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Sample records for hirntumoren beim kind

  1. Verbesserung der Prozessbedingungen beim Einlippentiefbohren durch unterschiedliche Formen der Vorschubmodulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisseler, Rocco

    Das Tiefbohren mit Einlippenwerkzeugen ist bei vielen Anwendungen das Verfahren der ersten Wahl, vor allem wenn kleine und kleinste Bohrungsdurchmesser, ein sehr großes Verhältnis zwischen Bohrtiefe und Durchmesser (l/D) und eine hohe Bearbeitungsqualität gefordert werden. Der erreichbare Durchmesserbereich des Verfahrens liegt zwischen D = 0,5 mm und 40 mm, wobei die möglichen Bohrtiefen von l = 3 x D bis 250 x D reichen. Diese Werte beziehen sich auf das Vollbohren, beim Aufbohren können noch größere Durchmesser erreicht werden [1]. Die erreichbare Oberflächenqualität ist so hoch, dass in den meisten Fällen auf eine nachfolgende Feinbearbeitung verzichtet werden kann.

  2. "Diseases and natural kinds".

    PubMed

    Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2005-01-01

    David Thomasma called for the development of a medical ethics based squarely on the philosophy of medicine. He recognized, however, that widespread anti-essentialism presented a significant barrier to such an approach. The aim of this article is to introduce a theory that challenges these anti-essentialist objections. The notion of natural kinds presents a modest form of essentialism that can serve as the basis for a foundationalist philosophy of medicine. The notion of a natural kind is neither static nor reductionistic. Disease can be understood as making necessary reference to living natural kinds without invoking the claim that diseases themselves are natural kinds. The idea that natural kinds have a natural disposition to flourish as the kinds of things that they are provides a telos to which to tether the notion of disease - an objective telos that is broader than mere survival and narrower than subjective choice. It is argued that while nosology is descriptive and may have therapeutic implications, disease classification is fundamentally explanatory. Sickness and illness, while referring to the same state of affairs, can be distinguished from disease phenomenologically. Scientific and diagnostic fallibility in making judgments about diseases do not diminish the objectivity of this notion of disease. Diseases are things, not kinds. Injury is a concept parallel to disease that also makes necessary reference to living natural kinds. These ideas provide a new possibility for the development of a philosophy of medicine with implications for medical ethics. PMID:16292605

  3. Two Kinds of Argument?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Kane distinguishes between two kinds of argument: the interpretation/use argument and the validity argument. This commentary considers whether there really are two kinds of argument, two arguments, or just one. It concludes that there is just one argument: the validity argument. (Contains 2 figures and 5 notes.)

  4. Causal essentialism in kinds.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Woo-kyoung; Taylor, Eric G; Kato, Daniel; Marsh, Jessecae K; Bloom, Paul

    2013-06-01

    The current study examines causal essentialism, derived from psychological essentialism of concepts. We examine whether people believe that members of a category share some underlying essence that is both necessary and sufficient for category membership and that also causes surface features. The main claim is that causal essentialism is restricted to categories that correspond to our intuitive notions of existing kinds and hence is more attenuated for categories that are based on arbitrary criteria. Experiments 1 and 3 found that people overtly endorse causal essences in nonarbitrary kinds but are less likely to do so for arbitrary categories. Experiments 2 and 4 found that people were more willing to generalize a member's known causal relations (or lack thereof) when dealing with a kind than when dealing with an arbitrary category. These differences between kinds and arbitrary categories were found across various domains-not only for categories of living things, but also for artefacts. These findings have certain real-world implications, including how people make sense of mental disorders that are treated as real kinds. PMID:23098315

  5. Two Kinds of Electron?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Franklin, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    In the 1930s physicists were confronted by two conflicting values for the charge of the electron as measured with great precision by two different methods. Could it be that there are two kinds of (negative) electrons, differing in charge by a fraction of a percent? The experiments were reconciled when a small systematic error in one of the…

  6. Can Kindness Be Taught?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    There's no doubt that children's home environments have a huge impact on the kind of people they become. But so do their educational environments. A number of schools are beginning to realize it's worth it to spend the time on "soft" skills such as empathy. Even forgetting the recent scary headlines about bullying, teachers know that a classroom…

  7. 9 CFR 381.160 - (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. 381.160 Section 381.160 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Composition § 381.160 (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. Such product consists of 100 percent poultry of the...

  8. Teaching Repayment of Parents' Kindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Bum Jung; Sung, Kyu-taik

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a Buddhist Sutra about the deep kindness of mothers and ways of repaying mothers' kindness. The Sutra has been used to teach children about mothers' kindness and the obligation to repay to their mothers in their old age. It contains discourses about 10 types of kindness that a mother bestows on her child and how to repay…

  9. 9 CFR 381.160 - (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. 381.160 Section 381.160 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  10. Kindness in the Art Classroom: Kind Thoughts on Stephen Rowland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This article is a response to Stephen Rowland's article, "Kindness," which appeared in "London Review of Education," November 2009. Much to my amazement, Stephen Rowland's article was the only one I found when I did a global database search on "kindness in education". I had thought that I would find reams of information in the databases on the…

  11. Functions in Biological Kind Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  12. Kinds of Knowledge in Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Clayton

    Solving equations in elementary algebra requires knowledge of the permitted operations, and knowledge of what operation to use at a given point in the solution process. While just these kinds of knowledge would be adequate for an ideal solver, human solvers appear to need and use other kinds of knowledge. First, many errors seem to indicate that…

  13. The KIND Workshop Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirch, Willow Ann

    The National Association for Humane and Environmental Education (NAHEE) produces this workshop guide which offers a scripted workshop with handouts for elementary educators interested in sharing curriculum-based activities dedicated to helping young people develop values of kindness and respect toward people, animals, and the Earth. This guide…

  14. 7 CFR 201.9 - Kind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.9 Kind. The name of each kind of seed present in excess of 5 percent... seed are named on the label, the name of each kind shall be accompanied by the percentage of each....

  15. 7 CFR 201.9 - Kind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.9 Kind. The name of each kind of seed present in excess of 5 percent... seed are named on the label, the name of each kind shall be accompanied by the percentage of each....

  16. 7 CFR 201.9 - Kind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.9 Kind. The name of each kind of seed present in excess of 5 percent... seed are named on the label, the name of each kind shall be accompanied by the percentage of each....

  17. 7 CFR 201.9 - Kind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.9 Kind. The name of each kind of seed present in excess of 5 percent... seed are named on the label, the name of each kind shall be accompanied by the percentage of each....

  18. 7 CFR 201.9 - Kind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.9 Kind. The name of each kind of seed present in excess of 5 percent... seed are named on the label, the name of each kind shall be accompanied by the percentage of each....

  19. Online Literacy Is a Lesser Kind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauerlein, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Web skimming may be a kind of literacy but it's not the kind that matters most. In this article, the author contends that web skimming indicates a decline of literacy. The author discusses research conducted by Jakob Nielsen, a Web researcher, on how users skim web pages. He shows how the web is damaging the right way to read.

  20. 9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Composition § 381.163 “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated, that has been cooked in dry source heat, e.g., oven roasted or oven baked....

  1. 9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Composition § 381.163 “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated, that has been cooked in dry source heat, e.g., oven roasted or oven baked....

  2. 9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Composition § 381.163 “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated, that has been cooked in dry source heat, e.g., oven roasted or oven baked....

  3. 9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Composition § 381.163 “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated, that has been cooked in dry source heat, e.g., oven roasted or oven baked....

  4. 9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Composition § 381.163 “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated, that has been cooked in dry source heat, e.g., oven roasted or oven baked....

  5. Alternativen beim Pflanzenschutz?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendgen, Kurt

    1983-05-01

    The control of plant diseases may be improved by influencing the development of a parasite in its host. The role of elicitors and inducers for the induction of the plant's defense reactions and the use of hyperparasites is discussed as a part of an integrated pest management system of rust fungi.

  6. Korobov polynomials of the third kind and of the fourth kind.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taekyun; Kim, Dae San

    2015-01-01

    The first degenerate version of the Bernoulli polynomials of the second kind appeared in the paper by Korobov (Math Notes 2:77-19, 1996; Proceedings of the IV international conference modern problems of number theory and its applications, pp 40-49, 2001). In this paper, we study two degenerate versions of the Bernoulli polynomials of the second kind which will be called Korobov polynomials of third kind and of the fourth kind. Some properties, identities, recurrence relations and connections with other polynomials are investigated by using umbral calculus.

  7. Diversity in Classrooms: Teaching Kindness through Folktales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieman, Barry B.; Kirmani, Mubina Hassanali

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the use of folktales from India to teach kindness to kindergarten and primary school children. Notes that the "King of the Banyan Deer Tale" is particularly effective in early childhood, whereas the "Dooth Tale" is effective with older children. Supplemental activities are briefly described, such as food preparation, games and music, and…

  8. [KIND Worksheet Packet: Wild Animals (Junior).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Humane and Environmental Education, East Haddam, CT.

    This packet is the junior part of a series of worksheet packets available at both junior (grades 3-4) and senior (grades 5-6) levels that covers a variety of humane and environmental topics. Each packet includes 10 worksheets, all of which originally appeared in past issues of the annual teaching magazine "KIND (Kids in Nature's Defense) Teacher."…

  9. A kind of collaboration competition networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Zeng-Ping; Chang, Hui; Tao, Jian-Ru; Chen, Zhuo-Hui; Dai, Yun-Long; Zhang, Wei; He, Da-Ren

    2008-02-01

    We propose describing a kind of cooperation-competition systems by node-weighted bipartite graphs. In such systems the nodes can be divided into two types. One expresses a kind of activities, organizations or events, named “acts”; and another expresses the “actors” participating in some acts. In each act the actors basically show collaboration relationship with each other, however they play different roles in the cooperation. Usually every actor tries to play the most important role; therefore the role difference can be regarded as a kind of competition. The node weight usually signifies the role or “importance degree” of each actor. We propose using some statistical properties for the description of such kind of systems. The properties without considering node weight can describe the cooperation situation and configuration. The properties with node weight may describe the competition results. Two example systems are reported to show the description method and the corresponding empirical investigation results. One is the undergraduate elective network, and another the library network of Yangzhou University. The description method may be effective for the similar systems in different fields.

  10. [KIND Worksheet Packet: Wild Animals (Senior).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Humane and Environmental Education, East Haddam, CT.

    This packet is the senior part of a series of worksheet packets available at both junior (grades 3-4) and senior (grades 5-6) levels that covers a variety of humane and environmental topics. Each packet includes 10 worksheets, all of which originally appeared in past issues of the annual teaching magazine "KIND (Kids in Nature's Defense) Teacher."…

  11. Addiction is Not a Natural Kind

    PubMed Central

    Pober, Jeremy Michael

    2013-01-01

    I argue that addiction is not an appropriate category to support generalizations for the purposes of scientific prediction. That is, addiction is not a natural kind. I discuss the Homeostatic Property Cluster (HPC) theory of kinds, according to which members of a kind share a cluster of properties generated by a common mechanism or set of mechanisms. Leading accounts of addiction in literature fail to offer a mechanism that explains addiction across substances. I discuss popular variants of the disease conception and demonstrate that at least one class of substances that fails to confirm a major prediction of each account. When no mechanism can be found to explain the occurrence of the relevant properties in members of a category, the HPC view suggests that we revise our categories. I discuss options offered by the HPC view, including category revision and category replacement. I then conclude that talk of addiction as a prediction-supporting category should be replaced with categories such as “S-addiction” and “T-addiction,” where S and T are substances or sets of substances of abuse, as these categories are genuine natural kinds. PMID:24109458

  12. Polynomial Asymptotes of the Second Kind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2011-01-01

    This note uses the analytic notion of asymptotic functions to study when a function is asymptotic to a polynomial function. Along with associated existence and uniqueness results, this kind of asymptotic behaviour is related to the type of asymptote that was recently defined in a more geometric way. Applications are given to rational functions and…

  13. Methodological Encounters with the Phenomenal Kind

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Block’s well-known distinction between phenomenal consciousness and access consciousness has generated a large philosophical literature about putative conceptual connections between the two. The scientific literature about whether they come apart in any actual cases is rather smaller. Empirical evidence gathered to date has not settled the issue. Some put this down to a fundamental methodological obstacle to the empirical study of the relation between phenomenal consciousness and access consciousness. Block (2007) has drawn attention to the methodological puzzle and attempted to answer it. While the evidence Block points to is relevant and important, this paper puts forward a more systematic framework for addressing the puzzle. To give it a label, the approach is to study phenomenal consciousness as a natural kind. The approach allows consciousness studies to move beyond initial means of identifying instances of the kind like verbal report, and to find its underlying nature. It is well-recognised that facts about an underlying kind may allow identification of instances of the kind that do not match the initial means of identification (cp. non-liquid samples of water). This paper shows that the same method can be deployed to investigate phenomenal consciousness independently of access consciousness. PMID:22654148

  14. Evidence for a Distinct Kind of Noun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soja, Nancy N.

    1994-01-01

    Examined the spontaneous speech of four children and their parents for use of determiners with NP-type nouns and count nouns. Found that the parents made a clear distinction between the two kinds of nouns, omitting determiners with the NP-type nouns but not with the count nouns. The children all made the same distinction by four years of age. (HTH)

  15. Identifying Kinds of Reasoning in Collective Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, AnnaMarie; Singletary, Laura M.; Smith, Ryan C.; Wagner, Patty Anne; Francisco, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    We combine Peirce's rule, case, and result with Toulmin's data, claim, and warrant to differentiate between deductive, inductive, abductive, and analogical reasoning within collective argumentation. In this theoretical article, we illustrate these kinds of reasoning in episodes of collective argumentation using examples from one…

  16. Measuring Kindness at School: Psychometric Properties of a School Kindness Scale for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binfet, John Tyler; Gadermann, Anne M.; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sought to create and validate a brief measure to assess students' perceptions of kindness in school. Participants included 1,753 students in Grades 4 to 8 attending public schools in a large school district in southern British Columbia. The School Kindness Scale (SKS) demonstrated a unidimensional factor structure and adequate…

  17. Loving-kindness meditation increases social connectedness.

    PubMed

    Hutcherson, Cendri A; Seppala, Emma M; Gross, James J

    2008-10-01

    The need for social connection is a fundamental human motive, and it is increasingly clear that feeling socially connected confers mental and physical health benefits. However, in many cultures, societal changes are leading to growing social distrust and alienation. Can feelings of social connection and positivity toward others be increased? Is it possible to self-generate these feelings? In this study, the authors used a brief loving-kindness meditation exercise to examine whether social connection could be created toward strangers in a controlled laboratory context. Compared with a closely matched control task, even just a few minutes of loving-kindness meditation increased feelings of social connection and positivity toward novel individuals on both explicit and implicit levels. These results suggest that this easily implemented technique may help to increase positive social emotions and decrease social isolation.

