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Sample records for hinterland east-central nevada

  1. Cretaceous to early Tertiary paleogeography in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt, east-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Vandervoort, D.S.; Schmitt, J.G. )

    1990-06-01

    The Cretaceous to early Tertiary hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt in east-central Nevada underwent two periods of sedimentary basin development. The older (Early Cretaceous) episode is characterized by basins that formed coeval with deformation within a belt of contractional structures. Basins were characterized by periods of through-flowing fluvial drainage. The younger (Late Cretaceous to Eocene) episode of basin development was characterized by internally drained alluvial basins that subsequently expanded into more regional lacustrine basins. Basal alluvial detritus indicates that basin inception occurred as a result of rapid development of topographic relief. Synsedimentary tectonism was characterized by horizontal extension due to attainment of equilibrium topography in response to crustal thickening.

  2. Contrasting siliceous replacement mineralization, east-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, M.D.; Ilchik, R.P. . Dept. of Geosciences); Seedorff, C.E. )

    1993-04-01

    Fine-grained siliceous replacement of carbonate-bearing rocks (jasperoid) occurs in most mineral districts in east-central Nevada. In most of these occurrences, jasperoid contains Au and(or) Ag and little or no base metals, although concentrations and ratios vary significantly. Broadly, two end-members are distinguished: (1) silicification as an intermediate- to late-stage part of complex alteration associated with igneous centers, and (2) jasperoids lacking other associated alteration and having few or no associated igneous rocks. Within this region, siliceous replacements are found with all metallic ([+-] magmatic) suites. No single factor in these occurrences relates the distribution, metal contents, fluid geochemistry, igneous rocks and associated alteration. Summarizing these characteristics: geochemical and fluid inclusion evidence shows that fluids in igneous-related jasperoids can be high-salinity magmatic (Ely), low-salinity magmatic (McCullough Butte), or metoric (Ward). Fluids in igneous-poor systems are low-salinity, exchanged meteoric waters from which a minor magmatic component can not be excluded. At this level of detail, the best predictor of Ag:Au are the district-scale alteration characteristics. Siliceous replacement takes place in many kinds systems and probably requires no more than a cooling, mildly acidic hydrothermal fluid. Metal suites, other fluid characteristics, and geological environment all need to be considered in evaluating the significance of any jasperoid.

  3. Tectonic controls on distribution of Antler foreland clastic sediments, east-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, J.H. Jr.; Nitchman, S.P.

    1989-04-01

    The Devonian-Mississippian Antler foreland sediments of east-central Nevada (Chainman and Diamond Peak Formations) comprise at least three sequences, each reflecting different distribution mechanisms, and each deformed and eroded before the next was deposited: (1) the Diamond Range sequence was deposited on a submarine fan, which prograded to shallow marine and deltaic conditions, (2) the transgressive Newark Valley sequence was deposited in braided fluvial to nearshore marine conditions, and (3) the transgressive Green Springs sequence was deposited on an intertidal to subtidal marine shelf. The sequence boundaries are expressed as low-angle unconformities.

  4. Paleomagnetism of the Oligocene Kalamazoo Tuff: implications for middle Tertiary extension in east central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Gans, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    The Oligocene Kalamazoo Tuff (???35 Ma) was sampled for paleomagnetic analysis across a 100-km-wide zone of highly extended crust in east central Nevada to estimate between-site vertical axis rotations and thus the relative importance of strike-slip faulting to the mechanism of extension. The tilt-corrected data, with sources of error reduced or eliminated, exhibit a 28?? ?? 12?? clockwise rotation of the Schell Creek Range relative to the Kern Mountains region. This rotation implies differential extension accommodated by strike-slip faulting or N-S shortening. The paleomagnetic results also suggest that large changes in strike of layered units near faults with presumed strike-slip movement need not be the result of oroclinal bending, but could result from superimposed sets of orthogonal normal faults. -from Authors

  5. Tectonic sequence stratigraphy, Early Permian Dry Mountain trough, east-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, W.S.; Gallegos, D.M.; Spinosa, C. ); Schwarz, D.L. )

    1991-06-01

    The Early Permian Dry Mountain trough (DMT) of east-central Nevada is one of several tectonic basins and associated uplifts that developed along the continenetal margin during the latest Pennsylvanian-Early Permian Dry Mountain tectonic phase. The sequence stratigraphy reflects a combination of eustatic sea level changes and tectonic uplift or subsidence. Fewer than one to only a few million years separate the development of sequence boundaries within the DMT. At this scale, differences among published eustasy curves preclude their use as definitive tools to identify eustatically controlled sequence boundaries. Nevertheless, available data indicate several pulses of tectonism affected sedimentation within the DMT. The authors are attempting to develop criteria to distinguish tectonic from eustatic sequence boundaries. Detailed biostratigraphic data are required to provide an independent check on the correlation of sequence boundaries between measured sections. For example, the same age boundary may reflect tectonic uplift in one part of the basin and subsidence in another. The uplift may or may not result in subaerial exposure and erosion. For those boundaries that do not result from subaerial exposure, lithofacies and biofacies analyses are required to infer relative uplift (water depth decrease) or subsidence (water depth increase). There are inherent resolution limitations in both the paleontologic and sedimentologic methodologies. These limitations, combined with those of eustasy curves, dictate the preliminary nature of their results.

  6. The geology of the Inconsolable Range, east-central Sierra Nevada, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hathaway, G.M; Reed, W.E. . Dept. of Earth and Space Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Detailed mapping of the Inconsolable Range in the east-central Sierra Nevada reveals a structurally and lithologically complex region of multi-phase intrusions. Some plutons are compositionally-zoned [e.g., Inconsolable (100 Ma) and Lamarck (90 Ma)]; others may be the result of magma mixing. Intrusive borders vary from brittle to ductile and sharp to gradational, and are bounded by contact aureoles of varying metamorphic grade. A shear zone (Long Lake shear zone -- LLSZ) bounds the western margin of the Inconsolable Range for 8 km; this is truncated in the south by the Cretaceous Lamarck intrusive suite, and is tectonically overlain in the north by the Bishop Creek Pendant (Ordovician ). The LLSZ is a complex zone of interleaved septa of biotite schists, orthogneisses, aplitic screens, and calc-silicate gneisses approximately 500 to 800 m wide. Preliminary interpretation suggests that the LLSZ is the sheared remnant of a Triassic-Jurassic igneous terrane complete with metasedimentary pendants. Juxtaposition of greenschist facies meta-sedimentary rocks of the Chocolate Peak klippe over highly deformed amphibolite grade meta-igneous rocks of the LLSZ postdates movement along the LLSZ. Metamorphic grades suggest that deeper structural levels are exposed within the LLSZ near its southern terminus. Twenty plutonic lithologies have been mapped and informally named (e.g., Spotted biotite quartz diorite), including 3 compositionally-zoned plutons. Zonation within the Lamarck, Inconsolable, and Spotted intrusions are the result of multiple emplacement events into partially crystallized host plutons. Along the eastern border of the Lamarck intrusive suite field evidence indicates four separate intrusive events. The Inconsolable body is a compositionally-zoned biotite, clinopyroxene, quartz diorite with irregular granodiorite margins. The base of the Spotted intrusion appears to have been magmatically eroded by a pulse of the younger Lamarck intrusion.

  7. Basement Gravity Feature in East-central Nevada and West-central Utah and its Tectonic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce, D. A.; Tilden, J. E.

    2006-12-01

    A basement gravity map of east-central Nevada and west-central Utah, derived by removing the effects of Cenozoic deposits, reveals prominent gravity anomalies that reflect lateral density variations in pre-Cenozoic rocks throughout the region. Although some remanent artifacts may be present in the basement gravity map, in general, basement gravity features transcend Basin and Range structures, suggesting that the effects of the Cenozoic deposits were removed reasonably well. In a statewide analysis of basement gravity anomalies in Nevada, Blakely and Jachens (1991) suggest that a basement gravity low that extends across the central part of the state may reflect concealed silicic intrusions within the mid to lower crust. Within east-central Nevada and west-central Utah, this prominent NW-trending basement gravity low transects the region, and poorly correlates to exposed pre-Cenozoic rocks (Stewart and Carlson, 1978; Hintze, 1980). The western margin of the basement gravity low is surprisingly linear and trends about N30°W, a direction similar to that of the northern Nevada rift (e.g., Zoback et al., 1994), a mid- Miocene feature just to the west that may have preferentially followed a pre-existing basement structure (e.g., Ponce and Glen, 2003; 2005). Much of this basement gravity low occurs in a highly extended terrane between two structural troughs - the Butte and the Confusion synclinoriums (e.g., Hose, 1977; Gans and Miller, 1983), composed of downfolded Triassic to Permian rocks. The Butte synclinorium correlates to the western margin of the basement gravity low, whereas, the Confusion synclinorium is just east of the basement gravity low and directly correlates to a basement gravity high over the Confusion Range, Burbank Hills, and Mountain Home Range in west-central Utah (Hintze, 1980). This disconnect between the gravity anomaly polarity of the two synclinoriums may be related to underlying lithologic differences between the two areas such as the presence

  8. Results of exploratory drill hole UE7nS East-Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, J.L.; Ramspott, L.D.

    1981-03-02

    Exploratory hole UE7nS was drilled to a depth of 672.1 m in East-Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, as part of a program sponsored by the Nuclear Monitoring Office (NMO) of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). The purpose of the program is to determine the geologic and geophysical characteristics of selected locations that have demonstrated anomalous seismic signals. The purpose for drilling UE7nS was to provide the aforementioned data for emplacement site U7n. This report presents lithologic and stratigraphic descriptions, geophysical logs, physical properties, and water table measurements. An analysis of these data has been made and a set of recommended values is presented.

  9. Structure and regional significance of the Late Permian(?) Sierra Nevada - Death Valley thrust system, east-central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, C.H.; Stone, P.

    2005-01-01

    An imbricate system of north-trending, east-directed thrust faults of late Early Permian to middle Early Triassic (most likely Late Permian) age forms a belt in east-central California extending from the Mount Morrison roof pendant in the eastern Sierra Nevada to Death Valley. Six major thrust faults typically with a spacing of 15-20 km, original dips probably of 25-35??, and stratigraphic throws of 2-5 km compose this structural belt, which we call the Sierra Nevada-Death Valley thrust system. These thrusts presumably merge into a de??collement at depth, perhaps at the contact with crystalline basement, the position of which is unknown. We interpret the deformation that produced these thrusts to have been related to the initiation of convergent plate motion along a southeast-trending continental margin segment probably formed by Pennsylvanian transform truncation. This deformation apparently represents a period of tectonic transition to full-scale convergence and arc magmatism along the continental margin beginning in the Late Triassic in central California. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Gravity Data from Dry Lake and Delamar Valleys, east-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mankinen, Edward A.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Moring, Barry C.

    2008-01-01

    Cenozoic basins in eastern Nevada and western Utah constitute major ground-water recharge areas in the eastern part of the Great Basin, and our continuing studies are intended to characterize the geologic framework of the region. Prior to these investigations, regional gravity coverage was variable over the region, adequate in some areas and very sparse in others. The current study in Nevada provides additional high-resolution gravity along transects in Dry Lake and Delamar Valleys to supplement data we established previously in Cave and Muleshoe Valleys. We combine all previously available gravity data and calculate an up-to-date isostatic residual gravity map of the study area. Major density contrasts are identified, indicating zones where Cenozoic tectonic activity could have been accommodated. A gravity inversion method is used to calculate depths to pre-Cenozoic basement rock and to estimate maximum alluvial/volcanic fill in the valleys. Average depths of basin fill in the deeper parts of Cave, Muleshoe, Dry Lake, and Delamar Valleys are approximately 4 km, 2 km, 5 km, and 3 km, respectively.

  11. Megabreccia deposits in an extensional basin: The Miocene-Pliocene Horse Camp Formation, east-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, J.G.; Brown, C.L. )

    1991-06-01

    Three varieties of megabreccia deposits are present in alluvial-lacustrine extensional basin fill of the Miocene-Pliocene Horse Camp Formation of east-central Nevada. Coherent debris sheets (150-300 m thick; up to 1,500 m long) consist of Oligocene-Miocene volcanic rock masses which are internally fractured yet retain their stratigraphic integrity. Fracture zones show variable amounts of displacement (up to 5 cm) and brecciation. These debris sheets overlie horizontally stratified sandstone and laminated claystone interpreted as playa deposits and are overlain by lithified grus. Emplacement of these coherent debris sheets was by landslide or block slide. Associated deposits of large boulders within playa facies suggest gliding of blocks broken from the edges of the landslides across wet playa surfaces. Large (1.6 - 2.4 km-long) allochthonous blocks consist of intact Paleozoic and Tertiary volcanic stratigraphic sequences which are brecciated and attenuated. Brecciation is accompanied in places by incorporation of muddy sand matrix. These blocks may be fragments of the upper plate of low-angle detachment faults which broke away as gravity-driven blocks from the nearby Horse Range and slid along the uplifted former detachment surface into the adjacent Horse Camp basin. Megabreccia deposits characterize Teritary extensional basins in western North America. Detailed analysis of their stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and structural relations can provide a better understanding of the complex tectonosedimentary history of these basins.

  12. Geophysical Data from Spring Valley to Delamar Valley, East-Central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mankinen, Edward A.; Roberts, Carter W.; McKee, Edwin H.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Morin, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    Cenozoic basins in eastern Nevada and western Utah constitute major ground-water recharge areas in the eastern part of the Great Basin and these were investigated to characterize the geologic framework of the region. Prior to these investigations, regional gravity coverage was variable over the region, adequate in some areas and very sparse in others. Cooperative studies described herein have established 1,447 new gravity stations in the region, providing a detailed description of density variations in the middle to upper crust. All previously available gravity data for the study area were evaluated to determine their reliability, prior to combining with our recent results and calculating an up-to-date isostatic residual gravity map of the area. A gravity inversion method was used to calculate depths to pre-Cenozoic basement rock and estimates of maximum alluvial/volcanic fill in the major valleys of the study area. The enhanced gravity coverage and the incorporation of lithologic information from several deep oil and gas wells yields a much improved view of subsurface shapes of these basins and provides insights useful for the development of hydrogeologic models for the region.

  13. Geophysical Framework Investigations Influencing Ground-Water Resources in East-Central Nevada and West-Central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watt, Janet T.; Ponce, David A.

    2007-01-01

    A geophysical investigation was undertaken as part of an effort to characterize the geologic framework influencing ground-water resources in east-central Nevada and west-central Utah. New gravity data were combined with existing aeromagnetic, drill-hole, and geologic data to help determine basin geometry, infer structural features, estimate depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks, and further constrain the horizontal extents of exposed and buried plutons. In addition, a three-dimensional (3D) geologic model was constructed to help illustrate the often complex geometries of individual basins and aid in assessing the connectivity of adjacent basins. In general, the thirteen major valleys within the study area have axes oriented north-south and frequently contain one or more sub-basins. These basins are often asymmetric and typically reach depths of 2 km. Analysis of gravity data helped delineate geophysical lineaments and accommodation zones. Structural complexities may further compartmentalize ground-water flow within basins and the influence of tectonics on basin sedimentation further complicates their hydrologic properties. The horizontal extent of exposed and, in particular, buried plutons was estimated over the entire study area. The location and subsurface extents of these plutons will be very important for regional water resource assessments, as these features may act as either barriers or pathways for groundwater flow. A previously identified basement gravity low strikes NW within the study area and occurs within a highly extended terrane between the Butte and Confusion synclinoria. Evidence from geophysical, geologic, and seismic reflection data suggests relatively lower density plutonic rocks may extend to moderate crustal depths and rocks of similar composition may be the source of the entire basement gravity anomaly.

  14. Principal facts for gravity stations in the Dry Valley area, west-central Nevada and east-central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanger, Elizabeth A.; Ponce, David A.

    2003-01-01

    In June, 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established 143 new gravity stations and 12 new rock samples in the Dry Valley area, 30 miles north of Reno, Nevada, on the California - Nevada border (see fig. 1). This study reports on gravity, magnetic, and physical property data intended for use in modeling the geometry and depth of Dry Valley for groundwater analysis. It is part of a larger study that aims to characterize the hydrologic framework of several basins in Washoe County. Dry Valley is located south of the Fort Sage Mountains and south-east of Long Valley, on USGS 7.5’ quadrangles Constantia and Seven Lakes (fig. 2). The Cretaceous granitic rocks and Tertiary volcanic rocks that bound the sediment filled basin (fig. 3) may be especially important to future modeling because of their impact on groundwater flow. The granitic and volcanic rocks of Dry Valley exhibit densities and magnetic susceptibilities higher than the overlaying sediments, and create a distinguishable pattern of gravity and magnetic anomalies that reflect these properties.

  15. Principal facts for gravity stations collected in 2010 from White Pine and Lincoln Counties, east-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mankinen, Edward A.; McKee, Edwin H.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing demands on the Colorado River system within the arid Southwestern United States have focused attention on finding new, alternative sources of water. Particular attention is being paid to the eastern Great Basin, where important ground-water systems occur within a regionally extensive sequence of Paleozoic carbonate rocks and in the Cenozoic basin-fill deposits that occur throughout the region. Geophysical investigations to characterize the geologic framework of aquifers in eastern Nevada and western Utah began in a series of cooperative agreements between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Southern Nevada Water Authority in 2003. These studies were intended to better understand the formation of basins, define their subsurface shape and depth, and delineate structures that may impede or enhance groundwater flow. We have combined data from gravity stations established during the current study with previously available data to produce an up-to-date isostatic-gravity map of the study area, using a gravity inversion method to calculate depths to pre-Cenozoic basement rock and to estimate alluvial/volcanic fill in the valleys.

  16. Compilation of Stratigraphic Thicknesses for Caldera-Related Tertiary Volcanic Rocks, East-Central Nevada and West-Central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweetkind, D.S.; Du Bray, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), and a designee from the State of Utah are currently conducting a water-resources study of aquifers in White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in Nevada and Utah, in response to concerns about water availability and limited geohydrologic information relevant to ground-water flow in the region. Production of ground water in this region could impact water accumulations in three general types of aquifer materials: consolidated Paleozoic carbonate bedrock, and basin-filling Cenozoic volcanic rocks and unconsolidated Quaternary sediments. At present, the full impact of extracting ground water from any or all of these potential valley-graben reservoirs is not fully understood. A thorough understanding of intermontane basin stratigraphy, mostly concealed by the youngest unconsolidated deposits that blanket the surface in these valleys, is critical to an understanding of the regional hydrology in this area. This report presents a literature-based compilation of geologic data, especially thicknesses and lithologic characteristics, for Tertiary volcanic rocks that are presumably present in the subsurface of the intermontane valleys, which are prominent features of this area. Two methods are used to estimate volcanic-rock thickness beneath valleys: (1) published geologic maps and accompanying descriptions of map units were used to compile the aggregate thicknesses of Tertiary stratigraphic units present in each mountain range within the study areas, and then interpolated to infer volcanic-rock thickness in the intervening valley, and (2) published isopach maps for individual out-flow ash-flow tuff were converted to digital spatial data and thickness was added together to produce a regional thickness map that aggregates thickness of the individual units. The two methods yield generally similar results and are similar to volcanic-rock thickness observed in a limited number of oil and gas exploration

  17. Early Cretaceous, syn-contractional deposition within the Sevier hinterland in central Nevada: preliminary insights from geologic mapping in the Diamond Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Fiori, R. V.; Long, S. P.; Rafferty, K.; Snell, K. E.; Bonde, J.

    2016-12-01

    Documenting the timing and spatial relationships between foreland and hinterland deformation is essential to understanding mountain belt dynamics. Within the U.S. Cordillera, in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt, the Central Nevada thrust belt (CNTB) is interpreted to have accommodated 10-15 km of shortening. However, the timing of CNTB deformation is poorly constrained. In order to provide insight into the timing and deformation style of the CNTB, we mapped structures and outcrops of the Early Cretaceous (Aptian; 122-116 Ma) Newark Canyon Formation (Knc) in the southern Diamond Mountains near Eureka, NV. At this latitude, CNTB deformation was dominated by construction of the Eureka culmination, a regional-scale, north-trending anticline interpreted to have grown above an east-vergent, subsurface thrust fault. The Knc type exposure is preserved within the hinge zone of a syncline immediately east of the Eureka culmination; this syncline exhibits a western limb dip of 40-50°E and an eastern limb dip of 10-30°W, and is interpreted as east-vergent. In addition, angular unconformities are observed within the Knc section in the eastern limb, with dip angles shallowing upsection from 25-30° to 10-15°. We interpret this fanning of dips as a growth relationship, and therefore that deposition was contemporaneous with folding. Upsection facies changes and growth relationships are observed throughout the exposure, indicating that deposition within the basin was controlled by contemporaneous folding. These field relationships provide preliminary evidence for contractional deformation of Aptian age within the CNTB. This post-dates the initial emplacement of thrust sheets in the Sevier thrust belt in Utah at this latitude by 10-30 Myr, and therefore indicates out-of-sequence deformation within the Sevier hinterland. Additional mapping and geochronology will be performed, in order to test these findings, and to further analyze the structural history of central Nevada.

  18. A Fold Province in the Hinterland of the Sevier Orogenic Belt in Eastern Nevada: A Valley and Ridge in the Basin and Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    The overprinting effects of Cenozoic extensional tectonism hinder analysis of the style, geometry, and timing of Cordilleran contractional deformation in the hinterland of the Sevier fold-thrust belt in Nevada. To address this problem, a 1:250,000-scale paleogeologic map of eastern Nevada, showing spatial distributions of Paleozoic-Mesozoic rocks exposed beneath a Paleogene unconformity, divided out at the formation scale, is integrated with maps of dip magnitude for Paleozoic-Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks, published sedimentary thickness records, and a published reconstruction of Basin and Range extension, in order to define and regionally-correlate thrust faults and folds, and estimate the pre-extensional amplitude, wavelength, and limb dips of folds. A new structural province, the Eastern Nevada fold belt (ENFB) is defined, and consists of a 100-150 km-wide region containing as many as five 1st-order, N-trending folds that can be traced for map distances between 100-250 km, have amplitudes between 2-4 km, wavelengths between 20-40 km, pre-extensional limb dips typically between 10-30˚, and deform rocks as young as Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. No regional-scale thrust faults or decollemont horizons breach modern exposure levels in the ENFB. ENFB folds are interpreted to have formed above a deep (≥10 km below the Paleogene unconformity), blind decollemont or shear zone, perhaps the westward projection of the master decollemont of the Sevier fold-thrust belt. Two additional structural provinces of the Sevier hinterland, the Central Nevada thrust belt (CNTB) and Western Utah thrust belt (WUTB), represent zones of N-striking, E-vergent thrust faults and folds that each accommodated ca. 10 km of shortening. Both thrust belts branch northward off of the Sevier thrust belt, and are interpreted to represent contemporary, interior components of the Sevier thrust system. The CNTB, WUTB, and the intervening ENFB collectively record low-magnitude (a few 10's of km) upper

  19. Style and magnitude of Mesozoic thrust faulting in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt Pequop Mountains-Wood Hills-East Humboldt Range region, northeast Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Camilleri, P.A. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    The Pequop Mountains (PM), Wood Hills (WH) and East Humboldt Range (EHR), NE Nevada, provide evidence that the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt experienced large-magnitude Mesozoic shortening ([>=]55 km) and crustal thickening ([>=] 30 km). These ranges expose a structurally continuous crustal cross section of unmetamorphosed to high pressure upper amphibolite facies Triassic to Precambrian miogeoclinal strata. This sequence lies structurally beneath unmetamorphosed extensional klippen that omit metamorphic grade and crustal section, but also repeat stratigraphic units. Because they repeat stratigraphic units, the underlying miogeoclinal section, or footwall, must have once lain beneath a thrust fault (herein named the Windermere thrust). The footwall of the Windermere thrust was exhumed by two generations of top-to-the-W-NW low-angle normal faults that are distinguished by whether they are depositionally overlapped by Eocene volcanic rocks or if they cut the volcanic rocks in their hanging walls. The latter phase is associated with development of the mid-Tertiary extensional mylonitic shear zone in the EHR. An integration of geobarometric, metamorphic, and map data suggest (1) a NW dip of the footwall of the Windermere thrust with metamorphic facies belts trending perpendicular to dip direction and metamorphic grade increasing down dip, and (2) a top-to-the-SE sense-of-slip for the Windermere thrust. Assuming that the Windermere thrust comprised a flat on the youngest rocks exposed in the footwall (Triassic), the Mesozoic depth to the Windermere thrust in the northern PM is [>=] 7 km, in WH is [approximately]10--16 km, and in the EHR[>=]30 km. The Windermere thrust accommodated a minimum of 50 km of shortening associated with the Independence thrust is [>=] 5 km. These data indicate that the amount of hinterland shortening in NE Nevada greatly exceeds that to the south in the Eureka belt.

  20. Paleogeographic and paleotectonic setting of sedimentary basins in the Sevier thrust belt and hinterland, eastern Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, J.G. . Dept. of Earth Sciences); Vandervoort, D.S. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Suydam, J.D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The eastern Great Basin contains a sparse record of broadly distributed Cretaceous sedimentary rocks which record: evolution of intermontane basins during development of the Sevier (Sv)contractional orogen and incipient extensional collapse of the elevated Sv hinterland (east-central NV), and complex tectono-sedimentary interactions between frontal thrust belt structures and the western margin of the adjacent foreland basin. Palinspastic restoration of these strata and associated structures to pre-Tertiary extension positions reveals a clearer pictures of Cretaceous basin paleogeography and allows comparison with the Puna/Altiplano plateau and precordillera thrust belt of the Neogene Andean orogen. Two syntectonic stratal assemblages are present in east-central NV. Lower Cretaceous alluvial strata (Newark Canyon Fm) record basin development coeval with emergence of contractional structures in the Sv hinterland. Localized early Cretaceous basins were possibly piggyback immature; periods of open drainage to the to the east and south suggest connection with the nascent Sv foreland basin to the east (Cedar Mountain/Sanpete Fms) prior to major thrust loading in central Utah. Development of hinterland structures is almost recorded by Aptian-Albian foreland basin alluvial deposits in SW Utah (Dakota Fm) and southern Nevada (Willow Tank Fm). Upper Cretaceous to Eocene strata (Sheep Pass Fm) record inception of regionally abundant alluvial-lacustrine basins which developed in response to onset of latest Cretaceous extension and associated collapse of the Sv hinterland. Evolution of the structurally complex western margin of the Sv foreland basin is recorded in Cretaceous through Eocene strata deposited in: piggyback basins which were at times hydrologically connected to the adjacent foreland basins, and thrust-proximal portions of the foreland basin. These proximal areas are characterized by folding and faulting of basin fill and development of intrabasinal unconformities.

  1. Geomorphic analysis of late Quaternary faulting on Hilton Creek, Round Valley and Coyote warp faults, east-central Sierra Nevada, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Margaret E.

    1997-09-01

    Geomorphic analysis of fault scarps and faulted surficial deposits allows for interpretation of late-Quaternary faulting on the Hilton Creek and Round Valley faults, two major range-front faults in the Sierra Nevada frontal fault system, as well as three faults on the north flank of the Coyote warp, a structure that separates the Round Valley fault from range-front faults to the south. Repeated movement on the two frontal faults during the last 15,000-25,000 years is evident from fault scarps on Tioga (oxygen isotope stage 2) surfaces. The scarp data indicate that vertical slip on the Round Valley fault may have been generally consistent along strike during this time period, and may have been characterized by 1.6-1.8 m of slip per faulting event. If so, 4 events may have occurred in either the last 7900-15,000 years or the last 13,000-15,000 years, 5-7 events may have occurred in the last 15,000-20,000 years, and 7-9 events may have occurred in the last 20,000-25,000 years, which suggests possible repeat times for faulting of 2000 to 4000 years for the Round Valley fault. Bevels in scarp slopes and displacement of probable Holocene-age surfaces support Holocene movement on the fault. On the Hilton Creek fault, scarps indicate that vertical slip increases northward along strike, reaching a maximum on the north side of McGee N Creek. Based on the size of scarps, individual displacements at McGee N Creek must have been either larger or more frequent than individual displacements on the Round Valley fault. The size of single-event displacements at McGee N Creek is unconstrained. However, if they have been on the order of 3-4 m per event, a size well within limits associated with normal faulting, then 7-9 faulting events could have occurred during the last 20,000-25,000 years, as proposed for the Round Valley fault, leaving open the possibility raised by other workers that the two faults may fail together. Holocene movement on the Hilton Creek fault is supported by

  2. The Paleogene Evolution of the Cordilleran Hinterland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassel, E. J.; Smith, M. E.; Canada, A.; Stockli, D. F.; Breecker, D.

    2015-12-01

    Paleogene terrestrial and volcanic strata in the Cordilleran hinterland record changes in continental drainage, the dynamics of Farallon slab rollback, and the timing of the onset of surface-lowering extension. Sedimentology, geochronology, and stable isotope paleoaltimetry show that from the Eocene to the Oligocene, a high (up to 3.5 km), broad orogen stretched across Nevada, with a distinct crest that divided a continuous westward-draining slope extending to central California from an internally drained orogenic plateau in the east. Carbonate-rich lacustrine strata present across northeastern Nevada record prolonged Eocene continental drainage ponding and the transition from overfilled to balanced-fill lake conditions over time. Paleogene volcanic glass hydration waters across the Cordilleran hinterland at multiple latitudes show decreasing hydrogen isotope composition (δDglass) values eastward from the paleo-coast, suggesting higher than modern elevations in the hinterland. Detrital zircon U-Pb-He double dating indicates that the eastern Nevada Elko basin received sediment from both local basement and back-arc plutonic sources, and from the Challis volcanic field, demonstrating that Eocene hinterland lakes in Nevada were fed in part by a south-flowing drainage from a higher elevation terrain in central Idaho. From the Eocene into the Oligocene, sediment accumulation, volcanism, and unconformity migrated from northeast to southwest across Nevada, possibly in response to the migration of a regional topographic high caused by broad dynamic uplift and magmatism following Farallon slab rollback. Although rollback rearranged drainage networks across the Cordillera, δDglass values show that surface uplift did not exceed 500-900 m. Oligocene provenance data document significant sediment input from proximal volcanics, increased erosion of local basement sources, and isolation from extra-regional volcanics. Despite the long-term high gravitational potential energy of

  3. New Permian durhaminid cerioid corals from east-central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, C.H.; Stone, P.

    2009-01-01

    Permian colonial corals from Artinskian to Kungurian strata in the Conglomerate Mesa area, Inyo Mountains, east-central California, include five new species, one of which is assigned to a new genus. The new taxa are: Malpaisia maceyi n. gen. and n. sp., Pararachnastraea bellula n. sp., P. delicata n. sp., P. owensensis n. sp., and Cordillerastraea inyoensis n. sp. These species, several of which compare most closely with other Artinskian and Kungurian species from eastern Nevada and northern Mexico, represent three distinct stocks that differentiated on an isolated submarine uplift offshore from the main part of the Cordilleran carbonate shelf.

  4. An application of Petrochronology: U/Th-Pb geochronologic rates of burial and exhumation in the Cordilleran hinterland, northern Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallett, B. W.

    2014-12-01

    Monazite and zircon U/Th-Pb dating and yttrium thermometry results from metapelitic rocks of the northern East Humboldt Range, Nevada provide insight into the tectonic evolution of the North American Cordillera. Combining a petrologic approach with in situ U/Th-Pb SHRIMP geochronology gives constraints on the timing and rates of burial and exhumation. When integrated with the results from studies of the intrusive igneous and structural evolution of a complexly deformed crustal block, a broad picture of the behavior of the thickened middle crust in an orogenic wedge begins to emerge. In samples from the upper limb of the south verging Winchell Lake nappe, monazite cores giving moderate YPO4 components yield a mean U-Pb age of 82.8 ± 1.3 Ma representing initial growth near garnet zone conditions. A cycle of burial and heating giving way to decompression and melting, followed by zircon growth accompanied by low YPO4 monazite growth giving a wide range of ages (77.1-62.4 Ma) apparently documents cooling and melt crystallization. Monazite core and zircon ages from these samples bracket the time frame for this cycle through peak pressure and then temperature. Rates of burial therefore are ~1.0­-4.5 mm/year for the Winchell Lake nappe. Migmatitic pelites from the Lizzies Basin area, structurally beneath the Winchell Lake nappe give U-Pb monazite age brackets of 96.5-79.4 Ma, yielding a narrower range of burial rates, ~0.5-2.0 mm/year. Calculated exhumation rates for the same rocks from both the upper limb of the Winchell Lake nappe and the Lizzies Basin area fall between ~0.4 and 1.7 mm/year. Rapid burial followed by rapid exhumation is consistent with thickening by an overthrust mechanism followed by vertical ductile thinning, underplating, erosion, and/or normal faulting. Exhumation is generally slower than estimates for exhumation of metamorphic core complexes north of the Snake River Plain calculated by Bendick and Baldwin (2009). This may represent a difference in

  5. Structural geology of western part of Lemhi Range, east-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tysdal, Russell G.

    2002-01-01

    The Poison Creek Anticline is a major fold that occupies a large part of the western part of the Lemhi Range. The fold is now broken by normal faults, but removal of displacement on the normal faults permitted reconstruction of the anticline. The fold formed during late Mesozoic compressional deformation in the hinterland of the Cordilleran thrust belt. It is in the hanging wall of the Poison Creek thrust fault, a major fault in east-central Idaho, that displaced Proterozoic strata over lower Paleozoic rocks.

  6. The relationship between normal and strike-slip faults in Valley of Fire State Park, Nevada, and its implications for stress rotation and partitioning of deformation in the east-central Basin and Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Atilla; de Joussineau, Ghislain

    2014-06-01

    This study expands on our earlier studies of the evolution of fracturing and faulting in the Jurassic aeolian Aztec Sandstone exposed over a large area in the Valley of Fire State Park, southeastern Nevada. Based on a nearly three-dimensional data set collected from 200-m-high cliff-face exposures with stair-case morphology composed of steep and flat parts, we find that a series of inclined, relatively low-angle normal faults and their splay fractures are precursors of the strike-slip fault network that we previously documented. We discuss the significance of this finding in terms of the tectonics of the broader area, stress rotation, partitioning of deformation, and the development of fracture clusters with compartmentalization of the structures as a function of spatial, depositional and deformational domains.

  7. Paleozoic and mesozoic evolution of East-Central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, C.H.; Stone, P.; Dunne, G.C.; Greene, D.C.; Walker, J.D.; Swanson, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    East-central California, which encompasses an area located on the westernmost part of sialic North America, contains a well-preserved record of Paleozoic and Mesozoic tectonic events that reflect the evolving nature of the Cordilleran plate margin to the west. After the plate margin was formed by continental rifting in the Neoproterozoic, sediments comprising the Cordilleran miogeocline began to accumulate on the subsiding passive margin. In east-central California, sedimentation did not keep pace with subsidence, resulting in backstepping of a series of successive carbonate platforms throughout the early and middle Paleozoic. This phase of miogeoclinal development was brought to a close by the Late Devonian-Early Mississippian Antler orogeny, during the final phase of which oceanic rocks were emplaced onto the continental margin. Subsequent Late Mississippian-Pennsylvanian faulting and apparent reorientation of the carbonate platform margin are interpreted to have been associated with truncation of the continental plate on a sinistral transform fault zone. In the Early Permian, contractional deformation in east-central California led to the development of a narrow, uplifted thrust belt flanked by marine basins in which thick sequences of deep-water strata accumulated. A second episode of contractional deformation in late Early Permian to earliest Triassic time widened and further uplifted the thrust belt and produced the recently identified Inyo Crest thrust, which here is correlated with the regionally significant Last Chance thrust. In the Late Permian, about the time of the second contractional episode, extensional faulting created shallow sedimentary basins in the southern Inyo Mountains. In the El Paso Mountains to the south, deformation and plutonism record the onset of subduction and arc magmatism in late Early Permian to earliest Triassic time along this part of the margin. Tectonism had ceased in most of east-central California by middle to late Early

  8. Local Data Integration in East Central Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Manobianco, John T.

    1999-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit has configured a Local Data Integration System (LDIS) for east central Florida which assimilates in-situ and remotely-sensed observational data into a series of high-resolution gridded analyses. The ultimate goal for running LDIS is to generate products that may enhance weather nowcasts and short-range (less than 6 h) forecasts issued in support of the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS), Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG), and the Melbourne National Weather Service (NWS MLB) operational requirements. LDIS has the potential to provide added value for nowcasts and short-ten-n forecasts for two reasons. First, it incorporates all data operationally available in east central Florida. Second, it is run at finer spatial and temporal resolutions than current national-scale operational models such as the Rapid Update Cycle and Eta models. LDIS combines all available data to produce grid analyses of primary variables (wind, temperature, etc.) at specified temporal and spatial resolutions. These analyses of primary variables can be used to compute diagnostic quantities such as vorticity and divergence. This paper demonstrates the utility of LDIS over east central Florida for a warm season case study. The evolution of a significant thunderstorm outflow boundary is depicted through horizontal and vertical cross section plots of wind speed, divergence, and circulation. In combination with a suitable visualization too], LDIS may provide users with a more complete and comprehensive understanding of evolving mesoscale weather than could be developed by individually examining the disparate data sets over the same area and time.

  9. Planning applications in East Central Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannah, J. W. (Principal Investigator); Thomas, G. L.; Esparza, F.; Millard, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This is a study of applications of ERTS data to planning problems, especially as applicable to East Central Florida. The primary method has been computer analysis of digital data, with visual analysis of images serving to supplement the digital analysis. The principal method of analysis was supervised maximum likelihood classification, supplemented by density slicing and mapping of ratios of band intensities. Land-use maps have been prepared for several urban and non-urban sectors. Thematic maps have been found to be a useful form of the land-use maps. Change-monitoring has been found to be an appropriate and useful application. Mapping of marsh regions has been found effective and useful in this region. Local planners have participated in selecting training samples and in the checking and interpretation of results.

  10. New fusulinids from Lower Permian turbidites at Conglomerate Mesa, southeastern inyo Mountains, east-central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, C.H.; Stone, P.

    2009-01-01

    Seven previously unrecognized fusulinid species from Lower Permian (Wolfcampian and Leonardian) turbidites near Conglomerate Mesa in east-central California, four of which are named as new species, are here described and figured. The four new species are Schwagerina merriami, S. wildei, Parafusulina mackevetti, and Skinnerella rossi. These fusulinid species have close affinities to similar taxa in Texas and northeastern Nevada, and they are distinct from some other faunas of slightly different age in the Conglomerate Mesa area that are dominated by endemic species and other species with Eastern Klamath Mountains affinities.

  11. East Central College Board of Trustees Policies & Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Central Coll., Union, MO.

    This manual is the guide to all policies and procedures governing East Central College in Missouri. The document is produced by the Board of Trustees of the Junior College District of East Central Missouri and outlines policies concerning the entire college community, including board members, administrators, faculty, staff, and students. It serves…

  12. Floristics of ephemeral ponds in east-central Texas

    Treesearch

    Barbara R. MacRoberts; Michael H. MacRoberts; D. Craig Rudolph; David W. Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in 2009, we surveyed the vegetation of ephemeral ponds in Sabine and Nacogdoches counties in east-central Texas. These ponds are shallow and flat-bottomed, with a small but distinct flora dominated by grasses (Poaceae) and sedges (Cyperaceae). The floras of these ponds are most similar to those of flatwoods ponds located on the lower coastal plain. Once more...

  13. EDUCATION INTERESTS AND BEHAVIOR OF EAST CENTRAL FLORIDA MUNICIPAL OFFICALS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LONG, HUEY B.

    MAILED QUESTIONNAIRES GATHERED INFORMATION FROM 25 ELECTED AND 36 APPOINTED OFFICIALS IN SEVEN EAST CENTRAL FLORIDA COUNTIES ABOUT THEIR INTERESTS AND BEHAVIOR IN REGARD TO CONTINUING EDUCATION. THE FIRST PHASE OF THIS STUDY, IN 1966, DETERMINED EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS, WHILE THIS, THE SECOND PHASE, DETERMINED ACTUAL BEHAVIOR. ELECTED OFFICIALS…

  14. CONTINUING EDUCATION INTERESTS OF MUNICIPAL OFFICIALS IN EAST CENTRAL FLORIDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LONG, HUEY B.

    THIS STUDY INVESTIGATED CONTINUING EDUCATION ACTIVITIES AND ATTITUDES OF 71 CITY OFFICIALS (MOSTLY MALE AND MIDDLE-AGED) IN SEVEN COUNTIES OF EAST CENTRAL FLORIDA. A QUESTIONNAIRE OBTAINED DATA ON REGULARITY OF EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES, PREFERRED METHODS, INTEREST IN EDUCATION RELATED TO THE OFFICIAL'S DUTIES, DESIRED SUBJECT AREAS, ORGANIZATIONS…

  15. Farewell to Parachute Professors in East-Central Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ognianova, Ekaterina

    1995-01-01

    Examines the work of 10 North American journalism educators who taught in 15 midcareer training programs for journalists in East-Central Europe from 1991-93. Asks how North American journalists teach in intercultural settings and how they changed their methods to suit the setting. Concludes that North American journalists should continue their…

  16. 40 CFR 81.215 - East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false East Central Indiana Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.215 East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Indiana) consists of the territorial area...

  17. Estimates of Late Cenozoic extension, east-central Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Janecke, S.U.. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Late Cenozoic normal faults define the southwest flanks of the Lost River, Lemhi and Beaverhead Ranges in east-central Idaho. Cross sections and structural analysis suggest that throws along the central parts of the Lost River and Lemhi faults range from about 2 to 5 km. If the Beaverhead fault has a similar throw, then Miocene to Recent extension of east-central Idaho ranged 5 to 15%. However, three additional Late Cenozoic normal faults (the Hawley Mountain, Goldburg and Barney faults) bound a NW-trending horst between the Lost River and Lemhi Ranges in the Hawley Mountain and Donkey Hills area. The horst-bounding normal faults are inferred to have formed during Late Cenozoic time because: (1) the faults parallel the NW to NNW strike of Late Cenozoic normal faults in the region, (2) scattered Quaternary fault scarps coincide with the Barney fault, (3) steep topographic fronts define parts of the Goldburg and Hawley Mountain faults, (4) the Hawley Mountain fault displaces two Eocene normal faults, and (5) gravity lows are present in the hanging walls of the Barney and Goldburg faults. Left-lateral separation across the inferred NE-dipping Barney fault suggests 2--3 km of throw, assuming dip-slip displacement. Throw across the Goldburg fault, which uplifts Oligocene basin-fill deposits in its footwall, is at least 500 m. Although two of the horst-bounding normal faults have not offset Quaternary surficial deposits, estimated slip across these faults have not offset Quaternary surficial deposits, estimated slip across these faults is similar to slip across the prominent range-front faults in the region. Therefore, estimated Late Cenozoic extension of east-central Idaho along a NE-SW cross section through the Hawley-Goldburg horst is about 10 to 20%.

  18. Coccidia and intestinal nematodes of East Central Illinois cats.

    PubMed

    Guterbock, W M; Levine, N D

    1977-06-15

    In a fecal examination survey (1975-1976) of 217 cats from laboratory colonies, a humane society shelter, and homes in east central Illinois, Toxocara mystax eggs were found in 32%, Toxascaris leonina eggs in 6%, Ancylostoma eggs in 9%, Capillaria eggs in 4%, Isospora felis oocysts in 23%, Isospora rivolta oocysts in 24%, and Toxoplasma or Besnoitia oocysts in 1%. The laboratory and humane shelter cats were the most heavily infected. Isospora felis and I rivolta could not be transmitted to 2 pups by feeding oocysts from the cat or to 2 other pups by feeding the organs of mice that had been fed the oocysts.

  19. Archeological Investigations at John Redmond Reservoir, East Central Kansas, 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    8217 ! 111112 11111.!.25 I~l~ Hl . MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART . . . . . . . .B U R EA U O F S TA F4D A R O -1963-A iL Archeological Investigations L Z At...8217 C1Z ,os, ’U B’O S . ., ,-, ". . . . . .4.. : J ,- ARCHEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT JOHN REDMOND RESERVOIR, EAST CENTRAL KANSAS, 1979. by I Randall M...REDMONDLACIAAD RELAEDIREA TVTTIGUR 1dvr CAM tijey -"R VAN PERRY 0 ww 0 0. A’-9J 00 5L .04 zN V 2 0 WW C1 S < ..- - - - - -- 7

  20. Winter survival of lesser scaup in east-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, G.; Collazo, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The North American continental population of lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) has been declining since the mid-1980s. Seasonal survival estimates may provide insights about the ecological basis for this decline, but such data are not available. We estimated post-harvest winter survival of lesser scaup in east-central Florida, USA, where 62% of the Atlantic Flyway population winters. The Kaplan-Meier survival estimate from 11 January to 14 March 2002 was 0.95 ?? 0.04 (SE) for females and 0.90 ?? 0.09 for males. These estimates were not different (P = 0.64), and pooled survival was 0.93 ?? 0.04. Temporary emigration (movement out of and return to the study area) was exhibited by 25% of the birds during survey periods, but absences were short and were believed to have had little effect on precision of survival estimates. Our findings suggested that natural mortality at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR) and surrounding estuarine areas was relatively low. Our results also indicate that habitat quality in this portion of east-central Florida was sufficient to meet overwintering requirements and likely contributed to the reported survival rates. Estimating survival during other stages of the annual cycle, as well as an overall winter estimate reflecting harvest mortality, is necessary to determine whether low survival rates are responsible for continental population declines.

  1. Manganese resources of the Cuyuna range, east-central Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Beltrame, R.J.; Holtzman, R.C.; Wahl, T.E.

    1981-01-01

    The Cuyuna range, located in east-central Minnesota, consists of a sequence of argillite, siltstone, iron-formation, graywacke, slate, and quartzite of early Proterozoic age. Manganese-bearing materials occur within the iron-rich strata of the Trommald Formation and the Rabbit Lake Formation. Computer-assisted resource estimates, based on exploration drill hole information, indicate that the Cuyuna range contains a minimum of 176 million metric tons (MMT) of marginally economic manganiferous rock with an average grade of 10.46 weight percent manganese. The calculated 18.5 MMT of manganese on the Cuyuna range could supply this country's needs for this important and strategic metal for nearly 14 years. An additional resource of 6.9 MMT of manganese metal is available in the lower grade deposits The vast majority of these calculated resources are extractable by current surface mining techniques.

  2. Strategies for financing energy projects in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Fortino, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses financing options available for energy (power/steam) projects in East Central Europe. It is intended to be an overview and practical guide to such options in today`s environment. A survey is made of the principal multilateral and other financial institutions providing funding and/or credit support in the region. These include the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation, the export credit agencies, and the commercial banks. Specific guarantee and other support mechanisms which some of these institutions provide are covered, including the latest developments. In addition to loan financing, potential sources of equity financing are discussed. Next, a description of the credit rating process by such institutions as Standard and Poor`s, and an example of a successful rating effort in the Czech Republic, lead into a discussion of accessing foreign and domestic bond markets to finance energy projects in the region.

  3. Lassa fever in Onitsha, East Central State, Nigeria in 1974.

    PubMed

    Bowen, G S; Tomori, O; Wulff, H; Casals, J; Noonan, A; Downs, W G

    1975-01-01

    Three cases of Lassa fever occurred in Onitsha, East Central State, Nigeria, in January and February 1974. The first case was a 19-year-old Nigerian; the other 2 cases were German missionary physicians at St Charles Borromeo Hospital, Onitsha, one of whom cared for the patient who was the first case. Thus, 2 of the 3 cases were hospital acquired. Investigations failed to discover a village outbreak or the source of virus for the first case. A serosurvey of 258 hospital staff members and contacts of the 3 cases showed no other persons with antibody to Lassa virus. The absence of Lassa virus antibody in a high-risk group indicates a low or nonexistent level of past Lassa virus activity in southeastern Nigeria.

  4. Recurring middle Pleistocene outburst floods in east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Froese, D.G.; Smith, D.G.; Westgate, J.A.; Ager, T.A.; Preece, S.J.; Sandhu, A.; Enkin, R.J.; Weber, F.

    2003-01-01

    Recurring glacial outburst floods from the Yukon-Tanana Upland are inferred from sediments exposed along the Yukon River near the mouth of Charley River in east-central Alaska. Deposits range from imbricate gravel and granules indicating flow locally extending up the Yukon valley, to more distal sediments consisting of at least 10 couplets of planar sands, granules, and climbing ripples with up-valley paleocurrent indicators overlain by massive silt. An interglacial organic silt, occurring within the sequence, indicates at least two flood events are associated with an earlier glaciation, and at least three flood events are associated with a later glaciation which postdates the organic silt. A minimum age for the floods is provided by a glass fission track age of 560,000 ?? 80,000 yr on the GI tephra, which occurs 8 m above the flood beds. A maximum age of 780,000 yr for the floods is based on normal magnetic polarity of the sediments. These age constraints allow us to correlate the flood events to the early-middle Pleistocene. And further, the outburst floods indicate extensive glaciation of the Yukon-Tanana Upland during the early-middle Pleistocene, likely representing the most extensive Pleistocene glaciation of the area. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Floods of August 1967 in east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, Joseph M.; Meckel, James P.; Anderson, Gary S.

    1972-01-01

    East-central Alaska had record floods near Fairbanks following extensive rains of August 8-20, 1967. Precipitation during this period totaled as much as 10 inches, which is close to the average annual precipitation for this area. The most extensive flooding occurred in the White Mountains northeast of Fairbanks and along the major streams draining those mountains. Some of the major streams flooded were the Salcha, Chena, Chatanika, Tolovana, and lower Tanana Rivers, and Birch Creek west of Circle. Peak discharges on some streams in the flood area were from two to four times the probable 50-year flood. The peak discharge of 74,400 cubic feet per second of the Chena River at Fairbanks, from 1,980 square miles of drainage area, was 2.6 times the 50-year flood. The rise of ground-water levels in the Tanana River flood plain to the land surface during the flood caused foundation failures and prevented drainage of subsurface structures. Above-normal ground-water levels existed until the middle of September. Total flood damage was estimated in excess of $85 million. Six lives were reported lost, and about 12,000 persons were evacuated during the flood. This report has been prepared to furnish hydrologic data for development planning. Included are discussions of antecedent streamflow, meteorology of the storm, descriptions of floods, flood damage, flood frequency, ground-water conditions, and stages and discharges of major streams for August 1967.

  6. Ferron sandstone - stratigraphy and reservoir analogs, East-Central Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.B.; Ryer, T.A.; Chidsey, T.C. Jr.

    1996-06-01

    The Ferron Sandstone (Upper Cretaceous) crops out along the west flank of the San Rafael Swell of east-central Utah. Exposures were described on photomosaics to better define the stratigraphy, to enhance facies prediction, and establish rules for reservoir modeling within fluvial-deltaic rocks. Major regressive cycles are recognized as parasequence sets composed of several to many parasequences. Each of the seaward-stepping parasequence sets recognized in the Ferron begins with a rapidly thickening and stratigraphically climbing, wave-modified shoreface. In later stages of progradation, deposition is dominated by river influences. Continued regression of the seaway is recorded in outcrop and shows a complex history of delta lobe progradation, switching, and abandonment. Onlapping and stacking of parasequences creates a collage of potential reservoir sweet spots, baffles, and barriers within a parasequence set. Shoreface and delta-front deposits of the older parasequences are commonly eroded by younger distributary and meanderbelt systems that fed younger parasequences of the parasequence sets. The result is numerous and locally thick channel sandstone bodies incised into shoreface and delta-front deposits. Published studies and recently completed work show that upper shoreface, stream mouth-bar, and channel sandstones constitute the best potential reservoir rocks within the Ferron Sandstone.

  7. Water movement in till of east-central South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Craven, S.J.; Ruedisili, L.C.; Barari, A.

    1985-01-01

    Factors that control the flow of water through till are poorly understood. Hydrographic analyses, field hydraulic conductivity measurements, and major-ion sampling were conducted on weathered and unweathered tills at 22 sites in east-central South Dakota. Water from a buried outwash aquifer was also chemically analyzed and carbon age dated. The upper part of most till has been weathered and exhibits extensive secondary permeability. Hydraulic conductivity values range from 10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -4/ cm/sec; typically 10 to 200 times higher than the hydraulic conductivity of unweathered till. Hydraulic gradients within weathered tills average seven times lower than within unweathered till. Water infiltrating below plant roots is believed to principally recharge and discharge the weathered till. Total dissolved solids were significantly higher in the weathered till than in the unweathered till. Water extracted from unweathered till is, in turn, up to three time higher in major-ion concentrations than water from the underlying outwash aquifer. Carbon-14 age dates from outwash aquifer water exceed 9000 years before present. Results indicate that Tittle to no water passes from the weathered till through the unweathered till into the buried outwash aquifer. Discharge from the weathered till is hypothesized to be primarily local lateral flow to sloughs, streams and ponds, combined with evapotranspiration losses during periods of high water table.

  8. Reconnaissance for radioactive deposits in east-central Alaska, 1949

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedow, Helmuth; White, M.G.

    1954-01-01

    In the summer of 1949, several mines and prospects in the Fairbanks and Livengood quadrangles, east-central Alaska, were examined for the possible presence of radioactive materials. Also tested were metamorphic and sedimentary rocks of pre-Cambrian and Paleozoic age crossed by the Elliott Highway, which extends from Fox, near Fairbanks, northwestward about 70 miles to the town of Livengood. Nuggets consisting chiefly of native bismuth and containing as much as 0.1 percent equivalent uranium had been found previously in a placer on Fish Creek several miles downstream from the reported bismuth-bearing lode on Melba Creek, but none of the lodes tested in 1949 exhibited radioactivity in excess of 0. 003 percent equivalent uranium. The greatest radioactivity found in the rocks along the Elliott Highway was in an iron-stained pre-Cambrian schist and in a carbonaceous(?) shale of Middle Devonian or Carboniferous age. Respective samples of these rocks contain 0. 003 and 0.004 percent equivalent uranium. A possible local bedrock source for the euxenite-polycrase mineral found in a placer concentrate containing about 0.04 percent equivalent uranium was sought in the watershed of Goodluck Creek, near Livengood. The bedrock source of this mineral could not be located and it is believed that the source could be outside of the Goodluck watershed because drainage changes during Quaternary time may well have introduced gravels from nearby areas.

  9. Tectonic implications of facies patterns, Lower Permian Dry Mountain trough, east-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, D.M.; Snyder, W.S.; Spinosa, C. )

    1991-02-01

    Paleozoic tectonism is indicated by a study of a west-east facies analysis transect across the northern portion of the Lower Permian Dry Mountain trough (DMT). In an attempt to characterize the Early Permian basin-filling sequences, three broadly recognizable facies packages have been identified across the DMT: the western margin facies and the central basin facies of the DMT and an eastern shelf facies. In the western margin facies of the basin, pulses of tectonic activity are recorded at McCloud Spring in the Sulphur Springs Range. Here, shallow open-marine carbonate overlies eroded Vinini Formation and, in turn, is unconformably overlain by basinal marine carbonate. An unconformity also marks the contact with the overriding prograding coarse clastic facies. These abrupt transitions suggest the sediments were deposited in a tectonically active area where they preservation of Waltherian sequences is unlikely to occur. Similarly abrupt transitions are evident in the western part of the central basin facies. At Portuguese Springs n the Diamond Range, a thin basal marine conglomerate delineates Lower Permian sedimentation over the Pennsylvanian Ely Formation. Coarsening-upward basinal carbonate strata of pelagic, hemipelagic, and turbidite components overlie the basal conglomerate. this progression of sediments is unconformably overlain by a subaerial sequence of coarse clastic deposits. Within the eastern part of the central basin facies in the Maverick Spring Range, the Lower Permian sediments are open-marine siltstone, wackestone, packstone, and grainstone. The sediments are assigned to a gradually sloping ramp, indicating the effects of tectonism on this margin of the basin were subdued.

  10. Alligator ridge district, East-Central Nevada: Carlin-type gold mineralization at shallow depths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nutt, C.J.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    Carlin-type deposits in the Alligator Ridge mining district are present sporadically for 40 km along the north-striking Mooney Basin fault system but are restricted to a 250-m interval of Devonian to Mississippian strata. Their age is bracketed between silicified ca. 45 Ma sedimentary rocks and unaltered 36.5 to 34 Ma volcanic rocks. The silicification is linked to the deposits by its continuity with ore-grade silicification in Devonian-Mississippian strata and by its similar ??18O values (_e1???17???) and trace element signature (As, Sb, Tl, Hg). Eocene reconstruction indicates that the deposits formed at depths of ???300 to 800 m. In comparison to most Carlin-type gold deposits, they have lower Au/Ag, Au grades, and contained Au, more abundant jasperoid, and textural evidence from deposition of an amorphous silica precursor in jasperoid. These differences most likely result from their shallow depth of formation. The peak fluid temperature (_e1???230??C) and large ??18OH2O value shift from the meteroric water line (_e1???20???) suggest that ore fluids were derived from depths of 8 km or more. A magnetotelluric survey indicates that the Mooney Basin fault system penetrates to mid-crustal depths. Deep circulation of meteoric water along the Mooney Basin fault system may have been in response to initial uplift of the East Humboldt-Ruby Mountains metamorphic core complex; convection also may have been promoted by increased heat flow associated with large magnitude extension in the core complex and regional magmatism. Ore fluids ascended along the fault system until they encountered impermeable Devonian and Mississippian shales, at which point they moved laterally through permeable strata in the Devonian Guilmette Formation, Devonian-Mississippian Pilot Shale, Mississippian Joana Limestone, and Mississippian Chainman Shale toward erosional windows where they ascended into Eocene fluvial conglomerates and lake sediments. Most gold precipitated by sulfidation of host-rock Fe and mixing with local ground water in zones of lateral fluid flow in reactive strata, such as the Lower Devonian-Mississippian Pilot Shale.

  11. Ground-water quality in east-central Idaho valleys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parliman, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    From May through November 1978, water quality, geologic, and hydrologic data were collected for 108 wells in the Lemhi, Pahsimeroi, Salman River (Stanley to Salmon), Big Lost River, and Little Lost River valleys in east-central Idaho. Data were assembled to define, on a reconnaissance level, water-quality conditions in major aquifers and to develop an understanding of factors that affected conditions in 1978 and could affect future ground-water quality. Water-quality characteristics determined include specific conductance, pH, water temperature, major dissolved cations, major dissolved anions, and coliform bacteria. Concentrations of hardness, nitrite plus nitrate, coliform bacteria, dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, fluoride , iron, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium or bicarbonate exceed public drinking water regulation limits or were anomalously high in some water samples. Highly mineralized ground water probably is due to the natural composition of the aquifers and not to surface contamination. Concentrations of coliform bacteria that exceed public drinking water limits and anomalously high dissolved nitrite-plus-nitrite concentrations are from 15- to 20-year old irrigation wells in heavily irrigated or more densely populated areas of the valleys. Ground-water quality and quantity in most of the study area are sufficient to meet current (1978) population and economic demands. Ground water in all valleys is characterized by significant concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate plus carbonate ions. Variations in the general trend of ground-water composition (especially in the Lemhi Valley) probably are most directly related to variability in aquifer lithology and proximity of sampling site to source of recharge. (USGS)

  12. Autochthonous Transmission of East/Central/South African Genotype Chikungunya Virus, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Marcela S; Cruz, Nádia V G; Schnellrath, Laila C; Medaglia, Maria Luiza Gomes; Casotto, Michele E; Albano, Rodolpho M; Costa, Luciana J; Damaso, Clarissa R

    2017-10-01

    We isolated East/Central/South African genotype chikungunya virus during the 2016 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Genome sequencing revealed unique mutations in the nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4-A481D) and envelope protein 1 (E1-K211T). Moreover, all Brazil East/Central/South isolates shared the exclusive mutations E1-M407L and E2-A103T.

  13. MOUNT MORIAH ROADLESS AREA, NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, Robert R.; Wood, Robert H.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey identified the northeastern part of the Mount Moriah Roadless Area in extreme east-central Nevada as an area of probable potential for the occurrence of small, isolated deposits containing lead and zinc. Many active quarries in a unique high-quality decorative building stone occur in the area and have substantiated mineral-resource potential. Further studies in the roadless area might include detailed mapping of exposed Prospect Mountain Quartzite building stone units and notation of their suitability for quarrying. More detailed geochemical studies in the area of probable base-metal resource potential might include additional stream-sediment sampling and sampling along fault zones.

  14. WHEELER PEAK ROADLESS AREA, NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitebread, Donald H.; Kluender, Steven E.

    1984-01-01

    Field investigations to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Wheeler Peak Roadless Area in east-central Nevada were conducted. The field studies included geologic mapping, geochemical sampling, geophysical surveys, and a survey of mines and prospects. Several areas in the sedimentary and granitic rocks in the lower plate of the Snake Range decollement have probable mineral-resource potential for tungsten, beryllium, and lead. A small area of gravels near the north border of the area has a probable mineral-resource potential for placer gold. The geologic setting is not conducive for the occurrence of energy resources.

