Science.gov

Sample records for hiper baseline target

  1. FST-technologies for high rep-rate production of HiPER scale cryogenic targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, I. V.; Belolipetskiy, A. A.; Kalabuhov, V. A.; Koresheva, E. R.; Koshelev, E. L.; Kutergin, A. I.; Nikitenko, A. I.; Osipov, I. E.; Panina, L. V.; Safronov, A. I.; Timasheva, T. P.; Timofeev, I. D.; Usachev, G. S.; Chtcherbakov, V. I.; Tolley, M.; Edwards, C.; Spindloe, C.

    2011-06-01

    The target factory of an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power plant (or reactor) must supply the targets with a rate of 1-10 Hz including their injection and transport through the chamber. HiPER is a proposed European High Power laser Energy Research facility dedicated to demonstrate the feasibility of laser driven fusion for IFE reactor. The work of HiPER facility requires formation & delivery of cryogenic free-standing targets with a rate of more than 1 Hz. To meet these requirements, an approach to fuel layering based on conduction cooling of a batch of moving spherical targets has been developed at the Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI). The approach demands to use free-standing targets in each production step: fuel filling, fuel layering, target characterization and injection. In this report, the expert results on the development of a specialized layering module prototype for a high reprate FST formation of HiPER cryogenic targets are presented.

  2. A specialized layering module for high rep-rate production of free standing HiPER targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, I.; Belolipetskiy, A.; Koresheva, E.; Koshelev, E.; Malinina, E.; Mitina, L.; Panina, L.; Chtcherbakov, V.; Tolley, M.; Edwards, C.; Spindloe, C.

    2013-11-01

    The target supply system is a necessary requirement for fueling a future energy source (reactor) with a high rep-rate: 0.1-10 Hz. At the Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI), significant progress has been made in the technology based on rapid fuel layering inside moving free-standing targets that is referred to as FST (Free-Standing Targets) layering method. This allows creating a continuously or repeatable operating FST supply system, the development of which at LPI dates back to 1980s. Therefore, the LPI is in the position to propose the use of FST technologies for HiPER facility operation (conceptual design and prototype realization). Here we report on our most significant results on the development of a specialized layering module prototype for repeatable formation of HiPER free-standing cryogenic targets.

  3. The HiPER Experimental Road Map

    SciTech Connect

    Batani, D.; Baton, S.; Badziak, J.; Davies, J.; Gizzi, L.; Hallo, L.; Norreys, P.; Roth, M.; Santos, J.; Tickhoncuk, V.; Woolsey, N.

    2010-02-02

    WP10 is one of the working packages of the HiPER project and it has the goal of addressing, in a systematic and programmatic way, some of the key experimental uncertainties on the way towards fast ignition (and shock ignition) in a perspective of risk reduction, so to contribute to the definition of the basic characteristics of the HiPER project. The paper describes the key points contained in the short term HiPER experimental road map, as well as the results of two first experiments performed in 'HiPER dedicated time slots' in European Laser Facilities.

  4. HiPER Tritium factory elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, Didier

    2011-06-01

    HiPER will include a Tritium target factory. This presentation is an overview. We start from process ideas to go to first sketch passing through safety principles. We will follow the Tritium management process. We need first a gas factory producing the right gas mixture from hydrogen, Deuterium and Tritium storage. Then we could pass through the target factory. It is based on our LMJ single shot experiment and some new development like the injector. Then comes pellet burst and vapour recovery. The Tritium factory has to include the waste recovery, recycling process with gas purification before storage. At least, a nuclear plant is not a classical building. Tritium is also very special... All the design ideas have to be adapted. Many facilities are necessary, some with redundancy. We all have to well known these constraints. Tritium budget will be a major contributor for a material point of view as for a financial one.

  5. Prototyping of the ILC Baseline Positron Target

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, J; Brooksby, C; Piggott, T; Abbott, R; Javedani, J; Cook, E

    2012-02-29

    The ILC positron system uses novel helical undulators to create a powerful photon beam from the main electron beam. This beam is passed through a titanium target to convert it into electron-positron pairs. The target is constructed as a 1 m diameter wheel spinning at 2000 RPM to smear the 1 ms ILC pulse train over 10 cm. A pulsed flux concentrating magnet is used to increase the positron capture efficiency. It is cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures to maximize the flatness of the magnetic field over the 1 ms ILC pulse train. We report on prototyping effort on this system.

  6. Modelling the thermomechanical behaviour of the tungsten first wall in HiPER laser fusion scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garoz, D.; Páramo, A. R.; Rivera, A.; Perlado, J. M.; González-Arrabal, R.

    2016-12-01

    The behaviour of a tungsten first wall is studied under the irradiation conditions predicted for the different operational scenarios of the European laser fusion project HiPER, which is based on direct drive targets and an evacuated dry wall chamber. The scenarios correspond to different stages in the development of a nuclear fusion reactor, from proof of principle (bunch mode facility) to economic feasibility (pre-commercial power plant). This work constitutes a quantitative study to evaluate first wall performance under realistic irradiation conditions in the different scenarios. We calculated the radiation fluxes assuming the geometrical configurations reported so far for HiPER. Then, we calculated the irradiation-induced evolution of first wall temperature and the thermomechanical response of the material. The results indicate that the first wall will plastically deform up to a few microns underneath the surface. Continuous operation in a power plant leads to fatigue failure with crack generation and growth. Finally, crack propagation and the minimum tungsten thickness required to fulfil the first wall protection role is studied. The response of tungsten as a first wall material as well as its main limitations will be discussed for the HiPER scenarios.

  7. Search and target acquisition: single line of sight versus wide baseline stereo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Wendell R.; Heath, Garrett D.; Phillips, Michael D.; Valeton, J. M.; Toet, Alexander

    2001-09-01

    This study investigates observer performance in visual search and target detection tasks for two different conditions of image viewing: binocular viewing of single line of sight images versus stereoscopic display of wide baseline stereo images. A multiple baseline imagery database was obtained during a field test. The targets were personnel wearing forest camouflage uniforms. They were arrayed at two rural terrain sites. The weather condition at the first site was clear to partly cloudy and at the second site overcast with light rain. The preliminary analysis of the first site database indicated that wide baseline stereo can improve search and target acquisition, but that the baseline used was too wide for many of the closer targets at that site. The database from the second site was then analyzed through observer testing, with single line of sight and wide baseline stereo displays. The results indicate that with training, stereo vision effectively reduces false alarm detection by a factor of 2. Additionally, guidelines are obtained for optimum stereo display that can be used to improve positive target detection by 20%.

  8. Baseline and Target Values for PV Forecasts: Toward Improved Solar Power Forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Lu, Siyuan; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Lehman, Brad; Simmons, Joseph; Campos, Edwin; Banunarayanan, Venkat

    2015-10-05

    Accurate solar power forecasting allows utilities to get the most out of the solar resources on their systems. To truly measure the improvements that any new solar forecasting methods can provide, it is important to first develop (or determine) baseline and target solar forecasting at different spatial and temporal scales. This paper aims to develop baseline and target values for solar forecasting metrics. These were informed by close collaboration with utility and independent system operator partners. The baseline values are established based on state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models and persistence models. The target values are determined based on the reduction in the amount of reserves that must be held to accommodate the uncertainty of solar power output.

  9. Translating Genetic Research into Preventive Intervention: The Baseline Target Moderated Mediator Design.

    PubMed

    Howe, George W; Beach, Steven R H; Brody, Gene H; Wyman, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss a novel research approach, the baseline target moderated mediation (BTMM) design, that holds substantial promise for advancing our understanding of how genetic research can inform prevention research. We first discuss how genetically informed research on developmental psychopathology can be used to identify potential intervention targets. We then describe the BTMM design, which employs moderated mediation within a longitudinal study to test whether baseline levels of intervention targets moderate the impact of the intervention on change in that target, and whether change in those targets mediates causal impact of preventive or treatment interventions on distal health outcomes. We next discuss how genetically informed BTMM designs can be applied to both microtrials and full-scale prevention trials. We use simulated data to illustrate a BTMM, and end with a discussion of some of the advantages and limitations of this approach.

  10. Translating Genetic Research into Preventive Intervention: The Baseline Target Moderated Mediator Design

    PubMed Central

    Howe, George W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Brody, Gene H.; Wyman, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss a novel research approach, the baseline target moderated mediation (BTMM) design, that holds substantial promise for advancing our understanding of how genetic research can inform prevention research. We first discuss how genetically informed research on developmental psychopathology can be used to identify potential intervention targets. We then describe the BTMM design, which employs moderated mediation within a longitudinal study to test whether baseline levels of intervention targets moderate the impact of the intervention on change in that target, and whether change in those targets mediates causal impact of preventive or treatment interventions on distal health outcomes. We next discuss how genetically informed BTMM designs can be applied to both microtrials and full-scale prevention trials. We use simulated data to illustrate a BTMM, and end with a discussion of some of the advantages and limitations of this approach. PMID:26779062

  11. Baseline and target values for regional and point PV power forecasts: Toward improved solar forecasting

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri -Mathias; Lu, Siyuan; ...

    2015-11-10

    Accurate solar photovoltaic (PV) power forecasting allows utilities to reliably utilize solar resources on their systems. However, to truly measure the improvements that any new solar forecasting methods provide, it is important to develop a methodology for determining baseline and target values for the accuracy of solar forecasting at different spatial and temporal scales. This paper aims at developing a framework to derive baseline and target values for a suite of generally applicable, value-based, and custom-designed solar forecasting metrics. The work was informed by close collaboration with utility and independent system operator partners. The baseline values are established based onmore » state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models and persistence models in combination with a radiative transfer model. The target values are determined based on the reduction in the amount of reserves that must be held to accommodate the uncertainty of PV power output. The proposed reserve-based methodology is a reasonable and practical approach that can be used to assess the economic benefits gained from improvements in accuracy of solar forecasting. Lastly, the financial baseline and targets can be translated back to forecasting accuracy metrics and requirements, which will guide research on solar forecasting improvements toward the areas that are most beneficial to power systems operations.« less

  12. Over Target Baseline: Lessons Learned from the NASA SLS Booster Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Truman J.

    2016-01-01

    Goal of the presentation is to teach, and then model, the steps necessary to implement an Over Target Baseline (OTB). More than a policy and procedure session, participants will learn from recent first hand experience the challenges and benefits that come from successfully executing an OTB.

  13. Baseline and target values for regional and point PV power forecasts: Toward improved solar forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri -Mathias; Lu, Siyuan; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Lehman, Brad; Simmons, Joseph; Campos, Edwin; Banunarayanan, Venkat; Black, Jon; Tedesco, John

    2015-11-10

    Accurate solar photovoltaic (PV) power forecasting allows utilities to reliably utilize solar resources on their systems. However, to truly measure the improvements that any new solar forecasting methods provide, it is important to develop a methodology for determining baseline and target values for the accuracy of solar forecasting at different spatial and temporal scales. This paper aims at developing a framework to derive baseline and target values for a suite of generally applicable, value-based, and custom-designed solar forecasting metrics. The work was informed by close collaboration with utility and independent system operator partners. The baseline values are established based on state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models and persistence models in combination with a radiative transfer model. The target values are determined based on the reduction in the amount of reserves that must be held to accommodate the uncertainty of PV power output. The proposed reserve-based methodology is a reasonable and practical approach that can be used to assess the economic benefits gained from improvements in accuracy of solar forecasting. Lastly, the financial baseline and targets can be translated back to forecasting accuracy metrics and requirements, which will guide research on solar forecasting improvements toward the areas that are most beneficial to power systems operations.

  14. Baseline and Target Values for PV Forecasts: Toward Improved Solar Power Forecasting: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Lu, Siyuan; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Lehman, Brad; Simmons, Joseph; Campos, Edwin; Banunarayanan, Venkat

    2015-08-05

    Accurate solar power forecasting allows utilities to get the most out of the solar resources on their systems. To truly measure the improvements that any new solar forecasting methods can provide, it is important to first develop (or determine) baseline and target solar forecasting at different spatial and temporal scales. This paper aims to develop baseline and target values for solar forecasting metrics. These were informed by close collaboration with utility and independent system operator partners. The baseline values are established based on state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models and persistence models. The target values are determined based on the reduction in the amount of reserves that must be held to accommodate the uncertainty of solar power output. forecasting metrics. These were informed by close collaboration with utility and independent system operator partners. The baseline values are established based on state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models and persistence models. The target values are determined based on the reduction in the amount of reserves that must be held to accommodate the uncertainty of solar power output.

  15. TARGET AND HORN COOLING FOR THE VERY LONG BASELINE NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    BELLAVIA, S.; KAHN, S.; KIRK, H.; LUDEWIG, H.; RAPARIA, D.; SIMOS, N.

    2005-05-16

    Thermodynamic studies have been performed for the beam target and focusing horn system to be used in a very long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment [1]. A 2mm rms beam spot with power deposition of over 18 KW presents challenging material and engineering solutions to this project. Given that the amount of heat transferred by radiation alone from the target to the horn is quite small, the primary mechanism is heat removal by forced convection in the annular space between the target and the horn. The key elements are the operating temperature of the target, the temperature of the cooling fluid and the heat generation rate in the volume of the target that needs to be removed. These working parameters establish the mass flow rate and velocity of the coolant necessary to remove the generated heat. Several cooling options were explored using a carbon-carbon target and aluminum horn. Detailed analysis, trade studies and simulations were performed for cooling the horn and target with gaseous helium as well as water.

  16. Deflagration-to-detonation transition in inertial-confinement-fusion baseline targets.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, P; Chaland, F; Masse, L

    2004-11-01

    By means of highly resolved one-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations, we provide an understanding of the burn process in inertial-confinement-fusion baseline targets. The cornerstone of the phenomenology of propagating burn in such laser-driven capsules is shown to be the transition from a slow unsteady reaction-diffusion regime of thermonuclear combustion (some sort of deflagration) to a fast detonative one. Remarkably, detonation initiation follows the slowing down of a shockless supersonic reaction wave driven by energy redeposition from the fusion products themselves. Such a route to detonation is specific to fusion plasmas.

  17. Deflagration-to-detonation transition in inertial-confinement-fusion baseline targets

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthier, P.; Chaland, F.; Masse, L.

    2004-11-01

    By means of highly resolved one-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations, we provide an understanding of the burn process in inertial-confinement-fusion baseline targets. The cornerstone of the phenomenology of propagating burn in such laser-driven capsules is shown to be the transition from a slow unsteady reaction-diffusion regime of thermonuclear combustion (some sort of deflagration) to a fast detonative one. Remarkably, detonation initiation follows the slowing down of a shockless supersonic reaction wave driven by energy redeposition from the fusion products themselves. Such a route to detonation is specific to fusion plasmas.

  18. The role of spatial and temporal radiation deposition in inertial fusion chambers: the case of HiPER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, J.; Garoz, D.; Gonzalez-Arrabal, R.; Rivera, A.; Perlado, M.

    2011-05-01

    The first wall armour for the reactor chamber of HiPER will have to face short energy pulses of 5 to 20 MJ mostly in the form of x-rays and charged particles at a repetition rate of 5-10 Hz. Armour material and chamber dimensions have to be chosen to avoid/minimize damage to the chamber, ensuring the proper functioning of the facility during its planned lifetime. The maximum energy fluence that the armour can withstand without risk of failure, is determined by temporal and spatial deposition of the radiation energy inside the material. In this paper, simulations on the thermal effect of the radiation-armour interaction are carried out with an increasing definition of the temporal and spatial deposition of energy to prove their influence on the final results. These calculations will lead us to present the first values of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the tungsten armour designed for the HiPER project under a shock ignition target of 48 MJ. The results will show that only the crossing of the plasticity limit in the first few micrometres might be a threat after thousands of shots for the survivability of the armour.

  19. Developmental epidemiologically based preventive trials: baseline modeling of early target behaviors and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kellam, S G; Werthamer-Larsson, L; Dolan, L J; Brown, C H; Mayer, L S; Rebok, G W; Anthony, J C; Laudolff, J; Edelsohn, G

    1991-08-01

    Describes a conceptual framework for identifying and targeting developmental antecedents in early childhood that have been shown in previous work to predict delinquency and violent behavior, heavy drug use, depression, and other psychiatric symptoms and possibly disorders in late adolescence and into adulthood. Criteria are described that guided choices of targets for two epidemiologically based, randomized preventive trials carried out in 19 elementary schools in the eastern half of Baltimore, involving more than 2,400 first-grade children over the course of first and second grades. Baseline models derived from the first of two cohorts show the evolving patterns of concurrence among the target antecedents. The central role of concentration problems emerged. From Fall to Spring in first grade, concentration problems led to shy and aggressive behavior and poor achievement in both genders and to depressive symptoms among girls. There was evidence for reciprocal relationships in girls. For example, depressive symptoms led to poor achievement in both girls and boys, whereas poor achievement led to depressive symptoms in girls but not boys, at least over the first-grade year. These results provide important epidemiological data relevant to the developmental paths leading to the problem outcomes and suggest preventive trials.

  20. Target selection and mass estimation for manned NEO exploration using a baseline mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, Ralf C.; Hein, Andreas M.; Kawaguchi, Junichiro

    2015-06-01

    In recent years Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have received an increased amount of interest as a target for human exploration. NEOs offer scientifically interesting targets, and at the same time function as a stepping stone for achieving future Mars missions. The aim of this research is to identify promising targets from the large number of known NEOs that qualify for a manned sample-return mission with a maximum duration of one year. By developing a baseline mission design and a mass estimation model, mission opportunities are evaluated based on on-orbit mass requirements, safety considerations, and the properties of the potential targets. A selection of promising NEOs is presented and the effects of mission requirements and restrictions are discussed. Regarding safety aspects, the use of free-return trajectories provides the lowest on-orbit mass, when compared to an alternative design that uses system redundancies to ensure return of the spacecraft to Earth. It is discovered that, although a number of targets are accessible within the analysed time frame, no NEO offers both easy access and high incentive for its exploration. Under the discussed aspects a first human exploration mission going beyond the vicinity of Earth will require a trade off between targets that provide easy access and those that are of scientific interest. This lack of optimal mission opportunities can be seen in the small number of only 4 NEOs that meet all requirements for a sample-return mission and remain below an on-orbit mass of 500 metric Tons (mT). All of them require a mass between 315 and 492 mT. Even less ideal, smaller asteroids that are better accessible require an on-orbit mass that exceeds the launch capability of future heavy lift vehicles (HLV) such as SLS by at least 30 mT. These mass requirements show that additional efforts are necessary to increase the number of available targets and reduce on-orbit mass requirements through advanced mission architectures. The need for on

  1. Using Species-Area Relationships to Inform Baseline Conservation Targets for the Deep North East Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Nicola L.; Foggo, Andrew; Howell, Kerry L.

    2013-01-01

    Demands on the resources of the deep-sea have increased in recent years. Consequently, the need to create and implement a comprehensive network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to help manage and protect these resources has become a global political priority. Efforts are currently underway to implement MPA networks in the deep North East Atlantic. To ensure these networks are effective, it is essential that baseline information be available to inform the conservation planning process. Using empirical data, we calculated conservation targets for sessile benthic invertebrates in the deep North East Atlantic for consideration during the planning process. We assessed Species-Area Relationships across two depth bands (200–1100 m and 1100–1800 m) and nine substrata. Conservation targets were predicted for each substratum within each depth band using z-values obtained from fitting a power model to the Species-Area Relationships of observed and estimated species richness (Chao1). Results suggest an MPA network incorporating 10% of the North East Atlantic’s deep-sea area would protect approximately 58% and 49% of sessile benthic species for the depth bands 200–1100 m and 1100–1800 m, respectively. Species richness was shown to vary with substratum type indicating that, along with depth, substratum information needs to be incorporated into the conservation planning process to ensure the most effective MPA network is implemented in the deep North East Atlantic. PMID:23527053

  2. Direct-conversion receiver for HiperLAN2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jian

    2001-11-01

    A direct conversion receiver is presented for HiperLAN2 system that uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) as its modulation scheme with data rate up to 54 Mbits/second. The direct conversion scheme converts the RF signal directly into a complex low-pass equivalent signal represented by in- phase (I) and quadrature (Q) components or so called I-Q base- band signal without any Intermediate Frequency (IF) stages and expensive Surface-Acoustic-Wave (SAW) filters. However, for a direct conversion receiver there are many key issues to be solved. One of the most important issues is so-called I-Q imbalance caused by the mismatch between I channel and Q channel of the quadrature demodulator. The I-Q imbalance may include gain and group delay difference between the I channel and the Q channel at any frequency within the low-pass signal bandwidth. With the patent-pending IQ-BalancingTM technology and other proprietary technologies of 4D Connect, inc., the adverse effects of I-Q imbalance on the receiver performance can be removed. Fixed-point simulation results for sensitivity performance and interference performance are presented. Performance comparisons when severe I-Q imbalance is present are also given.

  3. Experimental results performed in the framework of the HIPER European Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batani, D.; Koenig, M.; Baton, S.; Perez, F.; Gizzi, L. A.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Honrubia, J.; Debayle, A.; Santos, J.; Schurtz, G.; Hulin, S.; Ribeyre, X.; Fourment, C.; Nicolai, P.; Vauzour, B.; Gremillet, L.; Nazarov, W.; Pasley, J.; Tallents, G.; Richetta, M.; Lancaster, K.; Spindloe, Ch.; Tolley, M.; Neely, D.; Norreys, P.; Kozlova, M.; Nejdl, J.; Rus, B.; Antonelli, L.; Morace, A.; Volpe, L.,; Davies, J.; Wolowski, J.; Badziak, J.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the goals and some of the results of experiments conducted within the Working Package 10 (Fusion Experimental Programme) of the HiPER Project. These experiments concern the study of the physics connected to "Advanced Ignition Schemes", i.e. the Fast Ignition and the Shock Ignition Approaches to Inertial Fusion. Such schemes are aimed at achieving a higher gain, as compared to the classical approach which is used in NIF, as required for future reactors, and making fusion possible with smaller facilities. In particular, a series of experiments related to Fast Ignition were performed at the RAL (UK) and LULI, France) Laboratories and were addressed to study the propagation of fast electrons (created by a short-pulse ultra-high-intensity beam) in compressed matter, created either by cylindrical implosions or by compression of planar targets by (planar) laser-driven shock waves. A more recent experiment was performed at PALS and investigated the laser-plasma coupling in the 1016 W/cm2 intensity regime of interest for Shock Ignition.

  4. Active mirror amplifiers for HiPER kiloJoule beamlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanteloup, J.-C.; Lucianetti, A.

    2013-11-01

    A major challenge the HiPER [1] project is facing is to derive laser architectures satisfying simultaneously all HiPER requirements; among them, high wall-plug efficiency (15 to 20%) and repetition rate (around 10 Hz) are the most challenging constraints. Several groups over the world are actively pursuing research in the field of High average power Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers (DPSSL) [2]. We propose a comprehensive solution for a 1 kJ DPSSL beamline as the unit brick of a 12 beams bundle.

  5. Transmission final lenses in the HiPER laser fusion power plant: system design for temperature control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Páramo, A. R.; Sordo, F.; Garoz, D.; Le Garrec, B.; Perlado, J. M.; Rivera, A.

    2014-12-01

    The European laser fusion project HiPER is developing technologically feasible components for a laser fusion power plant with an evacuated dry wall chamber which is likely to operate with a shock ignition scheme and direct targets. One of the key components is the final optics. In this work, we consider silica transmission final lenses and address the major issues regarding the unavoidable neutron irradiation they must withstand. For pre-commercial power plants (150 MJ target yield at 10 Hz) a distance of 16 m between the final lenses and target leads to maximum lens temperatures within tolerable limits. However, a non-uniform steady-state temperature profile is a major concern because it is the origin of unacceptable aberrations that severely affect the target spots. We have devised an active intervention system based on a heat-transfer fluid to keep the temperature profile as smooth as possible. The main characteristics of the temperature control system are defined throughout this work and enable the operation of the plant, both for the start-up procedure and for normal operation.

  6. Conservation targets in marine protected area management suffer from shifting baseline syndrome: A case study on the Dogger Bank.

    PubMed

    Plumeridge, Annabel A; Roberts, Callum M

    2017-03-15

    The Dogger Bank is a subtidal hill in the North Sea that is a candidate Special Area of Conservation under the EU Habitats Directive in UK waters. Historical records indicate that the Bank has been subject to human exploitation from before the 16th century but conservation objectives have been developed using recent survey data. This has the potential to significantly underestimate the alteration this ecosystem has experienced, making the Dogger Bank an example of shifting baseline syndrome in protected area management. We compile quantitative and qualitative descriptions from historical records of change in catch rates, fishing effort, price and fish size to show that there have been prolonged declines in abundance of fish on the Bank since the early 19th century. Use of present day data to inform conservation has led to unambitious recovery targets. Historical data, we argue, are an essential input to conservation decision making.

  7. Meeting the WHO 90% target: antiretroviral treatment efficacy in Poland is associated with baseline clinical patient characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Parczewski, Milosz; Siwak, Ewa; Leszczyszyn-Pynka, Magdalena; Cielniak, Iwona; Burkacka, Ewa; Pulik, Piotr; Witor, Adam; Muller, Karolina; Zasik, Ewelina; Grzeszczuk, Anna; Jankowska, Maria; Lemańska, Małgorzata; Olczak, Anita; Grąbczewska, Edyta; Szymczak, Aleksandra; Gąsiorowski, Jacek; Szetela, Bartosz; Bociąga-Jasik, Monika; Skwara, Paweł; Witak-Jędra, Magdalena; Jabłonowska, Elżbieta; Wójcik-Cichy, Kamila; Kamerys, Juliusz; Janczarek, Małgorzata; Krankowska, Dagny; Mikuła, Tomasz; Kozieł, Katarzyna; Bielec, Dariusz; Stempkowska, Justyna; Kocbach, Aleksandra; Błudzin, Wiesława; Horban, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    :1.47 (95%CI:1.08–2.01), p = 0.016], baseline lymphocyte CD4 count ≥200 cells/µL [OR:1.72 (95%CI:1.04–2.78), p = 0.034] and negative HCV serology [OR:1.97 (95%CI:1.29–2.94), p = 0.002]. For viral load threshold <200 copies/mL higher likelihood of virologic success was only associated with baseline lymphocyte CD4 count ≥200 cells/µL [OR:2.08 (95%CI:1.01–4.35), p = 0.049] and negative HCV status [OR:2.84 (95%CI:1.52–5.26), p = 0.001]. Conclusions: Proportion of virologically suppressed patients is in line with WHO treatment target confirming successful application of antiretroviral treatment strategy in Poland. Virological suppression rates depend on baseline patient characteristics, which should guide individualized antiretroviral tre0atment decisions. PMID:28715160

  8. Sex, Prescribing Practices and Guideline Recommended, Blood Pressure, and LDL Cholesterol Targets at Baseline in the BARI 2D Trial

    PubMed Central

    Magee, Michelle F.; Tamis-Holland, Jacqueline E.; Lu, Jiang; Bittner, Vera A.; Brooks, Maria Mori; Lopes, Neuza; Jacobs, Alice K.; Study Group, BARI 2D

    2015-01-01

    Background. Research has shown less aggressive treatment and poorer control of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in women than men. Methods. We analyzed sex differences in pharmacotherapy strategies and attainment of goals for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with type 2 diabetes and established coronary artery disease enrolled into the BARI 2D trial. Results. Similar numbers of drugs were prescribed in both women and men. Women were less frequent on metformin or sulfonylurea and more likely to take insulin and to be on higher doses of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) than men. After adjusting for baseline differences and treatment prescribed, women were less likely to achieve goals for HbA1c (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.57, 0.88) and LDL-C (OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.53, 0.78). More antihypertensives were prescribed to women, and yet BP ≤ 130/80 mmHg did not differ by sex. Conclusions. Women entering the BARI 2D trial were as aggressively treated with drugs as men. Despite equivalent treatment, women less frequently met targets for HbA1c and LDL-C. Our findings suggest that there may be sex differences in response to drug therapies used to treat diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. PMID:25873955

  9. A long baseline RICH with a 27-kiloton water target and radiator for detection of neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Ypsilantis, T.; Seguinot, J.; Zichichi, A.

    1997-01-01

    A 27 kt water volume is investigated as a target for a long baseline neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso. Charged secondaries from the neutrino interactions produce Cherenkov photons in water which are imaged as rings by a spherical mirror. The photon detector elements are 14 400 photomultipliers (PM`s) of 127 mm diameter or 3600 HPD`s of 250 mm diameter with single photon sensitivity. A coincidence signal of about 300 pixel elements in time with the SPS beam starts readout in bins of 1 ns over a period of 128 ns. Momentum, direction, and velocity of hadrons and mucons are determined from the width, center, and radius of the rings, respectively. Momentum is measured if multiple scattering dominates the ring width, as is the case for most of the particles of interest. Momentum, direction, and velocity of hadrons and muons are determined from the width, center, and radius of the rings, respectively. Momentum is measured if multiple scattering dominates the ring width, as is the case for most of the particles of interest. Momentum resolutions of 1-10%, mass resolutions of 5-50 MeV, and direction resolutions of < 1 mrad are achievable. Thresholds in water for muons, pions, kaons, and protons are 0.12, 0.16, 0.55, and 1.05 GeV/c, respectively. Electrons and gammas can be measured with energy resolution {sigma}{sub E}/E{approx}8.5%/{radical}E(GeV) and with direction resolution {approx} 1 mrad. The detector can be sited either inside a Gran Sasso tunnel or above ground because it is directional and the SPS beam is pulsed; thus the rejection of cosmic ray background is excellent.

  10. IFE plant technology overview and contribution to HiPER proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlado, J. M.; Sanz, J.; Alvarez, J.; Cereceda, D.; Cuesta, S.; Courtin, S.; del Rio, E.; Fernández, J.; Fraile, A.; Garoz, D.; Gordillo, N.; Guerrero, C.; Gonzalez-Arrabal, R.; Moral, N.; Juarez, R.; Ognissanto, F.; Rivera, A.; Sánchez, C.; Suarez, R.; Victoria, M.; Edwards, C.; Collier, J.; Tyldesley, M.; Tolley, M.; Neely, D.; Rus, B.; Le Garrec, B.; Schurtz, G.; Sanders, S.

    2011-06-01

    HiPER is the European Project for Laser Fusion that has been able to join 26 institutions and signed under formal government agreement by 6 countries inside the ESFRI Program of the European Union (EU). The project is already extended by EU for two years more (until 2013) after its first preparatory phase from 2008. A large work has been developed in different areas to arrive to a design of repetitive operation of Laser Fusion Reactor, and decisions are envisioned in the next phase of Technology Development or Risk Reduction for Engineering or Power Plant facilities (or both). Chamber design has been very much completed for Engineering phase and starting of preliminary options for Reactor Power Plant have been established and review here.

  11. Late Holocene Marsh Expansion in Southern San Francisco Bay, California: Implications for the Use of Historic Baselines as Restoration Targets

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, the largest tidal wetlands restoration project on the US Pacific Coast is being planned and implemented in southern San Francisco Bay; however, knowledge of baseline conditions of salt marsh extent in the region prior to European settlement is limited. Here, analysis o...

  12. Late Holocene Marsh Expansion in Southern San Francisco Bay, California: Implications for the Use of Historic Baselines as Restoration Targets

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, the largest tidal wetlands restoration project on the US Pacific Coast is being planned and implemented in southern San Francisco Bay; however, knowledge of baseline conditions of salt marsh extent in the region prior to European settlement is limited. Here, analysis o...

  13. Differential impact of a Dutch alcohol prevention program targeting adolescents and parents separately and simultaneously: low self-control and lenient parenting at baseline predict effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Koning, Ina M; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E E; Engels, Rutger C M E; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2012-06-01

    To test whether baseline levels of the factors accountable for the impact of the Prevention of Alcohol use in Students (PAS) intervention (self-control, perceived rules about alcohol and parental attitudes about alcohol), moderate the effect of the intervention. A cluster randomized trial including 3,490 Dutch early adolescents (M age=12.66, SD=.49) and their parents randomized over four conditions: 1) parent intervention, 2) student intervention, 3) combined intervention and 4) control group. Moderators at baseline were used to examine the differential effects of the interventions on onset of (heavy) weekly drinking at 34-month follow-up. The combined intervention was only effective in preventing weekly drinking among those adolescents who reported to have lower self-control and more lenient parents at baseline. No differential effect was found for the onset of heavy weekly drinking. No moderating roles of self-control and lenient parenting were found for the separate student and parent interventions regarding the onset of drinking. The combined intervention is more effective among adolescents with low-self control and lenient parents at baseline, both factors that were a specific target of the intervention. The relevance of targeting self-control in adolescents and restrictive parenting is underlined.

  14. Most Trial Eligibility Criteria and Patient Baseline Characteristics Do Not Modify Treatment Effect in Trials Using Targeted Therapies for Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Meta-Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Anton Wulf; Tarp, Simon; Furst, Daniel E.; Døssing, Anna; Amris, Kirstine; Bliddal, Henning; Taylor, Peter C.; Christensen, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if variations in trial eligibility criteria and patient baseline characteristics could be considered effect modifiers of the treatment response when testing targeted therapies (biological agents and targeted synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods We conducted a meta-epidemiological study of all trials evaluating a targeted therapy approved by regulatory authorities for treating RA. The database search was completed on December 11th 2013. Eligible trials reported ACR20 data at months 3–6 and used an add-on design. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated from the response rates and compared among the trial eligibility criteria/patient baseline characteristics of interest. Comparisons are presented as the Ratio of Odds Ratios (ROR). Results Sixty-two trials (19,923 RA patients) were included in the primary analyses using ACR20 response. Overall, targeted therapies constituted an effective treatment (OR 3.96 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.41 to 4.60). The majority of the trial eligibility criteria and patient baseline characteristics did not modify treatment effect. The added benefit of targeted therapies was lower in trials including "DMARD-naïve" patients compared with trials including "DMARD inadequate responders" (ROR = 0.45, 95%CI 0.31 to 0.66) and trials including "targeted therapy inadequate responders" (0.50, 95%CI 0.29 to 0.87), test for interaction: p = 0.0002. Longer mean disease duration was associated with a higher likelihood of responding to treatment (β = 1.05, 95%CI 1.00 to 1.11 OR’s per year; p = 0.03). Analyses conducted using DAS28-remission as the outcome supported the above-mentioned findings. Conclusion Our results suggest that a highly selective inclusion is not associated with greater treatment effect, as might otherwise be expected. The added benefit of a targeted therapy was lower in trials including patients who were DMARD-naïve and trials including patients

  15. A culturally specific health coaching program targeting cardiovascular disease risk in South Asians: rationale, design, and baseline data.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Anita; Flowers, Elena; Mathur, Avantika; Garcia, Donna Malhotra; Kotrys, Jeannette; Gandhi, Rupal; Molina, César; Mathur, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    Health coaching is an effective strategy for improving cardiovascular disease risk factors. Coaching interventions have primarily been studied in Caucasians, and the effectiveness in other ethnic groups is not known. Further, adaptation of coaching to include culturally specific components has not been studied. Our aim is to describe a culturally specific coaching program targeted at reducing cardiovascular disease risk in South Asians. Participants initially underwent comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk screening, then received individualized risk assessment and behavioral recommendations. A health coach then contacted participants regularly for one year to provide encouragement with behavior change, troubleshoot challenges, and assess adherence. In the first five years of the program, 3,180 people underwent risk assessment, 3,132 were candidates for coaching, 2,726 indicated a desire to participate in coaching, 1,359 received coaching, and 1,051 completed coaching for at least one year. Culturally specific health coaching is an appealing and feasible intervention for reducing cardiovascular disease risk in South Asians, with very low attrition. Coaching strategies for risk reduction are proven to be effective, but further longitudinal research is needed to determine whether the impact of incorporating cultural specificity improves the effectiveness. This program utilizes non-medically trained personnel as coaches and is relatively inexpensive, with potential for great cost savings in prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  16. Baseline assessment of WHO’s target for both availability and affordability of essential medicines to treat non-communicable diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ewen, Margaret; Zweekhorst, Marjolein; Regeer, Barbara; Laing, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Background WHO has set a voluntary target of 80% availability of affordable essential medicines, including generics, to treat major non-communicable diseases (NCDs), in the public and private sectors of countries by 2025. We undertook a secondary analysis of data from 30 surveys in low- and middle-income countries, conducted from 2008–2015 using the World Health Organization (WHO)/Health Action International (HAI) medicine availability and price survey methodology, to establish a baseline for this target. Methods Data for 49 medicines (lowest priced generics and originator brands) to treat cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and central nervous system (CNS) conditions were analysed to determine their availability in healthcare facilities and pharmacies, their affordability for those on low incomes (based on median patient prices of each medicine), and the percentage of medicines that were both available and affordable. Affordability was expressed as the number of days’ wages of the lowest-paid unskilled government worker needed to purchase 30 days’ supply using standard treatment regimens. Paying more than 1 days’ wages was considered unaffordable. Findings In low-income countries, 15.2% and 18.9% of lowest-priced generics met WHO’s target in the public and private sectors, respectively, and 2.6% and 5.2% of originator brands. In lower-middle income countries, 23.8% and 23.2% of lowest priced generics, and 0.8% and 1.4% of originator brands, met the target in the public and private sectors, respectively. In upper-middle income countries, the situation was better for generics but still suboptimal as 36.0% and 39.4% met the target in public and private sectors, respectively. For originator brands in upper-middle income countries, none reached the target in the public sector and 13.7% in the private sector. Across the therapeutic groups for lowest priced generics, CVD medicines in low-income countries (11

  17. Achieving cholesterol targets by individualizing starting doses of statin according to baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary artery disease risk category: The CANadians Achieve Cholesterol Targets Fast with Atorvastatin Stratified Titration (CanACTFAST) study

    PubMed Central

    Ur, Ehud; Langer, Anatoly; Rabkin, Simon W; Calciu, Cristina-Dana; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite an increasing body of evidence on the benefit of lowering elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), there is still considerable concern that patients are not achieving target LDL-C levels. OBJECTIVE: The CANadians Achieve Cholesterol Targets Fast with Atorvastatin Stratified Titration (CanACTFAST) trial tested whether an algorithm-based statin dosing approach would enable patients to achieve LDL-C and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio targets quickly. METHODS: Subjects requiring statin therapy, but with an LDL-C level of 5.7 mmol/L or lower, and triglycerides of 6.8 mmol/L or lower at screening participated in the 12-week study, which had two open-label, six-week phases: a treatment period during which patients received 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg or 80 mg of atorvastatin based on an algorithm incorporating baseline LDL-C value and cardiovascular risk; and patients who achieved both LDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratio targets at six weeks continued on the same atorvastatin dose. Patients who did not achieve both targets received dose uptitration using a single-step titration regimen. The primary efficacy outcome was the proportion of patients achieving target LDL-C levels after 12 weeks. RESULTS: Of 2016 subjects screened at 88 Canadian sites, 1258 were assigned to a study drug (1101 were statin-free and 157 were statin-treated at baseline). The proportion of subjects who achieved LDL-C targets after 12 weeks of treatment was 86% (95% CI 84% to 88%) for statin-free patients and 54% (95% CI 46% to 61%) for statin-treated patients. Overall, 1003 subjects (80%; 95% CI 78% to 82%) achieved both lipid targets. CONCLUSIONS: Algorithm-based statin dosing enables patients to achieve LDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratio targets quickly, with either no titration or a single titration. PMID:20151053

  18. Wideband rhombic dielectric resonator antenna with CPW slot excitation for IEEE 802.11a/HiperLAN application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Sayantan; Ghatak, Rowdra; Gupta, Bhaskar; Poddar, Dipak R.

    2013-09-01

    A wideband dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) using a CPW-fed inductive slot is proposed in this article. The DRA provides a simple design that exhibits a wide impedance bandwidth of about 26.8% (5.18-6.68 GHz). This is achieved by gradually rotating a square DRA by 45° to generate a rhombic DRA of dimensions 25 × 25 × 5 mm3. DRA structures with different rotation angles have also been studied to provide a comparative study into which orientation offers the best bandwidth. This structure results in the splitting up of the ? mode, and with suitable selection of the resonator dimensions, these modes can be brought close enough to yield wideband resonance characteristic. The proposed antenna has a realised gain of about 5.5 dBi over the entire band. The antenna covers the IEEE 802.11a, HiperLAN and UNII bands.

  19. Baseline program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.; Vonputtkamer, Jesco

    1992-01-01

    This assumed program was developed from several sources of information and is extrapolated over future decades using a set of reasonable assumptions based on incremental growth. The assumptions for the NASA baseline program are as follows: balanced emphasis in four domains; a constant level of activity; low to moderate real budget growth; maximum use of commonality; and realistic and practical technology development. The first domain is low Earth Orbit (LEO). Activities there are concentrated on the space station but extend on one side to Earth-pointing sensors for unmanned platforms and on the other to the launch and staging of unmanned solar system exploration missions. The second domain is geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and cislunar space. Activities here include all GEO missions and operations, both unmanned and manned, and all transport of materials and crews between LEO and the vicinity of the Moon. The third domain is the Moon itself. Lunar activities are to include both orbiting and landing missions; the landings may be either unmanned or manned. The last domain is Mars. Missions to Mars will initially be unmanned but they will eventually be manned. Program elements and descriptions are discussed as are critiques of the NASA baseline.

  20. Parent-administered computer-assisted tutoring targeting letter-sound knowledge: Evaluation via multiple-baseline across three preschool students.

    PubMed

    DuBois, Matthew R; Volpe, Robert J; Burns, Matthew K; Hoffman, Jessica A

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of letters sounds has been identified as a primary objective of preschool instruction and intervention. Despite this designation, large disparities exist in the number of letter sounds children know at school entry. Enhancing caregivers' ability to teach their preschool-aged children letter sounds may represent an effective practice for reducing this variability and ensuring that more children are prepared to experience early school success. This study used a non-concurrent multiple-baseline-across-participants design to evaluate the effectiveness of caregivers (N=3) delivering a computer-assisted tutoring program (Tutoring Buddy) targeting letter sound knowledge to their preschool-aged children. Visual analyses and effect size estimates derived from Percentage of All Non-Overlapping Data (PAND) statistics indicated consistent results for letter sound acquisition, as 6weeks of intervention yielded large effects for letter sound knowledge (LSK) across all three children. Large effect sizes were also found for letter sound fluency (LSF) and nonsense word fluency (NWF) for two children. All three caregivers rated the intervention as highly usable and were able to administer it with high levels of fidelity. Taken together, the results of the present study found Tutoring Buddy to be an effective, simple, and usable way for the caregivers to support their children's literacy development. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Initiating NTD programs targeting schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in two provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Establishment of baseline prevalence for mass drug administration.

    PubMed

    Kabore, Achille; Ibikounle, Moudachirou; Tougoue, Jean Jacques; Mupoyi, Sylvain; Ndombe, Martin; Shannon, Scott; Ottesen, Eric A; Mukunda, Faustin; Awaca, Naomi

    2017-02-01

    Schistosomiasis (SCH) and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are widely distributed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and constitute a serious public health problem. As recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), before launching mass chemotherapy to control these diseases, parasitological surveys were conducted in sentinel sites in six health zones (HZs) in Bandundu and Maniema provinces. Baseline prevalence and intensity of infection for SCH and STH were determined to establish the appropriate treatment plan using Praziquantel (PZQ) and Albendazole (ALB). Parasitological surveys were conducted from April to May 2015 in twenty-six selected sampling units (schools) for baseline mapping in six HZs: Fifty school children (25 females and 25 males) aged 9-15 years were randomly selected per sampling unit. A total of 1300 samples (urine and stool) were examined using haematuria dipsticks, parasite-egg filtration and the point-of-care Circulating Cathodic Antigen (POC-CCA) assay for urine samples and the Kato-Katz technique for stool specimens. Three species of schistosomes (S. mansoni, S. haematobium and S. intercalatum) and three groups of STH (hookworm, Ascaris and Trichuris) were detected at variable prevalence and intensity among the schools, the HZs and the provinces. In Bandundu, no SCH was detected by either Kato-Katz or the POC-CCA technique, despite a high prevalence of STH with 68% and 80% at Kiri and Pendjua HZs, respectively. In Maniema, intestinal schistosomiasis was detected by both Kato-Katz and POC-CCA with an average prevalence by Kato-Katz of 32.8% and by POC-CCA of 42.1%. Comparative studies confirmed the greater sensitivity (and operational feasibility) of the POC-CCA test on urine compared to Kato-Katz examination of stool for diagnosing intestinal schistosomiasis even in areas of comparatively light infections. STH was widely distributed and present in all HZs with a mean prevalence (95% CI) of 59.62% (46.00-65.00%). The

  2. Influence of FCGR3A-158V/F Genotype and Baseline CD20 Antigen Count on Target-Mediated Elimination of Rituximab in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Study of FILO Group.

    PubMed

    Tout, Mira; Gagez, Anne-Laure; Leprêtre, Stéphane; Gouilleux-Gruart, Valérie; Azzopardi, Nicolas; Delmer, Alain; Mercier, Mélanie; Ysebaert, Loïc; Laribi, Kamel; Gonzalez, Hugo; Paintaud, Gilles; Cartron, Guillaume; Ternant, David

    2017-06-01

    Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody approved in the first-line treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Rituximab pharmacokinetics shows a time dependency possibly related to changes in the target antigen amount over time. The purpose of this study was to quantify the influence of both CD20 antigenic mass and the FcγRIIIA genetic polymorphism on rituximab pharmacokinetics in CLL. Rituximab pharmacokinetics was described in 118 CLL patients using a semi-mechanistic model including a latent target antigen turnover, which allowed the estimation of rituximab target-mediated elimination in addition to the endogenous clearance. Target-mediated elimination rate constant increased with the baseline CD20 count on circulating B cells (p = 0.00046) and in patients with the FCGR3A-158VV genotype (p = 0.0016). Physiologic elimination of antigen was lower in the Binet C disease stage (p = 0.00018). The effects of these covariates on rituximab concentrations were mainly visible at the beginning of treatment. Body surface area also increased central and peripheral volumes of distribution (p = 1.3 × 10(-5) and 0.0015, respectively). A pharmacokinetic model including target-mediated elimination accurately described rituximab concentrations in CLL and showed that rituximab 'consumption' (target-mediated elimination) increases with increasing baseline antigen count on circulating B cells and in FCGR3A-158VV patients. NCT01370772.

  3. Treating nicotine dependence by targeting attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with OROS methylphenidate: the role of baseline ADHD severity and treatment response.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Edward V; Covey, Lirio S; Brigham, Gregory; Hu, Mei-Chen; Levin, Frances R; Somoza, Eugene C; Winhusen, Theresa M

    2013-10-01

    To determine whether treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with osmotic-release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate promotes abstinence from smoking among smokers with ADHD who have greater severity of ADHD symptoms at baseline or greater improvement in ADHD during treatment. This is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized, double-blind, 11-week trial conducted between December 2005 and January 2008 at 6 clinical sites; the original trial was sponsored by the National Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. Adult cigarette smokers (aged 18-55 years) who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD were randomly assigned to OROS methylphenidate (72 mg/d) (n = 127) or matching placebo (n = 128). All participants received nicotine patches (21 mg/d) and weekly individual smoking cessation counseling. Logistic regression was used to model prolonged abstinence from smoking (ascertained by self-report and breath carbon monoxide testing) as a function of treatment, baseline ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS) score, change in ADHD-RS score during treatment, and their interactions. Treatment interacted with both ADHD-RS score at baseline (P = .01) and change in ADHD-RS score during treatment (P = .008). Among patients with higher ADHD-RS scores (> 36) at baseline and the most improvement in ADHD during treatment (ADHD-RS change score ≥ 24), 70.0% of those who took OROS methylphenidate achieved abstinence from smoking compared to 36.8% of those who took placebo (P = .02). In contrast, among patients with the lowest ADHD-RS baseline scores (≤ 30), 30.3% of those who took OROS methylphenidate achieved abstinence from smoking compared to 60.7% of those who took placebo (P = .02). OROS methylphenidate, in combination with nicotine patch, may be an effective treatment for nicotine dependence among smokers with more severe ADHD and more robust response of ADHD symptoms to medication. OROS methylphenidate may be counterproductive among smokers with lower severity of ADHD

  4. Standardizing and personalizing the treat to target (T2T) approach for rheumatoid arthritis using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS): baseline findings on patient-centered treatment priorities.

    PubMed

    Bacalao, Emily J; Greene, George J; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Eisenstein, Amy; Muftic, Azra; Mandelin, Arthur M; Cella, David; Ruderman, Eric M

    2017-08-01

    A treat to target (T2T) approach to management has become the standard of care for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). While consensus T2T recommendations call for patient involvement in the treatment process, the targets commonly used to drive therapeutic decisions involve limited patient input. A pilot study was developed to explore whether the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) could add value to the T2T approach by providing a way to bring patient goals into the process. We report here the baseline data from this study. RA patients from an academic rheumatology practice were recruited to participate in this 1-year study. Patients were asked to complete PROMIS computer-assisted testing at quarterly visits during the year. At baseline, they were asked to identify the PROMIS domain (Pain Interference, Fatigue, Depression, Physical Function, and Social Function) that felt most important to their quality of life. They were then asked to select five representative items from this domain, to be followed through the year. Complete baseline data was available for 119 patients. Most selected Physical Function (39%) or Pain Interference (37%) as their highest priority PROMIS domain. Sixty percent ranked Depression as their lowest priority domain. Younger patients more frequently prioritized Social Function, while older patients more frequently prioritized Fatigue. The incorporation of PROMIS questionnaires into routine clinic visits is a feasible mechanism for incorporating patient preferences into a T2T approach to managing RA.

  5. Pro-HEART - a randomized clinical trial to test the effectiveness of a high protein diet targeting obese individuals with heart failure: rationale, design and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Motie, Marjan; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Horwich, Tamara; Hamilton, Michele; Lombardo, Dawn; Cooper, Dan M; Galassetti, Pietro R; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2013-11-01

    There is ample research to support the potential benefits of a high protein diet on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese, diabetic subjects. However, nutritional management of overweight/obese individuals with heart failure (HF) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) or metabolic syndrome (MS) is poorly understood and few clinical guidelines related to nutritional approaches exist for this subgroup. This article describes the design, methods, and baseline characteristics of study participants enrolled in Pro-HEART, a randomized clinical trial to determine the short term and long term effects of a high protein diet (30% protein [~110 g/day], 40% carbohydrates [150 g/day], 30% fat [~50 g/day]) versus a standard protein diet (15% protein [~55 g/day], 55% carbohydrates [~200 g/day], 30% fat [~50 g/day]) on body weight and adiposity, cardiac structure and function, functional status, lipid profile, glycemic control, and quality of life. Between August, 2009 and May, 2013, 61 individuals agreed to participate in the study; 52 (85%) - mean age 58.2 ± 9.8 years; 15.4% Blacks; 57.7% Whites; 19.2% Hispanics; 7.7% Asians; 73.1% male; weight 112.0 ± 22.6 kg - were randomized to a 3-month intensive weight management program of either a high protein or standard protein diet; data were collected at baseline, 3 months, and 15 months. This study has the potential to reveal significant details about the role of macronutrients in weight management of overweight/obese individuals with HF and DM or MS. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Targeting human papillomavirus to reduce the burden of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia: establishing the baseline for surveillance.