  18. Software evolution. What kind of evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Carbonell, J. J.; Parets-Llorca, J.

    2001-06-01

    Most Software Systems capable of adapting to the environment or of performing some kind of adaptive activity (such as pattern learning, behavior simulations and the like) use concepts and models from Biology. Nevertheless, such approaches are based on the Modern Synthesis, i.e., Darwinism plus Mendelism, and this implies preadaptive mutations in, and subsequent selection of the better adapted individuals. These pre-adaptive changes usually do not produce the desired effect, are virtually useless and require some kind of backtracking for the system to obtain profit from adaptation. It is our contention that an evolutionary approach in Software Systems development cannot be based on pre-adaptive mutations, but rather on post-adaptive ones, that is, anticipatory mutations and modifications (Lamarkism). A novel way of understanding evolution in Software Systems based on applied Lamarkism is presented and a framework that allows the incorporation of modifications according to the necessities of the system and the will of the modeller is proposed.

  19. Kind of images in printed photo books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fageth, Reiner; Schütz, Peter; Wagner, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the usage of images in tangible products as a function of its origin, coming from digital still cameras (DSC) or mobile devices. It is also shown, that pictures from mobile devices are mainly used to complete story telling in photo books, they are currently not a driver for generating this kind of high value products. Images taken from mobile devices generate to a great extent only prints mainly ordered via kiosk systems.

  20. Infinitely many kinds of quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, Matthew B

    2008-01-01

    We define the ability of a quantum channel to simulate another by means of suitable encoding and decoding operations. While classical channels have only two equivalence classes under simulation (channels with non-vanishing capacity and those with vanishing capacity), we show that there are an uncountable infinity of different equivalence classes of quantum channels using the example of the quantum erasure channel. Our results also imply a kind of 'Matthew principle' for error correction on certain channels.

  1. Studying the teaching of kindness: A conceptual model for evaluating kindness education programs in schools.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Deanna M; deBlois, Madeleine; Dominguez, Violeta; Walsh, Michele E

    2016-10-01

    Recent research suggests that school-based kindness education programs may benefit the learning and social-emotional development of youth and may improve school climate and school safety outcomes. However, how and to what extent kindness education programming influences positive outcomes in schools is poorly understood, and such programs are difficult to evaluate in the absence of a conceptual model for studying their effectiveness. In partnership with Kind Campus, a widely adopted school-based kindness education program that uses a bottom-up program framework, a methodology called concept mapping was used to develop a conceptual model for evaluating school-based kindness education programs from the input of 123 middle school students and approximately 150 educators, school professionals, and academic scholars. From the basis of this model, recommendations for processes and outcomes that would be useful to assess in evaluations of kindness education programs are made, and areas where additional instrument development may be necessary are highlighted. The utility of the concept mapping method as an initial step in evaluating other grassroots or non-traditional educational programming is also discussed. PMID:27376750

  2. Studying the teaching of kindness: A conceptual model for evaluating kindness education programs in schools.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Deanna M; deBlois, Madeleine; Dominguez, Violeta; Walsh, Michele E

    2016-10-01

    Recent research suggests that school-based kindness education programs may benefit the learning and social-emotional development of youth and may improve school climate and school safety outcomes. However, how and to what extent kindness education programming influences positive outcomes in schools is poorly understood, and such programs are difficult to evaluate in the absence of a conceptual model for studying their effectiveness. In partnership with Kind Campus, a widely adopted school-based kindness education program that uses a bottom-up program framework, a methodology called concept mapping was used to develop a conceptual model for evaluating school-based kindness education programs from the input of 123 middle school students and approximately 150 educators, school professionals, and academic scholars. From the basis of this model, recommendations for processes and outcomes that would be useful to assess in evaluations of kindness education programs are made, and areas where additional instrument development may be necessary are highlighted. The utility of the concept mapping method as an initial step in evaluating other grassroots or non-traditional educational programming is also discussed.

  3. What kind of discipline is psychoanalysis?

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    Current controversies involving clinical, conceptual and empirical research shed light on how psychoanalysis confronts its nature and its future. Some relevant debates in which Wallerstein, Green, Hoffman, Eagle and Wolitzky, Safran, Stern, Blass and Carmeli, and Panksepp have participated are examined regarding the characteristics of their argumentation. Agreements and disagreements are explored to find ways that could have allowed the discussion to progress. Two foci are highlighted in these debates: (a) whether a clinical common ground exists in psychoanalysis and what kind of procedure could contribute to further clarification; (b) complementation of in-clinical and extra-clinical evidence. Both aspects are scrutinized: the possibility of complementing diverse methodologies, and the nature of the shared clinical evidence examined in clinical discussion groups such as those promoted by the IPA Clinical Observation Committee. The importance of triangulation and consilience is brought to bear regarding their contribution to the robustness of psychoanalysis. So as to strengthen a critical perspective that enhances the discipline's argumentative field, psychoanalysis should take into account arguments from different sources according to their specific merits. By doing this, psychoanalysis increases its relevance within the current interdisciplinary dialogue. PMID:26173887

  4. Nanoglasses: a new kind of noncrystalline materials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary Nanoglasses are a new class of noncrystalline solids. They differ from today’s glasses due to their microstructure that resembles the microstructure of polycrystals. They consist of regions with a melt-quenched glassy structure connected by interfacial regions, the structure of which is characterized (in comparison to the corresponding melt-quenched glass) by (1) a reduced (up to about 10%) density, (2) a reduced (up to about 20%) number of nearest-neighbor atoms and (3) a different electronic structure. Due to their new kind of atomic and electronic structure, the properties of nanoglasses may be modified by (1) controlling the size of the glassy regions (i.e., the volume fraction of the interfacial regions) and/or (2) by varying their chemical composition. Nanoglasses exhibit new properties, e.g., a Fe90Sc10 nanoglass is (at 300 K) a strong ferromagnet whereas the corresponding melt-quenched glass is paramagnetic. Moreover, nanoglasses were noted to be more ductile, more biocompatible, and catalytically more active than the corresponding melt-quenched glasses. Hence, this new class of noncrystalline materials may open the way to technologies utilizing the new properties. PMID:24062978

  5. What kind of discipline is psychoanalysis?

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    Current controversies involving clinical, conceptual and empirical research shed light on how psychoanalysis confronts its nature and its future. Some relevant debates in which Wallerstein, Green, Hoffman, Eagle and Wolitzky, Safran, Stern, Blass and Carmeli, and Panksepp have participated are examined regarding the characteristics of their argumentation. Agreements and disagreements are explored to find ways that could have allowed the discussion to progress. Two foci are highlighted in these debates: (a) whether a clinical common ground exists in psychoanalysis and what kind of procedure could contribute to further clarification; (b) complementation of in-clinical and extra-clinical evidence. Both aspects are scrutinized: the possibility of complementing diverse methodologies, and the nature of the shared clinical evidence examined in clinical discussion groups such as those promoted by the IPA Clinical Observation Committee. The importance of triangulation and consilience is brought to bear regarding their contribution to the robustness of psychoanalysis. So as to strengthen a critical perspective that enhances the discipline's argumentative field, psychoanalysis should take into account arguments from different sources according to their specific merits. By doing this, psychoanalysis increases its relevance within the current interdisciplinary dialogue.

  6. KIND Clubs: A Humane Education Innovation That's Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Patty

    1990-01-01

    The Kids in Nature's Defense (KIND) Club and the "adopt" a teacher program are described. The importance of animals and the environment is emphasized. Information on how to start a KIND Club is provided. (KR)

  7. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12 Name of kind and variety. The representation of kind or...

  8. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12 Name of kind and variety. The representation of kind or...

  9. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12 Name of kind and variety. The representation of kind or...

  10. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12 Name of kind and variety. The representation of kind or...

  11. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12 Name of kind and variety. The representation of kind or...

  12. What kind of computation is intelligence. A framework for integrating different kinds of expertise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandrasekaran, B.

    1989-01-01

    The view that the deliberative aspect of intelligent behavior is a distinct type of algorithm; in particular, a goal-seeking exploratory process using qualitative representations of knowledge and inference is elaborated. There are other kinds of algorithms that also embody expertise in domains. The different types of expertise and how they can and should be integrated to give full account of expert behavior are discussed.

  13. Levels and kinds of explanation: lessons from neuropsychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Sam

    2014-01-01

    I use an example from neuropsychiatry, namely delusional misidentification, to show a distinction between levels of explanation and kinds of explanation. Building on a pragmatic view of explanation, different kinds of explanation arise because we have different kinds of explanatory concerns. One important kind of explanatory concern involves asking a certain kind of “why” question. Answering such questions provides a personal explanation, namely, renders intelligible the beliefs and actions of other persons. I use contrasting theories of delusional misidentification to highlight how different facts about the phenomenon that is being explained impose constraints on the availability of personal explanation. PMID:24808882

  14. 7 CFR 201.26 - Kind, variety, and hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Kind, variety, and hybrid. 201.26 Section 201.26... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.26 Kind, variety, and hybrid. The label shall bear the name of each... kind or variety named on the label is “hybrid” seed, it shall be so designated on the label. If two...

  15. 7 CFR 201.26 - Kind, variety, and hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Kind, variety, and hybrid. 201.26 Section 201.26... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.26 Kind, variety, and hybrid. The label shall bear the name of each... kind or variety named on the label is “hybrid” seed, it shall be so designated on the label. If two...

  16. 7 CFR 201.26 - Kind, variety, and hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Kind, variety, and hybrid. 201.26 Section 201.26... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.26 Kind, variety, and hybrid. The label shall bear the name of each... kind or variety named on the label is “hybrid” seed, it shall be so designated on the label. If two...

  17. 7 CFR 201.26 - Kind, variety, and hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kind, variety, and hybrid. 201.26 Section 201.26... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.26 Kind, variety, and hybrid. The label shall bear the name of each... kind or variety named on the label is “hybrid” seed, it shall be so designated on the label. If two...

  18. 7 CFR 201.26 - Kind, variety, and hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Kind, variety, and hybrid. 201.26 Section 201.26... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.26 Kind, variety, and hybrid. The label shall bear the name of each... kind or variety named on the label is “hybrid” seed, it shall be so designated on the label. If two...

  19. Knowledge of Natural Kinds in Semantic Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Katy; Smith, Edward E.; Grossman, Murray

    2008-01-01

    We examined the semantic impairment for natural kinds in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and semantic dementia (SD) using an inductive reasoning paradigm. To learn about the relationships between natural kind exemplars and how these are distinguished from manufactured artifacts, subjects judged the strength of arguments such as…

  20. 14 CFR 77.5 - Kinds of objects affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kinds of objects affected. 77.5 Section 77...) AIRSPACE OBJECTS AFFECTING NAVIGABLE AIRSPACE General § 77.5 Kinds of objects affected. This part applies to: (a) Any object of natural growth, terrain, or permanent or temporary construction or...

  1. 29 CFR 548.404 - Kinds of jobs or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kinds of jobs or employees. 548.404 Section 548.404 Labor... Application § 548.404 Kinds of jobs or employees. The application should describe or otherwise identify the... name but may be described in terms of job classification, department, location or other...

  2. 29 CFR 548.404 - Kinds of jobs or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kinds of jobs or employees. 548.404 Section 548.404 Labor... Application § 548.404 Kinds of jobs or employees. The application should describe or otherwise identify the... name but may be described in terms of job classification, department, location or other...

  3. 29 CFR 548.404 - Kinds of jobs or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kinds of jobs or employees. 548.404 Section 548.404 Labor... Application § 548.404 Kinds of jobs or employees. The application should describe or otherwise identify the... name but may be described in terms of job classification, department, location or other...

  4. 29 CFR 548.404 - Kinds of jobs or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kinds of jobs or employees. 548.404 Section 548.404 Labor... Application § 548.404 Kinds of jobs or employees. The application should describe or otherwise identify the... name but may be described in terms of job classification, department, location or other...