  15. Regional implications of new chronostratigraphic and paleogeographic data from the Early Permian Darwin Basin, east-central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Stone, Paul; Magginetti, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    The Darwin Basin developed in response to episodic subsidence of the western margin of the Cordilleran continental shelf from Late Pennsylvanian (Gzhelian) to Early Permian (late Artinskian) time. Subsidence of the basin was initiated in response to continental truncation farther to the west and was later augmented by thrust emplacement of the Last Chance allochthon. This deep-water basin was filled by voluminous fine-grained siliciclastic turbidites and coarse-grained limestone-gravity-flow deposits. Most of this sediment was derived from the Bird Spring carbonate shelf and cratonal platform to the northeast or east, but some came from an offshore tectonic ridge (Conglomerate Mesa Uplift) to the west that formed at the toe of the Last Chance allochthon. At one point in the late Artinskian the influx of extrabasinal sediment was temporarily cut off, resulting in deposition of a unique black limestone that allows precise correlation throughout the basin. Deep-water sedimentation in the Darwin Basin ended by Kungurian time when complex shallow-water to continental sedimentary facies spread across the region. Major expansion of the Darwin Basin occurred soon after the middle Sakmarian emplacement of the Last Chance allochthon. This tectonic event was approximately coeval with deformation in northeastern Nevada that formed the deep-water Dry Mountain Trough. We herein interpret the two basins to have been structurally continuous. Deposition of the unique black limestone is interpreted to mark a eustatic sea level rise that also can be recognized in Lower Permian sections in east-central Nevada and central Arizona.

  16. California avocados in Florida? Finding the perfect avocado for production in East-Central Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a high-value fruit where most U.S. consumption is supplied using imported product. Cultivars with good fruit quality and horticultural traits may provide a useful alternative crop in east-central Florida and possibly in other locations throughout the state. A port...

  17. SOIL AND HYDROLOGY OF A WET-SANDY CATENA IN EAST-CENTRAL MINNESOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sail properties are strongly related to the retention and movement of water within the soil system. The purposes of this study were to document the near-surface hydrology of a wetland-upland hillslope on a sandy glacial outwash plain in east-central Minnesota and to describe the ...

  18. EPA Designates Mahomet Aquifer as Sole Source of Drinking Water in East-Central Illinois

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced a decision to designate a portion of the Mahomet Aquifer system as a sole source aquifer. More than half of the population in east-central Illinois relies on the Mahomet Aquifer system.

  19. SOIL AND HYDROLOGY OF A WET-SANDY CATENA IN EAST-CENTRAL MINNESOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sail properties are strongly related to the retention and movement of water within the soil system. The purposes of this study were to document the near-surface hydrology of a wetland-upland hillslope on a sandy glacial outwash plain in east-central Minnesota and to describe the ...

  20. Spread of Chikungunya Virus East/Central/South African Genotype in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Charlys da Costa, Antonio; Thézé, Julien; Komninakis, Shirley Cavalcante Vasconcelos; Sanz-Duro, Rodrigo Lopes; Felinto, Marta Rejane Lemos; Moura, Lúcia Cristina Corrêa; Barroso, Ivoneide Moreira de Oliveira; Santos, Lucineide Eliziario Correia; Nunes, Mardjane Alves de Lemos; Moura, Adriana Avila; Lourenço, José; Deng, Xutao; Delwart, Eric L; Guimarães, Maria Raquel Dos Anjos Silva; Pybus, Oliver G; Sabino, Ester C; Faria, Nuno R

    2017-10-01

    We investigated an outbreak of exanthematous illness in Maceió by using molecular surveillance; 76% of samples tested positive for chikungunya virus. Genetic analysis of 23 newly generated genomes identified the East/Central/South African genotype, suggesting that this lineage has persisted since mid-2014 in Brazil and may spread in the Americas and beyond.

  1. Correlates of National-Level Homicide Variation in Post-Communist East-Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamatel, Janet P.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether correlates of cross-national homicide variation tested with data from highly developed, predominantly Western nations could also explain homicide rates in East-Central Europe. Using pooled time-series analyses of data from nine countries from 1990 through 2003, this study found that homicide rates were negatively…

  2. Detection of East/Central/South African Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Myanmar, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Tin; Tar, Thi; Maung, Kay Thwe Thwe; Hayasaka, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene. PMID:25062511

  3. Social Participation and Health among Ageing People in East-Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makai, Alexandra; Prémusz, Viktória; Füge, Kata; Figler, Mária; Lampek, Kinga

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examined the health of the ageing population of East-Central Europe. Data derived from the 6th round of the European Social Survey. The aim of our research was to examine the most important factors that determine ageing people's health status. We paid particular attention to the social ties of our target group.

  4. Social Participation and Health among Ageing People in East-Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makai, Alexandra; Prémusz, Viktória; Füge, Kata; Figler, Mária; Lampek, Kinga

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examined the health of the ageing population of East-Central Europe. Data derived from the 6th round of the European Social Survey. The aim of our research was to examine the most important factors that determine ageing people's health status. We paid particular attention to the social ties of our target group.

  5. Radioactivity at the Copper Creek copper lode prospect, Eagle district, east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedow, Helmuth; Tolbert, Gene Edward

    1952-01-01

    Investigation of radioactivity anomalies at the Copper Creek copper lode prospect, Eagle district, east-central Alaska, during 1949 disclosed that the radioactivity is associated with copper mineralization in highly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. These rocks are a roof pendant in the Mesozoic "Charley River" batholith. The radioactivity is probably all due to uranium associated with bornite and malachite.

  6. Correlates of National-Level Homicide Variation in Post-Communist East-Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamatel, Janet P.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether correlates of cross-national homicide variation tested with data from highly developed, predominantly Western nations could also explain homicide rates in East-Central Europe. Using pooled time-series analyses of data from nine countries from 1990 through 2003, this study found that homicide rates were negatively…

  7. Continental Responsibility: European and International Support for Higher Education and Research in East Central Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Mary E., Ed.; Rhodes, Aaron A., Ed.

    This publication provides a comprehensive inventory of initiatives undertaken by European institutions and international organizations to assist the transformation of higher education and research in East Central Europe. Section 1 contains five papers, each highlighting one of five institutions that have developed innovative approaches to address…

  8. 40 CFR 81.263 - East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.263 Section 81.263 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.263 East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  9. 40 CFR 81.263 - East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.263 Section 81.263 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.263 East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  10. Depositional environments of Late Triassic lake, east-central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hester, P.M. )

    1989-09-01

    The Redonda Member of the Chinle Formation represents deposition in a large, polymictic lake during the Late Triassic (Norian) in east-central New Mexico. This study documents and defines an extensive lacustrine system situated in western Pangaea which was influenced by both tectonic and climatic events. Areal extent of the lake may have been as much as 5,000 km{sup 2}.

  11. NO{sub x} controls for coal-fired utility boilers in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Eskinazi, D.; Tavoulareas, E.S.

    1995-12-01

    Increasing environmental pressures worldwide, including East Central Europe are placing greater emphasis on NO{sub x} emission controls in utility power plants. Western Europe, Japan and the U.S. have significant experience in applying NO{sub x} controls, especially in boilers firing hard coal. Some countries in Europe (i.e., Germany and Austria), have gained experience in applying NO{sub x} controls in boilers firing low-rank coal. This experience can be applied to East Central European countries in providing the basis for planning NO{sub x} control projects, suggesting cost-effective solutions, and providing lessons learned. However, while the experience is generally applicable to East Central European countries, differences in boiler design, operation and coal characteristics also need to be considered. This paper begins with a comparison of the NO{sub x} regulations, identifies the key NO{sub x} control technologies and the worldwide experience with them, and discusses the achievable NO{sub x} reduction, O&M impacts, and retrofit costs for each technology. Emphasis is placed on retrofit applications for existing boilers, because new coal-fired power plants are not expected to be built for the next 5-10 years. This paper also focuses on technologies with relatively low cost and operational simplicity: combustion system tuning/optimization. low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), overfire air (OFA), selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and reburning.

  12. Insights into the Tectonic Evolution of the North American Cordilleran Hinterland from Detrital Zircon Double Dating of the Eocene Elko Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canada, A.; Cassel, E. J.; Smith, M. E.; Stockli, D. F.; Jicha, B. R.; Singer, B. S.

    2015-12-01

    The North American Cordilleran hinterland, from eastern Nevada to western Utah, is the product of Mesozoic crustal thickening and eventual orogen collapse. In NE Nevada, the Eocene Elko Formation represents ~10 Myr of high-elevation (up to 3.5 km) lacustrine deposition within a Paleogene orogenic plateau interior, prior to Neogene extensional collapse. Detrital zircon U-Pb and (U-Th)/He (ZHe) double dating from the Elko Formation constrains the timing and magnitude of tectonic-scale processes as well as the evolution of hinterland paleohydrology and magmatism. Eocene maximum depositional ages from detrital zircon are largely consistent with new single crystal sanidine 40Ar/39Ar ages for Elko Formation tuff beds. U-Pb-He double dating of Eocene sediments supports several phases of exhumation and surface uplift in the hinterland. ZHe ages, combined with U-Pb geochronology, clast assemblages, and paleocurrent analysis suggest a significant amount of detritus from the Roberts Mountain Allochthon (RMA) and back-arc plutons was transported to the Elko Basin during the middle Eocene. Detrital zircons sourced from the RMA record progressive unroofing and are characterized by Archean-Paleoproterozoic crystallization ages and Mesoproterozoic-Triassic cooling ages. The preponderance of Precambrian ZHe ages during the middle-late Eocene and the absence of reset ZHe ages throughout the basin imply that sediment burial did not exceed depths of >6 km during the Phanerozoic. Double dating of several grains from a sandstone below the base of the lacustrine section also confirms the presence of volcanic detritus derived from the Challis volcanic field of central Idaho 400 kilometers to the northeast. Lag time analysis permits discrimination of syndepositional volcanic grains from grains derived from rapidly exhumed sources. Lag time analysis (excluding volcanic grains) indicates that several source areas west of the Elko Basin have undergone major exhumation during the late Eocene.

  13. Kinematic stratification in the hinterland of the central Scandinavian Caledonides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilotti, J.A.; Hull, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    A transect through west-central Norway illustrates the changing geometry and kinematics of collision in the hinterland of the central Scandinavian Caledonides. A depth section through the crust is exposed on Fosen Peninsula, comprising three tectonic units separated by two shear zones. The lowest unit, exposed in the Roan window, is a modestly deformed, Caledonian granulite complex framed by a subhorizontal de??collement, with NW-SE oriented lineations and kinematic indicators showing top-to-the-northwest transport. The middle unit, the Vestranden gneiss complex, contains relict granulites, but was penetratively deformed at amphibolite facies to produce an orogen-parallel family of structures during translation on the de??collement. Shallow plunging lineations on steep schistosities are subparallel to fold axes of the dominant, upright, non-cylindrical folds. A small component of sinistral strike slip is also recorded. In contrast, southernmost Fosen Peninsula contains an abundance of cover rocks infolded with Proterozoic basement in a fold nappe, with shallow, E-dipping schistosities, down-dip lineations, and orogen-oblique, top-to-the-west shear sense indicators. A NE-striking, sinistral shear zone separates the gneisses from southern Fosen. Deformation in the Scandian hinterland was partitioned both in space and time, with orogen-parallel extension and shear at middle structural levels and orogen-oblique transport at shallower levels. ?? 1993.

  14. Rise and Demise of a Southern Laramide Hinterland Plateau, US-Mexico Border Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, T. F.; Clinkscales, C. A.; Jennings, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    -west normal faults are occupied by regionally widespread granitic and rhyolitic dikes ranging 34-27 Ma, yet the Oligocene volcaniclastic rocks are cut by the faults, indicating that the fault system was active during earliest-early late Oligocene magmatism. From the newly assembled data, we infer the presence of a high-standing plateau along the US-Mexico border that was backed by a magmatic arc in northern Mexico. The plateau was supported by lithosphere thickened during backarc contraction, which began in the interval 97-75 Ma. Although the depositional elevation of the Laramide lakes is not yet known, rivers flowed northward from the hinterland plateau toward the Uinta Basin as early as 80 Ma and corroborate the existence of a southern source area. The plateau was thus a long-lived feature with a longevity of as much as 40-50 m.y. It collapsed during Paleogene N-S extension triggered by some combination of thermal weakening by Oligocene magmatism, gravitational failure, and/or retrograde motion of the Farallon slab. The southern Laramide plateau was evidently linked both geographically and temporally to the Cordilleran hinterland plateau ("Nevadaplano") of Nevada and western Utah and thus constituted an important component of the greater Laramide orogen.

  15. Content of chemical elements in tree rings of lodgepole pine and whitebark pine from a subalpine Sierra Nevada forest

    Treesearch

    David L. Peterson; Darren R. Anderson

    1990-01-01

    The wood of lodgepole pines and whitebark pines from a high elevation site in the east central Sierra Nevada of California was analyzed for chemical content to determine whether there were any temporal patterns of chemical distribution in tree rings. Cores were taken from 10 trees of each species and divided into 5-year increments for chemical analysis. Correlation...

  16. Evidence for Early Pleistocene Glaciation obtained from borecores collected in East-Central Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barendregt, R. W.; Andriashek, L. D.; Jackson, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    Borecores collected from the east-central region of Alberta, Canada have recently been sub-sampled and studied for paleomagnetic remanence characteristics. A preliminary magnetostratigraphy has been established for sediments previously assumed to represent multiple continental (Laurentide) glaciations, but for which no geochronology was available for the pre-late Wisconsin units. Comprised primarily of tills and lesser thicknesses of interbedded glacio-lacustrine and outwash sediments, the record is extensive, reaching to thicknesses of 300 metres within buried valleys. Most of the sampled units are not accessible from outcrop, and their sedimentology and stratigraphy is derived from core data only. The lowermost tills are reversely magnetized in the majority of borecores sampled to date. These tills are underlain by Empress Formation sediments and/or Colorado Group shales, and overlain by normally magnetized sediments. Both tills contain substantial weathering horizons at their surface, suggesting that interglacial or nonglacial conditions persisted for some time after each period of till deposition. Whether these tills represent a single Early Pleistocene glaciation, or perhaps two, will require additional borecore measurements. This new record of Early Pleistocene glaciation(s) in east-central Alberta places the westernmost extent of earliest Laurentide ice some 300 km farther westward from its previously established limit in the Saskatoon to Regina region of the western Canadian prairies, but still well short of the all-time limit and elevation reached during the Late Wisconsin (Late Pleistocene) in the foothills of the Alberta and Montana Rocky Mountains. Key Words: East-Central Alberta glacial history, Early Pleistocene (Laurentide) glaciation, till magnetostratigraphy, Quaternary history of Western Canadian Prairies, continental glaciations of North America.

  17. A historical perspective of the extremely hot 2013 summer in East-central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qi; Fu, Congbin; Mao, Huiting

    2016-04-01

    An extreme hot summer occurred over East-central China in 2013. Its duration of continuous, highest temperature anomalies was the longest on record for the time period of 1948-2013. Several modeling studies have attempted to identify the causes and did not obtain conclusive findings, in large part due to their limited scopes of the problem. Here, we conducted a multi-scale and multi-factor analysis of this extreme event using observational data of 600 monitoring stations over China and global reanalysis data for the period of 1981-2013. Our results suggested that the number of heatwave days (NHD) (defined as a day with daily maximum temperature ≥ 35°C) over East-central China experienced an increasing trend of 3.44 days per decade since 1981 and reached the record maximum (34.1 days) in 2013, with significant inter-annual variability superimposed on the trend. It should be noted that this increasing trend in NHD was consistent with that of the intensity of the Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) linked to global warming as suggested in the literature. There were also strong correlations between NHD over East-central China, WPSH, and global mean temperature (GT) on interannual scales. The extremely hot 2013 summer could not be explained by global warming and associated enhanced WPSH alone as GT and WPSH intensity were not record high in that summer. Further analysis suggested that large scale air-sea interaction over the Pacific region could have played a critical role. Specifically, enhanced convection over the Philippine Sea and along Indonesian islands in summer 2013 appeared to be strongest for the study period. This convection could cause a strong local feedback among precipitation, cloud cover, and net radiation, which could further weaken upper- and lower-level circulation via the tropical-extratropical teleconnection and Rossby wave propagation. This feedback was likely the direct cause of the extremely hot 2013 summer.

  18. Penokean tectonics along a promontory-embayment margin in east-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chandler, V.W.; Boerboom, Terrence; Jirsa, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Recent geologic investigations in east-central Minnesota have utilized geophysical data, test drilling, and high-resolution geochronologic dating to produce a significantly improved map of a poorly exposed part of the 1880-1830 Ma Penokean orogen. These investigations have elucidated major changes in the structure of the orogen, as compared to its counterparts in northern Michigan and northwestern Wisconsin. Foreland basin, fold and thrust belt, and magmatic terrane components that are recognized to the east extend into east-central Minnesota, but they appear to be deflected southwards and truncated in proximity to Archean rocks of the Minnesota River Valley (MRV) subprovince. In contrast, the interior of the MRV subprovince to the southwest shows little sign of Penokean tectonism. In addition, the magmatic and metamorphic rocks of the internal zone of the orogen in east-central Minnesota are extensively invaded by ca. 1785-1770 Ma granitic rocks (the East-Central Minnesota Batholith), whereas, post-orogenic granites of this age occur sparingly to the east. These differences in orogenic structure may be related to their location near the juncture of an embayment (Becker embayment) and a promontory (MRV promontory) that formed the pre-Penokean continental margin. In this scenario, the MRV promontory, which at the surface consists chiefly of high-metamorphic-grade Mesoarchean gneisses, would have formed competent, high-standing crust that resisted deformation and did not host significantly thick continental margin sequences. In contrast, the part of the Becker Embayment adjoining the promontory would have involved relatively weak, low-standing crust that favored deposition of continental margin sequences and, during Penokean collision, would have accommodated tectonic loading of the cratonic margin through thin-skinned deformation. Thrusting of thick embayment sequences and possibly a block of Archean crust (Marshfield terrane) onto the embayment margin may have

  19. Selected hydrologic data for Fountain Creek and Monument Creek basins, east-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard; Ortiz, Roderick F.

    1989-01-01

    Selected hydrologic data were collected during 1986, 1987, and 1988 by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Fountain Creek and Monument Creek basins, east-central Colorado. The data were obtained as part of a study to determine the present and projected effects of wastewater discharges on the two creeks. The data, which are available for 129 surface-water sites, include: (1) About 1,100 water quality analyses; (2) about 420 measurements of discharge, (3) characteristics of about 50 dye clouds associated with measurements of traveltime and reaeration , and (4) about 360 measurements of channel geometry. (USGS)

  20. Seismic Velocities and Thicknesses of Alluvial Deposits along Baker Creek in the Great Basin National Park, East-Central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allander, Kip K.; Berger, David L.

    2009-01-01

    To better understand how proposed large-scale water withdrawals in Snake Valley may affect the water resources and hydrologic processes in the Great Basin National Park, the National Park Service needs to have a better understanding of the relations between streamflow and groundwater flow through alluvium and karst topography of the Pole Canyon Limestone. Information that is critical to understanding these relations is the thickness of alluvial deposits that overlay the Pole Canyon Limestone. In mid-April 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey and National Park Service used seismic refraction along three profiles adjacent to Baker Creek to further refine understanding of the local geology. Two refractors and three distinct velocity layers were detected along two of the profiles and a single refractor and two distinct velocity layers were detected along a third profile. In the unsaturated alluvium, average velocity was 2,000 feet per second, thickness ranged from about 7 to 20 feet along two profiles downstream of the Narrows, and thickness was at least 100 feet along a single profile upstream of the Narrows. Saturated alluvium was only present downstream of the Narrows - average velocity was 4,400 feet per second, and thickness ranged from about 40 to 110 feet. The third layer probably represented Pole Canyon Limestone or Tertiary granitic rock units with an average velocity of 12,500 feet per second. Along the upstream and middle profiles (profiles 3 and 1, respectively), the depth to top of the third layer ranged from at least 60 to 110 feet below land surface and is most likely the Pole Canyon Limestone. The third layer at the farthest downstream profile (profile 2) may be a Tertiary granitic rock unit. Baker Creek is disconnected from the groundwater system along the upstream profile (profile 3) and streamflow losses infiltrate vertically downward to the Pole Canyon Limestone. Along the downstream and middle profiles (profiles 2 and 1, respectively), the presence of a shallow water table indicates that low permeability Tertiary granitic rock may extend across the Baker Creek Drainage intersecting the Pole Canyon Limestone. The Tertiary granitic rock may be acting as a barrier to groundwater flow within the Pole Canyon Limestone.

  1. Simulated effects of proposed ground-water pumping in 17 basins of east-central and southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaefer, D.H.; Harrill, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Las Vegas Valley Water District filed 146 applications in 1989 to pump about 180,800 acre- ft/yr in 17 basins for use in Las Vegas Valley. A previously constructed, two-layer computer model of the carbonate-rock province area was configured to simulate transient conditions and used to develop first approximations of the possible effects of these withdrawals. Simulations were made using the phased pumping schedule proposed by the water district. Ground-water-level declines of several hundred feet could ultimately develop in the basins scheduled to supply most of the pumped ground water. Simulated declines in the carbonate-rock aquifer were somewhat larger than simulated declines in the overlying basin-fill deposits. Decreases in simulated regional spring flow were shown in several cells including those representing the Muddy River Springs, Hiko-Crystal-Ash spring area, and the Ash Meadows spring area. Model simulations show flow decreases of about 11 percent, 14 percent, and 2 percent, respectively, at these springs after almost 100 years of pumping. Simulated evapotranspiration also decreased in many basins, with the largest decreases occurring in the basins where ground-water withdrawals were greatest. These basins include Railroad, Spring, and Snake Valleys. The largest decrease in simulated evapotranspiration occurred in Railroad Valley, 64 percent after almost 100 years of pumpage. Model-sensitivity tests indicate that long-term results were relatively insensitive to variations in values used for aquifer storage. The adequacy of the model to simulate the effects of this proposed pumping will remain untested until actual pumping stresses have been in place long enough to cause measurable effects within the system.

  2. The Cretaceous record in a northeast-trending transect, northern Utah to east-central Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Merewether, E.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Cretaceous sedimentary rocks in the Laramide basins of the middle Rocky Mountains include 16,600 ft (5060 m) of predominantly siliciclastic strata in the thrust-belt of northern Utah and 7800 ft (2380 m) of mainly siliciclastic and calcareous strata near the craton in east central Wyoming. Regional changes in the thickness of the strata indicate that crustal subsidence during the Cretaceous was generally greatest in northern Utah and western Wyoming where it was associated with tectonic and sediment loading. However, the considerable thickness of uppermost Cretaceous nonmarine beds in several other areas reflects pronounced basin subsidence during early stages of the Laramide orogeny. In a transect from northern Utah to east-central Wyoming, based on outcrop sections, borehole logs, and chronostratigraphic data, Cretaceous rocks grade northeastward from mainly fluvial and nearshore marine synorogenic conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone, coal, and bentonite to mostly nearshore and offshore marine sandstone, mudstone, calcareous shale, and bentonite. Lateral changes in the lithofacies and in the extent of enclosed unconformities indicate marine transgressions and regressions that were effected by structural deformation, sedimentation, and eustatic events. Significant unconformities have been found at the base of the Cretaceous strata, at two horizons within beds of Albian age, at two horizons within rocks of Cenomanian and Turonian ages, at one horizon within Coniacian strata, and at two horizons within Campanian beds. Most of these unconformities are either flooding surfaces or sequence boundaries.

  3. Oaks were the historical foundation genus of the east-central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanberry, Brice B.; Nowacki, Gregory J.

    2016-08-01

    Foundation tree species are dominant and define ecosystems. Because of the historical importance of oaks (Quercus) in east-central United States, it was unlikely that oak associates, such as pines (Pinus), hickories (Carya) and chestnut (Castanea), rose to this status. We used 46 historical tree studies or databases (ca. 1620-1900) covering 28 states, 1.7 million trees, and 50% of the area of the eastern United States to examine importance of oaks compared to pines, hickories, and chestnuts. Oak was the most abundant genus, ranging from 40% to 70% of total tree composition at the ecological province scale and generally increasing in dominance from east to west across this area. Pines, hickories, and chestnuts were co-dominant (ratio of oak composition to other genera of <2) in no more than five of 70 ecological subsections and two of 20 ecological sections in east-central United States, and thus by definition, were not foundational. Although other genera may be called foundational because of localized abundance or perceptions resulting from inherited viewpoints, they decline from consideration when compared to overwhelming oak abundance across this spatial extent. The open structure and high-light conditions of oak ecosystems uniquely supported species-rich understories. Loss of oak as a foundation genus has occurred with loss of open forest ecosystems at landscape scales.

  4. Transit traverse in Missouri, 1900-1937. Part 3, East-central Missouri, 1903-37

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staack, John George

    1940-01-01

    This bulletin, which for convenience is to be published in eight parts, contains the results of all transit traverse* done In Missouri through 1937 by the Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior, including those heretofore published. (See page X.) Each of the parts deals with one of eight sections into which the State has been divided for this purpose and which have been designated northeastern, northwestern, southeastern, southwestern, central, east-central, south-central, and west-central Missouri. In each part descriptions of the points for which geodetic positions have been determined are listed according to the quadrangles in which the points occur. Results of transit traverse other than that done by the Geological Survey have not been included.East-central Missouri, as the term is used in this bulletin and as the subject of part 3 of the bulletin, is that section of the State lying between latitudes 38°00' and 39°15' and east of longitude 92°00'.

  5. A 564-year annual minimum temperature reconstruction for the east central Tibetan Plateau from tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Teng; Li, Jinbao

    2017-10-01

    Minimum temperatures have increased rapidly on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) in recent decades, but there is still a lack of long-term background information to evaluate the nature of the anomaly. Here we present a 709-year tree-ring width chronology from Sabina tibetica Kom. on the east central TP, with reliable coverage from 1451 to 2014. Based on the significant relationship between tree growth and annual minimum temperature (Tmin), from previous April to current March, we reconstruct the pApril-cMarch Tmin for the past 564 years. The reconstruction shows six major warm (1490-1623, 1713-1729, 1784-1812, 1868-1877, 1918-1954, 1989-2014) and six major cold (1451-1489, 1624-1712, 1730-1783, 1813-1853, 1878-1917, 1955-1988) periods during the past five hundred years. The level of warming from 1989 to 2014 is unprecedented over the past five centuries. Comparison with other minimum temperature records indicates that our Tmin reconstruction represents large-scale temperature changes on the eastern TP. The positive correlation between the Tmin reconstruction and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) suggests that the latter may have played a crucial role on multidecadal temperature variations over the east central TP, with high temperatures coincident with the warm phases of the AMO, and low temperatures related to the cold phases of the AMO, respectively.

  6. Ordovician sponges from west-central and east-central Alaska and western Yukon Territory, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rigby, J.K.; Blodgett, R.B.; Britt, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    Moderate collections of fossil sponges have been recovered over a several-year period from a few scattered localities in west-central and east-central Alaska, and from westernmost Yukon Territory of Canada. Two fragments of the demosponge agelasiid cliefdenellid, Cliefdenella alaskaensis Stock, 1981, and mostly small unidentifiable additional fragments were recovered from a limestone debris flow bed in the White Mountain area, McGrath A-4 Quadrangle in west-central Alaska. Fragments of the agelasiid actinomorph girtyocoeliids Girtyocoeliana epiporata (Rigby & Potter, 1986) and Girtyocoelia minima n. sp., plus a specimen of the vaceletid colospongiid Corymbospongia amplia Rigby, Karl, Blodgett & Baichtal, 2005, were collected from probable Ashgillian age beds in the Livengood B-5 Quadrangle in east-central Alaska. A more extensive suite of corymbospongiids, including Corymbospongia betella Rigby, Potter & Blodgett, 1988, C. mica Rigby & Potter, 1986, and C.(?) perforata Rigby & Potter, 1986, along with the vaceletiid colospongiids Pseudo-imperatoria minima? (Rigby & Potter, 1986), and Pseudoimperatoria media (Rigby & Potter, 1986), and with the heteractinid Nucha naucum? Pickett & Jell, 1983, were recovered from uppermost part of the Jones Ridge Limestone (Ashgillian), on the south flank of Jones Ridge, in the Sheep Mountain Quadrangle, in westernmost Yukon Territory, Canada. The fossil sponges from the McGrath A-4 and Livengood B-5 quadrangles were recovered from attached Siberian terranes, and those from the Sheep Mountain Quadrangle were recovered from an allochthonous Laurentian terrane in the Yukon Territory.

  7. The main characteristics of atmospheric circulation over East-Central Europe from 1871 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoszek, Krzysztof

    2017-04-01

    The main objective of the paper concerns the determination of the annual and multi-annual variability of air flow over East-Central Europe in the period 1871-2010. Daily mean sea-level pressure and values of physical quantities provided the basis for distinguishing 27 circulation types, i.e., eight directional cyclonic, transitional, and anticyclonic types, and one non-directional cyclonic, anticyclonic, and an undefined type. Over the area of East-Central Europe, the highest frequency is recorded for air flow from the western sector, with a maximum in the period from December to January. In spring, a higher than average frequency of cyclonic and easterly circulation is observed, and in summer—anticyclonic and northerly. Increased zonal circulation was recorded in the years 1910-1930, and particularly after 1970, and eastern at the end of the nineteenth century and in the 1930s and 1940s. An increase in the frequency of days with non-directional anticyclonic type and westerly air flow, and a simultaneous decrease in frequency of days with south-easterly and easterly circulation were observed throughout the study period. Among the three classes of circulation types, the highest persistence (particularly in winter) was recorded for anticyclonic types, i.e., when the high pressure system occurred over the Scandinavian Peninsula or East Europe.

  8. Lesser scaup winter foraging and nutrient reserve acquisition in east-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, G.; Collazo, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) populations have been declining since the late 1970s. One of the explanations to account for this decline, the spring-condition hypothesis (SCH), is based on the premise that scaup are limited by their ability to acquire or maintain nutrient reserves during migration to the breeding grounds, leading to an impairment of their reproductive potential. Available evidence suggests that endogenous reserves required for reproduction are obtained at a later stage of migration or after arrival at the breeding grounds, not wintering sites. However, only one study has addressed body-condition levels on a southern wintering site in the last decade, with results limited to the wintering grounds on the Mississippi Flyway. We documented foraging behavior, nutrient levels, and body mass of lesser scaup in east-central Florida, USA, where 62% of the Atlantic Flyway population overwinters, during the winters of 2002 and 2003. Diurnal foraging did not increase seasonally. Nocturnal foraging increased seasonally by 76% or 43 minutes per night in females and by 478% or 1.9 hours per night in males. Measures of body condition did not change seasonally during 2002 for either sex. Between early and later winter in 2003 corrected body mass (CBM) and lipid reserves of male scaup increased 77 g and 39 g, respectively. Our results suggest that lesser scaup maintain or may slightly improve their physiological condition in east-central Florida during winter. Lower body mass and differences in nutrient levels in east-central Florida, compared to a wintering site in Louisiana, likely stem from geographic variation and lower thermal requirements associated with the warmer Florida environment. Lesser scaup depart Florida with sufficient reserves to initiate spring migration, but they maximize nutrient reserves used during reproduction elsewhere during migration or on the breeding grounds. These results suggest that maintaining the ecological integrity of this wintering

  9. Manganese resources of the Cuyuna range, east-central Minnesota. Report of Investigations 24

    SciTech Connect

    Beltrame, R.J.; Holtzman, R.C.; Wahl, T.E.

    1981-01-01

    The Cuyuna range, located in east-central Minnesota, consists of a sequence of argillite, siltstone, iron-formation, graywacke, slate, and quartzite of early Proterozoic age. Manganese-bearing materials occur within the iron-rich strata of the Trommald Formation and the Rabbit Lake Formation. Computer-assisted resource estimates, based on exploration drill hole information, indicate that the Cuyuna range contains a minimum of 176 million metric tons (MMT) of marginally economic manganiferous rock with an average grade of 10.46 weight percent manganese. The calculated 18.5 MMT of manganese on the Cuyuna range could supply this country's needs for this important and strategic metal for nearly 14 years. An additional resource of 6.9 MMT of manganese metal is available in the lower grade deposits. The vast majority of these calculated resources are extractable by current surface mining techniques.

  10. Gold deposit styles and placer gold characterisation in northern and east-central Madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitfield, Peter E. J; Styles, Michael T.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Key, Roger M.; Bauer,; Ralison, A

    2009-01-01

    Microchemical characterisation of bedrock and placer gold grains from six gold districts within the Archaean domains and intervening Neoproterozoic Anaboriana-Manampotsy belt of northern and east-central Madagascar show few opaque inclusions (e.g pyrrhotite, Bi tellurides) but wide range of Ag contents (40wt%). Some districts exhibit multiple source populations of grains. The ‘greenstone belt’ terranes have an orogenic gold signature locally with an intrusion-related to epithermal overprint. Proterozoic metasediments with felsic to ultramafic bodies yield dominantly intrusion-related gold. A high proportion of secondary gold (<0.5wt% Ag) is related to recycling of paleoplacers and erosion of post-Gondwana planation surfaces and indicates that some mesothermal gold systems were already partially to wholly removed by erosion by the PermoTriassic.

  11. 'Deadly gonorrhoea': history, collective memory and early HIV epidemiology in East Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuhanen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This article combines local oral reminiscences with recent epidemiological literature to sketch a historical context around the onset and expansion of the HIV-1 epidemic in southern Uganda and north-western Tanzania. The local historical imagination has associated the appearance of AIDS in two ways. First, with specific socio-economic structures and circumstances common in the region since the 1960s and their enhancement during the 1970s due to economic changes at national and global levels. Second, the epidemic is associated with changes in the epidemiological situation. Local perspectives are supported by recent phylogenetic research and circumstantial historical evidence, on the basis of which a hypothesis on the expansion of HIV-1 in East Central Africa (southern Uganda, north-western Tanzania, Rwanda) is presented.

  12. Map showing extent of glaciation in the Eagle quadrangle, east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, Florence R.; Wilson, Frederic H.

    2012-01-01

    This map covers the Eagle 1:250,000-scale quadrangle in the northeastern part of the Yukon-Tanana Upland in Alaska. It shows the extent of five major glacial advances, former glacial lakes, and present fragmented terrace deposits related to the advances. The Yukon-Tanana Upland is an area of about 116,550 km2 between the Yukon and Tanana Rivers in east-central Alaska that extends into the western part of the Yukon Territory of Canada. Traditionally, the Yukon-Tanana Upland was thought to be a part of unglaciated central Alaska, however, a rather long history of localized alpine glaciation during Pleistocene and possibly Tertiary time can be shown. Deposits of five of the glacial episodes can be found in the Eagle quadrangle. This report is an outcome of studies conducted in conjunction with bedrock mapping intended for mineral resource assessment.

  13. Situation analysis for cervical cancer diagnosis and treatment in east, central and southern African countries.

    PubMed Central

    Chirenje, Z. M.; Rusakaniko, S.; Kirumbi, L.; Ngwalle, E. W.; Makuta-Tlebere, P.; Kaggwa, S.; Mpanju-Shumbusho, W.; Makoae, L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors influencing cervical cancer diagnosis and treatment in countries of East, Central and Southern Africa (ECSA). METHODS: Data were collected from randomly selected primary health care centres, district and provincial hospitals, and tertiary hospitals in each participating country. Health care workers were interviewed, using a questionnaire; the facilities for screening, diagnosing, and treating cervical cancer in each institution were recorded, using a previously designed checklist. FINDINGS: Although 95% of institutions at all health care levels in ECSA countries had the basic infrastructure to carry out cervical cytology screening, only a small percentage of women were actually screened. Lack of policy guidelines, infrequent supply of basic materials, and a lack of suitable qualified staff were the most common reasons reported. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that there is an urgent need for more investment in the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer in ECSA countries. In these, and other countries with low resources, suitable screening programmes should be established. PMID:11242819

  14. Practices, perceptions, and implications of fertilizer use in East-Central China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoying; Fang, Shubo

    2015-11-01

    Face-to-face interviews (n = 553) were conducted in five counties in East-Central China to study farmers' fertilizer application behaviors, decision-making processes, attitudes towards adopting better fertilizer application technologies, and environmental consciousness. The survey results revealed widespread fertilizer misapplication and highly variable application behaviors in the study regions. The lack of scientific knowledge on fertilizers and the absence of guidance from agricultural extension services have forced the farmers to rely on personal judgment and advice from fertilizer dealers and friends to make decisions in fertilizer application. Overall, farmers have been idiosyncratic in fertilizer application with limited adoption of better fertilizer application technologies. There are great potentials for reducing pollutant load from agricultural runoff through promoting scientific fertilizer application in the regions. However, farmers' diverse preferences over agricultural extension programs necessitate an integrated approach emphasizing farmer involvement throughout the development of such programs for promoting better fertilizer application practices.

  15. Investigation of rainfall data with regard to low-level wind flow regime for east central Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Joni

    1992-01-01

    Previous research has been conducted to investigate the effect of the low-level wind region on summertime convective storms in the east central Florida area. These effects were described by analyzing the distribution of lightning flashes within classifications based on the low-level wind regime for the months June through September of 1987 to 1990. The present research utilizes the same classification strategy to study rainfall patterns for data gathered for the CaPE (Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment) field program. The CaPE field program was conducted in east central Florida from July 8, 1991 to August 18, 1991.

  16. Variation in riverine nitrate flux and fall nitrogen fertilizer application in East-central illinois.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Lowell E; David, Mark B; McIsaac, Gregory F

    2014-07-01

    In east-central Illinois, fertilizer sales during the past 20 yr suggest that approximately half of the fertilizer nitrogen (N) applied to corn ( L.) occurs in the fall; however, fall fertilizer N sales were greatly reduced in 2009 as wet soil conditions restricted fall fieldwork, including fertilizer N applications. In 2010, we observed unusually low flow-weighted nitrate concentrations (approximately 40% below the long-term average) in two east-central Illinois rivers (5.7 mg N L in the Embarras River and 5.6 mg N L in the Lake Fork of the Kaskaskia River). Using long-term river nitrate data sets (1993-2012 for the Embarras and 1997-2012 for the Kaskaskia), we examined nitrate concentrations and developed regression models to estimate the association between fall fertilizer N application on riverine nitrate yields in these tile-drained watersheds. During these periods of record, annual riverine nitrate yields ranged from 8 to 57 kg N ha yr (30 kg N ha yr average) for the Embarras River and 2.6 to 59 kg N ha yr (32 kg N ha yr average) for the Kaskaskia. Multivariate linear regression relationships with the current and previous year's annual water yields, previous year's corn yield, and nine-county fall fertilizer sales accounted for 96% of the annual variation in nitrate yield in both watersheds. Running the regression models with fall fertilizer sales set to the 2009 amount suggests that the average reduction in nitrate yield (for the period of record) would be 17 and 20% for the Embarras and Kaskaskia Rivers, respectively. These data suggest that shifting fertilizer N application to the spring can be detected in watersheds as large as 481 km. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Emergence of Thelazia callipaeda Infection in Dogs and Cats from East-Central Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, C; Catarino, A L; Almeida, B; Ramos, C; Campino, L; Cardoso, L

    2016-08-01

    The eyeworm Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) infects domestic animals, wildlife and human beings, and is considered an emerging pathogen in Europe. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence and risk factors of T. callipaeda infection in dogs and cats from east-central Portugal, a region where the parasite was previously detected in two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Thelazia callipaeda was found in 22 (3.8%) of 586 dogs and in four (23.5%) of 17 cats. A total of 178 adult worms (71.9% of females and 28.1% of males) were collected from the conjunctiva of the infected dogs. The number of worms collected per dog ranged from 1 to 35 (average ± standard deviation: 8.08 ± 9.49), with four dogs (18.2%) harbouring only a single parasite. Worms were gathered from dogs throughout all months of the year. A total of 17 adult worms (64.7% of females and 35.3% of males) were obtained from cats. The number of worms per cat ranged from 1 to 14 (4.3 ± 6.5), with three cats (75.0%) having a single parasite. Eyeworm infection was statistically more prevalent in pastoral and farm dogs, in those dogs with contact with other animals and in dogs with ocular manifestations. T. callipaeda is endemic in the east-central part of Portugal, reportedly infecting domestic (dogs and cats) and wild carnivores (red foxes) and evidencing a southerly dissemination. Future investigations should be focused on determining the local distribution and density of the insect vector (Phortica variegata) in this geographical area. This emergent zoonosis should be included by veterinarians, physicians and ophthalmologists in the differential diagnosis of ocular manifestations in their patients, particularly in areas where T. callipaeda is endemic.

  18. Evidence for ocean-continent crust boundary beneath the abyssal plain of the East Central Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storetvedt, K. M.

    1987-09-01

    A survey of geophysical results and basalt characteristics of the East Central Atlantic suggests that such data are at present unable to define the seaward limit of the thinned continental crust. The combined evidence from margin sedimentation, deep-sea diapirism, salinity concentration in DSDP-IPOD cores, and the distribution of deep-sea barite and palygorskite-sepiolite assemblages indicate that the Central Atlantic developed from a wide rift basin within a normal continental setting. The notion of an extensive pre-drift basin gains additional support from the occurrences of Lower Cretaceous black shales which are interpreted as resulting from a tectonomagmatic forerunner phase to the actual continental separation process. Seafloor spreading which appears to have commenced at around 90 Ma B.P. (Cenomanian-Turonian), following major phases of subsidence and crustal attenuation in Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous, is identified by an apparently sharp change-over from reducing to oxygenated deep-sea environment as well as by the 'onset' of a major sedimentary hiatus. The new development model of the East Central Atlantic is regarded as a representative example of a global pattern; commencement of seafloor spreading in the Upper Cretaceous probably explains the world wide 'Cenomanian' transgression as well as the formation of extensive Upper Cretaceous sedimentary basins in the interior of the major continental blocks. A consequence of this model is that vertical crustal dynamics seem to be as important as seafloor spreading in the development of the oceanic lithosphere. Thus, in the Central Atlantic spreading is probably confined only to the region of the elevated Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

  19. Intermodal transport and distribution patterns in ports relationship to hinterland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, O.; Dragu, V.; Ruscă, F.; Ilie, A.; Oprea, C.

    2017-08-01

    It is of great importance to examine all interactions between ports, terminals, intermodal transport and logistic actors of distribution channels, as their optimization can lead to operational improvement. Proposed paper starts with a brief overview of different goods types and allocation of their logistic costs, with emphasis on storage component. Present trend is to optimize storage costs by means of port storage area buffer function, by making the best use of free storage time available, most of the ports offer. As a research methodology, starting point is to consider the cost structure of a generic intermodal transport (storage, handling and transport costs) and to link this to intermodal distribution patterns most frequently cast-off in port relationship to hinterland. The next step is to evaluate storage costs impact on distribution pattern selection. For a given value of port free storage time, a corresponding value of total storage time in the distribution channel can be identified, in order to substantiate a distribution pattern shift. Different scenarios for transport and handling costs variation, recorded when distribution pattern shift, are integrated in order to establish the reaction of the actors involved in port related logistic and intermodal transport costs evolution is analysed in order to optimize distribution pattern selection.

  20. Measuring and modeling ancient meteoric water in volcanic glass, with application to the paleotopography of the US Cordilleran hinterland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassel, E. J.; Breecker, D.; Larson, T.; Henry, C.

    2013-12-01

    relative elevations. We used δD values of hydration waters in natural glasses to reconstruct absolute elevations across the Cordilleran hinterland for the Paleogene, using a thermodynamic air mass lifting Rayleigh condensation model incorporating isotope equilibrium expressions, validated by comparison with observed modern isotopic lapse rates. The potential for topography to block and deflect atmospheric flow, departures from modern temperature lapse rates, and initial air mass temperature and humidity were also considered. The Paleogene Cordilleran hinterland maintained a connected drainage system for over 300 km to the west of a region of periodically closed intraorogenic basins. Late Oligocene paleoelevations reached 3500 +800/-300 m in what is now eastern Nevada (average modern elevation: 1500 m), with a continuous westward-facing paleoslope of 0.8%-1.5% grade. This high topography was sustained from at least 40-23 Ma. The onset of extension and collapse, facilitated by internal heat production and stored gravitational potential energy within elevated, thickened crust, was triggered by a change in the external kinematic framework - likely the delamination of the Farallon slab, which coupled the Sierra Nevada to the Colorado Plateau.

  1. Populations of sharpshooters in two citrus groves in east-central Florida as indicated by yellow sticky card traps

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three sharpshooter species were captured on yellow sticky card traps in two citrus groves in east-central Florida: Homalodisca insolita, H. vitripennis and Oncometopia nigricans. H. vitripennis and O. nigricans were relatively common and H. vitripennis relatively abundant over a three year period ...

  2. Crooked Calf Syndrome: Managing Lupines on Rangelands of the Channel Scablands of East-Central Washington State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    “Crooked calf syndrome”, the contracture-type skeletal defects and cleft palate caused by velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) on the channel Scablands of east-central Washington State are the same as those defects induced by Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) and Nicotiana spp. (wild tobacco) in rum...

  3. Simulating soybean productivity under rainfed conditions for major soil types using APEX model in East Central Mississippi

    Treesearch

    Bangbang Zhang; Gary Feng; John J. Read; Xiangbin Kong; Ying Ouyang; Ardeshir Adeli; Johnie N. Jenkins

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of soybean yield constraints under rainfed conditions on major soil types in East CentralMississippi would assist growers in the region to effectively utilize the benefits of water/irrigation man-agement. The objectives of this study were to use the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX)agro-ecosystem model to simulate rainfed soybean grain yield (...

  4. Geologic map of the Mine Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Cashman, P.H.; Cole, J.C.

    1998-10-05

    The Mine Mountain area is a small range of hills on the west side of the central Yucca Flat basin on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This map portrays the very complex relationships among the pre-Tertiary stratigraphic units of the region. Rocks and structures of the Mine Mountain area record the compounded effects of: (1) eastward-directed, foreland-vergent thrusting; (2) younger folds and thrusts formed by hinterland vergence in a general westerly direction; and (3) low-angle normal faulting formed by extension along a northeast-southwest trend. All of these structures are older than the oldest middle Miocene volcanic rocks that were deposited on the flanks of the Mine Mountain terrane. High-angle faults that post-date these volcanic rocks locally show displacements of several hundred meters, but do not strongly affect patterns in the pre-Tertiary rocks.

  5. Hydrogeology and water-quality characteristics of the Lower Floridan aquifer in east-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Spechler, Rick M.; McGurk, Brian E.

    2002-01-01

    The hydrogeology and water-quality characteristics of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the relation of the Lower Floridan aquifer to the framework of the Floridan aquifer system were evaluated during a 6-year (1995-2001) study. The study area, a 7,500 square-mile area of east-central Florida, is underlain by three principal hydrogeologic units: the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate confining unit, and the Floridan aquifer system. The Floridan aquifer system, a carbonate-rock aquifer system composed of the Upper Floridan aquifer, a middle semiconfining unit, a middle confining unit, and the Lower Floridan aquifer, is the major source of water supply to east-central Florida. The Upper Floridan aquifer provides much of the water required to meet the current (2002) demand; however, the Lower Floridan aquifer is being used increasingly as a source of freshwater, particularly for municipal needs. For this reason, a better understanding of the aquifer is needed. The Lower Floridan aquifer is present throughout east-central Florida. The aquifer is composed of alternating beds of limestone and dolomite, and is characterized by abundant fractured dolomite zones and solution cavities. The altitude of the top of the Lower Floridan aquifer ranges from less than 600 feet below sea level in the northern part of the study area to more than 1,600 feet below sea level in the southwestern part. Thickness of the unit ranges from about 910 to 1,180 feet. The top of the Lower Floridan aquifer generally is marked by an increase in formation resistivity and by an increase in the occurrence of fractures and solution cavities within the carbonates. Also, a noticeable increase in borehole flow often marks the top of the unit. The bottom of the Lower Floridan aquifer is based on the first occurrence of evaporites. Ground-water in the Lower Floridan aquifer generally moves in a southwest-to-northeast direction across the study area. In September 1998, the altitude of the potentiometric

  6. Sequence stratigraphy of the Lower Triassic Sinbad Formation, San Rafael Swell, east-central, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Goodspeed, T.H.; Elrick, M. . Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences); Lucas, S.G. )

    1993-04-01

    The Lower Triassic Sinbad Fm (20--30 m thick) in the San Rafael Swell of east-central Utah is high energy carbonate deposits that conformably overlie tidal flat/fluvial channel deposits of the Black Dragon Fm. The Torrey Fm conformably overlies the Sinbad Fm and consists primarily of siliciclastic tidal flat and fluvial deposits. Five facies (in ascending order) are characteristic of the Sinbad Fm: (1) bioturbated calcisiltite with calcite-replaced evaporite nodules and ripple laminations, (2) skeletal-oolitic-intraclastic packstone and grainstone, (3) slightly bioturbated, mechanically laminated, pelletal calcisiltite (5) trough cross-bedded, peloidal to oolitic grainstone, and (5) thin-bedded, skeletal-pelletal-oolitic grainstone with mud to wackestone drapes. Regional facies relationships of the Sinbad Fm indicate initial deepening followed by shallowing. The skeletal-intraclastic packstone and grainstone facies represents maximum flooding. This facies thickens to the northwest and contains an open marine molluscan fauna of ammonites, bivalves, gastropods and scaphopods. The ammonites are indicative of the Tardus Zone of late Smithian age. Deposits above the maximum flooding zone (MFZ) are restricted foreshoal, pelletal calcisiltite, oolitic shoal, and backshoal skeletal-oolitic (with a restricted fauna of molluscs and ostracods) deposits. This shallowing-upward sequence represents the early HST. The Sinbad Fm represents the MFZ and early HST of a 150-m-thick depositional sequence of rocks with the Black Dragon FM representing the TST, and the Torrey Fm representing the late HST.

  7. Acheulean technological behaviour in the Middle Pleistocene landscape of Mieso (East-Central Ethiopia).

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Ignacio; Mora, Rafael; Arroyo, Adrian; Benito-Calvo, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    The Mieso valley is a new paleoanthropological sequence located in East-Central Ethiopia. It contains Middle and Upper Pleistocene deposits with fossil and lithic assemblages in stratified deposits. This paper introduces the Middle Pleistocene archaeological sequence, attributed to the late Acheulean. Low density clusters of artefacts suggest short-term use of the landscape by Acheulean hominins. In Mieso 31, one of the excavated assemblages, refit sets indicate fragmentation of the reduction sequences and enable study of the initial stages of biface manufacture. Mieso 7, also a stratified site, is primarily characterized by a small concentration of standardized cleavers, and portrays another dimension of Acheulean technology, that related to final stages of use and discard of large cutting tools. Available radiometric dates place the Mieso Acheulean around 212 ka (thousands of years) ago, which would make this sequence among the latest evidence of the Acheulean in East Africa, in a time span when the Middle Stone Age is already documented in the region.

  8. Deposition and remaining productive capabilities of the Upper Cretaceous Eutaw sands of East-Central Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, B.R.

    1995-10-01

    Nearing the close of the Cretaceous, there were several transgressions and regressions of the epicontinental seas. These rapid changes in sea level played a large part in the depositing and reworking of the Eutaw sands of East-Central Mississippi. The study area includes Jasper, Jones, Clarke and Wayne Counties. The Eutaw sands of this area are described as fine to very fine grained sand which are glauconitic, micaceous and sometimes fossiliferous. This indicates that the environment of deposition was in the neritic zone of the continental shelf. Its high porosities and permeabilities along with its prolific nature makes this formation one of the most sought after reservoirs of the state of Mississippi. All of the 18 Eutaw fields in the study area are closely reaching their economic limits for primary production. Four of these fields have undergone successful waterfloods which have greatly enhanced their ultimate recoveries. The remaining fields in the study area have the potential of yielding millions of barrels of oil from secondary and tertiary recovery methods.

  9. Results of the radiological survey at 88 East Central Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey (MJ037)

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Crutcher, J.W.

    1989-06-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally /sup 232/Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 88 East Central Avenue Maywood, New Jersey (MJ037), was conducted during 1988. Results of the survey indicated radioactivity in the range of normal background for the northern New Jersey area. Radiological assessments of soil samples from the site demonstrate no radionuclide concentrations in excess of DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. What's up, Billy Jo? Deaf children and bilingual-bicultural instruction in east-central Texas.

    PubMed

    Andrews, J F; Ferguson, C; Roberts, S; Hodges, P

    1997-03-01

    Seven deaf children attended a bilingual-bicultural (bi-bi) prekindergarten, kindergarten, and first grade from 1993 to 1996 in an east-central Texas public school. The children had diverse backgrounds (African American, Hispanic, White) and various intellectual, cognitive, and linguistic abilities. We detail the backgrounds of the seven children and their families and describe three bi-bi classrooms. We present standardized test scores on cognition (Bracken Test of Basic Concepts) and academic achievement (Stanford Achievement Test, 9th edition, and Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery). When, with one exception, the children completed first grade, they all tested at grade level. (The exception was a younger child who had only completed kindergarten but who nonetheless tested at the first-grade level). We interpret our findings in light of theories of first- and second-language acquisition and discuss the feasibility of establishing bi-bi programs in areas where no large Deaf community exists. We also note our plans to evaluate the seven children again, at the end of second grade in spring 1997.

  11. Magnetic and gravity studies of Mono Lake, east-central, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Athens, Noah D.; Ponce, David A.; Jayko, Angela S.; Miller, Matt; McEvoy, Bobby; Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.; Wilkinson, Stuart K.; McClain, James S.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Denton, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    From August 26 to September 5, 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected more than 600 line-kilometers of shipborne magnetic data on Mono Lake, 20 line-kilometers of ground magnetic data on Paoha Island, 50 gravity stations on Paoha and Negit Islands, and 28 rock samples on Paoha and Negit Islands, in east-central California. Magnetic and gravity investigations were undertaken in Mono Lake to study regional crustal structures and to aid in understanding the geologic framework, in particular regarding potential geothermal resources and volcanic hazards throughout Mono Basin. Furthermore, shipborne magnetic data illuminate local structures in the upper crust beneath Mono Lake where geologic exposure is absent. Magnetic and gravity methods, which sense contrasting physical properties of the subsurface, are ideal for studying Mono Lake. Exposed rock units surrounding Mono Lake consist mainly of Quaternary alluvium, lacustrine sediment, aeolian deposits, basalt, and Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks (Bailey, 1989). At Black Point, on the northwest shore of Mono Lake, there is a mafic cinder cone that was produced by a subaqueous eruption around 13.3 ka. Within Mono Lake there are several small dacite cinder cones and flows, forming Negit Island and part of Paoha Island, which also host deposits of Quaternary lacustrine sediments. The typical density and magnetic properties of young volcanic rocks contrast with those of the lacustrine sediment, enabling us to map their subsurface extent.

  12. Water Quality of a Reservoir and Its Major Tributary Located in East-Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Castilla-Hernández, Patricia; Torres-Alvarado, María del Rocío; Herrera-San Luis, José Antonio; Cruz-López, Norma

    2014-01-01

    A reservoir with ecological and economic importance and its major tributary, localized in east-central Mexico, were studied. The aim of this work was to know the physicochemical water characteristics of both water bodies and to contrast these by their different uses, and also estimate overall water quality using a Water Quality Index (WQI). Water samples from the reservoir and the tributary were obtained in different climatic seasons. In the tributary, anoxic and hypoxic conditions and high levels of organic matter, orthophosphate, and ammonium showed that this is strongly impacted by wastewater discharges and that the water is not suitable for different uses; independently of the season, the WQI showed “poor” quality (34.4–47.2). In contrast, in the reservoir a better water quality was determined; the WQI in the sampling months ranged from 72.1–76.6 (“good” quality), and spatially, this was from 66.5–79.5 (“fair” and “good” quality). PMID:24919132

  13. Principal Facts for 463 Gravity Stations in the Vicinity of Tangle Lakes, East-Central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, Robert L.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.

    2002-01-01

    During the summer of 2001, a gravity survey was conducted in the vicinity of Tangle Lakes, east-central Alaska. Measurements of 87 gravity stations were made. The Tangle Lakes area is located about 25 km west of Paxson and north of the Denali Highway. The gravity survey is located on the southwest corner of the Mt. Hayes and the northwest corner of the Gulkana 1:250,000 scale USGS topographic maps. The boundaries of the study area are 62 deg 30' to 63 deg 30' N. latitude and 145 deg 30' to 147 deg 00' W. longitude. A map showing the location of the study area is shown in figure 1. One gravity base station was used for control for this survey. This base station, TLIN is located at the Tangle Lakes Inn. The observed gravity of this station was calculated based on multiple ties to base stations ANCU in Anchorage, PALH in Palmer, BD27 in Gulkana, and base stations D42, and D57 along the Denali Highway.

  14. New permian fusulinids from conglomerate mesa, southeastern inyo Mountains, east-central california

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, C.H.; Stone, P.

    2009-01-01

    In the Conglomerate Mesa area in the southeastern Inyo Mountains, east-central California, a series of distinctive fusulinid assemblages ranging in age from late Artinskian to Kungurian or Roadian was developed in units 7-10 of the sedimentary rocks of Santa Rosa Flat (part of the Owens Valley Group). The fauna of unit 7 shows some eastern Klamath Mountains affinity, but most of the species in unit 7 and the lower half of unit 8 are highly endemic and comprise three new genera with 12 new species, two unusual unassigned forms, and two other new species assigned to previously described genera. New taxa include: Crenulosepta new genus with five new species, C. inyoensis, C. delicata, C. fusiformis, C. rossi, and C. wahlmani; Nigribaccinus new genus with three new species, N. giganteus, N. elegans, and N. ? nestelli; and the new genus Inyoschwagerina with four new species, I. magnified, I. elayeri, I. elongata, and I.? linderae. Cuniculinella Skinner and Wilde, 1965, is represented by one new species, C. parva, and Skinnerella Coogan, 1960 by one new species, S.? mcallisteri. Faunas from the upper half of unit 8, unit 9, and unit 10 have a strong West Texas affinity. New species from these units are Skinnerella davydovi, S. hexagona, Parafusulina cerrogordoensis, P. complexa, P. halli, P. owensensis, and P. ubehebensis. Copyright ?? 2009, The Paleontological Society.

  15. Ground-water quality in east-central New Jersey and a plan for sampling networks

    SciTech Connect

    Harriman, D.A.; Sargent, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    Groundwater quality was evaluated in seven confined aquifers and the water table aquifer in east-central New Jersey based on 237 analyses of samples collected in 1981-82, and 225 older analyses. Investigation of the effect of land use on water quality and several sampling network proposals for the region are reported. Iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) concentrations exceed US EPA drinking water standards in some wells screened in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system. Sodium (Na) concentrations in samples from three wells more than 800 ft deep in the Englishtown aquifer exceed the standard. Iron and Mn concentrations in this aquifer may also exceed the standards. Iron concentrations in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer exceed the standard. Based on 15 analyses of water from the Vincetown aquifer, Mn is the only constituent that exceeds the drinking water standard. In the Manasquan aquifer, 4 of the 16 Na determinations exceed the standard, and 8 of 16 Fe determinations exceed the standard. Water quality in the Atlantic City 800-ft sand is generally satisfactory. However, 12 Fe and 1 of 12 Mn determinations exceed the standards. For the Rio Grande water-bearing zone, 1 of 3 Fe determinations exceed the standard. The Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system was the most thoroughly sampled (249 chemical analyses from 209 wells). Dissolved solids, chloride, Fe, nitrate, and Mn concentrations exceed drinking water standards in some areas. 76 refs., 36 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Comparison of recharge estimates at a small watershed in east-central Pennsylvania, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, D.W.; Gburek, W.J.; Folmar, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    The common recommendation that recharge should be estimated from multiple methods is sound, but the inherent differences of the methods make it difficult to assess the accuracy of differing results. In this study, four methods for estimating groundwater recharge and two methods for estimating base flow (as a proxy for recharge) are compared at two hydrologic research sites in east-central Pennsylvania, USA. Results from the multiple methods all provided reasonable estimates of groundwater recharge that differed considerably. The estimates of mean annual recharge for the period 1994-2001 ranged from 22.9 to 35.7 cm - about 45% of the mean of all estimates. For individual years, recharge estimates from the multiple methods ranged from 30 to 42% of the mean value during the dry years and 64 to 76% of the mean value during wet years. Comparison of multiple methods was found to be useful for determining the range of plausible recharge rates and highlighting the uncertainty of the estimates. ?? US Government 2008.

  17. Knowledge of cervical cancer and screening among women in east-central England.

    PubMed

    Philips, Z; Avis, M; Whynes, D K

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses the extent and accuracy of women's knowledge of cervical cancer, risk factors, and the efficacy of the national screening program. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of randomly selected women eligible for screening, drawn from a population in east-central England. The majority of women in the sample overestimated the current incidence of cervical cancer, both absolutely and relative to other cancers. Perceiving incidence to be high was associated with reporting worries about the disease. With respect to the screening process, 78.3% believe that the smear abnormality rate is higher than it actually is, and only 7.6% correctly appreciate that the abnormality rate is highest at younger ages. With respect to performance, 16.3% believed the smear test to be completely accurate, and more than half overestimated the likely number of cancer cases prevented by screening. While certain cervical cancer risk factors were correctly assigned by the majority of women, undue emphasis was placed on genetic influence, while the risks posed by human papillomavirus infection were unfamiliar to almost half of the sample. We conclude that women typically possess only a partial picture of risk factors and overestimate both the incidence of cervical cancer and the efficacy of screening.

  18. Detailed geochemical survey for east-central Minnesota, geology and geochemistry of selected uranium targets

    SciTech Connect

    Morey, G.B.; Lively, R.S.

