynamia on whole body and muscle (soleus) growth as well as soleus composition and size changes of different fiber types within this same muscle. Following 28 days of tail-suspension, rats were returned to their cages and sedentarily recovered (HS), or were exercised by running on a treadmill 5 days/wk, at progressively increasing workloads (HR) for one month. Sedentary and running control groups of animals (CS, CR) were also evaluated for comparative purposes. The exercise program, which was identical for CR and HR groups, had no effect on body wt., soleus wt., soleus muscle composition or fiber size in CR rats. Atrophied soleus muscle and reduced soleus wt./body wt. ratio (both 60% of control) had returned to control values by day 7 of recovery in both suspended groups despite the fact that whole body wt. gain was significantly reduced (p less than 0.05) in HR as compared to HS rats. Atrophied soleus Type I fiber mean cross-sectional area in both HR and HS groups demonstrated similar and significant (p less than 0.01) increases during recovery. Increases in Type IIa and IIc fiber area during this same period were significant only in the HR group. While the percentage area of muscle composed of Type I fibers increased in both hypodynamic groups during recovery, the reduction in area percentage of muscle made up of Type IIa fibers was again only significant in the HR group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  4. Influence of 7 days of hindlimb suspension and intermittent weight support on rat muscle mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierotti, David J.; Roy, Roland R.; Flores, Vinicio; Edgerton, Reggie

    1990-01-01

    The effect of intermittent periods of weight support on a decrease in mass of the soleus (Sol) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles atrophied by hindlimb suspension (HS) was investigated in rats subjected to continuous HS for seven days or an HS plus intermittent (10 min every 6 hrs of slow walking on a treadmill) weight support (HS-WS). After 7 d HS, the Sol weight relative to body weight was 21 and 9 percent lower in Hs and HS-WS, respectively, than in control rats. Maximum tetanic tension/muscle mass ratio was significantly lower in HS than in controls; the HS-WS rats had values similar to controls, whereas the maximum tetanic tension/muscle weight was significantly elevated in HS-WS compared to controls. Contraction times were 25 percent faster in the Sol and unchanged in the MG of HS rats, indicating that a low-force short-duration exercise regime results in a significant functional recovery in the 'slow' Sol, whereas the 'fast' MG is less affected.

  5. Size and metabolic properties of fibers in rat fast-twitch muscles after hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Roland R.; Bello, Maureen A.; Bouissou, Phillip; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    1987-01-01

    The effect of hind-limb suspension (HS) on single fibers of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) and the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were studied in rats. Fiber area and the activities of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) were determined in tissue sections using an image analysis system. After 28 days of HS, the MG atrophied 28 percent, whereas the TA weight was maintained. Both dark- and light-ATPase fibers in the deep region of the MG had decreased cross-sectional areas following HS, with the atrophic response being twice as great in the light-ATPase fibers than in the dark-ATPase fibers. Following HS, mean SDH activities of both fiber types were significantly lower in the MG and TA than in the CON; by contrast, mean GPD activities were either maintained at the CON level or were higher in both MG and TA muscles. The data suggest an independence of the mechanisms determining the muscle fiber size and the metabolic adaptations associated with HS.

  6. Response of amino acids in hindlimb muscles to recovery from hypogravity and unloading by tail-cast suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Henriksen, E. J.; Jacob, S.; Cook, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    Concentrations of glutamine, glutamate, aspartate (+ asparagine) and alanine were compared in hindlimb muscles of SL-3 and ground control rats. Alanine was lower in the soleus of flown rats but not of suspended animals, with no response in other muscles except a slight increase in the unloaded plantaris. With recovery, alanine in the soleus was elevated. Since no differences in alanine metabolism were found by isolated muscle, changes in muscle alanine are probably due to altered body use of this amino acid leading to varied plasma levels.

  7. Intramyocellular ceramides and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration are partially regulated by Toll-like receptor 4 during hindlimb unloading.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Sung; Nelson, Daniel S; Barrows, Katherine M; O'Connell, Ryan M; Drummond, Micah J

    2016-11-01

    Physical inactivity and disuse result in skeletal muscle metabolic disruption, including insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. The role of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway in contributing to metabolic decline with muscle disuse is unknown. Therefore, our goal was to determine whether TLR4 is an underlying mechanism of insulin resistance, mitochondrial dysfunction, and skeletal muscle ceramide accumulation following muscle disuse in mice. To address this hypothesis, we subjected (n = 6-8/group) male WT and TLR4(-/-) mice to 2 wk of hindlimb unloading (HU), while a second group of mice served as ambulatory wild-type controls (WT CON, TLR4(-/-) CON). Mice were assessed for insulin resistance [homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), glucose tolerance], and hindlimb muscles (soleus and gastrocnemius) were used to assess muscle sphingolipid abundance, mitochondrial respiration [respiratory control ratio (RCR)], and NF-κB signaling. The primary finding was that HU resulted in insulin resistance, increased total ceramides, specifically Cer18:0 and Cer20:0, and decreased skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration. Importantly, TLR4(-/-) HU mice were protected from insulin resistance and altered NF-κB signaling and were partly resistant to muscle atrophy, ceramide accumulation, and decreased RCR. Skeletal muscle ceramides and RCR were correlated with insulin resistance. We conclude that TLR4 is an upstream regulator of insulin sensitivity, while partly upregulating muscle ceramides and worsening mitochondrial respiration during 2 wk of HU.

  8. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kent; Suzuki, Satoshi; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kimura, Junpei; Han, Sung-Yong; Endo, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids.

  9. Tendon material properties vary and are interdependent among turkey hindlimb muscles.

    PubMed

    Matson, Andrew; Konow, Nicolai; Miller, Samuel; Konow, Pernille P; Roberts, Thomas J

    2012-10-15

    The material properties of a tendon affect its ability to store and return elastic energy, resist damage, provide mechanical feedback and amplify or attenuate muscle power. While the structural properties of a tendon are known to respond to a variety of stimuli, the extent to which material properties vary among individual muscles remains unclear. We studied the tendons of six different muscles in the hindlimb of Eastern wild turkeys to determine whether there was variation in elastic modulus, ultimate tensile strength and resilience. A hydraulic testing machine was used to measure tendon force during quasi-static lengthening, and a stress-strain curve was constructed. There was substantial variation in tendon material properties among different muscles. Average elastic modulus differed significantly between some tendons, and values for the six different tendons varied nearly twofold, from 829±140 to 1479±106 MPa. Tendons were stretched to failure, and the stress at failure, or ultimate tensile stress, was taken as a lower-limit estimate of tendon strength. Breaking tests for four of the tendons revealed significant variation in ultimate tensile stress, ranging from 66.83±14.34 to 112.37±9.39 MPa. Resilience, or the fraction of energy returned in cyclic length changes was generally high, and one of the four tendons tested was significantly different in resilience from the other tendons (range: 90.65±0.83 to 94.02±0.71%). An analysis of correlation between material properties revealed a positive relationship between ultimate tensile strength and elastic modulus (r(2)=0.79). Specifically, stiffer tendons were stronger, and we suggest that this correlation results from a constrained value of breaking strain, which did not vary significantly among tendons. This finding suggests an interdependence of material properties that may have a structural basis and may explain some adaptive responses observed in studies of tendon plasticity.

  10. Effects of epimuscular myofascial force transmission on sarcomere length of passive muscles in the rat hindlimb

    PubMed Central

    Tijs, Chris; van Dieën, Jaap H; Maas, Huub

    2015-01-01

    Results from imaging studies and finite element models suggest epimuscular myofascial effects on sarcomere lengths in series within muscle fibers. However, experimental evidence is lacking. We evaluated epimuscular myofascial effects on (1) muscle belly, fiber, and mean sarcomere length and (2) sarcomere length distribution within passive fibers of the rat tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SO) muscles. Hindlimbs (n = 24) were positioned in predefined knee (55°, 90°, 125°, 160°) and ankle (either 90° or 125°) angles, and fixed in a formaldehyde solution. Varying knee joint angle causes changes in muscle–tendon unit length of SO and TA’s synergists, but not of SO and TA. Whole fibers were taken from SO and TA and photographed along their length. Mean sarcomere length was assessed for the entire fiber and for the proximal, intermediate, and distal thirds (fiber segments) separately. Mean sarcomere length of the fiber was not affected by knee angle, neither for SO (mean: 2.44 ± 0.03 μm and 2.19 ± 0.05 μm for ankle angles of 90° and 125°, respectively) nor for TA (mean: 2.33 ± 0.05 μm and 2.51 ± 0.07 μm for ankle angle set to 90° and 125°, respectively). Only for TA, a significant interaction between knee angle and fiber segment was found, indicating changes in the distribution of lengths of in-series sarcomeres. Thus, while epimuscular myofascial force transmission did not cause mean sarcomere length changes within passive SO and TA, it did alter the length distribution of sarcomeres within passive TA. PMID:26537346

  11. Whole muscle length-tension relationships are accurately modeled as scaled sarcomeres in rabbit hindlimb muscles.

    PubMed

    Winters, Taylor M; Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Lieber, Richard L; Ward, Samuel R

    2011-01-04

    An a priori model of the whole active muscle length-tension relationship was constructed utilizing only myofilament length and serial sarcomere number for rabbit tibialis anterior (TA), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and extensor digitorum II (EDII) muscles. Passive tension was modeled with a two-element Hill-type model. Experimental length-tension relations were then measured for each of these muscles and compared to predictions. The model was able to accurately capture the active-tension characteristics of experimentally-measured data for all muscles (ICC=0.88 ± 0.03). Despite their varied architecture, no differences in predicted versus experimental correlations were observed among muscles. In addition, the model demonstrated that excursion, quantified by full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of the active length-tension relationship, scaled linearly (slope=0.68) with normalized muscle fiber length. Experimental and theoretical FWHM values agreed well with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 (p<0.001). In contrast to active tension, the passive tension model deviated from experimentally-measured values and thus, was not an accurate predictor of passive tension (ICC=0.70 ± 0.07). These data demonstrate that modeling muscle as a scaled sarcomere provides accurate active functional but not passive functional predictions for rabbit TA, EDL, and EDII muscles and call into question the need for more complex modeling assumptions often proposed.

  12. Role of biomechanics and muscle activation strategy in the production of endpoint force patterns in the cat hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Lemay, Michel A; Bhowmik-Stoker, Manoshi; McConnell, George C; Grill, Warren M

    2007-01-01

    We used a musculoskeletal model of the cat hindlimb to compare the patterns of endpoint forces generated by all possible combination of 12 hindlimb muscles under three different muscle activation rules: homogeneous activation of muscles based on uniform activation levels, homogeneous activation of muscles based on uniform (normalized) force production, and activation based on the topography of spinal motoneuron pools. Force patterns were compared with the patterns obtained experimentally by microstimulation of the lumbar spinal cord in spinal intact cats. Magnitude and orientation of the force patterns were compared, as well as the proportion of the types found, and the proportions of patterns exhibiting points of zero force (equilibrium points). The force patterns obtained with the homogenous activation and motoneuron topography models were quite similar to those measured experimentally, with the differences being larger for the patterns from the normalized endpoint forces model. Differences in the proportions of types of force patterns between the three models and the experimental results were significant for each model. Both homogeneous activation and normalized endpoint force models produced similar proportions of equilibrium points as found experimentally. The results suggest that muscle biomechanics play an important role in limiting the number of endpoint force pattern types, and that muscle combinations activated at similar levels reproduced best the experimental results obtained with intraspinal microstimulation.

  13. Electrophysiological Motor Unit Number Estimation (MUNE) Measuring Compound Muscle Action Potential (CMAP) in Mouse Hindlimb Muscles.

    PubMed

    Arnold, W David; Sheth, Kajri A; Wier, Christopher G; Kissel, John T; Burghes, Arthur H; Kolb, Stephen J

    2015-09-25

    Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and motor unit number estimation (MUNE) are electrophysiological techniques that can be used to monitor the functional status of a motor unit pool in vivo. These measures can provide insight into the normal development and degeneration of the neuromuscular system. These measures have clear translational potential because they are routinely applied in diagnostic and clinical human studies. We present electrophysiological techniques similar to those employed in humans to allow recordings of mouse sciatic nerve function. The CMAP response represents the electrophysiological output from a muscle or group of muscles following supramaximal stimulation of a peripheral nerve. MUNE is an electrophysiological technique that is based on modifications of the CMAP response. MUNE is a calculated value that represents the estimated number of motor neurons or axons (motor control input) supplying the muscle or group of muscles being tested. We present methods for recording CMAP responses from the proximal leg muscles using surface recording electrodes following the stimulation of the sciatic nerve in mice. An incremental MUNE technique is described using submaximal stimuli to determine the average single motor unit potential (SMUP) size. MUNE is calculated by dividing the CMAP amplitude (peak-to-peak) by the SMUP amplitude (peak-to-peak). These electrophysiological techniques allow repeated measures in both neonatal and adult mice in such a manner that facilitates rapid analysis and data collection while reducing the number of animals required for experimental testing. Furthermore, these measures are similar to those recorded in human studies allowing more direct comparisons.

  14. Musculotopic organization of the motor neurons supplying the mouse hindlimb muscles: a quantitative study using Fluoro-Gold retrograde tracing.

    PubMed

    Bácskai, Tímea; Rusznák, Zoltán; Paxinos, George; Watson, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We have mapped the motor neurons (MNs) supplying the major hindlimb muscles of transgenic (C57/BL6J-ChAT-EGFP) and wild-type (C57/BL6J) mice. The fluorescent retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold was injected into 19 hindlimb muscles. Consecutive transverse spinal cord sections were harvested, the MNs counted, and the MN columns reconstructed in 3D. Three longitudinal MN columns were identified. The dorsolateral column extends from L4 to L6 and consists of MNs innervating the crural muscles and the foot. The ventrolateral column extends from L1 to L6 and accommodates MNs supplying the iliopsoas, gluteal, and quadriceps femoris muscles. The middle part of the ventral horn hosts the central MN column, which extends between L2 and L6 and consists of MNs for the thigh adductor, hamstring, and quadratus femoris muscles. Within these longitudinal columns, the arrangement of the different MN groups reflects their somatotopic organization. MNs innervating muscles developing from the dorsal (e.g., quadriceps) and ventral muscle mass (e.g., hamstring) are situated in the lateral and medial part of the ventral gray, respectively. MN pools belonging to proximal muscles (e.g., quadratus femoris and iliopsoas) are situated ventral to those supplying more distal ones (e.g., plantar muscles). Finally, MNs innervating flexors (e.g., posterior crural muscles) are more medial than those belonging to extensors of the same joint (e.g., anterior crural muscles). These data extend and modify the MN maps in the recently published atlas of the mouse spinal cord and may help when assessing neuronal loss associated with MN diseases.

  15. Skeletal muscle myostatin mRNA expression is fiber-type specific and increases during hindlimb unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, C. J.; Booth, F. W.; Gordon, S. E.

    1999-01-01

    Transgenic mice lacking a functional myostatin (MSTN) gene demonstrate greater skeletal muscle mass resulting from muscle fiber hypertrophy and hyperplasia (McPherron, A. C., A. M. Lawler, and S. -J. Lee. Nature 387: 83-90, 1997). Therefore, we hypothesized that, in normal mice, MSTN may act as a negative regulator of muscle mass. Specifically, we hypothesized that the predominately slow (type I) soleus muscle, which demonstrates greater atrophy than the fast (type II) gastrocnemius-plantaris complex (Gast/PLT), would show more elevation in MSTN mRNA abundance during hindlimb unloading (HU). Surprisingly, MSTN mRNA was not detectable in weight-bearing or HU soleus muscle, which atrophied 42% by the 7th day of HU in female ICR mice. In contrast, MSTN mRNA was present in weight-bearing Gast/PLT muscle and was significantly elevated (67%) at 1 day but not at 3 or 7 days of HU. However, the Gast/PLT muscle had only atrophied 17% by the 7th day of HU. Because the soleus is composed only of type I and IIa fibers, whereas the Gast/PLT expresses type IId/x and IIb in addition to type I and IIa, it was necessary to perform a more careful analysis of the relationship between MSTN mRNA levels and myosin heavy-chain (MHC) isoform expression (as a marker of fiber type). A significant correlation (r = 0.725, P < 0. 0005) was noted between the percentage of MHC isoform IIb expression and MSTN mRNA abundance in several muscles of the mouse hindlimb. These results indicate that MSTN expression is not strongly associated with muscle atrophy induced by HU; however, it is strongly associated with MHC isoform IIb expression in normal muscle.

  16. Dietary fish oil delays hypoxic skeletal muscle fatigue and enhances caffeine stimulated contractile recovery in the rat in vivo hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Peoples, Gregory E; McLennan, Peter L

    2017-01-26

    Oxygen efficiency influences skeletal muscle contractile function during physiological hypoxia. Dietary fish oil, providing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), reduces the oxygen cost of muscle contraction. This study used autologous perfused rat hindlimb model to examine the effects of a fish oil diet on skeletal muscle fatigue during an acute hypoxic challenge. Male Wistar rats were fed a diet rich in saturated fat (SF), long chain (LC) n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA), or LC n-3 PUFA DHA from fish oil (FO) (8weeks). During anaesthetised and ventilated conditions (normoxia 21% O2 [SaO2-98%] and hypoxia 14% O2 [SaO2-89%]) the hindlimb was perfused at a constant flow and the gastrocnemius-plantaris-soleus muscle bundle was stimulated via sciatic nerve (2Hz, 6-12V, 0.05ms) to established fatigue. Caffeine (2.5, 5, 10mM) was supplied to the contracting muscle bundle via the arterial cannula to assess force recovery. Hypoxia, independent of diet, attenuated maximal twitch tension (normoxia: 82±8; hypoxia 41±2g.g-1 tissue w.w.). However, rats fed fish oil sustained higher peak twitch tension compared to the SF and n-6 PUFA groups (P<0.05) and the time to decline to 50% of maximum twitch tension was extended (SF; 546±58, n-6PUFA; 522±58, FO; 792±96 s; P<0.05). In addition, caffeine stimulated skeletal muscle contractile recovery was enhanced in the fish oil fed animals (SF; 41±3, n-6PUFA; 40±4, FO; 52±7% recovery; P<0.05). These results support a physiological role of DHA in skeletal muscle membranes when exposed to low-oxygen stress that is consistent with the attenuation of muscle fatigue under physiologically normoxic conditions.

  17. Dynamic Foot Pressure as a Countermeasure to Muscle Atrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyparos, A.; Layne, C. S.; Martinez, D. A.; Clarke, M. S. F.; Feeback, D. L.

    2002-01-01

    Mechanical unloading of skeletal muscle (SKM) as a consequence of space flight or ground-based analogues, such as human bedrest and rodent hindlimb suspension (HLS) models, induces SKM atrophy particularly affecting the anti-gravity musculature of the lower limbs. In the context of manned space flight, the subsequent loss of muscle strength and functionality will pose operational implications jeopardizing mission success. Exercise, currently the primary muscle degradation countermeasure, has not proven completely effective in preventing muscle atrophy. It is therefore imperative that some other forms of in- flight countermeasure be also developed to supplement the prescribed exercise regimen the astronauts follow during spaceflight. Previous work in both humans and rats has shown that mechanical stimulation of the soles of the feet increases neuromuscular activation in the lower limb musculature and that such stimulation results in the limited prevention of atrophy in the soleus muscle of unloaded rats. This study was designed to investigate the effect of cutaneous mechanoreceptor stimulation on hindlimb unloading- induced SKM atrophy in rats. It was hypothesized that mechanical stimulation of the plantar surface of the rat foot during hindlimb suspension (HLS), utilizing a novel stimulation paradigm known as Dynamic Foot Pressure (DFP), would attenuate unloading-induced SKM atrophy. Mature adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of 10 rats each as follows: sedentary controls (Ctrl), hindlimb suspended only (HLS), hindlimb suspended wearing an inflatable boot (HLS-IFL) and hindlimb suspended rats wearing a non-inflatable boot (HLS-NIFL). The stimulation of mechanoreceptors was achieved by applying pressure to the plantar surface of the foot during the 10-day period of HLS using a custom-built boot. The anti-atrophic effects of DFP application was quantified directly by morphological (muscle wet weight, myofiber cross-sectional area

  18. Slow- and fast-twitch hindlimb skeletal muscle phenotypes 12 wk after ⅚ nephrectomy in Wistar rats of both sexes.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Luz M; Peralta-Ramírez, Alan; López, Ignacio; Chamizo, Verónica E; Pineda, Carmen; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Maria E; Rodríguez, Mariano; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico; Rivero, José-Luis L

    2015-10-01

    This study describes fiber-type adaptations in hindlimb muscles, the interaction of sex, and the role of hypoxia on this response in 12-wk ⅚ nephrectomized rats (Nx). Contractile, metabolic, and morphological features of muscle fiber types were assessed in the slow-twitch soleus and the fast-twitch tibialis cranialis muscles of Nx rats, and compared with sham-operated controls. Rats of both sexes were considered in both groups. A slow-to-fast fiber-type transformation occurred in the tibialis cranialis of Nx rats, particularly in males. This adaptation was accomplished by impaired oxidative capacity and capillarity, increased glycolytic capacity, and no changes in size and nuclear density of muscle fiber types. An oxidative-to-glycolytic metabolic transformation was also found in the soleus muscle of Nx rats. However, a modest fast-to-slow fiber-type transformation, fiber hypertrophy, and nuclear proliferation were observed in soleus muscle fibers of male, but not of female, Nx rats. Serum testosterone levels decreased by 50% in male but not in female Nx rats. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α protein level decreased by 42% in the tibialis cranialis muscle of male Nx rats. These data demonstrate that 12 wk of Nx induces a muscle-specific adaptive response in which myofibers do not change (or enlarge minimally) in size and nuclear density, but acquire markedly different contractile and metabolic characteristics, which are accompanied by capillary rarefaction. Muscle function and sex play relevant roles in these adaptations.

  19. Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate prevents atrophy, weakness, and oxidative stress in soleus muscle of hindlimb-unloaded mice.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Sandrine; Smith, Jacqueline; Matuszczak, Yves; Hardin, Brian J; Moylan, Jennifer S; Smith, Jeffrey D; Ware, Jeffrey; Kennedy, Ann R; Reid, Michael B

    2007-03-01

    Antigravity muscles atrophy and weaken during prolonged mechanical unloading caused by bed rest or spaceflight. Unloading also induces oxidative stress in muscle, a putative cause of weakness. We tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate (BBIC), a soy protein extract, would oppose these changes. Adult mice were fed a diet supplemented with 1% BBIC during hindlimb unloading for up to 12 days. Soleus muscles of mice fed the BBIC-supplemented diet weighed less, developed less force per cross-sectional area, and developed less total force after unloading than controls. BBIC supplementation was protective, blunting decrements in soleus muscle weight and force. Cytosolic oxidant activity was assessed using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. Oxidant activity increased in unloaded muscle, peaking at 3 days and remaining elevated through 12 days of unloading. Increases in oxidant activity correlated directly with loss of muscle mass and were abolished by BBIC supplementation. In vitro assays established that BBIC directly buffers reactive oxygen species and also inhibits serine protease activity. We conclude that dietary supplementation with BBIC protects skeletal muscle during prolonged unloading, promoting redox homeostasis in muscle fibers and blunting atrophy-induced weakness.

  20. [Readjustment of the efferent activity of the scratching generator in response to stimulation of muscle afferents of the hindlimb of the decerebrate immobilized cat].

    PubMed

    Shimanskiĭ, Iu P; Baev, K V

    1987-01-01

    Rebuildings of the scratching generator activity caused by phasic electrical stimulation of ipsilateral hindlimb muscle nerves during different hindlimb positions were studied in decerebrated immobilized cats. Strong dependence of these rebuildings on the stimulation phase was observed. The character of the "scratch" cycle duration rebuilding was formed by the scratching generator tendency to bring efferent activity into such correlation with the stimulus that the stimulation moment coincided with the moment of efferent activity phase triggering. Phasic altering of the efferent activity intensity rebuilding was observed against a background of "aiming" and "scratching" activity correlation shift in the direction of strengthening activation of muscles innervated by the stimulated nerve. This rebuilding was intensified when the hindlimb deflects from the aimed position in the direction of corresponding muscles stretching. Physiological sense of "rebuilding absence phases" is discussed. It is postulated that absence of the duration and intensity changes can be achieved simultaneously only with definite correlation between phase and intensity of the afferent impulsation burst.

  1. Potential benefits of taurine in the prevention of skeletal muscle impairment induced by disuse in the hindlimb-unloaded rat.

    PubMed

    Pierno, Sabata; Liantonio, Antonella; Camerino, Giulia M; De Bellis, Michela; Cannone, Maria; Gramegna, Gianluca; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Simonetti, Simonetta; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Basco, Davide; Svelto, Maria; Desaphy, Jean-François; Camerino, Diana Conte

    2012-07-01

    Hindlimb unloading (HU) in rats induces severe atrophy and a slow-to-fast phenotype transition in postural slow-twitch muscles, as occurs in human disuse conditions, such as spaceflight or bed rest. In rats, a reduction of soleus muscle weight and a decrease of cross-sectional area (CSA) were observed as signs of atrophy. An increased expression of the fast-isoform of myosin heavy chain (MHC) showed the phenotype transition. In parallel the resting cytosolic calcium concentration (restCa) was decreased and the resting chloride conductance (gCl), which regulates muscle excitability, was increased toward the values of the fast-twitch muscles. Here, we investigated the possible role of taurine, which is known to modulate calcium homeostasis and gCl, in the restoration of muscle impairment due to 14-days-HU. We found elevated taurine content and higher expression of the taurine transporter TauT in the soleus muscle as compared to the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of control rats. Taurine level was reduced in the HU soleus muscle, although, TauT expression was not modified. Taurine oral supplementation (5 g/kg) fully prevented this loss, and preserved resting gCl and restCa together with the slow MHC phenotype. Taurine supplementation did not prevent the HU-induced drop of muscle weight or fiber CSA, but it restored the expression of MURF-1, an atrophy-related gene, suggesting a possible early protective effect of taurine. In conclusion, taurine prevented the HU-induced phenotypic transition of soleus muscle and might attenuate the atrophic process. These findings argue for the beneficial use of taurine in the treatment of disuse-induced muscle dysfunction.

  2. Growth hormone/IGF-I and/or resistive exercise maintains myonuclear number in hindlimb unweighted muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, D. L.; Linderman, J. K.; Roy, R. R.; Grindeland, R. E.; Mukku, V.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1997-01-01

    In the present study of rats, we examined the role, during 2 wk of hindlimb suspension, of growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I (GH/IGF-I) administration and/or brief bouts of resistance exercise in ameliorating the loss of myonuclei in fibers of the soleus muscle that express type I myosin heavy chain. Hindlimb suspension resulted in a significant decrease in mean soleus wet weight that was attenuated either by exercise alone or by exercise plus GH/IGF-I treatment but was not attenuated by hormonal treatment alone. Both mean myonuclear number and mean fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) of fibers expressing type I myosin heavy chain decreased after 2 wk of suspension compared with control (134 vs. 162 myonuclei/mm and 917 vs. 2,076 micron2, respectively). Neither GH/IGF-I treatment nor exercise alone affected myonuclear number or fiber CSA, but the combination of exercise and growth-factor treatment attenuated the decrease in both variables. A significant correlation was found between mean myonuclear number and mean CSA across all groups. Thus GH/IGF-I administration and brief bouts of muscle loading had an interactive effect in attenuating the loss of myonuclei induced by chronic unloading.

  3. Chronic Exercise Training Down-Regulates TNF-α and Atrogin-1/MAFbx in Mouse Gastrocnemius Muscle Atrophy Induced by Hindlimb Unloading

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nassan, Saad; Fujita, Naoto; Kondo, Hiroyo; Murakami, Shinichiro; Fujino, Hidemi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic moderate-intensity training in order to prevent muscle atrophy with a focus on TNF-α and atrogin-1/MAFbx as main proteolytic indicators. Hindlimb unloading model of mice received treadmill running exercise for 1 hr per day during hindlimb unloading period of 6 weeks. The gastrocnemius muscle mass, muscle fiber cross-sectional area, and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in the muscle fiber were higher in the exercised group, while TNF-α and atrogin-1/MAFbx mRNA expressions were significantly lower. Results in the present study showed that chronic exercise could prevent over expression of TNF-α and atrogin-1/MAFbx in the atrophied skeletal muscle, providing further support to the effects of chronic exercise training on muscle atrophy. PMID:23378678

  4. PGC-1α over-expression suppresses the skeletal muscle atrophy and myofiber-type composition during hindlimb unloading.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Hongju; He, Jian; Zhang, Chenyu; Fan, Ming; Chen, Xiaoping

    2017-03-01

    Disuse leads to severe muscle atrophy and a slow-to-fast myofiber-type transition. PGC-1α (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α) is documented to play an important role in muscle atrophy and slow-twitch myofiber determination. Transcription of atrophy-related Atrogin-1 by FoxO3 can be reduced by PGC-1α. While Smad3 augments FoxO3-induced Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 promoter activity. So PGC-1α, as a transcription co-activator, may regulate hindlimb unloading (HU)-induced myofiber-type transition and muscle atrophy through Smad3. Our results showed that transgenic PGC-1α mice resisted HU-induced muscle loss, atrophy-related genes expression, and slow-to-fast myofiber-type transition. Furthermore, over-expression of PGC-1α resisted the increase in pSmad3 during muscle atrophy in vivo and in vitro. And, PGC-1α over-expression inhibited the expression of atrogenes via suppressing the phosphorylation of Smad3 in vitro. Thus, PGC-1α is effective in regulating myofiber-type transition during HU, and it alleviates skeletal muscle atrophy partially through suppressing the activation of Smad3.

  5. PGC1-α over-expression prevents metabolic alterations and soleus muscle atrophy in hindlimb unloaded mice

    PubMed Central

    Cannavino, Jessica; Brocca, Lorenza; Sandri, Marco; Bottinelli, Roberto; Pellegrino, Maria Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged skeletal muscle inactivity causes muscle fibre atrophy. Redox imbalance has been considered one of the major triggers of skeletal muscle disuse atrophy, but whether redox imbalance is actually the major cause or simply a consequence of muscle disuse remains of debate. Here we hypothesized that a metabolic stress mediated by PGC-1α down-regulation plays a major role in disuse atrophy. First we studied the adaptations of soleus to mice hindlimb unloading (HU) in the early phase of disuse (3 and 7 days of HU) with and without antioxidant treatment (trolox). HU caused a reduction in cross-sectional area, redox status alteration (NRF2, SOD1 and catalase up-regulation), and induction of the ubiquitin proteasome system (MuRF-1 and atrogin-1 mRNA up-regulation) and autophagy (Beclin1 and p62 mRNA up-regulation). Trolox completely prevented the induction of NRF2, SOD1 and catalase mRNAs, but not atrophy or induction of catabolic systems in unloaded muscles, suggesting that oxidative stress is not a major cause of disuse atrophy. HU mice showed a marked alteration of oxidative metabolism. PGC-1α and mitochondrial complexes were down-regulated and DRP1 was up-regulated. To define the link between mitochondrial dysfunction and disuse muscle atrophy we unloaded mice overexpressing PGC-1α. Transgenic PGC-1α animals did not show metabolic alteration during unloading, preserving muscle size through the reduction of autophagy and proteasome degradation. Our results indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a major role in disuse atrophy and that compounds inducing PGC-1α expression could be useful to treat/prevent muscle atrophy. PMID:25128574

  6. The adaptational strategies of the hindlimb muscles in the Tenrecidae species including the aquatic web-footed tenrec (Limnogale mergulus).

    PubMed

    Endo, Hideki; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Rakotondraparany, Felix; Sasaki, Motoki; Hasegawa, Masami

    2006-07-01

    The hindlimb muscles in four species of Tenrecidae (Oryzoryctinae: Talazac long-tailed tenrec and web-footed tenrec, Tenrecinae: lesser hedgehog tenrec, and streaked tenrec), were examined macroscopically. The weight ratios of the muscles to the body in the oryzoryctinid species are larger than those in Tenrecinae, since the Oryzoryctinae species have an obviously smaller body from the evolutionary point of view. It can be primarily pointed out that the adaptation of the body size is different between the two subfamilies, and secondarily, that functional adaptation to locomotion is complete within each subfamily. The weight data and the morphological findings demonstrate that the web-footed tenrec possesses an extraordinary large M. semimembranosus in comparison to the Talazac long-tailed tenrec in their weight ratios. This muscle may act as a strong flexor motor in the knee joint during the aquatic locomotion of the web-footed tenrec. Since the other muscles of the web-footed tenrec are similar to those of the Talazac long-tailed tenrec regards weight ratio data, we think that the web-footed tenrec may have derived from a terrestrial ancestor such as the long-tailed tenrecs. In Tenrecinae the streaked tenrec is equipped with larger Mm. adductores, M. semimembranosus and M. triceps surae than the lesser hedgehog tenrec. This species is adapted to fossorial life derived from non-specialized ancestors within the evolutionary lines of the spiny tenrecs.

  7. Bone marrow transplantation in hindlimb muscles of motoneuron degenerative mice reduces neuronal death and improves motor function.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Diego; Viso-León, Mari Carmen; Botella-López, Arancha; Jaramillo-Merchan, Jesus; Moraleda, Jose M; Jones, Jonathan; Martínez, Salvador

    2013-06-01

    Bone marrow has proved to be an adequate source of stem cells for the treatment of numerous disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. Bone marrow can be easily and relatively painlessly extracted from a patient or allogenic donor and then transplanted into the degenerative area. Here, the grafted cells will activate a number of mechanisms in order to protect, repair, and/or regenerate the damaged tissue. These properties make the bone marrow a feasible source for cell therapy. In this work, we transplanted bone marrow cells into a mouse model of motoneuron degeneration, with the particularity of placing the cells in the hindlimb muscles rather than in the spinal cord where neuronal degeneration occurs. To this end, we analyze the possibility for the transplanted cells to increase the survival rate of the spinal cord motoneurons by axonal-guided retrograde neurotrophism. As a result, the mice significantly improved their motor functions. This coincided with an increased number of motoneurons innervating the treated muscle compared with the neurons innervating the non-treated contralateral symmetric muscle. In addition, we detected an increase in glial-derived neurotrophic factor in the spinal cord, a neurotrophic factor known to be involved in the rescue of degenerating motoneurons, exerting a neuroprotective effect. Thus, we have proved that bone marrow injected into the muscles is capable of rescuing these motoneurons from death, which may be a possible therapeutic approach for spinal cord motoneuron degenerative diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  8. Bone Marrow Transplantation in Hindlimb Muscles of Motoneuron Degenerative Mice Reduces Neuronal Death and Improves Motor Function

    PubMed Central

    Viso-León, Mari Carmen; Botella-López, Arancha; Jaramillo-Merchan, Jesus; Moraleda, Jose M.; Jones, Jonathan; Martínez, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow has proved to be an adequate source of stem cells for the treatment of numerous disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. Bone marrow can be easily and relatively painlessly extracted from a patient or allogenic donor and then transplanted into the degenerative area. Here, the grafted cells will activate a number of mechanisms in order to protect, repair, and/or regenerate the damaged tissue. These properties make the bone marrow a feasible source for cell therapy. In this work, we transplanted bone marrow cells into a mouse model of motoneuron degeneration, with the particularity of placing the cells in the hindlimb muscles rather than in the spinal cord where neuronal degeneration occurs. To this end, we analyze the possibility for the transplanted cells to increase the survival rate of the spinal cord motoneurons by axonal-guided retrograde neurotrophism. As a result, the mice significantly improved their motor functions. This coincided with an increased number of motoneurons innervating the treated muscle compared with the neurons innervating the non-treated contralateral symmetric muscle. In addition, we detected an increase in glial-derived neurotrophic factor in the spinal cord, a neurotrophic factor known to be involved in the rescue of degenerating motoneurons, exerting a neuroprotective effect. Thus, we have proved that bone marrow injected into the muscles is capable of rescuing these motoneurons from death, which may be a possible therapeutic approach for spinal cord motoneuron degenerative diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:23282201

  9. Effects Of treadmill training on hindlimb muscles of spinal cord–injured mice

    PubMed Central

    Battistuzzo, Camila R.; Rank, Michelle M.; Flynn, Jamie R.; Morgan, David L.; Callister, Robin; Callister, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Treadmill training is known to prevent muscle atrophy after spinal cord injury (SCI), but the training duration required to optimize recovery has not been investigated. Methods: Hemisected mice were randomized to 3, 6, or 9 weeks of training or no training. Muscle fiber type composition and fiber cross‐sectional area (CSA) of medial gastrocnemius (MG), soleus (SOL), and tibialis anterior (TA) were assessed using ATPase histochemistry. Results: Muscle fiber type composition of SCI animals did not change with training. However, 9 weeks of training increased the CSA of type IIB and IIX fibers in TA and MG muscles. Conclusions: Nine weeks of training after incomplete SCI was effective in preventing atrophy of fast‐twitch muscles, but there were limited effects on slow‐twitch muscles and muscle fiber type composition. These data provide important evidence of the benefits of exercising paralyzed limbs after SCI. Muscle Nerve, 2016 Muscle Nerve 55: 232–242, 2017 PMID:27273462

  10. Fiber-type susceptibility to eccentric contraction-induced damage of hindlimb-unloaded rat AL muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vijayan, K.; Thompson, J. L.; Norenberg, K. M.; Fitts, R. H.; Riley, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    Slow oxidative (SO) fibers of the adductor longus (AL) were predominantly damaged during voluntary reloading of hindlimb unloaded (HU) rats and appeared explainable by preferential SO fiber recruitment. The present study assessed damage after eliminating the variable of voluntary recruitment by tetanically activating all fibers in situ through the motor nerve while applying eccentric (lengthening) or isometric contractions. Muscles were aldehyde fixed and resin embedded, and semithin sections were cut. Sarcomere lesions were quantified in toluidine blue-stained sections. Fibers were typed in serial sections immunostained with antifast myosin and antitotal myosin (which highlights slow fibers). Both isometric and eccentric paradigms caused fatigue. Lesions occurred only in eccentrically contracted control and HU muscles. Fatigue did not cause lesions. HU increased damage because lesioned- fiber percentages within fiber types and lesion sizes were greater than control. Fast oxidative glycolytic (FOG) fibers were predominantly damaged. In no case did damaged SO fibers predominate. Thus, when FOG, SO, and hybrid fibers are actively lengthened in chronically unloaded muscle, FOG fibers are intrinsically more susceptible to damage than SO fibers. Damaged hybrid-fiber proportions ranged between these extremes.

  11. Detrimental effects of reloading recovery on force, shortening velocity, and power of soleus muscles from hindlimb-unloaded rats.

    PubMed

    Widrick, J J; Maddalozzo, G F; Hu, H; Herron, J C; Iwaniec, U T; Turner, R T

    2008-11-01

    To better understand how atrophied muscles recover from prolonged nonweight-bearing, we studied soleus muscles (in vitro at optimal length) from female rats subjected to normal weight bearing (WB), 15 days of hindlimb unloading (HU), or 15 days HU followed by 9 days of weight bearing reloading (HU-R). HU reduced peak tetanic force (P(o)), increased maximal shortening velocity (V(max)), and lowered peak power/muscle volume. Nine days of reloading failed to improve P(o), while depressing V(max) and intrinsic power below WB levels. These functional changes appeared intracellular in origin as HU-induced reductions in soleus mass, fiber cross-sectional area, and physiological cross-sectional area were partially or completely restored by reloading. We calculated that HU-induced reductions in soleus fiber length were of sufficient magnitude to overextend sarcomeres onto the descending limb of their length-tension relationship upon the resumption of WB activity. In conclusion, the force, shortening velocity, and power deficits observed after 9 days of reloading are consistent with contraction-induced damage to the soleus. HU-induced reductions in fiber length indicate that sarcomere hyperextension upon the resumption of weight-bearing activity may be an important mechanism underlying this response.

  12. Metabolic and vascular actions of endothelin-1 are inhibited by insulin-mediated vasodilation in perfused rat hindlimb muscle.

    PubMed

    Kolka, Cathryn M; Rattigan, Stephen; Richards, Stephen; Clark, Michael G

    2005-08-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent endothelium-derived vasoactive peptide and may be involved in the microvascular actions of insulin for the normal delivery of nutrients to muscle, although higher levels may be antagonistic. Our aim was to observe the interaction between ET-1 and insulin. Initially, we attempted to distinguish the vascular from the metabolic effects of ET-1 in the constant-flow pump-perfused rat hindlimb by using various doses of ET-1 and measuring changes in perfusion pressure (PP), oxygen consumption (VO(2)), glucose uptake (GU) and lactate release (LR). Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was used to block vasoconstriction and to thus assess the relationship between vascular and metabolic effects. Insulin was included in later experiments to determine the interaction between insulin and ET-1 on the above parameters. ET-1 caused a dose-dependent increase in PP. Effects on VO(2) were biphasic, with low doses increasing VO(2), and higher doses leading to a net inhibition. GU and LR were increased at lower doses (ET-1 < or =1 nM), but this effect was lost at higher doses (> or =10 nM ET-1). SNP (50 microM) fully blocked the increase in pressure and metabolism due to low-dose ET-1 and partly blocked both pressure and metabolic responses by the high dose. ET-1 vasodilatory activity was minimal at high or low dose. Insulin (15 nM) alone caused GU, which was not affected by ET-1. Of the other parameters measured, insulin behaved essentially the same as SNP, inhibiting the pressure and oxygen effects. Overall, these results show that ET-1 has a biphasic dose-dependent vasoconstrictor effect on hindlimb blood vessels, able to modulate flow to cause both the stimulation and inhibition of metabolism, although these effects are blocked by insulin, which is able to vasodilate against both low and high doses of ET-1.

  13. Hindlimb immobilization - Length-tension and contractile properties of skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzmann, F. A.; Kim, D. H.; Fitts, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Casts were placed around rat feet in plantar flexion position to immobilize the soleus muscle in a shortened position, while the other foot was fixed in dorsal flexion to set the extensor digitorum longus in a shortened position. The total muscular atrophy and contractile properties were measured at 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days after immobilization, with casts being replaced every two weeks. The slow twitch soleus and the fast-twitch vastus lateralis and longus muscles were excised after termination of the experiment. The muscles were then stretched and subjected to electric shock to elicit peak tetanic tension and peak tetanic tension development. Force velocity features of the three muscles were assayed in a series of afterloaded contractions and fiber lengths were measured from subsequently macerated muscle. All muscles atrophied during immobilization, reaching a new steady state by day 21. Decreases in fiber and sarcomere lengths were also observed.

  14. Segmental distribution of the motor neuron columns that supply the rat hindlimb: A muscle/motor neuron tract-tracing analysis targeting the motor end plates.

    PubMed

    Mohan, R; Tosolini, A P; Morris, R

    2015-10-29

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) that disrupts input from higher brain centers to the lumbar region of the spinal cord results in paraplegia, one of the most debilitating conditions affecting locomotion. Non-human primates have long been considered to be the most appropriate animal to model lower limb dysfunction. More recently, however, there has been a wealth of scientific information gathered in the rat regarding the central control of locomotion. Moreover, rodent models of SCI at lumbar levels have been widely used to validate therapeutic scenarios aimed at the restoration of locomotor activities. Despite the growing use of the rat as a model of locomotor dysfunction, knowledge regarding the anatomical relationship between spinal cord motor neurons and the hindlimb muscles that they innervate is incomplete. Previous studies performed in our laboratory have shown the details of the muscle/motor neuron topographical relationship for the mouse forelimb and hindlimb as well as for the rat forelimb. The present analysis aims to characterize the segmental distribution of the motor neuron pools that innervate the muscles of the rat hindlimb, hence completing this series of studies. The location of the motor end plate (MEP) regions on the main muscles of the rat hindlimb was first revealed with acetylcholinesterase histochemistry. For each muscle under scrutiny, injections of Fluoro-Gold were then performed along the length of the MEP region. Targeting the MEPs gave rise to columns of motor neurons that span more spinal cord segments than previously reported. The importance of this study is discussed in terms of its application to gene therapy for SCI.

  15. Size and metabolic properties of single muscle fibers in rat soleus after hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauschka, Edward O.; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    1987-01-01

    The effect of 28-day-long hind-limb suspension (HS) combined with 10 daily forceful lengthening contractions of the limb on the morphological and metabolic properties of individual fibers of the soleus was studied in rats, using quantitative histochemical techniques. Compared with nonsuspended controls (CON), soleus wet weights of HS rats were decreased by 49 percent; the fibers staining lightly for myosin ATPase ('light-ATPase' fibers) atrophied more than the 'dark-ATPase' fibers. Single-fiber alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activities were higher in HS than in CON rats. Daily forceful lengthening contractions did not prevent the HS-induced changes. The results support the view that the soleus fibers can change from a slow-twitch oxidative to a fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic profile, but rarely to a fast-twitch glycolytic one, and that the SDH and GPD activities per volume of tissue can be increased even when there are severe losses of contractile proteins.

  16. Circadian force and EMG activity in hindlimb muscles of rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, J. A.; Wichayanuparp, S.; Recktenwald, M. R.; Roy, R. R.; McCall, G.; Day, M. K.; Washburn, D.; Fanton, J. W.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Edgerton, V. R.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Continuous intramuscular electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from the soleus (Sol), medial gastrocnemius (MG), tibialis anterior (TA), and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles of Rhesus during normal cage activity throughout 24-h periods and also during treadmill locomotion. Daily levels of MG tendon force and EMG activity were obtained from five monkeys with partial datasets from three other animals. Activity levels correlated with the light-dark cycle with peak activities in most muscles occurring between 08:00 and 10:00. The lowest levels of activity generally occurred between 22:00 and 02:00. Daily EMG integrals ranged from 19 mV/s in one TA muscle to 3339 mV/s in one Sol muscle: average values were 1245 (Sol), 90 (MG), 65 (TA), and 209 (VL) mV/s. The average Sol EMG amplitude per 24-h period was 14 microV, compared with 246 microV for a short burst of locomotion. Mean EMG amplitudes for the Sol, MG, TA, and VL during active periods were 102, 18, 20, and 33 microV, respectively. EMG amplitudes that approximated recruitment of all fibers within a muscle occurred for 5-40 s/day in all muscles. The duration of daily activation was greatest in the Sol [151 +/- 45 (SE) min] and shortest in the TA (61 +/- 19 min). The results show that even a "postural" muscle such as the Sol was active for only approximately 9% of the day, whereas less active muscles were active for approximately 4% of the day. MG tendon forces were generally very low, consistent with the MG EMG data but occasionally reached levels close to estimates of the maximum force generating potential of the muscle. The Sol and TA activities were mutually exclusive, except at very low levels, suggesting very little coactivation of these antagonistic muscles. In contrast, the MG activity usually accompanied Sol activity suggesting that the MG was rarely used in the absence of Sol activation. The results clearly demonstrate a wide range of activation levels among muscles of the same animal as well as among different

  17. Force-Velocity and Power Characteristics of Rat Soleus Muscle Fibers after Hindlimb Suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, K. S.; Blaser, C. A.; Fitts, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of 1, 2, and 3 wk of Hindlimb Suspension (HS) on force-velocity and power characteristics of single rat soleus fibers were determined. After 1, 2, or 3 wk of HS, small fiber bundles were isolated, placed in skinning solution, and stored at -20 C until studied. Single fibers were isolated and placed between a motor arm and force transducer, functional properties were studied, and fiber protein content was subsequently analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Additional fibers were isolated from soleus of control and after 1 and 3 wk of HS, and fiber type distribution and myosin light chain stoichiometry were determined from SDS-PAGE analysis. After 1 wk of HS, percent type I fibers declined from 82 to 74%, whereas hybrid fibers increased from 10 to 18%. Percent fast type 11 fibers increased from 8% in control and 1 wk of HS to 26% by 3 wk of HS. Most fibers showed an increased unloaded maximal shortening velocity (V(sub 0)), but myosin heavy chain remained entirely slow type I. The mechanism for increased V(sub 0) is unknown. There was a progressive decrease in fiber diameter (14, 30, and 38%) and peak force (38, 56, and 63%) after 1, 2, and 3 wk of HS, respectively. One week of HS resulted in a shift of the force-velocity curve, and between 2 and 3 wk of HS the curve shifted further such that V(sub 0) was higher than control at all relative loads less than 45% peak isometric force. Peak absolute power output of soleus fibers progressively decreased through 2 wk of HS but showed no further change at 3 wk. The results suggest that between 2 and 3 wk the HS-induced alterations in the force-velocity relationship act to maintain the power output of single soleus fibers despite a continued reduction in fiber force.

  18. Force-velocity and power characteristics of rat soleus muscle fibers after hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, K. S.; Blaser, C. A.; Fitts, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of 1, 2, and 3 wk of hindlimb suspension (HS) on force-velocity and power characteristics of single rat soleus fibers were determined. After 1, 2, or 3 wk of HA, small fiber bundles were isolated, placed in skinning solution, and stored at -20 C until studied. Single fibers were isolated and placed between a motor arm and force transducer, functional properties were studied, and fiber protein content was subsequently analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Additional fibers were isolated from soleus of control after 1 and 3 wk of HS, and fiber type distribution and myosin light chain stoichiometry were determined from SDS-PAGE analysis. After 1 wk of HS, percent type I fibers declined from 82 to 74%, whereas hybrid fibers increased from 10 to 18%. Percent fast type II fibers increased from 8% in control and 1 wk of HS to 26% by 3 wk of HS. Most fibers showed an increased unloaded maximal shortening velocity (V sub O)), but myosin heavy chain remained entirely slow type I. The mechanism for increased V(sub O) is unknown. There was a progressive decrease in fiber diameter and peak force after 1, 2, and 3 wk of HS, respectively. One week of HS resulted in a shift of the force-velocity curve, and between 2 and 3 wk of HS the curve shifted further such that V(sub O) was higher than control at all relative loads less than 45% peak isometric force. Peak absolute power output of soleus fibers progressively decreased through 2 wk of HS but showed no further change at 3 wk. The results suggest that between 2 and 3 wk the HS-induced alterations in the force-velocity relationship act to maintain the power output of single soleus fibers despite a continued reduction in fiber force.

  19. Organization of hindlimb muscle afferent projections to lumbosacral motoneurons in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Lee, M T; O'Donovan, M J

    1991-08-01

    We have examined the organization of muscle afferent projections to motoneurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord of chick embryos between stage 37, when muscle afferents first reach the motor nucleus, and stage 44, which is just before hatching. Connectivity between afferents and motoneurons was assessed by stimulating individual muscle nerves and recording the resulting motoneuron synaptic potentials intracellularly or electrotonically from other muscle nerves. Most of the recordings were made in the presence of DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV), picrotoxin, and strychnine to block long-latency excitatory and inhibitory pathways. Activation of muscle afferents evoked slow, positive potentials in muscle nerves but not in cutaneous nerves. These potentials were abolished in 0 mM Ca2+, 2mM Mn2+ solutions, indicating that they were generated by the action of chemical synapses. The muscle nerve recordings revealed a wide-spread pattern of excitatory connections between afferents and motoneurons innervating six different thigh muscles, which were not organized according to synergist-antagonist relationships. This pattern of connectivity was confirmed using intracellular recording from identified motoneurons, which allowed the latency of the responses to be determined. Short-latency potentials in motoneurons were produced by activation of homonymous afferents and the heteronymous afferents innervating the hip flexors sartorius and anterior iliotibialis. Stimulation of anterior iliotibialis afferents also resulted in some short-latency excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in motoneurons innervating the knee extensor femorotibialis, though other connections were of longer latency. Afferents from the adductor, a hip extensor, did not evoke short-latency EPSPs in any of these three types of motoneurons. Short-latency, but not long-latency EPSPs, persisted during repetitive stimulation at 5 Hz, suggesting that they were mediated monosynaptically. Long

  20. Investigations of the Effects of Altered Vestibular System Function on Hindlimb Anti-Gravity Muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, Mary Sue

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to different gravitational environments, both the microgravity of spaceflight and the hypergravity of centrifugation, result in altered vestibulo-spinal function which can be reversed by reacclimation to earth gravity (2). Control of orientation, posture, and locomotion are functions of the vestibular system which are altered by changes in gravitational environment. Not only is the vestibular system involved with coordination and proprioception, but the gravity sensing portion of the vestibular system also plays a major role in maintaining muscle tone through projections to spinal cord motoneurons that control anti-gravity muscles. I have been involved with investigations of several aspects of the link between vestibular inputs and muscle morphology and function during my work with Dr. Nancy Daunton this summer and the previous summer. We have prepared a manuscript for submission (4) to Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine based on work that I performed last summer in Dr. Daunton's lab. Techniques developed for that project will be utilized in subsequent experiments begun in the summer of 1998. I have been involved with the development of a pilot project to test the effects of vestibular galvanic stimulation (VGS) on anti-gravity muscles and in another project testing the effects of the ototoxic drug streptomycin on the otolith-spinal reflex and anti-gravity muscle morphology.

  1. Pluronic® L64-mediated stable HIF-1α expression in muscle for therapeutic angiogenesis in mouse hindlimb ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hongmei; Liu, Sijia; Li, Caixia; Geng, Yanyan; Wang, Gang; Gu, Zhongwei

    2014-01-01

    Intramuscular injection of plasmid DNA (pDNA) to express a therapeutic protein is a promising method for the treatment of many diseases. However, the therapeutic applications are usually hindered by gene delivery efficiency and expression level. In this study, critical factors in a pDNA-based gene therapy system, such as gene delivery materials, a therapeutic gene, and its regulatory elements, were optimized to establish an integrated system for the treatment of mouse hindlimb ischemia. The results showed that Pluronic® L64 (L64) was an efficient and safe material for gene delivery into mouse skeletal muscle. It also showed intrinsic ability to promote in vivo angiogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner, which might be through the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell (NF-κB)-regulated angiogenic factors. The combination of 0.1% L64 with a hybrid gene promoter (pSC) increased the gene expression level, elongated the gene expression duration, and enhanced the number of transfected muscle fibers. In mice ischemic limbs, a gene medicine (pSC-HIF1αtri/L64) composed of L64 and pSC-based expression plasmid encoding hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha triple mutant (HIF-1αtri), improved the expression of stable HIF-1α, and in turn, the expression of multiple angiogenic factors. As a result, the ischemic limbs showed accelerated function recovery, reduced foot necrosis, faster blood reperfusion, and higher capillary density. These results indicated that the pSC-HIF1αtri/L64 combination presented a potential and convenient venue for the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases, especially critical limb ischemia. PMID:25092975

  2. Design and evaluation of a chronic EMG multichannel detection system for long-term recordings of hindlimb muscles in behaving mice

    PubMed Central

    Tysseling, Vicki M.; Janes, Lindsay; Imhoff, Rebecca; Quinlan, Katharina A.; Lookabaugh, Brad; Ramalingam, Shyma; Heckman, C.J.; Tresch, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse models are commonly used for identifying the behavioral consequences of genetic modifications, progression or recovery from disease or trauma models, and understanding spinal circuitry. Electromyographic recordings (EMGs) are recognized as providing information not possible from standard behavioral analyses involving gross behavioral or kinematic assessments. We describe here a method for recording from relatively large numbers of muscles in behaving mice. We demonstrate the use of this approach for recording from hindlimb muscles bilaterally in intact animals, following spinal cord injury, and during the progression of ALS. This design can be used in a variety of applications in order to characterize the coordination strategies of mice in health and disease. PMID:23369875

  3. A muscle resident cell population promotes fibrosis in hindlimb skeletal muscles of mdx mice through the Wnt canonical pathway.

    PubMed

    Trensz, Frédéric; Haroun, Sonia; Cloutier, Alexandre; Richter, Martin V; Grenier, Guillaume

    2010-11-01

    Previous work has pointed to a role for the Wnt canonical pathway in fibrosis formation in aged skeletal muscles. In the present study, we studied the dystrophic mdx mouse, which displays skeletal muscle fibrosis. Our results indicated that the muscle resident stromal cell (mrSC) population in the muscles of dystrophic mice is higher than in the muscles of age-matched wild-type mice. Wnt3a promoted the proliferation of and collagen expression by cultured mrSCs but arrested the growth of and collagen expression by cultured myoblasts. Injections of Wnt3A in the tibialis anterior muscles of adult wild-type mice significantly enhanced the mrSC population and collagen deposition compared with the contralateral muscles. Conversely, an injection of the Wnt antagonist Dickkof protein (DKK1) into the skeletal muscles of mdx mice significantly reduced collagen deposition. These results suggested that the Wnt canonical pathway expands the population of mrSCs and stimulates their production of collagen as observed during aging and in various myopathies.

  4. [Hindlimb antigravity muscles' reaction in male and female rats to the deficit of functional loading].

    PubMed

    Il'ina-Kakueva, E I

    2002-01-01

    Histological and histomorphometric comparison of the antigravity muscles of rats of both sexes was performed following 30-d unloading of their hind limbs by head-down suspension. It was shown that growth rate of control males was higher as compared to control females. This is attributed to the synergic effects of somatotropin and testosterone on metabolism and growth of males and only somatotropin in females. Load deprivation of the hind limbs inhibited body mass gain in all animals; however, this inhibition was twice as great in males. Increase of the soleus and gastrocnemius in the control males in this experiment was slightly ahead of the muscle mass gain in the females. The histomorphometric investigation of the cross-section area of myofibers did not reveal differences between males and females either in the control or suspension. No difference was found in percent of various types of fibers in the control males and females. In the soleus of the suspended rats, a part of slow fibers had transformed into fast ones without any sex-related particularities. The conclusion was made that despite the significant difference in the hormonal profile, the reaction of males and females to insufficient weight loading of the antigravity muscles was alike.

  5. Analysis by two-dimensional Blue Native/SDS-PAGE of membrane protein alterations in rat soleus muscle after hindlimb unloading.

    PubMed

    Basco, Davide; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Desaphy, Jean-François; Camerino, Diana Conte; Frigeri, Antonio; Svelto, Maria

    2010-12-01

    Muscle atrophy occurring in several pathophysiological conditions determines decreases in muscle protein synthesis, increases in the rate of proteolysis and changes in muscle fiber composition. To determine the effect of muscle atrophy induced by hindlimb unloading (HU) on membrane proteins from rat soleus, a proteomic approach based on two-dimensional Blue Native/SDS-PAGE was performed. Proteomic analysis of normal and HU soleus muscle demonstrates statistically significant changes in the relative level of 36 proteins. Among the proteins identified by mass spectrometry, most are involved in pathways associated with muscle fuel utilization, indicating a shift in metabolism from oxidative to glycolytic. Moreover, immunoblotting analysis revealed an increase in aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel and an alteration of proteins belonging to the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC). AQP4 and DGC are regulated in soleus muscle subjected to simulated microgravity in response to compensatory mechanisms induced by muscle atrophy, and they parallel the slow-to-fast twitch conversion that occurs in soleus fibers during HU. In conclusion, the alterations of soleus muscle membrane proteome may play a pivotal role in the mechanisms involved in disuse-induced muscle atrophy.

  6. Hindlimb Skeletal Muscle Function and Skeletal Quality and Strength in +/G610C Mice With and Without Weight-Bearing Exercise.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Youngjae; Carleton, Stephanie M; Gentry, Bettina A; Yao, Xiaomei; Ferreira, J Andries; Salamango, Daniel J; Weis, MaryAnn; Oestreich, Arin K; Williams, Ashlee M; McCray, Marcus G; Eyre, David R; Brown, Marybeth; Wang, Yong; Phillips, Charlotte L

    2015-10-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous heritable connective tissue disorder associated with reduced bone mineral density and skeletal fragility. Bone is inherently mechanosensitive, with bone strength being proportional to muscle mass and strength. Physically active healthy children accrue more bone than inactive children. Children with type I OI exhibit decreased exercise capacity and muscle strength compared with healthy peers. It is unknown whether this muscle weakness reflects decreased physical activity or a muscle pathology. In this study, we used heterozygous G610C OI model mice (+/G610C), which model both the genotype and phenotype of a large Amish OI kindred, to evaluate hindlimb muscle function and physical activity levels before evaluating the ability of +/G610C mice to undergo a treadmill exercise regimen. We found +/G610C mice hindlimb muscles do not exhibit compromised muscle function, and their activity levels were not reduced relative to wild-type mice. The +/G610C mice were also able to complete an 8-week treadmill regimen. Biomechanical integrity of control and exercised wild-type and +/G610C femora were analyzed by torsional loading to failure. The greatest skeletal gains in response to exercise were observed in stiffness and the shear modulus of elasticity with alterations in collagen content. Analysis of tibial cortical bone by Raman spectroscopy demonstrated similar crystallinity and mineral/matrix ratios regardless of sex, exercise, and genotype. Together, these findings demonstrate +/G610C OI mice have equivalent muscle function, activity levels, and ability to complete a weight-bearing exercise regimen as wild-type mice. The +/G610C mice exhibited increased femoral stiffness and decreased hydroxyproline with exercise, whereas other biomechanical parameters remain unaffected, suggesting a more rigorous exercise regimen or another exercise modality may be required to improve bone quality of OI mice.

  7. Paraspinal muscle reflex dynamics.

    PubMed

    Granata, K P; Slota, G P; Bennett, B C

    2004-02-01

    Neuromuscular control of spinal stability may be represented as a control system wherein the paraspinal muscle reflex acts as feedback response to kinetic and kinematic disturbances of the trunk. The influence of preparatory muscle recruitment for the control of spinal stability has been previously examined, but there are few reported studies that characterize paraspinal reflex gain as feedback response. In the current study, the input-output dynamics of paraspinal reflexes were quantified by means of the impulse response function (IRF), with trunk perturbation force representing the input signal and EMG the output signal. Surface EMGs were collected from the trunk muscles in response to a brief anteriorly directed impact force applied to the trunk of healthy participants. Reflex behavior was measured in response to three levels of force impulse, 6.1, 9.2 and 12.0 Ns, and two different levels of external trunk flexion preload, 0 and 110 N anterior force. Reflex EMG was quantifiable in response to 91% of the perturbations. Mean reflex onset latency was 30.7+/-21.3 ms and reflex amplitude increased with perturbation amplitude. Impulse response function gain, G(IRF), was defined as the peak amplitude of the measured IRF and provided a consistent measure of response behavior. EMG reflex amplitude and G(IRF) increased with force impulse. Mean G(IRF) was 2.27+/-1.31% MVC/Ns and demonstrated declining trend with flexion preload. Results agree with a simple systems model of the neuromechanical feedback behavior. The relative contribution of the reflex dynamics to spinal stability must be investigated in future research.