  5. 29 CFR 548.404 - Kinds of jobs or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kinds of jobs or employees. 548.404 Section 548.404 Labor... Application § 548.404 Kinds of jobs or employees. The application should describe or otherwise identify the... name but may be described in terms of job classification, department, location or other...

  6. Biological Essentialism and the Tidal Change of Natural Kinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, John S.

    2013-01-01

    The vision of natural kinds that is most common in the modern philosophy of biology, particularly with respect to the question whether species and other taxa are natural kinds, is based on a revision of the notion by Mill in "A System of Logic." However, there was another conception that Whewell had previously captured well, which taxonomists have…

  7. Conceptual and linguistic representations of kinds and classes

    PubMed Central

    Prasada, Sandeep; Hennefield, Laura; Otap, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that our conceptual systems provide two formally distinct ways of representing categories by investigating the manner in which lexical nominals (e.g., tree, picnic table) and phrasal nominals (e.g., black bird, birds that like rice) are interpreted. Four experiments found that lexical nominals may be mapped onto kind representations whereas phrasal nominals map onto class representations but not kind representations. Experiment 1 found that phrasal nominals, unlike lexical nominals, are mapped onto categories whose members need not be of a single kind. Experiments 2 and 3 found that categories named by lexical nominals enter into both class inclusion and kind hierarchies and thus support both class inclusion (is a) and kind specification (kind of) relations, whereas phrasal nominals map onto class representations which support only class inclusion relations. Experiment 4 showed that the two types of nominals represent hierarchical relations in different ways. Phrasal nominals (e.g., white bear) are mapped onto classes that have criteria of membership in addition to those specified by the class picked out by the head noun of the phrase (e.g., bear). In contrast, lexical nominals (e.g., polar bear) specify one way to meet the criteria specified by the more general kind concept (e.g., bear). Implications for the language-conceptual system interface, representation of hierarchical relations, lexicalization, and theories of conceptual combination are discussed. PMID:22671567

  8. How Natural a Kind Is “Eukaryote?”

    PubMed Central

    Doolittle, W. Ford

    2014-01-01

    Systematics balances uneasily between realism and nominalism, uncommitted as to whether biological taxa are discoveries or inventions. If the former, they might be taken as natural kinds. I briefly review some philosophers’ concepts of natural kinds and then argue that several of these apply well enough to “eukaryote.” Although there are some sticky issues around genomic chimerism and when eukaryotes first appeared, if we allow for degrees in the naturalness of kinds, existing eukaryotes rank highly, higher than prokaryotes. Most biologists feel this intuitively: All I attempt to do here is provide some conceptual justification. PMID:24890508

  9. 9 CFR 381.173 - Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... their greatest dimension and there shall be no bone particles larger than 2.0 mm in their greatest dimension. (c) “Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry)” shall not have a calcium content exceeding...

  10. BOLD signal and functional connectivity associated with loving kindness meditation.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R Todd; Brewer, Judson A

    2014-05-01

    Loving kindness is a form of meditation involving directed well-wishing, typically supported by the silent repetition of phrases such as "may all beings be happy," to foster a feeling of selfless love. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the neural substrate of loving kindness meditation in experienced meditators and novices. We first assessed group differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during loving kindness meditation. We next used a relatively novel approach, the intrinsic connectivity distribution of functional connectivity, to identify regions that differ in intrinsic connectivity between groups, and then used a data-driven approach to seed-based connectivity analysis to identify which connections differ between groups. Our findings suggest group differences in brain regions involved in self-related processing and mind wandering, emotional processing, inner speech, and memory. Meditators showed overall reduced BOLD signal and intrinsic connectivity during loving kindness as compared to novices, more specifically in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCu), a finding that is consistent with our prior work and other recent neuroimaging studies of meditation. Furthermore, meditators showed greater functional connectivity during loving kindness between the PCC/PCu and the left inferior frontal gyrus, whereas novices showed greater functional connectivity during loving kindness between the PCC/PCu and other cortical midline regions of the default mode network, the bilateral posterior insula lobe, and the bilateral parahippocampus/hippocampus. These novel findings suggest that loving kindness meditation involves a present-centered, selfless focus for meditators as compared to novices. PMID:24944863

  11. BOLD signal and functional connectivity associated with loving kindness meditation

    PubMed Central

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R Todd; Brewer, Judson A

    2014-01-01

    Loving kindness is a form of meditation involving directed well-wishing, typically supported by the silent repetition of phrases such as “may all beings be happy,” to foster a feeling of selfless love. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the neural substrate of loving kindness meditation in experienced meditators and novices. We first assessed group differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during loving kindness meditation. We next used a relatively novel approach, the intrinsic connectivity distribution of functional connectivity, to identify regions that differ in intrinsic connectivity between groups, and then used a data-driven approach to seed-based connectivity analysis to identify which connections differ between groups. Our findings suggest group differences in brain regions involved in self-related processing and mind wandering, emotional processing, inner speech, and memory. Meditators showed overall reduced BOLD signal and intrinsic connectivity during loving kindness as compared to novices, more specifically in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCu), a finding that is consistent with our prior work and other recent neuroimaging studies of meditation. Furthermore, meditators showed greater functional connectivity during loving kindness between the PCC/PCu and the left inferior frontal gyrus, whereas novices showed greater functional connectivity during loving kindness between the PCC/PCu and other cortical midline regions of the default mode network, the bilateral posterior insula lobe, and the bilateral parahippocampus/hippocampus. These novel findings suggest that loving kindness meditation involves a present-centered, selfless focus for meditators as compared to novices. PMID:24944863

  12. BOLD signal and functional connectivity associated with loving kindness meditation.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R Todd; Brewer, Judson A

    2014-05-01

    Loving kindness is a form of meditation involving directed well-wishing, typically supported by the silent repetition of phrases such as "may all beings be happy," to foster a feeling of selfless love. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the neural substrate of loving kindness meditation in experienced meditators and novices. We first assessed group differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during loving kindness meditation. We next used a relatively novel approach, the intrinsic connectivity distribution of functional connectivity, to identify regions that differ in intrinsic connectivity between groups, and then used a data-driven approach to seed-based connectivity analysis to identify which connections differ between groups. Our findings suggest group differences in brain regions involved in self-related processing and mind wandering, emotional processing, inner speech, and memory. Meditators showed overall reduced BOLD signal and intrinsic connectivity during loving kindness as compared to novices, more specifically in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCu), a finding that is consistent with our prior work and other recent neuroimaging studies of meditation. Furthermore, meditators showed greater functional connectivity during loving kindness between the PCC/PCu and the left inferior frontal gyrus, whereas novices showed greater functional connectivity during loving kindness between the PCC/PCu and other cortical midline regions of the default mode network, the bilateral posterior insula lobe, and the bilateral parahippocampus/hippocampus. These novel findings suggest that loving kindness meditation involves a present-centered, selfless focus for meditators as compared to novices.

  13. Robots and rodents: children's inferences about living and nonliving kinds.

    PubMed

    Jipson, Jennifer L; Gelman, Susan A

    2007-01-01

    This study tests the firm distinction children are said to make between living and nonliving kinds. Three, 4-, and 5-year-old children and adults reasoned about whether items that varied on 3 dimensions (alive, face, behavior) had a range of properties (biological, psychological, perceptual, artifact, novel, proper names). Findings demonstrate that by 4 years of age, children make clear distinctions between prototypical living and nonliving kinds regardless of the property under consideration. Even 3-year-olds distinguish prototypical living and nonliving kinds when asked about biological properties. When reasoning about nonbiological properties for the full range of items, however, even 5-year-olds and adults occasionally rely on facial features. Thus, the living/nonliving distinction may have more narrow consequences than previously acknowledged. PMID:17988314

  14. Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of four kinds of vitamins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guozhong; Yu, Bin; Zhang, Cunlin

    2009-11-01

    The terahertz spectra of four kinds of vitamins are presented. The refractive index and absorption spectra of these vitamins are obtained by the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The full-geometry optimizations and frequency calculations using the density functional theory are applied to obtain the structure and vibration frequencies of these vitamin molecules. The calculated vibration frequencies are compared with the experimental data. The results show that there are terahertz fingerprint absorptions for all of four kinds of vitamins. The terahertz absorbance spectra of vitamins result from not only the intramolecular vibration modes, but also the intermolecular interaction or phonon modes.

  15. Quantum Walks on Two Kinds of Two-Dimensional Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan; Mc Gettrick, Michael; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Ke-Jia

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we numerically study quantum walks on two kinds of two-dimensional graphs: cylindrical strip and Mobius strip. The two kinds of graphs are typical two-dimensional topological graph. We study the crossing property of quantum walks on these two models. Also, we study its dependence on the initial state, size of the model. At the same time, we compare the quantum walk and classical walk on these two models to discuss the difference of quantum walk and classical walk.

  16. Design Principles for Online Instruction: A New Kind of Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toporski, Neil; Foley, Tim

    2004-01-01

    In the 1900s, distance education attempted to mimic the traditional classroom lecture via the transmission of live or "canned" broadcasts, regardless of the technologies used: satellite, television, film, or radio. These kinds of media predisposed distance education (DE) to closely adhere to the lecture (sit and absorb) model, where content was…

  17. 32 CFR 37.1300 - In-kind contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-kind contributions. 37.1300 Section 37.1300 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT... contributions. The value of non-cash contributions made by a recipient or non-Federal third parties toward...

  18. 7 CFR 1435.503 - In-kind payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Processor Sugar Payment-In-Kind..., make payments in the form of sugar held in CCC inventory. (b) To the maximum extent practicable, CCC... sugar held in storage by the processor; (2) CCC-owned sugar held in storage by any other processor...

  19. 7 CFR 1435.503 - In-kind payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Processor Sugar Payment-In-Kind..., make payments in the form of sugar held in CCC inventory. (b) To the maximum extent practicable, CCC... sugar held in storage by the processor; (2) CCC-owned sugar held in storage by any other processor...

  20. 7 CFR 1435.503 - In-kind payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Processor Sugar Payment-In-Kind..., make payments in the form of sugar held in CCC inventory. (b) To the maximum extent practicable, CCC... sugar held in storage by the processor; (2) CCC-owned sugar held in storage by any other processor...

  1. 27 CFR 25.182 - Kinds of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.182 Kinds of containers. A brewer may transfer beer without payment of tax from one brewery to another brewery belonging to the same brewer (a) in the brewer's packages or (b) in...

  2. 27 CFR 25.182 - Kinds of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.182 Kinds of containers. A brewer may transfer beer without payment of tax from one brewery to another brewery belonging to the same brewer (a) in the brewer's packages or (b) in...

  3. 27 CFR 25.182 - Kinds of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.182 Kinds of containers. A brewer may transfer beer without payment of tax from one brewery to another brewery belonging to the same brewer (a) in the brewer's packages or (b) in...

  4. 27 CFR 25.182 - Kinds of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.182 Kinds of containers. A brewer may transfer beer without payment of tax from one brewery to another brewery belonging to the same brewer (a) in the brewer's packages or (b) in...

  5. 27 CFR 25.182 - Kinds of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.182 Kinds of containers. A brewer may transfer beer without payment of tax from one brewery to another brewery belonging to the same brewer (a) in the brewer's packages or (b) in...

  6. 7 CFR 54.1006 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Governing the Certification of... and Poultry Products § 54.1006 Kind of service. Certification of Sanitary Design and Fabrication of... the regulations shall consist of the evaluation, certification and/or identification, upon request...

  7. 7 CFR 54.1006 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Governing the Certification of... and Poultry Products § 54.1006 Kind of service. Certification of Sanitary Design and Fabrication of... the regulations shall consist of the evaluation, certification and/or identification, upon request...

  8. 7 CFR 54.1006 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Governing the Certification of... and Poultry Products § 54.1006 Kind of service. Certification of Sanitary Design and Fabrication of... the regulations shall consist of the evaluation, certification and/or identification, upon request...

  9. 7 CFR 54.1006 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Governing the Certification of... and Poultry Products § 54.1006 Kind of service. Certification of Sanitary Design and Fabrication of... the regulations shall consist of the evaluation, certification and/or identification, upon request...

  10. 7 CFR 54.1006 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Governing the Certification of... and Poultry Products § 54.1006 Kind of service. Certification of Sanitary Design and Fabrication of... the regulations shall consist of the evaluation, certification and/or identification, upon request...

  11. Book Talk. Books About All Kinds of Heroes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Judy

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated listing of books about all kinds of heroes for elementary school students. Stories include the young King Arthur; an assertive, baseball-playing heroine who becomes a princess; an older brother dealing with his younger brother; a Christmas story; civil rights icon Rosa Parks; and the cow who jumped over the moon. (SM)

  12. 9 CFR 351.3 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Scope of Certification Service § 351.3 Kind of... this part for specific lots of technical animal fat for export, if the fat was rendered from materials... provided in the regulations in this part, that the technical animal fat is eligible for certification...

  13. 9 CFR 351.3 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Scope of Certification Service § 351.3 Kind of... this part for specific lots of technical animal fat for export, if the fat was rendered from materials... provided in the regulations in this part, that the technical animal fat is eligible for certification...

  14. 9 CFR 351.3 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Scope of Certification Service § 351.3 Kind of... this part for specific lots of technical animal fat for export, if the fat was rendered from materials... provided in the regulations in this part, that the technical animal fat is eligible for certification...

  15. 9 CFR 351.3 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Scope of Certification Service § 351.3 Kind of... this part for specific lots of technical animal fat for export, if the fat was rendered from materials... provided in the regulations in this part, that the technical animal fat is eligible for certification...