    1980-05-31

    Results of a detailed geochemical survey of approximately 6820 km/sup 2/ in parts of Aitkin, Carlton, Kanabec, and Pine Counties, east-central Minnesota are reported. Geochemical data are presented for 883 groundwater samples and 200 bedrock samples. Although all of the groundwaters in the study area have similar major-element concentrations and therefore presumably a common ancestry, small differences in the minor-element concentrations serve to characterize various aquifers, both in the Quaternary deposits and in the bedrock. All of the aquifers locally yield waters having statistically anomalous concentrations of uranium or radon, but these anomalies are spatially coincident only in a few places and particularly in three geologic environments considered favorable for uranium mineralization. These include the following: (1) Thomson Formation near the unconformably overlying Fond du Lac Formation, (2) Hinckley Sandstone near a major fault system, and (3) Denham Formation near the unconformity with the McGrath Gneiss, particularly where these rocks are faulted and overlain by the Fond du Lac Formation. One additional uranium environment characterized by thin laminae of uraniferous apatite was located in the Thomson Formation during outcrop reconnaissance and sampling. The coincidence of this and other anomalously high uranium values in the bedrock with specific uranium and radon anomalies in the groundwater confirms the usefulness of the hydrogeochemical data to uranium exploration in this glaciated terrane.

  19. Gambusia quadruncus (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae): a new species of mosquitofish from east-central México.

    PubMed

    Langerhans, R B; Gifford, M E; Domínguez-Domínguez, O; García-Bedoya, D; DeWitt, T J

    2012-10-01

    Gambusia quadruncus n. sp., the llanos mosquitofish, is described from east-central México. The region inhabited by the species represents a hotspot of diversity of Gambusia, and G. quadruncus sometimes coexists with at least three congeners. The species differs from its closest relative, Gambusia affinis, in several characteristics with plausible effects on reproductive isolation, e.g. body size, body and fin morphology, male genital morphology (distal tip of gonopodium) and female anal spot morphology (colouration near the urogenital sinus). Moreover, combined analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequence data (c. 2158 total base pairs) indicates reciprocal monophyly of G. quadruncus and its sister species G. affinis, with levels of genetic divergence suggesting the two species diverged from one another over a million years ago. The origin of G. quadruncus may reflect a vicariant event associated with Pliocene orogenesis in the Tamaulipas Arch and a frontal section of the Sierra Madre Oriental (Lleran Mesas). Gambusia quadruncus inhabits a variety of freshwater habitats across several river drainages, with its range spanning at least 350 km from north to south, covering over 25 000 km(2). A key to aid identification of the species is provided. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Reconnaissance for radioactive deposits in the Fairbanks and Livengood Quadrangles, east-central Alaska, 1949

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedow, H.; Stevens, J.M.; Tolbert, G.E.

    1953-01-01

    Several mines and prospects in the Fairbanks and Livengood quadrangles, east-central Alaska, were examined for the possible presence of radioactive materials in the summer of 1949. Also tested were pre-Cambrian and Paleozoic metamorphic and sedimentary rocks crossed by the Elliott Highway, which extends from Fox, near Fairbanks, northward about 70 miles to the town of Livengood. None of the lodes tested exhibited radioactivity in excess of 0.003 percent equivalent uranium, although nuggets consisting chiefly of native bismuth and containing as much as 0.1 percent equivalent uranium had been found previously in a placer on Fish Creek several miles below the reported bismuth-bearing lode on Melba Creek. The greatest radioactivity found in the rocks along the Elliott Highway was in an iron-stained schist of pre-Cambrian age and in carbonaceous shale of Middle Devonian or Carboniferous age. Respective samples of these rocks contain 0.003 and 0.004 percent equivalent uranium. A possible local bedrock source for a euxenite-polycrase mineral found in a placer concentrate containing about 0.04 percent equivalent uranium was sought in the watershed of Goodluck Creek, near Livengood. The bedrock source of this mineral could not be located; it is believed that the source could be outside of the Goodluck watershed, as drainage changes in the area during Quaternary time might well have introduced gravels from nearby areas.

  1. Flood of June 4-5, 2002, in the Maquoketa River Basin, east-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred on June 4-5, 2002, in the Maquoketa River Basin in Delaware, Dubuque, Jackson, and Jones Counties, following thunderstorm activity over east-central Iowa. The rain gage at Cascade, Iowa, recorded a 14-hour rainfall of 6.0 inches at noon on June 4. Radar indications estimated as much as 8 to 10 inches of rain fell in the upper-middle part of the Maquoketa River Basin. Peak discharges on the Maquoketa River at Monticello of 47,500 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval estimated to be greater than 500 years as computed using flood-estimation equations developed by the U.S. Geological Survey), and at the Maquoketa River near Maquoketa streamflow-gaging station of 47,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 50 years), were determined for the flood. The peak discharge of the 2002 flood is nearly equal that of the 1944 flood (48,000 cubic feet per second), the largest flood on record in the Maquoketa River Basin. The 2002 flood is the largest known flood in the North Fork Maquoketa River Basin. A peak discharge of 22,600 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 110 years) was determined for the flood at the North Fork Maquoketa River near Fulton gaging station. Information about the basin and flood history, the 2002 thunderstorms and associated flooding, and a profile of high-water marks are presented for selected reaches along the Maquoketa and North Fork Maquoketa Rivers.

  2. Optimization for Hub-and-Spoke Port Logistics Network of Dynamic Hinterland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming-Jun, Ji; Yan-Ling, Chu

    The port logistics and its regional economic react on each other and develop in unison. This paper studies the Hub-and-Spoke port logistics network which is a transportation system between the sea routes and ports hinterland transport routes. An optimization model is proposed with the objective of the total transportation cost in the regional port group based on the conditions of dynamic hinterland. This paper not only ensures every port in the hub-and spoke port logistics network to achieve its maximum economic benefits, but also makes the entire system get the minimum total transportation cost in the view of quantitative point. In order to illustrate the validity of the model, the example was solved. The results show that the model is feasible. Furthermore, the competitiveness power of the port, the demarcation of hinterland and the traffic capacity are changed dynamically in the model, which is closer to the real system.

  3. The Oldest Case of Decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, André; Oliveira, Rodrigo Elias; Bernardo, Danilo V.; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Talamo, Sahra; Jaouen, Klervia; Hubbe, Mark; Black, Sue; Wilkinson, Caroline; Richards, Michael Phillip; Araujo, Astolfo G. M.; Kipnis, Renato; Neves, Walter Alves

    2015-01-01

    We present here evidence for an early Holocene case of decapitation in the New World (Burial 26), found in the rock shelter of Lapa do Santo in 2007. Lapa do Santo is an archaeological site located in the Lagoa Santa karst in east-central Brazil with evidence of human occupation dating as far back as 11.7–12.7 cal kyBP (95.4% interval). An ultra-filtered AMS age determination on a fragment of the sphenoid provided an age range of 9.1–9.4 cal kyBP (95.4% interval) for Burial 26. The interment was composed of an articulated cranium, mandible and first six cervical vertebrae. Cut marks with a v-shaped profile were observed in the mandible and sixth cervical vertebra. The right hand was amputated and laid over the left side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the chin and the left hand was amputated and laid over the right side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the forehead. Strontium analysis comparing Burial 26’s isotopic signature to other specimens from Lapa do Santo suggests this was a local member of the group. Therefore, we suggest a ritualized decapitation instead of trophy-taking, testifying for the sophistication of mortuary rituals among hunter-gatherers in the Americas during the early Archaic period. In the apparent absence of wealth goods or elaborated architecture, Lapa do Santo’s inhabitants seemed to use the human body to express their cosmological principles regarding death. PMID:26397983

  4. The Oldest Case of Decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil).

    PubMed

    Strauss, André; Oliveira, Rodrigo Elias; Bernardo, Danilo V; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Talamo, Sahra; Jaouen, Klervia; Hubbe, Mark; Black, Sue; Wilkinson, Caroline; Richards, Michael Phillip; Araujo, Astolfo G M; Kipnis, Renato; Neves, Walter Alves

    2015-01-01

    We present here evidence for an early Holocene case of decapitation in the New World (Burial 26), found in the rock shelter of Lapa do Santo in 2007. Lapa do Santo is an archaeological site located in the Lagoa Santa karst in east-central Brazil with evidence of human occupation dating as far back as 11.7-12.7 cal kyBP (95.4% interval). An ultra-filtered AMS age determination on a fragment of the sphenoid provided an age range of 9.1-9.4 cal kyBP (95.4% interval) for Burial 26. The interment was composed of an articulated cranium, mandible and first six cervical vertebrae. Cut marks with a v-shaped profile were observed in the mandible and sixth cervical vertebra. The right hand was amputated and laid over the left side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the chin and the left hand was amputated and laid over the right side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the forehead. Strontium analysis comparing Burial 26's isotopic signature to other specimens from Lapa do Santo suggests this was a local member of the group. Therefore, we suggest a ritualized decapitation instead of trophy-taking, testifying for the sophistication of mortuary rituals among hunter-gatherers in the Americas during the early Archaic period. In the apparent absence of wealth goods or elaborated architecture, Lapa do Santo's inhabitants seemed to use the human body to express their cosmological principles regarding death.

  5. Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Its Major Constraints in East Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Xinqing; Huang, Yimin; Huang, Daikuan; Hu, Lu; Feng, Zhaodong; Cheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Bing; Ni, Jian; Shurkhuu, Tserenpil

    2016-01-01

    Variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its major constraints in large spatial scale are critical for estimating global SOC inventory and projecting its future at environmental changes. By analyzing SOC and its environment at 210 sites in uncultivated land along a 3020km latitudinal transect in East Central Asia, we examined the effect of environmental factors on the dynamics of SOC. We found that SOC changes dramatically with the difference as high as 5 times in north China and 17 times in Mongolia. Regardless, C:N remains consistent about 12. Path analysis indicated that temperature is the dominant factor in the variation of SOC with a direct effect much higher than the indirect one, the former breaks SOC down the year round while the latter results in its growth mainly via precipitation in the winter half year. Precipitation helps accumulate SOC, a large part of the effect, however, is taken via temperature. NH4+-N and topography also affect SOC, their roles are played primarily via climatic factors. pH correlates significantly with SOC, the effect, however, is taken only in the winter months, contributing to the decay of SOC primarily via temperature. These factors explained as much as 79% of SOC variations, especially in the summer months, representing the major constraints on the SOC stock. Soil texture gets increasingly fine southward, it does not, however, constitute an apparent factor. Our results suggested that recent global warming should have been adversely affecting SOC stock in the mid-latitude as temperature dominates other factors as the constraint. PMID:26934707

  6. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Akutan Volcano east-central Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Power, John A.; Richter, Donlad H.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    Akutan Volcano is a 1100-meter-high stratovolcano on Akutan Island in the east-central Aleutian Islands of southwestern Alaska. The volcano is located about 1238 kilometers southwest of Anchorage and about 56 kilometers east of Dutch Harbor/Unalaska. Eruptive activity has occurred at least 27 times since historical observations were recorded beginning in the late 1700?s. Recent eruptions produced only small amounts of fine volcanic ash that fell primarily on the upper flanks of the volcano. Small amounts of ash fell on the Akutan Harbor area during eruptions in 1911, 1948, 1987, and 1989. Plumes of volcanic ash are the primary hazard associated with eruptions of Akutan Volcano and are a major hazard to all aircraft using the airfield at Dutch Harbor or approaching Akutan Island. Eruptions similar to historical Akutan eruptions should be anticipated in the future. Although unlikely, eruptions larger than those of historical time could generate significant amounts of volcanic ash, fallout, pyroclastic flows, and lahars that would be hazardous to life and property on all sectors of the volcano and other parts of the island, but especially in the major valleys that head on the volcano flanks. During a large eruption an ash cloud could be produced that may be hazardous to aircraft using the airfield at Cold Bay and the airspace downwind from the volcano. In the event of a large eruption, volcanic ash fallout could be relatively thick over parts of Akutan Island and volcanic bombs could strike areas more than 10 kilometers from the volcano.

  7. The Mahomet aquifer: A transboundary resource in east-central Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.R.; Mehnert, E.; Herzog, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    Emerging intrastate transboundary issues focus on use of the Mahomet aquifer, which underlies about fifteen counties and many other political entities in east-central Illinois. This sand and gravel aquifer in the lower part of the buried Mahomet Bedrock Valley ranges between four and fourteen miles wide and from about 50 to 200 feet thick. Much of the region's rural population, several large communities, and many small towns obtain water from the Mahomet aquifer, as do industrial, agricultural, and commercial users. Increased development of the Mahomet aquifer to meet growing demands for water has caused conflicts over real or perceived adverse effects. One result has been the creation of fifteen resource protection zones and twelve water authorities. For groundwater supplies, resource protection zones help municipalities protect water-supply wells from potential adverse impacts. Many resource protection zones overlap one another, however, so this situation could lead to disputes over use of the resource. The reason that several of the twelve water authorities were organized was to meet a challenge perceived from a demand to be placed on the aquifer, in other words, a potential for conflict of use. Complicating the situation is that some of the water authorities overlap the resource protection zones. This could lead to disputes not only about water use, but also over which jurisdiction has the authority to settle a dispute. The Mahomet Aquifer Consortium was recently organized by concerned people representing diverse groundwater interests at the local level, including the private sector, professional organizations, and various governmental units. The consortium brings together representatives of some groups that typically did not communicate with each other in the past. The consortium may provide a forum through which emerging transboundary issues pertaining to use of the Mahomet aquifer can be addressed. Because the consortium is a voluntary organization that

  8. Exploration potential and variations in shelf plume sandstones, Navarro group (Maestrichtian), east-central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J.E. Jr.; Scott, A.J.

    1984-04-01

    Fine-grained marine sandstones within the Kemp Clay of the Navarro Group (Maestrichtian) of east-central Texas were deposited on a muddy, shallow shelf by migrating sandbars. These sands were transported in traction from deltaic headlands by seaward-deflected coastal/shelf currents. The sand formed thin (3-20 ft; 1-6 m) arcuate belts (shelf sand plumes) which were 17-20 mi (27-32 km) wide and extended 27-30 mi (43-48 km) downdrift and 21-40 mi (34-64 km) onto the shelf. Orientation of the long axes of ridges, formed by the stacking of individual bars within the shelf sand plume, changes (from dip to strike-oriented downdrift) corresponding to the flow directions of the shelf currents. Southwestward, fair-weather reworking of these delta-supplied sands by shelf currents resulted in the down-current stratigraphic climbing of the migrating shelf-bar complexes. Onshore stratigraphic climbing in the landward parts of the plume complexes was related to storm activity. Current patterns and the resulting distribution of sand were influenced by the configuration of the shelf and the topographic relief inherited from previously deposited deltaic/shelf depositional platforms. Three variations of the basic shelf sandstone-plume model were recognized in the study area: (1) a rapidly deposited, immature plume, (2) an abandoned, current-reworked plume, and (3) a storm-modified, onshore-reworked plume. Each of these variants displays unique characteristics which influence their potential as hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  9. Surficial Geologic Map of the Tanacross B-4 Quadrangle, East-Central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrara, Paul E.

    2006-01-01

    The Tanacross B-4 1:63,360-scale quadrangle, through which the Alaska Highway runs, is in east-central Alaska about 100 mi west of the Yukon border. The surficial geologic mapping in the quadrangle is in support of the 'Geologic Mapping in support of land, resources, and hazards issues in Alaska' Project of the USGS National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program. The Tanacross B-4 quadrangle contains parts of two physiographic provinces, the Yukon-Tanana Upland and the Northway-Tanana Lowland. The gently rolling hills of the Yukon-Tanana Upland, in the northern and eastern map area, rise to about 3,100 ft. The Northway-Tanana Lowland, in the western and southern map area, contains the westerly flowing Tanana River. Elevations along the floor of the lowland generally range between 1,540 and 1,700 ft. The dominant feature within the map is the Tok fan, which occupies about 20 percent of the map area. This large, nearly featureless fan contains a high percentage of volcanic clasts derived from outside the present-day drainage of the Tok River. The map provides interpretations of the Quaternary surficial deposits and associated geologic hazards in this area of the upper Tanana valley. Because the map area is dominated by various surficial deposits, the map depicts 13 different Quaternary surficial units consisting of man-made, alluvial, colluvial, organic, lacustrine, and eolian deposits. Deposits shown on this map are generally greater than 1 m thick. The map is accompanied by a text containing unit descriptions incorporating information pertaining to material type, location, associated hazards, resource use (if any), and thickness.

  10. Uncertainty analysis of a groundwater flow model in east-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Nicasio; Doherty, John E.

    2014-01-01

    A groundwater flow model for east-central Florida has been developed to help water-resource managers assess the impact of increased groundwater withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer system on heads and spring flows originating from the Upper Floridan aquifer. The model provides a probabilistic description of predictions of interest to water-resource managers, given the uncertainty associated with system heterogeneity, the large number of input parameters, and a nonunique groundwater flow solution. The uncertainty associated with these predictions can then be considered in decisions with which the model has been designed to assist. The “Null Space Monte Carlo” method is a stochastic probabilistic approach used to generate a suite of several hundred parameter field realizations, each maintaining the model in a calibrated state, and each considered to be hydrogeologically plausible. The results presented herein indicate that the model’s capacity to predict changes in heads or spring flows that originate from increased groundwater withdrawals is considerably greater than its capacity to predict the absolute magnitudes of heads or spring flows. Furthermore, the capacity of the model to make predictions that are similar in location and in type to those in the calibration dataset exceeds its capacity to make predictions of different types at different locations. The quantification of these outcomes allows defensible use of the modeling process in support of future water-resources decisions. The model allows the decision-making process to recognize the uncertainties, and the spatial/temporal variability of uncertainties that are associated with predictions of future system behavior in a complex hydrogeological context.

  11. Seasonal phenology of the cerambycid beetles of east-central Illinois

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Lawrence M.; Reagel, Peter F.; Mitchell, Robert F.; Wong, Joseph C. H.; Meier, Linnea R.; Silliman, Christina A.; Graham, Elizabeth E.; Striman, Becca L.; Robinson, Kenneth P.; Mongold-Diers, Judith A.; Millar, Jocelyn G.

    2014-01-01

    We summarize field data on the species composition and seasonal phenology of the community of cerambycid beetles of east-central Illinois. Data were drawn from field bioassays conducted during 2009 – 2012 that tested attraction of adult beetles of diverse species to a variety of synthetic pheromones and host plant volatiles. A total of 34,086 beetles of 114 species were captured, including 48 species in the subfamily Cerambycinae, 41 species in the Lamiinae, 19 species in the Lepturinae, two species in the Spondylidinae, and one species each in the Necydalinae, Parandrinae, Prioninae, and the Disteniidae. Most of the best-represented species were attracted to pheromones that were included in field experiments, particularly species that use (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one as a pheromone component. The species captured, and their patterns of abundance and seasonal phenology were similar to those in an earlier study conducted in Pennsylvania. The most abundant species identified in both studies included the cerambycines Elaphidion mucronatum (Say), Neoclytus a. acuminatus (F.), Neoclytus m. mucronatus (F.), and Xylotrechus colonus (F.). Cerambycine species became active in an orderly progression from early spring through late fall, whereas most lamiine species were active in summer and fall, and lepturine species were limited to summer. Potential cross attraction between some cerambycine species that shared pheromone components may have been averted by differences in seasonal activity period, and by minor pheromone components that acted as synergists for conspecifics and/or antagonists for heterospecifics. These results provide quantitative data on the abundance and seasonal phenology of a large number of species. PMID:24683267

  12. Active seismic profile in east-central Greenland. Seismic explosion sources on an ice cap.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulgin, Alexey; Thybo, Hans

    2017-04-01

    Controlled source seismic investigation of crustal structure below ice covers is an emerging technique. We have recently conducted an explosive refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic experiment on the ice cap in east-central Greenland. The data quality is high for all shot points and a full crustal model is modelled. A crucial challenge for applying the technique is to control the sources. Here, we present data that describe the efficiency of explosive sources in the ice cover. Analysis of the data shows, that the ice cap traps a significant amount of energy, which is observed as a strong ice wave. The ice cap leads to low transmission of energy into the crust such that charges need be larger than in conventional onshore experiments to obtain reliable seismic signals. The strong reflection coefficient at the base of the ice generates strong multiples which may mask for secondary phases. This effect may be crucial for acquisition of reflection seismic profiles on ice caps. Our experience shows that it is essential to use optimum depth for the charges and to seal the boreholes carefully. We also present the crustal structure model in the continental part of Greenland along the profile based on the joint reflection/refraction tomographic inversion. The model shows strong lateral variations in the crustal thickness. The modeled Moho depth is changing from 39 to 47 km. The large volume of the lower most crust is observed in the central region of Greenland, while been absent in the costal region. The observed crustal structure corresponds to the transition from the younger terrane affected by the Caledonian orogeny to the stable cratonic region. Furthermore, the presence of the Icelandic plume ca. 60-40 Ma in the study area may also have a significant effect on the crustal evolution of the Greenland Caledonides and its transition to the Greenland Craton.

  13. Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Its Major Constraints in East Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xinqing; Huang, Yimin; Huang, Daikuan; Hu, Lu; Feng, Zhaodong; Cheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Bing; Ni, Jian; Shurkhuu, Tserenpil

    2016-01-01

    Variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its major constraints in large spatial scale are critical for estimating global SOC inventory and projecting its future at environmental changes. By analyzing SOC and its environment at 210 sites in uncultivated land along a 3020km latitudinal transect in East Central Asia, we examined the effect of environmental factors on the dynamics of SOC. We found that SOC changes dramatically with the difference as high as 5 times in north China and 17 times in Mongolia. Regardless, C:N remains consistent about 12. Path analysis indicated that temperature is the dominant factor in the variation of SOC with a direct effect much higher than the indirect one, the former breaks SOC down the year round while the latter results in its growth mainly via precipitation in the winter half year. Precipitation helps accumulate SOC, a large part of the effect, however, is taken via temperature. NH4+-N and topography also affect SOC, their roles are played primarily via climatic factors. pH correlates significantly with SOC, the effect, however, is taken only in the winter months, contributing to the decay of SOC primarily via temperature. These factors explained as much as 79% of SOC variations, especially in the summer months, representing the major constraints on the SOC stock. Soil texture gets increasingly fine southward, it does not, however, constitute an apparent factor. Our results suggested that recent global warming should have been adversely affecting SOC stock in the mid-latitude as temperature dominates other factors as the constraint.

  14. Nitrogen mass balance of a tile-drained agricultural watershed in East-Central Illinois.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Lowell E; David, Mark B; Below, Frederick E; Royer, Todd V; McIsaac, Gregory F

    2009-01-01

    Simple nitrogen (N) input/output balance calculations in agricultural systems are used to evaluate performance of nutrient management; however, they generally rely on extensive assumptions that do not consider leaching, denitrification, or annual depletion of soil N. We constructed a relatively complete N mass balance for the Big Ditch watershed, an extensively tile-drained agricultural watershed in east-central Illinois. We conducted direct measurements of a wide range of N pools and fluxes for a 2-yr period, including soil N mineralization, soybean N(2) fixation, tile and river N loads, and ground water and in-stream denitrification. Fertilizer N inputs were from a survey of the watershed and yield data from county estimates that were combined with estimated protein contents to obtain grain N. By using maize fertilizer recovery and soybean N(2) fixation to estimate total grain N derived from soil, we calculated the explicit change in soil N storage each year. Overall, fertilizer N and soybean N(2) fixation dominated inputs, and total grain export dominated outputs. Precipitation during 2001 was below average (78 cm), whereas precipitation in 2002 exceeded the 30-yr average of 97 cm; monthly rainfall was above average in April, May, and June of 2002, which flooded fields and produced large tile and riverine N loads. In 2001, watershed inputs were greater than outputs, suggesting that carryover of N to the subsequent year may occur. In 2002, total inputs were less than outputs due to large leaching losses and likely substantial field denitrification. The explicit change in soil storage (67 kg N ha(-1)) offsets this balance shortfall. Although 2002 was climatically unusual, with current production trends of greater maize grain yields with less fertilizer N, soil N depletion is likely to occur in maize/soybean rotations, especially in years with above-average precipitation or extremely wet spring periods.

  15. Hydrogeologic data from a test well in east-central Duval County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, D.P.; Johnson, R.A.; Broxton, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A 2,112-foot test well was drilled in east-central Duval County, Florida, to obtain geologic, hydrologic, and water chemistry data. Drill cuttings and water samples were collected, and water-level measurements and lithologic and geophysical logs were made. Deposits to a depth of 575 feet consist of sand, clayey sand, phosphatic sandy clay, coquina, sandy limestone, and dolostone. Below 575 feet, the deposits consist of fragmented and granular limestone, dolomitic limestone, and massive to finely crystalline dolostone, which comprise the Floridan aquifer system in the area. Water levels were measured near or at the bottom of the drill hole through the drill stem and in the annular space between the drilled hole and drill stem at the well head as drilling progressed from 770 to 2,112 feet in depth. Water levels measured through the drill stem ranged from 1.17 feet above land surface at a depth of 2,107 feet to 15.0 feet above land surface at a depth of 1,574 feet. Water levels measured in the annular space ranged from 7.5 feet above land surface at a depth of 770 feet to 14.9 feet at various depths from 1,574 to 1,721 feet. Chloride concentrations of water sampled through the drill stem from a depth of 711 to 1 ,616 feet ranged from 22 to 150 milligrams per liter at 1,648 feet. Chloride concentrations then ranged from 345 to about 800 milligrams per liter to a depth of 2,071 feet and then increased to a maximum of 5,450 milligrams per liter at 2,107 feet. (USGS)

  16. Geology and petroleum resources of central and east-central Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    The petroleum provinces of central and east-central Africa include the Somali basin, the Ethiopian plateau and rift belt, and the central African rift basins. The western shelf on the Somali basin in the horn of Africa contains a sedimentary cover 1000-10,000 m (3000-3500 ft) thick of Mesozoic and Tertiary marine and continental clastic, carbonate, and evaporite deposits with good reservoir and potentially adequate source rock properties. To date, no commercial oil or gas discoveries have been made. The Ethiopian plateau and rift belt is a high-risk area with minimum potential for commercial petroleum because the Neogene rifting origin of the province has resulted in high geothermal gradients, extensive volcanism, and inadequate marine deposits and petroleum source rocks. The central Africa interior basins are continental craton-rifted depressions of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age containing as much as 4000 m (13,000 ft) or more of fluvial and lacustrine clastic beds, which inter-tongue with nearshore marine clastic and carbonate beds in the western basins. Since the mid-1970s, approximately 13 oil discoveries have been made in the Upper Nile, Doba-Doseo, and Chad basins. These basins produce from fluvial and lacustrine sandstone reservoirs, sourced by lacustrine organic shale beds of Cretaceous age. The Benue trough is a rifted depression of middle Cretaceous age adjoined on the southwest by the prolific Niger Delta petroleum province. The trough is filled with 6000 m (20,000 ft) or more of clastic and carbonate marine and continental rocks of late Early Cretaceous and early Cenozoic age. Very few exploratory wells have been drilled, and no commercial discoveries have been made although good reservoir and source rocks are present.

  17. Ground-water quality in east-central New Jersey, and a plan for sampling networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harriman, D.A.; Sargent, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    Groundwater quality was evaluated in seven confined aquifers and the water table aquifer in east-central New Jersey based on 237 analyses of samples collected in 1981-82, and 225 older analyses. Investigation of the effect of land use on water quality and several sampling network proposals for the region are reported. Generally, water in the confined aquifers is of satisfactory quality for human consumption and most other uses. Iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) concentrations exceed U.S. EPA drinking water standards in some wells screened in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system. Sodium (Na) concentrations in samples from three wells more than 800 ft deep in the Englishtown aquifer exceed the standard. Iron and Mn concentrations in this aquifer may also exceed the standards. Iron concentrations in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer exceed the standard. Based on 15 analyses of water from the Vincetown aquifer, Mn is the only constituent that exceeds the drinking water standard. In the Manasquan aquifer, 4 of the 16 Na determinations exceed the standard, and 8 of 16 Fe determinations exceed the standard. Water quality in the Atlantic City 800-ft sand is generally satisfactory. However, 12 Fe and 1 of 12 Mn determinations exceed the standards. For the Rio Grande water-bearing zone, 1 of 3 Fe determinations exceed the standard. The Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system (the water table aquifer) was the most thoroughly sampled (249 chemical analyses from 209 wells). Dissolved solids, chloride, Fe, nitrate, and Mn concentrations exceed drinking water standards in some areas. The results of chi-square tests of constituent distributions based on analyses from 158 wells in the water table aquifer indicate that calcium is higher in industrial and commercial areas; and Mg, chloride, and nitrate-plus-nitrite is higher in residential areas. (Author 's abstract)

  18. Preliminary evaluation of the 15 October 1972 ERTS-1 imagery of east central Ohio (scene 1034-15415)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettyjohn, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results of a general, physical interpretation of ERTS-1 imagery of east central Ohio are presented. Special emphasis is placed upon geologic features, such as linear features and hydrologic features. Man-made features are included as a matter of interest and image location. The interpretation is compared to available maps of the area and from this an assessment that ERTS-1 is potentially useful for updating and producing geological maps.

  19. Geologic map of the Alligator Ridge area, including the Buck Mountain East and Mooney Basin Summit quadrangles and parts of the Sunshine Well NE and Long Valley Slough quadrangles, White Pine County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nutt, Constance J.

    2000-01-01

    Data set describes the geology of Paleozoic through Quaternary units in the Alligator Ridge area, which hosts disseminated gold deposits. These digital files were used to create the 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Buck Mountain East and Mooney Basin Summit Quadrangles and parts of the Sunshine Well NE and Long Valley Slough Quadrangles, White Pine County, east-central Nevada.

  20. Geologic map of the Big Delta B-2 quadrangle, east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, Warren C.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Roberts, Paul; Smith, Moira; Gamble, Bruce M.; Henning, Mitchell W.; Gough, Larry P.; Morath, Laurie C.

    2003-01-01

    New 1:63,360-scale geologic mapping of the Big Delta B-2 quadrangle provides important data on the structural setting and age of geologic units, as well as on the timing of gold mineralization plutonism within the Yukon-Tanana Upland of east-central Alaska. Gold exploration has remained active throughout the region in response to the discovery of the Pogo gold deposit, which lies within the northwestern part of the quadrangle near the south bank of the Goodpaster River. Geologic mapping and associated geochronological and geochemical studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mining and Water Management, provide baseline data to help understand the regional geologic framework. Teck Cominco Limited geologists have provided the geologic mapping for the area that overlies the Pogo gold deposit as well as logistical support, which has lead to a much improved and informative product. The Yukon-Tanana Upland lies within the Tintina province in Alaska and consists of Paleozoic and possibly older(?) supracrustal rocks intruded by Paleozoic (Devonian to Mississippian) and Cretaceous plutons. The oldest rocks in the Big Delta B-2 quadrangle are Paleozoic gneisses of both plutonic and sedimentary origin. Paleozoic deformation, potentially associated with plutonism, was obscured by intense Mesozoic deformation and metamorphism. At least some of the rocks in the quadrangle underwent tectonism during the Middle Jurassic (about 188 Ma), and were subsequently deformed in an Early Cretaceous contractional event between about 130 and 116 Ma. New U-Pb SHRIMP data presented here on zircons from the Paleozoic biotite gneisses record inherited cores that range from 363 Ma to about 2,130 Ma and have rims of euhedral Early Cretaceous metamorphic overgrowths (116 +/- 4 Ma), interpreted to record recrystallization during Cretaceous west-northwest-directed thrusting and folding. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of monazite from a Paleozoic

  1. Saltwater in shallow aquifers in east-central and northeastern Louisiana and southeastern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, G.F.; Bonck, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    The chemistry of water from irrigation and monitor wells in east-central Louisiana indicates the presence of saltwater in the Mississippi River alluvial aquifer and the uppermost part of the Jasper aquifer system. The salinity of this groundwater makes it unsuitable for use in irrigation of salt-sensitive crops. The geochemistry of bromide (Br) and chloride (Cl) ions and strontium (Sr) isotopes indicated that this saltwater could have originated from the mixing of freshwater with briny water originating from the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer at altitudes from 5,800 to 6,800 feet below sea level. However, in the absence of data on the concentrations of Br and Cl ions and the values of (87)Sr/(86)Sr in water from the Catahoula, Cockfield, and Sparta aquifers within the study area, no conclusive statement can be made on the origin of saltwater in the alluvial aquifer and the uppermost part of the Jasper aquifer system. Analyses of water from irrigation wells in northeastern Louisiana and southeastern Arkansas indicated the presence of saltwater in the Mississippi River alluvial aquifer. Saltwater probably moves from southern Chicot County, Arkansas, into northeastern Louisiana by flowing to the southwest along a fluvial channel eroded into the Cockfield Formation. Saltwater in the Mississippi River alluvial aquifer in northeastern Louisiana and southeastern Arkansas can be hazardous to salt-sensitive crops, such as rice, when used for irrigation. The geochemistry of Br and Cl ions indicated that saltwater in the Mississippi River alluvial aquifer of southern Chicot County in southeastern Arkansas has two geochemically distinct sources. One source, which has Br/Cl ratios less than that of modern seawater, could be derived from saltwater present in aquifers of Tertiary age; this saltwater could enter the alluvial aquifer by upward flow from below as part of the natural regional groundwater flow pattern. The other source, which has Br/Cl ratios greater than that of modern sea

  2. Preliminary Results of a Multi-Proxy Lake Sediment Core Study in East-Central France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misner, T.; Meyers, S.; Rosenmeier, M.; Strano, S.; Straffin, E.

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a multi-proxy study of natural and human-induced changes in the Burgundian environment, as recorded in the sediment geochemistry of three small freshwater basins within the Arroux River Valley, east-central France. Accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dates constrain the age of core material collected from the basins, and indicate that these mill and farm ponds were constructed by at least 1200 A.D. The pond sediments are predominantly massive, organic-rich muds that contain discrete sand and gravel lenses likely related to episodic flooding and/or basin drainage. In this study, continuous X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning is used to quantify bulk geochemical variability throughout the lake sediment cores, and to investigate specific elemental proxies for paleoenvironmental change (detrital flux, biogenic flux, and redox state). The high-resolution XRF data are supplemented by sediment magnetic susceptibility measurements, and organic matter concentration as determined by loss on ignition. These records demonstrate a general increase in detrital sediment input from 1200 to 1300 A.D., during a period of known regional agricultural expansion. We infer these changes to be the consequence of increased catchment soil erosion and material flux to the water bodies. The data also suggest changes in mill and farm pond primary productivity, also related to soil erosion and changing transport of soil nutrients to the basins. Near the onset of the Little Ice Age (ca. 1500 A.D.) pond productivity reductions are apparent, likely indicating colder climates. These mill and farm pond sedimentary archives, in conjunction with historic records, can be used to better understand past land management strategies. Furthermore, historically documented landscape changes can be examined within the context of prevailing climatic conditions over the last ~800 years in an effort to establish future best management practices and the most

  3. Geologic Map of the Big Delta B-1 Quadrangle, East-Central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, Warren C.; O'Neill, J. Michael; Aleinikoff, John N.; Green, Gregory N.; Saltus, Richard W.; Gough, Larry P.

    2007-01-01

    Geologic mapping and U-Pb age dating of rocks from the Big Delta B-1 quadrangle, east-central Alaska, have yielded new insights into the geology and gold mineral resource for the headwater region of the Goodpaster River, northeast of Delta, Alaska. The area lies within the Yukon-Tanana Upland and is underlain by Paleozoic and Cretaceous crystalline bedrock and contains several gold mines and prospects. The Paleozoic units include biotite gneiss, quartzite interlayered with metapelite, and amphibolite gneiss. The Paleozoic units were intruded during the Devonian by tonalitic to granitic plutons, which, as a result of regional Mesozoic metamorphism and tectonism, are now augen gneiss and biotite orthogneiss. The Mesozoic regional metamorphism and ductile deformation of the entire Yukon-Tanana Upland culminated by the Late Cretaceous (about 116 Ma) as a result of northwest-directed regional transpression along the southern margin of the North American craton. This dynamothermal episode was followed by invasion of syn- to post-tectonic granodioritic to granitic batholiths during the Late Cretaceous (about 113-107 Ma), followed by a pulse of 100-95 Ma quartz feldspar porphyry intrusions. Gold mineralization is spatially associated with various post-tectonic Late Cretaceous granitic dikes and batholiths throughout the quadrangle. A northeast-trending structural corridor, described herein as the Black Mountain tectonic zone, both controlled the emplacement of some of the Cretaceous intrusive rocks, gold deposits, and prospects, as well as formed a deep-seated crustal conduit along which a subsequent rhyolite flow-dome complex erupted during the Paleocene. Tertiary uplift and erosion resulted in the development of extensive erosional pediments. Quaternary alpine glaciation carved beautiful, broad valleys in the eastern part of the quadrangle, leaving behind terminal moraines in the headwater region of the Goodpaster river drainage. Continued Holocene to Recent deformation

  4. The thrust belt in Southwest Montana and east-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppel, Edward T.; Lopez, David A.

    1984-01-01

    The leading edge of the Cordilleran fold and thrust in southwest Montana appears to be a continuation of the edge of the Wyoming thrust belt, projected northward beneath the Snake River Plain. Trces of the thrust faults that form the leading edge of the thrust belts are mostly concealed, but stratigraphic and structural evidence suggests that the belt enters Montana near the middle of the Centennial Mountains, continues west along the Red Rock River valley, and swings north into the Highland Mountains near Butte. The thrust belt in southwest Montana and east-central Idaho includes at least two major plates -- the Medicine Lodge and Grasshopper thrust plates -- each of which contains a distinctive sequence of rocks, different in facies and structural style from those of the cratonic region east of the thrust belt. The thrust plates are characterized by persuasive, open to tight and locally overturned folds, and imbricate thrust faults, structural styles unusual in Phanerozoic cratonic rocks. The basal decollement zones of the plates are composed of intensely sheared, crushed, brecciated, and mylonitized rocks, the decollement at the base of the Medicine Lodge plate is as much as 300 meters thick. The Medicine Lodge and Grasshopper thrust plates are fringed on the east by a 10- to 50-kilometer-wide zone of tightly folded rocks cut by imbricate thrust fauls, a zone that forms the eastern margin of the thrust belt in southwest Montana. The frontal fold and thrust zone includes rocks that are similar to those of the craton, even though they differ in details of thickness, composition, or stratigraphic sequence. The zone is interpreted to be one of terminal folding and thrusting in cratonic rocks overridden by the major thrust plates from farther west. The cratonic rocks were drape-folded over rising basement blocks that formed a foreland bulge in front of the thrust belt. The basement blocks are bounded by steep faults of Proterozoic ancestry, which also moved as tear

  5. Late Cretaceous extension in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt, northwestern Utah and southern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, M.L.; Allmendinger, R.W. ); Dallmeyer, R.D. )

    1990-10-01

    Cover rocks of the Raft River metamorphic core complex, located in the Sevier belt hinterland, preserve a structural and metamorphic history that predates the middle Tertiary extension of the region. In the eastern Raft River Mountains, Cambrian( )-Permian rocks form two allochthons that occur in the hanging wall of the mid-Miocene Raft River detachment fault. Dramatically attenuated, metamorphosed Cambrian( )-Pennsylvanian strata of the lower allochthon yield Late Cretaceous muscovite {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar plateau ages (ca. 82-90 Ma) that are interpreted to date cooling during final stages of layer parallel extension. Devonian-Permian rocks exposed in the Black Pine Mountains underwent east-west extension ({approximately} 160%) associated with syntectonic growth of white mica along cleavage. {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar whole-rock spectra of associated slates also indicate a Late Cretaceous metamorphism. Together, field and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar results suggest that Late Cretaceous extension occurred in the Sevier belt hinterland at the same time as shortening in the eastern foreland and at depth in the hinterland. Sufficient topography must have been present to drive upper-crustal extension in the eastern hinterland.

  6. Washington Correspondence for the Hinterland: A Case Study of Directed Field Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambeth, Edmund B.

    This paper tells how a school of journalism linked two types of courses for master's degree candidates: a practical course in public affairs reporting, in which students worked in Washington developing news stories for hinterland dailies, and an academic seminar in media/government relations that required the writing of research papers. In order…

  7. Workforce: Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In Nevada, the demand for well-educated employees will only increase over the next several years. In the decade leading up to 2012, healthcare occupations will see growth of 47 percent. Teachers will be in demand: over 1,100 new primary and secondary educators will need to be hired each year. Managers will see their ranks swell by 44 percent, with…

  8. Hinterland-vergent tectonic wedge below the Riwat thrust, Himalayan foreland, Pakistan: Implications for hydrocarbon exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Jadoon, I.A.K.; Frisch, W.

    1997-03-01

    The Riwat thrust, with a surface trace of over 50 km, is one of the major faults in the footwall of the main boundary thrust in the Himalayan foreland of Pakistan. Surface geology shows that the Riwat thrust is a foreland-vergent thrust along which lower to middle Siwalik molasse strata are thrust southward over upper Siwalik strata. Seismic reflection interpretation shows that the Riwat thrust developed as a roof thrust of a hinterland-vergent tectonic wedge (triangle zone) underlain by evaporites. The Riwat thrust propagates upsection from depth of about 4 km at the base of the Siwalik Group. At this depth, it merges into a hinterland-vergent blind thrust that propagates upsection as a ramp from Eocambrian evaporites covering the basement at a depth of about 6 km. Bounded between this set of conjugate faults, a tectonic wedge of Eocambrian (evaporites) to Neogene strata is thrust toward the hinterland to form a triangle zone. The roof thrusts of triangles zones have been widely mapped as backthrusts in deformed mountain fronts. Hinterland motion of tectonic wedges as in the Riwat thrust triangle zone may be a feature of the fold-and-thrust belts underlain by evaporites acting as an extremely weak decollement layer. Their recognition, with a trap-forming geometry below a thrust, is important for interpreting particular fold belts and for hydrocarbon exploration. These structures could be predicted by the surface geology data where hinterland vergence of a fold below a thrust is apparent; however, seismic reflection data appear to be critical in recognizing these structures.

  9. Fracture network of the Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale, east-central Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condon, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The fracture network at the outcrop of the Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale was studied to gain an understanding of the tectonic history of the region and to contribute data to studies of gas and water transmissivity related to the occurrence and production of coal-bed methane. About 1900 fracture readings were made at 40 coal outcrops and 62 sandstone outcrops in the area from Willow Springs Wash in the south to Farnham dome in the north of the study area in east-central Utah.Two sets of regional, vertical to nearly vertical, systematic face cleats were identified in Ferron coals. A northwest-striking set trends at a mean azimuth of 321??, and a northeast-striking set has a mean azimuth of 55??. Cleats were observed in all coal outcrops examined and are closely spaced and commonly coated with thin films of iron oxide.Two sets of regional, systematic joint sets in sandstone were also identified and have mean azimuths of 321?? and 34??. The joints of each set are planar, long, and extend vertically to nearly vertically through multiple beds; the northeast-striking set is more prevalent than the northwest-striking set. In some places, joints of the northeast-striking set occur in closely spaced clusters, or joint zones, flanked by unjointed rock. Both sets are mineralized with iron oxide and calcite, and the northwest-striking set is commonly tightly cemented, which allowed the northeast-striking set to propagate across it. All cleats and joints of these sets are interpreted as opening-mode (mode I) fractures. Abutting relations indicate that the northwest-striking cleats and joints formed first and were later overprinted by the northeast-striking cleats and joints. Burial curves constructed for the Ferron indicate rapid initial burial after deposition. The Ferron reached a depth of 3000 ft (1000 m) within 5.2 million years (m.y.), and this is considered a minimum depth and time for development of cleats and joints. The Sevier orogeny produced southeast

  10. Sedimentologic and stratigraphic constraints on emplacement of the Star Kimberlite, east-central Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonneveld, John-Paul; Kjarsgaard, Bruce A.; Harvey, Shawn E.; Heaman, Larry M.; McNeil, David H.; Marcia, Kirsten Y.

    2004-09-01

    Diamond-bearing kimberlites in the Fort à la Corne region, east-central Saskatchewan, consist primarily of extra-crater pyroclastic deposits which are interstratified with Lower Cretaceous (Albian and Cenomanian) marine, marginal marine and continental sediments. Approximately 70 individual kimberlite occurrences have been documented. The Star Kimberlite, occurring at the southeastern end of the main Fort à la Corne trend, has been identified as being of economic interest, and is characterized by an excellent drill core database. Integration of multi-disciplinary data-sets has helped to refine and resolve models for emplacement of the Star Kimberlite. Detailed core logging has provided the foundation for sedimentological and volcanological studies and for construction of a regionally consistent stratigraphic and architectural framework for the kimberlite complex. Micropaleontologic and biostratigraphic analysis of selected sedimentary rocks, and U-Pb perovskite geochronology on kimberlite samples have been integrated to define periods of kimberlite emplacement. Radiometric age determination and micropaleontologic evidence support the hypothesis that multiple kimberlite eruptive phases occurred at Star. The oldest kimberlite in the Star body erupted during deposition of the predominantly continental strata of the lower Mannville Group (Cantuar Formation). Kimberlites within the Cantuar Formation include terrestrial airfall deposits as well as fluvially transported kimberlitic sandstone and conglomerate. Successive eruptive events occurred contemporaneous with deposition of the marginal marine upper Mannville Group (Pense Formation). Kimberlites within the Pense Formation consist primarily of terrestrial airfall deposits. Fine- to medium-grained cross-stratified kimberlitic (olivine-dominated) sandstone in this interval reflects reworking of airfall deposits during a regional marine transgression. The location of the source feeder vents of the Cantuar and Pense

  11. Superposed fold-thrust events at the Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cashman, Patricia H.; Cole, James C.; Trexler, James H.

    2000-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), in southern Nye County, Nevada, straddles significant pre-Tertiary structural and stratigraphic boundaries. Detailed stratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Upper Paleozoic section delineates the regional trust sheets and constrains their burial histories. The Paleozoic rocks record three phases of contractional deformation, overprinted by strike-slip faulting. These occured in the folloing order: (1) foreland-vergant folding and imbricate thrusting in the footwall of the Belted Range thrust; (2) hinterland-vergent folding and thrusting; and (3) north-vergant folding that we interpret as footwall deformation below a third major thrust system. Sinistral slip, typically accompanied by minor east-west shortening, has occured along a series of north-northeast--north-northwest--striking faults around Yucca Flat. This strike-slip faulting postdates both foreland-vergent and hinterland-vergent deformation, and predates the Cretaceous Climax stock; its age relative to the north-vergent folding and thrusting is unknown. Our new understanding of the geometry of these structures provides new insights into the correlation and interpretation of regional structural features. Field trip stops will examine: (1) the stratigraphic differences that allow us to distinguish the regional thrust sheets and constrain their burial histories; and (2) the field relationships that document the kinematics and relative ages of the penetrative deformational events.

  12. Geologic map of Paleozoic rocks in the Calico Hills, Nevada Test Site, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, J.C.; Cashman, P.H.

    1998-11-01

    The Calico Hills area in the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, exposes a core of pre-Tertiary rocks surrounded by middle Miocene volcanic strata. This map portrays the very complex relationships among the pre-Tertiary stratigraphic units of the region. The Devonian and Mississippian rocks of the Calico Hills are distinct from age-equivalent carbonate-shelf or submarine-fan strata in other parts of the Nevada Test Site. The Calico Hills strata are interpreted to have been deposited beyond the continental shelf edge from alternating silicic and carbonate clastic sources. Structures of the Calico Hills area record the compounded effects of: (1) eastward-directed, foreland-vergent thrusting; (2) younger folds, kink zones, and thrusts formed by hinterland-vergent deformation toward northwesterly and northerly directions; and (3) low-angle normal faults that displaced blocks of Middle Paleozoic carbonate strata across the contractionally deformed terrane. All of these structures are older than any of the middle Miocene volcanic rocks that were erupted across the Calico Hills.

  13. Establishing an Online Continuing and Professional Development Library for Nurses and Midwives in East, Central, and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Hosey, Kristen N; Kalula, Alphonce; Voss, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 4 years, the African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for nurses and midwives has supported 12 countries establish national continuing and professional development frameworks and programs, linking continuing education to nursing and midwifery re-licensure through technical assistance and improvement grants. However, lack of electronic media and rural practice sites, differences in priority content, and varying legal frameworks make providing accessible, certifiable, and up-to-date online continuing education content for the more than 300,000 nurses and midwives in the 17 member countries of the East, Central, and Southern Africa College of Nursing a major challenge. We report here on how the East, Central, and Southern Africa College of Nursing, with technical assistance from an Afya Bora Fellow, developed an online continuing professional development library hosted on their Web site using data collected in a survey of nursing and midwifery leaders in the region. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Regional Geochemical Results from the Reanalysis of NURE Stream Sediment Samples - Eagle 3? Quadrangle, East-Central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, J.G.; Briggs, P.H.; Gough, L.P.; Wanty, R.B.; Brown, Z.A.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents reconnaissance geochemical data for a cooperative study in the Fortymile Mining District, east-central Alaska, initiated in 1997. This study has been funded by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program. Cooperative funds were provided from various State of Alaska sources through the Alaska Department of Natural Resources. Results presented here represent the initial reconnaissance phase for this multidisciplinary cooperative study. In this phase, 239 sediment samples from the Eagle 3? Quadrangle of east-central Alaska, which had been collected and analyzed for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation program (NURE) of the 1970's (Hoffman and Buttleman, 1996; Smith, 1997), are reanalyzed by newer analytical methods that are more sensitive, accurate, and precise (Arbogast, 1996; Taggart, 2002). The main objectives for the reanalysis of these samples were to establish lower limits of determination for some elements and to confirm the NURE data as a reliable predictive reconnaissance tool for future studies in Alaska's Eagle 3? Quadrangle. This study has wide implications for using the archived NURE samples and data throughout Alaska for future studies.

  15. Stratiform zinc-lead mineralization in Nasina assemblage rocks of the Yukon-Tanana Upland in east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Bressler, Jason R.; Takaoka, Hidetoshi; Mortensen, James K.; Oliver, Douglas H.; Leventhal, Joel S.; Newberry, Rainer J.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.

    1998-01-01

    The Yukon-Tanana Upland of east-central Alaska and Yukon comprises thrust sheets of ductilely deformed metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks of uncertain age and origin that are overlain by klippen of weakly metamorphosed oceanic rocks of the Seventymile-Slide Mountain terrane, and intruded by post-kinematic Early Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary granitoids. Metamorphosed continental margin strata in the Yukon-Tanana Upland of east-central Alaska are thought to be correlative, on the basis of stratigraphic similarities and sparse Mississippian U-Pb zircon and fossil ages (Mortensen, 1992), with middle Paleozoic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks in the eastern Alaska Range and in western and southeastern Yukon. Furthermore, rocks in the northern Yukon-Tanana Upland may correlate across the Tintina fault with unmetamorphosed counterparts in the Selwyn Basin (Murphy and Abbott, 1995). Volcanic-hosted (VMS) and sedimentary exhalative (sedex) massive sulfide occurrences are widely reported for these other areas (green-colored unit of fig. 1) but, as yet, have not been documented in the Alaskan part of the Yukon-Tanana Upland. Recent discoveries of VMS deposits in Devono-Mississippian metavolcanic rocks in the Finlayson Lake area of southeastern Yukon (Hunt, 1997) have increased the potential for finding VMS deposits in rocks of similar lithology and age in the Yukon-Tanana Upland of Alaska. Restoration of 450 km of early Tertiary dextral movement along the Tintina fault juxtaposes these two areas.

  16. Attenuation of high frequency P and S waves in the crust of the East-Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma'hood, M.; Hamzehloo, H.; Doloei, G. J.

    2009-12-01

    We simultaneously estimated Qp-1 and Qs-1 by applying the extended coda-normalization method at 39 stations of three local networks in the East-Central Iran. We measured frequency-dependent attenuation of both P and S waves for the frequency range of 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 12 and 24 Hz. We have analysed 266 three-component seismograms of 53 local earthquakes, having focal depths less than 25 km, which occurred from 2003 December 28 to 2005 April 11. By fitting power-law frequency dependence to the estimated values over the whole stations, we obtained Qp-1 = (25 +/- 3) × 10-3 f (-0.99+/-0.04) and Qs-1 = (19 +/- 2) × 10-3 f(-1.02+/-0.06) in the upper crust of the East-Central Iran, where f is frequency in Hz. Our results are in the range of those estimated for Qp-1 and Qs-1 of the other seismically active regions.

  17. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Kunlun fault, east-central Tibet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These two images show exactly the same area, part of the Kunlun fault in northern Tibet. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the much more detailed image on the right was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which collected enough measurements to map 80 percent of Earth's landmass at this level of precision.

    The area covered is the western part of the Kunlun fault, at the north edge of east-central Tibet. The sharp line marking the southern edge of the mountains, running left to right across the scene represents s strike-slip fault, much like California's San Andreas Fault, which is more than 1,000 kilometers (621 miles) long. The most recent earthquake on the Kunlun fault occurred on November 14, 2001. At a magnitude of 8.1, it produced a surface break over 350 kilometers (217 miles) long. Preliminary reports indicate a maximum offset of 7 meters (23 feet) in the central section of the break. This five-kilometer (three mile) high area is uninhabited by humans, so there was little damage reported, despite the large magnitude. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission maps of active faults in Tibet and other parts of the world provide geologists with a unique tool for determining how active a fault is and the probability of future large earthquakes on the fault. This is done by both measuring offsets in topographic features and using the SRTM digital map as a baseline for processing data from orbiting satellites using the techniques of radar interferometry. Based on geologic evidence, the Kunlun fault's long-term slip rate is believed to be about 11 millimeters per year (0.4 inches per year). The Kunlun fault and the Altyn Tagh fault, 400 kilometers (249 miles) to the north, are two major faults that help accommodate the ongoing collision between the Indian and Asian tectonic plates.

    In contrast with the wealth of detail

  18. Coeval dust accumulation minima in Greenland and East Central Europe over 31-23 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Újvári, Gábor; Stevens, Thomas; Varga, György; Kovács, János; Molnár, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    with the bulk loess median grain size (D50bulk) that is considered an integrated proxy of wind strength, dust source distance, aridity and vegetation cover. While an increase of dust flux and D50bulk with time is apparent, such a trend cannot be seen in the quartz grain size measures (D50quartz). This observation may imply that wind speeds were relatively constant in the studied time interval, while the turbulence of the flow may have been extremely varying (i.e. strong/rapid changes in the frequency/magnitude of dust storm events). A striking feature of the MAR record is that accumulation minima in the Dunaszekcsö record are synchronous with the Greenland Interstadials (GI-5.1 to GI-3). Subsequent Ca2+ minima in the NGRIP record at 26.22 and 25.02 ka (b2k) are also coeval with the MAR minima in the studied loess sequence. At the same time, these patterns are barely visible in the bulk and quartz grain size records. We speculate that the synchronous changes in the NGRIP Ca2+ and the Dunaszekcsö MAR records are results of millennial scale variations in the activity of Northern Hemisphere dust emitting regions shown in two archives from different environments. The very similar timing of MAR minima (and also some of the maxima) suggest a rapid aeolian system response in East Central Europe to abrupt climatic changes in the North Atlantic. Although such a synchronicity does not prove a Central European dust source to Greenland, it is consistent with this possibility. This study was supported by the OTKA PD-108639 grant and the Bolyai János Research Fellowship (both to GÚ). [1] Dansgaard, W., et al. (1993). Evidence for general instability of past climate from a 250-kyr ice-core record. Nature 364, 218-220. [2] Johnsen, S.J., et al. (1992). Irregular glacial interstadials recorded in a new Greenland ice core. Nature 359, 311-313. [3] Rasmussen, S.O., et al. (2014). A stratigraphic framework for abrupt climatic changes during the Last Glacial period based on three

  19. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Kunlun fault, east-central Tibet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These two images show exactly the same area, part of the Kunlun fault in northern Tibet. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the much more detailed image on the right was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which collected enough measurements to map 80 percent of Earth's landmass at this level of precision.

    The area covered is the western part of the Kunlun fault, at the north edge of east-central Tibet. The sharp line marking the southern edge of the mountains, running left to right across the scene represents s strike-slip fault, much like California's San Andreas Fault, which is more than 1,000 kilometers (621 miles) long. The most recent earthquake on the Kunlun fault occurred on November 14, 2001. At a magnitude of 8.1, it produced a surface break over 350 kilometers (217 miles) long. Preliminary reports indicate a maximum offset of 7 meters (23 feet) in the central section of the break. This five-kilometer (three mile) high area is uninhabited by humans, so there was little damage reported, despite the large magnitude. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission maps of active faults in Tibet and other parts of the world provide geologists with a unique tool for determining how active a fault is and the probability of future large earthquakes on the fault. This is done by both measuring offsets in topographic features and using the SRTM digital map as a baseline for processing data from orbiting satellites using the techniques of radar interferometry. Based on geologic evidence, the Kunlun fault's long-term slip rate is believed to be about 11 millimeters per year (0.4 inches per year). The Kunlun fault and the Altyn Tagh fault, 400 kilometers (249 miles) to the north, are two major faults that help accommodate the ongoing collision between the Indian and Asian tectonic plates.

    In contrast with the wealth of detail

  20. High-pressure amphibolite facies dynamic metamorphism and the Mesozoic tectonic evolution of an ancient continental margin, east- central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; Hansen, V.L.; Scala, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Ductilely deformed amphibolite facies tectonites comprise two adjacent terranes in east-central Alaska: the northern, structurally higher Taylor Mountain terrane and the southern, structurally lower Lake George subterrane of the Yukon-Tanana terrane. The pressure, temperature, kinematic and age data are interpreted to indicate that the metamorphism of the Taylor Mountain terrane and Lake George subterrane took place during different phases of a latest Palaeozoic through early Mesozoic shortening episode resulting from closure of an ocean basin now represented by klippen of the Seventymile-Slide Mountain terrane. High- to intermediate-pressure metamorphism of the Taylor Mountain terrane took place within a SW-dipping (present-day coordinates) subduction system. High- to intermediate-pressure metamorphism of the Lake George subterrane and the structural contact zone occurred during NW-directed overthrusting of the Taylor Mountain, Seventymile-Slide Mountain and Nisutlin terranes, and imbrication of the continental margin in Jurassic time. -from Authors

  1. CHARACTER AND REGIONAL SIGNIFICANCE OF GREAT FALLS TECTONIC ZONE, EAST-CENTRAL IDAHO AND WEST-CENTRAL MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, J. Michael; Lopez, David A.

    1985-01-01

    The Great Falls tectonic zone, here named, is a belt of diverse northeast-trending geologic features that can be traced from the Idaho batholith in the Cordilleran miogeocline, across thrust-belt structures and basement rocks of west-central and southwestern Montana, through cratonic rocks of central Montana, and into southwestern-most Saskatchewan, Canada. Geologic mapping in east-central Idaho and west-central Montana has outlined a continuous zone of high-angle faults and shear zones. Recurrent fault movement in this zone and strong structural control over igneous intrusion suggest a fundamental tectonic feature that has influenced the tectonic development of the Idaho-Montana area from a least middle Proterozoic time to the present. Refs.

  2. Exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl compounds on tree swallows nesting at Lake Johanna in east central Minnesota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Poganski, Beth H.; Solem, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) samples were collected at a reference lake and a nearby lake (Lake Johanna) in east central Minnesota, USA contaminated with perfluorinated carboxylic and sulfonic acids. Tissues were analyzed for a suite of 13 perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) to quantify exposure and to determine if there was an association between egg concentrations of PFCs and reproductive success of tree swallows. Concentrations of perfluoroocatane sulfonate (PFOS) were elevated in all tree swallow tissues from Lake Johanna compared to tissues collected at the reference lake. Other PFCs, except for two, were elevated in blood plasma at Lake Johanna compared to the reference lake. PFOS was the dominant PFC (>75%) at Lake Johanna, but accounted for <50% of total PFCs at the reference lake. There was a negative association between concentrations of PFOS in eggs and hatching success. Reduced hatching success was associated with PFOS levels as low as 150 ng/g wet weight.

  3. Natural fractures and lineaments of the east-central Greater Green river basin. Topical report, May 1992-August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Jaworowski, C.; Christiansen, G.E.; Grout, M.A.; Heasler, H.P.; Iverson, W.P.

    1995-08-01

    This topical report addresses the relationship of natural fractures and lineaments to hydrocarbon production of the east-central Greater Green River Basin. The tight gas sands of the Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation are the primary focus of this work. IER and USGS researchers have (1) demonstrated that east-northeast and northeast-trending regional fractures and lineaments are important to hydrocarbon production; (2) recognized the east-northeast regional joint set near two horizontal wells (Champlin 254 Amoco B 2-H and Champlin 320 C-1A-H) in the Washankie and Great Divide basins, respectively; (3) related Cretaceous Almond Formation thickness and facies to northeast-trending faults; (4) developed a program to automatically derive lineaments from small linear features; (5) associated oil and gas production data with east-northeast and northeast-trending lineaments and linear features; and (6) digitally compared lineaments with potentiometric maps of the Mesaverde and Frontier formations.

  4. Architecture and evolution of an Early Permian carbonate complex on a tectonically active island in east-central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Magginetti, Robert T.; Stone, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The newly named Upland Valley Limestone represents a carbonate complex that developed on and adjacent to a tectonically active island in east-central California during a brief interval of Early Permian (late Artinskian) time. This lithologically unique, relatively thin limestone unit lies within a thick sequence of predominantly siliciclastic rocks and is characterized by its high concentration of crinoidal debris, pronounced lateral changes in thickness and lithofacies, and a largely endemic fusulinid fauna. Most outcrops represent a carbonate platform and debris derived from it and shed downslope, but another group of outcrops represents one or possibly more isolated carbonate buildups that developed offshore from the platform. Tectonic activity in the area occurred before, probably during, and after deposition of this short-lived carbonate complex.