  8. [Contractile properties of fibers and cytoskeletal proteins of gerbil's hindlimb muscles after space flight].

    PubMed

    Lipets, E N; Ponomareva, E V; Ogneva, I V; Vikhliantsev, I M; Karaduleva, E V; Kratashkina, N L; Kuznetsov, S L; Podlubnaia, Z A; Shenkman, B S

    2009-01-01

    The work had the goal to compare the microgravity effects on gerbil's muscles-antagonists, m. soleus and m. tibialis anterior. The animals were exposed in 12-d space microgravity aboard Earth's artificial satellite "Foton-M3". Findings of the analysis of single skinned fibers contractility are 19.7% diminution of the diameter and 21.8% loss of the total contractive force of m. soleus fibers post flight. However, there was no significant difference in calcium sensitivity which agrees with the absence of changes in the relative content of several major cytoskeletal proteins (titin and nebulin ratios to heavy chains of myosin were identical in the flight and control groups) and a slight shifting of the myosin phenotype toward the "fast type" (9%, p < 0.05). These parameters were mostly unaffected by the space flight in m. tibialis anterior. To sum up, the decline of contractility and diminution of gerbil's myofibers after the space flight were less significant as compared with rats and did not impact the sytoskeletal protein ratios.

  9. Associations between force and fatigue in fast-twitch motor units of a cat hindlimb muscle.

    PubMed

    Laouris, Y; Bevan, L; Reinking, R M; Stuart, D G

    2004-01-01

    Associations were quantified between the control force and fatigue-induced force decline in 22 single fast-twitch-fatigable motor units of 5 deeply anesthetized adult cats. The units were subjected to intermittent stimulation at 1 train/s for 360 s. Two stimulation patterns were delivered in a pseudo-random manner. The first was a 500-ms train with constant interpulse intervals. The second pattern had the same number of stimuli, mean stimulus rate, and stimulus duration, but the stimulus pulses were rearranged to increase the force produced by the units in the control (prefatigue) state. The associations among the control peak tetanic force of these units, 3 indices of fatigue, and total cumulative force during fatiguing contractions were dependent, in part, on the stimulation pattern used to produce fatigue. The associations were also dependent, albeit to a lesser extent, on the force measure (peak vs. integrated) and the fatigue index used to quantify fatigue. It is proposed that during high-force fatiguing contractions, neural mechanisms are potentially available to delay and reduce the fatigue of fast-twitch-fatigable units for brief, but functionally relevant, periods. In contrast, the fatigue of slow-twitch fatigue-resistant units seems more likely to be controlled largely, if not exclusively, by metabolic processes within their muscle cells.

  10. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) responses elicited in hindlimb muscles as an assessment of synaptic plasticity in spino-muscular circuitry after chronic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Petrosyan, Hayk A; Alessi, Valentina; Sisto, Sue A; Kaufman, Mark; Arvanian, Victor L

    2017-03-06

    Electromagnetic stimulation applied at the cranial level, i.e. transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), is a technique for stimulation and neuromodulation used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in clinical and research settings. Although recordings of TMS elicited motor-evoked potentials (MEP) are an essential diagnostic tool for spinal cord injured (SCI) patients, they are reliably recorded from arm, and not leg muscles. Mid-thoracic contusion is a common SCI that results in locomotor impairments predominantly in legs. In this study, we used a chronic T10 contusion SCI rat model and examined whether (i) TMS-responses in hindlimb muscles can be used for evaluation of conduction deficits in cortico-spinal circuitry and (ii) if plastic changes at spinal levels will affect these responses. In this study, plastic changes of transmission in damaged spinal cord were achieved by repetitive electro-magnetic stimulation applied over the spinal level (rSEMS). Spinal electro-magnetic stimulation was previously shown to activate spinal nerves and is gaining large acceptance as a non-invasive alternative to direct current and/or epidural electric stimulation. Results demonstrate that TMS fails to induce measurable MEPs in hindlimbs of chronically SCI animals. After facilitation of synaptic transmission in damaged spinal cord was achieved with rSEMS, however, MEPs were recorded from hindlimb muscles in response to single pulse TMS stimulation. These results provide additional evidence demonstrating beneficial effects of TMS as a diagnostic technique for descending motor pathways in uninjured CNS and after SCI. This study confirms the ability of TMS to assess plastic changes of transmission occurring at the spinal level.

  11. Effects of Age and Hindlimb Immobilization and Remobilization on Fast Troponin T Precursor mRNA Alternative Splicing in Rat Gastrocnemius Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Suhana; Schilder, Rudolf J.; Berg, Arthur S.; Kimball, Scot R.

    2016-01-01

    Fast skeletal muscle Troponin T (TNNT3) is an important component of the skeletal muscle contractile machinery. The pre-mRNA encoding TNNT3 is alternatively spliced and changes in the pattern of TNNT3 splice form expression are associated with alterations in thin filament calcium sensitivity and force production during muscle contraction, thereby regulating muscle function. Interestingly, during aging, muscle force/cross sectional area is reduced, suggesting that loss of mass does not completely account for the impaired muscle function that develops during the aging process. Therefore, in the present study, we tested the hypothesis that age- and changes in muscle loading are associated with alterations in TNNT3 alternative splicing in the rat gastrocnemius muscle. We found that the relative abundance of several TNNT3 splice forms varied significantly with age among 2, 9, and 18-month old rats, and the pattern correlated with changes in body weight rather than muscle mass. Hindlimb immobilization for 7 days resulted in dramatic alterations in splice form relative abundance such that the pattern was similar to that observed in lighter animals. Remobilization for 7 days restored the splicing pattern toward that observed in the non-immobilized limb, even though muscle mass had not yet begun to recover. In conclusion, the results suggest that TNNT3 pre-mRNA alternative splicing is rapidly (i.e. within days) modulated in response to changes in the load placed on the muscle. Moreover, the results show that restoration of TNNT3 alternative splicing to control patterns is initiated prior to an increase in muscle mass. PMID:26799695

  12. Antimuscle atrophy effect of nicotine targets muscle satellite cells partly through an α7 nicotinic receptor in a murine hindlimb ischemia model.

    PubMed

    Kakinuma, Yoshihiko; Noguchi, Tatsuya; Okazaki, Kayo; Oikawa, Shino; Iketani, Mitsue; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Kurabayashi, Mutsumi; Furihata, Mutsuo; Sato, Takayuki

    2014-07-01

    We have recently identified that donepezil, an anti-Alzheimer drug, accelerates angiogenesis in a murine hindlimb ischemia (HLI) model. However, the precise mechanisms are yet to be fully elucidated, particularly whether the effects are derived from endothelial cells alone or from other nonvascular cells. Further investigation of the HLI model revealed that nicotine accelerated angiogenesis by activation of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) synthesis through nicotinic receptors in myogenic cells, that is, satellite cells, in vivo and upregulated the expression of angiogenic factors, for example, VEGF and fibroblast growth factor 2, in vitro. As a result, nicotine prevented skeletal muscle from ischemia-induced muscle atrophy and upregulated myosin heavy chain expression in vitro. The in vivo anti-atrophy effect of nicotine on muscle was also observed in galantamine, another anti-Alzheimer drug, playing as an allosteric potentiating ligand. Such effects of nicotine were attenuated in α7 nicotinic receptor knockout mice. In contrast, PNU282987, an α7 nicotinic receptor agonist, comparably salvaged skeletal muscle, which was affected by HLI. These results suggest that cholinergic signals also target myogenic cells and have inhibiting roles in muscle loss by ischemia-induced muscle atrophy.

  13. The effect of fiber-type heterogeneity on optimized work and power output of hindlimb muscles of the salamander Ambystoma tigrinum.

    PubMed

    Ashley-Ross, M A; Barker, J U

    2002-09-01

    Most vertebrate muscles are composed of a mixture of fiber types. However, studies of muscle mechanics have concentrated on homogeneous bundles of fibers. Hindlimb muscles of the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, present an excellent system to explore the consequences of fiber heterogeneity. Isometric twitches and work loops were obtained in vitro from two muscles, the m. iliotibialis pars posterior (heterogeneous, containing types I, IIa and IIb fibers) and the m. iliofibularis (nearly homogeneous for type IIa fibers). Maximal isometric twitch and tetanic stresses in m. iliotibialis posterior were significantly greater than in iliofibularis. Work loops were obtained over a range of frequencies (0.5-3.0 Hz) and strains (2-6% muscle length) that encompassed the observed ranges in vivo. Work per cycle from the homogeneous iliofibularis declined from 1.5-3.0 Hz, while that from the heterogeneous m. iliotibialis posterior increased from 0.5 Hz to 2.5 Hz and declined at 3.0 Hz. Power output from the iliofibularis rose with frequency to at least 3 Hz; power from the iliotibialis posterior rose with frequency to 2.5 Hz and declined thereafter. Mass-specific work per cycle and power output were higher in iliofibularis than iliotibialis posterior over most frequencies and strains tested.

  14. Combined, but not individual, blockade of ASIC3, P2X, and EP4 receptors attenuates the exercise pressor reflex in rats with freely perfused hindlimb muscles.

    PubMed

    Stone, Audrey J; Copp, Steven W; Kim, Joyce S; Kaufman, Marc P

    2015-12-01

    In healthy humans, tests of the hypothesis that lactic acid, PGE2, or ATP plays a role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex proved controversial. The findings in humans resembled ours in decerebrate rats that individual blockade of the receptors to lactic acid, PGE2, and ATP had only small effects on the exercise pressor reflex provided that the muscles were freely perfused. This similarity between humans and rats prompted us to test the hypothesis that in rats with freely perfused muscles combined receptor blockade is required to attenuate the exercise pressor reflex. We first compared the reflex before and after injecting either PPADS (10 mg/kg), a P2X receptor antagonist, APETx2 (100 μg/kg), an activating acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC) channel antagonist, or L161982 (2 μg/kg), an EP4 receptor antagonist, into the arterial supply of the hindlimb of decerebrated rats. We then examined the effects of combined blockade of P2X receptors, ASIC3 channels, and EP4 receptors on the exercise pressor reflex using the same doses, intra-arterial route, and time course of antagonist injections as those used for individual blockade. We found that neither PPADS (n = 5), APETx2 (n = 6), nor L161982 (n = 6) attenuated the reflex. In contrast, combined blockade of these receptors (n = 7) attenuated the peak (↓27%, P < 0.019) and integrated (↓48%, P < 0.004) pressor components of the reflex. Combined blockade injected intravenously had no effect on the reflex. We conclude that combined blockade of P2X receptors, ASIC3 channels, and EP4 receptors on the endings of thin fiber muscle afferents is required to attenuate the exercise pressor reflex in rats with freely perfused hindlimbs.

  15. Early detection of denervated muscle fibers in hindlimb muscles after sciatic nerve transection in wild type mice and in the G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gordon, T; Ly, V; Hegedus, J; Tyreman, N

    2009-02-01

    The cell adhesion molecule N-CAM is localized to the adult neuromuscular junction but is also expressed in the extrajunctional membrane of denervated muscles concurrent with extrajunctional acetylcholine receptors. Here we used N-CAM immunohistochemistry to determine whether we could detect early denervation in hindlimb muscles of the G93A transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In denervated wild type mouse muscles, N-CAM immunoreactivity on the sarcolemma of all fiber types and within the sarcoplasm of only type IIA fibers was detected at day 2: approximately 30% of the muscle fibers in cross-section were fully circumscribed by N-CAM immunoreactivity and approximately 25% of fibers were incompletely circumscribed. The proportion of the latter fibers remained constant over the next 8 days as the proportions of the former fibers increased exponentially. Thereafter, fully circumscribed muscle fibers increased to a maximum by 30 days with a concomitant fall in the incompletely circumscribed fibers. Hence, early muscle denervation was detected by the incomplete circumscription of fiber membranes by N-CAM immunoreactivity with full circumscription and intracellular localization indicating more long-term denervation. In the G93A transgenic mouse, rapid denervation of fast-twitch muscles was readily detected by a corresponding proportion of muscle fibers in cross-section with positive N-CAM immunoreactivity. The proportions of incompletely and completely circumscribed muscle fibers corresponded well with the rate of decline in intact motor units and reduced muscle contractile forces. Progressively more fully circumscribed muscle fibers became evident with age. We conclude that the N-CAM immunoreactivity on muscle fiber membranes in muscle cross-sections provides a sensitive means of detecting early muscle fiber denervation.

  16. Tetramethylpyrazine ameliorated disuse-induced gastrocnemius muscle atrophy in hindlimb unloading rats through suppression of Ca(2+)/ROS-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Nai-Fei; Chang, Hui; Du, Bei; Zhang, Quan-Wang; Arfat, Yasir; Dang, Kai; Gao, Yun-Fang

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the possible mechanism underlying the protective effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) against disuse-induced muscle atrophy. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive 14 days of hindlimb unloading (HLU, a model of disuse atrophy) or cage controls. The rats were given TMP (60 mg/kg body mass) or vehicle (water) by gavage. Compared with vehicle treatment, TMP significantly attenuated the loss of gastrocnemius muscle mass (-33.56%, P < 0.01), the decrease of cross-sectional area of slow fiber (-10.99%, P < 0.05) and fast fiber (-15.78%, P < 0.01) during HLU. Although TMP failed to further improve recovery of muscle function or fatigability compared with vehicle treatment, it can suppress the higher level of lactate (-22.71%, P < 0.01) induced by HLU. Besides, TMP could effectually reduce the increased protein expression of muscle RING-finger protein 1 induced by HLU (-14.52%, P < 0.01). Furthermore, TMP can ameliorate the calcium overload (-54.39%, P < 0.05), the increase of malondialdehyde content (-19.82%, P < 0.05), the decrease of superoxide dismutase activity (21.34%, P < 0.05), and myonuclear apoptosis (-78.22%, P < 0.01) induced by HLU. Moreover, TMP significantly reduced HLU-induced increase of Bax to B-cell lymphoma 2 (-36.36%, P < 0.01) and cytochrome c release (-36.16%, P < 0.05). In conclusion, TMP attenuated HLU-induced gastrocnemius muscle atrophy through suppression of Ca(2+)/reactive oxygen species increase and consequent proteolysis and apoptosis. Therefore, TMP might exhibit therapeutic effect against oxidative stress, cytosolic calcium overload, and mitochondrial damage in disuse-induced muscle atrophy.

  17. Adaptive control for backward quadrupedal walking. IV. Hindlimb kinetics during stance and swing.

    PubMed

    Perell, K L; Gregor, R J; Buford, J A; Smith, J L

    1993-12-01

    1. Hindlimb step-cycle kinetics of forward (FWD) and backward (BWD) walking in adult cats were assessed. The hindlimb was modeled as a linked system of rigid bodies and inverse-dynamics techniques were used to calculate hip, knee, and ankle joint kinetics. For swing, net torque at each joint was divided into three components: gravitational, motion dependent, and a generalized muscle torque. For stance, vertical and horizontal components of the ground-reaction force applied at a point on the paw (center of pressure) were added to the torque calculations. Muscle torque profiles were matched to electromyograms (EMGs) recorded from hindlimb muscles. 2. Torque profiles for BWD swing were the approximate time reversal of those for FWD swing. At each joint, the net torque during swing was small because the mean motion-dependent and muscle torque components counteracted each other. At the hip a flexor muscle torque persisted except for a brief extensor muscle torque late in FWD swing and at the onset of BWD swing. At the knee the muscle torque was relatively negligible except for a peak flexor muscle torque late in FWD swing and early in BWD swing. At the ankle there was a midswing transition from a flexor to an extensor muscle torque during FWD swing and the reverse was true for BWD swing. 3. The vertical ground-reaction force was greater for the forelimbs than the hindlimbs during FWD stance; the reverse was true for BWD stance. Thus the hindlimbs bore a greater percentage (66%) of body weight than the forelimbs during BWD stance, and the forelimbs bore a greater percentage (59%) during FWD stance. For most of FWD stance, the hindlimb exerted a small propulsive ground-reaction force, but for BWD stance the hindlimb first exerted a braking force and then a propulsive force, with the transition occurring after midstance (59% of stance). 4. At the hip the ground-reaction force vector was oriented anteriorly and then posteriorly to the estimated joint center with a midstance

  18. Effects of physiological amounts of high- and low-rate chronic stimulation on fast-twitch muscle of the cat hindlimb. II. Endurance-related properties.

    PubMed

    Kernell, D; Donselaar, Y; Eerbeek, O

    1987-09-01

    1. Long-term electrical stimulation was given to the peroneal nerve of deafferented hindlimbs in hemispinalized adult cats. The amount of stimulation covered 0.5-5.5% of total time per day, different in different animals. For some aspects of the present study, use was also made of cats subjected to "tonic" patterns of chronic stimulation (typically covering 50% of total time; 10, 16). 2. In a terminal acute experiment under general anesthesia, performed after 4 or 8 wk of long-term stimulation, one of the treated peroneal muscles (m. peroneus longus, PerL) was used for measurements of the resistance to contractile fatigue. The fatigue test consisted of 0.33-s bursts of motor-nerve stimulation at 40 Hz, repeated once a second for 4 min (6, 7). During this fatigue test, the evoked compound spikes of the muscle were recorded by electromyographic (EMG) techniques. Following the physiological procedures, PerL was removed for further histochemical analysis. In transverse sections, measurements of optical density were made in central regions of single fibers after staining for the activity of an oxidative enzyme, succinate dehydrogenase (core SDH). 3. Findings from chronically stimulated PerL muscles were compared with three kinds of control PerL muscles: 1) those contralateral to the stimulated ones, 2) those from the operated side of animals that had been deafferented and hemispinalized but not subjected to chronic stimulation, and 3) those from untreated normal animals. 4. Stimulation patterns covering both greater than or equal to 50% and 5-5.5% of daily time gave a marked improvement of fatigue resistance. Pulse rate seemed of little importance for these effects. The pattern covering only 0.5% of total daily time caused no increase of contractile endurance beyond that of normal muscles. 5. During the fatigue test of a control muscle (see above), the amplitude of the compound EMG spikes typically showed a marked decline. This "EMG depression" was effectively

  19. Endurance training induces fiber type-specific revascularization in hindlimb skeletal muscles of rats with chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbar, Kamal; Ardakanizade, Malihe; Nazem, Farzad

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Previous studies showed that skeletal muscle microcirculation was reduced in chronic heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of endurance training on capillary and arteriolar density of fast and slow twitch muscles in rats with chronic heart failure. Materials and Methods: Four weeks after surgeries (left anterior descending (LAD) artery occlusion), chronic heart failure rats were divided into 3 groups: Sham (Sham, n=10); Sedentary (Sed, n=10); Exercise training (Ex, n=10). Ex group rats were subjected to endurance training in the form of treadmill running with moderate intensity for 10 weeks. Results: Exercise training significantly increased capillary density and capillary to fiber ratio (P<0.05) in slow twitch muscle, but didn’t change fast twitch muscle capillary density and capillary to fiber ratio. Furthermore, arteriolar density in fast twitch muscle increased remarkably (P<0.05) in response to training, but slow twitch muscle arteriolar density did not change in response to exercise in chronic heart failure rats. HIF-1 increased (P<0.01) but VEGF and FGF-2 mRNA did not change in slow twitch muscle after training. In fast twitch muscle, HIF-1 mRNA increased (P<0.05), and VEGF and angiostatin decreased (P<0.01) significantly after training. Conclusion: Endurance training ameliorates fast and slow twitch muscle revascularization non-uniformly in chronic heart failure rats by increasing capillary density in slow twitch muscle and arteriolar density in fast twitch muscle. The difference in revascularization at slow and fast twitch muscles may be induced by the difference in angiogenic and angiostatic gene expression response to endurance training. PMID:28133530

  20. Effects of hindlimb unloading and ionizing radiation on skeletal muscle resistance artery vasodilation and its relation to cancellous bone in mice.

    PubMed

    Prisby, Rhonda D; Alwood, Joshua S; Behnke, Brad J; Stabley, John N; McCullough, Danielle J; Ghosh, Payal; Globus, Ruth K; Delp, Michael D

    2016-01-15

    Spaceflight has profound effects on vascular function as a result of weightlessness that may be further compounded by radiation exposure. The purpose of the present study was to assess the individual and combined effects of hindlimb unloading (HU) and radiation (Rad) on vasodilator responses in the skeletal muscle vasculature. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were randomized to one of four groups: control (Con), HU (tail suspension for 15 days), Rad (200 cGy of (137)Cs), and HU-Rad (15-day tail suspension and 200 cGy of (137)Cs). Endothelium-dependent vasodilation of gastrocnemius feed arteries was assessed in vitro using acetylcholine (ACh, 10(-9)-10(-4) M) and inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX). Endothelium-independent vasodilation was assessed using Dea-NONOate (10(-9)-10(-4) M). Endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilator responses were impaired relative to Con responses in all treatment groups; however, there was no further impairment from the combination of treatments (HU-Rad) relative to that in the HU and Rad groups. The NOS-mediated contribution to endothelium-dependent vasodilation was depressed with HU and Rad. This impairment in NOS signaling may have been partially compensated for by an enhancement of PGI2-mediated dilation. Changes in endothelium-dependent vasodilation were also associated with decrements in trabecular bone volume in the proximal tibia metaphysis. These data demonstrate that the simulated space environment (i.e., radiation exposure and unloading of muscle and bone) significantly impairs skeletal muscle artery vasodilation, mediated through endothelium-dependent reductions in NOS signaling and decrements in vascular smooth muscle cell responsiveness to NO.

  1. The protective effects of Chinese herb-Taikong Yangxin Prescription on the atrophic remodeling of cardiac muscle in rats induced by hindlimb unloading through activating Akt/GSK-3beta signaling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Yuan; Min, Yuan; Jianfeng, Zhang; Zhili, Li; Huijuan, Wang; Desheng, Wang; Yinghui, Li; Yongzhi, Li; Shizhong, Jiang

    Objective To test the hypothesis that traditional Chinese herb-TaiKong Yangxin Prescrip-tion can activate the Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway and alleviate the atrophic remodeling of cardiac muscle in rats induced by hindlimb unloading. Methods The physiological effects of simulated microgravity was induced by 7d hindlimb unloading in rats. TaiKong Yangxin Pre-scription was given daily by gastric irrigation as countermeasure against effects of simulated microgravity. The frozen sections of left ventricular cardiac muscles were stained by FITC la-beled lectin and visualized by laser scanning confocal microscopy, the cross section areas(CSA) of cardiomyocytes were calculated by IPP6.0 Image software. The protein expression of TnI, phosphorylation level of Akt and GSK-3β were measured by Western blot. Results Simulated microgravity decreased the CSA of cardiomyocytes and protein expression of TnI in left ven-tricular cardiac muscles, inhibited the phosphorylation level of Akt at serine 473 and GSK-3β at serine 9. The traditional Chinese herb-TaiKong Yangxin Prescription alleviated the atrophic remodeling of cardiac muscles, reversed the declined protein expression of TnI and phosphoryla-tion levels of Akt at serine 473 and GSK-3β at serine 9 in hindlimb-unloading rats. Conclusion The traditional Chinese herb-TaiKong Yangxin Prescription has significant countermeasure effects on the atrophic remodeling of cardiac muscle induced by hindlimb unloading in rats, in which activating Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway plays an important role.(Funded by Advanced space medico-engineering research project of China, grant NO. 2005SY5206005 and SJ200801)

  2. Denervation produces different single fiber phenotypes in fast- and slow-twitch hindlimb muscles of the rat.

    PubMed

    Patterson, M F; Stephenson, G M M; Stephenson, D G

    2006-09-01

    Using a single, mechanically skinned fiber approach, we tested the hypothesis that denervation (0 to 50 days) of skeletal muscles that do not overlap in fiber type composition [extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles of Long-Evans hooded rats] leads to development of different fiber phenotypes. Denervation (50 day) was accompanied by 1) a marked increase in the proportion of hybrid IIB/D fibers (EDL) and I/IIA fibers (SOL) from 30% to >75% in both muscles, and a corresponding decrease in the proportion of pure fibers expressing only one myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform; 2) complex muscle- and fiber-type specific changes in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-loading level at physiological pCa approximately 7.1, with EDL fibers displaying more consistent changes than SOL fibers; 3) decrease by approximately 50% in specific force of all fiber types; 4) decrease in sensitivity to Ca(2+), particularly for SOL fibers (by approximately 40%); 5) decrease in the maximum steepness of the force-pCa curves, particularly for the hybrid I/IIA SOL fibers (by approximately 35%); and 6) increased occurrence of biphasic behavior with respect to Sr(2+) activation in SOL fibers, indicating the presence of both slow and fast troponin C isoforms. No fiber types common to the two muscles were detected at any time points (day 7, 21, and 50) after denervation. The results provide strong evidence that not only neural factors, but also the intrinsic properties of a muscle fiber, influence the structural and functional properties of a particular muscle cell and explain important functional changes induced by denervation at both whole muscle and single cell levels.

  3. Responses of amino acids in hindlimb muscles to recovery from hypogravity and unloading by tail-cast suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Henriksen, E. J.; Jacob, S.; Cook, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    Amino acids were assayed in muscles from rats exposed to 7 days of hypogravity and 12 h of gravity (F) or 6 days of suspension with (R) or without (H) 12 h of loading. In these groups, lower aspartate was common only to the soleus (SOL) relative to control muscles, the smallest difference being in group R. This difference in aspartate for F and H, but not for R, correlated with lower malate suggesting diminution of citric acid cycle intermediates. The R SOL value was increased over the H SOL. Therefore desite 12 h of loading, the F SOL was more comparable to the H SOL. The role of stress in preventing recovery of the F SOL was apparent from the ratios of glutamine/glutamate. Synthesis of glutamine is enhanced by glucocorticoids and is reflected by an increased ratio. In 5 of the 6 F muscles studied, this ratio was greater than in controls. In contrast, the ratio in all R muscles was similar to controls and showed recovery from the values in H muscles. Hence the post-flight treatment of F rats may have produced additional stress. Despite this stress, in some respects the SOL responses to hypogravity were similar to its responses to unloding by suspension.

  4. Effects of alprostadil and iloprost on renal, lung, and skeletal muscle injury following hindlimb ischemia–reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Erer, Dilek; Özer, Abdullah; Demirtaş, Hüseyin; Gönül, İpek Işık; Kara, Halil; Arpacı, Hande; Çomu, Faruk Metin; Oktar, Gürsel Levent; Arslan, Mustafa; Küçük, Ayşegül

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of alprostadil (prostaglandin [PGE1] analog) and iloprost (prostacyclin [PGI2] analog) on renal, lung, and skeletal muscle tissues after ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury in an experimental rat model. Materials and methods Wistar albino rats underwent 2 hours of ischemia via infrarenal aorta clamping with subsequent 2 hours of reperfusion. Alprostadil and iloprost were given starting simultaneously with the reperfusion period. Effects of agents on renal, lung, and skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) tissue specimens were examined. Results Renal medullary congestion, cytoplasmic swelling, and mean tubular dilatation scores were significantly lower in the alprostadil-treated group than those found in the I/R-only group (P<0.0001, P=0.015, and P<0.01, respectively). Polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration, pulmonary partial destruction, consolidation, alveolar edema, and hemorrhage scores were significantly lower in alprostadil- and iloprost-treated groups (P=0.017 and P=0.001; P<0.01 and P<0.0001). Polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration scores in skeletal muscle tissue were significantly lower in the iloprost-treated group than the scores found in the nontreated I/R group (P<0.0001). Conclusion Alprostadil and iloprost significantly reduce lung tissue I/R injury. Alprostadil has more prominent protective effects against renal I/R injury, while iloprost is superior in terms of protecting the skeletal muscle tissue against I/R injury. PMID:27601882

  5. Fiber size, type, and myosin heavy chain content in rhesus hindlimb muscles after 2 weeks at 2 G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavakol, Morteza; Roy, Roland R.; Kim, Jung A.; Zhong, Hui; Hodgson, John A.; Hoban-Higgins, Tana M.; Fuller, Charles A.; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fiber atrophy and an increase in the percentage of fast fibers have been observed in Rhesus leg muscles after spaceflight. Hypothesis: Hypergravity will result in muscle fiber hypertrophy and an increase in the percentage of slow fibers. METHODS: Open muscle biopsies were obtained from Rhesus soleus, medial gastrocnemius (MG), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles before and after 14 d of centrifugation (2 G) and in time-matched controls. Cage activity levels were measured by telemetry. RESULTS: Based on monoclonal antibody binding for myosin heavy chains (MHC), the fastest region of soleus contained a higher proportion of type I+II (27 vs. 13%) and had a tendency for a lower proportion of type I (38 vs. 61%, p = 0.10) fibers after than before centrifugation. There was a higher proportion of type I+II fibers in post- vs. pre-2 G (10 vs. 0.6%) MG biopsies. Fiber type distribution and MHC composition were unaffected in the TA. Overall, mean fiber sizes were unaffected by centrifugation. Average cage activity levels were 36% lower during than before 2 G. CONCLUSIONS: Our hypothesis was rejected. The changes in the proportion of fibers expressing type I MHC are the reverse of that expected with chronic loading of extensors and, paradoxically, are similar to changes observed with chronic unloading, such as occurs during spaceflight, in this primate model. The data are consistent with the observed decrease in total daily activity levels.

  6. Muscle fatigue resistance in the rat hindlimb in vivo from low dietary intakes of tuna fish oil that selectively increase phospholipid n-3 docosahexaenoic acid according to muscle fibre type.

    PubMed

    Henry, R; Peoples, G E; McLennan, P L

    2015-09-28

    Dietary fish oil (FO) modulates muscle O2 consumption and contractile function, predictive of effects on muscle fatigue. High doses unattainable through human diet and muscle stimulation parameters used engender uncertainty in their physiological relevance. We tested the hypothesis that nutritionally relevant FO doses can modulate membrane fatty acid composition and muscle fatigue. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised to control (10% olive oil (OO) by weight) or low or moderate FO diet (LowFO and ModFO) (HiDHA tuna fish oil) for 15 weeks (LowFO: 0.3% FO, 9.7% OO, 0.25% energy as EPA+DHA; ModFO: 1.25% FO, 8.75% OO, 1.0% energy as EPA+DHA). Hindlimb muscle function was assessed under anaesthesia in vivo using repetitive 5 s burst sciatic nerve stimulation (0.05 ms, 7-12 V, 5 Hz, 10 s duty cycle, 300 s). There were no dietary differences in maximum developed muscle force. Repetitive peak developed force fell to 50% within 62 (SEM 10) s in controls and took longer to decline in FO-fed rats (LowFO 110 (SEM 15) s; ModFO 117 (sem 14) s) (P<0.05). Force within bursts was better sustained with FO and maximum rates of force development and relaxation declined more slowly. The FO-fed rats incorporated higher muscle phospholipid DHA-relative percentages than controls (P<0.001). Incorporation of DHA was greater in the fast-twitch gastrocnemius (Control 9.3 (SEM 0.8) %, LowFO 19.9 (SEM 0.4), ModFO 24.3 (SEM 1.0)) than in the slow-twitch soleus muscle (Control 5.1 (SEM 0.2), LowFO 14.3 (SEM 0.7), ModFO 18.0 (SEM 1.4)) (P<0.001), which was comparable with the myocardium, in line with muscle fibre characteristics. The LowFO and ModFO diets, emulating human dietary and therapeutic supplement intake, respectively, both elicited muscle membrane DHA enrichment and fatigue resistance, providing a foundation for translating these physiological effects to humans.

  7. Protein dynamics in skeletal muscle after trauma: local and systemic effects.

    PubMed

    Downey, R S; Monafo, W W; Karl, I E; Matthews, D E; Bier, D M

    1986-03-01

    Injury is attended by accelerated skeletal muscle proteolysis. Accurate definition of this hypercatabolic response and its mediation is requisite for specific therapy. We measured protein dynamics in the incubated and intact epitrochlearis and soleus muscles excised from both forelimbs and both hindlimbs of rats 4 days after injury by either a single hind limb scald (90 degrees C water for 3 seconds; metabolic rate (MR) + 15%, urinary urea nitrogen (UUN) + 10%) or a 5% excision (dorsal skin removed to fascia; MR + 40%, UUN + 90%). Protein synthesis (3H phenylalanine incorporation) increased only in the injured soleus from the scalded hind limb (+100%). Actin and myosin breakdown (3-methylhistidine release) increased in all muscles tested and was consistently larger in epitrochlearis than in soleus muscles. Breakdown of the mixed protein pool (tyrosine release) increased but less so than 3-methylhistidine and did not reach significance in the uninjured soleus muscle of scalded rats. With respect to fiber type, white fiber epitrochlearis muscle demonstrated a more pronounced elevation of both measures of breakdown but at a lower metabolic rate than did red fiber soleus muscle. Increasing MR was associated with a linear increase in soleus proteolysis but no further change in epitrochlearis breakdown. We conclude that protein breakdown is increased in skeletal muscle distant from injury; however, even when metabolic stress is severe, synthesis is unchanged. Muscles of different fiber composition are not equally labile. Furthermore, myofibrillar protein is more labile than the mixed protein pool.

  8. Hindlimb muscle architecture in non-human great apes and a comparison of methods for analysing inter-species variation

    PubMed Central

    Myatt, Julia P; Crompton, Robin H; Thorpe, Susannah K S

    2011-01-01

    By relating an animal's morphology to its functional role and the behaviours performed, we can further develop our understanding of the selective factors and constraints acting on the adaptations of great apes. Comparison of muscle architecture between different ape species, however, is difficult because only small sample sizes are ever available. Further, such samples are often comprised of different age–sex classes, so studies have to rely on scaling techniques to remove body mass differences. However, the reliability of such scaling techniques has been questioned. As datasets increase in size, more reliable statistical analysis may eventually become possible. Here we employ geometric and allometric scaling techniques, and ancovas (a form of general linear model, GLM) to highlight and explore the different methods available for comparing functional morphology in the non-human great apes. Our results underline the importance of regressing data against a suitable body size variable to ascertain the relationship (geometric or allometric) and of choosing appropriate exponents by which to scale data. ancova models, while likely to be more robust than scaling for species comparisons when sample sizes are high, suffer from reduced power when sample sizes are low. Therefore, until sample sizes are radically increased it is preferable to include scaling analyses along with ancovas in data exploration. Overall, the results obtained from the different methods show little significant variation, whether in muscle belly mass, fascicle length or physiological cross-sectional area between the different species. This may reflect relatively close evolutionary relationships of the non-human great apes; a universal influence on morphology of generalised orthograde locomotor behaviours or, quite likely, both. PMID:21507000

  9. Hindlimb unloading alters ligament healing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provenzano, Paolo P.; Martinez, Daniel A.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Dwyer, Kelley W.; Turner, Joanne; Vailas, Arthur C.; Vanderby, Ray Jr

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that hindlimb unloading inhibits healing in fibrous connective tissue such as ligament. Male rats were assigned to 3- and 7-wk treatment groups with three subgroups each: sham control, ambulatory healing, and hindlimb-suspended healing. Ambulatory and suspended animals underwent surgical rupture of their medial collateral ligaments, whereas sham surgeries were performed on control animals. After 3 or 7 wk, mechanical and/or morphological properties were measured in ligament, muscle, and bone. During mechanical testing, most suspended ligaments failed in the scar region, indicating the greatest impairment was to ligament and not to bone-ligament insertion. Ligament testing revealed significant reductions in maximum force, ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and low-load properties in suspended animals. In addition, femoral mineral density, femoral strength, gastrocnemius mass, and tibialis anterior mass were significantly reduced. Microscopy revealed abnormal scar formation and cell distribution in suspended ligaments with extracellular matrix discontinuities and voids between misaligned, but well-formed, collagen fiber bundles. Hence, stress levels from ambulation appear unnecessary for formation of fiber bundles yet required for collagen to form structurally competent continuous fibers. Results support our hypothesis that hindlimb unloading impairs healing of fibrous connective tissue. In addition, this study provides compelling morphological evidence explaining the altered structure-function relationship in load-deprived healing connective tissue.

  10. Effects of Hindlimb Unweighting on Arterial Contractile Responses in Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Jia; Ren, Xin-Ling; Purdy, Ralph E.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine if hindlimb unweighting in mice alters arterial contractile responses. Sixteen male C57B/6 mice and 16 male Chinese Kunming mice were divided into control and 3 weeks hindlimb unweighting groups, respectively. Using isolated arterial rings from different arteries of mouse, effects of 3 weeks hindlimb unweighting on arterial contractile responsiveness were examined in vitro. The results showed that, in arterial rings from both C57B/6 and Chinese Kunming mice, maximum isometric contractile tensions evoked by either KCl or phenylephrine were significantly lower in abdominal aortic, mesenteric arterial and femoral arterial rings from hindlimb unweighting, compared to control mice. However, the maximal contractile responses of common carotid rings to KCl and PE were not significantly different between control and hindlimb unweighting groups. The sensitivity (EC(sub 50)) of all arteries to KCl or PE showed no significant differences between control and hindlimb unweighting mice. These data indicated that 3 weeks hindlimb unweighting results in a reduced capacity of the arterial smooth muscle of the hindquarter to develop tension. In addition, the alterations in arterial contractile responses caused by hindlimb unweighting in mice are similar as those in rats. Our work suggested that hindlimb unweighting mouse model may be used as a model for the study of postflight cardiovascular deconditioning.

  11. Unilateral Hindlimb Casting Induced a Delayed Generalized Muscle Atrophy during Rehabilitation that Is Prevented by a Whey or a High Protein Diet but Not a Free Leucine-Enriched Diet

    PubMed Central

    Magne, Hugues; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Migné, Carole; Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Combaret, Lydie; Rémond, Didier; Dardevet, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia is the general muscle mass and strength loss associated with ageing. Muscle atrophy could be made worse by exposure to acute periods of immobilization, because muscle disuse by itself is a stimulus for atrophy. Using a model of unilateral hindlimb casting in old adult rats, we have already demonstrated that the primary effect of immobilization was atrophy in the casted leg, but was also surprisingly associated with a retarded atrophy in the non-casted leg during rehabilitation. In search of mechanisms involved in this generalized atrophy, we demonstrated in the present study that contrary to pair-fed non-immobilized control animals, muscle protein synthesis in the non-immobilized limb was unable to adapt and to respond positively to food intake. Because pair-fed control rats did not lose muscle mass, this defect in muscle protein synthesis may represent one of the explanation for the muscle mass loss observed in the non-immobilized rats. Nevertheless, in order to stimulate protein turn over and generate a positive nitrogen balance required to maintain the whole muscle mass in immobilized rats, we tested a dietary free leucine supplementation (an amino acid known for its stimulatory effect on protein metabolism) during the rehabilitation period. Leucine supplementation was able to overcome the anabolic resistance in the non-immobilized limb. A greater muscle protein synthesis up-regulation associated with a stimulation of the mTOR signalling pathway was indeed recorded but it remained inefficient to prevent the loss of muscle in the non-immobilized limb. By contrast, we demonstrated here that whey protein or high protein diets were able to prevent the muscle mass loss of the non-immobilized limb by sustaining muscle protein synthesis during the entire rehabilitation period. PMID:24015173

  12. Lipid droplet dynamics in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Bosma, Madeleen

    2016-01-15

    The skeletal muscle is subjected to high mechanical and energetic demands. Lipid droplets are an important source of energy substrates for the working muscle. Muscle cells contain a variety of lipid droplets, which are fundamentally smaller than those found in adipocytes. This translates into a greater lipid droplet surface area serving as the interface for intracellular lipid metabolism. The skeletal muscle has a high plasticity, it is subjected to major remodeling following training and detraining. This coincides with adaptations in lipid droplet characteristics and dynamics. The majority of lipid droplets in skeletal muscle are located in the subsarcolemmal region or in-between the myofibrils, in close vicinity to mitochondria. The vastly organized nature of skeletal muscle fibers limits organelle mobility. The high metabolic rate and substrate turnover in skeletal muscle demands a strict coordination of intramyocellular lipid metabolism and LD dynamics, in which lipid droplet coat proteins play an important role. This review provides insights into the characteristics, diversity and dynamics of skeletal muscle lipid droplets.

  13. Dynamic muscle transfer in facial reanimation.

    PubMed

    Boahene, Kofi D O

    2008-05-01

    Dynamic muscle transfers offer the hope of improved facial support and symmetry, with volitional movement. These are most commonly employed for reanimation of the oral commissure to produce a smile. In addition, muscle transfers have been used successfully to reestablish eye closure. Facial paralysis of long-standing duration presents challenges quite distinct from paralysis that is managed early after onset. It is in this situation, most commonly, that dynamic muscle transfers are used. In this respect, the alternative is free tissue transfer. Each of these two options have advantages and disadvantages.

  14. Synchronous monitoring of muscle dynamics and electromyogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakir Hossain, M.; Grill, Wolfgang

    2011-04-01

    A non-intrusive novel detection scheme has been implemented to detect the lateral muscle extension, force of the skeletal muscle and the motor action potential (EMG) synchronously. This allows the comparison of muscle dynamics and EMG signals as a basis for modeling and further studies to determine which architectural parameters are most sensitive to changes in muscle activity. For this purpose the transmission time for ultrasonic chirp signal in the frequency range of 100 kHz to 2.5 MHz passing through the muscle under observation and respective motor action potentials are recorded synchronously to monitor and quantify biomechanical parameters related to muscle performance. Additionally an ultrasonic force sensor has been employed for monitoring. Ultrasonic traducers are placed on the skin to monitor muscle expansion. Surface electrodes are placed suitably to pick up the potential for activation of the monitored muscle. Isometric contraction of the monitored muscle is ensured by restricting the joint motion with the ultrasonic force sensor. Synchronous monitoring was initiated by a software activated audio beep starting at zero time of the subsequent data acquisition interval. Computer controlled electronics are used to generate and detect the ultrasonic signals and monitor the EMG signals. Custom developed software and data analysis is employed to analyze and quantify the monitored data. Reaction time, nerve conduction speed, latent period between the on-set of EMG signals and muscle response, degree of muscle activation and muscle fatigue development, rate of energy expenditure and motor neuron recruitment rate in isometric contraction, and other relevant parameters relating to muscle performance have been quantified with high spatial and temporal resolution.

  15. Paracrine Effects of IGF-1 Overexpression on the Functional Decline Due to Skeletal Muscle Disuse: Molecular and Functional Evaluation in Hindlimb Unloaded MLC/mIgf-1 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cannone, Maria; Liantonio, Antonella; De Bellis, Michela; Digennaro, Claudio; Gramegna, Gianluca; De Luca, Annamaria; Germinario, Elena; Danieli-Betto, Daniela; Betto, Romeo; Dobrowolny, Gabriella; Rizzuto, Emanuele; Musarò, Antonio; Desaphy, Jean-François; Camerino, Diana Conte

    2013-01-01

    Slow-twitch muscles, devoted to postural maintenance, experience atrophy and weakness during muscle disuse due to bed-rest, aging or spaceflight. These conditions impair motion activities and can have survival implications. Human and animal studies demonstrate the anabolic role of IGF-1 on skeletal muscle suggesting its interest as a muscle disuse countermeasure. Thus, we tested the role of IGF-1 overexpression on skeletal muscle alteration due to hindlimb unloading (HU) by using MLC/mIgf-1 transgenic mice expressing IGF-1 under the transcriptional control of MLC promoter, selectively activated in skeletal muscle. HU produced atrophy in soleus muscle, in terms of muscle weight and fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) reduction, and up-regulation of atrophy gene MuRF1. In parallel, the disuse-induced slow-to-fast fiber transition was confirmed by an increase of the fast-type of the Myosin Heavy Chain (MHC), a decrease of PGC-1α expression and an increase of histone deacetylase-5 (HDAC5). Consistently, functional parameters such as the resting chloride conductance (gCl) together with ClC-1 chloride channel expression were increased and the contractile parameters were modified in soleus muscle of HU mice. Surprisingly, IGF-1 overexpression in HU mice was unable to counteract the loss of muscle weight and the decrease of fiber CSA. However, the expression of MuRF1 was recovered, suggesting early effects on muscle atrophy. Although the expression of PGC-1α and MHC were not improved in IGF-1-HU mice, the expression of HDAC5 was recovered. Importantly, the HU-induced increase of gCl was fully contrasted in IGF-1 transgenic mice, as well as the changes in contractile parameters. These results indicate that, even if local expression does not seem to attenuate HU-induced atrophy and slow-to-fast phenotype transition, it exerts early molecular effects on gene expression which can counteract the HU-induced modification of electrical and contractile properties. MuRF1 and HDAC5

  16. Muscle metaboreflex activation during dynamic exercise evokes epinephrine release resulting in β2-mediated vasodilation.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasdeep; Spranger, Marty D; Hammond, Robert L; Krishnan, Abhinav C; Alvarez, Alberto; Augustyniak, Robert A; O'Leary, Donal S

    2015-03-01

    Muscle metaboreflex-induced increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during submaximal dynamic exercise are mediated principally by increases in cardiac output. To what extent, if any, the peripheral vasculature contributes to this rise in MAP is debatable. In several studies, we observed that in response to muscle metaboreflex activation (MMA; induced by partial hindlimb ischemia) a small but significant increase in vascular conductance occurred within the nonischemic areas (calculated as cardiac output minus hindlimb blood flow and termed nonischemic vascular conductance; NIVC). We hypothesized that these increases in NIVC may stem from a metaboreflex-induced release of epinephrine, resulting in β2-mediated dilation. We measured NIVC and arterial plasma epinephrine levels in chronically instrumented dogs during rest, mild exercise (3.2 km/h), and MMA before and after β-blockade (propranolol; 2 mg/kg), α1-blockade (prazosin; 50 μg/kg), and α1 + β-blockade. Both epinephrine and NIVC increased significantly from exercise to MMA: 81.9 ± 18.6 to 141.3 ± 22.8 pg/ml and 33.8 ± 1.5 to 37.6 ± 1.6 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), respectively. These metaboreflex-induced increases in NIVC were abolished after β-blockade (27.6 ± 1.8 to 27.5 ± 1.7 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1)) and potentiated after α1-blockade (36.6 ± 2.0 to 49.7 ± 2.9 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1)), while α1 + β-blockade also abolished any vasodilation (33.7 ± 2.9 to 30.4 ± 1.9 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1)). We conclude that MMA during mild dynamic exercise induces epinephrine release causing β2-mediated vasodilation.

  17. Spontaneous baroreflex control of cardiac output during dynamic exercise, muscle metaboreflex activation, and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Masashi; Sala-Mercado, Javier A; O'Leary, Donal S; Hammond, Robert L; Coutsos, Matthew; Ichinose, Tomoko; Pallante, Marco; Iellamo, Ferdinando

    2008-03-01

    We have previously shown that spontaneous baroreflex-induced changes in heart rate (HR) do not always translate into changes in cardiac output (CO) at rest. We have also shown that heart failure (HF) decreases this linkage between changes in HR and CO. Whether dynamic exercise and muscle metaboreflex activation (via imposed reductions in hindlimb blood flow) further alter this translation in normal and HF conditions is unknown. We examined these questions using conscious, chronically instrumented dogs before and after pacing-induced HF during mild and moderate dynamic exercise with and without muscle metaboreflex activation. We measured left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), CO, and HR and analyzed the spontaneous HR-LVSP and CO-LVSP relationships. In normal animals, mild exercise significantly decreased HR-LVSP (-3.08 +/- 0.5 vs. -5.14 +/- 0.6 beats.min(-1).mmHg(-1); P < 0.05) and CO-LVSP (-134.74 +/- 24.5 vs. -208.6 +/- 22.2 ml.min(-1).mmHg(-1); P < 0.05). Moderate exercise further decreased both and, in addition, significantly reduced HR-CO translation (25.9 +/- 2.8% vs. 52.3 +/- 4.2%; P < 0.05). Muscle metaboreflex activation at both workloads decreased HR-LVSP, whereas it had no significant effect on CO-LVSP and the HR-CO translation. HF significantly decreased HR-LVSP, CO-LVSP, and the HR-CO translation in all situations. We conclude that spontaneous baroreflex HR responses do not always cause changes in CO during exercise. Moreover, muscle metaboreflex activation during mild and moderate dynamic exercise reduces this coupling. In addition, in HF the HR-CO translation also significantly decreases during both workloads and decreases even further with muscle metaboreflex activation.

  18. The Effects of Frequency-Dependent Dynamic Muscle Stimulation on Inhibition of Trabecular Bone Loss in a Disuse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Hoyan; Qin, Yi-Xian

    2008-01-01

    Clinical electrical muscle stimulation has been shown to alleviate muscle atrophy resulting from functional disuse, yet little is known about its effect on the skeleton. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of dynamic muscle stimulation on disused trabecular bone, and to investigate the importance of optimized stimulation frequency in the loading regimen. Fifty-six skeletally mature Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups for the 4-week experiment: baseline control, age-matched control, hindlimb suspended (HLS), and HLS with muscle stimulation at 1 Hz, 20 Hz, 50 Hz, and 100 Hz. Muscle stimulation was carried out for 10 minutes per day for 5 days per week, total of 4 weeks. The metaphyseal and epiphyseal trabecular regions of the distal femurs were analyzed with microcomputed tomography and histomorphometry methods. HLS alone for 4-week resulted in a significant amount of trabecular bone loss and structural deterioration. Muscle contraction at 1 Hz was not sufficient to inhibit trabecular bone loss and resulted in similar amount of loss to that of HLS alone. Bone quantity and structure were significantly improved by applying muscle stimulation at mid-frequency (20 Hz & 50 Hz). Dynamic stimulation at 50 Hz demonstrated the greatest preventive effect on the skeleton against functional disused alone animals (up to +147% in bone volume fraction, +38% in trabecular number and -36% in trabecular separation). Histomorphometric analysis showed that the stimulation, regardless of its frequency, did not have an effect on the bone formation indices, such as mineral apposition rate and bone formation rate. Overall, the data demonstrated the potentials of frequency-dependent dynamic muscle contraction in regulating skeletal adaptive responses under disuse conditions. Dynamic muscle stimulation, with a specific regimen, may be beneficial to future orthopedic research in developing a countermeasure for disuse osteopenia and osteoporosis. PMID

  19. Comparative Sensitivity Analysis of Muscle Activation Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rockenfeller, Robert; Günther, Michael; Schmitt, Syn; Götz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We mathematically compared two models of mammalian striated muscle activation dynamics proposed by Hatze and Zajac. Both models are representative for a broad variety of biomechanical models formulated as ordinary differential equations (ODEs). These models incorporate parameters that directly represent known physiological properties. Other parameters have been introduced to reproduce empirical observations. We used sensitivity analysis to investigate the influence of model parameters on the ODE solutions. In addition, we expanded an existing approach to treating initial conditions as parameters and to calculating second-order sensitivities. Furthermore, we used a global sensitivity analysis approach to include finite ranges of parameter values. Hence, a theoretician striving for model reduction could use the method for identifying particularly low sensitivities to detect superfluous parameters. An experimenter could use it for identifying particularly high sensitivities to improve parameter estimation. Hatze's nonlinear model incorporates some parameters to which activation dynamics is clearly more sensitive than to any parameter in Zajac's linear model. Other than Zajac's model, Hatze's model can, however, reproduce measured shifts in optimal muscle length with varied muscle activity. Accordingly we extracted a specific parameter set for Hatze's model that combines best with a particular muscle force-length relation. PMID:26417379

  20. Simplified and effective motor control based on muscle synergies to exploit musculoskeletal dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Berniker, Max; Jarc, Anthony; Bizzi, Emilio; Tresch, Matthew C.

    2009-01-01

    The basic hypothesis of producing a range of behaviors using a small set of motor commands has been proposed in various forms to explain motor behaviors ranging from basic reflexes to complex voluntary movements. Yet many fundamental questions regarding this long-standing hypothesis remain unanswered. Indeed, given the prominent nonlinearities and high dimensionality inherent in the control of biological limbs, the basic feasibility of a low-dimensional controller and an underlying principle for its creation has remained elusive. We propose a principle for the design of such a controller, that it endeavors to control the natural dynamics of the limb, taking into account the nature of the task being performed. Using this principle, we obtained a low-dimensional model of the hindlimb and a set of muscle synergies to command it. We demonstrate that this set of synergies was capable of producing effective control, establishing the viability of this muscle synergy hypothesis. Finally, by combining the low-dimensional model and the muscle synergies we were able to build a relatively simple controller whose overall performance was close to that of the system's full-dimensional nonlinear controller. Taken together, the results of this study establish that a low-dimensional controller is capable of simplifying control without degrading performance. PMID:19380738

  1. Application of a Rat Hindlimb Model: A Prediction of Force Spaces Reachable Through Stimulation of Nerve Fascicles

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Will L.; Jindrich, Devin L.; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R.

    2011-01-01

    A device to generate standing or locomotion through chronically placed electrodes has not been fully developed due in part to limitations of clinical experimentation and the high number of muscle activation inputs of the leg. We investigated the feasibility of functional electrical stimulation paradigms that minimize the input dimensions for controlling the limbs by stimulating at nerve fascicles, utilizing a model of the rat hindlimb which combined previously collected morphological data with muscle physiological parameters presented herein. As validation of the model we investigated the suitability of a lumped-parameter model for prediction of muscle activation during dynamic tasks. Using the validated model we found that the space of forces producible through activation of muscle groups sharing common nerve fascicles was nonlinearly dependent on the number of discrete muscle groups that could be individually activated (equivalently, the neuroanatomical level of activation). Seven commonly innervated muscle groups were sufficient to produce 78% of the force space producible through individual activation of the 42 modeled hindlimb muscles. This novel, neuroanatomically derived reduction in input dimension emphasizes the potential to simplify controllers for functional electrical stimulation to improve functional recovery after a neuromuscular injury. PMID:21244999

  2. Pelvic and hindlimb musculature of Tyrannosaurus rex (Dinosauria: Theropoda).

    PubMed

    Carrano, Matthew T; Hutchinson, John R

    2002-09-01

    In this article, we develop a new reconstruction of the pelvic and hindlimb muscles of the large theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex. Our new reconstruction relies primarily on direct examination of both extant and fossil turtles, lepidosaurs, and archosaurs. These observations are placed into a phylogenetic context and data from extant taxa are used to constrain inferences concerning the soft-tissue structures in T. rex. Using this extant phylogenetic bracket, we are able to offer well-supported inferences concerning most of the hindlimb musculature in this taxon. We also refrain from making any inferences for certain muscles where the resulting optimizations are ambiguous. This reconstruction differs from several previous attempts and we evaluate these discrepancies. In addition to providing a new and more detailed understanding of the hindlimb morphology of T. rex--the largest known terrestrial biped--this reconstruction also helps to clarify the sequence of character-state change along the line to extant birds.

  3. Synchronous monitoring of muscle dynamics and muscle force for maximum isometric tetanus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakir Hossain, M.; Grill, Wolfgang

    2010-03-01

    Skeletal muscle is a classic example of a biological soft matter . At both macro and microscopic levels, skeletal muscle is exquisitely oriented for force generation and movement. In addition to the dynamics of contracting and relaxing muscle which can be monitored with ultrasound, variations in the muscle force are also expected to be monitored. To observe such force and sideways expansion variations synchronously for the skeletal muscle a novel detection scheme has been developed. As already introduced for the detection of sideways expansion variations of the muscle, ultrasonic transducers are mounted sideways on opposing positions of the monitored muscle. To detect variations of the muscle force, angle of pull of the monitored muscle has been restricted by the mechanical pull of the sonic force sensor. Under this condition, any variation in the time-of-flight (TOF) of the transmitted ultrasonic signals can be introduced by the variation of the path length between the transducers. The observed variations of the TOF are compared to the signals obtained by ultrasound monitoring for the muscle dynamics. The general behavior of the muscle dynamics and muscle force shows almost an identical concept. Since muscle force also relates the psychological boosting-up effects, the influence of boosting-up on muscle force and muscle dynamics can also be quantified form this study. Length-tension or force-length and force-velocity relationship can also be derived quantitatively with such monitoring.

  4. Accumulation of PDGF+ cells and internalisation of the PDGF receptor at myotendinous junction following modified hindlimb muscle use in the rat

    PubMed Central

    FRENETTE, JÉRÔME

    2000-01-01

    Morphological observations have shown previously that myotendinous junctions (MTJs) are sites where the associations between the cytoskeleton and the cell membrane are extensively remodelled during muscle growth and modified mechanical loading. The platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) molecule has been shown to induce cytoskeletal remodelling at focal contact sites of myoblasts in culture, the analogous structures of MTJs. The goals of the study were to determine whether PDGF is synthesised by mononuclear cells and whether PDGF receptors are internalised at the MTJs of the soleus muscle experiencing reloading. We also examined whether ED2+ macrophages that are nonphagocytic and activated inflammatory cells at MTJs during reloading secrete PDGF. Results obtained by immunohistochemistry showed that there was an increase in the number of cells expressing PDGF at remodelling MTJs and that the ED2+ macrophage population does not express PDGF at MTJs. According to morphological criteria, fibroblasts would be the logical candidates to secrete PDGF molecules near MTJs. Furthermore, the modification in muscle loading resulted in internalisation of PDGF receptors concentrated at the MTJ which accumulated predominantly around muscle nuclei. The enrichment of PDGF receptors and PDGF+ cells at MTJs and the internalisation of PDGF receptors during remodelling of MTJs suggest that PDGF may influence remodelling of MTJs following modified muscle use. PMID:10739017

  5. L-Type Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channel Currents of Cerebral Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells are Increased by 2-Week Hindlimb Unweighting in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hao; Xue, Jun-Hui; Bai, Yun-Gang; Xie, Man-Jiang; Bao, Jun-Xiang; Ma, Jin

    2008-06-01

    To investigate alterations of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (CaL) in cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells isolated from rats subjected to a two-week simulated weightlessness, and influence of Bay K 8644 (an agonist of CaL) to the channel currents. Tail-suspended rat model was used to simulate the effects of microgravity. Whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record CaL currents before and after Bay K 8644 treatment, with intracellular Ca2+ concentration maintained physiological level. The corresponding parameters such as steady state activation and inactivation curves were also recorded. Whole-cell CaL current densities increased obviously, and sensitivity of CaL to Bay K 8644 also increased in cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells from suspension group. But membrane capacitance (Cm), access resistance (Ra), and other parameters of CaL such as steady state activation / inactivation curves have no significant changes compared with those of control group. These results suggest that enhanced CaL function of cerebrovascular smooth muscle cells induced by simulated microgravity may be one of the electrophysiological mechanisms that mediate enhanced vasoreactivity of cerebrovascular smooth muscle cells during adaptation to simulated weightlessness in rats.

  6. Transcriptional changes of secreted Wnt antagonists in hindlimb skeletal muscle during the lifetime of the C57BL/6J mouse.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Soo Hee; Yoo, Taekyung; Kang, Keunsoo; Park, Seung-Yeol; Joe, Cheol O; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2011-10-01

    The canonical Wnt pathway plays a critical role in myogenesis and age-related inefficient muscle regeneration. To gain insights into changes in Wnt signaling in muscle during the lifetime of a mouse, mRNA levels of secreted Wnt antagonists were investigated. Among 13 analyzed antagonists, seven genes were found to be down-regulated in skeletal muscles of adult and old mice. Epigenetic modifications at the promoter regions of these seven Wnt antagonists were then examined to understand how these correlate with this transcriptional repression. DNA methylation was stably maintained, while chromatin modifications changed to transcriptionally inactive states over the course of a lifetime. Similar patterns of changes in chromatin modifications were observed at the promoters of all of the studied genes. The observations indicated that an upstream factor might regulate the chromatin states and the transcriptional repression of Wnt antagonists. Several bioinformatic analyses revealed that a FOXD3 binding motif is present within promoter regions of the seven antagonists. Furthermore, age-dependent differential FOXD3 binding is observed at the motifs of the seven gene promoters. Our results suggest that FOXD3 as a potential epigenetic regulator may mediate the transcriptional repression of the seven antagonists, possibly through regulation of histone modifications.

  7. Locomotion as an emergent property of muscle contractile dynamics.

    PubMed

    Biewener, Andrew A

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscles share many common, highly conserved features of organization at the molecular and myofilament levels, giving skeletal muscle fibers generally similar and characteristic mechanical and energetic properties; properties well described by classical studies of muscle mechanics and energetics. However, skeletal muscles can differ considerably in architectural design (fiber length, pinnation, and connective tissue organization), as well as fiber type, and how they contract in relation to the timing of neuromotor activation and in vivo length change. The in vivo dynamics of muscle contraction is, therefore, crucial to assessing muscle design and the roles that muscles play in animal movement. Architectural differences in muscle-tendon organization combined with differences in the phase of activation and resulting fiber length changes greatly affect the time-varying force and work that muscles produce, as well as the energetic cost of force generation. Intrinsic force-length and force-velocity properties of muscles, together with their architecture, also play important roles in the control of movement, facilitating rapid adjustments to changing motor demands. Such adjustments complement slower, reflex-mediated neural feedback control of motor recruitment. Understanding how individual fiber forces are integrated to whole-muscle forces, which are transmitted to the skeleton for producing and controlling locomotor movement, is therefore essential for assessing muscle design in relation to the dynamics of movement.

  8. Programming smooth muscle plasticity with chromatin dynamics.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Oliver G; Owens, Gary K

    2007-05-25

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) possess remarkable phenotypic plasticity that allows rapid adaptation to fluctuating environmental cues. For example, vascular SMCs undergo profound changes in their phenotype during neointimal formation in response to vessel injury or within atherosclerotic plaques. Recent studies have shown that interaction of serum response factor (SRF) and its numerous accessory cofactors with CArG box DNA sequences within promoter chromatin of SMC genes is a nexus for integrating signals that influence SMC differentiation in development and disease. During development, SMC-restricted sets of posttranslational histone modifications are acquired within the CArG box chromatin of SMC genes. These modifications in turn control the chromatin-binding properties of SRF. The histone modifications appear to encode a SMC-specific epigenetic program that is used by extracellular cues to influence SMC differentiation, by regulating binding of SRF and its partners to the chromatin template. Thus, SMC differentiation is dynamically regulated by the interplay between SRF accessory cofactors, the SRF-CArG interaction, and the underlying histone modification program. As such, the inherent plasticity of the SMC lineage offers unique glimpses into how cellular differentiation is dynamically controlled at the level of chromatin within the context of changing microenvironments. Further elucidation of how chromatin regulates SMC differentiation will undoubtedly yield valuable insights into both normal developmental processes and the pathogenesis of several vascular diseases that display detrimental SMC phenotypic behavior.