  16. The 3 Kinds of School Safety since 9/11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrow, John

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the three kinds of school safety: (1) physical; (2) emotional; and (3) intellectual, and details how to determine if a school is safe. Excellence in schools demands that schools be physically, emotionally, and intellectually safe for students, while "good enough" schools are simply physically safe. Here, the author…

  17. What Kind of Learning Environment Do Newly Qualified Teachers Create?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyman, Tarja; Kaikkonen, Pauli

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of recent studies, language teaching has educational, cultural, and social objectives. The purpose of this study was firstly to investigate whether the new objectives of foreign language learning and teaching are put into effect, and secondly to examine what kind of learning environments teachers create. The main research data…

  18. Movie Review: "It's Kind of a Funny Story"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara, Frankie

    2012-01-01

    Interpersonal disconnections, social withdrawal, and loneliness are often precursors to depression and suicidal ideation. In the film "It's Kind of a Funny Story", the plot describes a protagonist who has become so relationally desolate among family, friends, and peers that he has taken delight in the thought of ending his life. The main character…

  19. 9 CFR 156.3 - Kind of service; records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Kind of service; records. 156.3 Section 156.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION SERVICE VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  20. 9 CFR 156.3 - Kind of service; records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kind of service; records. 156.3 Section 156.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION SERVICE VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  1. 9 CFR 156.3 - Kind of service; records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Kind of service; records. 156.3 Section 156.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION SERVICE VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  2. 9 CFR 156.3 - Kind of service; records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Kind of service; records. 156.3 Section 156.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION SERVICE VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  3. 9 CFR 156.3 - Kind of service; records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Kind of service; records. 156.3 Section 156.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION SERVICE VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  4. Sickly Americans, Kindly Portuguese, and Lithuanian Couch Potatoes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2000-01-01

    Of 27 countries in a World Health Organization survey, American children report the most physical complaints, Portuguese children are most kind to one another, and Lithuanians watch more TV. U.S. and Czech teens are great dieters. Northern Irish, Scottish, and Finnish youngsters love computer games. (MLH)

  5. 32 CFR 701.11 - Processing specific kinds of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Processing specific kinds of records. 701.11 Section 701.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES... must be withheld from disclosure under 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(6). General officers and public affairs...

  6. 32 CFR 701.11 - Processing specific kinds of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Processing specific kinds of records. 701.11 Section 701.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES... must be withheld from disclosure under 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(6). General officers and public affairs...

  7. 32 CFR 701.11 - Processing specific kinds of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Processing specific kinds of records. 701.11 Section 701.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES... must be withheld from disclosure under 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(6). General officers and public affairs...

  8. Exploring Human Kindness through the Pedagogy of Aikido.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawdy, Paul

    This paper considers the origins of kindness in relation to the martial art known as Aikido. It also attempts to discover the underlying constitutional elements of Aikido's pedagogy of self learning, learning about others, and instructional practices that promote interpersonal relatedness. A teacher and four students of the Aikido Dojo were…

  9. Five Kinds of Literary Knowing. Report Series 5.5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probst, Robert E.

    The reading of a literary work can give rise to five different kinds of literary knowing: (1) knowing about self; (2) knowing about others; (3) knowing about texts; (4) knowing about contexts; and (5) knowing about processes of making meaning. A literary work can prompt a reader to reflect upon aspects of his or her own life. Concentrating upon…

  10. Kindness in Australia: an empirical critique of moral decline sociology.

    PubMed

    Habibis, Daphne; Hookway, Nicholas; Vreugdenhil, Anthea

    2016-09-01

    A new sociological agenda is emerging that interrogates how morality can be established in the absence of the moral certainties of the past but there is a shortage of empirical work on this topic. This article establishes a theoretical framework for the empirical analysis of everyday morality drawing on the work of theorists including Ahmed, Bauman and Taylor. It uses the Australian Survey of Social Attitudes to assess the state and shape of contemporary moralities by asking how kind are Australians, how is its expression socially distributed, and what are the motivations for kindness. The findings demonstrate that Australians exhibit a strong attachment and commitment to kindness as a moral value that is primarily motivated by interiorized sources of moral authority. We argue these findings support the work of theorists such as Ahmed and Taylor who argue authenticity and embodied emotion are legitimate sources of morality in today's secular societies. The research also provides new evidence that generational changes are shaping understandings and practices of kindness in unexpected ways. PMID:27230698

  11. 9 CFR 351.3 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Scope of Certification Service § 351.3 Kind of... this part for specific lots of technical animal fat for export, if the fat was rendered from...

  12. Robots and Rodents: Children's Inferences about Living and Nonliving Kinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jipson, Jennifer L.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2007-01-01

    This study tests the firm distinction children are said to make between living and nonliving kinds. Three, 4-, and 5-year-old children and adults reasoned about whether items that varied on 3 dimensions (alive, face, behavior) had a range of properties (biological, psychological, perceptual, artifact, novel, proper names). Findings demonstrate…

  13. 7 CFR 54.4 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) MEATS, PREPARED MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 54.4 Kind of service. (a... standards. Class, grade, and other quality may be determined under said standards for meat of cattle,...

  14. 7 CFR 54.4 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) MEATS, PREPARED MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 54.4 Kind of service. (a... standards. Class, grade, and other quality may be determined under said standards for meat of cattle,...

  15. 7 CFR 54.4 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) MEATS, PREPARED MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 54.4 Kind of service. (a... standards. Class, grade, and other quality may be determined under said standards for meat of cattle,...

  16. Estimating design costs for first-of-a-kind projects

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Bakul; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    Modern scientific facilities are often outcomes of projects that are first-of-a-kind, that is, minimal historical data are available for project costs and schedules. However, at Fermilab, there was an opportunity to execute two similar projects consecutively. In this paper, a comparative study of the design costs for these two projects is presented using earned value methodology. This study provides some insights into how to estimate the cost of a replicated project.

  17. Reforming the culture of healthcare: the case for intelligent kindness

    PubMed Central

    Campling, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the culture of healthcare in the light of the two reports by Robert Francis into the care at Mid Staffordshire. This editorial encourages a comprehensive exploration of the conditions that promote a benign caring culture and make outbreaks of cruel neglect and abuse of patients less likely. Creating and sustaining such a culture is dependent on being honest and realistic about the forces that threaten to undermine it. The editorial argues that being able to confidently articulate the positive values that should define healthcare culture is particularly important at this time. The case is made for a conscious focus on the concept of intelligent kindness. PMID:26191415

  18. [Comparison of green tea and four other kind of teas].

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Xu, Lijia; Peng, Yong; Shi, Renbing; Xiao, Peigen

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, tea and the substitution (other kinds of tea) take an important status in the drinking, food, health product and the related industry. The most popular Green tea, Maté originated from South America, Large-leaved Kudingcha, Small-leaved Kudingcha, and the Eagle tea used civilian have many similarities on history, chemical constituents and biological activities. In this article, we summarized the similarities and the characteristics of the Green tea and the other four teas in order to provide scientific evidences for better development of the tea and substitutions. PMID:21473143

  19. A Kind of Nanofluid Consisting of Surface-Functionalized Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xuefei; Liu, Zhen-Hua

    2010-08-01

    A method of surface functionalization of silica nanoparticles was used to prepare a kind of stable nanofluid. The functionalization was achieved by grafting silanes directly to the surface of silica nanoparticles in silica solutions (both a commercial solution and a self-made silica solution were used). The functionalized nanoparticles were used to make nanofluids, in which well-dispersed nanoparticles can keep good stability. One of the unique characteristics of the nanofluids is that no deposition layer forms on the heated surface after a pool boiling process. The nanofluids have applicable prospect in thermal engineering fields with the phase-change heat transfer.

  20. A kind of nanofluid consisting of surface-functionalized nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuefei; Liu, Zhen-Hua

    2010-05-25

    A method of surface functionalization of silica nanoparticles was used to prepare a kind of stable nanofluid. The functionalization was achieved by grafting silanes directly to the surface of silica nanoparticles in silica solutions (both a commercial solution and a self-made silica solution were used). The functionalized nanoparticles were used to make nanofluids, in which well-dispersed nanoparticles can keep good stability. One of the unique characteristics of the nanofluids is that no deposition layer forms on the heated surface after a pool boiling process. The nanofluids have applicable prospect in thermal engineering fields with the phase-change heat transfer.

  1. A Kind of Nanofluid Consisting of Surface-Functionalized Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A method of surface functionalization of silica nanoparticles was used to prepare a kind of stable nanofluid. The functionalization was achieved by grafting silanes directly to the surface of silica nanoparticles in silica solutions (both a commercial solution and a self-made silica solution were used). The functionalized nanoparticles were used to make nanofluids, in which well-dispersed nanoparticles can keep good stability. One of the unique characteristics of the nanofluids is that no deposition layer forms on the heated surface after a pool boiling process. The nanofluids have applicable prospect in thermal engineering fields with the phase-change heat transfer. PMID:20676194

  2. A kind of optimizing design method of progressive addition lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yunhai; Qian, Lin; Wu, Quanying; Yu, Jingchi; Chen, Hao; Wang, Yuanyuan

    2010-10-01

    Progressive addition lenses are a kind of ophthalmic lenses with freeform surface. The surface curvature of the progressive addition lenses varies gradually from a minimum value in the upper, distance-viewing area, to a maximum value in the lower, near-viewing area. A kind of optimizing design method of progressive addition lenses is proposed to improve the optical quality by modifying the vector heights of the surface of designed progressive addition lenses initially. The relationship among mean power, cylinder power and the vector heights of the surface is deduced, and the optimizing factor is also gained. The vector heights of the surface of designed progressive addition lenses initially are used to calculate the plots of mean power and cylinder power based on the principle of differential geometry. The mean power plot is changed by adjusting the optimizing factor. Otherwise, the novel plot of the mean power can also be derived by shifting the mean power of one selected region to another and then by interpolating and smoothing. A partial differential equation of the elliptic type is founded based on the changed mean power. The solution of the equation is achieved by iterative method. The optimized vector heights of the surface are solved out. Compared with the original lens, the region in which the astigmatism near the nasal side on distance-vision portion is less than 0.5 D has become broader, and the clear regions on distance-vision and near-vision portion are wider.

  3. A new kind of uncertainty for a new kind of modernity? Expertise in an age of risk.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munk, A.

    2009-04-01

    Modernity is not what it used to be (see for example Giddens 1991, Beck 1992, Bauman 2000, Luhman 2005). It has, so the sociologists tell us, mutated in order to thrive in a new age of risk and uncertainty. Some might say that it is not quite thriving yet. Whereas old modernity relied on experts to evaluate the problems opposing society and devise solutions for them - savoir pour prevoir, prevoir pour pouvoir - new modernity can no longer indulge in such straightforwardness. The hazards facing us have become so undeniably complex and in multiple ways produced by the very social activities they threaten, that uncontroversial fixes based on indisputable evidence can no longer be assumed. What role for expertise, then, in this increasingly complicated social landscape? As a starting point for thinking about this question, the paper sets out to explore the concept of uncertainty. After all, when it comes to hazards, this is what experts are expected to handle. Has it mutated as well? Does it make sense to speak of a new kind of uncertainty for a new kind of modernity? In its first modernity setting, uncertainty was what had to be transformed into some sort of certainty (see for example Latour 1999). In the case of the inherent uncertainties related to hazards and risk this task was accomplished with the emergence of probability theory and actuarial science (see for example Hacking 1979, 1990). Expertise in old modernity thus acquired a lot of its straightforwardness from its belief in uncomplicating uncertainty by transforming it into certainty. So, why is it still complicated? A crucial point in Latour's argument is that expertise works by reducing complexity in order to amplify facts (certainties). This requires a sense of direction and an agreement as to what is deemed important. Markets, for example, possess this. So do scientific communities and political institutions. But do the combined constituencies implicated by the complex risks facing society possess it

  4. Small modular reactor: First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) and Nth-of-a-Kind (NOAK) Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Boldon, Lauren M.; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-08-01

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) refer to any reactor design in which the electricity generated is less than 300 MWe. Often medium sized reactors with power less than 700 MWe are also grouped into this category. Internationally, the development of a variety of designs for SMRs is booming with many designs approaching maturity and even in or nearing the licensing stage. It is for this reason that a generalized yet comprehensive economic model for first of a kind (FOAK) through nth of a kind (NOAK) SMRs based upon rated power, plant configuration, and the fiscal environment was developed. In the model, a particular project’s feasibility is assessed with regards to market conditions and by commonly utilized capital budgeting techniques, such as the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), Payback, and more importantly, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for comparison to other energy production technologies. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the effects of changing debt, equity, interest rate, and conditions on the LCOE.

  5. What kind of animal is the "Three Rs"?

    PubMed

    Hobson-West, Pru

    2009-12-01

    Fifty years after the publication of The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique by Russell and Burch, this paper explores the contemporary role of the Three Rs. This is illustrated by reference to a recent social scientific study, which involved a total of 50 in-depth interviews with scientists who use animals and with other stakeholders in the debate. The data analysis shows how the Three Rs are conceptualised in at least three ways: firstly, as an ethical animal, either as a shorthand for a moral imperative, or as a route to managing an ethical dilemma; secondly, as a scientific animal, internal to the scientific method; and finally, as a political animal, with some stakeholders referring to the Three Rs as a way to promote consensus in a controversial domain. Pushing the metaphor a little further, the paper concludes that the Three Rs concept has become a kind of hybrid animal.