  5. Quaternary glacial and post-glacial depositional history associated with the Green Bay lobe, east-central Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Thieme, L.D.; Smith, G.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Multiple layers of peat and wood fragments indicate that Quaternary glaciation of the east-central region of Wisconsin was punctuated by at least two interglacial periods. Till, outwash, and glaciolacustrine deposits suggest that deposition took place in alternating glacial and non-glacial environments due to oscillations in the position of the Green Bay Lobe terminus. The data for this study consists of 36 auger borings, 70 geologic logs and 100 well-construction reports from water wells. Nine vibracores were taken at the northern margin of Lake Winnebago in order to document in detail the post-glacial history of Glacial Lake Oshkosh/Lake Winnebago. Local bedrock consists of limestones and dolomites of the Middle Ordovician Sinnipee Group. Bedrock elevations range from 211--237 m; bedding dips regionally to the southeast at 1--2 degrees. Bedrock is overlain by a 3--13 m-thick layer of alternating red clay and gray silty-clay (basal Kewaunee Formation ) perhaps deposited in a proglacial lake. These sediments are overlain by apeat/wood layer indicating marsh deposition. This peat/wood layer is overlain by more proglacial lake sediment, 3--10 m of gray brown clay to silty-clay. A second peat/wood layer overlies the gray/brown sediment and may correlate with the Two Creeks buried forest bed. The uppermost unit consists of 2--3 m red silty-clay till (Middle Inlet Member of the Kewaunee Formation). Along the northern margin of present-day Lake Winnebago, red silty-clay is overlain by silty-sand deposited by Glacial Lake Oshkosh. Future work includes obtaining radiocarbon dates from buried peat/wood layers to verify these tentative correlations between east-central Wisconsin and the Lake Michigan Basin.

  6. Low-Income Rural People in East Central Arkansas Face Roadblocks to Jobs. Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Agricultural Economic Report No. 290.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Richard N.; And Others

    From 1967 to 1971, a total of 742 low income, rural people in east central Arkansas were trained with funds provided by the Economic Opportunity Act (Title III-B). A total of 133 of these people were interviewed and divided into the following subgroups for purposes of comparison; (1) 74 respondents (46 blacks and 28 whites) who had been and…

  7. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite, Task 3.6, Part 2. The 2nd international conference on energy and environment: Transitions in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    On November 1-5, 1994, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Power Research Institute of Prague cosponsored their second conference since 1991 in the Czech Republic, entitled ``Energy and Environment: Transitions in East Central Europe.`` This conference was a continuation of the EERC`s joint commitment, initiated in 1190, to facilitate solutions to short- and long-term energy and environmental problems in East Central Europe. Production of energy from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner is a critical issue facing East Central Europe, because the region continues to rely on coal as its primary energy source. The goal of the conference was to develop partnerships between industry, government, and the research community in East Central Europe and the United States to solve energy and environmental issues in a manner that fosters economic development. Among the topics addressed at the conference were: conventional and advanced energy generation systems; economic operation of energy systems; air pollution controls; power system retrofitting and repowering, financing options; regulatory issues; energy resource options; waste utilization and disposal; and long-range environmental issues. Selected papers in the proceedings have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  8. Organochlorine insecticide residues and PCBs in tissues of woodcock, mourning doves, and robins from east-central, Illinois, 1978-79

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.R.; Duzan, R.E.; Siemers, R.J.

    1983-10-01

    Reported here are levels in ppm of heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, p,p'-DDE (DDE), and PCB residues assayed in muscle, heart, liver, brain, and fatty tissues of woodcock (Philohelo minor), mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura), and robins (Turdus migratorium) from east-central Illinois in 1978 and 1979.

  9. [Organization of domestic groups in the hinterlands of Lisbon: a study of different conducts].

    PubMed

    Da Silva, A F

    1993-01-01

    The author analyzes "methods of domestic organization in a hinterland area in Lisbon, [Portugal, particularly] in Oeiras, between 1730 and 1810. Results show the existence of two systems of domestic group organization: farmers and workers. The [farmers] set up a succession strategy associated with the defence of familiar heritage.... Workers consider that their organization strategy is based on both setting up new families and giving up any system of generation succession by which the principal aim is the perpetuation of the familiar heritage.... Both systems are the results of different economic and hierarchical positions in the Oeiras society." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE AND SPA)

  10. Sequence stratigraphy in a continental extensional basin: A case study from the Goshute Valley, east-central Nevada--Deja vu

    SciTech Connect

    Strecker, U.; Smithson, S.B.; Steidtmann, J.R. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1992-01-01

    Previous tectonic interpretations of the Goshute Valley relied upon conventional line drawings of seismic reflectors and suggested an asymmetric basin-fill geometry in response to a listric master fault regime. However, a new interpretation approach using sequence stratigraphic principles not only modifies and adds to earlier structural analyses, but more importantly provides evidence for tectonically induced migratory facies patterns. The application of sequence stratigraphy reveals that the structural basin history is not that of a half-graben experiencing subsidence along a listric master fault. Instead, the basin is bounded by two, essentially planar faults, with greater displacements along the eastern margin fault. In addition, four stages of basin development, including initial sagging, syndepositional faulting, previously unreported tectonic compression, and deactivation can be documented. Tectonism emerges as a very important parameter in controlling the type and distribution of seismic facies, as exemplified by the oblique progradational facies (OPF). Moreover, the slope of a line connecting the inflection points of clinoforms within the OPF may serve to outline the relative importance of aggradation versus progradation within a sequence. This balance represents an independent mechanism to evaluate the rate of basin subsidence and requires further attention. Finally, the overall pattern of progradation present within each sequence suggests that sequences within the Goshute basin do not record a full retrogradational/progradational cycle, as do their marine counterparts.

  11. Monte Mountain thrust, additional confirmation of the central Nevada thrust

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, A.K. ); Chamberlain, R.L. )

    1990-05-01

    The Monte Mountain thrust, a newly identified thrust exposed in the Timpahute Range, east central Nevada places porous Devonian reservoir rocks over rich Mississippian source rocks at the peak oil generating window. The thrust provides insurmountable evidence of a thrust model that may lead to discovery of giant oil and gas fields along the 400-mi long central Nevada thrust belt. The Timpahute Range lies a little over 50 mi on strike to the south of the prolific Grant Canyon field. Scattered remnants of the north-trending thrust belt are obscured by parallel valleys of Tertiary valley fill and volcanics. The fact that the east-west-trending Timpahute Range could contain exposures of the north-south-trending central Nevada thrust belt attracted them to the range, Familiarity with the stratigraphic section led to the discovery of the thrust. As much as 750 ft of Devonian Guilmette sandstones, in the hanging wall just above the thrust contact have been erroneously mapped as Mississippian Scotty Wash sandstones. These Devonian sandstones could be excellent reservoir rocks. Sandstones in the Guilmette increase in thickness westward. East-vergent thrusting has juxtaposed plates of thicker Guilmette sandstones with plates of thinner sandstones, Reconstruction of Devonian paleogeography provides a clue to the amount of displacement along thrust boundaries.

  12. Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project

    Treesearch

    C. I. Millar

    1996-01-01

    Sierra Nevada Ecosystems. The Sierra Nevada evokes images particular to each individual's experience of the range. These images take on the quality of immutability, and we expect to find the range basically unchanged from one year to the next. The Sierra Nevada, however, including its rocky foundations and the plants and animals that inhabit it, changes...

  13. "Plantas con madre": plants that teach and guide in the shamanic initiation process in the East-Central Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, X; Clavo, Z M; Jovel, E M; Pardo-de-Santayana, M

    2011-04-12

    We present and discuss a particular group of plants used by a diversity of healers in the initiation process and apprenticeship of traditional medicine, as practiced by Amazonian societies in East-Central Peru. Often, these plants are locally called plantas con madre (plants with a mother), and are thought to guide initiates in the process of seeking sacred knowledge, learning about plant usage, and understanding traditional medicine practices. We illustrate the diversity of plants used in the apprenticeship and practice of traditional medicine, and nurture the discussion to better understand the terminology used by Indigenous healers to describe plant uses and their practices. The study was conducted between 2003 and 2008 with the participation of 29 curanderos (healers; 23 men, 6 women), 3 apprentices and 4 herbalists. The participants belonged to four ethnic groups: 17 Mestizos, 15 Shipibo-Konibo, 1 Ashaninka, and 1 Matsiguenga; a Spanish apprentice and an Italian herbalist were also included in the study. The field data were collected using semi-structured interviews, participant observation, and the witnessing of numerous healing sessions. Oral informed consent was obtained from each participant. We identified 55 plant species belonging to 26 botanical families, which are used in initiation processes and apprenticeships of traditional medicine. This group of plants is administered under strict conditions during training and healing sessions called dietas (shamanic diets), with the supervision of one or more maestros curanderos (master healers). We observed that during the shamanic diets, maestros curanderos administered plants depending on the teachings or tools he/she was passing on, and were based on a particular sequence during the initiation process: (I) purification and cleansing species; (II) sensitivity and intuition; (III) strengthening; and (IV) protection and defence. Traditional healers continue to be a primary source of health care for the majority

  14. Risk factors associated with the presence of Varroa destructor in honey bee colonies from east-central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Giacobino, A; Bulacio Cagnolo, N; Merke, J; Orellano, E; Bertozzi, E; Masciangelo, G; Pietronave, H; Salto, C; Signorini, M

    2014-08-01

    Varroa destructor is considered one of the major threats for worldwide apiculture. Damage caused by varroa mite includes body weight loss, malformation and weakening of the bees. It was also suggested as the main cause associated with colony winter mortality and as an important vector for several honey bee viruses. Little is known about multiple factors and their interaction affecting V. destructor prevalence in apiaries from South America. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with V. destructor prevalence in east-central Argentina. Parasitic mite infestation level and colony strength measures were evaluated in 63 apiaries distributed in 4 different regions in east-central Argentina in a cross sectional study. Data regarding management practices in each apiary were collected by means of a questionnaire. A mixed-effects logistic regression model was constructed to associate management variables with the risk of achieving mite infestation higher than 3%. Colonies owned by beekeepers who indicated that they did not monitor colonies after mite treatment (OR=2.305; 95% CI: 0.944-5.629) nor disinfect hives woodenware material (OR=2.722; 95% CI: 1.380-5.565) were associated with an increased risk of presenting high intensity infestation with V. destructor (>3%). On the other hand, beekeepers who reported replacing more than 50% of the queens in their operation (OR=0.305; 95% CI: 0.107-0.872), feeding colonies protein substitute containing natural pollen (OR=0.348; 95% CI: 0.129-0.941) and feeding colonies High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) (OR=0.108; 95% CI: 0.032-0.364), had colonies that were less likely to have V. destructor infestations above 3%, than beekeepers who did not report using these management practices. Further research should be conducted considering that certain management practices were associated to mite infestation level in order to improve the sanitary condition in the colonies. Epidemiological studies provide key information to

  15. [Stem sap flow and water consumption of Tamarix ramosissima in hinterland of Taklimakan Desert].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Zhang, Xi-Ming; Yan, Hai-Long; Yao, Shi-Jun

    2007-04-01

    From April to November 2005, the stem sap flow and water consumption of Tamarix ramosissima in the hinterland of Taklimakan Desert was measured by Flow-32 System. The results showed that, in the extremely arid hinterland of Taklimakan Desert and under enough water supply, the average daily water consumption of T. ramosissima with a stem diameter of 3.5 cm and 2.0 cm was 6.322 kg and 1.179 kg, respectively in one growth season. The stem sap flow of T. ramosissima presented a single-peaked curve, with an obvious day and night variation rhythm and fluctuated with environment factors. Under enough water supply, the environmenal factors such as total radiation, wind speed and air temperature were the main factors affecting the stem sap flow, and the dynamics of stem sap flow could be predicted by the liner regression model based on total radiation and wind speed. Because of the extremely arid environment and enough water supply, T. ramosissima had a relatively higher stem sap flow rate and a great water consumption.

  16. [Public food service in Milan city and Hinterland: food-handlers training level (Part 2)].

    PubMed

    Pontello, M; Dal Vecchio, A; Doria, M G; Bertini, I

    2005-01-01

    The prevention and control of foodborne diseases play an important role in public health and the responsibility of food-handlers is of great concern: their training on food safety is particularly required in the critical sector of public food service establishments. The food-handlers knowledge has been evaluated by a questionnaire filled up in two Public Health Units (PHU) in Milan City and Milan hinterland. Only 11.5% of food-handlers turned at to be good trained; the wrong answers are concentrated on the section titled "temperatures management" (68 and 59% in Milan City and in Milan hinterland, respectively). Only for 31.4% of food-handlers the attendance to training courses is well documented, although the knowledge level seems to be partially influenced by training activity: exclusively in Milan City food-handlers an highly significant difference has been found among "trained" and "no-trained" workers in correct answers about temperatures management (p= 0.0046). The frequency of exact answers isn't associated to the satisfaction level revealed during inspection of restaurants. Focusing the attention on the insufficient efficacy of training courses and the lacking connection between knowledge and behaviour, a critical revision of training activity quality seems to be necessary. In future some professional training activities in the field should be promoted.

  17. Geologic map of the Kechumstuk fault zone in the Mount Veta area, Fortymile mining district, east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, Warren C.; O’Neill, J. Michael; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Aleinikoff, John N.; Siron, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    This map was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program to depict the fundamental geologic features for the western part of the Fortymile mining district of east-central Alaska, and to delineate the location of known bedrock mineral prospects and their relationship to rock types and structural features. This geospatial map database presents a 1:63,360-scale geologic map for the Kechumstuk fault zone and surrounding area, which lies 55 km northwest of Chicken, Alaska. The Kechumstuk fault zone is a northeast-trending zone of faults that transects the crystalline basement rocks of the Yukon-Tanana Upland of the western part of the Fortymile mining district. The crystalline basement rocks include Paleozoic metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks as well as granitoid intrusions of Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous age. The geologic units represented by polygons in this dataset are based on new geologic mapping and geochronological data coupled with an interpretation of regional and new geophysical data collected by the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys. The geochronological data are reported in the accompanying geologic map text and represent new U-Pb dates on zircons collected from the igneous and metaigneous units within the map area.

  18. Biogeochemical characterization of an undisturbed highly acidic, metal-rich bryophyte habitat, east-central Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.P.; Eppinger, R.G.; Briggs, P.H.; Giles, S.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the geochemistry of soil and bryophyte-laden sediment and on the biogeochemistry of willows growing in an undisturbed volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Alaska Range ecoregion of east-central Alaska. We also describe an unusual bryophyte assemblage found growing in the acidic metal-rich waters that drain the area. Ferricrete-cemented silty alluvial sediments within seeps and streams are covered with the liverwort Gymnocolea inflata whereas the mosses Polytrichum commune and P. juniperinum inhabit the area adjacent to the water and within the splash zone. Both the liverwort-encrusted sediment and Polytrichum thalli have high concentrations of major and trace metal cations (e.g., Al, As, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Pb, and Zn). Soils in the area do not reflect the geochemical signature of the mineral deposit and we postulate they are influenced by the chemistry of eolian sediments derived from outside the deposit area. The willow, Salix pulchra, growing mostly within and adjacent to the larger streams, has much higher concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Fe, La, Pb, and Zn when compared to the same species collected in non-mineralized areas of Alaska. The Cd levels are especially high and are shown to exceed, by an order of magnitude, levels demonstrated to be toxic to ptarmigan in Colorado. Willow, growing in this naturally occurring metal-rich Red Mountain alteration zone, may adversely affect the health of browsing animals. ?? 2006 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  19. Do trauma courses change practice? A qualitative review of 20 courses in East, Central and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Ologunde, Rele; Le, Grace; Turner, Jim; Pandit, Hemant; Peter, Noel; Maurer, David; Hodgson, Sam; Larvin, Joseph; Lavy, Chris

    2017-09-01

    Trauma courses have been shown to improve clinical knowledge and patient outcomes. However, little is known about the individual drivers of change in practice amongst course participants in their home clinic environment. Front-line healthcare workers participated in a two-day Primary Trauma Care (PTC) course. Immediately after the course participants completed an evaluation survey on intended change in the management of trauma patients. Six months after the course, participants completed a survey on actual changes that had occurred. A total of 451 participants were sampled, with 321 responding at 6 months, from 40 courses across East, Central and Southern Africa. The most commonly reported intended change was the adoption of an ABCDE/systematic approach (53%). Six months after the course, 92.7% of respondents reported that they had made changes in their management, with adoption of an ABCDE/systematic approach (50.0%) remaining most common. 77% of participants reported an improvement in departmental trauma management, 26% reported an increase in staffing, 29% an increase in equipment and 68% of participants had gone on to train other healthcare workers in PTC. The findings suggest that PTC courses not only improve individual management of trauma patients but also but is also associated with beneficial effects for participants' host institutions with regards to staffing, equipment and training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Quaternary Sediments of Terna River Sub-Basin East Central Maharashtra, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babar, Md.; Chunchekar, R. V.; Ghute, B. B.

    Terna river valley is an important agricultural belt in east-central Maharashtra India. The study area, Terna river sub-basin a tributary river of Manjara river in Latur-Osmanabad districts, is considered for the present study. The physico-chemical characteristics of geomorphological units such as valley fill, pediments, pediplain, highly dissected plateau and older alluvial plain are discussed. The western part of the sub-basin is characterized by irregular hard rock terrain with flat-topped Deccan basaltic plateau surfaces, erosional and highly dissected hills. The eastern part of the sub-basin is gently sloping to flat terrain consisting of alluvial material of the Terna River and the E-W trending escarpment. The central and eastern part of the sub-basin is covered with thick black cotton soil and alluvial soil. The sediments in hilly areas of highly dissected plateau and pediment surfaces have proportions of sand greater than silt and clay. In pediplain and older alluvial soils, the proportion of clay and silt is greater than the sand and shows gradual decrease in the clay + silt to sand ratio. The pH ranges from 7.48 to 8.46, electric conductivity varies from 1.20 dS/m to 6.99 dS/m, organic carbon% from 0.02 to 1.15, CaCO3% from 3 to 49.5 and potassium 10 to 12.4 ppm.

  1. Hydrogeology and water-quality conditions at the City of Olathe Landfill, east-central Kansas, 1990-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, P.P.; Shockley, J.C.; Hargadine, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Water quality at the City of Olathe Landfill in east-central Kansas was examined in relation to hydrogeologic conditions to help determine the effects of the landfill on shallow ground water. This study focused on the Wyandotte and Plattsburg Limestones underlying the landfill. The Wyandotte Limestone underlies the entire landfill, whereas the overlying Plattsburg Limestone crops out within the landffll boundaries. Little Cedar Creek, an unnamed tributary, and a pond are located in the landfill. Water samples from seven monitoring wells and five surface-water sites in the vicinity of the City of Olathe Landfill were collected for analysis of inorganic and organic constituents. The inorganic constituents in the ground water that are most affected in the vicinity of the landfill are calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, ammonia, barium, iron, and manganese. The dissolved- organic-carbon concentration at a seep flowing from the Plattsburg Limestone was 1,400 milligrams per liter, indicating that the landfill is affecting the water quality near the seep. Benzene was detected in all of the water samples, and the largest concentration was in a sample collected upgradient of the landfill. The benzene concentration exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level (0.005 milligram per liter) for drinking-water supplies. Six of the eight specific organic compounds detected were found in a water sample collected from the Plattsburg Limestone immediately downgradient of the landfill. No organic compoands, except benzene, were detected in samples collected from the Wyandotte Limestone downgradient of the landfill.

  2. Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S. D.; Clague, J. J.; Rabus, B.; Stead, D.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple, active, deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSD) are present near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway in the east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA. We documented spatial and temporal variations in rates of surface movement of the DSGSDs between 2003 and 2011 using RADARSAT-1 and RADARSAT-2 D-InSAR images. Deformation rates exceed 10 cm/month over very large areas (>1 km2) of many rock slopes. Recent climatic change and strong seismic shaking, especially during the 2002 M 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake, appear to have exacerbated slope deformation. We also mapped DSGSD geological and morphological characteristics using field- and GIS-based methods, and constructed a conceptual 2D distinct-element numerical model of one of the DSGSDs. Preliminary results indicate that large-scale buckling or kink-band slumping may be occurring. The DSGSDs are capable of generating long-runout landslides that might impact the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway. They could also block tributary valleys, thereby impounding lakes that might drain suddenly. Wrapped 24-day RADARSAT-2 descending spotlight interferogram showing deformation north of Fels Glacier. The interferogram is partially transparent and is overlaid on a 2009 WorldView-1 panchromatic image. Acquisition interval: August 2 - August 26, 2011. UTM Zone 6N.

  3. Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, east-central Alaska Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Stephen Delmont, Jr.

    I investigated active deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD) near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway in the east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA. I documented the presence, spatial extent, and rates of DSGSD using field-geology methods and optical, SAR, and D-InSAR remote-sensing images. I also documented and mapped many of the morphological, geological, and structural characteristics of slopes undergoing DSGSD, and constructed conceptual numerical models to better understand potential deformation mechanisms. Results confirm that many large DSGSD slopes in the study area are actively deforming. Deformation rates range from less than a millimetre per month to more than ten centimetres per month, and are spatially and temporally varient within each slope. Deforming slopes are characterized by differential movement of kilometre-scale rock blocks. Recent climatic changes and strong seismic shaking, especially during the recent 2002 Denali Fault earthquake, have exacerbated ongoing deformation. Study-area DSGSDs should be considered capable of generating long-runout rock avalanches that could directly sever the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway, or that could dam up valleys and lead to the buildup and catastrophic failure of landslide-dammed lakes capable of impacting said infrastructure. Keywords: Deep-seated gravitational slope deformation; sackung; Trans-Alaska Pipeline; geomorphology; InSAR; Alaska Range.

  4. The Yukon Flats Cretaceous(?)-Tertiary Extensional Basin, East-Central Alaska: Burial and Thermal History Modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    One-dimensional burial and thermal history modeling of the Yukon Flats basin, east-central Alaska, was conducted as part of an assessment of the region's undiscovered oil and gas resources. No deep exploratory wells have been drilled in the Yukon Flats region, and the subsurface geology of the basin is inferred from seismic reflection, gravity and magnetic surveys, and studies of shallow core holes in the basin and outcrops in the surrounding region. A thick sequence of Upper Cretaceous(?) and Cenozoic nonmarine sedimentary rocks is believed to fill the basin; coal and organic-rich mudstone and shale within this sequence represent potential hydrocarbon source rocks. The burial and thermal history models presented here represent the sole source of information on the thermal maturity of these potential source rocks at depth. We present four alternative burial history scenarios for a hypothetical well through the deepest portion of Yukon Flats basin. They differ from each other in the thicknesses of Upper Cretaceous and Cenozoic strata, the timing of initial basin subsidence, and the timing of inferred unconformities. The burial modeling results suggest a present-day depth to the oil window of approximately 6,000 feet.

  5. Effects of paved surfaces on recharge to the Floridan aquifer in east-central Florida : a conceptual model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tibbals, C.H.

    1978-01-01

    The proportionate amount of surface area that can be paved in Floridan aquifer recharge areas in east-central Florida without reducing the net recharge to the Floridan aquifer is a function of many variables that include rainfall, depth to water table, depth to potentiometric surface of the Floridan, evaporation from paved areas, evapotranspiration from unpaved areas, runoff, pattern of paving, and leakance coefficient of the confining beds. Equations that incorporate those variables, except pattern of paving, are developed and coupled to produce a conceptual model that estimates relative amounts of water available for recharge and percentage of unpaved area below which Floridan aquifer recharge rates must increase. The model is not intended to be used as a basis for engineering design. Rather, its purpose is to show approximate mathematical interrelations of rainfall, runoff, evapotranspiration, percentage of paving, and Floridan aquifer recharge, and to make quantitative estimates of amounts of water available for Floridan aquifer recharge before and after paving. The allowable percentage of paving calculated in four examples ranges from 86.8 percent to 3.6 percent. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Reconnaissance sedimentology of selected tertiary exposures in the upland region bordering the Yukon Flats basin, east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LePain, David L.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes reconnaissance sedimentologic and stratigraphic observations made during six days of helicopter-supported fieldwork in 2002 on Tertiary sedimentary rocks exposed in the upland region around the flanks of the Yukon Flats basin in east-central Alaska (fig. 1). This project was a cooperative effort between the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to investigate the geology of the basin in preparation for an assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable hydrocarbon resources (Stanley and others, 2004). Field observations and interpretations summarized in this report are reconnaissance level. At most, no more than a few hours were spent on the ground at any location. Measured sections included in this report are sketch sec- tions and thicknesses shown are approximate. Relatively detailed observations were made by the authors at only three locations, including The Mudbank (Hodzana River), Rampart (east bank of the Yukon River), and Bryant Creek (along the Tintina fault near the Canada border). These three locations are described first in relative detail, then followed by general descriptions of other locations.

  7. Community Knowledge and Acceptance of Larviciding for Malaria Control in a Rural District of East-Central Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Kramer, Randall A.; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Kilima, Stella P.; Shayo, Elizabeth H.; Lesser, Adriane

    2014-01-01

    The use of microbial larvicides, a form of larval source management, is a less commonly used malaria control intervention that nonetheless has significant potential as a component of an integrated vector management strategy. We evaluated community acceptability of larviciding in a rural district in east-central Tanzania using data from 962 household surveys, 12 focus group discussions, and 24 in-depth interviews. Most survey respondents trusted in the safety (73.1%) and efficacy of larviciding, both with regards to mosquito control (92.3%) and to reduce malaria infection risk (91.9%). Probing these perceptions using a Likert scale provides a more detailed picture. Focus group participants and key informants were also receptive to larviciding, but stressed the importance of sensitization before its implementation. Overall, 73.4% of survey respondents expressed a willingness to make a nominal household contribution to a larviciding program, a proportion which decreased as the proposed contribution increased. The lower-bound mean willingness to pay is estimated at 2,934 Tanzanian Shillings (approximately US$1.76) per three month period. We present a multivariate probit regression analysis examining factors associated with willingness to pay. Overall, our findings point to a receptive environment in a rural setting in Tanzania for the use of microbial larvicides in malaria control. PMID:24830448

  8. Simulated effects of surface coal mining and agriculture on dissolved solids in the Redwater River, east-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferreira, R.F.; Lambing, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Dissolved solids concentrations in five reaches of the Redwater River in east-central Montana were simulated to evaluate the effects of surface coal mining and agriculture. A mass-balance model of streamflow and dissolved solids load developed for the Tongue River in southeastern Montana was modified and applied to the Redwater River. Mined acreages, dissolved solids concentrations in mined spoils, and irrigated acreage can be varied in the model to study relative changes in the dissolved solids concentration in consecutive reaches of the river. Because of extreme variability and a limited amount of data, the model was not consecutively validated. Simulated mean and median monthly mean streamflows and consistently larger than those calculated from streamflow records. Simulated mean and median monthly mean dissolved solids loads also are consistently larger than regression-derived values. These discrepancies probably result from extremely variable streamflow, overestimates of streamflow from ungaged tributaries, and weak correlations between streamflow and dissolved solids concentrations. The largest increases in simulated dissolved solids concentrations from mining and agriculture occur from September through January because of smaller streamflows and dissolved solids loads. Different combinations of agriculture and mining under mean flow conditions resulted in cumulative percentage increases of dissolved solids concentrations of less than 5% for mining and less than 2% for agriculture. (USGS)

  9. Simulation of a semi-permanent wetland basin in the Cottonwood Lake area, east-central North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, R.W.H.; Pohll, G.M.; Tracy, J.C.; Winter, T.C.; ,

    2001-01-01

    A coupled surface/subsurface hydrologic model was developed to examine the effects of climatic conditions on stage fluctuations within a semi-permanent wetland located in the Prairie Pothole region of east-central North Dakota. Model calibration was accomplished using data collected from 1981 to 1996 to encompass extreme climatic conditions. Results show that the processes of precipitation largely control wetland stage. Surface runoff produces short duration, high magnitude flows typically associated with spring thaw. On the other hand, groundwater contribution provides flows smaller in magnitude but higher in duration and these become increasingly important with respect to wetland stage during extended periods of drought and flood. Peak groundwater fluxes lag one-to-two months behind peak recharge rates and therefore occur predominantly during the month of June. Groundwater fluxes then attenuate slowly for the remainder of the year to the point where water may move out of the wetland and into the underlying aquifer during the fall and winter months. Despite an over simplification of the complex groundwater component of the wetland system it was found that this modeling approach was able to predict system response over 15 years, under extreme climatic conditions and with relatively easily attainable data input.

  10. Geothermal profile and crust-mantle transition beneath east-central Queensland: Volcanology, xenolith petrology and seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, W. L.; Sutherland, F. L.; Hollis, J. D.

    1987-04-01

    Geothermobarometry of garnet granulite and garnet websterite xenoliths in basalts from numerous localities in east-central Queensland gives P-T points that fall along the geotherm previously defined for southeastern Australia. This elevated geotherm is ascribed to the advective transport of heat by Tertiary-Recent magmas ponded at the crust-mantle boundary. The lower crust in this region consists dominantly of mafic granulites, representing frozen basaltic melts and cumulates. Spinel lherzolite becomes a dominant rock type at depths of ca. 30 km, and persists, interlayered with pyroxenites, to depths of ca. 55 km. Seismic reflection profiles show a "layered lower crust" between depths of 20 and 36 km depth. The lithologically defined crust-mantle boundary lies within this zone, at least 6 km above the seismically defined Moho. This interpretation is consistent with the observed velocity ( Vp) gradient downward through the layered zone. The constructed geotherm implies that the bottom of the lithosphere beneath eastern Australia is shallower than ca. 100 km. This makes it unlikely that the diamonds of eastern Australia are derived from local intrusions, unless these are > 200 Ma old.

  11. Surficial Geologic Map of the Clinton-Concord-Grafton-Medfield 12-Quadrangle Area in East Central Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Janet R.; Stone, Byron D.

    2006-01-01

    The surficial geologic map shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of twelve 7.5-minute quadrangles (total 660 square miles) in east-central Massachusetts. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (grain size, sedimentary structures, mineral and rock-particle composition), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for water resources, construction aggregate resources, earth-surface hazards assessments, and land-use decisions. This compilation of surficial geologic materials is an interim product that defines the areas of exposed bedrock, and the boundaries between glacial till, glacial stratified deposits, and overlying postglacial deposits. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text (PDF), a regional map at 1:50,000 scale (PDF), quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (12 PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), scanned topographic base maps (TIF), metadata for the GIS layers, and a readme.txt file.

  12. Groundwater flow and water budget in the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Nicasio; Tiedeman, Claire R.; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Burger, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    A numerical transient model of the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida was developed to (1) increase the understanding of water exchanges between the surficial and the Floridan aquifer systems, (2) assess the recharge rates to the surficial aquifer system from infiltration through the unsaturated zone and (3) obtain a simulation tool that could be used by water-resource managers to assess the impact of changes in groundwater withdrawals on spring flows and on the potentiometric surfaces of the hydrogeologic units composing the Floridan aquifer system. The hydrogeology of east-central Florida was evaluated and used to develop and calibrate the groundwater flow model, which simulates the regional fresh groundwater flow system. The U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional groundwater flow model, MODFLOW-2005, was used to simulate transient groundwater flow in the surficial, intermediate, and Floridan aquifer systems from 1995 to 2006. The East-Central Florida Transient model encompasses an actively simulated area of about 9,000 square miles. Although the model includes surficial processes-rainfall, irrigation, evapotranspiration (ET), runoff, infiltration, lake water levels, and stream water levels and flows-its primary purpose is to characterize and refine the understanding of groundwater flow in the Floridan aquifer system. Model-independent estimates of the partitioning of rainfall into ET, streamflow, and aquifer recharge are provided from a water-budget analysis of the surficial aquifer system. The interaction of the groundwater flow system with the surface environment was simulated using the Green-Ampt infiltration method and the MODFLOW-2005 Unsaturated-Zone Flow, Lake, and Streamflow-Routing Packages. The model is intended to simulate the part of the groundwater system that contains freshwater. The bottom and lateral boundaries of the model were established at the estimated depths where the chloride concentration is 5,000 milligrams

  13. Groundwater flow and water budget in the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Nicasio; Tiedeman, Claire R.; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Davis, Jeffery B.; Burger, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    A numerical transient model of the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida was developed to (1) increase the understanding of water exchanges between the surficial and the Floridan aquifer systems, (2) assess the recharge rates to the surficial aquifer system from infiltration through the unsaturated zone and (3) obtain a simulation tool that could be used by water-resource managers to assess the impact of changes in groundwater withdrawals on spring flows and on the potentiometric surfaces of the hydrogeologic units composing the Floridan aquifer system. The hydrogeology of east-central Florida was evaluated and used to develop and calibrate the groundwater flow model, which simulates the regional fresh groundwater flow system. The U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional groundwater flow model, MODFLOW-2005, was used to simulate transient groundwater flow in the surficial, intermediate, and Floridan aquifer systems from 1995 to 2006. The east-central Florida transient model encompasses an actively simulated area of about 9,000 square miles. Although the model includes surficial processes-rainfall, irrigation, evapotranspiration, runoff, infiltration, lake water levels, and stream water levels and flows-its primary purpose is to characterize and refine the understanding of groundwater flow in the Floridan aquifer system. Model-independent estimates of the partitioning of rainfall into evapotranspiration, streamflow, and aquifer recharge are provided from a water-budget analysis of the surficial aquifer system. The interaction of the groundwater flow system with the surface environment was simulated using the Green-Ampt infiltration method and the MODFLOW-2005 Unsaturated-Zone Flow, Lake, and Streamflow-Routing Packages. The model is intended to simulate the part of the groundwater system that contains freshwater. The bottom and lateral boundaries of the model were established at the estimated depths where the chloride concentration is 5

  14. Distribution of invasive Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in the East-Central Europe is driven by climatic and local environmental variables.

    PubMed

    Kokocinski, Mikolaj; Gagala, Ilona; Jasser, Iwona; Karosiene, Jurate; Kasperoviciene, Jurate; Kobos, Justyna; Koreiviene, Judita; Soininen, Janne; Szczurowska, Agnieszka; Woszczyk, Michal; Mankiewicz-Boczek, Joanna

    2017-03-09

    Mechanisms behind expansion of an invasive cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii have not been fully resolved and different hypotheses, such as global warming, are suggested. In the East-Central Europe, it is widely occurring in western part of Poland but only in single locations in the East due to some limiting factors. Therefore, broad scale phytoplankton survey including 117 randomly selected lakes in Poland and Lithuania was conducted. The results showed that C. raciborskii occurred widely in western part of Poland but was absent from other regions and Lithuania except one lake. The regions in which C. raciborskii was present had higher annual mean air temperature, higher maximum air temperature of the warmest month and higher minimum temperature of the coldest month demonstrating that average air temperature, and indirectly, the duration of growing season might be more important factor driving C. raciborskii distribution than measured in situ water temperature. In turn, the presence of C. raciborskii in single localities may be more related to physiological adaptations of separated ecotype. Collectively, these results provide novel evidence on the influence of temperature on C. raciborskii distribution in East-European regions but also indicate high ecological plasticity of this species.

  15. Wavelet analysis of low-frequency variability in oak tree-ring chronologies from east Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Asok K.; Kern, Zoltán

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the low-frequency (interannual and longer period) variability in three hydroclimatic records from east Central Europe. Two of these records consist of climate proxies derived from oak-tree rings in Bakta forest, and Balaton Highlands in Hungary, for the time interval 1783-2003. The third record consists of homogenized instrumental precipitation data from Budapest, Hungary, from 1842 to 2003. Using wavelet analysis, the three time series are analyzed and compared with one another. It is found that all three time series exhibit strong interannual variability at the 2-4 years timescales, and these variations occur intermittently throughout the length of each record. Significant variability is also observed in all the records at decadal timescales, but these variations persist for only two to three cycles. Wavelet coherence among the various time series is used to explore their time-varying correlation. The results reveal significant coherence at the 2-4 years band. At these timescales, the climatic variations are correlated to the tree-ring signal over different time intervals with changing phase. Increased (decreased) contribution of large-scale stratiform precipitation offers a potential explanation for enhanced (faded) coherence at the interannual timescale. Strong coherence was also observed occasionally at decadal timescales, however these coherences did not appear uniformly. These results reinforce the earlier assertion that neither the strength nor the rank of the similarity of the local hydroclimate signals is stable throughout the past two centuries.

  16. Rhyolitic calderas of the Yukon-Tanana Terrane, east central Alaska: volcanic remnants of a mid-Cretaceous magmatic arc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, C.R.; Foster, H.L.; Smith, James G.

    1990-01-01

    Four large but poorly exposed rhyolitic calderas are present in the Yukon-Tanana terrane (YTT) in east central Alaska. At least two are mid-Cretaceous in age (~93 Ma). Similar volcanic rocks, the South Fork Volcanics, occur northeast of the Tintina fault in Yukon Territory. Evidence for the calderas consists of thick deposits of devitrified crystal- and lithic-rich densely welded tuff, interpreted as caldera fill, associated with lava domes or shallow intrusive rocks. Coeval outflow sheets have been largely stripped by erosion. The calderas are preserved within a northeast trending depression extending across the axis of the elongate mid-Cretaceous plutonic province. Trace element abundances in andesites and rhyolites associated with the caldera structures are similar to those of volcanic and plutonic rocks of subduction-related magmatic arcs developed on continental crust and thus are suggestive of formation in such an environment. Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous rocks in the YTT near the calderas are interpreted to have been emplaced in a more extensional setting when the subduction-related magmatic front was farther oceanward. -Authors

  17. Analysis of Effects of 2003 and Full-Allocation Withdrawals in Critical Area 1, East-Central New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spitz, Frederick J.

    2009-01-01

    Critical Area 1 in east-central New Jersey was mandated in the early 1980s to address large drawdowns caused by increases in groundwater withdrawals. The aquifers involved include the Englishtown aquifer system, Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer, and the Upper and Middle Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifers. Groundwater levels recovered as a result of mandated cutbacks in withdrawals that began in the late 1980s. Subsequent increased demand for water has necessitated an analysis to determine the effects of full-allocation withdrawals, which supplements an optimization analysis done previously. A steady-state regional groundwater flow model is used to evaluate the effects of 2003 withdrawals and full-allocation withdrawals (7.3 million gallons per day greater than for 2003) on simulated water-levels. Simulation results indicate that the range of available withdrawals greater than full-allocation withdrawals is likely between 0 and 12 million gallons per day. The estimated range of available withdrawals is based on: (1) an examination of hydraulic-heads resulting from each of the two simulations, (2) an examination of differences in heads between these two simulations, (3) a comparison of simulated heads from each of the two simulations with the estimated location of salty groundwater, and (4) a comparison of simulated 2003 water levels to observed 2003 water levels. The results of the simulations also indicate that obtaining most of the available water would require varying the distribution of withdrawals and (or) relaxing the mandated hydrologic constraints used to protect the water supply.

  18. East-central states

    SciTech Connect

    Lindau, R.D.; Van Den Berg, J.; Carpenter, G.L.; Nosow, E.

    1981-10-01

    Tennessee had 351 oil and gas tests reported in 1980, up 54.6% from 1979. Exploratory wells (196) were up 84.9%. Development drilling increased 28.1%. Almost all of Tennessee's oil and gas production is found in stratigraphic traps in the Fort Payne and Monteagle limestones. Leasing was very active in 1980. Crude oil production in 1980 was 743,000 barrels, up 21.1% from 1979. Marketed natural gas in 1980 was 1,248,000 thousand cubic feet, an increase of 32.6% from 1979. Illinois had 1980 oil and gas tests in 1980, up 75% from 1979. Exploratory tests numbered 451, up 92%, and were 18.8% successful. New field wildcats were 5.1% successful. Crude oil production in Illinois in 1980 was 22,702,000 barrels, up 4.2% from 1979. Indiana had 725 oil and gas tests in 1980, up 48.3% from 1979. Exploratory wells increased from 184 in 1979 to 322 in 1980 and were 28% successful. New field wildcats were 8.8% successful. Chesterian and Valmeyeran (Mississippian) rocks were the chief targets of exploration. The increased drilling activity in Indiana in 1980 is expected to continue in 1981. Estimated crude oil production in Indiana in 1980 was 4,520,000 barrels, a decline of 200,000 barrels from 1979. In Kentucky, 1244 oil and gas tests were drilled in 1980, up 41.8% from 1979. The 437 exploratory tests, up from 332 in 1979, resulted in 54 oil wells, 31 gas wells, and 3 combination oil and gas wells, a success rate of 20.1%. Oil production in Kentucky in 1980 was 5,945,666 barrels, an increase of 7.8% from 1979. Gas production, 96% of which is from eastern Kentucky, was 58,274,375 thousand cubic feet, virtually the same as in 1979. 4 figures, 10 tables.

  19. Temporal trends of pollution Pb and other metals in east-central Baffin Island inferred from lake sediment geochemistry.

    PubMed

    Michelutti, Neal; Simonetti, Antonio; Briner, Jason P; Funder, Svend; Creaser, Robert A; Wolfe, Alexander P

    2009-10-15

    Concentrations and stable isotope ratios of lead (Pb) from lake sediments were used to quantify temporal patterns of anthropogenic Pb pollution in the Clyde River region of Baffin Island, Arctic Canada. Surface sediments from eight lakes on eastern Baffin Island and one from northern-most Greenland, spanning a gradient of 20 degrees latitude, showed great variability with respect to Pb concentration and stable isotopic Pb ratios, with little apparent latitudinal trend. To constrain the temporal evolution of regional Pb pollution, a well-dated core from one of the sites, Lake CF8 on east-central Baffin Island, was analyzed geochemically at high stratigraphic resolution. A pronounced decrease in the (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio occurs in sediments deposited between 1923 and the mid-1970s, likely reflecting alkyl-Pb additives derived from the combustion of fossil fuels at a global scale. A two-component mixing model indicates that 17-26% of the Pb in the labile fraction of sediments deposited in Lake CF8 between 2001 and 2005 is from anthropogenic input. A Pb-Pb co-isotopic plot ((206)Pb/(207)Pb vs.(208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios) of the Lake CF8 time series data indicates multiple possible sources of industrial Pb pollution. Despite widespread reductions in industrial Pb emissions since the 1970s, there is no evidence for attendant reductions of pollution Pb at Lake CF8. Enhanced scavenging from increased primary production as well as changing precipitation rates as climate warms may represent important factors that modulate Pb deposition to Lake CF8, and Arctic lakes elsewhere.

  20. Monitoring unrest in a large silicic caldera, the long Valley-inyo craters volcanic complex in east-central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, D.P.

    1984-01-01

    Recent patterns of geologic unrest in long Valley caldera in east-central California emphasize that this large, silicic volcanic system and the adjacent, geologically youthful Inyo-Mono Craters volcanic chain are still active and capable of producing locally hazardous volcanic eruptions. A series of four magnitude -6 earthquakes in May 1980 called attention to this current episode of unrest, and subsequent activity has included numerous earthquake swarms in the south moat of the caldera accompanied by inflation of the resurgent dome by more than 50 cm over the last five years. The seismicity associated with this unrest is currently monitored by a network of 31 telemetered seismic stations with an automatic processing system that yelds hypocentral locations and earthquake magnitudes in near-real time. Deformation of the ground is monitored by a) a series of overlapping trilateration networks that provide coverage ranging from annual measurements of regional deformation to daily measurements of deformation local to the active, southern section of the caldera, b) a regional network of level lines surveyed annually, c) a regional network of precise gravity stations occupied annually, d) local, L-shaped level figures surveyed every few months, and e) a network of fourteen borehole tiltmeter clusters (two instruments in each cluster) and a borehole dilatometer, the telemetered signals from which provide continuous data on deformation rates. Additional telemetered data provide continuous information on fluctuations in the local magnetic field, hydrogen gas emission rates at three sites, and water level and temperatures in three wells. Continuous data on disharge rates and temperatures from hot springs and fumaroles are collected by several on-site recorders within the caldera, and samples for liquid and gas chemistry are collected several times per year from selected hot springs and fumaroles. ?? 1984 Intern. Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth

  1. Seismicity and focal mechanisms of the central Centennial Tectonic Belt, southwestern Montana and east-central Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Stickney, M.C. . Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The parabolic seismic belt flanking the Snake River Plain is a first-order feature of US seismicity maps. The northern limb of this parabola -- the Centennial Tectonic Belt (CTB) -- extends from NW Yellowstone Park westward through east-central Idaho. The 1959 Hebgen Lake (M[sub s]=7.5) and 1983 Borah Peak (M[sub s]=7.3) earthquakes occurred within the CTB. The Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology located 1,989 earthquakes along the CTB between Hebgen Lake and the Lost River Range (111.25[degree]--113.75[degree]W) from 1982 through Jan. 20, 1993. A distinct, S45[degree]W-trending seismic zone originates in the southern Madison Valley, traverses the southern Gravelly Range and Centennial Valley, and ends in the western Centennial Range. Microearthquakes sharply define the southeast edge of this zone; virtually no seismicity occurs in the eastern Centennial Valley southeast of this zone. Fault plane solutions for 47 better-located events indicate predominantly normal to strike-slip faulting. About 70% of the fault plane solutions have north-south T-axes, however, earthquakes in the western centennial Valley are apparently not occurring on the Centennial Fault. Throughout the central CTB, seismicity does not occur along mapped Quaternary faults. In the Red Rock Valley, seismicity clusters near the endpoints of two mapped faults. A magnitude 4.0 earthquake occurred in a prominent seismic gap west of the MT-ID border on August 28, 1992. The epicenter location and fault plane solution suggest this quake occurred on a valley-bounding fault west of the Birch Creek Valley and not on the main Beaverhead Fault.

  2. Magmatic Mapping: A Suggested Methodology And Results From The Springerville Volcanic Field, East-Central Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mnich, M.; Condit, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Springerville Volcanic Field (SVF), located in east-central Arizona, is one of the best-characterized basaltic monogenetic volcanic fields in the world, with it's expanse of over 3000 km2 now mapped in it's entirety as a result of recent efforts in 2010 and 2011. The methods used, called "magmatic mapping" (Condit, 2007), provide a standardized, volcanic unit focused approach to characterizing volcanic fields. This approach focuses on delineating contacts between flows, completely characterizing each flow, and placing them into a temporal framework. Results of magmatic mapping in the SVF now provide a comprehensive overview of the lifespan of the field, representing a unique resource, useful not only in studying the petrogenetic evolution of this field, but in serving as a template for comparing similar volcanic fields. On Earth, several fields pose a significant risk to population centers, though these hazards are often poorly understood due to long intervals between eruptions. On other planets, remote mapping can be greatly enhanced by comparing it with a well-studied terrestrial analog that has been analyzed in detail; an area with ever heightening necessity as high-resolution data is becoming increasingly available. In the SVF, olivine phyric lavas are most abundance (22% of volcanic outcrop), followed by diktytaxitic and olivine/plagioclase phyric flows. However, lithology will vary depending on when an eruption takes place in a volcanic fields lifecycle. On the whole, the SVF is younger to the east and younger lavas are dominantly more alkalic. These trends are also displayed within individual geographic divisions, many of which correspond to temporal-geographic clusters as defined by Condit and Connor (1996). The mapping methods and patterns in geochemistry, lithology and age progression within the SVF represent a unique template for which to base basaltic mapping.

  3. Significance of tourmaline-rich rocks in the north range group of the cuyuna iron range, East-Central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleland, J.M.; Morey, G.B.; McSwiggen, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    Concentrations of tourmaline in Early Proterozoic metasedirnentary rocks of the Cuyuna iron range, east-central Minnesota, provide a basis for redefinition of the evolutionary history of the area. Manganiferous iron ore forms beds within the Early Proterozoic Trommald Formation, between thick-bedded granular iron-formation having shallow-water depositional attributes and thin-bedded, nongranular iron-formation having deeper water attributes. These manganese-rich units were previously assumed to be sedimentary in origin. However, a revaluation of drill core and mine samples from the Cuyuna North range has identified strata-bound tourmaline and tourmalinite, which has led to a rethinking of genetic models for the geology of the North range. We interpret the tourmaline-rich rocks of the area to be a product of submarine-hydrothermal solutions flowing along and beneath the sedirnent-seawater interface. This model for the depositional environment of the tourmaline is supported by previously reported mineral assemblages within the Trommald Formation that comprise aegirine; barium feldspar; manganese silicates, carbonates, and oxides; and Sr-rich barite veins. In many places, tourmaline-rich metasedimentary rocks and tourmalinites are associated locally with strata-bound sulfide deposits. At those localities, the tourmaline-rich strata are thought to be lateral equivalents of exhalative sulfide zones or genetically related subsea-floor replacements. On the basis of the occurrence of the tourmaline-rich rocks and tourmalinites, and on the associated minerals, we suggest that there is a previously unrecognized potential for sediment-hosted sulfide deposits in the Cuyuna North range.

  4. Soils and late-Quaternary landscape evolution in the Cottonwood River basin, east-central Kansas: Implications for archaeological research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeton, J.M.; Mandel, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of landscape evolution strongly influence the temporal and spatial patterns of the archaeological record in drainage systems. In this geoarchaeological investigation we took a basin-wide approach in assessing the soil stratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, and geochronology of alluvial deposits and associated buried soils in the Cottonwood River basin of east-central Kansas. Patterns of landscape evolution emerge when stratigraphic sequences and radiocarbon chronologies are compared by stream size and landform type. In the valleys of high-order streams (???4th order) the Younger Dryas Chronozone (ca. 11,000-10,000 14C yr B.P.) was characterized by slow aggradation accompanied by pedogenesis, resulting in the development of organic-rich cumulic soils. Between ca. 10,000 and 4900 14C yr B.P., aggradation punctuated by soil formation was the dominant process in those valleys. Alluvial fans formed on the margins of high-order stream valleys during the early and middle Holocene (ca. 9000-5000 14C yr B.P.) and continued to develop slowly until ca. 3000-2000 14C yr B.P. The late-Holocene record of high-order streams is characterized by episodes of entrenchment, rapid aggradation, and slow aggradation punctuated by soil development. By contrast, the early and middle Holocene (ca. 10,000-5000 14C yr B.P.) was a period of net erosion in the valleys of low-order streams. However, during the late Holocene small valleys became zones of net sediment storage. Consideration of the effects of these patterns of landscape evolution on the archaeological record is crucial for accurately interpreting that record and searching for buried archaeological deposits dating to specific cultural periods. ?? 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ?? 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc..

  5. Detrital zircon geochronology of the Adams Argillite and Nation River Formation, east-central Alaska, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gehrels, G.E.; Johnsson, M.J.; Howell, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Cambrian Adams Argillite and the Devonian Nation River Formation are two sandstone-bearing units within a remarkably complete Paleozoic stratigraphic section in east-central Alaska. These strata, now foreshortened and fault-bounded, were originally contiguous with miogeoclinal strata to the east that formed as a passive-margin sequence along the northwestern margin of the North American continent. Seventy-five detrital zircon grains from the Adams Argillite and the Nation River Formation were analyzed in an effort to provide constraints on the original sources of the grains, and to generate a detrital zircon reference for miogeoclinal strata in the northern Cordillera. Thirty-five single zircon grains from a quartzite in the Adams Argillite yield dominant age clusters of 1047-1094 (n = 6), 1801-1868 (n = 10), and 2564-2687 (n = 5) Ma. Forty zircons extracted from a sandstone in the Nation River Formation yield clusters primarily of 424-434 (n = 6), 1815-1838 (n = 6), 1874-1921 (n = 7), and 2653-2771 (n = 4) Ma. The Early Proterozoic and Archean grains in both units probably originated in basement rocks in a broad region of the Canadian Shield. In contrast, the original igneous sources for mid-Protcrozoic grains in the Adams Argillite and ??? 430 Ma grains in the Nation River Formation are more difficult to identify. Possible original sources for the mid-Proterozoic grains include: (1) the Grenville Province of eastern Laurentia, (2) the Pearya terrane along the Arctic margin, and (3) mid-Proterozoic igneous rocks that may have been widespread along or outboard of the Cordilleran margin. The ??? 430 Ma grains may have originated in: (1) arc-type sources along the Cordilleran margin, (2) the Caledonian orogen, or (3) a landmass, such as Pearya, Siberia, or crustal fragments now in northern Asia, that resided outboard of the Innuitian orogen during mid-Paleozoic time. Copyright ?? 1999, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  6. First Report of the East-Central South African Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Thiara Manuele Alves; Azeredo, Elzinandes Leal; Badolato-Corrêa, Jessica; Damasco, Paulo Vieira; Santos, Carla; Petitinga-Paiva, Fabienne; Nunes, Priscila Conrado Guerra; Barbosa, Luciana Santos; Cipitelli, Márcio Costa; Chouin-Carneiro, Thais; Faria, Nieli Rodrigues Costa; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; de Bruycker-Nogueira, Fernanda; dos Santos, Flavia Barreto

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus that causes an acute febrile syndrome with a severe and debilitating arthralgia. In Brazil, the Asian and East-Central South African (ECSA) genotypes are circulating in the north and northeast of the country, respectively. In 2015, the first autochthonous cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were reported but until now the circulating strains have not been characterized. Therefore, we aimed here to perform the molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of CHIKV strains circulating in the 2016 outbreak occurred in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. Methods: The cases analyzed in this study were collected at a private Hospital, from April 2016 to May 2016, during the chikungunya outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. All cases were submitted to the Real Time RT-PCR for CHIKV genome detection and to anti-CHIKV IgM ELISA. Chikungunya infection was laboratorially confirmed by at least one diagnostic method and, randomly selected positive cases (n=10), were partially sequenced (CHIKV E1 gene) and analyzed. Results: The results showed that all the samples grouped in ECSA genotype branch and the molecular characterization of the fragment did not reveal the A226V mutation in the Rio de Janeiro strains analyzed, but a K211T amino acid substitution was observed for the first time in all samples and a V156A substitution in two of ten samples. Conclusions: Phylogenetic analysis and molecular characterization reveals the circulation of the ECSA genotype of CHIKV in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and two amino acids substitutions (K211T and V156A) exclusive to the CHIKV strains obtained during the 2016 epidemic, were reported. PMID:28286701

  7. Petrology, geochemistry and isotope data on a ultrahigh-pressure jadeite quartzite from Shuanghe, Dabie Mountains, East-central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, J. G.; Zhang, R. Y.; Jahn, Bor-ming

    1997-08-01

    In the Dabie ultrahigh-pressure terrane of east-central China, coesite-bearing jadeite quartzites occur locally as intercalated layers with marble and mafic eclogite. This rock assemblage is, in turn, enclosed within quartzofeldspathic gneisses. Metamorphic parageneses and kelyphitic textures reveal a multistage metamorphic evolution and complex exhumation history. The primary peak metamorphic assemblage consists of jadeite + garnet + coesite + rutile ± apatite. Minor coesite and coesite pseudomorphs occur as inclusions in jadeite and garnet. Three stages of retrograde assemblages are observed in the jadeite quartzites. Stage A is represented by the polymorphic transformation of coesite to quartz aggregates. Stage B is characterized by formation of coronas around jadeite porphyroblasts consisting of an inner layer of oligoclase + amphibole and an outer layer of albite ± aegirine—augite. The last stage (stage C) involved total replacement of jadeite and most garnets by taramitic amphibole + albite + aegirine-augite. Peak metamorphic P-T conditions were > 26 kbar at 660°C and are consistent with the estimates from the adjacent coesite-bearing eclogites. The jadeite quartzites display clockwise P-T path that matches those of the adjacent eclogites. Major and trace element data suggest that the protolith of the jadeite quartzite could have been an albitized siltstone enriched in Na and depleted in K and Ca. The highly negative present-day ɛNd value (-24.7) indicates a very old age for the protolith. Its late Archean model age (TDM) of 2.58 Ga is among the oldest so far identified for rocks from the Dabie UHPM terrane. Concordant field relations and petrogenetic considerations suggest that all mafic, politic, carbonate and gneissic rocks have experienced in-situ UHP metamorphism during Triassic continental collision between the Sino-Korean and Yangtze cratons.

  8. Geologic Map and Engineering Properties of the Surficial Deposits of the Tok Area, East-Central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrara, Paul E.

    2007-01-01

    The Tok area 1:100,000-scale map, through which the Alaska Highway runs, is in east-central Alaska about 160 km west of the Yukon border. The surficial geologic mapping in the map area is in support of the 'Geologic Mapping in support of land, resources, and hazards issues in Alaska' Project of the USGS National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program. The Tok map area contains parts of three physiographic provinces, the Alaska Range, the Yukon-Tanana Upland, and the Northway-Tanana Lowland. The high, rugged, glaciated landscape of the eastern Alaska Range dominates the southwestern map area. The highest peak, an unnamed summit at the head of Cathedral Rapids Creek No. 2, rises to 2166 m. The gently rolling hills of the Yukon-Tanana Upland, in the northern map area, rise to about 1000 m. The Northway-Tanana Lowland contains the valley of the westerly flowing Tanana River. Elevations along the floor of the lowland generally range between 470 and 520 m. The dominant feature within the map is the Tok fan, which occupies about 20 percent of the map area. This large (450 km2), nearly featureless fan contains a high percentage of volcanic clasts derived from outside the present-day drainage of the Tok River. Because the map area is dominated by various surficial deposits, the map depicts 26 different surficial units consisting of man-made, alluvial, colluvial, eolian, lacustrine, organic, glaciofluvial, glacial, and periglacial deposits. The accompanying table provides information concerning the various units including their properties, characteristics, resource potential, and associated hazards in this area of the upper Tanana valley.

  9. Neurovirulence comparison of chikungunya virus isolates of the Asian and East/Central/South African genotypes from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chiam, Chun Wei; Chan, Yoke Fun; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong; Sam, I-Ching

    2015-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus of the family Togaviridae, causes fever, polyarthritis and rash. There are three genotypes: West African, Asian and East/Central/South African (ECSA). The latter two genotypes have caused global outbreaks in recent years. Recent ECSA CHIKV outbreaks have been associated with severe neurological disease, but it is not known if different CHIKV genotypes are associated with different neurovirulence. In this study, the neurovirulence of Asian (MY/06/37348) and ECSA (MY/08/065) strains of CHIKV isolated in Malaysia were compared. Intracerebral inoculation of either virus into suckling mice was followed by virus titration, histopathology and gene expression analysis of the harvested brains. Both strains of CHIKV replicated similarly, yet mice infected with MY/06/37348 showed higher mortality. Histopathology findings showed that both CHIKV strains spread within the brain (where CHIKV antigen was localized to astrocytes and neurons) and beyond to skeletal muscle. In MY/06/37348-infected mice, apoptosis, which is associated with neurovirulence in alphaviruses, was observed earlier in brains. Comparison of gene expression showed that a pro-apoptotic gene (eIF2αK2) was upregulated at higher levels in MY/06/37348-infected mice, while genes involved in anti-apoptosis (BIRC3), antiviral responses and central nervous system protection (including CD40, IL-10RA, MyD88 and PYCARD) were upregulated more highly in MY/08/065-infected mice. In conclusion, the higher mortality observed following MY/06/37348 infection in mice is due not to higher viral replication in the brain, but to differentially expressed genes involved in host immune responses. These findings may help to identify therapeutic strategies and biomarkers for neurological CHIKV infections.

  10. Conodont and fusulinid biostratigraphy and history of the Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian Keeler Basin, east-central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, C.H.; Stone, P.; Ritter, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Pennsylvanian-Lower Permian Keeler Canyon Formation and lower part of the Lower Permian Lone Pine Formation in east-central California were deposited in a deep-water basin that originated in the Morrowan (Early Pennsylvanian), was fully established by the Desmoinesian (Middle Pennsylvanian), and lasted into the Sakmarian (Early Permian). Stratigraphic studies indicate that the Keeler Canyon Formation can be divided into members recognizable throughout the area of our detailed mapping. From older to younger they are the Tinemaha Reservoir, Tihvipah Limestone, Cerro Gordo Spring, and Salt Tram Members. Rocks in this basin, here referred to as the Keeler basin, contain numerous fusulinid and conodont faunas most of which were deposited by sediment-gravity flows probably originating at the margin of the Bird Spring carbonate platform to the northeast. Sixty-one species of Atokan to Sakmarian fusulinids and 38 species of Desmoinesian to Sakmarian conodonts are recognized. These, in addition to four species of Morrowan conodonts previously reported, show that every stage from the Morrowan to Sakmarian is represented in the basin. The fusulinid faunas are composed largely of taxa of the North American craton, especially the south-central USA, with important endemic constituents and some McCloud Limestone forms, representing the Eastern Klamath terrane. Conodonts are closely similar to species in the Ural Mountains region of Russia and Kazakhstan, as well as the American midcontinent. The co-occurrence of fusulinids and conodonts in the Keeler basin results in a better correlation of zones based on these two groups of fossils than generally is possible.

  11. [Intersecting images: the army and the hinterlands in the First Republic].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Rogério Rosa

    2012-12-01

    The article analyzes the Army's political and social proposal for the Brazilian nation in the 1910s. It considers the Army's climate of modernization in conjunction with the prevailing context of critical evaluation of the republican regime and greater recognition of the role of the armed forces in power games. The analytical method was to cross-reference photographs from the Contestado campaign with militarist discourses found in books authored by Army officers, in articles published in the Rio de Janeiro press, and in Olavo Bilac's speeches in favor of a draft lottery. It was found that the Army wanted to link the hinterlands to the coast and to adopt the barracks as a prime space for forming citizens.

