Science.gov

Sample records for hippodamia variegata goeze

  1. Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Found in South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptea: Coccinellidae), a Palearctic lady beetles established in North America, is reported for the first time from the state of South Dakota, U.S.A. Implications for biological control and future research are discussed....

  2. Porphyria variegata.

    PubMed

    Dean, G

    1982-01-01

    A form of porphyria inherited as a Mendelian dominant characteristic can cause both cutaneous lesions on the exposed skin and attacks of acute porphyria following certain drugs, for instance barbiturates. Because it presents in a variety of forms it has been named porphyria variegata. This form of porphyria is very common among the White and Coloured South Africans because of 'founder effect'. A high proportion of the present population are descendants of a small number of early settlers, one of whom introduced the gene for this condition. The disease has been traced over 17 generations to Gerrit Jansz who came from Deventer in Holland and who married Ariaantje, an orphan from Rotterdam, in 1688. In the quiescent state porphyria variegata is best diagnosed by the examination of a solution of the stool in ultraviolet light which shows the pink fluorescence of porphyrin. In the acute attack porphobilinogen and porphyrin are greatly increased in the urine. Porphyria variegata also occurs outside of South Africa but in these countries it is less common than acute intermittent porphyria. The diagnosis and treatment is described and the story that the insanity of King George III of England was due to porphyria variegata is refuted.

  3. Prey foraging by Hippodamia convergens for cereal aphids on wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated predation by adult convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, on English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae L., on wheat, Triticum aestivum L., plants in a laboratory arena, and developed a functional response model for the number of aphids eaten by an adult female con...

  4. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata trypsin inhibitor: From isolation to potential medicinal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho; Bah, Clara Shui Fern; Lin, Peng; Tsao, Sai Wah; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2010-06-11

    Here we report for the first time of a new Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (termed BvvTI) from seeds of the Camel's foot tree, Bauhinia variegata var. variegata. BvvTI shares the same reactive site residues (Arg, Ser) and exhibits a homology of N-terminal amino acid sequence to other Bauhinia protease inhibitors. The trypsin inhibitory activity (K{sub i}, 0.1 x 10{sup -9} M) of BvvTI ranks the highest among them. Besides anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity, BvvTI could significantly inhibit the proliferation of nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-1 cells in a selective way. This may partially be contributed by its induction of cytokines and apoptotic bodies. These results unveil potential medicinal applications of BvvTI.

  5. Reproductive activity of ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) in a Madagascar rain forest.

    PubMed

    Morland, H S

    1993-05-01

    Mating activity was observed during four breeding seasons in two groups of black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) living in lowland rain forest on Nosy Mangabe island, Madagascar. The onset of the May-July breeding season was signalled by behavioral changes in adult males. Males made forays outside their usual home ranges, were more aggressive to other males, and performed appetitive and other sex-specific behaviors more frequently. Females showed receptive and proceptive behaviors during a 1-2 day behavioral estrus. Ruffed lemurs mated monogamously, polyandrously, and polygynously. These observations do not support previous assertions that they live only in monogamous families. Limited evidence suggests females exercised mate choice and may have preferred familiar males.

  6. Mycotic dermatitis in captive carpet snakes (Morelia spilotes variegata).

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R A; Green, P E; Branch, P

    1976-07-01

    Geotrichum candidum was isolated from necrotic skin lesions in one of three captive carpet snakes (Morelia spilotes variegata). Hyphae and arthrospores morphologically consistent with this organism were present in histological preparations of lesions from the three snakes.

  7. Foraging by Hippodamia convergens for the aphid Sitobion avenae on wheat plants growing in greenhouse plots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated predation by adult convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, on English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae L., on wheat, Triticum aestivum L., growing in 1.8 x 1.8 m plantings in a greenhouse with a soil floor. The wheat was planted to simulate wheat in a typical pro...

  8. Prey foraging movements by Hippodamia convergens in wheat are influenced by hunger and aphids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated foraging movements by adult female convergent lady beetles, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, on English grain aphids, Sitobion avenae L., on wheat, Triticum aestivum L., growing in 1.8 x 1.8 m plantings in a greenhouse with a soil floor. The wheat was planted to simulate whea...

  9. Functional response of Hippodamia convergens to Sitobion avenae on wheat plants in the laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated predation by adult convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, on English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae L., on wheat, Triticum aestivum L., plants in a laboratory arena and developed a functional response model for the number of aphids eaten by an adult female conv...

  10. Foraging by Hippodamia convergens for cereal aphids on wheat plants in the laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated predation by adult Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville on the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae L., on wheat plants in a laboratory arena. A model relating beetle hunger to starvation time was developed and was used to calculate initial hunger for beetles used in predation obs...

  11. The zoophilic fruitfly Phortica variegata: morphology, ecology and biological niche.

    PubMed

    Otranto, D; Brianti, E; Cantacessi, C; Lia, R P; Máca, J

    2006-12-01

    Flies belonging to the subfamily Steganinae (Drosophilidae) display unusual zoophilic feeding habits at the adult and/or larval stage. Phortica variegata (Fallén) feeds on tears or eye liquid around the eyes of humans and carnivores. When feeding it is a potential vector of Thelazia callipaeda (Railliet and Henry) eyeworms. Adult and larval stages of this fly may be easily confused with other species belonging to the same genus, and little is known on the biology and ecology of P. variegata. In April-November 2005, a total of 969 P. variegata were collected in an area with a high prevalence of canine thelaziosis. The number of flies collected weekly was then related to climatic and environmental parameters (e.g. temperature, relative humidity and total rainfall) recorded daily at the collection site. The highest number of Phortica were collected during July-August. The sex ratio (number of males : females) rose from approximately 0.5 during May-July, to approximately 3.0 in August and 181 during September-October. Distributional data, representing 242 sites at which P. variegata has been collected in Europe, were analysed using a desktop implementation of the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction (GARP) to model ecological requirements across Europe, as well as in Italy. P. variegata is shown to be mainly active at 20-25 degrees C and 50-75% RH. The ecological niche model suggests with a high degree of confidence that large areas of Europe are likely to represent suitable habitat for this species, mostly concentrated in central Europe. The results reported here contribute basic knowledge on the ecology and geographical distribution of P. variegata flies, which will be fundamental to gaining a better understanding of their role as vectors of human and animal pathogens. PMID:17199746

  12. Captive breeding, reintroduction, and the conservation genetics of black and white ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata variegata.

    PubMed

    Wyner, Y M; Amato, G; Desalle, R

    1999-12-01

    A character-based phylogenetic species concept approach was used to examine conservation unit status for three wild populations of black and white ruffed lemurs, Varecia vareigata variegata, from Betampona (N = 3), Manombo (N = 6), and Ranomafana (N = 14), Madagascar. Population aggregation analysis was performed on 548 bp from the control region (D-loop) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Twenty-one diagnostic sites were found to differentiate the Betampona (northern) population from the Manombo/Ranomafana (southern) populations. Additionally, individuals from the North American captive population (N = 11) and from Parc Ivoloina, Madagascar (N = 6) were examined for the same mtDNA fragment. The captive animals more closely resembled the southern populations and the Parc Ivoloina animals were more similar to the northern population. However, the inclusion of these ex situ animals reduced the number of diagnostic sites differentiating the northern and southern populations. Our genetic data were used to assess the ongoing management strategy for reintroducing individuals into the Betampona population and for introducing new founders into the ex situ population. This study demonstrates the utility of combining genetic information with a consideration of conservation priorities in evaluating the implementation of management strategies.

  13. Antitumour activity of Bauhinia variegata on Dalton's ascitic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Rajkapoor, B; Jayakar, B; Murugesh, N

    2003-11-01

    The antitumour activity of the ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata (EBV) has been evaluated against Dalton's ascitic lymphoma (DAL) in Swiss albino mice. A significant enhancement of mean survival time of EBV-treated tumour bearing mice was found with respect to control group. EBV treatment was found to enhance peritoneal cell counts. After 14 days of inoculation, EBV is able to reverse the changes in the haemotological parameters, protein and PCV consequent to tumour inoculation.

  14. Necrotizing Meningoencephalitis in a Captive Black and White Ruffed Lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) Caused by Acanthamoeba T4 Genotype.

    PubMed

    Gaide, N; Pelandakis, M; Robveille, C; Albaric, O; Jouvion, G; Souchon, M; Risler, A; Abadie, J

    2015-11-01

    A mature male, black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) died in a zoological garden after a 4-day history of lethargy and non-responsive convulsions. Necropsy and histopathological examinations revealed acute necrotizing and haemorrhagic meningoencephalitis with intralesional amoebas confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Acanthamoeba T4 genotype was identified as the causative agent of the brain lesion, based on amplification and sequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA genes. The presence of free-living amoebas in water and mud from the lemur's environment was investigated by morphological and molecular analyses. The two predominant genera, representing 80% of isolated amoebas, were Naegleria spp. and Acanthamoeba spp. All Acanthamoeba isolates belonged to the T4 genotype. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of a meningoencephalitis due to Acanthamoeba T4 genotype in Lemuridae with concurrent analysis of pathological tissues and environment.

  15. Necrotizing Meningoencephalitis in a Captive Black and White Ruffed Lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) Caused by Acanthamoeba T4 Genotype.

    PubMed

    Gaide, N; Pelandakis, M; Robveille, C; Albaric, O; Jouvion, G; Souchon, M; Risler, A; Abadie, J

    2015-11-01

    A mature male, black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) died in a zoological garden after a 4-day history of lethargy and non-responsive convulsions. Necropsy and histopathological examinations revealed acute necrotizing and haemorrhagic meningoencephalitis with intralesional amoebas confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Acanthamoeba T4 genotype was identified as the causative agent of the brain lesion, based on amplification and sequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA genes. The presence of free-living amoebas in water and mud from the lemur's environment was investigated by morphological and molecular analyses. The two predominant genera, representing 80% of isolated amoebas, were Naegleria spp. and Acanthamoeba spp. All Acanthamoeba isolates belonged to the T4 genotype. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of a meningoencephalitis due to Acanthamoeba T4 genotype in Lemuridae with concurrent analysis of pathological tissues and environment. PMID:26297109

  16. Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) in the abdominal cavity of a domestic cat from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Verocai, Guilherme G; Measures, Lena N; Azevedo, Felipe D; Correia, Thais R; Fernandes, Julio I; Scott, Fabio B

    2009-05-12

    This study reports a case of parasitism by the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782), in the abdominal cavity of a domestic cat from Brazil. A female adult cat presenting prostration, dehydration, physical debility, pronounced jaundice and ascitis, was taken to the Department of Animal Parasitology of the Veterinary Institute of the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Clinical signs suggested a case of peritonitis. The cat's clinical condition was grave and death occurred within a few days. During necropsy, a brownish-red nematode, 24.9cm long, was found in the abdominal cavity and was identified as a male adult D. renale. This study reports the first confirmed case of dioctophymatosis in the domestic cat. The parasite's aberrant location in the abdominal cavity suggests that the domestic cat is not a suitable host.

  17. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782) in the abdominal cavity of a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella), Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Mirian Naomi; Imbeloni, Aline Amaral; Muniz, José Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Scalercio, Sarah Raphaella Rocha de Azevedo; Benigno, Raimundo Nonato Moraes; Pereira, Washington Luiz Assunção; Cunha Lacreta Junior, Antonio Carlos

    2010-10-29

    This study reports a case of parasitism by Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1762) encysted in the abdominal cavity of a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) coming from the Centro Nacional de Primatas, Brazil. The animal was sent to the Veterinary Clinic sector with an increase in abdominal volume and no occurrence of any other clinical signs. Upon palpation, a movable circular mass with a diameter of approximately 10 cm was found. Urinalysis, complete blood count and serum biochemistry were performed without revealing any alterations. The animal was then submitted to an abdominal ultrasound exam. The cyst was punctured and a surgical removal procedure was performed, revealing a brownish-colored cylindrical structure that was already deteriorated, making it impossible to perform morphological analysis and classification. In the sediment of the liquid found, eggs were encountered that had morphological characteristics compatible with D. renale. The objective of this paper is to report the first case of parasitism by D. renale in C. apella (Linnaeus, 1758).

  18. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantitate serum ferritin in black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata).

    PubMed

    Andrews, Gordon A; Chavey, Patricia Sue; Crawford, Graham

    2005-12-01

    Lemurs in captivity progressively accumulate iron deposits in a variety of organs (hemosiderosis) including duodenum, liver, and spleen throughout their lives. When excessive, the toxic effects of intracellular iron on parenchymal cells, particularly the liver, can result in clinical disease and death. The pathogenesis of excessive iron storage in these species has been attributed to dietary factors related to diets commonly fed in captivity. Tissue iron stores can be directly estimated by tissue biopsy and histologic examination, or quantitated by chemical analysis of biopsy tissue, However, expense and risk associated with anesthesia and surgery prevent routine use of tissue biopsy to assess iron status. A noninvasive means of assessing total body iron stores is needed to monitor iron stores in lemurs to determine whether dietary modification is preventing excessive iron deposition, and to monitor potential therapies such as phlebotomy or chelation. Serum ferritin concentration correlates with tissue iron stores in humans, horses, calves, dogs, cats, and pigs. Serum ferritin is considered the best serum analyte to predict total body iron stores in these species and is more reliable than serum iron or total iron binding capacity, both of which may be affected by disorders unrelated to iron adequacy or excess including hypoproteinemia, chronic infection, hemolytic anemia, hypothyroidism, renal disease, and drug administration. We have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure serum ferritin in lemurs. The assay uses polyclonal rabbit anti-human ferritin antibodies in a sandwich arrangement. Ferritin isolated from liver and spleen of a black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) was used as a standard. Ferritin standards were linear from 0 to 50 microg/L. Recovery of purified ferritin from lemur serum varied from 95% to 110%. The within-assay variability was 4.5%, and the assay-to-assay variability for three different samples ranged

  19. Dual resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin and dicrotophos in Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Paulo R R; Michaud, J P; Rodrigues, Agna R S; Torres, Jorge B

    2016-09-01

    Insecticide resistance is usually associated with pests, but may also evolve in natural enemies. In this study, adult beetles of three distinct North American populations of Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, and the progeny of reciprocal crosses between the resistant and most susceptible population, were treated topically with varying concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin and dicrotophos. In addition, the LD50s of both insecticides were applied in combination to resistant individuals. The developmental and reproductive performance of each population was assessed in the absence of insecticide exposure to compare baseline fitness. California and Kansas populations were susceptible to both materials, whereas Georgia (GA) beetles exhibited a resistance ratio (RR50) of 158 to lambda-cyhalothrin and 530 to dicrotophos. Inheritance of lambda-cyhalothrin resistance was X-linked, whereas inheritance of dicrotophos resistance was autosomal. Mortality of resistant beetles treated with a mixture of LD50s of both materials was twice that of those treated with lambda-cyhalothrin alone, but not significantly different from those receiving dicrotophos alone. Life history parameters were largely similar among populations, except that Georgia beetles had higher egg fertility relative to susceptible populations. We conclude that the high levels of resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin and dicrotophos in Georgia beetles reflect heavy loads of these insecticides in local environments, most likely the large acreage under intensive cotton cultivation. PMID:27266835

  20. Intercrop movement of convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), between adjacent cotton and alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Bastola, Anup; Parajulee, Megha N; Porter, R Patrick; Shrestha, Ram B; Chen, Fa-Jun; Carroll, Stanley C

    2016-02-01

    A 2-year study was conducted to characterize the intercrop movement of convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) between adjacent cotton and alfalfa. A dual protein-marking method was used to assess the intercrop movement of the lady beetles in each crop. In turns field collected lady beetles in each crop were assayed by protein specific ELISA to quantify the movement of beetles between the crops. Results indicated that a high percentage of convergent lady beetles caught in cotton (46% in 2008; 56% in 2009) and alfalfa (46% in 2008; 71% in 2009) contained a protein mark, thus indicating that convergent lady beetle movement was largely bidirectional between the adjacent crops. Although at a much lower proportion, lady beetles also showed unidirectional movement from cotton to alfalfa (5% in 2008 and 6% in 2009) and from alfalfa to cotton (9% in 2008 and 14% in 2009). The season-long bidirectional movement exhibited by the beetles was significantly higher in alfalfa than cotton during both years of the study. The total influx of lady beetles (bidirectional and unidirectional combined) was significantly higher in alfalfa compared with that in cotton for both years. While convergent lady beetles moved between adjacent cotton and alfalfa, they were more attracted to alfalfa when cotton was not flowering and/or when alfalfa offered more opportunities for prey. This study offers much needed information on intercrop movement of the convergent lady beetle that should facilitate integrated pest management decisions in cotton utilizing conservation biological control.

  1. Aphid facultative symbionts reduce survival of the predatory lady beetle Hippodamia convergens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-essential facultative endosymbionts can provide their hosts with protection from parasites, pathogens, and predators. For example, two facultative bacterial symbionts of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), Serratia symbiotica and Hamiltonella defensa, protect their hosts from parasitism by two species of parasitoid wasp. Previous studies have not explored whether facultative symbionts also play a defensive role against predation in this system. We tested whether feeding on aphids harboring different facultative symbionts affected the fitness of an aphid predator, the lady beetle Hippodamia convergens. Results While these aphid faculative symbionts did not deter lady beetle feeding, they did decrease survival of lady beetle larvae. Lady beetle larvae fed a diet of aphids with facultative symbionts had significantly reduced survival from egg hatching to pupation and therefore had reduced survival to adult emergence. Additionally, lady beetle adults fed aphids with facultative symbionts were significantly heavier than those fed facultative symbiont-free aphids, though development time was not significantly different. Conclusions Aphids reproduce clonally and are often found in large groups. Thus, aphid symbionts, by reducing the fitness of the aphid predator H. convergens, may indirectly defend their hosts’ clonal descendants against predation. These findings highlight the often far-reaching effects that symbionts can have in ecological systems. PMID:24555501

  2. Defensive allomones function as aggregation pheromones in diapausing Ladybird Beetles, Hippodamia convergens.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Christopher A; Cardé, Ring T

    2013-06-01

    Identification of the stimuli responsible for the formation of an aggregation can be used to distinguish between social and non-social aggregations and help in the process of identifying the adaptive benefits of the gregarious behavior. The convergent ladybird beetle, Hippodamia convergens, forms dense aggregations during winter diapause. The mechanisms of conspecific attraction and hibernacula site selection of H. convergens are not well understood. In laboratory and field bioassays, we evaluated the role of three defensive compounds in the formation of H. convergens aggregations. Diapausing H. convergens aggregated within the section of an arena exposed to alkylmethoxypyrazines. 2-Isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) caused the strongest aggregative effect. Beetles also aggregated to some doses of 2-sec-butyl-3-methoxypyrazine, but appeared to be repelled at higher doses. A third constituent, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, generally had little effect on the distribution of beetles, although the highest dose tested was repellent. Beetles also aggregated to a blend of these alkylmethoxypyrazines at their natural ratio. During fall migration to overwintering sites, more beetles aggregated in artificial hibernacula baited with IBMP, confirming its function as an aggregation pheromone. These three pyrazines also function as warning odors that, in conjunction with other aposematic displays (contrasting red and black coloration, gregarious behavior, reflex bleeding), contribute to the multi-modal, anti-predatory defense of coccinellid beetles and some other arthropods. Confirmation of the role of some alkylmethoxypyrazines in coccinellid aggregations suggests that these defensive allomones have been co-opted for intraspecific communication. PMID:23657436

  3. Defensive allomones function as aggregation pheromones in diapausing Ladybird Beetles, Hippodamia convergens.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Christopher A; Cardé, Ring T

    2013-06-01

    Identification of the stimuli responsible for the formation of an aggregation can be used to distinguish between social and non-social aggregations and help in the process of identifying the adaptive benefits of the gregarious behavior. The convergent ladybird beetle, Hippodamia convergens, forms dense aggregations during winter diapause. The mechanisms of conspecific attraction and hibernacula site selection of H. convergens are not well understood. In laboratory and field bioassays, we evaluated the role of three defensive compounds in the formation of H. convergens aggregations. Diapausing H. convergens aggregated within the section of an arena exposed to alkylmethoxypyrazines. 2-Isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) caused the strongest aggregative effect. Beetles also aggregated to some doses of 2-sec-butyl-3-methoxypyrazine, but appeared to be repelled at higher doses. A third constituent, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, generally had little effect on the distribution of beetles, although the highest dose tested was repellent. Beetles also aggregated to a blend of these alkylmethoxypyrazines at their natural ratio. During fall migration to overwintering sites, more beetles aggregated in artificial hibernacula baited with IBMP, confirming its function as an aggregation pheromone. These three pyrazines also function as warning odors that, in conjunction with other aposematic displays (contrasting red and black coloration, gregarious behavior, reflex bleeding), contribute to the multi-modal, anti-predatory defense of coccinellid beetles and some other arthropods. Confirmation of the role of some alkylmethoxypyrazines in coccinellid aggregations suggests that these defensive allomones have been co-opted for intraspecific communication.

  4. Apoptosis Cell Death Effect of Scrophularia Variegata on Breast Cancer Cells via Mitochondrial Intrinsic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Azadmehr, Abbas; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Baradaran, Behzad; Haghdoost-Yazdi, Hashem

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Scrophularia variegata M. Beib. (Scrophulariaceae) is an Iranian medicinal plant which is used for various inflammatory disorders in traditional medicine. In this study we evaluated the anti-cancer and cytotoxic effects of the Scrophularia variegata (S. variegata) ethanolic extract on the human breast cancer cell line. Methods: The cytotoxicity effect of the extract on MCF-7 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. In addition, Caspase activity, DNA ladder and Cell death were evaluated by ELISA, gel electrophoresis and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, respectively. Results: The S. variegata extract showed significant effect cytotoxicity on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Treatment with the extract induced apoptosis on the breast cancer cells by cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. The results indicated that cytotoxicity activity was associated with an increase of apoptosis as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation as well as an increase of the amount of caspase 3 and caspase 9. In addition, the phytochemical assay showed that the extract had antioxidant capacity and also flavonoids, phenolic compounds and phenyl propanoids were presented in the extract. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that S. variegata extract induced apoptosis via mitochondrial intrinsic pathway on breast cancer by cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase and an increase of caspase 3 and caspase 9. However future studies are needed. PMID:26504768

  5. Investigation of Erythrina spp. VII. Chemical constituents of Erythrina variegata var. orientalis bark.

    PubMed

    Singh, H; Chawla, A S; Jindal, A K; Conner, A H; Rowe, J W

    1975-01-01

    The petroleum ether extractive of the bark of Erythrina variegata var. orientalis was fractionated and shown to be composed of wax alcohols and wax acids, alkyl ferulates, alkyl phenolates, stigmasterol, sitosterol, campesterol and possibly citrostadienol/24-methylenelophenol. The ethanol extractive yielded chloroform-soluble and water-soluble bases, identified as erysovine and stachydrine, respectively. PMID:1134218

  6. Depth-related variation in epiphytic communities growing on the brown alga Lobophora variegata in a Caribbean coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, A.; Titlyanova, T. V.; Nugues, M. M.; Bischof, K.

    2011-12-01

    Lobophora variegata is a dominant macroalga on coral reefs across the Caribbean. Over the last two decades, it has expanded its vertical distribution to both shallow and deep reefs along the leeward coast of the island of Curaçao, Southern Caribbean. However, the ecological implications of this expansion and the role of L. variegata as a living substratum are poorly known. This study compared epiphytic algal communities on L. variegata blades along two depth transects (6-40 m). The epiphytic community was diverse with a total of 70 species of which 49 were found directly attached to L. variegata. The epiphytic community varied significantly between blade surface, depth and site. The greatest number of genera per blade was found growing on the underside of the blades regardless of site and depth. Filamentous red algae (e.g. Neosiphonia howei) were commonly found on the upperside of the blades over the whole depth gradient, whereas the underside was mainly colonized by calcifying (e.g. Hydrolithon spp., Jania spp., Amphiroa fragillissima), fleshy red algae (e.g. Champia spp., Gelidiopsis spp., Hypnea spinella) and foliose brown alga (e.g. Dictyota spp.). Anotrichum tenue, a red alga capable of overgrowing corals, was a common epiphyte of both blade surfaces. L. variegata plays an important role as a newly available substratum. Thus, its spread may influence other algal species and studies of benthic macroalgae such as L. variegata should also take into consideration their associated epiphytic algal communities.

  7. Cytotoxic activity of a flavanone from the stem of Bauhinia variegata Linn.

    PubMed

    Rajkapoor, Balasubramanian; Murugesh, Narayanan; Rama Krishna, Devarakonda

    2009-01-01

    A flavanone has been isolated first time from the stem of Bauhinia variegata, and its structure was identified by colour reactions and spectral analysis. In a search for novel anticancer compounds from medicinal plants, the isolated flavanone was tested for cytotoxic activity against 57 human tumour lines, representing leukaemia, non-small cell lung, colon, central nervous system, melanoma, ovarian, renal, prostate and breast cancers. The results showed that the flavanone has cytotoxic activity against human tumour cell lines.

  8. [Effects of shading on photosynthesis characteristics of Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegata].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong-ying; Fang, Yan-ming; Ji, Hong-li; Ma, Cheng-tao

    2011-07-01

    This paper studied the effects of different shading (light transmittance 20%, 40%, 60%, and 100%) on the photosynthesis characteristics of two ornamental foliage plants Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegata. After shading for six weeks, the net photosynthesis rates of two plants measured ex situ under natural light enhanced, compared to those measured in situ, and, with the increase of shading degree, the net photosynthetic rates had an increasing trend, with the maximum being 9.7 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for Photinia x frasery and 8.3 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for Aucuba japonica var. variegata. In the meantime, the transpiration rates of the two plants increased significantly. Shading increased the chlorophyll a, b, and a+b contents and the chlorophyll/carotenoids ratio, decreased the chlorophyll a/b, but less affected the carotenoids content. The phenotypic plasticity index (PPI) of net photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate of Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegate was 2.08 and 3.21, and 0.55 and 1.60, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoids contents of the two plants were relatively stable, indicating the minor influence of external environment factors on pigments. Aucuba japonica var. variegata had a higher shading tolerance than Photinia x frasery.

  9. Effects of forest structure and composition on food availability for Varecia variegata at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balko, E.A.; Underwood, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    We present a summary of a long-term field study that examined the effects of forest disturbance on the availability of palatable fruit and its utilization by V. variegata. Forest structure and tree species composition were measured in three adjacent study areas, with different histories of disturbance, in Ranomafana National Park (RNP), Madagascar. V. variegata abundance was monitored by frequent encounters with resident groups and periodic censuses conducted along trails. Finally, the abundance of mature fruit in species used by V. variegata was scored monthly at representative trees at several locations. V. variegata abundance was most consistent in the least anthropogenically disturbed site, while no established lemur groups were observed in the heavily logged site for over a decade post-harvest. Lemur abundance was variable in the selectively logged site. The presence of select food trees, particularly specimens with voluminous crowns capable of producing abundant fruit crops, appears to be key to the establishment and expansion of V variegata groups. Our analysis of year-long fruit utilization revealed a high degree of preference for several species of trees. Two species exhibited mature fruit in a low percentage of stems but were available for a protracted period of time, while two additional species showed high intraspecific fruiting synchrony and were available for a shorter period of time. These contrasting phenologies, rather than the individual tree species, may be most important to V. variegata due to their coincident timing of fruit maturation with key lemur life-history events. Any disturbance-natural or anthropogenic-that disrupts the phenology cycles of food trees has the potential to impact lemur abundance and dispersion. Intense disturbances, such as heavy logging or severe cyclones, have long-lasting impacts on fruit production, while selective logging or moderate cyclonic windthrow cause more transient impacts. V. variegata is adapted to deal

  10. Egg Cannibalism and its Life History Consequences Vary with Life Stage, Sex, and Reproductive Status in Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Bayoumy, Mohamed H; Michaud, J P

    2015-08-01

    Egg cannibalism is common in Coccinellidae, but its biological consequences have not been fully explored. We examined egg cannibalism by neonates, fourth instars, and adults of Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville for effects on development, reproduction, and progeny fitness. We also tested female adults for ability to avoid cannibalizing their own eggs and first-instar larvae, and both sexes for changes in cannibalism propensity following mating, all in the presence of ad libitum food [larvae: eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), adults: Schizaphis graminum (Rondani)]. Cannibalism by neonates reduced developmental time and increased male body size. Cannibalism in the fourth instar accelerated pupation and led to the production of eggs that hatched faster, regardless of which parent cannibalized. However, egg fertility was improved only by maternal cannibalism in the fourth instar. Females recognized their own egg clusters, sometimes added eggs to them, and preferentially cannibalized nonfilial clusters. Most gravid females cannibalized a first-instar larva within 30 min, whether filial or not. Adult egg cannibalism was similar for virgin males and females, but declined after mating in males, and increased in females, although it had no effect on fecundity or fertility. Daughters of cannibal pairs were heavier than those of other mating combinations, but offspring of noncannibal parents had the fastest development. Reproductive females appeared to use egg cannibalism to reduce risk for their own eggs, increasing the number cannibalized with the number laid. Thus, egg cannibalism in coccinellids varies with life stage, sex, and reproductive condition, independent of food availability, and benefits are life stage specific. PMID:26470307

  11. Determinants of acute mortality of Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to ultra-low volume permethrin used for mosquito management

    PubMed Central

    Preftakes, Collin J.; Bodin, Jennifer L.; Brown, Christopher R.; Piccolomini, Alyssa M.; Schleier, Jerome J.

    2016-01-01

    There are relatively few experimental studies and risk assessments of the effects on non-target insects from ultra-low volume (ULV) insecticides used for management of adult mosquitoes. Therefore, we evaluated factors that may influence the ability of an insect to intercept the insecticide at the time of application by using Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in field bioassay experiments in 2011 and 2015. Treatment factors included different distances, two cage heights (ground-level and 1.5 m above ground) to the point of the application, and covered vs. uncovered cage faces (2015 only). Insecticides used included a water-based formulation (Aqua-Reslin®) and an oil-based formulation (Permanone® 30-30) of permethrin. Cage height was highly significant both years, with much less acute (i.e., short-term exposure) mortality at ground-level compared with 1.5 m. In 2011, acute mortality was less at ground-level (mean = 3.2%, median = 0%) compared to 1.5 m (mean = 85.2%, median = 100%). Cage type also was highly significant, with less mortality in covered cages compared to uncovered cages. Mortality by cage height and cage type was as follows: ground level, covered cage (mean = 2.8%, median = 0.1%); ground level, uncovered cage (mean = 41.9%, median = 9.6%); 1.5 m, covered cage (mean = 6.8%, median = 0%); 1.5 m, uncovered cage (mean = 83.7%, median = 100%). Results suggest that acute mortality to non-target insects may vary considerably based on their height and their ability to directly intercept the insecticide as the aerosol passes through the area being sprayed. PMID:27366655

  12. Egg Cannibalism and its Life History Consequences Vary with Life Stage, Sex, and Reproductive Status in Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Bayoumy, Mohamed H; Michaud, J P

    2015-08-01

    Egg cannibalism is common in Coccinellidae, but its biological consequences have not been fully explored. We examined egg cannibalism by neonates, fourth instars, and adults of Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville for effects on development, reproduction, and progeny fitness. We also tested female adults for ability to avoid cannibalizing their own eggs and first-instar larvae, and both sexes for changes in cannibalism propensity following mating, all in the presence of ad libitum food [larvae: eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), adults: Schizaphis graminum (Rondani)]. Cannibalism by neonates reduced developmental time and increased male body size. Cannibalism in the fourth instar accelerated pupation and led to the production of eggs that hatched faster, regardless of which parent cannibalized. However, egg fertility was improved only by maternal cannibalism in the fourth instar. Females recognized their own egg clusters, sometimes added eggs to them, and preferentially cannibalized nonfilial clusters. Most gravid females cannibalized a first-instar larva within 30 min, whether filial or not. Adult egg cannibalism was similar for virgin males and females, but declined after mating in males, and increased in females, although it had no effect on fecundity or fertility. Daughters of cannibal pairs were heavier than those of other mating combinations, but offspring of noncannibal parents had the fastest development. Reproductive females appeared to use egg cannibalism to reduce risk for their own eggs, increasing the number cannibalized with the number laid. Thus, egg cannibalism in coccinellids varies with life stage, sex, and reproductive condition, independent of food availability, and benefits are life stage specific.

  13. Determinants of acute mortality of Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to ultra-low volume permethrin used for mosquito management.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Robert K D; Preftakes, Collin J; Bodin, Jennifer L; Brown, Christopher R; Piccolomini, Alyssa M; Schleier, Jerome J

    2016-01-01

    There are relatively few experimental studies and risk assessments of the effects on non-target insects from ultra-low volume (ULV) insecticides used for management of adult mosquitoes. Therefore, we evaluated factors that may influence the ability of an insect to intercept the insecticide at the time of application by using Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in field bioassay experiments in 2011 and 2015. Treatment factors included different distances, two cage heights (ground-level and 1.5 m above ground) to the point of the application, and covered vs. uncovered cage faces (2015 only). Insecticides used included a water-based formulation (Aqua-Reslin®) and an oil-based formulation (Permanone® 30-30) of permethrin. Cage height was highly significant both years, with much less acute (i.e., short-term exposure) mortality at ground-level compared with 1.5 m. In 2011, acute mortality was less at ground-level (mean = 3.2%, median = 0%) compared to 1.5 m (mean = 85.2%, median = 100%). Cage type also was highly significant, with less mortality in covered cages compared to uncovered cages. Mortality by cage height and cage type was as follows: ground level, covered cage (mean = 2.8%, median = 0.1%); ground level, uncovered cage (mean = 41.9%, median = 9.6%); 1.5 m, covered cage (mean = 6.8%, median = 0%); 1.5 m, uncovered cage (mean = 83.7%, median = 100%). Results suggest that acute mortality to non-target insects may vary considerably based on their height and their ability to directly intercept the insecticide as the aerosol passes through the area being sprayed. PMID:27366655

  14. The Tropical Brown Alga Lobophora variegata: A Source of Antiprotozoal Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Cantillo-Ciau, Zulema; Moo-Puc, Rosa; Quijano, Leovigildo; Freile-Pelegrín, Yolanda

    2010-01-01

    Lobophora variegata, a brown alga collected from the coast of the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, was studied for antiprotozoal activity against Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. The whole extract showed the highest activity against T. vaginalis, with an IC50 value of 3.2 μg/mL. For the fractions, the best antiprotozoal activity was found in non-polar fractions. The chloroform fraction of the extract contained a major sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), identified as 1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-myristoyl-3-O-(6‴-sulfo-α-d-quinovopyranosyl)-glycerol (1), together with small amounts of 1,2-di-O-palmitoyl-3-O-(6‴-sulfo-α-d-quinovopyranosyl)-glycerol (2) and a new compound identified as 1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-oleoyl-3-O-(6‴-sulfo-α-d-quinovopyranosyl)-glycerol (3). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and careful analysis of FAB-MS and NMR spectroscopic data. This is the first report on the isolation of SQDGs from L. variegata. The mixture of 1–3 showed good activity against E. histolytica and moderate activity against T. vaginalis with IC50s of 3.9 and 8.0 μg/mL, respectively, however, the activity of 1–3 is not as effective as metronidazole. These results afford ground information for the potential use of the whole extract and fractions of this species in protozoal infections. PMID:20479979

  15. Environmental enrichment to address behavioral differences between wild and captive black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata).

    PubMed

    Kerridge, Frances J

    2005-05-01

    I compared the behaviors of wild Varecia variegata living in a Malagasy rain forest with those of caged groups living in zoos in the United Kingdom in order to design environmental enrichment to encourage more natural behaviors. Comparisons were made between wild and captive animals in terms of activity budgets (instantaneously sampled at 1-min intervals) and social and solitary behaviors, which were continuously recorded for focal individuals. I followed the same sampling protocol during behavioral enrichment experiments, with additional monitoring of the amount and type of food consumed, and with more detailed observations of feeding behavior. No significant differences were found in resting or moving between wild and captive V. variegata. However, captive V. variegata spent more time on self-grooming and social behaviors, and less time feeding than wild V. variegata. There was also a lack of manual manipulation of food items. Behavioral enrichment experiments were carried out in which whole rather than chopped fruit was provided and presented in a more naturalistic manner. With this method of dietary presentation, manual manipulation of dietary items increased. Time spent feeding also increased significantly. Captive conservation breeding programs should not be wholly concerned with maintaining a diverse gene pool-they should also be concerned with conserving species-typical behaviors, especially if they are to produce behaviorally intact captive animals that can be reintroduced to the wild with minimal training, financial resources, and loss of individuals.

  16. Detection of Planorbis planorbis and Anisus vortex as first intermediate hosts of Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) in natural conditions in France: molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Portier, Julien; Jouet, Damien; Vallée, Isabelle; Ferté, Hubert

    2012-11-23

    Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792), a trematode that parasitizes canids, usually needs two intermediate hosts to complete its life cycle: an aquatic freshwater snail and an amphibian. Although many studies have been undertaken on the wild boar's role as paratenic host, owing to the potential threat to human health, few have sought to identify the snails that act as first intermediate hosts in natural conditions. Adopting a molecular approach, with specific markers for a portion of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2), we detected haplotypes of A. alata furcocercariae in two snail species (Planorbis planorbis and Anisus vortex), identified by molecular analysis (ribosomal 18S, mitochondrial 16S and COI). This study provides the first description of snails naturally emitting A. alata furcocercaria in Western Europe.

  17. Antioxidant and antiacetylcholine esterase potential of aerial parts of Conocarpus erectus, Ficus variegata and Ficus maclellandii.

    PubMed

    Raza, Muhammad Asam; Anwar, Farwa; Shahwar, Durre; Majeed, Abdul; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Danish, Muhammad; Nazar, Muhammad Faizan; Perveen, Irum; Khan, Salah Ud-Din

    2016-03-01

    The current study was designed to check the antioxidant and enzyme inhibition potential of various extracts/ fractions of three selected plants. The aerial parts of Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae), Ficus variegata (Moraceae) and Ficus maclellandii (Moraceae) were extracted with ethanol (95%) and the resulting crude extracts were partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform and n-butanol successively. Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to calculate the total phenolic contents, flavonoids contents were calculated with aluminum chloride while antioxidant and enzyme studies were carried out through standard protocols. All extracts/fractions contained reasonable amount of phenolic compounds ranging from 0.58-58.23 mg CE/g of DW and 0.43-30.56 mg GAE/g of DW. Total flavonoids were determined using rutin and quercetin standards, ranging from 2.65-18.2 mg rutin equivalent/g of dry weight and 0.92-5.41 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dry weight. Antioxidant studies such as DPPH inhibition FRAP and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was checked. The crude ethanolic extract of C. erectus showed maximum antiradical scavenging power (90.43%; IC50=7 μg) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (16.5 μM eq.FeSO4.7H2O), respectively while leave extract of F. variegata (chloroform) was the most active (0.6577) in TAC among other extracts of the selected medicinal plants. Butanolic leave extract of C. erectus exhibited maximum enzyme inhibition activity (91.62% with IC50 40 μg/ml) while other extracts showed significant activity. It was observed from results that all extracts/fractions of under consideration plants, exhibited significant bioactivities especially ethanolic and butanolic fractions, which may be the richest source of such type of activities. PMID:27087094

  18. Morphometrics of wild black-and-white ruffed lemurs [Varecia variegata; Kerr, 1792].

    PubMed

    Baden, Andrea L; Brenneman, Rick A; Louis, Edward E

    2008-10-01

    This study presents the first detailed morphometric measurements of wild caught black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) from the eastern rainforests of Madagascar and aims to quantify the morphological variation present throughout their recognized range. One hundred and forty-four adult and juvenile individuals from 15 sites were sampled for 20 cranial, dental and postcranial morphometric and body mass measurements. Data were collected from an equal number of male and female individuals sampled across seasons over a 7-year period (1999-2002, 2004-2006). Results indicate that adult body mass and morphometric measurements varied between sexes across sites; however, the only significant intersexual difference found was that females possessed, on average, longer tails than males. Contrary to previous studies, significant seasonal variation could not be detected in either male or female body mass or testicular volume (i.e., breeding vs. nonbreeding, food-scarce vs. food-abundant seasons). Measurements did, however, vary significantly by site and subspecies, though clinal variation could not explain these differences. The introduced population from Nosy Mangabe exhibited significantly lower body mass and overall body length than all other populations; however, this distinction may not have been attributable to natural variation, and may have instead resulted from the ecologically restrictive habitat (e.g., unusually high lemur population densities, limited food resources, ecological isolation) of this introduced population. Finally, although fore-to-hindlimb, brachium-to-thigh and hindlimb indices were comparable to previous values, forelimb indices calculated here deviate significantly from previous reports, placing V. variegata within the upper range of lemurid taxa. It is currently unknown whether this is an artifact of sampling methods (i.e., live vs. skeletal specimens) or whether this is an avenue that warrants further investigation.

  19. Antioxidant and antiacetylcholine esterase potential of aerial parts of Conocarpus erectus, Ficus variegata and Ficus maclellandii.

    PubMed

    Raza, Muhammad Asam; Anwar, Farwa; Shahwar, Durre; Majeed, Abdul; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Danish, Muhammad; Nazar, Muhammad Faizan; Perveen, Irum; Khan, Salah Ud-Din

    2016-03-01

    The current study was designed to check the antioxidant and enzyme inhibition potential of various extracts/ fractions of three selected plants. The aerial parts of Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae), Ficus variegata (Moraceae) and Ficus maclellandii (Moraceae) were extracted with ethanol (95%) and the resulting crude extracts were partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform and n-butanol successively. Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to calculate the total phenolic contents, flavonoids contents were calculated with aluminum chloride while antioxidant and enzyme studies were carried out through standard protocols. All extracts/fractions contained reasonable amount of phenolic compounds ranging from 0.58-58.23 mg CE/g of DW and 0.43-30.56 mg GAE/g of DW. Total flavonoids were determined using rutin and quercetin standards, ranging from 2.65-18.2 mg rutin equivalent/g of dry weight and 0.92-5.41 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dry weight. Antioxidant studies such as DPPH inhibition FRAP and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was checked. The crude ethanolic extract of C. erectus showed maximum antiradical scavenging power (90.43%; IC50=7 μg) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (16.5 μM eq.FeSO4.7H2O), respectively while leave extract of F. variegata (chloroform) was the most active (0.6577) in TAC among other extracts of the selected medicinal plants. Butanolic leave extract of C. erectus exhibited maximum enzyme inhibition activity (91.62% with IC50 40 μg/ml) while other extracts showed significant activity. It was observed from results that all extracts/fractions of under consideration plants, exhibited significant bioactivities especially ethanolic and butanolic fractions, which may be the richest source of such type of activities.

  20. Nuclear and mitochondrial phylogeography of the European fire-bellied toads Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata supports their independent histories.