  9. a Dynamical Model of Muscle Activation, Fatigue and Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing Z.; Yue, Guang H.; Brown, Robert W.

    2001-04-01

    A dynamical model on muscle activation, fatigue, and recovery was developed to provide a theoretical framework for explaining the force produced by muscle(s) during the process of getting activated and fatigued. By simplifying the fatigue effect and the recovery effect as two phenomenological parameters (F, R), we developed a set of dynamical equations to describe the behavior of muscle(s) as a group of motor units under an external drive, e.g., voluntary brain effort. This model provides a macroscopic view for understanding the biophysical mechanisms of voluntary drive, fatigue effect, and recovery in stimulating, limiting and modulating the force output from muscle(s). Agreement between the experimental data and the predicted forces is excellent. This model may also generate new possibilities in clinical and engineering applications. The parameters introduced by this model can serve as good indicators of physical conditions, and may be useful for quantitative diagnosis of certain diseases related to muscles, especially symptoms of fatigue. Inference from the model can clarify a long-debating question regarding the maximal possibility of muscle force production. It can also be used as guideline for simulating real muscle in muscle engineering or design of human-mimic robot.

  10. Muscle force estimation with surface EMG during dynamic muscle contractions: a wavelet and ANN based approach.

    PubMed

    Bai, Fengjun; Chew, Chee-Meng

    2013-01-01

    Human muscle force estimation is important in biomechanics studies, sports and assistive devices fields. Therefore, it is essential to develop an efficient algorithm to estimate force exerted by muscles. The purpose of this study is to predict force/torque exerted by muscles under dynamic muscle contractions based on continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and artificial neural networks (ANN) approaches. Mean frequency (MF) of the surface electromyography (EMG) signals power spectrum was calculated from CWT. ANN models were trained to derive the MF-force relationships from the subset of EMG signals and the measured forces. Then we use the networks to predict the individual muscle forces for different muscle groups. Fourteen healthy subjects (10 males and 4 females) were voluntarily recruited in this study. EMG signals were collected from the biceps brachii, triceps, hamstring and quadriceps femoris muscles to evaluate the proposed method. Root mean square errors (RMSE) and correlation coefficients between the predicted forces and measured actual forces were calculated.

  11. The Hindlimb Myology of Tyto alba (Tytonidae, Strigiformes, Aves).

    PubMed

    Mosto, M C

    2017-02-01

    This work is the first myological dissection performed in detail on the hindlimb of Tyto alba. Six specimens were dissected and their muscle masses were obtained. T. alba has the classical myological pattern present in other species of Strigiformes, such as a well-developed m. flexor digitorum longus and the absence of the m. plantaris, flexor cruris lateralis and ambiens. Also, T. alba lacks the m. extensor propius digiti III, m. extensor propius digiti IV and m. lumbricalis, present in the Strigidae. Hindlimb muscle mass accounts for 14.13% of total body mass, which is within the range of values of both nocturnal (Strigiformes) and diurnal (Falconidae and Accipitridae) raptors. This study provides important information for future studies related to functional morphology and ecomorphology.

  12. Muscle-spring dynamics in time-limited, elastic movements.

    PubMed

    Rosario, M V; Sutton, G P; Patek, S N; Sawicki, G S

    2016-09-14

    Muscle contractions that load in-series springs with slow speed over a long duration do maximal work and store the most elastic energy. However, time constraints, such as those experienced during escape and predation behaviours, may prevent animals from achieving maximal force capacity from their muscles during spring-loading. Here, we ask whether animals that have limited time for elastic energy storage operate with springs that are tuned to submaximal force production. To answer this question, we used a dynamic model of a muscle-spring system undergoing a fixed-end contraction, with parameters from a time-limited spring-loader (bullfrog: Lithobates catesbeiana) and a non-time-limited spring-loader (grasshopper: Schistocerca gregaria). We found that when muscles have less time to contract, stored elastic energy is maximized with lower spring stiffness (quantified as spring constant). The spring stiffness measured in bullfrog tendons permitted less elastic energy storage than was predicted by a modelled, maximal muscle contraction. However, when muscle contractions were modelled using biologically relevant loading times for bullfrog jumps (50 ms), tendon stiffness actually maximized elastic energy storage. In contrast, grasshoppers, which are not time limited, exhibited spring stiffness that maximized elastic energy storage when modelled with a maximal muscle contraction. These findings demonstrate the significance of evolutionary variation in tendon and apodeme properties to realistic jumping contexts as well as the importance of considering the effect of muscle dynamics and behavioural constraints on energy storage in muscle-spring systems.

  13. Effects of hindlimb unloading on neuromuscular development of neonatal rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huckstorf, B. L.; Slocum, G. R.; Bain, J. L.; Reiser, P. M.; Sedlak, F. R.; Wong-Riley, M. T.; Riley, D. A.

    2000-01-01

    We hypothesized that hindlimb suspension unloading of 8-day-old neonatal rats would disrupt the normal development of muscle fiber types and the motor innervation of the antigravity (weightbearing) soleus muscles but not extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Five rats were suspended 4.5 h and returned 1.5 h to the dam for nursing on a 24 h cycle for 9 days. To control for isolation from the dam, the remaining five littermates were removed on the same schedule but not suspended. Another litter of 10 rats housed in the same room provided a vivarium control. Fibers were typed by myofibrillar ATPase histochemistry and immunostaining for embryonic, slow, fast IIA and fast IIB isomyosins. The percentage of multiple innervation and the complexity of singly-innervated motor terminal endings were assessed in silver/cholinesterase stained sections. Unique to the soleus, unloading accelerated production of fast IIA myosin, delayed expression of slow myosin and retarded increases in standardized muscle weight and fiber size. Loss of multiple innervation was not delayed. However, fewer than normal motor nerve endings achieved complexity. Suspended rats continued unloaded hindlimb movements. These findings suggest that motor neurons resolve multiple innervation through nerve impulse activity, whereas the postsynaptic element (muscle fiber) controls endplate size, which regulates motor terminal arborization. Unexpectedly, in the EDL of unloaded rats, transition from embryonic to fast myosin expression was retarded. Suspension-related foot drop, which stretches and chronically loads EDL, may have prevented fast fiber differentiation. These results demonstrate that neuromuscular development of both weightbearing and non-weightbearing muscles in rats is dependent upon and modulated by hindlimb loading.

  14. Building a robotic link between muscle dynamics and hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Richards, Christopher T

    2011-07-15

    This study used a novel feedback approach to control a robotic foot using force and length signals transmitted from an isolated Xenopus laevis frog muscle. The foot's environment (inertial versus hydrodynamic), gearing (outlever/inlever) and size were changed to alter the muscle's load. Upon nerve stimulation (250 Hz, 80 ms train duration), variation in loading generated a range of muscle stress (19.8±5.3 to 66.0±22.5 kPa), work (1.89±0.67 to 6.87±2.96 J kg(-1) muscle) and power (12.4±7.5 to 64.8±28.3 W kg(-1) muscle; mean ± s.d., N=6 frogs). Inertial versus hydrodynamic loading dramatically shifted contractile dynamics. With the foot in water, the muscle generated ∼30% higher force, yet shortened slower, producing lower power than inertial loading. Power increased in air from 22.6±5.8 to 63.6±27.2 W kg(-1) muscle in response to doubling the gear ratio, but did not increase in water. Surprisingly, altering foot size diminished muscle performance in water, causing power to drop significantly from 41.6±11.1 to 25.1±8.0 W kg(-1) muscle as foot area was doubled. Thus, morphological modifications influenced muscle dynamics independently of neural control; however, changes in loading environment and gearing affected contractile output more strongly than changes in foot size. Confirming recent theory, these findings demonstrate how muscle contractile output can be modulated solely by altering the mechanical environment.

  15. Dynamic properties of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle.

    PubMed

    Cooper, D S; Shindo, M; Sinha, U; Hast, M H; Rice, D H

    1994-12-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the contractile properties of the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle. Simultaneous measurements were made of the isometric force, temperature, and electromyographic activity of the dorsal cricoarytenoid muscle of anesthetized dogs during supramaximal stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve for twitch and tetanic contraction. The conduction delay between stimulation of the recurrent nerve at the level of the larynx and the onset of the muscle action potential averaged 2.0 +/- 0.2 milliseconds (ms), and the latent period between the onset of electrical activity of the muscle and the onset of contraction had a mean duration of 3.3 +/- 0.8 ms. The mean of isometric contraction times found was 33.3 +/- 2.0 ms, shorter than most previous studies of canine PCA muscle. Tetanic frequency defined as smooth contraction was higher than previous estimates. Considerations of scaling of physiological time based on animal mass were applied to analysis of the experimental findings to make possible systematic comparison of previous findings across species and animal size.

  16. Neural mechanism of depressor responses of arterial pressure elicited by acupuncture-like stimulation to a hindlimb in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Ohsawa, H; Okada, K; Nishijo, K; Sato, Y

    1995-01-20

    The effects of acupuncture-like stimulation of a hindlimb on renal sympathetic nerve activity (RNA) as well as mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were examined in anesthetized rats. An acupuncture needle (diameter of 160 microns) was inserted into the skin of a hindlimb and underlying muscles to a depth of 5 mm and was twisted at about 1 Hz. Under deep anesthetic condition, in about 70% of trials, acupuncture-like stimulation for 60 s induced a decrease in MAP which was accompanied by a decrease in RNA. Acupuncture-like stimulation applied to the muscles alone, but not to the skin alone, induced inhibition of RNA and MAP. Transection of sciatic and femoral nerves ipsilateral to the hindlimb stimulation completely abolished the responses of RNA and MAP. The hindlimb stimulation excited the femoral and common peroneal afferent nerves. In spinalized animals, the hindlimb stimulation did not produce any changes in RNA and MAP. The results indicate that the decrease in MAP induced by acupuncture-like stimulation of a hindlimb is a reflex response. The afferent pathway is composed of hindlimb muscle afferents while the efferent pathway is composed of sympathetic vasoconstrictors including the renal nerves. Endogenous opioids may not be involved in the present reflex, because an intravenous injection of naloxone, an antagonist of the opioid receptors, did not influence the reflex.

  17. Models of disuse - A comparison of hindlimb suspension and immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, R. H.; Metzger, J. M.; Riley, D. A.; Unsworth, B. R.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of 1 and 2 weeks of hindlimb suspension (HS) on the contractile properties of fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles of male Sprague Dawley rats are studied and compared with hindlimb immobilization (HI) data. The optimal length and contractile properties of the slow-twitch soleus, fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus, and the vastus lateralis are measured. It is observed that HS and HI affect slow-twitch muscles; isometric twitch duration in the slow-twitch soleus is decreased. Soleus muscle mass and peak tetanic tension declines with disuse. A major difference in the influence of HS and HI on the maximal speed of soleus muscle shortening, V(max) is detected; HS produced a twofold increase in V(max) compared to control data and HI had no significant effect on V(max). The relation between V(max) and myosin concentration is analyzed. The data reveal that HS modifies slow-twitch muscle yielding hybrid fibers with elevated shortening velocities and this change may be dependent on the elimination of load-bearing contractions.

  18. Muscle Lim Protein isoform negatively regulates striated muscle actin dynamics and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Vafiadaki, Elizabeth; Arvanitis, Demetrios A.; Papalouka, Vasiliki; Terzis, Gerasimos; Roumeliotis, Theodoros I.; Spengos, Konstantinos; Garbis, Spiros D.; Manta, Panagiota; Kranias, Evangelia G.; Sanoudou, Despina

    2015-01-01

    Muscle Lim Protein (MLP) has emerged as a critical regulator of striated muscle physiology and pathophysiology. Mutations in cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3 (CSRP3), the gene encoding MLP, have been directly associated with human cardiomyopathies, while aberrant expression patterns are reported in human cardiac and skeletal muscle diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that MLP has an important role in both myogenic differentiation and myocyte cytoarchitecture, although the full spectrum of its intracellular roles has not been delineated. We report the discovery of an alternative splice variant of MLP, designated as MLP-b, showing distinct expression in neuromuscular disease and direct roles in actin dynamics and muscle differentiation. This novel isoform originates by alternative splicing of exons 3 and 4. At the protein level, it contains the N-terminus first half LIM domain of MLP and a unique sequence of 22 amino acids. Physiologically it is expressed during early differentiation, whereas its overexpression reduces C2C12 differentiation and myotube formation. This may be mediated through its inhibition of MLP/CFL2-mediated F-actin dynamics. In differentiated striated muscles, MLP-b localizes to the sarcomeres and binds directly to Z-disc components including α-actinin, T-cap and MLP. Our findings unveil a novel player in muscle physiology and pathophysiology that is implicated in myogenesis as a negative regulator of myotube formation, and in differentiated striated muscles as a contributor to sarcomeric integrity. PMID:24860983

  19. Hindlimb spasticity after unilateral motor cortex lesion in rats is reduced by contralateral nerve root transfer

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Haiyang; Ma, Fenfen; Zhang, Laiyin; Lu, Huiping; Gong, Jingru; Cai, Min; Lin, Haodong; Zhu, Yizhun; Hou, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    Lower extremity spasticity is a common sequela among patients with acquired brain injury. The optimum treatment remains controversial. The aim of our study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of contralateral nerve root transfer in reducing post stroke spasticity of the affected hindlimb muscles in rats. In our study, we for the first time created a novel animal hindlimb spastic hemiplegia model in rats with photothrombotic lesion of unilateral motor cortex and we established a novel surgical procedure in reducing motor cortex lesion-induced hindlimb spastic hemiplegia in rats. Thirty six rats were randomized into three groups. In group A, rats received sham operation. In group B, rats underwent unilateral hindlimb motor cortex lesion. In group C, rats underwent unilateral hindlimb cortex lesion followed by contralateral L4 ventral root transfer to L5 ventral root of the affected side. Footprint analysis, Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex), cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) retrograde tracing of gastrocnemius muscle (GM) motoneurons and immunofluorescent staining of vesicle glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) on CTB-labelled motoneurons were used to assess spasticity of the affected hindlimb. Sixteen weeks postoperatively, toe spread and stride length recovered significantly in group C compared with group B (P<0.001). Hmax (H-wave maximum amplitude)/Mmax (M-wave maximum amplitude) ratio of gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles (PMs) significantly reduced in group C (P<0.01). Average VGLUT1 positive boutons per CTB-labelled motoneurons significantly reduced in group C (P<0.001). We demonstrated for the first time that contralateral L4 ventral root transfer to L5 ventral root of the affected side was effective in relieving unilateral motor cortex lesion-induced hindlimb spasticity in rats. Our data indicated that this could be an alternative treatment for unilateral lower extremity spasticity after brain injury. Therefore, contralateral neurotization may exert a potential

  20. Effects of acidification and increased extracellular potassium on dynamic muscle contractions in isolated rat muscles.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Kristian; Højfeldt, Grith Westergaard; Nielsen, Ole Bækgaard

    2010-12-15

    Since accumulation of both H(+) and extracellular K(+) have been implicated in the reduction in dynamic contractile function during intense exercise, we investigated the effects of acidification and high K(+) on muscle power and the force-velocity relation in non-fatigued rat soleus muscles. Contractions were elicited by supramaximal electrical stimulation at 60 Hz. Force-velocity (FV) curves were obtained by fitting data on force and shortening velocity at different loads to the Hill equation. Acidification of the muscles by incubation with up to 24 mm lactic acid produced no significant changes in maximal power (P(max)) at 30 °C. More pronounced acidification, obtained by increasing CO(2) levels in the equilibration gas from 5% to 53%, markedly decreased P(max) and maximal isometric force (F(max)), increased the curvature of the FV relation, but left maximal shortening velocity (V(max)) unchanged. Increase of extracellular K(+) from 4 to 10 mm caused a depression of 58% in P(max) and 52% in F(max), but had no significant effect on V(max) or curvature of the FV curve. When muscles at 10 mM K(+) were acidified by 20 mm lactic acid, P(max) and F(max) recovered completely to the initial control level at 4 mm K(+). CO(2) acidification also induced significant recovery of dynamic contractions, but not entirely to control levels. These results demonstrate that in non-fatigued muscles severe acidification can be detrimental to dynamic contractile function, but in muscles depolarised by exposure to high extracellular [K(+)], approaching the [K(+)] level seen during intense fatiguing exercise, acidification can have positive protective effects on dynamic muscle function.

  1. Characterization of the Arterial Anatomy of the Murine Hindlimb: Functional Role in the Design and Understanding of Ischemia Models

    PubMed Central

    Kochi, Takashi; Imai, Yoshimichi; Takeda, Atsushi; Watanabe, Yukiko; Mori, Shiro; Tachi, Masahiro; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Appropriate ischemia models are required for successful studies of therapeutic angiogenesis. While collateral routes are known to be present within the innate vasculature, there are no reports describing the detailed vascular anatomy of the murine hindlimb. In addition, differences in the descriptions of anatomical names and locations in the literature impede understanding of the circulation and the design of hindlimb ischemia models. To understand better the collateral circulation in the whole hindlimb, clarification of all the feeding arteries of the hindlimb is required. Objective The aim of this study is to reveal the detailed arterial anatomy and collateral routes in murine hindlimb to enable the appropriate design of therapeutic angiogenesis studies and to facilitate understanding of the circulation in ischemia models. Methods and Results Arterial anatomy in the murine hindlimb was investigated by contrast-enhanced X-ray imaging and surgical dissection. The observed anatomy is shown in photographic images and in a schema. Previously unnoticed but relatively large arteries were observed in deep, cranial and lateral parts of the thigh. The data indicates that there are three collateral routes through the medial thigh, quadriceps femoris, and the biceps femoris muscles. Furthermore, anatomical variations were found at the origins of the three feeding arteries. Conclusions The detailed arterial anatomy of murine hindlimb and collateral routes deduced from the anatomy are described. Limitations on designs of ischemia models in view of anatomical variations are proposed. These observations will contribute to the development of animal studies of therapeutic angiogenesis using murine hindlimb ischemia models. PMID:24386328

  2. Muscle anatomy is a primary determinant of muscle relaxation dynamics in the lobster (Panulirus interruptus) stomatogastric system.

    PubMed

    Thuma, Jeffrey B; Harness, Patricia I; Koehnle, Thomas J; Morris, Lee G; Hooper, Scott L

    2007-11-01

    We stained sarcomere thin filaments with fluorescently labeled phalloidin, measured sarcomere and muscle length, and calculated sarcomere number in pyloric and gastric mill muscles. A wide range of sarcomere lengths (3.25-12.29 microm), muscle lengths (5.9-21.1 mm), and sarcomere numbers (648-3,036) were observed. Sarcomere number differences occurred both because of changes in sarcomere length and muscle length, and sarcomere and muscle length varied independently. This independence, the wide range of sarcomere numbers present, and the muscles being all 'slow', graded muscles allowed us to use these data to test Huxley and Neidergerke's (1954) hypothesis that muscle dynamics depend on sarcomere number. The time constants of exponential fits to contraction relaxations were used to measure muscle dynamics, and comparison of theoretical predictions and experimental results quantitatively confirm the predicted dependence. The differing dynamics of the various pyloric muscles are likely functionally important, and the dependence of muscle dynamics on sarcomere number implies that sarcomere number is likely closely regulated in these muscles. The stomatogastric system may thus be an excellent model system for studying the mechanisms regulating muscle sarcomere number.

  3. DNA methylation dynamics in muscle development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Carrió, Elvira; Suelves, Mònica

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic modification for mammalian development and is crucial for the establishment and maintenance of cellular identity. Traditionally, DNA methylation has been considered as a permanent repressive epigenetic mark. However, the application of genome-wide approaches has allowed the analysis of DNA methylation in different genomic contexts revealing a more dynamic regulation than originally thought, since active DNA methylation and demethylation occur during cellular differentiation and tissue specification. Satellite cells are the primary stem cells in adult skeletal muscle and are responsible for postnatal muscle growth, hypertrophy, and muscle regeneration. This review outlines the published data regarding DNA methylation changes along the skeletal muscle program, in both physiological and pathological conditions, to better understand the epigenetic mechanisms that control myogenesis. PMID:25798107

  4. Phenomenological models of the dynamics of muscle during isotonic shortening.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Sang Hoon; Monroy, Jenna A; Lappin, A Kristopher; Nishikawa, Kiisa C; Pai, Dinesh K

    2013-09-27

    We investigated the effectiveness of simple, Hill-type, phenomenological models of the force-length-velocity relationship for simulating measured length trajectories during muscle shortening, and, if so, what forms of the model are most useful. Using isotonic shortening data from mouse soleus and toad depressor mandibulae muscles, we showed that Hill-type models can indeed simulate the shortening trajectories with sufficiently good accuracy. However, we found that the standard form of the Hill-type muscle model, called the force-scaling model, is not a satisfactory choice. Instead, the results support the use of less frequently used models, the f-max scaling model and force-scaling with parallel spring, to simulate the shortening dynamics of muscle.

  5. Quantitative changes of GABA-immunoreactive cells in the hindlimb representation of the rat somatosensory cortex after 14-day hindlimb unloading by tail suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Amelio, F.; Fox, R. A.; Wu, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.

    1996-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating quantitatively gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunoreactivity in the hindlimb representation of the rat somatosensory cortex after 14 days of hindlimb unloading by tail suspension. A reduction in the number of GABA-immunoreactive cells with respect to the control animals was observed in layer Va and Vb. GABA-containing terminals were also reduced in the same layers, particularly those terminals surrounding the soma and apical dendrites of pyramidal cells in layer Vb. On the basis of previous morphological and behavioral studies of the neuromuscular system of hindlimb-suspended animals, it is suggested that the unloading due to hindlimb suspension alters afferent signaling and feedback information from intramuscular receptors to the cerebral cortex due to modifications in the reflex organization of hindlimb muscle groups. We propose that the reduction in immunoreactivity of local circuit GABAergic neurons and terminals is an expression of changes in their modulatory activity to compensate for the alterations in the afferent information.

  6. A dynamical model of muscle activation, fatigue, and recovery.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing Z; Brown, Robert W; Yue, Guang H

    2002-01-01

    A dynamical model is presented as a framework for muscle activation, fatigue, and recovery. By describing the effects of muscle fatigue and recovery in terms of two phenomenological parameters (F, R), we develop a set of dynamical equations to describe the behavior of muscles as a group of motor units activated by voluntary effort. This model provides a macroscopic view for understanding biophysical mechanisms of voluntary drive, fatigue effect, and recovery in stimulating, limiting, and modulating the force output from muscles. The model is investigated under the condition in which brain effort is assumed to be constant. Experimental validation of the model is performed by fitting force data measured from healthy human subjects during a 3-min sustained maximal voluntary handgrip contraction. The experimental results confirm a theoretical inference from the model regarding the possibility of maximal muscle force production, and suggest that only 97% of the true maximal force can be reached under maximal voluntary effort, assuming that all motor units can be recruited voluntarily. The effects of different motor unit types, time-dependent brain effort, sources of artifacts, and other factors that could affect the model are discussed. The applications of the model are also discussed. PMID:11964225

  7. Dynamic stiffness and damping of porcine muscle specimens.

    PubMed

    Aimedieu, P; Mitton, D; Faure, J P; Denninger, L; Lavaste, F

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the mechanical properties of the muscles of the buttock, using dynamic compression (5-->30 Hz). Tests were conducted in vitro on porcine muscles, using a lever arm device, which applied a dynamic load onto cylindrical samples. A two-parameter viscoelastic model allowed the calculation of stiffness and damping of the samples with respect to frequency. The average stiffness curve showed a monotonous increase (5 Hz: 8.5 kN/m-->30 Hz: 347 kN/m). Concerning damping, between 5 and 20 Hz, values were typically inferior to 300 Ns/m, which then increased till 30 Hz (556 Ns/m). The lever arm device may be used to evaluate dynamic properties of other biological tissues also.

  8. Lighting up microtubule cytoskeleton dynamics in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Masedunskas, Andrius; Appaduray, Mark; Gunning, Peter W; Hardeman, Edna C

    2014-01-01

    In the past few decades, live cell microscopy techniques in combination with fluorescent tagging have provided a true explosion in our knowledge of the inner functioning of the cell. Dynamic phenomena can be observed inside living cells and the behavior of individual molecules participating in those events can be documented. However, our preference for simple or easy model systems such as cell culture, has come at a cost of chasing artifacts and missing out on understanding real biology as it happens in complex multicellular organisms. We are now entering a new era where developing meaningful, but also tractable model systems to study biological phenomenon dynamically in vivo in a mammal is not only possible; it will become the gold standard for scientific quality and translational potential.1,2 A study by Oddoux et al. describing the dynamics of the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton in skeletal muscle is one example that demonstrates the power of developing in vivo/ex vivo models.3 MTs have long attracted attention as targets for cancer therapeutics 4 and more recently as mediators of Duchene muscular dystrophy.5 The muscle fiber MT cytoskeleton forms an intricate rectilinear lattice beneath the sarcolemma and is essential for the structural integrity of the muscle. Cultured cells do not develop such a specialized organization of the MT cytoskeleton and our understanding of it has come from static snapshots of muscle sections.6 In this context, the methodology and the findings reported by Oddoux et al. are a significant step forward. PMID:28243508

  9. Ultrasonic Measurement of Dynamic Muscle Behavior for Poststroke Hemiparetic Gait

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Shi, Wenxiu; Wang, Jun; Xiang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of the hemiparesis status for a poststroke patient is still challenging. This study aims to measure and investigate the dynamic muscle behavior in poststroke hemiparetic gait using ultrasonography. Twelve hemiparetic patients walked on a treadmill, and EMG, joint angle, and ultrasonography were simultaneously recorded for the gastrocnemius medialis muscle. Pennation angle was automatically extracted from ultrasonography using a tracking algorithm reported previously. The characteristics of EMG, joint angle, and pennation angle in gait cycle were calculated for both (affected and unaffected) sides of lower limbs. The results suggest that pennation angle could work as an important morphological index to continuous muscle contraction. The change pattern of pennation angle between the affected and unaffected sides is different from that of EMG. These findings indicate that morphological parameter extracted from ultrasonography can provide different information from that provided by EMG for hemiparetic gait. PMID:28232945

  10. Prediction of muscle performance during dynamic repetitive movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byerly, D. L.; Byerly, K. A.; Sognier, M. A.; Squires, W. G.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During long-duration spaceflight, astronauts experience progressive muscle atrophy and often perform strenuous extravehicular activities. Post-flight, there is a lengthy recovery period with an increased risk for injury. Currently, there is a critical need for an enabling tool to optimize muscle performance and to minimize the risk of injury to astronauts while on-orbit and during post-flight recovery. Consequently, these studies were performed to develop a method to address this need. METHODS: Eight test subjects performed a repetitive dynamic exercise to failure at 65% of their upper torso weight using a Lordex spinal machine. Surface electromyography (SEMG) data was collected from the erector spinae back muscle. The SEMG data was evaluated using a 5th order autoregressive (AR) model and linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The best predictor found was an AR parameter, the mean average magnitude of AR poles, with r = 0.75 and p = 0.03. This parameter can predict performance to failure as early as the second repetition of the exercise. CONCLUSION: A method for predicting human muscle performance early during dynamic repetitive exercise was developed. The capability to predict performance to failure has many potential applications to the space program including evaluating countermeasure effectiveness on-orbit, optimizing post-flight recovery, and potential future real-time monitoring capability during extravehicular activity.

  11. Biomedical analysis of rat body hair after hindlimb suspension for 14 days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Masahiro; Kawano, Fuminori; Ishioka, Noriaki; Higashibata, Akira; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Yamazaki, Takashi; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Niihori, Maki; Nakao, Reiko; Yamada, Shin; Mukai, Chiaki; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2012-04-01

    The levels of 26 minerals in rat body hair were analyzed in control and hindlimb-suspended Wistar Hannover rats (n=5 each). We quantified the levels of 22 minerals in this experiment. However, we were unable to measure the levels of 4 minerals (Be, V, Cd, and Hg) quantitatively because they were below the limit of detection. Of the 22 quantified, the levels of 19 minerals were not significantly different between control and hindlimb-suspended groups. The levels of 3 minerals (Pb, Cr, and Al) tended to be higher in the hindlimb-suspended group than in the control group; however, this difference was not significant. The concentrations of 3 other minerals (I, K, and Mg) were significantly different between the 2 groups. The iodine (I) level was 58.2% higher in the hindlimb-suspended group than in the control group (P<0.05). Potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) levels were 55.2% and 20.4% lower, respectively, in the experimental group (P<0.05 in both cases). These results indicate that a physiological change in mineral metabolism resulting from physical or mental stress, such as hindlimb suspension, is reflected in body hair. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples of astronauts who stayed in the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 months. We believe that hindlimb suspension for 14 days can simulate the effects of an extremely severe environment, such as space flight, because the hindlimb suspension model elicits a rapid physiological change in skeletal muscle, bone, and fluid shift even in the short term. These results also suggest that we can detect various effects on the body by analyzing the human scalp hair shaft.

  12. Functional anatomy of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Penny E; Corr, Sandra A; Payne-Davis, Rachel C; Clancy, Sinead N; Lane, Emily; Wilson, Alan M

    2011-04-01

    The cheetah is capable of a top speed of 29 ms(-1) compared to the maximum speed of 17 ms(-1) achieved by the racing greyhound. In this study of the hindlimb and in the accompanying paper on the forelimb we have quantified the musculoskeletal anatomy of the cheetah and greyhound and compared them to identify any differences that may account for this variation in their locomotor abilities. Specifically, bone length, mass and mid-shaft diameter were measured, along with muscle mass, fascicle lengths, pennation angles and moment arms to enable estimates of maximal isometric force, joint torques and joint rotational velocities to be calculated. Surprisingly the cheetahs had a smaller volume of hip extensor musculature than the greyhounds, and we therefore propose that the cheetah powers acceleration using its extensive back musculature. The cheetahs also had an extremely powerful psoas muscle which could help to resist the pitching moments around the hip associated with fast accelerations. The hindlimb bones were proportionally longer and heavier, enabling the cheetah to take longer strides and potentially resist higher peak limb forces. The cheetah therefore possesses several unique adaptations for high-speed locomotion and fast accelerations, when compared to the racing greyhound.

  13. Methods for Acute and Subacute Murine Hindlimb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Michael E.; McCord, Timothy J.; McClung, Joseph M.; Kontos, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developed countries, and animal models that reliably reproduce the human disease are necessary to develop new therapies for this disease. The mouse hindlimb ischemia model has been widely used for this purpose, but the standard practice of inducing acute limb ischemia by ligation of the femoral artery can result in substantial tissue necrosis, compromising investigators' ability to study the vascular and skeletal muscle tissue responses to ischemia. An alternative approach to femoral artery ligation is the induction of gradual femoral artery occlusion through the use of ameroid constrictors. When placed around the femoral artery in the same or different locations as the sites of femoral artery ligation, these devices occlude the artery over 1-3 days, resulting in more gradual, subacute ischemia. This results in less substantial skeletal muscle tissue necrosis, which may more closely mimic the responses seen in human PAD. Because genetic background influences outcomes in both the acute and subacute ischemia models, consideration of the mouse strain being studied is important in choosing the best model. This paper describes the proper procedure and anatomical placement of ligatures or ameroid constrictors on the mouse femoral artery to induce subacute or acute hindlimb ischemia in the mouse. PMID:27403963

  14. The hindlimb myology of Milvago chimango (Polyborinae, Falconidae).

    PubMed

    Mosto, María Clelia; Carril, Julieta; Picasso, Mariana Beatriz Julieta

    2013-10-01

    We describe the hindlimb myology of Milvago chimango. This member of the Falconidae: Polyborinae is a generalist and opportunist that can jump and run down prey on the ground, unlike Falconinae that hunt birds in flight and kill them by striking with its talons. Due to differences in the locomotion habits between the subfamilies, we hypothesized differences in their hindlimb myology. Gross dissections showed that the myology of M. chimango is concordant with that described of other falconids, except for the following differences: the m. flexor cruris medialis has one belly with a longitudinal division; the m. iliotibialis lateralis does not have a connection with the m. iliofibularis; the m. fibularis longus is strongly aponeurotic; the m. tibialis cranialis lacks an accessory tendons and the m. flexor hallucis longus has one place of origin, instead of two. The presence of the m. flexor cruris lateralis can be distinguished as it has been described absent for the Falconidae. We associated its presence with the predominant terrestrial habit of the M. chimango. Each muscle dissected was weighed and the relationship between flexors and extensors at each joint was assessed. The extensor muscles predominated in all joints in M. chimango. Among the flexors, the m. flexor hallucis longus was the heaviest, which could be related to the importance of the use of its talons to obtain food.

  15. Comparison of excitability parameters and sodium channel behavior of fast- and slow-twitch rat skeletal muscles for the study of the effects of hindlimb suspension, a model of hypogravity.

    PubMed

    Desaphy, J F; Pierno, S; Liantonio, A; De Luca, A; Leoty, C; Conte Camerino, D

    1998-07-01

    When mammals are constrained to hypogravity, their neuromuscular apparatus undergoes modifications which rend difficult postural maintenance and muscular activity upon the return to normal gravitational conditions. Muscle atrophy and differetial gene expression are particularly evident in slow-twitch antigravity muscles such as the soleus. During hypogravity, most of the metabolic and contractile properties characteristic of slow-twitch muscles shift toward to those of fast-twitch muscles. For example, the expression of the fast isoforms of both the myosin heavy-chain and the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump increases in slow-twitch muscle during hypogravity. Thus, modifications of the contractile machinery and calcium handling are likely to be involved in the hypogravity-induced slow-twitch muscle impariment. Fast- and slow-twitch muscles differ also in their electrical properties. Resting membrane potential (RMP) is more negative by about 10 mV in fast muscles compared to slow ones. Differences in action potential (AP) shape as well as in the number of elicitable APs have been also observed between both muscle types, which may reslut from the reported differences in chloride conductance and sodium current. Little is known about the potential modification fo muscle electrical properties during hypogravity, apart a negative shift of the RMP in soleus muscle. Thus this study was performed at the aim to compare the excitability parameters and sodium channel behavior of rat fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscle fibers. The characterization of these properties specific for each muscle-type will give us the basis for the study of the effect of hypogravity.

  16. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhance Nerve Regeneration in a Rat Sciatic Nerve Repair and Hindlimb Transplant Model

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Damon S.; Wimmers, Eric G.; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Grahammer, Johanna; Christensen, Joani M.; Brat, Gabriel A.; Wu, Lehao W.; Sarhane, Karim A.; Lopez, Joseph; Wallner, Christoph; Furtmüller, Georg J.; Yuan, Nance; Pang, John; Sarkar, Kakali; Lee, W. P. Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the efficacy of local and intravenous mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) administration to augment neuroregeneration in both a sciatic nerve cut-and-repair and rat hindlimb transplant model. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were harvested and purified from Brown-Norway (BN) rats. Sciatic nerve transections and repairs were performed in three groups of Lewis (LEW) rats: negative controls (n = 4), local MSCs (epineural) injection (n = 4), and systemic MSCs (intravenous) injection (n = 4). Syngeneic (LEW-LEW) (n = 4) and allogeneic (BN-LEW) (n = 4) hindlimb transplants were performed and assessed for neuroregeneration after local or systemic MSC treatment. Rats undergoing sciatic nerve cut-and-repair and treated with either local or systemic injection of MSCs had significant improvement in the speed of recovery of compound muscle action potential amplitudes and axon counts when compared with negative controls. Similarly, rats undergoing allogeneic hindlimb transplants treated with local injection of MSCs exhibited significantly increased axon counts. Similarly, systemic MSC treatment resulted in improved nerve regeneration following allogeneic hindlimb transplants. Systemic administration had a more pronounced effect on electromotor recovery while local injection was more effective at increasing fiber counts, suggesting different targets of action. Local and systemic MSC injections significantly improve the pace and degree of nerve regeneration after nerve injury and hindlimb transplantation. PMID:27510321

  17. Medial prefrontal cortex acetylcholine injection-induced hypotension: the role of hindlimb vasodilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crippa, G. E.; Lewis, S. J.; Johnson, A. K.; Correa, F. M.

    2000-01-01

    The injection of acetylcholine (ACh) into the cingulate region of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) causes a marked fall in arterial blood pressure which is not accompanied by changes in heart rate. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the hemodynamic basis for this stimulus-induced hypotension in Sprague-Dawley rats. The study was designed to determine whether a change in the vascular resistance of hindlimb, renal or mesenteric vascular beds contributes to the fall in arterial pressure in response to ACh injection into the cingulate cortex. Miniature pulsed-Doppler flow probes were used to measure changes in regional blood flow and vascular resistance. The results indicated that the hypotensive response was largely due to a consistent and marked vasodilation in the hindlimb vascular bed. On this basis, an additional experiment was then undertaken to determine the mechanisms that contribute to hindlimb vasodilation. The effect of interrupting the autonomic innervation of one leg on the hindlimb vasodilator response was tested. Unilateral transection of the lumbar sympathetic chain attenuated the cingulate ACh-induced vasodilation in the ipsilateral, but not in the contralateral hindlimb. These results suggest that the hypotensive response to cingulate cortex-ACh injection is caused by skeletal muscle vasodilation mediated by a sympathetic chain-related vasodilator system.

  18. Multivariable Dynamic Ankle Mechanical Impedance With Active Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunglae; Krebs, Hermano Igo; Hogan, Neville

    2015-01-01

    Multivariable dynamic ankle mechanical impedance in two coupled degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) was quantified when muscles were active. Measurements were performed at five different target activation levels of tibialis anterior and soleus, from 10% to 30% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) with increments of 5% MVC. Interestingly, several ankle behaviors characterized in our previous study of the relaxed ankle were observed with muscles active: ankle mechanical impedance in joint coordinates showed responses largely consistent with a second-order system consisting of inertia, viscosity, and stiffness; stiffness was greater in the sagittal plane than in the frontal plane at all activation conditions for all subjects; and the coupling between dorsiflexion–plantarflexion and inversion–eversion was small—the two DOF measurements were well explained by a strictly diagonal impedance matrix. In general, ankle stiffness increased linearly with muscle activation in all directions in the 2-D space formed by the sagittal and frontal planes, but more in the sagittal than in the frontal plane, resulting in an accentuated “peanut shape.” This characterization of young healthy subjects’ ankle mechanical impedance with active muscles will serve as a baseline to investigate pathophysiological ankle behaviors of biomechanically and/or neurologically impaired patients. PMID:25203497

  19. New, puzzling insights from comparative myological studies on the old and unsolved forelimb/hindlimb enigma.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Rui; Linde-Medina, Marta; Abdala, Virginia; Ashley-Ross, Miriam A

    2013-02-01

    Most textbooks and research reports state that the structures of the tetrapod forelimbs and hindlimbs are serial homologues. From this view, the main challenge of evolutionary biologists is not to explain the similarity between tetrapod limbs, but instead to explain why and how they have diverged. However, these statements seem to be related to a confusion between the serial homology of the vertebrate pelvic and pectoral appendages as a whole, and the serial homology of the specific soft- and hard-tissue structures of the tetrapod forelimbs and hindlimbs, leading to an even more crucial and puzzling question being overlooked: why are the skeletal and particularly the muscle structures of the forelimb and hindlimb actually so strikingly similar to each other? Herein we provide an updated discussion of these questions and test two main hypotheses: (i) that the similarity of the limb muscles is due to serial homology; and (ii) that tetrapods that use hindlimbs for a largely exclusive function (e.g. bipedalism in humans) exhibit fewer cases of similarity between forelimbs and hindlimbs than do quadrupedal species. Our review shows that of the 23 arm, forearm and hand muscles/muscle groups of salamanders, 18 (78%) have clear 'topological equivalents' in the hindlimb; in lizards, 14/24 (58%); in rats, 14/35 (40%); and in modern humans, 19/37 (51%). These numbers seem to support the idea that there is a plesiomorphic similarity and subsequent evolutionary divergence, but this tendency actually only applies to the three former quadrupedal taxa. Moreover, if one takes into account the total number of 'correspondences', one comes to a surprising and puzzling conclusion: in modern humans the number of forelimb muscles/muscle groups with clear 'equivalents' in the hindlimb (19) is substantially higher than in quadrupedal mammals such as rats (14), lizards (14) and even salamanders (18). These data contradict the hypothesis that divergent functions lead to divergent

  20. Functional coordination of muscles underlying changes in behavioural dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Vernooij, Carlijn A.; Rao, Guillaume; Perdikis, Dionysios; Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K.; Temprado, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical systems approach addresses Bernstein’s degrees of freedom problem by assuming that the neuro-musculo-skeletal system transiently assembles and dismantles its components into functional units (or synergies) to meet task demands. Strikingly, little is known from a dynamical point of view about the functioning of the muscular sub-system in this process. To investigate the interaction between the dynamical organisation at muscular and behavioural levels, we searched for specific signatures of a phase transition in muscular coordination when a transition is displayed at the behavioural level. Our results provide evidence that, during Fitts’ task when behaviour switches to a different dynamical regime, muscular activation displays typical signatures of a phase transition; a reorganisation in muscular coordination patterns accompanied by a peak in the variability of muscle activation. This suggests that consistent changes occur in coordination processes across the different levels of description (i.e., behaviour and muscles). Specifically, in Fitts’ task, target size acts as a control parameter that induces a destabilisation and a reorganisation of coordination patterns at different levels of the neuro-musculo-skeletal system. PMID:27282349

  1. Dynamic skeletal muscle stimulation and its potential in bone adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Y-X.; Lam, H.; Ferreri, S.; Rubin, C.

    2016-01-01

    To identify mechanotransductive signals for combating musculoskeletal deterioration, it is essential to determine the components and mechanisms critical to the anabolic processes of musculoskeletal tissues. It is hypothesized that the interaction between bone and muscle may depend on fluid exchange in these tissues by mechanical loading. It has been shown that intramedullary pressure (ImP) and low-level bone strain induced by muscle stimulation (MS) has the potential to mitigate bone loss induced by disuse osteopenia. Optimized MS signals, i.e., low-intensity and high frequency, may be critical in maintaining bone mass and mitigating muscle atrophy. The objectives for this review are to discuss the potential for MS to induce ImP and strains on bone, to regulate bone adaptation, and to identify optimized stimulation frequency in the loading regimen. The potential for MS to regulate blood and fluid flow will also be discussed. The results suggest that oscillatory MS regulates fluid dynamics with minimal mechanical strain in bone. The response was shown to be dependent on loading frequency, serving as a critical mediator in mitigating bone loss. A specific regimen of dynamic MS may be optimized in vivo to attenuate disuse osteopenia and serve as a biomechanical intervention in the clinical setting. PMID:20190376

  2. Short- and Long-Term Hindlimb Immobilization and Reloading: Profile of Epigenetic Events in Gastrocnemius.

    PubMed

    Chacon-Cabrera, Alba; Gea, Joaquim; Barreiro, Esther

    2017-06-01

    Skeletal muscle dysfunction and atrophy are characteristic features accompanying chronic conditions. Epigenetic events regulate muscle mass and function maintenance. We hypothesized that the pattern of epigenetic events (muscle-enriched microRNAs and histone acetylation) and acetylation of transcription factors known to signal muscle wasting may differ between early- and late-time points in skeletal muscles of mice exposed to hindlimb immobilization (I) and recovery following I. Body and muscle weights, grip strength, muscle-enriched microRNAs, histone deacetylases (HDACs), acetylation of proteins, histones, and transcription factors (TF), myogenic TF factors, and muscle phenotype were assessed in gastrocnemius of mice exposed to periods (1, 2, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days, I groups) of hindlimb immobilization, and in those exposed to reloading for different periods of time (1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days, R groups) following 7-day immobilization. Compared to non-immobilized controls, muscle weight, limb strength, microRNAs, especially miR-486, SIRT1 levels, and slow- and fast-twitch cross-sectional areas were decreased in mice of I groups, whereas Pax7 and acetylated FoxO1 and FoxO3 levels were increased. Muscle reloading following splint removal improved muscle mass loss, strength, and fiber atrophy, by increasing microRNAs, particularly miR-486, and SIRT1 content, while decreasing acetylated FoxO1 and FoxO3 levels. In this mouse model of disuse muscle atrophy, muscle-enriched microRNAs, especially miR-486, through Pax7 regulation delayed muscle cell differentiation following unloading of gastrocnemius muscle. Acetylation of FoxO1 and 3 seemed to drive muscle mass loss and atrophy, while deacetylation of these factors through SIRT1 would enable the muscle fibers to regenerate. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1415-1427, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A cardiac muscle model relating sarcomere dynamics to calcium kinetics.

    PubMed

    Negroni, J A; Lascano, E C

    1996-05-01

    A muscle model establishing the link between cross-bridge dynamics and intracellular Ca2+ kinetics was assessed by simulation of experiments performed in isolated cardiac muscle. The model is composed by the series arrangement of muscle units formed by inextensible thick and thin filaments in parallel with an elastic element. Attached cross-bridges act as independent force generators whose force is linearly related to the elongation of their elastic structure. Ca2+ kinetics is described by a four-state system of sites on the thin filament associated with troponin C: sites with free troponin C (T), sites with Ca2+ bound to troponin C (TCa); sites with Ca2+ bound to troponin C and attached cross-bridges (TCa*); and sites with troponin C not associated with Ca2+ and attached cross-bridges (T*). The intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]) is controlled solely by the sarcoplasmic reticulum through an inflow function and a saturated outflow pump function. All the simulations were performed using the same set of parameters. The model was able to reproduce the following experiments in cardiac muscle: (a) time course of isometric force (peak force: 46.5 mN/mm2), intracellular [Ca2+] (peak [Ca2+]: 1.5 microM); (b) force-length-[Ca2+] relations; (c) transient response of force to step changes in length; (d) force-velocity relation (maximum velocity: 3 microns/s); (e) the force response to length pulses to estimate the time course of [TCa]; (f) force response to quick releases showing the superactivating and deactivating effects of shortening; (g) stiffness response to sinusoidal length changes; and (h) time course of active state. The good accordance of the simulations with experimental results indicates that the model is an adequate representation of the link between cross-bridge dynamic behaviour and Ca2+ kinetics.

  4. Dynamic mechanical assessment of muscle hyperalgesia in humans: The dynamic algometer

    PubMed Central

    Finocchietti, Sara; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal pain is often associated with a nonhomogeneous distribution of mechanical hyperalgesia. Consequently, new methods able to detect this distribution are needed. OBJECTIVE: To develop and test a new method for assessing muscle hyperalgesia with high temporal and spatial resolution that provides complementary information compared with information obtained by traditional static pressure algometry. METHODS: The dynamic pressure algometer was tested bilaterally on the tibialis anterior muscle in 15 healthy subjects and compared with static pressure algometry. The device consisted of a wheel that was rolled over the muscle tissue with a fixed velocity and different predefined forces. The pain threshold force was determined and pain intensity to a fixed-force stimulation was continuously rated on a visual analogue scale while the wheel was rolling over the muscle. The pressure pain sensitivity was evaluated before, during, and after muscle pain and hyperalgesia induced unilaterally by either injection of hypertonic saline (0.5 mL, 6%) into the tibialis anterior or eccentric exercise evoking delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficient was >0.88 for the dynamic thresholds; thus, the method was reliable. Compared with baseline, both techniques detected hyperalgesia at the saline injection site and during DOMS (P<0.05). The dynamic algometer also detected the widespread, patchy distribution of sensitive loci during DOMS, which was difficult to evaluate using static pressure algometry. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The present study showed that dynamic pressure algometry is a reliable tool for evaluating muscle hyperalgesia (threshold and pain rating) with high temporal and spatial resolution. It can be applied as a simple clinical bed-side test and as a quantitative tool in pharmacological profiling studies. PMID:25664539

  5. Pelvic and hindlimb myology of the basal Archosaur Poposaurus gracilis (Archosauria: Poposauroidea).

    PubMed

    Schachner, Emma R; Manning, Phillip L; Dodson, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The discovery of a largely complete and well preserved specimen of Poposaurus gracilis has provided the opportunity to generate the first phylogenetically based reconstruction of pelvic and hindlimb musculature of an extinct nondinosaurian archosaur. As in dinosaurs, multiple lineages of basal archosaurs convergently evolved parasagittally erect limbs. However, in contrast to the laterally projecting acetabulum, or "buttress erect" hip morphology of ornithodirans, basal archosaurs evolved a very different, ventrally projecting acetabulum, or "pillar erect" hip. Reconstruction of the pelvic and hindlimb musculotendinous system in a bipedal suchian archosaur clarifies how the anatomical transformations associated with the evolution of bipedalism in basal archosaurs differed from that of bipedal dinosaurs and birds. This reconstruction is based on the direct examination of the osteology and myology of phylogenetically relevant extant taxa in conjunction with osteological correlates from the skeleton of P. gracilis. This data set includes a series of inferences (presence/absence of a structure, number of components, and origin/insertion sites) regarding 26 individual muscles or muscle groups, three pelvic ligaments, and two connective tissue structures in the pelvis, hindlimb, and pes of P. gracilis. These data provide a foundation for subsequent examination of variation in myological orientation and function based on pelvic and hindlimb morphology, across the basal archosaur lineage leading to extant crocodilians.

  6. Prediction of Muscle Performance During Dynamic Repetitive Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byerly, D. L.; Byerly, K. A.; Sognier, M. A.; Squires, W. G.

    2002-01-01

    A method for predicting human muscle performance was developed. Eight test subjects performed a repetitive dynamic exercise to failure using a Lordex spinal machine. Electromyography (EMG) data was collected from the erector spinae. Evaluation of the EMG data using a 5th order Autoregressive (AR) model and statistical regression analysis revealed that an AR parameter, the mean average magnitude of AR poles, can predict performance to failure as early as the second repetition of the exercise. Potential applications to the space program include evaluating on-orbit countermeasure effectiveness, maximizing post-flight recovery, and future real-time monitoring capability during Extravehicular Activity.

  7. Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Artificial Muscles Based on Nematic Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hébert, M.; Kant, R.; de Gennes, P.-G.

    1997-07-01

    A scheme based on nemato-mechanical conversion has been proposed for potential artificial muscle applications (de Gennes P.-G., Hébert M. and Kant R., to appear in Macromol. Symp. (1996)). As the temperature in a nematic gel is reduced through the transition temperature, strong uniaxial deformation is encountered. We briefly expose the dynamics of contraction/elongation in this system. Work and dissipative losses are calculated for an operating cycle to get an approximative expression of the ratio work/losses, which can then be compared with real muscular efficiencies.

  8. A metabolic cage for the hindlimb suspended rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J.; Mulenburg, G. M.; Harper, J. S.; Skundberg, T. L.; Navidi, M.; Arnaud, S. B.

    1994-01-01

    Hindlimb suspension has been successfully used to simulate the effects of microgravity in rats. The cage and suspension system developed by E. R. Holton is designed to produce a headward shift of fluid and unload the hindlimbs in rodents, causing changes in bone and muscle similar to those in animals and humans exposed to spaceflight. While the Holton suspension system simulates many of the conditions observed in the spaceflight animal, it does not provide for the collection of urine and feces needed to monitor some metabolic activities. As a result, only limited information has been gathered on the nutritional status, and the gastrointestinal and renal function of animals using that model. Although commercial metabolic cages are available, they are usually cylindrical and require a centrally located suspension system and thus, do not readily permit movement of the rats. The limited floor space of commercial cages may affect comparisons with studies using the Holton model which has more than twice the living space of most commercially available cages. To take advantage of the extra living space and extensive data base that has been developed with the Holton model, Holton's cage was modified to make urine and fecal collections possible.

  9. The effect of kinesiotape on dynamic balance following muscle fatigue in individuals with chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Kodesh, Einat; Dar, Gali

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of kinesiotape (KT) on dynamic stability following ankle muscle fatigue among individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Twenty participants with CAI participated in the study. Participants were tested under three conditions: KT, non-elastic tape, and no tape pre- and post-fatigue of the ankle muscles. Ankle muscles fatigue was induced using an isokinetic apparatus, activity of the fibularis muscle was recorded using one-channel vibromyography (VMG), and dynamic balance and neuromuscular control were assessed using the Y-Balance Test. Following fatigue exercises, the VMG signal significantly decreased in all groups (p < 0.01), without differences between groups. No significant difference in dynamic balance test scores was found between the pre- and post-fatigue condition for each group and between groups. Our results demonstrate that KT had no significant effects on dynamic balance and muscle activity following ankle muscle fatigue among individuals with CAI.

  10. Hindlimb unloading rodent model: technical aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2002-01-01

    Since its inception at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center in the mid-1970s, many laboratories around the world have used the rat hindlimb unloading model to simulate weightlessness and to study various aspects of musculoskeletal loading. In this model, the hindlimbs of rodents are elevated to produce a 30 degrees head-down tilt, which results in a cephalad fluid shift and avoids weightbearing by the hindquarters. Although several reviews have described scientific results obtained with this model, this is the first review to focus on the technical aspects of hindlimb unloading. This review includes a history of the technique, a brief comparison with spaceflight data, technical details, extension of the model to mice, and other important technical considerations (e.g., housing, room temperature, unloading angle, the potential need for multiple control groups, age, body weight, the use of the forelimb tissues as internal controls, and when to remove animals from experiments). This paper is intended as a reference for researchers, reviewers of manuscripts, and institutional animal care and use committees. Over 800 references, related to the hindlimb unloading model, can be accessed via the electronic version of this article.

  11. CCN1 enhances angiogenic potency of bone marrow transplantation in a rat model of hindlimb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yin, Cunping; Liang, Yuan; Guo, Shuguang; Zhou, Xingli; Pan, Xinghua

    2014-09-01

    Implantation of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) has been performed in ischemic tissues, for stimulation of angiogenesis, but the limited number of BM-MNCs in patients with hindlimb ischemia disease may offset their overall therapeutic efficacy. CCN1 is a novel and essential regulator during angiogenesis. We evaluated whether CCN1 and BM-MNC are capable of promoting angiogenesis in hindlimb ischemia. In this study, we created the rat model of hindlimb ischemia, and then the rats were randomly divided into four groups: CCN1 infusion plus BM-MNC transplantation (CCN1 + BM-MNCs group), CCN1 infusion plus PBS injection (CCN1 group), vehicle infusion plus BM-MNC transplantation (BM-MNCs group) and vehicle infusion plus PBS injection (control group). The combination of CCN1 and BM-MNC therapy could increase blood perfusion, capillary/muscle fiber ratio and tissue oxygenation in ischemic hindlimb. Moreover, CCN1 could not only inhibit the apoptosis of BM-MNCs, but also enhance the adhesiveness of BM-MNCs to HUVEC. Taken together, CCN1 enhanced angiogenesis of BM-MNC transplantation, and combining CCN1 with BM-MNC transplantation is a useful alternative for ischemic limbs.

  12. Vasoconstrictors alter oxygen, lactate, and glycerol metabolism in the perfused hindlimb of a rat kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Ye, J M; Edwards, S J; Rose, R W; Rattigan, S; Clark, M G; Colquhoun, E Q

    1995-05-01

    The Tasmanian bettong (Bettongia gaimardi) is a small marsupial rat kangaroo without detectable brown adipose tissue (BAT). The hindlimb was perfused with constant flow at 25 degrees C after cannulation under anesthesia of the femoral artery and vein to one hindlimb. Norepinephrine (NE, 25 nM-2.5 microM) and vasopressin (VP, 10 nM-0.1 microM) each increased perfusion pressure, oxygen consumption (VO2), and lactate and glycerol efflux of the perfused hindlimb. NE-mediated increases in VO2 and the efflux of lactate and glycerol were unaffected by propranolol (10 microM) but were completely blocked by the further addition of phentolamine (10 microM). In contrast, serotonin (5-HT; 0.1-2.5 microM) inhibited VO2 and inhibited lactate efflux. The changes induced by NE, VP, and 5-HT were all rapidly reversed by nitroprusside. These results suggest that resting thermogenesis in bettong hindlimb can be differentially controlled by the vasculature, which may also contribute to the induced VO2. This vascular control of skeletal muscle VO2 appears widespread in homeotherm evolution.

  13. Neuronal pathways from foot pad afferents to hindlimb motoneurons in the low spinalized cats.

    PubMed

    Wada, N; Kanda, Y; Takayama, R

    1998-07-01

    Experiments were performed on 16 adult spinalized (L2) cats. Postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) produced by electrical stimulation of afferent nerves innervating foot pads were recorded from hindlimb motoneurons innervating the following hindlimb muscles: the posterior biceps and semitendinosus (PBSt), anterior biceps and semimembranosus (ABSm), lateral gastrocnemius and soleus (LGS), medial gastrocnemius (MG), plantaris (P1), tibialis anterior (TA), popliteus (Pop), flexor digitorum longus and flexor hallucis longus (FDHL) and peroneus longus (Per.l). The rate of occurrence of different types of PSPs (EPSPs, IPSPs and mixed PSPs), the size of the PSPs and their central latencies were analyzed for each group of motoneurons to identify the neural pathways from the afferents innervating foot pads to hindlimb motoneurons. The rates of occurrence of different types of PSPs did not depend on the foot pad stimulated in PBSt, ABSm and LGS motoneurons, but for other groups of motoneurons their rates of occurrence depended on the foot pad stimulated. It was often noted that the size of PSPs in the same motoneurons differed according to the foot pad stimulated. Measurements of the central latencies of the PSPs indicated that the shortest neural pathways for EPSPs and IPSPs were disynaptic (central latencies < 1.8 ms). The functional role of neuronal pathways from afferent nerves innervating foot pads to hindlimb motoneurons could be to maintain stability of the foot during different postural and motor activities.

  14. In-Vivo Measurement of Muscle Tension: Dynamic Properties of the MC Sensor during Isometric Muscle Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Đorđević, Srđan; Tomažič, Sašo; Narici, Marco; Pišot, Rado; Meglič, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue structure in our body and plays an essential role for producing motion through integrated action with bones, tendons, ligaments and joints, for stabilizing body position, for generation of heat through cell respiration and for blood glucose disposal. A key function of skeletal muscle is force generation. Non-invasive and selective measurement of muscle contraction force in the field and in clinical settings has always been challenging. The aim of our work has been to develop a sensor that can overcome these difficulties and therefore enable measurement of muscle force during different contraction conditions. In this study, we tested the mechanical properties of a “Muscle Contraction” (MC) sensor during isometric muscle contraction in different length/tension conditions. The MC sensor is attached so that it indents the skin overlying a muscle group and detects varying degrees of tension during muscular contraction. We compared MC sensor readings over the biceps brachii (BB) muscle to dynamometric measurements of force of elbow flexion, together with recordings of surface EMG signal of BB during isometric contractions at 15° and 90° of elbow flexion. Statistical correlation between MC signal and force was very high at 15° (r = 0.976) and 90° (r = 0.966) across the complete time domain. Normalized SD or σN = σ/max(FMC) was used as a measure of linearity of MC signal and elbow flexion force in dynamic conditions. The average was 8.24% for an elbow angle of 90° and 10.01% for an elbow of angle 15°, which indicates high linearity and good dynamic properties of MC sensor signal when compared to elbow flexion force. The next step of testing MC sensor potential will be to measure tension of muscle-tendon complex in conditions when length and tension change simultaneously during human motion. PMID:25256114

  15. In-vivo measurement of muscle tension: dynamic properties of the MC sensor during isometric muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Đorđević, Srđan; Tomažič, Sašo; Narici, Marco; Pišot, Rado; Meglič, Andrej

    2014-09-25

    Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue structure in our body and plays an essential role for producing motion through integrated action with bones, tendons, ligaments and joints, for stabilizing body position, for generation of heat through cell respiration and for blood glucose disposal. A key function of skeletal muscle is force generation. Non-invasive and selective measurement of muscle contraction force in the field and in clinical settings has always been challenging. The aim of our work has been to develop a sensor that can overcome these difficulties and therefore enable measurement of muscle force during different contraction conditions. In this study, we tested the mechanical properties of a "Muscle Contraction" (MC) sensor during isometric muscle contraction in different length/tension conditions. The MC sensor is attached so that it indents the skin overlying a muscle group and detects varying degrees of tension during muscular contraction. We compared MC sensor readings over the biceps brachii (BB) muscle to dynamometric measurements of force of elbow flexion, together with recordings of surface EMG signal of BB during isometric contractions at 15° and 90° of elbow flexion. Statistical correlation between MC signal and force was very high at 15° (r = 0.976) and 90° (r = 0.966) across the complete time domain. Normalized SD or σN = σ/max(FMC) was used as a measure of linearity of MC signal and elbow flexion force in dynamic conditions. The average was 8.24% for an elbow angle of 90° and 10.01% for an elbow of angle 15°, which indicates high linearity and good dynamic properties of MC sensor signal when compared to elbow flexion force. The next step of testing MC sensor potential will be to measure tension of muscle-tendon complex in conditions when length and tension change simultaneously during human motion.

  16. Association of muscle hardness with muscle tension dynamics: a physiological property.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Mitsuyoshi; Watanabe, Kotaro; Kato, Ryoko; Uchiyama, Takanori; Yoneda, Tsugutake

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between muscle hardness and muscle tension in terms of length-tension relationship. A frog gastrocnemius muscle sample was horizontally mounted on the base plate inside a chamber and was stretched from 100 to 150% of the pre-length, in 5% increments. After each step of muscle lengthening, electrical field stimulation for induction of tetanus was applied using platinum-plate electrodes positioned on either side of the muscle submerged in Ringer's solution. The measurement of muscle hardness, i.e., applying perpendicular distortion, was performed whilst maintaining the plateau of passive and tetanic tension. The relationship between normalised tension and normalised muscle hardness was evaluated. The length-hardness diagram could be created from the modification with the length-tension diagram. It is noteworthy that muscle hardness was proportional to passive and total tension. Regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between muscle hardness and passive and total tension, with a significant positive slope (passive tension: r = 0.986, P < 0.001; total tension: r = 0.856, P < 0.001). In conclusion, our results suggest that muscle hardness depends on muscle tension in most ranges of muscle length in the length-tension diagram.