    PubMed

    Nygård, Mari; Hansen, Bo Terning; Dillner, Joakim; Munk, Christian; Oddsson, Kristján; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Hortlund, Maria; Liaw, Kai-Li; Dasbach, Erik J; Kjær, Susanne Krüger

    2014-01-01

    Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally related to cervical, vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasias and cancers. Highly effective vaccines against HPV types 16/18 have been available since 2006, and are currently used in many countries in combination with cervical cancer screening to control the burden of cervical cancer. We estimated the overall and age-specific incidence rate (IR) of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2004-2006, prior to the availability of HPV vaccines, in order to establish a baseline for surveillance. We also estimated the population attributable fraction to determine roughly the expected effect of HPV16/18 vaccination on the incidence of these diseases. Information on incident cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancers and high-grade pre-invasive neoplasias was obtained from high-quality national population-based registries. A literature review was conducted to define the fraction of these lesions attributable to HPV16/18, i.e., those that could be prevented by HPV vaccination. Among the four countries, the age-standardised IR/10⁵ of cervical, vaginal and vulvar cancer ranged from 8.4-13.8, 1.3-3.1 and 0.2-0.6, respectively. The risk for cervical cancer was highest in women aged 30-39, while vulvar and vaginal cancers were most common in women aged 70+. Age-standardised IR/10⁵ of cervical, vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasia ranged between 138.8-183.2, 2.5-8.8 and 0.5-1.3, respectively. Women aged 20-29 had the highest risk for cervical pre-invasive neoplasia, while vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasia peaked in women aged 40-49 and 60-69, respectively. Over 50% of the observed 47,820 incident invasive and pre-invasive cancer cases in 2004-2006 can be attributed to HPV16/18. In the four countries, vaccination against HPV 16/18 could prevent approximately 8500 cases of gynecological cancer and pre-cancer annually. Population-based cancer

  7. Targeting Human Papillomavirus to Reduce the Burden of Cervical, Vulvar and Vaginal Cancer and Pre-Invasive Neoplasia: Establishing the Baseline for Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Nygård, Mari; Hansen, Bo Terning; Dillner, Joakim; Munk, Christian; Oddsson, Kristján; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Hortlund, Maria; Liaw, Kai-Li; Dasbach, Erik J.; Kjær, Susanne Krüger

    2014-01-01

    Background Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally related to cervical, vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasias and cancers. Highly effective vaccines against HPV types 16/18 have been available since 2006, and are currently used in many countries in combination with cervical cancer screening to control the burden of cervical cancer. We estimated the overall and age-specific incidence rate (IR) of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2004–2006, prior to the availability of HPV vaccines, in order to establish a baseline for surveillance. We also estimated the population attributable fraction to determine roughly the expected effect of HPV16/18 vaccination on the incidence of these diseases. Methods Information on incident cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancers and high-grade pre-invasive neoplasias was obtained from high-quality national population-based registries. A literature review was conducted to define the fraction of these lesions attributable to HPV16/18, i.e., those that could be prevented by HPV vaccination. Results Among the four countries, the age-standardised IR/105 of cervical, vaginal and vulvar cancer ranged from 8.4–13.8, 1.3–3.1 and 0.2–0.6, respectively. The risk for cervical cancer was highest in women aged 30–39, while vulvar and vaginal cancers were most common in women aged 70+. Age-standardised IR/105 of cervical, vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasia ranged between 138.8−183.2, 2.5−8.8 and 0.5−1.3, respectively. Women aged 20−29 had the highest risk for cervical pre-invasive neoplasia, while vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasia peaked in women aged 40−49 and 60−69, respectively. Over 50% of the observed 47,820 incident invasive and pre-invasive cancer cases in 2004−2006 can be attributed to HPV16/18. Conclusion In the four countries, vaccination against HPV 16/18 could prevent approximately 8500 cases of

  8. Erosions in the foot at baseline are predictive of orthopaedic shoe use after 10 years of treat to target therapy in patients with recent onset rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bergstra, Sytske Anne; Markusse, Iris M; Akdemir, Gülşah; Ronday, H Karel; Han, K Huub; Lems, Willem F; Kerstens, Pit J S M; van den Berg, Rosaline; Landewé, Robert B M; Allaart, Cornelia F

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate if foot joint damage due to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can predict whether patients will start wearing orthopaedic shoes (OS) within 10 years after treatment start. Data from recent onset RA patients with 10 years follow-up from the BeSt (Dutch acronym for treatment strategies) study were used. Treatment was tightly controlled, targeted at disease activity score (DAS) ≤2.4, according to 1 of 4 pre-specified treatment strategies. After 10 years of follow-up, orthopaedic shoe use was recorded in 285/508 patients (responders to questionnaires at 10 years). Between-group differences for orthopaedic shoe users and non-users were calculated at baseline, after 10 years, and change scores over the 10-year period were calculated. Predictors for orthopaedic shoe use were identified by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Orthopaedic shoe use was reported by 57/285 patients after 10 years. Orthopaedic shoe users had more joint damage, joint swelling and pain in the feet already at baseline and after 10 years. At both time points, DAS of orthopaedic shoe users and non-users was similar. Multivariable logistic regression showed that dichotomized foot erosions score (cut-off ≥1 erosion) (OR 2.42), anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) (OR 4.64) and DAS (OR 1.77) were independent predictors of orthopaedic shoe use. Despite intensive targeted treatment, 57/285 recent onset RA patients started using orthopaedic shoes over 10 year of follow-up. Presence of foot erosions at treatment start predicts orthopaedic shoe use after 10 years. The risk of orthopedic shoe use increased for ACPA-positive patients and for those with higher baseline disease activity.

  9. Efficacy of Second-line Targeted Therapy for Renal Cell Carcinoma According to Change from Baseline in International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium Prognostic Category.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ian D; Xie, Wanling; Pezaro, Carmel; Donskov, Frede; Wells, J Connor; Agarwal, Neeraj; Srinivas, Sandy; Yuasa, Takeshi; Beuselinck, Benoit; Wood, Lori A; Ernst, D Scott; Kanesvaran, Ravindran; Knox, Jennifer J; Pantuck, Allan; Saleem, Sadia; Alva, Ajjai; Rini, Brian I; Lee, Jae-Lyun; Choueiri, Toni K; Heng, Daniel Y C

    2017-06-01

    We hypothesized that changes in International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) prognostic category at start of second-line therapy (2L) for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) might predict response. To assess outcomes of 2L according to type of therapy and change in IMDC prognostic category. We performed a retrospective review of the IMDC database for mRCC patients who received first-line (1L) VEGF inhibitors (VEGFi) and then 2L with VEGFi or mTOR inhibitors (mTORi). IMDC prognostic categories were defined before each line of therapy (favorable, F; intermediate, I; poor, P). Data were analyzed for 1516 patients, of whom 89% had clear cell histology. All included patients received targeted therapy for mRCC. Overall survival (OS), time to treatment failure, and response to 2L were analyzed using Cox or logistic regression. At start of 2L, 60% of patients remained in the same prognostic category; 9.0% improved (3% I → F; 6% P → I); 31% deteriorated (15% F → I or P; 16% I → P). Patients with the same or better IMDC prognostic category had a longer time to treatment failure if they remained on VEGFi compared to those who switched to mTORi (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] ranging from 0.33 to 0.78, adjusted p<0.05). Patients who deteriorated from F to I appeared more likely to benefit from switching to mTORi (median OS 16.5 mo, 95% confidence interval [CI] 12.0-19.0 for VEGFi; 20.2 mo, 95% CI 14.3-26.1 for mTORi; AHR 1.53, 95% CI 1.04-2.24; adjusted p=0.03). Changes in IMDC prognostic category predict the subsequent clinical course for patients with mRCC and provide a rational basis for selection of subsequent therapy. The pattern of treatment failure might help to predict what the next treatment should be for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Predicting Over Target Baseline (OTB) Acquisition Contracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    perform better under specific circumstances. In 2009, Captain Trahan investigated the use of a Gompertz growth model for developing EACs. She found...the Gompertz growth model to develop better EACs. Furthermore, an OTB, by definition, recognizes a cost overrun. Therefore, the ability to predict...EACs) are calculated and look briefly at some of the past EAC research. Then we look specifically at calculating EACs using the Gompertz growth

  11. Optical Long Baseline Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste

    Optical Long Baseline Interferometry provides unrivalled angular resolution on bright and compact astrophysical sources. The link between the observables (interferometric phase and contrast) and the image of the source is a Fourier transform expressed first by van Cittert and Zernike. Depending on the source size and the amount of information collected, the analysis of these Fourier components allows a measurement of the typical source size, a parametric modelling of its spatial structures, or a model-independent image reconstruction to be carried. In the past decades, optical long baseline interferometry provided fundamental measurements for astronomy (ex. Cepheids distances, surface-brightness relations) as well as iconic results such as the first images of stellar surfaces other than the Sun. Optical long baseline interferometers exist in the Northern and Southern hemisphere and are open to the astronomical community with modern level of support. We provide in this chapter an introduction to the fundamental principles of optical interferometry and introduce the currently available facilities.

  12. Dilution and the elusive baseline.

    PubMed

    Likens, Gene E; Buso, Donald C

    2012-04-17

    Knowledge of baseline conditions is critical for evaluating quantitatively the effect of human activities on environmental conditions, such as the impact of acid deposition. Efforts to restore ecosystems to prior, "pristine" condition require restoration targets, often based on some presumed or unknown baseline condition. Here, we show that rapid and relentless dilution of surface water chemistry is occurring in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, following decades of acid deposition. Extrapolating measured linear trends using a unique data set of up to 47 years, suggest that both precipitation and streamwater chemistry (r(2) >0.84 since 1985) in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) will approximate demineralized water within one to three decades. Because such dilute chemistry is unrealistic for surface waters, theoretical baseline compositions have been calculated for precipitation and streamwater: electrical conductivity of 3 and 5 μS/cm, base cation concentrations of 7 and 39 μeq/liter, acid-neutralizing capacity values of <1 and 14 μeq/liter, respectively; and pH 5.5 for both. Significantly large and rapid dilution of surface waters to values even more dilute than proposed for Pre-Industrial Revolution (PIR) conditions has important ecological, biogeochemical and water resource management implications, such as for the success of early reproductive stages of aquatic organisms.

  13. West Virginia baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardi, V. P.; Baer, C.; Graham, A.; Hall, T.; Rankin, D.; Sweet, T. J.

    1981-04-01

    Baseline information on West Virginia is provided. The topics covered are terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, geology and climatology, socioeconomics, and a legal analysis of institutional accountability. The hydrology, water quality, endangered species, and clean streams of five river basins are described.

  14. First Grade Baseline Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  15. Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzetto, Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Following the discovery of neutrino oscillations by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration, recently awarded with the Nobel Prize, two generations of long baseline experiments had been setup to further study neutrino oscillations. The first generation experiments, K2K in Japan, Minos in the States and Opera in Europe, focused in confirming the Super-Kamiokande result, improving the precision with which oscillation parameters had been measured and demonstrating the ντ appearance process. Second generation experiments, T2K in Japan and very recently NOνA in the States, went further, being optimized to look for genuine three neutrino phenomena like non-zero values of θ13 and first glimpses to leptonic CP violation (LCPV) and neutrino mass ordering (NMO). The discovery of leptonic CP violation will require third generation setups, at the moment two strong proposals are ongoing, Dune in the States and Hyper-Kamiokande in Japan. This review will focus a little more in these future initiatives.

  16. A baseline lunar mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    A models lunar mining method is proposed that illustrates the problems to be expected in lunar mining and how they might be solved. While the method is quite feasible, it is, more importantly, a useful baseline system against which to test other, possible better, methods. Our study group proposed the slusher to stimulate discussion of how a lunar mining operation might be successfully accomplished. Critics of the slusher system were invited to propose better methods. The group noted that while nonterrestrial mining has been a vital part of past space manufacturing proposals, no one has proposed a lunar mining system in any real detail. The group considered it essential that the design of actual, workable, and specific lunar mining methods begin immediately. Based on an earlier proposal, the method is a three-drum slusher, also known as a cable-operated drag scraper. Its terrestrial application is quite limited, as it is relatively inefficient and inflexible. The method usually finds use in underwater mining from the shore and in moving small amounts of ore underground. When lunar mining scales up, the lunarized slusher will be replaced by more efficient, high-volume methods. Other aspects of lunar mining are discussed.

  17. Biodiversity informatics and the plant conservation baseline.

    PubMed

    Paton, Alan

    2009-11-01

    Primary baseline data on taxonomy and species distribution, and its integration with environmental variables, has a valuable role to play in achieving internationally recognised targets for plant diversity conservation, such as the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation. The importance of primary baseline data and the role of biodiversity informatics in linking these data to other environmental variables are discussed. The need to maintain digital resources and make them widely accessible is an additional requirement of institutions who already collect and maintain this baseline data. The lack of resources in many species-rich areas to gather these data and make them widely accessible needs to be addressed if the full benefit of biodiversity informatics on plant conservation is to be realised.

  18. Baseline Familiarity in Lie Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Thomas H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a study in which subjects judged the veracity of truthful and deceptive communicators after viewing no, one, two, or four case-relevant baseline exposures (familiarity) of truthful communication. Finds a positive linear relationship between detection accuracy and amount of baseline familiarity. (SR)

  19. Hanford Site technical baseline database

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, P.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-10

    This document includes a cassette tape that contains the Hanford specific files that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database as of May 10, 1996. The cassette tape also includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 3 (April 10, 1996) of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database.

  20. Baseline Familiarity in Lie Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Thomas H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a study in which subjects judged the veracity of truthful and deceptive communicators after viewing no, one, two, or four case-relevant baseline exposures (familiarity) of truthful communication. Finds a positive linear relationship between detection accuracy and amount of baseline familiarity. (SR)

  1. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  2. Treadmill Kinematics Baseline Data Collection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-12

    PHOTO DATE: 5-12-11 LOCATION: Building 261 - Room 138 SUBJECT: Expedition 29 Preflight Training with Dan Burbank during Treadmill Kinematics Baseline Data Collection. WORK ORDER: 2011-1214 PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  3. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  4. Coastal Surveillance Baseline Model Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-27

    These sensors were defined using basic unclassified information from several different sources [15] [16] [17]. DRDC CORA Task #185 Coastal ...unclassified information from several different sources [19] [20] [21]. DRDC CORA Task #185 Coastal Surveillance Baseline Model Development 27 February...Task #185 Coastal Surveillance Baseline Model Development 27 February 2015 – 27 – 5758-001 Version 01 platform from a couple of different perspectives

  5. Ask the experts: chromatographic baselines.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graeme; James, Christopher A; Scott, Rebecca; Woolf, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Bioanalysis invited a selection of leading researchers to express their views on chromatographic baseline assignment in the bioanalytical laboratory. The topics discussed include the challenges presented with ensuring automated baseline assignment is correct, when reintegration is necessary, regulation and consistency in terminology. Their enlightening responses provide a valuable insight into developing an industry consensus towards reintegration. An accompanying commentary article in this issue, authored by Howard Hill and colleagues (Huntingdon Life Sciences), provides background to this much debated topic.

  6. Developing RESRAD-BASELINE for environmental baseline risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jing-Jy

    1995-12-31

    RESRAD-BASELINE is a computer code developed at Argonne developed at Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform both radiological and chemical risk assessments. The code implements the baseline risk assessment guidance of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1989). The computer code calculates (1) radiation doses and cancer risks from exposure to radioactive materials, and (2) hazard indexes and cancer risks from exposure to noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic chemicals, respectively. The user can enter measured or predicted environmental media concentrations from the graphic interface and can simulate different exposure scenarios by selecting the appropriate pathways and modifying the exposure parameters. The database used by PESRAD-BASELINE includes dose conversion factors and slope factors for radionuclides and toxicity information and properties for chemicals. The user can modify the database for use in the calculation. Sensitivity analysis can be performed while running the computer code to examine the influence of the input parameters. Use of RESRAD-BASELINE for risk analysis is easy, fast, and cost-saving. Furthermore, it ensures in consistency in methodology for both radiological and chemical risk analyses.

  7. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    An Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) is a review of a supplier?s Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB). It is conducted by Program/Project Managers and their technical staffs on contracts and in-house work requiring compliance with NASA Earned Value Management System (EVMS) policy as defined in program/project policy, NPR 7120.5, or in NASA Federal Acquisition Regulations. The IBR Handbook may also be of use to those responsible for preparing the Terms of Reference for internal project reviews. While risks may be identified and actions tracked as a result of the IBR, it is important to note that an IBR cannot be failed.

  8. Baseline Report on HB2320

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Staff provides this baseline report as a summary of its preliminary considerations and initial research in fulfillment of the requirements of HB2320 from the 2015 session of the General Assembly. Codified as § 23-7.4:7, this legislation compels the Education Secretary and the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia (SCHEV) Director, in…

  9. Baseline Removal From EMG Recordings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    registers in which the main spike of the MUAP occupies the central position) [1]; or else just give the BL a zero level (system ground). We regard...a time-varying baseline contamination. Acknowledgements: Work funded by the Departamento de Salud del Gobierno de Navarrra and by a Spanish MEC

  10. Epr Hyperfine Structure Of Radiation Defect In Oxyfluoride Glass Ceramics/ Radiācijas Defekta Epr Hipersīkstruktūra Oksifluorīdu Stikla Keramikā

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Běrziņš, D.; Fedotovs, A.; Rogulis, U.

    2012-12-01

    We have investigated the samples of thermally treated oxyfluoride glass ceramics 50SiO2-25LiO2-20YF3-3ErF3-2YbF2 by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. After irradiation of the samples with X-rays, in the EPR spectra a hyperfine structure characteristic of F-centres could be observed in different fluoride crystals. The structure of F-centre in the oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing LiYF4 crystallites is discussed. Oksifluorīdu stiklu keramikas 50SiO2-25LiO2-20YF3-3ErF3-2YbF2 radiācijas defektu īpašības pētītas, izmantojot elektronu paramagnētiskās rezonanses (EPR) metodi. Pēc paraugu apstarošanas ar rentgen stariem, EPR spektros tika novērota vairāku fluorīdu kristālu F-centriem raksturīga hipersīkstruktūra. Šajā darbā apskatīta F-centra struktūra oksifluorīdu stiklu keramikā, kura satur LiYF4 kristalītus.

  11. Optical Long Baseline Interferometry News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, P. R.; Malbet, F.

    2005-12-01

    The Optical Long Baseline Interferometry News is a website and forum for scientists, engineers, and students who share an interest in long baseline stellar interferometry. It was established in 1995 and is the focus of activity of the IAU Working Group on Optical/Infrared Interferometry. Here you will find links to projects devoted to stellar interferometry, news items, recent papers and preprints, and resources for further research. The email news forum was established in 2001 to complement the website and to facilitate exchanges and collaborations. The forum includes an email exploder and an archived list of discussions. You are invited to explore the forum and website at http://olbin.jpl.nasa.gov. Work by PRL was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Pegg, Ian L.; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan Tao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Gan, Hao; Muller, Isabelle S.; Cecil, Richard

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  13. Orbiter electrical equipment utilization baseline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The baseline for utilization of Orbiter electrical equipment in both electrical and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) thermal analyses is established. It is a composite catalog of Space Shuttle equipment, as defined in the Shuttle Operational Data Book. The major functions and expected usage of each component type are described. Functional descriptions are designed to provide a fundamental understanding of the Orbiter electrical equipment, to insure correlation of equipment usage within nominal analyses, and to aid analysts in the formulation of off-nominal, contingency analyses.

  14. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Diwan, M. V.; Galymov, V.; Qian, X.; ...

    2016-10-19

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We will summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology with our focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We will proceed from the rst evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research

  15. Geotaxis baseline data for Drosophila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnebel, E. M.; Bhargava, R.; Grossfield, J.

    1987-01-01

    Geotaxis profiles for 20 Drosophila species and semispecies at different ages have been examined using a calibrated, adjustable slant board device. Measurements were taken at 5 deg intervals ranging from 0 deg to 85 deg. Clear strain and species differences are observed, with some groups tending to move upward (- geotaxis) with increasing angles, while others move downward (+ geotaxis). Geotactic responses change with age in some, but not all experimental groups. Sample geotaxis profiles are presented and their application to ecological and aging studies are discussed. Data provide a baseline for future evaluations of the biological effects of microgravity.

  16. Environmental Baseline File: National Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-22

    This Environmental Baseline File summarizes and consolidates information related to the national-level transportation of commercial spent nuclear fuel. Topics address include: shipmnents of commercial spent nuclear fuel based on mostly truck and mostly rail shipping scenarios; transportation routing for commercial spent nuclear fuel sites and DOE sites; radionuclide inventories for various shipping container capacities; transportation routing; populations along transportation routes; urbanized area population densities; the impacts of historical, reasonably foreseeable, and general transportation; state-level food transfer factors; Federal Guidance Report No. 11 and 12 radionuclide dose conversion factors; and national average atmospheric conditions.

  17. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diwan, M. V.; Galymov, V.; Qian, X.; Rubbia, A.

    2016-10-01

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology, with a focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We proceed from the first evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research.

  18. THE 2014 ALMA LONG BASELINE CAMPAIGN: AN OVERVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Partnership, ALMA; Fomalont, E. B.; Vlahakis, C.; Corder, S.; Remijan, A.; Barkats, D.; Dent, W. R. F.; Phillips, N.; Cox, P.; Hales, A. S.; Lucas, R.; Hunter, T. R.; Brogan, C. L.; Amestica, R.; Cotton, W.; Asaki, Y.; Matsushita, S.; Hills, R. E.; Richards, A. M. S.; Broguiere, D.; and others

    2015-07-20

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ∼15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from 2014 September to late November, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C 138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long baselines achieved angular resolutions as fine as 19 mas at ∼350 GHz. Observing with ALMA on baselines of up to 15 km is now possible, and opens up new parameter space for submm astronomy.

  19. The OPERA long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilquet, G.

    2008-05-01

    OPERA is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to observe the appearance of vτ in a pure vμ beam in the parameter space indicated by the atmospheric neutrinos oscillation signal. The detector is situated in the underground LNGS laboratory under 3 800 water meter equivalent at a distance of 730 km from CERN where the CNGS neutrino beam to which it is exposed originates. It consists of two identical 0.68 kilotons lead/nuclear emulsion targets, each instrumented with a tracking device and complemented by a muon spectrometer. The concept and the status of the detector are described and the first results obtained with cosmic rays and during two weeks of beam commissioning in 2006 are reported.

  20. FED baseline engineering studies report

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  1. Agricultural Baseline (BL0) scenario

    DOE Data Explorer

    Davis, Maggie R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] (ORCID:0000000181319328); Hellwinckel, Chad M [University of Tennessee] (ORCID:0000000173085058); Eaton, Laurence [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] (ORCID:0000000312709626); Turhollow, Anthony [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] (ORCID:0000000228159350); Brandt, Craig [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] (ORCID:0000000214707379); Langholtz, Matthew H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] (ORCID:0000000281537154)

    2016-07-13

    Scientific reason for data generation: to serve as the reference case for the BT16 volume 1 agricultural scenarios. The agricultural baseline runs from 2015 through 2040; a starting year of 2014 is used. Date the data set was last modified: 02/12/2016 How each parameter was produced (methods), format, and relationship to other data in the data set: simulation was developed without offering a farmgate price to energy crops or residues (i.e., building on both the USDA 2015 baseline and the agricultural census data (USDA NASS 2014). Data generated are .txt output files by year, simulation identifier, county code (1-3109). Instruments used: POLYSYS (version POLYS2015_V10_alt_JAN22B) supplied by the University of Tennessee APAC The quality assurance and quality control that have been applied: • Check for negative planted area, harvested area, production, yield and cost values. • Check if harvested area exceeds planted area for annuals. • Check FIPS codes.

  2. Baseline experiments in teleoperator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, W. W., III; Mixon, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Studies have been conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to establish baseline human teleoperator interface data and to assess the influence of some of the interface parameters on human performance in teleoperation. As baseline data, the results will be used to assess future interface improvements resulting from this research in basic teleoperator human factors. In addition, the data have been used to validate LaRC's basic teleoperator hardware setup and to compare initial teleoperator study results. Four subjects controlled a modified industrial manipulator to perform a simple task involving both high and low precision. Two different schemes for controlling the manipulator were studied along with both direct and indirect viewing of the task. Performance of the task was measured as the length of time required to complete the task along with the number of errors made in the process. Analyses of variance were computed to determine the significance of the influences of each of the independent variables. Comparisons were also made between the LaRC data and data taken earlier by Grumman Aerospace Corp. at their facilities.

  3. A publication database for optical long baseline interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malbet, Fabien; Mella, Guillaume; Lawson, Peter; Taillifet, Esther; Lafrasse, Sylvain

    2010-07-01

    Optical long baseline interferometry is a technique that has generated almost 850 refereed papers to date. The targets span a large variety of objects from planetary systems to extragalactic studies and all branches of stellar physics. We have created a database hosted by the JMMC and connected to the Optical Long Baseline Interferometry Newsletter (OLBIN) web site using MySQL and a collection of XML or PHP scripts in order to store and classify these publications. Each entry is defined by its ADS bibcode, includes basic ADS informations and metadata. The metadata are specified by tags sorted in categories: interferometric facilities, instrumentation, wavelength of operation, spectral resolution, type of measurement, target type, and paper category, for example. The whole OLBIN publication list has been processed and we present how the database is organized and can be accessed. We use this tool to generate statistical plots of interest for the community in optical long baseline interferometry.

  4. Baseline Test Specimen Machining Report

    SciTech Connect

    mark Carroll

    2009-08-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project is tasked with selecting a high temperature gas reactor technology that will be capable of generating electricity and supplying large amounts of process heat. The NGNP is presently being designed as a helium-cooled high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) with a large graphite core. The graphite baseline characterization project is conducting the research and development (R&D) activities deemed necessary to fully qualify nuclear-grade graphite for use in the NGNP reactor. Establishing nonirradiated thermomechanical and thermophysical properties by characterizing lot-to-lot and billet-to-billet variations (for probabilistic baseline data needs) through extensive data collection and statistical analysis is one of the major fundamental objectives of the project. The reactor core will be made up of stacks of graphite moderator blocks. In order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the varying characteristics in a wide range of suitable graphites, any of which can be classified as “nuclear grade,” an experimental program has been initiated to develop an extensive database of the baseline characteristics of numerous candidate graphites. Various factors known to affect the properties of graphite will be investigated, including specimen size, spatial location within a graphite billet, specimen orientation within a billet (either parallel to [P] or transverse to [T] the long axis of the as-produced billet), and billet-to-billet variations within a lot or across different production lots. Because each data point is based on a certain position within a given billet of graphite, particular attention must be paid to the traceability of each specimen and its spatial location and orientation within each billet. The evaluation of these properties is discussed in the Graphite Technology Development Plan (Windes et. al, 2007). One of the key components in the evaluation of these graphite types will be mechanical testing on

  5. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Jon F.; Kehrer, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is intended to be a how-to guide to prepare for, conduct, and close-out an Integrated Baseline Review (IBR). It discusses the steps that should be considered, describes roles and responsibilities, tips for tailoring the IBR based on risk, cost, and need for management insight, and provides lessons learned from past IBRs. Appendices contain example documentation typically used in connection with an IBR. Note that these appendices are examples only, and should be tailored to meet the needs of individual projects and contracts. Following the guidance in this handbook will help customers and suppliers preparing for an IBR understand the expectations of the IBR, and ensure that the IBR meets the requirements for both in-house and contract efforts.

  6. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1997-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.

  7. LBCS: The LOFAR Long-Baseline Calibrator Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, N.; Tagore, A.; Deller, A.; Moldón, J.; Varenius, E.; Morabito, L.; Wucknitz, O.; Carozzi, T.; Conway, J.; Drabent, A.; Kapinska, A.; Orrù, E.; Brentjens, M.; Blaauw, R.; Kuper, G.; Sluman, J.; Schaap, J.; Vermaas, N.; Iacobelli, M.; Cerrigone, L.; Shulevski, A.; ter Veen, S.; Fallows, R.; Pizzo, R.; Sipior, M.; Anderson, J.; Avruch, I. M.; Bell, M. E.; van Bemmel, I.; Bentum, M. J.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Ciardi, B.; Corstanje, A.; de Gasperin, F.; de Geus, E.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J. M.; Gunst, A. W.; van Haarlem, M. P.; Heald, G.; Hoeft, M.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Intema, H.; Juette, E.; Kuniyoshi, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; Loose, G. M.; Maat, P.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; McKean, J. P.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Munk, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Rowlinson, A.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Schwarz, D. J.; Steinmetz, M.; Swinbank, J.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wise, M. W.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.

    2016-11-01

    We outline the LOFAR Long-Baseline Calibrator Survey (LBCS), whose aim is to identify sources suitable for calibrating the highest-resolution observations made with the International LOFAR Telescope, which include baselines >1000 km. Suitable sources must contain significant correlated flux density (≳ 50 - 100 mJy) at frequencies around 110-190 MHz on scales of a few hundred milliarcseconds. At least for the 200-300-km international baselines, we find around 1 suitable calibrator source per square degree over a large part of the northern sky, in agreement with previous work. This should allow a randomly selected target to be successfully phase calibrated on the international baselines in over 50% of cases. Products of the survey include calibrator source lists and fringe-rate and delay maps of wide areas - typically a few degrees - around each source. The density of sources with significant correlated flux declines noticeably with baseline length over the range 200-600 km, with good calibrators on the longest baselines appearing only at the rate of 0.5 per sq. deg. Coherence times decrease from 1-3 min on 200-km baselines to about 1 min on 600-km baselines, suggesting that ionospheric phase variations contain components with scales of a few hundred kilometres. The longest median coherence time, at just over 3 min, is seen on the DE609 baseline, which at 227 km is close to being the shortest. We see median coherence times of between 80 and 110 s on the four longest baselines (580-600 km), and about 2 min for the other baselines. The success of phase transfer from calibrator to target is shown to be influenced by distance, in a manner that suggests a coherence patch at 150-MHz of the order of 1 deg. Although source structures cannot be measured in these observations, we deduce that phase transfer is affected if the calibrator source structure is not known. We give suggestions for calibration strategies and choice of calibrator sources, and describe the access to

  8. Baseline Graphite Characterization: First Billet

    SciTech Connect

    Mark C. Carroll; Joe Lords; David Rohrbaugh

    2010-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Graphite Research and Development program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a very high temperature reactor design. To meet this goal, the program is generating the extensive amount of quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the available nuclear graphite grades. In order determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for the latest proposed designs, two main programs are underway. The first, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) program, is a set of experiments that are designed to evaluate the irradiated properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences, and compressive loads. Despite the aggressive experimental matrix that comprises the set of AGC test runs, a limited amount of data can be generated based upon the availability of space within the Advanced Test Reactor and the geometric constraints placed on the AGC specimens that will be inserted. In order to supplement the AGC data set, the Baseline Graphite Characterization program will endeavor to provide supplemental data that will characterize the inherent property variability in nuclear-grade graphite without the testing constraints of the AGC program. This variability in properties is a natural artifact of graphite due to the geologic raw materials that are utilized in its production. This variability will be quantified not only within a single billet of as-produced graphite, but also from billets within a single lot, billets from different lots of the same grade, and across different billets of the numerous grades of nuclear graphite that are presently available. The thorough understanding of this variability will provide added detail to the irradiated property data, and provide a more thorough understanding of the behavior of graphite that will be used in reactor design and licensing. This report covers the

  9. SUGV baseline autonomy using ROS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stump, Ethan; Sadler, Laurel; Baran, David

    2011-05-01

    Currently, the 3000+ robotic systems fielded in theater are entirely teleoperated. This constant dependence on operator control introduces several problems, including a large cognitive load on the operator and a limited ability for the operator to maintain an appropriate level of situational awareness of his surroundings. One solution to reduce the dependence on teleoperation is to develop autonomous behaviors for the robot to reduce the strain on the operator. We consider mapping and navigation to be fundamental to the development of useful field autonomy for small unmanned ground vehicles (SUGVs). To this end, we have developed baseline autonomous capabilities for our SUGV platforms, making use of the open-source Robot Operating System (ROS) software from Willow Garage, Inc. Their implementations of mapping and navigation are drawn from the most successful published academic algorithms in robotics. In this paper, we describe how we bridged our previous work with the Packbot Explorer to incorporate a new processing payload, new sensors, and the ROS system configured to perform the high-level autonomy tasks of mapping and waypoint navigation. We document our most successful parameter selection for the ROS navigation software in an indoor environment and present results of a mapping experiment.

  10. Shifting Baselines, Science, and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, J. B.

    2006-12-01

    All of us have a deeply personal concept of nature based upon our childhood perceptions of the world around us, and of the subsequent degradation of nature by the experiences of our lifetimes. Yet even the most rudimentary knowledge of history clearly demonstrates that the modern rise of human population and consumption have wreaked havoc on global ecosystems to the extent that nowhere is close to natural or pristine and that most places have been increasingly degraded over many centuries. This disconnect between direct personal experience and abstract historical perspective is the problem of "shifting baselines" that is the fundamental impediment to basic scientific understanding and environmental policy, and affects scientists as much as the general public, business, and government. Scientists in particular suffer from the inability to directly observe and experimentally verify causes and effects of previous changes in ecosystems that now bear so little resemblance to their natural state. Under the circumstances, it is essential for scientists to draw scientific conclusions based on imperfect data and to publicly explain, defend, and discuss their conclusions as the best possible science given present information. The failure to do so makes science virtually irrelevant to social and environmental policy and government.

  11. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB)

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O'Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-01

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  12. Space Station-Baseline Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

  13. Light duty utility arm baseline system description

    SciTech Connect

    Kiebel, G.R.

    1996-02-01

    This document describes the configuration of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) Baseline System. The baseline system is the initial configuration of the LDUA system that will be qualified for hot deployment in Hanford single shell underground storage tanks.

  14. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB) - Webinar Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; Porro, Gian; O'Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-13

    This deck was presented for the 2016 Annual Technology Baseline Webinar. The presentation describes the Annual Technology Baseline, which is a compilation of current and future cost and performance data for electricity generation technologies.

  15. Mode S Baseline Radar Tracking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    Millville 256 24.2 Kroelinger 280 23.2 Vineland 284 19.0 Rudy’s 285 24.0 Piney Hollow 300 17.9 Geiser 304 22.3 Cross Keys 305 26.0 Albion 319 26.5...the 105 false Mode S tracks that were not tested or passed the target velocity t’-st. SAIl PRCjI|0 FIT HE FAA TICWUICAL 0E5155 .A*I CS’ auSAo l NJ UN f...ADMNISRATON ECHICL CENTER ATLANTIC CITY NJ ECI MACUSET L. OV 2 DOT/FAA/CT-82/43 UNCISIID DTO A/D_8 FIG 17/9 NL 50 urn 1.25 ~ 11.8 l, MICROCOPY

  16. Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment Sensitivity Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norrick, Anne; LBNE Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will address the neutrino mass hierarchy, leptonic CP violation, and the value of the mixing angle Theta13 with unprecedented sensitivity. Protons from the Fermilab Main Injector will impinge on a target to create intense fluxes of charged pions and other mesons. The mesons will be guided down a 250 m length of pipe where they will decay creating a muon neutrino beam. The beam will pass through a near detector and travel on to massive detectors located in the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Lab (DUSEL) in Western South Dakota. The near detector at Fermilab will measure the absolute flux of neutrinos before oscillation, and measure signal and background processes in the poorly understood GeV neutrino energy range. To quantify the potential sensitivity of this experiment and the specific needs of the near detector, simulation work has been undertaken. In particular, results of studies using a more sophisticated understanding of various background processes will be presented. Additionally, hardware work for a possible near detector design will be presented.

  17. THE FIRST VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRIC SETI EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Rampadarath, H.; Morgan, J. S.; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.

    2012-08-15

    The first Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) conducted with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) is presented. By consideration of the basic principles of interferometry, we show that VLBI is efficient at discriminating between SETI signals and human generated radio frequency interference (RFI). The target for this study was the star Gliese 581, thought to have two planets within its habitable zone. On 2007 June 19, Gliese 581 was observed for 8 hr at 1230-1544 MHz with the Australian Long Baseline Array. The data set was searched for signals appearing on all interferometer baselines above five times the noise limit. A total of 222 potential SETI signals were detected and by using automated data analysis techniques were ruled out as originating from the Gliese 581 system. From our results we place an upper limit of 7 MW Hz{sup -1} on the power output of any isotropic emitter located in the Gliese 581 system within this frequency range. This study shows that VLBI is ideal for targeted SETI including follow-up observations. The techniques presented are equally applicable to next-generation interferometers, such as the long baselines of the Square Kilometre Array.

  18. Baseline Establishment Using Virtual Environment Traumatic Brain Injury Screen (VETS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    treating brain injuries is utilizing 16 an effective screening technique to target treatment for those individuals who need it most. Requirements for an...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS BASELINE ESTABLISHMENT USING VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY SCREEN (VETS) by Casey...ENVIRONMENT TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY SCREEN (VETS) 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Casey G. DeMunck 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES

  19. Precision surveying using very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. W.; Clark, T. A.; Coates, R.; Ma, C.; Robertson, D. S.; Corey, B. E.; Counselman, C. C.; Shapiro, I. I.; Wittels, J. J.; Hinteregger, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    Radio interferometry measurements were used to measure the vector baselines between large microwave radio antennas. A 1.24 km baseline in Massachusetts between the 36 meter Haystack Observatory antenna and the 18 meter Westford antenna of Lincoln Laboratory was measured with 5 mm repeatability in 12 separate experiments. Preliminary results from measurements of the 3,928 km baseline between the Haystack antenna and the 40 meter antenna at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory in California are presented.

  20. Behind the (impedance) baseline in children.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, S; Salvatoni, A; Van Steen, K; Ummarino, D; Hauser, B; Vandenplas, Y

    2014-01-01

    Impedance baseline is a new parameter recently related to esophageal integrity. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different factors on impedance baseline in pediatric patients. We analyzed the impedance baseline of 800 children with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. Mean impedance baseline was automatically calculated throughout 24-hour tracings. The presence of different age groups and of esophagitis was evaluated. Unpaired t-test, Spearman rank correlation, polynomial, and regression plot were used for statistical analysis. Age-related percentile curves were created. We considered a P-value<0.05 as statistically significant. Impedance baseline was significantly (P<0.001) lower in younger compared to older children up to 48 months. The mean increase of baseline per month was much higher in the first 36 months of life (47.5 vs. 2.9 Ohm in Channel 1 and 29.9 vs. 2.3 Ohm in Channel 6, respectively) than in older ages. Patients with esophagitis showed significantly decreased impedance baseline (P<0.05). Infants (especially in the first months of life) and young children present a significantly lower impedance baseline compared to older children both in proximal and distal esophagus. The presence of esophagitis may also determine a decreased impedance baseline regardless of the age of the patients.

  1. The Efficacy of the Cycles Approach: A Multiple Baseline Design

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Johanna M.; Wendt, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Cycles Phonological Remediation Approach as an intervention for children with speech sound disorders (SSD). A multiple baseline design across behaviors was used to examine intervention effects. Three children (ages 4;3 to 5;3) with moderate-severe to severe SSDs participated in two cycles of therapy. Three phonological patterns were targeted for each child. Generalization probes were administered during baseline, intervention, and follow-up phases to assess generalization and maintenance of learned skills. Two of the three participants exhibited statistically and clinically significant gains by the end of the intervention phase and these effects were maintained at follow-up. The third participant exhibited significant gains at follow-up. Phonologically known target patterns showed greater generalization than unknown target patterns across all phases. Individual differences in performance were examined at the participant level and the target pattern level. Learner Outcomes The reader will be able to: (1) enumerate the three major components of the cycles approach, (2) describe factors that should be considered when selecting treatment targets, and (3) identify variables that may affect a child’s outcome following cycles treatment PMID:24438911

  2. The efficacy of the cycles approach: a multiple baseline design.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Johanna M; Wendt, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Cycles Phonological Remediation Approach as an intervention for children with speech sound disorders (SSD). A multiple baseline design across behaviors was used to examine intervention effects. Three children (ages 4;3 to 5;3) with moderate-severe to severe SSDs participated in two cycles of therapy. Three phonological patterns were targeted for each child. Generalization probes were administered during baseline, intervention, and follow-up phases to assess generalization and maintenance of learned skills. Two of the three participants exhibited statistically and clinically significant gains by the end of the intervention phase and these effects were maintained at follow-up. The third participant exhibited significant gains at follow-up. Phonologically known target patterns showed greater generalization than unknown target patterns across all phases. Individual differences in performance were examined at the participant level and the target pattern level. The reader will be able to: (1) enumerate the three major components of the cycles approach, (2) describe factors that should be considered when selecting treatment targets, and (3) identify variables that may affect a child's outcome following cycles treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ALMA fast switching phase calibration on long baselines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaki, Yoshiharu; Matsushita, Satoki; Kawabe, Ryohei; Fomalont, Ed; Barkats, Denis; Corder, Stuartt

    2014-07-01

    We present results of feasibility studies of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) interferom- eter phase calibration scheme combined with the Fast Switching (FS) phase referencing and the Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) phase correction (FS+WVR phase correction). With FS scheme, ALMA antennas observe a scientific target source and a nearby calibrator by turn very quickly. Because interferometer phase errors of the target due to the water vapor contents commonly exist in those of the calibrator, the target phase is corrected with the calibrator phase. We have demonstrated the FS+WVR phase correction for ALMA with baselines up to 2.7 km for various switching cycle times and separations between sources. For instance, in the case of sources with the 1° separation, root-mean-square phases of the target were reduced from 300 to 40 microns in path length for 1 km baselines, and the target interferometer phases could be stabilized to an ALMA specification requirement level for the interferometer phase stability. We also analytically evaluated the root-mean-square phase corrected with the FS+WVR phase correction to predict the performance as a function of the separation and switching cycle time.

  4. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    PubMed

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  5. The importance of archiving baseline wilderness data

    Treesearch

    David N. Cole

    2007-01-01

    Baseline wilderness data are of considerable importance for several reasons. One of the primary values of wilderness is as a reference that contrasts with those lands where humans dominate the landscape. Leopold (1941) called wilderness "a base-datum of normality, a picture of how healthy land maintains itself." To realize this value, baseline data on...

  6. The Very-Long-Baseline Array.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Thompson, A. Richard

    1988-01-01

    Describes the very-long-baseline array (VLBA) system of radio telescopes that will be completed in the early 1990s. Explains how the VLBA system works and the advantages over present technology. Compares associated international telescopes and very-long-baseline interferometers (VLBI). Illustrates applications for the VLBA and VLBI. (CW)

  7. 40 CFR 1042.825 - Baseline determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special... adjust it differently, consistent with good engineering judgment. (d) Test the baseline engine four times according to the test procedures in subpart F of this part. The baseline emissions are the average of those...

  8. Longer-baseline telescopes using quantum repeaters.

    PubMed

    Gottesman, Daniel; Jennewein, Thomas; Croke, Sarah

    2012-08-17

    We present an approach to building interferometric telescopes using ideas of quantum information. Current optical interferometers have limited baseline lengths, and thus limited resolution, because of noise and loss of signal due to the transmission of photons between the telescopes. The technology of quantum repeaters has the potential to eliminate this limit, allowing in principle interferometers with arbitrarily long baselines.

  9. Error estimation for ORION baseline vector determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of error sources on Operational Radio Interferometry Observing Network (ORION) baseline vector determination are studied. Partial derivatives of delay observations with respect to each error source are formulated. Covariance analysis is performed to estimate the contribution of each error source to baseline vector error. System design parameters such as antenna sizes, system temperatures and provision for dual frequency operation are discussed.

  10. Multi-Baseline Stereo Using Surface Extraction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-11-24

    Nakahara, T. and Kanade, T. "Experiments in Multiple - Baseline Stereo" CMU-CS-93-102. 28 [16] Nakamura, Y., Matsuura, T., Satoh, K. and Ohta...of Computer Vision, 7:2, 1992:p. 143-162. [19] Okutomi, M. and Kanade, T. "A Multiple - Baseline Stereo" IEEE Trans, on PAMI, 1993. 15(4):p. 353-63

  11. The Very-Long-Baseline Array.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Thompson, A. Richard

    1988-01-01

    Describes the very-long-baseline array (VLBA) system of radio telescopes that will be completed in the early 1990s. Explains how the VLBA system works and the advantages over present technology. Compares associated international telescopes and very-long-baseline interferometers (VLBI). Illustrates applications for the VLBA and VLBI. (CW)

  12. Elevating Baseline Activation Does Not Facilitate Reading of Unattended Words

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Kouchi, Scott; Ruthruff, Eric; Lachter, Joel B.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have disagreed the extent to which people extract meaning from words presented outside the focus of spatial attention. The present study, examined a possible explanation for such discrepancies, inspired by attenuation theory: unattended words can be read more automatically when they have a high baseline level of activation (e.g., due to frequent repetition or due to being expected in a given context). We presented a brief prime word in lowercase, followed by a target word in uppercase. Participants indicated whether the target word belonged to a particular category (e.g., "sport"). When we drew attention to the prime word using a visual cue, the prime produced substantial priming effects on target responses (i.e., faster responses when the prime and target words were identical or from the same category than when they belonged to different categories). When prime words were not attended, however, they produced no priming effects. This finding replicated even when there were only 4 words, each repeated 160 times during the experiment. Even with a very high baseline level of activation, it appears that very little word processing is possible without spatial attention.

  13. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.; Wagner, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. With the ability to accurately compare different technologies' performance for the same function, managers will be able to make better decisions regarding technology development.

  14. TWRS technical baseline database manager definition document

    SciTech Connect

    Acree, C.D.

    1997-08-13

    This document serves as a guide for using the TWRS Technical Baseline Database Management Systems Engineering (SE) support tool in performing SE activities for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). This document will provide a consistent interpretation of the relationships between the TWRS Technical Baseline Database Management software and the present TWRS SE practices. The Database Manager currently utilized is the RDD-1000 System manufactured by the Ascent Logic Corporation. In other documents, the term RDD-1000 may be used interchangeably with TWRS Technical Baseline Database Manager.

  15. 40 CFR 1042.825 - Baseline determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the family. (c) Remanufacture the engine according to OEM specifications (or equivalent). The engine is considered “the baseline engine” at this point. If the OEM specifications include a range...

  16. 40 CFR 1042.825 - Baseline determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the family. (c) Remanufacture the engine according to OEM specifications (or equivalent). The engine is considered “the baseline engine” at this point. If the OEM specifications include a range...

  17. 40 CFR 1042.825 - Baseline determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the family. (c) Remanufacture the engine according to OEM specifications (or equivalent). The engine is considered “the baseline engine” at this point. If the OEM specifications include a range...

  18. 40 CFR 1042.825 - Baseline determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the family. (c) Remanufacture the engine according to OEM specifications (or equivalent). The engine is considered “the baseline engine” at this point. If the OEM specifications include a range...

  19. Physics Program of the Short-Baseline Near Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brailsford, Dominic; SBND collaboration

    2017-09-01

    SBND (Short-Baseline Near Detector) will be a 112 ton liquid argon TPC neutrino detector located 110 m from the target of the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam. SBND, together with the MicroBooNE and ICARUS-T600 detectors at 470 m and 600 m, respectively, make up the Fermilab Short-Baseline Neutrino (SBN) Program. SBN will search for new physics in the neutrino sector by testing the sterile neutrino hypothesis in the 1 eV2 mass squared region with unrivaled sensitivity. SBND will measure the unoscillated beam flavor composition to enable precision searches for neutrino oscillations via both electron neutrino appearance and muon neutrino disappearance in the far detectors. With a data sample of millions of neutrino interactions (both electron and muon neutrinos), SBND will also perform detailed studies of the physics of neutrino-argon interactions, even in rare channels. In this poster the physics program of SBND will be presented.

  20. Baseline Hearing Measurements in Alaskan Belugas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Baseline Hearing Measurements in Alaskan Belugas T...Baseline Hearing Measurements in Alaskan Belugas 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...The work involved temporarily capturing 9 beluga whales during September 1-13, 2012. Hearing abilities were measured for 7 restrained animals using

  1. Baseline blood oxygenation modulates response amplitude

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hanzhang; Zhao, Chenguang; Ge, Yulin; Lewis-Amezcua, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Although BOLD fMRI provides a useful tool for probing neuronal activities, large inter-subject variations in signal amplitude are commonly observed. Understanding the physiologic basis for these variations will have a significant impact on many fMRI studies. First, the physiologic modulator can be used as a regressor to reduce variations across subjects, thereby improving statistical power for detecting group differences. Second, if a pathologic condition or a drug treatment is shown to change fMRI responses, monitoring this modulatory parameter is useful in correctly interpreting the fMRI changes to neuronal deficits/recruitments. Here we present evidence that the task-evoked fMRI signals are modulated by baseline blood oxygenation. To measure global blood oxygenation, we used a recently developed technique, T2-Relaxation-Under-Spin-Tagging MRI, yielding baseline oxygenation of 63.7±7.2% in sagittal sinus with an estimation error of 1.3%. It was found that individuals with higher baseline oxygenation tend to have a smaller fMRI signal and vice versa. For every 10% difference in baseline oxygenation across subjects, the BOLD and cerebral blood flow signal differ by -0.4% and -30.0%, respectively, when using visual stimulation. TRUST MRI is a useful measurement for fMRI studies to control for the modulatory effects of baseline oxygenation that are unique to each subject. PMID:18666103

  2. Baseline estimation from simultaneous satellite laser tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dedes, George C.