    PubMed

    Fijarczyk, Anna; Nadachowska, Krystyna; Hofman, Sebastian; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Babik, Wiesław; Stuglik, Michał; Gollmann, Günter; Choleva, Lukáš; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Vukov, Tanja; Džukić, George; Szymura, Jacek M

    2011-08-01

    Exact location and number of glacial refugia still remain unclear for many European cold-blooded terrestrial vertebrates. We performed a fine-scaled multilocus phylogeographic analysis of two Bombina species combining mitochondrial variation of 950 toads from 385 sites and nuclear genes (Rag-1, Ncx-1) from a subset of samples to reconstruct their colonization and contemporary variation patterns. We identified the lowlands northwest of the Black Sea and the Carpathians to be important refugial areas for B. bombina and B. variegata, respectively. This result emphasizes the importance of Central European refugia for ectothermic terrestrial species, far north of the Mediterranean areas regarded as exclusive glacial refugia for the animals. Additional refugia for B. variegata have been located in the southern Apennines and Balkans. In contrast, no evidence for the importance of other east European plains as refugial regions has been found. The distribution of mtDNA and Ncx-1 variation suggests the presence of local refugia near the Black Sea for B. bombina; however, coalescent simulations did not allow to distinguish whether one or two refugia were present in the region. Strong genetic drift apparently accompanied postglacial expansions reducing diversity in the colonization areas. Extended sampling, coupled with the multilocus isolation with migration analysis, revealed a limited and geographically restricted gene flow from the Balkan to Carpathian populations of B. variegata. However, despite proximity of inferred B. bombina and B. variegata refugia, gene exchange between them was not detected. PMID:21749513

  1. Chemoprevention and cytotoxic effect of Bauhinia variegata against N-nitrosodiethylamine induced liver tumors and human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rajkapoor, B; Jayakar, B; Murugesh, N; Sakthisekaran, D

    2006-04-01

    The chemopreventive and cytotoxic effect of ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata (EBV) was evaluated in N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN, 200 mg/kg) induced experimental liver tumor in rats and human cancer cell lines. Oral administration of ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata (250 mg/kg) effectively suppressed liver tumor induced by DEN as revealed by decrease in DEN induced elevated levels of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, gamma glutamate transpeptidase (GGTP), lipid peroxidase (LPO), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). The extract produced an increase in enzymatic antioxidant (superoxide dismutase and catalase) levels and total proteins when compared to those in liver tumor bearing rats. The histopathological changes of liver samples were compared with respective controls. EBV was found to be cytotoxic against human epithelial larynx cancer (HEp2) and human breast cancer (HBL-100) cells. These results show a significant chemopreventive and cytotoxic effect of ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata against DEN induced liver tumor and human cancer cell lines.

  2. Stratification of inspired air in the elongated lungs of the carpet python, Morelia spilotes variegata.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, P M; Woolcock, A J

    1978-12-01

    Using lung gas tensions via a triple lumen catheter to monitor ventilation distribution (VA) and radioactive techniques to study blood flow distribution (Q), the distribution of ventilation to perfusion ration (VA/Q) was studied in the elongated alveolar lung of the Carpet Python, Morelia spilotes variegata. In the resting, sleeping and agitated states both alveolar oxygen (PAO2) and carbon dioxide tensions (PACO2) were 'stratified' (unevenly distributed) within the alveolar lungs at end inspiration, during breath holding for up to 6 minutes and, when VA was low, at end expiration. The blood flow was also stratified. The degree of stratification of VA was influenced by the rate and depth of breathing and the length of the breath hold which preceeded the gas sampling. Similar results were obtained with a glass lung model. In both resting and sleeping states VA/Q ratios were similar over the proximal 75% of the alveolar lungs whereas VA nearly always exceeded Q over the distal 25%. The anatomic features of the lung are proposed as a possible mechanism for maintaining a uniform VA/Q distribution. Since the anatomical arrangement places the heart at the apical regions of the lungs, absence of cardiac mixing, combined with low respiratory rates, enables stratification to continue for very long periods within the aveolar lungs of the snake.

  3. Mixture design optimization of extraction and mobile phase media for fingerprint analysis of Bauhinia variegata L.

    PubMed

    Delaroza, Fernanda; Scarminio, Ieda Spacino

    2008-04-01

    Two statistical mixture designs were used to optimize the proportions of solvents used in both the extraction medium and the reversed liquid chromatographic mobile phase to improve the quality of chromatographic fingerprints of Bauhinia variegata L extracts. For modeling, the number of peaks was used as a measure of fingerprint information. Three mobile phases, each with a chromatographic strength of two, gave good results. A methanol/water (77:23 v/v) mixture resulted in 17 peaks in the chromatographic fingerprint whereas acetonitrile/water (64.5:35.5 v/v) and methanol/acetonitrile/water (35:35:30 v/v/v) mixtures resulted in 18 and 20 peaks, respectively. The corresponding optimum solvent compositions to extract chemical substances for these three mobile phases were ethanol/acetone (25:75 v/v/v) and dichloromethane/acetone (70:30 v/v) mixtures, and pure dichloromethane, respectively. The mixture designs are useful for understanding the influence of different solvents on the strengths of the extraction medium and the mobile phase.

  4. Studies on transplantation immunity of the yellow-bellied toad Bombina variegata.

    PubMed

    Góralik, E; Labuz, D; Józkowicz, A; Płytycz, B

    1994-01-01

    Adults and tadpoles of the yellow-bellied toad Bombina variegata reacted in a typically chronic manner to skin allografts and to xenografts from closely related fire-bellied toads B. bombina but they rejected quickly skin xenografts from evolutionary distant anuran species (Bufo and Rana). Adult individuals reacted to allografts slowly not only in the laboratory where their mating was ceased and the weight of lymphoid organs significantly diminished but also in the outdoor enclosure where they bred successfully. Breeding activity in captivity can be induced at any season by Biogonadyl injections. However, any hormonal manipulation (gonadectomy or Biogonadyl treatment) performed during winter/spring on animals housed in the laboratory for several months did not influence their transplantation immunity and the weights of thymuses and spleens. These results lead to conclusion that chronic allograft rejection was not a laboratory artifact caused by a hormonal imbalance but rather reflected a weak donor-host genetic disparity connected with the low MHC polymorphism of Bombina species.

  5. Isolation and primary structure of proteinase inhibitors from Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. Orientalis seeds.

    PubMed

    Kouzuma, Y; Suetake, M; Kimura, M; Yamasaki, N

    1992-11-01

    The Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors, ETIa and ETIb, and chymotrypsin inhibitor ECI were isolated from the seeds of Erythrina variegata. The proteins were extracted from a defatted meal of seeds with 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, containing 0.15 M NaCl, and purified by DEAE-cellulose and Q-Sepharose column chromatographies. The stoichiometry of trypsin inhibitors with trypsin was estimated to be 1:1, while that of chymotrypsin inhibitor with chymotrypsin was 1:2, judging from the titration patterns of their inhibitory activities. The complete amino acids of the two trypsin inhibitors were sequenced by protein chemical methods. The proteins ETIa and ETIb consist of 172 and 176 amino acid residues and have M(r) 19,242 and M(r) 19,783, respectively, and share 112 identical amino acid residues, which is 65% identity. They show structural features characteristic of the Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (i.e., identical residues at about 45% with soybean trypsin inhibitor STI). Furthermore, the trypsin inhibitors show a significant homology to the storage proteins, sporamin, in sweet potato and the taste-modifying protein, miraculin, in miracle fruit, having about 30% identical residues. PMID:1369077

  6. Acaricidal activity of extracts from the leaves and aerial parts of Neoglaziovia variegata (Bromeliaceae) on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Dantas, A C S; Machado, D M R; Araujo, A C; Oliveira-Junior, R G; Lima-Saraiva, S R G; Ribeiro, L A A; Almeida, J R G S; Horta, M C

    2015-06-01

    This experiment was carried out to study the bioacaricidal activity of Neoglaziovia variegata against engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The mortality and fecundity of groups of engorged adult females exposed to different concentrations of ethanol, hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts obtained from the leaves and aerial parts of N. variegata were evaluated, using three treatments with concentrations of 5, 10 e 25 mg/ml; two controls (distilled water and distilled water with drops of cremophor); with three replicates. The hexane extract of the leaves demonstrated significant results, presenting 94.1% inhibition of oviposition; 0.33% the average percentage of eclosion of eggs; and 99.8% of effectiveness. These results indicate N. variegata, particularly the hexane extract of leaves, as potential alternative control agents of R. (B.) microplus. Pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism responsible for this effect. PMID:25979315

  7. Erythrina variegata extract exerts osteoprotective effects by suppression of the process of bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Qi; Li, Xiaoli; Wan, Hoi-Ying; Wong, Man-Sau

    2010-10-01

    Our previous study showed that Erythrina variegata L. (EV) inhibited bone loss and improved bone properties in ovariectomised rats. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the potential mechanism involved in mediating the osteoprotective actions of EV. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a phyto-oestrogen-free diet and subjected to either ovariectomy or a sham operation. Ovariectomised rats were treated with genistein (40 mg/kg) as well as low (200 mg/kg), medium (500 mg/kg) or high (1000 mg/kg) doses of EV extract. Bone properties and mRNA expressions were evaluated by micro-computed tomography and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Osteoclast differentiation in RAW 264.7 cells was studied by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. High doses of EV could decrease urinary Ca and P excretion, maintain serum Ca and P level, and exert beneficial effects on the micro-structure and morphology of trabecular bone and cortical bone in ovariectomised rats. EV suppressed the up-regulation of cathepsin K mRNA and the down-regulation of osteoprotegrin mRNA in the tibia of ovariectomised rats. TRAP-positive cell numbers were significantly decreased in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced RAW 264.7 cells when co-cultured with EV extracts. The present study indicated that the protective effects of EV on bone properties in ovariectomised rats are likely to be mediated by its inhibitory actions on the process of bone resorption via the suppression of osteoclast differentiation and maturation. PMID:20487580

  8. Isolation and partial characterization of a protease from Agave americana variegata.

    PubMed

    Du Toit, P J

    1976-05-13

    A new protease was isolated from an extract of leaves of Agave americana variegata. The protease (EC 3.4.-) was purified 565-fold with a yield of 39.5%. The 43.8 mg enzyme had a specific activity of 0.44 units/mg. According to electrophoretic, ultracentrifugal and other physical characterizations the enzyme was homogeneous. The enzyme had a MR of 57000, a S20,W-value of 4.37 S, a D20, W-value of 6.8-7.0 - 10(-7) cm2sec-1, a Stokes radius of 3.18 nm, a partial specific volume of 0.735 cm3g-1, a frictional ration of 1.25, a molecular absorbancy index at 280 nm of 5.773-10(4), an isoelectric point of 5.25 and contained 8-10% carbohydrate. The enzyme contained no cysteine. Agave protease could hydrolyze a variety of protein substrates although it did have a restricted specificity. It is not a sulphhydryl protease but seems to be an alkaline "serine" protease with an optimum pH of 7.8-8.0 Agave protease had marked esterolytic activity and with Cbz-Tyr-ONp had an apparent Michaelis constant of 0.0345 -10(-3) M and a V of 1.24 mol substrate/mol enzyme per sec. The enzyme did not need metal ions for optimal activity, monovalent cations did not influence its kinetic parameters, but it was inhibited by cobalt, pC1HgBzO- and TosPheCH2C1. With respect to its primary specificity, as well as its pH-dependence there was a resemblance with chymotrypsin, although the rate of hydrolysis of Agave protease is much lower.

  9. Novel synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bauhinia variegata: a recent eco-friendly approach for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Hoti, S L; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Barnard, Donald R; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquito vectors are responsible for transmitting diseases such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and lymphatic filariasis. The use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects, in addition to high operational cost. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has been proposed as an alternative to traditional control tools. In the present study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Bauhinia variegata by reduction of Ag(+) ions from silver nitrate solution has been investigated. The bioreduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV–visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Leaf extract and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against the larvae of Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Compared to aqueous extract, synthesized AgNPs showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 and LC90 values of 41.96, 46.16, and 51.92 μg/mL and 82.93, 89.42, and 97.12 μg/mL, respectively. Overall, this study proves that B. variegata is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis and may be proposed as an efficient mosquito control agent.

  10. Heterophylly in the yellow waterlily, Nuphar variegata (Nymphaeaceae): effects of [CO2], natural sediment type, and water depth.

    PubMed

    Titus, J E; Gary Sullivan, P

    2001-08-01

    We transplanted Nuphar variegata with submersed leaves only into natural lake sediments in pH-, [CO(2)]-, depth-, and temperature-controlled greenhouse tanks to test the hypotheses that more fertile sediment, lower free [CO(2)], and shallower depth would all stimulate the development of floating leaves. Sediment higher in porewater [NH(4)(+)] favored floating leaf development. Low CO(2)-grown plants initiated floating leaf development significantly earlier than high CO(2)-grown plants, which produced significantly more submersed leaves and fewer floating leaves. Mean floating leaf biomass was significantly greater than mean submersed leaf biomass but was not influenced by CO(2) enrichment, whereas mean submersed leaf biomass increased 88% at high [CO(2)]. At the shallower depth (35 cm), floating leaves required 50% less biomass investment per leaf than at 70 cm, and a significantly greater proportion of plants had floating leaves (70 vs. 23-43% at 35 vs. 70 cm, respectively) for the last three of the eight leaf censuses. Sediment type, water depth, and especially free [CO(2)] all can influence leaf morphogenesis in Nuphar variegata, and the development of more and larger submersed leaves with CO(2) enrichment favors the exploitation of high [CO(2)] when it is present in the water column.

  11. Aqueous Extracts of the Marine Brown Alga Lobophora variegata Inhibit HIV-1 Infection at the Level of Virus Entry into Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kremb, Stephan; Helfer, Markus; Kraus, Birgit; Wolff, Horst; Wild, Christian; Schneider, Martha; Voolstra, Christian R.; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, marine algae have emerged as a rich and promising source of molecules with potent activities against various human pathogens. The widely distributed brown alga Lobophora variegata that is often associated with tropical coral reefs exerts strong antibacterial and antiprotozoal effects, but so far has not been associated with specific anti-viral activities. This study investigated potential HIV-1 inhibitory activity of L. variegata collected from different geographical regions, using a cell-based full replication HIV-1 reporter assay. Aqueous L. variegata extracts showed strong inhibitory effects on several HIV-1 strains, including drug-resistant and primary HIV-1 isolates, and protected even primary cells (PBMC) from HIV-1-infection. Anti-viral potency was related to ecological factors and showed clear differences depending on light exposition or epiphyte growth. Assays addressing early events of the HIV-1 replication cycle indicated that L. variegata extracts inhibited entry of HIV-1 into cells at a pre-fusion step possibly by impeding mobility of virus particles. Further characterization of the aqueous extract demonstrated that even high doses had only moderate effects on viability of cultured and primary cells (PBMCs). Imaging-based techniques revealed extract effects on the plasma membrane and actin filaments as well as induction of apoptosis at concentrations exceeding EC50 of anti-HIV-1 activity by more than 400 fold. In summary, we show for the first time that L. variegata extracts inhibit HIV-1 entry, thereby suggesting this alga as promising source for the development of novel HIV-1 inhibitors. PMID:25144758

  12. Preference and Performance of Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) on Brevicoryne brassicae, Lipaphis erysimi, and Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from Winter-Adapted Canola.

    PubMed

    Jessie, W P; Giles, K L; Rebek, E J; Payton, M E; Jessie, C N; McCornack, B P

    2015-06-01

    In the southern plains of the United States, winter-adapted canola (Brassica napus L.) is a recently introduced annual oilseed crop that has rapidly increased in hectares during the past 10 yr. Winter canola fields are infested annually with populations of Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) and Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), and these Brassica specialists are known to sequester plant volatiles from host plants, producing a chemical defense system against predators. Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is also common in winter canola fields, but as a generalist herbivore, does not sequester plant compounds. These three aphid species are expected to affect predator survival and development in very different ways. We conducted laboratory studies to 1) determine whether Hippodamia convergens (Guérin-Méneville) and Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) larvae demonstrate feeding preferences among winter canola aphids and 2) describe the suitability of these prey species. Predators demonstrated no significant preference among prey, and each aphid species was suitable for predator survival to the adult stage. However, prey species significantly affected development times and adult weights of each predator species. Overall, predator development was delayed and surviving adults weighed less when provided with L. erysimi or B. brassicae, which sequestered high levels of indole glucosinolates from their host plants. Our results indicate that although common winter canola aphids were suitable prey for H. convergens and C. carnea, qualitative differences in nutritional suitability exist between Brassica-specialist aphids and the generalist M. persicae. These differences appear to be influenced by levels of sequestered plant compounds that are toxic to aphid predators. PMID:26313995

  13. A Comprehensive Selection of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis in a Predatory Lady Beetle, Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Siegfried, Blair D.; Zhou, Xuguo

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a reliable, rapid, and reproducible technique for measuring and evaluating changes in gene expression. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate RT-qPCR data, normalization relative to stable reference genes is required. In this study, expression profiles of seven candidate reference genes, including β-actin (Actin), elongation factor 1 α (EF1A), glyceralde hyde-3-phosphate dehydro-genase (GAPDH), cyclophilins A (CypA), vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (ATPase), 28S ribosomal RNA (28S), and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S) from Hippodamia convergens were investigated. H. convergens is an abundant predatory species in the New World, and has been widely used as a biological control agent against sap-sucking insect pests, primarily aphids. A total of four analytical methods, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the ΔCt method, were employed to evaluate the performance of these seven genes as endogenous controls under diverse experimental conditions. Additionally, RefFinder, a comprehensive evaluation platform integrating the four above mentioned algorithms, ranked the overall stability of these candidate genes. A suite of reference genes were specifically recommended for each experimental condition. Among them, 28S, EF1A, and CypA were the best reference genes across different development stages; GAPDH, 28S, and CypA were most stable in different tissues. GAPDH and CypA were most stable in female and male adults and photoperiod conditions, 28S and EF1A were most stable under a range of temperatures, Actin and CypA were most stable under dietary RNAi condition. This work establishes a standardized RT-qPCR analysis in H. convergens. Additionally, this study lays a foundation for functional genomics research in H. convergens and sheds light on the ecological risk assessment of RNAi-based biopesticides on this non-target biological control agent. PMID:25915640

  14. Larval performance and kill rate of convergent ladybird beetles, Hippodamia convergens, on black bean aphids, Aphis fabae, and pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Hinkelman, Travis M; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Generalist predator guilds play a prominent role in structuring insect communities and can contribute to limiting population sizes of insect pest species. A consequence of dietary breadth, particularly in predatory insects, is the inclusion of low-quality, or even toxic, prey items in the predator's diet. Consumption of low-quality prey items reduces growth, development, and survival of predator larvae, thereby reducing the population sizes of generalist predators. The objective of this paper was to examine the effect of a suspected low-quality aphid species, Aphis fabae (Scopoli) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on the larval performance of an abundant North American predator, Hippodamia convergens (Guérin-Méneville) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). For comparison, H. convergens larvae were also reared on a known high-quality aphid species Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and on a 50:50 mix of both aphid species. The proportion of H. convergens larvae surviving to the adult stage was dramatically lower (0.13) on the A. fabae diet than on the A. pisum diet (0.70); survival on the mixed diet was intermediate (0.45) to survival on the single-species diets. Similarly, surviving H. convergens larvae also developed more slowly and weighed less as adults on the A. fabae diet than on the A. pisum diet. Despite the relatively poor performance on the A. fabae diet, H. convergens larvae killed large numbers of A. fabae. Furthermore, H. convergens displayed a preference for A. fabae in the mixed diet treatment, most likely because A. fabae was easier to catch than A. pisum. The results suggest that increases in the distribution and abundance of A. fabae in North America may have negative effects on H. convergens population size. PMID:23909291

  15. Larval performance and kill rate of convergent ladybird beetles, Hippodamia convergens, on black bean aphids, Aphis fabae, and pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Hinkelman, Travis M; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Generalist predator guilds play a prominent role in structuring insect communities and can contribute to limiting population sizes of insect pest species. A consequence of dietary breadth, particularly in predatory insects, is the inclusion of low-quality, or even toxic, prey items in the predator's diet. Consumption of low-quality prey items reduces growth, development, and survival of predator larvae, thereby reducing the population sizes of generalist predators. The objective of this paper was to examine the effect of a suspected low-quality aphid species, Aphis fabae (Scopoli) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on the larval performance of an abundant North American predator, Hippodamia convergens (Guérin-Méneville) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). For comparison, H. convergens larvae were also reared on a known high-quality aphid species Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and on a 50:50 mix of both aphid species. The proportion of H. convergens larvae surviving to the adult stage was dramatically lower (0.13) on the A. fabae diet than on the A. pisum diet (0.70); survival on the mixed diet was intermediate (0.45) to survival on the single-species diets. Similarly, surviving H. convergens larvae also developed more slowly and weighed less as adults on the A. fabae diet than on the A. pisum diet. Despite the relatively poor performance on the A. fabae diet, H. convergens larvae killed large numbers of A. fabae. Furthermore, H. convergens displayed a preference for A. fabae in the mixed diet treatment, most likely because A. fabae was easier to catch than A. pisum. The results suggest that increases in the distribution and abundance of A. fabae in North America may have negative effects on H. convergens population size.

  16. Species-level view of population structure and gene flow for a critically endangered primate (Varecia variegata)

    PubMed Central

    Baden, Andrea L; Holmes, Sheila M; Johnson, Steig E; Engberg, Shannon E; Louis, Edward E; Bradley, Brenda J

    2014-01-01

    Lemurs are among the world's most threatened mammals. The critically endangered black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata), in particular, has recently experienced rapid population declines due to habitat loss, ecological sensitivities to habitat degradation, and extensive human hunting pressure. Despite this, a recent study indicates that ruffed lemurs retain among the highest levels of genetic diversity for primates. Identifying how this diversity is apportioned and whether gene flow is maintained among remnant populations will help to diagnose and target conservation priorities. We sampled 209 individuals from 19 sites throughout the remaining V. variegata range. We used 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci and ∼550 bp of mtDNA sequence data to evaluate genetic structure and population dynamics, including dispersal patterns and recent population declines. Bayesian cluster analyses identified two distinct genetic clusters, which optimally partitioned data into populations occurring on either side of the Mangoro River. Localities north of the Mangoro were characterized by greater genetic diversity, greater gene flow (lower genetic differentiation) and higher mtDNA haplotype and nucleotide diversity than those in the south. Despite this, genetic differentiation across all sites was high, as indicated by high average FST (0.247) and ΦST (0.544), and followed a pattern of isolation-by-distance. We use these results to suggest future conservation strategies that include an effort to maintain genetic diversity in the north and restore connectivity in the south. We also note the discordance between patterns of genetic differentiation and current subspecies taxonomy, and encourage a re-evaluation of conservation management units moving forward. PMID:25077019

  17. Characterization of cadmium-resistant endophytic fungi from Salix variegata Franch. in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China.

    PubMed

    An, Hongmei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Xinfei; Huang, Qian; Yuan, Shenhong; Yang, Xingyong; Dong, Jinyan

    2015-07-01

    The community and Cd-resistance of endophytic fungi from roots of Salix variegata Franch. collected from the water-level-fluctuation zone of Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China, were investigated. A total of 53 strains were isolated and identified to 13 morphotaxa, in which Chromosporium, Fusarium and Gonatobotrys were dominant genera. Among them, 27 isolates were selected to measure their resistance to 0.02 mg ml(-1) Cd(2+) and 11 were growth stimulated (Tolerance index>100%). Of these active isolates, four dark septate endophyte (DSE) isolates (Paraphaeosphaeria sp. SR46, Pyrenochaeta sp. SR35, Rhizopycnis vagum SR37 and R. vagum SR44) were further tested for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against Cd and SR46 was found to be the most tolerant isolate with MIC of 0.39 mg ml(-1). Additionally, the maximum uptake values of these DSEs ranged from 3.01 to 7.89 mg g(-1), but there was no significant correlation between metal uptake with fungal biomass and metal tolerance. Subsequently, a pot experiment was conducted for investigating the impact of SR46 on corn seedlings in Cd-enriched soil. The results obtained suggested that SR46 reduced the Cd bioaccumulation of plant under low (100 mg kg(-1)) Cd stress and enhanced the Cd translocation from root zone to aerial parts under high (200 mg kg(-1)) Cd stress. Besides, it promoted plant growth without Cd stress. These findings indicated S. variegata harbors an endophytic fungal flora showing a high genetic diversity as well as a high level of metal resistance to Cd that has potential values in cadmium cycling and restoration of plant, soil and water system.

  18. Inference on arthropod demographic parameters: computational advances using R.

    PubMed

    Maia, Aline De Holanda Nunes; Pazianotto, Ricardo Antonio De Almeida; Luiz, Alfredo José Barreto; Marinho-Prado, Jeanne Scardini; Pervez, Ahmad

    2014-02-01

    We developed a computer program for life table analysis using the open source, free software programming environment R. It is useful to quantify chronic nonlethal effects of treatments on arthropod populations by summarizing information on their survival and fertility in key population parameters referred to as fertility life table parameters. Statistical inference on fertility life table parameters is not trivial because it requires the use of computationally intensive methods for variance estimation. Our codes present some advantages with respect to a previous program developed in Statistical Analysis System. Additional multiple comparison tests were incorporated for the analysis of qualitative factors; a module for regression analysis was implemented, thus, allowing analysis of quantitative factors such as temperature or agrochemical doses; availability is granted for users, once it was developed using an open source, free software programming environment. To illustrate the descriptive and inferential analysis implemented in lifetable.R, we present and discuss two examples: 1) a study quantifying the influence of the proteinase inhibitor berenil on the eucalyptus defoliator Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll) and 2) a study investigating the influence of temperature on demographic parameters of a predaceous ladybird, Hippodamia variegata (Goeze). PMID:24665730

  19. Phytochemical Profile of Erythrina variegata by Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy Analyses.

    PubMed

    Muthukrishnan, Suriyavathana; Palanisamy, Subha; Subramanian, Senthilkumar; Selvaraj, Sumathi; Mari, Kavitha Rani; Kuppulingam, Ramalingam

    2016-08-01

    Natural products derived from plant sources have been utilized to treat patients with numerous diseases. The phytochemical constituents present in ethanolic leaf extract of Erythrina variegata (ELEV) were identified by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analyses. Shade dried leaves were powdered and extracted with ethanol for analyses through HPLC to identify selected flavonoids and through GC-MS to identify other molecules. The HPLC analysis of ELEV showed the presence of gallic and caffeic acids as the major components at concentrations of 2.0 ppm and 0.1 ppm, respectively, as well as other components. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 3-eicosyne; 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol; butanoic acid, 3-methyl-3,7-dimethyl-6-octenyl ester; phytol; 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diundecyl ester; 1-octanol, 2-butyl-; squalene; and 2H-pyran, 2-(7-heptadecynyloxy) tetrahydro-derivative. Because pharmacopuncture is a new evolving natural mode that uses herbal extracts for treating patients with various ailments with minimum pain and maximum effect, the results of this study are particularly important and show that ELEV possesses a wide range of phytochemical constituents, as indicated above, as effective active principle molecules that can be used individually or in combination to treat patients with various diseases. PMID:27555226

  20. ESTIMATED COMPOSITION OF DIETS FED TO CAPTIVE BLACK-AND-WHITE RUFFED LEMURS (VARECIA VARIEGATA) AT 33 U.S. ZOOLOGICAL INSTITUTIONS.

    PubMed

    Donadeo, Brett C; Kerr, Katherine R; Morris, Cheryl L; Swanson, Kelly S

    2016-03-01

    Data on captive diets for black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) are limited. Information on food items used, inclusion amounts, and the chemical composition of diets is needed to improve the management of nutrition-related health problems seen in captive lemurs (e.g., obesity) that have not been reported in their wild counterparts. To determine the ingredient and nutrient composition of diets for captive V. variegata, U.S. zoological institutions were surveyed. Chemical composition of reported diets was estimated using Nutritionist Pro™ (Axxya Systems, Stafford, Texas 77477, USA), and these values were compared numerically to wild lemur diets from the literature. Institutions included from six to greater than 30 different ingredients in their diets, including fruits (0.0-84.1%), vegetables (7.5-70.0%), greens (1.0-28.5%), and commercially available feeds (1.5-68.6%). Nutrient concentrations of captive diets ranged as follows: dry matter (DM), 14.5-67.6%; organic matter, 93.1-97.2% DM basis (DMB); crude protein, 7.9-23.9% DMB; fat, 2.0-6.5% DMB; total dietary fiber, 10.1-28.1% DMB; and N-free extract, 38.9-74.4% DMB. Captive diets had lower fat and total dietary fiber and higher protein and N-free extract compared to wild fruit items from Madagascar. Reducing the amount of fruit in captive diets for V. variegata would be expected to decrease digestible carbohydrate content and increase fiber content of these diets, which has implications for the prevalence of obesity in captive animals. PMID:27010276

  1. Evolution of Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata (Anura: Discoglossidae) in the Carpathian Basin: a history of repeated mt-DNA introgression across species.

    PubMed

    Vörös, Judit; Alcobendas, Marina; Martínez-Solano, Iñigo; García-París, Mario

    2006-03-01

    The structure and geographic location of hybrid zones change through time. Current patterns result from present and historical population-environment interactions that act on each of the hybridizing taxa. This is particularly evident for species involved in complex hybrid zones, such as that formed by the toad species Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata (Anura: Discoglossidae), which interact along extensive areas in Central Europe. We used data on external morphology and partial sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (cox1) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotid dehydrogenase subunit 4 (nad4) mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) genes to analyze the current patterns of genetic structure shown by both species of Bombina along their contact zone in Hungary. Phylogenetic, phylogeographic, and historical demography analyses were applied to 1.5kb mt-DNA obtained from 119 individuals representing 24 populations from Hungary and additional specimens from Slovakia, Albania, and Bosnia-Herzegovina. We use these data to infer the evolutionary history of the isolated populations of B. variegata in Hungary and to discriminate between competing biogeographic scenarios accounting for the historical interactions between species in this region. Results from the inferred phylogenetic branching pattern and sequence divergence among species and populations support the following: (i) recent population expansion has occurred in Hungarian populations of B. bombina, which are genetically very homogeneous; (ii) the Hungarian populations of B. variegata correspond to two distinct mitochondrial lineages (Carpathian and Alpine, respectively); average maximum-likelihood-corrected sequence divergence between these lineages is 8.96% for cox1 and 10.85% for nad4; (iii) mt-DNA divergence among the three isolated western populations of B. variegata from Transdanubia is low, with four closely related haplotypes, which suggests that the isolation between these populations is the result of a recent process

  2. Allelopathy in the tropical alga Lobophora variegata (Phaeophyceae): mechanistic basis for a phase shift on mesophotic coral reefs?

    PubMed

    Slattery, Marc; Lesser, Michael P

    2014-06-01

    Macroalgal phase shifts on Caribbean reefs have been reported with increasing frequency, and recent reports of these changes on mesophotic coral reefs have raised questions regarding the mechanistic processes behind algal population expansions to deeper depths. The brown alga Lobophora variegata is a dominant species on many shallow and deep coral reefs of the Caribbean and Pacific, and it increased in percent cover (>50%) up to 61 m on Bahamian reefs following the invasion of the lionfish Pterois volitans. We examined the physiological and ecological constraints contributing to the spread of Lobophora on Bahamian reefs across a mesophotic depth gradient from 30 to 61 m, pre- and post-lionfish invasion. Results indicate that there were no physiological limitations to the depth distribution of Lobophora within this range prior to the lionfish invasion. Herbivory by acanthurids and scarids in algal recruitment plots at mesophotic depths was higher prior to the lionfish invasion, and Lobophora chemical defenses were ineffective against an omnivorous fish species. In contrast, Lobophora exhibited significant allelopathic activity against the coral Montastraea cavernosa and the sponge Agelas clathrodes in laboratory assays. These data indicate that when lionfish predation on herbivorous fish released Lobophora from grazing pressure at depth, Lobophora expanded its benthic cover to a depth of 61 m, where it replaced the dominant coral and sponge species. Our results suggest that this chemically defended alga may out-compete these species in situ, and that mesophotic reefs may be further impacted in the near future as Lobophora continues to expand to its compensation point. PMID:26988322

  3. Effect of Erythrina variegata seed extract on hyperlipidemia elicited by high-fat diet in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Balamurugan, G.; Shantha, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of the methanolic extract of Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var Orientalis (Fabaceae) seeds (MEEV) in reducing the cholesterol levels and as well as antioxidant in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract were evaluated for its effect on lipid profile, HMG-CoA reductase, and on antioxidant enzymes in high-fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia. Results and Conclusion: The elevated levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein due to HFD was reduced by concurrent treatment with MEEV (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.001). A significant reduction (P<0.001) in high-density lipoprotein was noticed in HFD fed groups; however, a nonsignificant increment was produced by the administration of MEEV (200 and 400 mg/kg). The HMG-CoA reductase activity was increased in HFD fed animals significantly (P<0.001) and was reduced by MEEV 400 mg/kg significantly (P<0.001). There was a noticed increase in the body weight and mesenteric fat pad weight in HFD fed group (P<0.001), which was reduced by the administration of MEEV (200 and 400 mg/kg). The antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase were reduced significantly in the HFD fed group, whose levels were increased significantly (P<0.001) by the administration of MEEV (200 and 400 mg/kg). Lipid peroxidation was increased in HFD fed animals, which was reduced significantly (P<0.001) by the treatment with MEEV (200 and 400 mg/kg). PMID:21180471

  4. Allelopathy in the tropical alga Lobophora variegata (Phaeophyceae): mechanistic basis for a phase shift on mesophotic coral reefs?

    PubMed

    Slattery, Marc; Lesser, Michael P

    2014-06-01

    Macroalgal phase shifts on Caribbean reefs have been reported with increasing frequency, and recent reports of these changes on mesophotic coral reefs have raised questions regarding the mechanistic processes behind algal population expansions to deeper depths. The brown alga Lobophora variegata is a dominant species on many shallow and deep coral reefs of the Caribbean and Pacific, and it increased in percent cover (>50%) up to 61 m on Bahamian reefs following the invasion of the lionfish Pterois volitans. We examined the physiological and ecological constraints contributing to the spread of Lobophora on Bahamian reefs across a mesophotic depth gradient from 30 to 61 m, pre- and post-lionfish invasion. Results indicate that there were no physiological limitations to the depth distribution of Lobophora within this range prior to the lionfish invasion. Herbivory by acanthurids and scarids in algal recruitment plots at mesophotic depths was higher prior to the lionfish invasion, and Lobophora chemical defenses were ineffective against an omnivorous fish species. In contrast, Lobophora exhibited significant allelopathic activity against the coral Montastraea cavernosa and the sponge Agelas clathrodes in laboratory assays. These data indicate that when lionfish predation on herbivorous fish released Lobophora from grazing pressure at depth, Lobophora expanded its benthic cover to a depth of 61 m, where it replaced the dominant coral and sponge species. Our results suggest that this chemically defended alga may out-compete these species in situ, and that mesophotic reefs may be further impacted in the near future as Lobophora continues to expand to its compensation point.

  5. Resource seasonality and reproduction predict fission-fusion dynamics in black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata).

    PubMed

    Baden, Andrea L; Webster, Timothy H; Kamilar, Jason M

    2016-02-01

    Ruffed lemurs (genus Varecia) are often described as having a flexible social organization, such that both cohesive (low fission-fusion dynamics) and fluid (high fission-fusion dynamics) grouping patterns have been observed. In ruffed lemur communities with high fission-fusion dynamics, group members vary in their temporal and spatial dispersion throughout a communally defended territory. These patterns have been likened to those observed in several haplorrhine species that exhibit the most fluid types of fission-fusion social organization (e.g., Pan and Ateles). To substantiate and further refine these claims, we describe the fission-fusion dynamics of a black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata) community at Mangevo, an undisturbed primary rainforest site in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. We collected instantaneous group scan samples from August 2007-December 2008 (4,044 observation hours) to study and characterize patterns of subgroup size, composition, cohesion, and social association. In 16 consecutive months, we never found all members of the community together. In fact, individuals spent nearly half of their time alone. Subgroups were small, cohesive, and typically of mixed-sex composition. Mixed-sex subgroups were significantly larger, less cohesive, and more common than either male-only or female-only subgroups. Subgroup dynamics were related to shifts in climate, phenology of preferred fruit species, and female reproductive state. On average, association indices were low. Males and females were equally gregarious; however, adult male-male associations were significantly weaker than any other association type. Results presented herein document striking differences in fission-fusion dynamics between black-and-white ruffed lemurs and haplorrhines, while also demonstrating many broad-scale similarities to haplorrhine taxa that possess the most fluid fission-fusion societies. PMID:26606154

  6. Identification of volatiles in leaves of Alpinia zerumbet 'Variegata' using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian Yan; Ye, Zheng Mei; Huang, Tian Yi; Chen, Xiao Dan; Li, Yong Yu; Wu, Shao Hua

    2014-07-01

    Alpinia zerumbet 'Variegata' is an aromatic medicinal plant, its foliage producing an intense, unique fragrant odor. This study identified 46 volatile compounds in the leaf tissue of this plant using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). The major compounds included 1, 8-cineole (43.5%), p-cymene (14.7%), humulene (5.5%), camphor (5.3%), linalool (4.7%), (E)-methyl cinnamate (3.8%), gamma-cadinene (3.3%), humulene oxide II (2.1%) and a-terpineol (1.5%). The majority of the volatiles were terpenoids of which oxygenated monoterpenes were the most abundant, accounting for 57.2% of the total volatiles. Alcohols made up the largest (52.8%) and aldehydes the smallest (0.2%) portions of the volatiles. Many bioactive compounds were present in the volatiles. PMID:25230513

  7. Identification of volatiles in leaves of Alpinia zerumbet 'Variegata' using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian Yan; Ye, Zheng Mei; Huang, Tian Yi; Chen, Xiao Dan; Li, Yong Yu; Wu, Shao Hua

    2014-07-01

    Alpinia zerumbet 'Variegata' is an aromatic medicinal plant, its foliage producing an intense, unique fragrant odor. This study identified 46 volatile compounds in the leaf tissue of this plant using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). The major compounds included 1, 8-cineole (43.5%), p-cymene (14.7%), humulene (5.5%), camphor (5.3%), linalool (4.7%), (E)-methyl cinnamate (3.8%), gamma-cadinene (3.3%), humulene oxide II (2.1%) and a-terpineol (1.5%). The majority of the volatiles were terpenoids of which oxygenated monoterpenes were the most abundant, accounting for 57.2% of the total volatiles. Alcohols made up the largest (52.8%) and aldehydes the smallest (0.2%) portions of the volatiles. Many bioactive compounds were present in the volatiles.

  8. Peptide IC-20, encoded by skin kininogen-1 of the European yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata, antagonizes bradykinin-induced arterial smooth muscle relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mu; Zhou, Mei; Bai, Bing; Ma, Chengbang; Wei, Le; Wang, Lei; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives were to determine if the skin secretion of the European yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata), in common with other related species, contains a bradykinin inhibitor peptide and to isolate and structurally characterize this peptide. Materials and Methods: Lyophilized skin secretion obtained from this toad was subjected to reverse phase HPLC fractionation with subsequent bioassay of fractions for antagonism of the bradykinin activity using an isolated rat tail artery smooth muscle preparation. Subsequently, the primary structure of the peptide was established by a combination of microsequencing, mass spectroscopy, and molecular cloning, following which a synthetic replicate was chemically synthesised for bioassay. Results: A single peptide of molecular mass 2300.92 Da was resolved in HPLC fractions of skin secretion and its primary structure determined as IYNAIWP-KH-NK-KPGLL-. Database interrogation with this sequence indicated that this peptide was encoded by skin kininogen-1 previously cloned from B. variegata. The blank cycles were occupied by cysteinyl (C) residues and the peptide was located toward the C-terminus of the skin kininogen, and flanked N-terminally by a classical –KR- propeptide convertase processing site. The peptide was named IC-20 in accordance (I = N-terminal isoleucine, C = C-terminal cysteine, 20 = number of residues). Like the natural peptide, its synthetic replicate displayed an antagonism of bradykinin-induced arterial smooth muscle relaxation. Conclusion: IC-20 represents a novel bradykinin antagonizing peptide from amphibian skin secretions and is the third such peptide found to be co-encoded with bradykinins within skin kininogens. PMID:21687349

  9. Effect of selected insecticides on the natural enemies Coleomegilla maculata and Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Geocoris punctipes (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae), and Bracon mellitor, Cardiochiles nigriceps, and Cotesia marginiventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in cotton.

    PubMed

    Tillman, P G; Mulrooney, J E

    2000-12-01

    We evaluated the toxicity of three insecticides (lambda cyhalothrin, spinosad, and S-1812) to the natural enemies Bracon mellitor Say, Cardiochiles nigriceps Viereck, Coleomegilla maculata De Geer, Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson), Geocoris punctipes (Say), and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, in topical, residual, and field assays. Lambda cyhalothrin exhibited the greatest toxicity to the natural enemies. In topical toxicity tests, lambda cyhalothrin adversely affected each natural enemy species studied. Residues of lambda cyhalothrin on cotton leaves were toxic to B. mellitor, C. nigriceps, C. maculata, and C. punctipes. Interestingly, residues of this insecticide were not very toxic to C. marginiventris and H. convergens. Geocoris punctipes and C. maculata numbers in the field generally were significantly lower for lambda cyhalothrin treatments than for the other four treatments, substantiating the previous tests. Although cotton aphids began to increase over all treatments around the middle of the test period, the number of cotton aphids in the lambda cyhalothrin plots was significantly higher than the number in any of the other treatments. As cotton aphids increased in lambda cyhalothrin field plots, the predator H. convergens also increased in number, indicating that lambda cyhalothrin did not adversely affect it in accordance with the residual tests. Spinosad exhibited marginal to excellent selectivity, but was highly toxic to each parasitoid species and G. punctipes in topical toxicity tests and to B. mellitor in residual tests. Spinosad generally did not affect the number of G. punctipes, H. convergens, and C. maculata in the field except for one day after the second application for G. punctipes. S-1812 exhibited good to excellent selectivity to the natural enemies. Some reduction of G. punctipes occurred for only a short period after the first and second application of this insecticide in the field. H. convergens and C. maculata were affected

  10. Fecal inoculum can be used to determine the rate and extent of in vitro fermentation of dietary fiber sources across three lemur species that differ in dietary profile: Varecia variegata, Eulemur fulvus and Hapalemur griseus.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J L; Williams, C V; Eisemann, J H

    2002-10-01

    To estimate fermentative capacity among lemur species, four fiber substrates were tested across three species, Eulemur fulvus, Hapalemur griseus and Varecia variegata. The substrates, cellulose, beet pulp, citrus pulp and citrus pectin, ranged in composition from completely insoluble fiber (IF) to completely soluble fiber (SF), respectively. The lemurs consumed a nutritionally complete biscuit formulated for primates [85 g/100 g diet dry matter (DM)] and locally available produce (15 g/100 g diet DM). Feces were then collected and used to inoculate fermentation tubes prefilled with fiber substrates and an anaerobic growth medium. Dry matter disappearance (DMD), and acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production were measured in tubes subjected to 6, 12, 24 or 48 h of fermentation. Results were fitted to a logistic growth model. The maximal production (MP) time at which production or disappearance is at one-half maximum (t(50)) and the fermentation rate at 3 h were calculated. The maximal disappearance of DM differed among substrates (citrus pectin > citrus pulp > beet pulp; P < 0.0001) and species (E. fulvus > H. griseus > V. variegata; P < 0.001). V. variegata reached t(50) for acetate and total SCFA production faster than H. griseus or E. fulvus (P < 0.02). Three-hour production rates of acetate and total SCFA were also greater for V. variegata for citrus pulp and citrus pectin (P < 0.01). Few species differences were observed for beet pulp. Results provide evidence for differences in fermentative capacity and suggest that fiber solubility and fermentability should be considered when assessing the nutritional management of lemurs.

  11. Soil-Applied Imidacloprid Translocates to Ornamental Flowers and Reduces Survival of Adult Coleomegilla maculata, Harmonia axyridis, and Hippodamia convergens Lady Beetles, and Larval Danaus plexippus and Vanessa cardui Butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Krischik, Vera; Rogers, Mary; Gupta, Garima; Varshney, Aruna

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a decision making process used to manage pests that relies on many tactics, including cultural and biological control, which are practices that conserve beneficial insects and mites, and when needed, the use of conventional insecticides. However, systemic, soil-applied neonicotinoid insecticides are translocated to pollen and nectar of flowers, often for months, and may reduce survival of flower-feeding beneficial insects. Imidacloprid seed-treated crops (0.05 mg AI (active ingredient) /canola seed and 1.2 mg AI/corn seed) translocate less than 10 ppb to pollen and nectar. However, higher rates of soil-applied imidacloprid are used in nurseries and urban landscapes, such as 300 mg AI/10 L (3 gallon) pot and 69 g AI applied to the soil under a 61 (24 in) cm diam. tree. Translocation of imidacloprid from soil (300 mg AI) to flowers of Asclepias curassavica resulted in 6,030 ppb in 1X and 10,400 ppb in 2X treatments, which are similar to imidacloprid residues found in another plant species we studied. A second imidacloprid soil application 7 months later resulted in 21,000 ppb in 1X and 45,000 ppb in 2X treatments. Consequently, greenhouse/nursery use of imidacloprid applied to flowering plants can result in 793 to 1,368 times higher concentration compared to an imidacloprid seed treatment (7.6 ppb pollen in seed- treated canola), where most research has focused. These higher imidacloprid levels caused significant mortality in both 1X and 2X treatments in 3 lady beetle species, Coleomegilla maculata, Harmonia axyridis, and Hippodamia convergens, but not a fourth species, Coccinella septempunctata. Adult survival were not reduced for monarch, Danaus plexippus and painted lady, Vanessa cardui, butterflies, but larval survival was significantly reduced. The use of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid at greenhouse/nursery rates reduced survival of beneficial insects feeding on pollen and nectar and is incompatible with the principles of IPM

  12. Para-allopatry in hybridizing fire-bellied toads (Bombina bombina and B. variegata): Inference from transcriptome-wide coalescence analyses.