  17. An Accurate and Dynamic Computer Graphics Muscle Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, David Asher

    1997-01-01

    A computer based musculo-skeletal model was developed at the University in the departments of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering. This model accurately represents human shoulder kinematics. The result of this model is the graphical display of bones moving through an appropriate range of motion based on inputs of EMGs and external forces. The need existed to incorporate a geometric muscle model in the larger musculo-skeletal model. Previous muscle models did not accurately represent muscle geometries, nor did they account for the kinematics of tendons. This thesis covers the creation of a new muscle model for use in the above musculo-skeletal model. This muscle model was based on anatomical data from the Visible Human Project (VHP) cadaver study. Two-dimensional digital images from the VHP were analyzed and reconstructed to recreate the three-dimensional muscle geometries. The recreated geometries were smoothed, reduced, and sliced to form data files defining the surfaces of each muscle. The muscle modeling function opened these files during run-time and recreated the muscle surface. The modeling function applied constant volume limitations to the muscle and constant geometry limitations to the tendons.

  18. Effect of Hindlimb Unweighting on Tissue Blood Flow in the Rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, K. S.; Delp, M. D.; Fitts, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the distribution of blood flow in the rat during hindlimb unweighting (HU) and post-HU standing and exercise and examine whether the previously reported elevation in anaerobic metabolism observed with contractile activity in the atrophied soleus muscle was caused by a reduced hindlimb blood flow. After either 15 days of HU or cage control, blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres during unweighting, normal standing, and running on a treadmill (15 m/min). In another group of control and experimental animals, blood flow was measured during preexercise (PE) treadmill standing and treadmill running (15 m/min). Soleus muscle blood flow was not different between groups during unweighting, PE standing, and running at 15 m/min. Chronic unweighting resulted in the tendency for greater blood flow to muscles composed of predominantly fast-twitch glycolytic fibers. With exercise, blood flow to visceral organs was reduced compared with PE values in the control rats, whereas flow to visceral organs in 15-day HU animals was unaltered by exercise. These higher flows to the viscera and to muscles composed of predominantly fast-twitch glycolytic fibers suggest an apparent reduction in the ability of the sympathetic nervous system to distribute cardiac output after chronic HU. In conclusion, because 15 days of HU did not affect blood flow to the soleus during exercise, the increased dependence of the atrophied soleus on anerobic energy production during contractile activity cannot be explained by a reduced muscle blood flow.

  19. Axon Regeneration Can Facilitate or Suppress Hindlimb Function after Olfactory Ensheathing Glia Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Takeoka, Aya; Jindrich, Devin L.; Muñoz-Quiles, Cintia; Zhong, Hui; van den Brand, Rubia; Pham, Daniel L.; Ziegler, Matthias D.; Ramón-Cueto, Almudena; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2011-01-01

    Reports based primarily on anatomical evidence suggest that olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) transplantation promotes axon regeneration across a complete spinal cord transection in adult rats. Based on functional, electrophysiological, and anatomical assessments, we found that OEG promoted axon regeneration across a complete spinal cord transection and that this regeneration altered motor responses over time. At 7 months after transection, 70% of OEG-treated rats showed motor-evoked potentials in hindlimb muscles after transcranial electric stimulation. Furthermore, a complete spinal cord retransection performed 8 months after injury demonstrated that this axon regeneration suppressed locomotor performance and decreased the hypersensitive hindlimb withdrawal response to mechanical stimulation. OEG transplantation alone promoted reorganization of lumbosacral locomotor networks and, when combined with long-term training, enhanced some stepping measures. These novel findings demonstrate that OEG promote regeneration of mature axons across a complete transection and reorganization of spinal circuitry, both of which contribute to sensorimotor function. PMID:21411671

  20. Comparison of the Physiology of the Spaceflight and Hindlimb Suspended Rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, R. E.; Booth, F. W.

    1994-01-01

    The suspended rat has been used extensively as a simulation of the spaceflight animal. In suspension, hindlimbs are unloaded from the acceleration of gravity, much as they are in spaceflight. Comparisons of data from spaceflight (microgravity) and suspended (1G) rats have suggested that suspension my be an appropriate model, but no direct comparisons had been made between the spaceflight and suspended rat. Cosmos 2044 afforded the first opportunity to directly compare the effects of hindlimb suspension (HS) and spaceflight (SF) on a broad range of physiological and histological parameters. This paper reports on the comparison of skelton, skeletal muscle, heart, neural, pulmonary, kidney, liver, intestine, blood plasma, immune function, red blood cells, and endocrine and reproductive functions and systems.

  1. Multiparametric evaluation of hindlimb ischemia using time-series indocyanine green fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Guang, Huizhi; Cai, Chuangjian; Zuo, Simin; Cai, Wenjuan; Zhang, Jiulou; Luo, Jianwen

    2017-03-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) can further cause lower limb ischemia. Quantitative evaluation of the vascular perfusion in the ischemic limb contributes to diagnosis of PAD and preclinical development of new drug. In vivo time-series indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging can noninvasively monitor blood flow and has a deep tissue penetration. The perfusion rate estimated from the time-series ICG images is not enough for the evaluation of hindlimb ischemia. The information relevant to the vascular density is also important, because angiogenesis is an essential mechanism for post-ischemic recovery. In this paper, a multiparametric evaluation method is proposed for simultaneous estimation of multiple vascular perfusion parameters, including not only the perfusion rate but also the vascular perfusion density and the time-varying ICG concentration in veins. The target method is based on a mathematical model of ICG pharmacokinetics in the mouse hindlimb. The regression analysis performed on the time-series ICG images obtained from a dynamic reflectance fluorescence imaging system. The results demonstrate that the estimated multiple parameters are effective to quantitatively evaluate the vascular perfusion and distinguish hypo-perfused tissues from well-perfused tissues in the mouse hindlimb. The proposed multiparametric evaluation method could be useful for PAD diagnosis. The estimated perfusion rate and vascular perfusion density maps (left) and the time-varying ICG concentration in veins of the ankle region (right) of the normal and ischemic hindlimbs.

  2. Contributions of phase resetting and interlimb coordination to the adaptive control of hindlimb obstacle avoidance during locomotion in rats: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Aoi, Shinya; Kondo, Takahiro; Hayashi, Naohiro; Yanagihara, Dai; Aoki, Sho; Yamaura, Hiroshi; Ogihara, Naomichi; Funato, Tetsuro; Tomita, Nozomi; Senda, Kei; Tsuchiya, Kazuo

    2013-04-01

    Obstacle avoidance during locomotion is essential for safe, smooth locomotion. Physiological studies regarding muscle synergy have shown that the combination of a small number of basic patterns produces the large part of muscle activities during locomotion and the addition of another pattern explains muscle activities for obstacle avoidance. Furthermore, central pattern generators in the spinal cord are thought to manage the timing to produce such basic patterns. In the present study, we investigated sensory-motor coordination for obstacle avoidance by the hindlimbs of the rat using a neuromusculoskeletal model. We constructed the musculoskeletal part of the model based on empirical anatomical data of the rat and the nervous system model based on the aforementioned physiological findings of central pattern generators and muscle synergy. To verify the dynamic simulation by the constructed model, we compared the simulation results with kinematic and electromyographic data measured during actual locomotion in rats. In addition, we incorporated sensory regulation models based on physiological evidence of phase resetting and interlimb coordination and examined their functional roles in stepping over an obstacle during locomotion. Our results show that the phase regulation based on interlimb coordination contributes to stepping over a higher obstacle and that based on phase resetting contributes to quick recovery after stepping over the obstacle. These results suggest the importance of sensory regulation in generating successful obstacle avoidance during locomotion.

  3. Distinct muscle fascicle length changes in feline medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscles during slope walking.

    PubMed

    Maas, Huub; Gregor, Robert J; Hodson-Tole, Emma F; Farrell, Brad J; Prilutsky, Boris I

    2009-04-01

    On the basis of differences in physiology, e.g., histochemical properties and spindle density, and the structural design of the cat soleus (SO) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles, we hypothesized that 1) fascicle length changes during overground walking would be both muscle and slope dependent, which would have implications for the muscles' force output as well as sensory function, and that 2) muscle-tendon unit (MTU) and fascicle length changes would be different, in which case MTU length could not be used as an indicator of muscle spindle strain. To test these hypotheses, we quantified muscle fascicle length changes and compared them with length changes of the whole MTU in the SO and MG during overground walking at various slopes (0, +/- 25, +/- 50, +75, and +100%). The SO and MG were surgically instrumented with sonomicrometry crystals and fine-wire electromyogram electrodes to measure changes in muscle fascicle length and muscle activity, respectively. MTU lengths were calculated using recorded ankle and knee joint angles and a geometric model of the hindlimb. The resultant joint moments were calculated using inverse dynamics analysis to infer muscle loading. It was found that although MTU length and velocity profiles of the SO and MG appeared similar, length changes and velocities of muscle fascicles were substantially different between the two muscles. Fascicle length changes of both SO and MG were significantly affected by slope intensity acting eccentrically in downslope walking (-25 to -50%) and concentrically in upslope walking (+25 to +100%). The differences in MTU and fascicle behaviors in both the SO and MG muscles during slope walking were explained by the three distinct features of these muscles: 1) the number of joints spanned, 2) the pennation angle, and 3) the in-series elastic component. It was further suggested that the potential role of length feedback from muscle spindles is both task and muscle dependent.

  4. Myoneural necrosis following high-frequency electrical stimulation of the cast-immobilized rabbit hindlimb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friden, J.; Lieber, R. L.; Myers, R. R.; Powell, H. C.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The morphological and physiological effects of 4 weeks of high-frequency electrical stimulation (1 h/day, 5 days/week) on cast-immobilized rabbit hindlimbs were investigated in the tibialis anterior muscle and peroneal nerve. In 2 out of 6 animals, high-frequency stimulation with immobilization caused muscle fiber death, internalization of muscle fiber nuclei, connective tissue proliferation, inflammatory response, altered fiber size distribution and variable staining intensities. The fast-twitch fibers were predominantly affected. Two of six peripheral nerves subjected to immobilization and stimulation showed severe damage. Tetanic forces were significantly reduced in the affected muscles. Therefore, the immobilization and high-frequency stimulation may be detrimental to myoneural structure and function and, thus, this combination of therapies should be applied conservatively.

  5. The development of hindlimb motor activity studied in the isolated spinal cord of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, M J; Landmesser, L

    1987-10-01

    The development of hindlimb motor activity was studied in an isolated preparation of the chick spinal cord. The motor output from lumbosacral segments was characterized by recording the pattern of ventral root and muscle nerve discharge in 6-14-d-old embryos. In addition, the synaptic drive underlying motoneuron activity was monitored electrotonically from the ventral roots. Spontaneous motor activity consisted of recurring episodes of cyclical motoneuron discharge. During development, both the number of cycles in each episode and the intensity of discharge in each cycle progressively increased. Monophasic, positive ventral root potentials accompanied each cycle of motoneuron discharge. Prior to the innervation of hindlimb muscles at stage 26, ventral root discharge was barely detectable despite the presence of large ventral root potentials. Following hindlimb muscle innervation, each cycle of activity was initiated by a brief, intense discharge that coincided with the rising phase of the ventral root potential. In embryos older than stage 30, the initial discharge was followed, after a delay, by a more prolonged discharge. The duration of ventral root potentials was shortest in the stage 26 embryos, but was similar in embryos at stage 29 and older. The developmental changes in the coordination of antagonist activity were documented by recording the pattern of discharge in sartorius (flexor) and caudilioflexorius (extensor) muscle nerves between stage 30 and stage 36. At stage 30 both sets of motoneurons were coactivated during the brief discharge that initiated each cycle. By stage 31 a second discharge occurred in each cycle. The second discharge was delayed in flexor, but not in extensor, motoneurons, which led to an alternating pattern of activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Validation of a personalized curved muscle model of the lumbar spine during complex dynamic exertions.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jaejin; Knapik, Gregory G; Dufour, Jonathan S; Best, Thomas M; Khan, Safdar N; Mendel, Ehud; Marras, William S

    2017-01-09

    Previous curved muscle models have typically examined their robustness only under simple, single-plane static exertions. In addition, the empirical validation of curved muscle models through an entire lumbar spine has not been fully realized. The objective of this study was to empirically validate a personalized biologically-assisted curved muscle model during complex dynamic exertions. Twelve subjects performed a variety of complex lifting tasks as a function of load weight, load origin, and load height. Both a personalized curved muscle model as well as a straight-line muscle model were used to evaluate the model's fidelity and prediction of three-dimensional spine tissue loads under different lifting conditions. The curved muscle model showed better model performance and different spinal loading patterns through an entire lumbar spine compared to the straight-line muscle model. The curved muscle model generally showed good fidelity regardless of lifting condition. The majority of the 600 lifting tasks resulted in a coefficient of determination (R(2)) greater than 0.8 with an average of 0.83, and the average absolute error less than 15% between measured and predicted dynamic spinal moments. As expected, increased load and asymmetry were generally found to significantly increase spinal loads, demonstrating the ability of the model to differentiate between experimental conditions. A curved muscle model would be useful to estimate precise spine tissue loads under realistic circumstances. This precise assessment tool could aid in understanding biomechanical causal pathways for low back pain.

  7. Modelling muscle spindle dynamics for a proprioceptive prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ian; Constandinou, Timothy G

    2013-01-01

    Muscle spindles are found throughout our skeletal muscle tissue and continuously provide us with a sense of our limbs' position and motion (proprioception). This paper advances a model for generating artificial muscle spindle signals for a prosthetic limb, with the aim of one day providing amputees with a sense of feeling in their artificial limb. By utilising the Opensim biomechanical modelling package the relationship between a joint's angle and the length of surrounding muscles is estimated for a prosthetic limb. This is then applied to the established Mileusnic model to determine the associated muscle spindle firing pattern. This complete system model is then reduced to allow for a computationally efficient hardware implementation. This reduction is achieved with minimal impact on accuracy by selecting key mono-articular muscles and fitting equations to relate joint angle to muscle length. Parameter values fitting the Mileusnic model to human spindles are then proposed and validated against previously published human neural recordings. Finally, a model for fusimotor signals is also proposed based on data previously recorded from reduced animal experiments.

  8. Effects of hindlimb unloading on rat cerebral, splenic, and mesenteric resistance artery morphology.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, M K; Muller-Delp, J; Colleran, P N; Delp, M D

    1999-12-01

    Hindlimb unloading (HU) of rats induces a cephalic shift in body fluids. We hypothesized that the putative increase in cranial fluid pressure and decrease in peripheral fluid pressure would alter the morphology of resistance arteries from 2-wk HU male Sprague-Dawley rats. To test this hypothesis, the cerebral basilar, mesenteric, and splenic arteries were removed from control (C) and HU animals. The vessels were cannulated, and luminal pressure was set to 60 cmH(2)O. The resistance arteries were then relaxed with 10(-4) M nitroprusside, fixed, and cut into transverse cross sections (5 microm thick). Media cross-sectional area (CSA), intraluminal CSA, media layer thickness, vessel outer perimeter, and media nuclei number were determined. In the basilar artery, both media CSA (HU 17, 893 +/- 2,539 microm(2); C 12,904 +/- 1,433 microm(2)) and thickness (HU 33.9 +/- 4.1 microm; C 22.3 +/- 3.2 microm) were increased with hindlimb unloading (P < 0.05), intraluminal CSA decreased (HU 7,816 +/- 3,045 microm(2); C 13,469 +/- 5,500 microm(2)) (P < 0.05), and vessel outer perimeter and media nuclei number were unaltered. There were no differences in mesenteric or splenic resistance artery morphology between HU and C rats. These findings suggest that hindlimb unloading-induced increases in cephalic arterial pressure and, correspondingly, increases in circumferential wall stress result in the hypertrophy of basilar artery smooth muscle cells.

  9. Planar Covariation of Hindlimb and Forelimb Elevation Angles during Terrestrial and Aquatic Locomotion of Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Catavitello, Giovanna; Ivanenko, Yuri P.; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The rich repertoire of locomotor behaviors in quadrupedal animals requires flexible inter-limb and inter-segmental coordination. Here we studied the kinematic coordination of different gaits (walk, trot, gallop, and swim) of six dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and, in particular, the planar covariation of limb segment elevation angles. The results showed significant variations in the relative duration of rearward limb movement, amplitude of angular motion, and inter-limb coordination, with gait patterns ranging from a lateral sequence of footfalls during walking to a diagonal sequence in swimming. Despite these differences, the planar law of inter-segmental coordination was maintained across different gaits in both forelimbs and hindlimbs. Notably, phase relationships and orientation of the covariation plane were highly limb specific, consistent with the functional differences in their neural control. Factor analysis of published muscle activity data also demonstrated differences in the characteristic timing of basic activation patterns of the forelimbs and hindlimbs. Overall, the results demonstrate that the planar covariation of inter-segmental coordination has emerged for both fore- and hindlimbs and all gaits, although in a limb-specific manner. PMID:26218076

  10. Changes in skeletal muscle gene expression consequent to altered weight bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, F. W.; Kirby, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a dynamic organ that adapts to alterations in weight bearing. This brief review examines changes in muscle gene expression resulting from the removal of weight bearing by hindlimb suspension and from increased weight bearing due to eccentric exercise. Acute (less than or equal to 2 days) non-weight bearing of adult rat soleus muscle alters only the translational control of muscle gene expression, while chronic (greater than or equal to 7 days) removal of weight bearing appears to influence pretranslational, translational, and posttranslational mechanisms of control. Acute and chronic eccentric exercise are associated with alterations of translational and posttranslational control, while chronic eccentric training also alters the pretranslational control of muscle gene expression. Thus alterations in weight bearing influence multiple sites of gene regulation.

  11. An In Vitro Spinal Cord–Hindlimb Preparation for Studying Behaviorally Relevant Rat Locomotor Function

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Heather Brant; Chang, Young-Hui; Hochman, Shawn

    2009-01-01

    Although the spinal cord contains the pattern-generating circuitry for producing locomotion, sensory feedback reinforces and refines the spatiotemporal features of motor output to match environmental demands. In vitro preparations, such as the isolated rodent spinal cord, offer many advantages for investigating locomotor circuitry, but they lack the natural afferent feedback provided by ongoing locomotor movements. We developed a novel preparation consisting of an isolated in vitro neonatal rat spinal cord oriented dorsal-up with intact hindlimbs free to step on a custom-built treadmill. This preparation combines the neural accessibility of in vitro preparations with the modulatory influence of sensory feedback from physiological hindlimb movement. Locomotion induced by N-methyl d-aspartate and serotonin showed kinematics similar to that of normal adult rat locomotion. Changing orientation and ground interaction (dorsal-up locomotion vs ventral-up air-stepping) resulted in significant kinematic and electromyographic changes that were comparable to those reported under similar mechanical conditions in vivo. We then used two mechanosensory perturbations to demonstrate the influence of sensory feedback on in vitro motor output patterns. First, swing assistive forces induced more regular, robust muscle activation patterns. Second, altering treadmill speed induced corresponding changes in stride frequency, confirming that changes in sensory feedback can alter stride timing in vitro. In summary, intact hindlimbs in vitro can generate behaviorally appropriate locomotor kinematics and responses to sensory perturbations. Future studies combining the neural and chemical accessibility of the in vitro spinal cord with the influence of behaviorally appropriate hindlimb movements will provide further insight into the operation of spinal motor pattern-generating circuits. PMID:19073815

  12. Shifts in a single muscle's control potential of body dynamics are determined by mechanical feedback

    PubMed Central

    Sponberg, Simon; Libby, Thomas; Mullens, Chris H.; Full, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Muscles are multi-functional structures that interface neural and mechanical systems. Muscle work depends on a large multi-dimensional space of stimulus (neural) and strain (mechanical) parameters. In our companion paper, we rewrote activation to individual muscles in intact, behaving cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis L.), revealing a specific muscle's potential to control body dynamics in different behaviours. Here, we use those results to provide the biologically relevant parameters for in situ work measurements. We test four hypotheses about how muscle function changes to provide mechanisms for the observed control responses. Under isometric conditions, a graded increase in muscle stress underlies its linear actuation during standing behaviours. Despite typically absorbing energy, this muscle can recruit two separate periods of positive work when controlling running. This functional change arises from mechanical feedback filtering a linear increase in neural activation into nonlinear work output. Changing activation phase again led to positive work recruitment, but at different times, consistent with the muscle's ability to also produce a turn. Changes in muscle work required considering the natural sequence of strides and separating swing and stance contributions of work. Both in vivo control potentials and in situ work loops were necessary to discover the neuromechanical coupling enabling control. PMID:21502130

  13. Chest wall dynamics and muscle recruitment during professional flute playing.

    PubMed

    Cossette, Isabelle; Monaco, Pierpaolo; Aliverti, Andrea; Macklem, Peter T

    2008-02-01

    Respiratory parameters and sound were recorded during professional flute playing in order to assess what physiological processes were associated with the control of sound production that results in 'breath support' which in turn is associated with high quality playing. Four standing young professional flautists played flute excerpts with and without breath support. Recordings included optoelectronic plethysmographic measurements of chest wall volume (V(cw)) and its compartments, surface electromyography of the scalene, lateral abdominal, rectus abdominus, parasternal and sternocleidomastoid muscles, mouth pressure, and sound. Flow was estimated from differentiating V(cw) during playing. Results showed that flute support entails antagonistic contraction of non-diaphragmatic inspiratory muscles that tends to hold the rib cage at higher lung volume. This relieves the expiratory muscles from the task of producing the right mouth pressure, especially at the end of the phrases, so they can contribute more to the finer control of mouth pressure modulations required for high quality playing.

  14. Extracting low-velocity concentric and eccentric dynamic muscle properties from isometric contraction experiments.

    PubMed

    Rockenfeller, R; Günther, M

    2016-08-01

    Determining dynamic properties of mammalian muscles, such as activation characteristics or the force-velocity relation, challenges the experimentalist. Tracking system, apparatus stiffness, load oscillation, force transducer, other sensors, and additional measuring devices may be incorporated, integrated and evaluated in an experimental set-up. In contrast, isometric contraction experiments (ICEs) are less challenging, but are generally not considered to reveal dynamic muscle properties. Yet, a sensitivity analysis of our muscle model discloses the influence of concentric, eccentric and activation parameters on isometric force development. Accordingly, we used solely experimental ICE data to identify muscle model parameters that generally describe concentric as well as eccentric muscle performance. In addition, we compared two different activation dynamics in regards to their physiological relevance to improve model-fits to ICE data. To this end, we optimized different combinations of such dynamic parameter subsets with respect to their influence on contraction solutions. Depending on muscle length in our optimized model, the contractile element reached shortening peaks during activation in the range 9-39% of its maximum contraction velocity, and about 8-25% during lengthening when deactivated. As a first result, we suggest one formulation of activation dynamics to be superior. Second, the step in slope of the force-velocity relation at isometric force was found to be the least influential among all dynamic parameters. Third, we suggest a specially designed isometric experimental set-up to estimate this transition parameter. Fourth, because of an inconsistency in literature, we developed a simple method to determine switching times of the neural stimulation and thus electro-mechanical delay (EMD) values from measuring muscle force in ICEs only.

  15. Muscle fibre conduction and fatigue during dynamic actions on a flywheel exercise device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzo, Marco; Alkner, Bjorn; Norrbrand, Lena; Farina, Dario; Tesch, Per A.

    2005-08-01

    Exposure to microgravity has adverse effects on skeletal muscle size and function. Such effects can be counteracted by training using a Flywheel Exercise Device (FWED). Multichannel EMG signals were detected in nine males from vastus medialis and laterialis muscles during 30 coupled concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) actions on the FWED. Muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV) was assessed for each action. CV initial values depended on muscle action type (CON/ECC) and were higher in CON than ECC actions. CV decreased (P<0.05) over time during the task. Its slope was greater for VL than VM but was not different between CON and ECC. It was concluded that direct measure of CV is feasible during dynamic exercise, and that this technique may be used for objective assessment of the effect of resistance training in counteracting microgravity-induced muscle atrophy.

  16. Surface EMG of the masticatory muscles (Part 3): Impact of changes to the dynamic occlusion.

    PubMed

    Hugger, S; Schindler, H J; Kordass, B; Hugger, A

    2013-01-01

    The third part of this literature review on the clinical relevance of surface electromyography (EMG) of the masticatory muscles summarizes the results of clinical studies in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD), preferably randomized controlled trials, examining the impact of changes to the dynamic occlusion. Clenching in left and right laterotrusive positions results in decrease in EMG activity of masseter and temporalis muscles on both working and non-working side. Masseter muscle exhibits largely uniform bilateral activity in laterotrusive positions, independent of canine guidance or group function with and without non-working side contacts. There is a dominance of temporalis muscle activity on the working side and, in case of posterior contacts and balancing contacts, temporalis muscle activity increases and changes from an unilateral to a symmetrical pattern.

  17. The Pleiotropic Effect of Physical Exercise on Mitochondrial Dynamics in Aging Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Elena; Agostini, Deborah; Polidori, Emanuela; Potenza, Lucia; Guescini, Michele; Lucertini, Francesco; Annibalini, Giosuè; Stocchi, Laura; De Santi, Mauro; Stocchi, Vilberto

    2015-01-01

    Decline in human muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) is one of the principal hallmarks of the aging process. Regular physical exercise and training programs are certain powerful stimuli to attenuate the physiological skeletal muscle alterations occurring during aging and contribute to promote health and well-being. Although the series of events that led to these muscle adaptations are poorly understood, the mechanisms that regulate these processes involve the “quality” of skeletal muscle mitochondria. Aerobic/endurance exercise helps to maintain and improve cardiovascular fitness and respiratory function, whereas strength/resistance-exercise programs increase muscle strength, power development, and function. Due to the different effect of both exercises in improving mitochondrial content and quality, in terms of biogenesis, dynamics, turnover, and genotype, combined physical activity programs should be individually prescribed to maximize the antiaging effects of exercise. PMID:25945152

  18. Fatigability and blood flow in the rat gastrocnemius-plantaris-soleus after hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, K. S.; Delp, M. D.; Fitts, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis that hindlimb suspension (HS) increases the fatigability of the soleus during intense contractile activity and that the increased fatigue is associated with a reduced muscle blood flow was tested using caged control rats and rats subjected to HS for 15 days. After 15 days, either the soleus or the gastrocnemius-plantaris-soleus (G-P-S) muscle group was stimulated in situ (10 min at 100 Hz, 100 ms trains at 120/min), and in the G-P-S preparation, blood flow was measured with radiolabeled microspheres before and at 2 min and 10 min after the start of contractile activity. The results indicate that 15 days of HS resulted in increased fatigability of the soleus, but the effect was not caused by a reduced muscle blood flow.

  19. Determine the effect of neck muscle fatigue on dynamic visual acuity in healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Al Saif, Amer A.; Al Senany, Samira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine whether neck muscle fatigue affects dynamic visual acuity in healthy young participants. [Subjects and Methods] This study was a double-blinded, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Thirty healthy young subjects (ages 21 to 30 years) participated in the study. Participants were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). The experimental group performed an exercise designed to induce neck muscle fatigue and the control group preformed non-fatiguing sham exercises. [Results] There were significant differences in mean dynamic visual acuity between the two groups (0.26±0.11 LogMar versus 0.003±0.02 LogMar). Subjects in the experimental group showed a significant decline in their dynamic visual acuity compared with the control group. Dynamic visual acuity strongly correlated with neck muscle fatigue (r = 0.79). No significant differences in joint position error were observed between the two groups and no significant correlations between joint position error and neck muscle fatigue were observed (r = 0.23). [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that neck muscle fatigue negatively impacts dynamic visual acuity. Although not statistically significant, cervical spine proprioception as measured by the joint position error in the experimental group was diminished after fatigue. PMID:25642087

  20. Determine the effect of neck muscle fatigue on dynamic visual acuity in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Al Saif, Amer A; Al Senany, Samira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine whether neck muscle fatigue affects dynamic visual acuity in healthy young participants. [Subjects and Methods] This study was a double-blinded, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Thirty healthy young subjects (ages 21 to 30 years) participated in the study. Participants were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). The experimental group performed an exercise designed to induce neck muscle fatigue and the control group preformed non-fatiguing sham exercises. [Results] There were significant differences in mean dynamic visual acuity between the two groups (0.26±0.11 LogMar versus 0.003±0.02 LogMar). Subjects in the experimental group showed a significant decline in their dynamic visual acuity compared with the control group. Dynamic visual acuity strongly correlated with neck muscle fatigue (r = 0.79). No significant differences in joint position error were observed between the two groups and no significant correlations between joint position error and neck muscle fatigue were observed (r = 0.23). [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that neck muscle fatigue negatively impacts dynamic visual acuity. Although not statistically significant, cervical spine proprioception as measured by the joint position error in the experimental group was diminished after fatigue.

  1. Increased insulin sensitivity and distorted mitochondrial adaptations during muscle unloading.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhengtang; Zhang, Yuan; Guo, Wei; Ji, Liu; Ding, Shuzhe

    2012-12-11

    We aimed to further investigate mitochondrial adaptations to muscle disuse and the consequent metabolic disorders. Male rats were submitted to hindlimb unloading (HU) for three weeks. Interestingly, HU increased insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and decreased blood level of triglyceride and insulin. In skeletal muscle, HU decreased expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) and its protein level in mitochondria. HU decreased mtDNA content and mitochondrial biogenesis biomarkers. Dynamin-related protein (Drp1) in mitochondria and Mfn2 mRNA level were decreased significantly by HU. Our findings provide more extensive insight into mitochondrial adaptations to muscle disuse, involving the shift of fuel utilization towards glucose, the decreased mitochondrial biogenesis and the distorted mitochondrial dynamics.

  2. An action potential-driven model of soleus muscle activation dynamics for locomotor-like movements

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hojeong; Sandercock, Thomas G.; Heckman, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to develop a physiologically plausible, computationally robust model for the muscle activation dynamics (A(t)) under physiologically relevant excitation and movement. Approach The interaction of excitation and movement on A(t) was investigated comparing the force production between a cat soleus muscle and its Hill-type model. For capturing A(t) under excitation and movement variation, a modular modeling framework was proposed comprising of 3 compartments: (1) spikes-to-[Ca2+]; (2) [Ca2+]-to-A; and (3) A-to-force transformation. The individual signal transformations were modeled based on physiological factors so that the parameter values could be separately determined for individual modules directly based on experimental data. Main results The strong dependency of A(t) on excitation frequency and muscle length was found during both isometric and dynamically-moving contractions. The identified dependencies of A(t) under the static and dynamic conditions could be incorporated in the modular modeling framework by modulating the model parameters as a function of movement input. The new modeling approach was also applicable to cat soleus muscles producing waveforms independent of those used to set the model parameters. Significance This study provides a modeling framework for spike-driven muscle responses during movement, that is suitable not only for insights into molecular mechanisms underlying muscle behaviors but also for large scale simulations. PMID:26087477

  3. An action potential-driven model of soleus muscle activation dynamics for locomotor-like movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hojeong; Sandercock, Thomas G.; Heckman, C. J.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to develop a physiologically plausible, computationally robust model for muscle activation dynamics (A(t)) under physiologically relevant excitation and movement. Approach. The interaction of excitation and movement on A(t) was investigated comparing the force production between a cat soleus muscle and its Hill-type model. For capturing A(t) under excitation and movement variation, a modular modeling framework was proposed comprising of three compartments: (1) spikes-to-[Ca2+]; (2) [Ca2+]-to-A; and (3) A-to-force transformation. The individual signal transformations were modeled based on physiological factors so that the parameter values could be separately determined for individual modules directly based on experimental data. Main results. The strong dependency of A(t) on excitation frequency and muscle length was found during both isometric and dynamically-moving contractions. The identified dependencies of A(t) under the static and dynamic conditions could be incorporated in the modular modeling framework by modulating the model parameters as a function of movement input. The new modeling approach was also applicable to cat soleus muscles producing waveforms independent of those used to set the model parameters. Significance. This study provides a modeling framework for spike-driven muscle responses during movement, that is suitable not only for insights into molecular mechanisms underlying muscle behaviors but also for large scale simulations.

  4. Dynamics of indirect symptoms of skeletal muscle damage after stretch-shortening exercise.

    PubMed

    Skurvydas, Albertas; Sipaviciene, Saule; Krutulyte, Grazina; Gailiuniene, Alina; Stasiulis, Arvydas; Mamkus, Gediminas; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas

    2006-12-01

    Healthy untrained men (age 20.4+/-1.7 years, n=20) volunteered to participate in an experiment in order to establish dynamics of indirect symptoms of skeletal muscle damage (ISMD) (decrease in maximal isometric voluntary contraction torque (MVCT) and torque evoked by electrostimulation at different frequencies and at different quadriceps muscle length, height (H) of drop jump (DJ), muscle soreness and creatine kinase (CK) activity in the blood) after 100 DJs from 0.75 m height performed with maximal intensity with an interval of 20s between the jumps (stretch-shortening exercise, SSE). All ISMDs remained even 72 h after SSE (P<0.01-0.001). The muscle experienced greater decrease (P<0.01) in torque evoked by electrostimulation (at low stimulation frequencies and at short muscle length in particular) after SSE than neuromuscular performance (MVCT and H of DJ) which demonstrated secondary decrease (P<0.01) in neuromuscular performance during the first 48 h after SSE. Within 24-72 h after the SSE the subjects felt an acute muscle pain (5-7 points approximately) and the CK activity in the blood was significantly increased up to 1200 IU/L (P<0.001). A significant correlation between decrease in MVCT and H of DJ 24-48 h after SSE on the one hand and muscle soreness registered within 24-48 h after SSE on the other was observed, whereas correlation between the other indirect symptoms of skeletal muscle damage was not significant.

  5. The effects of dynamic stretching on plantar flexor muscle-tendon tissue properties.

    PubMed

    Samukawa, Mina; Hattori, Masaki; Sugama, Naoko; Takeda, Naoki

    2011-12-01

    Dynamic stretching is commonly used in warm-up routines for athletic activities. Even though several positive effects of dynamic stretching on athletic performance have been reported, the effects on the muscle-tendon unit (MTU) itself are still unclear. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of dynamic stretching on the ankle plantar flexor muscle-tendon properties by use of ultrasonography. Twenty healthy male subjects participated in the present study. The subjects were asked to engage in dynamic stretching of plantar flexors for 30 s and to repeat for 5 sets. Ankle dorsiflexion ROM was measured before and after the dynamic stretching. Changes in the displacement of the myotendinous junction (MTJ), pennation angle, and fascicle length were also determined by using ultrasonography. Ankle dorsiflexion ROM increased significantly after the dynamic stretching (p < 0.0001). A significant distal displacement of the MTJ was observed until the second stretching set (p < 0.001) with no significant changes thereafter. Pennation angle, and fascicle length were unaffected by the dynamic stretching. Dynamic stretching was shown to be effective in increasing ankle joint flexibility. Outcomes that could have indicated changes in muscle tissue (such as the pennation angle and fascicle length) were unaltered. However, a significant displacement of the MTJ was found, indicating some change in the tendon tissues. Therefore, dynamic stretching of the plantar flexors was considered an effective means of lengthening the tendon tissues.

  6. Effect of temperature on skeletal muscle energy turnover during dynamic knee-extensor exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, R A; Krustrup, P; Kjaer, M; Mohr, M; Ball, D; Bangsbo, J

    2006-07-01

    The present study examined the effect of elevated temperature on muscle energy turnover during dynamic exercise. Nine male subjects performed 10 min of dynamic knee-extensor exercise at an intensity of 43 W (SD 10) and a frequency of 60 contractions per minute. Exercise was performed under normal (C) and elevated muscle temperature (HT) through passive heating. Thigh oxygen uptake (V(O2)) was determined from measurements of thigh blood flow and femoral arterial-venous differences for oxygen content. Anaerobic energy turnover was estimated from measurements of lactate release as well as muscle lactate accumulation and phosphocreatine utilization based on analysis of muscle biopsies obtained before and after each exercise. At the start of exercise, muscle temperature was 34.5 degrees C (SD 1.7) in C compared with 37.2 degrees C (SD 0.5) during HT (P < 0.05). Thigh V(O2) after 3 min was 0.52 l/min (SD 0.11) in C and 0.63 l/min (SD 0.13) in HT, and at the end of exercise it was 0.60 l/min (SD 0.14) and 0.61 l/min (SD 0.10) in C and HT, respectively (not significant). Total lactate release was the same between the two temperature conditions, as was muscle lactate accumulation and PCr utilization. Total ATP production (aerobic + anaerobic) was the same between each temperature condition [505.0 mmol/kg (SD 107.2) vs. 527.1 mmol/kg (SD 117.6); C and HT, respectively]. In conclusion, within the range of temperatures studied, passively increasing muscle temperature before exercise has no effect on muscle energy turnover during dynamic exercise.

  7. Oral dosing of chemical indicators for in vivo monitoring of Ca2+ dynamics in insect muscle.

    PubMed

    Ferdinandus; Arai, Satoshi; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Suzuki, Madoka; Sato, Hirotaka

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a remarkably facile staining protocol to visually investigate dynamic physiological events in insect tissues. We attempted to monitor Ca2+ dynamics during contraction of electrically stimulated living muscle. Advances in circuit miniaturization and insect neuromuscular physiology have enabled the hybridization of living insects and man-made electronic components, such as microcomputers, the result of which has been often referred as a Living Machine, Biohybrid, or Cyborg Insect. In order for Cyborg Insects to be of practical use, electrical stimulation parameters need to be optimized to induce desired muscle response (motor action) and minimize the damage in the muscle due to the electrical stimuli. Staining tissues and organs as well as measuring the dynamics of chemicals of interest in muscle should be conducted to quantitatively and systematically evaluate the effect of various stimulation parameters on the muscle response. However, existing staining processes require invasive surgery and/or arduous procedures using genetically encoded sensors. In this study, we developed a non-invasive and remarkably facile method for staining, in which chemical indicators can be orally administered (oral dosing). A chemical Ca2+ indicator was orally introduced into an insect of interest via food containing the chemical indicator and the indicator diffused from the insect digestion system to the target muscle tissue. We found that there was a positive relationship between the fluorescence intensity of the indicator and the frequency of electrical stimulation which indicates the orally dosed indicator successfully monitored Ca2+ dynamics in the muscle tissue. This oral dosing method has a potential to globally stain tissues including neurons, and investigating various physiological events in insects.

  8. Oral Dosing of Chemical Indicators for In Vivo Monitoring of Ca2+ Dynamics in Insect Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ferdinandus; Arai, Satoshi; Ishiwata, Shin’ichi; Suzuki, Madoka; Sato, Hirotaka

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a remarkably facile staining protocol to visually investigate dynamic physiological events in insect tissues. We attempted to monitor Ca2+ dynamics during contraction of electrically stimulated living muscle. Advances in circuit miniaturization and insect neuromuscular physiology have enabled the hybridization of living insects and man-made electronic components, such as microcomputers, the result of which has been often referred as a Living Machine, Biohybrid, or Cyborg Insect. In order for Cyborg Insects to be of practical use, electrical stimulation parameters need to be optimized to induce desired muscle response (motor action) and minimize the damage in the muscle due to the electrical stimuli. Staining tissues and organs as well as measuring the dynamics of chemicals of interest in muscle should be conducted to quantitatively and systematically evaluate the effect of various stimulation parameters on the muscle response. However, existing staining processes require invasive surgery and/or arduous procedures using genetically encoded sensors. In this study, we developed a non-invasive and remarkably facile method for staining, in which chemical indicators can be orally administered (oral dosing). A chemical Ca2+ indicator was orally introduced into an insect of interest via food containing the chemical indicator and the indicator diffused from the insect digestion system to the target muscle tissue. We found that there was a positive relationship between the fluorescence intensity of the indicator and the frequency of electrical stimulation which indicates the orally dosed indicator successfully monitored Ca2+ dynamics in the muscle tissue. This oral dosing method has a potential to globally stain tissues including neurons, and investigating various physiological events in insects. PMID:25590329

  9. Hindlimb musculature of the largest living rodent Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Caviomorpha): Adaptations to semiaquatic and terrestrial styles of life.

    PubMed

    García-Esponda, César M; Candela, Adriana M

    2016-03-01

    The caviomorph species Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Cavioidea), or capybara, is the largest living rodent. This species is widely distributed, from northern South America to Uruguay and eastern Argentina, inhabiting in a wide variety of densely vegetated lowlands habitats in the proximity of water. Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris not only runs with agility, like other members of the Cavioidea, but it can also swim and dive easily. For these reasons, it has been classified as a cursorial as well as semiaquatic species. However, comprehensive anatomical descriptions of the osteology and myology of the capybara are not available in the literature and analyses on its swimming abilities are still required. We hypothesize that some of the characters of the hindlimb of H. hydrochaeris could reveal a unique morphological arrangement associated with swimming abilities. In this study, an anatomical description of the hindlimb musculature of H. hydrochaeris, and a discussion of the possible functional significance of the main muscles is provided. In addition, we explore the evolution of some myological and osteological characters of the capybara in the context of the cavioids. We concluded that most of the muscular and osteological features of the hindlimb of H. hydrochaeris are neither adaptations to a specialized cursoriality, nor major modifications for an aquatic mode of life. Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris share several features with other cavioids, being a generalized cursorial species in the context of this clade. However, it shows some adaptations of the hindlimb for enhancing propulsion through water, of which the most notable seems to be the shortening of the leg, short tendons of most muscles of the leg, and a well-developed soleus muscle. These adaptations to a semiaquatic mode of life could have been acquired during the most recent evolutionary history of the hydrochoerids.

  10. Hindlimb unloading of growing rats: a model for predicting skeletal changes during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, E. R.; Globus, R. K.

    1998-01-01

    A model that uses hindlimb unloading of rats was developed to study the consequences of skeletal unloading and reloading as occurs during and following space flight. Studies using the model were initiated two decades ago and further developed at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-Ames Research Center. The model mimics some aspects of exposure to microgravity by removing weightbearing loads from the hindquarters and producing a cephalic fluid shift. Unlike space flight, the forelimbs remain loaded in the model, providing a useful internal control to distinguish between the local and systemic effects of hindlimb unloading. Rats that are hindlimb unloaded by tail traction gain weight at the same rate as pairfed controls, and glucocorticoid levels are not different from controls, suggesting that systemic stress is minimal. Unloaded bones display reductions in cancellous osteoblast number, cancellous mineral apposition rate, trabecular bone volume, cortical periosteal mineralization rate, total bone mass, calcium content, and maturation of bone mineral relative to controls. Subsequent studies reveal that these changes also occur in rats exposed to space flight. In hindlimb unloaded rats, bone formation rates and masses of unloaded bones decline relative to controls, while loaded bones do not change despite a transient reduction in serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) concentrations. Studies using the model to evaluate potential countermeasures show that 1,25D, growth hormone, dietary calcium, alendronate, and muscle stimulation modify, but do not completely correct, the suppression of bone growth caused by unloading, whereas continuous infusion of transforming growth factor-beta2 or insulin-like growth factor-1 appears to protect against some of the bone changes caused by unloading. These results emphasize the importance of local as opposed to systemic factors in the skeletal response to unloading, and reveal the pivotal role that osteoblasts play in

  11. Effects of Static and Dynamic Stretching on the Isokinetic Peak Torques and Electromyographic Activities of the Antagonist Muscles.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, Abdullah; Sekir, Ufuk; Gür, Hakan; Akova, Bedrettin

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if static and dynamic stretching exercises of the knee muscles (quadriceps and hamstring muscles) have any effects on concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torques and electromyographic amplitudes (EMG) of the antagonist muscles. Twenty healthy male athletes (age between 18-30 years) voluntarily participated in this study. All of the subjects visited the laboratory to complete the following intervention in a randomized order on 5 separate days; (a) non-stretching (control), (b) static stretching of the quadriceps muscles, (c) static stretching of the hamstring muscles, (d) dynamic stretching of the quadriceps muscles, and (e) dynamic stretching of the hamstring muscles. Static stretching exercises either for the quadriceps or the hamstring muscles were carried out at the standing and sitting positions. Subjects performed four successive repetitions of each stretching exercises for 30 seconds in both stretching positions. Similar to static stretching exercises two different stretching modes were designed for dynamic stretching exercises. Concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torque for the non-stretched antagonist quadriceps or hamstring muscles at angular velocities of 60°/sec and 240°/sec and their concurrent electromyographic (EMG) activities were measured before and immediately after the intervention. Isokinetic peak torques of the non-stretched agonist hamstring and quadriceps muscles did not represent any significant (p > 0.05) differences following static and dynamic stretching of the antagonist quadriceps and hamstring muscles, respectively. Similarly, the EMG activities of the agonist muscles exhibited no significant alterations (p > 0.05) following both stretching exercises of the antagonist muscles. According to the results of the present study it is possible to state that antagonist stretching exercises either in the static or dynamic modes do not affect the isokinetic peak torques and the EMG activities

  12. Study of skeletal muscle cross-bridge population dynamics by second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nucciotti, V.; Stringari, C.; Sacconi, L.; Vanzi, F.; Tesi, C.; Pirrodi, N.; Poggesi, C.; Castiglioni, C.; Milani, A.; Linari, M.; Piazzesi, G.; Lombardi, V.; Pavone, F. S.

    2007-02-01

    The high degree of structural order in skeletal muscle allows imaging of this tissue by Second Harmonic Generation (SHG). Biochemical and colocalization studies have gathered an increasing wealth of clues for the attribution of the molecular origin of the muscle SHG signal to the motor protein myosin. Thus, SHG represents a potentially very powerful tool in the investigation of structural dynamics occurring in muscle during active production of force and/or shortening. A full characterization of the polarization-dependence of the SHG signal represents a very selective information on the orientation of the emitting proteins and their dynamics during contraction, provided that different physiological states of muscle (relaxed, rigor and active) exhibit distinct patterns of SHG polarization dependence. Here polarization data are obtained from single frog muscle fibers at rest and during isometric contraction and interpreted, by means of a model, in terms of an average orientation of the SHG emitters which are structured with a cylindrical symmetry about the fiber axis. The setup is optimized for accurate polarization measurements with SHG, combined with a line scan imaging method allowing acquisition of SHG polarization curves in different physiological states. We demonstrate that muscle fiber displays a measurable variation of the orientation of SHG emitters with the transition from rest to isometric contraction.

  13. Economy, Movement Dynamics, and Muscle Activity of Human Walking at Different Speeds

    PubMed Central

    Raffalt, P. C.; Guul, M. K.; Nielsen, A. N.; Puthusserypady, S.; Alkjær, T.

    2017-01-01

    The complex behaviour of human walking with respect to movement variability, economy and muscle activity is speed dependent. It is well known that a U-shaped relationship between walking speed and economy exists. However, it is an open question if the movement dynamics of joint angles and centre of mass and muscle activation strategy also exhibit a U-shaped relationship with walking speed. We investigated the dynamics of joint angle trajectories and the centre of mass accelerations at five different speeds ranging from 20 to 180% of the predicted preferred speed (based on Froude speed) in twelve healthy males. The muscle activation strategy and walking economy were also assessed. The movement dynamics was investigated using a combination of the largest Lyapunov exponent and correlation dimension. We observed an intermediate stage of the movement dynamics of the knee joint angle and the anterior-posterior and mediolateral centre of mass accelerations which coincided with the most energy-efficient walking speed. Furthermore, the dynamics of the joint angle trajectories and the muscle activation strategy was closely linked to the functional role and biomechanical constraints of the joints. PMID:28272484

  14. Effects of isometric quadriceps strength training at different muscle lengths on dynamic torque production.

    PubMed

    Noorkõiv, Marika; Nosaka, Kazunori; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to (1) determine whether isometric training at a short vs. long quadriceps muscle length affects concentric torque production; (2) examine the relationship between muscle hypertrophy and concentric torque; and (3) determine whether changes in fascicle length are associated with changes in concentric torque. Sixteen men performed isometric training at a short (SL, n = 8) or a long muscle length (LL, n = 8). Changes in maximal concentric torque were measured at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 and 300 rad · s(-1). The relationships between the changes in concentric torque, cross-sectional area, volume and fascicle length were tested. Concentric torque increased significantly after training only in LL and at angular velocities of 30 and 120 rad · s(-1) by 12-13% (P < 0.05). Muscle size increased in LL only, the changes were correlated (r = 0.73-0.93, P < 0.05) with the changes in concentric torque. Vastus lateralis (VL) fascicle length increased in both groups (5.4 ± 4.9%, P = 0.001) but the change was not correlated with changes in concentric torque in either group. Isometric training-induced increases in muscle size and concentric torque were best elicited by training at long muscle lengths. These results highlight a clear muscle length dependence of isometric training on dynamic torque production.

  15. Synergist Ablation as a Rodent Model to Study Satellite Cell Dynamics in Adult Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Tyler J; McCarthy, John J; Peterson, Charlotte A; Fry, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    In adult skeletal muscles, satellite cells are the primary myogenic stem cells involved in myogenesis. Normally, they remain in a quiescent state until activated by a stimulus, after which they proliferate, differentiate, and fuse into an existing myofiber or form a de novo myofiber. To study satellite cell dynamics in adult murine models, most studies utilize regeneration models in which the muscle is severely damaged and requires the participation from satellite cells in order to repair. Here, we describe a model to study satellite cell behavior in muscle hypertrophy that is independent of muscle regeneration.Synergist ablation surgery involves the surgical removal of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles resulting in functional overload of the remaining plantaris muscle. This functional overload results in myofiber hypertrophy, as well as the activation, proliferation, and fusion of satellite cells into the myofibers. Within 2 weeks of functional overload, satellite cell content increases approximately 275 %, an increase that is accompanied with a ~60 % increase in the number of myonuclei. Therefore, this can be used as an alternative model to study satellite cell behavior in adulthood that is different from regeneration, and capable of revealing new satellite cell functions in regulating muscle adaptation.

  16. An integrated muscle mechanic-fluid dynamic model of lamprey swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chia-Yu; Tytell, Eric; Fauci, Lisa

    2009-11-01

    In an effort towards a detailed understanding of the generation and control of vertebrate locomotion, including the role of the CPG and its interactions with reflexive feedback, muscle mechanics, and external fluid dynamics, we study a simple vertebrate, the lamprey. Lamprey body undulations are a result of a wave of neural activation that passes from head to tail, causing a wave of muscle activation. These active forces are mediated by passive structural forces. We present recent results from a model that fully couples a viscous, incompressible fluid with nonlinear muscle mechanics. We measure the dependence of the phase lag between activation wave and mechanical wave as a function of model parameters, such as body stiffness and muscle strength. Simulation results are compared to experiments utilizing both real and synthetic lamprey.

  17. The effect of shortening history on isometric and dynamic muscle function.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, John; Elmer, Steven J; Martin, James C

    2010-03-03

    Despite numerous reports on isometric force depression, few reports have quantified force depression during active muscle shortening (dynamic force depression). The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of shortening history on isometric force following active shortening, force during isokinetic shortening, and velocity during isotonic shortening. The soleus muscles of four cats were subjected to a series of isokinetic contractions at three shortening velocities and isotonic contractions under three loads. Muscle excursions initiated from three different muscle lengths but terminated at a constant length. Isometric force produced subsequent to active shortening, and force or shortening velocity produced at a specific muscle length during shortening, were compared across all three conditions. Results indicated that shortening history altered isometric force by up to 5%, force during isokinetic shortening up to 30% and shortening velocity during isotonic contractions by up to 63%. Furthermore, there was a load by excursion interaction during isotonic contractions such that excursion had the most influence on shortening velocity when the loads were the greatest. There was not a velocity by excursion interaction during isokinetic contractions. Isokinetic and isotonic power-velocity relationships displayed a downward shift in power as excursions increased. Thus, to discuss force depression based on differences in isometric force subsequent to active shortening may underestimate its importance during dynamic contractions. The presence of dynamic force depression should be realized in sport performance, motor control modeling and when controlling paralyzed limbs through artificial stimulation.

  18. Effect of hindlimb unweighting on tissue blood flow in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, K. S.; Delp, M. D.; Fitts, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    This study characterized distribution of blood flow in the rat during hindlimb unweighting (HU), and post-HU standing and exercise. The relationship between reduced hindlimb blood flow and the previously observed elevation in anaerobic metabolism observed with contractile activity in the atrophied soleus muscle was examined (Witzmann et al., 1992). Blood flow was measured during unweighting, normal standing, and running on a treadmill (15 m/min), after 15 days of HU or cage control. For another group blood flow was measured during preexercise treadmill standing and treadmill running. During unweighting, PE standing, and running no difference in soleus blood flow was observed between groups. Muscles composed mainly of fast twitch glycolytic fibers received greater blood flow during chronic unweighting. With exercise blood flow to visceral organs was reduced in control animals, a similar change was not seen in 15 day HU rats. These changes suggest a reduction in the ability of the sympathetic nervous system to distribute cardiac output after chronic HU. A reduction in blood flow to the soleus during exercise was not observed after HU and so does not explain the increased dependence of the atrophied soleus on anerobic energy production during contractile activity.

  19. Animal model of simulated microgravity: a comparative study of hindlimb unloading via tail versus pelvic suspension.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Parimal; Long, Ashley; Harris, Gabrielle; Soulsby, Michael E; Dobretsov, Maxim

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare physiological effects of hindlimb suspension (HLS) in tail- and pelvic-HLS rat models to determine if severe stretch in the tail-HLS rats lumbosacral skeleton may contribute to the changes traditionally attributed to simulated microgravity and musculoskeletal disuse in the tail-HLS model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into suspended and control-nonsuspended groups were subjected to two separate methods of suspension and maintained with regular food and water for 2 weeks. Body weights, food and water consumption, soleus muscle weight, tibial bone mineral density, random plasma insulin, and hindlimb pain on pressure threshold (PPT) were measured. X-ray analysis demonstrated severe lordosis in tail- but not pelvic-HLS animals. However, growth retardation, food consumption, and soleus muscle weight and tibial bone density (decreased relative to control) did not differ between two HLS models. Furthermore, HLS rats developed similar levels of insulinopenia and mechanical hyperalgesia (decreased PPT) in both tail- and pelvic-HLS groups. In the rat-to-rat comparisons, the growth retardation and the decreased PPT observed in HLS-rats was most associated with insulinopenia. In conclusion, these data suggest that HLS results in mild prediabetic state with some signs of pressure hyperalgesia, but lumbosacral skeleton stretch plays little role, if any, in these pathological changes.

  20. MicroRNAs dynamically remodel gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Chanjae; Yan, Wei; Ward, Sean M; Hwang, Sung Jin; Wu, Qiuxia; Hatton, William J; Park, Jong Kun; Sanders, Kenton M; Ro, Seungil

    2011-04-14

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) express a unique set of microRNAs (miRNAs) which regulate and maintain the differentiation state of SMCs. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of miRNAs during the development of gastrointestinal (GI) SMCs in a transgenic animal model. We generated SMC-specific Dicer null animals that express the reporter, green fluorescence protein, in a SMC-specific manner. SMC-specific knockout of Dicer prevented SMC miRNA biogenesis, causing dramatic changes in phenotype, function, and global gene expression in SMCs: the mutant mice developed severe dilation of the intestinal tract associated with the thinning and destruction of the smooth muscle (SM) layers; contractile motility in the mutant intestine was dramatically decreased; and SM contractile genes and transcriptional regulators were extensively down-regulated in the mutant SMCs. Profiling and bioinformatic analyses showed that SMC phenotype is regulated by a complex network of positive and negative feedback by SMC miRNAs, serum response factor (SRF), and other transcriptional factors. Taken together, our data suggest that SMC miRNAs are required for the development and survival of SMCs in the GI tract.

  1. An attempt to bridge muscle architecture dynamics and its instantaneous rate of force development using ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Li, Jizhou; Zhou, Yongjin; Zheng, Yong-Ping; Li, Guanglin

    2015-08-01

    Muscle force output is an essential index in rehabilitation assessment or physical exams, and could provide considerable insights for various applications such as load monitoring and muscle assessment in sports science or rehabilitation therapy. Besides direct measurement of force output using a dynamometer, electromyography has earlier been used in several studies to quantify muscle force as an indirect means. However, its spatial resolution is easily compromised as a summation of the action potentials from neighboring motor units of electrode site. To explore an alternative method to indirectly estimate the muscle force output, and with better muscle specificity, we started with an investigation on the relationship between architecture dynamics and force output of triceps surae. The muscular architecture dynamics is captured in ultrasonography sequences and estimated using a previously reported motion estimation method. Then an indicator named as the dorsoventrally averaged motion profile (DAMP) is employed. The performance of force output is represented by an instantaneous version of the rate of force development (RFD), namely I-RFD. From experimental results on ten normal subjects, there were significant correlations between the I-RFD and DAMP for triceps surae, both normalized between 0 and 1, with the sum of squares error at 0.0516±0.0224, R-square at 0.7929±0.0931 and root mean squared error at 0.0159±0.0033. The statistical significance results were less than 0.01. The present study suggested that muscle architecture dynamics extracted from ultrasonography during contraction is well correlated to the I-RFD and it can be a promising option for indirect estimation of muscle force output.

  2. Estimation of skeletal muscle interstitial adenosine during forearm dynamic exercise in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, F.; Heusinkveld, J.; Ballog, R.; Davis, S.; Biaggioni, I.

    2000-01-01

    It has been proposed that adenosine is a metabolic signal that triggers activation of muscle afferents involved in the exercise pressor reflex. Furthermore, exogenous adenosine induces sympathetic activation that mimics the exercise pressor reflex, and blockade of adenosine receptors inhibits sympathetic activation induced by exercise. Thus, we hypothesize that adenosine is released locally by the muscle during exercise. We used microdialysis probes, placed in the flexor digitorium superficialis muscle, to estimate muscle interstitial adenosine levels in humans. We estimated resting in vivo muscle interstitial adenosine concentrations (0.292+/-0.058 micromol/L, n=4) by perfusing increasing concentrations of adenosine to determine the gradient produced in the dialysate. Muscle interstitial adenosine concentrations increased from 0.23+/-0.04 to 0.82+/-0.14 micromol/L (n=14, P<0.001) during intermittent dynamic exercise at 50% of maximal voluntary contraction. Lactate increased from 0.8+/-0.1 to 2.3+/-0.3 mmol/L (P<0.001). Lower intensity (15% maximal voluntary contraction) intermittent dynamic exercise increased adenosine concentrations from 0.104+/-0.02 to 0.42+/-0.16 micromol/L (n=7). The addition of ischemia to this low level of exercise produced a greater increase in adenosine (from 0.095+/-0.02 to 0.48+/-0.2 micromol/L) compared with nonischemic exercise (0. 095+/-0.02 to 0.25+/-0.12 micromol/L). These results indicate that microdialysis is useful in estimating adenosine concentrations and in reflecting changes in muscle interstitial adenosine during dynamic exercise in humans.

  3. A novel laser-Doppler flowmetry assisted murine model of acute hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion for free flap research.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Tolga Taha; Al-Sawaf, Othman; Brandacher, Gerald; Kanzler, Isabella; Tuchscheerer, Nancy; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Kanatas, Anastasios; Knobe, Matthias; Fragoulis, Athanassios; Tolba, René; Mitchell, David; Pufe, Thomas; Wruck, Christoph Jan; Hölzle, Frank; Liehn, Elisa Anamaria

    2013-01-01

    Suitable and reproducible experimental models of translational research in reconstructive surgery that allow in-vivo investigation of diverse molecular and cellular mechanisms are still limited. To this end we created a novel murine model of acute hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion to mimic a microsurgical free flap procedure. Thirty-six C57BL6 mice (n = 6/group) were assigned to one control and five experimental groups (subject to 6, 12, 96, 120 hours and 14 days of reperfusion, respectively) following 4 hours of complete hindlimb ischemia. Ischemia and reperfusion were monitored using Laser-Doppler Flowmetry. Hindlimb tissue components (skin and muscle) were investigated using histopathology, quantitative immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Despite massive initial tissue damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury, the structure of the skin component was restored after 96 hours. During the same time, muscle cells were replaced by young myotubes. In addition, initial neuromuscular dysfunction, edema and swelling resolved by day 4. After two weeks, no functional or neuromuscular deficits were detectable. Furthermore, upregulation of VEGF and tissue infiltration with CD34-positive stem cells led to new capillary formation, which peaked with significantly higher values after two weeks. These data indicate that our model is suitable to investigate cellular and molecular tissue alterations from ischemia-reperfusion such as occur during free flap procedures.