    1987-01-01

    Simultaneous Range Differences (SRDs) to Lageos are obtained by dividing the observing stations into pairs with quasi-simultaneous observations. For each of those pairs the station with the least number of observations is identified, and at its observing epochs interpolated ranges for the alternate station are generated. The SRD observables are obtained by subtracting the actually observed laser range of the station having the least number of observations from the interpolated ranges of the alternate station. On the basis of these observables semidynamic single baseline solutions were performed. The aim of these solutions is to further develop and implement the SRD method in the real data environment, to assess its accuracy, its advantages and disadvantages as related to the range dynamic mode methods, when the baselines are the only parameters of interest. Baselines, using simultaneous laser range observations to Lageos, were also estimated through the purely geometric method. These baselines formed the standards the standards of comparison in the accuracy assessment of the SRD method when compared to that of the range dynamic mode methods. On the basis of this comparison it was concluded that for baselines of regional extent the SRD method is very effective, efficient, and at least as accurate as the range dynamic mode methods, and that on the basis of a simple orbital modeling and a limited orbit adjustment. The SRD method is insensitive to the inconsistencies affecting the terrestrial reference frame and simultaneous adjustment of the Earth Rotation Parameters (ERPs) is not necessary.

  3. Salton Sea sampling program: baseline studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tullis, R.E.; Carter, J.L.; Langlois, G.W.

    1981-04-13

    Baseline data are provided on three species of fish from the Salton Sea, California. The fishes considered were the orange mouth corvina (Cynoscion xanthulus), gulf croaker (Bairdiella icistius) and sargo (Anisotremus davidsonii). Morphometric and meristic data are presented as a baseline to aid in the evaluation of any physiological stress the fish may experience as a result of geothermal development. Analyses were made on muscle, liver, and bone of the fishes sampled to provide baseline data on elemental tissue burdens. The elements measured were: As, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Mn, Mi, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Zn, and Zr. These data are important if an environmentally sound progression of geothermal power production is to occur at the Salton Sea.

  4. Atmospheric media effects on ARIES baseline determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    Different types of media effects on ARIES baseline determination are compared. The effectiveness of simple ionospheric calibration models are studied. To perform the covariance analysis, an ARIES observation sequence needs to be assumed. For the current purposes, the observation sequence is selected to be that of experiment 80D over the JPL/Goldstone baseline (approximately 180 km). This experiment consisted of 96 observations over a period of approximately 25 hours on March 25 to 26, 1980. It is found through covariance analyses that the component most sensitive to media depends heavily upon the correlation, between the two stations, of the media effects. It is also found that relying on the cancellation of ionospheric delays between the two ray paths of VLBI observations at S band results in a large error in baseline length determination. High degree removal of ionospheric effects is possible with a crude model, providing correct diurnal peak and minimum ionospheric levels are input.

  5. Geochemical baseline studies of soil in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2017-04-01

    The soil element concentrations regionally vary a lot in Finland. Mostly this is caused by the different bedrock types, which are reflected in the soil qualities. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is carrying out geochemical baseline studies in Finland. In the previous phase, the research is focusing on urban areas and mine environments. The information can, for example, be used to determine the need for soil remediation, to assess environmental impacts or to measure the natural state of soil in industrial areas or mine districts. The field work is done by taking soil samples, typically at depth between 0-10 cm. Sampling sites are chosen to represent the most vulnerable areas when thinking of human impacts by possible toxic soil element contents: playgrounds, day-care centers, schools, parks and residential areas. In the mine districts the samples are taken from the areas locating outside the airborne dust effected areas. Element contents of the soil samples are then analyzed with ICP-AES and ICP-MS, Hg with CV-AAS. The results of the geochemical baseline studies are published in the Finnish national geochemical baseline database (TAPIR). The geochemical baseline map service is free for all users via internet browser. Through this map service it is possible to calculate regional soil baseline values using geochemical data stored in the map service database. Baseline data for 17 elements in total is provided in the map service and it can be viewed on the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/Tapir/indexEN.html).

  6. The Fermilab short-baseline neutrino program

    SciTech Connect

    Camilleri, Leslie

    2015-10-15

    The Fermilab short-baseline program is a multi-facetted one. Primarily it searches for evidence of sterile neutrinos as hinted at by the MiniBooNE and LSND results. It will also measure a whole suite of ν-Argon cross sections which will be very useful in future liquid argon long-baseline projects. The program is based on MicroBooNE, already installed in the beam line, the recently approved LAr1-ND and the future addition of the refurbished ICARUS.

  7. Long-baseline Neutrino Oscillation at DUNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worcester, Elizabeth; DUNE Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment with primary physics goals of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy and measuring δc P with sufficient sensitivity to discover CP violation in neutrino oscillation. CP violation sensitivity in DUNE requires careful understanding of systematic uncertainty, with contributions expected from uncertainties in the neutrino flux, neutrino interactions, and detector effects. In this presentation, we will describe the expected sensitivity of DUNE to long-baseline neutrino oscillation parameters, how various aspects of the experimental design contribute to that sensitivity, and the planned strategy for constraining systematic uncertainty in these measurements.

  8. Optical Long Baseline Interferometry News (OLBIN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Peter R.; Malbet, Fabien

    2010-07-01

    The Optical Long Baseline Interferometry News (OLBIN) is a website and forum for scientists, engineers, and students who share a common interest in long-baseline stellar interferometry. Through OLBIN you will find links to projects devoted to stellar interferometry, as well as news items, recent papers and preprints, notices of upcoming meetings, and resources for further research. This paper describes the history of the website, how it has evolved to serve the community, and the current plans for its future development. The website can be found at http://olbin.jpl.nasa.gov/.

  9. Baseline automotive gas turbine engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. E. (Editor); Pampreen, R. C. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Tests results on a baseline engine are presented to document the automotive gas turbine state-of-the-art at the start of the program. The performance characteristics of the engine and of a vehicle powered by this engine are defined. Component improvement concepts in the baseline engine were evaluated on engine dynamometer tests in the complete vehicle on a chassis dynamometer and on road tests. The concepts included advanced combustors, ceramic regenerators, an integrated control system, low cost turbine material, a continuously variable transmission, power-turbine-driven accessories, power augmentation, and linerless insulation in the engine housing.

  10. SBND: Status of the Fermilab Short-Baseline Near Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConkey, Nicola; SBND collaboration

    2017-09-01

    SBND (Short-Baseline Near Detector) will be a 112 ton liquid argon TPC neutrino detector located 110m from the target of the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam. SBND, together with the MicroBooNE and ICARUS-T600 detectors at 470m and 600m, respectively, make up the Fermilab Short-Baseline Neutrino (SBN) Program. SBN will search for new physics in the neutrino sector by testing the sterile neutrino hypothesis in the 1 eV2 mass-squared region with unrivaled sensitivity. SBND will measure the un-oscillated beam flavor composition to enable precision searches for neutrino oscillations via both electron neutrino appearance and muon neutrino disappearance in the far detectors. With a data sample of millions of neutrino interactions (both electron and muon neutrinos), SBND will also perform detailed studies of the physics of neutrino-argon interactions, even in rare channels. In addition, SBND plays an important role in an on-going R&D effort within neutrino physics to develop the LArTPC technology toward many-kiloton-scale detectors for next generation long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. The design details and current status of the detector is presented here.

  11. Baseline Day: A Student Teaching Enhancement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Bette; Braught, Loran R.

    1996-01-01

    Describes Indiana State University's baseline day program, which helps establish a strong beginning upon which student teachers can build. Student teachers take full responsibility of the classroom for 1 day within the first 4-10 days of their assignment. Evaluations of student and cooperating teachers indicate the program benefits all involved.…

  12. On Internal Validity in Multiple Baseline Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pustejovsky, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Single-case designs are a class of research designs for evaluating intervention effects on individual cases. The designs are widely applied in certain fields, including special education, school psychology, clinical psychology, social work, and applied behavior analysis. The multiple baseline design (MBD) is the most frequently used single-case…

  13. Preliminary design study of a baseline MIUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfer, B. M.; Shields, V. E.; Rippey, J. O.; Roberts, H. L.; Wadle, R. C.; Wallin, S. P.; Gill, W. L.; White, E. H.; Monzingo, R.

    1977-01-01

    Results of a conceptual design study to establish a baseline design for a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) are presented. The system concept developed a basis for evaluating possible projects to demonstrate an MIUS. For the baseline study, climate conditions for the Washington, D.C., area were used. The baseline design is for a high density apartment complex of 496 dwelling units with a planned full occupancy of approximately 1200 residents. Environmental considerations and regulations for the MIUS installation are discussed. Detailed cost data for the baseline MIUS are given together with those for design and operating variations under climate conditions typified by Las Vegas, Nevada, Houston, Texas, and Minneapolis, Minnesota. In addition, results of an investigation of size variation effects, for 300 and 1000 unit apartment complexes, are presented. Only conceptual aspects of the design are discussed. Results regarding energy savings and costs are intended only as trend information and for use in relative comparisons. Alternate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning concepts are considered in the appendix.

  14. National Cyberethics, Cybersafety, Cybersecurity Baseline Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study that explores the nature of the Cyberethics, Cybersafety, and Cybersecurity (C3) educational awareness policies, initiatives, curriculum, and practices currently taking place in the U.S. public and private K-12 educational settings. The study establishes baseline data on C3 awareness, which can be used…

  15. 75 FR 47291 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Baseline Filings July 29, 2010. ONEOK Gas Storage, L.L.C Docket No. PR10-67-000. Atmos Energy--Kentucky/Mid-States Division Docket No. PR10-68-000. Magic Valley...

  16. The Geobiosphere Emergy Baseline: A synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following the Eighth Biennial Emergy Conference (January, 2014), the need for revisiting the procedures and assumptions used to compute the Geobiosphere Emergy Baseline (GEB) emerged as a necessity to strengthen the method of Emergy Accounting and remove sources of ambiguity and ...

  17. MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study Baseline Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Lucas-McLean, Juanita

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on the initial design, implementation and baseline results of the five-year Longitudinal Educational Growth Study (LEGS) of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) being conducted by the School Choice Demonstration Project (SCDP). The LEGS will be the first evaluation of the participant effects of the MPCP using…

  18. Waste management project technical baseline description

    SciTech Connect

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1997-08-13

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project.

  19. The Geobiosphere Emergy Baseline: A synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following the Eighth Biennial Emergy Conference (January, 2014), the need for revisiting the procedures and assumptions used to compute the Geobiosphere Emergy Baseline (GEB) emerged as a necessity to strengthen the method of Emergy Accounting and remove sources of ambiguity and ...

  20. How Valid Are the Portland Baseline Essays?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Erich

    1991-01-01

    Portland, Oregon's "African-American Baseline Essays," widely used in creating multicultural curricula, inaccurately depicts ancient Egyptians as black people and Olmec civilization as derived from African influences. The authors advance racial theories long abandoned by mainline Africa scholars, attribute mystical powers to pyramids,…

  1. 75 FR 49918 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Baseline Filings August 6, 2010. Enbridge Pipelines (East Texas) L.P Docket No. PR10-71-000. Pacific Gas and Electric Company Docket No. PR10-72-000. Kinder Morgan...

  2. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  3. Baseline and Multimodal UAV GCS Interface Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    partition in the GCS experiment room ...................................................................... 9 Figure 3. Questionnaire for qualifications...reporting. The question on age was added to the existing questionnaire in the training session. In the training session, participants were asked to complete...the questionnaire after two practice scenarios were played. The questionnaire was used in running of the baseline condition. The second change was

  4. National Cyberethics, Cybersafety, Cybersecurity Baseline Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study that explores the nature of the Cyberethics, Cybersafety, and Cybersecurity (C3) educational awareness policies, initiatives, curriculum, and practices currently taking place in the U.S. public and private K-12 educational settings. The study establishes baseline data on C3 awareness, which can be used…

  5. Space Station Freedom baseline operations concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paules, Granville

    1991-01-01

    The Baseline Operations Concept is designed to support the multiflight-multistage assembly sequence and post-Permanent Manned Configuration (PMC) era for the Space Station Freedom (SSF). Initial implementation of procedures and systems are consistent with experience gained during the operation of the Shuttle and Spacelab.

  6. Statistical issues in long baseline neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonazzo, Alessandra; LBNO Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    An animated debate has been ongoing in the neutrino community on how to estimate and quote the expected sensitivity of future long-baseline neutrino experiments to key parameters such as Mass Hierarchy or CP violation. We will present an overview of some items covered by recent papers and will detail the approach chosen by the LBNO Collaboration to present its results.

  7. Baseline drivers of lymphatic filariasis in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Michelle C; Molyneux, David H; Kyelem, Dominique; Bougma, Roland W; Koudou, Benjamin G; Kelly-Hope, Louise A

    2013-11-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a parasitic disease that is endemic throughout sub-Saharan Africa, infecting approximately 40 million people. In Burkina Faso, mass drug administration (MDA) for LF with ivermectin and albendazole has been ongoing since 2001, and by 2006 all endemic health districts were receiving MDA with a therapeutic coverage of at least 65%. As MDA activities scale down, the focus is now on targeting areas where LF transmission persists with alternative elimination strategies. This study explored the relationship between village-level, baseline LF prevalence data collected in 2000 with publicly available meteorological, environmental and demographic variables in order to determine the factors that influence the geographical distribution of the disease. A fitted multiple logistic regression model indicated that the length of the rainy season, variability in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and population density were significantly positively associated with LF prevalence, whereas total annual rainfall, average June-September temperature, mean NDVI, elevation and the area of cotton crops were significantly negatively associated. This model was used to produce a baseline LF risk map for Burkina Faso. An extended model which incorporated potential socio-demographic risk factors also indicated a significant positive relationship between LF prevalence and wealth. In overlaying the baseline LF risk map with the number of MDA rounds, plus an insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership measure, the central southern area of the country was highlighted as an area where baseline LF prevalence was high and ITN coverage relatively low (<50%), while at least 10 rounds of MDA had been undertaken, suggesting that more concentrated efforts will be needed to eliminate the disease in these areas.

  8. Accelerated Best Basis Inventory Baselining Task

    SciTech Connect

    SASAKI, L.M.

    2001-10-19

    The baselining effort was recently proposed to bring the Best-Basis Inventory (BBI) and Question No.8 of the Tank Interpretive Report (TIR) for all 177 tanks to the current standards and protocols and to prepare a TIR Question No.8 if one is not already available. This plan outlines the objectives and methodology of the accelerated BBI baselining task. BBI baselining meetings held during December 2000 resulted in a revised BBI methodology and an initial set of BBI creation rules to be used in the baselining effort. The objectives of the BBI baselining effort are to: (1) Provide inventories that are consistent with the revised BBI methodology and new BBI creation rules. (2) Split the total tank waste in each tank into six waste phases, as appropriate (Supernatant, saltcake solids, saltcake liquid, sludge solids, sludge liquid, and retained gas). In some tanks, the solids and liquid portions of the sludge and/or saltcake may be combined into a single sludge or saltcake phase. (3) Identify sampling events that are to be used for calculating the BBIs. (4) Update waste volumes for subsequent reconciliation with the Hanlon (2001) waste tank summary. (5) Implement new waste type templates. (6) Include any sample data that might have been unintentionally omitted in the previous BBI and remove any sample data that should not have been included. Sample data to be used in the BBI must be available on TWINS. (7) Ensure that an inventory value for each standard BBI analyte is provided for each waste component. Sample based inventories for supplemental BBI analytes will be included when available. (8) Provide new means and confidence interval reports if one is not already available and include uncertainties in reporting inventory values.

  9. 40 CFR 74.20 - Data for baseline and alternative baseline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.20 Data for baseline and alternative baseline. (a) Acceptable data. (1) The designated representative of a combustion... based on such data. (2) The following data shall be submitted for the combustion source for the...

  10. ALMA long baseline phase calibration using phase referencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaki, Yoshiharu; Matsushita, Satoki; Fomalont, Edward B.; Corder, Stuartt A.; Nyman, Lars-Åke; Dent, William R. F.; Philips, Neil M.; Hirota, Akihiko; Takahashi, Satoko; Vila-Vilaro, Baltasar; Nikolic, Bojan; Hunter, Todd R.; Remijan, Anthony; Vlahakis, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is the world's largest millimeter/submillimeter telescope and provides unprecedented sensitivities and spatial resolutions. To achieve the highest imaging capabilities, interferometric phase calibration for the long baselines is one of the most important subjects: The longer the baselines, the worse the phase stability becomes because of turbulent motions of the Earth's atmosphere, especially, the water vapor in the troposphere. To overcome this subject, ALMA adopts a phase correction scheme using a Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) to estimate the amount of water vapor content along the antenna line of sight. An additional technique is phase referencing, in which a science target and a nearby calibrator are observed by turn by quickly changing the antenna pointing. We conducted feasibility studies of the hybrid technique with the WVR phase correction and the antenna Fast Switching (FS) phase referencing (WVR+FS phase correction) for the ALMA 16 km longest baselines in cases that (1) the same observing frequency both for a target and calibrator is used, and (2) higher and lower frequencies for a target and calibrator, respectively, with a typical switching cycle time of 20 s. It was found that the phase correction performance of the hybrid technique is promising where a nearby calibrator is located within roughly 3◦ from a science target, and that the phase correction with 20 s switching cycle time significantly improves the performance with the above separation angle criterion comparing to the 120 s switching cycle time. The currently trial phase calibration method shows the same performance independent of the observing frequencies. This result is especially important for the higher frequency observations because it becomes difficult to find a bright calibrator close to an arbitrary sky position. In the series of our experiments, it is also found that phase errors affecting the image quality come from not only

  11. Baseline Neurocognitive Performance in Professional Lacrosse Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Plancher, Kevin D.; Brooks-James, Ariana; Nissen, Carl W.; Diduch, B. Kent; Petterson, Stephanie C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Concussions have become a major public health concern for both youth and professional athletes. The long-term consequences of concussion can be debilitating or even life threatening. To reduce these concerns, baseline neurocognitive performance can aid decision making in postconcussion recovery and return to play for athletes sustaining concussions. To date, these data are not available for lacrosse athletes. Purpose: To present baseline neurocognitive performance for Major League Lacrosse (MLL) players and to determine differences between athletes with and without a history of concussion. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted of Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) scores from MLL players who completed baseline testing from June 2010 to June 2011. Inclusion required a valid baseline test and no history of concussion in the 3 months prior to testing. Means ± standard deviations were computed for all demographic variables and ImPACT composite scores including visual and verbal memory, reaction time, and visual motor processing speed. Independent-samples t tests were used to determine differences between athletes with and without a history of concussion. Results: Valid baseline ImPACT testing was available for 235 MLL athletes (mean age, 25.1 ± 3.0 years). Forty percent of MLL athletes (n = 94) reported a history of concussion, with 14% of those (n = 13) reporting a history of 3 or more previous concussions. There were no differences on any demographic variables between MLL athletes with and without a history of concussion. MLL athletes with a history of concussion had lower ImPACT composite scores than those without a history of concussion, although only the verbal memory composite was found to be statistically significant (MLL with concussion, 83.2 ± 10.8 vs MLL without concussion, 86.9 ± 9.5; P = .007). Conclusion: This study establishes baseline Im

  12. Stereo image pair's construction and accuracy analysis based on MMT soft-baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Jianliang; Zhang, Jinhua; Cao, Bin; Bao, Feng; Wang, Weian

    2009-10-01

    Land based mobile mapping technology (MMT) can collect spatial and attribute data in high efficiency and the data can meet the requirement of 1:2000 scale or even higher accuracy topographic mapping without ground control point. In mobile mapping, direct georeferencing by the integration of GPS and INS/DR provides the mobile platform's continuous position and pose to mapping sensor in field survey, then image stereo of the certain target is used to calculate its 3d global coordinates. But in general, current MMT image stereo is defined as the solid baseline between the different CCD cameras' relative position deviation which is rigid connected to each other and calibrated by high precise control field, and baseline length is quite short (less than 2 meters). This brings some troubles on the far distance target or big size building observation from different viewpoints, and also limits the use of huge amount of MMT measurable images. This paper presented the image stereo pair construction in soft-baseline condition, which is organized through the different imaging time and platform field place but overlapped to the certain target, thus the baseline's accuracy would be some obvious lower than the solid one. We made a brief introduction about Tongji Geo-Informatics MMT firstly, analyzed the image stereo pair from the solid-baseline, and then constructed MMT measurable image into soft-baseline stereo and due mathematical model is expressed. In the paper's experiment part, we analyzed the concrete target 3d solution with the total station, MMT image's solid-baseline stereo and the soft-baseline surveying. The calculation shows that the target 3d coordinates solution in soft-baseline has the same precision as the solid one, also meets the topographic mapping requirement of scale 1:2000. Last, the paper discussed some important influence from the change of angle of two observing bundles in photogrammetric forward intersection and the change sub-deviations of survey error

  13. [An Algorithm for Correcting Fetal Heart Rate Baseline].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Yaosheng

    2015-10-01

    Fetal heart rate (FHR) baseline estimation is of significance for the computerized analysis of fetal heart rate and the assessment of fetal state. In our work, a fetal heart rate baseline correction algorithm was presented to make the existing baseline more accurate and fit to the tracings. Firstly, the deviation of the existing FHR baseline was found and corrected. And then a new baseline was obtained finally after treatment with some smoothing methods. To assess the performance of FHR baseline correction algorithm, a new FHR baseline estimation algorithm that combined baseline estimation algorithm and the baseline correction algorithm was compared with two existing FHR baseline estimation algorithms. The results showed that the new FHR baseline estimation algorithm did well in both accuracy and efficiency. And the results also proved the effectiveness of the FHR baseline correction algorithm.

  14. CASA Uno GPS orbit and baseline experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, B. E.; Ho, C. S.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Tapley, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    CASA Uno data from sites distributed in longitude from Australia to Europe have been used to determine orbits of the GPS satellites. The characteristics of the orbits determined from double difference phase have been evaluated through comparisons of two-week solutions with one-week solutions and by comparisons of predicted and estimated orbits. Evidence of unmodeled effects is demonstrated, particularly associated with the orbit planes that experience solar eclipse. The orbit accuracy has been assessed through the repeatability of unconstrained estimated baseline vectors ranging from 245 km to 5400 km. Both the baseline repeatability and the comparison with independent space geodetic methods give results at the level of 1-2 parts in 100,000,000. In addition, the Mojave/Owens Valley (245 km) and Kokee Park/Ft. Davis (5409 km) estimates agree with VLBI and SLR to better than 1 part in 100,000,000.

  15. Baseline Microstructural Characterization of Outer 3013 Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Zapp, Phillip E.; Dunn, Kerry A

    2005-07-31

    Three DOE Standard 3013 outer storage containers were examined to characterize the microstructure of the type 316L stainless steel material of construction. Two of the containers were closure-welded yielding production-quality outer 3013 containers; the third examined container was not closed. Optical metallography and Knoop microhardness measurements were performed to establish a baseline characterization that will support future destructive examinations of 3013 outer containers in the storage inventory. Metallography revealed the microstructural features typical of this austenitic stainless steel as it is formed and welded. The grains were equiaxed with evident annealing twins. Flow lines were prominent in the forming directions of the cylindrical body and flat lids and bottom caps. No adverse indications were seen. Microhardness values, although widely varying, were consistent with annealed austenitic stainless steel. The data gathered as part of this characterization will be used as a baseline for the destructive examination of 3013 containers removed from the storage inventory.

  16. CASA Uno GPS orbit and baseline experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, B. E.; Ho, C. S.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Tapley, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    CASA Uno data from sites distributed in longitude from Australia to Europe have been used to determine orbits of the GPS satellites. The characteristics of the orbits determined from double difference phase have been evaluated through comparisons of two-week solutions with one-week solutions and by comparisons of predicted and estimated orbits. Evidence of unmodeled effects is demonstrated, particularly associated with the orbit planes that experience solar eclipse. The orbit accuracy has been assessed through the repeatability of unconstrained estimated baseline vectors ranging from 245 km to 5400 km. Both the baseline repeatability and the comparison with independent space geodetic methods give results at the level of 1-2 parts in 100,000,000. In addition, the Mojave/Owens Valley (245 km) and Kokee Park/Ft. Davis (5409 km) estimates agree with VLBI and SLR to better than 1 part in 100,000,000.

  17. Baseline regional perfusion impacts exercise response to endobronchial valve therapy in advanced pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Argula, Rahul G; Strange, Charlie; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Goldin, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    Advanced heterogeneous emphysema with hyperinflation impacts exercise tolerance in COPD. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using Zephyr endobronchial valves (EBVs) has been shown to improve lung function in patients with heterogeneous emphysema. It is unclear whether the target lobe perfusion of patients receiving EBV therapy impacts exercise tolerance as measured by the 6-min walk test distance (6MWTD). We performed a retrospective analysis on the treatment group of the Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema Palliation Trial (VENT) to evaluate the impact of perfusion, measured by 99mTc-MAA-perfusion scintigraphy, on the 6-month improvement in 6MWTD. A mixed-model analysis was performed for the treatment outcome, adjusting for other variables such as age, target lobe position, fissure integrity, BMI, sex, destruction score, and lobar exclusion. Dichotomized at the median, of the 169 patients who received EBV therapy, 88 had a low target lobe regional perfusion and 81 had high target lobe regional perfusion at baseline. Patients with a low target lobe regional perfusion had a significant improvement in 6MWTD when compared with those with a high baseline target lobe regional perfusion (30.24 m vs 3.72 m, P = .03). Shifts in perfusion after EBV therapy occurred only in patients with high baseline perfusion and did not correlate with improved 6MWTD. Patients having heterogeneous emphysema with a low baseline target lobe regional perfusion benefit from EBV therapy, independent of the degree of target lobe destruction. This effect is attenuated if the EBV therapy is not occlusive. Characterization of baseline perfusion may enhance clinical results of patients with emphysema undergoing EBV therapy. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00000606; URL: www.clincialtrials.gov.

  18. NV Diamond Micro-Magnetometer Baseline Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-12

    30-Jun-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Final report -- NY diamond micro- magnetometer baseline studies W9llNF-08-l-0245 5b. GRANT... magnetometer gives a significant advantage. Most ofthe effort concentrated on improving the sensitivity of a single NY to the level where it could be used to...SUBJECT TERMS magnetometers diamond nitrogen-vacacny 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATIONOF 15. NUMBER 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT

  19. Baseline Assessment of the Domestic Airline Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    largest investor-owned airlines and has developed a route system that spans North America, Asia , the South Pacific, and Europe. As with most major...of the US Scheduled Airline Industry, "Air Transport 1991", ATA, page 3. (20)US Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, FAA...AD-A262 147 1992 Executive Research Project DIS 12 Baseline Assessment of the Domestic Airline Industry Colonel Michael W. Wooley U. S. Air Force

  20. The Advanced Noise Control Fan Baseline Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAllister, Joseph; Loew, Raymond A.; Lauer, Joel T.; Stuliff, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s (NASA Glenn) Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) was developed in the early 1990s to provide a convenient test bed to measure and understand fan-generated acoustics, duct propagation, and radiation to the farfield. As part of a complete upgrade, current baseline and acoustic measurements were documented. Extensive in-duct, farfield acoustic, and flow field measurements are reported. This is a follow-on paper to documenting the operating description of the ANCF.

  1. Systematic errors in long baseline oscillation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2006-02-01

    This article gives a brief overview of long baseline neutrino experiments and their goals, and then describes the different kinds of systematic errors that are encountered in these experiments. Particular attention is paid to the uncertainties that come about because of imperfect knowledge of neutrino cross sections and more generally how neutrinos interact in nuclei. Near detectors are planned for most of these experiments, and the extent to which certain uncertainties can be reduced by the presence of near detectors is also discussed.

  2. Approach for environmental baseline water sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, K.S.

    2011-01-01

    Samples collected during the exploration phase of mining represent baseline conditions at the site. As such, they can be very important in forecasting potential environmental impacts should mining proceed, and can become measurements against which future changes are compared. Constituents in stream water draining mined and mineralized areas tend to be geochemically, spatially, and temporally variable, which presents challenges in collecting both exploration and baseline water-quality samples. Because short-term (daily) variations can complicate long-term trends, it is important to consider recent findings concerning geochemical variability of stream-water constituents at short-term timescales in designing sampling plans. Also, adequate water-quality information is key to forecasting potential ecological impacts from mining. Therefore, it is useful to collect baseline water samples adequate tor geochemical and toxicological modeling. This requires complete chemical analyses of dissolved constituents that include major and minor chemical elements as well as physicochemical properties (including pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen) and dissolved organic carbon. Applying chemical-equilibrium and appropriate toxicological models to water-quality information leads to an understanding of the speciation, transport, sequestration, bioavailability, and aquatic toxicity of potential contaminants. Insights gained from geochemical and toxicological modeling of water-quality data can be used to design appropriate mitigation and for economic planning for future mining activities.

  3. Ictal onset baseline shifts and infraslow activity.

    PubMed

    Rampp, Stefan; Stefan, Hermann

    2012-08-01

    Ictal onset baseline shifts, in surface and intracranial EEG, have been shown to localize focal epilepsies. However, whether direct current EEG amplifiers are required to detect infraslow activity is unresolved. We retrospectively analyzed intracranial EEG data from 24 patients with temporal lobe seizures, who underwent long-term invasive EEG investigation and subsequent surgery. Data were recorded using a DeltaMed/Natus (Paris, France) system with Braintronics Brainbox EEG-1164 (Almere, The Netherlands) with an input filter of 0.1 Hz. Visual comparison of infraslow activity with seizure activity in conventional frequency bands was performed using BESA software (Megis, Gräfeling, Germany). Ictal onset baseline shifts were seen in 52 of 88 partial seizures and in all 11 secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures. They preceded ictal activity in conventional frequencies in some cases by several seconds. Topographical distribution was concordant with seizure onsets and distant sites with suspected involvement in seizure generation. It is concluded that ictal onset baseline shifts can be detected by commonly used EEG systems with an input filter of 0.1 Hz and may contribute to identify seizure onset and areas involved in seizure generation.

  4. Efficient Wide Baseline Structure from Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, Mario; Mayer, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a Structure from Motion approach for complex unorganized image sets. To achieve high accuracy and robustness, image triplets are employed and (an approximate) camera calibration is assumed to be known. The focus lies on a complete linking of images even in case of large image distortions, e.g., caused by wide baselines, as well as weak baselines. A method for embedding image descriptors into Hamming space is proposed for fast image similarity ranking. The later is employed to limit the number of pairs to be matched by a wide baseline method. An iterative graph-based approach is proposed formulating image linking as the search for a terminal Steiner minimum tree in a line graph. Finally, additional links are determined and employed to improve the accuracy of the pose estimation. By this means, loops in long image sequences are implicitly closed. The potential of the proposed approach is demonstrated by results for several complex image sets also in comparison with VisualSFM.

  5. Penumbral imaging for measurement of the ablation density in laser-driven targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, Shinsuke; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Nishikino, Masaharu; Heya, Manabu; Shigemori, Keisuke; Nakai, Mitsuo; Azechi, Hiroshi; Nakai, Sadao; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiko

    2002-07-01

    One-dimensional (1D) penumbral imaging technique with high spatial resolution has been developed, and applied to density profile measurements in laser-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability experiments at a GEKKO XII-HIPER laser system. A laser-irradiated planar target was observed with side-on x-ray backlighting. A penumbral image of an x-ray radiograph was made by using a knife-edge imager. The x-ray radiograph was, then, reconstructed by differentiating the penumbral image with a proper Wiener filtering. A density profile was deduced from the reconstructed x-ray radiograph. In a proof-of-principle experiment, the density profile of a polystyrene (PS) target before laser irradiation was measured by using this method, and high spatial resolution of 3-4 μm was demonstrated. A laser-irradiated PS target in the acceleration phase was observed. The experimentally observed density profile was found to be consistent with the prediction by a 1D hydrodynamic simulation code. The x-ray penumbral imaging is a very simple and useful technique with high spatial resolution for research in hydrodynamics relevant to inertial fusion energy.

  6. 40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... petitions EPA to exclude such data on the basis of data quality, per § 80.91(d)(6), and receives permission from EPA to exclude such data. (b)(1) A refinery's or importer's baseline toxics value is...

  7. Baseline Predictors of Missed Visits in the Look AHEAD Study

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Jeffery, Robert; Johnson, Karen C.; Roche, Cathy C.; Van Dorsten, Brent; Gee, Molly; Johnson, Ruby Ann; Charleston, Jeanne; Dotson, Kathy; Walkup, Michael P.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Brancati, Frederick L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify baseline attributes associated with consecutively missed data collection visits during the first 48 months of Look AHEAD—a randomized, controlled trial in 5145 overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes designed to determine the long-term health benefits of weight loss achieved by lifestyle change. Design and Methods The analyzed sample consisted of 5016 participants who were alive at month 48 and enrolled at Look AHEAD sites. Demographic, baseline behavior, psychosocial factors, and treatment randomization were included as predictors of missed consecutive visits in proportional hazard models. Results In multivariate Cox proportional hazard models, baseline attributes of participants who missed consecutive visits (n=222) included: younger age ( Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.18 per 5 years younger; 95% Confidence Interval 1.05, 1.30), higher depression score (HR 1.04; 1.01, 1.06), non-married status (HR 1.37; 1.04, 1.82), never self-weighing prior to enrollment (HR 2.01; 1.25, 3.23), and randomization to minimal vs. intensive lifestyle intervention (HR 1.46; 1.11, 1.91). Conclusions Younger age, symptoms of depression, non-married status, never self-weighing, and randomization to minimal intervention were associated with a higher likelihood of missing consecutive data collection visits, even in a high-retention trial like Look AHEAD. Whether modifications to screening or retention efforts targeted to these attributes might enhance long-term retention in behavioral trials requires further investigation. PMID:23996977

  8. Baseline Chromatin Modification Levels May Predict ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Traditional toxicological paradigms have relied on factors such as age, genotype, and disease status to explain variability in responsiveness to toxicant exposure; however, these are neither sufficient to faithfully identify differentially responsive individuals nor are they modifiable factors that can be leveraged to mitigate the exposure effects. Unlike these factors, the epigenome is dynamic and shaped by an individual's environment. We sought to determine whether baseline levels of specific chromatin modifications correlated with the interindividual variability in their ozone (03)-mediated induction in an air-liquid interface model using primary human bronchial epithelial cells from a panel of 11 donors. We characterized the relationship between the baseline abundance of 6 epigenetic markers with established roles as key regulators of gene expression-histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac), pan­acetyl H4 (H4ac), histone H3K27 di/trimethylation (H3K27me2/3), unmodified H3, and5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC)-and the variability in the 03-induced expression of IL-8, IL-6, COX2, and HMOX1. Baseline levels of H3K4me3, H3K27me2/3, and 5-hmC, but not H3K27ac, H4ac, and total H3, correlated with the interindividual variability in 03-mediated induction of HMOX1 and COX2. In contrast, none of the chromatin modifications that we examined correlated with the induction of IL-8 and IL-6. From these findings, we propose an "epigenetic see

  9. Spectrometer Baseline Control Via Spatial Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, M. R.; Richey, C. R.; Rinehart, S. A.; Quijada, M. A.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    An absorptive half-moon aperture mask is experimentally explored as a broad-bandwidth means of eliminating spurious spectral features arising from reprocessed radiation in an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer. In the presence of the spatial filter, an order of magnitude improvement in the fidelity of the spectrometer baseline is observed. The method is readily accommodated within the context of commonly employed instrument configurations and leads to a factor of two reduction in optical throughput. A detailed discussion of the underlying mechanism and limitations of the method are provided.

  10. Optimization of the CLIC Baseline Collimation System

    SciTech Connect

    Resta-Lopez, Javier; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa; Fernandez-Hernando, Juan; Jackson, Frank; Dalena, Barbara; Schulte, Daniel; Tomas, Rogelio; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2012-07-06

    Important efforts have recently been dedicated to the improvement of the design of the baseline collimation system of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). Different aspects of the design have been optimized: the transverse collimation depths have been recalculated in order to reduce the collimator wakefield effects while maintaining a good efficiency in cleaning the undesired beam halo; the geometric design of the spoilers have also been reviewed to minimize wakefields; in addition, the optics design have been polished to improve the collimation efficiency. This paper describes the current status of the CLIC collimation system after this optimization.

  11. Baseline Graphite Initial Mechanical Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Carroll; Randy Lloyd

    2009-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project is tasked with selecting a high temperature gas reactor technology that will be capable of generating electricity and supplying large amounts of process heat. The NGNP is presently being designed as a helium-cooled high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) with a large graphite core. The graphite baseline characterization project is conducting the research and development (R&D) activities deemed necessary to fully qualify nuclear-grade graphite for use in the NGNP reactor. One of the major fundamental objectives of the project is establishing nonirradiated thermomechanical and thermophysical properties by characterizing lot-to-lot and billet-to-billet variations (for probabilistic baseline data needs) through extensive data collection and statistical analysis. The reactor core will be made up of stacks of graphite moderator blocks. In order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the varying characteristics in a wide range of suitable graphites, any of which can be classified as “nuclear grade,” an experimental program has been initiated to develop an extensive database of the baseline characteristics of numerous candidate graphites. Various factors known to affect the properties of graphite will be investigated, including specimen size, spatial location within a graphite billet, specimen orientation within a billet (either parallel to [P] or transverse to [T] the long axis of the as-produced billet), and billet-to-billet variations within a lot or across different production lots. Because each data point is based on a certain position within a given billet of graphite, particular attention must be paid to the traceability of each specimen and its spatial location and orientation within each billet. The evaluation of these properties is discussed in the Graphite Technology Development Plan (Windes et. al 2007). One of the key components in the evaluation of these graphite types will be mechanical testing of

  12. Dispersion analysis for baseline reference mission 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, L. S.

    1975-01-01

    A dispersion analysis considering uncertainties (or perturbations) in platform, vehicle, and environmental parameters was performed for baseline reference mission (BRM) 2. The dispersion analysis is based on the nominal trajectory for BRM 2. The analysis was performed to determine state vector and performance dispersions (or variations) which result from the indicated uncertainties. The dispersions are determined at major mission events and fixed times from liftoff (time slices). The dispersion results will be used to evaluate the capability of the vehicle to perform the mission within a specified level of confidence and to determine flight performance reserves.

  13. Spectrometer Baseline Control Via Spatial Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, M. R.; Richey, C. R.; Rinehart, S. A.; Quijada, M. A.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    An absorptive half-moon aperture mask is experimentally explored as a broad-bandwidth means of eliminating spurious spectral features arising from reprocessed radiation in an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer. In the presence of the spatial filter, an order of magnitude improvement in the fidelity of the spectrometer baseline is observed. The method is readily accommodated within the context of commonly employed instrument configurations and leads to a factor of two reduction in optical throughput. A detailed discussion of the underlying mechanism and limitations of the method are provided.

  14. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  15. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-11-01

    As discussed in the program plan for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, this program has been implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the current state of knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The objective of the program is to install a series of observation well clusters (wells installed in each major water bearing formation at the same site) at key locations across the plant site in order to: (1) provide detailed information on the lithology, stratigraphy, and groundwater hydrology, (2) provide observation wells to monitor the groundwater quality, head relationships, gradients, and flow paths.

  16. SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1988-08-01

    The SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation was implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the SRP site. Phase III, which is discussed in this report, includes the drilling of 7 deep coreholes (sites P-24 through P-30) and the installation of 53 observation wells ranging in depth from approximately 50 ft to more than 970 ft below the ground surface. In addition to the collection of geologic cores for lithologic and stratigraphic study, samples were also collected for the determination of physical characteristics of the sediments and for the identification of microorganisms.

  17. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conventional gasoline baseline... gasoline baseline emissions determination. (a) Annual average baseline values. For any facility of a refiner or importer of conventional gasoline, the annual average baseline values of the facility's exhaust...

  18. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conventional gasoline baseline... gasoline baseline emissions determination. (a) Annual average baseline values. For any facility of a refiner or importer of conventional gasoline, the annual average baseline values of the facility's exhaust...

  19. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conventional gasoline baseline... gasoline baseline emissions determination. (a) Annual average baseline values. For any facility of a refiner or importer of conventional gasoline, the annual average baseline values of the facility's exhaust...

  20. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conventional gasoline baseline... gasoline baseline emissions determination. (a) Annual average baseline values. For any facility of a refiner or importer of conventional gasoline, the annual average baseline values of the facility's exhaust...

  1. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conventional gasoline baseline... gasoline baseline emissions determination. (a) Annual average baseline values. For any facility of a refiner or importer of conventional gasoline, the annual average baseline values of the facility's...

  2. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The technologies being tested for concrete decontamination are targeted for alpha contamination. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  3. Energy reconstruction in the long-baseline neutrino experiment.

    PubMed

    Mosel, U; Lalakulich, O; Gallmeister, K

    2014-04-18

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment aims at measuring fundamental physical parameters to high precision and exploring physics beyond the standard model. Nuclear targets introduce complications towards that aim. We investigate the uncertainties in the energy reconstruction, based on quasielastic scattering relations, due to nuclear effects. The reconstructed event distributions as a function of energy tend to be smeared out and shifted by several 100 MeV in their oscillatory structure if standard event selection is used. We show that a more restrictive experimental event selection offers the possibility to reach the accuracy needed for a determination of the mass ordering and the CP-violating phase. Quasielastic-based energy reconstruction could thus be a viable alternative to the calorimetric reconstruction also at higher energies.

  4. Change Analysis in Structural Laser Scanning Point Clouds: The Baseline Method.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yueqian; Lindenbergh, Roderik; Wang, Jinhu

    2016-12-24

    A method is introduced for detecting changes from point clouds that avoids registration. For many applications, changes are detected between two scans of the same scene obtained at different times. Traditionally, these scans are aligned to a common coordinate system having the disadvantage that this registration step introduces additional errors. In addition, registration requires stable targets or features. To avoid these issues, we propose a change detection method based on so-called baselines. Baselines connect feature points within one scan. To analyze changes, baselines connecting corresponding points in two scans are compared. As feature points either targets or virtual points corresponding to some reconstructable feature in the scene are used. The new method is implemented on two scans sampling a masonry laboratory building before and after seismic testing, that resulted in damages in the order of several centimeters. The centres of the bricks of the laboratory building are automatically extracted to serve as virtual points. Baselines connecting virtual points and/or target points are extracted and compared with respect to a suitable structural coordinate system. Changes detected from the baseline analysis are compared to a traditional cloud to cloud change analysis demonstrating the potential of the new method for structural analysis.

  5. Change Analysis in Structural Laser Scanning Point Clouds: The Baseline Method

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yueqian; Lindenbergh, Roderik; Wang, Jinhu

    2016-01-01

    A method is introduced for detecting changes from point clouds that avoids registration. For many applications, changes are detected between two scans of the same scene obtained at different times. Traditionally, these scans are aligned to a common coordinate system having the disadvantage that this registration step introduces additional errors. In addition, registration requires stable targets or features. To avoid these issues, we propose a change detection method based on so-called baselines. Baselines connect feature points within one scan. To analyze changes, baselines connecting corresponding points in two scans are compared. As feature points either targets or virtual points corresponding to some reconstructable feature in the scene are used. The new method is implemented on two scans sampling a masonry laboratory building before and after seismic testing, that resulted in damages in the order of several centimeters. The centres of the bricks of the laboratory building are automatically extracted to serve as virtual points. Baselines connecting virtual points and/or target points are extracted and compared with respect to a suitable structural coordinate system. Changes detected from the baseline analysis are compared to a traditional cloud to cloud change analysis demonstrating the potential of the new method for structural analysis. PMID:28029121

  6. Analysis of baseline gene expression levels from ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The use of gene expression profiling to predict chemical mode of action would be enhanced by better characterization of variance due to individual, environmental, and technical factors. Meta-analysis of microarray data from untreated or vehicle-treated animals within the control arm of toxicogenomics studies has yielded useful information on baseline fluctuations in gene expression. A dataset of control animal microarray expression data was assembled by a working group of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Technical Committee on the Application of Genomics in Mechanism Based Risk Assessment in order to provide a public resource for assessments of variability in baseline gene expression. Data from over 500 Affymetrix microarrays from control rat liver and kidney were collected from 16 different institutions. Thirty-five biological and technical factors were obtained for each animal, describing a wide range of study characteristics, and a subset were evaluated in detail for their contribution to total variability using multivariate statistical and graphical techniques. The study factors that emerged as key sources of variability included gender, organ section, strain, and fasting state. These and other study factors were identified as key descriptors that should be included in the minimal information about a toxicogenomics study needed for interpretation of results by an independent source. Genes that are the most and least variable, gender-selectiv

  7. Long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, D.; Goodman, M.

    1994-12-31

    There is no unambiguous definition for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. The term is generally used for accelerator neutrino oscillation experiments which are sensitive to {Delta}m{sup 2} < 1.0 eV{sup 2}, and for which the detector is not on the accelerator site. The Snowmass N2L working group met to discuss the issues facing such experiments. The Fermilab Program Advisory Committee adopted several recommendations concerning the Fermilab neutrino program at their Aspen meeting immediately prior to the Snowmass Workshop. This heightened the attention for the proposals to use Fermilab for a long-baseline neutrino experiment at the workshop. The plan for a neutrino oscillation program at Brookhaven was also thoroughly discussed. Opportunities at CERN were considered, particularly the use of detectors at the Gran Sasso laboratory. The idea to build a neutrino beam from KEK towards Superkamiokande was not discussed at the Snowmass meeting, but there has been considerable development of this idea since then. Brookhaven and KEK would use low energy neutrino beams, while FNAL and CERN would plan have medium energy beams. This report will summarize a few topics common to LBL proposals and attempt to give a snapshot of where things stand in this fast developing field.

  8. Geodetic long baseline interferometry research in Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langley, R. B.; Petrachenko, W. T.; Canon, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives and results of several studies using the Canadian long baseline interferometry system (LBI) are presented. The precision of measurements from radio telescopes at the Algonquin Radio Observatory (ARO), Lake Traverse, Ontario; the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO), Big Pine, California; and the Chilbolton Observatory (CHIL), Chilbolton, England, is discussed. Also, since LBI is insensitive to the uncertainty in the geocentric gravitational constant, it is a very useful technique for determining the scales of the coordinate systems used by other precise techniques. Beginning in May 1977, a number of LBI observing sessions were accompanied by simultaneous satellite Doppler observations. The baseline components obtained from the satellite Doppler observations were compared to the LBI values. The weighted mean scale bias of the NSWC 9Z-2 satellite Doppler coordinate system relative to the LBI system was found to be 0.42 + or - 0.05 PPM. The weighted mean difference in the origin of longitude was found to be 0.87 sec + or - 0.01 while the difference in declination origin was found to be 0.06 sec + or - 0.01.

  9. Multiple-baseline analysis of a token economy for psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, G L; Cone, J D

    1979-01-01

    Twelve behaviors selected for reinforcement among 16 chronic psychiatric inpatients were divided into four classes: (a) personal hygiene, (b) personal management, (c) ward work, and (d) social skills. A token economy program was introduced for each class in a sequential, cumulative, multiple-baseline format. Corrections were included for methodological deficiencies frequently enountered in past studies. Treatment variables were systematically monitored, and target behavior rates, levels of global individual functioning, general ward behavior, and off-ward behavior were assessed during baseline, implementation, and probe periods. Results indicated abrupt and substantial increases in performance of most target behaviors, significant improvements in global individual functioning (p less than .025), positive changes in general ward behavior, and increases in social interaction during off-ward activities. The findings provide strong evidence for the efficacy of a token economy and indicate that the multiple-baseline design can be a useful method for evaluating token economy programs. PMID:489481

  10. Multiple-baseline analysis of a token economy for psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Nelson, G L; Cone, J D

    1979-01-01

    Twelve behaviors selected for reinforcement among 16 chronic psychiatric inpatients were divided into four classes: (a) personal hygiene, (b) personal management, (c) ward work, and (d) social skills. A token economy program was introduced for each class in a sequential, cumulative, multiple-baseline format. Corrections were included for methodological deficiencies frequently enountered in past studies. Treatment variables were systematically monitored, and target behavior rates, levels of global individual functioning, general ward behavior, and off-ward behavior were assessed during baseline, implementation, and probe periods. Results indicated abrupt and substantial increases in performance of most target behaviors, significant improvements in global individual functioning (p less than .025), positive changes in general ward behavior, and increases in social interaction during off-ward activities. The findings provide strong evidence for the efficacy of a token economy and indicate that the multiple-baseline design can be a useful method for evaluating token economy programs.

  11. Baseline gut microbiota predicts clinical response and colitis in metastatic melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab.

    PubMed

    Chaput, N; Lepage, P; Coutzac, C; Soularue, E; Le Roux, K; Monot, C; Boselli, L; Routier, E; Cassard, L; Collins, M; Vaysse, T; Marthey, L; Eggermont, A; Asvatourian, V; Lanoy, E; Mateus, C; Robert, C; Carbonnel, F

    2017-03-27

    Ipilimumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor targeting CTLA-4, prolongs survival in a subset of patients with metastatic melanoma but can induce immune-related adverse events, including enterocolitis. We hypothesized that baseline gut microbiota could predict ipilimumab anti-tumor response and/or intestinal toxicity.

  12. Environmental baseline conditions for impact assessment of unconventional gas exploitation: the G-Baseline project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Mayer, Berhard; Millot, Romain; Parker, Beth L.; Gaucher, Eric; Clarkson, Christopher R.; Cherry, John A.; Humez, Pauline; Cahill, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    A major scientific challenge and an indispensible prerequisite for environmental impact assessment in the context of unconventional gas development is the determination of the baseline conditions against which potential environmental impacts on shallow freshwater resources can be accurately and quantitatively tested. Groundwater and surface water resources overlying the low-permeability hydrocarbon host rocks containing shale gas may be impacted to different extents by naturally occurring saline fluids and by natural gas emanations. Baseline assessments in areas of previous conventional hydrocarbon production may also reveal anthropogenic impacts from these activities not related to unconventional gas development. Once unconventional gas exploitation has started, the baseline may be irrevocably lost by the intricate superposition of geogenic and potential anthropogenic contamination by stray gas, formation waters and chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing. The objective of the Franco-Canadian NSERC-ANR project G-Baseline is to develop an innovative and comprehensive methodology of geochemical and isotopic characterization of the environmental baseline for water and gas samples from all three essential zones: (1) the production zone, including flowback waters, (2) the intermediate zone comprised of overlying formations, and (3) shallow aquifers and surface water systems where contamination may result from diverse natural or human impacts. The outcome will be the establishment of a methodology based on innovative tracer and monitoring techniques, including traditional and non-traditional isotopes (C, H, O, S, B, Sr, Cl, Br, N, U, Li, Cu, Zn, CSIA...) for detecting, quantifying and modeling of potential leakage of stray gas and of saline formation water mixed with flowback fluids into fresh groundwater resources and surface waters taking into account the pathways and mechanisms of fluid and gas migration. Here we present an outline of the project as well as first

  13. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume II: Baseline test data appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Oden, L.L.; O`Conner, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  14. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert; William Ebert; James Marra; Robert Jubin; John Vienna

    2008-05-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program (GNEP) is designed to demonstrate a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle that can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness and availability may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms.