    PubMed

    Nürnberger, Beate; Lohse, Konrad; Fijarczyk, Anna; Szymura, Jacek M; Blaxter, Mark L

    2016-08-01

    Ancient origins, profound ecological divergence, and extensive hybridization make the fire-bellied toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata (Anura: Bombinatoridae) an intriguing test case of ecological speciation. Previous modeling has proposed that the narrow Bombina hybrid zones represent strong barriers to neutral introgression. We test this prediction by inferring the rate of gene exchange between pure populations on either side of the intensively studied Kraków transect. We developed a method to extract high confidence sets of orthologous genes from de novo transcriptome assemblies, fitted a range of divergence models to these data and assessed their relative support with analytic likelihood calculations. There was clear evidence for postdivergence gene flow, but, as expected, no perceptible signal of recent introgression via the nearby hybrid zone. The analysis of two additional Bombina taxa (B. v. scabra and B. orientalis) validated our parameter estimates against a larger set of prior expectations. Despite substantial cumulative introgression over millions of years, adaptive divergence of the hybridizing taxa is essentially unaffected by their lack of reproductive isolation. Extended distribution ranges also buffer them against small-scale environmental perturbations that have been shown to reverse the speciation process in other, more recent ecotypes. PMID:27282112

  13. Identification and molecular cloning of novel trypsin inhibitor analogs from the dermal venom of the Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) and the European yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata).

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2003-06-01

    The structural diversity of polypeptides in amphibian skin secretion probably reflects different roles in dermal regulation or in defense against predators. Here we report the structures of two novel trypsin inhibitor analogs, BOTI and BVTI, from the dermal venom of the toads, Bombina orientalis and Bombina variegata. Cloning of their respective precursors was achieved from lyophilized venom cDNA libraries for the first time. Amino acid alignment revealed that both deduced peptides, consisting of 60 amino acid residues, including 10 cysteines and the reactive center motif, -CDKKC-, can be affirmed as structural homologs of the trypsin inhibitor from Bombina bombina skin.

  14. The structures of four bombesins and their cloned precursor-encoding cDNAs from acid-solvated skin secretion of the European yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Wang, Hui; Xue, Yilu; Wu, Youjia; Zhou, Mei; Wei, Minjie; Chen, Tianbao; Wang, Lei; Shaw, Chris

    2012-08-01

    Four different bombesins (bombesin, His(6)-bombesin, Phe(13)-bombesin and Asp(2)-, Phe(4)-SAP-bombesin) have been identified by a systematic sequencing study of peptides in reverse phase HPLC fractions of the skin secretion of the European yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata, that had been solvated in 0.1% (v/v) aqueous trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and stored frozen at -20°C for 12 years. By using a 3'- and 5'-RACE PCR strategy, the corresponding biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNAs of all four peptides were cloned from a cDNA library made from the same long-term frozen, acid-solvated skin secretion sample following thawing and lyophilization. Canonical bombesin and His(6)-bombesin are classical bombesin sub-family members, whereas Phe(13)-bombesin and Asp(2)-, Phe(4)-SAP-bombesin, belong to the litorin/ranatensin sub-family of bombesin-like peptides (BLPs). Assignment of these peptides to respective sub-families, was based upon both their primary structural similarities and their comparative pharmacological activities. An interesting observation in this study, was that the nucleotide sequences of the open-reading frames of cloned cDNAs encoding bombesin and its His(6)-substituted analog, were identical except for a single base that was responsible for the change observed at the position 6 residue in the mature peptide from Asn to His. In contrast, the precursor cDNA nucleotide sequences encoding the Phe(13)-bombesins, exhibited 53 base differences. The pharmacological activities of synthetic replicates of each bombesin were compared using two different mammalian smooth muscle preparations and all four peptides were found to be active. However, there were significant differences in their relative potencies. PMID:22687368

  15. Functional analysis of aggression in a black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata).

    PubMed

    Farmer-Dougan, Valeri

    2014-01-01

    A functional analysis was conducted to assess the antecedent and reinforcing conditions underlying aggressive behavior in a female lemur in captivity. Results showed that her aggression was primarily the result of human attention. A replacement behavior-training program was introduced, and the lemur's aggression was successfully eliminated. These results demonstrate the utility of using functional assessment and analyses in zoos with captive wild nonhuman animals.

  16. New data in France on the trematode Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) obtained during Trichinella inspections

    PubMed Central

    Portier, J.; Jouet, D.; Ferté, H.; Gibout, O.; Heckmann, A.; Boireau, P.; Vallée, I.

    2011-01-01

    The trematode Alaria alata is a cosmopolite parasite found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the main definitive host in Europe. In contrast only few data are reported in wild boars (Sus scrofa), a paratenic host. The aim of this paper is to describe the importance and distribution of Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boars, information is given by findings of these larvae during Trichinella mandatory meat inspection on wild boars’ carcasses aimed for human consumption. More than a hundred cases of mesocercariae positive animals are found every year in the East of France. First investigations on the parasite’s resistance to deep-freezing in meat are presented in this work. PMID:21894269

  17. New data in France on the trematode Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) obtained during Trichinella inspections.

    PubMed

    Portier, J; Jouet, D; Ferté, H; Gibout, O; Heckmann, A; Boireau, P; Vallée, I

    2011-08-01

    The trematode Alaria alata is a cosmopolite parasite found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the main definitive host in Europe. In contrast only few data are reported in wild boars (Sus scrofa), a paratenic host. The aim of this paper is to describe the importance and distribution of Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boars, information is given by findings of these larvae during Trichinella mandatory meat inspection on wild boars' carcasses aimed for human consumption. More than a hundred cases of mesocercariae positive animals are found every year in the East of France. First investigations on the parasite's resistance to deep-freezing in meat are presented in this work.

  18. Chemosensillum immunolocalization and ligand specificity of chemosensory proteins in the alfalfa plant bug Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Gu, Shao-Hua; Xiao, Hai-Jun; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Ze-Wen; Zhang, Yong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Insect chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are a family of small soluble proteins. To date, their physiological functions in insect olfaction remain largely controversial in comparison to odorant binding proteins (OBPs). In present study, we reported the antenna specific expression of three CSPs (AlinCSP4-6) from Adelphocoris lineolatus, their distinct chemosensillum distribution as well as ligand binding capability thus providing the evidence for the possible roles that they could play in semiochemical detection of the plant bug A. lineolatus. The results of qRT-PCR and western blot assay clearly showed that all of these three CSPs are highly expressed in the adult antennae, the olfactory organ of insects. Further cellular investigation of their immunolocalization revealed their dynamic protein expression profiles among different types of antennal sensilla. In a fluorescence competitive binding assay, the selective ligand binding was observed for AlinCSP4-6. In ad`dition, a cooperative interaction was observed between two co-expressed CSPs resulting in an increase of the binding affinities by a mixture of AlinCSP5 and AlinCSP6 to terpenoids which do not bind to individual CSPs. These findings in combination with our previous data for AlinCSP1-3 indicate a possible functional differentiation of CSPs in the A. lineolatus olfactory system. PMID:25627422

  19. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782) Infection in a Domestic Dog from Hamedan, Western Iran

    PubMed Central

    ZOLHAVARIEH, Seyed Masoud; NORIAN, Alireza; YAVARI, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Dioctophyma renale infection is found in a wide range of mammalian species, typically in temperate areas of the world. Here, we report for the first time, the parasitism of a domestic dog by D. renale in Hamedan, Iran, a mountainous cold region, lacking significant amounts of rainfall, high humidity and temperature. A 2.5 yr old male mixed breed dog was presented with a two months history of progressive hematuria and muscle weakness. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry were performed with results indicating impaired renal function. Urinalysis, showed hematuria as well as parasitic eggs, suggestive of D. renale infection. Urinary system ultrasonography revealed a hypoecogenic tubular structure in the right kidney. The animal was treated with fenbendazole (45 mg/kg, PO, QD - five days) and ivermectin (0.02 mg/kg, SC, single dose). One week later, repeated laboratory examination confirmed presence of at least one alive worm in the affected kidney. A unilateral nephrectomy was performed; one female (60 × 5 cm) and one male (30 × 3.8 cm) live worm were taken out of the extremely thin walled right kidney. One month later, due to failure of the remained kidney and poor condition, the patient deceased. We conclude that dioctophymosis can be found in cold and or relatively dry area. Moreover, the results showed that the worm was not affected with common anthelmintic drugs. PMID:27095981

  20. Prevention of urethral blockage following semen collection in two species of lemur, Varecia variegata variegata and Lemur catta.

    PubMed

    Chatfield, Jenifer; Penfold, Linda

    2007-06-01

    Lemurs are a diverse group of primates comprised of five families, all of which are found only on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands. Of the 60 known species, 17 are endangered and 5 of these are considered critically endangered. The effects of inbreeding on population health and viability have been well described; though negative inbreeding effects can be ameliorated through the introduction of new genetic material. Introduction of new individuals into a population can be extremely challenging because of the highly social nature of lemurs. Semen collection in lemur species is notoriously challenging, as the ejaculate forms a coagulum. During normal breeding, the coagulum forms a copulatory plug in the female. However, this coagulum can present a life-threatening situation when retained in the urethra abnormally following electroejaculation. This study investigates the use of ascorbic acid in preventing urethral blockage in two lemur species during semen collection, demonstrates successful collection of semen by electroejaculation from two species of lemur during the breeding season, and discusses removal of urethral plugs subsequent to semen collection. Semen was collected successfully from all animals. Urethral plugs formed during each collection and were abnormally retained in 2/11 collections. Both plugs were successfully and immediately removed with the use of retropulsion through a urethral catheter. Although the results of this study are encouraging, more investigation is required to establish whether or not this procedure can be safely performed in the field.

  1. Prevalence and intensity of Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) in water frogs and brown frogs in natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Patrelle, Cécile; Portier, Julien; Jouet, Damien; Delorme, Daniel; Ferté, Hubert

    2015-12-01

    In the last 15 years, the mesocercariae of Alaria alata have frequently been reported in the wild boar during routine Trichinella inspections made compulsory for the trade of venison meat in Europe. If these studies have focused primarily on mesocercariae isolated from meat, few works have been done so far to understand the circulation of the parasite in natural conditions especially in the intermediate hosts. This study focuses on the second intermediate hosts of this parasite assessing the suitability of two amphibian groups-brown frogs and water frogs sensu lato-for mesocercarial infection on an area where A. alata has already been identified in water snails and wild boars. During this study, both groups showed to be suitable for mesocercarial infection, with high prevalence and parasite burdens. Prevalence was higher in the brown frog group (56.9 versus 11.54 % for water frogs) which would indicate that it is a preferential group for infection on the study area, though reasons for this remain to be investigated. No significant difference among prevalences was observed between tadpoles and frogs. This study, the first focusing on A. alata in these amphibians in Europe, provides further information on circulation of this parasite in natura.

  2. Prevalence and intensity of Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) in water frogs and brown frogs in natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Patrelle, Cécile; Portier, Julien; Jouet, Damien; Delorme, Daniel; Ferté, Hubert

    2015-12-01

    In the last 15 years, the mesocercariae of Alaria alata have frequently been reported in the wild boar during routine Trichinella inspections made compulsory for the trade of venison meat in Europe. If these studies have focused primarily on mesocercariae isolated from meat, few works have been done so far to understand the circulation of the parasite in natural conditions especially in the intermediate hosts. This study focuses on the second intermediate hosts of this parasite assessing the suitability of two amphibian groups-brown frogs and water frogs sensu lato-for mesocercarial infection on an area where A. alata has already been identified in water snails and wild boars. During this study, both groups showed to be suitable for mesocercarial infection, with high prevalence and parasite burdens. Prevalence was higher in the brown frog group (56.9 versus 11.54 % for water frogs) which would indicate that it is a preferential group for infection on the study area, though reasons for this remain to be investigated. No significant difference among prevalences was observed between tadpoles and frogs. This study, the first focusing on A. alata in these amphibians in Europe, provides further information on circulation of this parasite in natura. PMID:26319522

  3. Inclusion body disease in two captive Australian pythons (Morelia spilota variegata and Morelia spilota spilota).

    PubMed

    Carlisle-Nowak, M S; Sullivan, N; Carrigan, M; Knight, C; Ryan, C; Jacobson, E R

    1998-02-01

    Two captive Australian pythons, one carpet and one diamond python, presented with signs of central nervous system dysfunction. The carpet python was agitated. Its head was tilting and it was incoordinated and had convulsions. It was treated with antibiotics and anthelmintics but was eventually euthanased after failing to respond to therapy. The diamond python had flaccid paralysis of the caudal half. It was not treated and became disoriented and died. Hepatocytes from both pythons contained irregular 2 to 10 micron eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. The brain of the diamond python was not available for examination. Occasional neurones in the carpet python brain contained similar inclusion bodies and other changes suggestive of viral infection. The clinical signs and histopathological findings in both pythons were consistent with boid inclusion body disease. PMID:9578777

  4. Inclusion body disease in two captive Australian pythons (Morelia spilota variegata and Morelia spilota spilota).

    PubMed

    Carlisle-Nowak, M S; Sullivan, N; Carrigan, M; Knight, C; Ryan, C; Jacobson, E R

    1998-02-01

    Two captive Australian pythons, one carpet and one diamond python, presented with signs of central nervous system dysfunction. The carpet python was agitated. Its head was tilting and it was incoordinated and had convulsions. It was treated with antibiotics and anthelmintics but was eventually euthanased after failing to respond to therapy. The diamond python had flaccid paralysis of the caudal half. It was not treated and became disoriented and died. Hepatocytes from both pythons contained irregular 2 to 10 micron eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. The brain of the diamond python was not available for examination. Occasional neurones in the carpet python brain contained similar inclusion bodies and other changes suggestive of viral infection. The clinical signs and histopathological findings in both pythons were consistent with boid inclusion body disease.

  5. Evidence of social learning in black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata).

    PubMed

    Stoinski, T S; Drayton, L A; Price, E E

    2011-06-23

    Although many studies have examined social learning capabilities in apes and monkeys, experiments involving prosimians remain largely absent. We investigated the potential for social learning in black-and-white ruffed lemurs using a two-action foraging task. Eight individuals were divided into two experimental groups and exposed to conspecifics using one of two techniques to access food. Subjects were then given access to the apparatus and their retrieval techniques were recorded and compared. All subjects made their first retrieval using the technique they observed being demonstrated, and there were significant differences between the two groups in their overall response patterns. These results suggest that prosimians are capable of social learning and that additional long-term field studies may reveal the presence of behavioural traditions similar to those found in other primates. PMID:21227976

  6. Evidence of social learning in black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata)

    PubMed Central

    Stoinski, T. S.; Drayton, L. A.; Price, E. E.

    2011-01-01

    Although many studies have examined social learning capabilities in apes and monkeys, experiments involving prosimians remain largely absent. We investigated the potential for social learning in black-and-white ruffed lemurs using a two-action foraging task. Eight individuals were divided into two experimental groups and exposed to conspecifics using one of two techniques to access food. Subjects were then given access to the apparatus and their retrieval techniques were recorded and compared. All subjects made their first retrieval using the technique they observed being demonstrated, and there were significant differences between the two groups in their overall response patterns. These results suggest that prosimians are capable of social learning and that additional long-term field studies may reveal the presence of behavioural traditions similar to those found in other primates. PMID:21227976

  7. Gongylonema pulchrum infection and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a vari (Lemur macaco variegata; Kehr 1792).

    PubMed

    Bleier, T; Hetzel, U; Bauer, C; Behlert, O; Burkhardt, E

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the morphologic and histologic features of a case of esophageal Gongylonema pulchrum infection and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a 17-yr-old, female vari (Lemur macaco variegates). The lemur had lived in a German zoo and had a clinical history of dyspnea, vomiting, and anorexia. At necropsy, a whitish, soft, nodular, centrally necrotic mass was found in the caudal third of the esophagus. In addition, numerous intraepithelial nematodes (G. pulchrum) were observed in the entire esophagus. Results suggest a relation between infection with G. pulchrum and development of an esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

  8. Yield reduction in Brassica napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and Sinapis alba caused by flea beetle (Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)) infestation in northern Idaho.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jack; McCaffrey, Joseph P; Brown, Donna A; Harmon, Bradley L; Davis, James B

    2004-10-01

    Phyllotreta cruciferae is an important insect pest of spring-planted Brassica crops, especially during the seedling stage. To determine the effect of early season P. cruciferae infestation on seed yield, 10 genotypes from each of two canola species (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.) and two mustard species (Brassica juncea L. and Sinapis alba L.) were grown in 2 yr under three different P. cruciferae treatments: (1) no insecticide control; (2) foliar applications of endosulfan; and (3) carbofuran with seed at planting plus foliar application of carbaryl. Averaged over 10 genotypes, B. rapa showed most visible P. cruciferae injury and showed greatest yield reduction without insecticide application. Mustard species (S. alba and B. juncea) showed least visible injury and higher yield without insecticide compared with canola species (B. napus and B. rapa). Indeed, average seed yield of S. alba without insecticide was higher than either B. napus or B. rapa with most effective P. cruciferae control. Significant variation occurred within each species. A number of lines from B. napus, B. juncea, anid S. alba showed less feeding injury and yield reduction as a result of P. cruciferae infestation compared with other lines from the same species examined, thus having potential genetic background for developing resistant cultivars.

  9. Third-stage larvae of the enoplid nematode Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) in the freshwater turtle Trachemys dorbigni from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, C S; Müller, G

    2015-09-01

    The giant kidney worm Dioctophyme renale is normally found in wild carnivores and domestic dogs, with aquatic oligochaetes acting as intermediate hosts. In the present study a prevalence of 50% of third-stage larvae of D. renale was recorded in 60 specimens of the freshwater turtle Trachemys dorbigni from southern Brazil. Larvae were encysted in muscles, the coelomic cavity and mesentery, the serous lining of the stomach and on the surfaces of the lung, heart, liver, pancreas, spleen and intestines. There are no previous records of reptiles being part of the life cycle of D. renale, although fish and amphibians normally act as paratenic hosts. This is the first report of third-stage D. renale larvae in the freshwater turtle, T. dorbigni. PMID:24830883

  10. Naturally occurring Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in two prosimian primate species: ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata).

    PubMed

    Williams, Cathy V; Van Steenhouse, Jan L; Bradley, Julie M; Hancock, Susan I; Hegarty, Barbara C; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2002-12-01

    A naturally occurring infection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in lemurs is described. DNA of Ehrlichia chaffeensis was identified by polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood from six of eight clinically ill lemurs. Organisms were cultured from the blood of one lemur exhibiting clinical and hematologic abnormalities similar to those of humans infected with E. chaffeensis. PMID:12498671

  11. Ectoparasitic mite and fungus on Harmonia axyridis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ectoparasitic mites (Acarina: Podapolipidae) and ectoparasitic fungi (Laboulbeniales: Laboulbeniaceae) occur on ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) throughout the world (Riddick et al., 2009). This study documents the interaction of a coccinellid-specific mite Coccipolipus hippodamiae (McDaniel &...

  12. [Comparative studies on the difference between Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum].

    PubMed

    Weng, Pei-lan; Peng, Wei-dong

    2006-04-30

    There has been continued controversy on the taxonomy of Ascaris lumbricoides Linnaeus, 1758 from humans and Ascaris suum Goeze, 1782 from pigs. This article reviews a range of comparative studies related to host susceptibility, morphology, karyotype, immunology and biochemistry, as well as molecular genetics in recent years.

  13. Larval life history responses to food deprivation in three species of predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied life history responses of larvae of three coccinellid species, Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer), Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, and Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), when deprived of food for different periods of time during the fourth stadium. The coccinellid species did not differ in ...

  14. Development of a standardized protein immunomarking protocol for insect mark-capture dispersal research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field study was conducted to test the marking efficiency of broadcast spray applications of protein marks on stationary (represented by cadavers) and free-roaming lady beetles, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville that were strategically placed in blooming alfalfa plots. The marks tested include...

  15. Evidence for the hybrid origin of Nuphar xrubrodisca (Nymphaeaceae).

    PubMed

    Padgett, D J; Les, D; Crow, G

    1998-10-01

    Plants intermediate in appearance between Nuphar microphyllaand N. variegata (Nymphaeaceae) have long been assumed to bethe result of hybridization. The evidence for this is based primarilyon field observations of morphology, poor fruit production, closegeographical proximity of presumed parent species, and limited pollensterility data. Fertile populations of the same plants have also beendocumented. We employed multivariate analyses of morphology, pollenfertility studies, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markersto test the hypothesis that Nuphar × rubrodiscarepresents a natural interspecific hybrid between N.microphylla and N. variegata. Examination of 15morphological characters demonstrated the intermediacy of N.× rubrodisca between N. microphylla and N.variegata, and the pollen data revealed a markedly lower meanpollen viability in N. × rubrodisca (23%)compared to the other two species (91 and 86%, respectively). Eight 10-mer primers produced 13 species-specific RAPD markers forN. microphylla and nine for N. variegata, with all 22markers present in N. × rubrodisca. The datafrom RAPDs are concordant with morphology in implicating N.microphylla and N. variegata as parents of N.×rubrodisca.

  16. The first genetically confirmed case of Dioctophyme renale (Nematoda: Dioctophymatida) in a patient with a subcutaneous nodule.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Ueda, Wataru; Takatsuka, Satoshi; Okawa, Kiyotaka; Onodera, Masayuki; Ohta, Nobuo; Akao, Nobuaki

    2014-02-01

    We describe a nematode larva in a subcutaneous nodule excised from a 44-year-old Chinese male who had been living in Japan for 15 years. Morphological features suggested that the worm was a dioctophimatid nematode. PCR amplification and sequencing of small subunit ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial cytochrome subunit c oxidase genes allowed us to identify the larva as the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1972). This is the first molecularly confirmed human case of a dermal D. renale infection.

  17. When defense backfires: Detrimental effect of a plant’s protective trichomes on an insect beneficial to the plant

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Thomas; Eisner, Maria; Hoebeke, E. Richard

    1998-01-01

    The plant Mentzelia pumila (family Loasaceae) has leaves and stems densely covered with tiny hooked trichomes. The structures entrap and kill insects and therefore are most probably protective. But they are also maladaptive in that they incapacitate a coccinellid beetle (Hippodamia convergens) that preys upon an aphid enemy (Macrosiphum mentzeliae) of the plant. The adaptive benefit provided by the trichomes is evidently offset by a cost. PMID:9539750

  18. Seaweed community response to a massive CO2 input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangil, Carlos; Clemente, Sabrina; Brito, Alberto; Rodríguez, Adriana; Balsalobre, Marc; Mendoza, José Carlos; Martínez, David; Hernández, José Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Changes in the structure of seaweed communities were examined following a massive CO2 input caused by a submarine eruption near the coast of El Hierro island (Canary Islands, Spain). The event lasted almost five months (October 2011-March 2012) and created a significant pH gradient. Specifically, we compared three different zones: highly affected with extreme low pH (6.7-7.3), affected with low pH (7.6-7.8), and unaffected ambient pH zone (∼8.1) according to the pH gradient generated by the predominate currents and waves in the south of the island. Studies were carried out before, during and after the CO2 input event in each zone. We found community-wide effects on seaweed communities during the eruption; these included changes in species abundance and changes in the diversity. However, changes in all these community traits were only evident in the highly affected zone, where there were major shifts in the seaweed community, with a replacement of Lobophora variegata by ephemeral seaweeds. Lobophora variegata dropped in cover from 87-94 to 27% while ephemeral seaweeds increased 6-10 to 29%. When the impact ended Lobophora variegata began to recover reaching a cover higher than 60%. In the moderate affected area the Lobophora variegata canopies maintained their integrity avoiding phase shifts to turfs. Here the only significant changes were the reduction of the cover of the crustose and geniculate coralline algae.

  19. Are Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum a single species?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Since the original description and naming of Ascaris lumbricoides from humans by Linnaeus in 1758 and later of Ascaris suum from pigs by Goeze 1782, these species have been considered to be valid. Four hypotheses relative to the conspecificity or lack thereof (and thus origin of these species) are possible: 1) Ascaris lumbricoides (usually infecting humans) and Ascaris suum (recorded mostly from pigs) are both valid species, with the two species originating via a speciation event from a common ancestor sometime before the domestication of pigs by humans, or 2) Ascaris lumbricoides in humans is derived directly from the species A. suum found in pigs with A. suum then existing as a persistent ancestor after formation of A. lumbricoides, or 3) Ascaris suum is derived directly from A. lumbricoides with the persistent ancestor being A. lumbricoides and A. suum being the newly derived species, and finally, 4) Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are the same species, this hypothesis being supported by studies showing both low morphological and low genetic divergence at several genes. We present and discuss paleoparasitological and genetic evidence that complement new data to evaluate the origin and evolution of Ascaris spp. in humans and pigs, and the uniqueness of the species in both hosts. Finally, we conclude that Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are a single species and that the name A. lumbricoides Linnaeus 1758 has taxonomic priority; therefore A. suum Goeze 1782 should be considered a synonym of A. lumbricoides. PMID:22348306

  20. Review of the genus Lesteva Latreille, 1797 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Omaliinae: Anthophagini) of Iran and adjacent territories.

    PubMed

    Shavrin, Alexey V

    2014-01-01

    The type and additional material from adjacent territories of species of the genus Lesteva Latreille, 1797 of Iran are revised. Eight species are recognized, three of which are described as new: L. (s.str.) frischi sp.n. (Iran, Esfahan), L. (s.str.) schawalleri sp.n. (Iran, Elburs) and L. (s.str.) antennata sp.n. (Iran, Golestan). Two synonyms are proposed: L. (s.str.) binotata Reitter, 1901 = L. (s.str.) syriaca Luze, 1903, syn. n., L. (s.str.) longoelytrata longoelytrata (Goeze, 1777) = L. (s.str.) soror Smetana, 1967, syn. n. A key to species known from Iran and new provincial records for L. (s.str.) binotata Reitter, L. (s.str.) longoelytrata longoelytrata (Goeze), L. (s.str.) maculipennis Luze, 1903 and L. (Lestevidia) punctata Erichson, 1839 are provided. L. (s.str.) binotata Reitter and L. (s.str.) maculipennis are redescribed. Aedeagi of all new species, L. (s.str.) binotata, L. (s.str.) longoelytrata longoelytrata and L. (s.str.) maculipennis, as well as the antennae of all species and the variability of elytral maculae for two redescribed species are illustrated. PMID:25543772

  1. Euphotic Zone Study moves forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denman, Kenneth

    The Global Ocean Euphotic Zone Study (GOEZS), a potential core program of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) being planned jointly with the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), was recently given the go-ahead by IGBP's Scientific Committee to move on to the next level of developing its scientific program.The GOEZS program will focus on the coupled physical, biological, and chemical processes operating in the euphotic zone, which is the ocean surface layer where sufficient light penetrates for photosynthesis by phytoplankton to exceed their metabolic energy losses. The upper ocean is extremely important to understanding the atmosphereocean system because it mediates exchanges of heat, momentum, carbon dioxide, sulphur, and nitrogen between the atmosphere and the ocean interior. For the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide for example, there is more carbon in the upper ocean than in the whole atmosphere. Essentially all carbon dioxide from the atmosphere that passes from the upper ocean to the ocean interior has been transformed chemically or biologically in the upper ocean. Moreover, the upper ocean is the site of all marine shipping and most recreation and industrial activity and contains the planktonic food chain and most fish stocks.

  2. Are Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum a single species?

    PubMed

    Leles, Daniela; Gardner, Scott L; Reinhard, Karl; Iñiguez, Alena; Araujo, Adauto

    2012-02-20

    Since the original description and naming of Ascaris lumbricoides from humans by Linnaeus in 1758 and later of Ascaris suum from pigs by Goeze 1782, these species have been considered to be valid. Four hypotheses relative to the conspecificity or lack thereof (and thus origin of these species) are possible: 1) Ascaris lumbricoides (usually infecting humans) and Ascaris suum (recorded mostly from pigs) are both valid species, with the two species originating via a speciation event from a common ancestor sometime before the domestication of pigs by humans, or 2) Ascaris lumbricoides in humans is derived directly from the species A. suum found in pigs with A. suum then existing as a persistent ancestor after formation of A. lumbricoides, or 3) Ascaris suum is derived directly from A. lumbricoides with the persistent ancestor being A. lumbricoides and A. suum being the newly derived species, and finally, 4) Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are the same species, this hypothesis being supported by studies showing both low morphological and low genetic divergence at several genes. We present and discuss paleoparasitological and genetic evidence that complement new data to evaluate the origin and evolution of Ascaris spp. in humans and pigs, and the uniqueness of the species in both hosts. Finally, we conclude that Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are a single species and that the name A. lumbricoides Linnaeus 1758 has taxonomic priority; therefore A. suum Goeze 1782 should be considered a synonym of A. lumbricoides.

  3. Predicting Habitat Distribution of Five Heteropteran Pest Species in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Solhjouy-Fard, Samaneh; Sarafrazi, Alimorad; Minbashi Moeini, Mehdi; Ahadiyat, Ali

    2013-01-01

    In agroecosystems, potential species distribution models are extensively applied in pest management strategies, revealing species ecological requirements and demonstrating relationships between species distribution and predictive variables. The Maximum Entropy model was used to predict the potential distribution of five heteropteran key pests in Iran, namely Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae), Lygus pratensis (L.), Apodiphus amygdali (Germar) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), Nezara viridula (L.), and Nysius cymoides (Spinola) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). A total of 663 samples were collected from different parts of Iran. The altitude and climate variable data were included in the analysis. Based on test and training data, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values were above 0.80, the binomial omission test with the lowest presence threshold for all species was statistically significant (< 0.01), and the test omission rates were less than 3%. The suitability of areas in Iran for A. amygdale (Germar) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), N. cymoides (Spinola) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae), A. lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae), L. pratensis (L.), and N. viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), ranked as 78.86%, 68.78%, 43.29%, 20%, and 15.16%, respectively. In general, central parts of Iran including salt lakes, deserts, and sand dune areas with very high temperatures and windy weather were predicted to be less suitable, while other regions, mainly northern parts, were most suitable. These new data could be applied practically for the design of integrated pest management and crop development programs. PMID:24735397

  4. [Repellent and antifeedant effect of secondary metabolites of non-host plants on Plutella xylostella].

    PubMed

    Wei, Hui; Hou, Youming; Yang, Guang; You, Minsheng

    2004-03-01

    Based on the theory of co-evolution between plants and phytophagous insects, the repellent and antifeedant effect of secondary metabolites of non-host plants on diamondback moth(DBM) Plutella xylostella was studied, aimed at finding out the oviposition repellents and antifeedants of insect pests. When the ethanol extracts(Etho Exts) of Bauhinia variegata, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Euphorbia hirta, Duranta repens, Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Magnolia grandiflora, and Nicotiana tabacum were applied respectively, the oviposition repellent rates were all over 80.00%; while after forty-eight hours treatment with the Etho Exts of Euphorbia pulcherrima, Broussonetia papyrifera, Artemisia argyi, Camellia oleifera, Salix babylonica, Euphorbia hirta, Bauhinia variegata, and Setaria viridisa, the antifeedant rates of DBM larvae were all more than 80.00%. PMID:15228000

  5. Revisiting species delimitation within the genus Oxystele using DNA barcoding approach

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Bank, Herman; Herbert, Dai; Greenfield, Richard; Yessoufou, Kowiyou

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genus Oxystele, a member of the highly diverse marine gastropod superfamily Trochoidea, is endemic to southern Africa. Members of the genus include some of the most abundant molluscs on southern African shores and are important components of littoral biodiversity in rocky intertidal habitats. Species delimitation within the genus is still controversial, especially regarding the complex O. impervia / O. variegata. Here, we assessed species boundaries within the genus using DNA barcoding and phylogenetic tree reconstruction. We analysed 56 specimens using the mitochondrial gene COI. Our analysis delimits five molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs), and distinguishes O. impervia from O. variegata. However, we reveal important discrepancies between MOTUs and morphology-based species identification and discuss alternative hypotheses that can account for this. Finally, we indicate the need for future study that includes additional genes, and the combination of both morphology and genetic techniques (e.g. AFLP or microsatellites) to get deeper insight into species delimitation within the genus. PMID:24453566

  6. Uptake and effects on detoxication enzymes of cypermethrin in embryos and tadpoles of amphibians.

    PubMed

    Greulich, K; Pflugmacher, S

    2004-11-01

    A number of factors have been suggested for recently observed amphibian decreases, and one potential factor is pesticide exposure. We studied the uptake and effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of the pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin on two different amphibian species, Bombina variegata and Rana arvalis. The uptake from water of 14C-labeled cypermethrin (0.4 microg/L) by eggs and tadpoles of B. variegata was investigated. After 24 hours of exposure, 153.9 ng cypermethrin/g fresh weight were found in embryos, thus indicating that the jelly mass of the eggs does not act as a sufficient physical barrier to protect embryos from exposure to this compound. Uptake of cypermethrin into tadpoles of both species and in all exposed individuals caused dose-dependent deformities; behavioral abnormalities such as twisting, writhing, and coordinated swimming; and mortality. In tadpoles of B. variegata and R. arvalis, the activity of microsomal and cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (mGST and sGST, respectively) were measured after treatment with cypermethrin. Activities of both GST systems increased significantly with increasing duration and concentration of cypermethrin exposure, with the reaction seeming stronger in B. variegata than in R. arvalis tadpoles. Alpha-cypermethrin--a racemic mixture of two cis isomers of cypermethrin--induced a stronger enzymatic response in the cytosolic fraction of R. arvalis tadpoles than cypermethrin at the same concentration. The observed physical and behavioral abnormities caused by environmentally relevant concentrations of cypermethrin indicate that despite detoxication of the chemical via GST-system contamination of ponds by cypermethrin could result in adverse effects on the development of amphibian embryos and tadpoles.

  7. Atrioventricular valvular insufficiency and congestive heart failure in a carpet python.

    PubMed

    Rishniw, M; Carmel, B P

    1999-09-01

    Right atrioventricular valve insufficiency and bilateral congestive heart failure were identified in a carpet python (Morelia spilota variegata) with the aid of colour Doppler echocardiography, electrocardiography and radiography. The snake failed to respond to diuretic therapy and was euthanased. Based on this case, it appears that bilateral congestive failure is feasible in univentricular animals with lesions restricted to one side of the heart. Loop diuretic therapy may be inappropriate in non-crocodilian reptiles because reptiles lack a loop of Henle.

  8. Chordodes ferox, a new record of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha, Gordiida) from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three females and one male specimen of a previously unconfirmed species of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) from South Africa are described using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The females correspond to the description of Chordodes ferox Camerano, 1897, a species previously described from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) and an adjacent, not further specified region of the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville). Characteristic is the presence of enlarged and elevated simple areoles around the base of a thorn areole, in combination with further cuticular characters. This is the latest of a total of six species of horsehair worms reported from South Africa so far. Two species of praying mantids, Polyspilota aeruginosa (Goeze, 1778) and Sphodromantis gastrica Stål, 1858, have been identified as hosts of Chordodes ferox, while its distribution range in the region and the period of adult emergence from the host remain largely unknown. PMID:27047243

  9. Increasing circulation of Alaria alata mesocercaria in wild boar populations of the Rhine valley, France, 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Portier, Julien; Vallée, Isabelle; Lacour, Sandrine A; Martin-Schaller, Régine; Ferté, Hubert; Durand, Benoit

    2014-01-31

    The presence of the mesocercarial stage of Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) in wild boar meat represents a potential risk for human, but little is known about the circulation of mesocercaria in wild boar populations. Routine Trichinella inspection, mandatorily performed in wild boar in France, also allowed detecting mesocercaria. We analyzed the results of this detection in the carcasses of 27,582 wild boars hunted in 2007-2011, in 502 hunting areas of the Rhine valley. Prevalence was globally low (0.6%), but 12% of the hunting areas were affected. These were clustered in lowlands of the Rhine valley, and prevalence strongly decreased with increasing elevation. In the lowlands, prevalence doubled between 2007 and 2011. This time trend and the geographic aggregation of positive wild boars suggest risk management measures based on targeted surveillance, control and prevention.

  10. Chordodes ferox, a new record of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha, Gordiida) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Three females and one male specimen of a previously unconfirmed species of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) from South Africa are described using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The females correspond to the description of Chordodes ferox Camerano, 1897, a species previously described from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) and an adjacent, not further specified region of the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville). Characteristic is the presence of enlarged and elevated simple areoles around the base of a thorn areole, in combination with further cuticular characters. This is the latest of a total of six species of horsehair worms reported from South Africa so far. Two species of praying mantids, Polyspilota aeruginosa (Goeze, 1778) and Sphodromantis gastrica Stål, 1858, have been identified as hosts of Chordodes ferox, while its distribution range in the region and the period of adult emergence from the host remain largely unknown.

  11. Types of geographical distribution of leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae) in Central Europe *

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Michael; Rönn, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A comparison of the geographical distribution patterns of 647 species of Chrysomelidae in Central Europe revealed 13 types of distribution: (1) widely distributed, (2) southern, (3) southeastern, (4) southwestern, (5) northern, (6) eastern, (7) south east quarter, (8) south west quarter, (9) fragmented, (10) montane, (11) subalpine & alpine, (12) scattered, (13) unusual, and irregular patterns produced by insufficient data. Some of these distributions are trivial (e. g. northern, eastern, etc., alpine) but others are surprising. Some cannot be explained, e. g. the remarkable gaps in the distribution of Chrysolina limbata (Fabricius, 1775) and in Aphthona nonstriata (Goeze, 1777). Although our 63.000 records are necessarily tentative, we found that the distribution maps from these data reflect in many cases the common knowledge on the occurrence of leaf beetles in specific areas. PMID:22303107

  12. Effects of biorational pesticides on four coccinellid species (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) having potential as biological control agents in interiorscapes.

    PubMed

    Smith, S F; Krischik, V A

    2000-06-01

    The direct toxicity of insecticidal soap, horticultural oil, Azatin, an extract from the Neem tree containing azadiractin, and BotainiGard, a commercial formulation of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, was assessed on adults of four species of coccinellids--Hippodamia convergens (Guérin-Ménéville), Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer), Harmonia axyridis Pallas, and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant. All biorationals caused less mortality than a conventional pesticide, carbaryl (Sevin). Horticultural oil (Sunspray ultrafine oil) consistently had no effect on beetle survivorship. Insecticidal soap (M-Pede) significantly reduced survival in all replicates for C. maculata and in at least one of the three replicates for the other three coccinellid species. Beauveria bassiana (BotaniGard) significantly reduced survival of C. montrouzieri at 72 h after spray in all three replicates. Azatin reduced survivorship in only one species, C. maculata, in only one of the three replicates. PMID:10902323

  13. Natural enemies of woolly apple aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Gontijo, Lessando M; Cockfield, Stephen D; Beers, Elizabeth H

    2012-12-01

    Woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann), has become a pest of increasing importance in Washington apple orchards in the past decade. The increase in aphid outbreaks appears to be associated with changes in pesticide programs and disruption of biological control. We sampled woolly apple aphid colonies in central Washington apple orchards for natural enemies of this pest from 2006 to 2008. The most common predators encountered were Syrphidae (Syrphus opinator Osten Sacken, Eupeodes fumipennis Thomson, and Eupeodes americanus Wiedemann); Chrysopidae (Chrysopa nigricornis Burmeister); and Coccinellidae (Coccinella transversoguttata Brown and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville). The specialist syrphid Heringia calcarata Loew was recorded for the first time occurring in Washington apple orchards. The only parasitoid found in aerial colonies of woolly apple aphid was Aphelinus mali Haldeman; root colonies, however, were not parasitized. Identification of important natural enemies provides a better basis for conservation biological control of this pest.

  14. No evidence that presence of sexually transmitted infection selects for reduced mating rate in the two spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sophie L.; Pastok, Daria

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common in animals and plants, and frequently impair individual fertility. Theory predicts that natural selection will favour behaviours that reduce the chance of acquiring a STI. We investigated whether an STI, Coccipolipus hippodamiae has selected for increased rejection of mating by female Adalia bipunctata as a mechanism to avoid exposure. We first demonstrated that rejection of mating by females did indeed reduce the chance of acquiring the mite. We then examined whether rejection rate and mating rate differed between ladybirds from mite-present and mite-absent populations when tested in a common environment. No differences in rejection intensity or remating propensity were observed between the two populations. We therefore conclude there is no evidence that STIs have driven the evolution of female mating behaviour in this species. PMID:26290801

  15. Daily activity and light exposure levels for five species of lemurs at the Duke Lemur Center.

    PubMed

    Rea, Mark S; Figueiro, Mariana G; Jones, Geoffrey E; Glander, Kenneth E

    2014-01-01

    Light is the primary synchronizer of all biological rhythms, yet little is known about the role of the 24-hour luminous environment on nonhuman primate circadian patterns, making it difficult to understand the photic niche of the ancestral primate. Here we present the first data on proximate light-dark exposure and activity-rest patterns in free-ranging nonhuman primates. Four individuals each of five species of lemurs at the Duke Lemur Center (Eulemur mongoz, Lemur catta, Propithecus coquereli, Varecia rubra, and Varecia variegata variegata) were fitted with a Daysimeter-D pendant that contained light and accelerometer sensors. Our results reveal common as well as species-specific light exposure and behavior patterns. As expected, all five species were more active between sunrise and sunset. All five species demonstrated an anticipatory increase in their pre-sunrise activity that peaked at sunrise with all but V. rubra showing a reduction within an hour. All five species reduced activity during mid-day. Four of the five stayed active after sunset, but P. coquereli began reducing their activity about 2 hours before sunset. Other subtle differences in the recorded light exposure and activity patterns suggest species-specific photic niches and behaviors. The eventual application of the Daysimeter-D in the wild may help to better understand the adaptive evolution of ancestral primates.

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis neurona, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi in three species of lemurs from St. Catherines Island, GA, USA.