  4. Multivariable Dynamic Ankle Mechanical Impedance With Relaxed Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunglae; Krebs, Hermano Igo; Hogan, Neville

    2015-01-01

    Neurological or biomechanical disorders may distort ankle mechanical impedance and thereby impair locomotor function. This paper presents a quantitative characterization of multivariable ankle mechanical impedance of young healthy subjects when their muscles were relaxed, to serve as a baseline to compare with pathophysiological ankle properties of biomechanically and/or neurologically impaired patients. Measurements using a highly backdrivable wearable ankle robot combined with multi-input multi-output stochastic system identification methods enabled reliable characterization of ankle mechanical impedance in two degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) simultaneously, the sagittal and frontal planes. The characterization included important ankle properties unavailable from single DOF studies: coupling between DOFs and anisotropy as a function of frequency. Ankle impedance in joint coordinates showed responses largely consistent with a second-order system consisting of inertia, viscosity, and stiffness in both seated (knee flexed) and standing (knee straightened) postures. Stiffness in the sagittal plane was greater than in the frontal plane and furthermore, was greater when standing than when seated, most likely due to the stretch of bi-articular muscles (medial and lateral gastrocnemius). Very low off-diagonal partial coherences implied negligible coupling between dorsiflexion-plantarflexion and inversion-eversion. The directions of principal axes were tilted slightly counterclockwise from the original joint coordinates. The directional variation (anisotropy) of ankle impedance in the 2-D space formed by rotations in the sagittal and frontal planes exhibited a characteristic “peanut” shape, weak in inversion-eversion over a wide range of frequencies from the stiffness dominated region up to the inertia dominated region. Implications for the assessment of neurological and biomechanical impairments are discussed. PMID:24686292

  5. Effects of Static and Dynamic Stretching on the Isokinetic Peak Torques and Electromyographic Activities of the Antagonist Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Serefoglu, Abdullah; Sekir, Ufuk; Gür, Hakan; Akova, Bedrettin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if static and dynamic stretching exercises of the knee muscles (quadriceps and hamstring muscles) have any effects on concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torques and electromyographic amplitudes (EMG) of the antagonist muscles. Twenty healthy male athletes (age between 18-30 years) voluntarily participated in this study. All of the subjects visited the laboratory to complete the following intervention in a randomized order on 5 separate days; (a) non-stretching (control), (b) static stretching of the quadriceps muscles, (c) static stretching of the hamstring muscles, (d) dynamic stretching of the quadriceps muscles, and (e) dynamic stretching of the hamstring muscles. Static stretching exercises either for the quadriceps or the hamstring muscles were carried out at the standing and sitting positions. Subjects performed four successive repetitions of each stretching exercises for 30 seconds in both stretching positions. Similar to static stretching exercises two different stretching modes were designed for dynamic stretching exercises. Concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torque for the non-stretched antagonist quadriceps or hamstring muscles at angular velocities of 60°/sec and 240°/sec and their concurrent electromyographic (EMG) activities were measured before and immediately after the intervention. Isokinetic peak torques of the non-stretched agonist hamstring and quadriceps muscles did not represent any significant (p > 0.05) differences following static and dynamic stretching of the antagonist quadriceps and hamstring muscles, respectively. Similarly, the EMG activities of the agonist muscles exhibited no significant alterations (p > 0.05) following both stretching exercises of the antagonist muscles. According to the results of the present study it is possible to state that antagonist stretching exercises either in the static or dynamic modes do not affect the isokinetic peak torques and the EMG activities

  6. Measurement of Young’s Modulus and Internal Damping of Pork Muscle in Dynamic Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakroun, Moez; Ghozlen, Med Hédi Ben

    2016-09-01

    Automotive shocks involve various tiers’ speed for different human body tissues. Knowing the behavior of these tissues, including muscles, in different vibration frequency is therefore necessary. The muscle has viscoelatic properties. Dynamically, this material has variable mechanical properties depending on the vibration frequency. A novel technique is being employed to examine the variation of the mechanical impedance of pork muscle as a function of frequency. A force is imposed on the lower surface of the sample and acceleration is measured on its upper surface. These two parameters are measured using sensors. The sample is modeled by Kelvin-Voigt model. These measures allow deducing the change in the mechanical impedance modulus (/Zexp/ = /Force: Acceleration/) of pork muscle as a function of vibration frequency. The measured impedance has a resonance of approximately 60Hz. Best-fit parameters of theoretical impedance can be deduced by superposition with the experiment result. The variation of Young’s modulus and internal damping of pig’s muscle as a function of frequency are determined. The results obtained between 5Hz and 30Hz are the same as determined by Aimedieu and al in 2003, therefore validating our technique. The Young’s modulus of muscle increases with the frequency, on the other hand, we note a rating decrease of internal damping.

  7. Dynamic stability of spine using stability-based optimization and muscle spindle reflex.

    PubMed

    Zeinali-Davarani, Shahrokh; Hemami, Hooshang; Barin, Kamran; Shirazi-Adl, Aboulfazl; Parnianpour, Mohamad

    2008-02-01

    A computational method for simulation of 3-D movement of the trunk under the control of 48 anatomically oriented muscle actions was developed. Neural excitation of muscles was set based on inverse dynamics approach along with the stability-based optimization. The effect of muscle spindle reflex response on the trunk movement stability was evaluated upon the application of a perturbation moment. The method was used to simulate the trunk movement from the upright standing to 60 degrees of flexion. Incorporation of the stability condition as an additional constraint in the optimization resulted in an increase in antagonistic activities demonstrating that the antagonistic co-activation acts to increase the trunk stability in response to self-induced postural internal perturbation. In presence of a 30 Nm flexion perturbation moment, muscle spindles decreased the induced deviation of the position and velocity profiles from the desired ones. The stability-generated co-activation decreased the reflexive response of muscle spindles to the perturbation demonstrating that the rise in muscle co-activation can ameliorate the corruption of afferent neural sensory system at the expense of higher loading of the spine.

  8. Structural dynamics of the skeletal muscle fiber by second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nucciotti, V.; Stringari, C.; Sacconi, L.; Vanzi, F.; Linari, M.; Piazzesi, G.; Lombardi, V.; Pavone, F. S.

    2008-02-01

    The high degree of structural order in skeletal muscle allows imaging of this tissue by Second Harmonic Generation (SHG). As previously found (Vanzi et al., J. Muscle Cell Res. Motil. 2006) by fractional extraction of proteins, myosin is the source of SHG signal. A full characterization of the polarization-dependence of the SHG signal can provide very selective information on the orientation of the emitting proteins and their dynamics during contraction. We developed a line scan polarization method, allowing measurements of a full polarization curve in intact muscle fibers from skeletal muscle of the frog to characterize the SHG polarization dependence on different physiological states (resting, rigor and isometric tetanic contraction). The polarization data have been interpreted by means of a model in terms of the average orientation of SHG emitters.The different physiological states are characterized by distinct patterns of SHG polarization. The variation of the orientation of emitting molecules in relation to the physiological state of the muscle demonstrates that one part of SHG signal arises from the globular head of the myosin molecule that cross-links actin and myosin filaments. The dependence of the SHG modulation on the degree of overlap between actin and myosin filaments during an isometric contraction, provides the constraints to estimate the fraction of myosin heads generating the isometric force in the active muscle fiber.

  9. Forelimb-hindlimb developmental timing changes across tetrapod phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Bininda-Emonds, Olaf RP; Jeffery, Jonathan E; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R; Hanken, James; Colbert, Matthew; Pieau, Claude; Selwood, Lynne; ten Cate, Carel; Raynaud, Albert; Osabutey, Casmile K; Richardson, Michael K

    2007-01-01

    Background Tetrapods exhibit great diversity in limb structures among species and also between forelimbs and hindlimbs within species, diversity which frequently correlates with locomotor modes and life history. We aim to examine the potential relation of changes in developmental timing (heterochrony) to the origin of limb morphological diversity in an explicit comparative and quantitative framework. In particular, we studied the relative time sequence of development of the forelimbs versus the hindlimbs in 138 embryos of 14 tetrapod species spanning a diverse taxonomic, ecomorphological and life-history breadth. Whole-mounts and histological sections were used to code the appearance of 10 developmental events comprising landmarks of development from the early bud stage to late chondrogenesis in the forelimb and the corresponding serial homologues in the hindlimb. Results An overall pattern of change across tetrapods can be discerned and appears to be relatively clade-specific. In the primitive condition, as seen in Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes, the forelimb/pectoral fin develops earlier than the hindlimb/pelvic fin. This pattern is either retained or re-evolved in eulipotyphlan insectivores (= shrews, moles, hedgehogs, and solenodons) and taken to its extreme in marsupials. Although exceptions are known, the two anurans we examined reversed the pattern and displayed a significant advance in hindlimb development. All other species examined, including a bat with its greatly enlarged forelimbs modified as wings in the adult, showed near synchrony in the development of the fore and hindlimbs. Conclusion Major heterochronic changes in early limb development and chondrogenesis were absent within major clades except Lissamphibia, and their presence across vertebrate phylogeny are not easily correlated with adaptive phenomena related to morphological differences in the adult fore- and hindlimbs. The apparently conservative nature of this trait means that changes in

  10. Temporal dynamics of flight muscle development in Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Gurevitz, Juan M; Kitron, Uriel; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2009-09-01

    Triatoma infestans Klug is dimorphic for flight muscles. This dimorphism may affect flight dispersal, reinfestation patterns, and transmission risk. To understand the contributions of genes and environment to morph determination, it is first necessary to characterize the temporal dynamics of flight muscle development. Field-collected T. infestans adults were dissected 20 or 100 d after collection, and those collected as nymphs were dissected at approximately 4, 15, or 44 d after the imaginal molt. The occurrence of flight muscles was additionally assessed by minimally invasive, repeated observations through the scutum of live bugs. Overall, 33.5% of 179 males and 7.8% of 179 females had no flight muscles. Neither dissections nor repeated observations evidenced changes in morph type during adult life, suggesting that the occurrence of flight muscles is mostly irreversible within the time span of observations and is determined before or during final ecdysis. Flight muscles were detectable at 4 d after emergence and achieved complete development within 4-15 d after emergence. The repeated observation of thoracic contents through the scutum showed very high sensitivity and specificity and apparently had minor effects on mortality. In another bug population located 360 km away, 16.4% of 177 males and 6.7% of 149 females had no flight muscles. Current results show that the sex-biased flight muscle dimorphism is a regionally widespread character in T. infestans. This character should be considered in field population studies that seek to measure reinfestation risk and dispersal in T. infestans and other Triatominae.

  11. An evaluation of the reliability of muscle fiber cross-sectional area and fiber number measurements in rat skeletal muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The reliability of estimating muscle fiber cross-sectional area (measure of muscle fiber size) and fiber number from only a subset of fibers in rat hindlimb muscle cross-sections has not been systematically evaluated. This study examined the variability in mean estimates of fiber cross-s...

  12. Hindlimb unweighting affects rat vascular capacitance function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, S. L.; Tamhidi, L.; Berkowitz, D. E.; Shoukas, A. A.

    2001-01-01

    Microgravity is associated with an impaired stroke volume and, therefore, cardiac output response to orthostatic stress. We hypothesized that a decreased venous filling pressure due to increased venous compliance may be an important contributing factor in this response. We used a constant flow, constant right atrial pressure cardiopulmonary bypass procedure to measure total systemic vascular compliance (C(T)), arterial compliance (C(A)), and venous compliance (C(V)) in seven control and seven 21-day hindlimb unweighted (HLU) rats. These compliance values were calculated under baseline conditions and during an infusion of 0.2 microg*kg(-1)*min(-1) norepinephrine (NE). The change in reservoir volume, which reflects changes in unstressed vascular volume (DeltaV(0)) that occurred upon infusion of NE, was also measured. C(T) and C(V) were larger in HLU rats both at baseline and during the NE infusion (P < 0.05). Infusion of NE decreased C(T) and C(V) by 20% in both HLU and control rats (P < 0.01). C(A) was also significantly decreased in both groups of rats by NE (P < 0.01), but values of C(A) were similar between HLU and control rats both at baseline and during the NE infusion. Additionally, the NE-induced DeltaV(0) was attenuated by 53% in HLU rats compared with control rats (P < 0.05). The larger C(V) and attenuated DeltaV(0) in HLU rats could contribute to a decreased filling pressure during orthostasis and thus may partially underlie the mechanism leading to the exaggerated fall in stroke volume and cardiac output seen in astronauts during an orthostatic stress after exposure to microgravity.

  13. Slow Ca2+ dynamics in pharyngeal muscles in Caenorhabditis elegans during fast pumping.

    PubMed

    Shimozono, Satoshi; Fukano, Takashi; Kimura, Koutarou D; Mori, Ikue; Kirino, Yutaka; Miyawaki, Atsushi

    2004-05-01

    The pharyngeal muscles of Caenorhabditis elegans are composed of the corpus, isthmus and terminal bulb from anterior to posterior. These components are excited in a coordinated fashion to facilitate proper feeding through pumping and peristalsis. We analysed the spatiotemporal pattern of intracellular calcium dynamics in the pharyngeal muscles during feeding. We used a new ratiometric fluorescent calcium indicator and a new optical system that allows simultaneous illumination and detection at any two wavelengths. Pumping was observed with fast, repetitive and synchronous spikes in calcium concentrations in the corpus and terminal bulb, indicative of electrical coupling throughout the muscles. The posterior isthmus, however, responded to only one out of several pumping spikes to produce broad calcium transients, leading to peristalsis, the slow and gradual motion needed for efficient swallows. The excitation-calcium coupling may be uniquely modulated in this region at the level of calcium channels on the plasma membrane.

  14. The impact of the pelvic floor muscles on dynamic ventilation maneuvers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hankyu; Hwang, Byoungha; Kim, Yeoungsung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) on dynamic ventilation maneuvers. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 19 healthy female adults in their 20s who consented to participate in the present study. Electromyography (EMG) was used to examine respiratory muscle activity, and a spirometer was used to examine vital capacity before and during contraction of the PFM. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), transverse abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO), and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) when the PFM was contracted. [Conclusion] Contraction of the PFM can be effective in promoting activation of the respiratory muscles and vital capacity. Therefore, the PFM should be considered to improve the effects of respiratory activity. PMID:26644664

  15. The Impact of Muscle Disuse on Muscle Atrophy in Severely Burned Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Herrick RE, Baldwin KM. Effect of anabolic steroids on skeletal muscle mass during hindlimb suspension. J Appl Physiol 1987;63(5):2122–2127. [PubMed...physical activity also shows advantages in enhancing and improving recovery from muscle catabolism after severe burn [49]. Similarly, both anabolic

  16. Fatigability and Blood Flow in the Rat Gastrocnemius-Plantaris-Soleus after Hindlimb Suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, K. S.; Delp, M. D.; Fitts, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that hindlimb suspension increases the fatigability of the soleus during intense contractile activity and determine whether the increased fatigue is associated with a reduced muscle blood flow. Cage-control (C) and 15-day hindlimb-suspended (HS) rats were anesthetized, and either the gastrocnemius-plantaris-soleus (G-P-S) muscle group or the soleus was stimulated (100 Hz, 100-ms trains at 120/min) for 10 min in situ. In the G-P-S preparation, blood flow was measured with radiolabeled microspheres before and at 2 and 10 min of contractile activity. The G-P-S fatigued markedly at this stimulation frequency, and the differences between C and HS animals were not significant until the 9th min of contractile activity. In contrast, the stimulation resulted in faster rates and significantly larger amounts of fatigue in the soleus from HS than from C animals. The atrophied soleus showed significant differences by I min of stimulation (C = 70 +/- 1% vs. HS = 57 +/- 2% of peak train force) and remained different at 10 min (C = 64 +/- 4% vs. HS = 45 +/- 2% peak train force). Relative blood flow to the soleus was similar between groups before and during contractile activity (rest: C = 20 +/- 3 vs. HS= 12 +/- 3; 2 min: C= 128 +/- 6 vs. HS = 118 +/- 4; 10 min: C = 123 +/- 11 vs. HS = 105 +/- 11 ml min(exp -1) 100 g(exp -1)). In conclusion, these results established that 15 days of HS increased the fatigability of the soleus, but the effect was not caused by a reduced muscle blood flow.

  17. Asymmetric Bilayer Muscles: Cooperative Actuation, Dynamic Hysteresis, and Creeping in NaPF6 Aqueous Solutions.

    PubMed

    Fuchiwaki, Masaki; Martinez, Jose G; Fernandez Otero, Toribio

    2016-08-01

    Three bilayer muscles [polypyrrole-paraphenolsulfonic acid/polypyrrole-dodecylbenzensulfonic acid (PPy-HpPS/PPy-DBS) asymmetric bilayer, PPy-HpPS/tape, and PPy-DBS/tape] were characterized during potential cycling in NaPF6 aqueous solutions. In parallel, the angular displacement of the muscle was video-recorded. The dynamo-voltammetric (angle-potential) and coulo-dynamic (charge-potential) results give the reaction-driven ionic exchanges in each PPy film. Electrochemical reactions drive the exchange of anions from the PPy-HpPS layer and cations from the PPy-DBS layer. This means that both layers from the asymmetric bilayer follow complementary volume changes (swelling/shrinking or shrinking/swelling), owing to complementary ionic exchanges (entrance/expulsion) driven by the bilayer oxidation or reduction. The result is a cooperative actuation; the bending amplitude described by the asymmetric bilayer muscle is one order of magnitude larger than those attained from each of the conducting polymer/tape muscles. The cooperative actuation almost eliminates creeping effects. A large dynamical hysteresis persists, which can be attributed to an irreversible reaction of the organic acid components at high overpotentials.

  18. Asymmetric Bilayer Muscles: Cooperative Actuation, Dynamic Hysteresis, and Creeping in NaPF6 Aqueous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Fuchiwaki, Masaki; Martinez, Jose G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three bilayer muscles [polypyrrole–paraphenolsulfonic acid/polypyrrole–dodecylbenzensulfonic acid (PPy–HpPS/PPy–DBS) asymmetric bilayer, PPy–HpPS/tape, and PPy–DBS/tape] were characterized during potential cycling in NaPF6 aqueous solutions. In parallel, the angular displacement of the muscle was video‐recorded. The dynamo‐voltammetric (angle–potential) and coulo‐dynamic (charge–potential) results give the reaction‐driven ionic exchanges in each PPy film. Electrochemical reactions drive the exchange of anions from the PPy–HpPS layer and cations from the PPy–DBS layer. This means that both layers from the asymmetric bilayer follow complementary volume changes (swelling/shrinking or shrinking/swelling), owing to complementary ionic exchanges (entrance/expulsion) driven by the bilayer oxidation or reduction. The result is a cooperative actuation; the bending amplitude described by the asymmetric bilayer muscle is one order of magnitude larger than those attained from each of the conducting polymer/tape muscles. The cooperative actuation almost eliminates creeping effects. A large dynamical hysteresis persists, which can be attributed to an irreversible reaction of the organic acid components at high overpotentials. PMID:27547647

  19. A Magnetic Resonance-Compatible Loading Device for Dynamically Imaging Shortening and Lengthening Muscle Contraction Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Silder, Amy; Westphal, Christopher J.; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and test a magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible device to induce either shortening or lengthening muscle contractions for use during dynamic MR imaging. The proposed device guides the knee through cyclic flexion-extension, while either elastic or inertial loads are imposed on the hamstrings. Ten subjects were tested in a motion capture laboratory to evaluate the repeatability of limb motion and imposed loads. Image data were subsequently obtained for all ten subjects using cine phase contrast imaging. Subjects achieved ~30 deg of knee joint motion, with individual subjects remaining within ~1 deg of their average motion across 56 repeated cycles. The maximum hamstring activity and loading occurred when the knee was flexed for the elastic loading condition (shortening contraction), and extended for the inertial loading condition (lengthening contraction). Repeat MR image acquisitions of the same loading condition resulted in similar tissue velocities, while spatial variations in velocity data were clearly different between loading conditions. The proposed device can enable dynamic imaging of the muscle under different types of loads, which has the potential to improve our understanding of basic muscle mechanics, identify potential causes of muscle injury, and provide a basis for quantitatively assessing injury effects at the tissue level. Slight modifications to the device design and/or subject positioning could allow for imaging of the quadriceps or the knee. PMID:24353749

  20. Effects of a multichannel dynamic functional electrical stimulation system on hemiplegic gait and muscle forces

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jing-guang; Rong, Ke; Qian, Zhenyun; Wen, Chen; Zhang, Songning

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to design and implement a multichannel dynamic functional electrical stimulation system and investigate acute effects of functional electrical stimulation of the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris on ankle and knee sagittal-plane kinematics and related muscle forces of hemiplegic gait. [Subjects and Methods] A multichannel dynamic electrical stimulation system was developed with 8-channel low frequency current generators. Eight male hemiplegic patients were trained for 4 weeks with electric stimulation of the tibia anterior and rectus femoris muscles during walking, which was coupled with active contraction. Kinematic data were collected, and muscle forces of the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris of the affected limbs were analyzed using a musculoskelatal modeling approach before and after training. A paired sample t-test was used to detect the differences between before and after training. [Results] The step length of the affected limb significantly increased after the stimulation was applied. The maximum dorsiflexion angle and maximum knee flexion angle of the affected limb were both increased significantly during stimulation. The maximum muscle forces of both the tibia anterior and rectus femoris increased significantly during stimulation compared with before functional electrical stimulation was applied. [Conclusion] This study established a functional electrical stimulation strategy based on hemiplegic gait analysis and musculoskeletal modeling. The multichannel functional electrical stimulation system successfully corrected foot drop and altered circumduction hemiplegic gait pattern. PMID:26696734

  1. Time course of vasodilatory responses in skeletal muscle arterioles: role in hyperemia at onset of exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wunsch, S. A.; Muller-Delp, J.; Delp, M. D.

    2000-01-01

    At the onset of dynamic exercise, muscle blood flow increases within 1-2 s. It has been postulated that local vasodilatory agents produced by the vascular endothelium or the muscle itself contribute to this response. We hypothesized that only vasodilators that act directly on the vascular smooth muscle could produce vasodilation of skeletal muscle arterioles in <2 s. To test this hypothesis, we determined the time course of the vasodilatory response of isolated skeletal muscle arterioles to direct application of potassium chloride, adenosine, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside. Soleus and gastrocnemius muscles were dissected from the hindlimbs of male Sprague-Dawley rats. First-order arterioles (100-200 microm) were isolated, cannulated on micropipettes, and pressurized to 60 cmH(2)O in an organ bath. Vasodilatory agents were added directly to the bath, and diameter responses of the arterioles were recorded in real time on a videotape recorder. Frame-by-frame analysis of the diameter responses indicated that none of the vasodilator agents tested produced significant diameter increases in <4 s in either soleus or gastrocnemius muscle arterioles. These results indicate that, although these local vasodilators produce significant vasodilation of skeletal muscle resistance arterioles, these responses are not rapid enough (within 1-2 s) to contribute to the initiation of the exercise hyperemic response at the onset of dynamic exercise.

  2. Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Relieve Hindlimb Ischemia through Enhancing Angiogenesis in Tree Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Cunping; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Jian; Li, Zian; Pang, Rongqing

    2016-01-01

    Hindlimb ischemia is still a clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality. Patients suffer from consequent rest pain, ulcers, cool limbs, and even amputation. Angiogenesis is a promising target for the treatment of ischemic limbs, providing extra blood for the ischemic region. In the present study, we investigated the role of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) in regulating angiogenesis and relieving hindlimb ischemia. UC-MSCs were isolated from the umbilical cord of tree shrews. Angiography results showed that UC-MSCs injection significantly promoted angiogenesis in tree shrews. Moreover, the ankle brachial index, transcutaneous oxygen pressure, blood perfusion, and capillary/muscle fiber ratio were all markedly increased by the application of UC-MSCs. In addition, the conditioned culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells using medium collected from UC-MSCs showed higher expression of angiogenic markers and improved migration ability. In short, the isolated UC-MSCs notably contributed to restoring blood supply and alleviating the symptoms of limb ischemia through enhancing angiogenesis. PMID:27651800

  3. Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Relieve Hindlimb Ischemia through Enhancing Angiogenesis in Tree Shrews.

    PubMed

    Yin, Cunping; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Jian; Ruan, Guangping; Li, Zian; Pang, Rongqing; Pan, Xinghua

    2016-01-01

    Hindlimb ischemia is still a clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality. Patients suffer from consequent rest pain, ulcers, cool limbs, and even amputation. Angiogenesis is a promising target for the treatment of ischemic limbs, providing extra blood for the ischemic region. In the present study, we investigated the role of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) in regulating angiogenesis and relieving hindlimb ischemia. UC-MSCs were isolated from the umbilical cord of tree shrews. Angiography results showed that UC-MSCs injection significantly promoted angiogenesis in tree shrews. Moreover, the ankle brachial index, transcutaneous oxygen pressure, blood perfusion, and capillary/muscle fiber ratio were all markedly increased by the application of UC-MSCs. In addition, the conditioned culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells using medium collected from UC-MSCs showed higher expression of angiogenic markers and improved migration ability. In short, the isolated UC-MSCs notably contributed to restoring blood supply and alleviating the symptoms of limb ischemia through enhancing angiogenesis.

  4. Effects of Spaceflight and Hindlimb Suspension on the Posture and Gait of Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, R. A.; Corcoran, M.; Daunton, N. G.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1994-01-01

    Instability of posture and gait in astronauts following spaceflight (SF) is thought to result from muscle atrophy and from changes in sensory-motor integration in the CNS (central nervous system) that occur during adaptation to microgravity (micro-G). Individuals are thought to have developed, during SF, adaptive changes for the processing of proprioceptive, vestibular and visual sensory inputs with reduced weighting of gravity-based signals and increased weighting of visual and tactile cues. This sensory-motor rearrangement in the CNS apparently occurs to optimize neuromuscular system function for effective movement and postural control in micro-G. However, these adaptive changes are inappropriate for the 1 g environment and lead to disruptions in posture and gait on return to Earth. Few reports are available on the effects of SF on the motor behavior of animals. Rats studied following 18.5 - 19.5 days of SF in the COSMOS program were described as being ..'inert, apathetic, slow'.. and generally unstable. The hindlimbs of these rats were ..'thrust out from the body with fingers pulled apart and the shin unnaturally pronated'. On the 6th postflight day motor behavior was described as similar to that observed in preflight observations. Improved understanding of the mechanisms leading to these changes can be obtained in animal models through detailed analysis of neural and molecular mechanisms related to gait. To begin this process the posture and gait of rats were examined following exposure to either SF or hindlimb suspension (HLS), and during recovery from these conditions.

  5. Heterogenic feedback between hindlimb extensors in the spontaneously locomoting premammillary cat.

    PubMed

    Ross, Kyla T; Nichols, T Richard

    2009-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies in anesthetized animals have revealed that pathways carrying force information from Golgi tendon organs in antigravity muscles mediate widespread inhibition among other antigravity muscles in the feline hindlimb. More recent evidence in paralyzed or nonparalyzed decerebrate cats has shown that some inhibitory pathways are suppressed and separate excitatory pathways from Golgi tendon organ afferents are opened on the transition from steady force production to locomotor activity. To obtain additional insight into the functions of these pathways during locomotion, we investigated the distribution of force-dependent inhibition and excitation during spontaneous locomotion and during constant force exertion in the premammillary decerebrate cat. We used four servo-controlled stretching devices to apply controlled stretches in various combinations to the gastrocnemius muscles (G), plantaris muscle (PLAN), flexor hallucis longus muscle (FHL), and quadriceps muscles (QUADS) during treadmill stepping and the crossed-extension reflex (XER). We recorded the force responses from the same muscles and were therefore able to evaluate autogenic (intramuscular) and heterogenic (intermuscular) reflexes among this set of muscles. In previous studies using the intercollicular decerebrate cat, heterogenic inhibition among QUADS, G, FHL, and PLAN was bidirectional. During treadmill stepping, heterogenic feedback from QUADS onto G and G onto PLAN and FHL remained inhibitory and was force-dependent. However, heterogenic inhibition from PLAN and FHL onto G, and from G onto QUADS, was weaker than during the XER. We propose that pathways mediating heterogenic inhibition may remain inhibitory under some forms of locomotion on a level surface but that the strengths of these pathways change to result in a proximal to distal gradient of inhibition. The potential contributions of heterogenic inhibition to interjoint coordination and limb stability are discussed.

  6. Mitochondrial Dynamics is a Distinguishing Feature of Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types and Regulates Organellar Compartmentalization.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Prashant; Varuzhanyan, Grigor; Pham, Anh H; Chan, David C

    2015-12-01

    Skeletal muscle fibers differentiate into specific fiber types with distinct metabolic properties determined by their reliance on oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Using in vivo approaches, we find that OXPHOS-dependent fibers, compared to glycolytic fibers, contain elongated mitochondrial networks with higher fusion rates that are dependent on the mitofusins Mfn1 and Mfn2. Switching of a glycolytic fiber to an oxidative IIA type is associated with elongation of mitochondria, suggesting that mitochondrial fusion is linked to metabolic state. Furthermore, we reveal that mitochondrial proteins are compartmentalized to discrete domains centered around their nuclei of origin. The domain dimensions are dependent on fiber type and are regulated by the mitochondrial dynamics proteins Mfn1, Mfn2, and Mff. Our results indicate that mitochondrial dynamics is tailored to fiber type physiology and provides a rationale for the segmental defects characteristic of aged and diseased muscle fibers.

  7. Fasting increases palmitic acid incorporation into rat hind-limb intramuscular acylglycerols while short-term cold exposure has no effect.

    PubMed

    Synak, M; Zarzeczny, R; Górecka, M; Langfort, J; Kaciuba-Uściłko, H; Zernicka, Ewa

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the palmitic acid incorporation into intramuscular acylglycerols in perfused hind-limb skeletal muscles of different fibre types in rats either fasted for 48 h or exposed to cold (6 °C) for 12 h. Hind-limb preparations of fasted and cold exposed rats were perfused with buffers containing tritium labelled and cold palmitic acid. Palmitic acid incorporation into intracellular lipid pools in the soleus, plantaris, red and white gastrocnemius and red and white quadriceps was measured. It was found that fasting increased approximately 2-fold palmitic acid incorporation in all muscles examined regardless of the fibre type composition of the muscle. On the other hand, exposure to cold had no effect on the palmitic acid incorporation into intramuscular acylglycerols regardless the muscle fibre type. The increased incorporation of palmitic acid into acylglycerols in fasted animals is in line with data showing that 48 h fasting stimulates the expression of plasma membrane proteins putatively facilitating fatty acid uptake. It appears that although 12 h cold exposure increases the use of fatty acids as energy substrates it does not alter the incorporation of palmitic acid into intramuscular acylglycerols in the perfused rat hind-limb.

  8. Roles of adherent myogenic cells and dynamic culture in engineered muscle function and maintenance of satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Juhas, Mark; Bursac, Nenad

    2014-11-01

    Highly functional engineered skeletal muscle constructs could serve as physiological models of muscle function and regeneration and have utility in therapeutic replacement of damaged or diseased muscle tissue. In this study, we examined the roles of different myogenic cell fractions and culturing conditions in the generation of highly functional engineered muscle. Fibrin-based muscle bundles were fabricated using either freshly-isolated myogenic cells or their adherent fraction pre-cultured for 36 h. Muscle bundles made of these cells were cultured in both static and dynamic conditions and systematically characterized with respect to early myogenic events and contractile function. Following 2 weeks of culture, we observed both individual and synergistic benefits of using the adherent cell fraction and dynamic culture on muscle formation and function. In particular, optimal culture conditions resulted in significant increase in the total cross-sectional muscle area (- 3-fold), myofiber size (- 1.6-fold), myonuclei density (- 1.2-fold), and force generation (- 9-fold) compared to traditional use of freshly-isolated cells and static culture. Curiously, we observed that only a simultaneous use of the adherent cell fraction and dynamic culture resulted in accelerated formation of differentiated myofibers which were critical for providing a niche-like environment for maintenance of a satellite cell pool early during culture. Our study identifies key parameters for engineering large-size, highly functional skeletal muscle tissues with improved ability for retention of functional satellite cells.

  9. A single muscle's multifunctional control potential of body dynamics for postural control and running

    PubMed Central

    Sponberg, Simon; Spence, Andrew J.; Mullens, Chris H.; Full, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    A neuromechanical approach to control requires understanding how mechanics alters the potential of neural feedback to control body dynamics. Here, we rewrite activation of individual motor units of a behaving animal to mimic the effects of neural feedback without concomitant changes in other muscles. We target a putative control muscle in the cockroach, Blaberus discoidalis (L.), and simultaneously capture limb and body dynamics through high-speed videography and a micro-accelerometer backpack. We test four neuromechanical control hypotheses. We supported the hypothesis that mechanics linearly translates neural feedback into accelerations and rotations during static postural control. However, during running, the same neural feedback produced a nonlinear acceleration control potential restricted to the vertical plane. Using this, we reject the hypothesis from previous work that this muscle acts primarily to absorb energy from the body. The conversion of the control potential is paralleled by nonlinear changes in limb kinematics, supporting the hypothesis that significant mechanical feedback filters the graded neural feedback for running control. Finally, we insert the same neural feedback signal but at different phases in the dynamics. In this context, mechanical feedback enables turning by changing the timing and direction of the accelerations produced by the graded neural feedback. PMID:21502129

  10. Dynamic Analysis Method for Electromagnetic Artificial Muscle Actuator under PID Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Hirata, Katsuhiro

    We have been studying an interior permanent magnet linear actuator for an artificial muscle. This actuator mainly consists of a mover and stator. The mover is composed of permanent magnets, magnetic cores and a non-magnetic shaft. The stator is composed of 3-phase coils and a back yoke. In this paper, the dynamic analysis method under PID control is proposed employing the 3-D finite element method (3-D FEM) to compute the dynamic response and current response when the positioning control is active. As a conclusion, computed results show good agreement with measured ones of a prototype.

  11. Effects of electrical and natural stimulation of skin afferents on the gamma-spindle system of the triceps surae muscle.

    PubMed

    Johansson, H; Sjölander, P; Sojka, P; Wadell, I

    1989-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which skin receptors might influence the responses of primary muscle spindle afferents via reflex actions on the fusimotor system. The experiments were performed on 43 cats anaesthetized with alpha-chloralose. The alterations in fusimotor activity were assessed from changes in the responses of the muscle spindle afferents to sinusoidal stretching of their parent muscles (triceps surae and plantaris). The mean rate of firing and the modulation of the afferent response were determined. Control measurements were made in absence of any cutaneous stimulation. Tests were made (a) during physiological stimulation of skin afferents of the ipsilateral pad or of the contralateral hindlimb, or (b) during repetitive electrical stimulation of the sural nerve in the ipsilateral hindlimb, or of sural or superficial peroneal nerve in the contralateral hindlimb. Of the total number of 113 units tested with repetitive electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral sural nerve (at 20 Hz), 24.8% exhibited predominantly dynamic fusimotor reflexes, 5.3% mixed or predominantly static fusimotor reflexes. One unit studied in a preparation with intact spinal cord exhibited static reflexes at low stimulation intensities and dynamic ones at higher stimulation strengths. The remaining units (69%) were uninfluenced. When the receptor-bearing muscle was held at constant length and a train of stimuli (at 20 Hz) was applied to the ipsilateral sural nerve, the action potentials in the primary muscle spindle afferent could be stimulus-locked to the 3rd or 4th pulse in the train (and to the pulses following thereafter), with a latency of about 24 ms from the effective pulse. This 1:1 pattern of driving seemed to be mediated via static and/or dynamic fusimotor neurons. Natural stimulation influenced comparatively few units (3 of 65 units tested from the ipsilateral pad and 10 of 98 tested from the contralateral hindlimb), but when the effects

  12. Review of spaceflight and hindlimb suspension unloading induced sarcomere damage and repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.; Thompson, J. L.; Krippendorf, B. B.; Slocum, G. R.

    1995-01-01

    Hindlimb suspension unloading (HSU) and spaceflight microgravity induce atrophy of the slow adductor longus muscle fibers which, following reloading, exhibit eccentric contraction (EC)-like lesions (abnormal widening of sarcomeres with A band disruption and excessively wavy, extracted Z lines). These lesions are similar morphologically to those produced in normal muscles after strenuous eccentric exercise. It appears that atrophic muscles exhibit increased susceptibility to eccentric damage because lesions are produced during nonstressful voluntary movements upon return to weightbearing. The EC-like lesions are absent in the unweighted conditions, but appear in HSU rats 15-60 minutes after reloading and in space-flown rates about 4 hrs after landing. By 12 hours, many EC-like lesioned sarcomeres are fully covered by longitudinal patches of Z line-like material which increases in density by 48 hours, producing the so-called "Z line streaming" morphology. In this case, Z line streaming is indicative of rapid repair of damaged sarcomeres rather than the onset of sarcomere breakdown. Immunoelectron microscopy is necessary to determine the composition of this dense material. By 9 days of reloading at 1 gravity, sarcomeres have regained normal structure, except for very rare persistence of faint Z patches. The morphological data indicate that Z patches serve at least two functions: 1) to permit contractile force to be transmitted across the damaged sarcomeres and 2) to provide a scaffold upon which sarcomeres are reconstructed in an active functional muscle.

  13. Effects of virtual reality-based ankle exercise on the dynamic balance, muscle tone, and gait of stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Yom, Changho; Cho, Hwi-Young; Lee, ByoungHee

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of virtual reality-based ankle exercise on the dynamic balance, muscle tone, and gait ability of stroke subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty persons who were in the chronic stroke subjects of this study and they were included and assigned to two groups: experimental (VRAE; Virtual Reality-based Ankle Exercise group) (n=10) and control groups (n=10). The VRAE group performed virtual environment system ankle exercise, and the control group watched a video. Both groups performed their respective interventions for 30 minutes per day, 5 times per week over a 6-week period. To confirm the effects of the intervention, dynamic balance, muscle tone, and spatiotemporal gait were evaluated. [Results] The results showed that the dynamic balance and muscle tone was significantly more improved after the intervention compared to before in the VRAE group (dynamic balance: 5.50±2.57; muscle tone: 0.90±0.39), and the improvements were more significant than those in the control (dynamic balance: 1.22±2.05; muscle tone: 0.10±0.21). Spatiotemporal gait measures were significantly more increased in the paretic limb after the intervention compared to before in the VRAE group and the improvements were more significant than those in the control group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that virtual reality-based ankle exercise effectively improves the dynamic balance, muscle tone, and gait ability of stroke patients.

  14. Influence of insulin and glucose on pyruvate catabolism in perfused rat hindlimbs.

    PubMed

    Schadewaldt, P; Lammers, E; Staib, W

    1985-04-01

    The effects of insulin and glucose on the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate in isolated rat hindlimbs was studied in non-recirculating perfusion with [1-14C]pyruvate. Insulin increased the calculated pyruvate decarboxylation rate in a concentration-dependent manner. At supramaximal insulin concentrations, the calculated pyruvate decarboxylation rate was increased by about 40% in perfusions with 0.15-1.5 mM-pyruvate. Glucose up to 20 mM had no effect. In the presence of insulin and low physiological pyruvate concentrations (0.15 mM), glucose increased the calculated pyruvate oxidation. This effect was abolished by high concentrations of pyruvate (1 mM). The data provide evidence that in resting perfused rat skeletal muscle insulin primarily increased the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. The effect of glucose was due to increased intracellular pyruvate supply.

  15. Controlled chaos: three-dimensional kinematics, fiber histochemistry, and muscle contractile dynamics of autotomized lizard tails.

    PubMed

    Higham, Timothy E; Lipsett, Kathryn R; Syme, Douglas A; Russell, Anthony P

    2013-01-01

    The ability to shed an appendage occurs in both vertebrates and invertebrates, often as a tactic to avoid predation. The tails of lizards, unlike most autotomized body parts of animals, exhibit complex and vigorous movements once disconnected from the body. Despite the near ubiquity of autotomy across groups of lizards and the fact that this is an extraordinary event involving the self-severing of the spinal cord, our understanding of why and how tails move as they do following autotomy is sparse. We herein explore the histochemistry and physiology of the tail muscles of the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), a species that exhibits vigorous and variable tail movements following autotomy. To confirm that the previously studied tail movements of this species are generally representative of geckos and therefore suitable for in-depth muscle studies, we quantified the three-dimensional kinematics of autotomized tails in three additional species. The movements of the tails of all species were generally similar and included jumps, flips, and swings. Our preliminary analyses suggest that some species of gecko exhibit short but high-frequency movements, whereas others exhibit larger-amplitude but lower-frequency movements. We then compared the ATPase and oxidative capacity of muscle fibers and contractile dynamics of isolated muscle bundles from original tails, muscle from regenerate tails, and fast fibers from an upper limb muscle (iliofibularis) of the leopard gecko. Histochemical analysis revealed that more than 90% of the fibers in original and regenerate caudal muscles had high ATPase but possessed a superficial layer of fibers with low ATPase and high oxidative capacity. We found that contraction kinetics, isometric force, work, power output, and the oscillation frequency at which maximum power was generated were lowest in the original tail, followed by the regenerate tail and then the fast fibers of the iliofibularis. Muscle from the original tail exhibited

  16. Peripheral vascular responses to heat stress after hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Looft-Wilson, Robin C.; Gisolfi, Carl V.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether hindlimb suspension (which simulates the effects of microgravity) results in impaired hemodynamic responses to heat stress or alterations in mesenteric small artery sympathetic nerve innervation. METHODS: Over 28 d, 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats were hindlimb-suspended, and 13 control rats were housed in the same type of cage. After the treatment, mean arterial pressure (MAP), colonic temperature (Tcol), and superior mesenteric and iliac artery resistances (using Doppler flowmetry) were measured during heat stress [exposure to 42 degrees C until the endpoint of 80 mm Hg blood pressure was reached (75 +/- 9 min); endpoint Tcore = 43.6 +/- 0.2] while rats were anesthetized (sodium pentobarbital, 50 mg x kg(-1) BW). RESULTS: Hindlimb-suspended and control rats exhibited similar increases in Tcol, MAP, and superior mesenteric artery resistance, and similar decreases in iliac resistance during heat stress (endpoint was a fall in MAP below 80 mm Hg). Tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining indicated similar sympathetic nerve innervation in small mesenteric arteries from both groups. CONCLUSION: Hindlimb suspension does not alter the hemodynamic or thermoregulatory responses to heat stress in the anesthetized rat or mesenteric sympathetic nerve innervation, suggesting that this sympathetic pathway is intact.

  17. Stimulation of myofibrillar protein synthesis in hindlimb suspended rats by resistance exercise and growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Linderman, J K; Whittall, J B; Gosselink, K L; Wang, T J; Mukku, V R; Booth, F W; Grindeland, R E

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the ability of a single bout of resistance exercise alone or in combination with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) to stimulate myofibrillar protein synthesis (Ks) in hindlimb suspended (HLS) adult female rats. Plantar flexor muscles were stimulated with resistance exercise, consisting of 10 repetitions of ladder climbing on a 1 m grid (85 degrees), carrying an additional 50% of their body weight attached to their tails. Saline or rhGH (1 mg/kg) was administered 30' prior to exercise, and Ks was determined with a constant infusion of 3H-Leucine at 15', 60', 180', and 360' following exercise. Three days of HLS depressed Ks approximately 65% and 30-40% in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, respectively (p < or = 0.05). Exercise increased soleus Ks in saline-treated rats 149% 60' following exercise (p < or = 0.05), decaying to that of non-exercised animals during the next 5 hours. Relative to suspended, non-exercised rats rhGH+exercise increased soleus Ks 84%, 108%, and 72% at 15', 60' and 360' following exercise (p < or = 0.05). Gastrocnemius Ks was not significantly increased by exercise or the combination of rhGH and exercise up to 360' post-exercise. Results from this study indicate that resistance exercise stimulated Ks 60' post-exercise in the soleus of HLS rats, with no apparent effect of rhGH to enhance or prolong exercise-induced stimulation. Results suggests that exercise frequency may be important to maintenance of the slow-twitch soleus during non-weightbearing, but that the ability of resistance exercise to maintain myofibrillar protein content in the gastrocnemius of hindlimb suspended rats cannot be explained by acute stimulation of synthesis.

  18. Stimulation of Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis in Hindlimb Suspended Rats by Resistance Exercise and Growth Hormone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linderman, Jon K.; Whittall, Justen B.; Gosselink, Kristin L.; Wang, Tommy J.; Mukku, Venkat R.; Booth, Frank W.; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the ability of a single bout of resistance exercise alone or in combination with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) to stimulate myofibrillar protein synthesis (Ks) in hindlimb suspended (HLS) adult female rats. Plantar flexor muscles were stimulated with resistance exercise, consisting of 10 repetitions of ladder climbing on a 1 m grid (85 deg.), carrying an additional 50% of their body weight attached to their tails. Saline or rhGH (1 mg/kg) was administered 30' prior to exercise, and Ks was determined with a constant infusion of H-3-Leucine at 15', 60', 180', and 360' following exercise. Three days of HLS depressed Ks is approx. equal to 65% and 30-40% in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, respectively (p is less than or equal to 0.05). Exercise increased soleus Ks in saline-treated rats 149% 60' following exercise (p less than or equal to 0.05), decaying to that of non-exercised animals during the next 5 hours. Relative to suspended, non-exercised rats rhGH + exercise increased soleus Ks 84%, 108%, and 72% at 15', 60' and 360' following exercise (p is less than or equal to 0.05). Gastrocnemius Ks was not significantly increased by exercise or the combination of rhGH and exercise up to 360' post-exercise. Results from this study indicate that resistance exercise stimulated Ks 60' post-exercise in the soleus of HLS rats, with no apparent effect of rhGH to enhance or prolong exercise-induced stimulation. Results suggests that exercise frequency may be important to maintenance of the slow-twitch soleus during non-weightbearing, but that the ability of resistance exercise to maintain myofibrillar protein content in the gastrocnemius of hindlimb suspended rats cannot be explained by acute stimulation of synthesis.

  19. Static vs. Dynamic Acute Stretching Effect on Quadriceps Muscle Activity during Soccer Instep Kicking

    PubMed Central

    Amiri-Khorasani, Mohammadtaghi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of static and dynamic stretching on quadriceps muscle activation during maximal soccer instep kicking. The kicking motion of twelve male college soccer players (body height: 174.66 ± 5.01 cm; body mass: 72.83 ± 4.83 kg; age: 18.83 ± 0.75 years) was captured using six synchronized high-speed infra-red cameras whilst electromyography (EMG) signals from vastus medialis (VM), lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) were recorded before and after static or dynamic stretching. Analysis of variance designs showed a higher increase in knee extension angular velocity (9.65% vs. −1.45%, p < 0.001), RF (37.5% vs. −8.33%, p < 0.001), VM (12% vs. −12%, p < 0.018), and VL EMG activity (20% vs. −6.67%, p < 0.001) after dynamic stretching exercises. Based on these results, it could be suggested that dynamic stretching is probably more effective in increasing quadriceps muscle activity and knee extension angular velocity during the final swing phase of a maximal soccer instep kick than static stretching. PMID:24511339

  20. Polarized fluorescence depletion reports orientation distribution and rotational dynamics of muscle cross-bridges.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Marcus G; Dale, Robert E; van der Heide, Uulke A; Goldman, Yale E

    2002-01-01

    The method of polarized fluorescence depletion (PFD) has been applied to enhance the resolution of orientational distributions and dynamics obtained from fluorescence polarization (FP) experiments on ordered systems, particularly in muscle fibers. Previous FP data from single fluorescent probes were limited to the 2(nd)- and 4(th)-rank order parameters, and , of the probe angular distribution (beta) relative to the fiber axis and , a coefficient describing the extent of rapid probe motions. We applied intense 12-micros polarized photoselection pulses to transiently populate the triplet state of rhodamine probes and measured the polarization of the ground-state depletion using a weak interrogation beam. PFD provides dynamic information describing the extent of motions on the time scale between the fluorescence lifetime (e.g., 4 ns) and the duration of the photoselection pulse and it potentially supplies information about the probe angular distribution corresponding to order parameters above rank 4. Gizzard myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) was labeled with the 6-isomer of iodoacetamidotetramethylrhodamine and exchanged into rabbit psoas muscle fibers. In active contraction, dynamic motions of the RLC on the PFD time scale were intermediate between those observed in relaxation and rigor. The results indicate that previously observed disorder of the light chain region in contraction can be ascribed principally to dynamic motions on the microsecond time scale. PMID:12124286

  1. Role of reflex dynamics in spinal stability: intrinsic muscle stiffness alone is insufficient for stability.

    PubMed

    Moorhouse, Kevin M; Granata, Kevin P

    2007-01-01

    Spinal stability is related to both the intrinsic stiffness of active muscle as well as neuromuscular reflex response. However, existing analyses of spinal stability ignore the role of the reflex response, focusing solely on the intrinsic muscle stiffness associated with voluntary activation patterns in the torso musculature. The goal of this study was to empirically characterize the role of reflex components of spinal stability during voluntary trunk extension exertions. Pseudorandom position perturbations of the torso and associated driving forces were recorded in 11 healthy adults. Nonlinear systems-identification analyses of the measured data provided an estimate of total systems dynamics that explained 81% of the movement variability. Proportional intrinsic response was less than zero in more than 60% of the trials, e.g. mean value of P(INT) during the 20% maximum voluntary exertion trunk extension exertions -415+/-354N/m. The negative value indicated that the intrinsic muscle stiffness was not sufficient to stabilize the spine without reflex response. Reflexes accounted for 42% of the total stabilizing trunk stiffness. Both intrinsic and reflex components of stiffness increased significantly with trunk extension effort. Results reveal that reflex dynamics are a necessary component in the stabilizing control of spinal stability.

  2. Role of Reflex Dynamics in Spinal Stability: Intrinsic Muscle Stiffness Alone is Insufficient for Stability

    PubMed Central

    Moorhouse, Kevin M.; Granata, Kevin P.

    2006-01-01

    Spinal stability is related to both the intrinsic stiffness of active muscle as well as neuromuscular reflex response. However, existing analyses of spinal stability ignore the role of the reflex response, focusing solely on the intrinsic muscle stiffness associated with voluntary activation patterns in the torso musculature. The goal of this study was to empirically characterize the role of reflex components of spinal stability during voluntary trunk extension exertions. Pseudorandom position perturbations of the torso and associated driving forces were recorded in 11 healthy adults. Nonlinear systems-identification analyses of the measured data provided an estimate of total systems dynamics that explained 81% of the movement variability. Proportional intrinsic response was less than zero in more than 60% of the trials, e.g. mean value of PINT during the 20% maximum voluntary exertion trunk extension exertions 415±354 N/m. The negative value indicated that the intrinsic muscle stiffness was not sufficient to stabilize the spine without reflex response. Reflexes accounted for 42% of the total stabilizing trunk stiffness. Both intrinsic and reflex components of stiffness increased significantly with trunk extension effort. Results reveal that reflex dynamics are a necessary component in the stabilizing control of spinal stability. PMID:16782106

  3. Fatigability and recovery of arm muscles with advanced age for dynamic and isometric contractions.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tejin; Schlinder-Delap, Bonnie; Hunter, Sandra K

    2013-02-01

    This study determined whether age-related mechanisms can increase fatigue of arm muscles during maximal velocity dynamic contractions, as it occurs in the lower limb. We compared elbow flexor fatigue of young (n=10, 20.8±2.7 years) and old men (n=16, 73.8±6.1 years) during and in recovery from a dynamic and an isometric postural fatiguing task. Each task was maintained until failure while supporting a load equivalent to 20% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess supraspinal fatigue (superimposed twitch, SIT) and muscle relaxation. Time to failure was longer for the old men than for the young men for the isometric task (9.5±3.1 vs. 17.2±7.0 min, P=0.01) but similar for the dynamic task (6.3±2.4 min vs. 6.0±2.0 min, P=0.73). Initial peak rate of relaxation was slower for the old men than for the young men, and was associated with a longer time to failure for both tasks (P<0.05). Low initial power during elbow flexion was associated with the greatest difference (reduction) in time to failure between the isometric task and the dynamic task (r=-0.54, P=0.015). SIT declined after both fatigue tasks similarly with age, although the recovery of SIT was associated with MVIC recovery for the old (both sessions) but not for the young men. Biceps brachii and brachioradialis EMG activity (% MVIC) of the old men were greater than that of the young men during the dynamic fatiguing task (P<0.05), but were similar during the isometric task. Muscular mechanisms and greater relative muscle activity (EMG activity) explain the greater fatigue during the dynamic task for the old men compared with the young men in the elbow flexor muscles. Recovery of MVC torque however relies more on the recovery of supraspinal fatigue among the old men than among the young men.

  4. Afferent roles in hindlimb wipe-reflex trajectories: free-limb kinematics and motor patterns.

    PubMed

    Kargo, W J; Giszter, S F

    2000-03-01

    The hindlimb wiping reflex of the frog is an example of a targeted trajectory that is organized at the spinal level. In this paper, we examine this reflex in 45 spinal frogs to test the importance of proprioceptive afferents in trajectory formation at the spinal level. We tested hindlimb to hindlimb wiping, in which the wiping or effector limb and the target limb move together. Loss of afferent feedback from the wiping limb was produced by cutting dorsal roots 7-9. This caused altered initial trajectory direction, increased ankle path curvature, knee-joint velocity reversals, and overshooting misses of the target limb. We established that these kinematic and motor-pattern changes were due mainly to the loss of ipsilateral muscular and joint afferents. Loss of cutaneous afferents alone did not alter the initial trajectory up to target limb contact. However, there were cutaneous effects in later motor-pattern phases after the wiping and target limb had made contact: The knee extension or whisk phase of wiping was often lost. Finally, there was a minor and nonspecific excitatory effect of phasic contralateral feedback in the motor-pattern changes after deafferentation. Specific muscle groups were altered as a result of proprioceptive loss. These muscles also showed configuration-based regulation during wiping. Biceps, semitendinosus, and sartorius (all contributing knee flexor torques) all were regulated in amplitude based on the initial position of the limb. These muscles contributed to an initial electromyographic (EMG) burst in the motor pattern. Rectus internus and semimembranosus (contributing hip extensor torques) were regulated in onset but not in the time of peak EMG or in termination of EMG based on initial position. These two muscles contributed to a second EMG burst in the motor pattern. After deafferentation the initial burst was reduced and more synchronous with the second burst, and the second burst often was broadened in duration. Ankle path curvature

  5. Foam Rolling for Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness and Recovery of Dynamic Performance Measures

    PubMed Central

    Pearcey, Gregory E. P.; Bradbury-Squires, David J.; Kawamoto, Jon-Erik; Drinkwater, Eric J.; Behm, David G.; Button, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    Context: After an intense bout of exercise, foam rolling is thought to alleviate muscle fatigue and soreness (ie, delayed-onset muscle soreness [DOMS]) and improve muscular performance. Potentially, foam rolling may be an effective therapeutic modality to reduce DOMS while enhancing the recovery of muscular performance. Objective: To examine the effects of foam rolling as a recovery tool after an intense exercise protocol through assessment of pressure-pain threshold, sprint time, change-of-direction speed, power, and dynamic strength-endurance. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 8 healthy, physically active males (age = 22.1 ± 2.5 years, height = 177.0 ± 7.5 cm, mass = 88.4 ± 11.4 kg) participated. Intervention(s): Participants performed 2 conditions, separated by 4 weeks, involving 10 sets of 10 repetitions of back squats at 60% of their 1-repetition maximum, followed by either no foam rolling or 20 minutes of foam rolling immediately, 24, and 48 hours postexercise. Main Outcome Measure(s): Pressure-pain threshold, sprint speed (30-m sprint time), power (broad-jump distance), change-of-direction speed (T-test), and dynamic strength-endurance. Results: Foam rolling substantially improved quadriceps muscle tenderness by a moderate to large amount in the days after fatigue (Cohen d range, 0.59 to 0.84). Substantial effects ranged from small to large in sprint time (Cohen d range, 0.68 to 0.77), power (Cohen d range, 0.48 to 0.87), and dynamic strength-endurance (Cohen d = 0.54). Conclusions: Foam rolling effectively reduced DOMS and associated decrements in most dynamic performance measures. PMID:25415413

  6. Adaptive control for backward quadrupedal walking VI. metatarsophalangeal joint dynamics and motor patterns of digit muscles.

    PubMed

    Trank, T V; Smith, J L

    1996-02-01

    1. We compared the dynamics of the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint of the cat's hind paw and the motor patterns of two short and four long muscles of the digits for two walking forms, forward (FWD) and backward (BWD). Kinematic (angular displacements) data digitized from high-speed ciné film and electromyographic (EMG) data were synchronized and assessed for bouts of treadmill walking. Kinetic data (joint forces) were calculated from kinematic and anthropometric data with the use of inverse-dynamic calculations in which the MTP joint net torque was divided into gravitational, motion-dependent, ground contact (absent for swing), and muscle torque components. Swing-phase kinetics were calculated from treadmill steps and stance-phase kinetics from overground steps in which one hind paw contacted a miniature force platform embedded in the walkway. 2. The plantar angle at the intersection of the metatarsal and phalangeal segmental lines was used to measure MTP angular displacements. During swing for both walking forms, the MTP joint flexed (F) and then extended (E); however, the F-E transition occurred at the onset of FWD swing and at the end of BWD swing. For FWD walking, the MTP joint extended at a constant velocity during most of stance as the cat's weight rotated forward over the paw. During the unweighting phase at the end of stance, the MTP joint flexed rapidly before paw lift off. For BWD walking, the MTP joint extended briefly at stance onset (similar to a yield) and then flexed at a constant velocity as the cat's weight rotated backward over the paw. At the end of stance, the MTP joint extended and then flexed slightly as the paw was unweighted before paw lift off. 3. For both forms of walking, three of the six muscles tested were recruited just before paw contact and remained active for most (75-80%) of stance for both walking forms: plantaris (PLT), flexor hallucis longus (FHL), and flexor digitorum brevis (FDB). Their recruitment contributed to the flexor

  7. Physiological changes in fast and slow muscle with simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dettbarn, W. D.; Misulis, K. E.

    1984-01-01

    A rat hindlimb suspension model of simulated weightlessness was used to examine the physiological characteristics of skeletal muscle. The physiological sequelae of hindlimb suspension were compared to those of spinal cord section, denervation by sciatic nerve crush, and control. Muscle examined were the predominantly slow (Type 1) soleus (SOL) and the predominantly fast (Type 2) extensor digitorum longus (EDL). Two procedures which alter motor unit activity, hindlimb suspension and spinal cord section, produce changes in characteristics of skeletal muscles that are dependent upon fiber type. The SOL develops characteristics more representative of a fast muscle, including smaller Type 1 fiber proportion and higher AChE activity. The EDL, which is already predominantly fast, loses most of its few Type 1 fibers, thus also becoming faster. These data are in agreement with the studies in which rats experienced actual weightlessness.

  8. Reliability of a Novel High Intensity One Leg Dynamic Exercise Protocol to Measure Muscle Endurance

    PubMed Central

    Lepers, Romuald; Marcora, Samuele M.

    2016-01-01

    We recently developed a high intensity one leg dynamic exercise (OLDE) protocol to measure muscle endurance and investigate the central and peripheral mechanisms of muscle fatigue. The aims of the present study were to establish the reliability of this novel protocol and describe the isokinetic muscle fatigue induced by high intensity OLDE and its recovery. Eight subjects performed the OLDE protocol (time to exhaustion test of the right leg at 85% of peak power output) three times over a week period. Isokinetic maximal voluntary contraction torque at 60 (MVC60), 100 (MVC100) and 140 (MVC140) deg/s was measured pre-exercise, shortly after exhaustion (13 ± 4 s), 20 s (P20) and 40 s (P40) post-exercise. Electromyographic (EMG) signal was analyzed via the root mean square (RMS) for all three superficial knee extensors. Mean time to exhaustion was 5.96 ± 1.40 min, coefficient of variation was 8.42 ± 6.24%, typical error of measurement was 0.30 min and intraclass correlation was 0.795. MVC torque decreased shortly after exhaustion for all angular velocities (all P < 0.001). MVC60 and MVC100 recovered between P20 (P < 0.05) and exhaustion and then plateaued. MVC140 recovered only at P40 (P < 0.05). High intensity OLDE did not alter maximal EMG RMS of the three superficial knee extensors during MVC. The results of this study demonstrate that this novel high intensity OLDE protocol could be reliably used to measure muscle endurance, and that muscle fatigue induced by high intensity OLDE should be examined within ~ 30 s following exhaustion. PMID:27706196

  9. The Dynamics of Voluntary Force Production in Afferented Muscle Influence Involuntary Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Christopher M.; Nagamori, Akira; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary control of force is always marked by some degree of error and unsteadiness. Both neural and mechanical factors contribute to these fluctuations, but how they interact to produce them is poorly understood. In this study, we identify and characterize a previously undescribed neuromechanical interaction where the dynamics of voluntary force production suffice to generate involuntary tremor. Specifically, participants were asked to produce isometric force with the index finger and use visual feedback to track a sinusoidal target spanning 5–9% of each individual's maximal voluntary force level. Force fluctuations and EMG activity over the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscle were recorded and their frequency content was analyzed as a function of target phase. Force variability in either the 1–5 or 6–15 Hz frequency ranges tended to be largest at the peaks and valleys of the target sinusoid. In those same periods, FDS EMG activity was synchronized with force fluctuations. We then constructed a physiologically-realistic computer simulation in which a muscle-tendon complex was set inside of a feedback-driven control loop. Surprisingly, the model sufficed to produce phase-dependent modulation of tremor similar to that observed in humans. Further, the gain of afferent feedback from muscle spindles was critical for appropriately amplifying and shaping this tremor. We suggest that the experimentally-induced tremor may represent the response of a viscoelastic muscle-tendon system to dynamic drive, and therefore does not fall into known categories of tremor generation, such as tremorogenic descending drive, stretch-reflex loop oscillations, motor unit behavior, or mechanical resonance. Our findings motivate future efforts to understand tremor from a perspective that considers neuromechanical coupling within the context of closed-loop control. The strategy of combining experimental recordings with physiologically-sound simulations will enable thorough

  10. The phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): evidence from the hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Rebecca E; Adrian, Brent; Elrod, Clay; Hicks, Michelle

    2008-11-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered carnivore living in the temperate forests of the Himalayas and southern China. The phylogeny of the red panda has been the subject of much debate. Morphological and molecular studies have supported a wide range of possible relationships, including close ties to procyonids, ursids, mustelids, and mephitids. This study provides additional morphological data, including muscle maps, for Ailurus. The hindlimbs of four cadavers from the National Zoological Park were dissected. Red pandas retain a number of muscles lost in other carnivore groups, including muscles and tendons related to their robust and weight-bearing hallux. Three features, including a single-bellied m. sartorius, a proximal insertion for m. abductor digiti V, and an absent m. articularis coxae, are found in all terrestrial arctoids, including Ailurus. In addition, red pandas are similar to ursids and canids in lacking a caudal belly of m. semitendinosus, while they resemble procyonids and mustelids in the degree of fusion observed between mm. gluteus medius and piriformis. Furthermore, Ailurus and procyonids are characterized by numerous subdivisions within the adductor compartment, while red pandas and raccoons share a variable m. semimembranosus, composed of one, two, or three bellies. Lastly, a deep plantar muscle inserting onto the metatarsophalangeal joint of the hallux is described for Ailurus. This muscle has not been previously described and is given the name m. flexor hallucis profundus. Additional dissections of the forelimb and axial musculature of red pandas may shed further light on the phylogeny of this species. In addition, the muscle maps presented here offer a valuable resource for interpreting the functional anatomy of fossil ailurids.