  15. The JLC/NLC Baseline Design

    SciTech Connect

    Tenenbaum, Peter G

    2003-05-28

    The JLC/NLC is a normal conducting linear collider based on X-band RF technology. The collider is designed to cover the center-of-mass energy range from 90 GeV to 1.3 TeV with a luminosity of 2 to 3 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} between 500 GeV and 1 TeV. The X-band RF system, which is based on the operating NLC Test Accelerator X-band RF system, was recently modified in a way that will ensure a less expensive and faster demonstration of a full RF sub-unit. In this paper, the baseline beam parameters and RF system design for the JLC/NLC will be described, along with the demonstration schedule.

  16. In-Space Manufacturing Baseline Property Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockman, Tom; Schneider, Judith; Prater, Tracie; Bean, Quincy; Werkheiser, Nicki

    2016-01-01

    The In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center currently operates a 3D FDM (fused deposition modeling) printer onboard the International Space Station. In order to enable utilization of this capability by designer, the project needs to establish characteristic material properties for materials produced using the process. This is difficult for additive manufacturing since standards and specifications do not yet exist for these technologies. Due to availability of crew time, there are limitations to the sample size which in turn limits the application of the traditional design allowables approaches to develop a materials property database for designers. In this study, various approaches to development of material databases were evaluated for use by designers of space systems who wish to leverage in-space manufacturing capabilities. This study focuses on alternative statistical techniques for baseline property development to support in-space manufacturing.

  17. An automated approach to configuration baseline documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, G.D.; Khan, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents Public Service Electric and Gas Company's (PSE and G's) automated approach to configuration base-line documentation (CBD) for Salem units 1 and 2 and Hope Creek. The CBD project is a proactive project, similar to what is commonly termed a design basis documentation program in the nuclear utility industry. The data information management system (DIMS) element of the CBD project is expected to automate the CBD development, review/approval, control, maintenance, and distribution of CBD and the subsequent integration of the CBD into the day-to-day design processes of PSE and G's nuclear engineering department. The DIMS project scope emphasizes streamlined, swift, and accurate design information retrieval system hardware and software; proper and controlled screening of stored design information; legible storage of design information; and more efficient and user-friendly information handling. This paper discusses the selection and implementation of an integrated optical imaging and textual search technology.

  18. Spacecraft attitude calibration/verification baseline study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, L. C.

    1981-01-01

    A baseline study for a generalized spacecraft attitude calibration/verification system is presented. It can be used to define software specifications for three major functions required by a mission: the pre-launch parameter observability and data collection strategy study; the in-flight sensor calibration; and the post-calibration attitude accuracy verification. Analytical considerations are given for both single-axis and three-axis spacecrafts. The three-axis attitudes considered include the inertial-pointing attitudes, the reference-pointing attitudes, and attitudes undergoing specific maneuvers. The attitude sensors and hardware considered include the Earth horizon sensors, the plane-field Sun sensors, the coarse and fine two-axis digital Sun sensors, the three-axis magnetometers, the fixed-head star trackers, and the inertial reference gyros.

  19. Mujeres en accion: design and baseline data.

    PubMed

    Keller, Colleen; Fleury, Julie; Perez, Adriana; Belyea, Michael; Castro, Felipe G

    2011-10-01

    The majority of programs designed to promote physical activity in older Hispanic women includes few innovative theory-based interventions that address cultural relevant strategies. The purpose of this report is to describe the design and baseline data for Mujeres en Accion, a physical activity intervention to increase regular physical activity, and cardiovascular health outcomes among older Hispanic women. Mujeres en Accion [Women in Action for Health], a 12 month randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a social support physical activity intervention in midlife and older Hispanic women. This study tests an innovative intervention, Mujeres en Accion, and includes the use of a theory-driven approach to intervention, explores social support as a theoretical mediating variable, use of a Promotora model and a Community Advisory group to incorporate cultural and social approaches and resources, and use of objective measures of physical activity in Hispanic women.

  20. Intensity interferometry: optical imaging with kilometer baselines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dravins, Dainis

    2016-07-01

    Optical imaging with microarcsecond resolution will reveal details across and outside stellar surfaces but requires kilometer-scale interferometers, challenging to realize either on the ground or in space. Intensity interferometry, electronically connecting independent telescopes, has a noise budget that relates to the electronic time resolution, circumventing issues of atmospheric turbulence. Extents up to a few km are becoming realistic with arrays of optical air Cherenkov telescopes (primarily erected for gamma-ray studies), enabling an optical equivalent of radio interferometer arrays. Pioneered by Hanbury Brown and Twiss, digital versions of the technique have now been demonstrated, reconstructing diffraction-limited images from laboratory measurements over hundreds of optical baselines. This review outlines the method from its beginnings, describes current experiments, and sketches prospects for future observations.

  1. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek scabbling technology was tested at Florida International University (FIU) and is being evaluated as a baseline technology. This report evaluates it for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek concrete scabbling system consisted of the MOOSE{reg_sign}, SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-I, and SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-III scabblers. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross-section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 318 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  2. Mujeres en Accion: Design and Baseline Data

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Julie; Perez, Adriana; Belyea, Michael; Castro, Felipe G.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of programs designed to promote physical activity in older Hispanic women includes few innovative theory-based interventions that address cultural relevant strategies. The purpose of this report is to describe the design and baseline data for Mujeres en Accion, a physical activity intervention to increase regular physical activity, and cardiovascular health outcomes among older Hispanic women. Mujeres en Accion [Women in Action for Health], a 12 month randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a social support physical activity intervention in midlife and older Hispanic women. This study tests an innovative intervention, Mujeres en Accion, and includes the use of a theory-driven approach to intervention, explores social support as a theoretical mediating variable, use of a Promotora model and a Community Advisory group to incorporate cultural and social approaches and resources, and use of objective measures of physical activity in Hispanic women. PMID:21298400

  3. Owning the program technical baseline for future space systems acquisition: program technical baseline tracking tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Guillen, Andy T.; Hant, James J.; Kizer, Justin R.; Min, Inki A.; Siedlak, Dennis J. L.; Yoh, James

    2017-05-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has recognized the needs for owning the program and technical knowledge within the Air Force concerning the systems being acquired to ensure success. This paper extends the previous work done by the authors [1-2] on the "Resilient Program Technical Baseline Framework for Future Space Systems" and "Portfolio Decision Support Tool (PDST)" to the development and implementation of the Program and Technical Baseline (PTB) Tracking Tool (PTBTL) for the DOD acquisition life cycle. The paper describes the "simplified" PTB tracking model with a focus on the preaward phases and discusses how to implement this model in PDST.

  4. Tightly coupled long baseline/ultra-short baseline integrated navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, Pedro; Silvestre, Carlos; Oliveira, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel integrated navigation filter based on a combined long baseline/ultra short baseline acoustic positioning system with application to underwater vehicles. With a tightly coupled structure, the position, linear velocity, attitude, and rate gyro bias are estimated, considering the full nonlinear system dynamics without resorting to any algebraic inversion or linearisation techniques. The resulting solution ensures convergence of the estimation error to zero for all initial conditions, exponentially fast. Finally, it is shown, under simulation environment, that the filter achieves very good performance in the presence of sensor noise.

  5. 6-station, 5-baseline fringe tracking with the new classic data acquisition system at the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landavazo, M. I.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Sun, B.; Newman, K.; Mozurkewich, David; van Belle, G. T.; Hutter, Donald J.; Schmitt, H. R.; Armstrong, J. T.; Baines, E. K.; Restaino, S. R.

    2014-07-01

    The Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI) has a station layout which makes it uniquely suited for imaging. Stellar surface imaging requires a variety of baseline lengths and in particular long baselines with resolution much smaller than the diameter of the target star. Because the fringe signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is generally low on such long baselines, fringe-tracking cannot be carried out on those baselines directly. Instead, baseline bootstrapping must be employed in which the long baseline is composed of a number of connected shorter baselines. When fringes are tracked on all the shorter baselines fringes are also present on the long baseline. For compact sources, such as stellar disks, the shorter baselines generally have higher SNR and making them short enough that the source is unresolved by them is ideal. Thus, the resolution, or number of pixels across a stellar disk, is roughly equal to the ratio of the length of the long baseline to the length of the short baselines. The more bootstrapped baselines, the better the images produced. If there is also a wide wavelength coverage, wavelength bootstrapping can also be used under some circumstances to increase the resolution further. The NPOI is unique in that it allows 6-station, 5-baseline bootstrapping, the most of any currently operating interferometer. Furthermore, the NPOI Classic beam combiner has wavelength coverage from 450 nm to 850 nm. However, until now, this capability has not been fully exploited. The stellar surface imaging project which was recently funded by the National Science Foundation is exploiting this capability. The New Classic data acquisition system, reported separately, is the hardware which delivers the data to the fringe-tracking algorithm. In this paper we report on the development of the fringe-tracking capability with the New Classic data acquisition system. We discuss the design of the fringe tracking algorithm and present performance results from simulations and on sky

  6. The First SLR Double-Difference Baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svehla, Drazen; Haagmans, Roger; Floberghagen, Rune; Cacciapuoti, Luigi; Sierk, Bernd; Kirchner, Georg; Rodriguez, Jose; Wilkinson, Matthew; Sherwood, Rob; Appleby, Graham

    2013-04-01

    We introduce the SLR double-difference approach of space geodesy. With real and simulated SLR measurements it is shown how common SLR biases are removed by forming SLR double-differences, i.e. station range biases, common retro-reflector effects and orbit errors (GNSS) for baselines up to e.g. 5000 km. In this way we obtain SLR observables of utmost precision and accuracy. We show how remaining noise in the SLR measurements nicely averages out, leading to orbit-free and bias-free estimation of station coordinates, local ties between different space geodesy techniques and precise comparison of optical/microwave tropospheric effects. It shall be noted that SLR scale is preserved by double-differencing. When ETALON and LAGEOS satellites are observed by SLR, any orbit error propagates directly into estimated station coordinates. However, by forming differences between two satellites and two ground stations this orbit error can be eliminated. Both satellites need to be observed quasi-simultaneously in the same tracking sessions in order that station range bias and common retro-reflector effects are removed by differencing. When SLR measurements from GRZL and HERL SLR stations are taken to GLONASS and LAGEOS satellites and processed in double-difference mode, clear common orbit errors are visible in the SLR residuals from both stations. The same stands for small range biases that are visible between the consecutive observing sessions and are removed by forming SLR baselines. Longer SLR passes reveal other interesting systematic effects common to both stations at mm-level. An error in the order of 4-6 cm RMS was introduced to GNSS orbits, however the effect on station coordinates in negligible over such a short SLR baseline. We show how with just one-two SLR double-difference passes one can estimate station coordinates at mm-level. When in parallel, both GNSS satellites are observed with microwave measurements, one can estimate very accurate local ties by comparing (or

  7. The London low emission zone baseline study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Frank; Armstrong, Ben; Atkinson, Richard; Anderson, H Ross; Barratt, Ben; Beevers, Sean; Cook, Derek; Green, Dave; Derwent, Dick; Mudway, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul

    2011-11-01

    On February 4, 2008, the world's largest low emission zone (LEZ) was established. At 2644 km2, the zone encompasses most of Greater London. It restricts the entry of the oldest and most polluting diesel vehicles, including heavy-goods vehicles (haulage trucks), buses and coaches, larger vans, and minibuses. It does not apply to cars or motorcycles. The LEZ scheme will introduce increasingly stringent Euro emissions standards over time. The creation of this zone presented a unique opportunity to estimate the effects of a stepwise reduction in vehicle emissions on air quality and health. Before undertaking such an investigation, robust baseline data were gathered on air quality and the oxidative activity and metal content of particulate matter (PM) from air pollution monitors located in Greater London. In addition, methods were developed for using databases of electronic primary-care records in order to evaluate the zone's health effects. Our study began in 2007, using information about the planned restrictions in an agreed-upon LEZ scenario and year-on-year changes in the vehicle fleet in models to predict air pollution concentrations in London for the years 2005, 2008, and 2010. Based on this detailed emissions and air pollution modeling, the areas in London were then identified that were expected to show the greatest changes in air pollution concentrations and population exposures after the implementation of the LEZ. Using these predictions, the best placement of a pollution monitoring network was determined and the feasibility of evaluating the health effects using electronic primary-care records was assessed. To measure baseline pollutant concentrations before the implementation of the LEZ, a comprehensive monitoring network was established close to major roadways and intersections. Output-difference plots from statistical modeling for 2010 indicated seven key areas likely to experience the greatest change in concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (at least 3

  8. Nicotine Differentially Modulates Antisaccade Eye-Gaze Away from Emotional Stimuli in Nonsmokers Stratified by Pre-Task Baseline Performance

    PubMed Central

    Wachter, Nathaniel J.; Gilbert, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale and objective Studies indicate that nicotine enhances some aspects of attention and executive functioning and attenuates the attentional salience of emotionally negative distractors. The purpose of this study was to assess whether nicotine can enhance executive control over prepotent responses in emotional contexts in nonsmokers and whether such enhancement is greater in individuals with low baseline performance. Methods The antisaccade task (AST) measures the inhibition of the tendency to glance in the direction of the onset of a visual stimulus and thus is an index of control over prepotent responses. Ten male and 14 female nonsmokers wore a nicotine and placebo patch on counterbalanced days that included emotional picture primes and targets. Results There were significant beneficial effects of nicotine on antisaccade reaction time (RT). These beneficial effects occurred in individuals with poor- and average-baseline performance, but not in high baseline performers. In slow baseline-RT individuals nicotine reduced RTs associated with negative targets in the left visual field (VF) and reduced RTs associated with positive and neutral targets in the right VF. In contrast, in the average baseline group, nicotine reduced RTs for positive targets in both VFs and neutral targets in the left VF. Conclusions The results suggest that nicotine may produce its effects by enhancing executive functions and that the differential effects as a function of VF, target emotion, and group may also reflect lateralized differences in the effects of nicotine on brain reactivity to emotional stimuli. PMID:22955567

  9. Shifting environmental baselines in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Price, A R G; Ghazi, S J; Tkaczynski, P J; Venkatachalam, A J; Santillan, A; Pancho, T; Metcalfe, R; Saunders, J

    2014-01-15

    The Red Sea is among the world's top marine biodiversity hotspots. We re-examined coastal ecosystems at sites surveyed during the 1980s using the same methodology. Coral cover increased significantly towards the north, mirroring the reverse pattern for mangroves and other sedimentary ecosystems. Latitudinal patterns are broadly consistent across both surveys and with results from independent studies. Coral cover showed greatest change, declining significantly from a median score of 4 (1000-9999 m(2)) to 2 (10-99m(2)) per quadrat in 2010/11. This may partly reflect impact from coastal construction, which was evident at 40% of sites and has significantly increased in magnitude over 30 years. Beach oil has significantly declined, but shore debris has increased significantly. Although substantial, levels are lower than at some remote ocean atolls. While earlier reports have suggested that the Red Sea is generally healthy, shifting environmental baselines are evident from the current study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Resetting predator baselines in coral reef ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Darcy; Conklin, Eric; Papastamatiou, Yannis P.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Pollock, Kydd; Pollock, Amanda; Kendall, Bruce E.; Gaines, Steven D.; Caselle, Jennifer E.

    2017-01-01

    What did coral reef ecosystems look like before human impacts became pervasive? Early efforts to reconstruct baselines resulted in the controversial suggestion that pristine coral reefs have inverted trophic pyramids, with disproportionally large top predator biomass. The validity of the coral reef inverted trophic pyramid has been questioned, but until now, was not resolved empirically. We use data from an eight-year tag-recapture program with spatially explicit, capture-recapture models to re-examine the population size and density of a key top predator at Palmyra atoll, the same location that inspired the idea of inverted trophic biomass pyramids in coral reef ecosystems. Given that animal movement is suspected to have significantly biased early biomass estimates of highly mobile top predators, we focused our reassessment on the most mobile and most abundant predator at Palmyra, the grey reef shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos). We estimated a density of 21.3 (95% CI 17.8, 24.7) grey reef sharks/km2, which is an order of magnitude lower than the estimates that suggested an inverted trophic pyramid. Our results indicate that the trophic structure of an unexploited reef fish community is not inverted, and that even healthy top predator populations may be considerably smaller, and more precarious, than previously thought. PMID:28220895

  11. LTC vacuum blasting machine (metal): Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The LTC coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC coating removal system consisted of several hand tools, a Roto Peen scaler, and a needlegun. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. These hand tools are used with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. The dust exposure was minimal but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  12. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  13. Arc melter demonstration baseline test results

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the test results and evaluation for the Phase 1 (baseline) arc melter vitrification test series conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program (BWID). Phase 1 tests were conducted on surrogate mixtures of as-incinerated wastes and soil. Some buried wastes, soils, and stored wastes at the INEL and other DOE sites, are contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radionuclides and hazardous organics and metals. The high temperature environment in an electric arc furnace may be used to process these wastes to produce materials suitable for final disposal. An electric arc furnace system can treat heterogeneous wastes and contaminated soils by (a) dissolving and retaining TRU elements and selected toxic metals as oxides in the slag phase, (b) destroying organic materials by dissociation, pyrolyzation, and combustion, and (c) capturing separated volatilized metals in the offgas system for further treatment. Structural metals in the waste may be melted and tapped separately for recycle or disposal, or these metals may be oxidized and dissolved into the slag. The molten slag, after cooling, will provide a glass/ceramic final waste form that is homogeneous, highly nonleachable, and extremely durable. These features make this waste form suitable for immobilization of TRU radionuclides and toxic metals for geologic timeframes. Further, the volume of contaminated wastes and soils will be substantially reduced in the process.

  14. Resetting predator baselines in coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Darcy; Conklin, Eric; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; McCauley, Douglas J; Pollock, Kydd; Pollock, Amanda; Kendall, Bruce E; Gaines, Steven D; Caselle, Jennifer E

    2017-02-21

    What did coral reef ecosystems look like before human impacts became pervasive? Early efforts to reconstruct baselines resulted in the controversial suggestion that pristine coral reefs have inverted trophic pyramids, with disproportionally large top predator biomass. The validity of the coral reef inverted trophic pyramid has been questioned, but until now, was not resolved empirically. We use data from an eight-year tag-recapture program with spatially explicit, capture-recapture models to re-examine the population size and density of a key top predator at Palmyra atoll, the same location that inspired the idea of inverted trophic biomass pyramids in coral reef ecosystems. Given that animal movement is suspected to have significantly biased early biomass estimates of highly mobile top predators, we focused our reassessment on the most mobile and most abundant predator at Palmyra, the grey reef shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos). We estimated a density of 21.3 (95% CI 17.8, 24.7) grey reef sharks/km(2), which is an order of magnitude lower than the estimates that suggested an inverted trophic pyramid. Our results indicate that the trophic structure of an unexploited reef fish community is not inverted, and that even healthy top predator populations may be considerably smaller, and more precarious, than previously thought.

  15. Camera Trajectory fromWide Baseline Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havlena, M.; Torii, A.; Pajdla, T.

    2008-09-01

    Camera trajectory estimation, which is closely related to the structure from motion computation, is one of the fundamental tasks in computer vision. Reliable camera trajectory estimation plays an important role in 3D reconstruction, self localization, and object recognition. There are essential issues for a reliable camera trajectory estimation, for instance, choice of the camera and its geometric projection model, camera calibration, image feature detection and description, and robust 3D structure computation. Most of approaches rely on classical perspective cameras because of the simplicity of their projection models and ease of their calibration. However, classical perspective cameras offer only a limited field of view, and thus occlusions and sharp camera turns may cause that consecutive frames look completely different when the baseline becomes longer. This makes the image feature matching very difficult (or impossible) and the camera trajectory estimation fails under such conditions. These problems can be avoided if omnidirectional cameras, e.g. a fish-eye lens convertor, are used. The hardware which we are using in practice is a combination of Nikon FC-E9 mounted via a mechanical adaptor onto a Kyocera Finecam M410R digital camera. Nikon FC-E9 is a megapixel omnidirectional addon convertor with 180° view angle which provides images of photographic quality. Kyocera Finecam M410R delivers 2272×1704 images at 3 frames per second. The resulting combination yields a circular view of diameter 1600 pixels in the image. Since consecutive frames of the omnidirectional camera often share a common region in 3D space, the image feature matching is often feasible. On the other hand, the calibration of these cameras is non-trivial and is crucial for the accuracy of the resulting 3D reconstruction. We calibrate omnidirectional cameras off-line using the state-of-the-art technique and Mičušík's two-parameter model, that links the radius of the image point r to the

  16. Space Station-Baseline Configuration With Callouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

  17. SRS baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, H.W.; Aadland, R.K.; Sargent, K.A.

    1990-11-01

    Work on the Savannah River Site (SRS) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation began in 1983 when it was determined that the knowledge of the plant hydrogeologic systems needed to be expanded and improved in response to changing stratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic terminology and increased involvement by regulatory agencies (Bledsoe, 1984). Additionally, site-wide data were needed to determine flow paths, gradients, and velocities associated with the different aquifers underlying the plant site. The program was divided into three phases in order to allow the results of one phase to be evaluated and necessary changes and improvements incorporated into the following phases. This report summarizes the results of all three phases and includes modified graphic logs, lithologic descriptions of the different geologic formations, profiles of each cluster site, hydrostratigraphic cross sections, hydrographs of selected wells within each cluster for the first full year of uninterrupted water level measurements, potentiometric maps developed from data collected from all clusters, completion diagrams for each well, and a summary of laboratory tests. Additionally, the proposed new classification of hydrostratigraphic units at SRS (Aadland and Bledsoe, 1990) has been incorporated.

  18. LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  19. Cryogenics Testbed Laboratory Flange Baseline Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, Marie Lei Ysabel D.

    2013-01-01

    As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), I was involved in research for the Fluids and Propulsion Division of the NASA Engineering (NE) Directorate. I was immersed in the Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units (IGODU) project for the majority of my time at KSC, primarily with the Ground Operations Demonstration Unit Liquid Oxygen (GODU L02) branch of IGODU. This project was established to develop advancements in cryogenic systems as a part of KSC's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. The vision of AES is to develop new approaches for human exploration, and operations in and beyond low Earth orbit. Advanced cryogenic systems are crucial to minimize the consumable losses of cryogenic propellants, develop higher performance launch vehicles, and decrease operations cost for future launch programs. During my internship, I conducted a flange torque tracking study that established a baseline configuration for the flanges in the Simulated Propellant Loading System (SPLS) at the KSC Cryogenics Test Laboratory (CTL) - the testing environment for GODU L02.

  20. Lorentz symmetry and very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Hees, A.; Lambert, S.

    2016-12-01

    Lorentz symmetry violations can be described by an effective field theory framework that contains both general relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics called the Standard Model extension (SME). Recently, postfit analysis of Gravity Probe B and binary pulsars led to an upper limit at the 10-4 level on the time-time coefficient s¯T T of the pure-gravity sector of the minimal SME. In this work, we derive the observable of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) in SME and then implement it into a real data analysis code of geodetic VLBI observations. Analyzing all available observations recorded since 1979, we compare estimates of s¯T T and errors obtained with various analysis schemes, including global estimations over several time spans, and with various Sun elongation cutoff angles, and by analysis of radio source coordinate time series. We obtain a constraint on s¯ T T=(-5 ±8 )×10-5 , directly fitted to the observations and improving by a factor of 5 previous postfit analysis estimates.

  1. Baseline air quality study at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Dave, M.J.; Charboneau, R.

    1980-10-01

    Air quality and meteorological data collected at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are presented. The data represent baseline values for the pre-construction phase of a proposed coal-gasification test facility. Air quality data were characterized through continuous monitoring of gaseous pollutants, collection of meteorological data, data acquisition and reduction, and collection and analysis of discrete atmospheric samples. Seven air quality parameters were monitored and recorded on a continuous real-time basis: sulfur dioxide, ozone, total hydrocarbons, nonreactive hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide. A 20.9-m tower was erected near Argonne's mobile air monitoring laboratory, which was located immediately downwind of the proposed facility. The tower was instrumented at three levels to collect continuous meteorological data. Wind speed was monitored at three levels; wind direction, horizontal and vertical, at the top level; ambient temperature at the top level; and differential temperature between all three levels. All continuously-monitored parameters were digitized and recorded on magnetic tape. Appropriate software was prepared to reduce the data. Statistical summaries, grphical displays, and correlation studies also are presented.

  2. Gated integrator with signal baseline subtraction

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Xucheng

    1996-01-01

    An ultrafast, high precision gated integrator includes an opamp having differential inputs. A signal to be integrated is applied to one of the differential inputs through a first input network, and a signal indicative of the DC offset component of the signal to be integrated is applied to the other of the differential inputs through a second input network. A pair of electronic switches in the first and second input networks define an integrating period when they are closed. The first and second input networks are substantially symmetrically constructed of matched components so that error components introduced by the electronic switches appear symmetrically in both input circuits and, hence, are nullified by the common mode rejection of the integrating opamp. The signal indicative of the DC offset component is provided by a sample and hold circuit actuated as the integrating period begins. The symmetrical configuration of the integrating circuit improves accuracy and speed by balancing out common mode errors, by permitting the use of high speed switching elements and high speed opamps and by permitting the use of a small integrating time constant. The sample and hold circuit substantially eliminates the error caused by the input signal baseline offset during a single integrating window.

  3. Gated integrator with signal baseline subtraction

    DOEpatents

    Wang, X.

    1996-12-17

    An ultrafast, high precision gated integrator includes an opamp having differential inputs. A signal to be integrated is applied to one of the differential inputs through a first input network, and a signal indicative of the DC offset component of the signal to be integrated is applied to the other of the differential inputs through a second input network. A pair of electronic switches in the first and second input networks define an integrating period when they are closed. The first and second input networks are substantially symmetrically constructed of matched components so that error components introduced by the electronic switches appear symmetrically in both input circuits and, hence, are nullified by the common mode rejection of the integrating opamp. The signal indicative of the DC offset component is provided by a sample and hold circuit actuated as the integrating period begins. The symmetrical configuration of the integrating circuit improves accuracy and speed by balancing out common mode errors, by permitting the use of high speed switching elements and high speed opamps and by permitting the use of a small integrating time constant. The sample and hold circuit substantially eliminates the error caused by the input signal baseline offset during a single integrating window. 5 figs.

  4. Baseline ozone results from 1923 to 1955

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angione, R. J.; Roosen, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    Baseline total atmospheric ozone values from the year 1923 to 1955 are reported which have been derived from observations of the solar constant made by Smithsonian Institution sites in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Ozone was determined from absorption by the broad, weak Chappuis band near 0.6 microns as measured on 1194 days at Mt. Montezuma, Chile and 970 days at Table Mountain, California. Results show systematic changes on the order of 25 percent in the ozone level at Montezuma with a time scale of 10-20 years, although the previously reported 30 percent decrease between 1920-1930 and 1940-1950 is found to have been erroneous. Comparisons of ozone data with geomagnetic indices and sunspot number show a suggestive correlation of ozone with sunspot number, although the relation is not borne out by comparison of ozone and sunspot cycles, or by Fourier analysis. Comparison of ozone data in the Chappuis band obtained by a modern filter-wheel radiometer with that obtained from a Dobson spectrometer at Mauna Loa Observatory shows Chappuis band measurements to be 14 percent lower.

  5. Proposed Methodology for LEED Baseline Refrigeration Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.

    2011-02-01

    This PowerPoint presentation summarizes a proposed methodology for LEED baseline refrigeration modeling. The presentation discusses why refrigeration modeling is important, the inputs of energy models, resources, reference building model cases, baseline model highlights, example savings calculations and results.

  6. 48 CFR 1334.202 - Integrated baseline reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Earned Value Management System 1334.202 Integrated baseline reviews. An Integrated Baseline Review shall be conducted when an Earned Value Management System...

  7. Design and baseline characteristics of the LANDMARK study.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hiroaki; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Hirakata, Hideki; Kaneda, Hideaki; Kagimura, Tatsuo; Akizawa, Tadao

    2017-06-01

    Calcium (Ca)-based phosphate (P) binders, compared to non-Ca-based P binders, contribute to vascular calcification, which is associated with cardiovascular events. The LANDMARK study is a multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel comparative study of lanthanum carbonate (LC) and calcium carbonate (CC) in hemodialysis patients. Stable hemodialysis patients with intact parathyroid hormone ≤240 pg/mL meeting ≥1 of the following criteria (age >65 years, postmenopause, diabetes mellitus) were randomized into the LC and CC groups. LC group patients initially received LC 750 mg/day or the previously used dose and were titrated up to a maximum 2250 mg/day to achieve serum P levels of 3.5-6.0 mg/dL. CC group patients received CC 3 g/day or the previously used dose and were titrated to achieve the same P range. If the target serum P level was not achieved, non-Ca-based P binders (other than LC) could also be added. The primary endpoint is survival time free of cardiovascular events, including cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke, and unstable angina. Overall, 2309 patients were allocated to the LC (N = 1154) or CC group (N = 1155). At baseline, the mean age was 68.4 years, 40.4 % were women, 55.9 % had diabetes, 18.3 % had a history of ischemic heart disease, and 13.9 % had cerebrovascular disease. A total of 184 patients (8.4 %) had undergone coronary intervention procedures. Baseline characteristics were well balanced between groups. The LANDMARK study will determine whether LC, a non-Ca-based P binder, reduces cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in chronic hemodialysis patients.

  8. The effect of short-baseline neutrino oscillations on LBNE

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, William C.

    2015-10-15

    Short-baseline neutrino oscillations can have a relatively big effect on long-baseline oscillations, due to the cross terms that arise from multiple mass scales. The existing short-baseline anomalies suggest that short-baseline oscillations can affect the ν{sub μ} → ν{sub e} appearance probabilities by up to 20-40%, depending on the values of the CP-violating parameters.

  9. Method and apparatus for reliable inter-antenna baseline determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for inter-antenna baseline determination that uses an antenna configuration comprising a pair of relatively closely spaced antennas and other pairs of distant antennas. The closely spaced pair provides a short baseline having an integer ambiguity that may be searched exhaustively to identify the correct set of integers. This baseline is then used as a priori information to aid the determination of longer baselines that, once determined, may be used for accurate run time attitude determination.

  10. Performance of a 20-target MSE classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Leslie M.; Owirka, Gregory J.; Brower, William S.

    1998-08-01

    MIT Lincoln Laboratory is responsible for developing the ATR system for the DARPA/DARO/NIMA/OSD-sponsored SAIP program; the baseline ATR system recognizes 10 GOB targets; the enhanced version of SAIP requires the ATR system to recognize 20 GOB targets. This paper compares ATR performance results for 10- and 20-target MSE classifiers using high-resolution SAR imagery.

  11. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of the...

  12. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of the...

  13. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of the...

  14. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of the...

  15. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of the...

  16. 33 CFR 2.20 - Territorial sea baseline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Territorial sea baseline. 2.20... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.20 Territorial sea baseline. Territorial sea baseline means the line defining the shoreward extent of the territorial sea of the United States drawn according to the principles...

  17. 33 CFR 2.20 - Territorial sea baseline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Territorial sea baseline. 2.20... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.20 Territorial sea baseline. Territorial sea baseline means the line defining the shoreward extent of the territorial sea of the United States drawn according to the principles...

  18. 33 CFR 2.20 - Territorial sea baseline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Territorial sea baseline. 2.20... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.20 Territorial sea baseline. Territorial sea baseline means the line defining the shoreward extent of the territorial sea of the United States drawn according to the principles...

  19. 48 CFR 1334.202 - Integrated baseline reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integrated baseline... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Earned Value Management System 1334.202 Integrated baseline reviews. An Integrated Baseline Review shall be conducted when an Earned Value Management...

  20. 48 CFR 1334.202 - Integrated baseline reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integrated baseline... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Earned Value Management System 1334.202 Integrated baseline reviews. An Integrated Baseline Review shall be conducted when an Earned Value Management...

  1. 48 CFR 1334.202 - Integrated baseline reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integrated baseline... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Earned Value Management System 1334.202 Integrated baseline reviews. An Integrated Baseline Review shall be conducted when an Earned Value Management...

  2. 48 CFR 34.202 - Integrated Baseline Reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integrated Baseline... Integrated Baseline Reviews. (a) When an EVMS is required, the Government will conduct an Integrated Baseline...) The degree to which the management process provides effective and integrated...

  3. 48 CFR 34.202 - Integrated Baseline Reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integrated Baseline... Integrated Baseline Reviews. (a) When an EVMS is required, the Government will conduct an Integrated Baseline...) The degree to which the management process provides effective and integrated...

  4. 48 CFR 1334.202 - Integrated baseline reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integrated baseline... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Earned Value Management System 1334.202 Integrated baseline reviews. An Integrated Baseline Review shall be conducted when an Earned Value Management...

  5. 33 CFR 2.20 - Territorial sea baseline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Territorial sea baseline. 2.20... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.20 Territorial sea baseline. Territorial sea baseline means the line defining the shoreward extent of the territorial sea of the United States drawn according to the principles...

  6. Height estimation improvement via baseline calibration for a dual-pass, dual-antenna ground mapping IFSAR system.

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Ana; Jamshidi, Mohammad; Bickel, Douglas Lloyd; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2003-07-01

    Data collection for interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) mapping systems currently utilize two operation modes. A single-antenna, dual-pass IFSAR operation mode is the first mode in which a platform carrying a single antenna traverses a flight path by the scene of interest twice collecting data. A dual-antenna, single-pass IFSAR operation mode is the second mode where a platform possessing two antennas flies past the scene of interest collecting data. There are advantages and disadvantages associated with both of these data collection modes. The single-antenna, dual-pass IFSAR operation mode possesses an imprecise knowledge of the antenna baseline length but allows for large antenna baseline lengths. This imprecise antenna baseline length knowledge lends itself to inaccurate target height scaling. The dual-antenna, one-pass IFSAR operation mode allows for a precise knowledge of the limited antenna baseline length but this limited baseline length leads to increased target height noise. This paper presents a new, innovative dual-antenna, dual-pass IFSAR operation mode which overcomes the disadvantages of the two current IFSAR operation modes. Improved target height information is now obtained with this new mode by accurately estimating the antenna baseline length between the dual flight passes using the data itself. Consequently, this new IFSAR operation mode possesses the target height scaling accuracies of the dual-antenna, one-pass operation mode and the height-noise performance of the one-antenna, dual-pass operation mode.

  7. Nonintrusive methodology for wellness baseline profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Danny Wen-Yaw; Tsai, Yuh-Show; Miaou, Shaou-Gang; Chang, Walter H.; Chang, Yaw-Jen; Chen, Shia-Chung; Hong, Y. Y.; Chyang, C. S.; Chang, Quan-Shong; Hsu, Hon-Yen; Hsu, James; Yao, Wei-Cheng; Hsu, Ming-Sin; Chen, Ming-Chung; Lee, Shi-Chen; Hsu, Charles; Miao, Lidan; Byrd, Kenny; Chouikha, Mohamed F.; Gu, Xin-Bin; Wang, Paul C.; Szu, Harold

    2007-04-01

    We develop an accumulatively effective and affordable set of smart pair devices to save the exuberant expenditure for the healthcare of aging population, which will not be sustainable when all the post-war baby boomers retire (78 millions will cost 1/5~1/4 GDP in US alone). To design an accessible test-bed for distributed points of homecare, we choose two exemplars of the set to demonstrate the possibility of translation of modern military and clinical know-how, because two exemplars share identically the noninvasive algorithm adapted to the Smart Sensor-pairs for the real world persistent surveillance. Currently, the standard diagnoses for malignant tumors and diabetes disorders are blood serum tests, X-ray CAT scan, and biopsy used sometime in the physical checkup by physicians as cohort-average wellness baselines. The loss of the quality of life in making second careers productive may be caused by the missing of timeliness for correct diagnoses and easier treatments, which contributes to the one quarter of human errors generating the lawsuits against physicians and hospitals, which further escalates the insurance cost and wasteful healthcare expenditure. Such a vicious cycle should be entirely eliminated by building an "individual diagnostic aids (IDA)," similar to the trend of personalized drug, developed from daily noninvasive intelligent databases of the "wellness baseline profiling (WBP)". Since our physiology state undulates diurnally, the Nyquist anti-aliasing theory dictates a minimum twice-a-day sampling of the WBP for the IDA, which must be made affordable by means of noninvasive, unsupervised and unbiased methodology at the convenience of homes. Thus, a pair of military infrared (IR) spectral cameras has been demonstrated for the noninvasive spectrogram ratio test of the spontaneously emitted thermal radiation from a normal human body at 37°C temperature. This invisible self-emission spreads from 3 microns to 12 microns of the radiation wavelengths

  8. Inter-agency comparison of TanDEM-X baseline solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäggi, A.; Montenbruck, O.; Moon, Y.; Wermuth, M.; König, R.; Michalak, G.; Bock, H.; Bodenmann, D.

    2012-07-01

    TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) is the first Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mission using close formation flying for bistatic SAR interferometry. The primary goal of the mission is to generate a global digital elevation model (DEM) with 2 m height precision and 10 m ground resolution from the configurable SAR interferometer with space baselines of a few hundred meters. As a key mission requirement for the interferometric SAR processing, the relative position, or baseline vector, of the two satellites must be determined with an accuracy of 1 mm (1D RMS) from GPS measurements collected by the onboard receivers. The operational baseline products for the TanDEM-X mission are routinely generated by the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ) and the German Space Operations Center (DLR/GSOC) using different software packages (EPOS/BSW, GHOST) and analysis strategies. For a further independent performance assessment, TanDEM-X baseline solutions are generated at the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) on a best effort basis using the Bernese Software (BSW). Dual-frequency baseline solutions are compared for a 1-month test period in January 2011. Differences of reduced-dynamic baseline solutions exhibit a representative standard deviation (STD) of 1 mm outside maneuver periods, while biases are below 1 mm in all directions. The achieved baseline determination performance is close to the mission specification, but independent SAR calibration data takes acquired over areas with a well known DEM from previous missions will be required to fully meet the 1 mm 1D RMS target. Besides the operational solutions, single-frequency baseline solutions are tested. They benefit from a more robust ambiguity fixing and show a slightly better agreement of below 1 mm STD, but are potentially affected by errors caused by an incomplete compensation of differential ionospheric path delays.

  9. 100-D Area technical baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, R.W.

    1993-08-20

    This document is prepared in support of the 100 Area Environmental Restoration activity at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. It provides a technical baseline of waste sites located at the 100-D Area. The report is based on an environmental investigation undertaken by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) History Office in support of the Environmental Restoration Engineering Function and on review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings, and photographs, supplemented by site inspections and employee interviews. No intrusive field investigation or sampling was conducted. All Hanford coordinate locations are approximate locations taken from several different maps and drawings of the 100-D Area. Every effort was made to derive coordinate locations for the center of each facility or waste site, except where noted, using standard measuring devices. Units of measure are shown as they appear in reference documents. The 100-D Area is made up of three operable units: 100-DR-1, 100-DR-2, and 100-DR-3. All three are addressed in this report. These operable units include liquid and solid waste disposal sites in the vicinity of, and related to, the 100-D and 100-DR Reactors. A fourth operable unit, 100-HR-3, is concerned with groundwater and is not addressed here. This report describes waste sites which include cribs, trenches, pits, french drains, retention basins, solid waste burial grounds, septic tanks, and drain fields. Each waste site is described separately and photographs are provided where available. A complete list of photographs can be found in Appendix A. A comprehensive environmental summary is not provided here but may be found in Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act Characterization (Cushing 1988), which describes the geology and soils, meteorology, hydrology, land use, population, and air quality of the area.

  10. The LOFAR long baseline snapshot calibrator survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldón, J.; Deller, A. T.; Wucknitz, O.; Jackson, N.; Drabent, A.; Carozzi, T.; Conway, J.; Kapińska, A. D.; McKean, J. P.; Morabito, L.; Varenius, E.; Zarka, P.; Anderson, J.; Asgekar, A.; Avruch, I. M.; Bell, M. E.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Bîrzan, L.; Bregman, J.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Carbone, D.; Ciardi, B.; de Gasperin, F.; de Geus, E.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Fallows, R. A.; Fender, R.; Ferrari, C.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Hamaker, J. P.; Hassall, T. E.; Heald, G.; Hoeft, M.; Juette, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; Maat, P.; Mann, G.; Markoff, S.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; Morganti, R.; Munk, H.; Norden, M. J.; Offringa, A. R.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H.; Rowlinson, A.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Schwarz, D.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Stappers, B. W.; Steinmetz, M.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; van Weeren, R. J.; White, S.; Wise, M. W.; Yatawatta, S.; Zensus, A.

    2015-02-01

    Aims: An efficient means of locating calibrator sources for international LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) is developed and used to determine the average density of usable calibrator sources on the sky for subarcsecond observations at 140 MHz. Methods: We used the multi-beaming capability of LOFAR to conduct a fast and computationally inexpensive survey with the full international LOFAR array. Sources were preselected on the basis of 325 MHz arcminute-scale flux density using existing catalogues. By observing 30 different sources in each of the 12 sets of pointings per hour, we were able to inspect 630 sources in two hours to determine if they possess a sufficiently bright compact component to be usable as LOFAR delay calibrators. Results: More than 40% of the observed sources are detected on multiple baselines between international stations and 86 are classified as satisfactory calibrators. We show that a flat low-frequency spectrum (from 74 to 325 MHz) is the best predictor of compactness at 140 MHz. We extrapolate from our sample to show that the sky density of calibrators that are sufficiently bright to calibrate dispersive and non-dispersive delays for the international LOFAR using existing methods is 1.0 per square degree. Conclusions: The observed density of satisfactory delay calibrator sources means that observations with international LOFAR should be possible at virtually any point in the sky provided that a fast and efficient search, using the methodology described here, is conducted prior to the observation to identify the best calibrator. Full Table 6 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/574/A73

  11. Fort Irwin Integrated Resource Assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, E.E.; Keller, J.M.; Dittmer, A.L.; Hadley, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at Fort Irwin, a US Army Forces Command facility near Barstow, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Integrated Resource Assessment. The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Irwin. This is part of a model program that PNL has designed to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This program (1) identifies and evaluates all cost-effective energy projects; (2) develops a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) targets 100% of the financing required to implement energy efficiency projects. PNL applied this model program to Fort Irwin. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, propane gas, and vehicle fuel use for a typical operating year. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Irwin by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for all energy use among buildings, utilities, and applicable losses.

  12. Investigation of Baseline Antioxidant Enzyme Expression in Pocillopora damicornis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, J.; Richmond, R. H.

    2016-02-01

    Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and valuable ecosystems in the world. Vital for maintaining ecological balance in coastal tropical environments, they also stand as the foundation for enormous cultural and economic resources. However, the continued degradation of coral reefs around the world, particularly within NOAA's Hawaii Marine Sanctuary, is an alarming call for action towards the identification of stressors and subsequent rehabilitation of these national treasures. Aligned with the goals of NOAA's National Marine Sanctuary to protect areas of the marine environment that are of special national significance to cultural, scientific, educational, and ecological values, this research targets addressing and standardizing antioxidant enzyme stress levels in Hawaiian coral over reproductive cycles in order to increase management aptitude and efficiency. By developing a greater understanding for biochemical biomarkers of stress in corals, specifically through the study of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity and expression, my research will aid in the adaptation and further development of biochemical tests to understand baseline thresholds of stress on coral reefs within Sanctuary waters. Slight, but significant variations in enzyme expression over reproductive time points alert us to modifications that must be made to consider fluctuating levels of coral susceptibility when sampling corals under stress. These findings will be applied to diagnostic tests describing the effect of different chemical pollutants on coral health in order to identify ecological issues and expand the knowledge of local communities and NOAA, so that steps can be taken to mitigate human Sanctuary impacts.

  13. ATIC as a testbed for the ACCESS baseline calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Isbert, J.; Authement, J.; Coleman, J.; Guzik, T. G.; Granger, D.; Lockwood, R.; McMorris, A.; Mock, L.; Oubre, C.; Panasyuk, M.; Peck, J.; Wefel, J. P.; Adams, J. H. Jr.; Boberg, P. R.; Dion-Schwarz, C.; Kroeger, R.; Bashindzhagyan, G. B.; Khein, L.; Samsonov, G. A.; Zatsepin, V. I.

    1999-01-22

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) balloon experiment is designed to measure the spectrum of individual elements from H through Fe up to a total energy >10{sup 14} eV. To accomplish this goal, ATIC incorporates a Silicon matrix detector composed of more than 4,000 pixels to measure the incident particle charge in the presence of backscatter background, three plastic scintillator hodoscopes to provide an event trigger as well as a backup measurement of the particle charge and trajectory, a 3/4 interaction length carbon target and a fully active ionization calorimeter composed of 22 radiation lengths of Bismuth Germanate (BGO) crystals. This detector complement is very similar to the baseline calorimeter for the Advanced Cosmic Ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station, ACCESS. The ATIC flights can be used to evaluate such a calorimeter in the cosmic ray 'beam.' ATIC integration is currently underway with a first flight expected during 1999. This talk will discuss ATIC as it applies to ACCESS.

  14. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project technical baseline document. Fiscal year 1995: Volume 1, Baseline description

    SciTech Connect

    Womack, J.C.; Cramond, R.; Paedon, R.J.

    1995-03-13

    This document is a revision to WHC-SD-SNF-SD-002, and is issued to support the individual projects that make up the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project in the lower-tier functions, requirements, interfaces, and technical baseline items. It presents results of engineering analyses since Sept. 1994. The mission of the SNFP on the Hanford site is to provide safety, economic, environmentally sound management of Hanford SNF in a manner that stages it to final disposition. This particularly involves K Basin fuel, although other SNF is involved also.

  15. Baseline Factors Predictive of SLT Response: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Bruen, Robin; Lesk, Mark R; Harasymowycz, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To study the response to Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty (SLT) according to baseline medical treatment, angle pigmentation, age, diagnosis (open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension), and baseline intraocular pressure (IOP). Methods. 74 eyes of 74 patients were enrolled in this study. Baseline characteristics were recorded for each patient. IOP in the treated and fellow eyes was measured at baseline, and 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months following SLT. IOP changes in the different groups were compared using two-way ANOVA and Pearson's correlation. Results. The mean age of our cohort was 71 ± 10 years. The mean baseline IOP was 21.5 ± 5 mmHg, and the mean change in IOP from baseline in the treated eye at one year was -4.67 ± 3.40 mmHg. Higher baseline IOP was highly correlated with greater absolute IOP decrease. Prostaglandin analogue use at baseline was shown to be associated with a statistically decreased IOP-lowering response following SLT when corrected for baseline IOP. No significant differences in IOP response were found when comparing groups stratified for age, angle pigmentation, phakic status, gender, or diagnosis. Discussion. The results of this study confirm the finding that higher baseline IOP is a predictor of greater IOP response following SLT, and that pretreatment with prostaglandin analogue therapy is associated with a decreased IOP-lowering response following SLT. The study is limited by the small number of eyes with data available for complete case analysis.

  16. Laser-driven cylindrical compression of targets for fast electron transport study in warm and dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Vauzour, B.; Nicolaie, Ph.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; Hulin, S.; Regan, C.; Ribeyre, X.; Schurtz, G.; Santos, J. J.; Perez, F.; Baton, S. D.; Brambrink, E.; Volpe, L.; Batani, D.; Jafer, R.; Lancaster, K.; Galimberti, M.; Heathcote, R.; Beg, F. N.; Chawla, S.

    2011-04-15

    Fast ignition requires a precise knowledge of fast electron propagation in a dense hydrogen plasma. In this context, a dedicated HiPER (High Power laser Energy Research) experiment was performed on the VULCAN laser facility where the propagation of relativistic electron beams through cylindrically compressed plastic targets was studied. In this paper, we characterize the plasma parameters such as temperature and density during the compression of cylindrical polyimide shells filled with CH foams at three different initial densities. X-ray and proton radiography were used to measure the cylinder radius at different stages of the compression. By comparing both diagnostics results with 2D hydrodynamic simulations, we could infer densities from 2 to 11 g/cm{sup 3} and temperatures from 30 to 120 eV at maximum compression at the center of targets. According to the initial foam density, kinetic, coupled (sometimes degenerated) plasmas were obtained. The temporal and spatial evolution of the resulting areal densities and electrical conductivities allow for testing electron transport in a wide range of configurations.

  17. Intra-fraction respiratory motion and baseline drift during breast Helical Tomotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ricotti, Rosalinda; Ciardo, Delia; Fattori, Giovanni; Leonardi, Maria Cristina; Morra, Anna; Dicuonzo, Samantha; Rojas, Damaris Patricia; Pansini, Floriana; Cambria, Raffaella; Cattani, Federica; Gianoli, Chiara; Spinelli, Chiara; Riboldi, Marco; Baroni, Guido; Orecchia, Roberto; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the intra-fraction breast motion during long-lasting treatments of breast cancer with Helical Tomotherapy by means of an optical tracking system. A set of seven radio-transparent passive markers was placed on the thoraco-abdominal surface of twenty breast cancer patients and tracked by an infrared tracking system. A continuous non-invasive monitoring of intra-fraction motion from patient setup verification and correction to the end of radiation delivery was thus obtained. The measured displacements were analysed in terms of cyclic respiratory motion and slow baseline drift. The average monitoring time per patient was 15.57min. The breathing amplitude of the chest was less than 2mm, on average, along all anatomical directions. The baseline drift of the body led to more significant setup uncertainties than the respiratory motion. The main intra-fraction baseline drifts were in posterior and inferior directions and occurred within the first eight minutes of monitoring. Considering the intra-fraction motion only, the resultant clinical-to-planning target volume safety margins are highly patient-specific and largely anisotropic. The non-respiratory motion occurring during prolonged treatments induces notable uncertainties. Non-invasive continuous monitoring of patient setup variations including baseline drifts is recommended in order to minimize dosimetric deviations, which might jeopardize the therapeutic ratio between target coverage and the sparing of organs at risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Schema therapy for personality disorders in older adults: a multiple-baseline study.