    PubMed

    Yabsley, Michael J; Jordan, Carly N; Mitchell, Sheila M; Norton, Terry M; Lindsay, David S

    2007-03-15

    In the current study, we determined the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis neurona, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi in three species of lemurs from St. Catherines Island, Georgia. Serum samples were tested from 52 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), six blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), and four black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) using an agglutination assay. Three ring-tailed lemurs (5.8%) were positive for T. gondii (titer of 1:50); one ring-tailed lemur (1.9%) and one black and white ruffed lemur (25%) were positive for S. neurona (titers of 1:1000); and one ring-tailed lemur (1.9%) was positive for E. cuniculi (titer of 1:400). All blue-eyed black lemurs were negative for antibodies to T. gondii, S. neurona, and E. cuniculi. This is the first detection of antibodies to T. gondii in ring-tailed lemurs and antibodies to S. neurona and E. cuniculi in any species of prosimian. PMID:17052854

  17. Revision of the genus Turris Batsch, 1789 (Gastropoda: Conoidea: Turridae) with the description of six new species

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, Richard N.; Fedosov, Alexander E.; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2012-01-01

    The taxonomy of the genus Turris Batsch, 1789, type genus of the family Turridae, widespread in shallow-water habitats of tropic Indo-Pacific, is revised. A total of 31 species of Turris, are here recognized as valid. New species described: Turris chaldaea, Turris clausifossata, Turris guidopoppei, Turris intercancellata, Turris kantori, T. kathiewayae. Homonym renamed: Turris bipartita nom. nov. for Pleurotoma variegata Kiener, 1839 (non Philippi, 1836). New synonymies: Turris ankaramanyensis Bozzetti, 2006 = Turris tanyspira Kilburn, 1975; Turris imperfecti, T. nobilis, T. pulchra and T. tornatum Röding, 1798, and Turris assyria Olivera, Seronay & Fedosov, 2010 = T. babylonia; Turris dollyi Olivera, 2000 = Pleurotoma crispa Lamarck, 1816; Turris totiphyllis Olivera, 2000 = Turris hidalgoi Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000; Turris kilburni Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000 = Turris pagasa Olivera, 2000; Turris (Annulaturris) munizi Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000 = Gemmula lululimi Olivera, 2000. Revised status: Turris intricata Powell, 1964, Pleurotoma variegata Kiener, 1839 (non Philippi, 1836) and Pleurotoma yeddoensis Jousseaume, 1883, are regarded as full species (not subspecies of Turris crispa). Neotype designated: For Pleurotoma garnonsii Reeve, 1843, to distinguish it from Turris garnonsii of recent authors, type locality emended to Zanzibar. New combination: Turris orthopleura Kilburn, 1983, is transferred to genus Makiyamaia, family Clavatulidae. PMID:23847408

  18. A comparison of the human buccal cell assay and the pollen abortion assay in assessing genotoxicity in an urban-rural gradient.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Alan da Silveira; Vieira, Mariana; Amantéa, Sergio Luís; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos

    2014-08-27

    Air pollution is exacerbated near heavy traffic roads in cities. Air pollution concentration and composition vary by region and depend on urban-rural gradients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of air pollution in areas of varying population densities and to compare plant biomonitoring with an established biomarker of human exposure to traffic-related air pollution in children. The areas of study were selected near a major street in 3 different regions. Areas A, B and C represent high, intermediate and low population densities, respectively. Micronucleus assay, an established biomarker of human exposure, was performed in children from these areas. For a plant biomonitoring assay, the pollen abortion assay was performed on Bauhinia variegata in these areas. NO2 and O3 concentrations were determined by passive sampling. We report here that the pollen abortion frequency in Bauhinia variegata is correlated with NO2 concentration (P = 0.004) and is strongly associated with vehicular flow and population density in the studied areas. Micronuclei frequency in buccal cells of children was higher in the regions with more degree of urbanization (P < 0.001) following the same pattern of O3 concentrations (P = 0.030). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that high concentrations of air pollutants in Porto Alegre are related to both human and plant genotoxicity. Areas with different concentration of pollutants demonstrated to have an urbanization gradient dependent pattern which also reflected on genotoxic damage among these areas.

  19. A Comparison of the Human Buccal Cell Assay and the Pollen Abortion Assay in Assessing Genotoxicity in an Urban-Rural Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Fleck, Alan da Silveira; Vieira, Mariana; Amantéa, Sergio Luís; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution is exacerbated near heavy traffic roads in cities. Air pollution concentration and composition vary by region and depend on urban-rural gradients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of air pollution in areas of varying population densities and to compare plant biomonitoring with an established biomarker of human exposure to traffic-related air pollution in children. The areas of study were selected near a major street in 3 different regions. Areas A, B and C represent high, intermediate and low population densities, respectively. Micronucleus assay, an established biomarker of human exposure, was performed in children from these areas. For a plant biomonitoring assay, the pollen abortion assay was performed on Bauhinia variegata in these areas. NO2 and O3 concentrations were determined by passive sampling. We report here that the pollen abortion frequency in Bauhinia variegata is correlated with NO2 concentration (P = 0.004) and is strongly associated with vehicular flow and population density in the studied areas. Micronuclei frequency in buccal cells of children was higher in the regions with more degree of urbanization (P < 0.001) following the same pattern of O3 concentrations (P = 0.030). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that high concentrations of air pollutants in Porto Alegre are related to both human and plant genotoxicity. Areas with different concentration of pollutants demonstrated to have an urbanization gradient dependent pattern which also reflected on genotoxic damage among these areas. PMID:25166920

  20. Impact of the newly arrived seed-predating beetle Specularius impressithorax (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medeiros, A.C.; Von Allmen, E.; Fukada, M.; Samuelson, A.; Lau, T.

    2008-01-01

    Prior to 2001, seed predation was virtually absent in the endemic Wiliwili Erythrina sandwicensis (Fabaceae: Degener), dominant tree species of lower-elevation Hawaiian dryland forests. The African bruchine chrysomelid Specularius impressithorax (Pic) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) was first detected in Hawai'i in 2001 and became established on all main islands within the next two years. The mode of entry for this invasive Erythrina seed predator into Hawai'i is unknown, but likely occurred with the importation of trinket jewelry from Africa containing characteristically brightly-colored Erythrina seeds. The initial establishment of this insect likely occurred on a non-native host, the widely cultivated coral tree E. variegata. Within three years of its first record, S. impressithorax accounted for 77.4% mean seed crop loss in 12 populations of Wiliwili on six main Hawaiian islands. Specularius impressithorax, dispersed through international commerce and established via E. variegata, has become a threat to a unique Hawaiian forest type and may threaten other Erythrina, especially New World representatives.

  1. A comparison of the human buccal cell assay and the pollen abortion assay in assessing genotoxicity in an urban-rural gradient.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Alan da Silveira; Vieira, Mariana; Amantéa, Sergio Luís; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos

    2014-09-01

    Air pollution is exacerbated near heavy traffic roads in cities. Air pollution concentration and composition vary by region and depend on urban-rural gradients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of air pollution in areas of varying population densities and to compare plant biomonitoring with an established biomarker of human exposure to traffic-related air pollution in children. The areas of study were selected near a major street in 3 different regions. Areas A, B and C represent high, intermediate and low population densities, respectively. Micronucleus assay, an established biomarker of human exposure, was performed in children from these areas. For a plant biomonitoring assay, the pollen abortion assay was performed on Bauhinia variegata in these areas. NO2 and O3 concentrations were determined by passive sampling. We report here that the pollen abortion frequency in Bauhinia variegata is correlated with NO2 concentration (P = 0.004) and is strongly associated with vehicular flow and population density in the studied areas. Micronuclei frequency in buccal cells of children was higher in the regions with more degree of urbanization (P < 0.001) following the same pattern of O3 concentrations (P = 0.030). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that high concentrations of air pollutants in Porto Alegre are related to both human and plant genotoxicity. Areas with different concentration of pollutants demonstrated to have an urbanization gradient dependent pattern which also reflected on genotoxic damage among these areas. PMID:25166920

  2. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    de Camps, Silvia; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J A

    2008-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern United States was determined by using the modified agglutination test (MAT). A titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of T. gondii exposure. Among wild felids, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 6 (27.3%) of 22 cheetahs (Acynonyx jubatus jubatus), 2 of 4 African lynx (Caracal caracal), 1 of 7 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), 1 of 5 Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul), 12 (54.5%) of 22 African lions (Panthera leo), 1 of 1 jaguar (Panthera onca), 1 of 1 Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 of 1 Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), 5 (27.8%) of 18 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), 1 of 4 fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), 3 of 6 pumas (Puma concolor), 2 of 2 Texas pumas (Puma concolor stanleyana), and 5 (35.7%) of 14 snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Antibodies were found in 10 of 34 feral domestic cats (Felis domesticus) trapped in 3 zoos. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any of the 78 fecal samples from wild and domestic cats. Among the macropods, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 Dama wallabies (Macropus eugenii), 1 of 1 western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus), 1 of 2 wallaroos (Macropus robustus), 6 of 8 Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), 21 (61.8%) of 34 red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), and 1 of 1 dusky pademelon (Thylogale brunii). Among prosimians, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), 1 of 21 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 2 of 9 red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra), and 2 of 4 black- and white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Among the avian species tested, 2 of 3 bald

  3. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    de Camps, Silvia; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J A

    2008-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern United States was determined by using the modified agglutination test (MAT). A titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of T. gondii exposure. Among wild felids, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 6 (27.3%) of 22 cheetahs (Acynonyx jubatus jubatus), 2 of 4 African lynx (Caracal caracal), 1 of 7 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), 1 of 5 Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul), 12 (54.5%) of 22 African lions (Panthera leo), 1 of 1 jaguar (Panthera onca), 1 of 1 Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 of 1 Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), 5 (27.8%) of 18 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), 1 of 4 fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), 3 of 6 pumas (Puma concolor), 2 of 2 Texas pumas (Puma concolor stanleyana), and 5 (35.7%) of 14 snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Antibodies were found in 10 of 34 feral domestic cats (Felis domesticus) trapped in 3 zoos. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any of the 78 fecal samples from wild and domestic cats. Among the macropods, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 Dama wallabies (Macropus eugenii), 1 of 1 western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus), 1 of 2 wallaroos (Macropus robustus), 6 of 8 Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), 21 (61.8%) of 34 red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), and 1 of 1 dusky pademelon (Thylogale brunii). Among prosimians, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), 1 of 21 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 2 of 9 red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra), and 2 of 4 black- and white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Among the avian species tested, 2 of 3 bald

  4. Differences in Phyllotreta cruciferae and Phyllotreta striolata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) responses to neonicotinoid seed treatments.

    PubMed

    Tansey, J A; Dosdall, L M; Keddie, B A; Sarfraz, R M

    2008-02-01

    Insecticidal seed treatments are used commonly throughout the Northern Great Plains of North America to systemically protect seedlings of canola (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.) from attack by the flea beetles Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) and Phyllotreta striolata (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Here, we investigated differential responses by the two flea beetle species to the neonicotinoid seed treatments thiamethoxam (Helix and Helix XTra) and clothianidin (Prosper 400) in greenhouse experiments. P. cruciferae experienced higher mortality and fed less when exposed to these compounds than did P. striolata. Beetles of the overwintered and the summer generations responded differently when feeding on seedlings that developed with insecticidal seed treatments, with mortality higher for P. cruciferae in May than in August. When the two flea beetle species were held together at equal densities and allowed to feed on seedlings affected by the seed treatments, mortality of P. cruciferae significantly exceeded that of P. striolata. Differences in efficacies of these compounds for these beetles have ramifications for management strategies in regions where these insects occur sympatrically. Competitive release of P. striolata was previously reported to occur when P. cruciferae was excluded from brassicaceous crops; consequently, the consistent use of these seed treatments over millions of hectares of canola cropland may be a factor that contributes to a shift in prevalence of flea beetle pest species from P. cruciferae toward P. striolata.

  5. Alternative management tactics for control of Phyllotreta cruciferae and Phyllotreta striolata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on Brassica rapa in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Andersen, C L; Hazzard, R; Van Driesche, R; Mangan, F X

    2006-06-01

    The flea beetles Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) and Phyllotreta striolata (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae) are significant pests of crops in the Brassicaceae family. From 2001 to 2003, the efficacy of both new and commonly used treatments for the control of flea beetles in brassicas, Brassica rapa L., were evaluated in three small plot, randomized complete block design trials. Row cover and carbaryl (applied as a weekly foliar spray) were found to be the most consistent at reducing damage in comparison with untreated controls in all trials. Two new products that may provide adequate flea beetle control are spinosad (in either conventional or organic formulations) and thiamethoxam. The plant-derived compounds azidiractin and pyrethrin did not protect treated plants from flea beetle feeding. Treatment of plants with kaolin, or removal of the beetles with a vacuum, also did not reduce the level of crop damage. The level of damage at harvest was found to be correlated with population size of flea beetles in each plot, as measured by captures on yellow sticky traps and direct visual counts. Removal of the outer two leaves of individual B. rapa plants reduced the total number of holes per plant by 40%, while only removing 15% of the leaf area.

  6. Sustainable management tactics for control of Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on canola in Montana.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Tangtrakulwanich, Khanobporn; Miller, John H; Ophus, Victoria L; Prewett, Julie

    2014-04-01

    The crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), has recently emerged as a serious pest of canola (Brassica napus L.) in Montana. The adult beetles feed on canola leaves, causing many small holes that stunt growth and reduce yield. In 2013, damage to canola seedlings was high (approximately 80%) in many parts of Montana, evidence that when flea beetles emerge in large numbers, they can quickly destroy a young canola crop. In the current study, the effectiveness of several biopesticides was evaluated and compared with two insecticides (deltamethrin and bifenthrin) commonly used as foliar sprays as well as seed treatment with an imidacloprid insecticide for the control of P. cruciferae under field conditions in 2013. The biopesticides used included an entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema carpocapsae), two entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum), neem, and petroleum spray oils. The control agents were delivered in combination or alone in a single or repeated applications at different times. The plant-derived compound neem (azadirachtin), petroleum spray oil, and fatty acids (M-Pede) only showed moderate effect, although they significantly reduced leaf injuries caused by P. cruciferae and resulted in higher canola yield than the untreated control. Combined use of B. bassiana and M. brunneum in two repeated applications and bifenthrin in five applications were most effective in reducing feeding injuries and improving yield levels at both trial locations. This indicates that entomopathogenic fungi are effective against P. cruciferae, and may serve as alternatives to conventional insecticides or seed treatments in managing this pest. PMID:24772547

  7. Endoparasites of hares (Lepus timidus L. and L. europaeus Pallas) in Finland.

    PubMed

    Soveri, T; Valtonen, M

    1983-10-01

    Intestinal and lung parasites of 85 mountain hares (Lepus timidus) and 24 European hares (L. europaeus) were examined. The species of parasites found in both hare species were Trichostrongylus retortaeformis Zeder, 1800; Mosgovoyia pectinata Goeze, 1782 and Protostrongylus pulmonalis Froelich, 1802. Eimeria semisculpta Madsen, 1938 and E. townsendi Carvalho, 1943 were found only in the European hares and Eimeria leporis Nieschulz, 1923 and Dicrocoelium dendriticum Rudolphi, 1819 only in the mountain hares. Ninety-five percent of the mountain hares and 88% of the European hares were infected with parasites. Mountain hares were more commonly infected with P. pulmonalis and D. dendriticum while European hares were more commonly infected with Eimeria spp. and T. retortaeformis. Young mountain hares were more often infected with M. pectinata and adult mountain hares with P. pulmonalis. The management technique of winter-feeding did not increase significantly the percentage of infected animals. Dicrocoelium dendriticum was found only in hares from islands where sheep had grazed during the summers. The absence of cysticerci of Taenia pisiformis Bloch, 1780 in this survey may be a reflection of improved hygiene practices instituted by hunters.

  8. The intestinal helminth community of the spiny-tailed lizard Darevskia rudis (Squamata, Lacertidae) from northern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Roca, V; Jorge, F; Ilgaz, Ç; Kumlutaş, Y; Durmuş, S H; Carretero, M A

    2016-03-01

    Populations of the lizard Darevskia rudis (Bedriaga, 1886) from northern Anatolia were examined for intestinal parasites in adult specimens. One cestode, Nematotaenia tarentolae López-Neyra, 1944 and four nematode species, Spauligodon saxicolae Sharpilo, 1962, Skrjabinelazia hoffmanni Li, 1934, Oswaldocruzia filiformis (Goeze, 1782) and Strongyloides darevskyi Sharpilo, 1976, were found. Three of these nematodes, S. saxicolae, S. hoffmanni and S. darevskyi are suggested to be part of a module in the network of Darevskia spp. and their parasites. Only one, S. darevskyi, was identified as a Darevskia spp. specialist. The very low infection and diversity parameters are indicative of the depauperate helminth communities found in this lacertid lizard, falling among the lowest within the Palaearctic saurians. Nevertheless these values are higher than those found in parthenogenetic Darevskia spp. Interpopulation variation in the intensity of S. saxicolae and N. tarentolae is attributable to local changes in ecological conditions. On the other hand, parasite abundance and richness increased in the warmer localities, while the effect of lizard sex and size on infection was negligible. The structure of these helminth communities in D. rudis are compared with those observed in other European lacertid lizards. PMID:26821706

  9. Morphology and identification of the mature larvae of several species of the genus Otiorhynchus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae) from Central Europe with an update of the life history traits.

    PubMed

    Gosik, Rafał; Sprick, Peter; Skuhrovec, Jiří; Deruś, Magdalena; Hommes, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The mature larvae of 14 Otiorhynchus taxa are described: O. (Otiorhynchus) armadillo (Rossi, 1792), O. (Nehrodistus) armatus Boheman, 1846, O. (Otiorhynchus) aurifer Boheman, 1843, O. (Pocodalemes) crataegi Germar, 1824, Otiorhynchus (Arammichnus) indefinitus Reitter, 1912 (syn. O. dieckmanni Magnano, 1979), O. (Choilisanus) raucus (Fa-bricius, 1777) and 3 taxa of the O. (Otiorhynchus) tenebricosus complex (Herbst, 1784), O. (Otiorhynchus) clavipes (Bonsdorff, 1785), O. (Otiorhynchus) fuscipes (Olivier, 1807) and O. (Otiorhynchus) lugdunensis Boheman, 1843, are described and illustrated for the first time. The larvae of (Otiorhynchus) meridionalis Gyllenhal, 1834, O. (Pendragon) ovatus (Linnaeus, 1758), O. (Zustalestus) rugosostriatus (Goeze, 1777), O. (Metopiorrhynchus) singularis (Linnaeus, 1767), and O. (Dorymerus) sulcatus (Fabricius, 1775) are redescribed and illustrated, and new characters are added. Important characters of the mature larvae (e.g. chaetotaxy, shape of head and body) are explained in detail and illustrated. A key to the identification of the mature larvae of 19 Otiorhynchus taxa is provided. Breeding and collecting data of the larvae are given, and the study is completed by a current overview on the life histories of all treated species. PMID:27394846

  10. Insecticide Toxicity to Adelphocoris lineolatus (Hemiptera: Miridae) and its Nymphal Parasitoid Peristenus spretus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Liu, Bing; Ali, Abid; Luo, Shu-Ping; Lu, Yan-Hui; Liang, Ge-Mei

    2015-08-01

    In China, Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important pest of alfalfa, cotton, and other crops, while Peristenus spretus (Chen & van Achterberg) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is the dominant nymphal parasitoid of this mirid bug. In the present study, the toxicity of 17 common insecticides to A. lineolatus was evaluated, and the susceptibility of P. spretus to the insecticides with high toxicity to A. lineolatus was tested under laboratory conditions. Of the 17 insecticides tested, 12 (beta cypermethrin, deltamethrin, carbosulfan, acetamiprid, emamectin benzoate, imidacloprid, phoxim, chlorpyrifos, acephate, profenophos, hexaflumuron, and abamectin) had a highly toxic effect on second-instar nymphs of A. lineolatus, with LC(50) values ranging from 0.58 to 14.85 mg a.i. (active ingredient) liter(-1). Adults of P. spretus were most sensitive to chlorpyrifos, with LC(50) values of 0.03 mg a.i. liter(-1), followed by phoxim, acetamiprid, profenophos, carbosulfan, acephate, deltamethrin, emamectin benzoate, imidacloprid, beta-cypermethrin, and abamectin, with LC(50) values ranging from 0.06 to 3.09, whereas hexaflumuron exhibited the least toxicity to the parasitoid, with LC(50) values >500 mg a.i. liter(-1). A risk quotient analysis indicated that beta-cypermethrin, emamectin benzoate, abamectin, and hexaflumuron when applied against A. lineolatus were the least toxic to P. spretus. PMID:26470319

  11. Plagiorhynchidae Meyer, 1931 (Acanthocephala) from Australasian birds and mammals, with descriptions of Plagiorhynchus (Plagiorhynchus) menurae (Johnston, 1912) and P. (P.) allisonae n. sp.

    PubMed

    Smales, Lesley R

    2002-03-01

    New host and locality records are given for Plagiorhynchus (Plagiorhynchus) charadrii (Yamaguti, 1939) Van Cleave, 1951 and P. (Prosthorhynchus) cylindraceus (Goeze, 1782) Schmidt & Kuntz, 1966. The uncertainty of identification of a plover host of P. (P.) charadrii as well as the origins of P. (P.) cylindraceus (found in Australia but not New Zealand) and its occurrence in both bird and mammal hosts are discussed. P. (P.) menurae (Johnston, 1912) Golvan, 1956 is redescribed, including the male, and new host, Menura alberti Bonaparte, and locality records are given. P. (P.) allisonae n. sp. is described from Haematopus ostralegus finschi (Martens) and H. unicolor (Forster) from the South Island of New Zealand. P. (P.) allisonae can be differentiated from its congeners by having a proboscis armature of 18-23 rows of 14-20 hooks, thorns of hooks shorter than simple roots with short manubria, eight tubular cement glands and eggs of 134-154 x 33-36 microm in size. The presence of P. (P.) gracilis Petrochenko, 1958 in Australia is questioned. New host and locality records are given for Porrorchis hylae (Johnston, 1914) Schmidt & Kuntz, 1967 and the northern distribution of P. hydromuris (Edmonds, 1957) Schmidt & Kuntz, 1967 confirmed.

  12. The intestinal helminth community of the spiny-tailed lizard Darevskia rudis (Squamata, Lacertidae) from northern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Roca, V; Jorge, F; Ilgaz, Ç; Kumlutaş, Y; Durmuş, S H; Carretero, M A

    2016-03-01

    Populations of the lizard Darevskia rudis (Bedriaga, 1886) from northern Anatolia were examined for intestinal parasites in adult specimens. One cestode, Nematotaenia tarentolae López-Neyra, 1944 and four nematode species, Spauligodon saxicolae Sharpilo, 1962, Skrjabinelazia hoffmanni Li, 1934, Oswaldocruzia filiformis (Goeze, 1782) and Strongyloides darevskyi Sharpilo, 1976, were found. Three of these nematodes, S. saxicolae, S. hoffmanni and S. darevskyi are suggested to be part of a module in the network of Darevskia spp. and their parasites. Only one, S. darevskyi, was identified as a Darevskia spp. specialist. The very low infection and diversity parameters are indicative of the depauperate helminth communities found in this lacertid lizard, falling among the lowest within the Palaearctic saurians. Nevertheless these values are higher than those found in parthenogenetic Darevskia spp. Interpopulation variation in the intensity of S. saxicolae and N. tarentolae is attributable to local changes in ecological conditions. On the other hand, parasite abundance and richness increased in the warmer localities, while the effect of lizard sex and size on infection was negligible. The structure of these helminth communities in D. rudis are compared with those observed in other European lacertid lizards.

  13. Differences in Phyllotreta cruciferae and Phyllotreta striolata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) responses to neonicotinoid seed treatments.

    PubMed

    Tansey, J A; Dosdall, L M; Keddie, B A; Sarfraz, R M

    2008-02-01

    Insecticidal seed treatments are used commonly throughout the Northern Great Plains of North America to systemically protect seedlings of canola (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.) from attack by the flea beetles Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) and Phyllotreta striolata (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Here, we investigated differential responses by the two flea beetle species to the neonicotinoid seed treatments thiamethoxam (Helix and Helix XTra) and clothianidin (Prosper 400) in greenhouse experiments. P. cruciferae experienced higher mortality and fed less when exposed to these compounds than did P. striolata. Beetles of the overwintered and the summer generations responded differently when feeding on seedlings that developed with insecticidal seed treatments, with mortality higher for P. cruciferae in May than in August. When the two flea beetle species were held together at equal densities and allowed to feed on seedlings affected by the seed treatments, mortality of P. cruciferae significantly exceeded that of P. striolata. Differences in efficacies of these compounds for these beetles have ramifications for management strategies in regions where these insects occur sympatrically. Competitive release of P. striolata was previously reported to occur when P. cruciferae was excluded from brassicaceous crops; consequently, the consistent use of these seed treatments over millions of hectares of canola cropland may be a factor that contributes to a shift in prevalence of flea beetle pest species from P. cruciferae toward P. striolata. PMID:18330131

  14. Demographic Assessment of Plant Cultivar Resistance to Insect Pests: A Case Study of the Dusky-Veined Walnut Aphid (Hemiptera: Callaphididae) on Five Walnut Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Akköprü, Evin Polat; Atlıhan, Remzi; Okut, Hayrettin; Chi, Hsin

    2015-04-01

    To provide a comprehensive evaluation of walnut cultivar resistance to the dusky-veined walnut aphid, Panaphis juglandis (Goeze), we collected the life table data of this aphid reared on five cultivars of walnut ('Akça I,' 'Chandler,' 'Fernette,' 'Fernor,' and 'Pedro') under field conditions. The raw data of the developmental time, survival rate, and fecundity was analyzed using the age-stage, two-sex life table to account for the variable developmental rate and stage differentiation among individuals. Due to the species' longer immature developmental time, shorter adult longevity, shorter reproduction period, and lower fecundity, the net reproduction rate (R0=5.9 offspring), intrinsic rate of increase (r=0.0983 d(-1)), and finite rate (λ=1.1034 d(-1)) were the lowest when aphids were reared on the Fernor cultivar, while those reared on Akça I exhibited the highest population parameters (R0=18.0 offspring, r=0.2031 d(-1), and λ=1.2252 d(-1)). Based on the population characteristics, Fernor is a less favorable cultivar for the development and reproduction of P. juglandis. We also demonstrated the advantages of using bootstrapping for the analysis of standard errors of developmental time, longevity, fecundity, and other parameters as well. Our results indicated that demographic analysis of pest development, survival, and reproduction based on the age-stage, two-sex life table offers a comprehensive assessment of pest growth potential on different crop cultivars.

  15. A taxonomic revision of Limnobaris Bedel in the strict sense (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Baridinae), with particular emphasis on the species found in China

    PubMed Central

    Prena, Jens; Korotyaev, Boris; Wang, Zhiliang; Ren, Li; Liu, Ning; Zhang, Runzhi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus name Limnobaris Bedel is applied in a restricted sense to baridine weevils with a covered pygidium and non-prominent, decussate mandibles which occur on sedges in the Palaearctic Region and immediately adjacent parts of tropical Southeast Asia. Calyptopygus Marshall and Pertorcus Voss are syn. n. of Limnobaris. Some species from Africa and the Americas are maintained provisionally in Limnobaris in the widest sense but will need to be transferred to other genera in future studies. A total of eleven species is recognized in Asia, two of which are widespread and occur also in the Western Palaearctic Region. Limnobaris martensi Korotyaev sp. n. is described from Nepal. Pertorcus tibialis basalis Voss is raised to species rank, as L. basalis (stat. prom.). New or reestablished synonyms are L. dolorosa (Goeze) (= L. jucunda Reitter, = L. koltzei Reitter), L. tibialis (Voss) (= Pertorcus tibialis pilifer Voss) and L. t-album (Linnaeus) (= L. bedeli Reitter, = Baridius crocopelmus Gyllenhal, = L. sahlbergi Reitter, = L. scutellaris Reitter, = Baris t-album sculpturata Faust). Calandra uniseriata Dufour is considered a junior synonym of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (syn. n.). A key for identification and a distribution map are provided. PMID:25061346

  16. Development of a meridic diet for Hylobius transversovittatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and the role of carbohydrates in feeding, growth, and survival of larvae.

    PubMed

    Tomic-Carruthers, Nada

    2007-08-01

    The root-feeding weevil Hylobius transversovittatus Goeze (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is used for biological control of the invasive plant purple loosestrife, Luthrum salicaria L. (Lythraceae). A simple rearing system for this weevil was developed with the goals of improving production techniques and increasing the availability of insects for field introduction. Additionally, the dietary effects of digestible and indigestible carbohydrates were explored. A meridic diet for rearing H. transversovittatus was formulated through nutritional alterations of a boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, diet. Diet attractiveness was evaluated on two levels: first, by recording the incidence of initial tunneling, and second, by estimating the larval establishment rate. The performance of test diet formulations was further assessed by measuring developmental and survival rates of H. transversovittatus. Sucrose, starch, and three types of indigestible carbohydrates were tested as components to improve diet performance. Physical properties of the diet, modified by fillers in test formulations, produced major effects on the initial tunneling of hatchlings. The establishment of hatchlings was affected by chemical properties of the diet. Increases in sucrose concentration decreased larval establishment, decreased the rate of larval development, and decreased larval survival. However, omitting sucrose from the diet, or replacing it with starch, increased mortality of first instars. In advanced stages of larval development, omitting sucrose from the diet did not significantly affect larval survival. The developmental rate of larvae was increased when the amount of digestible carbohydrate was reduced. To date, seven generations of the univoltine H. transversovittatus have been successfully produced on this new meridic diet.

  17. Taxonomic corrections to species of Rhyparochromidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) described by Carl Peter Thunberg.

    PubMed

    Kondorosy, Előd; Rédei, Dávid; Mejlon, Hans

    2014-07-22

    Types of Rhyparochromidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea) species described by Carl Peter Thunberg, deposited in the Museum of Evolution (formerly Zoologiska Institut), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden, were reexamined and the taxonomic and nomenclatural problems that existed among those species discussed and resolved as required. Lectotypes are designated for Cimex caffer Thunberg, 1784, Lygaeus ater Thunberg, 1822, Lygaeus biguttatus Thunberg, 1822, and Pendulinus guttatus Thunberg, 1825. The lectotype of Pendulinus (now Metochus) guttatus is designated as neotype of Pendulinus (now Metochus) uniguttatus Thunberg, 1822; as a result the former name becomes junior objective synonym of the latter. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: Lethaeus ater (Thunberg, 1822), new combination (from Lygaeus); Migdilybs biguttatus (Thunberg, 1822), new combination (from Lygaeus) = Migdilybs furcifer Hesse, 1925, new subjective synonym; Metochus uniguttatus (Thunberg, 1822) = Metochus bengalensis (Dallas, 1852), confirmed subjective synonym = Metochus yeh (Dohrn, 1860), confirmed subjective synonym; Raglius alboacuminatus (Goeze, 1778) = Cimex caffer Thunberg, 1874, confirmed subjective synonym. Lethaeus barberi Slater, 1964 does not belong to Lethaeus Dallas, 1852 but currently it cannot be placed with confidence in any existing genus. 

  18. New Curculionoidea records from New Brunswick, Canada with an addition to the fauna of Nova Scotia

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Anderson, Robert S.; Webster, Vincent L.; Alderson, Chantelle A.; Hughes, Cory C.; Sweeney, Jon D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents 27 new records of Curculionoidea for the province of New Brunswick, Canada, including three species new to Canada, and 12 adventive species, as follows: Eusphryrus walshii LeConte, Choragus harrisii LeConte (newly recorded for Canada), Choragus zimmermanni LeConte (newly recorded for Canada) (Anthribidae); Cimberis pallipennis (Blatchley) (Nemonychidae); Nanophyes marmoratus marmoratus (Goeze) (Brentidae); Procas lecontei Bedel (Brachyceridae); Anthonomus pusillus LeConte (newly recorded for Canada), Anthonomus (Cnemocyllus) pictus Blatchley, Archarius salicivorus (Paykull), Dorytomus hirtus LeConte, Ellescus bipunctatus (Linnaeus), Mecinus janthinus (Germar), Myrmex chevrolatii (Horn), Madarellus undulatus (Say), Microplontus campestris (Gyllenhal), Pelenomus waltoni (Boheman), Rhinoncus bruchoides (Herbst), Rhinoncus perpendicularis (Reich), Cossonus impressifrons Boheman, Cossonus pacificus Van Dyke, Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher), Eubulus bisignatus (Say), Polydrusus cervinus (Linnaeus), Magdalis piceae Buchanan, Procryphalus mucronatus (LeConte), Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff), and Xyleborinus attenuatus (Blandford). Recent name changes in the genus Rhinoncus are applied to species known from New Brunswick. In addition, Orchestes alni (Linnaeus) is newly recorded from Nova Scotia. PMID:27110173

  19. Pulley reef: a deep photosynthetic coral reef on the West Florida Shelf, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culter, J.K.; Ritchie, K.B.; Earle, S.A.; Guggenheim, D.E.; Halley, R.B.; Ciembronowicz, K.T.; Hine, A.C.; Jarrett, B.D.; Locker, S.D.; Jaap, W.C.

    2006-01-01

    Pulley Reef (24°50′N, 83°40′W) lies on a submerged late Pleistocene shoreline feature that formed during a sea-level stillstand from 13.8 to 14.5 ka (Jarrett et al. 2005). The reef is currently 60–75 m deep, exhibits 10–60% coral cover, and extends over approximately 160 km2 of the sea floor. Zooxanthellate corals are primarily Agaricia lamarcki, A. fragilis, Leptoseris cucullata, and less common Madracis formosa, M. pharensis, M. decactis, Montastraea cavernosa, Porites divaricata, Scolymia cubensis and Oculina tenella. Coralline algae are comparable in abundance to stony corals. Other macroalgae include Halimeda tuna, Dictyota divaricata, Lobophora variegata, Ventricatri ventricosa, Verdigelas pelas, and Kallymenia sp. Anadyomene menziesii is abundant. The reef provides a habitat for organisms typically observed at much shallower depths, and is the deepest known photosynthetic coral reef on the North America continental shelf (Fig. 1).

  20. Spatial distribution of Madeira Island Laurisilva endemic spiders (Arachnida: Araneae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Madeira island presents a unique spider diversity with a high number of endemic species, many of which are still poorly known. A recent biodiversity survey on the terrestrial arthropods of the native forest, Laurisilva, provided a large set of standardized samples from various patches throughout the island. Out of the fifty two species recorded, approximately 33.3% are Madeiran endemics, many of which had not been collected since their original description. Two new species to science are reported – Ceratinopsis n. sp. and Theridion n. sp. – and the first records of Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall, 1841) and Tetragnatha intermedia Kulczynski, 1891 are reported for the first time for Madeira island. Considerations on species richness and abundance from different Laurisilva locations are presented, together with distribution maps for endemic species. These results contribute to a better understanding of spider diversity patterns and endemic species distribution in the native forest of Madeira island. PMID:24855443

  1. Which ornamental plant species effectively remove benzene from indoor air?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan-Ju; Mu, Yu-Jing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ding, Hui; Crystal Arens, Nan

    Phytoremediation—using plants to remove toxins—is an attractive and cost effective way to improve indoor air quality. This study screened ornamental plants for their ability to remove volatile organic compounds from air by fumigating 73 plant species with 150 ppb benzene, an important indoor air pollutant that poses a risk to human health. The 10 species found to be most effective at removing benzene from air were fumigated for two more days (8 h per day) to quantify their benzene removal capacity. Crassula portulacea, Hydrangea macrophylla, Cymbidium Golden Elf., Ficus microcarpa var. fuyuensis, Dendranthema morifolium, Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis, Dieffenbachia amoena cv. Tropic Snow; Spathiphyllum Supreme; Nephrolepis exaltata cv. Bostoniensis; Dracaena deremensis cv. Variegata emerged as the species with the greatest capacity to remove benzene from indoor air.

  2. Poikilodermatous mycosis fungoides: clinical and histopathological analysis of a case and literature review.

    PubMed

    Pankratov, Oleg; Gradova, Svetlana; Tarasevich, Svetlana; Pankratov, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    Poikilodermatous mycosis fungoides is a rare distinct clinical variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), formerly referred to as poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans or parapsoriasis variegata. Mycosis fungoides (MF) is a malignant neoplasm of T-lymphocyte origin, most commonly memory CD4+ T-cells.We report here a patient with generalized poikilodermatous skin lesions whose diagnosis of mycosis fungoides was made only a few years after the onset of his disease due to its bizarre clinical behavior and a natural reluctance to diagnose this disease in children and adolescents.The variability of atypical clinical presentations of MF and its similarity to benign inflammatory and noninflammatory skin disorders may become a source of considerable confusion and controversy, challenging a dermatologist to make a precise diagnosis. Therefore, scrupulous clinicopathological correlation is an absolute necessity.

  3. Ichthyosis with confetti: a rare diagnosis and treatment plan

    PubMed Central

    Long, Myra C

    2014-01-01

    Congenital ichthyosis includes a group of rare skin disorders known for tiles of hyperkeratotic skin resembling fish scales. With age, the hyperkeratosis generally becomes more concentrated around joints which increases impairment. Ichthyosis with confetti, also known as ichthyosis variegata or congenital reticular ichthyosiform erythroderma, is an extremely rare form of ichthyosis. It usually begins as non-bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma with the expected scaling. However, with time patients develop widespread ‘confetti-like’ patches of healthy skin. The healthy skin reflects clonal expansion of ‘normal’ or reverted cells. Cell reversion has potential for future therapies using revertant stem cells. Controlling symptoms with emollients is the goal of treatment for ichthyosis since it has no cure. PMID:25012887

  4. Effect of artificial acid rain and SO2 on characteristics of delayed light emission.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenglong; Xing, Da; Zeng, Lizhang; Ding, Chunfeng; Chen, Qun

    2005-01-01

    The structure and function of chloroplast in plant leaves can be affected by acid rain and air pollution. The photosystem II in a plant is considered the primary site where light-induced delayed light emission (DLE) is produced. With the lamina of zijinghua (Bauhinia variegata L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) as testing models, we studied the effects of artificial acid rain and SO2 on characteristics of DLE by using a home-made weak luminescence detection system. The results show that the changes in DLE intensity of green plants can reflect the changes in chloroplast intactness and function. With proper calibration, DLE may provide an alternative means of evaluating environmental acid stress on plants. The changes in DLE intensity may provide a new approach for the detection of environmental pollution and its impact on the ecosystem.

  5. Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-02-01

    A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry.

  6. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2011-30 September 2011.

    PubMed

    A'Hara, S W; Amouroux, P; Argo, Emily E; Avand-Faghih, A; Barat, Ashoktaru; Barbieri, Luiz; Bert, Theresa M; Blatrix, R; Blin, Aurélie; Bouktila, D; Broome, A; Burban, C; Capdevielle-Dulac, C; Casse, N; Chandra, Suresh; Cho, Kyung Jin; Cottrell, J E; Crawford, Charles R; Davis, Michelle C; Delatte, H; Desneux, Nicolas; Djieto-Lordon, C; Dubois, M P; El-Mergawy, R A A M; Gallardo-Escárate, C; Garcia, M; Gardiner, Mary M; Guillemaud, Thomas; Haye, P A; Hellemans, B; Hinrichsen, P; Jeon, Ji Hyun; Kerdelhué, C; Kharrat, I; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Yong Yul; Kwan, Ye-Seul; Labbe, Ellen M; LaHood, Eric; Lee, Kyung Mi; Lee, Wan-Ok; Lee, Yat-Hung; Legoff, Isabelle; Li, H; Lin, Chung-Ping; Liu, S S; Liu, Y G; Long, D; Maes, G E; Magnoux, E; Mahanta, Prabin Chandra; Makni, H; Makni, M; Malausa, Thibaut; Matura, Rakesh; McKey, D; McMillen-Jackson, Anne L; Méndez, M A; Mezghani-Khemakhem, M; Michel, Andy P; Paul, Moran; Muriel-Cunha, Janice; Nibouche, S; Normand, F; Palkovacs, Eric P; Pande, Veena; Parmentier, K; Peccoud, J; Piatscheck, F; Puchulutegui, Cecilia; Ramos, R; Ravest, G; Richner, Heinz; Robbens, J; Rochat, D; Rousselet, J; Saladin, Verena; Sauve, M; Schlei, Ora; Schultz, Thomas F; Scobie, A R; Segovia, N I; Seyoum, Seifu; Silvain, J-F; Tabone, Elisabeth; Van Houdt, J K J; Vandamme, S G; Volckaert, F A M; Wenburg, John; Willis, Theodore V; Won, Yong-Jin; Ye, N H; Zhang, W; Zhang, Y X

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 299 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) EPIC primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources (MER) Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alosa pseudoharengus, Alosa aestivalis, Aphis spiraecola, Argopecten purpuratus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Garra gotyla, Hippodamia convergens, Linnaea borealis, Menippe mercenaria, Menippe adina, Parus major, Pinus densiflora, Portunus trituberculatus, Procontarinia mangiferae, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus rhombus, Tetraponera aethiops, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Tuta absoluta and Ugni molinae. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Barilius bendelisis, Chiromantes haematocheir, Eriocheir sinensis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus cladocalix, Eucalyptus globulus, Garra litaninsis vishwanath, Garra para lissorhynchus, Guindilla trinervis, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Luma chequen. Guayaba, Myrceugenia colchagüensis, Myrceugenia correifolia, Myrceugenia exsucca, Parasesarma plicatum, Parus major, Portunus pelagicus, Psidium guayaba, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus maximus, Tetraponera latifrons, Thaumetopoea bonjeani, Thaumetopoea ispartensis, Thaumetopoea libanotica, Thaumetopoea pinivora, Thaumetopoea pityocampa ena clade, Thaumetopoea solitaria, Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni and Tor putitora. This article also documents the addition of nine EPIC primer pairs for Euphaea decorata, Euphaea formosa, Euphaea ornata and Euphaea yayeyamana.

  7. Potential nontarget effects of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) used for biological control of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.S.; LeBrun, R.A.; Heyer, K.; Zhioua, E.

    2002-01-01

    The potential for nontarget effects of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, when used for biological control of ticks, was assessed in laboratory trials. Fungal pathogenicity was studied against convergent ladybird beetles, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, house crickets, Acheta domesticus (L.), and milkweed bugs, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas). Fungal spores applied with a spray tower produced significant mortality in H. convergens and A. domesticus, but effects on O. fasciatus were marginal. Treated insects placed with untreated individuals resulted in mortality from horizontal transmission to untreated beetles and crickets, but not milkweed bugs. Spread of fungal infection in the beetles resulted in mortality on days 4-10 after treatment, while in crickets mortality was on day 2 after treatment, suggesting different levels of pathogenicity and possibly different modes of transmission. Therefore, M. anisopliae varies in pathogenicity to different insects. Inundative applications can potentially affect nontarget species, but M. anisopliae is already widely distributed in North America, so applications for tick control generally would not introduce a novel pathogen into the environment. Pathogenicity in lab trials does not, by itself, demonstrate activity under natural conditions, so field trials are needed to confirm these results and to assess methods to minimize nontarget exposure.

  8. Potential nontarget effects of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) used for biological control of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.S.; LeBrun, R.A.; Heyer, K.; Zhioua, E.

    2002-01-01

    The potential for nontarget effects of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, when used for biological control of ticks, was assessed in laboratory trials. Fungal pathogenicity was studied against convergent ladybird beetles, Hippodamia convergens Gue??rin-Me??neville, house crickets, Acheta domesticus (L.), and the milkweed bugs Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas). Fungal spores applied with a spray tower produced significant mortality in H. convergens and A. domesticus, but effects on O. fasciatus were marginal. Placing treated insects with untreated individuals resulted in mortality from horizontal transmission to untreated beetles and crickets, but not milkweed bugs. Spread of fungal infection in the beetles resulted in mortality on days 4-10 after treatment, while in crickets mortality was on day 2 after treatment, suggesting different levels of pathogenicity and possibly different modes of transmission. Therefore, M. anisopliae varies in pathogenicity to different insects. Inundative applications can potentially affect nontarget species, but M. anisopliae is already widely distributed in North America, so applications for tick control generally would not introduce a novel pathogen into the environment. Pathogenicity in lab trials does not, by itself, demonstrate activity under natural conditions, so field trials are needed to confirm these results and to assess methods to minimize nontarget exposure.

  9. Delineating the effects of a plant trait on interactions among associated insects.

    PubMed

    Chang, Gary C; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2004-03-01

    Plant traits can affect ecological interactions between plants, herbivores, and predators. Our study tests whether reduced leaf wax in peas alters the interaction between the pea aphid ( Acyrthosiphon pisum), a foliar-foraging predator (a lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens) and a ground-foraging predator (a ground beetle, Poecilus scitulus). We performed a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experiment in which wax level, presence of H. convergens, and presence of P. scitulus were manipulated. Experimental arenas consisted of a cage surrounding three pea plants. One plant in each cage was stocked with 15 pea aphids. In greenhouse and field cage experiments, we assessed the effect of each factor and their interactions on aphid density. As in previous studies, H. convergens foraged for aphids more effectively on reduced wax peas than on normal peas. Other interactions among H. convergens, P. scitulus, and A. pisum were the same on both types of peas. We consider how aphid movement, plant growth, and a high frequency of predation by P. scitulus on H. convergens influenced pea aphid density.