  12. Anatexis and metamorphism in tectonically thickened continental crust exemplified by the Sevier hinterland, western North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patino Douce, Alberto E.; Humphreys, Eugene D.; Johnston, A. Dana

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a thermal and petrologic model of anatexis and metamorphism in regions of crustal thickening exemplified by the Sevier hinterland in western North America, and uses the model to examine the geological and physical processes leading to crustally derived magmatism. The results of numerical experiments show that anatexis was an inevitable end-product of Barrovian metamorphism in the thickened crust of the late Mesozoic Sevier orogenic belt and that the advection of heat across the lithosphere, in the form of mantle-derived mafic magmas, was not required for melting of metasedimentary rocks. It is suggested that, in the Sevier belt, as in other intracontinental orogenic belts, anatexis occurred in the midcrust and not at the base of the crust.

  13. Geoenvironmental Investigations of the Humboldt River Basin, Northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stillings, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    Northern Nevada is one of the world's foremost regions of gold production. The Humboldt River Basin (HRB) covers 43,500 km2 in northern Nevada (Crompton, 1995), and it is home to approximately 18 active gold and silver mines (Driesner and Coyner, 2001) among at least 55 significant metallic mineral deposits (Long and others, 1998). Many of the gold mines are along the Carlin trend in the east-central portion of the HRB, and together they have produced 50 million ounces of gold from 1962 (when the Carlin mine first opened) through April 2002 (Nevada Mining Association, 2002). Mining is not new to the region, however. Beginning in 1849, mining has taken place in numerous districts that cover 39 percent of the land area in the HRB (Tingley, 1998). In addition to gold and silver, As, Ba, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Pb, S, Sb, V, W, Zn, and industrial commodities such as barite, limestone, fluorite, sand and gravel, gypsum, gemstones, pumice, zeolites, and building stone, have been extracted from the HRB (McFaul and others, 2000). All papers within this series of investigations can be found as lettered chapters of USGS Bulletin 2210, Geoenvironmental Investigations of the Humboldt River Basin, Northern Nevada. Each chapter is available separately online. The data and software utilized in this product (Chapter F) permit the user to view and analyze the geographic relationships among chemistry of stream sediments and surface waters, geology, and various cartographic base information such as but not limited to cities, county boundaries, and land ownership. Data for this product were compiled and or produced as part of a mineral and environmental assessment of the Humboldt River basin conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey between 1995 - 2000.

  14. Isolation and molecular characterization of Chikungunya virus from the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India: evidence of an East, Central, and South African genotype.

    PubMed

    Muruganandam, N; Chaaithanya, I K; Senthil, G S; Shriram, A N; Bhattacharya, D; Jeevabharathi, G S; Sudeep, A B; Pradeepkumar, N; Vijayachari, P

    2011-12-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an Alphavirus belonging to the family Togaviridae. In 2006, CHIKV infection struck the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, with an attack rate of 60%. There were more than 10 cases with acute flaccid paralysis simulating the Guillian Barre Syndrome. The majority of the patients presented severe joint pain. The cause for such an explosive nature of the outbreak with increased morbidity was not known. The isolation of CHIKV was attempted and succeeded from nine subjects presenting clinical symptoms of Chikungunya fever. The cDNA of all the isolates was sequenced for partial E1 and nsP1 genes. Sequences were aligned based on the double locus sequence typing concept. The phylogenetic analysis shows that sequences of Andaman isolates grouped with the East, Central, and South African genotype of virus isolates from India, Sri Lanka, and Réunion. The genetic distance between Andaman isolates and the Réunion isolates was very small. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed the origin of the isolates responsible for the first ever confirmed CHIKV outbreak in these islands to be the East, Central, and South African genotype. In this manuscript, we discuss the involvement of the East, Central, and South African strain with the Chikungunya fever outbreak in this archipelago and double locus sequence typing as a first time approach.

  15. The origin of Cenozoic continental basalts in east-central China: Constrained by linking Pb isotopes to other geochemical variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zheng; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhao, Zi-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Cenozoic continental basalts in east-central China are characterized by OIB-like trace element patterns with more depleted to less enriched Sr-Nd isotope compositions. Such geochemical signatures are attributable to variable contributions to their mantle sources from crustal components in the oceanic subduction zone. A combined study of basalt Pb isotope variations with other geochemical variables indicates that four mantle and crustal components were involved in the basalt petrogenesis. Model calculations verify the geochemical transfer from the subducted crustal components to the mantle sources. The depleted MORB mantle component is indicated by the depleted Sr-Nd isotope compositions of basalts. Relatively high 206Pb/204Pb and low Δ8/4 ratios are ascribed to contributions from the igneous oceanic crust with high U/Pb and low Th/U ratios, low 206Pb/204Pb and high Δ8/4 ratios are ascribed to the lower continental crust, and high 206Pb/204Pb and high Δ8/4 ratios are linked to the seafloor sediment. This generates different compositions of mantle sources for these OIB-like continental basalts. The basalts with the most depleted Sr-Nd isotope compositions show Pb isotope compositions distinct from Pacific MORB but similar to Indian MORB, suggesting the occurrence of Indian type asthenospheric mantle beneath the continental lithosphere of eastern China. The depleted MORB mantle would be metasomatized by the three crustal components at the slab-mantle interface in oceanic subduction channel, generating the mantle sources that are enriched in melt-mobile incompatible trace elements and their pertinent radiogenic isotopes. Nevertheless, the crustal components were not directly incorporated in the forms of crustal rocks into the mantle sources, but underwent partial melting to produce the felsic melts that predominate the composition of those trace elements and their pertinent radiogenic isotopes in the basalts. As such, the depleted MORB mantle component was

  16. Petrography, diagenesis and reservoir characteristics of the Pre-Cenomanian sandstone, Sheikh Attia area, East Central Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassab, Mohamed A.; Hassanain, Ibrahim M.; Salem, Alaa M.

    2014-08-01

    The diagenetic influence on reservoir characteristics was investigated for the Pre-Cenomanian (Early Paleozoic and Early Cretaceous) sandstone sequence in the Sheikh Attia area, East Central Sinai. This sequence can be distinguished into four formations: Sarabit El-Khadim Formation (Cambrian) at the base, Abu Hamata Formation (Cambro-Ordovician), Adedia Formation (Ordovician-Silurian) and Malha Formation (Early Cretaceous) on the top. The sandstones of Pre-Cenomanian sequence in the Sheikh Attia area are dominantly quartz arenites and subarkoses, where the quartz grains constitute about 82.3-98.4% of the framework composition with an average value of approximately 94% of the framework composition. Feldspars range in abundance from 0% to14.2%, with an average value of about 3% of the framework composition. The rock fragments constitute up to 9.8% of volume percent of framework grains, with an average of about 2.7%. Diagenetic events identified in these sandstones include compaction, cementation by calcite, quartz, clay minerals and iron oxides, dissolution and alteration of unstable clastic grains, and tectonically induced grain fracturing. Unstable clastic grains like feldspars suffered considerable alteration to kaolinite. The Pre-Cenomanian (Early Paleozoic and Early Cretaceous) sandstones possess good reservoir characteristics because they retain sufficient porosity and permeability in some intervals. These sandstones are characterized by porosity ranges between 3.80% and 27.60%, and have a permeability range from k ⩽ 0.03 mD, for tight sandstones to k ⩾ 50 mD, for the more permeable parts. The Pre-Cenomanian sandstones can be classified into four petrophysical flow units (megaport, macroport, mesoport and microport) with varying reservoir performances and are distinguished by comparable ranges of R35. Petrographic observations showed that the Early Paleozoic sandstones are texturally immature owing to the abundance of angular grains, non-uniformity of grain

  17. Origin of the Tongbai-Dabie-Sulu Neoproterozoic low- δ 18O igneous province, east-central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Bin; Kita, Noriko T.; Wilde, Simon A.; Liu, Xiaochun; Cliff, John; Greig, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Zircons from 71 diverse rocks from the Qinling-Tongbai-Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt in east-central China and, for comparison, eight from adjoining areas in the South China and North China blocks, have been analyzed for in situ 18O/16O ratio and/or U-Pb age to further constrain the spatial distribution and genesis of Neoproterozoic low- δ 18O magmas, that is, δ 18O(zircon) ≤4 ‰ VSMOW. In many metaigneous rock samples from Tongbai-Dabie-Sulu, including high-pressure and ultrahigh-pressure eclogites and associated granitic orthogneisses, average δ 18O values for Neoproterozoic "igneous" zircon cores (i.e., 800-600 Ma) vary from -0.9 to 6.9 ‰, and from -9.9 to 6.8 ‰ for Triassic metamorphic rims (i.e., 245-200 Ma). The former extend to values lower than zircons in primitive magmas from the Earth's mantle (ca. 5-6 ‰). The average Δ 18O (metamorphic zircon - "igneous" zircon) values vary from -11.6 to 0.9 ‰. The large volume of Neoproterozoic low- δ 18O igneous protoliths at Tongbai-Dabie-Sulu is matched only by the felsic volcanic rocks of the Snake River Plain hotspot track, which terminates at the Yellowstone Plateau. Hence, the low- δ 18O values at Tongbai-Dabie-Sulu are proposed to result from shallow subcaldera processes by comparison with Yellowstone, where repeated caldera-forming magmatism and hydrothermal alteration created similar low- δ 18O magmas. However, the possibility of involvement of meltwaters from local continental glaciations, rather than global Neoproterozoic glaciations, cannot be precluded. Our data indicate that Neoproterozoic low- δ 18O magmas that are either subduction- or rift-related are present locally along the western margin of the South China Block (e.g., Baoxing Complex). It appears that Neoproterozoic 18O-depletion events in the South China Block as the result of hydrothermal alteration and magmatism affected a much larger area than was previously recognized.

  18. Hydrochemistry of the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer, East-Central Illinois: indicators of recharge and ground-water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panno, S.V.; Hackley, Keith C.; Cartwright, K.; Liu, Chao-Li

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual model of the ground-water flow and recharge to the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MVA), east-central Illinois, was developed using major ion chemistry and isotope geochemistry. The MVA is a 'basal' fill in the east-west trending buried bedrock valley composed of clean, permeable sand and gravel to thicknesses of up to 61 m. It is covered by a thick sequence of glacial till containing thinner bodies of interbedded sand and gravel. Ground water from the MVA was found to be characterized by clearly defined geochemical regions with three distinct ground-water types. A fourth ground-water type was found at the confluence of the MVA and the Mackinaw Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MAK) to the west. Ground water in the Onarga Valley, a northeastern tributary of the MVA, is of two types, a mixed cation-SO42- type and a mixed cation-HCO3- type. The ground water is enriched in Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO42- which appears to be the result of an upward hydraulic gradient and interaction of deeper ground water with oxidized pyritic coals and shale. We suggest that recharge to the Onarga Valley and overlying aquifers is 100% from bedrock (leakage) and lateral flow from the MVA to the south. The central MVA (south of the Onarga Valley) is composed of relatively dilute ground water of a mixed cation-HCO3- type, with low total dissolved solids, and very low concentrations of Cl- and SO42-. Stratigraphic relationships of overlying aquifers and ground-water chemistry of these and the MVA suggest recharge to this region of the MVA (predominantly in Champaign County) is relatively rapid and primarily from the surface. Midway along the westerly flow path of the MVA (western MVA), ground water is a mixed cation-HCO3- type with relatively high Cl-, where Cl- increases abruptly by one to ??? two orders of magnitude. Data suggest that the increase in Cl- is the result of leakage of saline ground water from bedrock into the MVA. Mass-balance calculations indicate that approximately 9.5% of

  19. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Marvin M.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is an important source of water that underlies about 2,320-square miles of parts of Osage, Pawnee, Payne, Creek, Lincoln, Okfuskee, and Seminole Counties. Approximately 75 percent of the water withdrawn from the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is for municipal use. Rural domestic use and water for stock animals account for most of the remaining water withdrawn. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is defined in a ground-water report as consisting principally of the rocks of the Late Pennsylvanian-age Vamoosa Formation and overlying Ada Group. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer consists of a complex sequence of fine- to very fine-grained sandstone, siltstone, shale, and conglomerate interbedded with very thin limestones. The water-yielding capabilities of the aquifer are generally controlled by lateral and vertical distribution of the sandstone beds and their physical characteristics. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is unconfined where it outcrops in about an 1,700-square-mile area. Most of the lines in the aquifer boundary, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets were extracted from published digital surficial geology data sets based on a scale of 1:250,000, and represent geologic contacts. Some of lines in the data sets were interpolated in areas where the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is overlain by alluvial and terrace deposits near streams and rivers. These data sets include only the outcrop area of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer and where the aquifer is overlain by alluvial and terrace deposits. The hydraulic conductivity value and recharge rate are from a ground-water report about the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer. The water-level elevation contours were digitized from a mylar map, at a scale of 1:250,000, used to publish a plate in a ground-water report about the Vamoosa

  20. Antigenic Variation of East/Central/South African and Asian Chikungunya Virus Genotypes in Neutralization by Immune Sera

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Chong-Long; Sam, I-Ching; Merits, Andres; Chan, Yoke-Fun

    2016-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne virus which causes epidemics of fever, severe joint pain and rash. Between 2005 and 2010, the East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype was responsible for global explosive outbreaks across India, the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. From late 2013, Asian genotype CHIKV has caused outbreaks in the Americas. The characteristics of cross-antibody efficacy and epitopes are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized human immune sera collected during two independent outbreaks in Malaysia of the Asian genotype in 2006 and the ECSA genotype in 2008–2010. Neutralizing capacity was analyzed against representative clinical isolates as well as viruses rescued from infectious clones of ECSA and Asian CHIKV. Using whole virus antigen and recombinant E1 and E2 envelope glycoproteins, we further investigated antibody binding sites, epitopes, and antibody titers. Both ECSA and Asian sera demonstrated stronger neutralizing capacity against the ECSA genotype, which corresponded to strong epitope-antibody interaction. ECSA serum targeted conformational epitope sites in the E1-E2 glycoprotein, and E1-E211K, E2-I2T, E2-H5N, E2-G118S and E2-S194G are key amino acids that enhance cross-neutralizing efficacy. As for Asian serum, the antibodies targeting E2 glycoprotein correlated with neutralizing efficacy, and I2T, H5N, G118S and S194G altered and improved the neutralization profile. Rabbit polyclonal antibody against the N-terminal linear neutralizing epitope from the ECSA sequence has reduced binding capacity and neutralization efficacy against Asian CHIKV. These findings imply that the choice of vaccine strain may impact cross-protection against different genotypes. Conclusion/Significance Immune serum from humans infected with CHIKV of either ECSA or Asian genotypes showed differences in binding and neutralization characteristics. These findings have implications for the continued

  1. Blackburn field, Eureka County, Nevada: a case history

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.; Chamberlain, A.K.

    1987-08-01

    The Blackburn field lies along a late Mesozoic thrust-fault trend, in east-central Nevada. All production in Nevada is located along this thrust system, although traps are mostly Tertiary block-fault related. The thrust places porous Devonian carbonate reservoir rock over organic-rich Mississippian source rock. A Devonian fractured dolomitic limestone provides major production in the Blackburn field. Good intercrystalline shows are also evident. Another producing horizon - the Tertiary Indian Wells Formation - produces from porous, poorly consolidated tuffaceous sandstones and non-welded tuffs. Some production comes from fractured and intercrystalline porosity developed in Mississippian/Devonian arkosic sandstones, Gamma-ray signatures of the Mississippian-Devonian in Blackburn wells can be correlated along strike with surface gamma-ray signatures of measured sections in the Diamond Range. The apparently simple structure of the Blackburn field is interrupted by a fault on the western edge of the field. This fault can be seen on magnetic lines across the field, and in wells adjacent to it. Other minor faults also cut the field. The Blackburn field shows as a positive gravity anomaly, suggesting an inter-valley horst block.

  2. Sierra Nevada Science Review

    Treesearch

    Constance Millar; Amy Lind; Rowan Rowntree; Carl Skinner; Jared Verner; Bill Zielinski; Robert Ziemer

    1998-01-01

    In January, 1998, the Pacific Southwest Region and Pacific Southwest Research Station of the Forest Service initiated a collaborative effort to incorporate new information into planning future management of Sierra Nevada national forests. The project, known as the Sierra Nevada Framework for Conservation and Collaboration, will incorporate the latest scientific...

  3. Hinterland tectonics and drainage evolution recorded by foreland basin archives: the Neogene Siwaliks of the Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huyghe, Pascale; van der Beek, Peter; Matthias, Bernet; Catherine, Chauvel; Jean-Louis, Mugnier; Laurent, Husson; François, Chirouze

    2014-05-01

    Provenance analysis and detrital thermochronology of detrital synorogenic sediments, derived from erosion of mountain belts and deposited in surrounding sedimentary basins, are well-established methods to examine the exhumation history of convergent zones, tectonic activity and the associated evolution of the drainage network. We have conducted multidisciplinary studies on magnetostratigraphically dated sections throughout the Neogene Siwalik foreland basin of the Himalayan belt since more than 10 years. Sr, Nd and Hf isotopes are used as provenance indicators, providing information on the nature and size of catchment basins and their evolution through time in response to tectonics. Detrital zircon and apatite thermochronology provides constraints on exhumation rates in the hinterland of the Himalaya and the deformation of the Sub-Himalayan foreland basin. Throughout the Himalaya, detrital zircons from the Siwaliks generally show three age peaks: two static peaks (i.e., displaying constant peak ages through time), and a moving peak. The latter shows a constant lag time of ~4 m.y. corresponding to source-area exhumation rates on the order of 1.8 km/my, while the two static peaks respectively reveal a major 15-20 Ma exhumation event in the belt, the significance of which is still debated, and inheritance of pre-Himalayan ages that indicate recycling of Tethyan sediments. Therefore, our ZFT results suggest that the exhumation dynamics are broadly similar throughout the Himalaya since at least 13 m.y, as also shown by the Bengal Fan detrital sediment record. We relate this switch in tectonic regime to the destabilization of the Himalayan wedge that is rendered overcritical as a response to the transience of dynamic topography caused by the deforming underlying Indian slab. Nonetheless, in detail, the timing of thrusting in the Siwalik domain is delayed by about 1 my eastward as demonstrated by both structural and apatite fission-track data, suggesting overall eastward

  4. Cretaceous crustal structure and metamorphism in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt, western US Cordillera

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.L.; Gans, P.B. )

    1989-01-01

    Combined structural and geochronologic studies to the west of the Sevier belt at lat 39{degree}-40{degree}N indicate that peak metamorphism of the upper 15 km of crust occurred during the Late Cretaceous (70-90 Ma), overlapping in time with the intrusion of muscovite-bearing granites and pegmatites. Metamorphism was accompanied by penetrative deformation (top-to-the-east layer-parallel shear); both were localized at the currently exposed structural levels, resulting in impressive vertical and lateral strain gradients and T{sub max} gradients of > 50 C/km. Inception of thrust faulting in the Sevier belt may have predated peak metamorphism and intrusion of granites in the hinterland by 10-15 m.y., but it continued during and ended simultaneously with the end of metamorphism at about 70 Ma. The rise of muscovite-bearing granites and hot fluids, generated by metamorphism and crustal anatexis at greater depth, provides and explanation for the observed localized metamorphism and deformation at relatively high structural levels.

  5. Mesozoic and Cenozoic structures of Pocatello region: transition from thrust belt to hinterland, southeast Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Burgel, W.D.; Rodgers, D.W.; Link, P.K.

    1987-08-01

    Remapping of upper Proterozoic and Cambrian rocks in the northern Bannock Range south and east of Pocatello, Idaho, indicates a polyphase deformation history characterized by both shortening and extension. Map-scale folds and faults, related to shortening in the transition zone between the Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt and the hinterland to the west, are present, but have been offset and rotated along superimposed normal faults. The oldest structure evident is the north-trending, east-vergent Rapid Creek fold. This fold involves upper Proterozoic and Cambrian strata in the hanging wall of the Putnam thrust fault. The fold is truncated by east-striking subvertical faults that are inferred to be coeval tear faults. Fold and fault geometries suggest the Rapid Creek fold formed over a footwall ramp, whose location may have been controlled by basement normal faults related to Proterozoic rifting. Further evidence of Mesozoic uplift lies in the sub-Neogene unconformity on Cambrian rocks in the Pocatello area, compared to areas of the thrust belt 15 km (9.3 mi) to the northeast, where similar tuffaceous strata rest on Triassic limestones, indicating 7 km (4.3 mi) of pre-Neogene erosion near Pocatello.

  6. Fault-controlled CO2 leakage from natural reservoirs in the Colorado Plateau, East-Central Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Na-Hyun; Han, Weon Shik; Watson, Z. T.; Graham, Jack P.; Kim, Kue-Young

    2014-10-01

    The study investigated a natural analogue for soil CO2 fluxes where CO2 has naturally leaked on the Colorado Plateau, East-Central Utah in order to identify various factors that control CO2 leakage and to understand regional-scale CO2 leakage processes in fault systems. The total 332 and 140 measurements of soil CO2 flux were made at 287 and 129 sites in the Little Grand Wash (LGW) and Salt Wash (SW) fault zones, respectively. Measurement sites for CO2 flux involved not only conspicuous CO2 degassing features (e.g., CO2-driven springs/geysers) but also linear features (e.g., joints/fractures and areas of diffusive leakage around a fault damage zone). CO2 flux anomalies were mostly observed along the fault traces. Specifically, CO2 flux anomalies were focused in the northern footwall of the both LGW and SW faults, supporting the existence of north-plunging anticlinal CO2 trap against south-dipping faults as well as higher probability of the north major fault traces as conduits. Anomalous CO2 fluxes also appeared in active travertines adjacent to CO2-driven cold springs and geysers (e.g., 36,259 g m-2 d-1 at Crystal Geyser), ancient travertines (e.g., 5,917 g m-2 d-1), joint zones in sandstone (e.g., 120 g m-2 d-1), and brine discharge zones (e.g., 5,515 g m-2 d-1). These observations indicate that CO2 has escaped through those pathways and that CO2 leakage from these fault zones does not correspond to point source leakage. The magnitude of CO2 flux is progressively reduced from north (i.e. the LGW fault zone, ∼36,259 g m-2 d-1) to south (i.e. the SW fault zone, ∼1,428 g m-2 d-1) despite new inputs of CO2 and CO2-saturated brine to the northerly SW fault from depth. This discrepancy in CO2 flux is most likely resulting from the differences in fault zone architecture and associated permeability structure. CO2-rich fluids from the LGW fault zone may become depleted with respect to CO2 during lateral transport, resulting in an additional decrease in CO2 fluxes

  7. Relations between groundwater levels and anthropogenic and meteorological stressors at selected sites in east-central Florida, 1995-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, Louis C.

    2010-01-01

    Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to define the relations of water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) and surficial aquifer system (SAS) to anthropogenic and meteorological stressors between 1995 and 2007 at two monitoring well sites (Charlotte Street and Lake Oliver) in east-central Florida. Anthropogenic stressors of interest included municipal and agricultural groundwater withdrawals, and application of reclaimed-water to rapid-infiltration basins (source of aquifer recharge). Meteorological stressors included precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. Overall, anthropogenic and meteorological stressors accounted for about 40 to 89 percent of the variance in UFA and SAS groundwater levels and water-level changes. While mean monthly water levels were better correlated with monthly stressor values, changes in UFA and SAS water levels were better correlated with changes in stressor values. Water levels and water-level changes were influenced by system persistence as the moving-averaged values of both stressor types, which accounted for the influence of the previous month(s) conditions, consistently yielded higher adjusted coefficients of determination (R2 adj) values than did single monthly values. While monthly water-level changes tend to be influenced equally with both stressors across the hydrologically averaged 13-year period, changes were more influenced by one stressor or the other seasonally and during extended wet and dry periods. Seasonally, UFA water-level changes tended to be more influenced by anthropogenic stressors than by meteorological stressors, while changes in SAS water levels tended to be more influenced by meteorological stressors. During extended dry periods (12 months or greater), changes in UFA water levels at Charlotte Street were more affected by anthropogenic stressors than by meteorological stressors, while changes in SAS levels were more affected by meteorological stressors. At Lake Oliver, changes in both

  8. Sedimentation, sediment quality, and upstream channel stability, John Redmond Reservoir, east-central Kansas, 1964-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2010-01-01

    A combination of available bathymetric-survey information, bottom-sediment coring, and historical streamgage information was used to investigate sedimentation, sediment quality, and upstream channel stability for John Redmond Reservoir, east-central Kansas. Ongoing sedimentation is reducing the ability of the reservoir to serve several purposes including flood control, water supply, and recreation. The total estimated volume and mass of bottom sediment deposited between 1964 and 2009 in the conservation pool of the reservoir was 1.46 billion cubic feet and 55.8 billion pounds, respectively. The estimated sediment volume occupied about 41 percent of the conservation-pool, water-storage capacity of the reservoir. Water-storage capacity in the conservation pool has been lost to sedimentation at a rate of about 1 percent annually. Mean annual net sediment deposition since 1964 in the conservation pool of the reservoir was estimated to be 1.24 billion pounds per year. Mean annual net sediment yield from the reservoir basin was estimated to be 411,000 pounds per square mile per year Information from sediment cores shows that throughout the history of John Redmond Reservoir, total nitrogen concentrations in the deposited sediment generally were uniform indicating consistent nitrogen inputs to the reservoir. Total phosphorus concentrations in the deposited sediment were more variable than total nitrogen indicating the possibility of changing phosphorus inputs to the reservoir. As the principal limiting factor for primary production in most freshwater environments, phosphorus is of particular importance because increased inputs can contribute to accelerated reservoir eutrophication and the production of algal toxins and taste-and-odor compounds. The mean annual net loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus deposited in the bottom sediment of the reservoir were estimated to be 2,350,000 pounds per year and 1,030,000 pounds per year, respectively. The estimated mean annual

  9. An alternative hypothesis for the mid-Paleozoic Antler orogeny in Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ketner, Keith B.

    2012-01-01

    A great volume of Mississippian orogenic deposits supports the concept of a mid-Paleozoic orogeny in Nevada, and the existence and timing of that event are not questioned here. The nature of the orogeny is problematic, however, and new ideas are called for. The cause of the Antler orogeny, long ascribed to plate convergence, is here attributed to left-lateral north-south strike-slip faulting in northwestern Nevada. The stratigraphic evidence originally provided in support of an associated regional thrust fault, the Roberts Mountains thrust, is now known to be invalid, and abundant, detailed map evidence testifies to post-Antler ages of virtually all large folds and thrust faults in the region. The Antler orogeny was not characterized by obduction of the Roberts Mountains allochthon; rocks composing the "allochthon" essentially were deposited in situ. Instead, the orogeny was characterized by appearance of an elongate north-northeast-trending uplift through central Nevada and by two parallel flanking depressions. The eastern depression was the Antler foreland trough, into which sediments flowed from both east and west in the Mississippian. The western depression was the Antler hinterland trough into which sediments also flowed from both east and west during the Mississippian. West of the hinterland trough, across a left-lateral strike-slip fault, an exotic landmass originally attached to the northwestern part of the North American continent was moved southward 1700 km along a strike-slip fault. An array of isolated blocks of shelf carbonate rocks, long thought to be autochthonous exposures in windows of the Roberts Mountains allochthon, is proposed here as an array of gravity-driven slide blocks dislodged from the shelf, probably initiated by the Late Devonian Alamo impact event.

  10. Blackburn field, Eureka County, Nevada: a cast history

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.; Chamberlain, A.K.

    1987-05-01

    The Blackburn field lies along a late Mesozoic thrust-fault trend in east-central Nevada. All Nevada production is located along this thrust system, although traps are mostly Tertiary block-fault related. The thrust places porous Devonian carbonates reservoir rock over organic-rich Mississippian source rock. A Devonian fractured dolomitic limestone provides major production in the Blackburn field. Good intercrystalline shows are also evident. Some production comes from fractured and intercrystalline porosity developed in Mississippian/Devonian arkosic sandstones. Another producing horizon, the Tertiary Indian Wells formation, produces from porous, poorly consolidated tuffaceous sandstones and nonwelded tuffs. Gamma-ray signatures of the Mississippian-Devonian in Blackburn wells can be correlated along strike with surface gamma-ray signatures of measured sections in the Diamond Range. These gamma-ray correlations, in addition to detailed cuttings description and interpretation of well-log data, have prompted correlation of limestone and sandstone units in the lower part of the Blackburn field. Adequate seals are a major concern in eastern Nevada. Mississippian/Devonian shales provide seal for Paleozoic limestone and sandstone reservoirs, while welded tuff traps oil in poorly consolidated tuffaceous sandstones of the Tertiary Indian Wells formation. The apparent simple structure of the Blackburn field is interrupted by a fault on the western edge of the field. This fault can be seen on magnetic lines across the field and in wells adjacent to it. Other minor faults also cut the field. The Blackburn field shows as a positive gravity anomaly, suggesting an intervalley horst block.

  11. Water Resources of the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Bright, Daniel J.; Knochenmus, Lari A.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This report summarizes results of a water-resources study for White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in east-central Nevada and western Utah. The Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study was initiated in December 2004 through Federal legislation (Section 301(e) of the Lincoln County Conservation, Recreation, and Development Act of 2004; PL108-424) directing the Secretary of the Interior to complete a water-resources study through the U.S. Geological Survey, Desert Research Institute, and State of Utah. The study was designed as a regional water-resource assessment, with particular emphasis on summarizing the hydrogeologic framework and hydrologic processes that influence ground-water resources. The study area includes 13 hydrographic areas that cover most of White Pine County; in this report however, results for the northern and central parts of Little Smoky Valley were combined and presented as one hydrographic area. Hydrographic areas are the basic geographic units used by the State of Nevada and Utah and local agencies for water-resource planning and management, and are commonly defined on the basis of surface-water drainage areas. Hydrographic areas were further divided into subbasins that are separated by areas where bedrock is at or near the land surface. Subbasins are the subdivisions used in this study for estimating recharge, discharge, and water budget. Hydrographic areas are the subdivision used for reporting summed and tabulated subbasin estimates.

  12. Water Resources of the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah - Draft Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Bright, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Summary of Major Findings This report summarizes results of a water-resources study for White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in east-central Nevada and western Utah. The Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study was initiated in December 2004 through Federal legislation (Section 131 of the Lincoln County Conservation, Recreation, and Development Act of 2004) directing the Secretary of the Interior to complete a water-resources study through the U.S. Geological Survey, Desert Research Institute, and State of Utah. The study was designed as a regional water-resource assessment, with particular emphasis on summarizing the hydrogeologic framework and hydrologic processes that influence ground-water resources. The study area includes 13 hydrographic areas that cover most of White Pine County; in this report however, results for the northern and central parts of Little Smoky Valley were combined and presented as one hydrographic area. Hydrographic areas are the basic geographic units used by the State of Nevada and Utah and local agencies for water-resource planning and management, and are commonly defined on the basis of surface-water drainage areas. Hydrographic areas were further divided into subbasins that are separated by areas where bedrock is at or near the land surface. Subbasins represent subdivisions used in this study for estimating recharge, discharge, and water budget. Hydrographic areas represent the subdivision used for reporting summed and tabulated subbasin estimates.

  13. Possible late middle Ordovician organic carbon isotope excursion: evidence from Ordovician oils and hydrocarbon source rocks, Mid-Continent and east-central United States

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, J.R.; Jacobson, S.R.; Witzke, B.J.; Risatti, J.B.; Anders, D.E.; Watney, W.L.; Newell, K.D.; Vuletich, A.K.

    1987-11-01

    A possible coeval excursion in organic-matter delta/sup 13/C is recognized in different late Middle Ordovician lithologic facies over a distance of 480 mi (770 km), perhaps 930 mi (1500 km), in the Mid-Continent and east-central US. The large variability in the carbon isotope compositions of Ordovician oils from the Mid-Continent and east-central US is a direct result of the variable carbon isotope composition of organic matter in the Middle Ordovician hydrocarbon source rocks. The excursion in organic-matter delta/sup 13/C in late Middle Ordovician rocks may reflect significantly increased organic matter productivity and/or preservation. The excursion is not directly related to maceral composition of the organic matter. Limited dissolved CO/sub 2/ availability, possibly a result of continued high organic matter productivity, and limited circulation in the Middle Ordovician seas may have increased the size of the excursion in organic matter delta/sup 13/C. 5 figures, 4 tables.

  14. Special Nevada report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-23

    This report is submitted to Congress by the Secretary of the Air Force, the Secretary of the Navy, and the Secretary of the Interior pursuant to Section 6 of the Military Lands Withdrawal Act of 1986. It contains an analysis and evaluation of the effects on public health and safety resulting from DOD and Department of Energy (DOE) military and defense-related uses on withdrawn public lands in the State of Nevada and in airspace overlying the State. This report describes the cumulative impacts of those activities on public and private property in Nevada and on plants, fish and wildlife, cultural, historic, scientific, recreational, wilderness and other resources of the public lands of Nevada. An analysis and evaluation of possible measures to mitigate the cumulative effects of the withdrawal of lands and the use of airspace in Nevada for defense-related purposes was conducted, and those considered practical are listed.

  15. Lithium Mining, Nevada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-05

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows the once-abandoned mining town of Silver Peak, Nevada, which began to thrive again when Foote Mineral Company began extracting lithium from brine below the floor of Clayton Valley in 1966.

  16. SUGARLOAF ROADLESS AREA, NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Edwin H.; Schmauch, Steven W.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey local areas in and near the western edge of the Sugarloaf Roadless Area, Nevada have probable resource potential for silver and small amounts of associated lead, zinc, and gold.

  17. Sedimentary sequences in the Amundsen Sea, Southern Pacific: Hinterland glaciation already during the Early Miocene?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uenzelmann-Neben, G.; Gohl, K.

    2013-12-01

    The distribution and internal architecture of seismostratigraphic sequences observed on the Antarctic continental slope and rise are results of sediment transport and deposition by bottom currents and ice sheets. Analysis of seismic reflection data allows to reconstruct sediment input and transport patterns and to infer past changes in climate and oceanography. We observe four seismostratigraphic units which show distinct differences in location and shape of their depocentres. We used an age-depth model based on DSDP Leg 35 Site 324 for the Plio/Pleistocene and a correlation with seismic reflection characteristics from the Ross and Bellingshausen Seas, which unfortunately has large uncertainties. For the period before 21 Ma, we interpret low energy input of detritus via a river estuary originating in an area of the Amundsen Sea shelf, where a palaeo-ice stream trough (Pine Island Trough East PITE) is located today, and deposition of this material on the continental rise under sea ice coverage. For 21-14.1 Ma we postulate intense glacial erosion for the hinterland of this part of West Antarctica, which resulted in a larger depocentre and an increase in mass transport deposits. Warming during the Mid Miocene Climatic Optimum led to a wet-based ice sheet and a higher sediment supply along a broad front but with a focus via two palaeo-ice stream troughs. Most of the glaciogenic debris was transported onto the eastern Amundsen Sea rise where it was shaped into levee-drifts by a re-circulating bottom current. A reduced sediment accumulation in the deep-sea subsequent to the onset of climatic cooling after 14 Ma indicates a reduced sediment supply probably in response to a colder and drier ice sheet. A dynamic ice sheet since 4 Ma delivered material offshore mainly via AT and Pine Island Trough West. Interaction of this glaciogenic detritus with a west-setting bottom current resulted in the continued formation of levee-drifts in the eastern and central Amundsen Sea.

  18. Finding the Plateau: Paleogene Topography and Basin Formation in the Cordilleran Hinterland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassel, E. J.; Smith, M. E.; Canada, A.; Henry, C.; Breecker, D.

    2014-12-01

    In the US Cordilleran hinterland, Paleogene terrestrial strata independently constrain relative topography and provide information on the local depositional environment and regional drainage morphology necessary for interpreting stable isotope paleoaltimetry data. Volcanic glass hydration waters from fluvially interbedded ignimbrites record increasing δD values eastward from the paleo-coast, indicating that the region maintained demonstrably higher than modern elevations (3.5 +.7/-.3 km) through the Paleogene. This orogen had a distinct crest and continuous westward-draining slope extending to central California. To the east of this crest, Eocene strata consist of basal fluvial gravel conglomerate ≤ 200 m thick, overlain by interbedded fine-grained lacustrine strata up to 1 km thick, which record hydrologic closure. Conglomerates and sandstones display structures indicative of deposition primarily in gravel-bed braided rivers. Overlying interbedded laminated marl, siltstone, and carbonaceous mudstone containing abundant fossil flora, gastropods, and ostracods indicate a deep freshwater lacustrine depositional environment. Up section, alternating laminated kerogen-rich marl and calcareous mudstone, mud-cracked siltstone, stromatolites, and an absence of bioturbation record anoxic, saline bottom waters and fluctuating profundal to evaporative conditions. Tephras interbedded with lake strata have highly enriched δD values due to hydration by evaporative lake waters, supporting the interpretations that depositional environment controls δD values and that fully hydrated glass resists alteration on geologic timescales. Eocene stratigraphy indicates increased accommodation, continental drainage ponding, and basin closure. It is unlikely that local geomorphic damming provided the regionally extensive driver to create these deep, high elevation closed basins. Instead, migrating regional construction of topographic barriers resulting from the onset of extension and

  19. Character of the Alleghanian orogeny in the hinterland of the southern Appalachians: Kinematics and tectonic models

    SciTech Connect

    Secor, D.T. Jr.; Pray, J.R.; West, T.E. Jr. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Maher, H.D. Jr. . Dept. of Geography and Geology)

    1994-03-01

    Historically, an obvious manifestation of the Alleghanian orogeny has been the foreland fold and thrust belt and adjacent Carboniferous and Permian foreland basin along the northwest side of the Appalachians. However, evidence for Alleghanian tectonothermal activity in the Piedmont has gradually accumulated, and it is now clear that the hinterland preserves a rich and diverse record of the Alleghanian orogeny. In South Carolina and Georgia, the following events comprise the Alleghanian orogeny: (1) during c. 295--315 Ma, hot rocks of the Savannah River terrane were juxtaposed against cool rocks of the Carolina terrane by motion along the Modoc Fault; (2) following c. 295 Ma the eastern piedmont rocks were folded and thrust to the N26W along the gently dipping Box Ankle; (3) the Modoc and Box Ankle faults were truncated and/or overprinted by northeast trending dextral shear zones such as the Irmo (near vertical) and the Goat Rock (gently southeast dipping) prior to c. 275 Ma; (4) at c. 275 Ma, the gently southeast dipping Augusta normal fault juxtaposed shallow crustal rocks of the Augusta terrane against hotter deep crustal rocks of the Savannah River terrane. The above events are interpreted to be the result of a dextral transpressive collision between Laurentia and Gondwanna at the end of the Paleozoic. The Modoc fault may be the result of crustal delamination at the onset of collision, and the Augusta normal fault may indicate postorogenic collapse. The configuration of Alleghanian faults is reminiscent of the ''orogenic float'' hypothesis of Oldow and others (1990).

  20. Relations between Municipal Water Use and Selected Meteorological Parameters and Drought Indices, East-Central and Northeast Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, Louis C.

    2009-01-01

    Water-use data collected between 1992 and 2006 at eight municipal water-supply utilities in east-central and northeast Florida were analyzed to identify seasonal trends in use and to quantify monthly variations. Regression analyses were applied to identify significant correlations between water use and selected meteorological parameters and drought indices. Selected parameters and indices include precipitation (P), air temperature (T), potential evapotranspiration (PET), available water (P-PET), monthly changes in these parameters (Delta P, Delta T, Delta PET, Delta(P-PET), the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Selected utilities include the City of Daytona Beach (Daytona), the City of Eustis (Eustis), Gainesville Regional Utilities (GRU), Jacksonville Electric Authority (JEA), Orange County Utilities (OCU), Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC), Seminole County Utilities (SCU), and the City of St. Augustine (St. Augustine). Water-use rates at these utilities in 2006 ranged from about 3.2 million gallons per day at Eustis to about 131 million gallons per day at JEA. Total water-use rates increased at all utilities throughout the 15-year period of record, ranging from about 4 percent at Daytona to greater than 200 percent at OCU and SCU. Metered rates, however, decreased at six of the eight utilities, ranging from about 2 percent at OCU and OUC to about 17 percent at Eustis. Decreases in metered rates occurred because the number of metered connections increased at a greater rate than did total water use, suggesting that factors other than just population growth may play important roles in water-use dynamics. Given the absence of a concurrent trend in precipitation, these decreases can likely be attributed to changes in non-climatic factors such as water-use type, usage of reclaimed water, water-use restrictions, demographics, and so forth. When averaged for the eight utilities, metered water-use rates depict a clear

  1. Examples of Holocene and latest Pleistocene faulting in northern and eastern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ramelli, A.R.; Depolo, C.M. )

    1993-04-01

    Although it is generally accepted that tectonic activity in the Basin and Range province (BRP) is highest along the region's eastern and western margins, significant Holocene and latest Pleistocene activity has occurred in the central BRP as well, including northern and eastern Nevada. Some such faults are depicted in the few existing active fault compilations, but detailed studies are generally lacking and the actual levels of activity are often misrepresented. Examples of Holocene or latest Pleistocene faulting in northern and eastern Nevada include the Black Rock, Tuscarora, Thousand Springs Valley, and Railroad Valley fault zones. The Black Rock ault zone has hosted two or more Holocene events, including an event within the past 1.1 ka and resulting in a prominent fault scarp about 2.2 m high crossing the playa floor of the Black Rock Desert. The Tuscarora fault zone cuts an alluvial/pediment surface in southwestern Independence Valley, north-central Nevada, forming a complex graben at least 15 km long and 3.5 km wide, and has probable late Holocene activity. Single- and multiple-event scarps along the Thousand Springs Valley fault zone in northeastern Nevada suggest a 2 m Holocene/latest Pleistocene event and a minimum 17 m displacement of an early- to mid-Quaternary surface. Fault scarp profiles from the Railroad Valley fault zone in east-central Nevada, which has an overall length of about 120 km suggest an early Holocene or latest Pleistocene event, single event displacements of 1.5 to 2.5 m, and a late Quaternary slip rate of 0.1 to 0.2 mm/yr.

  2. Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    The Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) is in the Hot Creek Valley of south-central Nevada, approximately 70 miles northeast of Tonopah. The CNTA consists of three parcels totaling 2,560 acres. The parcels are spaced approximately 3 miles apart along a roughly north-south line. The total acreage is currently withdrawn from all forms of appropriation associated with mining laws and leasing. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), acquired the CNTA in the early 1960s to develop alternative sites to the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site) for underground nuclear testing. Three emplacement boreholes (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4) were drilled on the three parcels at the CNTA for underground nuclear testing. The initial underground nuclear test at CNTA, Faultless, was conducted in borehole UC-1 at a depth of 3,199 feet below ground surface on January 19, 1968. The yield of the Faultless test was estimated to be 0.2 to 1 megaton. Its purpose was to evaluate the environmental and structural effects that might be expected if subsequent, higher-yield underground nuclear tests were conducted in this vicinity. The test resulted in a down-dropped fault block visible at land surface. In addition, seismic results supported the indication that the site was not favorable for larger detonations. The nuclear detonation created a cavity with a radius of approximately 328 feet. The Faultless test did not release any radioactivity at the surface, and no additional tests were conducted at the CNTA.

  3. Protolith, metamorphic history and tectonic implications of newly discovered Triassic eclogites in the east-central Qiangtang: Evidences from mineralogy, geochemistry, Sr-Nd isotope, and geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, X.; Liu, J. M.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The Triassic west-central Qiangtang metamorphic belt, consisting of blueschist- and eclogite-bearing mélange, whereas there are no eclogites reported in the east-central Qiangtang. In this study, geochemical, Sr-Nd isotopic, and geochronological methods, together with geothermobarometers, are used to reveal the protolith, metamorphic conditions, and tectonic implications of newly discovered (U)HP eclogites in east-cental Qiangtang, central Tibetan Plateau. These eclgites are mainly composed of garnet, omphacite, rutile, phengite, and amphibole. According to the Sr-Nd isotopic ratios [(87Sr/86Sr)i value: 0.7078 0.7086; ɛNd(t) value: -0.58 +1.96], the protoliths of eclogites were originated from depleted mantle and experienced continental crustal contamination. The REEs and HFSEs are immobile, so they are employed to discriminate the protolith and tectonic environments. In the Hf/3-Th-Ta diagram, most samples are ploted in island arc basalts and E-MORB fields. These eclogites also display arc-related features (Nb, Ta negative anomalies, high LREE/HREE ratios), and enriched MORB-like geological characteristics (flat REE patterns without Nb, Ta negative anomalies), respectively. In addition, compared with the north Anduo backarc basin basalts (BABB), and the Qilian eclogites (BABB as protolith), the protoliths are suggested to form in backarc basin for the similarity. Zircons in eclogite show no oscillatory zoning, possibly due to the high grade metamorphic conditions of 2.7 GPa / 742 °, which are acquired by Grt-Omp-Phe geothermobarometers. Subsequently, it experienced retragrade metamorphism, characterized by the decomposition of rutile, garnet, and omphacite. The coesite pseudomorph in garnet is also consistent with the peak metamorphic conditions. Eight zircons with low Th/U ratios defined concordant age of 223 ± 11 Ma, representing the age of peak metamorphism. In conclusion, the newly discovered eclogites formed in backarc basin, and consequently subducted

  4. Origin and time-space distribution of hydrothermal systems in east-central Australian sedimentary basins: Constraints from illite geochronology and isotope geochemistry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uysal, I. Tonguç

    2016-04-01

    Some well-known precious mineral deposits and hydrocarbon resources occur extensively in east-central Australian sedimentary Basins. The metal occurrences are abundant in northwestern and eastern part of Queensland, whereas no significant deposits are known in large areas further south, which may, however, be hidden beneath the Jurassic-Cretaceous sedimentary basins. Important hydrocarbon resources exist within the Jurassic-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks at relatively shallow depths, of which the distribution represent zones of high paleo-geothermal gradients. This study examines the time-space distribution in relation to the regional tectonic history of concealed metal deposits and areas of high paleo-geothermal gradient leading to hydrocarbon maturation. To this end, authigenic illitic clay minerals representing various locations and stratigraphic depths in east-central Australia were investigated, of which the Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar geochronology and stable isotope geochemistry assist in delineating zones of hydrothermal systems responsible for hydro-carbon maturation/migration and potentially ore deposition. The Late Carboniferous - Early Permian crustal extension that affected large areas of eastern Australia and led to the epithermal mineralisations (e.g., the Drummond Basin) is also recorded in northern South Australia and southwest Queensland. A Late Triassic - Early Jurassic tectonic event being responsible for coal maturation and gas generation in the Bowen Basin and the epithermal mineralisation in the North Arm goldfield in SE Queensland likewise affected the areas much further west in Queensland. Some illites from the basement in outback Queensland and fault gouges from the Demon Fault in NE New South Wales yield younger Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar ages indicating the effect of hydrothermal processes as a result of a Middle-Upper Jurassic tectonic event. The majority of illite samples from the crystalline basement rocks, Permian Cooper Basin, and Jurassic

  5. The Lower Triassic Sorkh Shale Formation of the Tabas Block, east central Iran: Succesion of a failed-rift basin at the Paleotethys margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lasemi, Y.; Ghomashi, M.; Amin-Rasouli, H.; Kheradmand, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Lower Triassic Sorkh Shale Formation is a dominantly red colored marginal marine succession deposited in the north-south trending Tabas Basin of east central Iran. It is correlated with the unconformity-bounded lower limestone member of the Elika Formation of the Alborz Mountains of northern Iran. The Sorkh Shale is bounded by the pre-Triassic and post-Lower Triassic interregional unconformities and consists mainly of carbonates, sandstones, and evaporites with shale being a minor constituent. Detailed facies analysis of the Sorkh Shale Formation resulted in recognition of several genetically linked peritidal facies that are grouped into restricted subtidal, carbonate tidal flat, siliciclastic tidal flat, coastal plain and continental evaporite facies associations. These were deposited in a low energy, storm-dominated inner-ramp setting with a very gentle slope that fringed the Tabas Block of east central Iran and passed northward (present-day coordinates) into deeper water facies of the Paleotethys passive margin of northern Cimmerian Continent. Numerous carbonate storm beds containing well-rounded intraclasts, ooids and bioclasts of mixed fauna are present in the Sorkh Shale Formation of the northern Tabas Basin. The constituents of the storm beds are absent in the fair weather peritidal facies of the Sorkh Shale Formation, but are present throughout the lower limestone member of the Elika Formation. The Tabas Block, a part of the Cimmerian continent in east central Iran, is a rift basin that developed during Early Ordovician-Silurian Paleotethys rifting. Facies and sequence stratigraphic analyses of the Sorkh Shale Formation has revealed additional evidence supporting the Tabas Block as a failed rift basin related to the Paleotethys passive margin. Absence of constituents of the storm beds in the fair weather peritidal facies of the Sorkh Shale Formation, presence of the constituents of the storm beds in the fair weather facies of the Elika Formation (the

  6. Contributions to Astrogeology: Geology of the lunar crater volcanic field, Nye County, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. H.; Trask, N. J.

    1971-01-01

    The Lunar Crater volcanic field in east-central Nevada includes cinder cones, maars, and basalt flows of probably Quaternary age that individually and as a group resemble some features on the moon. Three episodes of volcanism are separated by intervals of relative dormancy and erosion. Changes in morphology of cinder cones, degree of weathering, and superposition of associated basalt flows provide a basis for determining the relative ages of the cones. A method has been devised whereby cone heights, base radii, and angles of slope are used to determine semiquantitatively the age relationships of some cinder cones. Structural studies show that cone and crater chains and their associated lava flows developed along fissures and normal faults produced by tensional stress. The petrography of the basalts and pyroclastics suggests magmatic differentiation at depth which produced interbedded subalkaline basalts, alkali-olivine basalts, and basanitoids. The youngest flows in the field are basanitoids.

  7. Mineral resource potential map of the Muddy Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Clark County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Leszcykowski, Andrew M.; Esparza, Leon E.; Rumsey, Clayton M.

    1982-01-01

    The Muddy Mountains Wilderness Study Area (WSA 050-0229), Clark County, Nevada, has a high potential for mineral deposits of calcium borates and lithium. The known and potential mineral deposits are concentrated in the east-central and south-central parts of the study area (see map). Zeolites (in particular clinoptilolite) are present in some tuff beds throughout much of the study area, and this resource potential is probably moderate to high. Stream-sediment sampling suggests that the Muddy Mountains area has little potential for mineral deposits of metals (other than lithium). Clay minerals are mined at one locality in the (!rea (see map). Building stone and silica sand have moderate to low potential in some places. Oil and gas potential within the study area is low, but complete evaluation of its potential is not possible without drilling.

  8. Whole-rock and sulfide-mineral geochemical data for samples from volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits of the Bonnifield district, east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Slack, John F.; Koenig, Alan E.; Foley, Nora K.; Oscarson, Robert L.; Gans, Kathleen D.

    2011-01-01

    This Open-File Report presents geochemical data for outcrop and drill-core samples from volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits and associated metaigneous and metasedimentary rocks in the Wood River area of the Bonnifield mining district, northern Alaska Range, east-central Alaska. The data consist of major- and trace-element whole-rock geochemical analyses, and major- and trace-element analyses of sulfide minerals determined by electron microprobe and laser ablation—inductively coupled plasma—mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. The PDF consists of text, appendix explaining the analytical methods used for the analyses presented in the data tables, a sample location map, and seven data tables. The seven tables are also available as spreadsheets in several file formats. Descriptions and discussions of the Bonnifield deposits are given in Dusel-Bacon and others (2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2010).

  9. Geologic Field Notes, Geochemical Analyses, and Field Photographs of Outcrops and Rock Samples from the Big Delta B-1 Quadrangle, East-Central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, Warren C.; O'Neill, J. Michael

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Alaska Department of Natural Resources Division of Mining, Land, and Water, has released a geologic map of the Big Delta B-1 quadrangle of east-central Alaska (Day and others, 2007). This companion report presents the major element oxide and trace element geochemical analyses, including those for gold, silver, and base metals, for representative rock units and for grab samples from quartz veins and mineralized zones within the quadrangle. Also included are field station locations, field notes, structural data, and field photographs based primarily on observations by W.C. Day with additions by J.M. O'Neill and B.M. Gamble, all of the U.S. Geological Survey. The data are provided in both Microsoft Excel spread sheet format and as a Microsoft Access database.

  10. Relations among sulfate, metals, sediment, and streamflow data for a stream draining a coal-mined watershed in East-Central Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data for the northern part of Swatara Creek, which drains a 112-km2 area in the Southern Anthracite Field of east-central Pennsylvania, indicate iron, copper, and lead, and to a lesser extent manganese and zinc, are transported with suspended particles during stormflow conditions. During stormflow conditions, concentrations of these constituents typically peak prior to peak stream stage as a result of scour and transport of streambed deposits. In contrast, sulfate is transported mostly as a dissolved ion. Concentrations of sulfate, specific conductance, and pH are inversely related to streamflow, indicating dilution and acidification during stormflow. This effect is attributed to the mixing of poorly buffered stream water having pH 6.0-6.5 with weakly acidic storm runoff having pH 4.0-4.5 and low dissolved solids.

  11. Rapid Urbanization and Implications for Flood Risk Management in Hinterland of the Pearl River Delta, China: The Foshan Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Ma, Wei-chun; Wang, Xiang-rong

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the linkage between rapid urbanization and flood risk in the hinterlands of the Pearl River Delta, P.R. China. Foshan, a typical hinterland city in the Pearl River Delta region, was selected as a case study. Land use and cover change in Foshan during 1988-2003 was analyzed using remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Furthermore, analysis on historical hydrological data during 1962-2005 was performed. Results show that rapid urbanization has resulted in losses of farmland, forest and shrub since 1988. In addition, in order to compensate or offset the loss of farmland due to rapid urban expansion, more than 30 % of the forest and 20 % of the shrub areas were transformed into farmlands. Inevitably, both the urban and agricultural lands increased the pressure on the drainage systems. Furthermore, over the past decades human activities such as dredging up the floodways, excavating sand and building water facilities in the rivers, significantly changed the hydrological conditions, and therefore impaired the rivers' capacity to buffer floods. Lessons from the Foshan case implied that, in addition to natural processes, human activities driven by socio-economic factors should be considered responsible for the recently increasing level of flood risks. Both economically and environmentally, it is irrational and impractical to encourage encroachment of lands vulnerable to floods. It is also realistic and urgent to effectively prevent and control the adverse ecological consequences of urbanization and economic activities for building their wealth and prominence. PMID:27879819

  12. Rapid Urbanization and Implications for Flood Risk Management in Hinterland of the Pearl River Delta, China: The Foshan Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Ma, Wei-Chun; Wang, Xiang-Rong

    2008-03-28

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the linkage between rapid urbanization and flood risk in the hinterlands of the Pearl River Delta, P.R. China. Foshan, a typical hinterland city in the Pearl River Delta region, was selected as a case study. Land use and cover change in Foshan during 1988-2003 was analyzed using remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Furthermore, analysis on historical hydrological data during 1962-2005 was performed. Results show that rapid urbanization has resulted in losses of farmland, forest and shrub since 1988. In addition, in order to compensate or offset the loss of farmland due to rapid urban expansion, more than 30 % of the forest and 20 % of the shrub areas were transformed into farmlands. Inevitably, both the urban and agricultural lands increased the pressure on the drainage systems. Furthermore, over the past decades human activities such as dredging up the floodways, excavating sand and building water facilities in the rivers, significantly changed the hydrological conditions, and therefore impaired the rivers' capacity to buffer floods. Lessons from the Foshan case implied that, in addition to natural processes, human activities driven by socio-economic factors should be considered responsible for the recently increasing level of flood risks. Both economically and environmentally, it is irrational and impractical to encourage encroachment of lands vulnerable to floods. It is also realistic and urgent to effectively prevent and control the adverse ecological consequences of urbanization and economic activities for building their wealth and prominence.

  13. Cryosols of the Northeast Siberian Lena River Delta and its hinterland - genesis and diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, Sebastian; Kutzbach, Lars; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2016-04-01

    of the delta is in its main extent covered by a soil complex of Glaci-Turbic Cryosols and Hapli-Histic Cryosols. The active floodplain levels are dominated by sandy or gleyic Fluvi Gleyic Cryosols or Areni Fluvic Cryosols. The surfaces of the Arga-Muora-Sise Island are frequently reshaped by aeolian sedimentation and erosion. The soils on these scarcely vegetated landscapes are dominated by cryoturbated and sand-rich soils with high moisture contents, e.g., various Areni-Turbic Cryosols and Aqui-Turbic Cryosols. The modern soils covering the older Pleistocene ice-complex plains are influenced by wide ice-wedge net structures and consist of a soil complex of Glaci-Turbic Cryosols and Gleyi-Histic Cryosols. The widespread thermokarst depressions within the ice-complex are covered by Histi-Turbic Cryosols and Gleyi-Histic Cryosols, whereas the slopes are dominated by Aqui-Turbic Cryosols and Gleyi-Cryic Cryosols. For the largely unexplored hinterland of LRD it can be assumed that the active genesis of the soils lasts longer than in the active delta regions due to a much lower sedimentation and more stable surface conditions. In these regions widespread cryoturbated and peat-rich soils like Histi-Turbic Cryosols and Histic Cryosols. An increased understanding of spatial variability and genesis of permafrost-affected soils is essential for meaningful predictions of climate change consequences in Arctic permafrost regions.

  14. The diversity of permafrost-affected soils in the Lena River Delta and its hinterland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, Sebastian; Kutzbach, Lars; Yakshina, Irina; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2013-04-01

    , the Holocene river terrace of the delta is in its main extent covered by a soil complex of Glacic Aquiturbels and Typic Historthels. The active floodplain levels are dominated by sandy or gleyic subgroups of the Orthel suborder as e.g. Psammentic Aquorthels or Typic Psammorthels. The surfaces of the Arga-Muora-Sise Island are frequently reshaped by aeolian sedimentation and erosion. The soils on these scarcely vegetated landscapes are dominated by cryoturbated and sand-rich soil subgroups with high moisture contents, e.g., various Psammoturbels and Aquiturbels. The modern soils covering the older Pleistocene ice-complex plains are influenced by wide ice-wedge net structures and consist of a soil complex of Glacic Aquiturbels and Ruptic Historthels. The widespread thermokarst depressions within the ice-complex are covered by Ruptic Histoturbels and Ruptic Historthels, whereas the slopes are dominated by various Aquiturbels and Fluvaquentic Historthels. For the largely unexplored Lena River Delta's hinterland it can be assumed that the active genesis of the soils lasts longer than in the active delta regions due to a much lower sedimentation and more stable surface conditions. In these regions widespread cryoturbated and peat-rich soil groups like Histoturbels and Historthels as well as Fibristels are found. An increased understanding of spatial variability and genesis of permafrost-affected soils is essential for meaningful predictions of climate change consequences in Arctic permafrost regions.

  15. Acupuncture in Nevada

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, William M.

    1974-01-01

    Nevada's Senate Bill 448 was signed into law by Governor Mike O'Callaghan on 20 April 1973. The law permits the practice of Chinese medicine, including acupuncture, by practitioners who do not have to be physicians. The state legislature rapidly approved it with only two dissenters, one of them a physician. Similar legislation may be considered in other states this year. PMID:4845928

  16. NEVADA GEOSPATICAL DATA BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nevada Geospatial Data Browser was developed by the Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Las Vegas, NV) with the assistance and collaboration of the University of Idaho (Moscow, ID) and Lockheed-Martin Environmental Services Office (Las Vegas,...

  17. Nevada and Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Roughly centered on the state of Utah, this MODIS true-color image shows the Great Salt Lake in Utah's northern panhandle. In the southern part of the state, the reddish rock of the Colorado Plateau extends southward into Arizona. To the west is Nevada.

  18. NEVADA GEOSPATICAL DATA BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nevada Geospatial Data Browser was developed by the Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Las Vegas, NV) with the assistance and collaboration of the University of Idaho (Moscow, ID) and Lockheed-Martin Environmental Services Office (Las Vegas,...

  19. Geothermal energy in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The nature of goethermal resources in Nevada and resource applications are discussed. The social and economic advantages of utilizing geothermal energy are outlined. Federal and State programs established to foster the development of geothermal energy are discussed. The names, addresses, and phone numbers of various organizations actively involved in research, regulation, and the development of geothermal energy are included. (MHR)

  20. BILINGUAL EDUCATION IN NEVADA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ANDERSON, MERLIN D.

    PROGRAMS OF BILINGUAL EDUCATION, SUPPORTED BY FEDERAL GRANTS, ARE PRESENTLY ATTEMPTING TO ALLEVIATE LANGUAGE AND CULTURAL EXPERIENCE DEPRIVATION IN THE MINORITY ETHNIC GROUPS OF NEVADA, INCLUDING MIGRANTS, INDIANS, AND IMMIGRANTS FROM CUBA, MEXICO, AND PUERTO RICO. MOST OF THESE FAMILIES ARE ECONOMICALLY DEPRIVED AND LACK AMERICAN CULTURAL…

  1. University of Nevada, Reno

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    A $10 million gift will help the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), begin construction next year on a new $66 million "Knowledge Center." The donation comes in $5 million gifts from Reno-based International Game Technology (IGT), a slot machine manufacturer, and from former IGT chair Chuck Mathewson and his wife, Ann. UNR's current…

  2. Clean Air Act Permitting in Nevada

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on Clean Air Act permitting in Nevada in Nevada and EPA's oversight. Clean Air Act permitting in Nevada is the shared responsibility of one state and two local agencies, along with EPA Region 9.