    PubMed

    Videler, Arjan C; van Alphen, Sebastiaan P J; van Royen, Rita J J; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; Rossi, Gina; Arntz, Arnoud

    2017-04-21

    No studies have been conducted yet into the effectiveness of treatment of personality disorders in later life. This study is a first test of the effectiveness of schema therapy for personality disorders in older adults. Multiple-baseline design with eight cluster C personality disorder patients, with a mean age of   69. After a baseline phase with random length, schema therapy was given during the first year, followed by follow-up sessions during six months. Participants weekly rated the credibility of dysfunctional core beliefs. Symptomatic distress, early maladaptive schemas, quality of life and target complaints were assessed every six months and personality disorder diagnosis was assessed before baseline and after follow-up. Data were analyzed with mixed regression analyses. Results revealed significant linear trends during treatment phases, but not during baseline and follow-up. The scores during follow-up remained stable and were significantly lower compared to baseline, with high effect sizes. Seven participants remitted from their personality disorder diagnosis. Schema therapy appears an effective treatment for cluster C personality disorders in older adults. This finding is highly innovative as this is the first study exploring the effectiveness of psychotherapy, in this case schema therapy, for personality disorders in older adults.

  19. Baseline Performance Predicts tDCS-Mediated Improvements in Language Symptoms in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    McConathey, Eric M.; White, Nicole C.; Gervits, Felix; Ash, Sherry; Coslett, H. Branch; Grossman, Murray; Hamilton, Roy H.

    2017-01-01

    Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by insidious irreversible loss of language abilities. Prior studies suggest that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) directed toward language areas of the brain may help to ameliorate symptoms of PPA. In the present sham-controlled study, we examined whether tDCS could be used to enhance language abilities (e.g., picture naming) in individuals with PPA variants primarily characterized by difficulties with speech production (non-fluent and logopenic). Participants were recruited from the Penn Frontotemporal Dementia Center to receive 10 days of both real and sham tDCS (counter-balanced, full-crossover design; participants were naïve to stimulation condition). A battery of language tests was administered at baseline, immediately post-tDCS (real and sham), and 6 weeks and 12 weeks following stimulation. When we accounted for individuals’ baseline performance, our analyses demonstrated a stratification of tDCS effects. Individuals who performed worse at baseline showed tDCS-related improvements in global language performance, grammatical comprehension and semantic processing. Individuals who performed better at baseline showed a slight tDCS-related benefit on our speech repetition metric. Real tDCS may improve language performance in some individuals with PPA. Severity of deficits at baseline may be an important factor in predicting which patients will respond positively to language-targeted tDCS therapies. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02928848 PMID:28713256

  20. Large short-baseline ν¯μ disappearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco

    2011-03-01

    We analyze the LSND, KARMEN, and MiniBooNE data on short-baseline ν¯μ→ν¯e oscillations and the data on short-baseline ν¯e disappearance obtained in the Bugey-3 and CHOOZ reactor experiments in the framework of 3+1 antineutrino mixing, taking into account the MINOS observation of long-baseline ν¯μ disappearance and the KamLAND observation of very-long-baseline ν¯e disappearance. We show that the fit of the data implies that the short-baseline disappearance of ν¯μ is relatively large. We obtain a prediction of an effective amplitude sin⁡22ϑμμ≳0.1 for short-baseline ν¯μ disappearance generated by 0.2≲Δm2≲1eV2, which could be measured in future experiments.

  1. Baseline correction for NMR spectroscopic metabolomics data analysis.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yuanxin; Rocke, David M

    2008-07-29

    We propose a statistically principled baseline correction method, derived from a parametric smoothing model. It uses a score function to describe the key features of baseline distortion and constructs an optimal baseline curve to maximize it. The parameters are determined automatically by using LOWESS (locally weighted scatterplot smoothing) regression to estimate the noise variance. We tested this method on 1D NMR spectra with different forms of baseline distortions, and demonstrated that it is effective for both regular 1D NMR spectra and metabolomics spectra with over-crowded peaks. Compared with the automatic baseline correction function in XWINNMR 3.5, the penalized smoothing method provides more accurate baseline correction for high-signal density metabolomics spectra.

  2. Baseline Correction for NMR Spectroscopic Metabolomics Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Yuanxin; Rocke, David M

    2008-01-01

    Background We propose a statistically principled baseline correction method, derived from a parametric smoothing model. It uses a score function to describe the key features of baseline distortion and constructs an optimal baseline curve to maximize it. The parameters are determined automatically by using LOWESS (locally weighted scatterplot smoothing) regression to estimate the noise variance. Results We tested this method on 1D NMR spectra with different forms of baseline distortions, and demonstrated that it is effective for both regular 1D NMR spectra and metabolomics spectra with over-crowded peaks. Conclusion Compared with the automatic baseline correction function in XWINNMR 3.5, the penalized smoothing method provides more accurate baseline correction for high-signal density metabolomics spectra. PMID:18664284

  3. Can proton radiography be used to image imploding target in ICF experiments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, L.; Batani, D.; Vauzour, B.; Nicolai, Ph.; Santos, J. J.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; Hulin, S.; Regan, C.; Perez, F.; Baton, S.; Koenig, M.; Lancaster, K.; Galimberti, M.; Heathcote, R.; Tolley, M.; Spindloe, Ch.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Gizzi, L. A.; Benedetti, C.; Sgattoni, A.; Richetta, M.

    2011-06-01

    Generation of high intensity and well collimated multi energetic proton beams from laser-matter interaction extend the possibility to use protons as a diagnostic to image imploding target in Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments. An experiment was done at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (Vulcan Laser Petawatt laser) to study fast electron propagation in cylindrically compressed targets, a subject of interest for fast ignition. This was performed in the framework of the experimental road map of HiPER (the European High Power laser Energy Research facility Project). In the experiment, protons accelerated by a ps-laser pulse were used to radiograph a 220 m diameter cylinder (20 m wall, filled with low density foam), imploded with 200 J of green laser light in 4 symmetrically incident beams of pulse length 1 ns. Point projection proton backlighting was used to get the compression history and the stagnation time. Detailed comparison with 2D numerical hydro simulations has been done using a Monte Carlo code adapted to describe multiple scattering and plasma effects and with those from hard X-ray radiography. These analysis shows that due to the very large mass densities reached during implosion processes, protons traveling through the target undergo a very large number of collisions which deviate protons from their original trajectory reducing proton radiography resolution. Here we present a simple analytical model to study the proton radiography diagnostic performance as a function of the main experimental parameters such as proton beam energy and target areal density. This approach leads to define two different criteria for PR resolution (called "strong" and "weak" condition) describing different experimental conditions. Finally numerical simulations using both hydrodynamic and Monte Carlo codes are presented to validate analytical predictions.

  4. Microcomputer-based cognitive rehabilitation of visual neglect: three multiple-baseline single-case studies.

    PubMed

    Robertson, I; Gray, J; McKenzie, S

    1988-01-01

    Cognitive remediation programmes were delivered by microcomputer to three patients showing visual neglect using single-case experimental methodology with multiple-baseline across-function designs. The patients included one head injury case and two cases of cerebrovascular accident. Clear differences were produced in target functions. The most likely mechanism for this change was the learning of new verbal regulation strategies, although other, non-verbal, mechanisms may have been involved.

  5. Estimating Baselines From Constrained Data On GPS Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindqwister, Ulf J.; Lichten, Stephen M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey I.

    1991-01-01

    Method of processing measurements of signals received at terrestrial stations from satellites in Global Positioning System (GPS) increases precision of estimates of both orbits of GPS satellites and locations of stations, computed from measurement and orbital data. Involves network of fiducial GPS stations collocated with very-long-baseline-interferometry (VLBI) stations, for which independent VLBI determinations of baselines available. Locations of stations used to establish baselines for geodesy. Potential applications include measurements of seismic and volcanic displacements and movements of tectonic plates.

  6. Determination of Baseline Definitions for Contracting Words and Phrases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Lfl DTI SELECTE JAN1290 OF ~ BD DETERMINATION OF BASELINE DEFINITIONS TFOR CONTRACTING WORDS AND PHRASES John E. Cannaday Captain USAF AFIT/GCM/LSQ...Impua M~ 90 01 11 010 AFIT/GCM/LSQ/89S-2 DETERMINATION OF BASELINE DEFINITIONS FOR CONTRACTING WORDS AND PHRASES THESIS John E. Cannaday Captain USAF...the Department of Defense. AFIT/GCM/LSQ/89S-2 DETERMINATION OF BASELINE DEFINITIONS FOR CONTRACTING WORDS AND PHRASES THESIS Presented to the Faculty

  7. Additional comments on multiple-baseline designs in instructional research.

    PubMed

    Strain, P S; Shores, R E

    1979-11-01

    A number of measurement and design issues that are critical to the use of multiple-baseline procedures in evaluating instructional interventions were highlighted. First, issues related to the interaction between length of baseline assessment and the following outcomes were presented: (a) deceleration in behavior across baseline, (b) prediction of behavior change, (c) error analyses performance on instructional stimuli, and (d) reactivity of observation. Finally, an attempt was made to match the variety of multiple-baseline designs to specific questions often asked by instructional researchers.

  8. Brain atrophy associated with baseline and longitudinal measures of cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, V.A.; Chao, L.L.; Studholme, C.; Yaffe, K.; Miller, B.L.; Madison, C.; Buckley, S.T.; Mungas, D.; Schuff, N.; Weiner, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    The overall goal was to identify patterns of brain atrophy associated with cognitive impairment and future cognitive decline in non-demented elders. Seventy-one participants were studied with structural MRI and neuropsychological testing at baseline and 1 year follow-up. Deformation-based morphometry was used to examine the relationship between regional baseline brain tissue volume with baseline and longitudinal measures of delayed verbal memory, semantic memory, and executive function. Smaller right hippocampal and entorhinal cortex (ERC) volumes at baseline were associated with worse delayed verbal memory performance at baseline while smaller left ERC volume was associated with greater longitudinal decline. Smaller left superior temporal cortex at baseline was associated with worse semantic memory at baseline, while smaller left temporal white and gray matter volumes were associated with greater semantic memory decline. Increased CSF and smaller frontal lobe volumes were associated with impaired executive function at baseline and greater longitudinal executive decline. These findings suggest that baseline volumes of prefrontal and temporal regions may underlie continuing cognitive decline due to aging, pathology, or both in non-demented elderly individuals. PMID:19446370

  9. Design of experiment for earth rotation and baseline parameter determination from very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermanis, A.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of recovering earth rotation and network geometry (baseline) parameters are emphasized. The numerical simulated experiments performed are set up in an environment where station coordinates vary with respect to inertial space according to a simulated earth rotation model similar to the actual but unknown rotation of the earth. The basic technique of VLBI and its mathematical model are presented. The parametrization of earth rotation chosen is described and the resulting model is linearized. A simple analysis of the geometry of the observations leads to some useful hints on achieving maximum sensitivity of the observations with respect to the parameters considered. The basic philosophy for the simulation of data and their analysis through standard least squares adjustment techniques is presented. A number of characteristic network designs based on present and candidate station locations are chosen. The results of the simulations for each design are presented together with a summary of the conclusions.

  10. Sputter target

    DOEpatents

    Gates, Willard G.; Hale, Gerald J.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an improved sputter target for use in the deposition of hard coatings. An exemplary target is given wherein titanium diboride is brazed to a tantalum backing plate using a gold-palladium-nickel braze alloy.

  11. Effects of Extended Camera Baseline and Image Magnification on Target Detection Time and Target Recognition with a Stereoscopic TV System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    Independent Research funding under Program Element 61152N, Project RROO001, Work Unit NOSC 533-ZT22. Released by Under authority of J.K. Katayama, Head...a controlled laboratory environment for visual Performance data collection. Three experiments were condlucted to assess the independent effects of...experiments suggested that both image magnification and increases in camera interaxial separation are useful strategies for enhancing visual performance. The

  12. Contract Over Target Baseline (OTB) Effect on Earned Value Management’s Cost Performance Index (CPI)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-17

    In 2009, Trahan found that the Gompertz growth curve better predicted program Estimates at Completion (EAC) for OTB contracts. In 2010, Thickstun...In 2009, Trahan found that nonlinear growth modeling, specifically the Gompertz growth curve, better predicted program Estimates at Completion...models only outperform index-based models at early stages of completion (Tracy, 2005). In 2009 Trahan produced three EAC models using the Gompertz

  13. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mocko, Michal

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  14. 40 CFR 80.92 - Baseline auditor requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this section and shall be responsible for the baseline audit per paragraph (f) of this section. (b... compensation for the audit which is dependent on the outcome of the audit. (c) Technical ability. All of the... the baseline audit: (1) The auditor shall be technically capable of evaluating a...

  15. Adapting the M3 Surveillance Metrics for an Unknown Baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Michael Scott; Abes, Jeff I.; Jaramillo, Brandon Michael Lee

    2016-11-30

    The original M3 surveillance metrics assume that the baseline is known. In this article, adapted M3 metrics are presented when the baseline is not known and estimated by available data. Deciding on how much available data is enough is also discussed.

  16. Reusable Space Vehicle Ground Operations Baseline Conceptual Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    REUSABLE SPACE VEHICLE GROUND OPERATIONS BASELINE CONCEPTUAL MODEL THESIS DENNIS R...United States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United States Government. AFIT/GLM/ENS/04-12 REUSABLE SPACE VEHICLE GROUND...for the next launch. v AFIT/GLM/ENS/04-12 REUSABLE SPACE VEHICLE GROUND OPERATIONS BASELINE CONCEPTUAL MODEL DENNIS R. MAYNARD

  17. Validity and Reliability of Baseline Testing in a Standardized Environment.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Kathryn L; Caze, Todd; Maerlender, Arthur

    2017-08-11

    The Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) is a computerized neuropsychological test battery commonly used to determine cognitive recovery from concussion based on comparing post-injury scores to baseline scores. This model is based on the premise that ImPACT baseline test scores are a valid and reliable measure of optimal cognitive function at baseline. Growing evidence suggests that this premise may not be accurate and a large contributor to invalid and unreliable baseline test scores may be the protocol and environment in which baseline tests are administered. This study examined the effects of a standardized environment and administration protocol on the reliability and performance validity of athletes' baseline test scores on ImPACT by comparing scores obtained in two different group-testing settings. Three hundred-sixty one Division 1 cohort-matched collegiate athletes' baseline data were assessed using a variety of indicators of potential performance invalidity; internal reliability was also examined. Thirty-one to thirty-nine percent of the baseline cases had at least one indicator of low performance validity, but there were no significant differences in validity indicators based on environment in which the testing was conducted. Internal consistency reliability scores were in the acceptable to good range, with no significant differences between administration conditions. These results suggest that athletes may be reliably performing at levels lower than their best effort would produce.

  18. 40 CFR 80.92 - Baseline auditor requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... this section and shall be responsible for the baseline audit per paragraph (f) of this section. (b... employment criteria. (i) None of the auditing personnel, including any contractor or subcontractor personnel... importer for baseline verification purposes. (ii) Auditor personnel may have been a contractor or...

  19. The Emergy Baseline of the Earth: Is it Arbitrary?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emergy baseline for the Earth is used in determining the transformities of the products of all planetary processes and through these relationships it influences all emergy evaluations. Estimates of the emergy baseline made in the past have changed depending on the number of i...

  20. Controlling Baseline Trend in Single-Case Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richard I.; Cryer, Judy; Byrns, Glenda

    2006-01-01

    School psychologists commonly conduct interventions for individual students and evaluate their success through single-case research designs, most of which include a baseline observation period. However, concluding intervention effectiveness from a single-case design is problematic when pronounced baseline trend is evident. With positive baseline…

  1. Space shuttle navigation analysis. Volume 2: Baseline system navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. L.; Luders, G.; Matchett, G. A.; Rains, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    Studies related to the baseline navigation system for the orbiter are presented. The baseline navigation system studies include a covariance analysis of the Inertial Measurement Unit calibration and alignment procedures, postflight IMU error recovery for the approach and landing phases, on-orbit calibration of IMU instrument biases, and a covariance analysis of entry and prelaunch navigation system performance.

  2. The Emergy Baseline of the Earth: Is it Arbitrary?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emergy baseline for the Earth is used in determining the transformities of the products of all planetary processes and through these relationships it influences all emergy evaluations. Estimates of the emergy baseline made in the past have changed depending on the number of i...

  3. 40 CFR 80.92 - Baseline auditor requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... understand all technical details of the entire baseline audit process. (3)(i) The primary analyst shall have... baseline. (3) If an auditor is an organization, one or more persons shall be designated as primary analyst(s). The primary analyst(s) shall meet the requirements described in paragraphs (c) (2) and (3)...

  4. 40 CFR 80.92 - Baseline auditor requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... understand all technical details of the entire baseline audit process. (3)(i) The primary analyst shall have... baseline. (3) If an auditor is an organization, one or more persons shall be designated as primary analyst(s). The primary analyst(s) shall meet the requirements described in paragraphs (c) (2) and (3)...

  5. 40 CFR 80.92 - Baseline auditor requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... understand all technical details of the entire baseline audit process. (3)(i) The primary analyst shall have... baseline. (3) If an auditor is an organization, one or more persons shall be designated as primary analyst(s). The primary analyst(s) shall meet the requirements described in paragraphs (c) (2) and (3)...

  6. 48 CFR 1034.202 - Integrated Baseline Reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integrated Baseline... Integrated Baseline Reviews. (a) When an EVMS is required, and depending on the DME CLIN value threshold, the... which the management process provides effective and integrated technical/schedule/cost planning...

  7. 48 CFR 1034.202 - Integrated Baseline Reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integrated Baseline... Integrated Baseline Reviews. (a) When an EVMS is required, and depending on the DME CLIN value threshold, the... which the management process provides effective and integrated technical/schedule/cost planning...

  8. 48 CFR 1034.202 - Integrated Baseline Reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integrated Baseline... Integrated Baseline Reviews. (a) When an EVMS is required, and depending on the DME CLIN value threshold, the... which the management process provides effective and integrated technical/schedule/cost planning...

  9. 48 CFR 334.202 - Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs). 334.202 Section 334.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs). (a) An IBR normally should be conducted as a post-award activity. A...

  10. 48 CFR 334.202 - Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs). 334.202 Section 334.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs). (a) An IBR normally should be conducted as a post-award activity. A...

  11. 48 CFR 334.202 - Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs). 334.202 Section 334.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs). (a) An IBR normally should be conducted as a post-award activity. A...

  12. 48 CFR 334.202 - Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs). 334.202 Section 334.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs). (a) An IBR normally should be conducted as a post-award activity. A...

  13. Analog Baselines: A Critical Review of the Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturmey, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Analog baselines are an experimental methodology for identifying the functions of maladaptive behavior of individuals with developmental disabilities in naturally occurring environments. This article identifies potential limitations of this methodology, including: fidelity of baseline design conditions, a narrow analysis of behavior, and limited…

  14. Baselining Young People's Literacy in Middlesbrough in 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This report presents baseline information about the degree to which children and young people in Middlesbrough enjoy reading and writing, how often then engage in reading and writing, what types of materials they read and write and how they feel about reading and writing. It also outlines baseline information about their confidence in their own…

  15. 77 FR 26535 - Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on April 26, 2012, Hope Gas, Inc. (Hope Gas) submitted a baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions...

  16. 77 FR 31841 - Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on May 16, 2012, Hope Gas, Inc. (Hope Gas) submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of...

  17. First GPS baseline results from the North Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, James N.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Dixon, Timothy H.; Neilan, Ruth E.; Ropain, Clemente

    1990-01-01

    The CASA Uno GPS experiment (January-February 1988) has provided the first epoch baseline measurements for the study of plate motions and crustal deformation in and around the North Andes. Two dimensional horizontal baseline repeatabilities are as good as 5 parts in 10 to the 8th for short baselines (100-1000 km), and better than 3 parts in 10 to the 8th for long baselines (greater than 1000 km). Vertical repeatabilities are typically 4-6 cm, with a weak dependence on baseline length. The expected rate of plate convergence across the Colombia Trench is 6-8cm/yr, which should be detectable by the repeat experiment planned for 1991. Expected deformation rates within the North Andes are of the order of 1 cm/yr, which may be detectable with the 1991 experiment.

  18. LIFE Target Fabrication Research Plan Sept 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, R; Biener, J; Kucheyev, S; Montesanti, R; Satcher, J; Spadaccini, C; Rose, K; Wang, M; Hamza, A; Alexander, N; Brown, L; Hund, J; Petzoldt, R; Sweet, W; Goodin, D

    2008-11-10

    The target-system for the baseline LIFE fast-ignition target was analyzed to establish a preliminary estimate for the costs and complexities involved in demonstrating the technologies needed to build a prototype LIFE plant. The baseline fast-ignition target upon which this analysis was developed is shown in Figure 1.0-1 below. The LIFE target-system incorporates requirements for low-cost, high throughput manufacture, high-speed, high accuracy injection of the target into the chamber, production of sufficient energy from implosion and recovery and recycle of the imploded target material residue. None of these functions has been demonstrated to date. Existing target fabrication techniques which lead to current 'hot spot' target costs of {approx}$100,000 per target and at a production rate of 2/day are unacceptable for the LIFE program. Fabrication techniques normally used for low-cost, low accuracy consumer products such as toys must be adapted to the high-accuracy LIFE target. This will be challenge. A research program resulting is the demonstration of the target-cycle technologies needed for a prototype LIFE reactor is expected to cost {approx}$51M over the course of 5 years. The effort will result in targets which will cost an estimated $0.23/target at a rep-rate of 20 Hz or about 1.73M targets/day.

  19. Dixie Valley Engineered Geothermal System Exploration Methodology Project, Baseline Conceptual Model Report

    DOE Data Explorer

    Iovenitti, Joe

    2013-05-15

    The Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) Exploration Methodology Project is developing an exploration approach for EGS through the integration of geoscientific data. The Project chose the Dixie Valley Geothermal System in Nevada as a field laboratory site for methodlogy calibration purposes because, in the public domain, it is a highly characterized geothermal systems in the Basin and Range with a considerable amount of geoscience and most importantly, well data. This Baseline Conceptual Model report summarizes the results of the first three project tasks (1) collect and assess the existing public domain geoscience data, (2) design and populate a GIS database, and (3) develop a baseline (existing data) geothermal conceptual model, evaluate geostatistical relationships, and generate baseline, coupled EGS favorability/trust maps from +1km above sea level (asl) to -4km asl for the Calibration Area (Dixie Valley Geothermal Wellfield) to identify EGS drilling targets at a scale of 5km x 5km. It presents (1) an assessment of the readily available public domain data and some proprietary data provided by Terra-Gen Power, LLC, (2) a re-interpretation of these data as required, (3) an exploratory geostatistical data analysis, (4) the baseline geothermal conceptual model, and (5) the EGS favorability/trust mapping. The conceptual model presented applies to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region.

  20. Dixie Valley Engineered Geothermal System Exploration Methodology Project, Baseline Conceptual Model Report

    DOE Data Explorer

    Iovenitti, Joe

    2013-05-15

    The Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) Exploration Methodology Project is developing an exploration approach for EGS through the integration of geoscientific data. The Project chose the Dixie Valley Geothermal System in Nevada as a field laboratory site for methodlogy calibration purposes because, in the public domain, it is a highly characterized geothermal systems in the Basin and Range with a considerable amount of geoscience and most importantly, well data. This Baseline Conceptual Model report summarizes the results of the first three project tasks (1) collect and assess the existing public domain geoscience data, (2) design and populate a GIS database, and (3) develop a baseline (existing data) geothermal conceptual model, evaluate geostatistical relationships, and generate baseline, coupled EGS favorability/trust maps from +1km above sea level (asl) to -4km asl for the Calibration Area (Dixie Valley Geothermal Wellfield) to identify EGS drilling targets at a scale of 5km x 5km. It presents (1) an assessment of the readily available public domain data and some proprietary data provided by Terra-Gen Power, LLC, (2) a re-interpretation of these data as required, (3) an exploratory geostatistical data analysis, (4) the baseline geothermal conceptual model, and (5) the EGS favorability/trust mapping. The conceptual model presented applies to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region.

  1. How to deal with cost differences at baseline.

    PubMed

    van Asselt, Antoinette D I; van Mastrigt, Ghislaine A P G; Dirksen, Carmen D; Arntz, Arnoud; Severens, Johan L; Kessels, Alfons G H

    2009-01-01

    To our knowledge, adjustment for baseline imbalances in costs has never been performed in trial-based cost-effectiveness analyses. We used data from a clinical trial performed in the Netherlands comparing two outpatient psychotherapies: schema-focused therapy (SFT) versus transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP). Costs were assessed with a cost interview. Outcome was the proportion of recovered patients measured with the Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index (BPDSI-IV). We used three methods to adjust the costs for baseline differences: (i) mean difference adjustment, calculating total costs after baseline by adjusting the difference between groups with the difference of the mean baseline costs; (ii) delta adjustment, calculating the individual differences between patient baseline and the subsequent measurements (concerning incremental costs, this is the same as mean difference adjustment); and (iii) regression-based adjustment, adjusting total costs with a regression model, with total costs as the dependent variable and baseline costs as the independent variable. Mean baseline costs were 3339 euros for SFT and 4238 euros for TFP, a mean difference of 899 euros. Total unadjusted follow-up costs were 30822 euros for SFT and 36812 euros for TFP. The fraction of recovered patients was 45% for SFT and 24% for TFP. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves show that mean difference and delta adjustments are different from the regression-based methods. Although the routine starting point of an analysis should always be an unadjusted analysis of the cost effectiveness, a baseline difference between treatment groups should be adjusted for. This should be done by reported patient characteristics or, when these are not sufficiently present, by baseline costs as a substitute. This adjustment should be carried out most preferably with a regression-based method.

  2. Interplanetary navigation using a continental baseline large antenna arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haeberle, Dennis W.; Spencer, David B.; Ely, Todd A.

    2004-01-01

    Navigation is a key component of interplanetary missions and must continue to be precise with the changing landscape of antenna design. Improvements for the Deep Space Network (DSN) may include the use of antenna arrays to simulate the power of a larger single antenna at much lower operating and construction costs. Therefore, it is necessary to test the performance of arrayed antennas from a navigational point-of-view. This initial investigation focuses on the performance of arrayed antennas from a navigational point-of-view. This initial investigation focuses on the performance of delta one-way range measurements using a shorter baseline with more data collection then current systems use. With all other parameter equal, the longer the baseline, the better the accuracy for navigation making the number of data packets very important. This trade study compares baseline distances ranging from 1 to 1000km with an in use baseline, looking at a due east baseline, a due north baseline at 45 degrees East of North. The precision of the baseline systems can be found through a simulated created for this purpose using the Jet Propulsion Lab based Monte navigation and mission design tool. The simulation combines the delta one-way range measurements with two-range and two-way Doppler measurements and puts the measurements through a Kalman filter to determine an orbit solution. Noise is added along with initial errors to give the simulation realism. This study is an important step towards the assessment of the utility of arrays for navigational purposes. The preliminary results have showed a decrease in reliability as the baseline is shortened but the larger continental baselines show comparable results t that of the current Goldstone to Canberra.

  3. The environmental program at Kennedy Space Center - Baseline to monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    KSC has developed an environmental program to ensure that its activities do not adversely affect the surrounding environment. Two essential elements of the total program are the baseline and monitoring programs. The goal of the baseline program is to collect sufficient information about the environment prior to Shuttle launches so that adverse changes in the environment - if and when they occur after the Shuttle program becomes active - can be detected and cause-effect relationships established when possible. The goal of the monitoring program is to use information from the baseline program along with survey and sampling operations during the period of initial Shuttle launches to document adverse changes in the environment.

  4. Neutrino-factory storage ring with multiple baselines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, D. B.; Fukui, Y.; Garren, A.

    2001-10-01

    We designed a noble bow tie storage ring to provide neutrino beams for multiple neutrino detectors around the world with a baseline length of about 1000-9000 km. We present a preliminary lattice that could provide non-planar straight sections. We describe the amount of non-planarity of the third or fourth baseline and the space angles between the baselines and the local surface angles at possible site locations for neutrino factories and at the possible detector locations. We describe the detectors at the Gran Sasso Laboratory, Italy, and at the new laboratory at Carlsbad, NM.

  5. Dynamic baseline detection method for power data network service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic baseline Traffic detection Method which is based on the historical traffic data for the Power data network. The method uses Cisco's NetFlow acquisition tool to collect the original historical traffic data from network element at fixed intervals. This method uses three dimensions information including the communication port, time, traffic (number of bytes or number of packets) t. By filtering, removing the deviation value, calculating the dynamic baseline value, comparing the actual value with the baseline value, the method can detect whether the current network traffic is abnormal.

  6. CryoSat SAR/SARin Level1b products: assessment of BaselineC and improvements towards BaselineD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2017-04-01

    CryoSat was launched on the 8th April 2010 and is the first European ice mission dedicated to the monitoring of precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice. Cryosat carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL), that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for azimuth processing. This allows to reach a significantly improved along track resolution with respect to traditional pulse-width limited altimeters. CryoSat is the first altimetry mission operating in SAR mode and continuous improvements in the Level1 Instrument Processing Facility (IPF1) are being identified, tested and validated in order to improve the quality of the Level1b products. The current IPF, Baseline C, was released in operation in April 2015 and the second CryoSat reprocessing campaign was jointly initiated, taking benefit of the upgrade implemented in the IPF1 processing chain but also of some specific configurations for the calibration corrections. In particular, the CryoSat Level1b BaselineC products generated in the framework of the second reprocessing campaign include refined information for what concerns the mispointing angles and the calibration corrections. This poster will thus detail thus the evolutions that are currently planned for the CryoSat BaselineD SAR/SARin Level1b products and the corresponding quality improvements that are expected.

  7. Baseline Elvs: Delta 2 7920 and Titan 2S SLV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The baseline mission profiles for two expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) are presented in viewgraph format. The two expendable stage vehicles are the Delta 2 and the Titan 2S. Descriptions are given for both ELV configurations.

  8. Baseline ELVs: Delta 2 7920 and Titan 2S SLV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-09-01

    The baseline mission profiles for two expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) are presented in viewgraph format. The two expendable stage vehicles are the Delta 2 and the Titan 2S. Descriptions are given for both ELV configurations.

  9. GPS Measurements of the Baseline Between Quincy and Platform Harvest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purcell, G., Jr.; Dinardo, S.; Vigue, Y.; Jefferson, D.; Lichten, S.

    1994-01-01

    As part of TOPEX altimeter verification, the Global Positioning System has been used to measure the baseline between the verification site at oil platform Harvest and a GPS antenna collocated with the satellite laser ranging site at Quincy, California.

  10. 3. VIEW OF WILLOW CREEK TRESTLE FROM CORNER BASELINE AVENUE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WILLOW CREEK TRESTLE FROM CORNER BASELINE AVENUE AND 185TH AVENUE, FACING NORTHEAST - Oregon Electric Railway Westside Corridor, Between Watson & 185th Avenues, Beaverton, Washington County, OR

  11. 40 CFR 80.93 - Individual baseline submission and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., 2565 Plymouth Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48105) not later than June 1, 1994. (2) If a refiner must collect data after December 15, 1993 (per § 80.91(d)(2)), it shall submit two copies of its individual baseline...

  12. Information architecture. Volume 2, Part 1: Baseline analysis summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture, Volume 2, Baseline Analysis, is a collaborative and logical next-step effort in the processes required to produce a Departmentwide information architecture. The baseline analysis serves a diverse audience of program management and technical personnel and provides an organized way to examine the Department`s existing or de facto information architecture. A companion document to Volume 1, The Foundations, it furnishes the rationale for establishing a Departmentwide information architecture. This volume, consisting of the Baseline Analysis Summary (part 1), Baseline Analysis (part 2), and Reference Data (part 3), is of interest to readers who wish to understand how the Department`s current information architecture technologies are employed. The analysis identifies how and where current technologies support business areas, programs, sites, and corporate systems.

  13. Characterization of Long Baseline Calibrators at 2.3 GHz

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    determine their suitability as phase calibrators for long baseline radio interferometry at 2.3 GHz. For this purpose, we have used a set of complementary...baseline radio interferometry at 2.3 GHz. For this purpose, we have used a set of complementary metrics to classify these 31 southern sources into five...southern radio sources and determine their suitability as calibrators for southern VLBI experiments, especially those using MeerKAT and the SKA when

  14. Baseline activity predicts working memory load of preceding task condition.

    PubMed

    Pyka, Martin; Hahn, Tim; Heider, Dominik; Krug, Axel; Sommer, Jens; Kircher, Tilo; Jansen, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    The conceptual notion of the so-called resting state of the brain has been recently challenged by studies indicating a continuing effect of cognitive processes on subsequent rest. In particular, activity in posterior parietal and medial prefrontal areas has been found to be modulated by preceding experimental conditions. In this study, we investigated which brain areas show working memory dependent patterns in subsequent baseline periods and how specific they are for the preceding experimental condition. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 94 subjects performed a letter-version of the n-back task with the conditions 0-back and 2-back followed by a low-level baseline in which subjects had to passively observe the letters appearing. In a univariate analysis, 2-back served as control condition while 0-back, baseline after 0-back and baseline after 2-back were modeled as regressors to test for activity changes between both baseline conditions. Additionally, we tested, using Gaussian process classifiers, the recognition of task condition from functional images acquired during baseline. Besides the expected activity changes in the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex, we found differential activity in the thalamus, putamen, and postcentral gyrus that were affected by the preceding task. The multivariate analysis revealed that images of the subsequent baseline block contain task related patterns that yield a recognition rate of 70%. The results suggest that the influence of a cognitive task on subsequent baseline is strong and specific for some areas but not restricted to areas of the so-called default mode network.

  15. Fusion of a Variable Baseline System and a Range Finder

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Aceituno, Javier; Acosta, Leopoldo; Arnay, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    One of the greatest difficulties in stereo vision is the appearance of ambiguities when matching similar points from different images. In this article we analyze the effectiveness of using a fusion of multiple baselines and a range finder from a theoretical point of view, focusing on the results of using both prismatic and rotational articulations for baseline generation, and offer a practical case to prove its efficiency on an autonomous vehicle. PMID:22368469

  16. Very long baseline interferometry using a communication satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, G. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A planned experiment is discussed in long-baseline interferometry, using the Communications Technology Satellite to transmit the base-band signal from one telescope to another for real-time correlation. A 20 megabit data rate is planned, calling for a delay-line of 10 MHz bandwidth and controllable delay up to 275 milliseconds. A number of sources will be studied on baselines from Ontario to West Virginia and California.

  17. A New Method for Baseline Calibration in SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, M.; Minati, F.; Quagliarini, A.; Schiavon, G.

    2004-06-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry is based on the concept of observing the same scene with two slightly different radar trajectories. It results that each point of the scene is seen from two different positions along the two radar trajectories, and the differences between those points constitute the interferometric baseline. For quantitative SAR interferometry and differential interferometry applications, e.g. building digital elevation models (DEMs) or monitoring terrain displacement, the baseline must be known with a higher accuracy than generally achievable from satellite or airplane trajectories or attitude measurements. Therefore, the nominal baseline is usually calibrated (i.e. corrected) by using a priori information, like ground control points. Traditional techniques for baseline calibration minimize the deviation between the measured unwrapped interferometric phase and reference values of it obtained from ground control points through a phase model depending on some baseline parameters. This approach requires the knowledge of unwrapped phase values. In this work a new method for baseline calibration is proposed, based on the idea of minimizing the deviation between the complex interferogram and a model of it, thus not requiring to unwrap the phase. The main advantage is that baseline calibration is not affected by possible phase unwrapping errors. In addition, if necessary for the successive processing, phase unwrapping is facilitated by the better phase flattening possible after baseline calibration. The function to be minimized in the proposed approach is not convex, and a global minimization strategy is necessary in order to avoid to fall on local minima. This makes the method more complex and computationally demanding than the traditional technique. Tests performed both on simulated and real images confirm the validity of the proposed approach and show that the requested computational time is comparable with those of other processing steps

  18. Large short-baseline {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance

    SciTech Connect

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco

    2011-03-01

    We analyze the LSND, KARMEN, and MiniBooNE data on short-baseline {nu}{sub {mu}{yields}{nu}e} oscillations and the data on short-baseline {nu}{sub e} disappearance obtained in the Bugey-3 and CHOOZ reactor experiments in the framework of 3+1 antineutrino mixing, taking into account the MINOS observation of long-baseline {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance and the KamLAND observation of very-long-baseline {nu}{sub e} disappearance. We show that the fit of the data implies that the short-baseline disappearance of {nu}{sub {mu}} is relatively large. We obtain a prediction of an effective amplitude sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub {mu}{mu}} > or approx. 0.1 for short-baseline {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance generated by 0.2 < or approx. {Delta}m{sup 2} < or approx. 1 eV{sup 2}, which could be measured in future experiments.

  19. Establishing an appropriate baseline for assessing environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.

    1997-05-22

    An important consideration in assessing environmental impacts for the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is to establish a baseline from which to evaluate potential changes associated with a proposed action. For some assessments, establishment of the baseline is straightforward because the proposed action is located in an undeveloped area which has been negligibly affected by human activity. For other assessments, however, the baseline may be more difficult to determine because the proposed action may occur in an area where human activities have affected the environment and, in essence, have established a new (and often changing) baseline. Frequently, appreciable degradation has occurred on the proposed site itself. For such cases, the question arises as to whether the unperturbed condition or the present condition is more appropriate to use as the baseline. This paper argues that a proposed action in a previously disturbed area should not be assessed merely in relation to the new baseline. Rather, a more comprehensive evaluation should be given that compares potential environmental effects with both the unperturbed condition and the present condition and consequently presents a more balanced approach to the assessment. Furthermore, the sponsoring federal agency should take the opportunity offered by the proposed action to improve the environment by shifting the affected area back toward its natural unperturbed condition. mitigation measures should be examined to achieve this goal. A NEPA case study is presented in the paper to support this viewpoint.

  20. Robust baseline subtraction for ultrasonic full wavefield analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alguri, K. Supreet; Michaels, Jennifer E.; Harley, Joel B.

    2017-02-01

    Full wavefield analysis is used to study and characterize the interaction between waves and structural damage. Yet, as wavefields are measured and as damage evolves in a structure, environmental and operational variations can significantly affect wave propagation. Several approaches, including time-stretching and optimal baseline selection methods, can reduce variations, but these methods are often limited to specific effects, are ineffective for large environmental variations, or require an impractical number of prior baseline measurements. This paper presents a robust methodology for subtracting wavefields and isolating wave-damage interactions. The method is based on dictionary learning. It is robust to multiple types of environmental and operational variations and requires only one initial baseline. We learn the dictionary, which describes wave propagation for a particular wavefield, based on multiple frequencies of a baseline wavefield. We then use the dictionary and sparse regression to create new baselines for measurements with different environmental and operational conditions. The new baseline is then subtracted from the new wavefield to isolate damage wavefield.

  1. Baseline motor findings and Parkinson disease prognostic subtypes.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Ali H; Rajput, Michele L; Ferguson, Leslie W; Rajput, Alex

    2017-07-11

    To identify the significance of baseline motor features to the lifelong prognostic motor subtypes in a Parkinson disease (PD) cohort. In a previous study of 166 PD cases, we observed different prognosis in tremor-dominant, akinetic-rigid, and mixed subtypes. This study includes the same cases, but we excluded 10 cases with symptoms of ≥15 years duration at baseline. Relative severity of tremor, bradykinesia/akinesia, and rigidity at baseline were evaluated as predictors of the motor subtypes, which are known to have different prognosis. The most common motor subtype was mixed, followed by akinetic-rigid and then the tremor-dominant. Seventy cases were not receiving antiparkinsonian drugs at baseline. The prognostic subtypes could be predicted at baseline in 85% of all and in 91% of the treatment-naive cases. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values were strong for the mixed and the akinetic-rigid but weak for the tremor-dominant subtype. Our data show that motor profile at baseline can predict prognosis in most PD cases. These findings can be incorporated into clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  2. An Overview of Baseline Sampling Guidelines for Unconventional Resource Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kromann, J. S.; Richardson, S. D.; Smith, A. P.; Molofsky, L.; Connor, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The boom in shale gas development in the United States and abroad has led to increased concern regarding its potential impact on local drinking water resources. In response, many state agencies and local municipalities have issued draft or final guidelines/regulations for various aspects of shale gas operations. In most cases, these guidelines specify mandatory or voluntary baseline (pre-drill) sampling of proximate water supplies (e.g., residential water wells, springs, seeps, ponds) to establish baseline water quality prior to drilling activities. Currently, 16 state and several national agencies, regional and local organizations in United States have developed regulations or guidelines for baseline sampling. In addition, other countries (e.g., Canada, New Zealand) have developed guidance through provincial and regional authorities. Comparison of recommended practices for baseline sampling shows considerable variation with respect to sampling requirements (e.g., locations, number of samples, timeframe, frequency); sampling methodology, recommended analytical suite, analytical methods, action levels, and reporting requirements. Current baseline sampling guidelines and regulations in the United States and abroad highlights the need for a sound scientific basis for baseline sampling programs.

  3. LIQUID TARGET

    DOEpatents

    Martin, M.D.; Salsig, W.W. Jr.

    1959-01-13

    A liquid handling apparatus is presented for a liquid material which is to be irradiated. The apparatus consists essentially of a reservoir for the liquid, a target element, a drain tank and a drain lock chamber. The target is in the form of a looped tube, the upper end of which is adapted to be disposed in a beam of atomic particles. The lower end of the target tube is in communication with the liquid in the reservoir and a means is provided to continuously circulate the liquid material to be irradiated through the target tube. Means to heat the reservoir tank is provided in the event that a metal is to be used as the target material. The apparatus is provided with suitable valves and shielding to provide maximum safety in operation.

  4. Precise baseline determination for the TanDEM-X mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Rolf; Moon, Yongjin; Neumayer, Hans; Wermuth, Martin; Montenbruck, Oliver; Jäggi, Adrian

    The TanDEM-X mission will strive for generating a global precise Digital Elevation Model (DEM) by way of bi-static SAR in a close formation of the TerraSAR-X satellite, already launched on June 15, 2007, and the TanDEM-X satellite to be launched in May 2010. Both satellites carry the Tracking, Occultation and Ranging (TOR) payload supplied by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The TOR consists of a high-precision dual-frequency GPS receiver, called Integrated GPS Occultation Receiver (IGOR), and a Laser retro-reflector (LRR) for precise orbit determination (POD) and atmospheric sounding. The IGOR is of vital importance for the TanDEM-X mission objectives as the millimeter level determination of the baseline or distance between the two spacecrafts is needed to derive meter level accurate DEMs. Within the TanDEM-X ground segment GFZ is responsible for the operational provision of precise baselines. For this GFZ uses two software chains, first its Earth Parameter and Orbit System (EPOS) software and second the BERNESE software, for backup purposes and quality control. In a concerted effort also the German Aerospace Center (DLR) generates precise baselines independently with a dedicated Kalman filter approach realized in its FRNS software. By the example of GRACE the generation of baselines with millimeter accuracy from on-board GPS data can be validated directly by way of comparing them to the intersatellite K-band range measurements. The K-band ranges are accurate down to the micrometer-level and therefore may be considered as truth. Both TanDEM-X baseline providers are able to generate GRACE baselines with sub-millimeter accuracy. By merging the independent baselines by GFZ and DLR, the accuracy can even be increased. The K-band validation however covers solely the along-track component as the K-band data measure just the distance between the two GRACE satellites. In addition they inhibit an un-known bias which must be modelled in the comparison, so the

  5. The relationship between psychological distress and baseline sports-related concussion testing.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Christopher M; Samples, Hillary L; Broshek, Donna K; Freeman, Jason R; Barth, Jeffrey T

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the effect of psychological distress on neurocognitive performance measured during baseline concussion testing. Archival data were utilized to examine correlations between personality testing and computerized baseline concussion testing. Significantly correlated personality measures were entered into linear regression analyses, predicting baseline concussion testing performance. Suicidal ideation was examined categorically. Athletes underwent testing and screening at a university athletic training facility. Participants included 47 collegiate football players 17 to 19 years old, the majority of whom were in their first year of college. Participants were administered the Concussion Resolution Index (CRI), an internet-based neurocognitive test designed to monitor and manage both at-risk and concussed athletes. Participants took the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), a self-administered inventory designed to measure clinical syndromes, treatment considerations, and interpersonal style. Scales and subscales from the PAI were utilized to determine the influence psychological distress had on the CRI indices: simple reaction time, complex reaction time, and processing speed. Analyses revealed several significant correlations among aspects of somatic concern, depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and suicidal ideation and CRI performance, each with at least a moderate effect. When entered into a linear regression, the block of combined psychological symptoms accounted for a significant amount of baseline CRI performance, with moderate to large effects (r = 0.23-0.30). When examined categorically, participants with suicidal ideation showed significantly slower simple reaction time and complex reaction time, with a similar trend on processing speed. Given the possibility of obscured concussion deficits after injury, implications for premature return to play, and the need to target psychological distress outright, these findings heighten the clinical

  6. Modeling Baseline Shifts in Multivariate Disease Outbreak Detection

    PubMed Central

    Que, Jialan; Tsui, Fu-Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective Outbreak detection algorithms monitoring only disease-relevant data streams may be prone to false alarms due to baseline shifts. In this paper, we propose a Multinomial-Generalized-Dirichlet (MGD) model to adjust for baseline shifts. Introduction Population surges or large events may cause shift of data collected by biosurveillance systems [1]. For example, the Cherry Blossom Festival brings hundreds of thousands of people to DC every year, which results in simultaneous elevations in multiple data streams (Fig. 1). In this paper, we propose an MGD model to accommodate the needs of dealing with baseline shifts. Methods Existing multivariate algorithms only model disease-relevant data streams (e.g., anti-fever medication sales or patient visits with constitutional syndrome for detection of flu outbreak). On the contrary, we also incorporate a non-disease-relevant data stream as a control factor. We assume that the counts from all data streams follow a Multinomial distribution. Given this distribution, the expected value of the distribution parameter is not subject to change during a baseline shift; however, it has to change in order to model an outbreak. Therefore, this distribution inherently adjusts for the baseline shifts. In addition, we use the generalized Dirichlet (GD) distribution to model the parameter, since GD distribution is one of the conjugate prior of Multinomial [2]. We call this model the Multinomial-Generalized-Dirichlet (MGD) model. Results We applied MGD model in our previous proposed Rank-Based Spatial Clustering (MRSC) algorithm [3]. We simulated both outbreak cases and baseline shift phenomena. The experiment includes two groups of data sets. The first includes the data sets only injected with outbreak cases, and the second includes the ones with both outbreak cases and baseline shifts. We apply MRSC algorithm and a reference method, the Multivariate Bayesian Scan Statistic (MBSS) algorithm (which only analyzes the disease

  7. High Baseline Postconcussion Symptom Scores and Concussion Outcomes in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Custer, Aimee; Sufrinko, Alicia; Elbin, R. J.; Covassin, Tracey; Collins, Micky; Kontos, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Some healthy athletes report high levels of baseline concussion symptoms, which may be attributable to several factors (eg, illness, personality, somaticizing). However, the role of baseline symptoms in outcomes after sport-related concussion (SRC) has not been empirically examined. Objective:  To determine if athletes with high symptom scores at baseline performed worse than athletes without baseline symptoms on neurocognitive testing after SRC. Design:  Cohort study. Setting:  High school and collegiate athletic programs. Patients or Other Participants:  A total of 670 high school and collegiate athletes participated in the study. Participants were divided into groups with either no baseline symptoms (Postconcussion Symptom Scale [PCSS] score = 0, n = 247) or a high level of baseline symptoms (PCSS score > 18 [top 10% of sample], n = 68). Main Outcome Measure(s):  Participants were evaluated at baseline and 2 to 7 days after SRC with the Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test and PCSS. Outcome measures were Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test composite scores (verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor processing speed, and reaction time) and total symptom score on the PCSS. The groups were compared using repeated-measures analyses of variance with Bonferroni correction to assess interactions between group and time for symptoms and neurocognitive impairment. Results:  The no-symptoms group represented 38% of the original sample, whereas the high-symptoms group represented 11% of the sample. The high-symptoms group experienced a larger decline from preinjury to postinjury than the no-symptoms group in verbal (P = .03) and visual memory (P = .05). However, total concussion-symptom scores increased from preinjury to postinjury for the no-symptoms group (P = .001) but remained stable for the high-symptoms group. Conclusions:>  Reported baseline symptoms may help identify athletes at risk for worse

  8. Setting temporal baselines for biodiversity: the limits of available monitoring data for capturing the full impact of anthropogenic pressures

    PubMed Central

    Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Henle, Klaus; Titeux, Nicolas; Brotons, Lluís; Brummitt, Neil A.; Schmeller, Dirk S.

    2017-01-01

    Temporal baselines are needed for biodiversity, in order for the change in biodiversity to be measured over time, the targets for biodiversity conservation to be defined and conservation progress to be evaluated. Limited biodiversity information is widely recognized as a major barrier for identifying temporal baselines, although a comprehensive quantitative assessment of this is lacking. Here, we report on the temporal baselines that could be drawn from biodiversity monitoring schemes in Europe and compare those with the rise of important anthropogenic pressures. Most biodiversity monitoring schemes were initiated late in the 20th century, well after anthropogenic pressures had already reached half of their current magnitude. Setting temporal baselines from biodiversity monitoring data would therefore underestimate the full range of impacts of major anthropogenic pressures. In addition, biases among taxa and organization levels provide a truncated picture of biodiversity over time. These limitations need to be explicitly acknowledged when designing management strategies and policies as they seriously constrain our ability to identify relevant conservation targets aimed at restoring or reversing biodiversity losses. We discuss the need for additional research efforts beyond standard biodiversity monitoring to reconstruct the impacts of major anthropogenic pressures and to identify meaningful temporal baselines for biodiversity. PMID:28134310

  9. Setting temporal baselines for biodiversity: the limits of available monitoring data for capturing the full impact of anthropogenic pressures.

    PubMed

    Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Henle, Klaus; Titeux, Nicolas; Brotons, Lluís; Brummitt, Neil A; Schmeller, Dirk S

    2017-01-30

    Temporal baselines are needed for biodiversity, in order for the change in biodiversity to be measured over time, the targets for biodiversity conservation to be defined and conservation progress to be evaluated. Limited biodiversity information is widely recognized as a major barrier for identifying temporal baselines, although a comprehensive quantitative assessment of this is lacking. Here, we report on the temporal baselines that could be drawn from biodiversity monitoring schemes in Europe and compare those with the rise of important anthropogenic pressures. Most biodiversity monitoring schemes were initiated late in the 20(th) century, well after anthropogenic pressures had already reached half of their current magnitude. Setting temporal baselines from biodiversity monitoring data would therefore underestimate the full range of impacts of major anthropogenic pressures. In addition, biases among taxa and organization levels provide a truncated picture of biodiversity over time. These limitations need to be explicitly acknowledged when designing management strategies and policies as they seriously constrain our ability to identify relevant conservation targets aimed at restoring or reversing biodiversity losses. We discuss the need for additional research efforts beyond standard biodiversity monitoring to reconstruct the impacts of major anthropogenic pressures and to identify meaningful temporal baselines for biodiversity.