  10. Potential for Sulfoxaflor to Improve Conservation Biological Control of Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Soybean.

    PubMed

    Tran, Anh K; Alves, Tavvs M; Koch, Robert L

    2016-10-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is one of the most important insect pests of soybean in the north central United States. Management of A. glycines currently relies on applications of broad-spectrum insecticides. However, broad-spectrum insecticides can negatively impact the natural enemies associated with aphids. Selective insecticides, on the other hand, are promising control tactics for reducing the negative impact of insecticide applications. Here, we compared the effects of sulfoxaflor (a new selective insecticide) and broad-spectrum insecticides on A. glycines and predators in a two-year field experiment. We sampled A. glycines and aphid predator populations using visual whole-plant inspection. In addition, sweep-net sampling was performed to monitor predator populations. To evaluate the toxicity of the insecticides on predator populations, laboratory bioassays were performed on Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Orius insidiosus (Say), and Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister). Field results showed that sulfoxaflor was as effective as the broad-spectrum insecticide in suppressing soybean aphid populations and was less impactful on predator populations. The laboratory bioassays showed that sulfoxaflor was moderately harmful to O. insidiosus, harmless to slightly harmful to H. convergens, and harmless to C. rufilabris These studies suggest that sulfoxaflor holds promise for improving integration of chemical and biological controls for A. glycines management. PMID:27535848

  11. Survival of three commercially available natural enemies exposed to Michigan wildflowers.

    PubMed

    Walton, Nathaniel J; Isaacs, Rufus

    2011-10-01

    Flowering plants are often used in habitat management programs to conserve the arthropod natural enemies of insect pests. In this study, nine species of flowering plants representing six families commonly found in North America east of the Rocky Mountains were evaluated based on how much they extended the lifespans of three commercially available natural enemy species in cages with cut flower stems compared with cages containing water only. The natural enemies used in the experiments were a lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville), a predatory bug (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae: Orius insidiosus (Say)), and an aphid parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidius colemani Viereck). The plant species that most extended the lifespans of all three natural enemies were Monarda fistulosa L. (Lamiaceae), Solidago juncea Aiton (Asteraceae), and Daucus carota L. (Apiaceae). Agastache nepetoides (L.) Kuntze (Lamiaceae), Lobelia siphilitica L. (Campanulaceae), and Trifolium pratense L. (Fabaceae) were intermediate in their support of natural enemies. One plant species, Penstemon hirsutus (L.) Willdenow (Scrophulariaceae), did not contribute to the longevity of natural enemies any more than water alone. These results emphasize the need for multi-species evaluations of flowering plants for conservation biocontrol programs, and the variability in plant value for natural enemies.

  12. Natural enemies associated to aphids in peach orchards in Araucária, Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schuber, J M; Monteiro, L B; Almeida, L M; Zawadneak, M A C

    2012-11-01

    Natural enemies of the Class Insecta are important agents in the balance of aphid populations and an alternative to using insecticides to control these insects. The aim of this study was to identify the species of natural enemies associated with aphids present in peach orchards and observe the efficiency of capturing different sampling methods. The experiment was conducted from July, 2005 to September, 2006 in six peach orchards 'Chimarrita', in Araucária, PR, Brazil. The samples were taken by visual analysis in peach plants and weeds, yellow pan traps, sticky traps and funnels. Predator species were identified: Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, Cycloneda pulchella, Cycloneda sanguinea, Eriopis connexa, Harmonia axyridis, Hippodamia convergens and Scymnus sp. (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae), Allograpta sp., Palpada sp. and Toxomerus sp. (Diptera, Syrphidae) and Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) and the parasitoids: Diaretiella rapae, Opius sp. and Praon sp (Braconidae). Examples of Encyrtidae and Eulophidae await identification. Chrysoperla sp. was a less abundant species. There were no statistically significant differences between the different sampling methods tested.

  13. Identification and impact of natural enemies of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Butler, Casey D; Trumble, John T

    2012-10-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a major pest of potato, (Solanum tuberosum L.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and peppers (Capsicum spp.). The purpose of our research was to identify and determine the impact of natural enemies on B. cockerelli population dynamics. Through 2 yr of field studies (2009-2010) at four different sites and laboratory feeding tests, we identified minute pirate bug, Orius tristicolor (White) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae); western bigeyed bug, Geocoris pallens Stål (Hemiptera:Geocoridae), and convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as key natural enemies of B. cockerelli in southern California potatoes, tomatoes, and bell peppers. In natural enemy exclusion cage experiments in the potato crop and in American nightshade, Solanum americanum Miller, the number of B. cockerelli surviving was significantly greater in the closed cage treatments, thus confirming the affect natural enemies can have on B. cockerelli. We discuss how this information can be used in an integrated pest management program for B. cockerelli.

  14. Seasonal Abundance of Aphids and Aphidophagous Insects in Pecan.

    PubMed

    Dutcher, James D; Karar, Haider; Abbas, Ghulam

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal occurrence of aphids and aphidophagous insects was monitored for six years (2006-2011) from full leaf expansion in May to leaf fall in October in "Desirable" variety pecan trees that were not treated with insecticides. Aphid outbreaks occurred two times per season, once in the spring and again in the late summer. Yellow pecan and blackmargined aphids exceeded the recommended treatment thresholds one time and black pecan aphids exceeded the recommended treatment levels three times over the six seasons. Increases in aphidophagous insect abundance coincided with aphid outbreaks in five of the six seasons. Among aphidophagous insects Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum were frequently collected in both the tree canopy and at the ground level, whereas, Coccinella septempunctata, Hippodamia convergens were rarely found in the tree canopy and commonly found at the ground level. Green lacewing abundance was higher in the ground level than in the tree canopy. Brown lacewings were more abundant in the tree canopy than at the ground level. Dolichopodid and syrphid fly abundance, at the ground level increased during peak aphid abundance in the tree canopy. Application of an aqueous solution of fermenting molasses to the pecan foliage during an aphid outbreak significantly increased the abundance of ladybeetles and lacewings and significantly reduced the abundance of yellow pecan, blackmargined and black pecan aphids. PMID:26466738

  15. Natural enemies associated to aphids in peach orchards in Araucária, Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schuber, J M; Monteiro, L B; Almeida, L M; Zawadneak, M A C

    2012-11-01

    Natural enemies of the Class Insecta are important agents in the balance of aphid populations and an alternative to using insecticides to control these insects. The aim of this study was to identify the species of natural enemies associated with aphids present in peach orchards and observe the efficiency of capturing different sampling methods. The experiment was conducted from July, 2005 to September, 2006 in six peach orchards 'Chimarrita', in Araucária, PR, Brazil. The samples were taken by visual analysis in peach plants and weeds, yellow pan traps, sticky traps and funnels. Predator species were identified: Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, Cycloneda pulchella, Cycloneda sanguinea, Eriopis connexa, Harmonia axyridis, Hippodamia convergens and Scymnus sp. (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae), Allograpta sp., Palpada sp. and Toxomerus sp. (Diptera, Syrphidae) and Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) and the parasitoids: Diaretiella rapae, Opius sp. and Praon sp (Braconidae). Examples of Encyrtidae and Eulophidae await identification. Chrysoperla sp. was a less abundant species. There were no statistically significant differences between the different sampling methods tested. PMID:23295513

  16. Intraguild predation and successful invasion by introduced ladybird beetles.

    PubMed

    Snyder, William E; Clevenger, Garrett M; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2004-08-01

    Introductions of two ladybird beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) species, Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis, into North America for aphid biocontrol have been followed by declines in native species. We examined intraguild predation (IGP) between larvae of these two exotic species and larvae of the two most abundant native coccinellids in eastern Washington State, C. transversoguttata and Hippodamia convergens. In pairings between the two native species in laboratory microcosms containing pea ( Pisum sativum) plants, neither native had a clear advantage over the other in IGP. When the natives were paired with either Harmonia axyridis or C. septempunctata, the natives were more frequently the victims than perpetrators of IGP. In contrast, in pairings between the exotic species, neither had an IGP advantage, although overall rates of IGP between these two species were very high. Adding alternative prey (aphids) to microcosms did not alter the frequency and patterns of relative IGP among the coccinellid species. In observations of encounters between larvae, the introduced H. axyridis frequently survived multiple encounters with the native C. transversoguttata, whereas the native rarely survived a single encounter with H. axyridis. Our results suggest that larvae of the native species face increased IGP following invasion by C. septempunctata and H. axyridis, which may be contributing to the speed with which these exotic ladybird beetles displace the natives following invasion.

  17. Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well

  18. Molecular and serologic evidence of tick-borne Ehrlichiae in three species of lemurs from St. Catherines Island, Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Yabsley, Michael J; Norton, Terry M; Powell, Malcolm R; Davidson, William R

    2004-12-01

    In recent years, several species of ehrlichiae have been recognized as tick-borne disease agents of veterinary and medical importance. Clinically normal free-ranging or previously free-ranging lemurs, including 46 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), six blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), and four black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) from St. Catherines Island, Georgia, were tested for evidence of exposure to tick-borne ehrlichiae. All 52 adult lemurs were serologically tested for exposure to Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for E. chaffeensis, A. phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia ewingii, and Ehrlichia canis were conducted on blood samples from all 56 lemurs. Blood from all lemurs was inoculated into DH82 cell cultures for E. chaffeensis isolation. Of the adult lemurs, 20 (38.5%) and 16 (30.8%) had antibodies reactive (> or =1:128) for E. chaffeensis and A. phagocytophilum, respectively. Two ring-tailed lemurs were PCR and culture positive for E. chaffeensis. Molecular characterization of the two E. chaffeensis isolates showed that both contained 5-repeat variants of the variable-length PCR target (VLPT) antigen gene and 3-repeat variants of the 120-kDa antigen gene. Sequencing of the VLPT genes revealed a novel amino acid repeat unit (type-9). One lemur infected with E. chaffeensis was slightly hypoproteinemic and had moderately elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. These lemurs from St. Catherines Island have been exposed to or infected with tick-borne ehrlichiae, or both, but showed no clinical disease. PMID:15732591

  19. Farmed Areas Predict the Distribution of Amphibian Ponds in a Traditional Rural Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Hartel, Tibor; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional rural landscapes of Eastern Europe are undergoing major changes due to agricultural intensification, land abandonment, change in agricultural practices and infrastructural development. Small man-made ponds are important yet vulnerable components of rural landscapes. Despite their important role for biodiversity, these ponds tend to be excluded from conservation strategies. Methodology/Findings Our study was conducted in a traditional rural landscape in Eastern Europe. The aim of this study is twofold: (i) to model the distribution of four major man-made pond types and (ii) to present the importance of man-made ponds for the endangered Yellow Bellied Toad (Bombina variegata) and the Common Toad (Bufo bufo). Six environmental variables were used to model pond distribution: Corine landcover, the heterogeneity of the landcover, slope, road distance, distance to closest village and the human population density. Land cover heterogeneity was the most important driver for the distribution of fishponds. Areas used for agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation were the most important predictors for the distribution of temporary ponds. In addition, areas covered by transitional woodland and scrub were important for the open cattle ponds. Bombina variegata was found predominantly in the temporary ponds (e.g. ponds created by cattle and buffalo, dirt road ponds and concrete ponds created for livestock drinking) and Bufo bufo in fishponds. Conclusions/Significance Our Maxent models revealed that the highest probability of occurrence for amphibian ponds was in areas used as farmland. The traditional farming practices combined with a low level of infrastructure development produces a large number of amphibian ponds. The challenge is to harmonize economic development and the maintenance of high densities of ponds in these traditional rural landscapes. PMID:23704928

  20. Perspectives on Screening Winter-Flood-Tolerant Woody Species in the Riparian Protection Forests of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well

  1. New Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) records for Canada

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Hume; Bouchard, Patrice; Anderson, Robert S.; de Tonnancour, Pierre; Vigneault, Robert; Webster, Reginald P.

    2013-01-01

    ; Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902; Tyloderma foveolatum (Say, 1832); (all Curculionidae); Ontario – Trichapion nigrum (Herbst, 1797); Nanophyes marmoratus marmoratus (Goeze, 1777) (both Brentidae); Asperosoma echinatum (Fall, 1917); Micracis suturalis LeConte, 1868; Orchestes alni (Linnaeus, 1758); Phloeosinus pini Swaine, 1915; Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902; Xyleborinus attenuatus (Blandford, 1894) (all Curculionidae); Quebec – Trigonorhinus alternatus (Say, 1826); Trigonorhinus tomentosus tomentosus (Say, 1826) (both Anthribidae); Trichapion nigrum (Herbst, 1797); Trichapion porcatum (Boheman, 1839); Nanophyes marmoratus marmoratus (Goeze, 1777) (all Brentidae); Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, 1952 (Brachyceridae); Acalles carinatus LeConte, 1876; Ampeloglypter ampelopsis (Riley, 1869); Anthonomus rufipes LeConte, 1876; Anthonomus suturalis LeConte, 1824; Ceutorhynchus hamiltoni Dietz, 1896; Curculio pardalis (Chittenden, 1908); Cyrtepistomus castaneus (Roelofs, 1873); Larinus planus (Fabricius, 1792); Mecinus janthinus (Germar, 1821); Microhyus setiger LeConte, 1876; Microplontus campestris (Gyllenhal, 1837); Orchestes alni (Linnaeus, 1758); Otiorhynchus ligustici (Linnaeus, 1758); Rhinusa neta (Germar, 1821); Trichobaris trinotata (Say, 1832); Tychius liljebladi Blatchley, 1916; Xyleborinus attenuatus (Blandford, 1894); Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, 1868 (all Curculionidae); Sphenophorus incongruus Chittenden, 1905 (Dryophthoridae); New Brunswick – Euparius paganus Gyllenhal, 1833; Allandrus populi Pierce, 1930; Gonotropis dorsalis (Thunberg, 1796); Euxenus punctatus LeConte, 1876 (all Anthribidae); Loborhynchapion cyanitinctum (Fall, 1927) (Brentidae); Pseudanthonomus seriesetosus Dietz, 1891; Curculio sulcatulus (Casey, 1897); Lignyodes bischoffi (Blatchley, 1916); Lignyodes horridulus (Casey, 1892); Dietzella zimmermanni (Gyllenhal, 1837); Parenthis vestitus Dietz, 1896; Pelenomus squamosus LeConte, 1876; Psomus armatus Dietz

  2. New Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) records for Canada.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Hume; Bouchard, Patrice; Anderson, Robert S; de Tonnancour, Pierre; Vigneault, Robert; Webster, Reginald P

    2013-01-01

    Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902; Tyloderma foveolatum (Say, 1832); (all Curculionidae); Ontario - Trichapion nigrum (Herbst, 1797); Nanophyes marmoratus marmoratus (Goeze, 1777) (both Brentidae); Asperosoma echinatum (Fall, 1917); Micracis suturalis LeConte, 1868; Orchestes alni (Linnaeus, 1758); Phloeosinus pini Swaine, 1915; Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902; Xyleborinus attenuatus (Blandford, 1894) (all Curculionidae); Quebec - Trigonorhinus alternatus (Say, 1826); Trigonorhinus tomentosus tomentosus (Say, 1826) (both Anthribidae); Trichapion nigrum (Herbst, 1797); Trichapion porcatum (Boheman, 1839); Nanophyes marmoratus marmoratus (Goeze, 1777) (all Brentidae); Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, 1952 (Brachyceridae); Acalles carinatus LeConte, 1876; Ampeloglypter ampelopsis (Riley, 1869); Anthonomus rufipes LeConte, 1876; Anthonomus suturalis LeConte, 1824; Ceutorhynchus hamiltoni Dietz, 1896; Curculio pardalis (Chittenden, 1908); Cyrtepistomus castaneus (Roelofs, 1873); Larinus planus (Fabricius, 1792); Mecinus janthinus (Germar, 1821); Microhyus setiger LeConte, 1876; Microplontus campestris (Gyllenhal, 1837); Orchestes alni (Linnaeus, 1758); Otiorhynchus ligustici (Linnaeus, 1758); Rhinusa neta (Germar, 1821); Trichobaris trinotata (Say, 1832); Tychius liljebladi Blatchley, 1916; Xyleborinus attenuatus (Blandford, 1894); Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, 1868 (all Curculionidae); Sphenophorus incongruus Chittenden, 1905 (Dryophthoridae); New Brunswick - Euparius paganus Gyllenhal, 1833; Allandrus populi Pierce, 1930; Gonotropis dorsalis (Thunberg, 1796); Euxenus punctatus LeConte, 1876 (all Anthribidae); Loborhynchapion cyanitinctum (Fall, 1927) (Brentidae); Pseudanthonomus seriesetosus Dietz, 1891; Curculio sulcatulus (Casey, 1897); Lignyodes bischoffi (Blatchley, 1916); Lignyodes horridulus (Casey, 1892); Dietzella zimmermanni (Gyllenhal, 1837); Parenthis vestitus Dietz, 1896; Pelenomus squamosus LeConte, 1876; Psomus armatus Dietz, 1891; Rhyncolus macrops

  3. New Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) records for Canada

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Hume; Bouchard, Patrice; Anderson, Robert S.; de Tonnancour, Pierre; Vigneault, Robert; Webster, Reginald P.

    2013-01-01

    ; Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902; Tyloderma foveolatum (Say, 1832); (all Curculionidae); Ontario – Trichapion nigrum (Herbst, 1797); Nanophyes marmoratus marmoratus (Goeze, 1777) (both Brentidae); Asperosoma echinatum (Fall, 1917); Micracis suturalis LeConte, 1868; Orchestes alni (Linnaeus, 1758); Phloeosinus pini Swaine, 1915; Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902; Xyleborinus attenuatus (Blandford, 1894) (all Curculionidae); Quebec – Trigonorhinus alternatus (Say, 1826); Trigonorhinus tomentosus tomentosus (Say, 1826) (both Anthribidae); Trichapion nigrum (Herbst, 1797); Trichapion porcatum (Boheman, 1839); Nanophyes marmoratus marmoratus (Goeze, 1777) (all Brentidae); Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, 1952 (Brachyceridae); Acalles carinatus LeConte, 1876; Ampeloglypter ampelopsis (Riley, 1869); Anthonomus rufipes LeConte, 1876; Anthonomus suturalis LeConte, 1824; Ceutorhynchus hamiltoni Dietz, 1896; Curculio pardalis (Chittenden, 1908); Cyrtepistomus castaneus (Roelofs, 1873); Larinus planus (Fabricius, 1792); Mecinus janthinus (Germar, 1821); Microhyus setiger LeConte, 1876; Microplontus campestris (Gyllenhal, 1837); Orchestes alni (Linnaeus, 1758); Otiorhynchus ligustici (Linnaeus, 1758); Rhinusa neta (Germar, 1821); Trichobaris trinotata (Say, 1832); Tychius liljebladi Blatchley, 1916; Xyleborinus attenuatus (Blandford, 1894); Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, 1868 (all Curculionidae); Sphenophorus incongruus Chittenden, 1905 (Dryophthoridae); New Brunswick – Euparius paganus Gyllenhal, 1833; Allandrus populi Pierce, 1930; Gonotropis dorsalis (Thunberg, 1796); Euxenus punctatus LeConte, 1876 (all Anthribidae); Loborhynchapion cyanitinctum (Fall, 1927) (Brentidae); Pseudanthonomus seriesetosus Dietz, 1891; Curculio sulcatulus (Casey, 1897); Lignyodes bischoffi (Blatchley, 1916); Lignyodes horridulus (Casey, 1892); Dietzella zimmermanni (Gyllenhal, 1837); Parenthis vestitus Dietz, 1896; Pelenomus squamosus LeConte, 1876; Psomus armatus Dietz

  4. Feeding by flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae; Phyllotreta spp.) is decreased on canola (Brassica napus) seedlings with increased trichome density.

    PubMed

    Soroka, Juliana J; Holowachuk, Jennifer M; Gruber, Margaret Y; Grenkow, Larry F

    2011-02-01

    Laboratory and field studies were undertaken to determine the effects of increased numbers of trichomes on seedling stems, petioles, and first true leaves of Brassica napus L., canola, on the feeding and behavior of the crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Seedlings of 'Westar' canola with genes inserted from Arabidopsis thaliana L. for increased trichome production, called Hairyl, were tested against Westar seedlings in no-choice and choice laboratory tests, and against parental plants and other cultivars grown from seed with and without insecticide in field trials at Saskatoon and Lethbridge, Canada. Analyses ofprefeeding and feeding behavior in no-choice tests of first true leaves found that flea beetles interacted with their host while off Hairyl leaves more so than beetles presented with leaves of Westar. Beetles required twice as much time to reach satiation when feeding on leaves with increased pubescence than on Westar leaves. In laboratory choice tests, flea beetles fed more on cotyledons and second true leaves of Westar than on comparable tissues of the transgenic line. In field trials, variations in feeding patterns were seen over time on cotyledons of the line with elevated trichomes. However, all four young true leaves of Hairyl seedlings were fed upon less than were the parental lines. Feeding on Hairyl plants frequently occurred at levels equal to or less than on cultivars grown from insecticide-treated seed. This study highlights the first host plant resistance trait developed in canola, dense pubescence, with a strong potential to deter feeding by crucifer flea beetles.

  5. Early-Season Host Switching in Adelphocoris spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) of Differing Host Breadth

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hongsheng; Lu, Yanhui; Wyckhuys, Kris A. G.

    2013-01-01

    The mirid bugs Adelphocoris suturalis (Jakovlev), Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) and Adelphocoris fasciaticollis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae) are common pests of several agricultural crops. These three species have vastly different geographical distributions, phenologies and abundances, all of which are linked to their reliance on local plants. Previous work has shown notable differences in Adelphocoris spp. host use for overwintering. In this study, we assessed the extent to which each of the Adelphocoris spp. relies on some of its major overwinter hosts for spring development. Over the course of four consecutive years (2009–2012), we conducted population surveys on 77 different plant species from 39 families. During the spring, A. fasciaticollis used the broadest range of hosts, as it was found on 35 plant species, followed by A. suturalis (15 species) and A. lineolatus (7 species). Abundances of the species greatly differed between host plants, with A. fasciaticollis reaching the highest abundance on Chinese date (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), whereas both A. suturalis and A. lineolatus preferred alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). The host breadths of the three Adelphocoris spp. differed greatly between subsequent spring and winter seasons. The generalist species exhibited the least host fidelity, with A. suturalis and A. lineolatus using 8 of 22 and 4 of 12 overwinter host species for spring development, respectively. By contrast, the comparative specialist A. fasciaticollis relied on 9 of its 11 overwinter plants as early-season hosts. We highlight important seasonal changes in host breadth and interspecific differences in the extent of host switching behavior between the winter and spring seasons. These findings benefit our understanding of the evolutionary interactions between mirid bugs and their host plants and can be used to guide early-season population management. PMID:23527069

  6. Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Sprayable Polymer Gel Against Crucifer Flea Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on Canola.

    PubMed

    Antwi, Frank B; Reddy, Gadi V P

    2016-08-01

    The crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze), is a key pest of canola (Brassica napus L.) in the northern Great Plains of North America. The efficacies of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp.), a sprayable polymer gel, and a combination of both were assessed on canola for flea beetle management. Plots were treated soon after colonization by adult flea beetles, when canola was in the cotyledon to one-leaf stage. Ten plants along a 3.6-m section of row were selected and rated at pre-treatment and 7 and 14 d post treatment using the damage-rating scheme advanced by the European Plant Protection Organization, where 1 = 0%, 2 = 2%, 3 = 5%, 4 = 10%, and 5 = 25% leaf area injury. Under moderate flea beetle feeding pressure (1-3.3% leaf area damaged), seeds treated with Gaucho 600 (Bayer CropScience LP Raleigh, NC) (imidacloprid) produced the highest yield (843.2 kg/ha). Meanwhile, Barricade (Barricade International, Inc. Hobe Sound, FL) (polymer gel; 1%) + Scanmask (BioLogic Company Inc, Willow Hill, PA) (Steinernema feltiae) resulted in the highest yields: 1020.8 kg/ha under high (2.0-5.3% leaf area damaged), and 670.2 kg/ha at extremely high (4.3-8.6 % leaf area damaged) feeding pressure. Our results suggest that Barricade (1%) + Scanmask (S. feltiae) can serve as an alternative to the conventional chemical seed treatment. Moreover, Scanmask (S. feltiae) can be used to complement the effects of seed treatment after its protection has run out. PMID:27329629

  7. Mass rearing the weevil Hylobius transversovittatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), biological control agent of Lythrum salicaria, on semiartificial diet.

    PubMed

    Blossey, B; Eberts, D; Morrison, E; Hunt, T R

    2000-12-01

    Lythrum salicaria L., purple loosestrife, an invasive Eurasian perennial, is degrading wetlands across temperate North America. Chemical, physical, and mechanical methods failed to provide long-term control. Therefore, four host-specific insect species (two leaf feeders, a root feeder, and a flower feeder) were introduced as biological control agents. To increase the availability of adults of the root feeding weevil Hylobius transversovittatus Goeze for field releases, we developed a semiartificial diet. Suitability of different diet formulations (varying vitamin mixes, salt mixes, antimicrobials, water content, root content) and temperatures for larval development were evaluated. We also monitored how rearing on artificial diet and the number of larvae per container affected larval development time, larval survival, adult weight, and incidences of deformities. Rearing larvae on artificial diet reduced development time from 1-2 yr to 2-3 mo. Larval development was fastest and survival rates highest under constant temperatures of 25 degrees C. Hatch rate and larval survival decreased if eggs were surface sterilized. Using FABCO antimicrobials could not prevent fungal contamination; use of methyl paraben and sorbic acid was successful in suppressing fungal and bacterial growth throughout larval development time to <10%. The moisture content of the diet did not significantly affect larval survival, development, or adult weight. Decreasing the proportion of purple loosestrife roots in the diet reduced adult weight and the proportion of larvae completing development, and increased development time; no larvae were able to complete development in root-free diet. With an increase in the number of larvae per cup, survival rates were reduced. The experiments revealed a female biased sex ratio: females consistently developed faster and were heavier than males. Incidence of adult deformities was consistently below 5%. Increased availability of adults for field release as a

  8. Topical Application of Ice-Nucleating-Active Bacteria Decreases Insect Cold Tolerance †

    PubMed Central

    Strong-Gunderson, Janet M.; Lee, Richard E.; Lee, Marcia R.

    1992-01-01

    The majority of overwintering insects avoid lethal freezing by lowering the temperature at which ice spontaneously nucleates within their body fluids. We examined the effect of ice-nucleating-active bacteria on the cold-hardiness of the lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens, a freeze-intolerant species that overwinters by supercooling to ca. −16°C. Topical application of the ice-nucleating-active bacteria Pseudomonas syringae increased the supercooling point to temperatures as high as −3°C. This decrease in cold tolerance was maintained for at least 3 days after treatment. Various treatment doses (108, 106, and 104 bacteria per ml) and modes of action (bacterial ingestion and topical application) were also compared. At the highest concentration of topically applied P. syringae, 50% of the beetles froze between −2 and −4°C. After topical application at the lowest concentration, 50% of the individuals froze by −11°C. In contrast, beetles fed bacteria at this concentration did not begin to freeze until −10°C, and 50% were frozen only at temperatures of −13°C or less. In addition to reducing the supercooling capacity in H. convergens, ice-nucleating-active bacteria also significantly reduced the cold-hardiness of four additional insects. These data demonstrate that ice-nucleating-active bacteria can be used to elevate the supercooling point and thereby decrease insect cold tolerance. The results of this study support the proposition that ice-nucleating-active bacteria may be used as a biological insecticide for the control of insect pests during the winter. Images PMID:16348764

  9. Homopterans and an invasive red ant, Myrmica rubra (L.), in Maine.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Katherine; Garnas, Jeffrey; Drummond, Frank; Groden, Eleanor

    2012-02-01

    Myrmica rubra (L.), is an invasive ant that is spreading across eastern North America. It is presently found in over 40 communities in Maine and areas in Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, and several provinces in the Canadian Maritimes and Ontario. In addition to disrupting native ant faunas, invasive ants also have been shown to influence homopteran abundance and species composition. We conducted surveys of Homoptera in infested and noninfested sites and conducted manipulative experiments to quantify the effects of M. rubra on homopteran abundance and composition in the summers of 2003, 2006, and 2007 on Mount Desert Island, ME. In 2003, Homoptera family-level richness was higher in infested sites compared with noninfested sites with two out of three sampling methods. Homopteran abundance in infested compared with noninfested sites depended upon the site. The sites with the highest population of M. rubra were associated with significant differences in Homoptera population abundance. In 2006 and 2007, two out of three host plants sampled had significantly higher abundances of the aphids, Aphis spiraephila Patch and Prociphilus tessellatus Fitch. An ant exclusion field experiment on the native plant, meadowsweet (Spiraea alba Du Roi), resulted in higher abundances of A. spiraephila with M. rubra tending compared with native ant tending. A predator exclusion field experiment was conducted on meadowsweet using adult ladybeetles, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, larval green lacewings, Chyrsoperla carnea Stephens, and no predators. Predator impacts on aphid populations were reduced in the presence of M. rubra with C. carnea and moderately reduced with H. convergens.

  10. Sublethal effects of insecticide seed treatments on two nearctic lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Moscardini, Valéria Fonseca; Gontijo, Pablo Costa; Michaud, J P; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade

    2015-07-01

    Predatory insects often feed on plants or use plant products to supplement their diet, creating a potential route of exposure to systemic insecticides used as seed treatments. This study examined whether chlorantraniliprole or thiamethoxam might negatively impact Coleomegilla maculata and Hippodamia convergens when the beetles consumed the extrafloral nectar of sunflowers grown from treated seed. We reared both species on eggs of Ephestia kuehniella and then switched adult H. convergens to a diet of greenbugs, Schizaphis graminum, in order to induce oviposition in this species. Excised sunflower stems, either treated or control and refreshed every 48 h, were provided throughout larval development, or for the first week of adult life. Exposure of C. maculata larvae to chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam applied as seed treatments delayed adult emergence by prolonging the pupal period. When adults were exposed, thiamethoxam reduced the preoviposition period compared to chlorantraniliprole, whereas the latter treatment cause females to produce fewer clutches during the observation period. Larvae of C. maculata did not appear to obtain sufficient hydration from the sunflower stems and their subsequent fecundity and fertility were compromised in comparison to the adult exposure experiment where larvae received supplemental water during development. Exposure of H. convergens larvae to thiamethoxam skewed the sex ratio in favor of females; both materials reduced the egg viability of resulting adults and increased the period required for eclosion. Exposure of H. convergens adults to chlorantraniliprole reduced egg eclosion times compared to thiamethoxam and exposure to both insecticides reduced pupation times in progeny. The results indicate that both insecticides have negative, sublethal impacts on the biology of these predators when they feed on extrafloral nectar of sunflower plants grown from treated seed.

  11. Biodiversity loss following the introduction of exotic competitors: does intraguild predation explain the decline of native lady beetles?

    PubMed

    Smith, Chelsea A; Gardiner, Mary M

    2013-01-01

    Exotic species are widely accepted as a leading cause of biodiversity decline. Lady beetles (Coccinellidae) provide an important model to study how competitor introductions impact native communities since several native coccinellids have experienced declines that coincide with the establishment and spread of exotic coccinellids. This study tested the central hypothesis that intraguild predation by exotic species has caused these declines. Using sentinel egg experiments, we quantified the extent of predation on previously-common (Hippodamia convergens) and common (Coleomegilla maculata) native coccinellid eggs versus exotic coccinellid (Harmonia axyridis) eggs in three habitats: semi-natural grassland, alfalfa, and soybean. Following the experiments quantifying egg predation, we used video surveillance to determine the composition of the predator community attacking the eggs. The extent of predation varied across habitats, and egg species. Native coccinellids often sustained greater egg predation than H. axyridis. We found no evidence that exotic coccinellids consumed coccinellid eggs in the field. Harvestmen and slugs were responsible for the greatest proportion of attacks. This research challenges the widely-accepted hypothesis that intraguild predation by exotic competitors explains the loss of native coccinellids. Although exotic coccinellids may not be a direct competitor, reduced egg predation could indirectly confer a competitive advantage to these species. A lower proportion of H. axyridis eggs removed by predators may have aided its expansion and population increase and could indirectly affect native species via exploitative or apparent competition. These results do not support the intraguild predation hypothesis for native coccinellid decline, but do bring to light the existence of complex interactions between coccinellids and the guild of generalist predators in coccinellid foraging habitats.

  12. Potential cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, population suppression by arthropod predators in upland cotton.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Ram B; Parajulee, Megha N

    2013-12-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, predation rate of convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, was determined by assigning a single predator randomly to each of four prey density treatments in the laboratory. Prey densities included 25, 50, 100, and 200 aphids per Petri dish arena. Predation response was recorded at 1, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 h after assigning predators to their prey treatments. Rate of consumption increased through time, with all 25 aphids consumed during the first 4 h of the experiment. At the highest density, adult lady beetle consumed on average 49, 99, 131, 163, 183, and 200 aphids within 1, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h, respectively. Predators showed a curvilinear feeding response in relation to total available time, indicating that convergent lady beetles have the potential to suppress larger populations of aphids through continuous feeding by regulating their predation efficiency during feeding. The analysis of age-specific mortality in absence of prey revealed that lady beetles could survive for an extended period of time (more than 2 weeks) without prey. The ability of a predator to survive without prey delays or prevents the rebound of pest populations that is a significant factor in natural biological control. A two-year field sampling of 10 cotton arthropod predator species showed that spiders (27%) were the most dominant foliage dwelling predators in the Texas High Plains cotton followed by convergent lady beetles (23.5%), hooded beetles (13.5%), minute pirate bugs (11%), green lacewings (9.5%), bigeyed bugs (7.5%), scymnus beetles (3%), soft-winged flower beetles (2%), damsel bugs (1.5%), and assassin bugs (1.5%). A field cage study showed that one H. convergens adult per plant released at prey density of one aphid per leaf kept the aphid population below economic threshold for the entire growing season. PMID:23956125

  13. Alarm pheromone habituation in Myzus persicae has fitness consequences and causes extensive gene expression changes.

    PubMed

    de Vos, Martin; Cheng, Wing Yin; Summers, Holly E; Raguso, Robert A; Jander, Georg

    2010-08-17

    In most aphid species, facultative parthenogenetic reproduction allows rapid growth and formation of large single-genotype colonies. Upon predator attack, individual aphids emit an alarm pheromone to warn the colony of this danger. (E)-beta-farnesene (EBF) is the predominant constituent of the alarm pheromone in Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) and many other aphid species. Continuous exposure to alarm pheromone in aphid colonies raised on transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants that produce EBF leads to habituation within three generations. Whereas naive aphids are repelled by EBF, habituated aphids show no avoidance response. Similarly, individual aphids from the habituated colony can revert back to being EBF-sensitive in three generations, indicating that this behavioral change is not caused by a genetic mutation. Instead, DNA microarray experiments comparing gene expression in naive and habituated aphids treated with EBF demonstrate an almost complete desensitization in the transcriptional response to EBF. Furthermore, EBF-habituated aphids show increased progeny production relative to EBF-responsive aphids, with or without EBF treatment. Although both naive and habituated aphids emit EBF upon damage, EBF-responsive aphids have a higher survival rate in the presence of a coccinellid predator (Hippodamia convergens), and thus outperform habituated aphids that do not show an avoidance response. These results provide evidence that aphid perception of conspecific alarm pheromone aids in predator avoidance and thereby bestows fitness benefits in survivorship and fecundity. Therefore, although habituated M. persicae produce more progeny, EBF-emitting transgenic plants may have practical applications in agriculture as a result of increased predation of habituated aphids. PMID:20679203

  14. Sublethal effects of insecticide seed treatments on two nearctic lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Moscardini, Valéria Fonseca; Gontijo, Pablo Costa; Michaud, J P; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade

    2015-07-01

    Predatory insects often feed on plants or use plant products to supplement their diet, creating a potential route of exposure to systemic insecticides used as seed treatments. This study examined whether chlorantraniliprole or thiamethoxam might negatively impact Coleomegilla maculata and Hippodamia convergens when the beetles consumed the extrafloral nectar of sunflowers grown from treated seed. We reared both species on eggs of Ephestia kuehniella and then switched adult H. convergens to a diet of greenbugs, Schizaphis graminum, in order to induce oviposition in this species. Excised sunflower stems, either treated or control and refreshed every 48 h, were provided throughout larval development, or for the first week of adult life. Exposure of C. maculata larvae to chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam applied as seed treatments delayed adult emergence by prolonging the pupal period. When adults were exposed, thiamethoxam reduced the preoviposition period compared to chlorantraniliprole, whereas the latter treatment cause females to produce fewer clutches during the observation period. Larvae of C. maculata did not appear to obtain sufficient hydration from the sunflower stems and their subsequent fecundity and fertility were compromised in comparison to the adult exposure experiment where larvae received supplemental water during development. Exposure of H. convergens larvae to thiamethoxam skewed the sex ratio in favor of females; both materials reduced the egg viability of resulting adults and increased the period required for eclosion. Exposure of H. convergens adults to chlorantraniliprole reduced egg eclosion times compared to thiamethoxam and exposure to both insecticides reduced pupation times in progeny. The results indicate that both insecticides have negative, sublethal impacts on the biology of these predators when they feed on extrafloral nectar of sunflower plants grown from treated seed. PMID:25902962

  15. Potential cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, population suppression by arthropod predators in upland cotton.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Ram B; Parajulee, Megha N

    2013-12-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, predation rate of convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, was determined by assigning a single predator randomly to each of four prey density treatments in the laboratory. Prey densities included 25, 50, 100, and 200 aphids per Petri dish arena. Predation response was recorded at 1, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 h after assigning predators to their prey treatments. Rate of consumption increased through time, with all 25 aphids consumed during the first 4 h of the experiment. At the highest density, adult lady beetle consumed on average 49, 99, 131, 163, 183, and 200 aphids within 1, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h, respectively. Predators showed a curvilinear feeding response in relation to total available time, indicating that convergent lady beetles have the potential to suppress larger populations of aphids through continuous feeding by regulating their predation efficiency during feeding. The analysis of age-specific mortality in absence of prey revealed that lady beetles could survive for an extended period of time (more than 2 weeks) without prey. The ability of a predator to survive without prey delays or prevents the rebound of pest populations that is a significant factor in natural biological control. A two-year field sampling of 10 cotton arthropod predator species showed that spiders (27%) were the most dominant foliage dwelling predators in the Texas High Plains cotton followed by convergent lady beetles (23.5%), hooded beetles (13.5%), minute pirate bugs (11%), green lacewings (9.5%), bigeyed bugs (7.5%), scymnus beetles (3%), soft-winged flower beetles (2%), damsel bugs (1.5%), and assassin bugs (1.5%). A field cage study showed that one H. convergens adult per plant released at prey density of one aphid per leaf kept the aphid population below economic threshold for the entire growing season.

  16. Biodiversity Loss following the Introduction of Exotic Competitors: Does Intraguild Predation Explain the Decline of Native Lady Beetles?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Chelsea A.; Gardiner, Mary M.

    2013-01-01

    Exotic species are widely accepted as a leading cause of biodiversity decline. Lady beetles (Coccinellidae) provide an important model to study how competitor introductions impact native communities since several native coccinellids have experienced declines that coincide with the establishment and spread of exotic coccinellids. This study tested the central hypothesis that intraguild predation by exotic species has caused these declines. Using sentinel egg experiments, we quantified the extent of predation on previously-common (Hippodamia convergens) and common (Coleomegilla maculata) native coccinellid eggs versus exotic coccinellid (Harmonia axyridis) eggs in three habitats: semi-natural grassland, alfalfa, and soybean. Following the experiments quantifying egg predation, we used video surveillance to determine the composition of the predator community attacking the eggs. The extent of predation varied across habitats, and egg species. Native coccinellids often sustained greater egg predation than H. axyridis. We found no evidence that exotic coccinellids consumed coccinellid eggs in the field. Harvestmen and slugs were responsible for the greatest proportion of attacks. This research challenges the widely-accepted hypothesis that intraguild predation by exotic competitors explains the loss of native coccinellids. Although exotic coccinellids may not be a direct competitor, reduced egg predation could indirectly confer a competitive advantage to these species. A lower proportion of H. axyridis eggs removed by predators may have aided its expansion and population increase and could indirectly affect native species via exploitative or apparent competition. These results do not support the intraguild predation hypothesis for native coccinellid decline, but do bring to light the existence of complex interactions between coccinellids and the guild of generalist predators in coccinellid foraging habitats. PMID:24386383

  17. Generic revision and species classification of the Microdontinae (Diptera, Syrphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Reemer, Menno; Ståhls, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    secondary junior homonyms: Microdon shirakii nom. n. (= Microdon tuberculatus Shiraki, 1968, primary homonym of Microdon tuberculatus de Meijere, 1913), Paramixogaster brunettii nom. n. (= Mixogaster vespiformis Brunetti, 1913, secondary homonym of Microdon vespiformis de Meijere, 1908), Paramixogaster sacki nom. n. (= Myxogaster variegata Sack, 1922, secondary homonym of Ceratophya variegata Walker, 1852). An attempt is made to classify all available species names into (sub)genera and species groups. The resulting classification comprises 454 valid species and 98 synonyms (excluding misspellings), of which 17 valid names and three synonyms are left unplaced. The paper concludes with a discussion on diagnostic characters of Microdontinae. PMID:23798897

  18. [Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution status in shellfish culture area of Sanggou Bay and effect on quality safety of shellfish].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xiang-Ying; Chen, Bi-Juan; Zhou, Ming-Ying; Cui, Zheng-Guo

    2011-08-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in seawater, surface sediments and culture shellfish were investigated in shellfish culture area of Sanggou Bay from Jan. to Nov. in 2008. Investigation was conducted on the distribution and variation of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in seawater and sediments in the shellfish culture area of Sanggou Bay, as well as on the levels and the differences in petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations among the shellfish species. In addition, the petroleum hydrocarbon pollution status in the three media was evaluated and the effects of accumulated petroleum hydrocarbon in shellfish on the food safety risk were discussed. The results indicated: 1) Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in seawater in the shellfish culture area of Sanggou Bay were in the range of 3.61 - 98.21 microg/L; the mean values of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were in the range of 6.75-25.95 mg/kg; petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in culture shellfish were in the range of 2.14- 42.87 mg/kg; and petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in shellfish varied largely among different species, with the mean values in the sequence of clam Venerupis variegata > oyster > scallop; 2) Monthly petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in seawater and surface sediments varied significantly in Sanggou Bay shellfish culture area, with the highest and the lowest values of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in seawater that occurred in July and in August, respectively, and with the highest and the lowest values of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in surface sediments that occurred in September and in March, respectively; 3) According to the corresponding evaluation criteria, the petroleum hydrocarbon pollution status in surface sediments in Sanggou Bay shellfish culture area was unpolluted but the status in surface seawater was polluted. The culture shellfish was also polluted by petroleum hydrocarbon with different degrees among three species, namely, the

  19. Occurrence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis in the Red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) and the Ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) housed in the Poznan Zoological Garden, Poland.

    PubMed

    Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Majewska, Anna C; Trzesowska, Ewa; Skrzypczak, Łukasz

    2012-01-01

    Encephalitozoon intestinalis is one of the most common microsporidial species found in humans worldwide but it has rarely been identified in animals. The presence of this pathogen has been detected in a few species of domestic, captive and wild mammals as well as in three species of birds. The aim of the present study was to examine fecal samples obtained from mammals housed in the Poznan Zoological Garden, Poland, for the presence of potentially human-infectious microsporidia. A total of 339 fresh fecal samples collected from 75 species of mammals belonging to 27 families and 8 orders were examined for the presence of microsporidian spores. Microsporidian spores were identified in 3 out of 339 (0.9%) examined fecal samples. All samples identified as positive by chromotrope 2R and calcofluor white M2R were also positive by the FISH assay. Using multiplex FISH in all 3 fecal samples, only spores of E. intestinalis were identified in 2 out of 14 Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and in one out of 17 Red ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra). To our knowledge this is the first diagnosis of E. intestinalis in Ring-tailed and Red ruffed lemurs. It should be mentioned that both lemur species are listed by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Although the lemurs were asymptomatically infected, the possibility of widespread infection or death of these animals remains in the event of an elevated stress or a decrease in their immunological functions.