  11. The phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): evidence from the hindlimb

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Rebecca E; Adrian, Brent; Elrod, Clay; Hicks, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered carnivore living in the temperate forests of the Himalayas and southern China. The phylogeny of the red panda has been the subject of much debate. Morphological and molecular studies have supported a wide range of possible relationships, including close ties to procyonids, ursids, mustelids, and mephitids. This study provides additional morphological data, including muscle maps, for Ailurus. The hindlimbs of four cadavers from the National Zoological Park were dissected. Red pandas retain a number of muscles lost in other carnivore groups, including muscles and tendons related to their robust and weight-bearing hallux. Three features, including a single-bellied m. sartorius, a proximal insertion for m. abductor digiti V, and an absent m. articularis coxae, are found in all terrestrial arctoids, including Ailurus. In addition, red pandas are similar to ursids and canids in lacking a caudal belly of m. semitendinosus, while they resemble procyonids and mustelids in the degree of fusion observed between mm. gluteus medius and piriformis. Furthermore, Ailurus and procyonids are characterized by numerous subdivisions within the adductor compartment, while red pandas and raccoons share a variable m. semimembranosus, composed of one, two, or three bellies. Lastly, a deep plantar muscle inserting onto the metatarsophalangeal joint of the hallux is described for Ailurus. This muscle has not been previously described and is given the name m. flexor hallucis profundus. Additional dissections of the forelimb and axial musculature of red pandas may shed further light on the phylogeny of this species. In addition, the muscle maps presented here offer a valuable resource for interpreting the functional anatomy of fossil ailurids. PMID:19014366

  12. Polymer-DNA Nanoparticle-Induced CXCR4 Overexpression Improves Stem Cell Engraftment and Tissue Regeneration in a Mouse Hindlimb Ischemia Model

    PubMed Central

    Deveza, Lorenzo; Choi, Jeffrey; Lee, Jerry; Huang, Ngan; Cooke, John; Yang, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease affects nearly 202 million individuals worldwide, sometimes leading to non-healing ulcers or limb amputations in severe cases. Genetically modified stem cells offer potential advantages for therapeutically inducing angiogenesis via augmented paracrine release mechanisms and tuned dynamic responses to environmental stimuli at disease sites. Here, we report the application of nanoparticle-induced CXCR4-overexpressing stem cells in a mouse hindlimb ischemia model. We found that CXCR4 overexpression improved stem cell survival, modulated inflammation in situ, and accelerated blood reperfusion. These effects, unexpectedly, led to complete limb salvage and skeletal muscle repair, markedly outperforming the efficacy of the conventional angiogenic factor control, VEGF. Importantly, assessment of CXCR4-overexpressing stem cells in vitro revealed that CXCR4 overexpression induced changes in paracrine signaling of stem cells, promoting a therapeutically desirable pro-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory phenotype. These results suggest that nanoparticle-induced CXCR4 overexpression may promote favorable phenotypic changes and therapeutic efficacy of stem cells in response to the ischemic environment. PMID:27279910

  13. Effects of Exercise on Soleus in Severe Burn and Muscle Disuse Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Saeman, Melody R.; DeSpain, Kevin; Liu, Ming-Mei; Carlson, Brett A.; Song, Juquan; Baer, Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.; Wolf, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Muscle loss is a sequela of severe burn and critical illness with bed rest contributing significantly to atrophy. We hypothesize that exercise will mitigate muscle loss after burn with bed rest. Materials and Methods Male rats were assigned to sham ambulatory (S/A), burn ambulatory (B/A), sham hindlimb unloading (S/H), or burn hindlimb unloading (B/H). Rats received a 40% scald burn or sham and were ambulatory or placed in hindlimb unloading, a model of bed rest. Half performed twice-daily resistance climbing. Hindlimb isometric forces were measured on day 14. Results Soleus mass and muscle function were not affected by burn alone. Mass was significantly lower in hindlimb unloading (79 vs.139 mg, p<0.001) and no exercise (103 vs.115 mg, p<0.01). Exercise significantly increased soleus mass in B/H (86 vs. 77mg, p<0.01). Hindlimb unloading significantly decreased muscle force in the twitch (31 vs. 12g, p<0.001), tetanic (55 vs. 148 g, p<0.001), and specific tetanic measurements (12 vs. 22 N/cm2, p<0.001). Effects of exercise on force depended on other factors. In B/H, exercise significantly increased twitch (14 vs. 8 g, p<0.05) and specific tetanic force (14 vs. 7 N/cm2, p<0.01). Fatigue index was lower in ambulatory (55%) and exercise (52%) versus hindlimb (69%, p=0.03) and no exercise (73%, p=0.002). Conclusions Hindlimb unloading is a significant factor in muscle atrophy. Exercise increased the soleus muscle mass, twitch, and specific force in this model. However, the fatigue index decreased with exercise in all groups. This suggests exercise contributes to functional muscle change in this model of disuse and critical illness. PMID:26104324

  14. Exercise effects on the size and metabolic properties of soleus fibers in hindlimb-suspended rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Scot C.; Roy, Roland R.; West, Steve P.; Thomason, Don; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of four-week-long hind-limb suspension (HS) of rats on the size the soleus muscle fibers and the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in dark and light ATPase fibers were investigated together with the efficacy of an endurance exercise (EX) program (daily treadmill exercise for 1.5 h/day at 20 m/min and a 30-percent grade) in ameliorating HS-induced changes. It was found that, in comparison to age-matched controls, the soleus wet weight decreased by 69 and 30 percent in HS and HS-EX rats, respectively, and the percent of dark ATPase fibers increased from 10 percent in controls to 19 and 17 percent, respectively. The values of the integrated fiber activity (activity/min times muscle area) showed a net loss of SDH in both the light and dark ATPase fibers of HS rats, but only in the light ATPase fibers of the HS-EX rats, indicating that exercise ameliorated but did not prevent the muscle fiber atrophy induced by HS.

  15. Electromyographic responses of erector spinae and lower limb's muscles to dynamic postural perturbations in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Farahpour, Nader; Ghasemi, Safoura; Allard, Paul; Saba, Mohammad Sadegh

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate electromyographic (EMG) responses of erector spinae (ES) and lower limbs' muscles to dynamic forward postural perturbation (FPP) and backward postural perturbation (BPP) in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and in a healthy control group. Ten right thoracic AIS patients (Cobb=21.6±4.4°) and 10 control adolescents were studied. Using bipolar surface electrodes, EMG activities of ES muscle at T10 (EST10) and L3 (ESL3) levels, biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius lateralis (G) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles in the right and the left sides during FPP and BPP were evaluated. Muscle responses were measured over a 1s time window after the onset of perturbation. In FPP test, the EMG responses of right EST10, ESL3 and BF muscles in the scoliosis group were respectively about 1.40 (p=0.035), 1.43 (p=0.07) and 1.45 (p=0.01) times greater than those in control group. Also, in BPP test, at right ESL3 muscle of the scoliosis group the EMG activity was 1.64 times higher than that in the control group (p=0.01). The scoliosis group during FPP displayed asymmetrical muscle responses in EST10 and BF muscles. This asymmetrical muscle activity in response to FPP is hypothesized to be a possible compensatory strategy rather than an inherent characteristic of scoliosis.

  16. Effect of shoulder flexion angle and exercise resistance on the serratus anterior muscle activity during dynamic hug exercise.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of shoulder flexion angle and exercise resistance on the serratus anterior muscle during dynamic hug exercise. [Subjects] Ten men aged 22-32 years were recruited. [Methods] The subjects performed dynamic hug exercise at different shoulder flexion angles and under resistance weight conditions. Serratus anterior muscle activities were measured by using the surface electromyographic system during the dynamic hug exercises. After performing the exercise, each subject described the exercise intensity by using the Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale. [Results] The normalized serratus anterior muscle activity increased significantly in the order of Conditions 1 and 4 < Condition 3 < Condition 2. The Borg RPE scale increased significantly in the order of Condition 1 < Condition 2 < Condition 3 < Condition 4. [Conclusion] The results suggest that dynamic hug exercise with the use of a multi-air-cushion biofeedback device is an effective scapular stability exercise.

  17. Effect of shoulder flexion angle and exercise resistance on the serratus anterior muscle activity during dynamic hug exercise

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of shoulder flexion angle and exercise resistance on the serratus anterior muscle during dynamic hug exercise. [Subjects] Ten men aged 22–32 years were recruited. [Methods] The subjects performed dynamic hug exercise at different shoulder flexion angles and under resistance weight conditions. Serratus anterior muscle activities were measured by using the surface electromyographic system during the dynamic hug exercises. After performing the exercise, each subject described the exercise intensity by using the Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale. [Results] The normalized serratus anterior muscle activity increased significantly in the order of Conditions 1 and 4 < Condition 3 < Condition 2. The Borg RPE scale increased significantly in the order of Condition 1 < Condition 2 < Condition 3 < Condition 4. [Conclusion] The results suggest that dynamic hug exercise with the use of a multi-air-cushion biofeedback device is an effective scapular stability exercise. PMID:26957774

  18. Characterization of beta-connectin (titin 2) from striated muscle by dynamic light scattering.

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, H; Nakauchi, Y; Maruyama, K; Fujime, S

    1993-01-01

    Connectin (titin) is a large filamentous protein (single peptide) with a molecular mass of approximately 3 MDa, contour length approximately 900 nm, and diameter approximately 4 nm, and resides in striated muscle. Connectin links the thick filaments to the Z-lines in a sarcomere and produces a passive elastic force when muscle fiber is stretched. The aim of this study is to elucidate some aspects of physical properties of isolated beta-connectin (titin 2), a proteolytic fragment of connectin, by means of dynamic light-scattering (DLS) spectroscopy. The analysis of DLS spectra for beta-connectin gave the translational diffusion coefficient of 3.60 x 10(-8) cm2/s at 10 degrees C (or the hydrodynamic radius of 44.1 nm), molecular mass little smaller than 3.0 MDa (for a literature value of sedimentation coefficient), the root-mean-square end-to-end distance of 163 nm (or the radius of gyration of 66.6 nm), and the Kuhn segment number of 30 and segment length of 30 nm (or the persistence length of 15 nm). These results permitted to estimate the flexural rigidity of 6.0 x 10(-20) dyn x cm2 for filament bending, and the elastic constant of 7 dyn/cm for extension of one persistence length. Based on a simple model, implications of the present results in muscle physiology are discussed. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8298020

  19. [Dynamics of rat's soleus muscle recovery from the suspension-induced atrophy].

    PubMed

    Il'ina-Kakueva, E I

    2005-01-01

    Dynamics of the 60-d soleus recovery was studied morphologically and histomorphometrically in female rats exposed to 30-d tail-suspension. Suspension led to soleus atrophy manifested by substantial losses in mass (56% vs. the control) and cross-sectional area of myofibers, and partial transformation of slow fibers into fast. The most intensive recovery processes in the soleus, reverse to the atrophic ones, were observed in the period between days 2 and 8 of readaptation, but then they subsided. Full recovery of the soleus mass and CSA took approximately 60 days of readaptation. Fast myofibers are less susceptible to atrophy and, therefore, recovered sooner than the slow ones. Percentage of slow-to-fast fibers returned to the norm between days 14 and 30. In addition to the persisting atrophy on readaptation day 2, there were some hemodynamic disorders in the soleus fraught with interstitial edema, distortion of muscle trophism, dystrophic developments in muscle fibers, and death of a number of fibers. Edema faded away between days 8 and 14 of readaptation. Recovery of the soleus muscle was considerably compromised by hemodynamic disorders at the beginning of readaptation.

  20. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on dynamic hyperinflation in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Milos; Reiter, Michael; Zipko, Harald; Pohl, Wolfgang; Wanke, Theodor

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic hyperinflation has important clinical consequences in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Given that most of these patients have respiratory and peripheral muscle weakness, dyspnea and functional exercise capacity may improve as a result of inspiratory muscle training (IMT). The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of IMT on exercise capacity, dyspnea, and inspiratory fraction (IF) during exercise in patients with COPD. Daily inspiratory muscle strength and endurance training was performed for 8 weeks in 10 patients with COPD GOLD II and III. Ten patients with COPD II and III served as a control group. Maximal inspiratory pressure (Pimax) and endurance time during resistive breathing maneuvers (tlim) served as parameter for inspiratory muscle capacity. Before and after training, the patients performed an incremental symptom limited exercise test to maximum and a constant load test on a cycle ergometer at 75% of the peak work rate obtained in the pretraining incremental test. ET was defined as the duration of loaded pedaling. Following IMT, there was a statistically significant increase in inspiratory muscle performance of the Pimax from 7.75 ± 0.47 to 9.15 ± 0.73 kPa (P < 0.01) and of tlim from 348 ± 54 to 467 ± 58 seconds (P < 0.01). A significant increase in IF, indicating decreased dynamic hyperinflation, was observed during both exercise tests. Further, the ratio of breathing frequency to minute ventilation (bf/V'(E)) decreased significantly, indicating an improved breathing pattern. A significant decrease in perception of dyspnea was also measured. Peak work rate during the incremental cycle ergometer test remained constant, while ET during the constant load test increased significantly from 597.1 ± 80.8 seconds at baseline to 733.6 ± 74.3 seconds (P < 0.01). No significant changes during either exercise tests were measured in the control group. The present study found that in patients with COPD, IMT results in

  1. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on dynamic hyperinflation in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Petrovic, Milos; Reiter, Michael; Zipko, Harald; Pohl, Wolfgang; Wanke, Theodor

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic hyperinflation has important clinical consequences in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Given that most of these patients have respiratory and peripheral muscle weakness, dyspnea and functional exercise capacity may improve as a result of inspiratory muscle training (IMT). The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of IMT on exercise capacity, dyspnea, and inspiratory fraction (IF) during exercise in patients with COPD. Daily inspiratory muscle strength and endurance training was performed for 8 weeks in 10 patients with COPD GOLD II and III. Ten patients with COPD II and III served as a control group. Maximal inspiratory pressure (Pimax) and endurance time during resistive breathing maneuvers (tlim) served as parameter for inspiratory muscle capacity. Before and after training, the patients performed an incremental symptom limited exercise test to maximum and a constant load test on a cycle ergometer at 75% of the peak work rate obtained in the pretraining incremental test. ET was defined as the duration of loaded pedaling. Following IMT, there was a statistically significant increase in inspiratory muscle performance of the Pimax from 7.75 ± 0.47 to 9.15 ± 0.73 kPa (P < 0.01) and of tlim from 348 ± 54 to 467 ± 58 seconds (P < 0.01). A significant increase in IF, indicating decreased dynamic hyperinflation, was observed during both exercise tests. Further, the ratio of breathing frequency to minute ventilation (bf/V′E) decreased significantly, indicating an improved breathing pattern. A significant decrease in perception of dyspnea was also measured. Peak work rate during the incremental cycle ergometer test remained constant, while ET during the constant load test increased significantly from 597.1 ± 80.8 seconds at baseline to 733.6 ± 74.3 seconds (P < 0.01). No significant changes during either exercise tests were measured in the control group. The present study found that in patients with COPD, IMT results in

  2. Thermal effects on the performance, motor control and muscle dynamics of ballistic feeding in the salamander Eurycea guttolineata.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christopher V; Larghi, Nicholas P; Deban, Stephen M

    2014-09-01

    Temperature strongly affects muscle contractile rate properties and thus may influence whole-organism performance. Movements powered by elastic recoil, however, are known to be more thermally robust than muscle-powered movements. We examined the whole-organism performance, motor control and muscle contractile physiology underlying feeding in the salamander Eurycea guttolineata. We compared elastically powered tongue projection with the associated muscle-powered retraction to determine the thermal robustness of each of these functional levels. We found that tongue-projection distance in E. guttolineata was unaffected by temperature across the entire 4-26°C range, tongue-projection dynamics were significantly affected by temperature across only the 4-11°C interval, and tongue retraction was affected to a higher degree across the entire temperature range. The significant effect of temperature on projection dynamics across the 4-11°C interval corresponds to a significant decline in projector muscle burst intensity and peak contractile force of the projector muscle across the same interval. Across the remaining temperature range, however, projection dynamics were unaffected by temperature, with muscle contractile physiology showing typical thermal effects and motor patterns showing increased activity durations and latencies. These results reveal that elastically powered tongue-projection performance in E. guttolineata is maintained to a higher degree than muscle-powered tongue retraction performance across a wide temperature range. These results further indicate that thermal robustness of the elastically powered movement is dependent on motor control and muscle physiology that results in comparable energy being stored in elastic tissues across a range of temperatures.

  3. Development of Sensory Receptors in Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSantis, Mark

    2000-01-01

    The two major goals for this project is to (1) examine the hindlimb walking pattern of offspring from the Flight dams as compared with offspring of the ground control groups from initiation of walking up to two months thereafter; and (2) examine skeletal muscle.

  4. Evaluation of Driver-vehicle Matching using Neck Muscle Activity and Vehicle Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Yoshiki; Umetsu, Daisuke; Ozaki, Shigeru

    Objective measurement of a car driver's feeling has been a subject of automobile researches. In the present study, we aimed at quantifying the matching between the physiological response of a driver and the vehicle motion. Assuming that the performance of a head stabilization mechanism, the vestibulo-collic reflex, affects driving feeling, we recorded the activity of neck muscles that help maintain the head position. Electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from the sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCM) using active electrodes and a compact amplifier. Vehicle acceleration and gas pedal movement were recorded with small accelerometers. Subjects were required to perform straight-line acceleration. Four road cars with different characteristics were used. EMG signals were filtered, full-wave rectified and averaged across trials. Main results are summarized as follows. First, the EMG response of a driver's neck muscle depended not only on vehicle acceleration but on its time derivative, jerk. A quantitative analysis showed that, for the data obtained with the four cars, the EMG profile can be reproduced by a linear sum of acceleration and jerk. The correlation coefficient, an index of goodness of matching, ranged from ~0.8 to ~0.95. Second, our analysis indicated that the relationship between the muscle response and the vehicle motion can be characterized by two parameters: the optimal weight for the jerk term and the optimal time lag. The current study proposes a method for characterizing a physiological response of a driver to dynamic vehicle motion. It remains to be investigated whether these parameters are related to the driving feeling.

  5. Modeling Energy Dynamics in Mice with Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy Fed High Calorie Diets

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Nichole D.; Guo, Juen; Hall, Kevin D.; McPherron, Alexandra C.

    2016-01-01

    Retrospective and prospective studies show that lean mass or strength is positively associated with metabolic health. Mice deficient in myostatin, a growth factor that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass, have increased muscle and body weights and are resistant to diet-induced obesity. Their leanness is often attributed to higher energy expenditure in the face of normal food intake. However, even obese animals have an increase in energy expenditure compared to normal weight animals suggesting this is an incomplete explanation. We have previously developed a computational model to estimate energy output, fat oxidation and respiratory quotient from food intake and body composition measurements to more accurately account for changes in body composition in rodents over time. Here we use this approach to understand the dynamic changes in energy output, intake, fat oxidation and respiratory quotient in muscular mice carrying a dominant negative activin receptor IIB expressed specifically in muscle. We found that muscular mice had higher food intake and higher energy output when fed either chow or a high-fat diet for 15 weeks compared to WT mice. Transgenic mice also matched their rate of fat oxidation to the rate of fat consumed better than WT mice. Surprisingly, when given a choice between high-fat diet and Ensure® drink, transgenic mice consumed relatively more calories from Ensure® than from the high-fat diet despite similar caloric intake to WT mice. When switching back and forth between diets, transgenic mice adjusted their intake more rapidly than WT to restore normal caloric intake. Our results show that mice with myostatin inhibition in muscle are better at adjusting energy intake and output on diets of different macronutrient composition than WT mice to maintain energy balance and resist weight gain. PMID:27076790

  6. Modeling Energy Dynamics in Mice with Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy Fed High Calorie Diets.

    PubMed

    Bond, Nichole D; Guo, Juen; Hall, Kevin D; McPherron, Alexandra C

    2016-01-01

    Retrospective and prospective studies show that lean mass or strength is positively associated with metabolic health. Mice deficient in myostatin, a growth factor that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass, have increased muscle and body weights and are resistant to diet-induced obesity. Their leanness is often attributed to higher energy expenditure in the face of normal food intake. However, even obese animals have an increase in energy expenditure compared to normal weight animals suggesting this is an incomplete explanation. We have previously developed a computational model to estimate energy output, fat oxidation and respiratory quotient from food intake and body composition measurements to more accurately account for changes in body composition in rodents over time. Here we use this approach to understand the dynamic changes in energy output, intake, fat oxidation and respiratory quotient in muscular mice carrying a dominant negative activin receptor IIB expressed specifically in muscle. We found that muscular mice had higher food intake and higher energy output when fed either chow or a high-fat diet for 15 weeks compared to WT mice. Transgenic mice also matched their rate of fat oxidation to the rate of fat consumed better than WT mice. Surprisingly, when given a choice between high-fat diet and Ensure® drink, transgenic mice consumed relatively more calories from Ensure® than from the high-fat diet despite similar caloric intake to WT mice. When switching back and forth between diets, transgenic mice adjusted their intake more rapidly than WT to restore normal caloric intake. Our results show that mice with myostatin inhibition in muscle are better at adjusting energy intake and output on diets of different macronutrient composition than WT mice to maintain energy balance and resist weight gain.

  7. Skeletal muscle growth dynamics and the influence of first-feeding diet in Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua L.).

    PubMed

    Vo, Tu A; Galloway, Trina F; Bardal, Tora; Halseth, Christine K; Øie, Gunvor; Kjørsvik, Elin

    2016-11-15

    Dynamics between hypertrophy (increase in cell size) and hyperplasia (increase in cell numbers) of white and red muscle in relation to body size [standard length (SL)], and the influence of the first-feeding diets on muscle growth were investigated in Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua). Cod larvae were fed copepod nauplii or rotifers of different nutritional qualities from 4 to 29 days post hatching (dph), Artemia nauplii from 20 to 40 dph and a formulated diet from 36 to 60 dph. The short period of feeding with cultivated copepod nauplii had a positive effect on both muscle hyperplasia and hypertrophy after the copepod/rotifer phase (19 dph), and a positive long term effect on muscle hypertrophy (60 dph). The different nutritional qualities of rotifers did not significantly affect muscle growth. We suggest here a model of the dynamics between hyperplasia and hypertrophy of red and white muscle fibre cells in relation to cod SL (4 to 30 mm), where the different red and white muscle growth phases clearly coincided with different metamorphosis stages in cod larvae. These shifts could be included as biomarkers for the different stages of development during metamorphosis. The main dietary muscle effect was that hypertrophic growth of red muscle fibres was stronger in cod larvae that were fed copepods than in larvae that were fed rotifers, both in relation to larval age and size. Red muscle fibres are directly involved in larval locomotory performance, but may also play an important role in the larval myogenesis. This can have a long term effect on growth potential and fish performance.

  8. Skeletal muscle growth dynamics and the influence of first-feeding diet in Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua L.)

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Tu A.; Galloway, Trina F.; Bardal, Tora; Halseth, Christine K.; Øie, Gunvor

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dynamics between hypertrophy (increase in cell size) and hyperplasia (increase in cell numbers) of white and red muscle in relation to body size [standard length (SL)], and the influence of the first-feeding diets on muscle growth were investigated in Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua). Cod larvae were fed copepod nauplii or rotifers of different nutritional qualities from 4 to 29 days post hatching (dph), Artemia nauplii from 20 to 40 dph and a formulated diet from 36 to 60 dph. The short period of feeding with cultivated copepod nauplii had a positive effect on both muscle hyperplasia and hypertrophy after the copepod/rotifer phase (19 dph), and a positive long term effect on muscle hypertrophy (60 dph). The different nutritional qualities of rotifers did not significantly affect muscle growth. We suggest here a model of the dynamics between hyperplasia and hypertrophy of red and white muscle fibre cells in relation to cod SL (4 to 30 mm), where the different red and white muscle growth phases clearly coincided with different metamorphosis stages in cod larvae. These shifts could be included as biomarkers for the different stages of development during metamorphosis. The main dietary muscle effect was that hypertrophic growth of red muscle fibres was stronger in cod larvae that were fed copepods than in larvae that were fed rotifers, both in relation to larval age and size. Red muscle fibres are directly involved in larval locomotory performance, but may also play an important role in the larval myogenesis. This can have a long term effect on growth potential and fish performance. PMID:27612513

  9. Expression of IGF-I and Protein Degradation Markers During Hindlimb Unloading and Growth Hormone Administration in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinsoo, T. A.; Turtikova, O. V.; Shenkman, B. S.

    2013-02-01

    It is known that hindlimb unloading or spaceflight produce atrophy and a number of phenotypic alterations in skeletal muscles. Many of these processes are triggered by the axis growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I. However growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) expression relationship in rodent models of gravitational unloading is weakly investigated. We supposed the IGF-I is involved in regulation of protein turnover. In this study we examined the IGF-I expression by RT-PCR assay in the rat soleus, tibialis anterior and liver after 3 day of hindlimb suspension with growth hormone administration. Simultaneously were studied expression levels of MuRF-1 and MAFbx/atrogin as a key markers of intracellular proteolysis. We demonstrated that GH administration did not prevent IGF-I expression decreasing under the conditions of simulated weightlessness. It was concluded there are separate mechanisms of action of GH and IGF-I on protein metabolism in skeletal muscles. Gravitational unloading activate proteolysis independently of growth hormone activity.

  10. Structural and functional remodeling of skeletal muscle microvasculature is induced by simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delp, M. D.; Colleran, P. N.; Wilkerson, M. K.; McCurdy, M. R.; Muller-Delp, J.

    2000-01-01

    Hindlimb unloading of rats results in a diminished ability of skeletal muscle arterioles to constrict in vitro and elevate vascular resistance in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether alterations in the mechanical environment (i.e., reduced fluid pressure and blood flow) of the vasculature in hindlimb skeletal muscles from 2-wk hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rats induces a structural remodeling of arterial microvessels that may account for these observations. Transverse cross sections were used to determine media cross-sectional area (CSA), wall thickness, outer perimeter, number of media nuclei, and vessel luminal diameter of feed arteries and first-order (1A) arterioles from soleus and the superficial portion of gastrocnemius muscles. Endothelium-dependent dilation (ACh) was also determined. Media CSA of resistance arteries was diminished by hindlimb unloading as a result of decreased media thickness (gastrocnemius muscle) or reduced vessel diameter (soleus muscle). ACh-induced dilation was diminished by 2 wk of hindlimb unloading in soleus 1A arterioles, but not in gastrocnemius 1A arterioles. These results indicate that structural remodeling and functional adaptations of the arterial microvasculature occur in skeletal muscles of the HU rat; the data suggest that these alterations may be induced by reductions in transmural pressure (gastrocnemius muscle) and wall shear stress (soleus muscle).

  11. Alterations in skeletal muscle related to impaired physical mobility: an empirical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasper, C. E.; McNulty, A. L.; Otto, A. J.; Thomas, D. P.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study impaired physical mobility and the resulting skeletal muscle atrophy. An animal model was used to study morphological adaptations of the soleus and plantaris muscles to decreased loading induced by hindlimb suspension of an adult rat for 7, 14, and 28 consecutive days. Alterations in weight, skeletal muscle growth, and changes in fiber type composition were studied in synergistic plantar flexors of the rat hindlimb. Body weight and the soleus muscle mass to body mass ratio demonstrated significant progressive atrophy over th 28-day experimental period with the most significant changes occurring in the first 7 days of hindlimb suspension. Hindlimb suspension produced atrophy of Type I and Type IIa muscle fibers as demonstrated by significant decreases in fiber cross-sectional area (micron 2). These latter changes account for the loss of contractile force production reported in the rat following hindlimb unloading. When compared to traditional models of hindlimb suspension and immobilization, the ISC model produces a less severe atrophy while maintaining animal mobility and health. We conclude that it is the preferred animal model to address nursing questions of impaired physical mobility.

  12. Bone, blood vessels, and muscle detection algorithm and creating database based on dynamic and non-dynamic multi-slice CT image of head and neck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabbir Ahamed, Mohammed; Kubo, Mitsuru; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Iwasaki, Hirokazu

    2007-03-01

    Nowadays, dental CT images play more and more important roles in oral clinical applications. Our research is important particularly in the field of dentistry. We are using non-dynamic and dynamic CT image for our research. We are creating our database of bone, blood vessels and muscles of head and neck. This database contains easy case and difficult case of head and neck's bone, blood vessels and muscle. There are lots of difficult cases in our database. Teeth separation and condylar process separation is difficult case. External carotid artery has many branches and they are attached with vain so it is difficult to separate. All muscle threshold value is same and they are attaching with each other so muscle separation is very difficult. These databases also contain different age's patients. For this reason our database becomes an important tool for dental students and also important assets for diagnosis. After completion our database we can link it with other dental application.

  13. Temporal Co-Variation between Eye Lens Accommodation and Trapezius Muscle Activity during a Dynamic Near-Far Visual Task

    PubMed Central

    Zetterberg, Camilla; Richter, Hans O.; Forsman, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Near work is associated with increased activity in the neck and shoulder muscles, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. This study was designed to determine whether a dynamic change in focus, alternating between a nearby and a more distant visual target, produces a direct parallel change in trapezius muscle activity. Fourteen healthy controls and 12 patients with a history of visual and neck/shoulder symptoms performed a Near-Far visual task under three different viewing conditions; one neutral condition with no trial lenses, one condition with negative trial lenses to create increased accommodation, and one condition with positive trial lenses to create decreased accommodation. Eye lens accommodation and trapezius muscle activity were continuously recorded. The trapezius muscle activity was significantly higher during Near than during Far focusing periods for both groups within the neutral viewing condition, and there was a significant co-variation in time between accommodation and trapezius muscle activity within the neutral and positive viewing conditions for the control group. In conclusion, these results reveal a connection between Near focusing and increased muscle activity during dynamic changes in focus between a nearby and a far target. A direct link, from the accommodation/vergence system to the trapezius muscles cannot be ruled out, but the connection may also be explained by an increased need for eye-neck (head) stabilization when focusing on a nearby target as compared to a more distant target. PMID:25961299

  14. Dynamic coupling of regulated binding sites and cycling myosin heads in striated muscle.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kenneth S

    2014-03-01

    In an activated muscle, binding sites on the thin filament and myosin heads switch frequently between different states. Because the status of the binding sites influences the status of the heads, and vice versa, the binding sites and myosin heads are dynamically coupled. The functional consequences of this coupling were investigated using MyoSim, a new computer model of muscle. MyoSim extends existing models based on Huxley-type distribution techniques by incorporating Ca(2+) activation and cooperative effects. It can also simulate arbitrary cross-bridge schemes set by the researcher. Initial calculations investigated the effects of altering the relative speeds of binding-site and cross-bridge kinetics, and of manipulating cooperative processes. Subsequent tests fitted simulated force records to experimental data recorded using permeabilized myocardial preparations. These calculations suggest that the rate of force development at maximum activation is limited by myosin cycling kinetics, whereas the rate at lower levels of activation is limited by how quickly binding sites become available. Additional tests investigated the behavior of transiently activated cells by driving simulations with experimentally recorded Ca(2+) signals. The unloaded shortening profile of a twitching myocyte could be reproduced using a model with two myosin states, cooperative activation, and strain-dependent kinetics. Collectively, these results demonstrate that dynamic coupling of binding sites and myosin heads is important for contractile function.

  15. Dynamics of a pneumatic artificial muscle actuation system driving a trailing edge flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Benjamin K. S.; Kothera, Curt S.; Wang, Gang; Wereley, Norman M.

    2014-09-01

    This study presents a time domain dynamic model of an antagonistic pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) driven trailing edge flap (TEF) system for next generation active helicopter rotors. Active rotor concepts are currently being widely researched in the rotorcraft community as a means to provide a significant leap forward in performance through primary aircraft control, vibration mitigation and noise reduction. Recent work has shown PAMs to be a promising candidate for active rotor actuation due to their combination of high force, large stroke, light weight, and suitable bandwidth. When arranged into biologically inspired agonist/antagonist muscle pairs they can produce bidirectional torques for effectively driving a TEF. However, there are no analytical dynamic models in the literature that can accurately capture the behavior of such systems across the broad range of frequencies required for this demanding application. This work combines mechanical, pneumatic, and aerodynamic component models into a global flap system model developed for the Bell 407 rotor system. This model can accurately predict pressure, force, and flap angle response to pneumatic control valve inputs over a range of operating frequencies from 7 to 35 Hz (1/rev to 5/rev for the Bell 407) and operating pressures from 30 to 90 psi.

  16. Differential Glucose Uptake in Quadriceps and Other Leg Muscles During One-Legged Dynamic Submaximal Knee-Extension Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kalliokoski, Kari K.; Boushel, Robert; Langberg, Henning; Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Ryberg, Ann Kathrine; Døssing, Simon; Kjær, Andreas; Kjær, Michael

    2011-01-01

    One-legged dynamic knee-extension exercise (DKE) is a widely used model to study the local cardiovascular and metabolic responses to exercise of the quadriceps muscles. In this study, we explored the extent to which different muscles of the quadriceps are activated during exercise using positron emission tomography (PET) determined uptake of [18F]-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (GU) during DKE. Five healthy male subjects performed DKE at 25 W for 35 min and both the contracting and contralateral resting leg were scanned with PET from mid-thigh and distally. On average, exercise GU was the highest in the vastus intermedius (VI) and lowest in the vastus lateralis (VL; VI vs VL, p < 0.05), whereas the coefficient of variation was highest in VL (VL vs VI, p < 0.05). Coefficient of variation between the mean values of the four quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles in the exercising leg was 35 ± 9%. Compared to mean GU in QF (=100%), GU was on average 73% in VL, 84% in rectus femoris, 115% in vastus medialis, and 142% in VI. Variable activation of hamstring muscles and muscles of the lower leg was also observed. These results show that GU of different muscles of quadriceps muscle group as well as between individuals vary greatly during DKE, and suggests that muscle activity is not equal between quadriceps muscles in this exercise model. Furthermore, posterior thigh muscles and lower leg muscles are more active than hitherto thought even during this moderate exercise intensity. PMID:22046164

  17. History, Mechanisms and Clinical Value of Fibrillation Analyses in Muscle Denervation and Reinnervation by Single Fiber Electromyography and Dynamic Echomyography

    PubMed Central

    Pond, Amber; Zanato, Riccardo; Martino, Leonora; Stramare, Roberto; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Zampieri, Sandra; Hofer, Christian; Kern, Helmut; Masiero, Stefano; Piccione, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This work reviews history, current clinical relevance and future of fibrillation, a functional marker of skeletal muscle denervated fibers. Fibrillations, i.e., spontaneous contraction, in denervated muscle were first described during the nineteenth century. It is known that alterations in membrane potential are responsible for the phenomenon and that they are related to changes in electrophysiological factors, cellular metabolism, cell turnover and gene expression. They are known to inhibit muscle atrophy to some degree and are used to diagnose neural injury and reinnervation that are occurring in patients. Electromyography (EMG) is useful in determining progress, prognosis and efficacy of therapeutic interventions and their eventual change. For patients with peripheral nerve injury, and thus without the option of volitional contractions, electrical muscle stimulation may be helpful in preserving the contractility and extensibility of denervated muscle tissue and in retarding/counteracting muscle atrophy. It is obvious from the paucity of recent literature that research in this area has declined over the years. This is likely a consequence of the decrease in funding available for research and the fact that the fibrillations do not appear to cause serious health issues. Nonetheless, further exploration of them as diagnostic tools in long-term denervation is merited, in particular if Single Fiber EMG (SFEMG) is combined with Dynamic Echomyography (DyEM), an Ultra Sound muscle approach we recently designed and developed to explore denervated and reinnervating muscles. PMID:26913128

  18. Modeling the Peano fluidic muscle and the effects of its material properties on its static and dynamic behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veale, Allan Joshua; Xie, Sheng Quan; Anderson, Iain Alexander

    2016-06-01

    The promise of wearable assistive robotics cannot be realized without the development of actuators that mimic the behavior and form of biological muscles. Planar fluidic muscles known as Peano muscles or pouch motors have the potential to provide the high force and compliance of McKibben pneumatic artificial muscles with the low threshold pressure of pleated pneumatic artificial muscles. Yet they do so in a soft and slim form that can be discreetly distributed over the human body. This work is an investigation into the empirical modeling of the Peano muscle, the effect of its material on its performance, and its capabilities and limitations. We discovered that the Peano muscle could provide responsive and discreet actuation of soft and rigid bodies requiring strains between 15% and 30%. Ideally, they are made of non-viscoelastic materials with high tensile and low bending stiffnesses. While Sarosi et al’s empirical model accurately captures its static behavior with an root mean square error of 10.2 N, their dynamic model overestimates oscillation frequency and damping. We propose that the Peano muscle be modeled by a parallel ideal contractile unit and viscoelastic element, both in series with another viscoelastic element.

  19. An experimental model of ischemia in rabbit hindlimb.

    PubMed Central

    Hong, J. H.; Bahk, Y. W.; Suh, J. S.; Kwak, B. K.; Shim, H. J.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, H. S.; Moon, Y. H.; Kim, S. J.; Chung, J. W.; Park, J. H.

    2001-01-01

    This study was performed to establish an experimental model of ischemia for the investigation of new treatment modality of limb-threatening ischemia. We produced ischemia in the hindlimbs of 8 New Zealand white rabbits. Under general anesthesia, the left femoral artery was exposed, freed, and excised from distal external iliac artery to proximal popliteal and saphenous arteries. And then both hindlimbs were serially examined to assess the ischemia according to the time table until postoperative 6 weeks. We assessed clinical observation, blood pressure, radioisotopic perfusion scan, and angiography. Clinical ischemic changes of the operated feet were observed in 63%. The blood pressure of left calves was measurable on postoperative day 3 (p<0.05, vs preoperative day 2) and then gradually increased to reach a plateau in postoperative week 6. Radioisotopic arterial perfusion showed similar profiles as in blood pressure. Angiography of ischemic hindlimbs demonstrated a few collateral vessels arising from the internal iliac artery with the reconstitution of the posterior tibial artery in postoperative week 2. In postoperative week 6, collaterals remained the same in number. However, these became dilated and tortuous and showed reconstitution in distal hindleg. In conclusion, this is a reproducible, measurable, and economical animal model of hind limb ischemia. PMID:11641535

  20. Local neurogenic regulation of rat hindlimb circulation: CO2-induced release of calcitonin gene-related peptide from sensory nerves

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Masami; Ishikawa, Tomohisa; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Fujimori, Akira; Goto, Katsutoshi

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from sensory nerves in response to skeletal muscle contraction was investigated in the rat hindlimb in vivo and in vitro. In the anaesthetized rat, sciatic nerve stimulation at 10 Hz for 1 min caused a hyperaemic response in the hindlimb. During the response, partial pressure of CO2 in the venous blood effluent from the hindlimb significantly increased from 43±3 to 73±8 mmHg, whereas a small decrease in pH and no appreciable change in partial pressure of O2 were observed. An intra-arterial bolus injection of NaHCO3 (titrated to pH 7.2 with HCl), which elevated PCO2 of the venous blood, caused a sustained increase in regional blood flow of the iliac artery. Capsaicin (0.33 μmol kg−1, i.a.) and a specific calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist, CGRP(8–37), (100 nmol kg−1 min−1, i.v.) significantly suppressed the hyperaemic response to NaHCO3. Neither NDΩ-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (1 μmol kg−1 min−1, i.v.) nor indomethacin (5 mg kg−1, i.v.) affected the response. The serum level of CGRP-like immunoreactivity in the venous blood was significantly increased by a bolus injection of NaHCO3 (pH=7.2) from 50±4 to 196±16 fmol ml−1. In the isolated hindlimb perfused with Krebs-Ringer solution, a bolus injection of NaHCO3 (pH=7.2) caused a decrease in perfusion pressure which was composed of two responses, i.e., an initial transient response and a slowly-developing long-lasting one. CGRP(8–37) significantly inhibited the latter response by 73%. These results suggest that CO2 liberated from exercising skeletal muscle activates capsaicin-sensitive perivascular sensory nerves locally, which results in the release of CGRP from their peripheral endings, and then the released peptide causes local vasodilatation. PMID:9375968

  1. Misexpression experiment of Tbx5 in axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) hindlimb blastema.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Takashi; Kominami, Rieko; Yasutaka, Satoru; Shinohara, Harumichi

    2013-01-01

    Axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) have the ability to regenerate amputated limbs throughout their life span. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate how axolotls can specify limb type correctly during the regeneration process. We misexpressed Tbx5 in regenerating hindlimb blastema, and consequently a forelimb-like hindlimb regenerated from the hindlimb blastema. On the other hand, no change was observed in Tbx5-overexpressing forelimb blastema, and thus we considered that Tbx5 plays a key role in the specification of forelimb during the regeneration process of axolotl limbs. However, axolotls' fore- and hindlimbs have very similar structures except for the number of fingers, and it was very difficult to judge whether the forelimb-like regenerate was a true forelimb or merely a forelimb-like hindlimb. Therefore, in order to confirm our conclusion, we have to investigate other genes that are expressed differentially between fore- and hindlimbs in future experiments.

  2. V(O2) max is unaffected by altering the temporal pattern of stimulation frequency in rat hindlimb in situ.

    PubMed

    Hepple, Russell T; Krause, Daniel J; Hagen, Jason L; Jackson, Cory C

    2003-08-01

    It might be anticipated that fatiguing contractions would impair the aerobic metabolic response in skeletal muscle if significant fatigue developed before full activation of aerobic metabolism. On the basis of this premise, we examined two groups of rats to test the hypothesis that a gradual increase in stimulation frequency would yield a higher maximal O2 uptake (Vo2 max) than beginning immediately with an intense stimulation frequency because of a slower progression of fatigue under the former conditions. In one group of animals, the distal hindlimb muscles were electrically stimulated at a frequency of 60 tetani/min for 4 min (F60; n = 6 rats); in the other group, the muscles were incrementally stimulated for 1 min at each of 7.5, 15, 30, and 60 tetani/min and for 2 min at 90 tetani/min (FInc; n = 5 rats). Despite large differences in rate of fatigue [time to 60% of initial force was 47 +/- 3 (SE) vs. 188 +/- 1 s in F60 and FInc, respectively] and the time at which Vo2 max occurred (120 +/- 15 vs. 264 +/- 6 s), Vo2 max was not different (419 +/- 24 vs. 381 +/- 44 micromol x min-1. 100 g-1). Furthermore, time x tension integral at Vo2 max (3.82 +/- 0.41 vs. 4.07 +/- 0.31 N. s) and peak lactate efflux (910 +/- 45 vs. 800 +/- 98 micromol x min-1. 100 g-1) were not different between groups. Thus our results show that the more rapid progression of fatigue in F60 did not compromise the aerobic metabolic response in electrically stimulated rat hindlimb muscles. However, in both groups, O2 uptake and lactate efflux declined after Vo2 max was attained in similar proportion to a further fall in force, suggesting that ongoing fatigue with intense contractions reduced ATP demand below that requiring maximal aerobic and glycolytic metabolic responses once Vo2 max was reached.

  3. Complement activation promotes muscle inflammation during modified muscle use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenette, J.; Cai, B.; Tidball, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    Modified muscle use can result in muscle inflammation that is triggered by unidentified events. In the present investigation, we tested whether the activation of the complement system is a component of muscle inflammation that results from changes in muscle loading. Modified rat hindlimb muscle loading was achieved by removing weight-bearing from the hindlimbs for 10 days followed by reloading through normal ambulation. Experimental animals were injected with the recombinant, soluble complement receptor sCR1 to inhibit complement activation. Assays for complement C4 or factor B in sera showed that sCR1 produced large reductions in the capacity for activation of the complement system through both the classical and alternative pathways. Analysis of complement C4 concentration in serum in untreated animals showed that the classical pathway was activated during the first 2 hours of reloading. Analysis of factor B concentration in untreated animals showed activation of the alternative pathway at 6 hours of reloading. Administration of sCR1 significantly attenuated the invasion of neutrophils (-49%) and ED1(+) macrophages (-52%) that occurred in nontreated animals after 6 hours of reloading. The presence of sCR1 also reduced significantly the degree of edema by 22% as compared to untreated animals. Together, these data show that increased muscle loading activated the complement system which then briefly contributes to the early recruitment of inflammatory cells during modified muscle loading.

  4. Effects of friction massage of the popliteal fossa on dynamic changes in muscle oxygenation and ankle flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Koji; Mizukami, Masafumi; Asakawa, Yasutsugu; Yoshio, Masaharu; Ogaki, Ryo; Takemura, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine whether or not friction massage of the popliteal fossa would be effective for achieving dynamic changes in muscle oxygenation and ankle flexibility. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy male university students participated. Before and after friction massage, dynamic changes in muscle oxygenation and ankle flexibility were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy to evaluate its efficacy. [Results] Oxygenated hemoglobin was significantly higher after as compared to before massage. The range of ankle dorsiflexion tended to increase after massage. [Conclusion] These results suggest that friction massage of the popliteal fossa stimulates venous return in the lower leg. PMID:27821920

  5. Oxygen cost of dynamic or isometric exercise relative to recruited muscle mass

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Christopher P; Mahoney, Edward T; Black, Christopher D; Slade, Jill M; Dudley, Gary A

    2006-01-01

    Background Oxygen cost of different muscle actions may be influenced by different recruitment and rate coding strategies. The purpose of this study was to account for these strategies by comparing the oxygen cost of dynamic and isometric muscle actions relative to the muscle mass recruited via surface electrical stimulation of the knee extensors. Methods Comparisons of whole body pulmonary Δ V˙ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaacuWGwbGvgaGaaaaa@2DEA@O2 were made in seven young healthy adults (1 female) during 3 minutes of dynamic or isometric knee extensions, both induced by surface electrical stimulation. Recruited mass was quantified in T2 weighted spin echo magnetic resonance images. Results The Δ V˙ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaacuWGwbGvgaGaaaaa@2DEA@O2 for dynamic muscle actions, 242 ± 128 ml • min-1 (mean ± SD) was greater (p = 0.003) than that for isometric actions, 143 ± 99 ml • min-1. Recruited muscle mass was also greater (p = 0.004) for dynamic exercise, 0.716 ± 282 versus 0.483 ± 0.139 kg. The rate of oxygen consumption per unit of recruited muscle (V˙O2RM MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaacuqGwbGvgaGaaiabb+eapnaaBaaaleaacqaIYaGmdaahaaadbeqaaiabbkfasjabb2eanbaaaSqabaaaaa@32B0@) was similar in dynamic and isometric exercise (346 ± 162 versus 307 ± 198 ml • kg-1 • min-1; p = 0.352), but the V˙O2RM MathType@MTEF@5

  6. Basal glycogenolysis in mouse skeletal muscle: in vitro model predicts in vivo fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambeth, Melissa J.; Kushmerick, Martin J.; Marcinek, David J.; Conley, Kevin E.

    2002-01-01

    A previously published mammalian kinetic model of skeletal muscle glycogenolysis, consisting of literature in vitro parameters, was modified by substituting mouse specific Vmax values. The model demonstrates that glycogen breakdown to lactate is under ATPase control. Our criteria to test whether in vitro parameters could reproduce in vivo dynamics was the ability of the model to fit phosphocreatine (PCr) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) dynamic NMR data from ischemic basal mouse hindlimbs and predict biochemically-assayed lactate concentrations. Fitting was accomplished by optimizing four parameters--the ATPase rate coefficient, fraction of activated glycogen phosphorylase, and the equilibrium constants of creatine kinase and adenylate kinase (due to the absence of pH in the model). The optimized parameter values were physiologically reasonable, the resultant model fit the [PCr] and [Pi] timecourses well, and the model predicted the final measured lactate concentration. This result demonstrates that additional features of in vivo enzyme binding are not necessary for quantitative description of glycogenolytic dynamics.

  7. Trans-illuminated laser speckle imaging of collateral artery blood flow in ischemic mouse hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Meisner, Joshua K; Niu, Jacqueline; Sumer, Suna; Price, Richard J

    2013-09-01

    The mouse ischemic hindlimb model is used widely for studying collateral artery growth (i.e., arteriogenesis) in response to increased shear stress. Nonetheless, precise measurements of regional shear stress changes along individual collateral arteries are lacking. Our goal is to develop and verify trans-illumination laser speckle flowmetry (LSF) for this purpose. Studies of defibrinated bovine blood flow through tubes embedded in tissue-mimicking phantoms indicate that trans-illumination LSF better maintains sensitivity with an increasing tissue depth when compared to epi-illumination, with an ∼50% reduction in the exponential decay of the speckle velocity signal. Applying trans-illuminated LSF to the gracilis muscle collateral artery network in vivo yields both improved sensitivity and reduced noise when compared to epi-illumination. Trans-illuminated LSF images reveal regional differences in collateral artery blood velocity after femoral artery ligation and are used to measure an ∼2-fold increase in the shear stress at the entrance regions to the muscle. We believe these represent the first direct measurements of regional shear stress changes in individual mouse collateral arteries. The ability to capture deeper vascular signals using a trans-illumination configuration for LSF may expand the current applications for LSF, which could have bearing on determining how shear stress magnitude and direction regulate arteriogenesis.

  8. Hindlimb unweighting decreases endothelium-dependent dilation and eNOS expression in soleus not gastrocnemius

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, C. R.; Schrage, W. G.; Rush, J. W.; Ray, C. A.; Price, E. M.; Hasser, E. M.; Laughlin, M. H.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that hindlimb unweighting (HLU) decreases endothelium-dependent vasodilation and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) in arteries of skeletal muscle with reduced blood flow during HLU. Sprague-Dawley rats (300-350 g) were exposed to HLU (n = 15) or control (n = 15) conditions for 14 days. ACh-induced dilation was assessed in muscle with reduced [soleus (Sol)] or unchanged [gastrocnemius (Gast)] blood flow during HLU. eNOS and SOD-1 expression were measured in feed arteries (FA) and in first-order (1A), second-order (2A), and third-order (3A) arterioles. Dilation to infusion of ACh in vivo was blunted in Sol but not Gast. In arteries of Sol muscle, HLU decreased eNOS mRNA and protein content. eNOS mRNA content was significantly less in Sol FA (35%), 1A arterioles (25%) and 2A arterioles (18%). eNOS protein content was less in Sol FA (64%) and 1A arterioles (65%) from HLU rats. In arteries of Gast, HLU did not decrease eNOS mRNA or protein. SOD-1 mRNA expression was less in Sol 2A arterioles (31%) and 3A arterioles (29%) of HLU rats. SOD-1 protein content was less in Sol FA (67%) but not arterioles. SOD-1 mRNA and protein content were not decreased in arteries from Gast. These data indicate that HLU decreases endothelium-dependent vasodilation, eNOS expression, and SOD-1 expression primarily in arteries of Sol muscle where blood flow is reduced during HLU.

  9. An optimization approach to inverse dynamics provides insight as to the function of the biarticular muscles during vertical jumping.

    PubMed

    Cleather, Daniel J; Goodwin, Jon E; Bull, Anthony M J

    2011-01-01

    Traditional inverse dynamics approaches to calculating the inter-segmental moments are limited in their ability to accurately reflect the function of the biarticular muscles. In particular they are based on the assumption that the net inter-segmental moment is zero and that total joint moments are independent of muscular activity. Traditional approaches to calculating muscular forces from the inter-segmental moments are based on a consideration of joint moments which do not encapsulate the potential moment asymmetry between segments. In addition, traditional approaches may artificially constrain the activity of the biarticular muscles. In this study, an optimization approach to the simultaneous inverse determination of inter-segmental moments and muscle forces (the 1-step method) based on a consideration of segmental rotations was employed to study vertical jumping and contrasted with the more traditional 2-step approach of determining inter-segmental moments from an inverse dynamics analysis then muscle forces using optimization techniques. The 1-step method resulted in significantly greater activation of both the monoarticular and biarticular musculature which was then translated into significantly greater joint contact forces, muscle powers, and inter-segmental moments. The results of this study suggest that traditional conceptions of inter-segmental moments do not completely encapsulate the function of the biarticular muscles and that joint function can be better understood by recognizing the asymmetry in inter-segmental moments.

  10. Enhanced muscle pump during mild dynamic leg exercise inhibits sympathetic vasomotor outflow

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Keisho; Ishida, Koji; Saito, Mitsuru; Koike, Teruhiko; Hirasawa, Ai; Ogoh, Shigehiko

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is not increased during leg cycling at light and mild intensities, despite activation of central command and the exercise pressor reflex. We determined whether increasing central blood volume and loading the cardiopulmonary baroreceptors modulate sympathetic vasomotor outflow during leg cycling. To this end, we changed the pedaling frequency to enhance skeletal muscle pump. Subjects performed two leg cycle exercises at differential pedal rates of 60 and 80 rpm (60EX and 80EX trials) for two conditions (with and without MSNA measurement). In each trial, subjects completed leg cycling with a differential workload to maintain constant oxygen consumption (VO2). MSNA was recorded via microneurography at the right median nerve of the elbow. Without MSNA measurement, thoracic impedance, stroke volume (SV), and cardiac output (CO) were measured non‐invasively using impedance cardiography. Heart rate and VO2 during exercise did not differ between the 60EX and 80EX trials. Changes in thoracic impedance, SV, and CO during the 80EX trial were greater than during the 60EX trial. MSNA during the 60EX trial was unchanged compared with that at rest (25.8 ± 3.1 [rest] to 28.3 ± 3.4 [exercise] bursts/min), whereas a significant decrease in MSNA was observed during the 80EX trial (25.8 ± 2.8 [rest] to 19.7 ± 2.0 [exercise] bursts/min). These results suggest that a muscle pump‐induced increase in central blood volume, and thereby loading of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors, could inhibit sympathetic vasomotor outflow during mild dynamic leg exercise, despite activation of central command and the exercise pressor reflex. PMID:25347854

  11. Eldecalcitol improves muscle strength and dynamic balance in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: an open-label randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kimio; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Matsunaga, Toshiki; Hongo, Michio; Kasukawa, Yuji; Shimada, Yoichi

    2016-09-01

    The antifracture efficacy of vitamin D in osteoporosis is due to its direct action on bones and indirect extraskeletal effects to prevent falls. Eldecalcitol is an analog of active vitamin D3 that improves bone mineral density and reduces the risk of osteoporotic fractures. However, the effects of eldecalcitol on muscle strength and static and dynamic postural balance are unclear. In this open-label randomized controlled study, we assessed the effects of eldecalcitol on muscle strength and static and dynamic postural balance in 50 postmenopausal women (mean age 74 years) with osteoporosis treated with bisphosphonate. Participants were randomly divided into a bisphosphonate group (alendronate at 35 mg/week; n = 25) or an eldecalcitol group (eldecalcitol at 0.75 μg/day and alendronate at 35 mg/week; n = 25) and were followed up for 6 months. Trunk muscle strength, including back extensor strength and iliopsoas muscle strength, was measured. Static standing balance was evaluated and the one leg standing test was performed to assess static postural balance. Dynamic sitting balance was evaluated and the 10-m walk test, functional reach test, and timed up and go test were performed to assess dynamic postural balance. At 6 months, there were no significant changes in any measure of muscle strength or balance in the bisphosphonate group, whereas eldecalcitol significantly increased back extensor strength (p = 0.012) and iliopsoas muscle strength (p = 0.035). Eldecalcitol also significantly improved findings on the timed up and go test (p = 0.001) and dynamic sitting balance (p = 0.015) at 6 months. These results with eldecalcitol may have an impact on prevention of falls.

  12. Hyperpolarized Functional Magnetic Resonance of Murine Skeletal Muscle Enabled by Multiple Tracer-Paradigm Synchronizations

    PubMed Central

    Leftin, Avigdor; Roussel, Tangi; Frydman, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    Measuring metabolism's time- and space-dependent responses upon stimulation lies at the core of functional magnetic resonance imaging. While focusing on water's sole resonance, further insight could arise from monitoring the temporal responses arising from the metabolites themselves, in what is known as functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Performing these measurements in real time, however, is severely challenged by the short functional timescales and low concentrations of natural metabolites. Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization is an emerging technique that can potentially alleviate this, as it provides a massive sensitivity enhancement allowing one to probe low-concentration tracers and products in a single-scan. Still, conventional implementations of this hyperpolarization approach are not immediately amenable to the repeated acquisitions needed in real-time functional settings. This work proposes a strategy for functional magnetic resonance of hyperpolarized metabolites that bypasses this limitation, and enables the observation of real-time metabolic changes through the synchronization of stimuli-triggered, multiple-bolus injections of the metabolic tracer 13C1-pyruvate. This new approach is demonstrated with paradigms tailored to reveal in vivo thresholds of murine hind-limb skeletal muscle activation, involving the conversion of 13C1-pyruvate to 13C1-lactate and 13C1-alanine. These functional hind-limb studies revealed that graded skeletal muscle stimulation causes commensurate increases in glycolytic metabolism in a frequency- and amplitude-dependent fashion, that can be monitored on the seconds/minutes timescale using dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization. Spectroscopic imaging further allowed the in vivo visualization of uptake, transformation and distribution of the tracer and products, in fast-twitch glycolytic and in slow-twitch oxidative muscle fiber groups. While these studies open vistas in time and sensitivity for metabolic

  13. Hyperpolarized functional magnetic resonance of murine skeletal muscle enabled by multiple tracer-paradigm synchronizations.

    PubMed

    Leftin, Avigdor; Roussel, Tangi; Frydman, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    Measuring metabolism's time- and space-dependent responses upon stimulation lies at the core of functional magnetic resonance imaging. While focusing on water's sole resonance, further insight could arise from monitoring the temporal responses arising from the metabolites themselves, in what is known as functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Performing these measurements in real time, however, is severely challenged by the short functional timescales and low concentrations of natural metabolites. Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization is an emerging technique that can potentially alleviate this, as it provides a massive sensitivity enhancement allowing one to probe low-concentration tracers and products in a single-scan. Still, conventional implementations of this hyperpolarization approach are not immediately amenable to the repeated acquisitions needed in real-time functional settings. This work proposes a strategy for functional magnetic resonance of hyperpolarized metabolites that bypasses this limitation, and enables the observation of real-time metabolic changes through the synchronization of stimuli-triggered, multiple-bolus injections of the metabolic tracer 13C1-pyruvate. This new approach is demonstrated with paradigms tailored to reveal in vivo thresholds of murine hind-limb skeletal muscle activation, involving the conversion of 13C1-pyruvate to 13C1-lactate and 13C1-alanine. These functional hind-limb studies revealed that graded skeletal muscle stimulation causes commensurate increases in glycolytic metabolism in a frequency- and amplitude-dependent fashion, that can be monitored on the seconds/minutes timescale using dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization. Spectroscopic imaging further allowed the in vivo visualization of uptake, transformation and distribution of the tracer and products, in fast-twitch glycolytic and in slow-twitch oxidative muscle fiber groups. While these studies open vistas in time and sensitivity for metabolic

  14. A 3D map of the hindlimb motor representation in the lumbar spinal cord in Sprague Dawley rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrell, Jordan A.; Frost, Shawn B.; Peterson, Jeremy; Nudo, Randolph J.

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological trauma with a prevalence of about 282 000 people living with an SCI in the United States in 2016. Advances in neuromodulatory devices hold promise for restoring function by incorporating the delivery of electrical current directly into the spinal cord grey matter via intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS). In such designs, detailed topographic maps of spinal cord outputs are needed to determine ISMS locations for eliciting hindlimb movements. The primary goal of the present study was to derive a topographic map of functional motor outputs in the lumbar spinal cord to hindlimb skeletal muscles as defined by ISMS in a rat model. Approach. Experiments were carried out in nine healthy, adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats. After a laminectomy of the T13-L1 vertebrae and removal of the dura mater, a four-shank, 16-channel microelectrode array was inserted along a 3D (200 µm) stimulation grid. Trains of three biphasic current pulses were used to determine evoked movements and electromyographic (EMG) activity. Via fine wire EMG electrodes, stimulus-triggered averaging (StTA) was used on rectified EMG data to determine response latency. Main results. Hindlimb movements were elicited at a median current intensity of 6 µA, and thresholds were significantly lower in ventrolateral sites. Movements typically consisted of whole leg, hip, knee, ankle, toe, and trunk movements. Hip movements dominated rostral to the T13 vertebral segment, knee movements were evoked at the T13-L1 vertebral junction, while ankle and digit movements were found near the rostral L1 vertebra. Whole leg movements spanned the entire rostrocaudal region explored, while trunk movements dominated medially. StTAs of EMG activity demonstrated a latency of ~4 ms. Significance. The derived motor map provides insight into the parameters needed for future neuromodulatory devices.

  15. Computational Intelligence Based Data Fusion Algorithm for Dynamic sEMG and Skeletal Muscle Force Modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekhar Potluri,; Madhavi Anugolu; Marco P. Schoen; D. Subbaram Naidu

    2013-08-01

    In this work, an array of three surface Electrography (sEMG) sensors are used to acquired muscle extension and contraction signals for 18 healthy test subjects. The skeletal muscle force is estimated using the acquired sEMG signals and a Non-linear Wiener Hammerstein model, relating the two signals in a dynamic fashion. The model is obtained from using System Identification (SI) algorithm. The obtained force models for each sensor are fused using a proposed fuzzy logic concept with the intent to improve the force estimation accuracy and resilience to sensor failure or misalignment. For the fuzzy logic inference system, the sEMG entropy, the relative error, and the correlation of the force signals are considered for defining the membership functions. The proposed fusion algorithm yields an average of 92.49% correlation between the actual force and the overall estimated force output. In addition, the proposed fusionbased approach is implemented on a test platform. Experiments indicate an improvement in finger/hand force estimation.

  16. Bioinformatics analysis of transcriptome dynamics during growth in angus cattle longissimus muscle.

    PubMed

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Graugnard, Daniel E; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Everts, Robin E; Lewin, Harris A; Faulkner, Dan B; Berger, Larry L; Loor, Juan J

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptome dynamics in the longissimus muscle (LM) of young Angus cattle were evaluated at 0, 60, 120, and 220 days from early-weaning. Bioinformatic analysis was performed using the dynamic impact approach (DIA) by means of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) databases. Between 0 to 120 days (growing phase) most of the highly-impacted pathways (eg, ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, drug metabolism, cytochrome P450 and Retinol metabolism) were inhibited. The phase between 120 to 220 days (finishing phase) was characterized by the most striking differences with 3,784 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Analysis of those DEGs revealed that the most impacted KEGG canonical pathway was glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis, which was inhibited. Furthermore, inhibition of calpastatin and activation of tyrosine aminotransferase ubiquitination at 220 days promotes proteasomal degradation, while the concurrent activation of ribosomal proteins promotes protein synthesis. Therefore, the balance of these processes likely results in a steady-state of protein turnover during the finishing phase. Results underscore the importance of transcriptome dynamics in LM during growth.