  10. Noncontact thermoacoustic detection of targets embedded in dispersive media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Kevin C.; Nan, Hao; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.; Arbabian, Amin

    2016-10-01

    A microwave-induced thermoacoustic detection system for embedded targets in lossy media is presented. The system achieves reliable detection of 5 cm × 5 cm × 2 cm targets embedded in a large Agarose sample at a 20 cm acoustic standoff. Repeated measurements across different target and sample configurations confirm the system's ability to distinguish between a target signal and a baseline control signal generated by the package without embedded targets. Post-processing techniques including filtering and baseline signal characterization further improve detection performance.

  11. FOCUSING HORN SYSTEM FOR THE BNL VERY LONG BASELINE NEUTRINO OSCILLATION EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    KAHN,S.A.CARROLL,A.DIWAN,M.V.GALLARDO,J.C.KIRK,H.SCARLETT,C.SIMOS,N.VIREN,B.ZHANG,W.

    2003-05-12

    This paper describes the focusing horn system for the proposed very long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment using a neutrino beam from BNL to an underground facility such as the Homestake Mine in South Dakota. The proposed experiment uses a 1 MW upgraded AGS. In order to achieve this performance the AGS will operate with a cycle time of 2.5 Hz and 8.9 x 10{sup 13} protons on target at 28 GeV. This paper discusses the design criteria of a horn system necessary to handle this intense beam and the optical geometry to achieve the desired flux distribution at the detector.

  12. The first results of K2K long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Taku; K2K Collaboration

    2000-12-01

    The first results of the K2K (KEK to Kamioka) long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment are presented in this talk. In 1999 7.2×1018 protons on target were delivered to the experiment. During this period of running there were 3 events fully contained in the Super-Kamiokande inner detector fiducial area which occurred during the beam spill timing window. In the case of no oscillations the expected number of events during this period was 12.3-1.9+1.7. The near detectors located at KEK also have begun detailed measurements of neutrino interactions in water at around 1 GeV.

  13. A multiple-baseline analysis of social-skills training in chronic schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Hersen, M; Bellack, A S

    1976-01-01

    Social-skills training was applied to two male chronic schizophrenics. Component behaviors of social skill requiring modification were identified for each patient by rating videotapes of role-played interactions. Training involved instructions and feedback for one subject and instructions, feedback, and modelling for the second. Target behaviors were treated sequentially and cumulatively in a multiple-baseline format. Training was applied for both positive and negative assertion and for situation involving males and females. The results were positive for all behaviors for both patients. Follow-ups at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after training indicated that most effects were maintained at near-treatment levels.

  14. A multiple-baseline analysis of social-skills training in chronic schizophrenics.

    PubMed Central

    Hersen, M; Bellack, A S

    1976-01-01

    Social-skills training was applied to two male chronic schizophrenics. Component behaviors of social skill requiring modification were identified for each patient by rating videotapes of role-played interactions. Training involved instructions and feedback for one subject and instructions, feedback, and modelling for the second. Target behaviors were treated sequentially and cumulatively in a multiple-baseline format. Training was applied for both positive and negative assertion and for situation involving males and females. The results were positive for all behaviors for both patients. Follow-ups at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after training indicated that most effects were maintained at near-treatment levels. PMID:977514

  15. A general-purpose baseline estimation algorithm for spectroscopic data.

    PubMed

    Barkauskas, Donald A; Rocke, David M

    2010-01-11

    A common feature of many modern technologies used in proteomics--including nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and mass spectrometry--is the generation of large amounts of data for each subject in an experiment. Extracting the signal from the background noise, however, poses significant challenges. One important part of signal extraction is the correct identification of the baseline level of the data. In this article, we propose a new algorithm (the "BXR algorithm") for baseline estimation that can be directly applied to different types of spectroscopic data, but also can be specifically tailored to different technologies. We then show how to adapt the algorithm to a particular technology--matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry--which is rapidly gaining popularity as an analytic tool in proteomics. Finally, we compare the performance of our algorithm to that of existing algorithms for baseline estimation. The BXR algorithm is computationally efficient, robust to the type of one-sided signal that occurs in many modern applications (including NMR and mass spectrometry), and improves on existing baseline estimation algorithms. It is implemented as the function baseline in the R package FTICRMS, available either from the Comprehensive R Archive Network (http://www.r-project.org/) or from the first author.

  16. A general-purpose baseline estimation algorithm for spectroscopic data

    PubMed Central

    Rocke, David M.

    2009-01-01

    A common feature of many modern technologies used in proteomics—including nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and mass spectrometry—is the generation of large amounts of data for each subject in an experiment. Extracting the signal from the background noise, however, poses significant challenges. One important part of signal extraction is the correct identification of the baseline level of the data. In this article, we propose a new algorithm (the “BXR algorithm”) for baseline estimation that can be directly applied to different types of spectroscopic data, but also can be specifically tailored to different technologies. We then show how to adapt the algorithm to a particular technology—matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry—which is rapidly gaining popularity as an analytic tool in proteomics. Finally, we compare the performance of our algorithm to that of existing algorithms for baseline estimation. The BXR algorithm is computationally efficient, robust to the type of one-sided signal that occurs in many modern applications (including NMR and mass spectrometry), and improves on existing baseline-estimation algorithms. It is implemented as the function baseline in the R package FTICRMS, available either from the Comprehensive R Archive Network (http://www.r-project.org/) or from the first author. PMID:20005331

  17. Atmospheric pressure loading parameters from very long baseline interferometry observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmillan, D. S.; Gipson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loading produces a primarily vertical displacement of the Earth's crust. This displacement is correlated with surface pressure and is large enough to be detected by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. Using the measured surface pressure at VLBI stations, we have estimated the atmospheric loading term for each station location directly from VLBI data acquired from 1979 to 1992. Our estimates of the vertical sensitivity to change in pressure range from 0 to -0.6 mm/mbar depending on the station. These estimates agree with inverted barometer model calculations (Manabe et al., 1991; vanDam and Herring, 1994) of the vertical displacement sensitivity computed by convolving actual pressure distributions with loading Green's functions. The pressure sensitivity tends to be smaller for stations near the coast, which is consistent with the inverted barometer hypothesis. Applying this estimated pressure loading correction in standard VLBI geodetic analysis improves the repeatability of estimated lengths of 25 out of 37 baselines that were measured at least 50 times. In a root-sum-square (rss) sense, the improvement generally increases with baseline length at a rate of about 0.3 to 0.6 ppb depending on whether the baseline stations are close to the coast. For the 5998-km baseline from Westford, Massachusetts, to Wettzell, Germany, the rss improvement is about 3.6 mm out of 11.0 mm. The average rss reduction of the vertical scatter for inland stations ranges from 2.7 to 5.4 mm.

  18. Reporting weight change: Standardized reporting accounting for baseline weight

    PubMed Central

    Belle, Steven H.; Berk, Paul D.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Engel, Scott; Flum, David R.; Gourash, William; Horlick, Mary; Hsu, Jesse Y.; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Mitchell, James E.; O’Rourke, Robert W.; Pories, Walter; Schrope, Beth; Wolfe, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Background Although it is recognized that a standardized approach to reporting weight change is essential to permit meaningful comparisons among cohorts and across studies, consensus is lacking. Objective Propose a method of reporting weight change allowing meaningful comparisons among studies of patients who underwent bariatric surgery and to demonstrate its utility using an example from the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS). Methods Relationships among several measures of weight change are described. Results from an observational, longitudinal cohort study of adults undergoing bariatric surgery and from simulation studies are used to illustrate the proposed method. Setting University Hospitals Results Baseline weight is a critical parameter when assessing weight change. Men undergoing a bariatric procedure other than gastric bypass or adjustable band tended to have greater weight loss twelve months after surgery than men undergoing gastric bypass when not accounting for baseline weight, but the opposite was found when results were adjusted for baseline weight. Simulation results show that with relatively modest sample sizes, the adjusted weight loss was significantly different between the two groups of men. Conclusion A consistent metric for reporting weight loss following bariatric surgery is essential to interpret outcomes across studies and among subgroups. The baseline weight adjusted % weight loss (A%WL) uses a standard population, e.g., the LABS cohort, to account for differences between cohorts with respect to baseline weight and its use can change the interpretation of results compared to an unadjusted measure. PMID:23337770

  19. Precise regional baseline estimation using a priori orbital information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindqwister, Ulf J.; Lichten, Stephen M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey

    1990-01-01

    A solution using GPS measurements acquired during the CASA Uno campaign has resulted in 3-4 mm horizontal daily baseline repeatability and 13 mm vertical repeatability for a 729 km baseline, located in North America. The agreement with VLBI is at the level of 10-20 mm for all components. The results were obtained with the GIPSY orbit determination and baseline estimation software and are based on five single-day data arcs spanning the 20, 21, 25, 26, and 27 of January, 1988. The estimation strategy included resolving the carrier phase integer ambiguities, utilizing an optial set of fixed reference stations, and constraining GPS orbit parameters by applying a priori information. A multiday GPS orbit and baseline solution has yielded similar 2-4 mm horizontal daily repeatabilities for the same baseline, consistent with the constrained single-day arc solutions. The application of weak constraints to the orbital state for single-day data arcs produces solutions which approach the precise orbits obtained with unconstrained multiday arc solutions.

  20. Deformation Monitoring of the Submillimetric UPV Calibration Baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Asenjo, Luis; Baselga, Sergio; Garrigues, Pascual

    2017-06-01

    A 330 m calibration baseline was established at the Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV) in 2007. Absolute scale was subsequently transferred in 2012 from the Nummela Standard Baseline in Finland and distances between pillars were determined with uncertainties ranging from 0.1 mm to 0.3 mm. In order to assess the long-term stability of the baseline three field campaigns were carried out from 2013 to 2015 in a co-operative effort with the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), which provided the only Mekometer ME5000 distance meter available in Spain. Since the application of the ISO17123-4 full procedure did not suffice to come to a definite conclusion about possible displacements of the pillars, we opted for the traditional geodetic network approach. This approach had to be adapted to the case at hand in order to deal with problems such as the geometric weakness inherent to calibration baselines and scale uncertainty derived from both the use of different instruments and the high correlation between the meteorological correction and scale determination. Additionally, the so-called the maximum number of stable points method was also tested. In this contribution it is described the process followed to assess the stability of the UPV submillimetric calibration baseline during the period of time from 2012 to 2015.

  1. Combined GPS + BDS for short to long baseline RTK positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odolinski, R.; Teunissen, P. J. G.; Odijk, D.

    2015-04-01

    The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has become fully operational in the Asia-Pacific region and it is of importance to evaluate what BDS brings when combined with the Global Positioning System (GPS). In this contribution we will look at the short, medium and long single-baseline real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning performance. Short baseline refers to when the distance between the two receivers is at most a few kilometers so that the relative slant ionospheric and tropospheric delays can be assumed absent, whereas with medium baseline we refer to when the uncertainty of these ionospheric delays can reliably be modeled as a function of the baseline length. With long baseline we refer to the necessity to parameterize the ionospheric delays and (wet) Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) as completely unknown. The GNSS real data are collected in Perth, Australia. It will be shown that combining the two systems allows for the use of higher than customary elevation cut-off angles. This can be of particular benefit in environments with restricted satellite visibility such as in open pit mines or urban canyons.

  2. Statistical testing against baseline was common in dental research.

    PubMed

    Koletsi, Despina; Madahar, Arun; Fleming, Padhraig S; Pandis, Nikolaos

    2015-07-01

    To assess the presence of within-group comparisons with baseline in a subset of leading dental journals and to explore possible associations with a range of study characteristics including journal and study design. Thirty consecutive issues of five leading dental journals were electronically searched. The conduct and reporting of statistical analysis in respect of comparisons against baseline or otherwise along with the manner of interpretation of the results were assessed. Descriptive statistics were obtained, and chi-square test and Fisher's exact were undertaken to test the association between trial characteristics and overall study interpretation. A total of 184 studies were included with the highest proportion published in Journal of Endodontics (n = 84, 46%) and most involving a single center (n = 157, 85%). Overall, 43 studies (23%) presented interpretation of their outcomes based solely on comparisons against baseline. Inappropriate use of baseline testing was found to be less likely in interventional studies (P < 0.001). Use of comparisons with baseline appears to be common among both observational and interventional research studies in dentistry. Enhanced conduct and reporting of statistical tests are required to ensure that inferences from research studies are appropriate and informative. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of intercontinental baselines and Earth orientation using VLBI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovers, O. J.; Fanselow, J. L.; Purcell, G. H., Jr.; Rogstad, D. H.; Thomas, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted during the last decade to explore the capability of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) to measure the crustal and rotational motions of the Earth with accuracies at the centimeter level. The observing stations are those of NASA's Deep Space Network in California, Spain and Australia. A multiparameter fit to the observed values of delay and delay rate yields radio source positions, polar motion, universal time, the precession constant, baseline vectors, and solid Earth tides. Source positions are obtained with formal errors of the order of 0''.01. UT1-UTC and polar motion are determined at 49 epochs, with formal error estimates for the more recent data of 0.5 msec for UT1-UTC and 2 to 6 mas for polar motion. Intercontinental baseline lengths are determined with formal errors of 5 to 10 cm. The Love numbers and Earth tide phase lag agree with the commonly accepted values.

  4. Is CP violation observable in long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments?

    SciTech Connect

    Tanimoto, M.

    1997-01-01

    We have studied CP violation originating from the phase of the neutrino-mixing matrix in the long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. The direct measurement of CP violation is the difference of the transition probabilities between CP-conjugate channels. In those experiments, the CP-violating effect is not suppressed if the highest neutrino mass scale is taken to be 1{endash}5 eV, which is appropriate for the cosmological hot dark matter. Assuming the hierarchy for the neutrino masses, the upper bounds of CP violation have been calculated for three cases, in which mixings are constrained by the recent short baseline ones. The calculated upper bounds are larger than 10{sup {minus}2}, which will be observable in the long baseline accelerator experiments. The matter effect, which is not CP invariant, has been also estimated in those experiments. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Functional Testing Protocols for Commercial Building Efficiency Baseline Modeling Software

    SciTech Connect

    Jump, David; Price, Phillip N.; Granderson, Jessica; Sohn, Michael

    2013-09-06

    This document describes procedures for testing and validating proprietary baseline energy modeling software accuracy in predicting energy use over the period of interest, such as a month or a year. The procedures are designed according to the methodology used for public domain baselining software in another LBNL report that was (like the present report) prepared for Pacific Gas and Electric Company: ?Commercial Building Energy Baseline Modeling Software: Performance Metrics and Method Testing with Open Source Models and Implications for Proprietary Software Testing Protocols? (referred to here as the ?Model Analysis Report?). The test procedure focuses on the quality of the software?s predictions rather than on the specific algorithms used to predict energy use. In this way the software vendor is not required to divulge or share proprietary information about how their software works, while enabling stakeholders to assess its performance.

  6. Baseline hydrocarbon levels in New Zealand coastal and marine avifauna.

    PubMed

    McConnell, H M; Gartrell, B D; Chilvers, B L; Finlayson, S T; Bridgen, P C E; Morgan, K J

    2015-05-15

    The external effects of oil on wildlife can be obvious and acute. Internal effects are more difficult to detect and can occur without any external signs. To quantify internal effects from oil ingestion by wildlife during an oil spill, baseline levels of ubiquitous hydrocarbon fractions, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), need to be established. With these baseline values the extent of impact from exposure during a spill can be determined. This research represents the first investigation of baseline levels for 22 PAHs in New Zealand coastal and marine avian wildlife. Eighty-five liver samples were tested from 18 species. PAHs were identified in 98% of livers sampled with concentrations ranging from 0 to 1341.6 ng/g lipid wt or on wet wt basis, 0 to 29.5 ng/g. Overall, concentrations were low relative to other globally reported avian values. PAH concentration variability was linked with species foraging habitat and migratory patterns.

  7. Thermographer-friendly equipment design for predictive maintenance: baseline thermograms, thermal modeling, and emissivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madding, Robert P.

    1999-03-01

    For years predictive maintenance thermographers have been challenged by industrial targets to determine whether they had a problem, and if they did how big was it. We have struggled with low emissivity and unknown emissivity targets. We have observed thermal patterns and temperatures and asked whether the target was operating normally or if the heat patterns indicated a problem condition. Through years of experience, we have built a body of knowledge. Conferences such as Thermosense are where we share that knowledge with others. From this, we realize that much more could be done if our targets were thermographer-friendly. Now it is time to ask the equipment manufacturers to step up to the plate and acknowledge the viability of thermography as a predictive maintenance and non-destructive test tool. They build the targets we look at. They can help us in a least three areas: (1) We need to work with them to specify a baseline thermal signature for their equipment operating under normal conditions. Thermograms would be included with the operating manual or equipment test results. Thermography would be part of acceptance and installation testing. (2) We need to ask them to include high emissivity coatings in their designs for certain targets. (3) We need to work with them to develop thermal models that will indicate thermal signatures under all types of environmental conditions for both normal and abnormal operation. Thermal modeling programs developed by the defense community that will display a surface thermal image are available for PCs. With the help of target equipment manufacturers, we can significantly advance the state-of-the- art of thermography applications. We can be even more confident of our recommendations. We can evaluate targets that couldn't be evaluated before, expanding our applications. We can have backup on criticality calls with manufacturers' data. In short, we can do our job better.

  8. Baseline Caries Risk Assessment as a Predictor of Caries Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Chaffee, Benjamin W.; Cheng, Jing; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated clinical outcomes following caries risk assessment in large datasets that reflect risk assessments performed during routine practice. OBJECTIVE From clinical records, compare 18-month caries incidence according to baseline caries risk designation. METHODS For this retrospective cohort study, data were collected from electronic records of non-edentulous adult patients who completed an oral examination and caries risk assessment (CRA) at a university instructional clinic from 2007 to 2012 (N=18,004 baseline patients). The primary outcome was the number of new decayed/restored teeth from the initial CRA to the ensuing oral examination, through June 30, 2013 (N=4468 patients with follow-up). We obtained doubly-robust estimates for 18-month caries increment by baseline CRA category (low, moderate, high, extreme), adjusted for patient characteristics (age, sex, payer type, race/ethnicity, number of teeth), provider type, and calendar year. RESULTS Adjusted mean decayed, restored tooth (DFT) increment from baseline to follow-up was greater with each rising category of baseline caries risk, from low (0.94), moderate (1.26), high (1.79), to extreme (3.26). The percentage of patients with any newly affected teeth (DFT increment >0) was similar among low-risk and moderate-risk patients (cumulative incidence ratio, RR: 1.01; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.83, 1.23), but was increased relative to low-risk patients among high-risk (RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.52), and extreme-risk patients (RR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.23, 1.87). CONCLUSIONS These results lend evidence that baseline caries risk predicts future caries in this setting, supporting the use of caries risk assessment to identify candidate patients for more intensive preventive therapy. PMID:25731155

  9. A robust baseline removal method for guided wave damage localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Harley, Joel B.; Bergés, Mario; Greve, David W.; Junker, Warren R.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2014-04-01

    Guided waves can propagate long distances and are sensitive to subtle structural damage. Guided-wave based damage localization often requires extracting the scatter signal(s) produced by damage, which is typically obtained by subtracting an intact baseline record from a record to be tested. However, in practical applications, environmental and operational conditions (EOC) dramatically affect guided wave signals. In this case, the baseline subtraction process can no longer perfectly remove the baseline, thereby defeating localization algorithms. In previous work, we showed that singular value decomposition (SVD) can be used to detect the presence of damage under large EOC variations, because it can differentiate the trends of damage from other EOC variations. This capability of differentiation implies that SVD can also robustly extract a scatter signal, originating from damage in the structure, that is not affected by temperature variation. This process allows us to extract a scatterer signal without the challenges associated with traditional temperature compensation and baseline subtraction routines. . In this work, we use to approach to localize structural damage in large, spatially and temporally varying EOCs. We collect pitch-catch records from randomly placed PZT transducers on an aluminum plate while undergoing temperature variations. Damage is introduced to the plate during the monitoring period. We then use our SVD method to extract the scatter signal from the records, and use the scatter signal to localize damage using the delay-and-sum method. To compare results, we also apply several temperature compensation methods to the records and then perform baseline subtraction. We show that our SVD-based approach successfully localize damage while current temperature-compensated baseline subtraction methods fail.

  10. Association of Fetal Heart Rate Baseline Change and Neonatal Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Michael; Stout, Molly J; López, Julia D; Colvin, Ryan; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G

    2017-03-16

    Objective The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of baseline change within normal range during labor and its prediction of neonatal outcomes. Materials and Methods This was a prospective cohort of singleton, nonanomalous, term neonates with continuous electronic fetal monitoring and normal baseline fetal heart rate throughout the last 2 hours of labor. We determined baseline in 10-minute segments using Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development criteria. We evaluated baseline changes of ≥ 20 and ≥ 30 bpm for association with acidemia (umbilical cord arterial pH ≤ 7.10) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. Finally, we performed a sensitivity analysis of normal neonates, excluding those with acidemia, NICU admission, or 5-minute Apgar < 4. Results Among all neonates (n = 3,021), 1,267 (41.9%) had change ≥ 20 bpm; 272 (9.0%) had ≥ 30 bpm. Among normal neonates (n = 2,939), 1,221 (41.5%) had change ≥20 bpm. Acidemia was not associated with baseline change of any direction or magnitude. NICU admission was associated with decrease ≥ 20 bpm (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19 - 7.21) or any direction ≥ 20 bpm (aOR: 4.06; 95% CI: 1.46-11.29). For decrease ≥ 20 bpm, sensitivity and specificity were 40.0 and 81.7%; for any direction ≥ 20 bpm, 75.0 and 58.3%. Conclusion Changes of normal baseline are common in term labor and poorly predict morbidity, regardless of direction or magnitude.

  11. Evidence of the shifting baseline syndrome in ethnobotanical research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The shifting baseline syndrome is a concept from ecology that can be analyzed in the context of ethnobotanical research. Evidence of shifting baseline syndrome can be found in studies dealing with intracultural variation of knowledge, when knowledge from different generations is compared and combined with information about changes in the environment and/or natural resources. Methods We reviewed 84 studies published between 1993 and 2012 that made comparisons of ethnobotanical knowledge according to different age classes. After analyzing these studies for evidence of the shifting baseline syndrome (lower knowledge levels in younger generations and mention of declining abundance of local natural resources), we searched within these studies for the use of the expressions “cultural erosion”, “loss of knowledge”, or “acculturation”. Results The studies focused on different groups of plants (e.g. medicinal plants, foods, plants used for general purposes, or the uses of specific important species). More than half of all 84 studies (57%) mentioned a concern towards cultural erosion or knowledge loss; 54% of the studies showed evidence of the shifting baseline syndrome; and 37% of the studies did not provide any evidence of shifting baselines (intergenerational knowledge differences but no information available about the abundance of natural resources). Discussion and conclusions The general perception of knowledge loss among young people when comparing ethnobotanical repertoires among different age groups should be analyzed with caution. Changes in the landscape or in the abundance of plant resources may be associated with changes in ethnobotanical repertoires held by people of different age groups. Also, the relationship between the availability of resources and current plant use practices rely on a complexity of factors. Fluctuations in these variables can cause changes in the reference (baseline) of different generations and consequently be

  12. Precision Measurements of Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation at LBNF

    DOE PAGES

    Worcester, Elizabeth

    2015-08-06

    In a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the primary physics objectives are to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, to determine the octant of the neutrino mixing angle θ23, to search for CP violation in neutrino oscillation, and to precisely measure the size of any CP-violating effect that is discovered. This presentation provides a brief introduction to these measurements and reports on efforts to optimize the design of a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the status of LBNE, and the transition to an international collaboration at LBNF.

  13. Precision Measurements of Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation at LBNF

    SciTech Connect

    Worcester, Elizabeth

    2015-08-06

    In a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the primary physics objectives are to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, to determine the octant of the neutrino mixing angle θ23, to search for CP violation in neutrino oscillation, and to precisely measure the size of any CP-violating effect that is discovered. This presentation provides a brief introduction to these measurements and reports on efforts to optimize the design of a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the status of LBNE, and the transition to an international collaboration at LBNF.

  14. Future long-baseline neutrino oscillations: View from Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Hayato, Yoshinari

    2015-07-15

    Accelerator based long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments have been playing important roles in revealing the nature of neutrinos. However, it turned out that the current experiments are not sufficient to study two major remaining problems, the CP violation in the lepton sector and the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. Therefore, several new experiments have been proposed. Among of them, two accelerator based long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, the J-PARC neutrino beam and Hyper-Kamiokande, and MOMENT, have been proposed in Asia. These two projects are reviewed in this article.

  15. Solar central electric power generation - A baseline design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents the conceptual technical baseline design of a solar electric power plant using the central receiver concept, and derives credible cost estimates from the baseline design. The major components of the plant - heliostats, tower, receiver, tower piping, and thermal storage - are discussed in terms of technical and cost information. The assumed peak plant output is 215 MW(e), over 4000 daylight hours. The contribution of total capital investment to energy cost is estimated to be about 55 mills per kwh in mid-1974 dollars.

  16. Addendum to the 2015 Eastern Interconnect Baselining and Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Amidan, Brett G.; Follum, James D.

    2016-06-30

    This report serves as an addendum to the report 2015 Eastern Interconnect Baselining and Analysis Report (Amidan, Follum, and Freeman, 2015). This addendum report investigates the following: the impact of shorter record lengths and of adding a daily regularization term to the date/time models for angle pair measurements, additional development of a method to monitor the trend in phase angle pairs, the effect of changing the length of time to determine a baseline, when calculating atypical events, and a comparison between quantitatively discovered atypical events and actual events.

  17. Shuttle mission simulator baseline definition report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.; Small, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    A baseline definition of the space shuttle mission simulator is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) physical arrangement of the complete simulator system in the appropriate facility, with a definition of the required facility modifications, (2) functional descriptions of all hardware units, including the operational features, data demands, and facility interfaces, (3) hardware features necessary to integrate the items into a baseline simulator system to include the rationale for selecting the chosen implementation, and (4) operating, maintenance, and configuration updating characteristics of the simulator hardware.

  18. Long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, M. C.

    2009-03-01

    This contribution to the proceedings of the 2008 NOW Workshop summarizes current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments in the United States. Together with recent results from MINOS, a future program incorporating NOvA and a long-baseline beam from Fermilab to DUSEL represents one possible scenario for a future U.S. High Energy Physics program with a significant neutrino component. Other futures are also possible. Depending on the value of {theta}{sub 13}, we may find that the future involves serious consideration of intercontinental neutrino beams, with the concomitant additional challenges in planning within an international framework.

  19. Defining the Baseline and Oxidant Perturbed Lipidomic Profiles of Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nadine S; White, Thomas A; Viant, Mark R

    2017-03-15

    Recent technological advancement has enabled the emergence of lipidomics as an important tool for assessing molecular stress, one which has yet to be assessed fully as an approach in an environmental toxicological context. Here we have applied a high-resolution, non-targeted, nanoelectrospray ionisation (nESI) direct infusion mass spectrometry (DIMS) technique to assess the effects of oxidative stress to Daphnia magna both in vitro (air exposure of daphniid extracts) and in vivo (Cu(2+) exposure). Multivariate and univariate statistical analyses were used to distinguish any perturbations including oxidation to the D. magna baseline lipidome. This approach enabled the putative annotation of the baseline lipidome of D. magna with 65% of the lipid species discovered previously not reported. In vitro exposure of lipid extracts to air, primarily to test the methodology, revealed a significant perturbation to this baseline lipidome with detectable oxidation of peaks, in most cases attributed to single oxygen addition. Exposure of D. magna to Cu(2+) in vivo also caused a significant perturbation to the lipidome at an environmentally relevant concentration of 20 µg/L. This nESI DIMS approach has successfully identified perturbations and oxidative modifications to the D. magna lipidome in a high-throughput manner, highlighting its suitability for environmental lipidomic studies.

  20. Defining the Baseline and Oxidant Perturbed Lipidomic Profiles of Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Nadine S.; White, Thomas A.; Viant, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    Recent technological advancement has enabled the emergence of lipidomics as an important tool for assessing molecular stress, one which has yet to be assessed fully as an approach in an environmental toxicological context. Here we have applied a high-resolution, non-targeted, nanoelectrospray ionisation (nESI) direct infusion mass spectrometry (DIMS) technique to assess the effects of oxidative stress to Daphnia magna both in vitro (air exposure of daphniid extracts) and in vivo (Cu2+ exposure). Multivariate and univariate statistical analyses were used to distinguish any perturbations including oxidation to the D. magna baseline lipidome. This approach enabled the putative annotation of the baseline lipidome of D. magna with 65% of the lipid species discovered previously not reported. In vitro exposure of lipid extracts to air, primarily to test the methodology, revealed a significant perturbation to this baseline lipidome with detectable oxidation of peaks, in most cases attributed to single oxygen addition. Exposure of D. magna to Cu2+ in vivo also caused a significant perturbation to the lipidome at an environmentally relevant concentration of 20 µg/L. This nESI DIMS approach has successfully identified perturbations and oxidative modifications to the D. magna lipidome in a high-throughput manner, highlighting its suitability for environmental lipidomic studies. PMID:28294984

  1. Kids and Adults Now! Defeat Obesity (KAN-DO): Rationale, Design and Baseline Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Østbye, Truls; Zucker, Nancy; Krause, Katrina M.; Lovelady, Cheryl A.; Evenson, Kelly; Peterson, Bercedis L.; Bastian, Lori A.; Swamy, Geeta K.; West, Deborah J; Brouwer, Rebecca JN

    2011-01-01

    Background Prevention of childhood obesity is a public health priority. Parents influence a child’s weight by modeling healthy behaviors, controlling food availability and activity opportunities, and appropriate feeding practices. Thus interventions should target education and behavioral change in the parent, and positive, mutually reinforcing behaviors within the family. Methods This paper presents the design, rationale and baseline characteristics of Kids and Adults Now! – Defeat Obesity (KAN-DO), a randomized controlled behavioral intervention trial targeting weight maintenance in children of healthy weight, and weight reduction in overweight children. 400 children aged 2–5 and their overweight or obese mothers in the Triangle and Triad regions of North Carolina are randomized equally to control or the KAN-DO intervention, consisting of mailed family kits encouraging healthy lifestyle change. Eight (monthly) kits are supported by motivational counseling calls and a single group session. Mothers are targeted during a hypothesized “teachable moment” for health behavior change (the birth of a new baby), and intervention content addresses: parenting skills (emotional regulation, authoritative parenting), healthy eating, and physical activity. Results The 400 mother-child dyads randomized to trial are 75% white and 22% black; 19% have a household income of $30,000 or below. At baseline, 15% of children are overweight (85th–95th percentile for body mass index) and 9% are obese (≥95th percentile). Conclusion This intervention addresses childhood obesity prevention by using a family-based, synergistic approach, targeting at-risk children and their mothers during key transitional periods, and enhancing maternal self-regulation and responsive parenting as a foundation for health behavior change. PMID:21300177

  2. International Space Station EXPRESS Pallet. Ground Demonstration Baseline Design Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffer, James R.

    1995-01-01

    This publication is comprised of the viewgraphs from the presentations of the EXPRESS Pallet Baseline Design Review meeting held July 20, 1995. Individual presentations addressed general requirements and objectives; mechanical, electrical, and data systems; software; operations and KSC (Kennedy Space Center) integration; payload candidates; thermal considerations; ground vs. flight demo; and recommended actions.

  3. Shuttle mission simulator baseline definition report, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlberg, A. W.; Small, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    The baseline definition report for the space shuttle mission simulator is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) the general configurations, (2) motion base crew station, (3) instructor operator station complex, (4) display devices, (5) electromagnetic compatibility, (6) external interface equipment, (7) data conversion equipment, (8) fixed base crew station equipment, and (9) computer complex. Block diagrams of the supporting subsystems are provided.

  4. Moderate Baseline Vagal Tone Predicts Greater Prosociality in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jonas G.; Kahle, Sarah; Hastings, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Vagal tone is widely believed to be an important physiological aspect of emotion regulation and associated positive behaviors. However, there is inconsistent evidence for relations between children's baseline vagal tone and their helpful or prosocial responses to others (Hastings & Miller, 2014). Recent work in adults suggests a quadratic…

  5. Treatment decisions based on scalar and functional baseline covariates.

    PubMed

    Ciarleglio, Adam; Petkova, Eva; Ogden, R Todd; Tarpey, Thaddeus

    2015-12-01

    The amount and complexity of patient-level data being collected in randomized-controlled trials offer both opportunities and challenges for developing personalized rules for assigning treatment for a given disease or ailment. For example, trials examining treatments for major depressive disorder are not only collecting typical baseline data such as age, gender, or scores on various tests, but also data that measure the structure and function of the brain such as images from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), or electroencephalography (EEG). These latter types of data have an inherent structure and may be considered as functional data. We propose an approach that uses baseline covariates, both scalars and functions, to aid in the selection of an optimal treatment. In addition to providing information on which treatment should be selected for a new patient, the estimated regime has the potential to provide insight into the relationship between treatment response and the set of baseline covariates. Our approach can be viewed as an extension of "advantage learning" to include both scalar and functional covariates. We describe our method and how to implement it using existing software. Empirical performance of our method is evaluated with simulated data in a variety of settings and also applied to data arising from a study of patients with major depressive disorder from whom baseline scalar covariates as well as functional data from EEG are available.

  6. 241-AZ Farm Annulus Extent of Condition Baseline Inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Engeman, Jason K.; Girardot, Crystal L.; Vazquez, Brandon J.

    2013-05-15

    This report provides the results of the comprehensive annulus visual inspection for tanks 241- AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 performed in fiscal year 2013. The inspection established a baseline covering about 95 percent of the annulus floor for comparison with future inspections. Any changes in the condition are also included in this document.

  7. Baseline correction of intraoperative electromyography using discrete wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Rampp, Stefan; Prell, Julian; Thielemann, Henning; Posch, Stefan; Strauss, Christian; Romstöck, Johann

    2007-08-01

    In intraoperative analysis of electromygraphic signals (EMG) for monitoring purposes, baseline artefacts frequently pose considerable problems. Since artefact sources in the operating room can only be reduced to a limited degree, signal-processing methods are needed to correct the registered data online without major changes to the relevant data itself. We describe a method for baseline correction based on "discrete wavelet transform" (DWT) and evaluate its performance compared to commonly used digital filters. EMG data from 10 patients who underwent removal of acoustic neuromas were processed. Effectiveness, preservation of relevant EMG patterns and processing speed of a DWT based correction method was assessed and compared to a range of commonly used Butterworth, Resistor-Capacitor and Gaussian filters. Butterworth and DWT filters showed better performance regarding artefact correction and pattern preservation compared to Resistor-Capacitor and Gaussian filters. Assuming equal weighting of both characteristics, DWT outperformed the other methods: While Butterworth, Resistor-Capacitor and Gaussian provided good pattern preservation, the effectiveness was low and vice versa, while DWT baseline correction at level 6 performed well in both characteristics. The DWT method allows reliable and efficient intraoperative baseline correction in real-time. It is superior to commonly used methods and may be crucial for intraoperative analysis of EMG data, for example for intraoperative assessment of facial nerve function.

  8. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment - Requirements Document

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, John A.

    2016-10-04

    This document was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and LLNL Division Leader for Fire Protection and reviewed by LLNL Emergency Management Department Head James Colson. The document follows and expands upon the format and contents of the DOE Model Fire Protection Baseline Capabilities Assessment document contained on the DOE Fire Protection Web Site, but only addresses emergency response.

  9. Moderate Baseline Vagal Tone Predicts Greater Prosociality in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jonas G.; Kahle, Sarah; Hastings, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Vagal tone is widely believed to be an important physiological aspect of emotion regulation and associated positive behaviors. However, there is inconsistent evidence for relations between children's baseline vagal tone and their helpful or prosocial responses to others (Hastings & Miller, 2014). Recent work in adults suggests a quadratic…

  10. Learning by Doing: Developing a Baseline Information Literacy Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiel, Stephen; Burclaff, Natalie; Johnson, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This paper details the design and implementation of an initial baseline assessment of information literacy skills at the University of Baltimore in Maryland. To provide practical advice and experience for a novice audience, the authors discuss how they approached the design and implementation of the study through the use of a rubric-based…

  11. 13. Tempe Canal along Price Road, looking north from Baseline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Tempe Canal along Price Road, looking north from Baseline Road. This is the section of the canal which will be piped. Photographer: Mark Durben, February 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. IEA Wind Task 26: Offshore Wind Farm Baseline Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, Gavin; Smith, Aaron; Warner, Ethan; Sperstad, Iver Bakken; Prinsen, Bob; Lacal-Arantegui, Roberto

    2016-06-02

    This document has been produced to provide the definition and rationale for the Baseline Offshore Wind Farm established within IEA Wind Task 26--Cost of Wind Energy. The Baseline has been developed to provide a common starting point for country comparisons and sensitivity analysis on key offshore wind cost and value drivers. The baseline project reflects an approximate average of the characteristics of projects installed between 2012 and 2014, with the project life assumed to be 20 years. The baseline wind farm is located 40 kilometres (km) from construction and operations and maintenance (O&M) ports and from export cable landfall. The wind farm consists of 100 4-megawatt (MW) wind turbines mounted on monopile foundations in an average water depth of 25 metres (m), connected by 33-kilovolt (kV) inter-array cables. The arrays are connected to a single offshore substation (33kV/220kV) mounted on a jacket foundation, with the substation connected via a single 220kV export cable to an onshore substation, 10km from landfall. The wind farm employs a port-based O&M strategy using crew-transfer vessels.

  13. Baseline Data on Questions in Group Embedded Figures Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusk, Edward J.; Wright, Haviland

    1982-01-01

    To study the learning effect on the Group Embedded Figures Test, the relative frequency of success on its 18 tasks must be estimated. This note provides such baseline data, collected by Lusk and Wright and categorized according to Science and Engineering, Business Administration, and Liberal Arts curricula. (Author/CM)

  14. Baseline predictors of missed visits in the Look AHEAD Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To identify baseline attributes associated with consecutively missed data collection visits during the first 48 months of Look AHEAD—a randomized, controlled trial in 5,145 overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes designed to determine the long-term health benefits of weight loss achi...

  15. Effect of computer game playing on baseline laparoscopic simulator skills.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Fredrik H; Cvancarova, Milada; Fosse, Erik; Mjåland, Odd

    2013-08-01

    Studies examining the possible association between computer game playing and laparoscopic performance in general have yielded conflicting results and neither has a relationship between computer game playing and baseline performance on laparoscopic simulators been established. The aim of this study was to examine the possible association between previous and present computer game playing and baseline performance on a virtual reality laparoscopic performance in a sample of potential future medical students. The participating students completed a questionnaire covering the weekly amount and type of computer game playing activity during the previous year and 3 years ago. They then performed 2 repetitions of 2 tasks ("gallbladder dissection" and "traverse tube") on a virtual reality laparoscopic simulator. Performance on the simulator were then analyzed for association to their computer game experience. Local high school, Norway. Forty-eight students from 2 high school classes volunteered to participate in the study. No association between prior and present computer game playing and baseline performance was found. The results were similar both for prior and present action game playing and prior and present computer game playing in general. Our results indicate that prior and present computer game playing may not affect baseline performance in a virtual reality simulator.

  16. Learning by Doing: Developing a Baseline Information Literacy Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiel, Stephen; Burclaff, Natalie; Johnson, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This paper details the design and implementation of an initial baseline assessment of information literacy skills at the University of Baltimore in Maryland. To provide practical advice and experience for a novice audience, the authors discuss how they approached the design and implementation of the study through the use of a rubric-based…

  17. Baselining PMU Data to Find Patterns and Anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Amidan, Brett G.; Follum, James D.; Freeman, Kimberly A.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2016-10-25

    This paper looks at the application of situational awareness methodologies with respect to power grid data. These methodologies establish baselines that look for typical patterns and atypical behavior in the data. The objectives of the baselining analyses are to provide: real-time analytics, the capability to look at historical trends and events, and reliable predictions of the near future state of the grid. Multivariate algorithms were created to establish normal baseline behavior and then score each moment in time according to its variance from the baseline. Detailed multivariate analytical techniques are described in this paper that produced ways to identify typical patterns and atypical behavior. In this case, atypical behavior is behavior that is unenvisioned. Visualizations were also produced to help explain the behavior that was identified mathematically. Examples are shown to help describe how to read and interpret the analyses and visualizations. Preliminary work has been performed on PMU data sets from BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) and EI (Eastern Interconnect). Actual results are not fully shown here because of confidentiality issues. Comparisons between atypical events found mathematically and actual events showed that many of the actual events are also atypical events; however there are many atypical events that do not correlate to any actual events. Additional work needs to be done to help classify the atypical events into actual events, so that the importance of the events can be better understood.

  18. Future short-baseline sterile neutrino searches with accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Spitz, J.

    2015-07-15

    A number of experimental anomalies in neutrino oscillation physics point to the existence of at least one light sterile neutrino. This hypothesis can be precisely tested using neutrinos from reactors, radioactive isotopes, and particle accelerators. The focus of these proceedings is on future dedicated short-baseline sterile neutrino searches using accelerators.

  19. Collecting Baseline Data for the Least Restrictive Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, William K.; Rudisill, Marie S.

    This paper argues that implementing recent federal and state mandates requiring the placement of special students in "the least restrictive educational alternative" necessitates the collection of baseline data on the existing organizational status of affected schools, the current level of teacher preparedness, and community receptivity toward the…

  20. Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiments in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Terranova, F.

    2005-10-12

    Long-baseline experiments will play a crucial role in the precision era of neutrino oscillation physics. In this paper we review the ongoing European programme, which is focused on CNGS, and we discuss the opportunities for new facilities based on the CERN acceleration complex.

  1. Delta Healthy Sprouts: Participants' Diet and Food Environment at Baseline

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Local food environments influence the nutrition and health of area residents. This baseline analysis focuses on the food environments of women who participated in the Delta Healthy Sprouts project, a randomized, controlled, comparative trial designed to test the efficacy of two Maternal, Infant, an...

  2. 48 CFR 334.202 - Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integrated Baseline Reviews (IBRs). 334.202 Section 334.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Earned Value Management System 334.202...

  3. Synthesizing SMOS Zero-Baselines with Aquarius Brightness Temperature Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colliander, A.; Dinnat, E.; Le Vine, D.; Kainulainen, J.

    2012-01-01

    SMOS [1] and Aquarius [2] are ESA and NASA missions, respectively, to make L-band measurements from the Low Earth Orbit. SMOS makes passive measurements whereas Aquarius measures both passive and active. SMOS was launched in November 2009 and Aquarius in June 2011.The scientific objectives of the missions are overlapping: both missions aim at mapping the global Sea Surface Salinity (SSS). Additionally, SMOS mission produces soil moisture product (however, Aquarius data will eventually be used for retrieving soil moisture too). The consistency of the brightness temperature observations made by the two instruments is essential for long-term studies of SSS and soil moisture. For resolving the consistency, the calibration of the instruments is the key. The basis of the SMOS brightness temperature level is the measurements performed with the so-called zero-baselines [3]; SMOS employs an interferometric measurement technique which forms a brightness temperature image from several baselines constructed by combination of multiple receivers in an array; zero-length baseline defines the overall brightness temperature level. The basis of the Aquarius brightness temperature level is resolved from the brightness temperature simulator combined with ancillary data such as antenna patterns and environmental models [4]. Consistency between the SMOS zero-baseline measurements and the simulator output would provide a robust basis for establishing the overall comparability of the missions.

  4. Revised SRC-I project baseline. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The SRC Process Area Design Baseline consists of six volumes. The first four were submitted to DOE on 9 September 1981. The fifth volume, summarizing the Category A Engineering Change Proposals (ECPs), was not submitted. The sixth volume, containing proprietary information on Kerr-McGee's Critical Solvent Deashing System, was forwarded to BRHG Synthetic Fuels, Inc. for custody, according to past instructions from DOE, and is available for perusal by authorized DOE representatives. DOE formally accepted the Design Baseline under ICRC Release ECP 4-1001, at the Project Configuration Control Board meeting in Oak Ridge, Tennessee on 5 November 1981. The documentation was then revised by Catalytic, Inc. to incorporate the Category B and C and Post-Baseline Engineering Change Proposals. Volumes I through V of the Revised Design Baseline, dated 22 October 1982, are nonproprietary and they were issued to the DOE via Engineering Change Notice (ECN) 4-1 on 23 February 1983. Volume VI again contains proprieary information on Kerr-McGee Critical Solvent Deashing System; it was issued to Burns and Roe Synthetic Fuels, Inc. Subsequently, updated process descriptions, utility summaries, and errata sheets were issued to the DOE and Burns and Roe Synthetic Fuels, Inc. on nonproprietary Engineering Change Notices 4-2 and 4-3 on 24 May 1983.

  5. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 227 - Audiometric Baseline Revision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audiometric Baseline Revision C Appendix C to Part... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Pt. 227, App. C Appendix C to Part 227... must be justified by specific concrete reasons. C. These procedures do not apply to: The identification...

  6. Testing the relation between percentage change and baseline value.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yu-Kang

    2016-03-16

    Testing the relation between percentage change and baseline value has been controversial, but it is not clear why this practice may yield spurious results. In this paper, we first explained why the usual testing of the relation between percentage change and baseline value is inappropriate and then demonstrated how the appropriate null hypothesis could be formulated. We also proposed a simple procedure for testing the appropriate null hypothesis based on the assumption that when there is no relation between percentage change and baseline value, the coefficients of variation for repeated measurements of a random variable should remain unchanged. Two examples were used to demonstrate how the usual testing gave rise to misleading results, whilst results from our simple test were in general consistent with those from simulations. We also undertook simulations to investigate the impact of measurement errors on the performance of the proposed test. Results suggested the type-I error rates increased with the magnitude of measurement errors, whilst the statistical power to detect a genuine relation decreased. The usual approach to testing the relation between percentage change and baseline value tended to yield misleading results and should be avoided.

  7. Attachment-line Baseline Model In 20' Supersonic Wind Tunne

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This is the baseline attachment-line model mounted in the 20' supersonic wind tunnel. The tunnel flow is used to approximate an aircraft fuselage with a turbulent boundary layer. Follow-on models will include fairings to improve the flow in the juncture region between the wing and fuselage.

  8. Attendance at Health Promotion Programs: Baseline Predictors and Program Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Catherine J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    As part of a family cardiovascular health promotion project, 111 Mexican-American and 95 Anglo-American families with fifth or sixth grade children were assigned to either a primary prevention program involving 18 sessions or to a control condition. Correlates of attendance were low baseline scores on physical activity and cardiovascular fitness…

  9. Technical Baseline Summary Description for the Tank Farm Contractor

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, A.R.

    2000-04-21

    This document is a revision of the document titled above, summarizing the technical baseline of the Tank Farm Contractor. It is one of several documents prepared by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. to support the U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection Tank Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission at Hanford.

  10. Cognitive performance baseline measurement and eye movement performance measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viirre, Erik S.; Chase, Bradley; Tsai, Yi-Fang

    2005-05-01

    Personnel are often required to perform multiple simultaneous tasks at the limits of their cognitive capacity. In research surrounding cognitive performance resources for tasks during stress and high cognitive workload, one area of deficiency is measurement of individual differences. To determine the amount of attentional demand a stressor places on a subject, one must first know that all subjects are performing at the same level with the same amount of available capacity in the control condition. By equating the baselines of performance across all subjects ("baselining") we can control for differing amounts of performance capacity or attentional resources in each individual. For example, a given level of task performance without a time restriction may be equated across subjects to account for attentional resources. Training to a fixed level of proficiency with time limits might obliterate individual differences in mental resources. Eye movement parameters may serve as a real-time measure of attentional demand. In implementing a baselining technique to control for individual differences, eye movement behaviors will be associated with the true cognitive demands of task loading or other stressors. Using eye movement data as a proxy for attentional state, it may be possible to "close the loop" on the human-machine system, providing a means by which the system can adapt to the attentional state of the human operator. In our presentation, eye movement data will be shown with and without the benefit of the baselining technique. Experimental results will be discussed within the context of this theoretical framework.

  11. Mercury Exposure May Suppress Baseline Corticosterone Levels in Juvenile Birds.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury exposure has been associated with a wide variety of negative reproductive responses in birds, however few studies have examined the potential for chick impairment via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The HPA axis regulates corticosterone levels during periods of stress. We examined the relationship between baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations and mercury concentrations in down feathers of recently hatched (Sterna forsteri) chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations were negatively correlated with mercury concentrations in blood of older chicks (decreasing by 81% across the range of observed mercury concentrations) while accounting for positive correlations between corticosterone concentrations and number of fledgling chicks within the colony and chick age. In recently hatched chicks, baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations were weakly negatively correlated with mercury concentrations in down feathers (decreasing by 45% across the range of observed mercury concentrations) while accounting for stronger positive correlations between corticosterone concentrations and colony nest abundance and date. These results indicate that chronic mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone concentrations in tern chicks and suggests that a juvenile bird's ability to respond to stress may be reduced via the downregulation of the HPA axis.

  12. The relationship between baseline pupil size and intelligence.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Jason S; Harrison, Tyler L; Engle, Randall W

    2016-12-01

    Pupil dilations of the eye are known to correspond to central cognitive processes. However, the relationship between pupil size and individual differences in cognitive ability is not as well studied. A peculiar finding that has cropped up in this research is that those high on cognitive ability have a larger pupil size, even during a passive baseline condition. Yet these findings were incidental and lacked a clear explanation. Therefore, in the present series of studies we systematically investigated whether pupil size during a passive baseline is associated with individual differences in working memory capacity and fluid intelligence. Across three studies we consistently found that baseline pupil size is, in fact, related to cognitive ability. We showed that this relationship could not be explained by differences in mental effort, and that the effect of working memory capacity and fluid intelligence on pupil size persisted even after 23 sessions and taking into account the effect of novelty or familiarity with the environment. We also accounted for potential confounding variables such as; age, ethnicity, and drug substances. Lastly, we found that it is fluid intelligence, more so than working memory capacity, which is related to baseline pupil size. In order to provide an explanation and suggestions for future research, we also consider our findings in the context of the underlying neural mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 40 CFR 80.91 - Individual baseline determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... properties of gasoline and gasoline blendstocks at the time the measurement was made. (ii) Oxygen content may... this section. (D) Volumes shall be reported to the nearest barrel or to the degree at which historical.... (i) Baseline E200 and E300 values shall be determined directly from actual measurement data. (ii)...