  20. Structural and Chemical Characterization of Hardwood from Tree Species with Applications as Bioenergy Feedstocks

    PubMed Central

    Çetinkol, Özgül Persil; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M.; Cheng, Gang; Lao, Jeemeng; George, Anthe; Hong, Kunlun; Henry, Robert; Simmons, Blake A.; Heazlewood, Joshua L.; Holmes, Bradley M.

    2012-01-01

    Eucalypt species are a group of flowering trees widely used in pulp production for paper manufacture. For several decades, the wood pulp industry has focused research and development efforts on improving yields, growth rates and pulp quality through breeding and the genetic improvement of key tree species. Recently, this focus has shifted from the production of high quality pulps to the investigation of the use of eucalypts as feedstocks for biofuel production. Here the structure and chemical composition of the heartwood and sapwood of Eucalyptus dunnii, E. globulus, E. pillularis, E. urophylla, an E. urophylla-E. grandis cross, Corymbia citriodora ssp. variegata, and Acacia mangium were compared using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and biochemical composition analysis. Some trends relating to these compositions were also identified by Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. These results will serve as a foundation for a more comprehensive database of wood properties that will help develop criteria for the selection of tree species for use as biorefinery feedstocks. PMID:23300786

  1. Benthic composition of a healthy subtropical reef: baseline species-level cover, with an emphasis on algae, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Vroom, Peter S; Braun, Cristi L

    2010-01-01

    The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) are considered to be among the most pristine coral reef ecosystems remaining on the planet. These reefs naturally contain a high percent cover of algal functional groups with relatively low coral abundance and exhibit thriving fish communities dominated by top predators. Despite their highly protected status, these reefs are at risk from both direct and indirect anthropogenic sources. This study provides the first comprehensive data on percent coverage of algae, coral, and non-coral invertebrates at the species level, and investigates spatial diversity patterns across the archipelago to document benthic communities before further environmental changes occur in response to global warming and ocean acidification. Monitoring studies show that non-calcified macroalgae cover a greater percentage of substrate than corals on many high latitude reef sites. Forereef habitats in atoll systems often contain high abundances of the green macroalga Microdictyon setchellianum and the brown macroalga Lobophora variegata, yet these organisms were uncommon in forereefs of non-atoll systems. Species of the brown macroalgal genera Padina, Sargassum, and Stypopodium and the red macroalgal genus Laurencia became increasingly common in the two northernmost atolls of the island chain but were uncommon components of more southerly islands. Conversely, the scleractinian coral Porites lobata was common on forereefs at southern islands but less common at northern islands. Currently accepted paradigms of what constitutes a "healthy" reef may not apply to the subtropical NWHI, and metrics used to gauge reef health (e.g., high coral cover) need to be reevaluated. PMID:20305808

  2. First report of canine ocular thelaziosis by Thelazia callipaeda in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Thelazia callipaeda eyeworms are transmitted by the non-biting insect vector Phortica variegata in Europe and infest the conjunctiva(s) of several mammalians, including dogs and humans. Infested hosts might remain asymptomatic or display clinical manifestations characterized by variable degrees of severity. Methods From July to November 2011, nine dogs were detected with eyeworms at two veterinary clinics in Chaves and Bragança (North of Portugal). Nematodes collected from dogs were morphologically and molecularly characterized at species level. Results Nematodes were identified as T. callipaeda. The number of worms collected from each dog ranged from three to 76 (average = 17.9 ± 26.8) and was not associated with the severity of clinical signs. Ocular discharge and conjunctivitis were observed in all dogs and ocular pruritus occurred in six of them. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of a portion of target cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene further identified all nematodes as haplotype 1. Conclusions This is the first report of T. callipaeda and associated ocular disease in dogs from Portugal, suggesting that thelaziosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of canine ocular affections. The risk of the infestation spreading from Spain and France to Portugal, through domestic dogs or wild mammals, is realistic. PMID:22720837

  3. Macroalgal-associated dinoflagellates belonging to the genus Symbiodinium in Caribbean reefs.

    PubMed

    Porto, Isabel; Granados, Camila; Restrepo, Juan C; Sánchez, Juan A

    2008-01-01

    Coral-algal symbiosis has been a subject of great attention during the last two decades in response to global coral reef decline. However, the occurrence and dispersion of free-living dinoflagellates belonging to the genus Symbiodinium are less documented. Here ecological and molecular evidence is presented demonstrating the existence of demersal free-living Symbiodinium populations in Caribbean reefs and the possible role of the stoplight parrotfish (Sparisoma viride) as Symbiodinium spp. dispersers. Communities of free-living Symbiodinium were found within macroalgal beds consisting of Halimeda spp., Lobophora variegata, Amphiroa spp., Caulerpa spp. and Dictyota spp. Viable Symbiodinium spp. cells were isolated and cultured from macroalgal beds and S. viride feces. Further identification of Symbiodinium spp. type was determined by length variation in the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2, nuclear rDNA) and length variation in domain V of the chloroplast large subunit ribosomal DNA (cp23S-rDNA). Determination of free-living Symbiodinium and mechanisms of dispersal is important in understanding the life cycle of Symbiodinium spp. PMID:18478069

  4. Nitrogen and phosphorus uptake rates of different species from a coral reef community after a nutrient pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Haan, Joost; Huisman, Jef; Brocke, Hannah J.; Goehlich, Henry; Latijnhouwers, Kelly R. W.; van Heeringen, Seth; Honcoop, Saskia A. S.; Bleyenberg, Tanja E.; Schouten, Stefan; Cerli, Chiara; Hoitinga, Leo; Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Visser, Petra M.

    2016-06-01

    Terrestrial runoff after heavy rainfall can increase nutrient concentrations in waters overlying coral reefs that otherwise experience low nutrient levels. Field measurements during a runoff event showed a sharp increase in nitrate (75-fold), phosphate (31-fold) and ammonium concentrations (3-fold) in waters overlying a fringing reef at the island of Curaçao (Southern Caribbean). To understand how benthic reef organisms make use of such nutrient pulses, we determined ammonium, nitrate and phosphate uptake rates for one abundant coral species, turf algae, six macroalgal and two benthic cyanobacterial species in a series of laboratory experiments. Nutrient uptake rates differed among benthic functional groups. The filamentous macroalga Cladophora spp., turf algae and the benthic cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula had the highest uptake rates per unit biomass, whereas the coral Madracis mirabilis had the lowest. Combining nutrient uptake rates with the standing biomass of each functional group on the reef, we estimated that the ammonium and phosphate delivered during runoff events is mostly taken up by turf algae and the two macroalgae Lobophora variegata and Dictyota pulchella. Our results support the often proposed, but rarely tested, assumption that turf algae and opportunistic macroalgae primarily benefit from episodic inputs of nutrients to coral reefs.

  5. Phylogeny and evolution of the Sulidae (Aves:Pelecaniformes): a test of alternative modes of speciation.

    PubMed

    Friesen, V L; Anderson, D J

    1997-04-01

    Although the allopatric model of speciation is widely accepted, it does not provide a satisfactory explanation for many evolutionary phenomena. Several alternative models exist, but they remain largely untested for vertebrate animals. In the present paper, a molecular phylogeny was used to test competing models of speciation in a seabird family, the Sulidae. A segment including 807 base pairs of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was sequenced from all extant sulid species, and phylogenetic methods were used to test model-specific predictions regarding tree topologies, distributions of sister taxa, timing of vicariant events, and comparative biology. Both the neighbor-joining and parsimony analyses placed sequences of gannets (Morus spp.) and boobies of the genus Sula in separate, monophyletic lineages. Sequences of Cape (M. capensis) and Australasian (M. serrator) gannets clustered together, and the sequence of Abbott's booby (Papasula abbotti) was basal to those of the gannets. Sequences of blue-footed (S. nebouxii) and Peruvian (S. variegata) boobies were sisters and formed a monophyletic group with the masked booby (S. dactylatra). The red-footed booby (S. sula) sequence was the most divergent of the Sula boobies. All relationships received strong support from standard-error tests and bootstrap analysis. Substitution rates were similar to those suggested for mammals and suggested that most lineages arose within the last 3 million years. Lineage divergence events for which the mode of speciation could be deduced did not fit the predictions of either allopatric or sympatric models, but apparently involved either peripatric or parapatric processes.

  6. Changes in subtidal assemblages in a scenario of warming: proliferations of ephemeral benthic algae in the Canary Islands (eastern Atlantic Ocean).

    PubMed

    Sangil, Carlos; Sansón, Marta; Afonso-Carrillo, Julio; Herrera, Rogelio; Rodríguez, Adriana; Martín-García, Laura; Díaz-Villa, Tania

    2012-06-01

    The present work analysed the main changes in subtidal algal assemblages in the last decade in an oceanic archipelago (Canary Islands--eastern Atlantic Ocean). Changes result from increases in cover of ephemeral benthic algae, such as the non-native chlorophyte Pseudotetraspora marina and the native cyanophytes Blennothrix lyngbyacea, Schizothrix calcicola and Schizothrix mexicana. Ephemeral algae overgrow subtidal assemblages which are extensively dominated by Lobophora variegata, but competitively do not exclude other species. Increases in the abundance of species coincided with a warming of about 2 °C in surface seawater temperature (SST) linked to the weakening of the Cold Canary Current and the Northwestern African upwelling. Shifts in the distribution and cover of ephemeral species follow the SST gradient from warmer waters in the western islands to colder waters in the eastern ones. While in the warmest western islands, species have spread quickly colonizing all type of substrates in just a few years (2005-2008), the occurrence of ephemerals towards the coldest eastern islands is yet inconspicuous.

  7. No-take areas as an effective tool to restore urchin barrens on subtropical rocky reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangil, Carlos; Clemente, Sabrina; Martín-García, Laura; Hernández, José Carlos

    2012-10-01

    Rapid declines in the sea urchin Diadema aff. antillarum densities and shifts in community states of sublittoral rocky reefs have been observed over a short period (between 2004 and 2008) for the first time in an area with fishing restrictions (the MPA of La Palma, Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic Ocean). Changes were spatially variable according to the MPA's use area considered. During this period there was a sea urchin density reduction (in some cases from 3.34 to 0.45 indv·m-2), and an increase of erect seaweed (up to 30% of cover) in the sites of the no-take area. In the partially restricted fishing area, the effect was less clear and only some sites, near to the no-take area, showed the sea urchin reduction and seaweed growth, in contrast to the increase of sea urchin densities outside the MPA. In addition to increased coverage, there was also a replacement of the ephemeral species by the perennial seaweed Lobophora variegata. These changes were related to increases in the abundance of fish predators of the sea urchins. In the no-take area, where there is total fishing restriction, predators were so abundant to induce shifts in the benthic community, while in the partially protected area such as outside the MPA, fishing prevented the top-down process and the changes in the communities.

  8. Inhibition of coral recruitment by macroalgae and cyanobacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, I.B.; Walters, L.J.; Becerro, M.A.; Paul, V.J.; Ritson-Williams, R.; Beach, K.S.

    2006-01-01

    Coral recruitment is a key process in the maintenance and recovery of coral reef ecosystems. While intense competition between coral and algae is often assumed on reefs that have undergone phase shifts from coral to algal dominance, data examining the competitive interactions involved, particularly during the larval and immediate post-settlement stage, are scarce. Using a series of field and outdoor seawater table experiments, we tested the hypothesis that common species of macroalgae and cyanobacteria inhibit coral recruitment. We examined the effects of Lyngbya spp., Dictyota spp., Lobophora variegata (J. V. Lamouroux) Womersley, and Chondrophycus poiteaui (J. V. Lamouroux) Nam (formerly Laurencia poiteaui) on the recruitment success of Porites astreoides larvae. All species but C. poiteaui caused either recruitment inhibition or avoidance behavior in P. astreoides larvae, while L. confervoides and D. menstrualis significantly increased mortality rates of P. astreoides recruits. We also tested the effect of some of these macrophytes on larvae of the gorgonian octocoral Briareum asbestinum. Exposure to Lyngbya majuscula reduced survival and recruitment in the octocoral larvae. Our results provide evidence that algae and cyanobacteria use tactics beyond space occupation to inhibit coral recruitment. On reefs experiencing phase shifts or temporary algal blooms, the restocking of adult coral populations may be slowed due to recruitment inhibition, thereby perpetuating reduced coral cover and limiting coral community recovery. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  9. Occurrence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis in the Red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) and the Ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) housed in the Poznan Zoological Garden, Poland.

    PubMed

    Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Majewska, Anna C; Trzesowska, Ewa; Skrzypczak, Łukasz

    2012-01-01

    Encephalitozoon intestinalis is one of the most common microsporidial species found in humans worldwide but it has rarely been identified in animals. The presence of this pathogen has been detected in a few species of domestic, captive and wild mammals as well as in three species of birds. The aim of the present study was to examine fecal samples obtained from mammals housed in the Poznan Zoological Garden, Poland, for the presence of potentially human-infectious microsporidia. A total of 339 fresh fecal samples collected from 75 species of mammals belonging to 27 families and 8 orders were examined for the presence of microsporidian spores. Microsporidian spores were identified in 3 out of 339 (0.9%) examined fecal samples. All samples identified as positive by chromotrope 2R and calcofluor white M2R were also positive by the FISH assay. Using multiplex FISH in all 3 fecal samples, only spores of E. intestinalis were identified in 2 out of 14 Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and in one out of 17 Red ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra). To our knowledge this is the first diagnosis of E. intestinalis in Ring-tailed and Red ruffed lemurs. It should be mentioned that both lemur species are listed by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Although the lemurs were asymptomatically infected, the possibility of widespread infection or death of these animals remains in the event of an elevated stress or a decrease in their immunological functions. PMID:23094336

  10. Macroalgal Extracts Induce Bacterial Assemblage Shifts and Sublethal Tissue Stress in Caribbean Corals

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Kathleen M.; Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Ross, Cliff; Liles, Mark R.; Paul, Valerie J.

    2012-01-01

    Benthic macroalgae can be abundant on present-day coral reefs, especially where rates of herbivory are low and/or dissolved nutrients are high. This study investigated the impact of macroalgal extracts on both coral-associated bacterial assemblages and sublethal stress response of corals. Crude extracts and live algal thalli from common Caribbean macroalgae were applied onto the surface of Montastraea faveolata and Porites astreoides corals on reefs in both Florida and Belize. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was used to examine changes in the surface mucus layer (SML) bacteria in both coral species. Some of the extracts and live algae induced detectable shifts in coral-associated bacterial assemblages. However, one aqueous extract caused the bacterial assemblages to shift to an entirely new state (Lobophora variegata), whereas other organic extracts had little to no impact (e.g. Dictyota sp.). Macroalgal extracts more frequently induced sublethal stress responses in M. faveolata than in P. astreoides corals, suggesting that cellular integrity can be negatively impacted in selected corals when comparing co-occurring species. As modern reefs experience phase-shifts to a higher abundance of macroalgae with potent chemical defenses, these macroalgae are likely impacting the composition of microbial assemblages associated with corals and affecting overall reef health in unpredicted and unprecedented ways. PMID:23028648

  11. The effect of medicinal plants of Islamabad and Murree region of Pakistan on insulin secretion from INS-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Zakir; Waheed, Abdul; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem; Burdi, Dadu Khan; Verspohl, Eugen J; Khan, Naeema; Hasan, Mashooda

    2004-01-01

    In vitro testing of the extracts of medicinal plants collected from Islamabad and the Murree region on insulin secretagogue activity was carried out. Dried ethanol extracts of all plants (ZH1-ZH19) were dissolved in ethanol and DMSO, and tested at various concentrations (between 1 and 40 microg/mL) for insulin release from INS-1 cells in the presence of 5.5 mM glucose. Glibenclamide was used as a control. Promising insulin secretagogue activity in various plant extracts at 1, 10, 20 and 40 microg/mL was found, while in some cases a decrease in insulin secretion was also observed. Artemisia roxburghiana, Salvia coccinia and Monstera deliciosa showed insulin secretagogue activity at 1 microg/mL (p < 0.05) while Abies pindrow, Centaurea iberica and Euphorbia helioscopia were active at 10 microg/mL (p < 0.05). Extracts of Bauhinia variegata and Bergenia himalacia showed effects at 20 microg/mL (p < 0.05), and Taraxacum officinale and Viburnum foetens at 40 microg/mL (p < 0.05). Insulin secretagogue activity could not be detected in the extracts of Adhatoda vasica, Cassia fistula, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Morus alba, Plectranthus rugosus, Peganum harmala and Olea ferruginea. The results suggest that medicinal plants of Islamabad and the Murree region of Pakistan may be potential natural resources for antidiabetic compounds.

  12. Nitrogen and phosphorus uptake rates of different species from a coral reef community after a nutrient pulse.

    PubMed

    den Haan, Joost; Huisman, Jef; Brocke, Hannah J; Goehlich, Henry; Latijnhouwers, Kelly R W; van Heeringen, Seth; Honcoop, Saskia A S; Bleyenberg, Tanja E; Schouten, Stefan; Cerli, Chiara; Hoitinga, Leo; Vermeij, Mark J A; Visser, Petra M

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial runoff after heavy rainfall can increase nutrient concentrations in waters overlying coral reefs that otherwise experience low nutrient levels. Field measurements during a runoff event showed a sharp increase in nitrate (75-fold), phosphate (31-fold) and ammonium concentrations (3-fold) in waters overlying a fringing reef at the island of Curaçao (Southern Caribbean). To understand how benthic reef organisms make use of such nutrient pulses, we determined ammonium, nitrate and phosphate uptake rates for one abundant coral species, turf algae, six macroalgal and two benthic cyanobacterial species in a series of laboratory experiments. Nutrient uptake rates differed among benthic functional groups. The filamentous macroalga Cladophora spp., turf algae and the benthic cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula had the highest uptake rates per unit biomass, whereas the coral Madracis mirabilis had the lowest. Combining nutrient uptake rates with the standing biomass of each functional group on the reef, we estimated that the ammonium and phosphate delivered during runoff events is mostly taken up by turf algae and the two macroalgae Lobophora variegata and Dictyota pulchella. Our results support the often proposed, but rarely tested, assumption that turf algae and opportunistic macroalgae primarily benefit from episodic inputs of nutrients to coral reefs. PMID:27353576

  13. Differential effects of testosterone and 17β-estradiol on gonadal development in five anuran species.

    PubMed

    Piprek, Rafał P; Pecio, Anna; Kubiak, Jacek Z; Szymura, Jacek M

    2012-08-01

    Sex hormones are essential for sexual differentiation and play a key role in the development of gonads in amphibians. The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of exogenous sex steroids, testosterone, and 17β-estradiol (E(2)) on development of gonads in five anuran species differing in their evolutionary positions, sex determination, and mode of gonadogenesis. We found that in two closely related species of fire-bellied toad, Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata, testosterone and E(2) exposure results in sex reversal as well as intersex and undifferentiated gonads. Similarly, sex reversal was observed in Hyla arborea after exposure to male or female sex steroids. Xenopus laevis was sensitive to E(2) but only moderately to testosterone. In Bufo viridis, treatment with either sex hormone provoked a developmental delay in gonads and Bidder's organs. Therefore, susceptibility to hormonal sex reversal appeared species dependent but unrelated to genetic sex determination and the type of gonadogenesis. We also found that the onset of sex steroid exposure influences gonad differentiation and the meiotic status of the germ cells depends on their location within the gonad. Our findings reveal differential sensitivity of amphibians to testosterone and E(2), establishing a hierarchy of sensitivity to these hormones among different anuran species.

  14. New plant-parasitic nematode from the mostly mycophagous genus Bursaphelenchus discovered inside figs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, Natsumi; Tanaka, Ryusei; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Davies, Kerrie A

    2014-01-01

    A new nematode species, Bursaphelenchus sycophilus n. sp. is described. The species was found in syconia of a fig species, Ficus variegata during a field survey of fig-associated nematodes in Japan. Because it has a well-developed stylet and pharyngeal glands, the species is considered an obligate plant parasite, and is easily distinguished from all other fungal-feeding species in the genus based upon these characters. Although B. sycophilus n. sp. shares an important typological character, male spicule possessing a strongly recurved condylus, with the "B. eremus group" and the "B. leoni group" of the genus, it was inferred to be monophyletic with the "B. fungivorus group". The uniquely shaped stylet and well-developed pharyngeal glands is reminiscent of the fig-floret parasitic but paraphyletic assemblage of "Schistonchus". Thus, these morphological characters appear to be an extreme example of convergent evolution in the nematode family, Aphelenchoididae, inside figs. Other characters shared by the new species and its close relatives, i.e., lack of ventral P1 male genital papilla, female vulval flap, and papilla-shaped P4 genital papillae in males, corroborate the molecular phylogenetic inference. The unique biological character of obligate plant parasitism and highly derived appearance of the ingestive organs of Bursaphelenchus sycophilus n. sp. expands our knowledge of the potential morphological, physiological and developmental plasticity of the genus Bursaphelenchus.

  15. Patterns of Gut Bacterial Colonization in Three Primate Species

    PubMed Central

    McKenney, Erin A.; Rodrigo, Allen; Yoder, Anne D.

    2015-01-01

    Host fitness is impacted by trillions of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract that facilitate development and are inextricably tied to life history. During development, microbial colonization primes the gut metabolism and physiology, thereby setting the stage for adult nutrition and health. However, the ecological rules governing microbial succession are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the relationship between host lineage, captive diet, and life stage and gut microbiota characteristics in three primate species (infraorder, Lemuriformes). Fecal samples were collected from captive lemur mothers and their infants, from birth to weaning. Microbial DNA was extracted and the v4 region of 16S rDNA was sequenced on the Illumina platform using protocols from the Earth Microbiome Project. Here, we show that colonization proceeds along different successional trajectories in developing infants from species with differing dietary regimes and ecological profiles: frugivorous (fruit-eating) Varecia variegata, generalist Lemur catta, and folivorous (leaf-eating) Propithecus coquereli. Our analyses reveal community membership and succession patterns consistent with previous studies of human infants, suggesting that lemurs may serve as a useful model of microbial ecology in the primate gut. Each lemur species exhibits distinct species-specific bacterial diversity signatures correlating to life stages and life history traits, implying that gut microbial community assembly primes developing infants at species-specific rates for their respective adult feeding strategies. PMID:25970595

  16. Brief communication: Effect of size biases in the coefficient of variation on assessing intraspecific variability in the prosimian skeleton.

    PubMed

    Fulwood, Ethan L; Kramer, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the effect of a measurement size bias in coefficients of variation on the evaluation of intraspecific skeletal variability in a sample of eight prosimian species (Eulemur fulvus, Hapalemur griseus, Lemur catta, Varecia variegata, Galago senegalensis, Otolemur crassicaudatus, Nycticebus coucang, and Tarsius syrichta). Measurements with smaller means were expected to have higher coefficients of variation (CVs) due to the impact of instrumental precision on the ability to assess variability. This was evaluated by testing for a negative correlation between CVs and means in the total sample, within each species, and within each measurement, and by testing for the leveraging impact of small measurements on the significance of comparisons of variability between regions of the prosimian skeleton. Three comparisons were made: cranial versus postcranial variability, epiphysis versus diaphysis variability, and forelimb versus hindlimb variability. CVs were significantly negatively correlated with means within the total sample (r(2) = 0.208, P < 0.0001) and within each species. CVs and means were significantly correlated within only three of the measurements, which may reflect the relatively low body size range of the species studied. As predicted by the higher variability of smaller measurements, removing the smallest measurements from comparisons of variable classes containing measurements of different mean magnitudes pushed the comparisons below significance. These results indicate caution should be exercised when using CVs to assess variability across sets of measurements with different means.

  17. Bioactive compounds extracted from Indian wild legume seeds: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition properties.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Basanta; Vadivel, Vellingiri; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Biesalski, Hans K

    2012-03-01

    Seven different wild legume seeds (Acacia leucophloea, Bauhinia variegata, Canavalia gladiata, Entada scandens, Mucuna pruriens, Sesbania bispinosa and Tamarindus indica) from various parts of India were analyzed for total free phenolics, l-Dopa (l-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine), phytic acid and their antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] assay) and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activitiy (α-amylase). S. bispinosa had the highest content in both total free phenolics and l-Dopa, and relatively low phytic acid when compared with other seeds. Phytic acid content, being highest in E. scandens, M. pruriens and T. indica, was highly predictive for FRAP (r = 0.47, p < 0.05) and DPPH (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) assays. The phenolic extract from T. indica and l-Dopa extract from E. scandens showed significantly higher FRAP values among others. All seed extracts demonstrated a remarkable reducing power (7-145 mM FeSO4 per mg extract), DPPH radical scavenging activity (16-95%) and α-amylase enzyme inhibition activity (28-40%).

  18. Structural and Chemical Characterization of Hardwood from Tree Species with Applications as Bioenergy Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Çetinkol, Özgül Persil; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M.; Cheng, Gang; Lao, Jeemeng; George, Anthe; Hong, Kunlun; Henry, Robert; Simmons, Blake A.; Heazlewood, Joshua L.; Holmes, Bradley M.; Zabotina, Olga A.

    2012-12-28

    Eucalypt species are a group of flowering trees widely used in pulp production for paper manufacture. For several decades, the wood pulp industry has focused research and development efforts on improving yields, growth rates and pulp quality through breeding and the genetic improvement of key tree species. Recently, this focus has shifted from the production of high quality pulps to the investigation of the use of eucalypts as feedstocks for biofuel production. Here the structure and chemical composition of the heartwood and sapwood of Eucalyptus dunnii, E. globulus, E. pillularis, E. urophylla, an E. urophylla-E. grandis cross, Corymbia citriodora ssp. variegata, and Acacia mangium were compared using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and biochemical composition analysis. Some trends relating to these compositions were also identified by Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. These results will serve as a foundation for a more comprehensive database of wood properties that will help develop criteria for the selection of tree species for use as biorefinery feedstocks.

  19. Osteogenic activities of genistein derivatives were influenced by the presence of prenyl group at ring A.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Xiao-Li; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Wong, Man-Sau

    2008-12-01

    Our recent report indicated that the crude extract from stem bark of Erythrina variegata L. (Leguminosae) (EV) exerted beneficial effects against osteoporosis induced by estrogen deficiency in vivo. Follow-up phytochemical study has isolated genistein-derivatives mainly in the form of prenylgenistein from this extract, including 6-prenylgenistein, 8-prenylgenistein, and 6, 8-diprenylgenistein. The present study was performed to investigate the structure-function relationship of these compounds on osteoblastic proliferation, differentiation and mineralization in UMR 106 cells. Our results showed that genistein did not stimulate cell growth while 8-prenylgenistein promoted cell growth significantly by 10 approximately 23%. In contrast, the treatment by 6-prenylgenistein for 48 h reduced UMR 106 cell proliferation when compared to cells treated with genistein. The proliferation of 6,8-diprenylgenistein-treated cells was greater than those treated by 6-prenylgenistein at all testing concentrations. For ALP activity, significant increase was found in cells treated by either 8-prenylgenistein or 6,8-diprenylgenistein for 48 h at the concentration of 10(-10) M. In mineralization study, the content of Ca and P in extracellular matrix were significantly increased in 8-prenylgenistein treated cells. The results showed that genistein derivatives isolated from EV demonstrated stimulatory effects on osteogenesis in UMR 106 cells. Based on the study of structure-activity relationship, it appears that prenylation at C-8, but not at C-6, could increase the bone-protective effect of genistein. PMID:19099220

  20. Phylogeny and evolution of the Sulidae (Aves:Pelecaniformes): a test of alternative modes of speciation.

    PubMed

    Friesen, V L; Anderson, D J

    1997-04-01

    Although the allopatric model of speciation is widely accepted, it does not provide a satisfactory explanation for many evolutionary phenomena. Several alternative models exist, but they remain largely untested for vertebrate animals. In the present paper, a molecular phylogeny was used to test competing models of speciation in a seabird family, the Sulidae. A segment including 807 base pairs of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was sequenced from all extant sulid species, and phylogenetic methods were used to test model-specific predictions regarding tree topologies, distributions of sister taxa, timing of vicariant events, and comparative biology. Both the neighbor-joining and parsimony analyses placed sequences of gannets (Morus spp.) and boobies of the genus Sula in separate, monophyletic lineages. Sequences of Cape (M. capensis) and Australasian (M. serrator) gannets clustered together, and the sequence of Abbott's booby (Papasula abbotti) was basal to those of the gannets. Sequences of blue-footed (S. nebouxii) and Peruvian (S. variegata) boobies were sisters and formed a monophyletic group with the masked booby (S. dactylatra). The red-footed booby (S. sula) sequence was the most divergent of the Sula boobies. All relationships received strong support from standard-error tests and bootstrap analysis. Substitution rates were similar to those suggested for mammals and suggested that most lineages arose within the last 3 million years. Lineage divergence events for which the mode of speciation could be deduced did not fit the predictions of either allopatric or sympatric models, but apparently involved either peripatric or parapatric processes. PMID:9126567

  1. Macroalgal-Associated Dinoflagellates Belonging to the Genus Symbiodinium in Caribbean Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Porto, Isabel; Granados, Camila; Restrepo, Juan C.; Sánchez, Juan A.

    2008-01-01

    Coral-algal symbiosis has been a subject of great attention during the last two decades in response to global coral reef decline. However, the occurrence and dispersion of free-living dinoflagellates belonging to the genus Symbiodinium are less documented. Here ecological and molecular evidence is presented demonstrating the existence of demersal free-living Symbiodinium populations in Caribbean reefs and the possible role of the stoplight parrotfish (Sparisoma viride) as Symbiodinium spp. dispersers. Communities of free-living Symbiodinium were found within macroalgal beds consisting of Halimeda spp., Lobophora variegata, Amphiroa spp., Caulerpa spp. and Dictyota spp. Viable Symbiodinium spp. cells were isolated and cultured from macroalgal beds and S. viride feces. Further identification of Symbiodinium spp. type was determined by length variation in the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2, nuclear rDNA) and length variation in domain V of the chloroplast large subunit ribosomal DNA (cp23S-rDNA). Determination of free-living Symbiodinium and mechanisms of dispersal is important in understanding the life cycle of Symbiodinium spp. PMID:18478069

  2. Nitrogen and phosphorus uptake rates of different species from a coral reef community after a nutrient pulse

    PubMed Central

    den Haan, Joost; Huisman, Jef; Brocke, Hannah J.; Goehlich, Henry; Latijnhouwers, Kelly R. W.; van Heeringen, Seth; Honcoop, Saskia A. S.; Bleyenberg, Tanja E.; Schouten, Stefan; Cerli, Chiara; Hoitinga, Leo; Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Visser, Petra M.

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial runoff after heavy rainfall can increase nutrient concentrations in waters overlying coral reefs that otherwise experience low nutrient levels. Field measurements during a runoff event showed a sharp increase in nitrate (75-fold), phosphate (31-fold) and ammonium concentrations (3-fold) in waters overlying a fringing reef at the island of Curaçao (Southern Caribbean). To understand how benthic reef organisms make use of such nutrient pulses, we determined ammonium, nitrate and phosphate uptake rates for one abundant coral species, turf algae, six macroalgal and two benthic cyanobacterial species in a series of laboratory experiments. Nutrient uptake rates differed among benthic functional groups. The filamentous macroalga Cladophora spp., turf algae and the benthic cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula had the highest uptake rates per unit biomass, whereas the coral Madracis mirabilis had the lowest. Combining nutrient uptake rates with the standing biomass of each functional group on the reef, we estimated that the ammonium and phosphate delivered during runoff events is mostly taken up by turf algae and the two macroalgae Lobophora variegata and Dictyota pulchella. Our results support the often proposed, but rarely tested, assumption that turf algae and opportunistic macroalgae primarily benefit from episodic inputs of nutrients to coral reefs. PMID:27353576

  3. Botanicals to control soft rot bacteria of potato.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Khan, A A; Ali, M E; Mian, I H; Akanda, A M; Abd Hamid, S B

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham.), chatim (Alstonia scholaris L.), mander (Erythrina variegata), bael (Aegle marmelos L.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadiracta indica), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments. PMID:22701096

  4. New Plant-Parasitic Nematode from the Mostly Mycophagous Genus Bursaphelenchus Discovered inside Figs in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Natsumi; Tanaka, Ryusei; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Davies, Kerrie A.

    2014-01-01

    A new nematode species, Bursaphelenchus sycophilus n. sp. is described. The species was found in syconia of a fig species, Ficus variegata during a field survey of fig-associated nematodes in Japan. Because it has a well-developed stylet and pharyngeal glands, the species is considered an obligate plant parasite, and is easily distinguished from all other fungal-feeding species in the genus based upon these characters. Although B. sycophilus n. sp. shares an important typological character, male spicule possessing a strongly recurved condylus, with the “B. eremus group” and the “B. leoni group” of the genus, it was inferred to be monophyletic with the “B. fungivorus group”. The uniquely shaped stylet and well-developed pharyngeal glands is reminiscent of the fig-floret parasitic but paraphyletic assemblage of “Schistonchus”. Thus, these morphological characters appear to be an extreme example of convergent evolution in the nematode family, Aphelenchoididae, inside figs. Other characters shared by the new species and its close relatives, i.e., lack of ventral P1 male genital papilla, female vulval flap, and papilla-shaped P4 genital papillae in males, corroborate the molecular phylogenetic inference. The unique biological character of obligate plant parasitism and highly derived appearance of the ingestive organs of Bursaphelenchus sycophilus n. sp. expands our knowledge of the potential morphological, physiological and developmental plasticity of the genus Bursaphelenchus. PMID:24940595

  5. Biomineralization control related to population density under ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goffredo, Stefano; Prada, Fiorella; Caroselli, Erik; Capaccioni, Bruno; Zaccanti, Francesco; Pasquini, Luca; Fantazzini, Paola; Fermani, Simona; Reggi, Michela; Levy, Oren; Fabricius, Katharina E.; Dubinsky, Zvy; Falini, Giuseppe

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 is a major driver of present environmental change in most ecosystems, and the related ocean acidification is threatening marine biota. With increasing pCO2, calcification rates of several species decrease, although cases of upregulation are observed. Here, we show that biological control over mineralization relates to species abundance along a natural pH gradient. As pCO2 increased, the mineralogy of a scleractinian coral (Balanophyllia europaea) and a mollusc (Vermetus triqueter) did not change. In contrast, two calcifying algae (Padina pavonica and Acetabularia acetabulum) reduced and changed mineralization with increasing pCO2, from aragonite to the less soluble calcium sulphates and whewellite, respectively. As pCO2 increased, the coral and mollusc abundance was severely reduced, with both species disappearing at pH < 7.8. Conversely, the two calcifying and a non-calcifying algae (Lobophora variegata) showed less severe or no reductions with increasing pCO2, and were all found at the lowest pH site. The mineralization response to decreasing pH suggests a link with the degree of control over the biomineralization process by the organism, as only species with lower control managed to thrive in the lowest pH.

  6. Salicylic acid-induced changes in physiological parameters and genes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in Artemisia vulgaris and Dendranthema nankingense during aphid feeding.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Xia, X L; Jiang, J F; Chen, S M; Chen, F D; Lv, G S

    2016-01-01

    Phloem-feeding aphids cause serious damage to plants. The mechanisms of plant-aphid interactions are only partially understood and involve multiple pathways, including phytohormones. In order to investigate whether salicylic acid (SA) is involved and how it plays a part in the defense response to the aphid Macrosiphoniella sanbourni, physiological changes and gene expression profiles in response to aphid inoculation with or without SA pretreatment were compared between the aphid-resistant Artemisia vulgaris 'Variegata' and the susceptible chrysanthemum, Dendranthema nankingense. Changes in levels of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde (MDA), and flavonoids, and in the expression of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, including PAL (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase), CHS (chalcone synthase), CHI (chalcone isomerase), F3H (flavanone 3-hydroxylase), F3'H (flavanone 3'-hydroxylase), and DFR (dihydroflavonol reductase), were investigated. Levels of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anions, MDA, and flavonoids, and their related gene expression, increased after aphid infestation and SA pretreatment followed by aphid infestation; the aphid-resistant A. vulgaris exhibited a more rapid response than the aphid-susceptible D. nankingense to SA treatment and aphid infestation. Taken together, our results suggest that SA could be used to increase aphid resistance in the chrysanthemum. PMID:26909993

  7. 'Emerging' mycobacteria in South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Helden, P D; Parsons, S D C; Gey van Pittius, N C

    2009-12-01

    Disease can be caused by various species of the genus Mycobacterium. A number of reports, both published and unpublished, of rarely reported mycobacteria have surfaced in South Africa in the last few years. Some unusual hosts have also been involved, causing concern in some quarters.These include reports on Mycobacterium goodii in a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta), M. xenopi in a ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata), M. intracellulare in wild-caught chacma baboons (Papio ursinus), the 'dassie bacillus' in free ranging rock hyrax (dassies; Procavia capensis) the 'oryx bacillus' from free-ranging buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and M. tuberculosis in suricates (Suricata suricatta), a domestic dog and in baboons. In this article it has been attempted to put these in context and show how improved surveillance and technologies have allowed mycobacteria to be identified to species level more easily. Most of the unusual mycobacterial species have most likely been present in the region for many years and have probably caused disease episodes before, but have been misdiagnosed. Each case must be evaluated carefully with respect to the animal species involved, the environment in which the host is found and the mycobacterial species, and operational decisions made accordingly. PMID:20458859

  8. Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida: Thelaziidae): first report in Greece and a case of canine infection.

    PubMed

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Tzimoulia, Stavroula; Tzimoulias, Ioannis; Traversa, Donato

    2015-07-01

    The eyeworm Thelazia callipaeda has been reported in different European countries, i.e. Italy, France, Germany, Switzerland, Spain, Portugal, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Romania. The present article describes the first autochthonous case of ocular thelaziosis in a dog from Greece, thus revealing a new spot of infection in Europe. The dog in this case report, most likely infected at the northern borders of Greece, was referred to a private veterinary practice with conjunctivitis, oedema, keratitis, epiphora and mucoid discharge in both eyes. Seventy-seven nematodes were removed from both eyes, and the dog was treated with two subcutaneous injections of ivermectin 14 days apart, in combination with a topical antimicrobial medication. The parasites were morphologically and molecularly identified as T. callipaeda. Although in Greece there is no information about the presence and distribution of the fruit fly Phortica variegata, i.e. the intermediate host of T. callipaeda, the location where the dog was infected is environmentally suitable for its development. The present report of this zoonotic parasitosis indicates that in Greece, along with endemic areas in Spain and Italy, T. callipaeda is currently reaching its southernmost distribution limit in Europe.

  9. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Mycetophagidae, Tetratomidae, and Melandryidae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We report 21 new species records for the Coleoptera fauna of New Brunswick, Canada, seven of which are new records for the Maritime provinces. Four species of Mycetophagidae (Litargus didesmus Say, Litargus tetrapilotus LeConte, Mycetophagus punctatus Say, and Mycetophagus quadriguttatus Müller) are newly reported for the province of New Brunswick. Litargus didesmus is newly recorded for the Maritime provinces. Seven species of Tetratomidae are added to the faunal list of New Brunswick: Eustrophus tomentosus Say, Penthe obliquata (Fabricius), and Tetratoma tessellata Melsheimer are new to New Brunswick: Hallomenus serricornis LeConte, Pisenus humeralis Kirby, Synstrophus repandus (Horn), and Tetratoma variegata Casey, which are newly recorded for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Ten additional species of Melandryidae are reported from New Brunswick, of which Orchesia cultriformis Laliberté, Orchesia ovata Laliberté, Phloeotrya fusca (LeConte), Scotochroides antennatus Mank, Spilotus quadripustulatus (Melsheimer), Symphora flavicollis (Haldeman), Symphora rugosa (Haldeman), and Zilora hispida LeConte are new for the province, and Microscapha clavicornis LeConte and Zilora nuda Provancher are newly recorded for the Maritime provinces. In addition, we report numerous additional records for three species of Mycetophagidae and one species of Melandryidae previously recorded from New Brunswick that suggest these species are more widely distributed than previously known. Collection, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all these species. PMID:22539895

  10. Contrasting patterns of environmental fluctuation contribute to divergent life histories among amphibian populations.

    PubMed

    Cayuela, Hugo; Arsovski, Dragan; Thirion, Jean-Marie; Bonnaire, Eric; Pichenot, Julian; Boitaud, Sylvain; Brison, Anne-Lisa; Miaud, Claude; Joly, Pierre; Besnard, Aurelien

    2016-04-01

    Because it modulates the fitness returns of possible options of energy expenditure at each ontogenetic stage, environmental stochasticity is usually considered a selective force in driving or constraining possible life histories. Divergent regimes of environmental fluctuation experienced by populations are expected to generate differences in the resource allocation schedule between survival and reproductive effort and outputs. To our knowledge, no study has previously examined how different regimes of stochastic variation in environmental conditions could result in changes in both the temporal variation and mean of demographic parameters, which could then lead to intraspecific variation along the slow-fast continuum of life history tactics. To investigate these issues, we used capture-recapture data collected on five populations of a long-lived amphibian (Bombina variegata) experiencing two distinct levels of stochastic environmental variation: (1) constant availability of breeding sites in space and time (predictable environment), and (2) variable spatio-temporal availability of breeding sites (unpredictable environment). We found that female breeding propensity varied more from year to year in unpredictable than in predictable environments. Although females in unpredictable environments produced on average more viable offspring per year, offspring production was more variable between years. Survival at each ontogenetic stage was slightly lower and varied significantly more from year to year in unpredictable environments. Taken together, these results confirm that increased environmental stochasticity can modify the resource allocation schedule between survival and reproductive effort and outputs and may lead to intraspecific variation along the slow-fast continuum of life history tactics.

  11. Species composition of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) through space and time.

    PubMed

    Fremdt, Heike; Amendt, Jens

    2014-03-01

    Weekly monitoring of forensically important flight-active blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was performed using small baited traps. Sampling took place in two rural, one suburban and two urban habitats in and around Frankfurt (Main), Germany, lasting two years and eight months. Highest values for species richness and Chao-Shen entropy estimator for Shannon's index in both families were found at the urban sites, peaking during summer. Space-time interaction was tested and found to be significant, demonstrating the value of a statistical approach recently developed for community surveys in ecology. K-means partitioning and analysis of indicator species gave significant temporal and habitat associations of particular taxa. Calliphora vicina was an indicator species for lower temperatures without being associated with a particular habitat. Lucilia sericata was an indicator for urban sites, whereas Lucilia ampullacea and Lucilia caesar were indicators for rural sites, supplemented by the less frequent species Calliphora vomitoria. Sarcophagidae were observed during a clearly shorter period of year. Sarcophaga subvicina+Sarcophaga variegata was found to be an indicator for urban habitats during summer as well as Sarcophaga albiceps for rural habitats. A significant association of Sarcophaga caerulescens to rural habitats as well as one of Sarcophaga similis to urban habitats was observed.