  6. Combating terrorism - a response in kind. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Lum, T.

    1987-05-13

    Outside of armed conflicts representing nations with forces in uniforms, another kind of war has emerged waged by terrorists. For the past twenty years terrorists have waged war against nations for a variety of reasons. No rules of war govern their conduct nor do they observe any. Methods of combatting terrorism vary from nation to nation. Few nations agree totally on how to combat this form of lawlessness. This essay examines one approach and suggests another. President Reagan's ultimate decision to bomb Libya is examined through a discussion of the events, repercussions of these events, and world opinion of these events that preceded his decision. A harsher, more-controlled and personal approach to combatting terrorism is suggested and discussed.

  7. Loving kindness: the essential Buddhist contribution to primary care.

    PubMed

    Aung, S K H

    1996-04-01

    Loving kindness (metta), a traditional Buddhist concept, implies acting with compassion toward all sentient beings, with an awareness and appreciation of the natural world. The giving of metta, an integral part of Buddhist medicine, has the potential to enhance modern primary health care. Metta must be given with selflessness (saydana), compassion (karuna), and sympathetic joy (mudita). For the believer, Gautama Siddhartha, the Buddha, is the Supreme Healer. His ancient but timeless message of metta is alive and well today, The Dalai Lama being it key proponent. The Buddhist system features several techniques, such as the Noble Eight-Fold-Path and the metta meditations, to keep physicians moving toward metta. One does not have to be a Buddhist to practice metta, or more humane medicine, and the notion of "tender loving care" is spreading in biomedical circles.

  8. What Kind of Animal is the “Three Rs”?

    PubMed Central

    Hobson-West, Pru

    2016-01-01

    Summary Fifty years after the publication of The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique by Russell and Burch, this paper explores the contemporary role of the Three Rs. This is illustrated by reference to a recent social scientific study, which involved a total of 50 in-depth interviews with scientists who use animals and with other stakeholders in the debate. The data analysis shows how the Three Rs are conceptualised in at least three ways: firstly, as an ethical animal, either as a shorthand for a moral imperative, or as a route to managing an ethical dilemma; secondly, as a scientific animal, internal to the scientific method; and finally, as a political animal, with some stakeholders referring to the Three Rs as a way to promote consensus in a controversial domain. Pushing the metaphor a little further, the paper concludes that the Three Rs concept has become a kind of hybrid animal. PMID:20105021

  9. A kind of fast shutter for Z pinch diagnosis device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liangping; Zhang, Xinjun; Sun, Tieping; Mao, Wentin

    2016-09-01

    A kind of fast shutter for protecting the diagnosis devices in Z pinch experiments is introduced in this paper. The shutter is composed of a pulling rod, a magnetic core, and a solenoid. Different from the traditional coils which were used at the voltage of 220 V, the solenoid we used must endure the high voltage of 5-10 kV and the deformation which maybe caused by the 5-10 T intense magnetic field. A creative configuration for the solenoid is developed including the winding guide, insulating sleeve, and stainless-steel sleeve. The experimental results show that the configuration of the solenoid is effective. The velocity of the valve is nearly 19 m/s and the time jitter of the shutdown is within 75 μs.

  10. Spectrum of Volterra integral operator of the second kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amangaliyeva, Meiramkul; Jenaliyev, Muvasharkhan; Ergaliev, Madi; Ramazanov, Murat

    2016-08-01

    The article addresses the singular Volterra integral equation of the second kind, which has the 'incompressible' kernel. It is shown that the corresponding homogeneous equation on |λ| ≥ exp{|arg λ|}, arg λ ∈ [-π,π] has a continuous spectrum, and the multiplicity of the characteristic numbers grows with increasing |λ|. We use the Carleman-Vekua regularization method. We introduce the characteristic integral equation. We prove that the initial integral equation has eigen-functions, the multiplicity of which depends on the value of the spectral parameter λ. We prove the solvability theorem of the nonhomogeneous equation in a case when the right-hand side of the equation belongs to a certain class.

  11. Fast-mapping placeholders: Using words to talk about kinds

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Brandone, Amanda C.

    2010-01-01

    Fast-mapping is the ability to acquire a word rapidly on the basis of minimal information. As proposed by Carey (1978), we assume that children are able to achieve fast-mapping because their initial word meanings are skeletal placeholders that will be extended gradually over time. In this paper we propose that a notion of “kind” is fundamental to children's initial mappings for object labels. We illustrate this point by considering the acquisition of generic noun phrases, which are understood by children as kind-referring from very early on. We argue that the acquisition of generics has implications for mechanisms of word learning. Evidence suggests that generics cannot be acquired solely on the basis of associative learning mechanisms; rather, they are a default interpretation for young children. PMID:22068229

  12. Different kinds of bilinguals: different kinds of brains: the neural organisation of two languages in one brain.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Maija S; Tamminen, Henna; Toivonen, Heidi; Kujala, Teija; Näätänen, Risto

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the type of bilingualism affects neural organisation. We performed identification experiments and mismatch negativity (MMN) registrations in Finnish and Swedish language settings to see, whether behavioural identification and neurophysiological discrimination of vowels depend on the linguistic context, and whether there is a difference between two kinds of bilinguals. The stimuli were two vowels, which differentiate meaning in Finnish, but not in Swedish. The results indicate that Balanced Bilinguals are inconsistent in identification performance, and they have a longer MMN latency. Moreover, their MMN amplitude is context-independent, while Dominant Bilinguals show a larger MMN in the Finnish context. These results indicate that Dominant Bilinguals inhibit the preattentive discrimination of native contrast in a context where the distinction is non-phonemic, but this is not possible for Balanced Bilinguals. This implies that Dominant Bilinguals have separate systems, while Balanced Bilinguals have one inseparable system.

  13. 7 CFR 201.36b - Name of kind and variety; designation as hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Name of kind and variety; designation as hybrid. 201... as hybrid. (a) The representation of the name of a kind or kind and variety of seed in any... Simpson and Henderson Bush Lima. Seed shall not be designated as hybrid seed in any advertisement...

  14. 7 CFR 201.36b - Name of kind and variety; designation as hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Name of kind and variety; designation as hybrid. 201... as hybrid. (a) The representation of the name of a kind or kind and variety of seed in any... Simpson and Henderson Bush Lima. Seed shall not be designated as hybrid seed in any advertisement...

  15. Immersion freezing of different kinds of combustion ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Grawe, Sarah; Hellner, Lisa; Wex, Heike; Pettersson, Jan B. C.; Stratmann, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Ice particles in the atmosphere influence both, weather and climate. Therefore it is important to know which kind of particles can act as ice nucleating particles (INP) under atmospheric conditions. In the last years, a lot of effort has been made to investigate the freezing abilities of natural INPs such as dusts and biological particles (Murray et al., 2012, Hoose and Möhler, 2012). However, there are only a few investigations concerning the ice nucleation ability of combustion ashes, which are the remains of fossil fuel and wood combustion and thus a possible source for anthropogenic INPs. Ash particles have similar compositions as mineral dust particles. However, the actual contribution of combustion ash particles to the atmospheric ice nucleation is rather unclear. A recent study by Umo et al. (2014) showed that combustion ashes could have a significant impact on the ice nucleation in clouds and thus should be the focus of further research. Ash particles can be lifted to the atmosphere by wind (bottom ashes) or directly during the combustion process (fly ashes). In the present study we investigated the freezing behavior of bottom ash particles which originated from wood as well as from coal. Additionally we investigated particles from fly ash from a coal-fired power plant. Particles were generated by dry dispersion and afterwards size selected with a differential mobility analyzer (DMA). The immersion freezing ability of the different ash particles was quantified utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS, Hartmann et al., 2011), where exactly one size segregated ash particle is immersed in a droplet. We found significant differences between the freezing abilities of the different ash types. Particles from wood bottom ashes initiate freezing at rather low temperatures near the homogenous freezing point (around -36°C). Particles from coal bottom ashes show significant higher ice nucleation abilities than the wood bottom ash, with

  16. Giant Radio Jet Coming From Wrong Kind of Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Giant jets of subatomic particles moving at nearly the speed of light have been found coming from thousands of galaxies across the Universe, but always from elliptical galaxies or galaxies in the process of merging -- until now. Using the combined power of the Hubble Space Telescope, the Very Large Array (VLA) and the 8-meter Gemini-South Telescope, astronomers have discovered a huge jet coming from a spiral galaxy similar to our own Milky Way. Radio-optical view of galaxy Combined HST and VLA image of the galaxy 0313-192. Optical HST image shows the galaxy edge-on; VLA image, shown in red, reveals giant jet of speeding particles. For more images, see this link below. CREDIT: Keel, Ledlow & Owen; STScI,NRAO/AUI/NSF, NASA "We've always thought spirals were the wrong kind of galaxy to generate these huge jets, but now we're going to have to re-think some of our ideas on what produces these jets," said William Keel, a University of Alabama astronomer who led the research team. Keel worked with Michael Ledlow of Gemini Observatory and Frazer Owen of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The scientists reported their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Seattle, Washington. "Further study of this galaxy may provide unique insights on just what needs to happen in a galaxy to produce these powerful jets of particles," Keel said. In addition, Owen said, "The loose-knit nature of the cluster of galaxies in which this galaxy resides may play a part in allowing this particular spiral to produce jets." Astronomers believe such jets originate at the cores of galaxies, where supermassive black holes provide the tremendous gravitational energy to accelerate particles to nearly the speed of light. Magnetic fields twisted tightly by spinning disks of material being sucked into the black hole are presumed to narrow the speeding particles into thin jets, like a nozzle on a garden hose. Both elliptical and spiral galaxies are believed to harbor supermassive

  17. Children show heightened knew-it-all-along errors when learning new facts about kinds: Evidence for the power of kind representations in children's thinking.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Shelbie L; Cimpian, Andrei

    2015-08-01

    Several proposals in the literature on conceptual development converge on the claim that information about kinds of things in the world has a privileged status in children's cognition, insofar as it is acquired, manipulated, and stored with surprising ease. Our goal in the present studies (N = 440) was to test a prediction of this claim. Specifically, if the early cognitive system privileges kind (or generic) information in the proposed ways, then learning new facts about kinds should be so seamless that it is often accompanied by an impression that these facts were known all along. To test this prediction, we presented 4- to 7-year-old children with novel kind-wide and individual-specific facts, and we then asked children whether they had prior knowledge of these facts. As predicted, children were under the impression that they had known the kind-wide facts more often than the individual-specific facts, even though in reality they had just learned both (Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5). Importantly, learning facts about (nongeneric) plural sets of individuals was not similarly accompanied by heightened knew-it-all-along errors (Experiment 4), highlighting the privileged status of kind information per se. Finally, we found that young children were able to correctly recognize their previous ignorance of newly learned generic facts when this ignorance was made salient before the learning event (Experiment 6), suggesting that children's frequent knew-it-all-along impressions about such facts truly stem from metacognitive difficulties rather than being a methodological artifact. In sum, these 6 studies indicate that learning information about kinds is accompanied by heightened knew-it-all-along errors. More broadly, this evidence supports the view that early cognition privileges kind representations. PMID:26147777

  18. Children show heightened knew-it-all-along errors when learning new facts about kinds: Evidence for the power of kind representations in children's thinking.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Shelbie L; Cimpian, Andrei

    2015-08-01

    Several proposals in the literature on conceptual development converge on the claim that information about kinds of things in the world has a privileged status in children's cognition, insofar as it is acquired, manipulated, and stored with surprising ease. Our goal in the present studies (N = 440) was to test a prediction of this claim. Specifically, if the early cognitive system privileges kind (or generic) information in the proposed ways, then learning new facts about kinds should be so seamless that it is often accompanied by an impression that these facts were known all along. To test this prediction, we presented 4- to 7-year-old children with novel kind-wide and individual-specific facts, and we then asked children whether they had prior knowledge of these facts. As predicted, children were under the impression that they had known the kind-wide facts more often than the individual-specific facts, even though in reality they had just learned both (Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5). Importantly, learning facts about (nongeneric) plural sets of individuals was not similarly accompanied by heightened knew-it-all-along errors (Experiment 4), highlighting the privileged status of kind information per se. Finally, we found that young children were able to correctly recognize their previous ignorance of newly learned generic facts when this ignorance was made salient before the learning event (Experiment 6), suggesting that children's frequent knew-it-all-along impressions about such facts truly stem from metacognitive difficulties rather than being a methodological artifact. In sum, these 6 studies indicate that learning information about kinds is accompanied by heightened knew-it-all-along errors. More broadly, this evidence supports the view that early cognition privileges kind representations.

  19. 13 CFR 107.1580 - Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1580 Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees. (a)...

  20. 43 CFR 3195.12 - What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS General Information § 3195.12 What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract? It is a written contract between BLM...

  1. 43 CFR 3195.12 - What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS General Information § 3195.12 What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract? It is a written contract between BLM...

  2. 43 CFR 3195.12 - What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS General Information § 3195.12 What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract? It is a written contract between BLM...

  3. 9 CFR 381.165 - “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... heat.â 381.165 Section 381.165 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.165 “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated that has been cooked by the action of moist heat...

  4. 9 CFR 381.165 - “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... heat.â 381.165 Section 381.165 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.165 “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated that has been cooked by the action of moist heat...

  5. 9 CFR 381.165 - “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... heat.â 381.165 Section 381.165 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.165 “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated that has been cooked by the action of moist heat...