  14. Automated baseline change detection phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD) project is supported by the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) as part of its ER&WM cross-cutting technology program in robotics. Phase 1 of the Automated Baseline Change Detection project is summarized in this topical report. The primary objective of this project is to apply robotic and optical sensor technology to the operational inspection of mixed toxic and radioactive waste stored in barrels, using Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD), based on image subtraction. Absolute change detection is based on detecting any visible physical changes, regardless of cause, between a current inspection image of a barrel and an archived baseline image of the same barrel. Thus, in addition to rust, the ABCD system can also detect corrosion, leaks, dents, and bulges. The ABCD approach and method rely on precise camera positioning and repositioning relative to the barrel and on feature recognition in images. In support of this primary objective, there are secondary objectives to determine DOE operational inspection requirements and DOE system fielding requirements.

  15. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 227 - Audiometric Baseline Revision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Audiometric Baseline Revision C Appendix C to Part... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Pt. 227, App. C Appendix C to Part 227... must be justified by specific concrete reasons. C. These procedures do not apply to: The...

  16. Analysis Noise, Short-Baseline Time Transfer, and a Long-Baseline GPS Carrier-Phase Frequency Scale

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-01

    Bernese software package. Figure 9 compares double-differenced data from the short-baseline USN0 and USNB receivers with data from the 2000-km baseline...5.5 6 6.5 log@ seconds) Figure 8. As in previous figure, except uz is used instead of cY. Analysis Noise: USNO-EO vs CODE Bernese I , 1 I I I I I...differences between USN0 Bldgs. 52 and 78 measured by carrier phase and reduced by CODE/ Bernese vs. those measured using LED-based fiber optics

  17. The effects of nicotine on cognition are dependent on baseline performance.

    PubMed

    Niemegeers, Peter; Dumont, Glenn J H; Quisenaerts, Charel; Morrens, Manuel; Boonzaier, Julia; Fransen, Erik; de Bruijn, Ellen R A; Hulstijn, Wouter; Sabbe, Bernard G C

    2014-07-01

    Since cholinergic neurotransmission plays a major role in cognition, stimulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor may be a target for cognitive enhancement. While nicotine improves performance on several cognitive domains, results of individual studies vary. A possible explanation for these findings is that the effect of nicotine administration may be dependent on baseline cognitive function, where subjects with a suboptimal cognitive performance may benefit from nicotine, while subjects who already perform optimally may show a decline in performance after nicotinic stimulation. We conducted a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled crossover trial, examining the effects of placebo, 1, and 2mg of nicotine on cognition in young (n=16, age 18-30 years) and healthy elderly (n=16, age 60-75 years) subjects. We hypothesised that the elderly would benefit more from nicotine compared to young subjects, as normal ageing is associated with decreases in cognitive function. Attention, working memory, visual memory, information-processing speed, psychomotor function, stereotypy, and emotion recognition were assessed. Compared to the young volunteers, the elderly performed significantly worse on psychomotor function and emotion recognition in the placebo condition. Nicotine had no effect in the young volunteers and decreased performance on working memory and visual memory in the elderly. Contrary to our hypothesis, the effect of nicotine was dependent on baseline performance in both the groups, with subjects with lower baseline performance benefiting from nicotine administration, while those with higher baseline performance performed worse after nicotine administration. This suggests that subjects with lower cognitive performance, irrespective of age, may benefit from nicotine.

  18. Discrimination of excess toxicity from baseline level for ionizable compounds: Effect of pH.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin J; Zhang, Xu J; Wang, Xiao H; Wang, Shuo; Yu, Yang; Qin, Wei C; Su, Li M; Zhao, Yuan H

    2016-03-01

    The toxic effect can be affected by pH in water through affecting the degree of ionization of ionizable compounds. Wrong classification of mode of action can be made from the apparent toxicities. In this paper, the toxicity data of 61 compounds to Daphnia magna determined at three pH values were used to investigate the effect of pH on the discrimination of excess toxicity. The results show that the apparent toxicities are significantly less than the baseline level. Analysis on the effect of pH on bioconcentration factor (BCF) shows that the log BCF values are significantly over-estimated for the strongly ionizable compounds, leading to the apparent toxicities greatly less than the baseline toxicities and the toxic ratios greatly less than zero. A theoretical equation between the apparent toxicities and pH has been developed basing on the critical body residue (CBR). The apparent toxicities are non-linearly related to pH, but linearly to fraction of unionized form. The determined apparent toxicities are well fitted with the toxicities predicted by the equation. The toxicities in the unionized form calculated from the equation are close to, or greater than the baseline level for almost all the strongly ionizable compounds, which are very different from the apparent toxicities. The studied ionizable compounds can be either classified as baseline, less inert or reactive compounds in D. magna toxicity. Some ionizable compounds do not exhibit excess toxicity at a certain pH, due not to their poor reactivity with target molecules, but because of the ionization in water.

  19. NOvA Short-Baseline Tau-Neutrino Appearance Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keloth, Rijeesh

    2017-01-01

    Three-flavor neutrino oscillations have successfully explained a wide range of neutrino oscillation experiment results. However, anomalous results, such as the electron-antineutrino appearance excess seen by LSND and MiniBooNE, do not fit the three-flavor paradigm and can be explained by the addition of a sterile neutrino at a larger mass scale than the existing three flavor mass states. The NOvA experiment consists of two finely segmented, liquid scintillator detectors operating 14.6 mrad off-axis from the NuMI muon-neutrino beam. The Near Detector is located on the Fermilab campus, 1 km from the NuMI target, while the Far Detector is located at Ash River, MN, 810 km from the NuMI target. The NOvA experiment is primarily designed to measure electron-neutrino appearance at the Far Detector using the Near Detector to control systematic uncertainties; however, the Near Detector is well suited for searching for anomalous short-baseline oscillations. I will present a novel method for selecting tau neutrino interactions with high purity at the Near Detector using a convolutional neural network. Using this method, the sensitivity to anomalous short-baseline tau-neutrino appearance due to sterile neutrino oscillations will be presented.

  20. Tomographic Imaging of a Forested Area By Airborne Multi-Baseline P-Band SAR

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Othmar; Morsdorf, Felix; Meier, Erich

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, various attempts have been undertaken to obtain information about the structure of forested areas from multi-baseline synthetic aperture radar data. Tomographic processing of such data has been demonstrated for airborne L-band data but the quality of the focused tomographic images is limited by several factors. In particular, the common Fourier-based focusing methods are susceptible to irregular and sparse sampling, two problems, that are unavoidable in case of multi-pass, multi-baseline SAR data acquired by an airborne system. In this paper, a tomographic focusing method based on the time-domain back-projection algorithm is proposed, which maintains the geometric relationship between the original sensor positions and the imaged target and is therefore able to cope with irregular sampling without introducing any approximations with respect to the geometry. The tomographic focusing quality is assessed by analysing the impulse response of simulated point targets and an in-scene corner reflector. And, in particular, several tomographic slices of a volume representing a forested area are given. The respective P-band tomographic data set consisting of eleven flight tracks has been acquired by the airborne E-SAR sensor of the German Aerospace Center (DLR). PMID:27873847

  1. Revised SRC-I project baseline. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    International Coal Refining Company (ICRC), in cooperation with the Commonwealth of Kentucky has contracted with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to design, build and operate a first-of-its-kind plant demonstrating the economic, environmental, socioeconomic and technical feasibility of the direct coal liquefaction process known as SRC-I. ICRC has made a massive commitment of time and expertise to design processes, plan and formulate policy, schedules, costs and technical drawings for all plant systems. These fully integrated plans comprise the Project Baseline and are the basis for all future detailed engineering, plant construction, operation, and other work set forth in the contract between ICRC and the DOE. Volumes I and II of the accompanying documents constitute the updated Project Baseline for the SRC-I two-stage liquefaction plant. International Coal Refining Company believes this versatile plant design incorporates the most advanced coal liquefaction system available in the synthetic fuels field. SRC-I two-stage liquefaction, as developed by ICRC, is the way of the future in coal liquefaction because of its product slate flexibility, high process thermal efficiency, and low consumption of hydrogen. The SRC-I Project Baseline design also has made important state-of-the-art advances in areas such as environmental control systems. Because of a lack of funding, the DOE has curtailed the total project effort without specifying a definite renewal date. This precludes the development of revised accurate and meaningful schedules and, hence, escalated project costs. ICRC has revised and updated the original Design Baseline to include in the technical documentation all of the approved but previously non-incorporated Category B and C and new Post-Baseline Engineering Change Proposals.

  2. Hysteresis in the sympathetic baroreflex: role of baseline nerve activity

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Emma C; Wallin, B Gunnar; Curry, Timothy B; Joyner, Michael J; Karlsson, Tomas; Charkoudian, Nisha

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is greater during decreasing compared to increasing diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in young men and women. In older men and women there is no difference in sympathetic BRS to increasing and decreasing DBP. We investigated whether the sensitivity of the central nervous system to increasing and decreasing DBP is dependent upon baseline muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). We hypothesised that the difference in sympathetic BRS between falling and rising segments of DBP would be positively related to baseline MSNA in 30 young men, 21 young women, 14 older men and 14 postmenopausal women. MSNA was measured using peroneal microneurography and BRS was measured using the spontaneous baroreflex threshold technique. On average, sympathetic BRS was greater during decreasing compared to increasing DBP in young men (P < 0.05) and women (P < 0.05). In older men and women, mean sympathetic BRS was similar in response to increasing and decreasing DBP. The difference (delta) between the falling and rising BRS correlated with baseline MSNA in young (r = 0.58, P < 0.05) and older men (r = 0.66, P < 0.05) and postmenopausal women (r = 0.74, P < 0.05). Thus, all men, and older women, with higher BRS to falling DBP had lower baseline MSNA. This relationship was not observed in young women (r = 0.14, P > 0.05). In summary, baseline MSNA plays a role in determining sympathetic BRS to falling and rising DBP in young and older men and postmenopausal women, but not in young women. This relationship is consistent with a decreased potential for sympathoexcitation in people with higher resting MSNA. Furthermore, the lack of relationship in young women suggests important contributions of sex hormones to differential responses of MSNA to falling and rising pressures. PMID:21540345

  3. Baseline series fragrance markers fail to predict contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Mann, Jack; McFadden, John P; White, Jonathan M L; White, Ian R; Banerjee, Piu

    2014-05-01

    Negative patch test results with fragrance allergy markers in the European baseline series do not always predict a negative reaction to individual fragrance substances. To determine the frequencies of positive test reactions to the 26 fragrance substances for which labelling is mandatory in the EU, and how effectively reactions to fragrance markers in the baseline series predict positive reactions to the fragrance substances that are labelled. The records of 1951 eczema patients, routinely tested with the labelled fragrance substances and with an extended European baseline series in 2011 and 2012, were retrospectively reviewed. Two hundred and eighty-one (14.4%) (71.2% females) reacted to one or more allergens from the labelled-fragrance substance series and/or a fragrance marker from the European baseline series. The allergens that were positive with the greatest frequencies were cinnamyl alcohol (48; 2.46%), Evernia furfuracea (44; 2.26%), and isoeugenol (40; 2.05%). Of the 203 patients who reacted to any of the 26 fragrances in the labelled-fragrance substance series, only 117 (57.6%) also reacted to a fragrance marker in the baseline series. One hundred and seven (52.7%) reacted to either fragrance mix I or fragrance mix II, 28 (13.8%) reacted to Myroxylon pereirae, and 13 (6.4%) reacted to hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde. These findings confirm that the standard fragrance markers fail to identify patients with contact allergies to the 26 fragrances. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. On Target.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbalich, Andrea

    1991-01-01

    Campus public relations professionals offer advice for improving the effectiveness of public relations efforts by (1) setting behavioral goals; (2) targeting audiences carefully; (3) focusing appeals by making messages explicit; (4) connecting the public relations message with larger societal issues; and (5) reaching internal as well as external…

  5. Students Target

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-12-19

    Using the JMars targeting software, eighth grade students from Charleston Middle School in Charleston, IL, selected the location of -8.37N and 276.66E for capture by the THEMIS visible camera during Mars Odyssey sixth orbit of Mars on Nov. 22, 2005

  6. Tackling Targets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This document is designed to help British training and enterprise councils (TECs) and further education (FE) colleges develop and implement strategies for achieving the National Targets for Education and Training (NTET), which were developed by the Confederation of British Industry in 1992 and endorsed by the British government. The findings from…

  7. Targeting hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Douglass F. Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Increasing demand for hardwood seedlings has prompted research to identify target seedling characteristics that promote hardwood plantation establishment. Operational establishment of hardwood plantations has typically emphasized seed collection from non-improved genetic sources, bareroot nursery seedling production, and spring planting using machine planters. The...

  8. Target: Lifestyle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehlman, Eric T.

    1985-01-01

    "Target: Lifestyle" is a physical education curriculum adopted by Detroit Country Day School which incorporates instruction in nutrition, physical fitness, first aid, and lifetime sports. This curriculum aims to influence student attitudes and lifestyles in health and physical fitness. Four levels of instruction are described. (DF)

  9. On baseline corrections and uncertainty in response spectra for baseline variations commonly encountered in digital accelerograph records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akkar, Sinan; Boore, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Most digital accelerograph recordings are plagued by long-period drifts, best seen in the velocity and displacement time series obtained from integration of the acceleration time series. These drifts often result in velocity values that are nonzero near the end of the record. This is clearly unphysical and can lead to inaccurate estimates of peak ground displacement and long-period spectral response. The source of the long-period noise seems to be variations in the acceleration baseline in many cases. These variations could be due to true ground motion (tilting and rotation, as well as local permanent ground deformation), instrumental effects, or analog-to-digital conversion. Very often the trends in velocity are well approximated by a linear trend after the strong shaking subsides. The linearity of the trend in velocity implies that no variations in the baseline could have occurred after the onset of linearity in the velocity time series. This observation, combined with the lack of any trends in the pre-event motion, allows us to compute the time interval in which any baseline variations could occur. We then use several models of the variations in a Monte Carlo procedure to derive a suite of baseline-corrected accelerations for each noise model using records from the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake and several earthquakes in Turkey. Comparisons of the mean values of the peak ground displacements, spectral displacements, and residual displacements computed from these corrected accelerations for the different noise models can be used as a guide to the accuracy of the baseline corrections. For many of the records considered here the mean values are similar for each noise model, giving confidence in the estimation of the mean values. The dispersion of the ground-motion measures increases with period and is noise-model dependent. The dispersion of inelastic spectra is greater than the elastic spectra at short periods but approaches that of the elastic spectra at longer periods

  10. ALMA Long Baseline Campaigns: Phase Characteristics of Atmosphere at Long Baselines in the Millimeter and Submillimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Satoki; Asaki, Yoshiharu; Fomalont, Edward B.; Morita, Koh-Ichiro; Barkats, Denis; Hills, Richard E.; Kawabe, Ryohei; Maud, Luke T.; Nikolic, Bojan; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Vlahakis, Catherine; Whyborn, Nicholas D.

    2017-03-01

    We present millimeter- and submillimeter-wave phase characteristics measured between 2012 and 2014 of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array long baseline campaigns. This paper presents the first detailed investigation of the characteristics of phase fluctuation and phase correction methods obtained with baseline lengths up to ∼15 km. The basic phase fluctuation characteristics can be expressed with the spatial structure function (SSF). Most of the SSFs show that the phase fluctuation increases as a function of baseline length, with a power-law slope of ∼0.6. In many cases, we find that the slope becomes shallower (average of ∼0.2–0.3) at baseline lengths longer than ∼1 km, namely showing a turn-over in SSF. These power law slopes do not change with the amount of precipitable water vapor (PWV), but the fitted constants have a weak correlation with PWV, so that the phase fluctuation at a baseline length of 10 km also increases as a function of PWV. The phase correction method using water vapor radiometers (WVRs) works well, especially for the cases where PWV > 1 {mm}, which reduces the degree of phase fluctuations by a factor of two in many cases. However, phase fluctuations still remain after the WVR phase correction, suggesting the existence of other turbulent constituent that cause the phase fluctuation. This is supported by occasional SSFs that do not exhibit any turn-over; these are only seen when the PWV is low (i.e., when the WVR phase correction works less effectively) or after WVR phase correction. This means that the phase fluctuation caused by this turbulent constituent is inherently smaller than that caused by water vapor. Since in these rare cases there is no turn-over in the SSF up to the maximum baseline length of ∼15 km, this turbulent constituent must have scale height of 10 km or more, and thus cannot be water vapor, whose scale height is around 1 km. Based on the characteristics, this large scale height turbulent constituent is

  11. Environmental baselines: preparing for shale gas in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, John; Manamsa, Katya; Bell, Rachel; Darling, George; Dochartaigh, Brighid O.; Stuart, Marianne; Ward, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is a vital source of freshwater in the UK. It provides almost 30% of public water supply on average, but locally, for example in south-east England, it is constitutes nearly 90% of public supply. In addition to public supply, groundwater has a number of other uses including agriculture, industry, and food and drink production. It is also vital for maintaining river flows especially during dry periods and so is essential for maintaining ecosystem health. Recently, there have been concerns expressed about the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater. The UK has abundant shales and clays which are currently the focus of considerable interest and there is active research into their characterisation, resource evaluation and exploitation risks. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is undertaking research to provide information to address some of the environmental concerns related to the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater resources and quality. The aim of much of this initial work is to establish environmental baselines, such as a baseline survey of methane occurrence in groundwater (National methane baseline study) and the spatial relationships between potential sources and groundwater receptors (iHydrogeology project), prior to any shale gas exploration and development. The poster describes these two baseline studies and presents preliminary findings. BGS are currently undertaking a national survey of baseline methane concentrations in groundwater across the UK. This work will enable any potential future changes in methane in groundwater associated with shale gas development to be assessed. Measurements of methane in potable water from the Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic carbonate and sandstone aquifers are variable and reveal methane concentrations of up to 500 micrograms per litre, but the mean value is relatively low at < 10 micrograms per litre. These values compare with much higher levels of methane in aquicludes

  12. Target assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Richard A.

    1980-01-01

    A target for a proton beam which is capable of generating neutrons for absorption in a breeding blanket includes a plurality of solid pins formed of a neutron emissive target material disposed parallel to the path of the beam and which are arranged axially in a plurality of layers so that pins in each layer are offset with respect to pins in all other layers, enough layers being used so that each proton in the beam will strike at least one pin with means being provided to cool the pins. For a 300 mA, 1 GeV beam (300 MW), stainless steel pins, 12 inches long and 0.23 inches in diameter are arranged in triangular array in six layers with one sixth of the pins in each layer, the number of pins being such that the entire cross sectional area of the beam is covered by the pins with minimum overlap of pins.

  13. Implementing wide baseline matching algorithms on a graphics processing unit.

    SciTech Connect

    Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Larson, Kurt W.; Gonzales, Antonio Ignacio; Myers, Daniel S.

    2007-10-01

    Wide baseline matching is the state of the art for object recognition and image registration problems in computer vision. Though effective, the computational expense of these algorithms limits their application to many real-world problems. The performance of wide baseline matching algorithms may be improved by using a graphical processing unit as a fast multithreaded co-processor. In this paper, we present an implementation of the difference of Gaussian feature extractor, based on the CUDA system of GPU programming developed by NVIDIA, and implemented on their hardware. For a 2000x2000 pixel image, the GPU-based method executes nearly thirteen times faster than a comparable CPU-based method, with no significant loss of accuracy.

  14. Baseline ecological risk assessment Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The Salmon Site (SS), formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site, located in Mississippi was the site of two nuclear and two gas explosion tests conducted between 1964 and 1970. A consequence of these testing activities is that radionuclides were released into the salt dome, where they are presently contained. During reentry drilling and other site activities, incidental liquid and solid wastes that contained radioactivity were generated, resulting in some soil, ground water and equipment contamination. As part of the remedial investigation effort, a Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment was conducted at the SS. The purpose is to gauge ecological and other environmental impacts attributable to past activities at the former test facility. The results of this facility-specific baseline risk assessment are presented in this document.

  15. Technical baseline description for in situ vitrification laboratory test equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, K.V.; Bonnenberg, R.W.; Watson, L.R.

    1991-09-01

    IN situ vitrification (ISV) has been identified as possible waste treatment technology. ISV was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Richland, Washington, as a thermal treatment process to treat contaminated soils in place. The process, which electrically melts and dissolves soils and associated inorganic materials, simultaneously destroys and/or removes organic contaminants while incorporating inorganic contaminants into a stable, glass-like residual product. This Technical Baseline Description has been prepared to provide high level descriptions of the design of the Laboratory Test model, including all design modifications and safety improvements made to data. Furthermore, the Technical Baseline Description provides a basic overview of the interface documents for configuration management, program management interfaces, safety, quality, and security requirements. 8 figs.

  16. Ultrasonic Techniques for Baseline-Free Damage Detection in Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Debaditya

    This research presents ultrasonic techniques for baseline-free damage detection in structures in the context of structural health monitoring (SHM). Conventional SHM methods compare signals obtained from the pristine condition of a structure (baseline signals) with those from the current state, and relate certain changes in the signal characteristics to damage. While this approach has been successful in the laboratory, there are certain drawbacks of depending on baseline signals in real field applications. Data from the pristine condition are not available for most existing structures. Even if they are available, operational and environmental variations tend to mask the effect of damage on the signal characteristics. Most important, baseline measurements may become meaningless while assessing the condition of a structure after an extreme event such as an earthquake or a hurricane. Such events may destroy the sensors themselves and require installation of new sensors at different locations on the structure. Baseline-free structural damage detection can broaden the scope of SHM in the scenarios described above. A detailed discussion on the philosophy of baseline-free damage detection is provided in Chapter 1. Following this discussion, the research questions are formulated. The organization of this document and the major contributions of this research are also listed in this chapter. Chapter 2 describes a fully automated baseline-free technique for notch and crack detection in plates using a collocated pair of piezoelectric wafer transducers for measuring ultrasonic signals. Signal component corresponding to the damage induced mode-converted Lamb waves is extracted by processing the originally measured ultrasonic signals. The damage index is computed as a function of this mode-converted Lamb wave signal component. An over-determined system of Lamb wave measurements is used to find a least-square estimate of the measurement errors. This error estimate serves as the

  17. Centimeter repeatability of the VLBI estimates of European baselines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rius, Antonio; Zarraoa, Nestor; Sardon, Esther; Ma, Chopo

    1992-01-01

    In the last three years, the European Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Network has grown to a total of six fixed antennas placed in Germany, Italy, Spain and Sweden, all equipped with the standard geodetic VLBI instrumentation and data recording systems. During this period of time, several experiments have been carried out using this interferometer providing data of very high quality due to the excellent sensitivity and performance of the European stations. The purpose of this paper is to study the consistency of the VLBI geodetic results on the European baselines with respect to the different degrees of freedom in the analysis procedure. Used to complete this study were both real and simulated data sets, two different software packages (OCCAM 3.0 and CALC 7.4/SOLVE), and a variety of data analysis strategies.

  18. Coral reef baselines: how much macroalgae is natural?

    PubMed

    Bruno, John F; Precht, William F; Vroom, Peter S; Aronson, Richard B

    2014-03-15

    Identifying the baseline or natural state of an ecosystem is a critical step in effective conservation and restoration. Like most marine ecosystems, coral reefs are being degraded by human activities: corals and fish have declined in abundance and seaweeds, or macroalgae, have become more prevalent. The challenge for resource managers is to reverse these trends, but by how much? Based on surveys of Caribbean reefs in the 1970s, some reef scientists believe that the average cover of seaweed was very low in the natural state: perhaps less than 3%. On the other hand, evidence from remote Pacific reefs, ecological theory, and impacts of over-harvesting in other systems all suggest that, historically, macroalgal biomass may have been higher than assumed. Uncertainties about the natural state of coral reefs illustrate the difficulty of determining the baseline condition of even well studied systems.

  19. International data transfer for space very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiercigroch, Alexandria B.

    1994-01-01

    Space very long baseline interferometry (SVLBI) experiments using a TDRSS satellite have successfully demonstrated the capability of using spacecraft to extend the effective baseline length of VLBI observations beyond the diameter of the Earth, thereby improving the resolution for imaging of active galactic nuclei at centimeter wavelengths. As a result, two spacecraft dedicated to SVLBI, VSOP (Japan) and RadioAstron (Russia), are scheduled to be launched into high Earth orbit in 1996 and 1997. The success of these missions depends on the cooperation of the international community in providing support from ground tracking stations, ground radio telescopes, and correlation facilities. The timely exchange and monitoring of data among the participants requires a well-designed and automated international data transfer system. In this paper, we will discuss the design requirements, data types and flows, and the operational responsibilities associated with the SVLBI data transfer system.

  20. A very-long-baseline interferometer system for geodetic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, A. R.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Hinteregger, H. F.; Knight, C. A.; Levine, J. I.; Lippincott, S.; Clark, T. A.; Shapiro, I. I.; Robertson, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    A very-long-baseline interferometer system was designed and built for geodetic applications. Each interferometer terminal records a 360-kHz spectral band of noise from a compact extragalactic radio source. The center frequency of the spectral band can be selected to sample sequentially bands covering a much wider frequency range to obtain subnanosecond accuracy in group-delay measurements. A tunnel-diode pulse generator is used to calibrate the delays in the receiver. The necessary sets of algorithms and computer programs have been developed to analyze the data and have allowed the system to be employed to make accurate determinations of vector baselines, radio-source positions, polar motion, and universal time.

  1. TDRSS orbit determination using short baseline differenced carrier phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nandi, S.; Edwards, C. D.; Wu, S. C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses a covariance study on the feasibility of using station-differenced carrier phase on short baselines to track the TDRSS satellites. Orbit accuracies for the TDRSS using station-differenced carrier phase data and range data collected from White Sands, NM are given for various configurations of ground stations and range data precision. A one-sigma-position position accuracy of 25 meters can be achieved using two orthogonal baselines of 100 km for the station-differenced phase data and range data with 1 m accuracy. Relevant configuration parameters for the tracking system and important sources of error are examined. The ability of these data to redetermine the position after a station keeping maneuver is addressed. The BRTS system, which is currently used for TDRSS orbit determination, is briefly described and its errors are given for comparison.

  2. Measurement of baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Distributed platforms play an important role in aerospace remote sensing, radar navigation, and wireless communication applications. However, besides the requirement of high accurate time and frequency synchronization for coherent signal processing, the baseline between the transmitting platform and receiving platform and the orientation of platform towards each other during data recording must be measured in real time. In this paper, we propose an improved pulsed duplex microwave ranging approach, which allows determining the spatial baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms by the proposed high-precision time-interval estimation method. This approach is novel in the sense that it cancels the effect of oscillator frequency synchronization errors due to separate oscillators that are used in the platforms. Several performance specifications are also discussed. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by simulation results.

  3. The Fermilab Short-Baseline Program: MicroBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Schukraft, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The MicroBooNE experiment is the first of three detectors of the Fermilab short-baseline neutrino program that started operation in the Booster Neutrino Beamline in October 2015 [1]. When completed, the three-detector lineup will explore short-baseline neutrino oscillations and will be sensitive to sterile neutrino scenarios. MicroBooNE in itself is now starting its own physics program, with the measurement of neutrino-argon cross sections in the ~1GeV range being one of its main physics goals. These proceedings describe the status of the detector, the start of operation, and the automated reconstruction of the first neutrino events observed with MicroBooNE. Prospects for upcoming cross section measurements are also given.

  4. The multiple baseline design for evaluating population-based research.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Nathan G; Sanson-Fisher, Robert W; Shakeshaft, Anthony; D'Este, Catherine; Green, Lawrence W

    2007-08-01

    There is a need for pragmatic and rigorous research designs to evaluate the effectiveness of population-based health interventions. The randomized controlled trial (RCT) has limitations in its practicality, ethical appropriateness, and cost when evaluating population-based interventions. Like RCTs, the multiple baseline design can demonstrate that a change in behavior has occurred, the change is a result of the intervention, and the change is significant. Especially important practical advantages over the RCT are that this design requires fewer population groups and communities may act as their own controls. Advantages and methodologic limitations of the multiple baseline design are discussed, and where feasible, strategies to minimize the impact of its limitations are suggested. Recommendations for future research are included.

  5. Fissile materials disposition program plutonium immobilization project baseline formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B B; Armantrout, G A; Gray, L; Herman, C C; Shaw, H F; Van Konynenburg, R A

    2000-09-01

    Since 1994 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), with the help of several other laboratories and university groups, has been the lead laboratory for the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). This involves, among other tasks, the development of a formulation and a fabrication process for a ceramic to be used in the immobilization of excess weapons-usable plutonium. This report reviews the history of the project as it relates to the development of the ceramic form. It describes the sample test plan for the pyrochlore-rich ceramic formulation that was selected, and it specifies the baseline formulation that has been adopted. It also presents compositional specifications (e.g. precursor compositions and mixing recipes) and other form and process specifications that are linked or potentially linked to the baseline formulation.

  6. Measurement of Baseline and Orientation between Distributed Aerospace Platforms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Distributed platforms play an important role in aerospace remote sensing, radar navigation, and wireless communication applications. However, besides the requirement of high accurate time and frequency synchronization for coherent signal processing, the baseline between the transmitting platform and receiving platform and the orientation of platform towards each other during data recording must be measured in real time. In this paper, we propose an improved pulsed duplex microwave ranging approach, which allows determining the spatial baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms by the proposed high-precision time-interval estimation method. This approach is novel in the sense that it cancels the effect of oscillator frequency synchronization errors due to separate oscillators that are used in the platforms. Several performance specifications are also discussed. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by simulation results. PMID:23844416

  7. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter-Trial Correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaton, K. H.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for sensorimotor adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a "one-size-fits-all" approach is inappropriate. Therefore, it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. This information could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time and provide better outcomes. The principal aim of this work is to look for baseline performance metrics that relate to locomotor adaptability. We propose a novel hypothesis that considers baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations ("noise") in motor performance, as a predictor of individual adaptive capabilities.

  8. Long-baseline neutrino physics in the U.S

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, Sacha E.; /Texas U.

    2006-12-01

    Long baseline neutrino oscillation physics in the U.S. is centered at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), in particular at the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beamline commissioned in 2004-2005. Already, the MINOS experiment has published its first results confirming the disappearance of {nu}{sub {mu}}'s across a 735 km baseline. The forthcoming NOvA experiment will search for the transition {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} and use this transition to understand the mass heirarchy of neutrinos. These, as well as other conceptual ideas for future experiments using the NuMI beam, will be discussed. The turn-on of the NuMI facility has been positive, with over 310 kW beam power achieved. Plans for increasing the beam intensity once the Main Injector accelerator is fully-dedicated to the neutrino program will be presented.

  9. Statistical Mechanics of Node-perturbation Learning with Noisy Baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Kazuyuki; Katahira, Kentaro; Okada, Masato

    2017-02-01

    Node-perturbation learning is a type of statistical gradient descent algorithm that can be applied to problems where the objective function is not explicitly formulated, including reinforcement learning. It estimates the gradient of an objective function by using the change in the object function in response to the perturbation. The value of the objective function for an unperturbed output is called a baseline. Cho et al. proposed node-perturbation learning with a noisy baseline. In this paper, we report on building the statistical mechanics of Cho's model and on deriving coupled differential equations of order parameters that depict learning dynamics. We also show how to derive the generalization error by solving the differential equations of order parameters. On the basis of the results, we show that Cho's results are also apply in general cases and show some general performances of Cho's model.

  10. Assessing the Impact of Tissue Target Concentration Data on Uncertainty in In Vivo Target Coverage Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Luo, H; Chen, X; Singh, P; Bhattacharya, I; Jasper, P; Tolsma, JE; Jones, HM; Zutshi4, A; Abraham5, AK

    2016-01-01

    Understanding pharmacological target coverage is fundamental in drug discovery and development as it helps establish a sequence of research activities, from laboratory objectives to clinical doses. To this end, we evaluated the impact of tissue target concentration data on the level of confidence in tissue coverage predictions using a site of action (SoA) model for antibodies. By fitting the model to increasing amounts of synthetic tissue data and comparing the uncertainty in SoA coverage predictions, we confirmed that, in general, uncertainty decreases with longitudinal tissue data. Furthermore, a global sensitivity analysis showed that coverage is sensitive to experimentally identifiable parameters, such as baseline target concentration in plasma and target turnover half‐life and fixing them reduces uncertainty in coverage predictions. Overall, our computational analysis indicates that measurement of baseline tissue target concentration reduces the uncertainty in coverage predictions and identifies target‐related parameters that greatly impact the confidence in coverage predictions. PMID:27770597

  11. Yield of Computed Tomography at Baseline Staging of Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ferrándiz, L; Silla-Prósper, M; García-de-la-Oliva, A; Mendonça, F M; Ojeda-Vila, T; Moreno-Ramírez, D

    2016-01-01

    Current guidelines call for baseline imaging only for very high-risk (T4b) primary cutaneous melanomas. To estimate the frequency of computed tomography (CT) at baseline staging of primary cutaneous melanoma and the diagnostic yield of CT; and to describe the types and frequencies of incidentaloma findings. Cross-sectional study of cutaneous melanoma cases (tumor classifications Tis to T4bN0M0) attended between 2008 and 2014 in a specialized melanoma unit. Reports of CT scans performed during baseline staging were reviewed to determine the frequency of positive scan results, incidentaloma findings, unit cost for detection of metastasis, and factors associated with the decision to order CT. CT results were available for 310 of the 419 patients included (73.99%). The tumor classifications were as follows: Tis, 17; T1, 137; T2, 71; T3, 48; and T4, 37. The CT results were negative in 81.61%, and incidentalomas were found in 18.06%. Additional primary tumors were found in 2 patients (0.64%), and metastasis was identified in one patient (0.32%). The cost of finding the case of metastasis was €71,234.90. A T2 tumor classification (odds ratio [OR], 8.73) and age under 70 years (OR, 3.53) were associated with greater likelihood of CT being ordered. Excision of the primary tumor in the melanoma unit (OR, 0.08) was associated with less likelihood of ordering CT. The results for this patient series support current recommendations restricting CT at baseline to cases where there is high risk of metastasis (stagesiiC-iii). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  12. Tools for NEPA compliance: Baseline reports and compliance guides

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, T.A.; Hansen, R.P.

    1994-12-31

    Environmental baseline documents and NEPA compliance guides should be carried in every NEPA implementation ``tool kit``. These two indispensable tools can play a major role in avoiding repeated violations of NEPA requirements that have occurred over the past 26 years. This paper describes these tools, discusses their contents, and explains how they are used to prepare better NEPA documents more cost-effectively. Focus is on experience at Sandia Laboratories (NM).

  13. Baseline tests of the battronic Minivan electric delivery van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O.; Soltis, R. F.; Bozek, J. M.; Maslowski, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    An electric passenger vehicle was tested to develop data characterizing the state of the art of electric and hybrid vehicles. The test measured vehicle maximum speed, range at constant speed, range over stop-and-go driving schedules, maximum acceleration, gradeability and limit, road energy consumption, road power, indicated energy consumption, braking capability and battery charge efficiency. The data obtained are to serve as a baseline to compare improvements in electric and hybrid vehicle technologies and to assist in establishing performance standards.

  14. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: User guide

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, J.C.; Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Matsumoto, S.W.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.; Winters, C.; Wood, B.M.

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. This User Guide explains how to start and use the IBS Program, which is designed to help civilian emergency management personnel to plan for and support their responses to a chemical-releasing event at a military chemical stockpile. The intended audience for this document is all users of the IBS, especially emergency management planners and analysts.

  15. Determining Baseline Stress-Related Hormone Values in Large Cetaceans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    related hormone levels associated with capture methods used prior to the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972. In other words, there will be no stress...Office of Naval Research’s Marine Mammal Physiology Program (Code 32) seeks to develop an understanding of the natural variation of stress markers...in marine mammals and acoustic exposure and ‘biologically significant’ disturbances. This study is aimed at determining baseline stress-hormone

  16. Studies of multi-baseline spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, F.; Goldstein, R.

    1987-01-01

    A set of Seasat SAR data that were obtained in nearly repeat ground track orbits is utilized to simulate the performance of spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) systems. A qualitative assessment of the topography measurement capability is presented. A phase measurement error model is described and compared with the data obtained at various baseline separations and signal-to-noise ratios. Finally, the implications of these results on the future spaceborne ISAR design are discussed.

  17. Baseline measurements of terrestrial gamma radioactivity at the CEBAF site

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Smith, A.R.

    1991-10-01

    A survey of the gamma radiation background from terrestrial sources was conducted at the CEBAF site, Newport News, Virginia, on November 12--16, 1990, to provide a gamma radiation baseline for the site prior to the startup of the accelerator. The concentrations and distributions of the natural radioelements in exposed soil were measured, and the results of the measurements were converted into gamma-ray exposure rates. Concurrently, samples were collected for laboratory gamma spectral analyses.

  18. Baseline measurements of terrestrial gamma radioactivity at the CEBAF site

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Smith, A.R.

    1991-10-01

    A survey of the gamma radiation background from terrestrial sources was conducted at the CEBAF site, Newport News, Virginia, on November 12--16, 1990, to provide a gamma radiation baseline for the site prior to the startup of the accelerator. The concentrations and distributions of the natural radioelements in exposed soil were measured, and the results of the measurements were converted into gamma-ray exposure rates. Concurrently, samples were collected for laboratory gamma spectral analyses.

  19. A moving baseline for evaluation of advanced coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickerton, C. R.; Westerfield, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    Results from the initial effort to establish baseline economic performance comparators for a program whose intent is to define, develop, and demonstrate advanced systems suitable for coal resource extraction beyond the year 2000 are reported. Systems used were selected from contemporary coal mining technology and from conservation conjectures of year 2000 technology. The analysis was also based on a seam thickness of 6 ft. Therefore, the results are specific to the study systems and the selected seam extended to other seam thicknesses.

  20. An Efficient Wide-Baseline Dense Matching Descriptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yanli; Miao, Zhenjiang; Tang, Zhen; Wan, Lili; Wang, Zhe

    This letter proposes an efficient local descriptor for wide-baseline dense matching. It improves the existing Daisy descriptor by combining intensity-based Haar wavelet response with a new color-based ratio model. The color ratio model is invariant to changes of viewing direction, object geometry, and the direction, intensity and spectral power distribution of the illumination. The experiments show that our descriptor has high discriminative power and robustness.

  1. A novel type of very long baseline astronomical intensity interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borra, Ermanno F.

    2013-12-01

    This article presents a novel type of very long baseline astronomical interferometer that uses the fluctuations, as a function of time, of the intensity measured by a quadratic detector, which is a common type of astronomical detector. The theory on which the technique is based is validated by laboratory experiments. Its outstanding principal advantages comes from the fact that the angular structure of an astronomical object is simply determined from the visibility of the minima of the spectrum of the intensity fluctuations measured by the detector, as a function of the frequency of the fluctuations, while keeping the spacing between mirrors constant. This would allow a simple setup capable of high angular resolutions because it could use an extremely large baseline. Another major interest is that it allows for a more efficient use of telescope time because observations at a single baseline are sufficient, while amplitude and intensity interferometers need several observations at different baselines. The fact that one does not have to move the telescopes would also allow detecting faster time variations because having to move the telescopes sets a lower limit to the time variations that can be detected. The technique uses wave interaction effects and thus has some characteristics in common with intensity interferometry. A disadvantage of the technique, like in intensity interferometry, is that it needs strong sources if observing at high frequencies (e.g. the visible). This is a minor disadvantage in the radio region. At high frequencies, this disadvantage is mitigated by the fact that, like in intensity interferometry, the requirements of the optical quality of the mirrors used are far less severe than in amplitude interferometry so that poor quality large reflectors (e.g. Cherenkov telescopes) can be used in the optical region.

  2. A Resilient Program technical baseline framework for future space systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Guillen, Andy T.; Matsunaga, Sumner S.

    2015-05-01

    Recent Better Buying Power (BBP) initiative for improving DoD's effectiveness in developing complex systems includes "Owning the Technical Baseline" (OTB). This paper presents an innovative approach for the development of a "Resilient Program" Technical Baseline Framework (PTBF). The framework provides a recipe for generating the "Resilient Program2" Technical Baseline (PTB) components using the Integrated Program Management (IPM) approach to integrate Key Program Elements (KPEs)3 with System Engineering (SE) process/tools, acquisition policy/process/tools, Cost and Schedule estimating tools, DOD Architecture Framework (DODAF) process/tools, Open System Architecture (OSA) process/tools, Risk Management process/tools, Critical Chain Program Management (CCPM) process, and Earned Value Management System (EVMS) process/tools. The proposed resilient framework includes a matrix that maps the required tools/processes to technical features of a comprehensive reference U.S. DOD "owned" technical baseline. Resilient PTBF employs a new Open System Approach (OSAP) combining existing OSA4 and NOA (Naval Open Architecture) frameworks, supplemented by additional proposed OA (Open Architecture) principles. The new OSAP being recommended to SMC (Space and Missiles Systems Center) presented in this paper is referred to as SMC-OSAP5. Resilient PTBF and SMC-OSAP conform to U.S. DOD Acquisition System (DAS), Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System (JCIDS), and DODAF processes. The paper also extends Ref. 21 on "Program Resiliency" concept by describing how the new OSAP can be used to align SMC acquisition management with DOD BBP 3.0 and SMC's vison for resilient acquisition and sustainment efforts.

  3. Measuring ocean coherence time with dual-baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carande, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    Using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) interferometer, measurements of the ocean coherence time at L and C band can be made at high spatial resolution. Fundamental to this measurement is the ability to image the ocean interferometrically at two different time-lags, or baselines. By modifying the operating procedure of the existing two antenna interferometer, a technique was developed make these measurements. L band coherence times are measured and presented.

  4. Logistics Operations Management Center: Maintenance Support Baseline (LOMC-MSB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurrus, R.; Stump, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Logistics Operations Management Center Maintenance Support Baseline is defined. A historical record of systems, applied to and deleted from, designs in support of future management and/or technical analysis is provided. All Flight elements, Ground Support Equipment, Facility Systems and Equipment and Test Support Equipment for which LOMC has responsibilities at Kennedy Space Center and other locations are listed. International Space Station Alpha Program documentation is supplemented. The responsibility of the Space Station Launch Site Support Office is established.

  5. Relationships Between Metabolic Syndrome and Other Baseline Factors and the Efficacy of Ezetimibe/Simvastatin and Atorvastatin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Ronald B.; Guyton, John R.; Mazzone, Theodore; Weinstock, Ruth S.; Polis, Adam B.; Tipping, Diane; Tomassini, Joanne E.; Tershakovec, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate relationships between baseline factors and treatment-associated efficacy changes in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Multivariable analyses of treatment response in 1,229 type 2 diabetic patients with hypercholesterolemia who received ezetimibe/simvastatin or atorvastatin in a randomized double-blind 6-week study. RESULTS Increasing age was related to improvements in all lipid assessments. Men had greater triglyceride and non-HDL cholesterol reductions than women, and black/Hispanic patients had less favorable lipid effects than other races/ethnicities. Increasing baseline LDL cholesterol was associated with improvements in most lipids; higher baseline non-HDL cholesterol with improved HDL cholesterol and triglycerides; higher baseline HDL cholesterol with greater non-HDL cholesterol and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) reductions; and higher baseline hs-CRP with smaller LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B reductions. Patients with high baseline non-HDL cholesterol or triglycerides less frequently attained LDL cholesterol targets. Obesity was inversely related to HDL cholesterol and hs-CRP changes, and higher baseline A1C to smaller apolipoprotein B reductions. Metabolic syndrome was not a significant predictor. CONCLUSIONS Treatment responses in type 2 diabetic patients were related to baseline factors, although treatment effects (ezetimibe/simvastatin being more effective than atorvastatin) remained consistent. The presence of predictive factors should be considered in planning lipid-altering therapy. PMID:20150290

  6. Application of outlier analysis for baseline-free damage diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung Dae; In, Chi Won; Cronin, Kelly E.; Sohn, Hoon; Harries, Kent

    2006-03-01

    As carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates have been widely accepted as valuable materials for retrofitting civil infrastructure systems, an appropriate assessment of bonding conditions between host structures and CFRP laminates becomes a critical issue to guarantee the performance of CFRP strengthened structures. This study attempts to develop a continuous performance monitoring system for CFRP strengthened structures by autonomously inspecting the bonding conditions between the CFRP layers and the host structure. The uniqueness of this study is to develop a new concept and theoretical framework of nondestructive testing (NDT), in which debonding is detected "without using past baseline data." The proposed baseline-free damage diagnosis is achieved in two stages. In the first step, features sensitive to debonding of the CFPR layers but insensitive to loading conditions are extracted based on a concept referred to as a time reversal process. This time reversal process allows extracting damage-sensitive features without direct comparison with past baseline data. Then, a statistical damage classifier will be developed in the second step to make a decision regarding the bonding condition of the CFRP layers. The threshold necessary for decision making will be adaptively determined without predetermined threshold values. Monotonic and fatigue load tests of full-scale CFRP strengthened RC beams are conducted to demonstrate the potential of the proposed reference-free debonding monitoring system.

  7. Safety Performance of Airborne Separation: Preliminary Baseline Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Wing, David J.; Baxley, Brian T.

    2007-01-01

    The Safety Performance of Airborne Separation (SPAS) study is a suite of Monte Carlo simulation experiments designed to analyze and quantify safety behavior of airborne separation. This paper presents results of preliminary baseline testing. The preliminary baseline scenario is designed to be very challenging, consisting of randomized routes in generic high-density airspace in which all aircraft are constrained to the same flight level. Sustained traffic density is varied from approximately 3 to 15 aircraft per 10,000 square miles, approximating up to about 5 times today s traffic density in a typical sector. Research at high traffic densities and at multiple flight levels are planned within the next two years. Basic safety metrics for aircraft separation are collected and analyzed. During the progression of experiments, various errors, uncertainties, delays, and other variables potentially impacting system safety will be incrementally introduced to analyze the effect on safety of the individual factors as well as their interaction and collective effect. In this paper we report the results of the first experiment that addresses the preliminary baseline condition tested over a range of traffic densities. Early results at five times the typical traffic density in today s NAS indicate that, under the assumptions of this study, airborne separation can be safely performed. In addition, we report on initial observations from an exploration of four additional factors tested at a single traffic density: broadcast surveillance signal interference, extent of intent sharing, pilot delay, and wind prediction error.

  8. Baseline Adaptive Wavelet Thresholding Technique for sEMG Denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolomeo, L.; Zecca, M.; Sessa, S.; Lin, Z.; Mukaeda, Y.; Ishii, H.; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2011-06-01

    The surface Electromyography (sEMG) signal is affected by different sources of noises: current technology is considerably robust to the interferences of the power line or the cable motion artifacts, but still there are many limitations with the baseline and the movement artifact noise. In particular, these sources have frequency spectra that include also the low-frequency components of the sEMG frequency spectrum; therefore, a standard all-bandwidth filtering could alter important information. The Wavelet denoising method has been demonstrated to be a powerful solution in processing white Gaussian noise in biological signals. In this paper we introduce a new technique for the denoising of the sEMG signal: by using the baseline of the signal before the task, we estimate the thresholds to apply to the Wavelet thresholding procedure. The experiments have been performed on ten healthy subjects, by placing the electrodes on the Extensor Carpi Ulnaris and Triceps Brachii on right upper and lower arms, and performing a flexion and extension of the right wrist. An Inertial Measurement Unit, developed in our group, has been used to recognize the movements of the hands to segment the exercise and the pre-task baseline. Finally, we show better performances of the proposed method in term of noise cancellation and distortion of the signal, quantified by a new suggested indicator of denoising quality, compared to the standard Donoho technique.

  9. Baseline BOLD correlation predicts individuals' stimulus-evoked BOLD responses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Wei

    2011-02-01

    To investigate whether individuals' ongoing neuronal activity at resting state can affect their response to brain stimulation, fMRI BOLD signals were imaged from the human visual cortex of fifteen healthy subjects in the absence and presence of visual stimulation. It was found that the temporal correlation strength but not amplitude of baseline BOLD signal fluctuations acquired under the eyes-fixed condition is positively correlated with the amplitude of stimulus-evoked BOLD responses across subjects. Moreover, the spatiotemporal correlations of baseline BOLD signals imply a coherent network covering the visual system, which is topographically indistinguishable from the "resting-state visual network" observed under the eyes-closed condition. The overall findings suggest that the synchronization of ongoing brain activity plays an important role in determining stimulus-evoked brain activity even at an early stage of the sensory system. The tight relationship between baseline BOLD correlation and stimulus-evoked BOLD amplitude provides an essential basis for understanding and interpreting the large inter-subject BOLD variability commonly observed in numerous fMRI studies and potentially for improving group fMRI analysis. This study highlights the importance to integrate the information from both resting-state coherent networks and task-evoked neural responses for a better understanding of how the brain functions.

  10. Wide baseline stereo matching based on double topological relationship consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaohong; Liu, Bin; Song, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yang

    2009-07-01

    Stereo matching is one of the most important branches in computer vision. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for wide-baseline stereo vision matching. Here, a novel scheme is presented called double topological relationship consistency (DCTR). The combination of double topological configuration includes the consistency of first topological relationship (CFTR) and the consistency of second topological relationship (CSTR). It not only sets up a more advanced model on matching, but discards mismatches by iteratively computing the fitness of the feature matches and overcomes many problems of traditional methods depending on the powerful invariance to changes in the scale, rotation or illumination across large view changes and even occlusions. Experimental examples are shown where the two cameras have been located in very different orientations. Also, epipolar geometry can be recovered using RANSAC by far the most widely method adopted possibly. By the method, we can obtain correspondences with high precision on wide baseline matching problems. Finally, the effectiveness and reliability of this method are demonstrated in wide-baseline experiments on the image pairs.

  11. Gravity sensing with Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlippert, Dennis; Albers, Henning; Richardson, Logan L.; Nath, Dipankar; Meiners, Christian; Wodey, Etienne; Schubert, Christian; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.

    2016-05-01

    Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry (VLBAI) has applications in high-accuracy absolute gravimetry, gravity-gradiometry, and for tests of fundamental physics. Extending the baseline of atomic gravimeters from tens of centimeters to meters opens the route towards competition with superconducting gravimeters. The VLBAI-test stand will consist of a 10m-baseline atom interferometer allowing for free fall times of seconds. In order to suppress environmental noise, the facility utilizes a state-of-the-art vibration isolation platform and a three-layer magnetic shield. We envisage a resolution of local gravitational acceleration of 5 .10-10 m/ s2 with sub-ppb inaccuracy. Operation as a gradiometer will allow to resolve the gravity gradient at a resolution of 5 .10-10 1/ s2. The operation of VLBAI as a differential dual-species gravimeter using ultracold mixtures of Yb and Rb atoms enables quantum tests of the universality of free fall (UFF) at an unprecedented level, with the potential to surpass the accuracy of the best experiments to date. We report on a quantum test of the UFF using two different chemical elements, 39 K and 87 Rb, reaching a 100 ppb inaccuracy and show the potential of UFF tests in VLBAI at an inaccuracy of 10-13 and beyond.