  3. Status of the Sierra Nevada: the Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erman, Don C.; ,

    1997-01-01

    The Sierra Nevada ecosystem project was requested by Congress in the Conference Report for Interior and related Agencies 1993 Appropriation Act, which authorized funds for a scientific review of the remaining old growth in the national forests of the Sierra Nevada in California, and for a study of the entire Sierra Nevada ecosystem by an independent panel of scientists, with expertise in diverse areas related to this issue. This CD-ROM is a digital version of the set of reports titled 'Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project, final report to Congress' published in paper form by the Centers for Water and Wildland Resources of the University of California, Davis.

  4. Structural and kinematic evolution of the Yukon-Tanana upland tectonites, east-central Alaska: A record of late Paleozoic to Mesozoic crustal assembly

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, V.L.; Dusel-Bacon, C.

    1998-01-01

    The Yukon-Tanana terrane, the largest tectonostratigraphic terrane in the northern North American Cordillera, is polygenetic and not a single terrane. Lineated and foliated (L-S) tectonites, which characterize the Yukon-Tanana terrane, record multiple deformations and formed at different times. We document the polyphase history recorded by L-S tectonites within the Yukon-Tanana upland, east-central Alaska. These upland tectonites compose a heterogeneous assemblage of deformed igneous and metamorphic rocks that form the Alaskan part of what has been called the Yukon-Tanana composite terrane. We build on previous kinematic data and establish the three-dimensional architecture of the upland tectonites through kinematic and structural analysis of more than 250 oriented samples, including quartz c-axis fabric analysis of 39 samples. Through this study we distinguish allochthonous tectonites from parautochthonous tectonites within the Yukon-Tanana upland. The upland tectonites define a regionally coherent stacking order: from bottom to top, they are lower plate North American parautochthonous attenuated continental margin; continentally derived marginal-basin strata; and upper plate ocean-basin and island-arc rocks, including some continental basement rocks. We delineate three major deformation events in time, space, and structural level across the upland from the United States-Canada border to Fairbanks, Alaska: (1) pre-Early Jurassic (>212 Ma) northeast-directed, apparent margin-normal contraction that affected oceanic rocks; (2) late Early to early Middle Jurassic (>188-185 Ma) northwest-directed, apparent margin-parallel contraction and imbrication that resulted in juxtaposition of the allochthonous tectonites with parautochthonous continental rocks; and (3) Early Cretaceous (135-110 Ma) southeast-directed crustal extension that resulted in exposure of the structurally deepest, parautochthonous continental rocks. The oldest event represents deformation within a west

  5. Neoproterozoic eclogite- to high-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism in the Mozambique belt of east-central Tanzania: A petrological, geochemical and geochronological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, H.; Kröner, A.; Lowry, J.

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated Neoproterozoic (Pan-African) eclogite- and high-pressure-granulite (E-HPG) facies rocks from the Mozambique belt of east-central Tanzania, collected close to the town of Ifakara and the adjacent Furua area from different tectonic settings, the Palaeoproterozoic Usagaran and the Neoproterozoic Mozambique belt. The studied rocks are E-HPG facies granite- and diorite-gneisses and a meta-gabbroic rock, which are retrogressed to amphibolite- and greenschist-facies conditions. Four different clockwise P-T paths were constructed. The first P-T path for a granodioritic gneiss displays peak metamorphic conditions at 830 °C and 13.0 kbar. The second P-T path for a quartz dioritic gneiss shows peak metamorphic conditions of 920 °C and 14.9 kbar. The third P-T path for a mafic granulite shows peak metamorphic conditions of 820 °C and 13.2 kbar. A fourth P-T path for a monzodioritic gneiss also displays peak metamorphic conditions of up to 810 °C and 14.9 kbar. Evidence for all four P-T paths is provided by mineral chemical and modal abundance calculations in combination with textural observations in thin sections. Zircon ages indicate that the east-central part of the Mozambique belt in Tanzania consists of granite-, granodiorite- and monzodiorite gneisses with Mesoarchaean ( 2915 Ma), Neoarchaean ( 2637-2676 Ma) and Palaeoproterozoic ( 1873-1926 Ma) protolith ages. Early Neoproterozoic (Tonian) igneous zircons were found in the mafic granulite with an age of 989 Ma. Late Neoproterozoic (Cyrogenian) igneous zircons were found in a dioritic and monzodiorite gneiss with ages of 748 Ma and 718 Ma, respectively. Metamorphic zircons extracted from Qtz-monzodiorite and granodiorite gneisses yielded ages of 640 Ma and are considered to approximate the peak of regional E-HPG metamorphism. We suggest that this high-grade metamorphic event was caused by the collision of fragments of East and West Gondwana during the Pan-African orogeny, associated with ocean

  6. Title V Evaluation Reports - Nevada

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Title V Operating Permit Program Evaluation Final Reports: Nevada Department of Conservation & Natural Resources, Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Air Pollution Control and Clark County

  7. Into Tibet: An Early Pliocene Dispersal of Fossil Zokor (Rodentia: Spalacidae) from Mongolian Plateau to the Hinterland of Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the fossil zokors (Myospalacinae) collected from the lower Pliocene (~4.4 Ma) of Zanda Basin, southwestern Tibet, which is the first record in the hinterland of Tibetan Plateau within the Himalayan Range. Materials include 29 isolated molars belonging to Prosiphneus eriksoni (Schlosser, 1924) by having characters including large size, highly fused roots, upper molars of orthomegodont type, m1 anterior cap small and centrally located, and first pair of m1 reentrants on opposing sides, high crowns, and high value of dentine tract parameters. Based on the cladistics analysis, all seven species of Prosiphneus and P. eriksoni of Zanda form a monophyletic clade. P. eriksoni from Zanda, on the other hand, is nearly the terminal taxon of this clade. The appearance of P. eriksoni in Zanda represents a significant dispersal in the early Pliocene from its center of origin in north China and Mongolian Plateau, possibly via the Hol Xil-Qiangtang hinterland in northern Tibet. The fast evolving zokors are highly adapted to open terrains at a time when regional climates had become increasingly drier in the desert zones north of Tibetan Plateau during the late Miocene to Pliocene. The occurrence of this zokor in Tibet thus suggests a rather open steppe environment. Based on fossils of large mammals, we have formulated an "out of Tibet" hypothesis that suggests earlier and more primitive large mammals from the Pliocene of Tibet giving rise to the Ice Age megafauna. However, fossil records for large mammals are still too poor to evaluate whether they have evolved from lineages endemic to the Tibetan Plateau or were immigrants from outside. The superior record of small mammals is in a better position to address this question. With relatively dense age intervals and numerous localities in much of northern Asia, fossil zokors provide the first example of an "into Tibet" scenario--earlier and more primitive taxa originated from outside of the Tibetan Plateau and the

  8. Trace metal distribution in pristine permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River delta and its hinterland, northern Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antcibor, I.; Eschenbach, A.; Zubrzycki, S.; Kutzbach, L.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2014-01-01

    Soils are an important compartment of ecosystems and have the ability to buffer and immobilize substances of natural and anthropogenic origin to prevent their movement to other environment compartments. Predicted climatic changes together with other anthropogenic influences on Arctic terrestrial environments may affect biogeochemical processes enhancing leaching and migration of trace elements in permafrost-affected soils. This is especially important since Arctic ecosystems are considered to be highly sensitive to climatic changes as well as to chemical contamination. This study characterises background levels of trace metals in permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River delta and its hinterland in northern Siberia (73.5-69.5° N), representing a remote region far from evident anthropogenic trace metal sources. Investigations on the element content of iron (Fe), arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), and mercury (Hg) in different soil types developed in different geological parent materials have been carried out. The highest median concentrations of Fe and Mn were observed in soils belonging to ice-rich permafrost sediments formed during the Pleistocene (ice-complex) while the highest median values of Ni, Pb and Zn were found in soils of both the ice-complex and the Holocene estuarine terrace of the Lena River delta region, as well as in the southernmost study unit of the hinterland area. Detailed observations of trace metal distribution on the micro scale showed that organic matter content, soil texture and iron-oxide contents influenced by cryogenic processes, temperature, and hydrological regimes are the most important factors determining the metal abundance in permafrost-affected soils. The observed range of trace element background concentrations was similar to trace metal levels reported for other pristine northern areas.

  9. Land cover change monitoring within the east central Louisiana study site: A case for large area surveys with LANDSAT multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, G. S.

    1983-01-01

    Results established for four digital procedures developed for characterizing the radiometric changes between multidate LANDSAT spectral data sets into meaningful measures of land cover/use dynamics are documented. Each technique's performance was contrasted against digitized land use change maps, which were produced from contemporaneous, retrospective aerophoto coverage, in a cell by cell comparison over a one half by one degree area in east central Louisiana as a standard for comparison. The four techniques identify from 10.5 to 13.0% loss in area of forestland in a five year period; however, they differ more by how accurately this amount of change is distributed, the need for ancillary ground truth, and amount of usable information that is extractable. All require some method of digitally co-registering the two data sets. All are capable of providing tabular statistics as well as map products. Two are capable of detecting changes and identifying their locations. The other two, in addition to this, provide information to qualify land cover conditions at each end of the study interval.

  10. The origin of grasslands in the temperate forest zone of east-central Europe: long-term legacy of climate and human impact

    PubMed Central

    Kuneš, Petr; Svobodová-Svitavská, Helena; Kolář, Jan; Hajnalová, Mária; Abraham, Vojtěch; Macek, Martin; Tkáč, Peter; Szabó, Péter

    2017-01-01

    The post-glacial fate of central European grasslands has stimulated palaeoecological debates for a century. Some argued for the continuous survival of open land, while others claimed that closed forest had developed during the Middle Holocene. The reasons behind stability or changes in the proportion of open land are also unclear. We aim to reconstruct regional vegetation openness and test the effects of climate and human impact on vegetation change throughout the Holocene. We present a newly dated pollen record from north-western fringes of the Pannonian Plain, east-central Europe, and reconstruct Holocene regional vegetation development by the REVEALS model for 27 pollen-equivalent taxa. Estimated vegetation is correlated in the same area with a human activity model based on all available archaeological information and a macrophysical climate model. The palaeovegetation record indicates the continuous presence of open land throughout the Holocene. Grasslands and open woodlands were probably maintained by local arid climatic conditions during the early Holocene delaying the spread of deciduous (oak) forests. Significantly detectable human-made landscape transformation started only after 2000 BC. Our analyses suggest that Neolithic people spread into a landscape that was already open. Humans probably contributed to the spread of oak, and influenced the dynamics of hazel and hornbeam. PMID:28522887

  11. The origin of grasslands in the temperate forest zone of east-central Europe: long-term legacy of climate and human impact.

    PubMed

    Kuneš, Petr; Svobodová-Svitavská, Helena; Kolář, Jan; Hajnalová, Mária; Abraham, Vojtěch; Macek, Martin; Tkáč, Peter; Szabó, Péter

    2015-05-15

    The post-glacial fate of central European grasslands has stimulated palaeoecological debates for a century. Some argued for the continuous survival of open land, while others claimed that closed forest had developed during the Middle Holocene. The reasons behind stability or changes in the proportion of open land are also unclear. We aim to reconstruct regional vegetation openness and test the effects of climate and human impact on vegetation change throughout the Holocene. We present a newly dated pollen record from north-western fringes of the Pannonian Plain, east-central Europe, and reconstruct Holocene regional vegetation development by the REVEALS model for 27 pollen-equivalent taxa. Estimated vegetation is correlated in the same area with a human activity model based on all available archaeological information and a macrophysical climate model. The palaeovegetation record indicates the continuous presence of open land throughout the Holocene. Grasslands and open woodlands were probably maintained by local arid climatic conditions during the early Holocene delaying the spread of deciduous (oak) forests. Significantly detectable human-made landscape transformation started only after 2000 BC. Our analyses suggest that Neolithic people spread into a landscape that was already open. Humans probably contributed to the spread of oak, and influenced the dynamics of hazel and hornbeam.

  12. Depth to water, 1991, in the Rathdrum Prairie, Idaho; Spokane River valley, Washington; Moscow-Lewiston-Grangeville area, Idaho; and selected intermontane valleys, east-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles E.; Bassick, M.D.; Rogers, T.L.; Garcia, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    This map report illustrates digitally generated depth-to-water zones for the Rathdrum Prairie in Idaho; part of the Spokane River Valley in eastern Washington; and the intermontane valleys of the upper Big Wood, Big Lost, Pahsimeroi, Little Lost, and Lemhi Rivers and Birch Creek in Idaho. Depth to water is 400 to 500 feet below land surface in the northern part of Rathdrum Prairie, 100 to 200 feet below land surface at the Idaho-Washington State line, and 0 to 250 feet below land surface in the Spokane area. Depth to water in the intermontane valleys in east-central Idaho is least (usually less than 50 feet) near streams and increases toward valley margins where mountain-front alluvial fans have formed. Depths to water shown in the Moscow-Lewiston-Grangeville area in Idaho are limited to point data at individual wells because most of the water levels measured were not representative of levels in the uppermost aquifer but of levels in deeper aquifers.

  13. Characterization and Evaluation of Acid Rain in East Central Florida from 1978 to 1995 and Evaluation of Some Chromatographic/Spectroscopic Results from Leachate Samples from CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madsen, Brooks C.

    1996-01-01

    The results of monitoring the chemical composition of rain in east-central Florida have shown that the rain is moderately acid. The measured acidity of rain is less than that observed in other regions of the U. S., however, it does suggest that the level of acidity is substantial. The annual chemical composition of rain at UCF and at KSC has shown moderate variability. Extreme daily and monthly variations are observed, however these variations are not addressed here. The total ionic composition of rain collected at FL99 is greater than that for rain collected at UCF, however this can be accounted for by site proximity to the ocean with the accompanying marine influence. Difference in acidity data collected from the UCF and FL99 sites which are separated by 50 km may be due in part to the differences that have been observed between laboratory and field pH measurements. Trend assessment for precipitation composition requires evaluation of data that covers some minimum time period. In fact, the subdivision of the multi-year UCF record into individual 10 year records as described above can lead to the conclusion that a significant increase, a significant decrease or no trend exists for acidity depending upon the time period chosen for evaluation. Trend evaluation has also been accomplished by linear and nonlinear regression analysis using monthly volume weighted average concentrations and deposition using the UCF data set and some of the Florida NADP data set.

  14. The communities of helminth parasites of Heterandria bimaculata (Teleostei: Poeciliidae) from the upper Río La Antigua basin, east-central Mexico show a predictable structure.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Novelo-Turcotte, María Teresa; Vazquez, Gabriela; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Quiroz-Martínez, Benjamín; Favila, Mario

    2014-06-01

    We investigated a basic generalization in parasite community ecology stating that stochastic processes played a major part in determining the composition of helminth communities of freshwater fish, or on the contrary, if these communities are predictable, diverse and structured species assemblages. We determined the species pool of helminth parasites of a tropical freshwater fish Heterandria bimaculata in its heartland, the upper Río La Antigua basin in east-central Mexico. Approaching our data from the metapopulation standpoint we studied the spatial patterns, and examined the variation in composition and richness of the component communities across different locations. We tested the prediction that helminth species may be recognized as common or rare; and also two hypotheses anticipating depauperate communities and decay of similarity between component communities with increasing distance. We found these communities composed by a highly structured and predictable set of specialist autogenic helminth species that are constant and abundant, dominating all components throughout space. The prediction that it is possible to recognize common and rare species was met. Richer than expected communities were found, as well as highly homogeneous component communities, where neighbouring components were more similar than distant ones. We speculated that the processes shaping the development of these component communities include stable, predictable habitats through time, allowing for a slow gradual dispersion process limited by host and parasite species capabilities. Our study suggests that metapopulation theory can assist in the prediction of community composition and in the understanding of spatial and temporal community variability.

  15. Genesis and continuity of quaternary sand and gravel in glacigenic sediment at a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal site in east-central Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troost, K.G.; Curry, B. Brandon

    1991-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety has characterized the Martinsville Alternative Site (MAS) for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The MAS is located in east-central Illinois approximately 1.6 km (1 mi) north of the city of Martinsville. Geologic investigation of the 5.5-km2 (1380-acre) site revealed a sequence of chiefly Illinoian glacigenic sediments from 6 to 60 m (20-200 ft) thick overlying two major bedrock valleys carved in Pennsylvanian strata. Relatively permeable buried units include basal, preglacial alluvium; a complex of intraglacial and subglacial sediment; englacial deposits; and supraglacial fluvial deposits. Postglacial alluvium underlies stream valleys on and adjacent to the site. In most areas, the buried sand units are confined by low-permeability till, lacustrine sediment, colluvium, and loess. The distribution and thickness of the most extensive and continuous buried sand units have been modified considerably by subglacial erosion, and their distributions have been influenced by the buried bedrock valleys. The most continuous of the various sand units were deposited as preglacial and postglacial alluvium and are the uppermost and lowermost stratigraphic units at the alternative site. Sand units that were deposited in englacial or ice-marginal environments are less continuous. Aquifer pumping tests, potentiometric head data, and groundwater geochemistry analyses indicate minimal interaction of groundwater across localized interconnections of the permeable units. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  16. The origin of grasslands in the temperate forest zone of east-central Europe: long-term legacy of climate and human impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuneš, Petr; Svobodová-Svitavská, Helena; Kolář, Jan; Hajnalová, Mária; Abraham, Vojtěch; Macek, Martin; Tkáč, Peter; Szabó, Péter

    2015-05-01

    The post-glacial fate of central European grasslands has stimulated palaeoecological debates for a century. Some argued for the continuous survival of open land, while others claimed that closed forest had developed during the Middle Holocene. The reasons behind stability or changes in the proportion of open land are also unclear. We aim to reconstruct regional vegetation openness and test the effects of climate and human impact on vegetation change throughout the Holocene. We present a newly dated pollen record from north-western fringes of the Pannonian Plain, east-central Europe, and reconstruct Holocene regional vegetation development by the REVEALS model for 27 pollen-equivalent taxa. Estimated vegetation is correlated in the same area with a human activity model based on all available archaeological information and a macrophysical climate model. The palaeovegetation record indicates the continuous presence of open land throughout the Holocene. Grasslands and open woodlands were probably maintained by local arid climatic conditions during the early Holocene delaying the spread of deciduous (oak) forests. Significantly detectable human-made landscape transformation started only after 2000 BC. Our analyses suggest that Neolithic people spread into a landscape that was already open. Humans probably contributed to the spread of oak, and influenced the dynamics of hazel and hornbeam.

  17. Quantitative Assessment of the Relationships Between Sinkhole Occurrence and Hydrologic/Hydrogeologic Conditions Using a Successfully Developed Groundwater Model, the East-Central Florida Transient (ECFT) Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, H.; Wang, D.

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies based on historical data demonstrated that sinkhole occurrence is related to hydrologic/hydrogeologic conditions including rainfall, groundwater recharge, hydraulic head difference between water table and potentiometric level, and change of groundwater storage. However, the relationships have not been quantitatively assessed due to high level of uncertainty in estimation of hydrogeologic conditions because of insufficient field-measured data from geophysical surveys. Recently, with the rapid development of computation power and simulation codes, hydrogeologic conditions can be simulated and predicted using groundwater models. In this study, a successfully developed groundwater model is used for better understanding the hydrogeologic conditions of the East-Central Florida region, which is highly vulnerable to sinkhole hazard. Based on the output of the groundwater model, the relationships between temporal and spatial distribution of observed sinkholes and temporal and spatial variation of rainfall, groundwater recharge, head difference and change of storage are quantitatively assessed. The analysis results indicate that sinkhole density increases linearly with recharge rate and head difference, and the seasonal occurrence frequency increases/decreases proportionally with seasonal rainfall and groundwater level. This study demonstrates that sucessfully developed groundwater models are very useful for geologic hazard risk assessment, water resources management, and land use planning.

  18. POSSIBLE LATE MIDDLE ORDOVICIAN ORGANIC CARBON ISOTOPE EXCURSION: EVIDENCE FROM ORDOVICIAN OILS AND HYDROCARBON SOURCE ROCKS, MID-CONTINENT AND EAST-CENTRAL UNITED STATES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Joseph R.; Jacobson, Stephen R.; Witzke, Brian J.; Risatti, J. Bruno; Anders, Donald E.; Watney, W. Lynn; Newell, K. David; Vuletich, April K.

    1987-01-01

    Oils generated by Middle Ordovician rocks are found throughout the Mid-Continent and east-central regions of the United States. Gas chromatographic characteristics of these oils include a relatively high abundance of n-alkanes with carbon numbers less than 20, a strong predominance of odd-numbered n-alkanes between C//1//0 and C//2//0, and relatively small amounts of branched and cyclic alkanes. The wide ranges in delta **1**3C for oils and rock extracts reflect a major, positive excursion(s) in organic matter delta **1**3C in late Middle Ordovician rocks. This excursion has at least regional significance in that it can be documented in sections 480 mi apart in south-central Kansas and eastern Iowa. The distance may be as much as 930 mi. The parallel shifts in organic and carbonate delta **1**3C in core samples from 1 E. M. Greene well, Washington County, Iowa, imply changes in the isotope composition of the ocean-atmosphere carbon reservoir. These and other aspects of the subject are discussed.

  19. Segmentation and the coseismic behavior of basin and range normal faults. Examples from east-central Idaho and southwestern Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crone, Anthony J.; Haller, Kathleen M.

    1991-01-01

    The range-front normal faults of the Lost River and Lemhi Ranges, and the Beaverhead and Tendoy Mountains in east-central Idaho and southwestern Montana have well-preserved fault scarps on Quaternary deposits along much of their lengths. Fault-scarp morphology, the age of deposits displaced by the faults, and the morphology of the range fronts provide a basis for dividing the faults into segments that are typically 20-25 km long. Four characteristics are recognized that help to identify segment boundaries: (1) major en echelon offsets or pronounced gaps in the continuity of fault scarps; (2) distinct, persistent, along-strike changes in fault-scarp morphology that indicate different ages of faulting; (3) major salients in the range front; and (4) transverse bedrock ridges where the cumulative throw is low compared to other places along the fault zone. Only features whose size is measured on the scale of kilometers are regarded as significant enough to represent a segment boundary that could inhibit or halt a propagating rupture. The ability to identify segments of faults that are likely to behave as independent structural entities will improve seismic-hazard assessment. However, one should not assume that the barriers at segment boundaries will completely stop all propagating ruptures.

  20. Statistical analysis and evaluation of water-quality data for selected streams in the coal area of east-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambing, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    To document and evaluate existing conditions of water quality prior to proposed coal development in east-central Montana, water-quality data were collected at 23 sites on selected streams from October 1975 through September 1981. The data were statistically summarized and regression equations were developed to define relationships between water-quality variables. Where applicable, measured water-quality conditions were compared to various water-use standards. Measured concentrations of dissolved solids ranged from 145 to 12,200 milligrams per liter. Concentrations commonly exceeded 1,000 milligrams per liter and thereby present a high to very high salinity hazard for irrigation. Streamflow of the area contains predominantly sodium and sulfate ions and generally constitutes a medium to very high sodium hazard for irrigation during base flow. The water in most streams is generally adequate for livestock consumption during base flow. Concentrations of suspended sediment were extremely variable and had a direct correlation to water discharge. Measured suspended-sediment concentrations ranged from 4 to 23 ,000 milligrams per liter. Sediment-transport curves were developed for 18 of the study sites. Mean annual suspended-sediment loads were determined at five sites using the flow-duration, sediment-transport curve method. Mean annual sediment loads ranged from 1,010 to 72,7000 tons. (USGS)

  1. Carbonate cementation as related to the diagenesis of clay in a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate system: Examples from the Centerfield biostrome, east central Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, C.D. )

    1994-03-01

    The Middle Devonian Mahantango Formation consists of siliciclastic and mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sediment packages that pulse in and out of the stratigraphy. The formation crops out in several places throughout the folded rocks of eastern Pennsylvania and Maryland. The Centerfield Member is one of the mixed siliciclastic-carbonate packages in the Mahantango Fm. This member crops out in east central Pennsylvania. The Centerfield Mbr. has been interpreted as a series of biostromes and contain abundant rugosan corals, crinoids, bryozoans, and brachiopods. The biostromes have undergone a complex diagenetic history. Illite, smectite, chlorite and muscovite have been found with the use of powder x-ray diffraction and petrographic analysis. The smectite and some of the illite are depositional clays, while, the remaining illite, chlorite and muscovite represent recrystallization of the depositional clays. There are six phases of cement in the biostrome. The paragenetic sequence of the cements is as follows: non-ferroan low magnesian calcite (LMC), intermediate ferroan LMC, ferroan LMC, non-ferroan dolomite, ferroan baroque dolomite, and quartz cement in the form of chert and blocky cement. Staining shows that the iron content of the cement changes within individual crystals and between cement phases. Preliminary data suggest that the cements may be directly related to the steady release of ions during the diagenesis of the surrounding clays in the shale.

  2. Reservoir characteristics of two minter oil sands based on continuous core, E-logs, and geochemical data: Bee Brake field, East-Central Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Echols, J.B.; Goddard, D.A.; Bouma, A. )

    1993-09-01

    The Bee Brake field area, located in township 4N/6E and 4N/7E in Concordia Parish, has been one of the more prolific oil-producing areas in east-central Louisiana. Production decline in various fields, however, has sparked interest in the economic feasibility of locating and producing the remaining bypassed oil in the lower Wilcox. For this purpose, the Angelina BBF No. 1 well was drilled, and a 500-ft conventional core and a complete suite of state-of-the-are wireline logs were recovered. Production tests were run on the Minter interval of interest. The 16-ft Minter interval (6742-6758 ft depth), bounded at its top and base by lignite seams, consists of an upper 4-ft oil sand (Bee Brake) and a lower 3-ft oil sand (Angelina). The oil sands are separated by approximately 5 ft of thinly laminated silty shale and 4 ft of very fine-grained silty sandstone. Detailed sedimentologic and petrographic descriptions of the Minter interval provide accurate facies determinations of this lower delta-plain sequence. Petrophysical evaluation, combining core plug and modern electric-log data show differences between reservoir quality of the Bee Brake and Angelina sands. This data will also be useful for correlating and interpolating old electric logs. Organic geochemistry of the oil, lignites, and shales provides insight as to the source of the Minter oils and the sourcing potential of the lignites.

  3. Railroad Valley, Nevada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-02-01

    Information from images of Railroad Valley, Nevada captured on August 17, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) may provide a powerful tool for monitoring crop health and maintenance procedures. These images cover an area of north central Nevada. The top image shows irrigated fields, with healthy vegetation in red. The middle image highlights the amount of vegetation. The color code shows highest vegetation content in red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple and the lowest in black. The final image is a thermal infrared channel, with warmer temperatures in white and colder in black. In the thermal image, the northernmost and westernmost fields are markedly colder on their northwest areas, even though no differences are seen in the visible image or the second, Vegetation Index image. This can be attributed to the presence of excess water, which can lead to crop damage. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03463

  4. Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-30

    STS068-267-097 (30 September-11 October 1994) --- An extensive view eastward from the irrigated San Joaquin Valley in the foreground, across the Sierra Nevada (living up to its name in early October), into the desert of eastern California and Nevada (which has no snow, despite the name). Mono Lake is just visible at the left edge of the frame; Owens Valley extends southward to Owens Lake, the next valley is Panamint Valley, and then Death Valley. Las Vegas and Lake Mead are visible at the upper right of the frame. The Space Radar Laboratory 2 (SRL-2) obtained extensive, multiple-pass data from many test sites within the region displayed, including Mammoth Mountain ski area south of Mono Lake, and in Death Valley.

  5. Nevada's Children: Selected Educational and Social Statistics. Nevada and National.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Mary P., Comp.

    This statistical report describes the successes and shortcomings of education in Nevada and compares some statistics concerning education in Nevada to national norms. The report, which provides a comprehensive array of information helpful to policy makers and citizens, is divided into three sections. The first section presents statistics about…

  6. Biodiversity in the Sierra Nevada

    Treesearch

    Dennis D. Murphy; Erica Fleishman; Peter A. Stine

    2004-01-01

    The earliest explorers of the Sierra Nevada hailed the mountain range for its unsurpassed scenery. Although a significant component of that beauty was an especially rich assemblage of plants and animals, it was not until many decades later that the Sierra Nevada's wealth of biodiversity was appreciated fully and documented in earnest. Indeed, by the time...

  7. Nevada Underserved Science Education Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nicole Rourke; Jason Marcks

    2004-07-06

    Nevada Underserved Science Education Program (NUSEP) is a project to examine the effect of implementing new and innovative Earth and space science education curriculum in Nevada schools. The project provided professional development opportunities and educational materials for teachers participating in the program.

  8. MAP OF ECOREGIONS OF NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA NHEERL-WED scientists, in collaboration with staff from EPA Region 9, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the Nevada Natural Heritage Program, the USDA Forest Service, and the USDI Bureau of Land Management have ...

  9. MAP OF ECOREGIONS OF NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA NHEERL-WED scientists, in collaboration with staff from EPA Region 9, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the Nevada Natural Heritage Program, the USDA Forest Service, and the USDI Bureau of Land Management have ...

  10. Teaching the management of surgical emergencies through a short course to surgical residents in East/Central Africa delivers excellent educational outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Jacob; Hannay, Jonathan; Lane, Robert

    2014-04-01

    In Africa surgical trainees (residents) are often 'at the coalface' in managing surgical emergencies. A practical course on management of surgical emergencies was developed, as requested and guided by the learning needs of surgical trainees in East/Central Africa, to teach structured thinking processes in surgical emergencies; to thoroughly assess participants' knowledge, technical and non-technical skills; and to correlate assessment scores with participants' feedback on course quality. Curriculum design was aimed at learners' needs, as guided by local trainers and previous teaching. A 5-day course was developed on emergencies in critical care and trauma, general surgery, orthopaedics, obstetrics and urology; delivered through lectures, tutorials and practical sessions, with individual mentoring. Participants' knowledge was assessed through end-of-course tests and, with their practical and non-technical skills, evaluated formatively. Opportunity for immediate detailed feedback was provided, and for follow-up 6 months later. All participants completed the course successfully, passed knowledge tests, and received satisfactory scores in continuous assessment. There was good correlation between formative and summative assessment scores. Candidates rated course content, delivery and usefulness very highly; 'open text' noted no such previous training. After six months 90 % of course participants indicated that the course had significantly improved their ability to manage surgical emergencies. An intensive course on management of surgical emergencies can be effectively delivered by a small core faculty for each specialty. Feedback from participants and local faculty indicated that this course filled a specific learning niche. Effective assessment can be based on continuous evaluation during course participation.

  11. Dating slate belts using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and zircon ages from crosscutting plutons: A case study from east-central Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanem, Hind; Kunk, Michael J.; Ludman, Allan; Bish, David L.; Wintsch, Robert P.

    2016-12-01

    We report the ages of cleavage development in a normally intractable lower greenschist facies slate belt, the Central Maine-Aroostook-Matapedia belt in east-central Maine. We have attacked this problem by identifying the minimum ages of muscovite in a regional Acadian cleavage (S1) and in a local ductile fault zone cleavage (S2) using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and the ages of crosscutting plutons. Our success stems from the regional low-grade metamorphism of the rocks in which each crystallization event preserves a40Ar/39Ar crystallization age and not a cooling age. Evidence for recrystallization via a pressure solution mechanism comes from truncations of detrital, authigenic, and in some rocks S1 muscovite and chlorite grains by new cleavage-forming muscovite and chlorite grains. Low-blank furnace age spectra from meta-arkosic and slaty rocks climb from moderate temperature Devonian age-steps dominated by cleavage-forming muscovite to Ordovician age-steps dominated by a detrital muscovite component. S1- and S2-cleaved rocks were hornfelsed by granitoids of ∼407 and 377 Ma, respectively. The combination of these minimum ages with the maximum metamorphic crystallization ages establishes narrow constraints on the timing of these two cleavage-forming events, ∼410 Ma (S1) and ∼380 Ma (S2). These two events coincide in time with a change in the plate convergence kinematics from the arrival of the Avalon terrane (Acadian orogeny), to a right-lateral transpression arrival of the Meguma terrane in the Neoacadian orogeny.

  12. Segmentation and the coseismic behavior of Basin and Range normal faults: examples from east-central Idaho and southwestern Montana, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crone, A.J.; Haller, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    The range-front normal faults of the Lost River and Lemhi Ranges, and the Beaverhead and Tendoy Mountains in east-central Idaho and southwestern Montana have well-preserved fault scarps on Quaternary deposits along much of their lengths. Fault-scarp morphology, the age of deposits displaced by the faults, and the morphology of the range fronts provide a basis for dividing the faults into segments that are typically 20-25 km long. The Lost River, Lemhi and Beaverhead fault zones are 141-151 km long, and each has six segments. The 60-km-long Red Rock fault (the range-front fault of the Tendoy Mountains) has two central segments that have been active in late Quaternary time; these two segments span the central 27 km of the fault. We recognize four characteristics that help to identify segment boundaries: (1) major en e??chelon offsets or pronounced gaps in the continuity of fault scarps; (2) distinct, persistent, along-strike changes in fault-scarp morphology that indicate different ages of faulting; (3) major salients in the range front; and (4) transverse bedrock ridges where the cumulative throw is low compared to other places along the fault zone. Only features whose size is measured on the scale of kilometers are regarded as significant enough to represent a segment boundary that could inhibit or halt a propagating rupture. The ability to identify segments of faults that are likely to behave as independent structural entities will improve seismic-hazard assessment. However, one should not assume that the barriers at segment boundaries will completely stop all propagating ruptures. The topographic expression of mountain ranges is evidence that, at times during their history, all barriers fail. Some barriers apparently create 'leaky' segment boundaries that impede propagating ruptures but do not completely prevent faulting on adjacent segments. ?? 1991.

  13. Mechanical stability model of progradational carbonate platform margins under tectonic loads: Deformation of Cretaceous carbonate platforms in the Sierra Madre Oriental fold-thrust belt (east central Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Juan; Suter, Max

    2015-02-01

    Shortening in the Sierra Madre Oriental fold-thrust belt (east central Mexico) is localized along the margins of Cretaceous carbonate platforms and controlled by mechanical stratigraphy. The platform margins are deformed by imbricate series of thrust ramps, whereas the coeval basins and platform interiors are deformed by map-scale detachment folds. Here we present a finite element model to evaluate the influence of the boundary geometry and boundary conditions on the style of deformation observed at these basinward progradational platform margins. We calculate the stress distribution in a linearly elastic platform-basin transition zone under the action of horizontal tectonic stress, taking into account changes of rock mechanical properties across the platform margin, as well as their dependence on direction, and infer the resulting fracture patterns based on the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. Stress concentrations are predicted at the contacts between the massive rocks of the platform margin and the well-layered rocks of both, the platform interior and the adjacent basin. Brittle failure of the platform border can be mostly attributed to three effects: mechanical coupling between the carbonate platform and a substratum of moderate to low viscosity, variations in layering and texture that governed the mechanical properties of the involved carbonates as well as their dependence on direction, and the development of sharp domain boundary corners associated with progradational facies changes. In contrast, the dip of the basement and a possible taper of the overlying Upper Cretaceous shale toward the basin appear to have little influence on the mechanical failure of the platform margin.

  14. Influence of Trap Height and Bait Type on Abundance and Species Diversity of Cerambycid Beetles Captured in Forests of East-Central Illinois.

    PubMed

    Schmeelk, Thomas C; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2016-08-01

    We assessed how height of panel traps above the forest floor, and the type of trap bait used, influenced the abundance and diversity of cerambycid beetles caught in forested areas of east-central Illinois. Panel traps were suspended from branches of hardwood trees at three heights above the ground: understory (∼1.5 m), lower canopy (∼6 m), and midcanopy (∼12 m). Traps were baited with either a multispecies blend of synthesized cerambycid pheromones or a fermenting bait mixture. Traps captured a total of 848 beetles of 50 species in the cerambycid subfamilies Cerambycinae, Lamiinae, Lepturinae, and Parandrinae, and one species in the closely related family Disteniidae. The species caught in highest numbers was the cerambycine Anelaphus pumilus (Newman), represented by 349 specimens. The 17 most abundant species (mean ± 1 SD: 45 ± 80 specimens per species) included 12 cerambycine and five lamiine species. Of these most abundant species, 13 (77%) were attracted to traps baited with the pheromone blend. Only the cerambycine Eburia quadrigeminata (Say) was attracted by the fermenting bait. Three species were captured primarily in understory traps, and another five species primarily in midcanopy traps. Variation among cerambycid species in their vertical distribution in forests accounted for similar overall abundances and species richness across trap height treatments. These findings suggest that trapping surveys of native communities of cerambycids, and quarantine surveillance for newly introduced exotic species, would be optimized by including a variety of trap baits and distributing traps across vertical strata of forests.

  15. Cratonic platform and foredeep response to plate margin convergence: Devonian through Mississippian subsidence history in western Montana and east-central Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Dorobek, S.L.; Reid, S.K. ); Elrich, M. ); Bond, G.C. ); Kominz, M.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Devonian and Mississippian sedimentary rocks of western Montana and east-central Idaho were deposited on a cratonic platform that faced a northern extension of the Antler foredeep. Subsidence analyses of this sequence and isopach maps illustrate regional patterns of subsidence related to convergence along the western North American plate margin. Tectonic stresses affected deposition on platform areas which were hundreds of kilometers inboard from the ancient continental margin. Wavelengths of paleostructural elements, tectonic inversion of these structures (i.e., transition of a paleohigh into a depocenter), and time scales involved in the inversion process cannot be attributed solely to flexure or to vertical displacements by in-plane stresses but suggest reactivation of Precambrian structural trends. Late Devonian (Frasnian) platform sedimentation began during a brief interval of increased subsidence across western Montana. This interval of increased platform subsidence is greater than a Late Devonian eustatic sea level rise (determined from subsidence analyses of Devonian strata from stable cratonic areas) and suggests some tectonic event must have influenced subsidence in Montana. Thin uppermost Devonian Strata contain numerous unconformities that may be related to flexure of the platform plus eustatic sea level fluctuations. Rapid subsidence across Montana during the Early Mississippian (Kinderhookian) resulted in a condensed platform sequence, which is overlain by deep water shaly carbonates. Rapid subsidence continued into the Osagean then slowed, allowing progradation of carbonate platform facies across Montana. A regional karst surface on top of the Meramecian platform coincides with conglomerate deposition and increased subsidence rates in the foredeep; unconformity durations on the platform also increase to the east.

  16. Gravity data of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponce, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Gravity data for the entire state of Nevada and adjacent parts of California, Utah, and Arizona are available on this CD-ROM. About 80,000 gravity stations were compiled primarily from the National Geophysical Data Center and the U.S. Geological Survey. Gravity data was reduced to the Geodetic Reference System of 1967 and adjusted to the Gravity Standardization Net 1971 gravity datum. Data were processed to complete Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies by applying standard gravity corrections including terrain and isostatic corrections. Selected principal fact references and a list of sources for data from the National Geophysical Data Center are included.

  17. Nevada GPW Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2001-10-01

    Nevada holds the largest amount of untapped geothermal resources in the U.S., with apotential of 2,500 to 3,700 megawatts of electricity (MWe). (1 MWe powers approximately 1,000 homes.) Wells and springs exist over the entire state, offering extensive opportunities for development of low- and high-temperature resources for direct use or power generation. As U.S. Senator Harry Reid said at the inauguration of GeoPowering the West (see reverse), "This modest investment by the Federal government...

  18. Geothermal aquaculture in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Birk, S.

    1987-06-01

    Work in geothermal aquaculture and vertically integrated agriculture is undertaken by Washoe Aquaculture Limited, Gourmet Prawnz Inc., General Managing Partners. This approach to agriculture is researched at the integrated Prototype Aquaculture Facility (IPAF) at Hobo Hot Springs, Nevada. The principal objective at the IPAF is to use geothermal aquifers to commercially raise food, plants, and ornamental fish. At the IPAF, the feasibility of geothermal aquaculture has been demonstrated. The company has implemented many demonstration projects, including the cultivation of freshwater prawns, native baitfish, exotic tropical species, and commercially important aquatic plants.

  19. Into Tibet: An Early Pliocene Dispersal of Fossil Zokor (Rodentia: Spalacidae) from Mongolian Plateau to the Hinterland of Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the fossil zokors (Myospalacinae) collected from the lower Pliocene (~4.4 Ma) of Zanda Basin, southwestern Tibet, which is the first record in the hinterland of Tibetan Plateau within the Himalayan Range. Materials include 29 isolated molars belonging to Prosiphneus eriksoni (Schlosser, 1924) by having characters including large size, highly fused roots, upper molars of orthomegodont type, m1 anterior cap small and centrally located, and first pair of m1 reentrants on opposing sides, high crowns, and high value of dentine tract parameters. Based on the cladistics analysis, all seven species of Prosiphneus and P. eriksoni of Zanda form a monophyletic clade. P. eriksoni from Zanda, on the other hand, is nearly the terminal taxon of this clade. The appearance of P. eriksoni in Zanda represents a significant dispersal in the early Pliocene from its center of origin in north China and Mongolian Plateau, possibly via the Hol Xil-Qiangtang hinterland in northern Tibet. The fast evolving zokors are highly adapted to open terrains at a time when regional climates had become increasingly drier in the desert zones north of Tibetan Plateau during the late Miocene to Pliocene. The occurrence of this zokor in Tibet thus suggests a rather open steppe environment. Based on fossils of large mammals, we have formulated an “out of Tibet” hypothesis that suggests earlier and more primitive large mammals from the Pliocene of Tibet giving rise to the Ice Age megafauna. However, fossil records for large mammals are still too poor to evaluate whether they have evolved from lineages endemic to the Tibetan Plateau or were immigrants from outside. The superior record of small mammals is in a better position to address this question. With relatively dense age intervals and numerous localities in much of northern Asia, fossil zokors provide the first example of an “into Tibet” scenario–earlier and more primitive taxa originated from outside of the Tibetan Plateau

  20. Railroad Valley, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Information from images of Railroad Valley, Nevada captured on August 17,2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer(ASTER) may provide a powerful tool for monitoring crop health and maintenance procedures.

    These images cover an area of north central Nevada. The top image shows irrigated fields, with healthy vegetation in red. The middle image highlights the amount of vegetation. The color code shows highest vegetation content in red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple and the lowest in black. The final image is a thermal infrared channel, with warmer temperatures in white and colder in black.

    In the thermal image, the northernmost and westernmost fields are markedly colder on their northwest areas, even though no differences are seen in the visible image or the second, Vegetation Index image. This can be attributed to the presence of excess water, which can lead to crop damage.

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)is an imaging instrument that is flying on Terra, a satellite launched in December 1999 as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). The instrument is being used to obtain detailed maps of land surface temperature, emissivity, reflectance and elevation. The Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms are part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, whose goal is to obtain a better understanding of the interactions between the biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.

  1. Nevada Transportatoion Options Study

    SciTech Connect

    P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

    2006-05-25

    This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence

  2. Nevada`s role in the hydrogen economy

    SciTech Connect

    Vaeth, T.

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses the promise of hydrogen and its possible applications, barriers to its development, the role that the Nevada Test Site could play if it were made more available to public and private institutions for research, and the ``clean city`` concept being developed jointly with California, Utah, and Nevada. This concept would create a ``clean corridor`` along the route from Salt Lake City through Reno to Sacramento, Los Angeles, Las Vegas, and back to Salt Lake City.

  3. Trace-element geochemistry of metabasaltic rocks from the Yukon-Tanana Upland and implications for the origin of tectonic assemblages in east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; Cooper, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    We present major- and trace- element geochemical data for 27 amphibolites and six greenstones from three structural packages in the Yukon-Tanana Upland of east-central Alaska: the Lake George assemblage (LG) of Devono-Mississippian augen gneiss, quartz-mica schist, quartzite, and amphibolite; the Taylor Mountain assemblage (TM) of mafic schist and gneiss, marble, quartzite, and metachert; and the Seventymile terrane of greenstone, serpentinized peridotite, and Mississippian to Late Triassic metasedimentary rocks. Most LG amphibolites have relatively high Nb, TiO2, Zr, and light rare earth element contents, indicative of an alkalic to tholeiitic, within-plate basalt origin. The within-plate affinities of the LG amphibolites suggest that their basaltic parent magmas developed in an extensional setting and support a correlation of these metamorphosed continental-margin rocks with less metamorphosed counterparts across the Tintina fault in the Selwyn Basin of the Canadian Cordillera. TM amphibolites have a tholeiitic or calc-alkalic composition, low normalized abundances of Nb and Ta relative to Th and La, and Ti/V values of <20, all indicative of a volcanic-arc origin. Limited results from Seventymile greenstones indicate a tholeiitic or calc-alkalic composition and intermediate to high Ti/V values (27-48), consistent with either a within-plate or an ocean-floor basalt origin. Y-La-Nb proportions in both TM and Seventymile metabasalts indicate the proximity of the arc and marginal basin to continental crust. The arc geochemistry of TM amphibolites is consistent with a model in which the TM assemblage includes arc rocks generated above a west-dipping subduction zone outboard of the North American continental margin in mid-Paleozoic through Triassic time. The ocean-floor or within-plate basalt geochemistry of the Seventymile greenstones supports the correlation of the Seventymile terrane with the Slide Mountain terrane in Canada and the hypothesis that these oceanic

  4. Inferences on the hydrothermal system beneath the resurgent dome in Long Valley Caldera, east-central California, USA, from recent pumping tests and geochemical sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, C.D.; Sorey, M.L.; Roeloffs, E.; Galloway, D.L.; Howle, J.F.; Jacobson, R.

    2003-01-01

    Quaternary volcanic unrest has provided heat for episodic hydrothermal circulation in the Long Valley caldera, including the present-day hydrothermal system, which has been active over the past 40 kyr. The most recent period of crustal unrest in this region of east-central California began around 1980 and has included periods of intense seismicity and ground deformation. Uplift totaling more than 0.7 m has been centered on the caldera's resurgent dome, and is best modeled by a near-vertical ellipsoidal source centered at depths of 6-7 km. Modeling of both deformation and microgravity data now suggests that (1) there are two inflation sources beneath the caldera, a shallower source 7-10 km beneath the resurgent dome and a deeper source ???15 km beneath the caldera's south moat and (2) the shallower source may contain components of magmatic brine and gas. The Long Valley Exploration Well (LVEW), completed in 1998 on the resurgent dome, penetrates to a depth of 3 km directly above this shallower source, but bottoms in a zone of 100??C fluid with zero vertical thermal gradient. Although these results preclude extrapolations of temperatures at depths below 3 km, other information obtained from flow tests and fluid sampling at this well indicates the presence of magmatic volatiles and fault-related permeability within the metamorphic basement rocks underlying the volcanic fill. In this paper, we present recently acquired data from LVEW and compare them with information from other drill holes and thermal springs in Long Valley to delineate the likely flow paths and fluid system properties under the resurgent dome. Additional information from mineralogical assemblages in core obtained from fracture zones in LVEW documents a previous period of more vigorous and energetic fluid circulation beneath the resurgent dome. Although this system apparently died off as a result of mineral deposition and cooling (and/or deepening) of magmatic heat sources, flow testing and tidal

  5. Petrology and geochemistry of Cenozoic intra-plate basalts in east-central China: Constraints on recycling of an oceanic slab in the source region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Qing; Ma, Chang-Qian; Robinson, Paul T.

    2016-10-01

    Cenozoic mafic rocks in Jiangsu and Anhui Provinces, east-central China are chiefly basanites and alkali olivine basalts with subordinate tholeiites, which were erupted in three stages; Paleogene, Neogene and Quaternary. The rocks become increasingly alkaline as they become younger. On a primitive mantle-normalized multi-element plot, these lavas exhibit typical OIB-like trace element patterns, including enrichment in most incompatible elements (LILE and HFSE) and negative K and Pb anomalies. The compositions of the mafic rocks indicate that they were derived from a mantle source mainly containing clinopyroxene and garnet, most probably a mixture of pyroxenite/eclogite and peridotite. A mineral equilibrium projection shows that all the mafic magmas were produced at pressures of 3-4 GPa, implying an asthenospheric origin. Their positive Ba and Sr anomalies and relatively high 87Sr/86Sr ratios suggest derivation from an EM1-type mantle source. However, poor correlations between 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd indicate an isotopically heterogeneous source for the magmas, including DMM, EM1 and EM2, representing mantle peridotite, recycled ancient oceanic crust and seafloor sedimentary rocks, respectively. Variable correlations between 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios, CaO-MgO contents and Eu/Eu* and Ce/Ce* anomalies with rock type imply that marine sediments (plus variable amounts of oceanic crust) and peridotites were the dominant source lithologies of the basanites, whereas recycled oceanic crust (pyroxenite/eclogite) was the main source of the weakly alkaline basalts. This hypothesis is supported by seismic tomographic images of the mantle beneath the region, which show the presence of a stagnant subducted slab in the mantle transition zone. Thus, we propose a petrological model in which a hybrid magma column originated from the mantle transition zone and assimilated some of the overlying peridotite during upwelling, to become the parental magmas of these mafic rocks

  6. Characteristics of GLAS and Small Footprint Airborne Lidar Waveform Data from East- Central Mississippi Pine/Hardwood Forest and Central Texas Oak/Juniper Savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, R.; Neuenschwander, A. L.; Urban, T. J.; Schutz, B. E.; Evans, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    The accurate measurement of topography and vegetation structure is a vital component of any geomorphic and ecological characterization of the earth's surface. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on-board the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) is producing an unprecedented, near-global dataset of lidar waveforms resulting in range measurements with a precision of approximately 3 cm for non-vegetated surface. However, challenges remain regarding the accuracy of GLAS elevations over vegetated terrain. Data from three ICESat ascending passes were acquired over the Freeman Ranch, located near San Marcos, Texas on 14 March 2005, 26 October 2005 and again on 26 February 2006 to investigate the use of waveform lidar for determining vegetation structure. In addition, two ICESat ascending passes were acquired over forested portions of Oktibbeha County in east-central Mississippi on 3 March 2006 and 11 March 2006. The Freeman Ranch is characterized by a mixture of rangeland and Oak-Juniper woodlands, and is the focus of several studies on savanna ecosystem carbon storage. The Oktibbeha County survey area includes the John W. Starr Memorial Forest, a research forest composed of upland pine and pine/hardwood forest, bottomland hardwood forest and pine plantation. Topography at both Freeman Ranch and Oktibbeha County is flat to gently-rolling hills dissected by small streams. To validate the potential of GLAS waveforms for determining vegetation structure and assess the accuracy of GLAS topographic measurements, small-footprint airborne lidar data were collected over Freeman Ranch on 12 August 2005 using an Optech ALTM 1225 system. Airborne lidar data were also collected along the ICESAT ground tracks over Oktibbeha County on 26-27 July, 2006. The UT ALTM system is equipped with a waveform digitizer that allows the simultaneous recording of conventional first and last return lidar data and the corresponding reflection waveforms at the 25 kHz laser pulse

  7. The early Cretaceous orogen-scale Dabieshan metamorphic core complex: implications for extensional collapse of the Triassic HP-UHP orogenic belt in east-central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wenbin; Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Shi, Yonghong; Wang, Qingchen

    2016-03-01

    The Dabieshan massif is famous as a portion of the world's largest HP-UHP metamorphic belt in east-central China that was built by the Triassic North-South China collision. The central domain of the Dabieshan massif is occupied by a huge migmatite-cored dome [i.e., the central Dabieshan dome (CDD)]. Origin of this domal structure remains controversial. Synthesizing previous and our new structural and geochronological data, we define the Cretaceous Dabieshan as an orogen-scale metamorphic core complex (MCC) with a multistage history. Onset of lithospheric extension in the Dabieshan area occurred as early as the commencement of crustal anatexis at the earliest Cretaceous (ca. 145 Ma), which was followed by primary (early-stage) detachment during 142-130 Ma. The central Dabieshan complex in the footwall and surrounding detachment faults recorded a consistently top-to-the-NW shearing. It is thus inferred that the primary detachment was initiated from a flat-lying detachment zone at the middle crust level. Removal of the orogenic root by delamination at ca. 130 Ma came into the extensional climax, and subsequently isostatic rebound resulted in rapid doming. Along with exhumation of the footwall, the mid-crustal detachment zone had been warped as shear zones around the CDD. After 120 Ma, the detachment system probably experienced a migration accommodated to the crustal adjustment, which led to secondary (late-stage) detachment with localized ductile shearing at ca. 110 Ma. The migmatite-gneiss with HP/UHP relicts in the CDD (i.e., the central Dabieshan complex) was product of the Cretaceous crustal anatexis that consumed the deep-seated part of the HP-UHP slices and the underlying para-autochthonous basement. Compared with the contemporaneous MCCs widely developed along the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent, we proposed that occurrence of the Dabieshan MCC shares the same tectonic setting as the "destruction of the North China craton". However, geodynamic trigger

  8. Melting of subducted continental crust: Geochemical evidence from Mesozoic granitoids in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt, east-central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zi-Fu; Liu, Zhi-Bin; Chen, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Syn-collisional and postcollisional granitoids are common in collisional orogens, and they were primarily produced by partial melting of subducted continental crust. This is exemplified by Mesozoic granitoids from the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt in east-central China. These granitoids were emplaced in small volumes in the Late Triassic (200-206 Ma) and the Late Jurassic (146-167 Ma) but massively in the Early Cretaceous (111-143 Ma). Nevertheless, all of them exhibit arc-like trace element distribution patterns and are enriched in Sr-Nd-Hf isotope compositions, indicating their origination from the ancient continental crust. They commonly contain relict zircons with Neoproterozoic and Triassic U-Pb ages, respectively, consistent with the protolith and metamorphic ages for ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metaigneous rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt. Some granitoids show low zircon δ18O values, and SIMS in-situ O isotope analysis reveals that the relict zircons with Neoproterozoic and Triassic U-Pb ages also commonly exhibit low δ18O values. Neoproterozoic U-Pb ages and low δ18O values are the two diagnostic features that distinguish the subducted South China Block from the obducted North China Block. Thus, the magma source of these Mesozoic granitoids has a genetic link to the subducted continental crust of the South China Block. On the other hand, these granitoids contain relict zircons with Paleoproterozoic and Archean U-Pb ages, which are present in both the South and North China Blocks. Taken together, the Mesozoic granitoids in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt and its hanging wall have their magma sources that are predominated by the continental crust of the South China Block with minor contributions from the continental crust of the North China Block. The Triassic continental collision between the South and North China Blocks brought the continental crust into the thickened orogen, where they underwent the three episodes of partial melting in the Late Triassic, Late

  9. The early Cretaceous orogen-scale Dabieshan metamorphic core complex: implications for extensional collapse of the Triassic HP-UHP orogenic belt in east-central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wenbin; Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Shi, Yonghong; Wang, Qingchen

    2017-06-01

    The Dabieshan massif is famous as a portion of the world's largest HP-UHP metamorphic belt in east-central China that was built by the Triassic North-South China collision. The central domain of the Dabieshan massif is occupied by a huge migmatite-cored dome [i.e., the central Dabieshan dome (CDD)]. Origin of this domal structure remains controversial. Synthesizing previous and our new structural and geochronological data, we define the Cretaceous Dabieshan as an orogen-scale metamorphic core complex (MCC) with a multistage history. Onset of lithospheric extension in the Dabieshan area occurred as early as the commencement of crustal anatexis at the earliest Cretaceous (ca. 145 Ma), which was followed by primary (early-stage) detachment during 142-130 Ma. The central Dabieshan complex in the footwall and surrounding detachment faults recorded a consistently top-to-the-NW shearing. It is thus inferred that the primary detachment was initiated from a flat-lying detachment zone at the middle crust level. Removal of the orogenic root by delamination at ca. 130 Ma came into the extensional climax, and subsequently isostatic rebound resulted in rapid doming. Along with exhumation of the footwall, the mid-crustal detachment zone had been warped as shear zones around the CDD. After 120 Ma, the detachment system probably experienced a migration accommodated to the crustal adjustment, which led to secondary (late-stage) detachment with localized ductile shearing at ca. 110 Ma. The migmatite-gneiss with HP/UHP relicts in the CDD (i.e., the central Dabieshan complex) was product of the Cretaceous crustal anatexis that consumed the deep-seated part of the HP-UHP slices and the underlying para-autochthonous basement. Compared with the contemporaneous MCCs widely developed along the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent, we proposed that occurrence of the Dabieshan MCC shares the same tectonic setting as the "destruction of the North China craton". However, geodynamic trigger

  10. Relations between continuous real-time turbidity data and discrete suspended-sediment concentration samples in the Neosho and Cottonwood Rivers, east-central Kansas, 2009-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Guy M.

    2014-01-01

    The Neosho River and its primary tributary, the Cottonwood River, are the primary sources of inflow to the John Redmond Reservoir in east-central Kansas. Sedimentation rate in the John Redmond Reservoir was estimated as 743 acre-feet per year for 1964–2006. This estimated sedimentation rate is more than 80 percent larger than the projected design sedimentation rate of 404 acre-feet per year, and resulted in a loss of 40 percent of the conservation pool since its construction in 1964. To reduce sediment input into the reservoir, the Kansas Water Office implemented stream bank stabilization techniques along an 8.3 mile reach of the Neosho River during 2010 through 2011. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Water Office and funded in part through the Kansas State Water Plan Fund, operated continuous real-time water-quality monitors upstream and downstream from stream bank stabilization efforts before, during, and after construction. Continuously measured water-quality properties include streamflow, specific conductance, water temperature, and turbidity. Discrete sediment samples were collected from June 2009 through September 2012 and analyzed for suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), percentage of sediments less than 63 micrometers (sand-fine break), and loss of material on ignition (analogous to amount of organic matter). Regression models were developed to establish relations between discretely measured SSC samples, and turbidity or streamflow to estimate continuously SSC. Continuous water-quality monitors represented between 96 and 99 percent of the cross-sectional variability for turbidity, and had slopes between 0.91 and 0.98. Because consistent bias was not observed, values from continuous water-quality monitors were considered representative of stream conditions. On average, turbidity-based SSC models explained 96 percent of the variance in SSC. Streamflow-based regressions explained 53 to 60 percent of the variance. Mean squared

  11. Geological and isotopic evidence for magmatic-hydrothermal origin of the Ag-Pb-Zn deposits in the Lengshuikeng District, east-central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changming; Zhang, Da; Wu, Ganguo; Santosh, M.; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Yigan; Zhang, Yaoyao

    2014-08-01

    The Lengshuikeng ore district in east-central China has an ore reserve of ˜43 Mt with an average grade of 204.53 g/t Ag and 4.63 % Pb + Zn. Based on contrasting geological characteristics, the mineralization in the Lengshuikeng ore district can be divided into porphyry-hosted and stratabound types. The porphyry-hosted mineralization is distributed in and around the Lengshuikeng granite porphyry and shows a distinct alteration zoning including minor chloritization and sericitization in the proximal zone; sericitization, silicification, and carbonatization in the peripheral zone; and sericitization and carbonatization in the distal zone. The stratabound mineralization occurs in volcano-sedimentary rocks at ˜100-400 m depth without obvious zoning of alterations and ore minerals. Porphyry-hosted and stratabound mineralization are both characterized by early-stage pyrite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite, middle-stage acanthite-native silver-galena-sphalerite, and late-stage pyrite-quartz-calcite. The δ34S values of pyrite, sphalerite, and galena in the ores range from -3.8 to +6.9‰ with an average of +2.0‰. The C-O isotope values of siderite, calcite, and dolomite range from -7.2 to -1.5‰ with an average of -4.4‰ (V-PDB) and from +10.9 to +19.5‰ with an average of +14.8‰ (V-SMOW), respectively. Hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon isotopes indicate that the hydrothermal fluids were derived mainly from meteoric water, with addition of minor amounts of magmatic water. Geochronology employing LA-ICP-MS analyses of zircons from a quartz syenite porphyry yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 136.3 ± 0.8 Ma considered as the emplacement age of the porphyry. Rb-Sr dating of sphalerite from the main ore stage yielded an age of 126.9 ± 7.1 Ma, marking the time of mineralization. The Lengshuikeng mineralization classifies as an epithermal Ag-Pb-Zn deposit.

  12. Humboldt River main stem, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warmath, Eric; Medina, Rose L.

    2001-01-01

    This data set contains the main stem of the Humboldt River as defined by Humboldt Project personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey Nevada District, 2001. The data set was digitized on screen using digital orthophoto quadrangles from 1994.

  13. Starshade Test in Nevada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-09

    A test of a small-scale starshade model in a dry lake bed in central Nevada's Smith Creek by Northrup Grumman in May-June 2014. A telescope points toward a bright light, which mimics the conditions of starlight in space. Other lights, which are up to 10 million times fainter than the light source standing in for the star, represent the reflected light of planets. Telescopes searching for the relatively dim light of an exoplanet next to its much bright star are faced with a challenge as difficult as searching from Los Angeles for a firefly in New York– if the firefly is also beside a lighthouse. These tests determined that a starshade, or external occulter, is indeed capable of blocking starlight to a degree that reveals the light of a planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20908

  14. Goldstrike Mine, Nevada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-15

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows Goldstrike in northeast Nevada, the largest gold mine in North America. The mine complex, (including the Betze-Post-Screamer open-pit, and Meikle and Rodeo underground mines) is owned and operated by the world's largest gold mining company, Barrick Gold. Gold occurs as microscopically fine grains, with an average grade of 0.1 ounces per ton of ore. Estimates of reserves are as high as 35 million ounces of gold. The image was acquired September 25, 2010, covers an area of 15 by 15 km, and is located at 41 degrees north, 116.4 degrees west. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21665

  15. Analyses of Water-Level Differentials and Variations in Recharge between the Surficial and Upper Floridan Aquifers in East-Central and Northeast Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, Louis C.