  6. 9 CFR 381.165 - “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... heat.â 381.165 Section 381.165 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.165 “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated that has been cooked by the action of moist heat...

  7. 9 CFR 381.165 - “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... heat.â 381.165 Section 381.165 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.165 “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated that has been cooked by the action of moist heat...

  8. 36 CFR 1254.1 - What kinds of archival materials may I use for research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What kinds of archival... MATERIALS General Information § 1254.1 What kinds of archival materials may I use for research? (a) The... chapter. (d) The majority of our archival materials are 30 years old or older. (e) Records...

  9. 25 CFR 900.53 - What kind of records shall the property management system maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Property Management System Standards § 900.53 What kind of records shall the property management system maintain? The... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What kind of records shall the property management...

  10. 25 CFR 900.53 - What kind of records shall the property management system maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Property Management System Standards § 900.53 What kind of records shall the property management system maintain? The... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What kind of records shall the property management...

  11. 7 CFR 201.36b - Name of kind and variety; designation as hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Name of kind and variety; designation as hybrid. 201.36b Section 201.36b Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... to color, shape, size, habit of growth, disease-resistance, or other characteristics of the kind...

  12. Evidence for Kind Representations in the Absence of Language: Experiments with Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Webb; Santos, Laurie R.

    2007-01-01

    How do we come to recognize and represent different kinds of objects in the world? Some developmental psychologists have hypothesized that learning language plays a crucial role in this capacity. If this hypothesis were correct, then non-linguistic animals should lack the capacity to represent objects as kinds. Previous research with rhesus…

  13. 45 CFR 2554.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What kind of conduct will result in program fraud...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 2554.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who...

  14. Loving-kindness meditation for posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kearney, David J; Malte, Carol A; McManus, Carolyn; Martinez, Michelle E; Felleman, Ben; Simpson, Tracy L

    2013-08-01

    Loving-kindness meditation is a practice designed to enhance feelings of kindness and compassion for self and others. Loving-kindness meditation involves repetition of phrases of positive intention for self and others. We undertook an open pilot trial of loving-kindness meditation for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Measures of PTSD, depression, self-compassion, and mindfulness were obtained at baseline, after a 12-week loving-kindness meditation course, and 3 months later. Effect sizes were calculated from baseline to each follow-up point, and self-compassion was assessed as a mediator. Attendance was high; 74% attended 9-12 classes. Self-compassion increased with large effect sizes and mindfulness increased with medium to large effect sizes. A large effect size was found for PTSD symptoms at 3-month follow-up (d = -0.89), and a medium effect size was found for depression at 3-month follow-up (d = -0.49). There was evidence of mediation of reductions in PTSD symptoms and depression by enhanced self-compassion. Overall, loving-kindness meditation appeared safe and acceptable and was associated with reduced symptoms of PTSD and depression. Additional study of loving-kindness meditation for PTSD is warranted to determine whether the changes seen are due to the loving-kindness meditation intervention versus other influences, including concurrent receipt of other treatments.

  15. 25 CFR 26.27 - What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect? 26.27 Section 26.27 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM Job Placement Services § 26.27 What kind of Job Placement support...

  16. 25 CFR 26.27 - What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect? 26.27 Section 26.27 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM Job Placement Services § 26.27 What kind of Job Placement support...

  17. Character Education: Students Develop "The Kindness Company" to Benefit Local Charities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Dorothy

    2004-01-01

    One can develop a family and consumer sciences (FCS) course that teaches character education, and allows students to experience the good feelings that come from helping others through The Kindness Company. The Kindness Company is a simulated company that produces items for donation to local charitable organizations. Students get management…

  18. 45 CFR 2554.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What kind of conduct will result in program fraud...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 2554.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who...

  19. 45 CFR 2554.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What kind of conduct will result in program fraud...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 2554.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who...

  20. 45 CFR 2554.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What kind of conduct will result in program fraud...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 2554.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who...

  1. 45 CFR 2554.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What kind of conduct will result in program fraud...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 2554.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who...

  2. 7 CFR 201.48 - Kind or variety considered pure seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kind or variety considered pure seed. 201.48 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.48 Kind...

  3. 7 CFR 201.48 - Kind or variety considered pure seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Kind or variety considered pure seed. 201.48 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.48 Kind...

  4. 7 CFR 201.48 - Kind or variety considered pure seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Kind or variety considered pure seed. 201.48 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.48 Kind...

  5. 7 CFR 201.48 - Kind or variety considered pure seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Kind or variety considered pure seed. 201.48 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.48 Kind...

  6. 43 CFR 3195.12 - What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS General Information § 3195.12 What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract? It is a written contract between BLM...

  7. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6,...

  8. 31 CFR 597.511 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. (c) U.S. financial institutions are authorized to conduct all... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July...

  9. 31 CFR 597.511 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. (c) U.S. financial institutions are authorized to conduct all... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July...

  10. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6,...

  11. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine....515 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6,...

  12. 31 CFR 597.511 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. (c) U.S. financial institutions are authorized to conduct all... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine... Licensing Policy § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services....

  13. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6,...

  14. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6,...

  15. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6,...

  16. 31 CFR 597.511 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. (c) U.S. financial institutions are authorized to conduct all... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July...

  17. 31 CFR 597.511 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. (c) U.S. financial institutions are authorized to conduct all... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July...

  18. Artifacts and natural kinds: children's judgments about whether objects are owned.

    PubMed

    Neary, Karen R; Van de Vondervoort, Julia W; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    People's behavior in relation to objects depends on whether they are owned. But how do people judge whether objects are owned? We propose that people expect human-made objects (artifacts) to be more likely to be owned than naturally occurring objects (natural kinds), and we examine the development of these expectations in young children. Experiment 1 found that when shown pictures of familiar kinds of objects, 3-year-olds expected artifacts to be owned and inanimate natural kinds to be non-owned. In Experiments 2A and 2B, 3-6-year-olds likewise had different expectations about the ownership of unfamiliar artifacts and natural kinds. Children at all ages viewed unfamiliar natural kinds as non-owned, but children younger than 6 years of age only endorsed artifacts as owned at chance rates. In Experiment 3, children saw the same pictures but were also told whether objects were human-made. With this information provided, even 3-year-olds viewed unfamiliar artifacts as owned. Finally, in Experiment 4, 4- and 5-year-olds chose unfamiliar artifacts over natural kinds when judging which object in a pair belongs to a person, but not when judging which the person prefers. These experiments provide first evidence about how children judge whether objects are owned. In contrast to claims that children think about natural kinds as being similar to artifacts, the current findings reveal that children have differing expectations about whether they are owned.

  19. Children Show Heightened Knew-It-All-Along Errors When Learning New Facts about Kinds: Evidence for the Power of Kind Representations in Children's Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Cimpian, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Several proposals in the literature on conceptual development converge on the claim that information about "kinds of things" in the world has a privileged status in children's cognition, insofar as it is acquired, manipulated, and stored with surprising ease. Our goal in the present studies (N = 440) was to test a prediction of this…

  20. KIND Reproducibles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KIND Teacher, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Presented are 14 student worksheets for use in teaching the care and humane treatment of animals. Topics of these games, puzzles include both domestic pets and wild animals. An answer sheet for teachers is included. (CW)

  1. KIND Reproducibles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KIND Teacher, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 14 student worksheets for use in teaching the care of and humane treatment of animals. Topics of these games and puzzles include state animal trivia, domestic pets and wild animals. An answer sheet for teachers is included. (CW)

  2. KIND Reproducibles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KIND Teacher, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 14 student worksheets for use in teaching about environmental conservation. Topics of these games, puzzles include pollution, rainforests, endangered species, habitat destruction, and solid waste. An answer sheet for teachers is included. (CW)

  3. Histochemical Investigation and Kinds of Alkaloids in Leaves of Different Developmental Stages in Thymus quinquecostatus

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Haiting; Liu, Jing; Liu, Hanzhu; Xin, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Thymus quinquecostatus, with more medical value, is a kind of wild plants. In order to exploit and utilize this plant, we studied the species and locations of alkaloids in its leaves. In this paper, histochemical study of leaves at different developing stages was taken to localize the alkaloids. Meanwhile, the kinds and content of alkaloids in leaves were identified using GC-MS technique. It was found that there were two kinds of glandular trichomes, namely, peltate trichomes and capitate trichomes, on the surface of leaves, and their secretory cells could secrete alkaloids. Results showed that trichomes could secrete alkaloids as soon as the first pair of leaves formed, and there were altogether 18 kinds of alkaloids identified by GC-MS. Nearly all of these alkaloids of leaves at different developing stages were distinct from each other, except one, 3-methoxy-a-methyl-benzeneethanamine, persists at different developing stages with high concentration. PMID:25101324

  4. Communicative function demonstration induces kind-based artifact representation in preverbal infants.

    PubMed

    Futó, Judit; Téglás, Erno; Csibra, Gergely; Gergely, György

    2010-10-01

    Human infants grow up in environments populated by artifacts. In order to acquire knowledge about different kinds of human-made objects, children have to be able to focus on the information that is most relevant for sorting artifacts into categories. Traditional theories emphasize the role of superficial, perceptual features in object categorization. In the case of artifacts, however, it is possible that abstract, non-obvious properties, like functions, may form the basis of artifact kind representations from an early age. Using an object individuation paradigm we addressed the question whether non-verbal communicative demonstration of the functional use of artifacts makes young infants represent such objects in terms of their kinds. When two different functions were sequentially demonstrated on two novel objects as they emerged one-by-one from behind a screen, 10-month-old infants inferred the presence of two objects behind the occluder. We further show that both the presence of communicative signals and causal intervention are necessary for 10-month-olds to generate such a numerical expectation. We also found that communicative demonstration of two different functions of a single artifact generated the illusion of the presence of two objects. This suggests that information on artifact function was used as an indicator of kind membership, and infants expected one specific function to define one specific artifact kind. Thus, contrary to previous accounts, preverbal infants' specific sensitivity to object function underlies, guides, and supports their learning about artifacts.

  5. Identification of different kinds of plastics using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for waste management.

    PubMed

    Gondal, Mohammed A; Siddiqui, Mohammad N

    2007-11-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied for the identification of various kinds of plastics for management and recycling of plastic waste. In order to fingerprint these plastics, a laser-produced plasma emission was recorded for spectral analysis of various kinds of plastics. The plasma was generated by focusing a Nd:YAG laser radiation at wavelength = 1064 nm having laser energy = 40 mJ. The 6 main family of plastics tested are: Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE), High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Polypropylenes (PP), Polystyrene (PS), Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) and Polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The capability of this technique is demonstrated by the analysis of the major constituents carbon and hydrogen present in polymer matrices. The LIBS signal intensity measured for carbon and hydrogen was detrimental for the fingerprinting of various kinds of plastics. The C/H line intensity ratio was 1.68, 1.51, 1.42, 1.16, 1.01 and 0.91 for HDPE, LDPE, PS, PP, PET and PVC respectively. The detection limits of carbon and hydrogen were found to be approximately 6 micro g/g by applying 20 laser shots. The unique features of LIBS are: it is a simple, rapid, remote, real-time analysis without sampling requirements. The study demonstrated that LIBS could be applied as a best tool for sorting out different kinds plastics on a fast scale for waste management. The health hazards of different kinds of plastics are also described.

  6. [Chloroplast ultrastructure and photosynthetic characteristics of five kinds of dandelion (Taraxacum) leaves in northeast China].

    PubMed

    Ning, Wei; Wu, Jie; Zhao, Ting; Zhao, Xin; Li, Tianlai

    2012-05-01

    The paper adopted the JEM-100CX II transmission electron microscope to observe chloroplast ultrastructure of five kinds of dandelion (Taraxacum) leaves in northeast, and the LI-6400 portable photosynthesis system was used to compare the chlorophyll fluorescence and the photosynthesis characteristics of five kinds of dandelions in Northeast China. Chloroplast ultrastructure showed: in the five kinds of dandelion, larger chloroplast, grana with more layers, regular thylakoid, without starch grains and so on, these chloroplasts characteristics decided to bigger photosynthetic rate. The five kinds of dandelion P(n) exhibited a "double peak" diurnal curve: stomatal limitation is the main adjustment factors for the midday depression phenomenon. The P(n),G(s),C(i) content of T. mongolicum are the highest, and T. asiaticum are the lowest among them. The relation between P(n) and G(s),C(i) is direct ratio, P(n) and T(r) is in an inverse proportion among the five kinds of dandelion. In addition, P(n) is positively correlated with Chla, Chlb, and the relationship with Chlb is bigger. The paper demonstrates the Mongolian dandelion photosynthetic efficiency is the highest, it is an higher photosynthetic efficiency dandelion,it provide theoretical basis for assessment and use of the resource of dandelion.