  12. Improved tomographic reconstructions using adaptive time-dependent intensity normalization

    PubMed Central

    Titarenko, Valeriy; Titarenko, Sofya; Withers, Philip J.; De Carlo, Francesco; Xiao, Xianghui

    2010-01-01

    The first processing step in synchrotron-based micro-tomography is the normalization of the projection images against the background, also referred to as a white field. Owing to time-dependent variations in illumination and defects in detection sensitivity, the white field is different from the projection background. In this case standard normalization methods introduce ring and wave artefacts into the resulting three-dimensional reconstruction. In this paper the authors propose a new adaptive technique accounting for these variations and allowing one to obtain cleaner normalized data and to suppress ring and wave artefacts. The background is modelled by the product of two time-dependent terms representing the illumination and detection stages. These terms are written as unknown functions, one scaled and shifted along a fixed direction (describing the illumination term) and one translated by an unknown two-dimensional vector (describing the detection term). The proposed method is applied to two sets (a stem Salix variegata and a zebrafish Danio rerio) acquired at the parallel beam of the micro-tomography station 2-BM at the Advanced Photon Source showing significant reductions in both ring and wave artefacts. In principle the method could be used to correct for time-dependent phenomena that affect other tomographic imaging geometries such as cone beam laboratory X-ray computed tomography. PMID:20724791

  13. Fatal echinococcosis in three lemurs in the United Kingdom--A case series.

    PubMed

    Denk, Daniela; Boufana, Belgees; Masters, Nicholas J; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2016-03-15

    Tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus reside in the small intestine of a number of carnivorous species, predominantly canids. In enzootic areas, hydatidosis caused by taeniid metacestodes can present a significant problem in accidental intermediate hosts, including humans. Whereas the United Kingdom is currently considered free of Echinococcus multilocularis, Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) and Echinococcus equinus are endemic in the UK and have been reported in a variety of captive mammals. The presentation of echinoccocosis in non-human primates widely parallels disease in humans, and public health concerns are related to the four genera, E. granulosus, E. multilocularis, Echinococcus vogeli and Echinococcus oligarthrus. In contrast, sporadic outbreaks and individual hydatid disease cases in non-human primates have been associated with several Echinococcus and Taenia species. Here we describe three fatal cases of cystic echinococcosis in two captive ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and one captive red-ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata rubra) and provide molecular tapeworm characterisation. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this includes the first report of Echinococcus ortleppi in a UK born ring-tailed lemur and provides the first in depth case reports of echinococcosis due to E. equinus in UK born ring-tailed and red ruffed lemurs with detailed clinical and pathological findings. The cestode life cycle and implications for zoo collections are discussed. PMID:26872922

  14. Gait kinetics of above- and below-branch quadrupedal locomotion in lemurid primates.

    PubMed

    Granatosky, Michael C; Tripp, Cameron H; Schmitt, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    For primates and other mammals moving on relatively thin branches, the ability to effectively adopt both above- and below-branch locomotion is seen as critical for successful arboreal locomotion, and has been considered an important step prior to the evolution of specialized suspensory locomotion within our Order. Yet, little information exists on the ways in which limb mechanics change when animals shift from above- to below-branch quadrupedal locomotion. This study tested the hypothesis that vertical force magnitude and distribution do not vary between locomotor modes, but that the propulsive and braking roles of the forelimb change when animals shift from above- to below-branch quadrupedal locomotion. We collected kinetic data on two lemur species (Varecia variegata and Lemur catta) walking above and below an instrumented arboreal runway. Values for peak vertical, braking and propulsive forces as well as horizontal impulses were collected for each limb. When walking below branch, both species demonstrated a significant shift in limb kinetics compared with above-branch movement. The forelimb became both the primary weight-bearing limb and propulsive organ, while the hindlimb reduced its weight-bearing role and became the primary braking limb. This shift in force distribution represents a shift toward mechanics associated with bimanual suspensory locomotion, a locomotor mode unusual to primates and central to human evolution. The ability to make this change is not accompanied by significant anatomical changes, and thus likely represents an underlying mechanical flexibility present in most primates. PMID:26739686

  15. Intertemporal choice in lemurs.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jeffrey R; Mühlhoff, Nelly

    2012-02-01

    Different species vary in their ability to wait for delayed rewards in intertemporal choice tasks. Models of rate maximization account for part of this variation, but other factors such as social structure and feeding ecology seem to underly some species differences. Though studies have evaluated intertemporal choice in several primate species, including Old World monkeys, New World monkeys, and apes, prosimians have not been tested. This study investigated intertemporal choices in three species of lemur (black-and-white ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata, red ruffed lemurs, Varecia rubra, and black lemurs, Eulemur macaco) to assess how they compare to other primate species and whether their choices are consistent with rate maximization. We offered lemurs a choice between two food items available immediately and six food items available after a delay. We found that by adjusting the delay to the larger reward, the lemurs were indifferent between the two options at a mean delay of 17 s, ranging from 9 to 25 s. These data are comparable to data collected from common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). The lemur data were not consistent with models of rate maximization. The addition of lemurs to the list of species tested in these tasks will help uncover the role of life history and socio-ecological factors influencing intertemporal choices. PMID:22024661

  16. Bioactive compounds extracted from Indian wild legume seeds: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition properties.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Basanta; Vadivel, Vellingiri; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Biesalski, Hans K

    2012-03-01

    Seven different wild legume seeds (Acacia leucophloea, Bauhinia variegata, Canavalia gladiata, Entada scandens, Mucuna pruriens, Sesbania bispinosa and Tamarindus indica) from various parts of India were analyzed for total free phenolics, l-Dopa (l-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine), phytic acid and their antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] assay) and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activitiy (α-amylase). S. bispinosa had the highest content in both total free phenolics and l-Dopa, and relatively low phytic acid when compared with other seeds. Phytic acid content, being highest in E. scandens, M. pruriens and T. indica, was highly predictive for FRAP (r = 0.47, p < 0.05) and DPPH (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) assays. The phenolic extract from T. indica and l-Dopa extract from E. scandens showed significantly higher FRAP values among others. All seed extracts demonstrated a remarkable reducing power (7-145 mM FeSO4 per mg extract), DPPH radical scavenging activity (16-95%) and α-amylase enzyme inhibition activity (28-40%). PMID:21970446

  17. Biomineralization control related to population density under ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Goffredo, Stefano; Prada, Fiorella; Caroselli, Erik; Capaccioni, Bruno; Zaccanti, Francesco; Pasquini, Luca; Fantazzini, Paola; Fermani, Simona; Reggi, Michela; Levy, Oren; Fabricius, Katharina E.; Dubinsky, Zvy; Falini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 is a major driver of current environmental change in most ecosystems1, and the related ocean acidification (OA) is threatening marine biota2. With increasing pCO2, calcification rates of several species decrease3, although cases of up-regulation are observed4. Here, we show that biological control over mineralization relates to species abundance along a natural pH gradient. As pCO2 increased, the mineralogy of a scleractinian coral (Balanophyllia europaea) and a mollusc (Vermetus triqueter) did not change. In contrast, two calcifying algae (Padina pavonica and Acetabularia acetabulum) reduced and changed mineralization with increasing pCO2, from aragonite to the less soluble calcium sulphates and whewellite, respectively. As pCO2 increased, the coral and mollusc abundance was severely reduced, with both species disappearing at pH < 7.8. Conversely, the two calcifying and a non-calcifying algae (Lobophora variegata) showed less severe or no reductions with increasing pCO2, and were all found at the lowest pH site. The mineralization response to decreasing pH suggests a link with the degree of control over the biomineralization process by the organism, as only species with lower control managed to thrive in the lowest pH. PMID:25071869

  18. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma lycopersici', a phytoplasma associated with 'hoja de perejil' disease in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Arocha, Yaima; Antesana, Olivia; Montellano, Ernesto; Franco, Pablo; Plata, G; Jones, Phil

    2007-08-01

    New diseases known locally as 'hoja de perejil' of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and 'brotes grandes' of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) were first recognized in surveys of production fields in Bolivia during 2000-2003. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) witches' broom and little leaf diseases of native weeds Morrenia variegata and mora-mora (Serjania perulacea) were also identified near to production fields. Phytoplasma aetiology was attributed to each of these diseases following detection and initial identification of aster yellows group (16SrI) phytoplasmas in all five diseased plant species. While potato, alfalfa and mora-mora plants contained indistinguishable 16SrI-B strains, 'hoja de perejil' (THP) and morrenia little leaf (MVLL)-associated phytoplasma strains shared 97.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' and related strains and <95 % similarity with all other 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' species. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the THP and MVLL phytoplasmas represent a novel lineage within the aster yellows (16SrI) group and, on the basis of unique 16S rRNA gene sequences, we propose that THP and MVLL phytoplasmas represent 'Candidatus Phytoplasma lycopersici', with THP as the reference strain. PMID:17684241

  19. Further contributions to the Coleoptera fauna of New Brunswick with an addition to the fauna of Nova Scotia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Webster, Vincent L.; Alderson, Chantelle A.; Hughes, Cory C.; Sweeney, Jon D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper treats 134 new records of Coleoptera for the province of New Brunswick, Canada from the following 41 families: Gyrinidae, Carabidae, Dytiscidae, Histeridae, Leiodidae, Scarabaeidae, Scirtidae, Buprestidae, Elmidae, Limnichidae, Heteroceridae, Ptilodactylidae, Eucnemidae, Throscidae, Elateridae, Lampyridae, Cantharidae, Dermestidae, Bostrichidae, Ptinidae, Cleridae, Melyridae, Monotomidae, Cryptophagidae, Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae, Nitidulidae, Endomychidae, Coccinellidae, Corylophidae, Latridiidae, Tetratomidae, Melandryidae, Mordellidae, Tenebrionidae, Mycteridae, Pyrochroidae, Aderidae, Scraptiidae, Megalopodidae, and Chrysomelidae. Among these, the following four species are newly recorded from Canada: Dirrhagofarsus ernae Otto, Muona & McClarin (Eucnemidae), Athous equestris (LeConte) (Elateridae), Ernobius opicus Fall (Ptinidae), and Stelidota coenosa Erichson (Nitidulidae). The Family Limnichidae is newly reported for New Brunswick, and one species is added to the fauna of Nova Scotia. Stephostethus productus Rosenhauer (Latridiidae), Tetratoma (Abstrulia) variegata Casey (Tetratomidae), and Chauliognathus marginatus (Fabricius) (Cantharidae) are removed from the faunal list of New Brunswick, and additional records of Lacconotus punctatus LeConte (Mycteridae) are presented and discussed. Lindgren funnel traps provided specimens for 104 (78%) of the species and were the sole source of specimens for 89 (66%) of the species reported here, suggesting they are a very useful tool for sampling Coleoptera fauna in the forests of New Brunswick. PMID:27110171

  20. Bothriocephalus pearsei n. sp. (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) from cenote fishes of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Scholz, T; Vargas-Vázquez, J; Moravec, F

    1996-10-01

    The cestode Bothriocephalus pearsei n. sp. is described from the intestine of the cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther) from cenote (= sinkhole) Zaci near Valladolid, Yucatan, Mexico. The pimelodid catfish Rhamdia guatemalensis Günther, which also harbored conspecific cestodes, seems to represent accidental or postcyclic host of B. pearsei. The new species differs from congeners mainly by the morphology of the scolex, which is clavate, with the maximum width in its middle part, has a distinct but weakly muscular apical disc; 2 short and wide bothria distinctly demarcated in their anterior part, becoming indistinct posteriorly in the middle part of the scolex, and 2 elongate, lateral grooves. In addition to the scolex morphology, the new species can be differentiated from Bothriocephalus species parasitizing North American freshwater fishes as follows: B. claviceps (Goeze, 1782), a specific parasite of eels in the Holarctic, B. cuspidatus Cooper, 1917, occurring mostly in perciform fishes in North America, B. musculosus Baer, 1937 found in the cichlid Cichlasoma biocellata (Regan) (= C. octofasciatum (Regan)), and B. texomensis Self, 1954, described from Hiodon alosoides (Rafinesque), are much larger, with strobilae consisting of relatively short and very wide proglottids versus small-sized strobila (length 26-32 mm) composed of about 70 proglottids, which are only slightly wider than they are long (ratio 1:1-3), rectangular, or even longer than wide in the last proglottids in B. pearsei. Bothriocephalus formosus Mueller and Van Cleave, 1932, described from Percopsis omiscomaycus (Walbaum) in the USA, can be distinguished from B. pearsei, besides the different shape of the scolex, by the distribution of vitelline follicles, which are not separated into 2 lateral fields and are present along the midline of proglottids in the former species. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, a widely distributed parasite of fishes of many families, in particular of cyprinids

  1. Bothriocephalus pearsei n. sp. (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) from cenote fishes of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Scholz, T; Vargas-Vázquez, J; Moravec, F

    1996-10-01

    The cestode Bothriocephalus pearsei n. sp. is described from the intestine of the cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther) from cenote (= sinkhole) Zaci near Valladolid, Yucatan, Mexico. The pimelodid catfish Rhamdia guatemalensis Günther, which also harbored conspecific cestodes, seems to represent accidental or postcyclic host of B. pearsei. The new species differs from congeners mainly by the morphology of the scolex, which is clavate, with the maximum width in its middle part, has a distinct but weakly muscular apical disc; 2 short and wide bothria distinctly demarcated in their anterior part, becoming indistinct posteriorly in the middle part of the scolex, and 2 elongate, lateral grooves. In addition to the scolex morphology, the new species can be differentiated from Bothriocephalus species parasitizing North American freshwater fishes as follows: B. claviceps (Goeze, 1782), a specific parasite of eels in the Holarctic, B. cuspidatus Cooper, 1917, occurring mostly in perciform fishes in North America, B. musculosus Baer, 1937 found in the cichlid Cichlasoma biocellata (Regan) (= C. octofasciatum (Regan)), and B. texomensis Self, 1954, described from Hiodon alosoides (Rafinesque), are much larger, with strobilae consisting of relatively short and very wide proglottids versus small-sized strobila (length 26-32 mm) composed of about 70 proglottids, which are only slightly wider than they are long (ratio 1:1-3), rectangular, or even longer than wide in the last proglottids in B. pearsei. Bothriocephalus formosus Mueller and Van Cleave, 1932, described from Percopsis omiscomaycus (Walbaum) in the USA, can be distinguished from B. pearsei, besides the different shape of the scolex, by the distribution of vitelline follicles, which are not separated into 2 lateral fields and are present along the midline of proglottids in the former species. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, a widely distributed parasite of fishes of many families, in particular of cyprinids

  2. Functional Characterizations of Chemosensory Proteins of the Alfalfa Plant Bug Adelphocoris lineolatus Indicate Their Involvement in Host Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xue-Ying; Ji, Ping; Liu, Jing-Tao; Wang, Gui-Rong; Wu, Kong-Ming; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Zhang, Yong-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Insect chemosensory proteins (CSPs) have been proposed to capture and transport hydrophobic chemicals from air to olfactory receptors in the lymph of antennal chemosensilla. They may represent a new class of soluble carrier protein involved in insect chemoreception. However, their specific functional roles in insect chemoreception have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we report for the first time three novel CSP genes (AlinCSP1-3) of the alfalfa plant bug Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) by screening the antennal cDNA library. The qRT-PCR examinations of the transcript levels revealed that all three genes (AlinCSP1-3) are mainly expressed in the antennae. Interestingly, these CSP genes AlinCSP1-3 are also highly expressed in the 5th instar nymphs, suggesting a proposed function of these CSP proteins (AlinCSP1-3) in the olfactory reception and in maintaining particular life activities into the adult stage. Using bacterial expression system, the three CSP proteins were expressed and purified. For the first time we characterized the types of sensilla in the antennae of the plant bug using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Immunocytochemistry analysis indicated that the CSP proteins were expressed in the pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea and general odorant-sensitive sensilla basiconica, providing further evidence of their involvement in chemoreception. The antennal activity of 55 host-related semiochemicals and sex pheromone compounds in the host location and mate selection behavior of A. lineolatus was investigated using electroantennogram (EAG), and the binding affinities of these chemicals to the three CSPs (AlinCSP1-3) were measured using fluorescent binding assays. The results showed several host-related semiochemicals, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-al and valeraldehyde, have a high binding affinity with AlinCSP1-3 and can elicit significant high EAG responses of A. lineolatus antennae. Our studies indicate the three antennae-biased CSPs may

  3. Repellent and Attractive Effects of α-, β-, and Dihydro-β- Ionone to Generalist and Specialist Herbivores.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, L A; Lakshminarayan, S; Yeung, K K-C; McGarvey, B D; Hannoufa, A; Sumarah, M W; Benitez, X; Scott, I M

    2016-02-01

    In plants, the oxidative cleavage of carotenoid substrates produces volatile apocarotenoids, including α-ionone, β-ionone, and dihydro-β-ionone, compounds that are important in herbivore-plant communication. For example, β-ionone is part of an induced defense in canola, Brassica napus, and is released following wounding by herbivores. The objectives of the research were to evaluate whether these volatile compounds would: 1) be released in higher quantities from plants through the over-expression of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase1 (CCD1) gene and 2) cause herbivores to be repelled or attracted to over-expressing plants relative to the wild-type. In vivo dynamic headspace collection of volatiles coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the headspace of the Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia-0 (L.) over-expressing the AtCCD1 gene. The analytical method allowed the detection of β-ionone in the Arabidopsis headspace where emission rates ranged between 2 and 5-fold higher compared to the wild type, thus corroborating the in vivo enhancement of gene expression. A two chamber choice test between wild type and AtCCD1 plants revealed that crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) adults were repelled by the AtCCD1 plants with the highest transcription and β-ionone levels. α-Ionone and dihydro-β-ionone were not found in the headspace analysis, but solutions of the three compounds were tested in the concentration range of β-ionone found in the Arabidopsis headspace (0.05 to 0.5 ng/μl) in order to assess their biological activity with crucifer flea beetle, two spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Koch), and silverleaf whiteflies Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Choice bioassays demonstrated that β-ionone has a strong repellent effect toward both the flea beetle and the spider mite, and significant oviposition deterrence to whiteflies. In contrast, dihydro-β-ionone had attractant

  4. Plant resistance reduces the strength of consumptive and non-consumptive effects of predators on aphids.

    PubMed

    Kersch-Becker, Mônica F; Thaler, Jennifer S

    2015-09-01

    1. The impact of predators on prey has traditionally been attributed to the act of consumption. Prey responses to the presence of the predator (non-consumptive effects), however, can be as important as predation itself. While plant defences are known to influence predator-prey interactions, their relative effects on consumptive vs. non-consumptive effects are not well understood. 2. We evaluated the consequences of plant resistance and predators (Hippodamia convergens) on the mass, number of nymphs, population growth, density and dispersal of aphids (Macrosiphum euphorbiae). We tested for the effects of plant resistance on non-consumptive and consumptive effects of predators on aphid performance and dispersal using a combination of path analysis and experimental manipulation of predation risk. 3. We manipulated plant resistance using genetically modified lines of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) that vary incrementally in the expression of the jasmonate pathway, which mediates induced resistance to insects and manipulated aphid exposure to lethal and risk predators. Predation risk predators had mandibles impaired to prevent killing. 4. Plant resistance reduced predation rate (consumptive effect) on high resistance plants. As a consequence, predators had no impact on the number of nymphs, aphid density or population growth on high resistance plants, whereas on low resistance plants, predators reduced aphid density by 35% and population growth by 86%. Path analysis and direct manipulation of predation risk showed that predation risk rather than predation rate promoted aphid dispersal and varied with host plant resistance. Aphid dispersal in response to predation risk was greater on low compared to high resistance plants. The predation risk experiment also showed that the number of aphid nymphs increased in the presence of risk predators but did not translate into increased population growth. 5. In conclusion, the consumptive and non-consumptive components of predators

  5. Conservation of natural enemies in cotton: comparative selectivity of acetamiprid in the management of Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Steven E; Akey, David H

    2005-06-01

    The integrated control concept emphasizes the importance of both chemical and biological control for pest suppression in agricultural systems. A two-year field study was conducted to evaluate the selectivity of acetamiprid for the control of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) in cotton compared with a proven selective regime based on the insect growth regulators (IGRs) pyriproxyfen and buprofezin. Acetamiprid was highly effective in controlling all stages of B tabaci compared with an untreated control, and generally produced lower pest densities than the IGR regime. Univariate analyses indicated that nine of 17 taxa of arthropod predators were significantly depressed with the use of acetamiprid compared with an untreated control, including common species such as Geocoris punctipes (Say), Orius tristicolor (White), Chrysoperla carnea Stephens sensu lato, Collops vittatus (Say), Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, and Drapetis nr divergens. Compared with results from independent, concurrent studies using mixtures of broad-spectrum insecticides at the same research site, acetamiprid depressed populations of fewer predator taxa; but, for eight predator taxa significantly affected by both regimes, the average population reduction was roughly equal. In contrast, only four taxa were significantly reduced in the IGR regime compared with the untreated control and three of these were omnivores that function primarily as plant pests. Principal response curves analyses (a time-dependent, multivariate ordination method) confirmed these patterns of population change for the entire predator community. Predator:prey ratios generally increased with the use of both IGRs and acetamiprid compared with an untreated control, but ratios were consistently higher with IGRs. Parasitism by aphelinid parasitoids was unaffected or depressed slightly in all insecticide regimes compared with the control. Because of its high efficacy, acetamiprid may play an important role in later stages of B

  6. Sight or scent: lemur sensory reliance in detecting food quality varies with feeding ecology.

    PubMed

    Rushmore, Julie; Leonhardt, Sara D; Drea, Christine M

    2012-01-01

    Visual and olfactory cues provide important information to foragers, yet we know little about species differences in sensory reliance during food selection. In a series of experimental foraging studies, we examined the relative reliance on vision versus olfaction in three diurnal, primate species with diverse feeding ecologies, including folivorous Coquerel's sifakas (Propithecus coquereli), frugivorous ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata spp), and generalist ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). We used animals with known color-vision status and foods for which different maturation stages (and hence quality) produce distinct visual and olfactory cues (the latter determined chemically). We first showed that lemurs preferentially selected high-quality foods over low-quality foods when visual and olfactory cues were simultaneously available for both food types. Next, using a novel apparatus in a series of discrimination trials, we either manipulated food quality (while holding sensory cues constant) or manipulated sensory cues (while holding food quality constant). Among our study subjects that showed relatively strong preferences for high-quality foods, folivores required both sensory cues combined to reliably identify their preferred foods, whereas generalists could identify their preferred foods using either cue alone, and frugivores could identify their preferred foods using olfactory, but not visual, cues alone. Moreover, when only high-quality foods were available, folivores and generalists used visual rather than olfactory cues to select food, whereas frugivores used both cue types equally. Lastly, individuals in all three of the study species predominantly relied on sight when choosing between low-quality foods, but species differed in the strength of their sensory biases. Our results generally emphasize visual over olfactory reliance in foraging lemurs, but we suggest that the relative sensory reliance of animals may vary with their feeding ecology.

  7. Screening Method for the Discovery of Potential Bioactive Cysteine-Containing Peptides Using 3D Mass Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oosten, Luuk N.; Pieterse, Mervin; Pinkse, Martijn W. H.; Verhaert, Peter D. E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Animal venoms and toxins are a valuable source of bioactive peptides with pharmacologic relevance as potential drug leads. A large subset of biologically active peptides discovered up till now contain disulfide bridges that enhance stability and activity. To discover new members of this class of peptides, we developed a workflow screening specifically for those peptides that contain inter- and intra-molecular disulfide bonds by means of three-dimensional (3D) mass mapping. Two intrinsic properties of the sulfur atom, (1) its relatively large negative mass defect, and (2) its isotopic composition, allow for differentiation between cysteine-containing peptides and peptides lacking sulfur. High sulfur content in a peptide decreases the normalized nominal mass defect (NMD) and increases the normalized isotopic shift (NIS). Hence in a 3D plot of mass, NIS, and NMD, peptides with sulfur appear in this plot with a distinct spatial localization compared with peptides that lack sulfur. In this study we investigated the skin secretion of two frog species; Odorrana schmackeri and Bombina variegata. Peptides from the crude skin secretions were separated by nanoflow LC, and of all eluting peptides high resolution zoom scans were acquired in order to accurately determine both monoisotopic mass and average mass. Both the NMD and the NIS were calculated from the experimental data using an in-house developed MATLAB script. Candidate peptides exhibiting a low NMD and high NIS values were selected for targeted de novo sequencing, and this resulted in the identification of several novel inter- and intra-molecular disulfide bond containing peptides.

  8. Bv8, the amphibian homologue of the mammalian prokineticins, modulates ingestive behaviour in rats.

    PubMed

    Negri, Lucia; Lattanzi, Roberta; Giannini, Elisa; De Felice, Milena; Colucci, Antonella; Melchiorri, Pietro

    2004-05-01

    1. The small protein Bv8, secreted by the skin of the frog Bombina variegata, belongs to a novel family of secreted proteins whose mammalian orthologues have been identified and named prokineticins (PK-1 and PK-2). 2. Bv8 (from 2.5 to 60 pmol) injected into the lateral ventricles of rat brain suppressed diurnal, nocturnal, deprivation-induced and neuropeptide Y-stimulated feeding and stimulated diurnal drinking. Nocturnal drinking was increased only in fasted rats. 3. PK-2 mRNA is expressed in discrete areas of the rat brain, including the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), medial preoptic area (MPA) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). In the SCN neurons, PK-2 mRNA is highest during the light phase of the circadian cycle and undetectable during the dark phase. 4. The G-protein-coupled receptor prokineticin receptor 2 (PKR-2), which binds Bv8 and PK-2 with high affinity, is mainly expressed in the piriform cortex, paraventricular thalamic nucleus, parataenial nucleus (PT), SCN, hypothalamic paraventricular (PVH) and dorsomedial (DMH) nuclei, arcuate nucleus (ARC) and subfornical organ (SFO) of the rat brain. 5. Bv8 microinjected into the ARC, at doses from 0.02 to 2.0 pmol during night-time or from 0.2 to 5 pmol in 24-h-fasted rats, selectively suppressed feeding without affecting drinking. When injected into the SFO, Bv8 (from 0.2 to 2 pmol) stimulated drinking but did not affect feeding. Bv8 injections into other brain areas left rat ingestive behaviours unchanged. 6. We hypothesize that PK-2-rich projections from SCN neurons to PKR-expressing ARC neurons could transmit the circadian rhythm of feeding, whereas inputs from the PK-2-expressing NTS neurons to the PKR-2-expressing SFO neurons could transmit visceral information on the water-electrolyte balance and osmotic regulation.

  9. Using plant chemistry and insect preference to study the potential of Barbarea (Brassicaceae) as a dead-end trap crop for diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G

    2014-02-01

    Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. has been proposed as a dead-end trap crop for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), because its larvae do not survive on this plant species despite being highly preferred for oviposition. We compared plants of several species, varieties, and types in the genus Barbarea (Brassicaceae) to study their potential as trap crops for P. xylostella. In terms of insect behavior, Barbarea plants were assessed based on the criteria of high oviposition preference by P. xylostella moths (compared to other Barbarea plants and to three Brassica oleracea L. crop varieties) and low survival of P. xylostella larvae. Barbarea plants were also assessed based on the criteria of high content of glucosinolates, which stimulate adult oviposition and larval feeding in P. xylostella, and high content of saponins, which are detrimental to survival of P. xylostella larvae. All Barbarea plants tested were preferred over cabbage by ovipositing P. xylostella. Among Barbarea plants, few significant differences in oviposition preference by P. xylostella were found. Ovipositing P. xylostella preferred B. vulgaris plants containing mainly 2-phenylethylglucosinolate over B. vulgaris plants containing mainly (S)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethylglucosinolate, and P-type B. vulgaris var. arcuata plants over Barbarea rupicola and B. vulgaris var. variegata plants. Despite containing a lower content of saponins than other Barbarea plants tested, Barbarea verna did not allow survival of P. xylostella larvae. Our studies show that, except for B. rupicola and P-type B. vulgaris var. arcuata, which allowed survival of P. xylostella larvae, all Barbarea plants tested have potential as dead-end trap crops for P. xylostella. PMID:24342111

  10. Phase shift facilitation following cyclone disturbance on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Roff, George; Doropoulos, Christopher; Zupan, Mirta; Rogers, Alice; Steneck, Robert S; Golbuu, Yimnang; Mumby, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    While positive interactions have been observed to influence patterns of recruitment and succession in marine and terrestrial plant communities, the role of facilitation in macroalgal phase shifts is relatively unknown. In December 2012, typhoon Bopha caused catastrophic losses of corals on the eastern reefs of Palau. Within weeks of the typhoon, an ephemeral bloom of monospecific macroalgae (Liagora sp.) was observed, reaching a peak of 38.6% cover in February 2013. At this peak, we observed a proliferation of a second macroalgal species, Lobophora variegata. Lobophora was distributed non-randomly, with higher abundances occurring within the shelter of Liagora canopies than on exposed substrates. Bite rates of two common herbivorous fish (Chlorurus sordidus and Ctenochaetus striatus) were significantly higher outside canopies (2.5- and sixfold, respectively), and cage exclusion resulted in a significant increase in Lobophora cover. Experimental removal of Liagora canopies resulted in a 53.1% decline in the surface area of Lobophora after 12 days, compared to a 51.7% increase within canopies. Collectively, these results indicate that Liagora canopies act as ecological facilitators, providing a 'nursery' exclusion zone from the impact of herbivorous fish, allowing for the establishment of understory Lobophora. While the ephemeral Liagora bloom had disappeared entirely 9 months post-typhoon, the facilitated shift to Lobophora has persisted for over 18 months, dominating ~40% of the reef substrate. While acute disturbance events such as typhoons have been suggested as a mechanism to reverse algal phase shifts, our results suggest that typhoons may also trigger, rather than just reverse, phase shifts. PMID:25761445

  11. Predictive modelling of habitat selection by marine predators with respect to the abundance and depth distribution of pelagic prey.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Charlotte; Castillo, Ramiro; Hunt, George L; Punt, André E; VanBlaricom, Glenn R; Weimerskirch, Henri; Bertrand, Sophie

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the ecological processes that underpin species distribution patterns is a fundamental goal in spatial ecology. However, developing predictive models of habitat use is challenging for species that forage in marine environments, as both predators and prey are often highly mobile and difficult to monitor. Consequently, few studies have developed resource selection functions for marine predators based directly on the abundance and distribution of their prey. We analysed contemporaneous data on the diving locations of two seabird species, the shallow-diving Peruvian Booby (Sula variegata) and deeper diving Guanay Cormorant (Phalacrocorax bougainvilliorum), and the abundance and depth distribution of their main prey, Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens). Based on this unique data set, we developed resource selection functions to test the hypothesis that the probability of seabird diving behaviour at a given location is a function of the relative abundance of prey in the upper water column. For both species, we show that the probability of diving behaviour is mostly explained by the distribution of prey at shallow depths. While the probability of diving behaviour increases sharply with prey abundance at relatively low levels of abundance, support for including abundance in addition to the depth distribution of prey is weak, suggesting that prey abundance was not a major factor determining the location of diving behaviour during the study period. The study thus highlights the importance of the depth distribution of prey for two species of seabird with different diving capabilities. The results complement previous research that points towards the importance of oceanographic processes that enhance the accessibility of prey to seabirds. The implications are that locations where prey is predictably found at accessible depths may be more important for surface foragers, such as seabirds, than locations where prey is predictably abundant. Analysis of the relative

  12. Seasonality in marine ecosystems: Peruvian seabirds, anchovy, and oceanographic conditions.

    PubMed

    Passuni, Giannina; Barbraud, Christophe; Chaigneau, Alexis; Demarcq, Hervé; Ledesma, Jesus; Bertrand, Arnaud; Castillo, Ramiro; Perea, Angel; Mori, Julio; Viblanc, Vincent A; Torres-MaitaA, Jose; Bertrand, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In fluctuating environments, matching breeding timing to periods of high resource availability is crucial for the fitness of many vertebrate species, and may have major consequences on population health. Yet, our understanding of the proximate environmental cues driving seasonal breeding is limited. This is particularly the case in marine ecosystems, where key environmental factors and prey abundance and availability are seldom quantified. The Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS) is a highly productive, low-latitude ecosystem of moderate seasonality. In this ecosystem, three tropical seabird species (the Guanay Cormorant Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, the Peruvian Booby Sula variegata, and the Peruvian Pelican Pelecanus thagus) live in sympatry and prey almost exclusively on anchovy, Engraulis ringens. From January 2003 to December 2012, we monitored 31 breeding sites along the Peruvian coast to investigate the breeding cycle of these species. We tested for relationships between breeding timing, oceanographic conditions, and prey availability using occupancy models. We found that all three seabird species exhibited seasonal breeding patterns, with marked interspecific differences. Whereas breeding mainly started during the austral winter/early spring and ended in summer/early fall, this pattern was stronger in boobies and pelicans than in cormorants. Breeding onset mainly occurred when upwelling was intense but ecosystem productivity was below its annual maxima, and when anchovy were less available and in poor physiological condition. Conversely, the abundance and availability of anchovy improved during chick rearing and peaked around the time of fledging. These results suggest that breeding timing is adjusted so that fledging may occur under optimal environmental conditions, rather than being constrained by nutritional requirements during egg laying. Adjusting breeding time so that fledglings meet optimal conditions at independence is unique compared with other

  13. Assessing the herbivore role of the sea-urchin Echinometra viridis: Keys to determine the structure of communities in disturbed coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Sangil, Carlos; Guzman, Hector M

    2016-09-01

    Echinometra viridis previously was considered a cryptic species unable to control the development and growth of macroalgae on coral reefs. Its role as a herbivore was seen as minor compared to other grazers present on the reef. However, the present disturbed state of some reefs has highlighted the role played by this sea-urchin. Combining field data with experiments on the Caribbean coast of Panama, we demonstrate that the current community organization on disturbed coral reefs in the Mesoamerican Caribbean is largely due to the action of E. viridis. It is the most abundant sea-urchin species, together with two others (Diadema antillarum and Echinometra lucunter). Field data also indicate that the relationship between its density and the abundance of macroalgae is stronger and it is more negative in impact than those of the other two. However, the niche this urchin exploits most efficiently is confined to leeward reefs with low levels of sedimentation. Outside these habitats, their populations are not decisive in controlling macroalgal growth. Grazing experiments showed that E. viridis consumes more fresh macroalgae per day and per weight of sea-urchin, and is a more effective grazer than D. antillarum or E. lucunter. E. viridis showed food preferences for early-successional turf macroalgae (Acanthophora spicifera), avoiding the less palatable late-successional and fleshy macroalgae (Lobophora variegata, Halimeda opuntia). However, it becomes a generalist herbivore feeding on all varieties of macroalgae when resources are scarce. H. opuntia is the macroalga that most resists E. viridis activity, which may explain its wide distribution.

  14. Sight or scent: lemur sensory reliance in detecting food quality varies with feeding ecology.

    PubMed

    Rushmore, Julie; Leonhardt, Sara D; Drea, Christine M

    2012-01-01

    Visual and olfactory cues provide important information to foragers, yet we know little about species differences in sensory reliance during food selection. In a series of experimental foraging studies, we examined the relative reliance on vision versus olfaction in three diurnal, primate species with diverse feeding ecologies, including folivorous Coquerel's sifakas (Propithecus coquereli), frugivorous ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata spp), and generalist ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). We used animals with known color-vision status and foods for which different maturation stages (and hence quality) produce distinct visual and olfactory cues (the latter determined chemically). We first showed that lemurs preferentially selected high-quality foods over low-quality foods when visual and olfactory cues were simultaneously available for both food types. Next, using a novel apparatus in a series of discrimination trials, we either manipulated food quality (while holding sensory cues constant) or manipulated sensory cues (while holding food quality constant). Among our study subjects that showed relatively strong preferences for high-quality foods, folivores required both sensory cues combined to reliably identify their preferred foods, whereas generalists could identify their preferred foods using either cue alone, and frugivores could identify their preferred foods using olfactory, but not visual, cues alone. Moreover, when only high-quality foods were available, folivores and generalists used visual rather than olfactory cues to select food, whereas frugivores used both cue types equally. Lastly, individuals in all three of the study species predominantly relied on sight when choosing between low-quality foods, but species differed in the strength of their sensory biases. Our results generally emphasize visual over olfactory reliance in foraging lemurs, but we suggest that the relative sensory reliance of animals may vary with their feeding ecology. PMID:22870229

  15. Assessing the herbivore role of the sea-urchin Echinometra viridis: Keys to determine the structure of communities in disturbed coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Sangil, Carlos; Guzman, Hector M

    2016-09-01

    Echinometra viridis previously was considered a cryptic species unable to control the development and growth of macroalgae on coral reefs. Its role as a herbivore was seen as minor compared to other grazers present on the reef. However, the present disturbed state of some reefs has highlighted the role played by this sea-urchin. Combining field data with experiments on the Caribbean coast of Panama, we demonstrate that the current community organization on disturbed coral reefs in the Mesoamerican Caribbean is largely due to the action of E. viridis. It is the most abundant sea-urchin species, together with two others (Diadema antillarum and Echinometra lucunter). Field data also indicate that the relationship between its density and the abundance of macroalgae is stronger and it is more negative in impact than those of the other two. However, the niche this urchin exploits most efficiently is confined to leeward reefs with low levels of sedimentation. Outside these habitats, their populations are not decisive in controlling macroalgal growth. Grazing experiments showed that E. viridis consumes more fresh macroalgae per day and per weight of sea-urchin, and is a more effective grazer than D. antillarum or E. lucunter. E. viridis showed food preferences for early-successional turf macroalgae (Acanthophora spicifera), avoiding the less palatable late-successional and fleshy macroalgae (Lobophora variegata, Halimeda opuntia). However, it becomes a generalist herbivore feeding on all varieties of macroalgae when resources are scarce. H. opuntia is the macroalga that most resists E. viridis activity, which may explain its wide distribution. PMID:27591516

  16. A multidisciplinary geological and geophysical approach to define structural and hydrogeological implications of the Molinaccio spring (Spello, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercoli, Maurizio; Pauselli, Cristina; Forte, Emanuele; Di Matteo, Lucio; Mazzocca, Massimiliano; Frigeri, Alessandro; Federico, Costanzo

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, a multidisciplinary geological and geophysical approach has been applied in the complex area of Molinaccio spring (Spello, Umbria, Central Italy) to: 1) understand the large-scale geologic and tectonic structure of the area; 2) define the hydrogeological behavior of the various formations in relationship with the identified structural elements; 3) highlight at small-scale the tectonic structures and their relationships with the water caption tunnel, which is the draining structure of a still working, ancient Roman aqueduct giving water to the village of Spello and to the surrounding plain. Our approach includes different techniques like Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), direct geological investigations, archaeological studies, GIS data collection and integration. The GPR data revealed, in the area of the water-caption tunnel, two main tectonic structures, both also confirmed by ERT data: the presence of a zone (maximum 2 m wide), interpreted as a normal fault area and an overthrust that puts in contact the permeable Scaglia Rossa limestone (Early Turonian-Middle Eocene), and the Scaglia Variegata-Cinerea marly limestones (Middle Eocene-Upper Oligocene) on the footwall, characterized by lower hydraulic permeability. Using some rough information available on the sub-surface path of the tunnel, that shows a sharp bend after a long straight course, together with the geophysical images, was possible to describe how Romans built the tunnel: they probably followed the wet outcropping rock during the excavation, and changed abruptly the dig direction when they intercepted the normal fault area, aligning then the excavation along its strike. This latter result is important also because recently a multidisciplinary project has been developed to restore and exploit the entire water supply structure, which is not only a well-preserved example of Roman remains with high archaeological value, but also a vital

  17. Demographic responses to weather fluctuations are context dependent in a long-lived amphibian.

    PubMed

    Cayuela, Hugo; Arsovski, Dragan; Thirion, Jean-Marc; Bonnaire, Eric; Pichenot, Julian; Boitaud, Sylvain; Miaud, Claude; Joly, Pierre; Besnard, Aurélien

    2016-08-01

    Weather fluctuations have been demonstrated to affect demographic traits in many species. In long-lived organisms, their impact on adult survival might be buffered by the evolution of traits that reduce variation in interannual adult survival. For example, skipping breeding is an effective behavioral mechanism that may limit yearly variation in adult survival when harsh weather conditions occur; however, this in turn would likely lead to strong variation in recruitment. Yet, only a few studies to date have examined the impact of weather variation on survival, recruitment and breeding probability simultaneously in different populations of the same species. To fill this gap, we studied the impact of spring temperatures and spring rainfall on survival, on reproductive skipping behavior and on recruitment in five populations of a long-lived amphibian, the yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata). Based on capture-recapture data, our findings demonstrate that survival depends on interactions between age, population and weather variation. Varying weather conditions in the spring result in strong variation in the survival of immature toads, whereas they have little effect on adult toads. Breeding probability depends on both the individual's previous reproductive status and on the weather conditions during the current breeding season, leading to high interannual variation in recruitment. Crucially, we found that the impact of weather variation on demographic traits is largely context dependent and may thus differ sharply between populations. Our results suggest that studies predicting the impact of climate change on population dynamics should be taken with caution when the relationship between climate and demographic traits is established using only one population or few populations. We therefore highly recommend further research that includes surveys replicated in a substantial number of populations to account for context-dependent variation in demographic processes.

  18. Does seaweed-coral competition make seaweeds more palatable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, G. O.; Hay, M. E.

    2015-03-01

    Seaweed-coral interactions are increasingly common on modern coral reefs, but the dynamics, processes, and mechanisms affecting these interactions are inadequately understood. We investigated the frequency and effect of seaweed-coral contacts for common seaweeds and corals in Belize. Effects on corals were evaluated by measuring the frequency and extent of bleaching when contacted by various seaweeds, and effects on a common seaweed were evaluated by assessing whether contact with coral made the seaweed more palatable to the sea urchin Diadema antillarum. Coral-seaweed contacts were particularly frequent between Agaricia corals and the seaweed Halimeda opuntia, with this interaction being associated with coral bleaching in 95 % of contacts. Pooling across all coral species, H. opuntia was the seaweed most commonly contacting corals and most frequently associated with localized bleaching at the point of contact. Articulated coralline algae, Halimeda tuna and Lobophora variegata also frequently contacted corals and were commonly associated with bleaching. The common corals Agaricia and Porites bleached with similar frequency when contacted by H. opuntia (95 and 90 %, respectively), but Agaricia experienced more damage than Porites when contacted by articulated coralline algae or H. tuna. When spatially paired individuals of H. opuntia that had been in contact with Agaricia and not in contact with any coral were collected from the reefs and offered to D. antillarum, urchins consumed about 150 % more of thalli that had been competing with Agaricia. Contact and non-contact thalli did not differ in nutritional traits (ash-free-dry-mass, C or N concentrations), suggesting that Halimeda chemical defenses may have been compromised by coral-algal contact. If competition with corals commonly enhances seaweed palatability, then the dynamics and nuances of small-scale seaweed-coral-herbivore interactions at coral edges are deserving of greater attention in that such

  19. Genetic diversity of free-living Symbiodinium in the Caribbean: the importance of habitats and seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granados-Cifuentes, Camila; Neigel, Joseph; Leberg, Paul; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio

    2015-09-01

    Although reef corals are dependent of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium, the large majority of corals spawn gametes that do not contain their vital symbiont. This suggests the existence of a pool of Symbiodinium in the environment, of which surprisingly little is known. Reefs around Curaçao (Caribbean) were sampled for free-living Symbiodinium at three time periods (summer 2009, summer 2010, and winter 2010) to characterize different habitats (water column, coral rubble, sediment, the macroalgae Halimeda spp., Dictyota spp., and Lobophora variegata, and the seagrass Thalassia testudinum) that could serve as environmental sources of symbionts for corals. We detected the common clades of Symbiodinium that engage in symbiosis with Caribbean coral hosts A, B, and C using Symbiodinium-specific primers of the hypervariable region of the chloroplast 23S ribosomal DNA gene. We also discovered clade G and, for the first time in the Caribbean, the presence of free-living Symbiodinium clades F and H. Additionally, this study expands the habitat range of free-living Symbiodinium as environmental Symbiodinium was detected in T. testudinum seagrass beds. The patterns of association between free-living Symbiodinium types and habitats were shown to be complex. An interesting, strong association was seen between some clade A sequence types and sediment, suggesting that sediment could be a niche where clade A radiated from a free-living ancestor. Other interesting relationships were seen between sequence types of Symbiodinium clade C with Halimeda spp. and clades B and F with T. testudinium. These relationships highlight the importance of some macroalgae and seagrasses in hosting free-living Symbiodinium. Finally, studies spanning beyond a 1-yr cycle are needed to further expand on our results in order to better understand the variation of Symbiodinium in the environment through time. All together, results presented here showed that the great diversity of free-living Symbiodinium has

  20. [Treatment of acute porphyrias. The importance of follow-up of patients and carriers].