    2007-01-01

    Continuous (daily) water-level data collected at 29 monitoring-well cluster sites were analyzed to document variations in recharge between the surficial (SAS) and Floridan (FAS) aquifer systems in east-central and northeast Florida. According to Darcy's law, changes in the water-level differentials (differentials) between these systems are proportional to changes in the vertical flux of water between them. Variations in FAS recharge rates are of interest to water-resource managers because changes in these rates affect sensitive water resources subject to minimum flow and water-level restrictions, such as the amount of water discharged from springs and changes in lake and wetland water levels. Mean daily differentials between 2000-2004 ranged from less than 1 foot at a site in east-central Florida to more than 114 feet at a site in northeast Florida. Sites with greater mean differentials exhibited lower percentage-based ranges in fluctuations than did sites with lower mean differentials. When averaged for all sites, differentials (and thus Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) recharge rates) decreased by about 18 percent per site between 2000-2004. This pattern can be associated with reductions in ground-water withdrawals from the UFA that occurred after 2000 as the peninsula emerged from a 3-year drought. Monthly differentials exhibited a well-defined seasonal pattern in which UFA recharge rates were greatest during the dry spring months (8 percent above the 5-year daily mean in May) and least during the wetter summer/early fall months (4 percent below the 5-year daily mean in October). In contrast, differentials exceeded the 5-year daily mean in all but 2 months of 2000, indicative of relatively high ground-water withdrawals throughout the year. On average, the UFA received about 6 percent more recharge at the project sites in 2000 than between 2000-2004. No statistically significant correlations were detected between monthly differentials and precipitation at 27 of the

  16. Geologic Map of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crafford, A. Elizabeth Jones

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the Geologic Map of Nevada is to provide an integrated set of digital geologic information that can be used for regional geologic and rigorous spatial analysis. Two components of this map represent new information that has not been published in this form before. The new geology layer was created by merging into a single file individual digital Nevada county geologic maps (Hess and Johnson, 1997), published at a scale of 1:250,000. A new regional interpretation was created to unify all of the different county rock units, and then appropriate edits and modifications were made to the file to reflect additional geologic information and more current geologic interpretations. All possible sources of information were not utilized in the scope of this project, but rather the goal was to create a consistent Statewide 1:250,000-scale map that would facilitate regional geologic interpretation and be a foundation for future spatial analyses of digital data. Secondly, a new database of conodont biostratigraphic data compiled and analyzed by Anita Harris is also incorporated into the map. Information about many, but not all, of these conodont samples have been published separately elsewhere over the years, but they have not been presented together in a single digital database. Other previously published data layers are used in this map to enhance the usefulness of the geologic information. These layers include mineral deposit locations, oil well locations, and cartographic layers such as county boundaries, roads, towns, cities, rivers, water bodies, township, range and section grids, quadrangle grids, and topography. A summary of these components is given below, and complete descriptions of each layer are provided in the digital metadata.

  17. Mesozoic and Cenozoic structural geology of the CP Hills, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada; and regional implications

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, S.J.

    1991-08-01

    Detailed mapping and structural analysis of upper Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks in the CP Hills of the Nevada Test Site, together with analysis of published maps and cross sections and a reconnaissance of regional structural relations indicate that the CP thrust of Barnes and Poole (1968) actually comprises two separate, oppositely verging Mesozoic thrust systems: (1) the west-vergent CP thrust which is well exposed in the CP Hills and at Mine Mountain, and (2) the east-vergent Belted Range thrust located northwest of Yucca Flat. West-vergence of the CP thrust is indicated by large scale west-vergent recumbent folds in both its hangingwall and footwall and by the fact that the CP thrust ramps up section through hangingwall strata toward the northwest. Regional structural relations indicate that the CP thrust forms part of a narrow sigmoidal belt of west-vergent folding and thrusting traceable for over 180 km along strike. The Belted Range thrust represents earlier Mesozoic deformation that was probably related to the Last Chance thrust system in southeastern California, as suggested by earlier workers. A pre-Tertiary reconstruction of the Cordilleran fold and thrust belt in the region between the NTS and the Las Vegas Range bears a close resemblance to other regions of the Cordillera and has important implications for the development of hinterland-vergent deformation as well as for the probable magnitude of Tertiary extension north of Las Vegas Valley. Subsequent to Mesozoic deformation, the CP Hills were disrupted by at least two episodes of Tertiary extensional deformation: (1) an earlier episode represented by pre-middle Miocene low-angle normal faults, and (2) a later, post-11 Ma episode of high-angle normal faulting. Both episodes of extension were related to regional deformation, the latter of which has resulted in the present basin and range topography of the NTS region.

  18. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Waste Acceptance Criteria

    1999-05-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the Nevada Test Site.

  19. Libraries in Nevada: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/nevada.html Libraries in Nevada To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Elko Great Basin College Library 1500 College Parkway Elko, NV 89801 775-753- ...

  20. New Constraints on the Geometry and Kinematics of Active Faults in the Hinterland of the Northwest Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morell, K. D.; Sandiford, M.; Rajendran, C. C. P.; Fink, D.; Kohn, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    The geometry and kinematics of the active, and potentially seismogenic, fault structures within the hinterland of the Himalaya have proven challenging to constrain in the past, primarily because active faults in this region tend to be buried beneath the subsurface and active seismicity often does not align with surficially mapped fault traces. Here we present a series of complementary datasets, including results from low temperature thermochronology, basin-wide erosion rates from 10Be concentrations, and topographic and longitudinal profile analyses, that place constraints on the spatial distribution of fault-related rock uplift and erosion across a ~400-km long region of the lower and high Himalaya of northwest India. Results from our analyses reveal that hillslope morphology and channel steepness are relatively invariant parallel to strike but vary significantly across strike, with the most prominent and abrupt variations occurring at the physiographic transition between the lower and high Himalaya (PT2), near the axial trace of the ramp-flat transition in the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). The cross-strike changes in geomorphology observed across the PT2 correlate with an order of magnitude northward increase in basin-wide erosion rates (~0.06-0.8 mm/a) and a corresponding decrease in apatite (~5-2 Ma) and zircon (U-Th)/He (~10-2 Ma) cooling ages. Combined with published geophysical and seismicity data, we interpret these results to reflect spatial variations in rock uplift and exhumation induced by a segment of the MHT ramp-flat system that is at least ~400 km long and ~125 km wide. The relatively young (U-Th)/He ages (<10 Ma) greater than 20 km south of the MHT ramp-flat transition preliminarily suggest that the kinematics of this system are best explained by a model which incorporates an accreting duplex on the MHT ramp but additional forthcoming analyses, including thermal modeling, will confirm if this hypothesis is robust.

  1. Trace metal distribution in pristine permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta and its Hinterland, Northern Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antcibor, I.; Zubrzycki, S.; Eschenbach, A.; Kutzbach, L.; Bol'shiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2013-02-01

    Soils are an important compartment of ecosystems and have the ability to immobilize chemicals preventing their movement to other environment compartments. Predicted climatic changes together with other anthropogenic influences on Arctic terrestrial environments may affect biogeochemical processes enhancing leaching and migration of trace elements in permafrost-affected soils. This is especially important since the Arctic ecosystems are considered to be very sensitive to climatic changes as well as to chemical contamination. This study characterizes background levels of trace metals in permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta and its hinterland in northern Siberia (73.5° N-69.5° N) representing a remote region far from evident anthropogenic trace metal sources. Investigations on total element contents of iron (Fe), arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co) and mercury (Hg) in different soil types developed in different geological parent materials have been carried out. The highest concentrations of the majority of the measured elements were observed in soils belonging to ice-rich permafrost sediments formed during the Pleistocene (ice-complex) in the Lena River Delta region. Correlation analyses of trace metal concentrations and soil chemical and physical properties at a Holocene estuarine terrace and two modern floodplain levels in the southern-central Lena River Delta (Samoylov Island) showed that the main factors controlling the trace metal distribution in these soils are organic matter content, soil texture and contents of iron and manganese-oxides. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that soil oxides play a significant role in trace metal distribution in both top and bottom horizons. Occurrence of organic matter contributes to Cd binding in top soils and Cu binding in bottom horizons. Observed ranges of the background concentrations of the majority of trace elements were similar to

  2. Petrography and geochemistry of selected lignite beds in the Gibbons Creek mine (Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Paleocene) of east-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, P.D.; Crowley, S.S.; Ruppert, L.F.; Pontolillo, J.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the petrographic and geochemical characteristics of two lignite beds (3500 and 4500 beds, Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Eocene) that are mined at the Gibbons Creek mine in east-central Texas. The purpose of the study was to identify the relations among sample ash yield, coal petrography, and trace-element concentrations in lignite and adjoining rock layers of the Gibbons Creek mine. Particular interest was given to the distribution of 12 environmentally sensitive trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and U) that have been identified as potentially hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the United States Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Eleven lignite, floor, and rock parting samples were collected from incremental channel samples of the 3500 and 4500 beds that were exposed in a highwall of pit A3 at the Gibbons Creek mine. Short proximate and ultimate and forms of sulfur analyses were performed on all lignite samples, and lignite and rock samples were analyzed for 60 major, minor and trace elements. Representative splits of all lignite samples were ground and cast into pellets, and polished for petrographic analyses in blue-light fluorescence and reflected white light to determine liptinite, inertinite, and huminite maceral group percentages. The following observations summarize our results and conclusions about the geochemistry, petrography, and sedimentology of the 3500 and 4500 beds of the Gibbons Creek lignite deposit: (1) Weighted average dry (db) ash yield for the two beds is 29.7%, average total sulfur content is 2.6%, and average calorific value is 7832 Btu (18.22 MJ/kg). Ash yields are greatest in the lower bench (59.33% db) of the 3500 bed and in the upper bench of the 4500 bed (74.61% db). (2) For lignite samples (on a whole-coal basis), the distributions of two of the HAPs (Pb and Sb) are positively related to ash yield, probably indicating an inorganic affinity for these elements. By using cluster analysis we

  3. 40Ar 39Ar age constraints on neogene sedimentary beds, Upper Ramparts, half-way Pillar and Canyon village sites, Porcupine river, east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kunk, M.J.; Rieck, H.; Fouch, T.D.; Carter, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    40Ar 39Ar ages of volcanic rocks are used to provide numerical constraints on the age of middle and upper Miocene sedimentary strata collected along the Porcupine River. Intercalated sedimentary rocks north of latitude 67??10???N in the Porcupine terrane of east-central Alaska contain a rich record of plant fossils. The fossils are valuable indicators of this interior region's paleoclimate during the time of their deposition. Integration of the 40Ar 39Ar results with paleomagnetic and sedimentological data allows for refinements in estimating the timing of deposition and duration of selected sedimentary intervals. 40Ar 39Ar plateau age spectra, from whole rock basalt samples, collected along the Upper Ramparts and near Half-way Pillar on the Porcupine River, range from 15.7 ?? 0.1 Ma at site 90-6 to 14.4 ?? 0.1 Ma at site 90-2. With exception of the youngest basalt flow at site 90-2, all of the samples are of reversed magnetic polarity, and all 40Ar 39Ar age spectrum results are consistent with the deposition of the entire stratigraphic section during a single interval of reversed magnetic polarity. The youngest flow at site 90-2 was emplaced during an interval of normal polarity. With age, paleomagnetic and sedimentological data, the ages of the Middle Miocene sedimentary rocks between the basalt flows at sites 90-1 and 90-2 can be assigned to an interval within the limits of analytical precision of 15.2 ?? 0.1 Ma; thus, the sediments were deposited during the peak of the Middle Miocene thermal maximum. Sediments in the upper parts of sites 90-1 and 90-2 were probably deposited during cooling from the Middle Miocene thermal maximum. 40Ar 39Ar results of plagioclase and biotite from a single tephra, collected at sites 90-7 and 90-8 along the Canyon Village section of the Porcupine River, indicate an age of 6.57 ?? 0.02 Ma for its time of eruption and deposition. These results, together with sedimentological and paleomagnetic data, suggest that all of the Upper

  4. Dating slate belts using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and zircon ages from crosscutting plutons: A case study from east-central Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanem, Hind; Kunk, Michael; Ludman, Allan; Bish, David; Wintsch, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Determining the tectonic significance of slate belts is a persistent problem in many orogenic belts because of the lack of time constraints on the age of deposition and the age(s) of cleavages. We have solved this problem in east-central Maine where the ages of the regional Acadian cleavage (S1) and local ductile fault zone cleavage (S2) were both constrained using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and the ages of crosscutting plutons. Applying 40Ar/39Ar geochronology to rocks with multiple generations of muscovite was possible because each cleavage-forming muscovite records a crystallization age rather than a cooling age due to the low grade of regional metamorphism. Evidence for metamorphic crystallization in rocks dominated by regional Acadian cleavage (S1) comes from the truncations of detrital and authigenic muscovite and chlorite grains by new muscovite and chlorite grains that define the S1 foliation. In rocks that display two foliations, the evidence comes from the truncations of chlorite and muscovite grains defining all earlier fabrics by new muscovite grains in the younger folia (S2). Step-heating experiments using the 40Ar/39Ar technique on twelve samples all yielded sigmoidal age spectra. The low-temperature steps produced a hump in the age spectra, indicating 39Ar recoil into adjacent interlayered chlorite grains, the latter interlayering confirmed by back-scattered electron imaging. Continuing steps climbed steadily from those with minimum apparent ages as young as ~381 Ma to steps with maximum ages as old as 466 Ma. The samples with the lowest minimum apparent age steps are those in which the S2 cleavage-forming mica population dominates. In contrast, the oldest apparent age steps are from samples that have the highest modal abundance of detrital micas. The Middle Ordovician age of the maximum age steps is interpreted to be the minimum cooling age of the detrital micas. The minimum 40Ar/39Ar age steps of muscovite in the samples that display only S1 cleavage

  5. Nevada Kids Count Data Book, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Paula R.

    This Kids Count report provides information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Nevada. The report is comprised of eight sections: an overview; Nevada's demographic profile; key facts regarding children in the state; Nevada's comparison to the rest of the United States; trends in the state; indicators of child well-being;…

  6. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  7. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  8. 77 FR 7228 - Nevada Disaster #NV-00015

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Nevada Disaster NV-00015 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Nevada dated 02/01/2012... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Washoe. Contiguous Counties: Nevada: Carson City...

  9. 76 FR 77580 - Nevada Disaster #NV-00014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Nevada Disaster NV-00014 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Nevada dated 12/07/2011... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Washoe. Contiguous Counties: Nevada: Carson City...

  10. Radioactive deposits of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovering, T.G.

    1954-01-01

    Thirty-five occurrences of radioactive rocks had been reported from Nevada prior to 1952. Twenty-five of these had been investigated by personnel of the U. S. Geological Surveyor of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. Of those investigated, uranium minerals were identified at 13 sites; two sites contained a thorium mineral (monazite); the source of radioactivity on nine properties was not ascertained, and one showed no abnormal radioactivity. Of the other reported occurrences, one is said to contain uraniferous hydrocarbons and nine are placers containing thorian monazite. Pitchblende occurs at two localities, the East Walker River area, and the Stalin's Present prospect, where it is sparsely disseminated in tabular bodies cutting granitic rocks. Other uranium minerals found in the state include: carnotite, tyuyamunite, autunite, torbernite, gummite, uranophane, kasolite, and an unidentified mineral which may be dumontite. Monazite is the only thorium mineral of possible economic importance that has been reported. From an economic standpoint, only four of the properties examined showed reserves of uranium ore in 1952; these are: the Green Monster mine, which shipped 5 tons of ore to Marysvale, Utah, during 1951; the Majuba Hill mine; the Stalin's Present prospect; and the West Willys claim in the Washington district. No estimate has been made of thorium reserves and no commercial deposits of thorium are known.

  11. Radioactive deposits of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovering, T.G.

    1953-01-01

    Thirty-five occurrences of radioactive rocks had been reported from Nevada prior to 1952. Twenty-five of these had been investigated by the U. S. Geological Survey and the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. Of those investigated, uranium minerals were identified in 13; two contained a thorium mineral (monazite); the source of radioactivity on 7 properties was not ascertained; and one showed no abnormal radioactivity. Of the other reported occurrences, one is said to contain uraniferous hydrocarbons and 9 are placers containing thorian monazite. Pitchblende occurs at two localities; the East Walker River area, and the Stalin's Present prospect, where it is sparsely disseminated in tabular bodies cutting granitic rocks. Other uranium minerals found in the state include: carnotite, tyuyamunite, autunite, torbernite, gummite, uranophane, kasolite, and an unidentified mineral which may be dumontit. Monazite is the only thorium mineral of possible economic importance that has been reported. From an economic standpoint 9 only 4 of the properties examined showed reserves of uranium ore in 1952; these are: the Green Monster mine, which shipped 5 tons of ore to Marysvale, Utah, during 1951, the Majuba Hill mine, the Stalin's Present prospect, and the West Willys claim in the Washington district. Reserves of ore grade are small on all of these properties and probably cannot be developed commercially unless an ore-buying station is set up nearby. No estimate has been made of thorium reserves and no commercial deposits of thorium are known.

  12. Ecosystem reconstructions for the hinterland of the Atlantic Coastal Plain during the late Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (IODP Expedition 313)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prader, Sabine; Kotthoff, Ulrich; McCarthy, Francine; Greenwood, David

    2016-04-01

    During IODP Expedition 313, cores from three Sites (313-M0027, M0028, and M0029) from the New Jersey shallow shelf (water depth approximately 35 m) were retrieved in 2009. We have investigated the palynology of sediment cores from Site M0027, 45 km off the present-day coast of New Jersey in order to reconstruct environmental and climate change in the region during the second half of the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO) and the subsequent transition to cooler conditions (ca. 15 to 13 million years before present). Transport-caused bias of the pollen assemblages was identified via the analysis of the terrestrial/marine palynomorph ratio and these results were considered when interpreting palaeo-vegetation from the pollen data. Pollen preservation in the interval analyzed herein was generally very good. Pollen grains were analyzed via both light and scanning electron microscopy. In the analyzed samples, angiosperm tree pollen grains were most abundant and probably formed the main vegetation zone in the lowland during the MMCO. The pollen-based results point to the presence of a deciduous-evergreen mixed forest that was characterised by e.g. Quercus, Carya, Liquidambar, Juglans, Pterocarya, Tilia, Engelhardia. Frequent conifer pollen grains indicate that highland forests with e.g. Pinus, Cathaya, and Picea were present the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf. Typical wetland elements like Nyssa and Taxodium as well as herbal taxa like Polygonum and Polygala were generally rare. The pollen-based climate reconstructions for the hinterland oft the New Jersey shallow shelf document a warm temperate climate without winterfrost and relatively high precipitation through the year during this time. Our results imply that the vegetation and regional climate in the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf did not react as sensitively to the cooling phase following the MMCO as other regions in North America or Europe.

  13. Geothermal systems of northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hose, Richard Kenneth; Taylor, Bruce Edward

    1974-01-01

    Hot springs are numerous and nearly uniformly distributed in northern Nevada. Most occur on the flanks of basins, along Basin and Range (late Miocene to Holocene) faults, while some occur in the inner parts of the basins. Surface temperatures of the springs range from slightly above ambient to, boiling; some springs are superheated. Maximum subsurface water temperatures calculated on the basis of quartz solubility range as high as 252?C, although most are below 190?C. Flows range from a trickle to several hundred liters per minute. The Nevada geothermal systems differ markedly from the power-producing system at The Geysers, Calif., and from those areas with a high potential, for power production (e.g., Yellowstone Park, Wyo.; Jemez Mountains, N. Mex.). These other systems are associated with Quaternary felsic volcanic rocks and probably derive their heat from cooling magma rather high in the crust. In northern Nevada, however, felsic volcanic rocks are virtually all older than 10 million years, and. analogous magmatic heat sources are, therefore, probably lacking. Nevada is part of an area of much higher average heat flow than the rest of the United States. In north-central Nevada, geothermal gradients are as great as 64?C per kilometer in bedrock and even higher in basin fill. The high gradients probably result from a combination of thin crust and high temperature upper mantle. We suggest that the geothermal systems of northern Nevada result from circulation of meteoric waters along Basin and Range faults and that their temperature chiefly depends upon (1) depth of circulation and (2) the geothermal gradient near the faults.

  14. Active tectonic influence on the evolution of drainage and landscape: Geomorphic signatures from frontal and hinterland areas along the Northwestern Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Javed N.; Mohanty, C.

    2007-03-01

    The Kangra Re-entrant in the NW Himalaya is one of the most seismically active regions, falling into Seismic Zone V along the Himalaya. In 1905 the area experienced one of the great Himalayan earthquakes with magnitude 7.8. The frontal fault system - the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) associated with the foreland fold - Janauri Anticline, along with other major as well as secondary hinterland thrust faults, provides an ideal site to study the ongoing tectonic activity which has influenced the evolution of drainage and landscape in the region. The present study suggests that the flat-uplifted surface in the central portion of the Janauri Anticline represents the paleo-exit of the Sutlej River. It is suggested that initially when the tectonic activity propagated southward along the HFT the Janauri Anticline grew along two separate fault segments (north and south faults), the gap between these two fault and the related folds allowed the Sutlej River to flow across this area. Later, the radial propagation of the faults towards each other resulted in an interaction of the fault tips, which caused the rapid uplift of the area. Rapid uplift resulted in the disruption and longitudinal deflection of the Sutlej river channel. Fluvial deposits on the flat surface suggest that an earlier fluvial system flowed across this area in the recent past. Geomorphic signatures, like the sharp mountain fronts along the HFT in some places, as well as along various hinterland subordinate faults like the Nalagarh Thrust (NaT), the Barsar Thrust (BaT) and the Jawalamukhi Thrust (JMT); the change in the channel pattern, marked by a tight incised meander of the Beas channel upstream of the JMT indicate active tectonic movements in the area. The prominent V-shaped valleys of the Beas and Sutlej rivers, flowing across the thrust fronts, with Vf values ranging from <1.0-1.5 are also suggestive of ongoing tectonic activity along major and hinterland faults. This suggests that not only is the HFT

  15. Structure and time of deformation in the central Pancake Range, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, W.J.; Grow, J.A. )

    1993-04-01

    In east-central Nevada, the Portuguese Mountain area of the central Pancake Range directly west of Railroad Valley contains mapped thrust' faults that form part of the basis of the central Nevada thrust-belt oil play. The authors have mapped and field checked the structure of this area to determine if thrust-style hydrocarbon traps are likely. In this region, previously mapped thrusts have been found to be (1) normal faults, dipping more than 60[degree], (2) landslide masses of both Oligocene igneous rocks and Paleozoic carbonate rocks, and (3) low-angle attenuation faults that omit rather than duplicate stratigraphic section. Locally, the first two types (mapped Portuguese Mountain thrust') involve Oligocene igneous rocks and are therefore younger. The third is represented by a low-angle detachment system northeast of Portuguese Mountain that was first differentially eroded and then overlapped by thin limestone-clast conglomerate and red clays (terra rosa) of the Sheep Pass( ) Formation and overlying volcanic rocks. The possible Sheep Pass correlation would imply that the detachment system is Paleogene or older. Farther north, near McClure Spring, a similar terra rosa and subjacent thin limestone-clast conglomerate sequence is underlain paraconformably by gray claystone containing dinosaur bone fragments, similar to the type Newark Canyon Formation (Cretaceous) to the north. Sheep Pass( ) terra rosa of the upper part of this sequence rest with profound unconformity (nearly 90[degree]) on mid-Pennsylvanian limestone of the east limb of the McClure Spring syncline, a major recumbent syncline cored by Permian to Triassic( ) synorogenic conglomerates. These rocks contain outcrop-scale synorogenic angular unconformities of as much as 15[degree] suggesting that folding began in Permian time. These preliminary results suggest that contractional deformation of the McClure Spring syncline may be pre-Sevier and possibly of Permian-Triassic age.

  16. Characterizing Carbonates from the Sheep Pass Formation, Nevada Using Laser Ablation ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccione, G.; Rasbury, T.; Davis, D. M.; Druschke, P.; Hanson, A. D.; Parrish, R. R.; Austin-Giddings, W.

    2014-12-01

    Laser ablation plasma mass spectrometry allows for rapid high spatial resolution sampling, which is favorable for geochemically variable samples such as carbonates. This method also allows characterization of samples through the evaluation of elements, element ratios, and isotope ratios. Pairing LA ICP-MS with paragenetic studies provides the ability to geochemically characterize physically distinguishable fluid events that formed new phases. This is particularly useful for analysis of vein filling minerals, which can then be attributed to a tectonic or magmatic event. Coupling elemental analyses with U-Pb dating allows us to not only date the timing of mineralization and its associated tectonic activity, but also to better characterize the fluids in order to understand where they came from and what they may have interacted with. A suite of carbonates from the basal member of the Sheep Pass Formation in east-central Nevada was analyzed using LA ICP-MS, yielding U-Pb ages that are in agreement with both the ages found using ID TIMS and the known age of that member. An age was also attained for fluorite from a vein that cuts the dated Sheep Pass member. This age is distinctly younger than the lacustrine carbonates and is consistent with evidence that the major bounding faults of this basin have experienced multiple phases of movement.

  17. Mineral target areas in Nevada from geological analysis of LANDSAT-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Gawad, M.; Tubbesing, L.

    1975-01-01

    Geological analysis of LANDSAT-1 Scene MSS 1053-17540 suggests that certain known mineral districts in east-central Nevada frequently occur near faults or at faults or lineament intersections and areas of complex deformation and flexures. Seventeen (17) areas of analogous characteristics were identified as favorable targets for mineral exploration. During reconnaissance field trips eleven areas were visited. In three areas evidence was found of mining and/or prospecting not known before the field trips. In four areas favorable structural and alteration features were observed which call for more detailed field studies. In one of the four areas limonitic iron oxide samples were found in the regolith of a brecciated dolomite ridge. This area contains quartz veins, granitic and volcanic rocks and lies near the intersection of two linear fault structures identified in the LANDSAT-1 imagery. Semiquantitative spectroscopic analysis of selected portions of the samples showed abnormal contents of arsenic, molybdenum, copper, lead, zinc, and silver. These limonitic samples found were not in situ and further field studies are required to assess their source and significance.

  18. Structural development of the west-central Grant Range, Nye County, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryxell, J. E.

    The Grant Ridge in east central Nevada shows a complex history of Mesozoic and Cenozoic deformation. The oldest structure in the range is a major east vergent overturned anticline, possibly related to a thrust fault at depth. Most of the lower to upper Cambrian rocks exposed in the study area are part of the overturned limb of the anticline. After folding, the Cambrian rocks were metamorphosed, locally to staurolite grade; neomineralization dies out upward through the fold. The older set dips to the southeast, and generally placed slightly to unmetamorphosed units upon more severely deformed units. The younger fault set dips west, cutting east dipping faults and syntectonic conglomerates likely correlative with the Mio-Pliocene Horse Camp Formation. These faults are therefore Pliocene or younger in age. These relationships indicate that, folding, metamorphism, ductile shearing, and low angle normal faulting were geometrically and chronologically independent of each other. Post late Cretaceous and pre late Oligocene low angle north directed shearing occurred, but the relationship of this shearing to the regional structural history is uncertain.

  19. Mineral target areas in Nevada from geological analysis of LANDSAT-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Gawad, M.; Tubbesing, L.

    1975-01-01

    Geological analysis of LANDSAT-1 Scene MSS 1053-17540 suggests that certain known mineral districts in east-central Nevada frequently occur near faults or at faults or lineament intersections and areas of complex deformation and flexures. Seventeen (17) areas of analogous characteristics were identified as favorable targets for mineral exploration. During reconnaissance field trips eleven areas were visited. In three areas evidence was found of mining and/or prospecting not known before the field trips. In four areas favorable structural and alteration features were observed which call for more detailed field studies. In one of the four areas limonitic iron oxide samples were found in the regolith of a brecciated dolomite ridge. This area contains quartz veins, granitic and volcanic rocks and lies near the intersection of two linear fault structures identified in the LANDSAT-1 imagery. Semiquantitative spectroscopic analysis of selected portions of the samples showed abnormal contents of arsenic, molybdenum, copper, lead, zinc, and silver. These limonitic samples found were not in situ and further field studies are required to assess their source and significance.

  20. LINCOLN CREEK ROADLESS AREA, NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Stebbins, Scott A.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, the Lincoln Creek Roadless Area, Nevada was determined to have little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral resources. Geologic terrane favorable for the occurrence of contact-metasomatic tungsten deposits exists, but no evidence for this type of mineralization was identified. The geologic setting precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels and no other energy resources were identified.

  1. THE NEVADA GEOSPATIAL DATA BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Las Vegas, NV) has developed the Nevada Geospatial Data Browser, a spatial data archive to centralize and distribute the geospatial data used to create the land cover, vertebrate habitat models, and land o...

  2. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Nevada Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Nevada state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  3. THE NEVADA GEOSPATIAL DATA BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Las Vegas, NV) has developed the Nevada Geospatial Data Browser, a spatial data archive to centralize and distribute the geospatial data used to create the land cover, vertebrate habitat models, and land o...

  4. Indians of Nevada: Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Helen

    As part of a continuing program designed to provide Nevada's school population with information that will facilitate greater awareness and understanding of both past and present Native Nevadan lifestyles and contributions, this generalized curriculum guide might constitute a social studies unit on early Indian culture for upper elementary and/or…

  5. Indians of Nevada: Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Helen

    As part of a continuing program designed to provide Nevada's school population with information that will facilitate greater awareness and understanding of both past and present Native Nevadan lifestyles and contributions, this generalized curriculum guide might constitute a social studies unit on religion for upper elementary and/or junior high…

  6. Indians of Nevada: Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Helen

    Designed to provide Nevada's school population with information that will facilitate awareness and understanding of past and present Native Nevadan lifestyles and contributions, this generalized curriculum guide might constitute a social studies unit for upper elementary and/or junior high schools. Emphasis is on the cultural-historical influence…

  7. Indians of Nevada: Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Helen

    As part of a continuing program designed to provide Nevada's school population with information that will facilitate greater awareness and understanding of both past and present Native Nevadan lifestyles and contributions, this generalized curriculum guide might constitute a social studies unit for the upper levels of elementary and/or junior high…

  8. Indians of Nevada: Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Helen

    As part of a continuing program designed to provide Nevada's school population with information that will facilitate greater awareness and understanding of past and present Native Nevadan lifestyles and contributions, this generalized curriculum guide might constitute a social studies unit for upper elementary and/or junior high schools. Areas…

  9. Acupuncture in Nevada, Second Report

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, William M.

    1976-01-01

    The State of Nevada has now given its fourth series of acupuncture licensing examinations. In all, 62 candidates have taken examinations. Licenses have been granted to 27 persons as master acupuncturists (Doctors of Traditional Chinese Medicine or Doctors of Acupuncture) and to 6 as Acupuncture Assistants. At present, 4 acupuncturists practice in the Reno area and 13 in Las Vegas. PMID:1246891

  10. THE NEVADA GEOSPATIAL DATA BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nevada Geospatial Data Browser was developed by the Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Las Vegas, NV) with the assistance and collaboration of the University of Idaho (Moscow, ID) and Lockheed-Martin Environmental Services (Las Vegas, NV).

  11. THE NEVADA GEOSPATIAL DATA BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nevada Geospatial Data Browser was developed by the Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Las Vegas, NV) with the assistance and collaboration of the University of Idaho (Moscow, ID) and Lockheed-Martin Environmental Services (Las Vegas, NV).

  12. Indians of Nevada: Volume 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Helen

    As part of a continuing program designed to provide Nevada's school population with information that will facilitate greater awareness and understanding of past and present Native Nevadan lifestyles and contributions, this curriculum guide might constitute a social studies unit for upper elementary and/or junior high schools. This guide deals with…

  13. Kinematics of faulting in Mine Mountain area of southern Nevada: Evidence for pre-middle Miocene extension

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, M.R.; Cole, J.C. )

    1993-04-01

    Structural analysis has revealed widespread extension associated with discontinuous fault segments previously considered to represent a Mesozoic thrust in the Mine Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, of southern Nevada. Complex fault and stratigraphic relations characterize allochthonous Ordovician to Devonian dolomite and local quartzite that are in fault contact above less deformed (but anticlinally arched) Mississippian siltstone in this area. Although initial juxtaposition of the older and younger rocks probably occurred during Mesozoic thrusting, most of 714 small faults examined at 25 sites within the upper plate reflect later extension. Normal faults that chiefly accommodated S.55[degree] W.-directed extension are earliest and widespread in the upper plate. These faults are concentrated above the basal fault surface and have dominantly top-to-the-southwest slip, except on the east-dipping flank of the keel where top-to-the-northeast slip is indicated. These relations suggest that the upper plate was extended mostly in place after or, permissibly, during development of the lower plate anticline. Faults that accommodated S.55[degree] W.-directed extension are unconformably overlain by middle Miocene volcanic rocks; younger faults that accommodated northwest-directed extension are also interpreted to predate middle Miocene volcanism, although a depositional onlap relation is not preserved. Deformation at Mine Mountain may have been coeval with Oligocene to early Miocene extension that is well known in areas farther north and south in the Basin and Range province but poorly documented in southern Nevada. The authors cannot preclude, however, that extension might have occurred within upper structural levels of the Mesozoic Sevier hinterland.

  14. Devils Hole, Nevada: revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spötl, C.; Dublyansky, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Among the ever increasing number of caves visited and studied by paleoclimate scientists around the globe one site is special for a number of reasons. First described in the literature in 1988, Devils Hole is a geometrically simple cave developed along an extensional fracture in the Amargosa Desert of SW Nevada. The deeper portion of this cavity is phreatic and part of a regional aquifer whose lowest discharge point is Death Valley. Landmark studies by Ike Winograd's team examined thick calcite crusts present on the walls of this and a neighboring cave (termed Devils Hole #2) and retrieved one of the most remarkable (and thought-provoking) isotope proxy records covering the last half million of years (1992). More recently, Coplen (2007) scrutinized the stable isotope systematics at Devils Hole. His results suggest that this setting represents a rare example of inorganic calcite precipitation essentially at isotopic equilibrium. We obtained permission from the Death Valley National Park Service to study and sample Devils Hole #2. While previous studies were based on samples from the phreatic zone we cored the calcite crust just above the groundwater table in an attempt to extend the original record further back in time and to obtain direct paleowater isotope data. Stable isotope data obtained along one core show a very high degree of similarity with the published DH11 core and a first set of U-series dates confirms the stratigraphy down to 476 ka. Older calcite also shows glacial-interglacial oscillations in both carbon and oxygen isotopes. A tentative correlation with Antarctic and deep-sea isotope records suggests that the lower part of the calcite is ca. 800 ka old (i.e. MIS 20). The cores show petrographic evidence of falling groundwater levels during MIS 9, 7 and 5e, but there are no indications of major hiati. Interestingly, growth at our drill location ended shortly after 20 ka BP, i.e. much later than at the subaqueous site in Devils Hole proper where DH11

  15. Success For Nevada: Success For All Schools In Nevada Gain On Nevada Criterion-Referenced Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Success for All Foundation, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Success for All is the most extensively researched of all comprehensive reform models for Title I elementary schools. It incorporates scientifically based principles of reading, cooperative learning, professional development, tutoring, and family support. Nevada elementary schools implementing the Success for All reading program made outstanding …

  16. Recruitment of doctors to work in 'our hinterland': first results from the Swansea Graduate Entry Programme in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Suzanne L; Sergio Da Silva, Ana L; Rapport, Frances L; McKimm, Judy; Williams, Rhys

    2015-01-01

    Recruitment and retention of doctors to rural and remote areas is a well-known problem to which very few countries are immune. Planning effective interventions to enable appropriate recruitment to rural areas requires an understanding of the specificities of each country and region, understanding 'what works' and 'why' in each specific context and then consideration of what that might mean in the context of neighbouring countries. In order to inform local policy makers and stakeholders, this study aimed to investigate 'how and why students elect to study in Wales, UK' and, more importantly, 'what influences students' choices about either staying, or leaving Wales, after graduation'. 'Our hinterland', in the title of this article, refers to the more rural parts of the country. Two cohorts of medical graduates at different stages of their training (one cohort approaching the first year and the other approaching the third year of postgraduate training) were recruited as participants. A mixed-method, sequential study was conducted by means of an online questionnaire (phase 1) followed up by semi-structured telephone interviews (phase 2). Phase 1 results informed the interview schedule for phase 2. A thematic analysis of the interview transcripts was conducted using QSR NVivo v10. The results show that students elect to study in Wales (Swansea in this case) for a variety of reasons that include liking key features of the course, the attractive location and being able to pursue and maintain ties with family and others. Despite some identified challenges for long-term career prospects, early exposure to clinical placements in rural areas seems to be regarded as a rich, enjoyable learning opportunity that can constitute valuable preparation for future practice as a doctor. Participants also revealed how their choices were made as a result of balancing career aspirations, perceived opportunities and personal factors or circumstances. All seem to be determinants for medical

  17. Geomorphic Constraints on Patterns of Shortening and Erosion in the Puli Basin: Hinterland of the Central Taiwan Thrust Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, L.; Mueller, K.; Chen, Y.

    2002-12-01

    Field mapping and structural restorations of deformed late Quaternary strata deposited in the Puli Basin reveal a strong correlation between erosion and recent activation and growth of compressional structures in the hinterland of the central Taiwan thrust belt. Sediments in the Puli Basin are deposited between topographic highs above the Shuangtung and Shuichanglin thrusts to the west and a higher mountain front bounded by the Tili and Meiyuan thrusts to the east. Outcrops of the Eocene Paileng Formation and Oligocene Shuichangliu Formation surrounding the basin suggest that a series of west-verging fault propagation folds accommodated shortening within the hanging wall of the Shuichanglin thrust prior to their being eroded. Late Quaternary strata of the Puli Basin were deposited above the older partially eroded fault-propagation folds and comprise an asymmetric, coarsening-upward sequence of clay, silt, coal, and cobbly alluvium that thickens to over 150 meters towards the west. The alluvium forms smooth terrace surfaces that lie up to 500 meters above present river channels and are characterized by numerous lateritic soil horizons, including the present lateritic surface soil profile that averages 1 meter in thickness. Although we are currently working to define the syntectonic growth architecture of sediments in the Puli Basin, initial mapping suggests growth across individual folds climbs upsection from west to east, recording an eastward progression of the locus of shortening beneath the Late Quaternary deposits. Folding of very young terraces without lateritic soil profiles within the Puli Basin and along the Peikang River north of the basin suggests that faults continue to be active beneath the central and eastern parts of the basin, possibly along a blind fault segment of the Meiyuan thrust. Cobbles within lateritic alluvial deposits in the Puli Basin consist of sandstone and argillite derived primarily from the local Paileng Formation exposed in fold

  18. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ARCHITECT'S DRAWINGS, 1869. FIRST FLOOR PLAN - Nevada State Capitol, Plaza at Carson Street, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  19. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photocopy: Credit: Nevada Historical Society ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photocopy: Credit: Nevada Historical Society FORMER COMPTROLLER'S OFFICE, JUNE 13, 1900 - Nevada State Capitol, Plaza at Carson Street, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  20. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ARCHITECT'S DRAWINGS, 1869. FACADE, ELEVATION - Nevada State Capitol, Plaza at Carson Street, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  1. 20. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ARCHITECT'S DRAWINGS, 1869. SECOND FLOOR PLAN - Nevada State Capitol, Plaza at Carson Street, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  2. Regional Water-Resources Studies in Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauer, Eva M.; Watermolen, Shannon C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Water-resources information for the State of Nevada should be readily accessible to community planners and the general public in a user-friendly web environment and should be actively managed and maintained with accurate historic and current hydrologic data. The USGS, in cooperation with State of Nevada and local government agencies, has established a data framework that provides critical hydrologic information to meet the challenges of water resources planning for Nevada.

  3. University of Nevada (UNLV): Las Vegas, Nevada (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    2006-03-18

    A partnership with the University of Nevada and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location. The solar measurement instrumentation is also accompanied by meteorological monitoring equipment to provide scientists with a complete picture of the solar power possibilities.

  4. Nevada Power: Clark Station; Las Vegas, Nevada (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    2006-03-27

    A partnership with the University of Nevada and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location. The solar measurement instrumentation is also accompanied by meteorological monitoring equipment to provide scientists with a complete picture of the solar power possibilities.

  5. Occurrence of Selected Organic Compounds in Groundwater Used for Public Supply in the Plio-Pleistocene Deposits in East-Central Nebraska and the Dawson and Denver Aquifers near Denver, Colorado, 2002-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bails, Jeffrey B.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Landon, Matthew K.; Paschke, Suzanne S.

    2009-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has an ongoing Source Water-Quality Assessment program designed to characterize the quality of water in aquifers used as a source of drinking-water supply for some of the largest metropolitan areas in the Nation. In addition to the sampling of the source waters, sampling of finished or treated waters was done in the second year of local studies to evaluate if the organic compounds detected in the source waters also were present in the water supplied to the public. An evaluation of source-water quality used in selected groundwater-supplied public water systems in east-central Nebraska and in the south Denver metropolitan area of Colorado was completed during 2002 through 2004. Fifteen wells in the Plio-Pleistocene alluvial and glacial deposits in east-central Nebraska (the High Plains study) and 12 wells in the Dawson and Denver aquifers, south of Denver (the South Platte study), were sampled during the first year to obtain information on the occurrence and distribution of selected organic chemicals in the source waters. During the second year of the study, two wells in east-central Nebraska were resampled, along with the associated finished water derived from these wells, to determine if organic compounds detected in the source water also were present in the finished water. Selection of the second-phase sampling sites was based on detections of the most-frequently occurring organic compounds from the first-year Source Water-Quality Assessment study results. The second-year sampling also required that finished waters had undergone water-quality treatment processes before being distributed to the public. Sample results from the first year of sampling groundwater wells in east-central Nebraska show that the most-frequently detected organic compounds were the pesticide atrazine and its degradate, deethylatrazine (DEA, otherwise known as 2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine or CIAT

  6. Nevada may lose nuclear waste funds

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, E.

    1988-06-24

    The people of Nevada are concerned that a cut in DOE funding for a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada will result in cuts in the state monitoring program, e.g. dropping a seismic monitoring network and a sophisticated drilling program. Economic and social impact studies will be curtailed. Even though a provision to curtail local research forbids duplication of DOE`s work and would limit the ability of Nevada to go out and collect its own data, Nevada State University at Las Vegas would receive a nice plum, a top-of-the-line supercomputer known as the ETA-10 costing almost $30 million financed by DOE.

  7. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-07-01

    This document establishes the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal. Mixed waste generated within the State of Nevada by NNSA/NSO activities is accepted for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site for storage or disposal.

  8. Magnetotelluric Data, Northern Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Williams; B.D. Rodriguez, and T. H. Asch

    2005-11-23

    Nuclear weapons are integral to the defense of the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy, as the steward of these devices, must continue to gauge the efficacy of the individual weapons. This could be accomplished by occasional testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Flat Basin is one of the testing areas at the NTS. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and processed Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to help characterize this pre-Tertiary geology. That work will help to define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU) in the Yucca Flat area. Interpretation will include a three-dimensional (3-D) character analysis and two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data for Frenchman Flat Profile 3, as shown in Figure 1. No interpretation of the data is included here.

  9. Magnetotelluric Data, Southern Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Williams; B.D. Rodriguez, and T.H. Asch

    2005-11-23

    Nuclear weapons are integral to the defense of the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy, as the steward of these devices, must continue to gauge the efficacy of the individual weapons. This could be accomplished by occasional testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Flat Basin is one of the testing areas at the NTS. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and processed Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to help characterize this pre-Tertiary geology. That work will help to define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU) in the Yucca Flat area. Interpretation will include a three-dimensional (3-D) character analysis and two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data for Southern Yucca Flat, Profile 4, as shown in Figure 1. No interpretation of the data is included here.

  10. Magnetotelluric Data, Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Williams; B.D. Rodriguez, and T.H. Asch

    2005-11-23

    Nuclear weapons are integral to the defense of the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy, as the steward of these devices, must continue to gauge the efficacy of the individual weapons. This could be accomplished by occasional testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Flat Basin is one of the testing areas at the NTS. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and processed Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to help characterize this pre-Tertiary geology. That work will help to define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU) in the Yucca Flat area. Interpretation will include a three-dimensional (3-D) character analysis and two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data for Central Yucca Flat, Profile 1, as shown in figure 1. No interpretation of the data is included here.

  11. Nevada resource assessment program - 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, D.T.; Flynn, T.; Koenig, B.A.; Bruce, J.L.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D.

    1981-05-01

    The Nevada Resource Assessment Team has been working in three areas of Nevada: the first is a potential industrial heat application site - Golconda; the second area has potential for space heating - Hawthorne; and the third area has applications for space heating at a Naval Air Station - Fallon. Several exploration techniques have been employed including: chemical analyses of fluids, hydrogen and oxygen stable light isotope analyses, low sun-angle photography interpretation, micro-gravity surveys, two-meter temperature probe surveys, LANDSAT imagery analysis, and geologic reconnaissance. Several of these techniques are discussed and the positive and negative aspects are addressed as they pertain to particular areas of investigation. The areas of investigation are shown.

  12. Nevada Test Site closure program

    SciTech Connect

    Shenk, D.P.

    1994-08-01

    This report is a summary of the history, design and development, procurement, fabrication, installation and operation of the closures used as containment devices on underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. It also addresses the closure program mothball and start-up procedures. The Closure Program Document Index and equipment inventories, included as appendices, serve as location directories for future document reference and equipment use.

  13. Structural and Sedimentological Development of Pahrump Basin, Southern Nevada with Implications for Seismic Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, J.; Taylor, W. J.; Luke, B.

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to (1) document potentially active faults and estimate possible earthquake magnitudes, (2) document and analyze sedimentation in a basin controlled by strike-slip and oblique faults, and (3) consider implications on regional development using Pahrump Valley, southern Nevada as a case study. The 2.5 million people living within the region would be significantly impacted by a major earthquake generated in the Valley. With an ever increasing population, the need for evaluation of seismic risk is becoming more important for land use planning in southern Nevada. Using data analysis of well logs, geophysical measurements, surface data from air photos, maps, and field observations, it is possible to document the 3D architecture of the basin-fill sediments and basin structure through abrupt changes in sedimentary facies. 3D modeling of the lithology and depositional environments of shallow basin fill improves the understanding of fault location, type, offset, and surface rupture length. Pahrump Valley is flanked by two documented Neogene (Quaternary) fault systems. The west side is dominated by the Stateline Fault zone, which is a continuous NW-striking right-lateral strike-slip fault zone extending 200 km from Mesquite Valley to Amargosa Valley, Nevada. In Pahrump Valley no fault scarp is present. The eastern side is bordered by the West Spring Mountains fault, which is a N-striking W-dipping normal fault with a right-lateral oblique component. The fault has a large scarp which is visible along the northeastern and east-central Valley border and smaller discontinuous scarps in the south. The 11-km-long central segment contains scarps up to 9.4 m high. On the basis of scarp profiles, the youngest event is estimated to be Pleistocene or early Holocene in age with a maximum fault displacement estimated at 1.8-2.0 m, which suggests an event of M 6.9. 3D basin models, derived from well log lithology, depict the locations of fault surfaces by

  14. PCB accumulation and tissue distribution in cave salamander (Proteus anguinus anguinus, Amphibia, Urodela) in the polluted karstic hinterland of the Krupa River, Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Pezdirc, Marko; Heath, Ester; Bizjak Mali, Lilijana; Bulog, Boris

    2011-08-01

    For over two decades, a manufacturer of electrical capacitors disposed of its waste within the karstic hinterland of the Krupa River (Slovenia) resulting in the surroundings becomming heavily polluted with PCB. Albeit the extent of the contamination has been known since 1983 and the Krupa River has become one of the most PCB polluted river in Europe, the effects on the cave fauna of the region remain unknown. The most famous cave dweller of the Krupa hinterland is the endemic cave salamander Proteus anguinus anguinus. In this study we determine the levels of PCB in the tissues of the Proteus and in river sediments. The total concentration of PCB in individual tissue samples from specimens of the Krupa spring was between 165.59 μg g(-1) and 1560.20 μg g(-1)dry wt, which is at least 28-times higher than those from an unpolluted site. The kidneys contained the lowest concentration, while the highest concentration was in subcutaneous fat and tissues with high lipid contents like visceral fat and liver. Total PCB concentrations in sediment samples from the Krupa River were between 5.47 and 59.20 μg g(-1)dry wt showing that a high burden of PCB still remains in the region. The most abundant PCB congeners in all analyzed samples were di-ortho substituted (PCB #101, #118, #138 and #158), but higher proportion of mono-ortho PCB was present in sediments. The ability of Proteus to survive a high PCB loading in its environment and especially in its tissues is remarkable. Its partial elimination of low chlorinated and mono-ortho substituted congeners is also reported.

  15. Nevada Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soule, Penelope P.; Sharp, Joyce

    This report discusses results of the Nevada Department of Education's fourth statewide administration of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Students in grades 9, 10, 11, and 12 (N=2,702) from 75 public high schools participated in the study. Nevada high school students reported behaviors that equaled or exceeded goals established in the national…

  16. Nevada, the Great Recession, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the Great Recession and its aftermath has been devastating in Nevada, especially for public education. This article discusses the budget shortfalls and the impact of the economic crisis in Nevada using case study methodology. It provides a review of documents, including Governor Gibbon's proposals for the public K-12 education system…

  17. Test Security Procedures for Nevada Proficiency Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada State Dept. of Education, Carson City.

    Nevada statutes and administrative regulations specifically prohibit the disclosure of the content of examinations used in the Nevada Proficiency Examination Program. This document focuses on procedures to insure examination security. The state's test security requirements are outlined. Other sections deal with access to and copying of examination…

  18. Nevada's College Funding Formula under Attack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Community College of Southern Nevada (CCSN) President Richard Carpenter has criticized the state's college funding formula, saying it penalizes southern Nevada students--particularly minorities. Carpenter said he hopes lawmakers will alter a complex equation that leads to a discrepancy in funding between CCSN and other institutions, including…

  19. 40 CFR 81.418 - Nevada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nevada. 81.418 Section 81.418 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.418 Nevada. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  20. Proceedings of the Sierra Nevada Science Symposium

    Treesearch

    Dennis D. Murphy; Peter A. Stine

    2004-01-01

    Land and resource management issues in the Sierra Nevada are becoming increasingly complex and controversial. The objective of the Sierra Nevada Science Symposium was to provide a synoptic overview of the current state of scientific knowledge related to key management issues. Attempts were made to tie recent scientific findings to applications in land management and...

  1. Nevada's College Funding Formula under Attack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Community College of Southern Nevada (CCSN) President Richard Carpenter has criticized the state's college funding formula, saying it penalizes southern Nevada students--particularly minorities. Carpenter said he hopes lawmakers will alter a complex equation that leads to a discrepancy in funding between CCSN and other institutions, including…

  2. Acting Administrator Lightfoot Visits Sierra Nevada Corporation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-06

    Vice President, Space Exploration Systems (SES) at Sierra Nevada Corporation Steve Lindsey, left, speaks with acting NASA Administrator Robert Lightfoot, center, and acting NASA Deputy Administrator Lesa Roe, left, about the Dream Chaser Space System simulator, Thursday, April 6, 2017 during a visit to Sierra Nevada Corporation in Louisville, Colo. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  3. Nevada, the Great Recession, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the Great Recession and its aftermath has been devastating in Nevada, especially for public education. This article discusses the budget shortfalls and the impact of the economic crisis in Nevada using case study methodology. It provides a review of documents, including Governor Gibbon's proposals for the public K-12 education system…

  4. 40 CFR 81.418 - Nevada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nevada. 81.418 Section 81.418 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.418 Nevada. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  5. 40 CFR 81.418 - Nevada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nevada. 81.418 Section 81.418 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.418 Nevada. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  6. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Nevada, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Nevada for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Nevada showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income…

  7. 40 CFR 81.418 - Nevada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nevada. 81.418 Section 81.418 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.418 Nevada. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  8. 40 CFR 81.418 - Nevada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nevada. 81.418 Section 81.418 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.418 Nevada. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  9. Selected Educational and Social Statistics, Nevada and National. Form C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Kevin

    Selected statistics on health and education in Nevada are presented, mainly for the 1988 and 1989 school years. Some facts are provided about students, teachers, and classrooms in Nevada. The total enrollment in Nevada schools in 1989 was 176,464, which represents an increase by 5% from 168,353 in 1988. Enrollment in Nevada grew at the fastest…

  10. Selected Educational and Social Statistics, Nevada and National. Form C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Kevin

    Selected statistics on health and education in Nevada are presented, mainly for the 1988 and 1989 school years. Some facts are provided about students, teachers, and classrooms in Nevada. The total enrollment in Nevada schools in 1989 was 176,464, which represents an increase by 5% from 168,353 in 1988. Enrollment in Nevada grew at the fastest…

  11. Nevada commercial spent nuclear fuel transportation experience

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to present an historic overview of commercial reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) shipments that have occurred in the state of Nevada, and to review the accident and incident experience for this type of shipments. Results show that between 1964 and 1990, 309 truck shipments covering approximately 40,000 miles moved through Nevada; this level of activity places Nevada tenth among the states in the number of truck shipments of SNF. For the same period, 15 rail shipments moving through the State covered approximately 6,500 miles, making Nevada 20th among the states in terms of number of rail shipments. None of these shipments had an accident or an incident associated with them. Because the data for Nevada are so limited, national data on SNF transportation and the safety of truck and rail transportation in general were also assessed.

  12. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2004

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-10-01

    The ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2004'' was prepared by Bechtel Nevada (BN) to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of non-radiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2004''. It was produced this year to provide a more cost-effective and wider distribution of a hardcopy summary of the ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2004'' to interested DOE stakeholders.

  13. Magnetotelluric Data, Northern Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Williams; B.D. Rodriguez, and T.H. Asch

    2005-11-23

    Nuclear weapons are integral to the defense of the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy, as the steward of these devices, must continue to gauge the efficacy of the individual weapons. This could be accomplished by occasional testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Flat Basin is one of the testing areas at the NTS. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and processed Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to help characterize this pre-Tertiary geology. That work will help to define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU) in the Yucca Flat area. Interpretation will include a three-dimensional (3-D) character analysis and two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data for Profile 2, (fig. 1), located in the northern Yucca Flat area. No interpretation of the data is included here.

  14. Magnetotelluric Data, North Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Williams; B.D. Rodriguez, and T.H. Asch

    2005-11-23

    Nuclear weapons are integral to the defense of the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy, as the steward of these devices, must continue to gauge the efficacy of the individual weapons. This could be accomplished by occasional testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Flat Basin is one of the testing areas at the NTS. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and processed Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to help characterize this pre-Tertiary geology. That work will help to define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU) in the Yucca Flat area. Interpretation will include a three-dimensional (3-D) character analysis and two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data for north central Yucca Flat, Profile 7, as shown in Figure 1. No interpretation of the data is included here.

  15. Magnetotelluric Data, Across Quartzite Ridge, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Williams; B.D. Rodriguez, and T.H. Asch

    2005-11-23

    Nuclear weapons are integral to the defense of the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy, as the steward of these devices, must continue to gauge the efficacy of the individual weapons. This could be accomplished by occasional testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Flat Basin is one of the testing areas at the NTS. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and processed Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to help characterize this pre-Tertiary geology. That work will help to define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU) in the Yucca Flat area. Interpretation will include a three-dimensional (3-D) character analysis and two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT soundings across Quartzite Ridge, Profiles 5, 6a, and 6b, as shown in Figure 1. No interpretation of the data is included here.

  16. A Major Eocene Lake System in the Hinterland of the North American Cordillera Comes into Geochronologic Focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. E.; Cassel, E. J.; Canada, A.; Jicha, B.; Singer, B. S.

    2015-12-01

    Eastern Nevada lay east of the Cordilleran continental divide and experienced continental drainage ponding during the Eocene Epoch. Though recognized for nearly a century, lake deposits of the Elko Formation have yet to be placed in a regional chronostratigraphic context, due primarily to Neogene extension and a paucity of radioisotopic ages. New geochronology is essential for creating robust reconstructions of paleogeography and paloeohydrology from scattered surviving outcrops, and for assessing competing tectonic interpretations for lake basin formation and evolution. New single crystal sanidine 40Ar/39Ar ages for 21 ash beds collected from the Elko Formation and contemporaneous fluvial deposits indicate that lacustrine deposition occurred locally as early as ca. 48.7 Ma, coeval with deposition of the Bridgerian portion of the lacustrine Sheep Pass Formation to the south. Lake Elko's most expansive phase occurred between ca. 44.0 and 40.5 Ma, resulting in regional overlap of lacustrine strata atop fluvial strata. Based on lithofacies and lithofacies stacking patterns, an up-section transition from overfilled to balanced-fill conditions occurred at ca. 41.3 Ma. This transition led to increasing salinity and lake level variations that formed a prominent 1-4 meter-scale depositional cyclicity characteristic of partly closed lakes that periodically dropped below their sill elevation. The stromatolitic uppermost Elko Formation records proximal volcanism, including several welded ignimbrites, and is overlain by an unconformity of >10 m.y. duration. Initial ponding, the shift to balanced fill conditions, voluminous siliceous volcanism, and subsequent unconformity are interpreted to reflect the progressive NE to SW advance of 500-900 m of topographic uplift and volcanism resulting from rollback of the Farallon slab. 40Ar/39Ar ages for ash beds at five individual locations suggest that a single ignimbrite, likely the Tuff of Nelson Creek, was deposited across a ~10

  17. HIGHLAND RIDGE ROADLESS AREA, NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitebread, Donald H.; Brown, S. Don

    1984-01-01

    The mineral-resource potential of the Highland Ridge Roadless Area, Nevada was evaluated on the basis of results from field investigations. One area along the west border of the Highland Ridge Roadless Area has substantiated mineral-resource potential for tungsten. Several other areas are classed as having probable mineral-resource potential, based mainly upon anomalously high values of tungsten, lead, silver, and zinc in concentrates of stream sediments. Most of the roadless area is underlain by rocks in the upper plate of the Snake Range decollement, and is considered to have little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. No energy resource potential was identified in the area.

  18. Rural migration in southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Mosser, D.; Soden, D.L.

    1993-08-01

    This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on in- and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account by decision makers when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository.

  19. Deep Resistivity Structure of Mid Valley, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallin, Erin L.; Rodriguez, Brian D.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing ground-water contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. From 1951 to 1992, 828 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site northwest of Las Vegas (DOE UGTA, 2003). Most of these tests were conducted hundreds of feet above the ground-water table; however, more than 200 of the tests were near, or within, the water table. This underground testing was limited to specific areas of the Nevada Test Site including Pahute Mesa, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (RM-SM), Frenchman Flat, and Yucca Flat. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (RM-SM) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) (National Security Technologies, 2007). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the DOE and NNSA-NSO collected and processed data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat (YF) to help define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of the pre-Tertiary confining units. We collected 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) stations for that research (Williams and others, 2005a, 2005b, 2005c, 2005d, 2005e, and 2005f). In early 2005 we extended that research with 26 additional MT data stations (Williams and others, 2006) located on and near Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain (RM-SM). The new stations extended the area of the hydrogeologic study previously conducted in Yucca Flat, further refining what is known about the pre

  20. Stratigraphy and depositional environments of the Lower Mississippian Joana Limestone in southern White Pine and northern Lincoln Counties, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, T.J. )

    1990-04-01

    The Lower Mississippian Joana Limestone in the southern Schell Creek and Egan ranges of east-central Nevada is composed of three depositional facies: the unbedded wackestone with grainstone/packstone facies or Facies 1; the bedded wackestone with mudstone facies or Facies 2; and the restricted wackestone, mudstone/shale facies, or Facies 3. Facies 1 is characterized by Waulsortian-type carbonate buildups with massive unbedded wackestone cores, grainstone flanking beds and grainstone/packstone capping units. Facies 2 is characterized by an upward progression of sedimentary bedding types from thinly laminated to large scale trough cross-bedding that indicates a shoaling upward of this facies. Facies 3 is characterized by sparse wackestones, mudstones, and shale which show a decrease in both faunal types and diversity and an increase in fine clastics. The restricted wackestone, mudstone/shale facies grades upward into the Mississippian Chainman Shale. The age of the Joana Limestone is confirmed as late Kinderhookian to early Osagean based primarily on conodonts and foraminifera. In the middle beds of the Joana Limestone, the previously unreported upper Siphonodella crenulata conodont zone occurs which helps correlate the Joana Limestone with regional transgressive/regressive sea level events. Color alteration indices of these conodonts are 1.5 to 2, and occur in the oil generation window. Additionally, oil staining was observed in numerous samples located primarily in the lower half of the formation, represented by Facies 3, the unbedded wackestone with grainstone/packstone facies.

  1. Commercial geophysical well logs from the USW G-1 drill hole, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muller, D.C.; Kibler, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Drill hole USW G-1 was drilled at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, as part of the ongoing exploration program for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. Contract geophysical well logs run at USW G-1 show only limited stratigraphic correlations, but correlate reasonably well with the welding of the ash-flow and ash-fall tuffs. Rocks in the upper part of the section have highly variable physical properties, but are more uniform and predictably lower in the section.