  7. Communicative function demonstration induces kind-based artifact representation in preverbal infants.

    PubMed

    Futó, Judit; Téglás, Erno; Csibra, Gergely; Gergely, György

    2010-10-01

    Human infants grow up in environments populated by artifacts. In order to acquire knowledge about different kinds of human-made objects, children have to be able to focus on the information that is most relevant for sorting artifacts into categories. Traditional theories emphasize the role of superficial, perceptual features in object categorization. In the case of artifacts, however, it is possible that abstract, non-obvious properties, like functions, may form the basis of artifact kind representations from an early age. Using an object individuation paradigm we addressed the question whether non-verbal communicative demonstration of the functional use of artifacts makes young infants represent such objects in terms of their kinds. When two different functions were sequentially demonstrated on two novel objects as they emerged one-by-one from behind a screen, 10-month-old infants inferred the presence of two objects behind the occluder. We further show that both the presence of communicative signals and causal intervention are necessary for 10-month-olds to generate such a numerical expectation. We also found that communicative demonstration of two different functions of a single artifact generated the illusion of the presence of two objects. This suggests that information on artifact function was used as an indicator of kind membership, and infants expected one specific function to define one specific artifact kind. Thus, contrary to previous accounts, preverbal infants' specific sensitivity to object function underlies, guides, and supports their learning about artifacts. PMID:20605019

  8. The benefit of interleaved mathematics practice is not limited to superficially similar kinds of problems.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, Doug; Dedrick, Robert F; Burgess, Kaleena

    2014-10-01

    Most mathematics assignments consist of a group of problems requiring the same strategy. For example, a lesson on the quadratic formula is typically followed by a block of problems requiring students to use that formula, which means that students know the appropriate strategy before they read each problem. In an alternative approach, different kinds of problems appear in an interleaved order, which requires students to choose the strategy on the basis of the problem itself. In the classroom-based experiment reported here, grade 7 students (n = 140) received blocked or interleaved practice over a nine-week period, followed two weeks later by an unannounced test. The mean test scores were greater for material learned by interleaved practice rather than by blocked practice (72 % vs. 38 %, d = 1.05). This interleaving effect was observed even though the different kinds of problems were superficially dissimilar from each other, whereas previous interleaved mathematics studies had required students to learn nearly identical kinds of problems. We conclude that interleaving improves mathematics learning not only by improving discrimination between different kinds of problems, but also by strengthening the association between each kind of problem and its corresponding strategy.

  9. [Acupuncture technique of "five elements motion and six kinds of qi"].

    PubMed

    Su, Xulin

    2015-07-01

    The origin and development of "five elements motion and six kinds of qi" acupuncture technique are reviewed, and acupuncture for treatment and prevention of disorders of "five elements motion and six kinds of qi" is summarized. Also its principle is analyzed. Problems such as the inconformity of acupoint selection, lack of systematic theory are discussed. It is pointed out that, instead of indiscriminate copy, treatment should be based on the observation of the transportation and transformation of qi; it is suggested that the classics should be inherited and innovated, combining the tradition with contemporary, and according to a sixty-year cycle, the acupuncture technique of "five elements motion and six kinds of qi" can be improved systematically for promotion and application. PMID:26521595

  10. NONVERBAL GENERICS: Human Infants Interpret Objects as Symbols of Object Kinds

    PubMed Central

    Csibra, Gergely; Shamsudheen, Rubeena

    2015-01-01

    Human infants are involved in communicative interactions with others well before they start to speak or understand language. It is generally thought that this communication is useful for establishing interpersonal relations and supporting joint activities, but, in the absence of symbolic functions that language provides, these early communicative contexts do not allow infants to learn about the world. However, recent studies suggest that when someone demonstrates something using an object as the medium of instruction, infants can conceive the object as an exemplar of the whole class of objects of the same kind. Thus, an object, just like a word, can play the role of a symbol that stands for something else than itself, and infants can learn generic knowledge about a kind of object from nonverbal communication about a single item of that kind. This rudimentary symbolic capacity may be one of the roots of the development of symbolic understanding in children. PMID:25251493

  11. Two kinds of magnetic gauge potentials due to coherent effect in two-gap superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xuguang

    2016-10-01

    Two-component Ginzburg-Landau model with one magnetic gauge potential can be used to describe the physical properties of two-gap superconductor. When the order parameters in two-gap superconductor have different phases, the gauge invariance will be destroyed. In order to preserve gauge invariance, two kinds of gauge potentials must be introduced. For seeking the origins of two kinds of gauge potentials, one suggests two kinds of order parameters are in the coherent state. Therefore, two different gauge potentials and masses of the order parameters arise through deducing the super-current of the coherent state. As a result, two different gauge potentials lead to different magnetic fields at the zero points of the order parameters. In other places, the gauge potentials have no contributions to the magnetic field. Moreover, the topological properties of two different gauge potentials are discussed in detail.

  12. [Elementary SERS spectroscopy studies of three kinds of pathogens in Ag colloids prepared by microwave method].

    PubMed

    Zhang, De-Qing; Si, Min-Zhen; Liu, Ren-Ming; Su, Yong-Bo

    2013-04-01

    The normal Raman (NR) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for Alternaria alternate, Colletotrichum musae, and fusarium suspensions were measured by a portable Raman spectrometer (785 nm). The result indicates that the silver colloid prepared by microwave method shows high enhancement of Raman scattering for the three kinds of pathogens. Comparing SERS spectrums of the three kinds of pathogens, there are some similarities. In these SERS spectrums, the peaks in the range of 500-1 000 cm(-1) are very weak. Additionally, the peaks in the range of 1 000-1 600 cm(-1) are strong. Meanwhile, the peak at 481 cm(-1) is the strongest. Although these spectrums are similar, there are some differences such as the distribution and shape of peaks. Therefore, the three kinds of pathogens can be discriminated quickly.

  13. Remembering kinds: new evidence that categories are privileged in children's thinking.

    PubMed

    Cimpian, Andrei; Erickson, Lucy C

    2012-05-01

    What are the representations and learning mechanisms that underlie conceptual development? The present research provides evidence in favor of the claim that this process is guided by an early-emerging predisposition to think and learn about abstract kinds. Specifically, three studies (N=192) demonstrated that 4- to 7-year-old children have better recall for novel information about kinds (e.g., that dogs catch a bug called "fep") than for similar information about individuals (e.g., that a particular dog catches a bug called "fep"). By showing that children are particularly likely to retain information about kinds, this work not only provides a first empirical demonstration of a phenomenon that may be key to conceptual development but also makes it apparent that young children's thinking is suffused with abstractions rather than being perceptually-based and concrete.

  14. Depression and suicide are natural kinds: implications for physician-assisted suicide.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Jonathan Y

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I argue that depression and suicide are natural kinds insofar as they are classes of abnormal behavior underwritten by sets of stable biological mechanisms. In particular, depression and suicide are neurobiological kinds characterized by disturbances in serotonin functioning that affect various brain areas (i.e., the amygdala, anterior cingulate, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus). The significance of this argument is that the natural (biological) basis of depression and suicide allows for reliable projectable inferences (i.e., predictions) to be made about individual members of a kind. In the context of assisted suicide, inferences about the decision-making capacity of depressed individuals seeking physician-assisted suicide are of special interest. I examine evidence that depression can hamper the decision-making capacity of individuals seeking assisted suicide and discuss some implications.

  15. Nonverbal generics: human infants interpret objects as symbols of object kinds.

    PubMed

    Csibra, Gergely; Shamsudheen, Rubeena

    2015-01-01

    Human infants are involved in communicative interactions with others well before they start to speak or understand language. It is generally thought that this communication is useful for establishing interpersonal relations and supporting joint activities, but, in the absence of symbolic functions that language provides, these early communicative contexts do not allow infants to learn about the world. However, recent studies suggest that when someone demonstrates something using an object as the medium of instruction, infants can conceive the object as an exemplar of the whole class of objects of the same kind. Thus, an object, just like a word, can play the role of a symbol that stands for something else than itself, and infants can learn general knowledge about a kind of object from nonverbal communication about a single item of that kind. This rudimentary symbolic capacity may be one of the roots of the development of symbolic understanding in children. PMID:25251493

  16. Fragments and absences: language and loss in Miriam Toews's A complicated kindness.

    PubMed

    Steffler, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Miriam Toews resists the conventional narrative of the adolescent leaving the small town, proposing instead that the community deserts Nomi Nickel. Nomi, facing maternal absence and the loss of her mother tongue, attempts to use linguistic and material fragments to connect word and world. Suffering from multiple and inexplicable desertions, she rejects the community's intolerance but values its kindness. Her contradictory responses to Plautdietsch, which is both deserting her and being rejected by her, complicate and challenge the concrete words and signs of adolescent protest and rebellion. Binaries separating word and world, kindness and judgement, margin and centre are challenged and collapsed in the course of Nomi's narrative. PMID:20715328

  17. [How do I assess requirement of a blood bank and its kind for a healthcare establishment?].

    PubMed

    Lafeuillade, B; Tixier, A; Bliem, C; Meyer, F

    2014-12-01

    Access to blood components is required for healthcare establishments, particularly for emergency situation and hospital blood bank was often a response to this requirement. However, the complexity of regulation and economic pressures lead healthcare establishment to review regularly their need for a blood bank. This assessment requires analysis of need for transfusions in terms of delay, quantity and clinical situations to which they must respond. When a blood bank is required, three kinds could be under consideration: emergency blood bank, intermediate blood bank and issuance blood bank. According to requirements, advantages and disadvantages of each kind, healthcare establishments would select the most suitable one.

  18. Distinguishing of different kinds of gunpowder using various methods based on terahertz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavenda, Tomáš; Křesálek, Vojtěch

    2014-10-01

    This article provides information about using terahertz radiation based methods such as time-domain spectroscopy, ATR spectroscopy and terahertz reflection imaging for distinguishing of different kinds of gunpowder. The findings in this article prove that gunpowder does not have any sharp peaks in terahertz region of electromagnetic spectrum up to 2.5 THz, but also prove that distinguishing of different kinds of gunpowder is possible using different methods based on terahertz radiation. All presented results are connected to absorbance of gunpowder and other measured materials, because comparison of absorbance analysis is essential for distinguishing of gunpowder samples.

  19. Using Current Literature Selections to Nurture the Development of Kindness in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeece, Pauline Davey

    2009-01-01

    Learning to display kindness and compassion for others is a critical and ongoing developmental process and an important part of young children's evolving social competence (Han and Kemple in "Early Child Educ J" 34(3):241-246, 2006; Moore in "Early Child Educ Today" 19(3):36-44, 2004). The capacity to care emanates from physical and psychological…

  20. Asymptotic behavior on a kind of parabolic Monge-Ampère equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Bao, Jiguang

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we apply level set and nonlinear perturbation methods to obtain the asymptotic behavior of the solution to a kind of parabolic Monge-Ampère equation at infinity. The Jörgens-Calabi-Pogorelov theorem for parabolic and elliptic Monge-Ampère equation can be regarded as special cases of our result.

  1. Artifacts and Natural Kinds: Children's Judgments about Whether Objects Are Owned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neary, Karen R.; Van de Vondervoort, Julia W.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    People's behavior in relation to objects depends on whether they are owned. But how do people judge whether objects are owned? We propose that people expect human-made objects (artifacts) to be more likely to be owned than naturally occurring objects (natural kinds), and we examine the development of these expectations in young children.…

  2. Communicative Function Demonstration Induces Kind-Based Artifact Representation in Preverbal Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futo, Judit; Teglas, Erno; Csibra, Gergely; Gergely, Gyorgy

    2010-01-01

    Human infants grow up in environments populated by artifacts. In order to acquire knowledge about different kinds of human-made objects, children have to be able to focus on the information that is most relevant for sorting artifacts into categories. Traditional theories emphasize the role of superficial, perceptual features in object…

  3. 13 CFR 123.5 - What kinds of loans are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What kinds of loans are available? 123.5 Section 123.5 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM... disaster home loans, physical disaster business loans, and economic injury business loans. SBA makes...

  4. Two Kinds of Scaffolding: The Dialectical Process within the Authenticity-Generalizability (A-G) Continuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Der-Thanq, Chen; David, Hung W. L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses problems relating to situated cognition and cognitivist approaches to learning and instruction. Contends that authenticity and generalizability are compatible; introduces the notion of the authenticity-Generalizability (A-G) continuum, where the emphasis should be scaffolding within the continuum; and proposes two kinds of information…

  5. 75 FR 51467 - ASK (Assess Specific Kinds of CHILDREN Challenges for Neurologic Devices) Study Children Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration ASK (Assess Specific Kinds of CHILDREN Challenges for Neurologic Devices) Study Children Workshop; Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  6. Machine-Aided Indexing in Practice: An Encounter with Automatic Indexing of the Third Kind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingbiel, Paul H.

    This three-part report includes a brief history of the Defense Documentation Center (DDC) with a description of the collections and their accessibility; categorization of automatic indexing into three kinds with a brief description of the DDC system of machine-aided indexing; and an indication of some operational experiences with the system.…

  7. NUMBER AND KINDS OF CHILDREN'S RESIDENTIAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KUBY, ALMA M.; STAR, SHIRLEY A.

    A BYPRODUCT OF THE PROJECT ON PHYSICAL FACILITIES FOR GROUP CARE OF CHILDREN, THE REPORT LISTS THE NUMBER AND KINDS OF CHILDREN'S RESIDENTIAL INSTITUTIONS. TEN TABLES PROVIDE DATA AS OF SEPTEMBER 1965 ON THE TYPES AND AUSPICES OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE (BOTH VOLUNTARY AND PROPRIETARY) INSTITUTIONS, INCLUDING MATERNITY HOMES FOR UNMARRIED GIRLS, AND…

  8. How to Make Decisions with Different Kinds of Student Assessment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    In this book, best-selling author Susan M. Brookhart helps teachers and administrators understand the critical elements and nuances of assessment data and how that information can best be used to inform improvement efforts in the school or district. Readers will learn: (1) What different kinds of data can--and cannot--tell us about student…

  9. Polysemy and the Taxonomic Constraint: Children's Representation of Words That Label Multiple Kinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Mahesh; Snedeker, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    How do children resolve the problem of indeterminacy when learning a new word? By one account, children adopt a "taxonomic assumption" and expect the word to denote only members of a particular taxonomic category. According to one version of this constraint, young children should represent polysemous words that label multiple kinds--for…

  10. [Principles of optimal nutrition of sportsmen in various kinds of sport].