    PubMed

    Tasnádi, Gyöngyi; Bor, Márta; Pusztai, Agnes

    2003-05-11

    Acute porphyrias are caused by the inherited decreased activity of the enzymes of the heme biosynthesis pathway. Depending on the affected enzyme there are 4 types of them: acute intermittent porphyria, porphyria variegata, coproporphyria and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase deficient porphyria, listed in order of their frequency. Basically the clinical picture is the same in the four types of acute porphyria. The most frequent complaints and symptoms are: cramping abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness of the limbs then, in the advanced phase, there is a red-colored urine, hyponatremia, subileus, acute psychosis and Landry-type paralysis. Without proper treatment death is caused by respiratory paralysis or serious arrhythmia. In case of suspicion of acute porphyria it is mandatory to identify the type of the acute porphyria and the actual status of the patient. The later indicates what kind of treatment should be used. In the acute phase the early therapy with heme arginate is the treatment of choice. Since the clinical symptoms are precipitated by endogenous or exogenous inducing factors--most often by drugs-, the drugs negatively affecting the heme biosynthesis should be omitted at once even in the suspicion of acute porphyria. The role of the inducing factors in the manifestation of the clinical symptoms makes possible the prevention. It is possible to avoid the inducing factors and this way to prevent the acute attack if the acute porphyrias are recognized in time and the patients and the carriers are under regular control. The patients receive special identification card and the up-to-date list of safe drugs. They can use only these drugs in any kind of illness. Other drugs should be considered as porphyrinogenic since it is impossible to predict based on their chemical structure if they negatively affect the heme biosynthesis.

  1. Doom and Boom on a Resilient Reef: Climate Change, Algal Overgrowth and Coral Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; McCook, Laurence J.; Dove, Sophie; Berkelmans, Ray; Roff, George; Kline, David I.; Weeks, Scarla; Evans, Richard D.; Williamson, David H.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2009-01-01

    Background Coral reefs around the world are experiencing large-scale degradation, largely due to global climate change, overfishing, diseases and eutrophication. Climate change models suggest increasing frequency and severity of warming-induced coral bleaching events, with consequent increases in coral mortality and algal overgrowth. Critically, the recovery of damaged reefs will depend on the reversibility of seaweed blooms, generally considered to depend on grazing of the seaweed, and replenishment of corals by larvae that successfully recruit to damaged reefs. These processes usually take years to decades to bring a reef back to coral dominance. Methodology/Principal Findings In 2006, mass bleaching of corals on inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef caused high coral mortality. Here we show that this coral mortality was followed by an unprecedented bloom of a single species of unpalatable seaweed (Lobophora variegata), colonizing dead coral skeletons, but that corals on these reefs recovered dramatically, in less than a year. Unexpectedly, this rapid reversal did not involve reestablishment of corals by recruitment of coral larvae, as often assumed, but depended on several ecological mechanisms previously underestimated. Conclusions/Significance These mechanisms of ecological recovery included rapid regeneration rates of remnant coral tissue, very high competitive ability of the corals allowing them to out-compete the seaweed, a natural seasonal decline in the particular species of dominant seaweed, and an effective marine protected area system. Our study provides a key example of the doom and boom of a highly resilient reef, and new insights into the variability and mechanisms of reef resilience under rapid climate change. PMID:19384423

  2. A 12-month survey of gastrointestinal helminth infections of lemurs kept in two zoos in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Rasambainarivo, Fidisoa T; Junge, Randall E

    2010-12-01

    Infections with gastrointestinal parasites may be a major threat to lemurs kept in captivity, as they are a common cause of diarrhea. In this study, fecal egg count patterns and clinical signs associated with gastrointestinal nematodes were assessed for 12 mo in 40 lemurs kept under different husbandry and climatic conditions at two sites in Madagascar. Involved species were black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata), eastern grey bamboo lemurs (Hapalemur griseus), greater bamboo lemurs (Prolemur simus), red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer), common brown lemurs (Eulemurfulvus), crowned lemurs (Eulemur coronatus), and Sclater's black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons). At site 1 (Tsimbazaza Zoological Park), lemurs were kept in small enclosures with daily cleaning of the cement soiling and without routine anthelmintic program, whereas at site 2 (Ivoloina Zoological Park), lemurs received routine anthelmintic prophylaxis and were housed in small enclosure with daily cleaning of sandy soil enclosures. A total of five genera of nematode eggs from the orders Strongylida, Oxyurida, and Enoplida were recovered and identified from 198 out of 240 samples (83%) at site 1 and 79% (189 out of 240) at site 2 with the use of a modified McMaster technique. Significant differences were found for parasites from the order Strongylida between the two sites. The differences may be due to climate conditions and the presumed life cycle of these parasites. No significant differences were found for parasites from the other orders. No significant differences were noted between sexes or between seasons. No clinical signs of parasitic gastroenteritis were seen in either lemur collection.

  3. Bv8, the amphibian homologue of the mammalian prokineticins, modulates ingestive behaviour in rats

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Lucia; Lattanzi, Roberta; Giannini, Elisa; Felice, Milena De; Colucci, Antonella; Melchiorri, Pietro

    2004-01-01

    The small protein Bv8, secreted by the skin of the frog Bombina variegata, belongs to a novel family of secreted proteins whose mammalian orthologues have been identified and named prokineticins (PK-1 and PK-2). Bv8 (from 2.5 to 60 pmol) injected into the lateral ventricles of rat brain suppressed diurnal, nocturnal, deprivation-induced and neuropeptide Y-stimulated feeding and stimulated diurnal drinking. Nocturnal drinking was increased only in fasted rats. PK-2 mRNA is expressed in discrete areas of the rat brain, including the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), medial preoptic area (MPA) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). In the SCN neurons, PK-2 mRNA is highest during the light phase of the circadian cycle and undetectable during the dark phase. The G-protein-coupled receptor prokineticin receptor 2 (PKR-2), which binds Bv8 and PK-2 with high affinity, is mainly expressed in the piriform cortex, paraventricular thalamic nucleus, parataenial nucleus (PT), SCN, hypothalamic paraventricular (PVH) and dorsomedial (DMH) nuclei, arcuate nucleus (ARC) and subfornical organ (SFO) of the rat brain. Bv8 microinjected into the ARC, at doses from 0.02 to 2.0 pmol during night-time or from 0.2 to 5 pmol in 24-h-fasted rats, selectively suppressed feeding without affecting drinking. When injected into the SFO, Bv8 (from 0.2 to 2 pmol) stimulated drinking but did not affect feeding. Bv8 injections into other brain areas left rat ingestive behaviours unchanged. We hypothesize that PK-2-rich projections from SCN neurons to PKR-expressing ARC neurons could transmit the circadian rhythm of feeding, whereas inputs from the PK-2-expressing NTS neurons to the PKR-2-expressing SFO neurons could transmit visceral information on the water–electrolyte balance and osmotic regulation. PMID:15066905

  4. The influence of pre- and post-zygotic barriers on interspecific Corymbia hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Geoffrey R.; Lee, David J.; Wallace, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Corymbia species from different sections hybridize readily, with some of increasing economic importance to plantation forestry. This study explores the locations of reproductive barriers between interspecific Corymbia hybrids and investigates the reproductive success of a wide taxonomic range of C. torelliana hybrid crosses. Methods Pollen, pistil and embryo development were investigated for four C. torelliana crosses (×C. torelliana, ×C. citriodora subsp. citriodora, ×C. tessellaris and ×C. intermedia) using fluorescent and standard microscopy to identify the locations of interspecific reproductive isolating barriers. Corymbia torelliana was also crossed with 16 taxa, representing six of the seven Corymbia sections, both Corymbia subgenera and one species each from the related genera, Angophora and Eucalyptus. All crosses were assessed for capsule and seed yields. Key Results Interspecific C. torelliana hybridization was controlled by pre-zygotic reproductive isolating barriers inhibiting pollen adhesion to the stigma, pollen germination, pollen tube growth in the style and pollen tube penetration of the micropyle. Corymbia torelliana (subgenus Blakella, sect. Torellianae) was successfully hybridized with Corymbia species from subgenus Blakella, particularly C. citriodora subsp. citriodora, C. citriodora subsp. variegata, C. henryi (sect. Maculatae) and C. tessellaris (sect. Abbreviatae), and subgenus Corymbia, particularly C. clarksoniana and C. erythrophloia (sect. Septentrionales). Attempted intergeneric hybrids between C. torelliana and either Angophora floribunda or Eucalyptus pellita were unsuccessful. Conclusions Corymbia hybrids were formed between species from different sections and subgenera, but not with species from the related genera Angophora or Eucalyptus. Reproductive isolation between the interspecific Corymbia hybrid crosses was controlled by early- and late-acting pre-zygotic isolating barriers, with reproductive success

  5. Population demography and social structure changes in Eulemur fulvus rufus from 1988 to 2003.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Elizabeth M; Overdorff, Deborah J

    2008-06-01

    Eulemur fulvus rufus has been described as having stable multi-male/multi-female groups, a male-biased sex ratio, and female philopatry. However, in a 16-year study of this subspecies we documented a great deal of demographic change as several groups permanently fissioned, some groups disappeared, and new groups formed. We split the dataset into two periods, 1988 to 1993 and 1994 to 2003, which coincided with the first disappearance of a study group (in August 1994) and the first permanent group fission (in December 1994). The average group size decreased by nearly half between the study periods (10.5-5.6), while the frequency of group membership changes increased (2.0-8.3 times/year), and the birth rate decreased (0.56-0.38). Females, as well as males, immigrated into study groups and transferred between groups, something that has been rarely seen in this subspecies. We also found a significant decline in the amount of fruit from the earliest part of the study to the latter part of the study. Study groups did not switch to other types of foods during periods of fruit shortage, but traveled outside of their home range areas more often over the study period. Finally, the density E. f. rufus decreased in the study area while the densities of their main food competitors, Varecia variegata and Eulemur rubriventer, increased. Although few primate populations are numerically stable over time, we suggest that female behavioral responses to decreases in fruit availability may have influenced some of the demographic changes we witnessed in this study.

  6. Phylogeny of the lemuridae revisited: evidence from communication signals.

    PubMed

    Macedonia, J M; Stanger, K F

    1994-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among the extant lemurid prosimians were assessed cladistically using stereotyped vocal, olfactory, and visual communication characters. Among our results are 3 findings of particular importance. First, our data are consistent with those from several recent studies of highly repeated DNA fragments in supporting a close phyletic affinity between Lemur catta and the genus Hapalemur. Moreover, our results indicate that L. catta is nested within the Hapalemur clade as the sister taxon to Hapalemur griseus/Hapalemur aureus. We interpret character states shared between Hapalemur simus and L. catta as primitive retentions by L. catta. Second, our findings agree with the DNA data in proposing a sister group relationship for Eulemur coronatus and Eulemur rubriventer. Third, our results question the validity of assigning Varecia variegata to the Lemuridae. For the characters we examined, Varecia more resembled indrids than lemurids, and the position of Varecia could be swapped with any of our outgroups (Indri, Propithecus, Daubentonia) without affecting tree topology. Previous workers sometimes have linked Varecia with various lemurids on grounds of ambiguously defined characters or on incorrect data gleaned from the literature. In those studies, the placement of Varecia in the Lemuridae usually has depended more on the minimization of character state conflicts (i.e. parsimony), than on demonstrable synapomorphies. In addition, data from DNA research have failed to demonstrate any pattern that links Varecia with Lemur, Hapalemur, or Eulemur. Results of the present study suggest that shared Varecia-indrid character states may be symplesiomorphic retentions in the Indridae, and that Varecia could be phyletically more primitive than either the indrids or lemurids. PMID:7813970

  7. High-resolution ocean pH dynamics in four subtropical Atlantic benthic habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, C. A.; Clemente, S.; Sangil, C.; Hernández, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Oscillations of ocean pH are largely unknown in coastal environments and ocean acidification studies often do not account for natural variability yet most of what is known about marine species and populations is found out via studies conducted in near shore environments. Most experiments designed to make predictions about future climate change scenarios are carried out in coastal environments with no research that takes into account the natural pH variability. In order to fill this knowledge gap and to provide reliable measures of pH oscillation, seawater pH was measured over time using moored pH sensors in four contrasting phytocenoses typical of the north Atlantic subtropical region. Each phytocenosis was characterized by its predominant engineer species: (1) Cystoseira abies-marina, (2) a mix of gelidiales and geniculate corallines, (3) Lobophora variegata, and (4) encrusting corallines. The autonomous pH measuring systems consisted of a pH sensor; a data logger and a battery encased in a waterproof container and allowed the acquisition of high-resolution continuous pH data at each of the study sites. The pH variation observed ranged by between 0.09 and 0.24 pHNBS units. A clear daily variation in seawater pH was detected at all the studied sites (0.04-0.12 pHNBS units). Significant differences in daily pH oscillations were also observed between phytocenoses, which shows that macroalgal communities influence the seawater pH in benthic habitats. Natural oscillations in pH must be taken into account in future ocean acidification studies to put findings in perspective and for any ecological recommendations to be realistic.

  8. Patterns of GPS Tracks Suggest Nocturnal Foraging by Incubating Peruvian Pelicans (Pelecanus thagus)

    PubMed Central

    Zavalaga, Carlos B.; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Becciu, Paolo; Yoda, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Most seabirds are diurnal foragers, but some species may also feed at night. In Peruvian pelicans (Pelecanus thagus), the evidence for nocturnal foraging is sparse and anecdotal. We used GPS-dataloggers on five incubating Peruvian pelicans from Isla Lobos de Tierra, Perú, to examine their nocturnality, foraging movements and activities patterns at sea. All instrumented pelicans undertook nocturnal trips during a 5–7 day tracking period. Eighty-seven percent of these trips (n = 13) were strictly nocturnal, whereas the remaining occurred during the day and night. Most birds departed from the island after sunset and returned a few hours after sunrise. Birds traveled south of the island for single-day trips at a maximum range of 82.8 km. Overall, 22% of the tracking period was spent at sea, whereas the remaining time was spent on the island. In the intermediate section of the trip (between inbound and outbound commutes), birds spent 77% of the trip time in floating bouts interspersed by short flying bouts, the former being on average three times longer than the latter. Taken together, the high sinuosity of the bird's tracks during floating bouts, the exclusively nocturnal trips of most individuals, and the fact that all birds returned to the island within a few hours after sunrise suggest that pelicans were actively feeding at night. The nocturnal foraging strategy of Peruvian pelicans may reduce food competition with the sympatric and strictly diurnal Guanay cormorants (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii), Peruvian boobies (Sula variegata) and Blue-footed boobies (S. nebouxii), which were present on the island in large numbers. Likewise, plankton bioluminescence might be used by pelicans as indirect cues to locate anchovies during their upward migration at night. The foraging success of pelicans at night may be enhanced by seizing prey close to the sea surface using a sit-and-wait strategy. PMID:21647444

  9. Emergence of Thelazia callipaeda Infection in Dogs and Cats from East-Central Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, C; Catarino, A L; Almeida, B; Ramos, C; Campino, L; Cardoso, L

    2016-08-01

    The eyeworm Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) infects domestic animals, wildlife and human beings, and is considered an emerging pathogen in Europe. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence and risk factors of T. callipaeda infection in dogs and cats from east-central Portugal, a region where the parasite was previously detected in two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Thelazia callipaeda was found in 22 (3.8%) of 586 dogs and in four (23.5%) of 17 cats. A total of 178 adult worms (71.9% of females and 28.1% of males) were collected from the conjunctiva of the infected dogs. The number of worms collected per dog ranged from 1 to 35 (average ± standard deviation: 8.08 ± 9.49), with four dogs (18.2%) harbouring only a single parasite. Worms were gathered from dogs throughout all months of the year. A total of 17 adult worms (64.7% of females and 35.3% of males) were obtained from cats. The number of worms per cat ranged from 1 to 14 (4.3 ± 6.5), with three cats (75.0%) having a single parasite. Eyeworm infection was statistically more prevalent in pastoral and farm dogs, in those dogs with contact with other animals and in dogs with ocular manifestations. T. callipaeda is endemic in the east-central part of Portugal, reportedly infecting domestic (dogs and cats) and wild carnivores (red foxes) and evidencing a southerly dissemination. Future investigations should be focused on determining the local distribution and density of the insect vector (Phortica variegata) in this geographical area. This emergent zoonosis should be included by veterinarians, physicians and ophthalmologists in the differential diagnosis of ocular manifestations in their patients, particularly in areas where T. callipaeda is endemic.

  10. Allelochemicals produced by Caribbean macroalgae and cyanobacteria have species-specific effects on reef coral microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, K. M.; Paul, V. J.; Liles, M. R.; Chadwick, N. E.

    2011-06-01

    Coral populations have precipitously declined on Caribbean reefs while algal abundance has increased, leading to enhanced competitive damage to corals, which likely is mediated by the potent allelochemicals produced by both macroalgae and benthic cyanobacteria. Allelochemicals may affect the composition and abundance of coral-associated microorganisms that control host responses and adaptations to environmental change, including susceptibility to bacterial diseases. Here, we demonstrate that extracts of six Caribbean macroalgae and two benthic cyanobacteria have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on bacterial taxa cultured from the surfaces of Caribbean corals, macroalgae, and corals exposed to macroalgal extracts. The growth of 54 bacterial isolates was monitored in the presence of lipophilic and hydrophilic crude extracts derived from Caribbean macroalgae and cyanobacteria using 96-well plate bioassays. All 54 bacterial cultures were identified by ribotyping. Lipophilic extracts from two species of Dictyota brown algae inhibited >50% of the reef coral bacteria assayed, and hydrophilic compounds from Dictyota menstrualis particularly inhibited Vibrio bacteria, a genus associated with several coral diseases. In contrast, both lipo- and hydrophilic extracts from 2 species of Lyngbya cyanobacteria strongly stimulated bacterial growth. The brown alga Lobophora variegata produced hydrophilic compounds with broad-spectrum antibacterial effects, which inhibited 93% of the bacterial cultures. Furthermore, bacteria cultured from different locations (corals vs. macroalgae vs. coral surfaces exposed to macroalgal extracts) responded differently to algal extracts. These results reveal that extracts from macroalgae and cyanobacteria have species-specific effects on the composition of coral-microbial assemblages, which in turn may increase coral host susceptibility to disease and result in coral mortality.

  11. Mercury in aquatic forage of large herbivores: impact of environmental conditions, assessment of health threats, and implications for transfer across ecosystem compartments.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Brenda Gail; Bump, Joseph K

    2014-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a leading contaminant across U.S. water bodies, warranting concern for wildlife species that depend upon food from aquatic systems. The risk of Hg toxicity to large herbivores is little understood, even though some large herbivores consume aquatic vascular plants (macrophytes) that may hyper-accumulate Hg. We investigated whether total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic forage may be of concern to moose (Alces alces) and beaver (Castor canadensis) by measuring total Hg and MeHg concentrations, calculating sediment-water bioconcentration factors for macrophyte species these herbivores consume, and estimating herbivore daily Hg consumption. Abiotic factors impacting macrophyte Hg were assessed, as was the difference in Hg concentrations of macrophytes from glacial lakes and those created or expanded by beaver damming. The amount of aquatic-derived Hg that moose move from aquatic to terrestrial systems was calculated, in order to investigate the potential for movement of Hg across ecosystem compartments by large herbivores. Results indicate that the Hg exposure of generalist herbivores may be affected by macrophyte community composition more so than by many abiotic factors in the aquatic environment. Mercury concentrations varied greatly between macrophyte species, with relatively high concentrations in Utricularia vulgaris (>80 ng g(-1) in some sites), and negligible concentrations in Nuphar variegata (~6 ng g(-1)). Macrophyte total Hg concentration was correlated with water pH in predictable ways, but not with other variables generally associated with aquatic Hg concentrations, such as dissolved organic carbon. Moose estimated daily consumption of MeHg is equivalent to or below human reference levels, and far below wildlife reference levels. However, estimated beaver Hg consumption exceeds reference doses for humans, indicating the potential for sub-lethal nervous impairment. In regions of high moose density, moose may be ecologically important

  12. Predictive modelling of habitat selection by marine predators with respect to the abundance and depth distribution of pelagic prey.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Charlotte; Castillo, Ramiro; Hunt, George L; Punt, André E; VanBlaricom, Glenn R; Weimerskirch, Henri; Bertrand, Sophie

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the ecological processes that underpin species distribution patterns is a fundamental goal in spatial ecology. However, developing predictive models of habitat use is challenging for species that forage in marine environments, as both predators and prey are often highly mobile and difficult to monitor. Consequently, few studies have developed resource selection functions for marine predators based directly on the abundance and distribution of their prey. We analysed contemporaneous data on the diving locations of two seabird species, the shallow-diving Peruvian Booby (Sula variegata) and deeper diving Guanay Cormorant (Phalacrocorax bougainvilliorum), and the abundance and depth distribution of their main prey, Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens). Based on this unique data set, we developed resource selection functions to test the hypothesis that the probability of seabird diving behaviour at a given location is a function of the relative abundance of prey in the upper water column. For both species, we show that the probability of diving behaviour is mostly explained by the distribution of prey at shallow depths. While the probability of diving behaviour increases sharply with prey abundance at relatively low levels of abundance, support for including abundance in addition to the depth distribution of prey is weak, suggesting that prey abundance was not a major factor determining the location of diving behaviour during the study period. The study thus highlights the importance of the depth distribution of prey for two species of seabird with different diving capabilities. The results complement previous research that points towards the importance of oceanographic processes that enhance the accessibility of prey to seabirds. The implications are that locations where prey is predictably found at accessible depths may be more important for surface foragers, such as seabirds, than locations where prey is predictably abundant. Analysis of the relative

  13. Seasonality in marine ecosystems: Peruvian seabirds, anchovy, and oceanographic conditions.

    PubMed

    Passuni, Giannina; Barbraud, Christophe; Chaigneau, Alexis; Demarcq, Hervé; Ledesma, Jesus; Bertrand, Arnaud; Castillo, Ramiro; Perea, Angel; Mori, Julio; Viblanc, Vincent A; Torres-MaitaA, Jose; Bertrand, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In fluctuating environments, matching breeding timing to periods of high resource availability is crucial for the fitness of many vertebrate species, and may have major consequences on population health. Yet, our understanding of the proximate environmental cues driving seasonal breeding is limited. This is particularly the case in marine ecosystems, where key environmental factors and prey abundance and availability are seldom quantified. The Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS) is a highly productive, low-latitude ecosystem of moderate seasonality. In this ecosystem, three tropical seabird species (the Guanay Cormorant Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, the Peruvian Booby Sula variegata, and the Peruvian Pelican Pelecanus thagus) live in sympatry and prey almost exclusively on anchovy, Engraulis ringens. From January 2003 to December 2012, we monitored 31 breeding sites along the Peruvian coast to investigate the breeding cycle of these species. We tested for relationships between breeding timing, oceanographic conditions, and prey availability using occupancy models. We found that all three seabird species exhibited seasonal breeding patterns, with marked interspecific differences. Whereas breeding mainly started during the austral winter/early spring and ended in summer/early fall, this pattern was stronger in boobies and pelicans than in cormorants. Breeding onset mainly occurred when upwelling was intense but ecosystem productivity was below its annual maxima, and when anchovy were less available and in poor physiological condition. Conversely, the abundance and availability of anchovy improved during chick rearing and peaked around the time of fledging. These results suggest that breeding timing is adjusted so that fledging may occur under optimal environmental conditions, rather than being constrained by nutritional requirements during egg laying. Adjusting breeding time so that fledglings meet optimal conditions at independence is unique compared with other

  14. Phase shift facilitation following cyclone disturbance on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Roff, George; Doropoulos, Christopher; Zupan, Mirta; Rogers, Alice; Steneck, Robert S; Golbuu, Yimnang; Mumby, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    While positive interactions have been observed to influence patterns of recruitment and succession in marine and terrestrial plant communities, the role of facilitation in macroalgal phase shifts is relatively unknown. In December 2012, typhoon Bopha caused catastrophic losses of corals on the eastern reefs of Palau. Within weeks of the typhoon, an ephemeral bloom of monospecific macroalgae (Liagora sp.) was observed, reaching a peak of 38.6% cover in February 2013. At this peak, we observed a proliferation of a second macroalgal species, Lobophora variegata. Lobophora was distributed non-randomly, with higher abundances occurring within the shelter of Liagora canopies than on exposed substrates. Bite rates of two common herbivorous fish (Chlorurus sordidus and Ctenochaetus striatus) were significantly higher outside canopies (2.5- and sixfold, respectively), and cage exclusion resulted in a significant increase in Lobophora cover. Experimental removal of Liagora canopies resulted in a 53.1% decline in the surface area of Lobophora after 12 days, compared to a 51.7% increase within canopies. Collectively, these results indicate that Liagora canopies act as ecological facilitators, providing a 'nursery' exclusion zone from the impact of herbivorous fish, allowing for the establishment of understory Lobophora. While the ephemeral Liagora bloom had disappeared entirely 9 months post-typhoon, the facilitated shift to Lobophora has persisted for over 18 months, dominating ~40% of the reef substrate. While acute disturbance events such as typhoons have been suggested as a mechanism to reverse algal phase shifts, our results suggest that typhoons may also trigger, rather than just reverse, phase shifts.

  15. Ethnobotanical appraisal and cultural values of medicinally important wild edible vegetables of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The association among food and health is momentous as consumers now demand healthy, tasty and natural functional foods. Knowledge of such food is mainly transmitted through the contribution of individuals of households. Throughout the world the traditions of using wild edible plants as food and medicine are at risk of disappearing, hence present appraisal was conducted to explore ethnomedicinal and cultural importance of wild edible vegetables used by the populace of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Methods Data was collected through informed consent semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, market survey and focus group conversation with key respondents of the study sites including 45 female, 30 children and 25 males. Cultural significance of each species was calculated based on use report. Results A total of 45 wild edible vegetables belonging to 38 genera and 24 families were used for the treatment of various diseases and consumed. Asteraceae and Papilionoideae were found dominating families with (6 spp. each), followed by Amaranthaceae and Polygonaceae. Vegetables were cooked in water (51%) followed by diluted milk (42%) and both in water and diluted milk (7%). Leaves were among highly utilized plant parts (70%) in medicines followed by seeds (10%), roots (6%), latex (4%), bark, bulb, flowers, tubers and rhizomes (2% each). Modes of preparation fall into seven categories like paste (29%), decoction (24%), powder (14%), eaten fresh (12%), extract (10%), cooked vegetable (8%) and juice (4%). Ficus carica was found most cited species with in top ten vegetables followed by Ficus palmata, Bauhinia variegata, Solanum nigrum, Amaranthus viridis, Medicago polymorpha, Chenopodium album, Cichorium intybus, Amaranthus hybridus and Vicia faba. Conclusions Patterns of wild edible plant usage depend mainly on socio-economic factors compare to climatic conditions or wealth of flora but during past few decades have harshly eroded due to change in the life style of the

  16. Differential bioaccumulation of (134)Cs in tropical marine organisms and the relative importance of exposure pathways.

    PubMed

    Metian, Marc; Pouil, Simon; Hédouin, Laetitia; Oberhänsli, François; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Bustamante, Paco; Warnau, Michel

    2016-02-01

    Bioaccumulation of (134)Cs was determined in 5 tropical marine species: three bivalves (the oysters Isognomon isognomum and Malleus regula, and the clam Gafrarium pectinatum), one decapod (shrimp Penaeus stylirostris) and one alga (Lobophora variegata). Marine organisms were exposed to the radionuclides via different pathways: seawater (all of them), food (shrimp and bivalves) and sediment (bivalves). Our results indicate that the studied tropical species accumulate Cs similarly than species from temperate regions whereas retention capacities seems to be greater in the tropical species. Bioaccumulation capacities of the two oysters were similar for all the exposure pathways. The alga, and to a lesser extent the shrimp, concentrated dissolved Cs more efficiently than the bivalves (approx. 14 and 7 times higher, respectively). Assimilation efficiencies of Cs in bivalves and shrimp after a single feeding with radiolabelled food were comprised between 7.0 ± 0.4 and 40.7 ± 4.3%, with a variable retention time (half-life -Tb1/2- ranging from 16 ± 3 to 89 ± 55 d). Although the clam lives buried in the sediment, this exposure pathway resulted in low bioaccumulation efficiency for sediment-bound Cs (mean transfer factor: 0.020 ± 0.001) that was lower than the two oyster species, which are not used to live in this media (0.084 ± 0.003 and 0.080 ± 0.005). Nonetheless, Cs accumulated from sediment was similarly absorbed (61.6 ± 9.7 to 79.2 ± 2.3%) and retained (Tb1/2: 37 ± 2 to 58 ± 25 d) for the three bivalves species. Despite the poor transfer efficiency of Cs from food, the use of a global bioaccumulation model indicated that the trophic pathways was the main uptake route of Cs in the bivalves and shrimp. In shelled organisms, shells played a non-negligible role in Cs uptake, and their composition and structure might play a major role in this process. Indeed, most of the Cs taken up from seawater and sediment was principally located on the hard parts of the

  17. Assessment of Attractiveness of Plants as Roosting Sites for the Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    McQuate, Grant T.; Vargas, Roger I.

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter (“roost”). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae

  18. Astronomical forcing on 'mid-Cretaceous' C isotopic record in the Western Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambacorta, Gabriele; Malinverno, Alberto; Erba, Elisabetta

    2016-04-01

    Simulated calcium carbonate content obtained from high-resolution sedimentological logs (Gambacorta et al., 2014) were used as input data for the probabilistic cyclostratigraphic analysis (slightly modified from Malinverno et al., 2010) of four upper Albian - lower Turonian Tethyan sections from the Umbria-Marche Basin (Furlo, Contessa, Le Brecce, Monte Petrano). The orbital tuning based on short eccentricity and obliquity shows synchronous sedimentation rate variations throughout all the studied sections. Sedimentation rate increases immediately after the Mid-Cenomanian Event I (MCE I) (5-6 m/Ma to 7-9 m/Ma) before progressively decreasing in the interval preceding the OAE2 (4-6 m/Ma) and reaching a minimum in the Bonarelli Level (about 3m/Ma). The estimated sedimentation rate model allowed to date the Cenomanian δ13C record from the four studied sections (Gambacorta et al., 2015), using as a tie point the absolute age of 93.55 Ma at the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary. An astronomically dated composite δ13C record spanning the interval 94-112 Ma was obtained joining our Cenomanian δ13C record with the Albian δ13C record of Giorgioni et al. (2012) obtained at the same location and data from the Albian interval of the Piobbico core published by Tiraboschi et al. (2009). Giorgioni et al. (2015) noted high-amplitude cycles corresponding to the 400kyr period of long eccentricity associated with the Albian interval before the OAE1d. Such cyclicity terminates at the shift from the Scaglia Variegata mud-dominated to the Scaglia Bianca chalk-dominated sedimentation in the latest Albian. An evolutive wavelet spectrum of our composite δ13C record confirms the transition between long-eccentricity cycles in the Albian (~112-103.5 Ma) to the Cenomanian where these cycles are weak or absent (~103.5-94 Ma). We interpret this change as a consequence of the expansion of the Hadley Cell during a time of general warming, that induced a transition from an unstable humid climate

  19. Biting flies and Trypanosoma vivax infection in three highland districts bordering lake Tana, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sinshaw, A; Abebe, G; Desquesnes, M; Yoni, W

    2006-11-30

    An epidemiological study was conducted to determine the prevalence of trypanosomosis in cattle, small ruminants and Equidae, and to identify biting flies; potential mechanical vectors of trypanosomes in the three districts of Bahir Dar Zuria, Dembia and Fogera, bordering lake Tana, Ethiopia. About 1509 cattle, 798 small ruminants and 749 Equidae were bled for the prevalence study using the buffy-coat method and the measurement of the hematocrit value. Sixty-six NGU and 20 monoconical traps were deployed for the fly survey. The results indicated the presence of trypanosomes in 6.1% (92/1509) of the cattle with a maximum during the late rainy season (9.6%) than the early dry season (3.6%) at Fogera district. Prevalence at the district level varied from 4% to 9.6%. Only one sheep (1/122) and one goat (1/676) were found positive for T. vivax-like trypanosomes and none of the Equidae was positive. All the trypanosomes encountered in cattle belong to the single species of T. vivax. The PCV was negatively associated with detection of T. vivax (21.6% in infected versus 25.4% in non-infected cattle). A total of 55,398 biting flies were caught of which 49,353 (89.08%) belong to Stomoxys, 4715 (8.51%) to horse flies and 1330 (2.4%) to Chrysops species. There was no tsetse fly. Species identification has indicated the presence of Atylotus agrestis, Chrysops streptobalia, Stomoxys calcitrans, S. nigra, S. pulla, S. pallida, S. sitiens, S. taeniata, S. uruma, Haematopota lasiops and Hippobosca variegata. The overall apparent density was 214.7flies/trap/day. Seasonal comparison showed higher fly catches in the late rainy season than the early dry season. This study indicated that T. vivax infections culminate in cattle at the same time as mechanical vectors such as Stomoxys sp. and Atylotus agrestis. Therefore, attention towards T. vivax infection in cattle is essential to control the impact of the disease on productivity. A further study on biting flies is recommended. PMID

  20. Ichthyosis with confetti: clinics, molecular genetics and management.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Liliana; Diociaiuti, Andrea; El Hachem, May; Castiglia, Daniele; Zambruno, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    Ichthyosis with confetti (IWC) is an autosomal dominant congenital ichthyosis also known as ichthyosis variegata or congenital reticular ichthyosiform erythroderma. It manifests at birth with generalized ichthyosiform erythroderma or with a collodion baby picture. The erythrodermic and ichthyotic phenotype persists during life and its severity may modify. However, the hallmark of the disease is the appearance, in childhood or later in life, of healthy skin confetti-like spots, which increase in number and size with time. IWC is a very rare genodermatosis, with a prevalence <1/1,000,000 and only 40 cases reported worldwide. The most important associated clinical features include ear deformities, mammillae hypoplasia, palmoplantar keratoderma, hypertrichosis and ectropion. IWC is due to dominant negative mutations in the KRT10 and KRT1 genes, encoding for keratins 10 and keratin 1, respectively. In this context, healthy skin confetti-like spots represent "repaired" skin due to independent events of reversion of keratin gene mutations via mitotic recombination. In most cases, IWC clinical suspicion is delayed until the detection of white skin spots. Clinical features, which may represent hint to the diagnosis of IWC even before appearance of confetti-like spots, include ear and mammillae hypoplasia, the progressive development of hypertrichosis and, in some patients, of adherent verrucous plaques of hyperkeratosis. Altogether the histopathological finding of keratinocyte vacuolization and the nuclear staining for keratin 10 and keratin 1 by immunofluorescence are pathognomonic. Nevertheless, mutational analysis of KRT10 or KRT1 genes is at present the gold standard to confirm the diagnosis. IWC has to be differentiated mainly from congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma. Differential diagnosis also includes syndromic ichthyoses, in particular Netherton syndrome, and the keratinopathic ichthyoses. Most of reported IWC cases are sporadic, but familial cases with autosomal

  1. Studies on the causes of forest decline in Nanshan, Chongqing.

    PubMed

    Shu-Wen, Y; Yong-Mei, B; Guang-Jing, M; Jia-Ju, L

    1990-05-01

    Nanshan is located in the south suburb of Chongqing, Sichuan province in China. It is about 10 km from the city of Chongqing. There are about 2000 ha of forest, mainly Masson pines (Pinus massoniana Lamb) which have exhibited decline since the beginning of the 1980s. Surveys of stands estimated that 85% of Masson pines are injured. Symptomology of Masson pines includes tip necrosis of needles, thin crown, reduced needle length, premature abscission, branch dieback, reduced radial growth. The foliage of broadleaf treesRobinia pseudoacacia L,Quercus dentata Thunb,Eucalyptus robusta Sm,Erythrina variegata var. orientalis (L) Merr,Faulownia fortunei (Seem) Hemsl,Rosa chinensis Jacq, also displayed necrotic lesions, both marginal and interveinous, most are brown or bleached. Foliage symptoms are similar to that produced in laboratory fumigation experiments with gaseous air pollutants SO2 or HF. The foliage injury intensity is related to the distance from the city. Forest in some localities furthest from the city exhibit approximately normal growth.Three monitoring sites had been selected in Nanshan forest area. At two sites pine trees were severely damaged. At another site they showed little damage. Atmospheric SO2 and fluoride concentrations had been examined. The average value of SO2 and fluoride concentrations at the two former sites were much higher than that at the latter site. The injury intensity was consistent with an increase in the concentrations of SO2 and fluoride. The sulphur and fluoride contents of tree leaves were also monitored. Sulphur contents of pine needles at the two former sites were generally more than that at the latter. The same tendency is observed in broadleaf trees. Higher levels of fluoride had been found in foliage of injured trees compared to unijured trees.Chongqing is also an acid rain region. The yearly average pH value of precipitation approaches to 4.0, and the frequency 100%. The pH values of acid rain at the three sites in Nanshan

  2. Species-Specific Transmission of Novel Picornaviruses in Lemurs

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Efrem S.; Deem, Sharon L.; Porton, Ingrid J.; Cao, Song

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The roles of host genetics versus exposure and contact frequency in driving cross-species transmission remain the subject of debate. Here, we used a multitaxon lemur collection at the Saint Louis Zoo in the United States as a model to gain insight into viral transmission in a setting of high interspecies contact. Lemurs are a diverse and understudied group of primates that are highly endangered. The speciation of lemurs, which are endemic to the island of Madagascar, occurred in geographic isolation apart from that of continental African primates. Although evidence of endogenized viruses in lemur genomes exists, no exogenous viruses of lemurs have been described to date. Here we identified two novel picornaviruses in fecal specimens of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata). We found that the viruses were transmitted in a species-specific manner (lesavirus 1 was detected only in ring-tailed lemurs, while lesavirus 2 was detected only in black-and-white ruffed lemurs). Longitudinal sampling over a 1-year interval demonstrated ongoing infection in the collection. This was supported by evidence of viral clearance in some animals and new infections in previously uninfected animals, including a set of newly born triplets that acquired the infection. While the two virus strains were found to be cocirculating in a mixed-species exhibit of ring-tailed lemurs, black-and-white ruffed lemurs, and black lemurs, there was no evidence of cross-species transmission. This suggests that despite high-intensity contact, host species barriers can prevent cross-species transmissions of these viruses. IMPORTANCE Up to 75% of emerging infectious diseases in humans today are the result of zoonotic transmission. However, a challenge in understanding transmission dynamics has been the limited models of cross-species transmission. Zoos provide a unique opportunity to explore parameters defining viral transmission. We demonstrated that

  3. Survey of Phortica drosophilid flies within and outside of a recently identified transmission area of the eye worm Thelazia callipaeda in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Roggero, C; Schaffner, F; Bächli, G; Mathis, A; Schnyder, M

    2010-07-15

    Phortica drosophilid flies are the intermediate hosts and vectors of the eye worm Thelazia callipaeda. This nematode originates from Asia and was first detected in southern Europe in 1989. The aim of the study was to assess the presence and the population dynamics of Phortica flies in a recently discovered new endemic area (Ticino, Southern Switzerland, south of the Alps) of T. callipaeda (site 1), at its border (site 2), at higher altitudes (beyond 1100 meters above sea level) within (site 3) or outside (site 4) the endemic area, and in a site north of the Alps (site 5). Flies were captured using two types of fruit-baited traps, the bait being changed once per week, and by netting around the eyes of a dog and human. A total of 1695 Phortica flies were collected. One of the fruit-baited traps, which can easily be assembled with cheap components, was found to be efficient for catching Phortica spp. At site 1, 644 such flies were collected with this trap during 34 weekly catches from April to October. The number of flies caught was highest at site 2 (n=903) and it was significantly lower (n=36) at site 5 north of the Alps. Virtually no Phortica at all were caught at higher altitudes (sites 3 and 4). Females were all in all predominant in the traps, accounting for 72.6% of Phortica flies (1150/1584), although males became dominant late in the season (male/female ratio 1.26 in October). In contrast, 80.2% of Phortica flies collected around the eyes of dog and human baits by netting (n=111) were males. No female at all was captured by netting until September. PCR for T. callipaeda was negative with all Phortica flies. Morphological examination of the 523 male flies based on features of the eye margin and the number of particular genital sensilla identified 89.1% P. semivirgo, 5.7% P. variegata but also 5.2% intermediate forms. Genetic analyses of partial mitochondrial cox1 and rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 sequences revealed that these three morphotypes were

  4. Major paleoceanographic changes recorded in Upper Albian-Lower Cenomanian sediments in the Western Tethys and in the North Atlantic: possible response to intense tectonic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgioni, Martino; Weissert, Helmut; Keller, Christina; Bernasconi, Stefano; Hochuli, Peter; Garcia, Therese; Coccioni, Rodolfo; Petrizzo, Maria Rose

    2010-05-01

    During the mid-Cretaceous intense and widespread volcanism induced a high atmospheric CO2 concentration and, consequently, a very strong greenhouse effect (Bice & Norris, 2002). Opening and closing of oceanic gateways had an impact on paleoceanography (Poulsen et al, 1998; Poulsen et al, 2001). Global temperature and sea level reached the highest levels in the last 120 million years. (e.g. Pucéat et al, 2003; Hay, 2008). In this study we test if tectonically driven changes in oceanic circulation had an impact on Tethyan oceanography as predicted by models (Poulsen et al, 1998; Poulsen et al., 2001). We trace sedimentological changes during the Albian-Cenomanian across the Western Tethys and into the North Atlantic, integrating litho-, bio-, and isotope stratigraphy to obtain a robust correlation between studied sections, from pelagic to coastal settings. Albian sediments display very different facies from one site to the other. Pelagic marls with several black shales alternated to green, white, or red beds (Marne a Fucoidi/Scaglia Variegata Formation) are observed in the southern Tethys. Silty/sandy nodular limestone and marly limestones, with hiatuses and condensed intervals, (Garschella Formation) were deposited along the northern Tethyan shelf. Black shales and bioturbated marls are present in cycles, with several hiatuses, in the North Atlantic. These heterogeneous sediments became gradually replaced by more homogeneous and carbonate-rich facies between the Late Albian and the Early Cenomanian. These new facies consist of white, sometimes reddish, micritic limestones, rich in planktonic foraminifera. This sedimentation pattern is dominant in Upper Cretaceous successions, both in deep basins and on shelves. This change in sedimentation happened gradually in an East-West extending trend. It is first observed in the southern Tethys, then along the northern Tethys, and finally in the North Atlantic. We interpret the described change in sedimentation as due to a

  5. [Animal reservoirs of human virulent microsporidian species].

    PubMed

    Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna

    2009-01-01

    . It was demonstrated that the new hosts of E. hellem are the following bird species: mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), greyleg goose (Anser anser), mute swan (Cygnus olor), black-necked swan (Cygnus melancoryphus), black swan (Cygnus atratus), coscoroba swan (Coscoroba coscoroba), black-crowned crane (Balearica pavonina), nicobar pigeon (Caloenas nicobarica) and carrion crow (Corvus cornix). In addition, E. hellem was found for the first time in birds from the Anseriformes and Gruiformes orders. Whereas E. intestinalis was disclosed for the first time in the domestic goose (Anser anser f. domestica), red ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata rubra) and the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), while the black lemur (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), mongoose lemur (Eulemur mongoz) and the Visayan warty pig (Sus cebifrons negrinus) were first found to carry E. bieneusi. The mammal species that were found to carry E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis are included in The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The results of the present study are significant from an epidemiological point of view. The wild, livestock and zoo animals that were found to carry microsporidia live in different conditions, and thus their role as animal reservoirs for these dangerous pathogens varies. Waterfowl birds may be the main source of contamination of surface waters with E. hellem spores and the protection of surface waters is virtually impossible. Moreover, isolates of E. hellem from mute swans have SSU rRNA sequences identical to E. hellem genotype reported 10 years ago in HIV-positive patient in USA (GenBank Accession no. L19070). This result indicate that E. hellem from mute swans can be a potential source of infection for humans. The contamination of the human environment with microsporidian spores infectious to humans is also facilitated by farm and synanthropic birds, because E. hellem and E. intestinalis were found in farms pigeons, domestic goose and the carrion crow. These birds can also be the source