  17. Relationship between force-time and velocity-time characteristics of dynamic and isometric muscle actions.

    PubMed

    Khamoui, Andy V; Brown, Lee E; Nguyen, Diamond; Uribe, Brandon P; Coburn, Jared W; Noffal, Guillermo J; Tran, Tai

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has investigated the force-time curve characteristics of isometric and dynamic muscle actions; however, few studies have addressed their relationship to dynamic exercise velocity-time variables. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between velocity-time characteristics (high pull and vertical jump peak velocity and rate of velocity development [HPPV, HPRVD, VJPV, VJRVD]), force-time characteristics (isometric peak force [IsoPF], body mass adjusted isometric peak force [IsoPF/BM], isometric rate of force development at different millisecond windows [IsoRFD50-250], dynamic peak force [HPPF], body mass adjusted dynamic peak force [HPPF/BM]), and vertical jump height (VJHeight). Nineteen recreationally trained men (age 23.89 ± 2.92 yr; height 176.32 ± 7.06 cm; mass 78.76 ± 16.50 kg) completed 2 testing sessions. The first session consisted of 3 isometric mid-thigh pulls on a force plate with each repetition held for 3 seconds. On the second testing session, subjects completed 3 dynamic mid-thigh high pulls with 30% IsoPF followed by 3 vertical jumps on a force plate. The HPRVD correlated with IsoRFD50 (r = 0.52) and IsoRFD100 (r = 0.49). The HPPV correlated with IsoPF/BM (r = -0.60), IsoRFD50 (r = 0.56), and IsoRFD100 (r = 0.56). The VJHeight correlated with IsoPF/BM (r = 0.61), whereas VJPV correlated with IsoPF/BM (r = 0.62). These correlations suggest that explosive isometric force production within 50 to 100 milliseconds may influence the ability to accelerate an implement or body and attain high velocity, albeit in a moderate fashion. In addition, body mass adjusted strength may positively influence vertical jump parameters.

  18. Acute effects of blood flow restriction on muscle activity and endurance during fatiguing dynamic knee extensions at low load.

    PubMed

    Wernbom, Mathias; Järrebring, Rickard; Andreasson, Mikael A; Augustsson, Jesper

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activity and endurance during fatiguing low-intensity dynamic knee extension exercise with and without blood flow restriction. Eleven healthy subjects with strength training experience performed 3 sets of unilateral knee extensions with no relaxation between repetitions to concentric torque failure at 30% of the 1 repetition maximum. One leg was randomized to exercise with cuff occlusion and the other leg to exercise without occlusion. The muscle activity in the quadriceps was recorded with electromyography (EMG). Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and acute pain were collected immediately, and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) was rated before and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. The results demonstrated high EMG levels in both experimental conditions, but there were no significant differences regarding maximal muscle activity, except for a higher EMG in the eccentric phase in set 3 for the nonoccluded condition (p = 0.005). Significantly more repetitions were performed with the nonoccluded leg in every set (p < 0.05). The RPE and acute pain ratings were similar, but DOMS was higher in the nonoccluded leg (p < 0.05). We conclude that blood flow restriction during low-intensity dynamic knee extension decreases the endurance but does not increase the maximum muscle activity compared with training without restriction when both regimes are performed to failure. The high levels of muscle activity suggest that performing low-load dynamic knee extensions in a no-relaxation manner may be a useful method in knee rehabilitation settings when large forces are contraindicated. However, similarly to fatiguing blood flow restricted exercise, this method is associated with ischemic muscle pain, and thus its applications may be limited to highly motivated individuals.

  19. Development and Evolution of the Muscles of the Pelvic Fin

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Nicholas J.; Hall, Thomas E.; Don, Emily K.; Berger, Silke; Boisvert, Catherine A.; Neyt, Christine; Ericsson, Rolf; Joss, Jean; Gurevich, David B.; Currie, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    Locomotor strategies in terrestrial tetrapods have evolved from the utilisation of sinusoidal contractions of axial musculature, evident in ancestral fish species, to the reliance on powerful and complex limb muscles to provide propulsive force. Within tetrapods, a hindlimb-dominant locomotor strategy predominates, and its evolution is considered critical for the evident success of the tetrapod transition onto land. Here, we determine the developmental mechanisms of pelvic fin muscle formation in living fish species at critical points within the vertebrate phylogeny and reveal a stepwise modification from a primitive to a more derived mode of pelvic fin muscle formation. A distinct process generates pelvic fin muscle in bony fishes that incorporates both primitive and derived characteristics of vertebrate appendicular muscle formation. We propose that the adoption of the fully derived mode of hindlimb muscle formation from this bimodal character state is an evolutionary innovation that was critical to the success of the tetrapod transition. PMID:21990962

  20. Physical exercise in aging human skeletal muscle increases mitochondrial calcium uniporter expression levels and affects mitochondria dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Sandra; Mammucari, Cristina; Romanello, Vanina; Barberi, Laura; Pietrangelo, Laura; Fusella, Aurora; Mosole, Simone; Gherardi, Gaia; Höfer, Christian; Löfler, Stefan; Sarabon, Nejc; Cvecka, Jan; Krenn, Matthias; Carraro, Ugo; Kern, Helmut; Protasi, Feliciano; Musarò, Antonio; Sandri, Marco; Rizzuto, Rosario

    2016-12-01

    Age-related sarcopenia is characterized by a progressive loss of muscle mass with decline in specific force, having dramatic consequences on mobility and quality of life in seniors. The etiology of sarcopenia is multifactorial and underlying mechanisms are currently not fully elucidated. Physical exercise is known to have beneficial effects on muscle trophism and force production. Alterations of mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis regulated by mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) have been recently shown to affect muscle trophism in vivo in mice. To understand the relevance of MCU-dependent mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake in aging and to investigate the effect of physical exercise on MCU expression and mitochondria dynamics, we analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies from 70-year-old subjects 9 weeks trained with either neuromuscular electrical stimulation (ES) or leg press. Here, we demonstrate that improved muscle function and structure induced by both trainings are linked to increased protein levels of MCU Ultrastructural analyses by electron microscopy showed remodeling of mitochondrial apparatus in ES-trained muscles that is consistent with an adaptation to physical exercise, a response likely mediated by an increased expression of mitochondrial fusion protein OPA1. Altogether these results indicate that the ES-dependent physiological effects on skeletal muscle size and force are associated with changes in mitochondrial-related proteins involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis and mitochondrial shape. These original findings in aging human skeletal muscle confirm the data obtained in mice and propose MCU and mitochondria-related proteins as potential pharmacological targets to counteract age-related muscle loss.

  1. Effectiveness of core muscle strengthening for improving pain and dynamic balance among female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Al Saif, Amer; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah; Mamdouh, Khaled A

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a frequent musculoskeletal disorder, which can result from core muscles instability that can lead to pain and altered dynamic balance. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of core muscle strengthening on pain and dynamic balance in female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty female patients with age ranging from 16 to 40 years with patellofemoral pain syndrome were divided into study (N=10) and control (N=10) groups. Both groups were given 4 weeks of conventional physical therapy program and an additional core muscle strengthening for the study group. The tools used to assess the outcome were Visual Analogue Scale and Star Excursion Balance Test. [Results] The results of the study show that participants in the study group revealed a significantly greater improvement in the intensity of pain and dynamic balance as compared to the control group. [Conclusion] Adding a core muscle-strengthening program to the conventional physical therapy management improves pain and dynamic balance in female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:27313363

  2. Effectiveness of core muscle strengthening for improving pain and dynamic balance among female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Al Saif, Amer; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah; Mamdouh, Khaled A

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a frequent musculoskeletal disorder, which can result from core muscles instability that can lead to pain and altered dynamic balance. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of core muscle strengthening on pain and dynamic balance in female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty female patients with age ranging from 16 to 40 years with patellofemoral pain syndrome were divided into study (N=10) and control (N=10) groups. Both groups were given 4 weeks of conventional physical therapy program and an additional core muscle strengthening for the study group. The tools used to assess the outcome were Visual Analogue Scale and Star Excursion Balance Test. [Results] The results of the study show that participants in the study group revealed a significantly greater improvement in the intensity of pain and dynamic balance as compared to the control group. [Conclusion] Adding a core muscle-strengthening program to the conventional physical therapy management improves pain and dynamic balance in female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

  3. [The contribution of muscle progenitor cells to maintaining morphological characteristics of unweighted rat soleus muscle during passive stretch].

    PubMed

    Tarakina, M V; Turtikova, O V; Nemirovskaia, T L; Kokontsev, A A; Shenkman, B S

    2008-01-01

    Skeletal muscle work hypertrophy is usually connected with muscle progenitor SC (satellite cells) activation with subsequent incorporation their nuclei into myofibers. Passive stretch of unloaded muscle was earlier established to prevent atrophic processes and be accompanied by enhanced protein synthesis. We hypothesized that elimination of SC proliferation capacity by gamma-irradiation would partly preavent stretched muscle fiber capability to maintain their size under condition of gravitational unloading. To assess the role of muscle progenitor (satellite) cells in development of passive stretch preventive effect SC proliferation was suppressed by local exposure to ionizing radiation (2500 Rad) and then subsequent hindlimb suspension or hindlimb suspension with concomitant passive stretch were carried out. Reduction of myofiber cross-sectional area and decrease in myo-nuclei number accompanying unloaded muscle atrophy were completely abolished by passive stretch both in irradiated and sham-treated animals. We concluded that satellite cells did not make essential contribution to passive stretch preventive action under condition of simulated weightlessness.

  4. Muscle progenitor cells proliferation doesn't sufficiently contribute to maintaining stretched soleus muscle mass during gravitational unloading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarakina, M. V.; Turtikova, O. V.; Nemirovskaya, T. L.; Kokontcev, A. A.; Shenkman, B. S.

    Skeletal muscle work hypertrophy is usually connected with muscle progenitor satellite cells (SC) activation with subsequent incorporation of their nuclei into myofibers. Passive stretch of unloaded muscle was earlier established to prevent atrophic processes and is accompanied by enhanced protein synthesis. We hypothesized that elimination of SC proliferation capacity by γ-irradiation would partly avert stretched muscle fiber capability to maintain their size under the conditions of gravitational unloading. To assess the role of muscle progenitor (satellite) cells in development of passive stretch preventive effect SC proliferation was suppressed by local exposing to ionized radiation (2500 rad), subsequent hindlimb suspension or hindlimb suspension with concomitant passive stretch were carried out. Reduction of myofiber cross-sectional area and decrease in myonuclei number accompanying unloaded muscle atrophy were completely abolished by passive stretch both in irradiated and sham-treated animals. We conclude that SC did not make essential contribution to passive stretch preventive action under the conditions of simulated weightlessness.

  5. Pitx1 Broadly Associates with Limb Enhancers and is Enriched on Hindlimb cis-Regulatory Elements

    PubMed Central

    Infante, Carlos R.; Park, Sungdae; Mihala, Alexandra; Kingsley, David M.; Menke, Douglas B.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive functional analyses have demonstrated that the pituitary homeodomain transcription factor Pitx1 plays a critical role in specifying hindlimb morphology in vertebrates. However, much less is known regarding the target genes and cis-regulatory elements through which Pitx1 acts. Earlier studies suggested that the hindlimb transcription factors Tbx4, HoxC10, and HoxC11 might be transcriptional targets of Pitx1, but definitive evidence for direct regulatory interactions has been lacking. Using ChIP-Seq on embryonic mouse hindlimbs, we have pinpointed the genome-wide location of Pitx1 binding sites during mouse hindlimb development and identified potential gene targets for Pitx1. We determined that Pitx1 binding is significantly enriched near genes involved in limb morphogenesis, including Tbx4, HoxC10, and HoxC11. Notably, Pitx1 is bound to the previously identified HLEA and HLEB hindlimb enhancers of the Tbx4 gene and to a newly identified Tbx2 hindlimb enhancer. Moreover, Pitx1 binding is significantly enriched on hindlimb relative to forelimb-specific cis-regulatory features that are differentially marked by H3K27ac. However, our analysis revealed that Pitx1 also strongly associates with many functionally verified limb enhancers that exhibit similar levels of activity in the embryonic mesenchyme of forelimbs and hindlimbs. We speculate that Pitx1 influences hindlimb morphology both through the activation of hindlimb specific enhancers as well as through the hindlimb-specific modulation of enhancers that are active in both sets of limbs. PMID:23201014

  6. Encoding of temporal intervals in the rat hindlimb sensorimotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Eric B; Flint, Robert D; Moxon, Karen A

    2012-01-01

    The gradual buildup of neural activity over experimentally imposed delay periods, termed climbing activity, is well documented and is a potential mechanism by which interval time is encoded by distributed cortico-thalamico-striatal networks in the brain. Additionally, when multiple delay periods are incorporated, this activity has been shown to scale its rate of climbing proportional to the delay period. However, it remains unclear whether these patterns of activity occur within areas of motor cortex dedicated to hindlimb movement. Moreover, the effects of behavioral training (e.g., motor tasks) under different reward conditions but with similar behavioral output are not well addressed. To address this, we recorded activity from the hindlimb sensorimotor cortex (HLSMC) of two groups of rats performing a skilled hindlimb press task. In one group, rats were trained only to a make a valid press within a finite window after cue presentation for reward (non-interval trained, nIT; n = 5), while rats in the second group were given duration-specific cues in which they had to make presses of either short or long duration to receive reward (interval trained, IT; n = 6). Using perievent time histogram (PETH) analyses, we show that cells recorded from both groups showed climbing activity during the task in similar proportions (35% IT and 47% nIT), however, only climbing activity from IT rats was temporally scaled to press duration. Furthermore, using single trial decoding techniques (Wiener filter), we show that press duration can be inferred using climbing activity from IT animals (R = 0.61) significantly better than nIT animals (R = 0.507, p < 0.01), suggesting IT animals encode press duration through temporally scaled climbing activity. Thus, if temporal intervals are behaviorally relevant then the activity of climbing neurons is temporally scaled to encode the passage of time.

  7. Encoding of temporal intervals in the rat hindlimb sensorimotor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Eric B.; Flint, Robert D.; Moxon, Karen A.

    2012-01-01

    The gradual buildup of neural activity over experimentally imposed delay periods, termed climbing activity, is well documented and is a potential mechanism by which interval time is encoded by distributed cortico-thalamico-striatal networks in the brain. Additionally, when multiple delay periods are incorporated, this activity has been shown to scale its rate of climbing proportional to the delay period. However, it remains unclear whether these patterns of activity occur within areas of motor cortex dedicated to hindlimb movement. Moreover, the effects of behavioral training (e.g., motor tasks) under different reward conditions but with similar behavioral output are not well addressed. To address this, we recorded activity from the hindlimb sensorimotor cortex (HLSMC) of two groups of rats performing a skilled hindlimb press task. In one group, rats were trained only to a make a valid press within a finite window after cue presentation for reward (non-interval trained, nIT; n = 5), while rats in the second group were given duration-specific cues in which they had to make presses of either short or long duration to receive reward (interval trained, IT; n = 6). Using perievent time histogram (PETH) analyses, we show that cells recorded from both groups showed climbing activity during the task in similar proportions (35% IT and 47% nIT), however, only climbing activity from IT rats was temporally scaled to press duration. Furthermore, using single trial decoding techniques (Wiener filter), we show that press duration can be inferred using climbing activity from IT animals (R = 0.61) significantly better than nIT animals (R = 0.507, p < 0.01), suggesting IT animals encode press duration through temporally scaled climbing activity. Thus, if temporal intervals are behaviorally relevant then the activity of climbing neurons is temporally scaled to encode the passage of time. PMID:23055956

  8. Synaptic patterning of left-right alternation in a computational model of the rodent hindlimb central pattern generator.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, William Erik; Harris-Warrick, Ronald; Guckenheimer, John

    2011-04-01

    Establishing, maintaining, and modifying the phase relationships between extensor and flexor muscle groups is essential for central pattern generators in the spinal cord to coordinate the hindlimbs well enough to produce the basic walking rhythm. This paper investigates a simplified computational model for the spinal hindlimb central pattern generator (CPG) that is abstracted from experimental data from the rodent spinal cord. This model produces locomotor-like activity with appropriate phase relationships in which right and left muscle groups alternate while extensor and flexor muscle groups alternate. Convergence to this locomotor pattern is slow, however, and the range of parameter values for which the model produces appropriate output is relatively narrow. We examine these aspects of the model's coordination of left-right activity through investigation of successively more complicated subnetworks, focusing on the role of the synaptic architecture in shaping motoneuron phasing. We find unexpected sensitivity in the phase response properties of individual neurons in response to stimulation and a need for high levels of both inhibition and excitation to achieve the walking rhythm. In the absence of cross-cord excitation, equal levels of ipsilateral and contralateral inhibition result in a strong preference for hopping over walking. Inhibition alone can produce the walking rhythm, but contralateral inhibition must be much stronger than ipsilateral inhibition. Cross-cord excitatory connections significantly enhance convergence to the walking rhythm, which is achieved most rapidly with strong crossed excitation and greater contralateral than ipsilateral inhibition. We discuss the implications of these results for CPG architectures based on unit burst generators.

  9. RETINOID SIGNALING IS INVOLVED IN GOVERNING THE WAITING PERIOD FOR AXONS IN CHICK HINDLIMB

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoying; Scott, Sheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    During embryonic development in chick, axons pause in a plexus region for approximately one day prior to invading the limb. We have previously shown that this “waiting period” is governed by maturational changes in the limb. Here we provide a detailed description of the spatiotemporal pattern of Raldh2 expression in lumboscaral motoneurons and in the limb, and show that retinoid signaling in the limb contributes significantly to terminating the waiting period. Raldh2, indicative of retinoid signaling, first appears in hindlimb mesenchyme near the end of the waiting period. Transcripts are more abundant in connective tissue associated with predominantly fast muscles than predominantly slow muscles, but are not expressed in muscle cells themselves. The tips of ingrowing axons are always found in association with domains of Raldh2, but development of Raldh2 expression is not regulated by the axons. Instead, retinoid signaling appears to regulate axon entry into the limb. Supplying exogenous retinoic acid to proximal limb during the waiting period caused both motor and sensory axons to invade the limb prematurely and altered the normal stereotyped pattern of axon ingrowth without obvious effects on limb morphogenesis or motoneuron specification. Conversely, locally decreasing retinoid synthesis reduced axon growth into the limb. Retinoic acid significantly enhanced motor axon growth in vitro, suggesting that retinoic acid may directly promote axon growth into the limb in vivo. In addition, retinoid signaling may indirectly affect the waiting period by regulating the maturation of other gate keeping or guidance molecules in the limb. Together these findings reveal a novel function of retinoid signaling in governing the timing and patterning of axon growth into the limb. PMID:18602384

  10. Glucagon-like peptide-1 inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation through mitochondrial dynamics regulation.

    PubMed

    Torres, Gloria; Morales, Pablo E; García-Miguel, Marina; Norambuena-Soto, Ignacio; Cartes-Saavedra, Benjamín; Vidal-Peña, Gonzalo; Moncada-Ruff, David; Sanhueza-Olivares, Fernanda; San Martín, Alejandra; Chiong, Mario

    2016-03-15

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a neuroendocrine hormone produced by gastrointestinal tract in response to food ingestion. GLP-1 plays a very important role in the glucose homeostasis by stimulating glucose-dependent insulin secretion, inhibiting glucagon secretion, inhibiting gastric emptying, reducing appetite and food intake. Because of these actions, the GLP-1 peptide-mimetic exenatide is one of the most promising new medicines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In vivo treatments with GLP-1 or exenatide prevent neo-intima layer formation in response to endothelial damage and atherosclerotic lesion formation in aortic tissue. Whether GLP-1 modulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation by controlling mitochondrial dynamics is unknown. In this report, we showed that GLP-1 increased mitochondrial fusion and activity in a PKA-dependent manner in the VSMC cell line A7r5. GLP-1 induced a Ser-637 phosphorylation in the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, and decreased Drp1 mitochondrial localization. GLP-1 inhibited PDGF-BB-induced VSMC migration and proliferation, actions inhibited by overexpressing wild type Drp1 and mimicked by the Drp1 inhibitor Mdivi-1 and by overexpressing dominant negative Drp1. These results show that GLP-1 stimulates mitochondrial fusion, increases mitochondrial activity and decreases PDGF-BB-induced VSMC dedifferentiation by a PKA/Drp1 signaling pathway. Our data suggest that GLP-1 inhibits vascular remodeling through a mitochondrial dynamics-dependent mechanism.

  11. Characterization and dynamic modeling of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMC): artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudigonda, Ashwin; Zhu, Jianchao J.

    2006-03-01

    This paper deals with the characterization and dynamic modeling of the behavior of two types of the Ionic Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) "artificial muscle" materials. Environmental Robots, Inc. (ERI) was the initial vendor and its IPMC products required hydration for optimal performance. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech, VT) subsequently developed their innovative ionic solvent filled IPMCs that obviated hydration. Static tests were conducted to characterize force, displacement and current as a function of applied voltage. Dynamic tests were conducted to observe the frequency response of the material. Fatigue tests were performed on the ERI IPMCs to observe the change in behavior over time. It was found that the VT IPMCs had a bandwidth that was almost half that of the ERI product. However, the obviation of hydration of the VT's IPMC ensured the repeatability of performance and generated increased force densities. A feasibility study is presented to estimate the amount of IPMC materials and power consumption for a biceps exo-muscular assistance device based on the characteristics of the current IPMC materials and a primitive exo-muscular fiber bundle structure.

  12. Hindlimb proportions, allometry, and biomechanics in Old World monkeys (primates, Cercopithecidae).

    PubMed

    Strasser, E

    1992-02-01

    The traditional focus on morphological rather than mechanical units has obscured some significant functional differences in the hindlimbs of primates. This paper examines the allometric and biomechanical basis for some distinctive proportional differences among pairs of morphological units in the hindlimb, and especially the foot, of cercopithecid primates. Five major conclusions are reached. First, many hindlimb dimensions scale allometrically with body mass to maintain mechanical similarity within taxonomic and locomotor groups. Therefore, the majority of traditional indices which describe the shape of the foot within cercopithecids reveal differences which are primarily a function of size. Second, the hindlimb segments in colobines, and especially in Presbytis, are relatively long, probably to enhance leaping. Third, the major distinction of terrestrial cercopithecines among the features analysed is reduction in the length of the phalanges, due to the reduced importance of grasping during locomotion and the assumption of digitigrady. Fourth, Theropithecus and male Erythrocebus have high crural indices, relative to their body masses, which can facilitate curosoriality. Female E. patas already has a high crural index as a function of its body mass. Fifth, macaques form a distinctive group among cercopithecines, characterized by relatively short hindlimbs. Relatively very short hindlimbs in Macaca fuscata and M. thibetana suggest that climatic conditions can have an added effect on the lengths of the hindlimb segments. In summary, this analysis of the lengths of the hindlimb segments relative to body size reveals taxonomic differences which are due in part to phylogeny, to differences in locomotor behavior, and to substrate use.

  13. Forward dynamics simulations provide insight into muscle mechanical work during human locomotion.

    PubMed

    Neptune, Richard R; McGowan, Craig P; Kautz, Steven A

    2009-10-01

    Complex musculoskeletal models and computer simulations can provide critical insight into muscle mechanical work output during locomotion. Simulations provide both a consistent mechanical solution that can be interrogated at multiple levels (muscle fiber, musculotendon, net joint moment, and whole-body work) and an ideal framework to identify limitations with different estimates of muscle work and the resulting implications for metabolic cost and efficiency.

  14. The combined effects of X-ray radiation and hindlimb suspension on bone loss.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dan; Zhao, Xin; Li, Yi; Ji, Yinli; Zhang, Jiangyan; Wang, Jufang; Xie, Xiaodong; Zhou, Guangming

    2014-07-01

    Outer space is a complex environment with various phenomena that negatively affect bone metabolism, including microgravity and highly energized ionizing radiation. In the present study, we used four groups of male Wistar rats treated with or without four-week hindlimb suspension after 4 Gy of X-rays to test whether there is a combined effect for hindlimb suspension and X-ray radiation. We tested trabecular parameters and some cytokines of the bone as leading indicators of bone metabolism. The results showed that hindlimb suspension and X-ray radiation could cause a significant increase in bone loss. Hindlimb suspension caused a 56.6% bone loss (P = 0.036), while X-ray radiation caused a 30.7% (P = 0.041) bone loss when compared with the control group. The combined factors of hindlimb suspension and X-rays exerted a combined effect on bone mass, with a reduction of 64.8% (P = 0.003).

  15. Ventral horn cell responses to spaceflight and hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Bian; Roy, Roland R.; Poliakov, I. V.; Krasnov, I. B.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1992-01-01

    Ventral horn cells of the lumbosacral enlargement of the spinal cord were studied focusing on the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity and cross-sectional area of the soma of ventral horn cells which were measured using a computer-aided image-processing system. The relationships between the soma size and SDH activities of lumber ventral horn cells after 14 days of spaceflight (Cosmos 2044) or of hindlimb suspension are considered. Three groups of rats under consideration include control, 14-day spaceflight, and 14-day hindlimb suspension. Data obtained indicate that, compared to the control group, the population distribution of SDH activities in the flight rats shifted toward higher activities, whereas in the suspended rats the distribution shifted toward lower activities. The interactive effects within individual cells showed that there was a higher percentage of small cells with high SDH activities in the flight than in the control or suspended rats. It is suggested that changes in ventral horn cells were due to factors other than simply the absence of weight support.

  16. Forelimb EMG-based trigger to control an electronic spinal bridge to enable hindlimb stepping after a complete spinal cord lesion in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A complete spinal cord transection results in loss of all supraspinal motor control below the level of the injury. The neural circuitry in the lumbosacral spinal cord, however, can generate locomotor patterns in the hindlimbs of rats and cats with the aid of motor training, epidural stimulation and/or administration of monoaminergic agonists. We hypothesized that there are patterns of EMG signals from the forelimbs during quadrupedal locomotion that uniquely represent a signal for the “intent” to step with the hindlimbs. These observations led us to determine whether this type of “indirect” volitional control of stepping can be achieved after a complete spinal cord injury. The objective of this study was to develop an electronic bridge across the lesion of the spinal cord to facilitate hindlimb stepping after a complete mid-thoracic spinal cord injury in adult rats. Methods We developed an electronic spinal bridge that can detect specific patterns of EMG activity from the forelimb muscles to initiate electrical-enabling motor control (eEmc) of the lumbosacral spinal cord to enable quadrupedal stepping after a complete spinal cord transection in rats. A moving window detection algorithm was implemented in a small microprocessor to detect biceps brachii EMG activity bilaterally that then was used to initiate and terminate epidural stimulation in the lumbosacral spinal cord. We found dominant frequencies of 180–220 Hz in the EMG of the forelimb muscles during active periods, whereas these frequencies were between 0–10 Hz when the muscles were inactive. Results and conclusions Once the algorithm was validated to represent kinematically appropriate quadrupedal stepping, we observed that the algorithm could reliably detect, initiate, and facilitate stepping under different pharmacological conditions and at various treadmill speeds. PMID:22691460

  17. β Adrenergic Receptor Kinase C-Terminal Peptide Gene-Therapy Improves β2-Adrenergic Receptor-Dependent Neoangiogenesis after Hindlimb Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Cannavo, Alessandro; Liccardo, Daniela; Lymperopoulos, Anastasios; Gambino, Giuseppina; D'Amico, Maria Loreta; Rengo, Franco; Koch, Walter J; Leosco, Dario; Ferrara, Nicola; Rengo, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    After hindlimb ischemia (HI), increased catecholamine levels within the ischemic muscle can cause dysregulation of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) signaling, leading to reduced revascularization. Indeed, in vivo β2AR overexpression via gene therapy enhances angiogenesis in a rat model of HI. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a key regulator of βAR signaling, and β adrenergic receptor kinase C-terminal peptide (βARKct), a peptide inhibitor of GRK2, has been shown to prevent βAR down-regulation and to protect cardiac myocytes and stem cells from ischemic injury through restoration of β2AR protective signaling (i.e., protein kinase B/endothelial nitric oxide synthase). Herein, we tested the potential therapeutic effects of adenoviral-mediated βARKct gene transfer in an experimental model of HI and its effects on βAR signaling and on endothelial cell (EC) function in vitro. Accordingly, in this study, we surgically induced HI in rats by femoral artery resection (FAR). Fifteen days of ischemia resulted in significant βAR down-regulation that was paralleled by an approximately 2-fold increase in GRK2 levels in the ischemic muscle. Importantly, in vivo gene transfer of the βARKct in the hindlimb of rats at the time of FAR resulted in a marked improvement of hindlimb perfusion, with increased capillary and βAR density in the ischemic muscle, compared with control groups. The effect of βARKct expression was also assessed in vitro in cultured ECs. Interestingly, ECs expressing the βARKct fenoterol, a β2AR-agonist, induced enhanced β2AR proangiogenic signaling and increased EC function. Our results suggest that βARKct gene therapy and subsequent GRK2 inhibition promotes angiogenesis in a model of HI by preventing ischemia-induced β2AR down-regulation.

  18. Muscle sarcomere lesions and thrombosis after spaceflight and suspension unloading

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, D.A.; Ellis, S.; Giometti, C.S.; Hoh, J.F.Y.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E.I.; Oganov, V.S.; Slocum, G.R.; Bain, J.L.W.; Sedlak, F.R. )

    1992-08-01

    Extended exposure of humans to spaceflight produces a progressive loss of skeletal muscle strength. This process must be understood to design effective countermeasures. The present investigation examined hindlimb muscles from flight rats killed as close to landing as possible. Spaceflight and tail suspension-hindlimb unloading (unloaded) produced significant decreases in fiber cross-sectional areas of the adductor longus (AL), a slow-twitch antigravity muscle. However, the mean wet weight of the flight AL muscles was near normal, whereas that of the suspension unloaded AL muscles was significantly reduced. Interstitial edema within the flight AL, but not in the unloaded AL, appeared to account for this apparent disagreement.In both conditions, the slow-twitch oxidative fibers atrophied more than the fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic fibers. Microcirculation was also compromised by spaceflight, such that there was increased formation of thrombi in the postcapillary venules and capillaries.

  19. Hamiltonian Dynamics of a Forced Two-Degree-of-Freedom Arm with Viscoelastic Muscles Executing Planned Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Sayan; Ojakangas, Greg; Chase, Andrew; Chakrabarti, Anish; Sivils, Dalton; Johnson, Evan; Barrett, Kiefer; North, Mason; Julian, Preston

    2011-10-01

    In order to improve our understanding of how the brain controls the human arm both in the presence and absence of gravity, we have developed a two-degree-of-freedom robotic arm which is driven by six servo-actuated viscoelastic muscles. The computer-controlled servos mimic the contractive action of the sarcomeres in actual muscles, sections of elastic tubing represent the elastic behavior of actual muscles, while the behavior of tendons is represented by inelastic strings. The servos receive instructions to move from the visual C++ platform in the computer and the actual motion of the arm is recorded with optical encoders built into each joint axis. This experiment is a purely feed-forward system, and our goal is to determine whether our equations of motion, formulated using Hamiltonian dynamics, when numerically integrated, will predict the observed motion of the arm within experimental uncertainties.

  20. Nerve function and structure beneath and distal to a pneumatic tourniquet applied to rabbit hindlimbs.

    PubMed

    Pedowitz, R A; Nordborg, C; Rosenqvist, A L; Rydevik, B L

    1991-01-01

    Neurophysiologic and neuropathologic changes were studied in rabbit hindlimbs after 2 hours of pneumatic tourniquet application with either 350 mmHg (n = 18) or 1,000 mmHg (n = 6) cuff inflation pressure. The toe spread reflex was decreased in 66% and absent in 33% of limbs 2 days after 350 mmHg compression, and was absent in all limbs after 1,000 mmHg compression. Compound motor action potential amplitudes (CMAPs), recorded from the abductor hallucis muscle, were significantly decreased with sciatic nerve stimulation 1 hour after 350 mmHg compression. CMAPs returned to baseline values one and two days later, however nerve conduction velocity (NCV) was still significantly decreased in the compressed sciatic nerves of these groups. In contrast, complete nerve conduction block, localized beneath the cuff's distal border, was observed two days after 1,000 mmHg compression, and NCV was still significantly decreased distal to the tourniquet zone. Using light and electron microscopy, scattered axonal degeneration, mild myelin damage, and normal nodes of Ranvier were observed two days after 350 mmHg tourniquet compression. Severe fiber damage and nodal obliteration were noted after 1,000 mmHg tourniquet compression. Although nodal invagination is probably not a significant pathogenic mechanism at clinically relevant tourniquet pressures and durations, functional abnormalities were induced by 2 hour, 350 mmHg tourniquet compression. Such changes probably correlate with clinical electromyographic abnormalities and delayed post-operative recovery following 'routine' extremity surgery using pneumatic tourniquets.

  1. Insulin resistance for glucose metabolism in disused soleus muscle of mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seider, M. J.; Nicholson, W. F.; Booth, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    Results of this study on mice provide the first direct evidence of insulin resistance for glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle that has undergone a previous period of reduced muscle usage. This lack of responsiveness to insulin developed in one day and in the presence of hypoinsulinemia. Future studies will utilize the model of hindlimb immobilization to determine the causes of these changes.

  2. Age-Related Changes in Dynamic Postural Control and Attentional Demands are Minimally Affected by Local Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Remaud, Anthony; Thuong-Cong, Cécile; Bilodeau, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Normal aging results in alterations in the visual, vestibular and somtaosensory systems, which in turn modify the control of balance. Muscle fatigue may exacerbate these age-related changes in sensory and motor functions, and also increase the attentional demands associated with dynamic postural control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on dynamic postural control and posture-related attentional demands before and after a plantar flexor fatigue protocol. Participants (young adults: n = 15; healthy seniors: n = 13) performed a dynamic postural task along the antero-posterior (AP) and the medio-lateral (ML) axes, with and without the addition of a simple reaction time (RT) task. The dynamic postural task consisted in following a moving circle on a computer screen with the representation of the center of pressure (COP). This protocol was repeated before and after a fatigue task where ankle plantar flexor muscles were targeted. The mean COP-target distance and the mean COP velocity were calculated for each trial. Cross-correlation analyses between the COP and target displacements were also performed. RTs were recorded during dual-task trials. Results showed that while young adults adopted an anticipatory control mode to move their COP as close as possible to the target center, seniors adopted a reactive control mode, lagging behind the target center. This resulted in longer COP-target distance and higher COP velocity in the latter group. Concurrently, RT increased more in seniors when switching from static stance to dynamic postural conditions, suggesting potential alterations in the central nervous system (CNS) functions. Finally, plantar flexor muscle fatigue and dual-tasking had only minor effects on dynamic postural control of both young adults and seniors. Future studies should investigate why the fatigue-induced changes in quiet standing postural control do not seem to transfer to dynamic balance tasks. PMID:26834626

  3. Age-Related Changes in Dynamic Postural Control and Attentional Demands are Minimally Affected by Local Muscle Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Remaud, Anthony; Thuong-Cong, Cécile; Bilodeau, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Normal aging results in alterations in the visual, vestibular and somtaosensory systems, which in turn modify the control of balance. Muscle fatigue may exacerbate these age-related changes in sensory and motor functions, and also increase the attentional demands associated with dynamic postural control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on dynamic postural control and posture-related attentional demands before and after a plantar flexor fatigue protocol. Participants (young adults: n = 15; healthy seniors: n = 13) performed a dynamic postural task along the antero-posterior (AP) and the medio-lateral (ML) axes, with and without the addition of a simple reaction time (RT) task. The dynamic postural task consisted in following a moving circle on a computer screen with the representation of the center of pressure (COP). This protocol was repeated before and after a fatigue task where ankle plantar flexor muscles were targeted. The mean COP-target distance and the mean COP velocity were calculated for each trial. Cross-correlation analyses between the COP and target displacements were also performed. RTs were recorded during dual-task trials. Results showed that while young adults adopted an anticipatory control mode to move their COP as close as possible to the target center, seniors adopted a reactive control mode, lagging behind the target center. This resulted in longer COP-target distance and higher COP velocity in the latter group. Concurrently, RT increased more in seniors when switching from static stance to dynamic postural conditions, suggesting potential alterations in the central nervous system (CNS) functions. Finally, plantar flexor muscle fatigue and dual-tasking had only minor effects on dynamic postural control of both young adults and seniors. Future studies should investigate why the fatigue-induced changes in quiet standing postural control do not seem to transfer to dynamic balance tasks.

  4. Both CD133(+) cells and monocytes provide significant improvement for hindlimb ischemia, although they do not transdifferentiate into endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Guijo, Fermin M; Oterino, Enrique; Barbado, Maria-Victoria; Carrancio, Soraya; Lopez-Holgado, Natalia; Muntion, Sandra; Hernandez-Campo, Pilar; Sanchez-Abarca, Luis-Ignacio; Perez-Simon, Jose A; San Miguel, Jesús F; Briñon, Jesús G; del Cañizo, Maria-Consuelo

    2010-01-01

    To address a number of questions regarding the experimental use of bone marrow (BM) stem cells in hindlimb ischemia, including which is the best cell type (e.g., purified hematopoietic stem cell or monocytes), the best route of delivery [intramuscular (IM) or intravenous (IV)], and the mechanism of action (transdifferentiation or paracrine effects), we have compared the neovascularization capacities of CD133(+) stem cells and monocytes (CD11b(+)) from the BM of Tie2-GFP mice either via IV or IM in a murine severe hindlimb ischemia model. To test the effect of cytokine administration, an extra group received BM conditioned medium. Peripheral blood flow as well as capillary density and GPF-positivity detection in ischemic muscles was evaluated 7, 14, and 21 days postinjection. In addition, CD133(+) and CD11b(+) cells from transgenic animals were cultured in vitro with angiogenic media for 7, 14, and 21 days to assess GFP expression. In all four cell-treated groups, blood flow and capillary density significantly recovered compared with the mice that received no cells or conditioned medium. There were no differences with respect to cell types or administration routes, with the exception of a faster flow recovery in the CD133(+)-treated cell group. We did not find GFP(+) cells in the ischemic muscles and there was no GFP expression after in vitro proangiogenic culture. Our study shows that both purified CD133(+) stem cells and myeloid mononuclear cells, either IM or IV administered, have similar neoangiogenic ability. Nevertheless, transdifferentiation into endothelial cells is not the mechanism responsible for their beneficial effect.

  5. Angiogenic Mechanisms of Human CD34(+) Stem Cell Exosomes in the Repair of Ischemic Hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Mathiyalagan, Prabhu; Liang, Yaxuan; Kim, David; Misener, Sol; Thorne, Tina; Kamide, Christine; Klyachko, Ekaterina; Losordo, Douglas W; Hajjar, Roger J; Sahoo, Susmita

    2017-03-15

    Rationale: Paracrine secretions appear to mediate therapeutic effects of human CD34(+) stem cells locally transplanted in patients with myocardial and critical limb ischemia as well as in animal models. Earlier, we had discovered that paracrine secretion from human CD34(+) cells contains pro-angiogenic, membrane-bound nano-vesicles called exosomes (CD34Exo). Objective: Here, we investigated the mechanisms of CD34Exo-mediated ischemic tissue repair and therapeutic angiogenesis by studying their miRNA content and uptake. Methods and Results: When injected into mouse ischemic hindlimb tissue, CD34Exo, but not the CD34exo-depleted conditioned media, mimicked the beneficial activity of their parent cells by improving ischemic limb perfusion, capillary density, motor function and their amputation. CD34Exo were found to be enriched with pro-angiogenic miRNAs such as miR-126-3p. Knocking down miR-126-3p from CD34exo abolished their angiogenic activity and beneficial function both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, injection of CD34Exo increased miR-126-3p levels in mouse ischemic limb, but did not affect the endogenous synthesis of miR-126-3p suggesting a direct transfer of stable and functional exosomal miR-126-3p. miR-126-3p enhanced angiogenesis by suppressing the expression of its known target, SPRED1; simultaneously modulating the expression of genes involved in angiogenic pathways such as VEGF, ANG1, ANG2, MMP9, TSP1 etc. Interestingly, CD34Exo, when treated to ischemic hindlimbs, were most efficiently internalized by endothelial cells relative to smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts demonstrating a direct role of stem cell-derived exosomes on mouse endothelium at the cellular level. Conclusions: Collectively, our results have demonstrated a novel mechanism by which cell-free CD34Exo mediates ischemic tissue repair via beneficial angiogenesis. Exosome-shuttled angiomiRs may signify amplification of stem cell function and may explain the angiogenic and therapeutic

  6. Comparison of four specific dynamic office chairs with a conventional office chair: impact upon muscle activation, physical activity and posture.

    PubMed

    Ellegast, Rolf P; Kraft, Kathrin; Groenesteijn, Liesbeth; Krause, Frank; Berger, Helmut; Vink, Peter

    2012-03-01

    Prolonged and static sitting postures provoke physical inactivity at VDU workplaces and are therefore discussed as risk factors for the musculoskeletal system. Manufacturers have designed specific dynamic office chairs featuring structural elements which promote dynamic sitting and therefore physical activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of four specific dynamic chairs on erector spinae and trapezius EMG, postures/joint angles and physical activity intensity (PAI) compared to those of a conventional standard office chair. All chairs were fitted with sensors for measurement of the chair parameters (backrest inclination, forward and sideward seat pan inclination), and tested in the laboratory by 10 subjects performing 7 standardized office tasks and by another 12 subjects in the field during their normal office work. Muscle activation revealed no significant differences between the specific dynamic chairs and the reference chair. Analysis of postures/joint angles and PAI revealed only a few differences between the chairs, whereas the tasks performed strongly affected the measured muscle activation, postures and kinematics. The characteristic dynamic elements of each specific chair yielded significant differences in the measured chair parameters, but these characteristics did not appear to affect the sitting dynamics of the subjects performing their office tasks.

  7. The effect of experimental muscle pain on the amplitude and velocity sensitivity of jaw closing muscle spindle afferents.

    PubMed

    Masri, Radi; Ro, Jin Y; Capra, Norman

    2005-07-19

    The effect of experimental muscle pain on the amplitude and velocity sensitivity of muscle spindle primary afferent neurons in the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Vmes) was examined. Extracellular recordings were made from 45 neurons designated as spindle primary- or secondary-like on the basis of their response to ramp-and-hold jaw movements. Velocity sensitivity was assessed in spindle primary-like afferents by calculating the mean dynamic index of each unit in response to three different velocities of jaw opening before and after intramuscular injection with hypertonic saline (HS, 5%, 100 microl). The amplitude sensitivity of all jaw muscle spindle afferents was assessed by calculating the mean firing rate of each unit in response to three different amplitudes of jaw openings during both the open and hold phases of the movement and with best-fit lines obtained, using linear regression analysis, before and after HS injection. The variance of the two regression lines obtained for each unit before and after the injection was compared using the coincidence test, and changes in intercept and slope were determined. Seventy-five percent of the primary-like units and 80% of the secondary-like units presented with changes in static behavior after HS injection. Thirty-six percent of the primary-like units showed changes in dynamic behavior. Injection of isotonic saline (control) did not alter the responses of the spindle afferent to jaw opening. Thus, our results demonstrate that the predominant effect of noxious stimulation was a shift in the amplitude sensitivity of both spindle primary-like and secondary-like afferents and, to a lesser extent, the velocity sensitivity of the spindle primary-like unit. In accordance with earlier studies in the cat hindlimb and neck muscles, these results suggest that the activation of masseter muscle nociceptor alters spindle afferent responses to stretch acting primarily through static gamma motor neurons.

  8. Changes in muscles accompanying non-weight-bearing and weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Henriksen, E. J.; Jaspers, S. R.; Jacob, S.; Kirby, C.

    1989-01-01

    Results of hindlimb suspension and space flight experiments with rats examine the effects of weightlessness simulation, weightlessness, and delay in postflight recovery of animals. Parameters examined were body mass, protein balance, amino acid metabolism, glucose and glycogen metabolism, and hormone levels. Tables show metabolic responses to unweighting of the soleus muscle.

  9. Quantification of the hindlimb extensor thrust response in rats.

    PubMed

    Ross, J F; Handley, D E; Fix, A S; Lawhorn, G T; Carr, G J

    1997-01-01

    This report describes a procedure for measuring the extensor thrust response (ETR) and summarizes the results of initial validation experiments using adult Long-Evans rats. The ETR can be quickly elicited and the force measured by pressing against the hindlimb footpads with a small rectangular plate or bar attached to a digital force gauge. Output of the force gauge is analyzed and displayed with commercially available hardware and software. The first experiment compared the acute effects of i.p. injection of chlorpromazine (CPZ; 1, 4, or 7 mg/kg) or amphetamine (AMP; 0.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg) on the ETR and forelimb/hindlimb grip strength (FL/HL-GS) in male and female rats. CPZ decreased both ETR and FL/HL-GS values. Both 1 and 3 mg/kg AMP increased grip strength values but decreased ETR values. A second experiment compared the evolution of changes in ETR, FL/HL-GS, and peripheral neurophysiological measures during 8 weeks of daily oral dosing of 10 mg/kg acrylamide (ACR) monomer. ACR-treated rats exhibited a progressive decrease in ETR beginning after 3 weeks of dosing, whereas a reduction of HL-GS was observed beginning much later, after 7 weeks of dosing. The deficit in ETR progressed in the absence of any changes in spontaneous or evoked electrophysiological abnormalities in neuromuscular function, but was accompanied by a decrease in peripheral nerve conduction velocity. Taken together, the results indicate that the ETR can be used to characterize functional effects in both single dose and repeated dose experiments. The data also indicate that the ETR does not merely duplicate the information provided by FL/HL-GS, and suggest a hypothesis that the ETR may be sensitive to neurotoxicant-induced changes in somatosensory function.

  10. Semi-LASER localized dynamic 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy in exercising muscle at ultra-high magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Meyerspeer, Martin; Scheenen, Tom; Schmid, Albrecht Ingo; Mandl, Thomas; Unger, Ewald; Moser, Ewald

    2011-05-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can benefit from increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of high magnetic fields. In this work, the SNR gain of dynamic 31P MRS at 7 T was invested in temporal and spatial resolution. Using conventional slice selective excitation combined with localization by adiabatic selective refocusing (semi-LASER) with short echo time (TE = 23 ms), phosphocreatine quantification in a 38 mL voxel inside a single exercising muscle becomes possible from single acquisitions, with SNR = 42 ± 4 in resting human medial gastrocnemius. The method was used to quantify the phosphocreatine time course during 5 min of plantar flexion exercise and recovery with a temporal resolution of 6 s (the chosen repetition time for moderate T1 saturation). Quantification of inorganic phosphate and pH required accumulation of consecutively acquired spectra when (resting) Pi concentrations were low. The localization performance was excellent while keeping the chemical shift displacement acceptably small. The SNR and spectral line widths with and without localization were compared between 3T and 7 T systems in phantoms and in vivo. The results demonstrate that increased sensitivity of ultra-high field can be used to dynamically acquire metabolic information from a clearly defined region in a single exercising muscle while reaching a temporal resolution previously available with MRS in non-localizing studies only. The method may improve the interpretation of dynamic muscle MRS data.

  11. Wave reflection and central aortic pressure are increased in response to static and dynamic muscle contraction at comparable workloads.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David G; Mastin, Corey R; Kenefick, Robert W

    2008-02-01

    We determined the effects of static and dynamic muscle contraction at equivalent workloads on central aortic pressure and wave reflection. At random, 14 healthy men and women (23 +/- 5 yr of age) performed a static handgrip forearm contraction [90 s at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)], dynamic handgrip contractions (1 contraction/s for 180 s at 30% MVC), and a control trial. During static and dynamic trials, tension-time index was controlled by holding peak tension constant. Measurements of brachial artery blood pressure and the synthesis of a central aortic pressure waveform (by radial artery applanation tonometry and generalized transfer function) were conducted at baseline, during each trial, and during 1 min of postexercise ischemia (PEI). Aortic augmentation index (AI), an index of wave reflection, was calculated from the aortic pressure waveform. AI increased during both static and dynamic trials (static, 5.2 +/- 3.1 to 11.8 +/- 3.4%; dynamic, 5.8 +/- 3.0 to 13.3 +/- 3.4%; P < 0.05) and further increased during PEI (static, 18.5 +/- 3.1%; dynamic, 18.6 +/- 2.9%; P < 0.05). Peripheral and central systolic and diastolic pressures increased (P < 0.05) during both static and dynamic trials and remained elevated during PEI. AI and pressure responses did not differ between static and dynamic trials. Peripheral and central pressures increased similarly during static and dynamic contraction; however, the rise in central systolic pressure during both conditions was augmented by increased wave reflection. The present data suggest that wave reflection is an important determinant of the central blood pressure response during forearm muscle contractions.

  12. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junfen; Curtis, Neil; Fitton, Laura C; O'Higgins, Paul; Fagan, Michael J

    2012-10-07

    An accurate, dynamic, functional model of the skull that can be used to predict muscle forces, bite forces, and joint reaction forces would have many uses across a broad range of disciplines. One major issue however with musculoskeletal analyses is that of muscle activation pattern indeterminacy. A very large number of possible muscle force combinations will satisfy a particular functional task. This makes predicting physiological muscle recruitment patterns difficult. Here we describe in detail the process of development of a complex multibody computer model of a primate skull (Macaca fascicularis), that aims to predict muscle recruitment patterns during biting. Using optimisation criteria based on minimisation of muscle stress we predict working to balancing side muscle force ratios, peak bite forces, and joint reaction forces during unilateral biting. Validation of such models is problematic; however we have shown comparable working to balancing muscle activity and TMJ reaction ratios during biting to those observed in vivo and that peak predicted bite forces compare well to published experimental data. To our knowledge the complexity of the musculoskeletal model is greater than any previously reported for a primate. This complexity, when compared to more simple representations provides more nuanced insights into the functioning of masticatory muscles. Thus, we have shown muscle activity to vary throughout individual muscle groups, which enables them to function optimally during specific masticatory tasks. This model will be utilised in future studies into the functioning of the masticatory apparatus.

  13. Control of skeletal muscle perfusion at the onset of dynamic exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delp, M. D.

    1999-01-01

    At the onset of exercise there is a rapid increase in skeletal muscle vascular conductance and blood flow. Several mechanisms involved in the regulation of muscle perfusion have been proposed to initiate this hyperemic response, including neural, metabolic, endothelial, myogenic, and muscle pump mechanisms. Investigators utilizing pharmacological blockade of cholinergic muscarinic receptors and sympathectomy have concluded that neither sympathetic cholinergic nor adrenergic neural mechanisms are involved in the initial hyperemia. Studies have also shown that the time course for vasoactive metabolite release, diffusion, accumulation, and action is too long to account for the rapid increase in vascular conductance at the initiation of exercise. Furthermore, there is little or no evidence to support an endothelium or myogenic mechanism as the initiating factor in the muscle hyperemia. Thus, the rise in muscle blood flow does not appear to be explained by known neural, metabolic, endothelial, or myogenic influences. However, the initial hyperemia is consistent with the mechanical effects of the muscle pump to increase the arteriovenous pressure gradient across muscle. Because skeletal muscle blood flow is regulated by multiple and redundant mechanisms, it is likely that neural, metabolic, and possibly endothelial factors become important modulators of mechanically induced exercise hyperemia following the first 5-10 s of exercise.

  14. Sarcomere length dynamics of postmortem ovine Psoas major and Longissimus dorsi muscles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding relationships between biological mechanisms of postmortem events in muscle and meat quality is of enormous importance for the meat industry. Because sarcomere length has been previously related to tenderness issues in lambs, we decided to study two contrasting types of muscle with know...

  15. Wnt signaling in skeletal muscle dynamics: myogenesis, neuromuscular synapse and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Cisternas, Pedro; Henriquez, Juan P; Brandan, Enrique; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2014-02-01

    The signaling pathways activated by Wnt ligands are related to a wide range of critical cell functions, such as cell division, migration, and synaptogenesis. Here, we summarize compelling evidence on the role of Wnt signaling on several features of skeletal muscle physiology. We briefly review the role of Wnt pathways on the formation of muscle fibers during prenatal and postnatal myogenesis, highlighting its role on the activation of stem cells of the adult muscles. We also discuss how Wnt signaling regulates the precise formation of neuromuscular synapses, by modulating the differentiation of presynaptic and postsynaptic components, particularly regarding the clustering of acetylcholine receptors on the muscle membrane. In addition, based on previous evidence showing that Wnt pathways are linked to several diseases, such as Alzheimer's and cancer, we address recent studies indicating that Wnt signaling plays a key role in skeletal muscle fibrosis, a disease characterized by an increase in the extracellular matrix components leading to failure in muscle regeneration, tissue disorganization and loss of muscle activity. In this context, we also discuss the possible cross-talk between the Wnt/β-catenin pathway with two other critical profibrotic pathways, transforming growth factor β and connective tissue growth factor, which are potent stimulators of the accumulation of connective tissue, an effect characteristic of the fibrotic condition. As it has emerged in other pathological conditions, we suggests that muscle fibrosis may be a consequence of alterations of Wnt signaling activity.

  16. Gene Regions Responding to Skeletal Muscle Atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Frank W.

    1997-01-01

    Our stated specific aims for this project were: 1) Identify the region(s) of the mouse IIb myosin heavy chain (MHC) promoter necessary for in vivo expression in mouse fast-twitch muscle, and 2) Identify the region(s) of the mouse IIb MHC promoter responsive to immobilization in mouse slow-twitch muscle in vivo. We sought to address these specific aims by introducing various MHC IIb promoter/reporter gene constructs directly into the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles of living mice. Although the method of somatic gene transfer into skeletal muscle by direct injection has been successfully used in our laboratory to study the regulation of the skeletal alpha actin gene in chicken skeletal muscle, we had many difficulties utilizing this procedure in the mouse. Because of the small size of the mouse soleus and the difficulty in obtaining consistent results, we elected not to study this muscle as first proposed. Rather, our MHC IIb promoter deletion experiments were performed in the gastrocnemius. Further, we decided to use hindlimb unloading via tail suspension to induce an upregulation of the MHC IIb gene, rather than immobilization of the hindlimbs via plaster casts. This change was made because tail suspension more closely mimics spaceflight, and this procedure in our lab results in a smaller loss of overall body mass than the mouse hindlimb immobilization procedure. This suggests that the stress level during tail suspension is less than during immobilization. This research has provided an important beginning point towards understanding the molecular regulation of the MHC lIb gene in response to unweighting of skeletal muscle Future work will focus on the regulation of MHC IIb mRNA stability in response to altered loading of skeletal muscle

  17. NGF promotes hemodynamic recovery in a rabbit hindlimb ischemic model through trkA- and VEGFR2-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Karatzas, Andreas; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Lilis, Ioannis; Papadaki, Helen; Kitrou, Panagiotis; Lecht, Shimon; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary; Siablis, Dimitris; Lelkes, Peter I; Lazarovici, Philip; Tsopanoglou, Nikos E

    2013-09-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been reported to play an important role in physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NGF may induce the formation of functional blood vessels in a hindlimb ischemic rabbit model. Hindlimb ischemia was induced in 34 rabbits bilaterally by endovascular embolization of femoral arteries. On the 7th, 14th, and 20th postembolization days, NGF was injected intramuscularly, in 1 ischemic limb, and vehicle was injected in the contralateral control limb. On the 40th day, newly developed collateral vessels (diameter >500 μm) were quantified by transauricular intraarterial subtraction angiography. Perfusion analysis of an in vivo dynamic computed tomography study was performed to the limbs to investigate the hemodynamic recovery of the distal ischemic tissues. Functional estimation of limb perfusion showed a statistically significant increase of blood flow and blood volume for NGF. However, the increase of the collateral vessels was not detectable angiographically, providing evidence for the existence of a NGF-stimulated capillary angiogenic network but not increase of arteriogenesis. The combination of NGF with either tropomyosin-related kinase type A or vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 antagonists abolished the NGF-induced hemodynamic recovery. These findings provide new insights into understanding the involvement of NGF in vascular formation and its applications in therapeutic angiogenesis.

  18. Noninvasive Peroneal Sensory and Motor Nerve Conduction Recordings in the Rabbit Distal Hindlimb: Feasibility, Variability and Neuropathy Measure

    PubMed Central

    Hotson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    The peroneal nerve anatomy of the rabbit distal hindlimb is similar to humans, but reports of distal peroneal nerve conduction studies were not identified with a literature search. Distal sensorimotor recordings may be useful for studying rabbit models of length-dependent peripheral neuropathy. Surface electrodes were adhered to the dorsal rabbit foot overlying the extensor digitorum brevis muscle and the superficial peroneal nerve. The deep and superficial peroneal nerves were stimulated above the ankle and the common peroneal nerve was stimulated at the knee. The nerve conduction studies were repeated twice with a one-week intertest interval to determine measurement variability. Intravenous vincristine was used to produce a peripheral neuropathy. Repeat recordings measured the response to vincristine. A compound muscle action potential and a sensory nerve action potential were evoked in all rabbits. The compound muscle action potential mean amplitude was 0.29 mV (SD ± 0.12) and the fibula head to ankle mean motor conduction velocity was 46.5 m/s (SD ± 2.9). The sensory nerve action potential mean amplitude was 22.8 μV (SD ± 2.8) and the distal sensory conduction velocity was 38.8 m/s (SD ± 2.2). Sensorimotor latencies and velocities were least variable between two test sessions (coefficient of variation  =  2.6–5.9%), sensory potential amplitudes were intermediate (coefficient of variation  =  11.1%) and compound potential amplitudes were the most variable (coefficient of variation  = 19.3%). Vincristine abolished compound muscle action potentials and reduced sensory nerve action potential amplitudes by 42–57% while having little effect on velocity. Rabbit distal hindlimb nerve conduction studies are feasible with surface recordings and stimulation. The evoked distal sensory potentials have amplitudes, configurations and recording techniques that are similar to humans and may be valuable for measuring large sensory fiber function in chronic

  19. Application of dynamic metabolomics to examine in vivo skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in the chronically high-fat fed mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, Greg M.; De Souza, David P.; Burch, Micah L.; Hamley, Steven; Kloehn, Joachim; Selathurai, Ahrathy; Tull, Dedreia; O'Callaghan, Sean; McConville, Malcolm J.; Bruce, Clinton R.

    2015-06-19

    Rationale: Defects in muscle glucose metabolism are linked to type 2 diabetes. Mechanistic studies examining these defects rely on the use of high fat-fed rodent models and typically involve the determination of muscle glucose uptake under insulin-stimulated conditions. While insightful, they do not necessarily reflect the physiology of the postprandial state. In addition, most studies do not examine aspects of glucose metabolism beyond the uptake process. Here we present an approach to study rodent muscle glucose and intermediary metabolism under the dynamic and physiologically relevant setting of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Methods and results: In vivo muscle glucose and intermediary metabolism was investigated following oral administration of [U-{sup 13}C] glucose. Quadriceps muscles were collected 15 and 60 min after glucose administration and metabolite flux profiling was determined by measuring {sup 13}C mass isotopomers in glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. While no dietary effects were noted in the glycolytic pathway, muscle from mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) exhibited a reduction in labelling in TCA intermediates. Interestingly, this appeared to be independent of alterations in flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, our findings suggest that TCA cycle anaplerosis is negligible in muscle during an OGTT. Conclusions: Under the dynamic physiologically relevant conditions of the OGTT, skeletal muscle from HFD fed mice exhibits alterations in glucose metabolism at the level of the TCA cycle. - Highlights: • Dynamic metabolomics was used to investigate muscle glucose metabolism in vivo. • Mitochondrial TCA cycle metabolism is altered in muscle of HFD mice. • This defect was not pyruvate dehydrogenase mediated, as has been previously thought. • Mitochondrial TCA cycle anaplerosis in muscle is virtually absent during the OGTT.

  20. High-energy proton irradiation of C57Bl6 mice under hindlimb unloading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonca, Marc; Todd, Paul; Orschell, Christie; Chin-Sinex, Helen; Farr, Jonathan; Klein, Susan; Sokol, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Solar proton events (SPEs) pose substantial risk for crewmembers on deep space missions. It has been shown that low gravity and ionizing radiation both produce transient anemia and immunodeficiencies. We utilized the C57Bl/6 based hindlimb suspension model to investigate the consequences of hindlimb-unloading induced immune suppression on the sensitivity to whole body irradiation with modulated 208 MeV protons. Eight-week old C57Bl/6 female mice were conditioned by hindlimb-unloading. Serial CBC and hematocrit assays by HEMAVET were accumulated for the hindlimb-unloaded mice and parallel control animals subjected to identical conditions without unloading. One week of hindlimb-unloading resulted in a persistent, statistically significant 10% reduction in RBC count and a persistent, statistically significant 35% drop in lymphocyte count. This inhibition is consistent with published observations of low Earth orbit flown mice and with crewmember blood analyses. In our experiments the cell count suppression was sustained for the entire six-week period of observation and persisted for at least 7 days beyond the period of active hindlimb-unloading. C57Bl/6 mice were also irradiated with 208 MeV Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP) protons at the Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. We found that at 8.5 Gy hindlimb-unloaded mice were significantly more radiation sensitive with 35 lethalities out of 51 mice versus 15 out of 45 control (non-suspended) mice within 30 days of receiving 8.5 Gy of SOBP protons (p =0.001). Both control and hindlimb-unloaded stocktickerCBC analyses of 8.5 Gy proton irradiated and control mice by HEMAVET demonstrated severe reductions in WBC counts (Lymphocytes and PMNs) by day 2 post-irradiation, followed a week to ten days later by reductions in platelets, and then reductions in RBCs about 2 weeks post-irradiation. Recovery of all blood components commenced by three weeks post-irradiation. CBC analyses of 8

  1. Fusimotor control of muscle spindle sensitivity during respiration in the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Greer, J J; Stein, R B

    1990-01-01

    1. The two types of fusimotor neurones, dynamic and static, can be differentiated by their effects on muscle spindle afferents. We have recorded the activity of muscle spindle primary afferents from the intercostal nerves of anaesthetized or decerebrate cats. A 4 Hz sinusoidal stretch was applied to the muscle containing the spindles of interest before and after crushing the nerve proximal to the recording site to eliminate fusimotor effects. The relative activity of the dynamic and static fusimotor neurones was inferred from the change in the spindle afferents' response. 2. Some areas of intercostal muscle normally showed phasic activity linked to respiration, where as other areas of intercostal muscle showed no EMG activity under our experimental conditions. In areas of intercostal muscle lacking EMG activity, the afferents' mean rate was higher and the modulation around the mean was lower at all phases of the breathing cycle when the efferent supply was intact. This result suggests the muscle spindles were receiving a steady level of static fusimotor activity. 3. Spindle primary afferents from regions of intercostal muscle that were typically recruited during respiration had an additional increase in mean rate and modulation around the mean rate in phase with the EMG activity. This is suggestive of phasic activation of dynamic fusimotor neurones in addition to static fusimotor discharge. 4. Thus, the two types of fusimotor neurones can be activated separately by the CNS to control the sensitivity of muscle spindles. The regional differences in the recruitment patterns of fusimotor neurones parallels the functional specializations of different areas of the intercostal muscles. The temporal modifications of fusimotor activity during each respiratory cycle means that the segmental reflex gain will vary in those intercostal muscles that are active during respiration. 5. These findings regarding the CNS recruitment of the two types of fusimotor neurones during

  2. Androgen Action via Testicular Arteriole Smooth Muscle Cells Is Important for Leydig Cell Function, Vasomotion and Testicular Fluid Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Michelle; Sharpe, Richard M.; Moffat, Lindsey; Atanassova, Nina; Saunders, Philippa T. K.; Kilter, Sigrid; Bergh, Anders; Smith, Lee B.