  12. Baseline Brain Activity Predicts Response to Neuromodulatory Pain Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Mark P.; Sherlin, Leslie H.; Fregni, Felipe; Gianas, Ann; Howe, Jon D.; Hakimian, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to examine the associations between baseline electroencephalogram (EEG)-assessed brain oscillations and subsequent response to four neuromodulatory treatments. Based on available research, we hypothesized that baseline theta oscillations would prospectively predict response to hypnotic analgesia. Analyses involving other oscillations and the other treatments (meditation, neurofeedback, and both active and sham transcranial direct current stimulation) were viewed as exploratory, given the lack of previous research examining brain oscillations as predictors of response to these other treatments. Design Randomized controlled study of single sessions of four neuromodulatory pain treatments and a control procedure. Methods Thirty individuals with spinal cord injury and chronic pain had their EEG recorded before each session of four active treatments (hypnosis, meditation, EEG biofeedback, transcranial direct current stimulation) and a control procedure (sham transcranial direct stimulation). Results As hypothesized, more presession theta power was associated with greater response to hypnotic analgesia. In exploratory analyses, we found that less baseline alpha power predicted pain reduction with meditation. Conclusions The findings support the idea that different patients respond to different pain treatments and that between-person treatment response differences are related to brain states as measured by EEG. The results have implications for the possibility of enhancing pain treatment response by either 1) better patient/treatment matching or 2) influencing brain activity before treatment is initiated in order to prepare patients to respond. Research is needed to replicate and confirm the findings in additional samples of individuals with chronic pain. PMID:25287554

  13. COMSATCOM service technical baseline strategy development approach using PPBW concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Guillen, Andy T.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach to develop a Commercial Satellite Communications (COMSATCOM) service Technical Baseline (TB) and associated Program Baseline (PB) strategy using Portable Pool Bandwidth (PPBW) concept. The concept involves trading of the purchased commercial transponders' Bandwidths (BWs) with existing commercial satellites' bandwidths participated in a "designated pool bandwidth"3 according to agreed terms and conditions. Space Missile Systems Center (SMC) has been implementing the Better Buying Power (BBP 3.0) directive4 and recommending the System Program Offices (SPO) to own the Program and Technical Baseline (PTB) [1, 2] for the development of flexible acquisition strategy and achieving affordability and increased in competition. This paper defines and describes the critical PTB parameters and associated requirements that are important to the government SPO for "owning" an affordable COMSATCOM services contract using PPBW trading concept. The paper describes a step-by-step approach to optimally perform the PPBW trading to meet DoD and its stakeholders (i) affordability requirement, and (ii) fixed and variable bandwidth requirements by optimizing communications performance, cost and PPBW accessibility in terms of Quality of Services (QoS), Bandwidth Sharing Ratio (BSR), Committed Information Rate (CIR), Burstable Information Rate (BIR), Transponder equivalent bandwidth (TPE) and transponder Net Presence Value (NPV). The affordable optimal solution that meets variable bandwidth requirements will consider the operating and trading terms and conditions described in the Fair Access Policy (FAP).

  14. Behavioral activation in acute inpatient psychiatry: a multiple baseline evaluation.

    PubMed

    Folke, Fredrik; Hursti, Timo; Tungström, Stefan; Söderberg, Per; Kanter, Jonathan W; Kuutmann, Klara; Olofsson, Hanna; Ekselius, Lisa

    2015-03-01

    The present study employed a multiple baseline study design with repeated measures to explore clinical outcomes, therapy mechanisms, and feasibility of Behavioral Activation for persons admitted to inpatient psychiatry. Six adult inpatients with depressive symptoms and different psychiatric disorders were randomized to different lengths of baseline standard inpatient treatment. Subsequently a 5-day, 10-session Behavioral Activation protocol was added. Daily self-report outcome and process measures were administered and supplemented with hourly self-reports and clinician assessments before and after each study phase. After a relatively stable baseline, at least four participants showed marked gradual improvements both in terms of outcome as well as activation and avoidance as Behavioral Activation was initiated. The temporal relation between process and outcome differed somewhat across metrics. In most instances however, change in activation and avoidance either coincided or preceded decreased depression. We did not include some relatively common disorders, did not control for the effects of increased attention, did not investigate treatment integrity, and did not conduct follow-up after discharge. Raters were not blind and measures were mainly focused on depressive symptoms. All received concurrent medical treatment. This preliminary study further supports the promise of Behavioral Activation as an inpatient treatment for persons with a variety of psychiatric disorders. Results also lends preliminary support for the purported mechanisms of Behavioral Activation.

  15. Isolation of ultrasonic scattering by wavefield baseline subtraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Alexander J.; Michaels, Jennifer E.; Michaels, Thomas E.

    2016-03-01

    Wavefield imaging generally refers to the measurement of signals over a two-dimensional rectilinear grid that originate from a spatially fixed source. Subtraction of such wavefields is investigated as a means of separating scattered signals from the total wavefield; that is, baseline wavefield data acquired from a defect-free specimen are subtracted from analogous data acquired after introduction of a defect. The wavefields considered here are generated by a 5 MHz angle-beam probe and measured over an area of the accessible specimen surface using a laser vibrometer. The primary challenge in isolating the scattered waves is imperfect temporal and spatial alignment of the two wavefields. Two methods for aligning the wavefields in space and time prior to performing baseline subtraction are presented and their efficacy is evaluated using data acquired before and after introducing notches that originate from a through-hole. Although perfect baseline subtraction is not achieved, the improvement in performance after alignment using either method allows for scattered waves from small defects to be separated and visualized, even when their amplitudes are much smaller than those of the incident waves.

  16. Baseline brain activity predicts response to neuromodulatory pain treatment.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Mark P; Sherlin, Leslie H; Fregni, Felipe; Gianas, Ann; Howe, Jon D; Hakimian, Shahin

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations between baseline electroencephalogram (EEG)-assessed brain oscillations and subsequent response to four neuromodulatory treatments. Based on available research, we hypothesized that baseline theta oscillations would prospectively predict response to hypnotic analgesia. Analyses involving other oscillations and the other treatments (meditation, neurofeedback, and both active and sham transcranial direct current stimulation) were viewed as exploratory, given the lack of previous research examining brain oscillations as predictors of response to these other treatments. Randomized controlled study of single sessions of four neuromodulatory pain treatments and a control procedure. Thirty individuals with spinal cord injury and chronic pain had their EEG recorded before each session of four active treatments (hypnosis, meditation, EEG biofeedback, transcranial direct current stimulation) and a control procedure (sham transcranial direct stimulation). As hypothesized, more presession theta power was associated with greater response to hypnotic analgesia. In exploratory analyses, we found that less baseline alpha power predicted pain reduction with meditation. The findings support the idea that different patients respond to different pain treatments and that between-person treatment response differences are related to brain states as measured by EEG. The results have implications for the possibility of enhancing pain treatment response by either 1) better patient/treatment matching or 2) influencing brain activity before treatment is initiated in order to prepare patients to respond. Research is needed to replicate and confirm the findings in additional samples of individuals with chronic pain. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Value of Baseline Cardiovascular Mechanics in Predicting Exercise Training Success.

    PubMed

    Aslanger, Emre; Assous, Benjamin; Bihry, Nicolas; Beauvais, Florence; Logeart, Damien; Cohen-Solal, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Despite being repeatedly shown that exercise training (ET) increases exercise capacity and decreases mortality in many cardiac conditions, not all patients enjoy the benefits of ET programs. We hypothesized that baseline cardiovascular mechanic properties, including cardiac systolic and diastolic functions, arterial mechanics and ventriculoarterial interaction, may have a role in predicting response to ET. Full left ventricular pressure-volume loops were constructed and arterial mechanics were evaluated using echocardiographic and tonometric measurements. A cardiopulmonary exercise (CPX) test was performed before and after the ET program. Sixty of the 75 patients with coronary artery disease or heart failure diagnoses completed the study. All of the CPX parameters showed a significant improvement with ET. The change in oxygen uptake correlated only with arterial parameters, such as compliance (r = 0.399, P = .002), end-systolic arterial elastance (r = -0.293, P = .02), aortic pulse pressure (r = -0.302, P = .02), and brachial pulse pressure (r = -0.312, P = .01). Receiver-operating characteristics analysis demonstrated that baseline arterial compliance and brachial pulse pressure predicted a significantly positive ET result with reasonable sensitivity and specificity. Patients with a more compliant arterial system improved their exercise capacity more with ET. Evaluation of baseline arterial compliance may facilitate proper patient selection and may define patients who need optimizing measures for the arterial system before commencing ET. Even a simple blood pressure measurement may give clues in this regard.

  18. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter-Trial Correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaton, K. H.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges surrounding adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a "one-size-fits-all" approach is inappropriate. Therefore, it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. Such knowledge could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time, both preflight and inflight, and provide better outcomes. The primary goal of this project is to look for a baseline performance metric that can forecast sensorimotor adaptability without exposure to an adaptive stimulus. We propose a novel hypothesis that considers baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations in motor performance, as a predictor of individual sensorimotor adaptive capabilities. To-date, a strong relationship has been found between baseline inter-trial correlations and adaptability in two oculomotor systems. For this project, we will explore an analogous predictive mechanism in the locomotion system. METHODS: Baseline Inter-trial Correlations: Inter-trial correlations specify the relationships among repeated trials of a given task that transpire as a consequence of correcting for previous performance errors over multiple timescales. We can quantify the strength of inter-trial correlations by measuring the decay of the autocorrelation function (ACF), which describes how rapidly information from past trials is "forgotten." Processes whose ACFs decay more slowly exhibit longer-term inter-trial correlations (longer memory processes), while processes whose ACFs decay more rapidly exhibit shorterterm inter-trial correlations (shorter memory processes). Longer-term correlations reflect low-frequency activity, which is more easily

  19. HealthLinks Randomized Controlled Trial: Design and Baseline Results

    PubMed Central

    Hammerback, Kristen; Allen, Claire L.; Parrish, Amanda T.; Chan, K. Gary; Kohn, Marlana J.; Teague, Sara; Beresford, Shirley A.A.; Helfrich, Christian D.; Harris, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Small employers, especially those in low-wage industries, frequently lack the capacity and resources to implement evidence-based health promotion interventions without support and assistance. The purpose of this paper is to (a) describe the intervention design and study protocol of the HealthLinks Trial and (b) report baseline findings. This study is a three-arm randomized controlled trial testing the impact of the HealthLinks intervention on worksites’ adoption and implementation of evidence-based interventions. Group 1 will receive HealthLinks, Group 2 will receive HealthLinks plus wellness committees, and Group 3 will be a delayed control group. Seventy-eight employers are participating in the study; 3302 employees across the worksites participated in baseline data collection. Employers and employees will participate in follow-up surveys at one and two years after baseline to measure implementation (one year) and maintenance (two years) of HealthLinks interventions. Study outcomes will determine whether HealthLinks is an effective approach to increasing evidence-based health promotion in small, low-wage worksites and whether wellness committees are a capacity-building tool that increases HealthLinks’ effectiveness. PMID:26946121

  20. Baseline and longitudinal grey matter changes in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease: ICICLE-PD study.

    PubMed

    Mak, Elijah; Su, Li; Williams, Guy B; Firbank, Michael J; Lawson, Rachael A; Yarnall, Alison J; Duncan, Gordon W; Owen, Adrian M; Khoo, Tien K; Brooks, David J; Rowe, James B; Barker, Roger A; Burn, David J; O'Brien, John T

    2015-10-01

    Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease is associated with progression to dementia (Parkinson's disease dementia) in a majority of patients. Determining structural imaging biomarkers associated with prodromal Parkinson's disease dementia may allow for the earlier identification of those at risk, and allow for targeted disease modifying therapies. One hundred and five non-demented subjects with newly diagnosed idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 37 healthy matched controls had serial 3 T structural magnetic resonance imaging scans with clinical and neuropsychological assessments at baseline, which were repeated after 18 months. The Movement Disorder Society Task Force criteria were used to classify the Parkinson's disease subjects into Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment (n = 39) and Parkinson's disease with no cognitive impairment (n = 66). Freesurfer image processing software was used to measure cortical thickness and subcortical volumes at baseline and follow-up. We compared regional percentage change of cortical thinning and subcortical atrophy over 18 months. At baseline, cases with Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment demonstrated widespread cortical thinning relative to controls and atrophy of the nucleus accumbens compared to both controls and subjects with Parkinson's disease with no cognitive impairment. Regional cortical thickness at baseline was correlated with global cognition in the combined Parkinson's disease cohort. Over 18 months, patients with Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment demonstrated more severe cortical thinning in frontal and temporo-parietal cortices, including hippocampal atrophy, relative to those with Parkinson's disease and no cognitive impairment and healthy controls, whereas subjects with Parkinson's disease and no cognitive impairment showed more severe frontal cortical thinning compared to healthy controls. At baseline, Parkinson's disease with no cognitive impairment

  1. Accelerator target

    SciTech Connect

    Schlyer, David J.; Ferrieri, Richard A.; Koehler, Conrad

    1999-01-01

    A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression.

  2. Accelerator target

    DOEpatents

    Schlyer, D.J.; Ferrieri, R.A.; Koehler, C.

    1999-06-29

    A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression. 5 figs.

  3. Accelerator target

    SciTech Connect

    Schlyer, D.J.; Ferrieri, R.A.; Koehler, C.

    1999-06-29

    A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression. 5 figs.

  4. Acoustic tracking of an unmanned underwater vehicle using a passive ultrashort baseline array and a single long baseline beacon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaton, Kyle L.

    This thesis discusses a new approach to tracking the REMUS 100 AUV using a modified version of the Florida Atlantic University (FAU) ultrashort baseline (USBL) acoustic positioning system (APS). The REMUS 100 is designed to utilize a long baseline (LBL) acoustic positioning system to obtain positioning data in mid-mission. If the placement of one of the transponders of the LBL field is known, then tracking the position of the REMUS 100 AUV using a passive USBL array is possible. As part of the research for this thesis, the FAU USBL system was used to find a relative range between the REMUS 100 ranger and a LBL transponder. This relative range was then combined with direction of arrival information and LBL field component position information to determine an absolute position of the REMUS 100 ranger. The outcome was the demonstration of a passive USBL based tracking system.

  5. Management of the baseline shift using a new and simple method for respiratory-gated radiation therapy: Detectability and effectiveness of a flexible monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Tachibana, Hidenobu; Kitamura, Nozomi; Ito, Yasushi; Kawai, Daisuke; Nakajima, Masaru; Tsuda, Akihisa; Shiizuka, Hisao

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: In respiratory-gated radiation therapy, a baseline shift decreases the accuracy of target coverage and organs at risk (OAR) sparing. The effectiveness of audio-feedback and audio-visual feedback in correcting the baseline shift in the breathing pattern of the patient has been demonstrated previously. However, the baseline shift derived from the intrafraction motion of the patient's body cannot be corrected by these methods. In the present study, the authors designed and developed a simple and flexible system. Methods: The system consisted of a web camera and a computer running our in-house software. The in-house software was adapted to template matching and also to no preimage processing. The system was capable of monitoring the baseline shift in the intrafraction motion of the patient's body. Another marker box was used to monitor the baseline shift due to the flexible setups required of a marker box for gated signals. The system accuracy was evaluated by employing a respiratory motion phantom and was found to be within AAPM Task Group 142 tolerance (positional accuracy <2 mm and temporal accuracy <100 ms) for respiratory-gated radiation therapy. Additionally, the effectiveness of this flexible and independent system in gated treatment was investigated in healthy volunteers, in terms of the results from the differences in the baseline shift detectable between the marker positions, which the authors evaluated statistically. Results: The movement of the marker on the sternum [1.599 {+-} 0.622 mm (1 SD)] was substantially decreased as compared with the abdomen [6.547 {+-} 0.962 mm (1 SD)]. Additionally, in all of the volunteers, the baseline shifts for the sternum [-0.136 {+-} 0.868 (2 SD)] were in better agreement with the nominal baseline shifts than was the case for the abdomen [-0.722 {+-} 1.56 mm (2 SD)]. The baseline shifts could be accurately measured and detected using the monitoring system, which could acquire the movement of the marker on the

  6. Targeting circuits

    PubMed Central

    Rajasethupathy, Priyamvada; Ferenczi, Emily; Deisseroth, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Current optogenetic methodology enables precise inhibition or excitation of neural circuits, spanning timescales as needed from the acute (milliseconds) to the chronic (many days or more), for experimental modulation of network activity and animal behavior. Such broad temporal versatility, unique to optogenetic control, is particularly powerful when combined with brain activity measurements that span both acute and chronic timescales as well. This enables, for instance, the study of adaptive circuit dynamics across the intact brain, and tuning interventions to match activity patterns naturally observed during behavior in the same individual. Although the impact of this approach has been greater on basic research than on clinical translation, it is natural to ask if specific neural circuit activity patterns discovered to be involved in controlling adaptive or maladaptive behaviors could become targets for treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases. Here we consider the landscape of such ideas related to therapeutic targeting of circuit dynamics, taking note of developments not only in optical but also in ultrasonic, magnetic, and thermal methods. We note the recent emergence of first-in-kind optogenetically-guided clinical outcomes, as well as opportunities related to the integration of interventions and readouts spanning diverse circuit-physiology, molecular, and behavioral modalities. PMID:27104976

  7. Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Brodrick, J.R. ); Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A. )

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort's electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils [number sign]2 and [number sign]6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort.

  8. Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort`s electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils {number_sign}2 and {number_sign}6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort.

  9. Literature Review for the Baseline Knowledge Assessment of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, L.F.

    2003-12-10

    The purpose of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT) Program Baseline Knowledge Assessment is to measure the current level of awareness and understanding of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and the hydrogen economy. This information will be an asset to the HFCIT program in formulating an overall education plan. It will also provide a baseline for comparison with future knowledge and opinion surveys. To assess the current understanding and establish the baseline, the HFCIT program plans to conduct scientific surveys of four target audience groups--the general public, the educational community, governmental agencies, and potential large users. The purpose of the literature review is to examine the literature and summarize the results of surveys that have been conducted in the recent past concerning the existing knowledge and attitudes toward hydrogen. This literature review covers both scientific and, to a lesser extent, non-scientific polls. Seven primary data sources were reviewed, two of which were studies based in Europe. Studies involved both closed-end and open-end questions; surveys varied in length from three questions to multi-page interviews. Populations involved in the studies were primarily adults, although one study involved students. The number of participants ranged from 13 to over 16,000 per study. In addition to the primary surveys, additional related studies were mined for pertinent information. The primary conclusions of the surveys reviewed are that the public knows very little about hydrogen and fuel cell technologies but is generally accepting of the potential for hydrogen use. In general, respondents consider themselves as environmentally conscious. The public considers safety as the primary issue surrounding hydrogen as a fuel. Price, performance, and convenience are also considerations that will have major impacts on purchase decisions.

  10. Association between baseline peri-infarct magnetic resonance spectroscopy and regional white matter atrophy after stroke.

    PubMed

    Yassi, Nawaf; Campbell, Bruce C V; Moffat, Bradford A; Steward, Christopher; Churilov, Leonid; Parsons, Mark W; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Desmond, Patricia M; Davis, Stephen M; Bivard, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral atrophy after stroke is associated with poor functional outcome. The prediction and prevention of post-stroke brain atrophy could therefore represent a target for neurorestorative therapies. We investigated the associations between peri-infarct metabolite concentrations measured by quantitative MRS and brain volume change in the infarct hemisphere after stroke. Twenty patients with ischemic stroke were enrolled. Patients underwent 3T-MRI within 1 week of onset, and at 1 and 3 months. At the baseline scan, an MRS voxel was placed manually in the peri-infarct area and another in the corresponding contralateral region. Volumetric analysis of T1 images was performed using two automated processing packages. Changes in gray and white matter volume were assessed as percentage change between 1 and 3 months. Mean concentrations (institutional units) of N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA) (6.1 vs 7.0, p = 0.039), total creatine (Cr+PCr) (5.4 vs 5.8, p = 0.043), and inositol (4.5 vs 5.0, p = 0.014), were significantly lower in the peri-infarct region compared with the contralateral hemisphere. There was a significant correlation between baseline peri-infarct NAA and white matter volume change in the infarct hemisphere between 1 and 3 months, with lower NAA being associated with subsequent white matter atrophy (Spearman's rho = 0.66, p = 0.010). The baseline concentration of Cr+PCr was also significantly correlated with white matter atrophy in the infarct hemisphere (Spearman's rho = 0.59, p = 0.027). Both of these associations were significant after adjustment for the false discovery rate and were validated using the secondary volumetric method. MRS may be useful in the prediction of white matter atrophy post-stroke and in the testing of novel neurorestorative therapies.

  11. Baseline biomarkers for outcome of melanoma patients treated with pembrolizumab

    PubMed Central

    Weide, Benjamin; Martens, Alexander; Hassel, Jessica C.; Berking, Carola; Postow, Michael A.; Bisschop, Kees; Simeone, Ester; Mangana, Johanna; Schilling, Bastian; Di Giacomo, Anna Maria; Brenner, Nicole; Kähler, Katharina; Heinzerling, Lucie; Gutzmer, Ralf; Bender, Armin; Gebhardt, Christoffer; Romano, Emanuela; Meier, Friedegund; Martus, Peter; Maio, Michele; Blank, Christian; Schadendorf, Dirk; Dummer, Reinhard; Ascierto, Paolo A.; Hospers, Geke; Garbe, Claus; Wolchok, Jedd D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Biomarkers for outcome after immune-checkpoint blockade are strongly needed as these may influence individual treatment selection or sequence. We aimed to identify baseline factors associated with overall survival (OS) following pembrolizumab treatment in melanoma patients. Experimental design Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), routine blood count parameters, and clinical characteristics were investigated in 616 patients. Endpoints were OS and best overall response following pembrolizumab. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression were applied for survival analysis. Results Relative eosinophil count (REC) ≥1.5%, relative lymphocyte count (RLC) ≥17.5%, ≤2.5-fold elevation of LDH, and the absence of metastasis other than soft-tissue/lung were associated with favorable OS in the discovery (n=177) and the confirmation (n=182) cohort and had independent positive impact (all P<0.001). Their independent role was subsequently confirmed in the validation cohort (n=257; all P<0.01). The number of favorable factors was strongly associated with prognosis. One-year-OS probabilities of 83.9% vs 14.7% and response rates of 58.3% vs 3.3% were observed in patients with four out of four compared to those with none out of four favorable baseline factors present, respectively. Conclusions High REC and RLC, low LDH, and absence of metastasis other than soft-tissue/lung are independent baseline characteristics associated with favorable OS of patients with melanoma treated with pembrolizumab. Presence of four favorable factors in combination identifies a subgroup with excellent prognosis. In contrast, patients with no favorable factors present have a poor prognosis, despite pembrolizumab, and additional treatment advances are still needed. A potential predictive impact needs to be further investigated. PMID:27185375

  12. Baseline concentrations of 15 trace elements in Florida surface soils

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M.; Ma, L.Q.; Harris, W.G.

    1999-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish baseline concentrations for 15 potentially toxic elements (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, cu, Hg, Ma, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Zn) based on 448 representative Florida surface soils using microwave assisted HNO{sub 3}-HCl-HF digestion. Baseline concentrations of those elements were (mg kg{sup {minus}1}): Ag 0.07-2.50, As 0.02-7.01, Ba 1.67-112, Be 0.04-4.15, Cd 0-0.33, Cr 0.89-80.7, Cu 0.22-21.9, Hg 0.00075-0.0396, Mo 0.13-6.76, Ni 1.70-48.5, Pb 0.69-42.0, Sb 0.06-0.79, Se 0.01-1.11, and Zn 0.89-29.6, respectively. Upper baseline values for most elements corresponded with these reported in literature, except Ba, Hg, Mn, Sb, and Zn, which were 3 to 23 times lower. Soil properties, including pH, organic carbon (OC), particle size, cation-exchange capacity (CEC), available water, extractable base, extractable acidity, total Ca, Mg, P, K, Fe, and Al concentrations, were related to metal concentrations using factorial analysis. Eight factors were identified (total Fe and Al, CEC, pH, clay, OC, total Ni and Mo, total Sb and Pb, and total Hg) and accounted for 87% of the total variance, suggesting that metal concentrations were primarily controlled by soil compositions. Multiple regression of elemental concentrations against total Fe, total Al, clay, OC, CEC, and pH was significant for all elements. Partial correlation coefficients indicated that total Fe and/or Al explained most of the variance for Mn, Ni, Ba, Be, Hg, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb, and Zn concentrations. Most of the variance in Se was related to clay, whereas those of Ag and Sb related to clay and total Al.

  13. International mission planning for space Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulvestad, James S.

    1994-01-01

    Two spacecraft dedicated to Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) will be launched in 1996 and 1997 to make observations using baselines between the space telescopes and many of the world's ground radio telescopes. The Japanese Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) will launch VSOP (VLBI Space Observatory Program) in September 1996, while the Russian Astro Space Center (ASC) is scheduled to launch RadioAstron in 1997. Both spacecraft will observe radio sources at frequencies near 1.7, 4.8, and 22 GHz; RadioAstron will also observe at 0.33 GHz. The baselines between space and ground telescopes will provide 3-10 times the resolution available for ground VLBI at the same observing frequencies. Ground tracking stations on four continents will supply the required precise frequency reference to each spacecraft measure the two-way residual phase and Doppler on the ground-space link, and record 128 Megabit/s of VLBI data downlinked from the spacecraft. The spacecraft data are meaningless without cross-correlation against the data from Earth-bound telescopes, which must take place at special-purpose VLBI correlation facilities. Therefore, participation by most of the world's radio observatories is needed to achieve substantial science return from VSOP and RadioAstron. The collaboration of several major space agencies and the ground observatories, which generally follow very different models for allocation of observing time and for routine operations, leads to great complexity in mission planning and in day-to-day operations. This paper describes some of those complications and the strategies being developed to assure productive scientific missions.

  14. Gravity sensing with Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlippert, Dennis; Albers, Henning; Richardson, Logan L.; Nath, Dipankar; Meiners, Christian; Wodey, Étienne; Schubert, Christian; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.

    2016-04-01

    Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry (VLBAI) represents a new class of atom optics experiments with applications in high-accuracy absolute gravimetry, gravity-gradiometry, and for tests of fundamental physics. Extending the baseline of atomic gravimeters from tens of centimeters to several meters opens the route towards competition with superconducting gravimeters. The VLBAI-test stand will consist of a 10m-baseline atom interferometer allowing for free fall times on the order of seconds, which will implemented in the Hannover Institut für Technologie (HITec) of the Leibniz Universität Hannover. In order to suppress environmental noise, the facility utilizes a state-of-the-art vibration isolation platform and a three-layer magnetic shield. We envisage a resolution of local gravitational acceleration of 5 ṡ 10-10 m/s2 with an inaccuracy < 10-9 m/s2. Operation as a gravity-gradiometer will allow to resolve the first-order gravity gradient with a resolution of 5 ṡ 10-10 1/s2. The operation of VLBAI as a differential dual-species gravimeter using ultracold mixtures of ytterbium and rubidium atoms enables quantum tests of the universality of free fall (UFF) at an unprecedented level [1], with the potential to surpass the accuracy of the best experiments to date [2]. We report on the first quantum test of the UFF using two different chemical elements, 39K and 87Rb [3], reaching a 100 ppb inaccuracy and show the potential of UFF tests in VLBAI at an inaccuracy of 10-13 and beyond. References J. Hartwig et al., New J. Phys. 17, 035011- (2015) S. Schlamminger et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 041101- (2008) D. Schlippert et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 203002 (2014)

  15. 200-UP-2 Operable Unit technical baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    Deford, D.H.

    1991-02-01

    This report is prepared in support of the development of a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan for the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit by EBASCO Environmental, Incorporated. It provides a technical baseline of the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit and results from an environmental investigation undertaken by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 200-UP-2 Operable Unit Technical Baseline Report is based on review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, Hanford Site drawings and photographs and is supplemented with Hanford Site inspections and employee interviews. No field investigations or sampling were conducted. Each waste site in the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit is described separately. Close relationships between waste units, such as overflow from one to another, are also discussed. The 200-UP-2 Operable Unit consists of liquid-waste disposal sites in the vicinity of, and related to, U Plant operations in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The U Plant'' refers to the 221-U Process Canyon Building, a chemical separations facility constructed during World War 2. It also includes the Uranium Oxide (UO{sub 3}) Plant, which was constructed at the same time and, like the 221-U Process Canyon Building, was later converted for other missions. Waste sites in the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit are associated with the U Plant Uranium Metal Recovery Program mission that occurred between 1952 and 1958 and the UO{sub 3} Plant's ongoing uranium oxide mission and include one or more cribs, reverse wells, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, waste vaults, and the lines and encasements that connect them. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Target production for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Woodworth, J.G.; Meier, W.

    1995-03-01

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require the ignition and burn of 5-10 fusion fuel targets every second. The technology to economically mass produce high-quality, precision targets at this rate is beyond the current state of the art. Techniques that are scalable to high production rates, however, have been identified for all the necessary process steps, and many have been tested in laboratory experiments or are similar to current commercial manufacturing processes. In this paper, we describe a baseline target factory conceptual design and estimate its capital and operating costs. The result is a total production cost of {approximately}16{cents} per target. At this level, target production represents about 6% of the estimated cost of electricity from a 1-GW{sub e} IFE power plant. Cost scaling relationships are presented and used to show the variation in target cost with production rate and plant power level.

  17. TWRS phase I privatization site environmental baseline and characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Shade, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    This document provides a plan to characterize and develop an environmental baseline for the TWRS Phase I Privatization Site before construction begins. A site evaluation study selected the former Grout Disposal Area of the Grout Treatment Facility in the 200 East Area as the TWRS Phase I Demonstration Site. The site is generally clean and has not been used for previous activities other than the GTF. A DQO process was used to develop a Sampling and Analysis Plan that would allow comparison of site conditions during operations and after Phase I ends to the presently existing conditions and provide data for the development of a preoperational monitoring plan.

  18. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: Utilities Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Williams, J.R.; Bower, J.C.

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the US Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency. This Utilities Guide explains how you can use the IBS utility programs to manage and manipulate various kinds of IBS data. These programs include utilities for creating, editing, and displaying maps and other data that are referenced to geographic location. The intended audience for this document are chiefly data managers but also system managers and some emergency management planners and analysts.

  19. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 1.03: Utilities guide

    SciTech Connect

    Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Pottier, M.C.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool that was developed under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). This Utilities Guide explains how to operate utility programs that are supplied as a part of the IBS. These utility programs are chiefly for managing and manipulating various kinds of IBS data and system administration files. Many of the utilities are for creating, editing, converting, or displaying map data and other data that are related to geographic location.

  20. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: Models guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the US Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency. This Models Guide summarizes the IBS use of several computer models for predicting the results of emergency situations. These include models for predicting dispersion/doses of airborne contaminants, traffic evacuation, explosion effects, heat radiation from a fire, and siren sound transmission. The guide references additional technical documentation on the models when such documentation is available from other sources. The audience for this manual is chiefly emergency management planners and analysts, but also data managers and system managers.

  1. Scanner baseliner monitoring and control in high volume manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samudrala, Pavan; Chung, Woong Jae; Aung, Nyan; Subramany, Lokesh; Gao, Haiyong; Gomez, Juan-Manuel

    2016-03-01

    We analyze performance of different customized models on baseliner overlay data and demonstrate the reduction in overlay residuals by ~10%. Smart Sampling sets were assessed and compared with the full wafer measurements. We found that performance of the grid can still be maintained by going to one-third of total sampling points, while reducing metrology time by 60%. We also demonstrate the feasibility of achieving time to time matching using scanner fleet manager and thus identify the tool drifts even when the tool monitoring controls are within spec limits. We also explore the scanner feedback constant variation with illumination sources.

  2. Baseline review of the U.S. LHC Accelerator project

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Review of the U.S. Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Accelerator project was conducted February 23--26, 1998, at the request of Dr. John R. O`Fallon, Director, Division of High Energy Physics, Office of Energy Research, U.S. DOE. This is the first review of the U.S. LHC Accelerator project. Overall, the Committee found that the U.S. LHC Accelerator project effort is off to a good start and that the proposed scope is very conservative for the funding available. The Committee recommends that the project be initially baselined at a total cost of $110 million, with a scheduled completion data of 2005. The U.S. LHC Accelerator project will supply high technology superconducting magnets for the interaction regions (IRs) and the radio frequency (rf) straight section of the LHC intersecting storage rings. In addition, the project provides the cryogenic support interface boxes to service the magnets and radiation absorbers to protect the IR dipoles and the inner triplet quadrupoles. US scientists will provide support in analyzing some of the detailed aspects of accelerator physics in the two rings. The three laboratories participating in this project are Brookhaven National Laboratory, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Committee was very impressed by the technical capabilities of the US LHC Accelerator project team. Cost estimates for each subsystem of the US LHC Accelerator project were presented to the Review Committee, with a total cost including contingency of $110 million (then year dollars). The cost estimates were deemed to be conservative. A re-examination of the funding profile, costs, and schedules on a centralized project basis should lead to an increased list of deliverables. The Committee concluded that the proposed scope of US deliverables to CERN can be readily accomplished with the $110 million total cost baseline for the project. The current deliverables should serve as

  3. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment Compliance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, John A.

    2013-09-16

    This document is the second of a two-part analysis of Emergency Response Capabilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first part, 2013 Baseline Needs Assessment Requirements Document established the minimum performance criteria necessary to meet mandatory requirements. This second part analyses the performance of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Emergency Management Department to the contents of the Requirements Document. The document was prepared based on an extensive review of information contained in the 2009 BNA, the 2012 BNA document, a review of Emergency Planning Hazards Assessments, a review of building construction, occupancy, fire protection features, dispatch records, LLNL alarm system records, fire department training records, and fire department policies and procedures.

  4. A FPGA Implementation of JPEG Baseline Encoder for Wearable Devices.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuecheng; Jia, Wenyan; Luan, Bo; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, an efficient field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of the JPEG baseline image compression encoder is presented for wearable devices in health and wellness applications. In order to gain flexibility in developing FPGA-specific software and balance between real-time performance and resources utilization, A High Level Synthesis (HLS) tool is utilized in our system design. An optimized dataflow configuration with a padding scheme simplifies the timing control for data transfer. Our experiments with a system-on-chip multi-sensor system have verified our FPGA implementation with respect to real-time performance, computational efficiency, and FPGA resource utilization.

  5. The SAMI survey - a baseline study for galaxy evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colless, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    The SAMI multi-IFU survey is obtaining spatially resolved spectroscopy for more than 3000 galaxies covering a wide range in mass, morphological type and environment. It provides the most comprehensive baseline study of low-redshift galaxies against which studies of high-redshift galaxies can be compared. I will review the main findings of the SAMI survey to date, including key results on the spatial distribution of star-formation as a function of mass and morphology, the mass-metallicity relation, the prevalence and origin of galactic winds, the distribution of kinematic morphologies with environment, and a tight dynamical scaling relation that holds for all morphological types.

  6. A FPGA Implementation of JPEG Baseline Encoder for Wearable Devices

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuecheng; Jia, Wenyan; Luan, Bo; Mao, Zhi-hong; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of the JPEG baseline image compression encoder is presented for wearable devices in health and wellness applications. In order to gain flexibility in developing FPGA-specific software and balance between real-time performance and resources utilization, A High Level Synthesis (HLS) tool is utilized in our system design. An optimized dataflow configuration with a padding scheme simplifies the timing control for data transfer. Our experiments with a system-on-chip multi-sensor system have verified our FPGA implementation with respect to real-time performance, computational efficiency, and FPGA resource utilization. PMID:26190911

  7. Organic Contamination Baseline Study on NASA JSC Astromaterial Curation Gloveboxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; Burkett, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Future planned sample return missions to carbon-rich asteroids and Mars in the next two decades will require strict handling and curation protocols as well as new procedures for reducing organic contamination. After the Apollo program, astromaterial collections have mainly been concerned with inorganic contamination [1-4]. However, future isolation containment systems for astromaterials, possibly nitrogen enriched gloveboxes, must be able to reduce organic and inorganic cross-contamination. In 2012, a baseline study was orchestrated to establish the current state of organic cleanliness in gloveboxes used by NASA JSC astromaterials curation labs that could be used as a benchmark for future mission designs.

  8. Future long-baseline neutrino oscillations: View from Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Patzak, T.

    2015-07-15

    Since about a decade the european physics community interested in neutrino and neutrino-astrophysics develops a plan to conceive the next generation large underground neutrino observatory. Recently, the LAGUNA-LBNO collaboration made the outcome of the FP7 design study public which shows a clear path for the realization of such experiment. In this paper the LAGUNA and LAGUNA-LBNO Design studies, resulting in a proposal for the LBNO experiment, will be discussed. The author will focus on the long baseline neutrino oscillation search, especially on the potential to discover the neutrino mass ordering and the search for CP violation in the lepton sector.

  9. Prospects for next generation long-baseline oscillation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Deborah A Harris

    2003-06-17

    This document describes some of the exciting possibilities for the next steps in the field of long baseline neutrino oscillation measurements. Because the primary goals of these new experiments are so different from those of the current generation, one cannot simply increase the running time or detector mass of the current programs. There are several new strategies which have been discussed for taking the next steps: sometimes the detectors, sometimes the beamlines, and sometimes both are radically different from what is now in place.

  10. Discrete Address Beacon System (DABS) Baseline Test and Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    provides a method for performing a full loop system check. The CPME is permanently installed at a surveyed location within the, coverage pattern of one or...13 4 ATCRBS/DABS Performance as a Function of Signal Strength 27 5 Probability of Detection of Clear Air Targets for 29 ATCRBS/DABS Targets in ATCRBS...Only and ATCRBS and DABS Mixed Fruit Environments 6 Probability of Detection 31 7 ATCRBS Mode A-Code/DABS ID Reliability 32 8 Altitude Reliability 34

  11. Rapidly shifting environmental baselines among fishers of the Gulf of California

    PubMed Central

    Sáenz-Arroyo, Andrea; Roberts, Callum M; Torre, Jorge; Cariño-Olvera, Micheline; Enríquez-Andrade, Roberto R

    2005-01-01

    Shifting environmental baselines are inter-generational changes in perception of the state of the environment. As one generation replaces another, people's perceptions of what is natural change even to the extent that they no longer believe historical anecdotes of past abundance or size of species. Although widely accepted, this phenomenon has yet to be quantitatively tested. Here we survey three generations of fishers from Mexico's Gulf of California (N=108), where fish populations have declined steeply over the last 60 years, to investigate how far and fast their environmental baselines are shifting. Compared to young fishers, old fishers named five times as many species and four times as many fishing sites as once being abundant/productive but now depleted (Kruskal–Wallis tests, both p<0.001) with no evidence of a slowdown in rates of loss experienced by younger compared to older generations (Kruskal–Wallis test, n.s. in both cases). Old fishers caught up to 25 times as many Gulf grouper Mycteroperca jordani as young fishers on their best ever fishing day (regression r2=0.62, p<0.001). Despite times of plentiful large fish still being within living memory, few young fishers appreciated that large species had ever been common or nearshore sites productive. Such rapid shifts in perception of what is natural help explain why society is tolerant of the creeping loss of biodiversity. They imply a large educational hurdle in efforts to reset expectations and targets for conservation. PMID:16191603

  12. Baseline Characteristics of African Americans in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT)

    PubMed Central

    Still, Carolyn H.; Craven, Timothy E.; Freedman, Barry I.; Van Buren, Peter; Sink, Kaycee M.; Killeen, Anthony A.; Bates, Jeffrey T.; Bee, Alberta; Contreras, Gabriel; Oparil, Suzanne; Pedley, Carolyn; Wall, Barry; White, Suzanne; Woods, Delia; Rodriguez, Carlos; Wright, Jackson T.

    2015-01-01

    The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) will compare treatment to a systolic blood pressure goal of <120 mmHg to treatment to the currently recommended goal of <140 mmHg for effects on incident cardiovascular, renal, and neurologic outcomes including cognitive decline. Objectives The objectives of this analysis are to compare baseline characteristics of African American (AA) and non-AA SPRINT participants and explore factors associated with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) by race. Methods SPRINT enrolled 9,361 hypertensive participants over age 50. This cross-sectional analysis examines sociodemographics, baseline characteristics, and study measures among AAs compared to non-AAs. Results AAs made up 31% of participants. AAs (compared to non-AAs) were younger and less frequently male, had less education, and were more likely uninsured or covered by Medicaid. In addition, AAs scored lower on the cognitive screening test when compared to non-AAs. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found BP control rates to <140/90 mmHg were higher for AAs who were male, had higher number of chronic diseases, were on diuretic treatment, and had better medication adherence. Conclusion SPRINT is well poised to examine the effects of SBP targets on clinical outcomes as well as predictors influencing BP control in AAs. PMID:26320890

  13. Search for Short-Baseline Oscillations in the NOvA Near Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasetti, Siva Prasad; Aurisano, Adam; Bambah, Bindu Anubha; Miao, Ting; Cooper, John W.; NOvA Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The anomalous electron antineutrino excess appearing in muon antineutrino beams seen by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments can be explained by oscillations between the three known active neutrinos and new sterile neutrino flavors with masses near 1eV. If these light sterile neutrinos exist, they would open a brand new sector in physics, not foreseen in the Standard Model. NOvA is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment primarily designed to measure the rate of electron neutrino appearance at the Far Detector using the NuMI neutrino beam, which is predominantly composed of muon neutrinos at Fermilab. NOvA has two finely-grained liquid scintillator detectors placed 14 mrad off-axis to the NuMI beam. The Near Detector is located 1 km away from the NuMI target at Fermilab and the Far Detector is located 810 km away from Fermilab at Ash River, MN. Besides standard neutrino oscillation measurements, NOvA Near Detector can be used to perform searches for anomalous short-baseline oscillations and probe the LSND and MiniBooNE allowed regions for the existence of exotic phenomena such as sterile neutrinos. This talk will present sensitivities to oscillations into sterile neutrinos by searching for electron neutrino appearance and muon neutrino disappearance at the Near Detector.

  14. THE VERY LONG BASELINE ARRAY GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY-VGaPS

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, L.; Fomalont, E. B.; Gordon, D. E-mail: yyk@asc.rssi.ru E-mail: David.Gordon-1@nasa.gov

    2011-08-15

    This paper presents accurate absolute positions from a 24 GHz Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) search for compact extragalactic sources in an area where the density of known calibrators with precise coordinates is low. The goals were to identify additional sources suitable for use as phase calibrators for galactic sources, determine their precise positions, and produce radio images. In order to achieve these goals, we developed a new software package, PIMA, for determining group delays from wide-band data with much lower detection limits. With the use of PIMA, we have detected 327 sources out of 487 targets observed in three 24 hr VLBA experiments. Among the 327 detected objects, 176 are within 10 deg. of the Galactic plane. This VGaPS catalog of source positions, plots of correlated flux density versus projected baseline length, contour plots, as well as weighted CLEAN images, and calibrated visibility data are available on the Web in FITS format. Approximately one-half of objects from the 24 GHz catalog were observed at dual-band 8.6 GHz and 2.3 GHz experiments. Position differences at 24 GHz versus 8.6/2.3 GHz for all but two objects on average are strictly within reported uncertainties. We found that for two objects with complex structures, positions at different frequencies correspond to different components of a source.

  15. Hardware test program for evaluation of baseline range/range rate sensor concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Hardware Test Program for evaluation of the baseline range/range rate sensor concept was initiated 11 September 1984. This ninth report covers the period 12 May through 11 June 1885. A contract amendment adding a second phase has extended the Hardware Test Program through 10 December 1985. The objective of the added program phase is to establish range and range measurement accuracy and radar signature characteristics for a typical spacecraft target. Phase I of the Hardware Test Program was designed to reduce the risks associated with the Range/Range Rate (R/R) Sensor baseline design approach. These risks are associated with achieving the sensor performance required for the two modes of operation, the Interrupted CW (ICW) mode for initial acquisition and tracking to close-in ranges, and the CW mode, providing coverage during the final docking maneuver. The risks associated with these modes of operation have to do with the realization of adequate sensitivity to operate to their individual maximum ranges.

  16. HIGH-PRECISION ASTROMETRIC MILLIMETER VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY USING A NEW METHOD FOR ATMOSPHERIC CALIBRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Rioja, M.; Dodson, R.

    2011-04-15

    We describe a new method which achieves high-precision very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) astrometry in observations at millimeter (mm) wavelengths. It combines fast frequency-switching observations, to correct for the dominant non-dispersive tropospheric fluctuations, with slow source-switching observations, for the remaining ionospheric dispersive terms. We call this method source-frequency phase referencing. Provided that the switching cycles match the properties of the propagation media, one can recover the source astrometry. We present an analytic description of the two-step calibration strategy, along with an error analysis to characterize its performance. Also, we provide observational demonstrations of a successful application with observations using the Very Long Baseline Array at 86 GHz of the pairs of sources 3C274 and 3C273 and 1308+326 and 1308+328 under various conditions. We conclude that this method is widely applicable to mm-VLBI observations of many target sources, and unique in providing bona fide astrometrically registered images and high-precision relative astrometric measurements in mm-VLBI using existing and newly built instruments, including space VLBI.

  17. Treating myofunctional disorders: a multiple-baseline study of a new treatment using electropalatography.

    PubMed

    Mantie-Kozlowski, Alana; Pitt, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    This study assessed the benefit of using electropalatography (EPG) in treatment aimed at habilitating individuals with nonspeech orofacial myofunctional disorders (NSOMD). The study used a multiple-baseline design across 3 female participants who were referred for an evaluation and possible treatment of their NSOMD. Treatment sessions were 30 min and provided twice weekly. Participant 1 received 8 treatments, Participant 2 received 6 treatments, and Participant 3 received 4 treatments. The patterns of sensor activation produced when participants' tongues made contact with the electropalate during saliva swallows were compared with the patterns of age-matched peers. Individualized goals were developed on the basis of these comparisons. Treatment was generally effective for the established goals. Of the 3 participants, 2 met all their goals, and the 3rd participant made gains across 1 of 2 goals. Participants continued to perform above baseline levels for most targeted goals during testing 5-8 weeks posttreatment. When used in skilled treatment, EPG has potential as a means of habilitating NSOMD. It may serve as a valuable tool, providing the clinician and client with information that allows for individualized treatment planning.

  18. Alcator C-Mod Experiments in Support of the ITER Baseline 15 MA Scenario

    SciTech Connect

    C Kessel, et al

    2013-05-07

    Experiments on Alcator C-Mod have addressed several issues for the ITER 15 MA baseline scenario from 2009-2012. Rampup studies show ICRF can save significant V-s, and that an H-mode in the ramp can be utilized to save 50% more. ICRF modifications to li(1) are minimal, although the Te profile is peaked relative to ohmic in the plasma center, and alter sawtooth onset times. Rampdown studies show H-modes can be routinely sustained, avoiding an OH coil over-current associated with the H-L transition, that fast rampdowns are preferred, the density drops with Ip, and that the H-L transition occurs at Ploss/Pthr,LH ~ 1.0-1.3 at n/nGr ~ 0.85. Flattop plasmas targeting ITER baseline parameters have been sustained for 20 τE or 8-13 τCR, but only reach H98 ~ 0.6 at n/nGr = 0.85, rising to 0.9 at n/nGr = 0.65.

  19. CNE article: safety culture in Australian intensive care units: establishing a baseline for quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Chaboyer, Wendy; Chamberlain, Di; Hewson-Conroy, Karena; Grealy, Bernadette; Elderkin, Tania; Brittin, Maureen; McCutcheon, Catherine; Longbottom, Paula; Thalib, Lukman

    2013-03-01

    Workplace safety culture is a crucial ingredient in patients' outcomes and is increasingly being explored as a guide for quality improvement efforts. To establish a baseline understanding of the safety culture in Australian intensive care units. In a nationwide study of physicians and nurses in 10 Australian intensive care units, the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire intensive care unit version was used to measure safety culture. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the mean scores for the 6 subscales of the questionnaire, and generalized-estimation-equations models were used to test the hypotheses that safety culture differed between physicians and nurses and between nurse leaders and bedside nurses. A total of 672 responses (50.6% response rate) were received: 513 (76.3%) from nurses, 89 (13.2%) from physicians, and 70 (10.4%) from respondents who did not specify their professional group. Ratings were highest for teamwork climate and lowest for perceptions of hospital management and working conditions. Four subscales, job satisfaction, teamwork climate, safety climate, and working conditions, were rated significantly higher by physicians than by nurses. Two subscales, working conditions and perceptions of hospital management, were rated significantly lower by nurse leaders than by bedside nurses. Measuring the baseline safety culture of an intensive care unit allows leaders to implement targeted strategies to improve specific dimensions of safety culture. These strategies ultimately may improve the working conditions of staff and the care that patients receive.

  20. Rapidly shifting environmental baselines among fishers of the Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Sáenz-Arroyo, Andrea; Roberts, Callum M; Torre, Jorge; Cariño-Olvera, Micheline; Enríquez-Andrade, Roberto R

    2005-09-22

    Shifting environmental baselines are inter-generational changes in perception of the state of the environment. As one generation replaces another, people's perceptions of what is natural change even to the extent that they no longer believe historical anecdotes of past abundance or size of species. Although widely accepted, this phenomenon has yet to be quantitatively tested. Here we survey three generations of fishers from Mexico's Gulf of California (N=108), where fish populations have declined steeply over the last 60 years, to investigate how far and fast their environmental baselines are shifting. Compared to young fishers, old fishers named five times as many species and four times as many fishing sites as once being abundant/productive but now depleted (Kruskal-Wallis tests, both p<0.001) with no evidence of a slowdown in rates of loss experienced by younger compared to older generations (Kruskal-Wallis test, n.s. in both cases). Old fishers caught up to 25 times as many Gulf grouper Mycteroperca jordani as young fishers on their best ever fishing day (regression r(2)=0.62, p<0.001). Despite times of plentiful large fish still being within living memory, few young fishers appreciated that large species had ever been common or nearshore sites productive. Such rapid shifts in perception of what is natural help explain why society is tolerant of the creeping loss of biodiversity. They imply a large educational hurdle in efforts to reset expectations and targets for conservation.