  2. GPS Imaging of Sierra Nevada Uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C.

    2015-12-01

    Recent improvements in the scope and precision of GPS networks across California and Nevada have allowed for uplift of the Sierra Nevada to be observed directly. Much of the signal, in the range of 1 to 2 mm/yr, has been attributed to lithospheric scale rebound following massive groundwater withdrawal in the San Joaquin Valley in southern California, exacerbated by drought since 2011. However, natural tectonic deformation associated with long term uplift of the range may also contribute to the observed signal. We have developed new algorithms that enhance the signal of Sierra Nevada uplift and improve our ability to interpret and separate natural tectonic signals from anthropogenic contributions. We apply our new Median Interannual Difference Adjusted for Skewness (MIDAS) algorithm to the vertical times series and a inverse distance-weighted median spatial filtering and Delaunay-based interpolation to despeckle the rate map. The resulting spatially continuous vertical rate field is insensitive to outliers and steps in the GPS time series, and omits isolated features attributable to unstable stations or unrepresentative rates. The resulting vertical rate field for California and Nevada exhibits regionally coherent signals from the earthquake cycle including interseismic strain accumulation in Cascadia, postseismic relaxation of the mantle from recent large earthquakes in central Nevada and southern California, groundwater loading changes, and tectonic uplift of the Sierra Nevada and Coast Ranges. Uplift of the Sierra Nevada extends from the Garlock Fault in the south to an indefinite boundary in the north near the latitude of Mt. Lassen to the eastern Sierra Nevada range front in Owen's Valley. The rates transition to near zero in the southern Walker Lane. The eastern boundary of uplift coincides with the highest strain rates in the western Great Basin, suggesting higher normal fault slip rates and a component of tectonic uplift of the Sierra Nevada.

  3. Acting Administrator Lightfoot Visits Sierra Nevada Corporation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-06

    Acting NASA Deputy Administrator Lesa Roe, left, and acting NASA Administrator Robert Lightfoot, right, listen as Alec Devereaux, a systems engineer with Sierra Nevada Corporation, right, discusses the Flight Control Integration Lab (FCIL), Thursday, April 6, 2017 during a visit to Sierra Nevada Corporation in Louisville, Colo. Sierra Nevada Corporation, with their Dream Chaser Cargo System, was one of three companies to be awarded Commercial Resupply Services (CRS-2) contracts designed to obtain cargo delivery services to the space station, disposal of unneeded cargo, and the return of research samples and other cargo from the station back to NASA. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  4. Sedimentologic and diagenetic history of the Mission Canyon Formation (Mississippian) and stratigraphic equivalents, southwestern Montana and east-central Idaho and determination of rare earth element abundances in diagenetic carbonates

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The Mission Canyon Formation and its stratigraphic equivalents in Montana and Idaho were deposited during collision of the western continental margin of North America with an inferred volcanic arc (Antler orogeny). An integrated petrographic and geochemical study of the diagenetic history of the Mission Canyon Formation was carried out within the sedimentologic context established by field studies. Petrographic and geochemical data from individual diagenetic phases were used to interpret extent of diagenetic alteration, sources of ions incorporated into cements, and paleohydrology of diagenetic fluids. We have documented third- to fifth-order scale (10{sup 6} to 10{sup 4} yr) cyclic sedimentary sequences in shallow platform to deep basin environments. The third-order cycles have been correlated from the Antler foredeep, across the platform, and into the Willistron Basin to the east, an area approximately 1200 km wide (nonpalinspastic). From this analysis, were constructed a detailed sequence stratigraphic model for the Mission Canyon Formation and its stratigraphic equivalents from southwestern Montana to east-central Idaho.

  5. Assessing the impacts of sea-level rise and precipitation change on the surficial aquifer in the low-lying coastal alluvial plains and barrier islands, east-central Florida (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Han; Wang, Dingbao; Hagen, Scott C.; Medeiros, Stephen C.; Hall, Carlton R.

    2016-11-01

    A three-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow and salinity transport model is implemented using the SEAWAT code to quantify the spatial variation of water-table depth and salinity of the surficial aquifer in Merritt Island and Cape Canaveral Island in east-central Florida (USA) under steady-state 2010 hydrologic and hydrogeologic conditions. The developed model is referred to as the `reference' model and calibrated against field-measured groundwater levels and a map of land use and land cover. Then, five prediction/projection models are developed based on modification of the boundary conditions of the calibrated `reference' model to quantify climate change impacts under various scenarios of sea-level rise and precipitation change projected to 2050. Model results indicate that west Merritt Island will encounter lowland inundation and saltwater intrusion due to its low elevation and flat topography, while climate change impacts on Cape Canaveral Island and east Merritt Island are not significant. The SEAWAT models developed for this study are useful and effective tools for water resources management, land use planning, and climate-change adaptation decision-making in these and other low-lying coastal alluvial plains and barrier island systems.

  6. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, G.P.; Runkle, Donna; Rea, Alan; Becker, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma. Ground water in 710 square miles of Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River is an important source of water for irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. The aquifer, composed of alluvial and terrace deposits, consists of sand, silt, clay, and gravel. The aquifer is underlain and in hydraulic connection with the upper zone of the Permian-age Garber-Wellington aquifer and the Pennsylvanian-age Ada-Vamoosa aquifer. Most of the lines in the four digital data sets were digitized from a published ground-water modeling report but portions of the aquifer boundary data set was extracted from published digital geologic data sets. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

  7. Deep resistivity structure of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asch, Theodore H.; Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sampson, Jay A.; Wallin, Erin L.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office are addressing groundwater contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area project. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area adjacent to a nuclear test. Ground water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, supported by the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data from 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) stations at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to assist in characterizing the pre-Tertiary geology in that area. The primary purpose was to refine the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (late Devonian - Mississippian-age siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale) in the Yucca Flat area. The MT and AMT data have been released in separate USGS Open File Reports. The Nevada Test Site magnetotelluric data interpretation presented in this report includes the results of detailed two-dimensional (2 D) resistivity modeling for each profile (including alternative interpretations) and gross inferences on the three dimensional (3 D) character of the geology beneath each station. The character, thickness, and lateral extent of the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation that comprise the Upper Clastic Confining Unit are generally well determined in the upper 5 km. Inferences can be made regarding the presence of the Lower Clastic Confining Unit at depths below 5 km. Large fault

  8. Deep Resistivity Structure of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore H. Asch, Brian D. Rodriguez; Jay A. Sampson; Erin L. Wallin; and Jackie M. Williams.

    2006-09-18

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office are addressing groundwater contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area project. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area adjacent to a nuclear test. Ground water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, supported by the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data from 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) stations at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to assist in characterizing the pre-Tertiary geology in that area. The primary purpose was to refine the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (late Devonian – Mississippian-age siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale) in the Yucca Flat area. The MT and AMT data have been released in separate USGS Open File Reports. The Nevada Test Site magnetotelluric data interpretation presented in this report includes the results of detailed two-dimensional (2 D) resistivity modeling for each profile (including alternative interpretations) and gross inferences on the three dimensional (3 D) character of the geology beneath each station. The character, thickness, and lateral extent of the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation that comprise the Upper Clastic Confining Unit are generally well determined in the upper 5 km. Inferences can be made regarding the presence of the Lower Clastic Confining Unit at depths below 5 km. Large

  9. Magnetotelluric Data, Mid Valley, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect

    Jackie M. Williams; Erin L. Wallin; Brian D. Rodriguez; Charles R. Lindsay; and Jay A. Sampson

    2007-08-15

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing ground-water contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit (CAU) (Bechtel Nevada, 2006). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat (YF) to help define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of the pre-tertiary confining units. We collected 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT), stations for that research (Williams and others, 2005a, 2005b, 2005c, 2005d, 2005e, 2005f). In early 2005 we extended that research with 26 additional MT data stations (Williams and others, 2006), located on and near Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain (RM-SM). The new stations extended the area of the hydrogeologic study previously conducted in Yucca Flat. This work was done to help refine what is known about the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal was to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU). The UCCU is comprised of late Devonian to Mississippian siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale. The UCCU underlies the Yucca Flat area and extends westward towards Shoshone Mountain, southward to Buckboard Mesa, and northward to Rainier Mesa. Late in 2005 we collected another 14 MT stations in Mid Valley and in

  10. Detrital fission-track-compositional signature of an orogenic chain-hinterland basin system: The case of the late Neogene Quaternary Valdelsa basin (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestrieri, M. L.; Benvenuti, M.; Tangocci, F.

    2013-05-01

    . This means that deeper part of the structural edifice was exposed earlier than previously reported. This was likely made possible by exposures of Macigno at the cores of anticlines or on the footwall of backthrusts. Thus, the Macigno early supply claims a role for shortening in the Northern Apennines hinterland basin evolution. Our study revealed the suitability of the detrital thermochronological/compositional analysis on syn-tectonic infill of hinterland basins in discriminating between different tectonic processes affecting the late evolution of an orogenic chain.

  11. Depositional and provenance record of the Paleogene transition from foreland to hinterland basin evolution during Andean orogenesis, northern Middle Magdalena Valley Basin, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Christopher J.; Horton, Brian K.; Caballero, Victor; Mora, Andrés; Parra, Mauricio; Sierra, Jair

    2011-10-01

    The Central Cordillera and Eastern Cordillera of the northern Andes form the topographic flanks of the north-trending Magdalena Valley Basin. Constraining the growth of these ranges and intervening basin has implications for Andean shortening and the transformation from a foreland to hinterland basin configuration. We present sedimentological, paleocurrent, and sandstone petrographic results from Cenozoic type localities to provide insights into the tectonic history of the northern Middle Magdalena Valley Basin of Colombia. In the Nuevo Mundo Syncline, the mid-Paleocene transition from marine to nonmarine deposystems of the Lisama Formation corresponds with a paleocurrent shift from northward to eastward transport. These changes match detrital geochronological evidence for a contemporaneous shift from cratonic (Amazonian) to orogenic (Andean) provenance, suggesting initial shortening-related uplift of the Central Cordillera and foreland basin generation in the Magdalena Valley by mid-Paleocene time. Subsequent establishment of a meandering fluvial system is recorded in lower-middle Eocene strata of the lower La Paz Formation. Eastward paleocurrents in mid-Paleocene through uppermost Eocene fluvial deposits indicate a continuous influence of western sediment source areas. However, at the upper middle Eocene (˜40 Ma) boundary between the lower and upper La Paz Formation, sandstone compositions show a drastic decrease in lithic content, particularly lithic volcanic fragments. This change is accompanied by a facies shift from mixed channel and overbank facies to thick, amalgamated braided fluvial deposits of possible fluvial megafans, reflecting changes in both the composition and proximity of western sediment sources. We attribute these modifications to the growing influence of exhumed La Cira-Infantas paleohighs in the axial Magdalena Valley, features presently buried beneath upper Eocene-Quaternary basin fill along the western flank of the Nuevo Mundo Syncline. In

  12. The Hurd Peak gneiss of the Long Lake shear zone, eastern Sierra Nevada, California

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, K.S.; Reed, W.E. . Dept. of Earth and Space Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    The Hurd Peak gneiss is located within the Long Lake valley of the east-central Sierra Nevada, California. This unit is the principle orthogneiss in Hathaway's (1993) Long Lake shear zone. The rock shows porphyroclasts of plagioclase and quartz, abundant mafic enclaves, and cross-cutting field associations which suggest that the gneiss had a plutonic protolith. The gneiss varies from biotite-poor nearest the contact with the Lamarck to biotite-rich nearest Long Lake. The contact zone between the gneiss and the Lamarck pluton ranges from sharp to gradational and from migmatitic to mixed, i.e., the mixed zone being greater than 50% intermingled dikes of 10 cm or greater thickness. In places this contact is marked by a quartz-free biotite hornfels approximately 5 m thick. Based on their relative deformation, at least 3 suites of aplite dikes cross-cut the gneiss, and 5 other lithologies, including basaltic, mixed, composite, andesitic, and quartz dioritic compositions, also cross-cut the gneiss. The Rb-Sr whole rock isochron age of the Hurd Peak gneiss has been determined to be 90.2 Ma. The authors interpret this isochron to be the result of mobilization of the Rb-Sr isotopic system during intrusion of the Lamarck Granodiorite (90 Ma); this may represent a regional cooling age. The initial [sup 87]/Sr[sup 86]Sr ratio of the gneiss is 0.7098, i.e., much more evolved than the surrounding plutons which have [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios near 0.706. Sr model ages indicate that the protolith of the gneiss is considerably older than 90 Ma, one such calculation suggests an age of approximately 250 Ma. Single crystals of zircon have been isolated from the gneiss for U-Pb dating, and analytical work on the zircons is presently on-going.

  13. Structural geology and petroleum potential of Long Valley, White Pine County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Pekarek, A.H. )

    1988-10-01

    Sturctures in the Long Valley area result from three orogenies: the first in the middle of the Paleozoic, the second in the latter part of the Mesozoic, and the third in the second half of the Cenozoic. The first two orogenies were compressional, whereas the third was extensional. These three orogenies have produced a variety of structural traps for hydrocarbon accumulation. The complete Paleozoic section in the Long Valley area exceeds 30,000 ft. In the prospect area a minimum of 20,000 ft still has hydrocarbon potential. The Tertiary section is rarely thicker than 8000 ft and is commonly thinner than 3000 ft. Only five wells have been drilled in Long Valley. All five wells had shows of live oil indicating that hydrocarbons are present in the area. The primary petroleum source rock in east central Nevada is the Mississippian Chainman Shale that contains approximately 1,000 ft of organic-rich black shale and is among the best oil parts of the pre-Mississppian formations. Geochemical analyses show that viable source rocksas old as Cambrian are still capable of generating hydrocarbons. Log data show the presence of good sandstone reservoirs in the Chainman and very porous reservoirs in the carbonates of Pennsylvanian, Devonian, and Ordovician age. The carbonate have intergranular, fracture, and vuggy porosity. Permeabilities are quite high, resulting in high flow rates, commonly more than 1,000 BPD. Estimated reserves per 80 acres vary from 1,450,000 barrels in the Joana to more than 5,000,000 barrels in the Pogonip. The potential for large reserves in a field of modest areal extent is obvious.

  14. University and Community College System of Nevada Report on Teacher Education in Nevada. Prepared for the 70th Nevada Legislature (in Accordance with SCR 46, 1997 Session).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ. and Community Coll. System, Reno. Office of the Chancellor.

    This report examines population trends in Nevada and the current and projected capacity of University and Community College System of Nevada (UCCSN) institutions to graduate teachers. After an executive summary and introduction, the first section discusses "Supply and Demand for Teachers in Nevada: The Future," which includes…

  15. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, C.

    2014-09-09

    This report was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) (formerly designated as the Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO]). The new field office designation occurred in March 2013. Published reports cited in this 2013 report, therefore, may bear the name or authorship of NNSA/NSO. This and previous years’ reports, called Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs), Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs), and, beginning in 2010, Nevada National Security Site Environmental Reports (NNSSERs), are posted on the NNSA/NFO website at http://www.nv.energy.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx.

  16. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2003 was prepared by Bechtel Nevada to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy and the information needs of the public. This report is meant to be useful to members of the public, public officials, regulators, and Nevada Test Site contractors. The Executive Summary strives to present in a concise format the purpose of the document, the NTS mission and major programs, a summary of radiological releases and doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of non-radiological releases, and an overview of the Nevada Test Site Environmental Management System. The Executive Summary, combined with the following Compliance Summary, are written to meet all the objectives of the report and to be stand-alone sections for those who choose not to read the entire document.

  17. CCiCap: Sierra Nevada Corporation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA announced today its plans to partner with Sierra Nevada Corp. (SNC) for the next phase of the agency's Commercial Crew Program (CCP). Called Commercial Crew integrated Capability (CCiCap), the...

  18. CCP: Sierra Nevada Captive-Carry Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) Space System's Dream Chaser design passed one of its most complex tests to date with a successful captive-carry test conducted near the Rocky Mountain Metropolitan A...

  19. Acting Administrator Lightfoot Visits Sierra Nevada Corporation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-06

    Acting NASA Administrator Robert Lightfoot is seen as he flies the Dream Chaser Space System simulator, Thursday, April 6, 2017 during a visit to Sierra Nevada Corporation in Louisville, Colo. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  20. Cooperative forestry inventory project for Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, R.

    1981-01-01

    A forest inventory project employing computerized classification of LANDSAT data to inventory vegetation types in western Nevada is described. The methodology and applicability of the resulting survey are summarized.

  1. Geothermal energy in Nevada: development and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The nature of geothermal resources in Nevada and resource applications are discussed. The social and economic advantages of using geothermal energy are outlined. Federal and state programs established to foster the development of geothermal energy are discussed. (MHR)

  2. Sierra Nevada's Dream Chaser Model Assembly

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This time lapse video shows the assembly of a scale model of Sierra Nevada Space Systems' Dream Chaser vehicle. The Dream Chaser model is undergoing final preparations for buffet tests at the Trans...

  3. Sierra Nevada snow melt from SMS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaker, L. C.; Mcmillan, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    A film loop from SMS-2 imagery shows snow melt over the Sierra Nevadas from May 10 to July 8, 1975. The sequence indicates a successful application of geostationary satellite data for monitoring dynamic hydrologic conditions.

  4. Evidence for Discrete and Distributed Deformation Accommodated by Bookshelf Faulting From the Central Sierra Nevada, California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemons, K. M.; Bartley, J.

    2008-12-01

    Evidence for right-lateral strike-slip faulting along the eastern Sierran Nevada has been identified by a number of workers and these offsets at least partially occurred during late Cretaceous arc plutonism. This evidence includes large magnitude dextral offsets across subvertical ~ north striking faults of the Sr - 0.706 line, Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks, and the Independence dike swarm. A portion of this offset occurred across a 110 m thick cataclastic fault zone in the West Pinnacle Creek drainage in the east-central Sierra Nevada (approximately 3 km of dextral offset). The zone of discrete cataclastic faulting is bordered by a region of distributed deformation (i.e., penetrative at map scale) characterized by small-scale cataclastic to protomylonitic sinistral and dextral shear planes within the Turret Peak, Lake Edison, and Lamarck plutons of the Cretaceous John Muir Intrusive Suite. The distributed damage zone east of the West Pinnacle Creek fault (WPCF) was accommodated primarily by antithetic south-southwest striking left-lateral shear planes. Distributed deformation to the west of the discrete zone was accommodated primarily by synthetic north- northeast-striking right-lateral shear planes. Deformation in the distributed region is characterized by a relatively simple architecture of low displacement strike-slip shear fractures. Average shear strain in the antithetic distributed zone was calculated by measuring centimeter to meter-scale offsets of planar markers (e.g., dikes, enclaves, and modal layers) across macroscopic shear planes (n= 71) along a 0.25 km traverse in the Lake Edison pluton (es = 0.052). The distributed zone deformation is manifested strongly within 3 kilometers of the master fault but dies out quickly beyond this distance. Total displacement within the distributed damage zone (0.194 km) is equal to ~6% of the displacement along the WPCF (~3 km). The strain within the damage zone was focused onto pre-existing joints within the

  5. Independents push exploration in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Petzet, G.A.

    1992-04-27

    A busy year is having up for exploration in Nevada. This paper reports that several operators plan rank wildcats and other exploratory tests closer to the state's few producing areas. Pioneer Oil Gas, Salt Lake City, acquired leases in 22n-58e and 23n-58e on the Maverick Springs prospect in White Pine County, Nev. The company the soil gas geochemical surveys resulted in promising indications of propane and butane over the prospect indicative of the presence of hydrocarbons at depth. Pioneer is also seeking industry participation for a 3D seismic survey of its West Grant Canyon prospect in Nye County 5 miles west of prolific Grant Canyon field, which has produced more than 16 million bbl of oil since 1983. A new technique that is an electromagnetic analog to seismic surveying delineated the West Grant Canyon feature.

  6. Shoal, Nevada Site Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    The Shoal Site is situated on 2,560 acres of withdrawn federal lands located within the north-central portion of the Sand Springs Range in Churchill County, Nevada. The town of Fallon is the largest populated area in the region and is about 30 miles northwest of the site. The region around the Shoal Site is sparsely populated; military installations, recreation, ranching, and mining provide the dominant commercial interests. The Project Shoal underground nuclear test was part of the Vela Uniform program sponsored jointly by the U.S Department of Defense and U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Vela Uniform was a research and development program directed toward locating, detecting, and identifying underground detonations. The objective of Project Shoal was to detonate a nuclear device underground in an active seismic area to improve the United States' ability to detect, identify, and locate underground nuclear detonations.

  7. Underground test area quality assurance project plan, Nevada test site, Nevada. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) is one of the planning documents used for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which falls under the oversight of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project (NV ERP). The Nevada ERP consists of environmental restoration activities on the NTS, Tonopah Test Range, Nellis Air Force Range, and eight sites in five other states. The UGTA Subproject constitutes a component of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project. The purposes of the UGTA Subproject are to define boundaries around each Corrective Action Unit (CAU), as defined by the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO), that establish areas containing water that may be unsafe for domestic or municipal use and to establish monitoring programs for each CAU that will verify modeling upon which the boundaries are based.

  8. EnergyFit Nevada (formerly known as the Nevada Retrofit Initiative) final report and technical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Carvill, Anna; Bushman, Kate; Ellsworth, Amy

    2014-06-17

    The EnergyFit Nevada (EFN) Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP, and referred to in this document as the EFN program) currently encourages Nevada residents to make whole-house energy-efficient improvements by providing rebates, financing, and access to a network of qualified home improvement contractors. The BBNP funding, consisting of 34 Energy Efficiency Conservation Block Grants (EECBG) and seven State Energy Program (SEP) grants, was awarded for a three-year period to the State of Nevada in 2010 and used for initial program design and implementation. By the end of first quarter in 2014, the program had achieved upgrades in 553 homes, with an average energy reduction of 32% per home. Other achievements included: Completed 893 residential energy audits and installed upgrades in 0.05% of all Nevada single-family homes1 Achieved an overall conversation rate of 38.1%2 7,089,089 kWh of modeled energy savings3 Total annual homeowner energy savings of approximately $525,7523 Efficiency upgrades completed on 1,100,484 square feet of homes3 $139,992 granted in loans to homeowners for energy-efficiency upgrades 29,285 hours of labor and $3,864,272 worth of work conducted by Nevada auditors and contractors4 40 contractors trained in Nevada 37 contractors with Building Performance Institute (BPI) certification in Nevada 19 contractors actively participating in the EFN program in Nevada 1 Calculated using 2012 U.S. Census data reporting 1,182,870 homes in Nevada. 2 Conversion rate through March 31, 2014, for all Nevada Retrofit Initiative (NRI)-funded projects, calculated using the EFN tracking database. 3 OptiMiser energy modeling, based on current utility rates. 4 This is the sum of $3,596,561 in retrofit invoice value and $247,711 in audit invoice value.

  9. The origin and distribution of HAPs elements in relation to maceral composition of the A1 lignite bed (Paleocene, Calvert Bluff Formation, Wilcox Group), Calvert mine area, east-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, S.S.; Warwick, P.D.; Ruppert, L.F.; Pontolillo, J.

    1997-01-01

    The origin and distribution of twelve potentially Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs; As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb Sb, Se, and U) identified in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments were examined in relation to the maceral composition of the A1 bed (Paleocene, Calvert Bluff Formation, Wilcox Group) of the Calvert mine in east-central Texas. The 3.2 m-thick A1 bed was divided into nine incremental channel samples (7 lignite samples and 2 shaley coal samples) on the basis of megascopic characteristics. Results indicate that As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Sb, and U are strongly correlated with ash yield and are enriched in the shaley coal samples. We infer that these elements are associated with inorganic constituents in the coal bed and may be derived from a penecontemporaneous stream channel located several kilometers southeast of the mining block. Of the HAPs elements studied, Mn and Hg are the most poorly correlated to ash yield. We infer an organic association for Mn; Hg may be associated with pyrite. The rest of the trace elements (Be, Co, and Se) are weakly correlated with ash yield. Further analytical work is necessary to determine the mode of occurrence for these elements. Overall, concentrations of the HAPs elements are generally similar to or less than those reported in previous studies of lignites of the Wilcox Group, east-central region, Texas. Petrographic analysis indicates the following ranges in composition for the seven lignite samples: liptinites (5-8%), huminites (88-95%), and inertinites (trace amounts to 7%). Samples from the middle portion of the A1 bed contain abundant crypto-eugelinite compared to the rest of the samples; this relationship suggests that the degradation of plant material was an important process during the development of the peat mire. With the exception of Hg and Mn, relatively low levels of the HAPs elements studied are found in the samples containing abundant crypto-eugelinite. We infer that the peat-forming environment for this portion

  10. 2. VIEW OF OFFICE OF THE NEVADA LUCKY TIGER MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF OFFICE OF THE NEVADA LUCKY TIGER MILL AND MINE COMPLEX, (FEATURE B-I), FACING NORTH. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Office, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  11. Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan: Annual summary, January 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan published in December of 1998 (DOE/NV--518) describes the Nevada Test Site stewardship mission and how its accomplishment will preserve the resources of the ecoregion while accomplishing the objectives of the mission. As part of the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan, DOE Nevada Operations Office has committed to perform and publish an annual summary review of DOE Nevada Operations' stewardship of the Nevada Test Site. This annual summary includes a description of progress made toward the goals of the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan, pertinent monitoring data, actions that were taken to adapt to changing conditions, and any other changes to the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan.

  12. 77 FR 48948 - Nevada and Placer Counties Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ..., 96161 and at the Tahoe National Forest Headquarters, 631 Coyote St., Nevada City, CA 95959. Written... oral comments must be sent to Ann Westling, 631 Coyote Street, Nevada City, CA, 95959. A summary of the...

  13. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Museum ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Museum EAST (FRONT) FACADE, ORIGINAL CONDITION WITH CUPOLA AND PORCH (no date) - Abraham Curry House, 406 North Nevada Street, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  14. View of the Colorado River Canyon form the Nevada side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the Colorado River Canyon form the Nevada side showing the Nevada rim towers and portions of US 93, view south - Hoover Dam, Spanning Colorado River at Route 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  15. 22. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ARCHITECT'S DRAWINGS, 1869. SECTION AND PLANS OF CUPOLA - Nevada State Capitol, Plaza at Carson Street, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  16. 21. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy: Credit: Nevada State Archives ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy: Credit: Nevada State Archives ARCHITECT'S DRAWINGS, 1869. BASEMENT AND ROOF PLANS - Nevada State Capitol, Plaza at Carson Street, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  17. Petroleum geology of east-central Tunisia

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, W.F.

    1988-09-01

    The tectonic features of Tunisia are complex and include folds, all types of faults, evaporite diapirs, and the Saharan flexure, which separates a stable Paleozoic province on the south from a subsidence zone of Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata of the offshore Ashtart and Tripolitania basins. The remainder of the offshore region is mostly stable shelf of the Pelagian craton, which also extends onshore. The present study focused on this shelf, where two carbonate intervals contain proven hydrocarbon reservoirs: the Metlaoui Formation of earliest Eocene (Ypresian) age and the Zebbag Formation of Late Cretaceous (Turonian) age. 25 figures.

  18. Geochemistry, petrography, and zircon U-Pb geochronology of Paleozoic metaigneous rocks in the Mount Veta area of east-central Alaska: implications for the evolution of the westernmost part of the Yukon-Tanana terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Day, Warren C.; Aleinikoff, John N.

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of new mapping, whole-rock major, minor, and trace-element geochemistry, and petrography for metaigneous rocks from the Mount Veta area in the westernmost part of the allochthonous Yukon–Tanana terrane (YTT) in east-central Alaska. These rocks include tonalitic mylonite gneiss and mafic metaigneous rocks from the Chicken metamorphic complex and the Nasina and Fortymile River assemblages. Whole-rock trace-element data from the tonalitic gneiss, whose igneous protolith was dated by SHRIMP U–Pb zircon geochronology at 332.6 ± 5.6 Ma, indicate derivation from tholeiitic arc basalt. Whole-rock analyses of the mafic rocks suggest that greenschist-facies rocks from the Chicken metamorphic complex, a mafic metavolcanic rock from the Nasina assemblage, and an amphibolite from the Fortymile River assemblage formed as island-arc tholeiite in a back-arc setting; another Nasina assemblage greenschist has MORB geochemical characteristics, and another mafic metaigneous rock from the Fortymile River assemblage has geochemical characteristics of calc-alkaline basalt. Our geochemical results imply derivation in an arc and back-arc spreading region within the allochthonous YTT crustal fragment, as previously proposed for correlative units in other parts of the terrane. We also describe the petrography and geochemistry of a newly discovered tectonic lens of Alpine-type metaharzburgite. The metaharzburgite is interpreted to be a sliver of lithospheric mantle from beneath the Seventymile ocean basin or from sub-continental mantle lithosphere of the allochthonous YTT or the western margin of Laurentia that was tectonically emplaced within crustal rocks during closure of the Seventymile ocean basin and subsequently displaced and fragmented by faults.

  19. Water vapor δ17O measurements using an off-axis integrated cavity output spectrometer and seasonal variation in 17O-excess of precipitation in the east-central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, C.; Wang, L.; Novick, K. A.

    2016-12-01

    High-precision triple oxygen isotope analysis can be used to improve our understanding of multiple hydrological and meteorological processes. Recent studies focus on understanding 17O-excess variation of tropical storms, high-latitude snow and ice-core as well as spatial distribution of meteoric water (tap water). The temporal scale of 17O-excess variation in middle-latitude precipitation is needed to better understand which processes control on the 17O-excess variations. This study focused on assessing how the accuracy and precision of vapor δ17O laser spectroscopy measurements depend on vapor concentration, delta range, and averaging-time. Meanwhile, we presented 17O-excess data from two-year, event based precipitation sampling in the east-central United States. A Triple Water Vapor Isotope Analyzer (T-WVIA) was used to evaluate the accuracy and precision of δ2H, δ18O and δ17O measurements. GISP and SLAP2 from IAEA and four working standards were used to evaluate the sensitivity in the three factors. Overall, the accuracy and precision of all isotope measurements were sensitive to concentration, with higher accuracy and precision generally observed under moderate vapor concentrations (i.e., 10000-15000 ppm) for all isotopes. Precision was also sensitive to the range of delta values, though the effect was not as large when compared to the sensitivity to concentration. The precision was much less sensitive to averaging time when compared with concentration and delta range effects. The preliminary results showed that 17O-excess variation was lower in summer (23±17 per meg) than in winter (34±16 per meg), whereas spring values (30±21 per meg) was similar to fall (29±13 per meg). That means kinetic fractionation influences the isotopic composition and 17O-excess in different seasons.

  20. Biologic overview for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.; O`Farrell, T.P.; Rhoads, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations project study area includes five major vegetation associations characteristic of the transition between the northern extent of the Mojave Desert and the southern extent of the Great Basin Desert. A total of 32 species of reptiles, 66 species of birds, and 46 species of mammals are known to occur within these associations elsewhere on the Nevada Test Site. Ten species of plants, and the mule deer, wild horse, feral burro, and desert tortoise were defined as possible sensitive species because they are protected by federal and state regulations, or are being considered for such protection. The major agricultural resources of southern Nye County included 737,000 acres of public grazing land managed by the Bureau of Land Management, and 9500 acres of irrigated crop land located in the Beatty/Oasis valleys, the Amargosa Valley, and Ash Meadows. Range lands are of poor quality. Alfalfa and cotton are the major crops along with small amounts of grains, Sudan grass, turf, fruits, and melons. The largest impacts to known ecosystems are expected to result from: extensive disturbances associated with construction of roads, seismic lines, drilling pads, and surface facilities; storage and leaching of mined spoils; disposal of water; off-road vehicle travel; and, over several hundred years, elevated soil temperatures. Significant impacts to off-site areas such as Ash Meadows are anticipated if new residential developments are built there to accommodate an increased work force. Several species of concern and their essential habitats are located at Ash Meadows. Available literature contained sufficient baseline information to assess potential impacts of the proposed project on an area-wide basis. It was inadequate to support analysis of potential impacts on specific locations selected for site characterization studies, mining an exploratory shaft, or the siting and operation of a repository.

  1. Magnetotelluric Data, Mid Valley, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Jackie M.; Wallin, Erin L.; Rodriguez, Brian D.; Lindsey, Charles R.; Sampson, Jay A.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing ground-water contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat (YF) to help define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of the pre-Tertiary confining units. We collected 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT), stations for that research. In early 2005 we extended that research with 26 additional MT data stations, located on and near Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain (RM-SM). The new stations extended the area of the hydrogeologic study previously conducted in Yucca Flat. This work was done to help refine what is known about the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal was to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU). The UCCU is comprised of late Devonian to Mississippian siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale. The UCCU underlies the Yucca Flat area and extends westward towards Shoshone Mountain, southward to Buckboard Mesa, and northward to Rainier Mesa. Late in 2005 we collected another 14 MT stations in Mid Valley and in northern Yucca Flat basin. That work was done to better determine the extent and thickness of the UCCU near

  2. Gunion - Nevada`s most innovative geothermal food dehydration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, D.T.; Taylan, G.; Stewart, M.B.; Baker, S.

    1995-12-31

    The Gunion (garlic and onion) dehydration plant, owned and operated by Integrated Ingredients, a Division of Burns Philp Food, Incorporated, uses geothermal fluids at a temperature of 306{degrees}F to dehydrate 50 to 70-thousand pounds per day of garlic and onions. The geothermal fluids are provided by Empire Farms, who has the rights for development of the resource and is the lease holder of fee land known as the Kosmos Lease. The San Emidio KGRA is located in northern Washoe County, 90 miles north-northeast of Reno, Nevada and 20 miles south of Gerlach, Nevada. Geothermal fluids exit the plant at 242{degrees}F and are piped to an injection well located 3,000 feet south-southwest of the plant. The plant location was selected not only for the geothermal resource, but also for the area`s low relative humidity. Currently, 1100-1200 gpm of geothermal fluids, at an inlet temperature of 302{degrees}F, are sufficient to provide the dryer line with ample BTU`s. Three geothermal wells drilled to depths ranging from 493 to 1817 feet produce fluids ranging in temperature from 266 to 306{degrees}F. One well can easily provide the heat required by the dryer line and will be capable of providing heat for a planned three-fold expansion of the facility. The remaining two wells are used as backup, or may be used for other applications such as soil sterilization. The fluid exiting the plant at 242{degrees}F may be cascaded and used for greenhouses and soil warming in the future. Geothermal heat is also used to dehumidify onions placed in the cold storage facility. The dehydration process takes 5-6 hours to dry the product to a 4.5% moisture content. The dried product is then milled to various sizes from powder to granules. The dehydration plant operates 24 hours/day 7 days a week. Currently 80 people are employed full-time at the plant. The dehydrated onion and garlic are used in condiments, soups, sauces and salad dressing.

  3. Geologic framework of thermal springs, Black Canyon, Nevada and Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beard, L. Sue; Anderson, Zachary W.; Felger, Tracey J.; Seixas, Gustav B.

    2014-01-01

    Canyon. Regional cross sections in this report show that thick Paleozoic carbonate aquifer rocks of east-central Nevada do not extend into the Black Canyon area and generally are terminated to the south at a major tectonic boundary defined by the northeast-striking Lake Mead Fault System and the northwest-striking Las Vegas Valley shear zone. Faults to the west of Black Canyon strike dominantly north-south and form a complicated pattern that may inhibit easterly groundwater movement from Eldorado Valley. To the east of Black Canyon, crystalline Proterozoic rocks locally overlain by Tertiary volcanic rocks in the Black Mountains are bounded by steep north-south normal faults. These faults may also inhibit westerly groundwater movement from Detrital Valley toward Black Canyon. Finally, the cross sections show clearly that Proterozoic basement rocks and (or) Tertiary plutonic rocks are shallow in the Black Canyon area (at the surface to a few hundred meters depth) and are cut by several major faults that discharge most of the springs in the Black Canyon. Therefore, the faults most likely provide groundwater pathways to sufficient depths that the groundwater is heated to the observed temperatures of up to 55 °C.

  4. Record of Technical Change - Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2005-04-13

    Record of Technical Change, Technical Change No. CAP-1, dated April 13, 2005 for Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0, September 2004, DOE/NV--1003.

  5. MX Siting Investigation. Gravity Survey - Southern White River Valley, Nevada.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-22

    included gravity surveys in ten valleys in Arizona (five), Nevada (two), New Mexico (two), and California (one). The gravity data were obtained for...Verification Sites, Nevada-Utah Siting Region, FN-TR-36. , 1980, Active Faults and Eartquake Hazards in the FY 79 Verification sites, Nevada-Utah Siting

  6. 40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1477 Nevada...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1477 Nevada...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1477 Nevada...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1477 Nevada...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1477 Nevada...

  11. 7. Detail, 1885 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map, Carlin, Nevada, in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail, 1885 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map, Carlin, Nevada, in collection of Nevada Historical Society, Reno; credit Nevada Historical Society. Engine Stores Building is adjacent to R.R. Repair Shop, and is shown containing Library, Cooper Shop, Office, Ware Room, and Boiler & Engine Room. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  12. 8. Detail, 1897 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map, Carlin, Nevada, in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail, 1897 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map, Carlin, Nevada, in collection of Nevada Historical Society, Reno; credit Nevada Historical Society. Former Library in Engine Stores Building is now vacant Oil House is now in place, shown as corrugated iron cladding on frame. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  13. 76 FR 19787 - Filing of Plats of Survey; Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ...] Filing of Plats of Survey; Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... of the filing of Plats of Survey in Nevada. DATES: Effective Dates: Filing is effective at 10 a.m. on... INFORMATION: 1. The Plat of Survey of the following described lands was officially filed at the Nevada...

  14. 76 FR 41820 - Filing of Plats of Survey; Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ...] Filing of Plats of Survey; Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... of the filing of Plats of Survey in Nevada. DATES: Effective Dates: Filing is effective at 10 a.m. on... INFORMATION: 1. The Plat of Survey of the following described lands was officially filed at the Nevada...

  15. 75 FR 9428 - Filing of Plats of Survey; Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ...] Filing of Plats of Survey; Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... of the filing of Plats of Survey in Nevada. DATES: Effective Dates: Filing is effective at 10 a.m. on... 12000, Reno, Nevada 89520, 775- 861-6541. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 1. The Plat of Survey of...

  16. Ecosystem stressors in southern Nevada [Chapter 2] (Executive Summary)

    Treesearch

    Burton K. Pendleton; Jeanne C. Chambers; Matthew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada ecosystems are subject to a number of stressors that range in scope from local to regional to global. At the regional scale, human population growth and related activities constitute a major stressor. Nevada has undergone significant change due to unprecedented population growth and ongoing global change processes. Nevada’s growth rate has been the...

  17. 76 FR 53664 - Nevada and Placer Counties Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... Forest Service Nevada and Placer Counties Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Nevada and Placer Counties Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will... lands in Nevada and Placer Counties. DATES: The meeting will be held Friday, September 16, 2011 at 10...

  18. 40 CFR 282.78 - Nevada State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nevada State-Administered Program. 282... (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.78 Nevada State-Administered Program. (a) The State of Nevada is approved to administer and enforce an underground storage...

  19. 75 FR 19656 - Filing of Plats of Survey; Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...; 10-08807; MO 4500012873; TAS: 14X1109] Filing of Plats of Survey; Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land... interested State and local government officials of the filing of Plats of Survey in Nevada. DATES: Effective...: David D. Morlan, Chief, Branch of Geographic Sciences, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Nevada...

  20. 40 CFR 282.78 - Nevada State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nevada State-Administered Program. 282... (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.78 Nevada State-Administered Program. (a) The State of Nevada is approved to administer and enforce an underground storage...

  1. 76 FR 53664 - Nevada and Placer Counties Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... Forest Service Nevada and Placer Counties Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Nevada and Placer Counties Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will... lands in Nevada and Placer Counties. DATES: The meeting will be held Tuesday, September 20, 2011 at 10...

  2. 75 FR 70200 - Nevada and Placer Counties Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Forest Service Nevada and Placer Counties Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The Nevada and Placer Counties Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in Nevada City, California. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural...

  3. 40 CFR 282.78 - Nevada State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nevada State-Administered Program. 282... (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.78 Nevada State-Administered Program. (a) The State of Nevada is approved to administer and enforce an underground storage...

  4. 77 FR 6141 - Filing of Plats of Survey; Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ...] Filing of Plats of Survey; Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... of the filing of Plats of Survey in Nevada. DATES: Effective Dates: Filing is effective at 10 a.m. on... Geographic Sciences, Bureau of Land Management, Nevada State Office, 1340 Financial Blvd., P.O. Box...

  5. 76 FR 53665 - Nevada and Placer Counties Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... Forest Service Nevada and Placer Counties Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Nevada and Placer Counties Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in Nevada City, California. The committee is authorized under the Secure Rural Schools...

  6. 77 FR 24218 - Filing of Plats of Survey; Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ...] Filing of Plats of Survey; Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... of the filing of Plats of Survey in Nevada. DATES: Effective Dates: Filing is effective at 10 a.m. on... Geographic Sciences, Bureau of Land Management, Nevada State Office, 1340 Financial Blvd., Reno, NV...

  7. 40 CFR 282.78 - Nevada State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nevada State-Administered Program. 282... (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.78 Nevada State-Administered Program. (a) The State of Nevada is approved to administer and enforce an underground storage...

  8. 40 CFR 282.78 - Nevada State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nevada State-Administered Program. 282... (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.78 Nevada State-Administered Program. (a) The State of Nevada is approved to administer and enforce an underground storage...

  9. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Idaho Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter C in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lund, Karen; Zürcher, Lukas; Hofstra, Albert H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Box, Stephen E.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; John, David A.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Idaho SFA, which extends from east-central to south-central Idaho. The geologically complex area is composed of many different rock units that locally contain potential mineral resources.

  10. Regional potentiometric-surface map of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system in Snake Valley and surrounding areas, Juab, Millard, and Beaver Counties, Utah, and White Pine and Lincoln Counties, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, Philip M.; Masbruch, Melissa D.; Plume, Russell W.; Buto, Susan G.

    2011-01-01

    Water-level measurements from 190 wells were used to develop a potentiometric-surface map of the east-central portion of the regional Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system in and around Snake Valley, eastern Nevada and western Utah. The map area covers approximately 9,000 square miles in Juab, Millard, and Beaver Counties, Utah, and White Pine and Lincoln Counties, Nevada. Recent (2007-2010) drilling by the Utah Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey has provided new data for areas where water-level measurements were previously unavailable. New water-level data were used to refine mapping of the pathways of intrabasin and interbasin groundwater flow. At 20 of these locations, nested observation wells provide vertical hydraulic gradient data and information related to the degree of connection between basin-fill aquifers and consolidated-rock aquifers. Multiple-year water-level hydrographs are also presented for 32 wells to illustrate the aquifer system's response to interannual climate variations and well withdrawals.

  11. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Nevada Test Site, Mercury, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Test Site (NTS), conducted June 22 through July 10, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the NTS. The Survey covers all environment media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations and activities performed at the NTS, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by the Battelle Columbus Division under contract with DOE. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the NTS Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the NTS Survey. 165 refs., 42 figs., 52 tabs.

  12. Compilation of modal analyses of volcanic rocks from the Nevada Test Site area, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Page, W.R.

    1990-10-01

    Volcanic rock samples collected from the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, between 1960 and 1985 were analyzed by thin section to obtain petrographic mode data. In order to provide rapid accessibility to the entire database, all data from the cards were entered into a computerized database. This computer format will enable workers involved in stratigraphic studies in the Nevada Test Site area and other locations in southern Nevada to perform independent analyses of the data. The data were compiled from the mode cards into two separate computer files. The first file consists of data collected from core samples taken from drill holes in the Yucca Mountain area. The second group of samples were collected from measured sections and surface mapping traverses in the Nevada Test Site area. Each data file is composed of computer printouts of tables with mode data from thin section point counts, comments on additional data, and location data. Tremendous care was taken in transferring the data from the cards to computer, in order to preserve the original information and interpretations provided by the analyzer. In addition to the data files above, a file is included that consists of Nevada Test Site petrographic data published in other US Geological Survey and Los Alamos National Laboratory reports. These data are presented to supply the user with an essentially complete modal database of samples from the volcanic stratigraphic section in the Nevada Test Site area. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  13. United States Geological Survey, programs in Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been collecting and interpreting natural-resources data in Nevada for more than 100 years. This long-term commitment enables planners to manage better the resources of a State noted for paradoxes. Although Nevada is one of the most sparsely populated States in the Nation, it has the fastest growing population (fig. 1). Although 90 percent of the land is rural, it is the fourth most urban State. Nevada is the most arid State and relies heavily on water resources. Historically, mining and agriculture have formed the basis of the economy; now tourism and urban development also have become important. The USGS works with more than 40 local, State, and other Federal agencies in Nevada to provide natural-resources information for immediate and long-term decisions.Subjects included in this fact sheet:Low-Level Radioactive-Waste DisposalMining and Water in the Humboldt BasinAquifer Systems in the Great BasinWater Allocation in Truckee and Carson BasinsNational Water-Quality Assessment ProgramMinerals Assessment for Land ManagementIrrigation DrainageGround-Water Movement at Nevada Test SiteOil and Gas ResourcesNational Mapping ProgramDigital Mapping and Aerial PhotographyCollection of Hydrologlc DataGeologic MappingEarthquake HazardsAssessing Mineral Resources of the SubsurfaceEarth Observation DataCooperative Programs

  14. Early Triassic geologic history of northeastern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Paull, R.K.; Paull, R.A.

    1986-08-01

    Conodont biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic studies of Lower Triassic rocks in northeastern Elko County, Nevada, and adjacent parts of Idaho and Utah provide new information about regional geologic history. A sequential summary of Early Triassic events in this area follows: (1) rapid transgression of the Griesbachian sea to limiting barriers on the south (Oquirrh-Uinta axis) and west (Humboldt highland.). (2) Although the initial Triassic transgression may have persisted farther south and west than present-day evidence indicates, a period of progradation during the Dienerian limited marine sedimentation to northeastern-most Nevada and adjacent states. (3) In Smithian time, a widespread transgression spilled south and west over the earliest Triassic basin margin. (4) The southward flood is characterized by locally spectacular basal conglomerates followed by shallow marine deposits of the Thaynes Formation. (5) The transgression to the west was facilitated by tectonic removal of the restrictive barrier during the Smithian. This resulted in a slope-basin environment that accumulated a thick sequence of shale and calcareous siltstone with interbeds of turbidite conglomerates, olistostromes, and exotic blocks derived from Permian formations in northern Nevada or adjacent Idaho. (6) During a regional progradation in early Spathian time, marine conditions persisted in northeastern Nevada. (7) A final depositional episode is documented by the progressive westward spread of carbonate rocks of the Thaynes Formation. (8) Withdrawal of Triassic seas from northeast Nevada occurred post-latest Early Triassic, since a carbonate sequence of more than 300 m overlies the youngest dated interval.

  15. The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership Science and Research Synthesis: Science to support land management in Southern Nevada

    Treesearch

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Matthew L. Brooks; Burton K. Pendleton; Carol B. Raish

    2013-01-01

    This synthesis provides information related to the Southern Nevada Agency Partnership (SNAP) Science and Research Strategy Goal 1 - to restore, sustain and enhance southern Nevada’s ecosystems - and Goal 2 - to provide for responsible use of southern Nevada’s lands in a manner that preserves heritage resources and promotes an understanding of human interaction with the...

  16. The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership Science and Research Synthesis: Science to support land management in Southern Nevada - Executive Summary

    Treesearch

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Matthew L. Brooks; Burton K. Pendleton; Carol B. Raish

    2013-01-01

    This synthesis provides information related to the Southern Nevada Agency Partnership (SNAP) Science and Research Strategy Goal 1 - to restore, sustain and enhance southern Nevada’s ecosystems - and Goal 2 - to provide for responsible use of southern Nevada’s lands in a manner that preserves heritage resources and promotes an understanding of human interaction with the...

  17. Nevada Education Law: Federal and State Law Governing Nevada K-12 Education in Question/Answer Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Richard F.; Cockerill, Charles P.

    This book provides answers to the most common legal questions of Nevada's school board members, administrators, and educators. Chapter 1, "The Nevada School System: Governance, Programs, and Standards," explores the constitutional, legal, and statutory basis of school system governance. Chapter 2, "The Nevada Plan: Finance of Public…

  18. Nevada Education Law: Federal and State Law Governing Nevada K-12 Education in Question/Answer Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Richard F.; Cockerill, Charles P.

    This book provides answers to the most common legal questions of Nevada's school board members, administrators, and educators. Chapter 1, "The Nevada School System: Governance, Programs, and Standards," explores the constitutional, legal, and statutory basis of school system governance. Chapter 2, "The Nevada Plan: Finance of Public…

  19. Nevada Test Site Wetlands Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    D. J. Hansen

    1997-05-01

    This report identifies 16 Nevada Test Site (NTS) natural water sources that may be classified by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as jurisdictional wetlands and identifies eight water sources that may be classified as waters of the United States. These water sources are rare, localized habitats on the NTS that are important to regional wildlife and to isolated populations of water tolerant plants and aquatic organisms. No field investigations on the NTS have been conducted in the past to identify those natural water sources which would be protected as rare habitats and which may fall under regulatory authority of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1997. This report identifies and summarizes previous studies of NTS natural water sources, and identifies the current DOE management practices related to the protection of NTS wetlands. This report also presents management goals specific for NTS wetlands that incorporate the intent of existing wetlands legislation, the principles of ecosystem management, and the interests of regional land managers and other stakeholders.

  20. Geothermal heating for Caliente, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, F.; Schaper, J.

    1981-02-01

    Utilization of geothermal resources in the town of Caliente, Nevada (population 600) has been the objective of two grants. The first grant was awarded to Ferg Wallis, part-owner and operator of the Agua Caliente Trailer Park, to assess the potential of hot geothermal water for heating the 53 trailers in his park. The results from test wells indicate sustainable temperatures of 140/sup 0/ to 160/sup 0/F. Three wells were drilled to supply all 53 trailers with domestic hot water heating, 11 trailers with space heating and hot water for the laundry from the geothermal resource. System payback in terms of energy cost-savings is estimated at less than two years. The second grant was awarded to Grover C. Dils Medical Center in Caliente to drill a geothermal well and pipe the hot water through a heat exchanger to preheat air for space heating. This geothermal preheater served to convert the existing forced air electric furnace to a booster system. It is estimated that the hospital will save an average of $5300 in electric bills per year, at the current rate of $.0275/KWH. This represents a payback of approximately two years. Subsequent studies on the geothermal resource base in Caliente and on the economics of district heating indicate that geothermal may represent the most effective supply of energy for Caliente. Two of these studies are included as appendices.

  1. Hydrology of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Fabryka-Martin, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, located in southern Nevada in the Mojave Desert, is being considered as a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Although the site is arid, previous studies indicate net infiltration rates of 5-10 mm yr-1 under current climate conditions. Unsaturated flow of water through the mountain generally is vertical and rapid through the fractures of the welded tuffs and slow through the matrix of the nonwelded tuffs. The vitric-zeolitic boundary of the nonwelded tuffs below the potential repository, where it exists, causes perching and substantial lateral flow that eventually flows through faults near the eastern edge of the potential repository and recharges the underlying groundwater system. Fast pathways are located where water flows relatively quickly through the unsaturated zone to the water table. For the bulk of the water a large part of the travel time from land surface to the potential repository horizon (~300 m below land surface) is through the interlayered, low fracture density, nonwelded tuff where flow is predominately through the matrix. The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being modeled using a three-dimensional, dual-continuum numerical model to predict the results of measurements and observations in new boreholes and excavations. The interaction between experimentalists and modelers is providing confidence in the conceptual model and the numerical model and is providing researchers with the ability to plan further testing and to evaluate the usefulness or necessity of further data collection.

  2. The Nevada mental health courts.

    PubMed

    Palermo, George B

    2010-01-01

    The deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill which started in the 1960s greatly contributed to the overcrowding of judicial systems throughout the world. In the ensuing years, the actors involved in the adversarial system present in United States courts, a system that is primarily interested in assessing the culpability of the offender, have come to realize that the system is lacking therapeutic and reintegrative approaches to offenders, especially those who are mentally ill. Therapeutic jurisprudence, an interdisciplinary science, addresses this problematic situation of the mentally ill. It offers a fresh insight into the potentially beneficial and detrimental effects of legal decisions and views one of the roles of law as that of a healing agent. At present, many states have instituted mental health courts based on these concepts, incorporating previous drug court experiences. Their goal is to avoid the criminalization of the mentally ill and their recidivism through the creation of special programs. This article describes the mental health court programs of Washoe County and Clark County, Nevada, their organization, their therapeutic goals, and their success in keeping mentally ill offenders out of the correctional system, while improving their mental condition. In so doing, the program has lightened the load of the overburdened courts and has greatly diminished the financial burden incurred for court trials and jail and prison stays.

  3. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-09-03

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  4. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-01-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  5. Acting Administrator Lightfoot Visits Sierra Nevada Corporation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-06

    Associate administrator of NASA's Office of International and Interagency Relations Al Condes, left, acting NASA Deputy Administrator Lesa Roe, second from left, and acting NASA Administrator Robert Lightfoot, center, listen as Jude Vrazel, a senior systems engineer at Sierra Nevada Corporation, right, discusses the Vehicle Avionics Integration Lab (VAIL), Thursday, April 6, 2017 during a visit to Sierra Nevada Corporation in Louisville, Colo. Sierra Nevada Corporation, with their Dream Chaser Cargo System, was one of three companies to be awarded Commercial Resupply Services (CRS-2) contracts designed to obtain cargo delivery services to the space station, disposal of unneeded cargo, and the return of research samples and other cargo from the station back to NASA. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  6. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy A. Wills

    2009-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) 2008 was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years’ NTSERs are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx.

  7. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

    2007-08-09

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

  8. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-10-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  9. SWEETWATER ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, George L.; Lambeth, Robert H.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral surveys of the Sweetwater Roadless Area, located on the east side of the central Sierra Nevada in California and Nevada, were conducted. On the basis of these investigations, the roadless area has probable and substantiated resource potential for gold, silver, copper, iron, molybdenum, and tungsten. If undiscovered resources are present, they are likely to be of the epithermal-vein and disseminated precious-metal (silver, gold), disseminated molybdenum porphyry, or contact-metasomatic (iron, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, gold) types. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources.

  10. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy A. Wills

    2009-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) 2008 was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years’ NTSERs are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx.

  11. Colloid research for the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, E.A.

    1992-05-01

    Research is needed to understand the role of particulates in the migration of radionuclides away from the sites of nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. The process of testing itself may produce a reservoir of particles to serve as vectors for the transport of long-lived radionuclides in groundwater. Exploratory experiments indicate the presence of numerous particulates in the vicinity of the Cambric test but a much lower loading in a nearby well that has been pumped continuously for 15 years. Recent groundwater colloid research is briefly reviewed to identify sampling and characterization methods that may be applicable at the Nevada Test Site.

  12. 76 FR 18921 - Land Disposal Restrictions: Nevada and California; Site Specific Treatment Variances for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... variance to U.S. Ecology Nevada (USEN) in Beatty, Nevada and to withdraw an existing site-specific.... Ecology Nevada located in Beatty, Nevada and to Chemical Waste Management, Inc. located in Kettleman Hills...-Bearing Waste II. Basis for This Determination III. Development of This Variance A. U.S. Ecology Nevada...

  13. 77 FR 21896 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Nevada; Regional Haze...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... Agencies in Addressing Regional Haze D. Lawsuits V. EPA's Analysis of Nevada's RH SIP A. Affected Class I... ``Nevada Regional Haze State Implementation Plan'' (Nevada RH SIP) to EPA Region 9 with a letter dated November 18, 2009. The Nevada RH SIP was complete by operation of law on May 18, 2010. Nevada...

  14. 76 FR 10914 - Notice of Public Meetings: Mojave-Southern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council, Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet in Las Vegas, Nevada. The meetings are open to the public. Dates..., Las Vegas, Nevada; July 21, 2011, at the BLM Southern Nevada District Office, 4701 N. Torrey Pines Dr., Las Vegas, Nevada; and September 22, 2011, at the BLM Southern Nevada District Office, 4701 N....

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 396: Area 20 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 396, Area 20 Spill Sites, is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 396 is listed in Appendix II of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 and consists of the following four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 20 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 20-25-01, Oil Spills (2); CAS 20-25-02, Oil Spills; CAS 20-25-03, Oil Spill; CAS 20-99-08, Spill. Closure activities for CAU 396 were conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 396.

  16. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 528: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS CONTAMINATION NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2006-09-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed at CAU 528, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, as presented in the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (US. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSAINSO], 2005). The approved closure alternative was closure in place with administrative controls. This CR provides a summary of the completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and analytical data to confirm that the remediation goals were met.

  17. Experimental Infrasound Studies in Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrin, E. T.; Negraru, P. T.; Golden, P.; Williams, A.

    2009-12-01

    An experimental propagation study was carried out in Nevada in June 2009 on Julian days 173-177. During this field experiment we deployed 16 single channel digital infrasound recorders to monitor the munitions disposal activities near Hawthorne, NV. The sensors were deployed in a single line and placed approximately 12 km apart at distances ranging from 2 to 177 km. A four element semi-permanent infrasound array named FNIAR was installed approximately 154 km north of the detonation site in line with the individual temporary recorders. Tropospheric arrivals were observed during all days of the experiment, but during day 176 the observed arrivals had very large amplitudes. A large signal was observed at 58 km from the detonation site with amplitude as large as 4 Pascals, while at 94 km no signal was observed. At FNIAR the amplitude of the tropospheric arrival was 1 Pascal. During this day meteorological data acquired in the propagation path showed a strong jet stream to the north. On day 177 we were not able to identify tropospheric arrivals beyond 34 km, but at stations beyond 152 km we observed stratospheric arrivals. Continuous monitoring of these signals at FNIAR shows that stratospheric arrivals are the most numerous. In a two month period, from 06/15/2009 to 08/15/2009 there were 35 operational days at the Hawthorne disposal facility resulting in 212 explosions with known origin times. Based on the celerity values there were 115 explosions that have only stratospheric arrivals (celerities of 300-275 m/s), 72 explosions with both tropospheric (celerities above 330 m/s) and stratospheric arrivals, 20 explosions that were not detected and five explosions that have only tropospheric arrivals.

  18. U-Pb geochronology of modern river sands from the flat-slab segment of the southern central Andes, Argentina, 29-31°S: Implications for Neogene foreland and hinterland basin evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capaldi, T.; Horton, B. K.; McKenzie, R.; Stockli, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates how Andean river sediments in the flat-slab segment of western Argentina record active mixing of lithologically and geochemically distinct source regions comprising the Principal Cordillera, Frontal Cordillera, Precordillera fold-thrust belt, Sierras Pampeanas basement uplifts, and recycled Neogene basin fill. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological results for modern river sands discriminate variations from hinterland source regions, through river tributaries and main trunks of the Bermejo, Jachal, San Juan, and Mendoza rivers, and their respective fluvial megafans within the active foreland basin. Proportions of proximal zircon populations in the hinterland trunk rivers (with extensive Permian-Triassic and Cenozoic igneous exposures) diminish downstream with progressive contributions from the frontal Precordillera fold-thrust belt (dominantly Paleozoic sedimentary rocks) and Pampean basement uplifts. However, this systematic downstream dilution is perturbed in several catchments by significant recycling of older foreland basin fill. The degree of recycling depends on the position and extent of Oligocene-Pliocene exposures within the catchments. To discern the effects of the variable detrital zircon sources, multiple statistical methods are utilized. Quantitative comparisons suggest that variations in detrital zircon age distributions among the modern sands, and with older foreland basin fill and exposed bedrock, are dependent on spatial and temporal variations in exhumation and drainage network evolution within their respective Andean catchments. The present surface area of competing source regions and the configuration of hinterland tributary rivers largely dictate the degree of downstream dilution and/or recycling. This study provides a modern analogue and baseline for reconstructing Neogene shifts in foreland basin provenance, depositional systems, and drainage configurations during a critical transition to flat-slab subduction.

  19. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 540: Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, Lloyd

    2006-10-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 540: Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the 'Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 540 is located within Areas 12 and 19 of the Nevada Test Site and is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 12-44-01, ER 12-1 Well Site Release; CAS 12-99-01, Oil Stained Dirt; CAS 19-25-02, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-04, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-05, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-06, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-07, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-08, Oil Spills (3); and CAS 19-44-03, U-19bf Drill Site Release. The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting recommendations of no further action for the CASs within CAU 540. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: (1) Reviewed the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination; (2) Performed closure activities to address the presence of substances regulated by 'Nevada Administrative Code' 445A.2272 (NAC, 2002); and (3) Documented Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 540 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  20. Nevada`s energy research strategy. Progress report, September 30, 1991--September 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    McNelis, D.N.

    1992-10-01

    This document was produced by the University and Community College System of Nevada (UCCSN) under a grant from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Research as part of the DOE-Experimental Program for the Simulation of Competitive Research (DOE-EPSCoR). The document develops Nevada`s strategies for the UCCSN to broaden and deepen energy-related research over the next five years in hydrology sciences, environmental biology and chemistry, chemical physics, and global change. A strategy was also developed to support energy-related research with education and human resources in science, math and engineering. A key concept of these strategies is continued success under the DOE-EPSCOR program. Participation in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Basic Energy Science and Global Climate Change programs in collaboration with the Nevada Test Site and DOE multi-program laboratories is also part of Nevada`s strategy for success in energy-related research.