    2010-01-01

    Regulation of blood flow through the testicular microvasculature by vasomotion is thought to be important for normal testis function as it regulates interstitial fluid (IF) dynamics which is an important intra-testicular transport medium. Androgens control vasomotion, but how they exert these effects remains unclear. One possibility is by signalling via androgen receptors (AR) expressed in testicular arteriole smooth muscle cells. To investigate this and determine the overall importance of this mechanism in testis function, we generated a blood vessel smooth muscle cell-specific AR knockout mouse (SMARKO). Gross reproductive development was normal in SMARKO mice but testis weight was reduced in adulthood compared to control littermates; this reduction was not due to any changes in germ cell volume or to deficits in testosterone, LH or FSH concentrations and did not cause infertility. However, seminiferous tubule lumen volume was reduced in adult SMARKO males while interstitial volume was increased, perhaps indicating altered fluid dynamics; this was associated with compensated Leydig cell failure. Vasomotion was impaired in adult SMARKO males, though overall testis blood flow was normal and there was an increase in the overall blood vessel volume per testis in adult SMARKOs. In conclusion, these results indicate that ablating arteriole smooth muscle AR does not grossly alter spermatogenesis or affect male fertility but does subtly impair Leydig cell function and testicular fluid exchange, possibly by locally regulating microvascular blood flow within the testis. PMID:21049031

  3. Intermittent acceleration as a countermeasure to soleus muscle atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Aunno, Dominick S.; Robinson, Ronald R.; Smith, Gregory S.; Thomason, Donald B.; Booth, Frank W.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of using intermittent acceleration as a countermeasure to muscle atrophy was investigated in rats subjected to 7 days of hindlimb suspension interrupted by daily periods of 1.2 g acceleration, for 15-min periods evenly spaced over 12-hr interval. It was found that this regimen, when repeated for 7 days, failed to completely maintain the mass of soleus muscle, which was 84 percent of control.

  4. Functional muscle synergies constrain force production during postural tasks.

    PubMed

    McKay, J Lucas; Ting, Lena H

    2008-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that a set of five functional muscle synergies were sufficient to characterize both hindlimb muscle activity and active forces during automatic postural responses in cats standing at multiple postural configurations. This characterization depended critically upon the assumption that the endpoint force vector (synergy force vector) produced by the activation of each muscle synergy rotated with the limb axis as the hindlimb posture varied in the sagittal plane. Here, we used a detailed, 3D static model of the hindlimb to confirm that this assumption is biomechanically plausible: as we varied the model posture, simulated synergy force vectors rotated monotonically with the limb axis in the parasagittal plane (r2=0.94+/-0.08). We then tested whether a neural strategy of using these five functional muscle synergies provides the same force-generating capability as controlling each of the 31 muscles individually. We compared feasible force sets (FFSs) from the model with and without a muscle synergy organization. FFS volumes were significantly reduced with the muscle synergy organization (F=1556.01, p<0.01), and as posture varied, the synergy-limited FFSs changed in shape, consistent with changes in experimentally measured active forces. In contrast, nominal FFS shapes were invariant with posture, reinforcing prior findings that postural forces cannot be predicted by hindlimb biomechanics alone. We propose that an internal model for postural force generation may coordinate functional muscle synergies that are invariant in intrinsic limb coordinates, and this reduced-dimension control scheme reduces the set of forces available for postural control.

  5. Local GABA receptor blockade reveals hindlimb responses in the SI forelimb-stump representation of neonatally amputated rats.

    PubMed

    Pluto, Charles P; Lane, Richard D; Rhoades, Robert W

    2004-07-01

    In adult rats that sustained forelimb amputation on the day of birth, there are numerous multi-unit recording sites in the forelimb-stump representation of primary somatosensory cortex (SI) that also respond to cutaneous stimulation of the hindlimb when cortical receptors for GABA are blocked. These normally suppressed hindlimb inputs originate in the SI hindlimb representation and synapse in the dysgranular cortex before exciting SI forelimb-stump neurons. In our previous studies, GABA (A + B) receptor blockade was achieved by topically applying a bicuculline methiodide/saclofen solution (BMI/SAC) to the cortical surface. This treatment blocks receptors throughout SI and does not allow determination of where along the above circuit the GABA-mediated suppression of hindlimb information occurs. In this study, focal injections of BMI/SAC were delivered to three distinct cortical regions that are involved in the hindlimb-to-forelimb-stump pathway. Blocking GABA receptors in the SI hindlimb representation and in the dysgranular cortex was largely ineffective in revealing hindlimb inputs ( approximately 10% of hindlimb inputs were revealed in both cases). In contrast, when the blockade was targeted at forelimb-stump recording sites, >80% of hindlimb inputs were revealed. Thus GABAergic interneurons within the forelimb-stump representation suppress the expression of reorganized hindlimb inputs to the region. A circuit model incorporating these and previous observations is presented and discussed.

  6. Dynamic control of muscle stiffness and H reflex modulation during hopping and jumping in man.

    PubMed Central

    Dyhre-Poulsen, P; Simonsen, E B; Voigt, M

    1991-01-01

    1. The objective of the study was to evaluate the functional effects of reflexes on muscle mechanics during natural voluntary movements. The excitability of the H (Hoffmann) reflex was used as a measure of the excitability of the central component of the stretch reflex. 2. We recorded EMG, ground reaction forces and the H reflex in the soleus muscle in humans while landing from a downward jump, during drop jumping and during hopping. The movements were also recorded by high-speed cinematography. 3. The EMG pattern was adapted to the motor task. When landing the EMG in the soleus muscle and in the anterior tibial muscle showed preinnervation and alternating activity after touch down. When hopping there was little preinnervation in the soleus muscle, and the activity was initiated about 45 ms after touch down by a peak and continued unbroken until lift off. In the drop jumps the EMG pattern depended on the jumping style used by the subject. 4. The H reflex in the soleus muscle was strongly modulated in a manner appropriate to the requirements of the motor task. During landing from a downward jump the H reflex was low at touch down whereas while hopping it was high at touch down. During drop jumping it was variable and influenced by the jumping technique. 5. Muscle stiffness in the ankle joint was negative after touch down when landing, but always positive when hopping. 6. It is suggested that during landing the alternating EMG pattern after touch down was programmed and little influenced by reflexes. During hopping reflexes could contribute to the initial peak and the EMG during lift off. 7. The programmed EMG activity and the suppression of the H reflex while landing probably contribute to the development of the negative stiffness and change the muscles from a spring to a damping unit. PMID:1890636

  7. The evolutionary history of the development of the pelvic fin/hindlimb

    PubMed Central

    Don, Emily K; Currie, Peter D; Cole, Nicholas J

    2013-01-01

    The arms and legs of man are evolutionarily derived from the paired fins of primitive jawed fish. Few evolutionary changes have attracted as much attention as the origin of tetrapod limbs from the paired fins of ancestral fish. The hindlimbs of tetrapods are derived from the pelvic fins of ancestral fish. These evolutionary origins can be seen in the examination of shared gene and protein expression patterns during the development of pelvic fins and tetrapod hindlimbs. The pelvic fins of fish express key limb positioning, limb bud induction and limb outgrowth genes in a similar manner to that seen in hindlimb development of higher vertebrates. We are now at a point where many of the key players in the development of pelvic fins and vertebrate hindlimbs have been identified and we can now readily examine and compare mechanisms between species. This is yielding fascinating insights into how the developmental programme has altered during evolution and how that relates to anatomical change. The role of pelvic fins has also drastically changed over evolutionary history, from playing a minor role during swimming to developing into robust weight-bearing limbs. In addition, the pelvic fins/hindlimbs have been lost repeatedly in diverse species over evolutionary time. Here we review the evolution of pelvic fins and hindlimbs within the context of the changes in anatomical structure and the molecular mechanisms involved. PMID:22913749

  8. Increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection under hindlimb-unloading conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aviles, Hernan; Belay, Tesfaye; Fountain, Kimberly; Vance, Monique; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    It has been reported that spaceflight conditions alter the immune system and resistance to infection [Belay T, Aviles H, Vance M, Fountain K, and Sonnenfeld G. J Allergy Clin Immunol 170: 262-268, 2002; Hankins WR and Ziegelschmid JF. In: Biomedical Results of Apollo. Washington, DC: NASA, 1975, p. 43-81. (NASA Spec. Rep. SP-368)]. Ground-based models, including the hindlimb-unloading model, have become important tools for increasing understanding of how spaceflight conditions can influence physiology. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of hindlimb unloading on the susceptibility of mice to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Hindlimb-unloaded and control mice were subcutaneously infected with 1 LD50 of P. aeruginosa. Survival, bacterial organ load, and antibody and corticosterone levels were compared among the groups. Hindlimb unloading had detrimental effects for infected mice. Animals in the hindlimb-unloaded group, compared with controls, 1). showed significantly increased mortality and reduced time to death, 2). had increased levels of corticosterone, and 3). were much less able to clear bacteria from the organs. These results suggest that hindlimb unloading may induce the production of corticosterone, which may play a critical role in the modulation of the immune system leading to increased susceptibility to P. aeruginosa infection.

  9. The hindlimb unloading rat model: literature overview, technique update and comparison with space flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily; Globus, Ruth K.; Kaplansky, Alexander; Durnova, Galina

    2005-01-01

    The hindlimb unloading rodent model is used extensively to study the response of many physiological systems to certain aspects of space flight, as well as to disuse and recovery from disuse for Earth benefits. This chapter describes the evolution of hindlimb unloading, and is divided into three sections. The first section examines the characteristics of 1064 articles using or reviewing the hindlimb unloading model, published between 1976 and April 1, 2004. The characteristics include number of publications, journals, countries, major physiological systems, method modifications, species, gender, genetic strains and ages of rodents, experiment duration, and countermeasures. The second section provides a comparison of results between space flown and hindlimb unloading animals from the 14-day Cosmos 2044 mission. The final section describes modifications to hindlimb unloading required by different experimental paradigms and a method to protect the tail harness for long duration studies. Hindlimb unloading in rodents has enabled improved understanding of the responses of the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, immune, renal, neural, metabolic, and reproductive systems to unloading and/or to reloading on Earth with implications for both long-duration human space flight and disuse on Earth.

  10. Dynamic Elbow Flexion Force Estimation Through a Muscle Twitch Model and sEMG in a Fatigue Condition.

    PubMed

    Na, Youngjin; Kim, Jung

    2016-11-14

    We propose a joint force estimation method to compute elbow flexion force using surface electromyogram (sEMG) considering time-varying effects in a fatigue condition. Muscle fatigue is a major cause inducing sEMG changes with respect to time over long periods and repetitive contractions. The proposed method composed the muscle-twitch model representing the force generated by a single spike and the spikes extracted from sEMG. In this study, isometric contractions at six different joint angles (ten subjects) and dynamic contractions with constant velocity (six subjects) were performed under non-fatigue and fatigue conditions. Performance of the proposed method was evaluated and compared with that of previous methods using mean absolute value (MAV). The proposed method achieved average 6.7±2.8 %RMSE for isometric contraction and 15.6±24.7 %RMSE for isokinetic contraction under fatigue condition with more accurate results than the previous methods.

  11. Calcium balance in mature male rats with unloaded hindlimbs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navidi, Meena; Evans, Juliann; Wolinsky, Ira; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium balances, regulated by the calcium endocrine system, are negative during spaceflight but have not been reported in flight simulation models using fully mature small animals. METHODS: We conducted two calcium (Ca) balance studies in 6-mo-old male rats exposed to a model that unloads the hindlimbs (HU) for 4 wk. Control (C) and HU rats were fed diets with 0.5% Ca in the first and 0.1% Ca in the second study. Housing in metabolic cages enabled daily food and water intake measurements as well as collections of urine and fecal specimens. At necropsy, blood was obtained for measures of Ca-regulating hormones. RESULTS: Both C and HU rats adjusted to housing and diets with decreases in body weight and negative Ca balances during the first week of each experiment. Thereafter, averages of Ca balances were more negative in the unloaded rats than controls: -8.1 vs. -1.6 mg x d(-1) in rats fed 0.5% (p < 0.05). This difference was not due to urinary Ca excretion since it was lower in HU than C rats (1.27 +/- 0.51 mg x d(-1) vs. 2.35 +/- 0.82 mg x d(-1), p < 0.05). Fecal Ca in HU rats exceeded dietary Ca by 4-7%, Restricting dietary Ca to 0.1% was followed by an increase in serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-D) and greater intestinal Ca absorption than in rats fed 0.5% Ca. Ca balances in rats fed 0.1% Ca were also more negative in HU than C rats (-2.4 vs. -0.03 mg x d(-1), p < 0.05). Parathyroid hormone (PTH) was suppressed and 1,25-D increased in HU rats fed 0.5% Ca. C rats fed 0.1% Ca had increased PTH and 1,25-D was the same as in the HU group. CONCLUSION: After adaptation, Ca balances were more negative in mature male rats with unloaded hindlimbs than controls, an effect from increased secretion and loss of endogenous fecal Ca associated with increased 1,25-D in Ca-replete and Ca-restricted rats.

  12. Deoxypyridinoline in the Urine of Rats with Unloaded Hindlimbs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Navidi, M.; Wren, J.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline (U-Dpd), a nonreducible collagen crosslink in bone released by osteoclastic activity, is thought to be an accurate marker of bone resorption. The role of increased resorption in the osteopenia of a space flight model which unloads the hindlimbs by suspending the tail is controversial. To assess skeletal resorption in the model we measured U-Dpd (Pyrilinks-D, Metro Biosystems, Inc.) in serial 24 hour urine specimens collected from 250 a (Y) and 450 a (M) male rats with unloaded hindlimbs for four weeks. Both groups of rats were fed AIN76 diets with calcium restricted to 0.2% in Y and to 0.1 % in M. Blood was obtained after 28 days for parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-D) and alkaline phosphatase (Alkptase). Basal U-Dpd was higher and more variable in Y than M (475+/-200 vs 67+/-9, nM/mM creatinine, p<.001). Repeated measures ANOVA in Y revealed decreases in U-Dpd, 36% in control (C) and 24% in unloaded (S) rats (p<.005). There was a nadir in YS on the 14th day not observed in YC (p<.05). U-Dpd in MC showed no change, but increased in MS by the 14th day and remained elevated. At the end of the experiment, body weights in both Y and M were less in S than C (337+/-16 vs 306+/-12g and 485+/-10 vs 461+/-6g, p=.002). Bill was inversely related to U-Dpd only in M (r=0.699, p=.024). PTH, similar in C and S in Y (52+/-15 vs 42+/-7pg/ml, NS) and M (68+/-13 vs 61+/-12, NS), was unrelated to U-Dpd. 1,25-D tended toward higher values in YC than YS (197+/-103 vs 119+/-30, NS) and correlated with U-Dpd (0.773, p=.015). Alkptase, 1.3 times higher in Y than M, was similar in C and S at the end of unloading. These findings indicate that bone resorption, as reflected by U-Dpd, is suppressed in young and stimulated in mature rats exposed to a space flight model. U-Dpd reflects reduced growth from the diet change in young control and experimental rats and loss of Bill in mature animals exposed to the space flight model, 2

  13. [Relationship between simulated weightlessness-induced muscle spindle change and muscle atrophy].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue-Hong; Fan, Xiao-Li

    2013-02-25

    One of the most important and urgent issues in the field of space medicine is to reveal the potential mechanism underlying the disused muscle atrophy during the weightlessness or microgravity environment. It will conduce to find out effective methods for the prevention and treatment of muscle atrophy during a long-term space flight. Increasing data show that muscle spindle discharges are significantly altered following the hindlimb unloading, suggesting a vital role in the progress of muscle atrophy. In the last decades, we have made a series of studies on changes in the morphological structure and function of muscle spindle following simulated weightlessness. This review will discuss our main results and related researches for understanding of muscle spindle activities during microgravity environment, which may provide a theoretic basis for effective prevention and treatment of muscle atrophy induced by weightlessness.

  14. Dynamic, but not static, pain sensitivity predicts exercise-induced muscle pain: Covariation of temporal sensory summation and pain intensity

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Mark D.; George, Steven Z.; Robinson, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Cross-section studies suggest that measures of pain sensitivity, derived from quantitative sensory testing (QST), are elevated in persons with chronic pain conditions. However, little is known about whether development of chronic pain is preceded by elevated pain sensitivity or pain sensitivity increases as a result of prolonged experience of pain. Here we used QST to test static (single suprathreshold stimuli) and dynamic (temporal sensory summation) pain processing of thermal stimuli. Muscle pain was induced using high-intensity exercise (DOMS). Multi-level modeling approaches determined the daily covariation among static and dynamic QST measures and pain intensity. Variation in responses to static pain sensitivity was not associated with pain intensity from DOMS while, in contrast, variation in dynamic pain sensitivity was positively associated with variation in pain intensity from DOMS. This finding supports the use of TSS as a marker of the central pain state and potentially as an appropriate measure for treatment monitoring. PMID:22967843

  15. ATP and heat production in human skeletal muscle during dynamic exercise: higher efficiency of anaerobic than aerobic ATP resynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Krustrup, Peter; Ferguson, Richard A; Kjær, Michael; Bangsbo, Jens

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to simultaneously examine skeletal muscle heat production and ATP turnover in humans during dynamic exercise with marked differences in aerobic metabolism. This was done to test the hypothesis that efficiency is higher in anaerobic than aerobic ATP resynthesis. Six healthy male subjects performed 90 s of low intensity knee-extensor exercise with (OCC) and without thigh occlusion (CON-LI) as well as 90 s of high intensity exercise (CON-HI) that continued from the CON-LI bout. Muscle heat production was determined by continuous measurements of muscle heat accumulation and heat release to the blood. Muscle ATP production was quantified by repeated measurements of thigh oxygen uptake as well as blood and muscle metabolite changes. All temperatures of the thigh were equalized to ≈37 °C prior to exercise by a water-perfused heating cuff. Oxygen uptake accounted for 80 ± 2 and 59 ± 4 %, respectively, of the total ATP resynthesis in CON-LI and CON-HI, whereas it was negligible in OCC. The rise in muscle temperature was lower (P < 0.05) in OCC than CON-LI (0.32 ± 0.04 vs. 0.37 ± 0.03 °C). The mean rate of heat production was also lower (P < 0.05) in OCC than CON-LI (36 ± 4 vs. 57 ± 4 J s−1). Mechanical efficiency was 52 ± 4 % after 15 s of OCC and remained constant, whereas it decreased (P < 0.05) from 56 ± 5 to 32 ± 3 % during CON-LI. During CON-HI, mechanical efficiency transiently increased (P < 0.05) to 47 ± 4 %, after which it decreased (P < 0.05) to 36 ± 3 % at the end of CON-HI. Assuming a fully coupled mitochondrial respiration, the ATP turnover per unit of work was calculated to be unaltered during OCC (≈20 mmol ATP kJ−1), whereas it increased (P < 0.05) from 21 ± 4 to 29 ± 3 mmol ATP kJ−1 during CON-LI and further (P < 0.05) to 37 ± 3 mmol ATP kJ−1 during CON-HI. The present data confirm the hypothesis that heat loss is lower in anaerobic ATP resynthesis than in oxidative phosphorylation and can in part

  16. Cellular dynamics of regeneration reveals role of two distinct Pax7 stem cell populations in larval zebrafish muscle repair

    PubMed Central

    Pipalia, Tapan G.; Koth, Jana; Roy, Shukolpa D.; Hammond, Christina L.; Kawakami, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Heterogeneity of stem cells or their niches is likely to influence tissue regeneration. Here we reveal stem/precursor cell diversity during wound repair in larval zebrafish somitic body muscle using time-lapse 3D confocal microscopy on reporter lines. Skeletal muscle with incision wounds rapidly regenerates both slow and fast muscle fibre types. A swift immune response is followed by an increase in cells at the wound site, many of which express the muscle stem cell marker Pax7. Pax7+ cells proliferate and then undergo terminal differentiation involving Myogenin accumulation and subsequent loss of Pax7 followed by elongation and fusion to repair fast muscle fibres. Analysis of pax7a and pax7b transgenic reporter fish reveals that cells expressing each of the duplicated pax7 genes are distinctly localised in uninjured larvae. Cells marked by pax7a only or by both pax7a and pax7b enter the wound rapidly and contribute to muscle wound repair, but each behaves differently. Low numbers of pax7a-only cells form nascent fibres. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that the more numerous pax7b-marked cells frequently fuse to pre-existing fibres, contributing more strongly than pax7a-only cells to repair of damaged fibres. pax7b-marked cells are more often present in rows of aligned cells that are observed to fuse into a single fibre, but more rarely contribute to nascent regenerated fibres. Ablation of a substantial portion of nitroreductase-expressing pax7b cells with metronidazole prior to wounding triggered rapid pax7a-only cell accumulation, but this neither inhibited nor augmented pax7a-only cell-derived myogenesis and thus altered the cellular repair dynamics during wound healing. Moreover, pax7a-only cells did not regenerate pax7b cells, suggesting a lineage distinction. We propose a modified founder cell and fusion-competent cell model in which pax7a-only cells initiate fibre formation and pax7b cells contribute to fibre growth. This newly discovered cellular

  17. Decrease of Na, K-ATPase Electrogenic Contribution and Resting Membrane Potential of Rat Soleus after 3 Days of Hindlimb Unloading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivoi, I. I.; Kravtsova, V. V.; Drabkina, T. M.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Nikolsky, E. E.; Shenkman, B. S.

    2008-06-01

    The Na,K-ATPase activity is critically important for excitability, electrogenesis and contractility of skeletal muscle expressing ? and ? isoforms of the enzyme [6, 9]. It is well known that disuse induced by hindlimb unloading (HU) leads to progressive atrophy of skeletal muscle; the muscle undergoes a number of dramatic remodeling events. In particular, changes in ion channel expression in response to muscle unweighting were observed [1, 8]. Decrease of resting membrane potential (RMP), electrogenic contribution of Na,K-ATPase and membrane resistance during 7-28 days of HU was shown [8, 10]. The intrinsic mechanisms involved in the process have not been revealed until present. At the same time, the understanding of these mechanisms could be crucial for the disclosing the mechanisms underlying the resting Ca2+ accumulation in the cytoplasm of the unloaded muscle [3, 7]. In the present study, the effect of early (3 days) HU-induced disuse of slow-twitch soleus muscle on membrane electrogenesis as well as on electrogenic contribution of Na,K-ATPase isoforms was investigated.

  18. Triclosan impairs excitation–contraction coupling and Ca2+ dynamics in striated muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cherednichenko, Gennady; Zhang, Rui; Bannister, Roger A.; Timofeyev, Valeriy; Li, Ning; Fritsch, Erika B.; Feng, Wei; Barrientos, Genaro C.; Schebb, Nils H.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Beam, Kurt G.; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Pessah, Isaac N.

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS), a high-production-volume chemical used as a bactericide in personal care products, is a priority pollutant of growing concern to human and environmental health. TCS is capable of altering the activity of type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1), but its potential to influence physiological excitation–contraction coupling (ECC) and muscle function has not been investigated. Here, we report that TCS impairs ECC of both cardiac and skeletal muscle in vitro and in vivo. TCS acutely depresses hemodynamics and grip strength in mice at doses ≥12.5 mg/kg i.p., and a concentration ≥0.52 μM in water compromises swimming performance in larval fathead minnow. In isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes, skeletal myotubes, and adult flexor digitorum brevis fibers TCS depresses electrically evoked ECC within ∼10–20 min. In myotubes, nanomolar to low micromolar TCS initially potentiates electrically evoked Ca2+ transients followed by complete failure of ECC, independent of Ca2+ store depletion or block of RyR1 channels. TCS also completely blocks excitation-coupled Ca2+ entry. Voltage clamp experiments showed that TCS partially inhibits L-type Ca2+ currents of cardiac and skeletal muscle, and [3H]PN200 binding to skeletal membranes is noncompetitively inhibited by TCS in the same concentration range that enhances [3H]ryanodine binding. TCS potently impairs orthograde and retrograde signaling between L-type Ca2+ and RyR channels in skeletal muscle, and L-type Ca2+ entry in cardiac muscle, revealing a mechanism by which TCS weakens cardiac and skeletal muscle contractility in a manner that may negatively impact muscle health, especially in susceptible populations. PMID:22891308

  19. Impaired Axonal Na+ Current by Hindlimb Unloading: Implication for Disuse Neuromuscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Banzrai, Chimeglkham; Nodera, Hiroyuki; Kawarai, Toshitaka; Higashi, Saki; Okada, Ryo; Mori, Atsuko; Shimatani, Yoshimitsu; Osaki, Yusuke; Kaji, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the excitability changes in peripheral motor axons caused by hindlimb unloading (HLU), which is a model of disuse neuromuscular atrophy. HLU was performed in normal 8-week-old male mice by fixing the proximal tail by a clip connected to the top of the animal's cage for 3 weeks. Axonal excitability studies were performed by stimulating the sciatic nerve at the ankle and recording the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) from the foot. The amplitudes of the motor responses of the unloading group were 51% of the control amplitudes [2.2 ± 1.3 mV (HLU) vs. 4.3 ± 1.2 mV (Control), P = 0.03]. Multiple axonal excitability analysis showed that the unloading group had a smaller strength-duration time constant (SDTC) and late subexcitability (recovery cycle) than the controls [0.075 ± 0.01 (HLU) vs. 0.12 ± 0.01 (Control), P < 0.01; 5.4 ± 1.0 (HLU) vs. 10.0 ± 1.3 % (Control), P = 0.01, respectively]. Three weeks after releasing from HLU, the SDTC became comparable to the control range. Using a modeling study, the observed differences in the waveforms could be explained by reduced persistent Na+ currents along with parameters related to current leakage. Quantification of RNA of a SCA1A gene coding a voltage-gated Na+ channel tended to be decreased in the sciatic nerve in HLU. The present study suggested that axonal ion currents are altered in vivo by HLU. It is still undetermined whether the dysfunctional axonal ion currents have any pathogenicity on neuromuscular atrophy or are the results of neural plasticity by atrophy. PMID:26909041

  20. Detrimental effect of class-selective histone deacetylase inhibitors during tissue regeneration following hindlimb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Spallotta, Francesco; Tardivo, Silvia; Nanni, Simona; Rosati, Jessica D; Straino, Stefania; Mai, Antonello; Vecellio, Matteo; Valente, Sergio; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Farsetti, Antonella; Martone, Julie; Bozzoni, Irene; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Gaetano, Carlo; Colussi, Claudia

    2013-08-09

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (DIs) are promising drugs for the treatment of several pathologies including ischemic and failing heart where they demonstrated efficacy. However, adverse side effects and cardiotoxicity have also been reported. Remarkably, no information is available about the effect of DIs during tissue regeneration following acute peripheral ischemia. In this study, mice made ischemic by femoral artery excision were injected with the DIs MS275 and MC1568, selective for class I and IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. In untreated mice, soon after damage, class IIa HDAC phosphorylation and nuclear export occurred, paralleled by dystrophin and neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) down-regulation and decreased protein phosphatase 2A activity. Between 14 and 21 days after ischemia, dystrophin and nNOS levels recovered, and class IIa HDACs relocalized to the nucleus. In this condition, the MC1568 compound increased the number of newly formed muscle fibers but delayed their terminal differentiation, whereas MS275 abolished the early onset of the regeneration process determining atrophy and fibrosis. The selective DIs had differential effects on the vascular compartment: MC1568 increased arteriogenesis whereas MS275 inhibited it. Capillarogenesis did not change. Chromatin immunoprecipitations revealed that class IIa HDAC complexes bind promoters of proliferation-associated genes and of class I HDAC1 and 2, highlighting a hierarchical control between class II and I HDACs during tissue regeneration. Our findings indicate that class-selective DIs interfere with normal mouse ischemic hindlimb regeneration and suggest that their use could be limited by alteration of the regeneration process in peripheral ischemic tissues.

  1. A Cretaceous terrestrial snake with robust hindlimbs and a sacrum.

    PubMed

    Apesteguía, Sebastián; Zaher, Hussam

    2006-04-20

    It has commonly been thought that snakes underwent progressive loss of their limbs by gradual diminution of their use. However, recent developmental and palaeontological discoveries suggest a more complex scenario of limb reduction, still poorly documented in the fossil record. Here we report a fossil snake with a sacrum supporting a pelvic girdle and robust, functional legs outside the ribcage. The new fossil, from the Upper Cretaceous period of Patagonia, fills an important gap in the evolutionary progression towards limblessness because other known fossil snakes with developed hindlimbs, the marine Haasiophis, Pachyrhachis and Eupodophis, lack a sacral region. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the new fossil is the most primitive (basal) snake known and that all other limbed fossil snakes are closer to the more advanced macrostomatan snakes, a group including boas, pythons and colubroids. The new fossil retains several features associated with a subterranean or surface dwelling life that are also present in primitive extant snake lineages, supporting the hypothesis of a terrestrial rather than marine origin of snakes.

  2. Dynamic diffusion tensor measurements in muscle tissue using Single Line Multiple Echo Diffusion Tensor Acquisition Technique at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Baete, Steven H.; Cho, Gene; Sigmund, Eric E.

    2015-01-01

    When diffusion biomarkers display transient changes, i.e. in muscle following exercise, traditional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) methods lack temporal resolution to resolve the dynamics. This paper presents an MRI method for dynamic diffusion tensor acquisitions on a clinical 3T scanner. This method, SL-MEDITATE (Single Line Multiple Echo Diffusion Tensor Acquisition Technique) achieves a high temporal resolution (4s) (1) by rapid diffusion encoding through the acquisition of multiple echoes with unique diffusion sensitization and (2) by limiting the readout to a single line volume. The method is demonstrated in a rotating anisotropic phantom, in a flow phantom with adjustable flow speed, and in in vivo skeletal calf muscle of healthy volunteers following a plantar flexion exercise. The rotating and flow-varying phantom experiments show that SL-MEDITATE correctly identifies the rotation of the first diffusion eigenvector and the changes in diffusion tensor parameter magnitudes, respectively. Immediately following exercise, the in vivo mean diffusivity (MD) time-courses show, before the well-known increase, an initial decrease which is not typically observed in traditional DTI. In conclusion, SL-MEDITATE can be used to capture transient changes in tissue anisotropy in a single line. Future progress might allow for dynamic DTI when combined with appropriate k-space trajectories and compressed sensing reconstruction. PMID:25900166

  3. Viscoelastic and dynamic nonlinear properties of airway smooth muscle tissue: roles of mechanical force and the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Ito, Satoru; Majumdar, Arnab; Kume, Hiroaki; Shimokata, Kaoru; Naruse, Keiji; Lutchen, Kenneth R; Stamenovic, Dimitrije; Suki, Béla

    2006-06-01

    The viscoelastic and dynamic nonlinear properties of guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle tissues were investigated by measuring the storage (G') and loss (G") moduli using pseudorandom small-amplitude length oscillations between 0.12 and 3.5 Hz superimposed on static strains of either 10 or 20% of initial length. The G" and G' spectra were interpreted using a linear viscoelastic model incorporating damping (G) and stiffness (H), respectively. Both G and H were elevated following an increase in strain from 10 to 20%. There was no change in harmonic distortion (K(d)), an index of dynamic nonlinearity, between 10 and 20% strains. Application of methacholine at 10% strain significantly increased G and H while it decreased K(d). Cytochalasin D, isoproterenol, and HA-1077, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, significantly decreased both G and H but increased K(d). Following cytochalasin D, G, H, and K(d) were all elevated when mean strain increased from 10 to 20%. There were no changes in hysteresivity, G/H, under any condition. We conclude that not all aspects of the viscoelastic properties of tracheal smooth muscle strips are similar to those previously observed in cultured cells. We attribute these differences to the contribution of the extracellular matrix. Additionally, using a network model, we show that the dynamic nonlinear behavior, which has not been observed in cell culture, is associated with the state of the contractile stress and may derive from active polymerization within the cytoskeleton.

  4. Relationship of MTT reduction to stimulants of muscle metabolism.

    PubMed

    Newman, J M; DiMaria, C A; Rattigan, S; Steen, J T; Miller, K A; Eldershaw, T P; Clark, M G

    2000-10-16

    MTT, a positively charged tetrazolium salt, is widely used as an indicator of cell viability and metabolism and has potential for histochemical identification of tissue regions of hypermetabolism. In the present study, MTT was infused in the constant-flow perfused rat hindlimb to assess the effect of various agents and particularly vasoconstrictors that increase muscle metabolism. Reduction of MTT to the insoluble formazan in muscles assessed at the end of experiments was linear over a 30 min period and production rates were greater in red fibre types than white fibre types. The vasoconstrictors, norepinephrine (100 nM) and angiotensin (10 nM) decreased MTT formazan production in all muscles but increased hindlimb oxygen uptake and lactate efflux. Veratridine, a Na(+) channel opener that increases hindlimb oxygen uptake and lactate efflux without increases in perfusion pressure, also decreased MTT formazan production. Membrane stabilizing doses (100 microM) of (+/-)-propranolol reversed the inhibitory effects of angiotensin and veratridine on MTT formazan production. Muscle contractions elicited by stimulation of the sciatic nerve, reversed the norepinephrine-mediated inhibitory effects on MTT formazan production, even though oxygen consumption and lactate efflux were further stimulated. Stimulation of hindlimb muscle oxygen uptake by pentachlorophenol, a mitochondrial uncoupler, was not associated with alterations in MTT formazan production. It is concluded that apart from muscle contractions MTT formazan production does not increase with increased muscle metabolism. Since the vasoconstrictors angiotensin and norepinephrine as well as veratridine activate Na(+) channels and the Na(+)/K(+) pump, energy required for Na(+) pumping may be required for MTT reduction. It is unlikely that vasoconstrictors that stimulate oxygen uptake do so by uncoupling respiration.

  5. Characteristics of isometric and dynamic strength loss following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Byrne, C; Eston, R G; Edwards, R H

    2001-06-01

    Angle-specific isometric strength and angular velocity-specific concentric strength of the knee extensors were studied in eight subjects (5 males and 3 females) following a bout of muscular damaging exercise. One hundred maximal voluntary eccentric contractions of the knee extensors were performed in the prone position through a range of motion from 40 degrees to 140 degrees (0 degrees = full extension) at 1.57 rads(-1). Isometric peak torque was measured whilst seated at 10 degrees and 80 degrees knee flexion, corresponding to short and optimal muscle length, respectively. Isokinetic concentric peak torque was measured at 0.52 and 3.14 rad x s(-1). Plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity was also measured from a fingertip blood sample. These measures were taken before, immediately after and on days 1, 2, 4, and 7 following the eccentric exercise. The eccentric exercise protocol resuited in a greater relative loss of strength (P< 0.05) at short muscle length (76.3 +/- 2.5% of pre-exercise values) compared to optimal length (82.1 +/- 2.7%). There were no differences in the relative strength loss between isometric strength at optimal length and isokinetic concentric strength at 0.52 and 3.14 rad x s(-1). CK activity was significantly elevated above baseline at days 4 (P < 0.01) and 7 (P < 0.01). The greater relative strength loss at short muscle length appeared to persist throughout the seven-day testing period and provides indirect evidence of a shift in the angle-torque relationship towards longer muscle lengths. The results lend partial support to the popping sarcomere hypothesis of muscle damage, but could also be explained by an impairment of activation at short muscle lengths.

  6. The role of active muscle mass in determining the magnitude of peripheral fatigue during dynamic exercise.

    PubMed

    Rossman, Matthew J; Garten, Ryan S; Venturelli, Massimo; Amann, Markus; Richardson, Russell S

    2014-06-15

    Greater peripheral quadriceps fatigue at the voluntary termination of single-leg knee-extensor exercise (KE), compared with whole-body cycling, has been attributed to confining group III and IV skeletal muscle afferent feedback to a small muscle mass, enabling the central nervous system (CNS) to tolerate greater peripheral fatigue. However, as task specificity and vastly differing systemic challenges may have complicated this interpretation, eight males were studied during constant workload trials to exhaustion at 85% of peak workload during single-leg and double-leg KE. It was hypothesized that because of the smaller muscle mass engaged during single-leg KE, a greater magnitude of peripheral quadriceps fatigue would be present at exhaustion. Vastus lateralis integrated electromyogram (iEMG) signal relative to the first minute of exercise, preexercise to postexercise maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the quadriceps, and twitch-force evoked by supramaximal magnetic femoral nerve stimulation (Qtw,pot) quantified peripheral quadriceps fatigue. Trials performed with single-leg KE (8.1 ± 1.2 min; 45 ± 4 W) resulted in significantly greater peripheral quadriceps fatigue than double-leg KE (10 ± 1.3 min; 83 ± 7 W), as documented by changes in the iEMG signal (147 ± 24 vs. 85 ± 13%), MVC (-25 ± 3 vs. -12 ± 3%), and Qtw,pot (-44 ± 6 vs. -33 ± 7%), for single-leg and double-leg KE, respectively. Therefore, avoiding concerns over task specificity and cardiorespiratory limitations, this study reveals that a reduction in muscle mass permits the development of greater peripheral muscle fatigue and supports the concept that the CNS tolerates a greater magnitude of peripheral fatigue when the source of group III/IV afferent feedback is limited to a small muscle mass.

  7. Muscle heat production and anaerobic energy turnover during repeated intense dynamic exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    Krustrup, Peter; González-Alonso, José; Quistorff, Bjørn; Bangsbo, Jens

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine muscle heat production, oxygen uptake and anaerobic energy turnover throughout repeated intense exercise to test the hypotheses that (i) energy turnover is reduced when intense exercise is repeated and (ii) anaerobic energy production is diminished throughout repeated intense exercise. Five subjects performed three 3 min intense one-legged knee-extensor exercise bouts (EX1, EX2 and EX3) at a power output of 65 ± 5 W (mean ±s.e.m.), separated by 6 min rest periods. Muscle, femoral arterial and venous temperatures were measured continuously during exercise for the determination of muscle heat production. In addition, thigh blood flow was measured and femoral arterial and venous blood were sampled frequently during exercise for the determination of muscle oxygen uptake. Anaerobic energy turnover was estimated as the difference between total energy turnover and aerobic energy turnover. Prior to exercise, the temperature of the quadriceps muscle was passively elevated to 37.02 ± 0.12 °C and it increased 0.97 ± 0.08 °C during EX1, which was higher (P < 0.05) than during EX2 (0.79 ± 0.05 °C) and EX3 (0.77 ± 0.06 °C). In EX1 the rate of muscle heat accumulation was higher (P < 0.05) during the first 120 s compared to EX2 and EX3, whereas the rate of heat release to the blood was greater (P < 0.05) throughout EX2 and EX3 compared to EX1. The rate of heat production, determined as the sum of heat accumulation and release, was the same in EX1, EX2 and EX3, and it increased (P < 0.05) from 86 ± 8 during the first 15 s to 157 ± 7 J s−1 during the last 15 s of EX1. Oxygen extraction was higher during the first 60 s of EX2 and EX3 than in EX 1 and thigh oxygen uptake was elevated (P < 0.05) during the first 120 s of EX2 and throughout EX3 compared to EX1. The anaerobic energy production during the first 105 s of EX2 and 150 s of EX3 was lower (P < 0.05) than in EX1. The present study demonstrates that when intense exercise

  8. Hamiltonian Dynamics of a Forced Two-Degree-of-Freedom Arm with Viscoelastic Muscles Executing Planned Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Sayan; Ojakangas, Greg; Chase, Andrew; Chakrabarti, Anish; Sivils, Dalton; Johnson, Evan; Barrett, Kiefer; North, Mason; Julian, Preston

    2012-02-01

    In order to improve our understanding of how the brain controls the human arm both in the presence and absence of gravity, we have developed a two-degree-of-freedom robotic arm which is driven by six servo-actuated viscoelastic muscles. The computer-controlled servos mimic the contractive action of the sarcomeres in actual muscles, sections of elastic tubing represent the elastic behavior of actual muscles, while the behavior of tendons is represented by inelastic strings. The servos receive instructions to move from the visual C++ platform in the computer and the actual motion of the arm is recorded with optical encoders built into each joint axis. This experiment is a purely feed-forward system, and our goal is to determine whether our equations of motion, formulated using Hamiltonian dynamics, when numerically integrated, will predict the observed motion of the arm within experimental uncertainties. Our research was selected as one of 12 teams chosen nationwide as part of NASA Grant Us Space Reduced Gravity Program, to fly and perform experiments aboard NASA's Weightless Wonder aircraft in Summer 2011.

  9. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Regulates Mitochondrial Oxygen Consumption and Dynamics in Human Skeletal Muscle Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Zachary C.; Craig, Theodore A.; Folmes, Clifford D.; Wang, Xuewei; Lanza, Ian R.; Schaible, Niccole S.; Salisbury, Jeffrey L.; Nair, K. Sreekumaran; Terzic, Andre; Sieck, Gary C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Muscle weakness and myopathy are observed in vitamin D deficiency and chronic renal failure, where concentrations of the active vitamin D3 metabolite, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3), are low. To evaluate the mechanism of action of 1α,25(OH)2D3 in skeletal muscle, we examined mitochondrial oxygen consumption, dynamics, and biogenesis and changes in expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in human skeletal muscle cells following treatment with 1α,25(OH)2D3. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR) increased in 1α,25(OH)2D3-treated cells. Vitamin D3 metabolites lacking a 1α-hydroxyl group (vitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) decreased or failed to increase OCR. 1α-Hydroxyvitamin D3 did not increase OCR. In 1α,25(OH)2D3-treated cells, mitochondrial volume and branching and expression of the pro-fusion protein OPA1 (optic atrophy 1) increased, whereas expression of the pro-fission proteins Fis1 (fission 1) and Drp1 (dynamin 1-like) decreased. Phosphorylated pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) (Ser-293) and PDH kinase 4 (PDK4) decreased in 1α,25(OH)2D3-treated cells. There was a trend to increased PDH activity in 1α,25(OH)2D3-treated cells (p = 0.09). 83 nuclear mRNAs encoding mitochondrial proteins were changed following 1α,25(OH)2D3 treatment; notably, PDK4 mRNA decreased, and PDP2 mRNA increased. MYC, MAPK13, and EPAS1 mRNAs, which encode proteins that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, were increased following 1α,25(OH)2D3 treatment. Vitamin D receptor-dependent changes in the expression of 1947 mRNAs encoding proteins involved in muscle contraction, focal adhesion, integrin, JAK/STAT, MAPK, growth factor, and p53 signaling pathways were observed following 1α,25(OH)2D3 treatment. Five micro-RNAs were induced or repressed by 1α,25(OH)2D3. 1α,25(OH)2D3 regulates mitochondrial function, dynamics, and enzyme function, which are likely to influence muscle strength. PMID:26601949

  10. Effects of N-acetylcysteine and pentoxifylline on remote lung injury in a rat model of hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Hesaraki, Saeed; Razmara, Foad; Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Hajizadeh, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and pentoxifylline in a model of remote organ injury after hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats, the lungs being the remote organ system. Methods : Thirty-five male Wistar rats were assigned to one of five conditions (n = 7/group), as follows: sham operation (control group); hind-limb ischemia, induced by clamping the left femoral artery, for 2 h, followed by 24 h of reperfusion (I/R group); and hind-limb ischemia, as above, followed by intraperitoneal injection (prior to reperfusion) of 150 mg/kg of NAC (I/R+NAC group), 40 mg/kg of pentoxifylline (I/R+PTX group), or both (I/R+NAC+PTX group). At the end of the trial, lung tissues were removed for histological analysis and assessment of oxidative stress. Results : In comparison with the rats in the other groups, those in the I/R group showed lower superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels, together with higher malondialdehyde levels and lung injury scores (p < 0.05 for all). Interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration of the lungs was also markedly greater in the I/R group than in the other groups. In addition, I/R group rats showed various signs of interstitial edema and hemorrhage. In the I/R+NAC, I/R+PTX, and I/R+NAC+PTX groups, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione levels, malondialdehyde levels, and lung injury scores were preserved (p < 0.05 for all). The differences between the administration of NAC or pentoxifylline alone and the administration of the two together were not significant for any of those parameters (p > 0.05 for all). Conclusions : Our results suggest that NAC and pentoxifylline both protect lung tissue from the effects of skeletal muscle I/R. However, their combined use does not appear to increase the level of that protection. PMID:26982035

  11. Single-stage Dynamic Reanimation of the Smile in Irreversible Facial Paralysis by Free Functional Muscle Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Jan; Bannasch, Holger; Stark, G. Bjoern; Eisenhardt, Steffen U.

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral facial paralysis is a common disease that is associated with significant functional, aesthetic and psychological issues. Though idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell’s palsy) is the most common diagnosis, patients can also present with a history of physical trauma, infectious disease, tumor, or iatrogenic facial paralysis. Early repair within one year of injury can be achieved by direct nerve repair, cross-face nerve grafting or regional nerve transfer. It is due to muscle atrophy that in long lasting facial paralysis complex reconstructive methods have to be applied. Instead of one single procedure, different surgical approaches have to be considered to alleviate the various components of the paralysis. The reconstruction of a spontaneous dynamic smile with a symmetric resting tone is a crucial factor to overcome the functional deficits and the social handicap that are associated with facial paralysis. Although numerous surgical techniques have been described, a two-stage approach with an initial cross-facial nerve grafting followed by a free functional muscle transfer is most frequently applied. In selected patients however, a single-stage reconstruction using the motor nerve to the masseter as donor nerve is superior to a two-stage repair. The gracilis muscle is most commonly used for reconstruction, as it presents with a constant anatomy, a simple dissection and minimal donor site morbidity. Here we demonstrate the pre-operative work-up, the post-operative management, and precisely describe the surgical procedure of single-stage microsurgical reconstruction of the smile by free functional gracilis muscle transfer in a step by step protocol. We further illustrate common pitfalls and provide useful tips which should enable the reader to truly comprehend the procedure. We further discuss indications and limitations of the technique and demonstrate representative results. PMID:25868011

  12. Single-stage dynamic reanimation of the smile in irreversible facial paralysis by free functional muscle transfer.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Jan; Bannasch, Holger; Stark, G Bjoern; Eisenhardt, Steffen U

    2015-03-01

    Unilateral facial paralysis is a common disease that is associated with significant functional, aesthetic and psychological issues. Though idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell's palsy) is the most common diagnosis, patients can also present with a history of physical trauma, infectious disease, tumor, or iatrogenic facial paralysis. Early repair within one year of injury can be achieved by direct nerve repair, cross-face nerve grafting or regional nerve transfer. It is due to muscle atrophy that in long lasting facial paralysis complex reconstructive methods have to be applied. Instead of one single procedure, different surgical approaches have to be considered to alleviate the various components of the paralysis. The reconstruction of a spontaneous dynamic smile with a symmetric resting tone is a crucial factor to overcome the functional deficits and the social handicap that are associated with facial paralysis. Although numerous surgical techniques have been described, a two-stage approach with an initial cross-facial nerve grafting followed by a free functional muscle transfer is most frequently applied. In selected patients however, a single-stage reconstruction using the motor nerve to the masseter as donor nerve is superior to a two-stage repair. The gracilis muscle is most commonly used for reconstruction, as it presents with a constant anatomy, a simple dissection and minimal donor site morbidity. Here we demonstrate the pre-operative work-up, the post-operative management, and precisely describe the surgical procedure of single-stage microsurgical reconstruction of the smile by free functional gracilis muscle transfer in a step by step protocol. We further illustrate common pitfalls and provide useful tips which should enable the reader to truly comprehend the procedure. We further discuss indications and limitations of the technique and demonstrate representative results.

  13. Sensitivity of dynamic simulations of gait and dynamometer experiments to hill muscle model parameters of knee flexors and extensors.

    PubMed

    De Groote, F; Van Campen, A; Jonkers, I; De Schutter, J

    2010-07-20

    We assessed and compared sensitivities of dynamic simulations to musculotendon (MT) parameters for gait and dynamometer experiments. Our aim with this comparison was to investigate whether dynamometer experiments could provide information about MT-parameters that are important to reliably study MT-function during gait. This would mean that dynamometer experiments could be used to estimate these parameters. Muscle contribution to the joint torque (MT-torque) rather than relative MT-force primarily affects the resulting gait pattern and torque measured by the dynamometer. In contrast to recent studies, therefore, we assessed the sensitivity of the MT-torque, rather than the sensitivity of the relative MT-force. Based on sensitivity of the MT-torque to a parameter perturbation, MT-parameters of the knee flexors and extensors were classified in three categories: low, medium, and high. For gait, classification was based on the average sensitivity during a gait cycle. For isometric and isokinetic dynamometer experiments, classification was based on the highest sensitivity found in the experiments. The calculated muscle contributions to the knee torque during gait and dynamometer experiments had a high sensitivity to only a limited number of MT-parameters of the knee flexors and extensors, suggesting that not all MT-parameters need to be estimated. In general, the highest sensitivity was found for tendon slack length. However, for some muscles the sensitivity to the optimal fibre length or the maximal isometric muscle force was also high or medium. The classification of the individual MT-parameters for gait and dynamometer experiments was largely similar. We therefore conclude that dynamometer experiments provide information about MT-parameters important to reliably study MT-function during gait, so that subject-specific estimates of MT-parameters could be made based on dynamometer experiments.

  14. Electrostimulation during hindlimb unloading modulates PI3K-AKT downstream targets without preventing soleus atrophy and restores slow phenotype through ERK.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Erwan; Cieniewski-Bernard, Caroline; Bastide, Bruno; Stevens, Laurence

    2011-02-01

    Our aim was to analyze the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT and MAPK signaling pathways in the regulation of muscle mass and slow-to-fast phenotype transition during hindlimb unloading (HU). For that purpose, we studied, in rat slow soleus and fast extensor digitorum longus muscles, the time course of anabolic PI3K-AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin, catabolic PI3K-AKT-forkhead box O (FOXO), and MAPK signaling pathway activation after 7, 14, and 28 days of HU. Moreover, we performed chronic low-frequency soleus electrostimulation during HU to maintain exclusively contractile phenotype and so to determine more precisely the role of these signaling pathways in the modulation of muscle mass. HU induced a downregulation of the anabolic AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin, 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 4E-binding protein 1, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β targets, and an upregulation of the catabolic FOXO1 and muscle-specific RING finger protein-1 targets correlated with soleus muscle atrophy. Unexpectedly, soleus electrostimulation maintained 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 4E-binding protein 1, FOXO1, and muscle-specific RING finger protein-1 to control levels, but failed to reduce muscle atrophy. HU decreased ERK phosphorylation, while electrostimulation enabled the maintenance of ERK phosphorylation similar to control level. Moreover, slow-to-fast myosin heavy chain phenotype transition and upregulated glycolytic metabolism were prevented by soleus electrostimulation during HU. Taken together, our data demonstrated that the processes responsible for gradual disuse muscle plasticity in HU conditions involved both PI3-AKT and MAPK pathways. Moreover, electrostimulation during HU restored PI3K-AKT activation without counteracting soleus atrophy, suggesting the involvement of other signaling pathways. Finally, electrostimulation maintained initial contractile and metabolism properties in parallel to ERK activation, reinforcing the idea of a

  15. Effect of Hindlimb Unweighting on Single Soleus Fiber Maximal Shortening Velocity and ATPase Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, K. S.; Fitts, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    This study characterizes the time course of change in single soleus muscle fiber size and function elicited by hindlimb un weighting (HU) and analyzes the extent to which varying durations of HU altered maximal velocity of shortening (V(sub o)), myofibrillar adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase), and relative content of slow and fast myosin in individual soleus fibers. After 1, 2, or 3 weeks of HU, soleus muscle bundles were prepared and stored in skinning solution at -20 C. Single fibers were isolated and mounted between a motor arm and a transducer, and fiber force, V(sub o), and ATPase activity were measured. Fiber myosin content was determined by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate- (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After 1, 2, and 3 weeks of HU, soleus fibers exhibited a progressive reduction in fiber diameter (16, 22, and 42%, respectively) and peak force (42, 48, and 7%, respectively). Peak specific tension was significantly reduced after 1 week of HU (18%) and showed no further change in 2-3 weeks of HU. During 1 and 3 wk of HU, fiber V(sub o) and ATPase showed a significant increase. By 3 week, V(sub o) had increased from 1.32 +/- 0.04 to 2.94 +/- 0.17 fiber lengths/s and fiber ATPase from 291 +/- 16 to 1064 +/- 128 micro-M min(sub -1) mm(sub -3). The percent fibers expressing fast myosin heavy chain increased from 4% to 29% by 3 week of HU, and V(sub o) and ATPase activity within a fiber were highly correlated. However, a large population of fibers after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of HU showed increases in V(sub o) and ATPase but displayed the same myosin protein profile on SDS gels as control fibers. The mechanism eliciting increased fiber V(sub o) and ATPase activity was not obvious but may have been due to increases in fast myosin that went undetected on SDS gels and/or other factors unrelated to the myosin filament.

  16. Adaptive control for backward quadrupedal walking V. Mutable activation of bifunctional thigh muscles.

    PubMed

    Pratt, C A; Buford, J A; Smith, J L

    1996-02-01

    1. In this, the fifth article in a series to assess changes in posture, hindlimb dynamics, and muscle synergies associated with backward (BWD) quadrupedal walking, we compared the recruitment of three biarticular muscles of the cat's anterior thigh (anterior sartorius, SAa; medial sartorius, SAm; rectus femoris, RF) for forward (FWD) and BWD treadmill walking. Electromyography (EMG) records from these muscles, along with those of two muscles (semitendinosus, ST; anterior biceps femoris, ABF) studied previously in this series, were synchronized with kinematic data digitized from high-speed ciné film for unperturbed steps and steps in which a stumbling corrective reaction was elicited during swing. 2. During swing, the relative timing of EMG activity for the unifunctional SAm (hip and knee flexor) was similar for unperturbed steps of FWD and BWD walking. The SAm was active before paw lift off and remained active during most of swing (75%) for both forms of walking, but there was a marked decrease in EMG amplitude after paw off during BWD and not FWD swing. In contrast, the relative timing of EMG activity for the SAa and RF, two bifunctional muscles (hip flexors, knee extensors), was different for FWD and BWD swing. During FWD swing, the SAa and the RF (to a lesser extent) were coactive with the SAm; however, during BWD swing, the SAa and RF were active just before paw lift off and then inactive for the rest of swing until just before paw contact (see 3). Thus the swing-phase activity of the SAa and RF was markedly shorter for BWD than FWD swing. 3. Activity in SAa and RF was also different during FWD and BWD stance. The RF was consistently active from mid-to-late stance of FWD walking, and the SAa was also active during this period in some FWD steps. During the stance phase of BWD walking, however, the onset of activity in both muscles consistently shifted to early stance as both muscles became active just before paw contact (the E1 phase). Activity in RF

  17. Task-Dependent Intermuscular Motor Unit Synchronization between Medial and Lateral Vastii Muscles during Dynamic and Isometric Squats

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Maurice; Nann, Marius; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Eskofier, Bjoern; Nigg, Benno Maurus

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Motor unit activity is coordinated between many synergistic muscle pairs but the functional role of this coordination for the motor output is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term modality of coordinated motor unit activity–the synchronized discharge of individual motor units across muscles within time intervals of 5ms–for the Vastus Medialis (VM) and Lateralis (VL). Furthermore, we studied the task-dependency of intermuscular motor unit synchronization between VM and VL during static and dynamic squatting tasks to provide insight into its functional role. Methods Sixteen healthy male and female participants completed four tasks: Bipedal squats, single-leg squats, an isometric squat, and single-leg balance. Monopolar surface electromyography (EMG) was used to record motor unit activity of VM and VL. For each task, intermuscular motor unit synchronization was determined using a coherence analysis between the raw EMG signals of VM and VL and compared to a reference coherence calculated from two desynchronized EMG signals. The time shift between VM and VL EMG signals was estimated according to the slope of the coherence phase angle spectrum. Results For all tasks, except for singe-leg balance, coherence between 15–80Hz significantly exceeded the reference. The corresponding time shift between VM and VL was estimated as 4ms. Coherence between 30–60Hz was highest for the bipedal squat, followed by the single-leg squat and the isometric squat. Conclusion There is substantial short-term motor unit synchronization between VM and VL. Intermuscular motor unit synchronization is enhanced for contractions during dynamic activities, possibly to facilitate a more accurate control of the joint torque, and reduced during single-leg tasks that require balance control and thus, a more independent muscle function. It is proposed that the central nervous system scales the degree of intermuscular motor unit synchronization according to the

  18. Circulating micrornas as potential biomarkers of muscle atrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei

    2016-07-01

    Noninvasive biomarkers with diagnostic value and prognostic applications have long been desired to replace muscle biopsy for muscle atrophy patients. Growing evidence indicates that circulating microRNAs are biomarkers to assess pathophysiological status. Here, we show that the medium levels of six muscle-specific miRNAs (miR-1/23a/206/133/499/208b, also known as myomiRs) were all elevated in the medium of starved C2C12 cell (P < 0.01). And, the level of miR-1 and miR-23a were all elevated in the serum of hindlimb unloaded mice (P < 0.01). miR-23a levels were negatively correlated with both muscle mass and muscle fiber cross section area in muscle atrophy patients, indicating that they might represent the degree of muscle atrophy. Collectively, our data indicated that circulating myomiRs could serve as promising biomarkers for muscle atrophy.

  19. Cat hindlimb motoneurons during locomotion. II. Normal activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, J A; Sugano, N; Loeb, G E; Marks, W B; O'Donovan, M J; Pratt, C A

    1987-02-01

    Activity patterns were recorded from 51 motoneurons in the fifth lumbar ventral root of cats walking on a motorized treadmill at a range of speeds between 0.1 and 1.3 m/s. The muscle of destination of recorded motoneurons was identified by spike-triggered averaging of EMG recordings from each of the anterior thigh muscles. Forty-three motoneurons projected to one of the quadriceps (vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, or rectus femoris) or sartorius (anterior or medial) muscles of the anterior thigh. Anterior thigh motoneurons always discharged a single burst of action potentials per step cycle, even in multifunctional muscles (e.g., sartorius anterior) that exhibited more than one burst of EMG activity per step cycle. The instantaneous firing rates of most motoneurons were lowest upon recruitment and increased progressively during a burst, as long as the EMG was still increasing. Firing rates peaked midway through each burst and tended to decline toward the end of the burst. The initial, mean, and peak firing rates of single motoneurons typically increased for faster walking speeds. At any given walking speed, early recruited motoneurons typically reached higher firing rates than late recruited motoneurons. In contrast to decerebrated cats, initial doublets at the beginning of bursts were seen only rarely. In the 4/51 motoneurons that showed initial doublets, both the instantaneous frequency of the doublet and the probability of starting a burst with a doublet decreased for faster walking speeds. The modulations in firing rate of every motoneuron were found to be closely correlated to the smoothed electromyogram of its target muscle. For 32 identified motoneurons, the unit's instantaneous frequencygram was scaled linearly by computer to the rectified smoothed EMG recorded from each of the anterior thigh muscles. The covariance between unitary frequencygram and muscle EMG was computed for each muscle. Typically, the EMG profile of the target

  20. Genetic basis of hindlimb loss in a naturally occurring vertebrate model

    PubMed Central

    Don, Emily K.; de Jong-Curtain, Tanya A.; Doggett, Karen; Hall, Thomas E.; Heng, Benjamin; Badrock, Andrew P.; Winnick, Claire; Nicholson, Garth A.; Guillemin, Gilles J.; Currie, Peter D.; Hesselson, Daniel; Heath, Joan K.; Cole, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here we genetically characterise pelvic finless, a naturally occurring model of hindlimb loss in zebrafish that lacks pelvic fin structures, which are homologous to tetrapod hindlimbs, but displays no other abnormalities. Using a hybrid positional cloning and next generation sequencing approach, we identified mutations in the nuclear localisation signal (NLS) of T-box transcription factor 4 (Tbx4) that impair nuclear localisation of the protein, resulting in altered gene expression patterns during pelvic fin development and the failure of pelvic fin development. Using a TALEN-induced tbx4 knockout allele we confirm that mutations within the Tbx4 NLS (A78V; G79A) are sufficient to disrupt pelvic fin development. By combining histological, genetic, and cellular approaches we show that the hindlimb initiation gene tbx4 has an evolutionarily conserved, essential role in pelvic fin development. In addition, our novel viable model of hindlimb deficiency is likely to facilitate the elucidation of the detailed molecular mechanisms through which Tbx4 functions during pelvic fin and hindlimb development. PMID:26892237