    PubMed

    Azizbekian, G A; Nikitiuk, D B; Pozdniakov, A L; Zilova, I S; Vybornaia, K V

    2010-01-01

    Basic principles of optimal nutrition of sportsmen in various kinds of sport are formulated. Their diet must be well-balanced in terms of all nutrients and contain essential vitamins and minerals. There is outlined an indispensable content of the basic nutrients in sportsmen's daily diet: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, as well as vitamins and minerals.

  11. Differentiating between Confrontive and Coercive Kinds of Parental Power-Assertive Disciplinary Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I differentiate between coercive and confrontive kinds of power assertion to elucidate the significantly different effects on children's well-being of authoritarian and authoritative styles of parental authority. Although both parenting styles (in contrast to the permissive style) are equally demanding, forceful, and…

  12. Comparative analysis of gene expression profiles of OPN signaling pathway in four kinds of liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gaiping; Chen, Shasha; Zhao, Congcong; Li, Xiaofang; Zhao, Weiming; Yang, Jing; Chang, Cuifang; Xu, Cunshuan

    2016-09-01

    To explore the relevance of OPN signalling pathway to the occurrence and development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), liver cirrhosis (LC), hepatic cancer (HC) and acute hepatic failure (AHF) at transcriptional level, Rat Genome 230 2.0 Array was used to detect expression profiles of OPN signalling pathway-related genes in four kinds of liver diseases. The results showed that 23, 33, 59 and 74 genes were significantly changed in the above four kinds of liver diseases, respectively. H-clustering analysis showed that the expression profiles of OPN signalling-related genes were notably different in four kinds of liver diseases. Subsequently, a total of above-mentioned 147 genes were categorized into four clusters by k-means according to the similarity of gene expression, and expression analysis systematic explorer (EASE) functional enrichment analysis revealed that OPN signalling pathway-related genes were involved in cell adhesion and migration, cell proliferation, apoptosis, stress and inflammatory reaction, etc. Finally, ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) software was used to predict the functions of OPN signalling-related genes, and the results indicated that the activities of ROS production, cell adhesion and migration, cell proliferation were remarkably increased, while that of apoptosis, stress and inflammatory reaction were reduced in four kinds of liver diseases. In summary, the above physiological activities changed more obviously in LC, HC and AHF than in NAFLD.

  13. Two Kinds of Deep Hole-Traps in Bi4Ge3O12 Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiqi; Cheng, Chaoyang; Yin, Zhiwen; M, R. Khamlary; P, D. Townsend

    1992-11-01

    This paper presents the thermoluminescence (TL) and the absorption spectra of a series of doped Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) crystal irradiated by ultraviolet light. By the representation of Fe: BGO and Mn: BGO, the formation mechanism of two kinds of deep TL traps was discussed, and also their association with the stability of color center.

  14. Coherence Formation when Learning from Text and Pictures: What Kind of Support for Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholome, Tobias; Bromme, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how 2 kinds of help when learning from text and pictures (mapping support and instructional guidance through prompts) influence the coherence formation process of integrating information into a mental model. It also explored spatial abilities and working memory span as potential moderators. In a computer-based setting, 84…

  15. A multi-agent dynamic model based on different kinds of bequests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jian; Pan, Qiuhui; Qian, Qian; He, Mingfeng; Sun, Qilin

    2013-03-01

    We investigate how wealth transfer that happens at the end of an agent’s life affects its final distribution based on a multi-agent dynamic model. We discuss two kinds of wealth transfers: to a single agent and to charities. The first kind of bequest is common in our realistic world and is always regarded by the public as unequal inheritance. The bequests to charities will be gathered and then equally redistributed among the survivors in our model. We find that when all the decedents choose the second kind of bequest, the final distribution is the Gibbs exponential function. When all the decedents choose the first kind of bequest, the result is condensation that a single individual accumulates all the available wealth. When an increasing portion of decedents choose the one-heir bequests, the exponential distribution evolves towards a power law shape (accompanied by deteriorating inequality). This shape firstly appears from the intermediate range of wealth and extends towards the top end of the simulated distribution, while the distribution remains exponential for high values of the wealth. At the same time, the Gini coefficient increases and the wealth accumulation becomes serious. At last, we analyze the source of the inequality. We find that not only unequal inheritances, but also equal division of the charity’s wealth can relatively contribute to an inequality of wealth distribution.

  16. 75 FR 15725 - Termination of Royalty-in-Kind (RIK) Eligible Refiner Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ...: March 18, 2010. Gregory J. Gould, Associate Director for Minerals Revenue Management. BILLING CODE 4310... Minerals Management Service Termination of Royalty-in-Kind (RIK) Eligible Refiner Program AGENCY: Minerals Management Service, Interior. ACTION: Advance notice for the termination of the RIK Eligible Refiner...

  17. The Distributional Impact of In-Kind Public Benefits in European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Alari; Sutherland, Holly; Tsakloglou, Panos

    2010-01-01

    International comparisons of inequality based on measures of disposable income may not be valid if the size and incidence of publicly provided in-kind benefits differ across the countries considered. The benefits that are financed by taxation in one country may need to be purchased out of disposable income in another. We estimate the size and…

  18. 25 CFR 1000.65 - What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation grants support?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Other Financial Assistance for Planning and Negotiation... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation... planning and negotiation grants support? The planning and negotiation grants support activities such...

  19. 27 CFR 19.643 - Brand name, kind, alcohol content, and State of distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... State of distillation may not be shown, except as part of the name and address required by 27 CFR 5.36(a... name and kind, as set out in 27 CFR part 5. (b) Alcohol content—(1) Mandatory statement. The label of... content, and State of distillation. 19.643 Section 19.643 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms...

  20. 14 CFR 189.3 - Kinds of messages accepted or relayed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Kinds of messages accepted or relayed. 189.3 Section 189.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...) Post flight reports for record purposes; (x) Publicity and special handling regarding dignitaries;...

  1. Riding the Information Highway--Towards a New Kind of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aro, Mikko; Olkinuora, Erkki

    2007-01-01

    In the modern world, skimming through information quickly and finding the important nuggets of knowledge from amongst the information overload is an essential skill. One way to train oneself for this kind of literacy is reading on the internet, which requires continuous assessment of search results and specifying searches. In this article a…

  2. Comparative analysis of gene expression profiles of OPN signaling pathway in four kinds of liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gaiping; Chen, Shasha; Zhao, Congcong; Li, Xiaofang; Zhao, Weiming; Yang, Jing; Chang, Cuifang; Xu, Cunshuan

    2016-09-01

    To explore the relevance of OPN signalling pathway to the occurrence and development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), liver cirrhosis (LC), hepatic cancer (HC) and acute hepatic failure (AHF) at transcriptional level, Rat Genome 230 2.0 Array was used to detect expression profiles of OPN signalling pathway-related genes in four kinds of liver diseases. The results showed that 23, 33, 59 and 74 genes were significantly changed in the above four kinds of liver diseases, respectively. H-clustering analysis showed that the expression profiles of OPN signalling-related genes were notably different in four kinds of liver diseases. Subsequently, a total of above-mentioned 147 genes were categorized into four clusters by k-means according to the similarity of gene expression, and expression analysis systematic explorer (EASE) functional enrichment analysis revealed that OPN signalling pathway-related genes were involved in cell adhesion and migration, cell proliferation, apoptosis, stress and inflammatory reaction, etc. Finally, ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) software was used to predict the functions of OPN signalling-related genes, and the results indicated that the activities of ROS production, cell adhesion and migration, cell proliferation were remarkably increased, while that of apoptosis, stress and inflammatory reaction were reduced in four kinds of liver diseases. In summary, the above physiological activities changed more obviously in LC, HC and AHF than in NAFLD. PMID:27659347

  3. Stories of Another Kind: Engaging in Generative Conversations in Pedagogical Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Many of us from what are referred to as "dominant cultures" are reluctant to speak because of fear of offending those who are marginalized and perhaps making matters worse. Over the last several years, I have attended talks on various kinds of discrimination, especially when racialization is the main focus. As a White woman of privilege, I often…

  4. Infrared Stars: The interaction between stars and interstellar clouds produces "infrared stars" of two different kinds.

    PubMed

    Johnson, H L

    1967-08-11

    Our searches for very cool stars have revealed three kinds of objects: very cool Mira stars, perhaps cooler than any of this type previously known; extremely dense interstellar clouds, more dense than any known heretofore; and, probably, cool circumstellar clouds that may be planetary systems in an early stage of formation.

  5. 9 CFR 381.174 - Limitations with respect to use of Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry). 381.174 Section 381.174 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  6. 9 CFR 381.174 - Limitations with respect to use of Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry). 381.174 Section 381.174 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  7. 9 CFR 381.174 - Limitations with respect to use of Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry). 381.174 Section 381.174 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  8. 9 CFR 381.174 - Limitations with respect to use of Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry). 381.174 Section 381.174 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  9. 9 CFR 381.174 - Limitations with respect to use of Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry). 381.174 Section 381.174 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  10. Object Manipulation Facilitates Kind-Based Object Individuation of Shape-Similar Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingo, Osman S.; Krojgaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the importance of shape and object manipulation when 12-month-olds were given the task of individuating objects representing exemplars of kinds in an event-mapping design. In Experiments 1 and 2, results of the study from Xu, Carey, and Quint (2004, Experiment 4) were partially replicated, showing that infants were…

  11. 34 CFR 356.50 - What kinds of payments are allowed under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What kinds of payments are allowed under this program? 356.50 Section 356.50 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY...

  12. 34 CFR 356.50 - What kinds of payments are allowed under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true What kinds of payments are allowed under this program? 356.50 Section 356.50 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY...

  13. 34 CFR 356.50 - What kinds of payments are allowed under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What kinds of payments are allowed under this program? 356.50 Section 356.50 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY...

  14. 34 CFR 356.50 - What kinds of payments are allowed under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What kinds of payments are allowed under this program? 356.50 Section 356.50 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY...

  15. 34 CFR 356.50 - What kinds of payments are allowed under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What kinds of payments are allowed under this program? 356.50 Section 356.50 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY...

  16. 34 CFR 654.3 - What kind of activity may be assisted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What kind of activity may be assisted? 654.3 Section 654.3 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ROBERT C. BYRD HONORS SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM General § 654.3...

  17. What Kinds of Collaboration Do You Engage in for the Benefit of Your Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potash, Betsy; Oxford, Janelle

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors share what kinds of collaboration they engage in for the benefit of their students. The first author introduces the Bread Loaf Teacher Network which connects classes across the world--urban and rural, East Coast and West Coast, American, African, Indian, and European. The second author encourages teachers to consider…

  18. 25 CFR 26.18 - What kinds of supportive services are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... description of the Job Placement and Training Program and related services; (c) An assessment of eligibility... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What kinds of supportive services are available? 26.18 Section 26.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB...

  19. 13 CFR 142.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in program fraud enforcement? 142.2 Section 142.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 142.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who makes, or causes to be made, a...

  20. Early Differentiation of Causal Mechanisms Appropriate to Biological and Nonbiological Kinds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Ken; Keil, Frank C.

    1991-01-01

    Three investigations and one main experiment examined whether children ages four to seven differentiate between the causal mechanisms appropriate for different conceptual domains. Results suggest that preschoolers prefer natural mechanisms for color inheritance in biological kinds and recognize the importance of human intentions in producing the…

  1. [Contamination characteristics of fluoroquinolones in different kinds of soil profiles in Southeast suburb of Beijing].

    PubMed

    Su, Si-Hui; He, Jiang-Tao; Yang, Lei; Qiao, Xiao-Cui; Cui, Ya-Feng

    2014-11-01

    Eighty-six soil samples were collected using Geoprobe soil sampler from 11 borehole profiles of Beijing Southeast suburb. The sampling sites could be divided into 8 kinds of landuse. Physical and chemical properties of samples were analyzed. The concentrations of 5 fluoroquinolones (FQs) were analyzed by the high-performance liquid chromatography. Results show that the average value of total concentrations of 5 FQs is 46.1 μg x kg(-1). Ofloxacin (OFL) is the predominant among them, and then is norfloxacin (NOR). Last comes to enrofloxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and lomefloxacin (LOM). There are significant differences in FQs concentrations and kinds among the 8 land use types of soil profiles. The average value of total concentrations of 5 FQs decrease with an increasing of soil depth. The average concentration of OFL, NOR, LOM and ENR decrease with an increasing of soil depth. But CIP has the opposite result. Based on FQs concentrations from 42 soil samples with a depth among 0 to 3 meters, contamination characteristics of FQs were analyzed by fuzzy hierarchial clustering. Sampling sites of vegetable greenhouse, woods, sewage irrigation zone, groundwater irrigation zone, livestock and poultry farm, sediments from sewage river have similar components and contents of FQs, with less kinds and low concentration. In contrast, sampling sites of pharmaceutical enterprises and refuse landfill have more kinds and medium concentration of FQs.

  2. First Arkansas Mill of its kind turns sawdust into stove pellets

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This article describes a new mill in Arkansas that converts waste sawdust into pellets for use in a new kind of stove like the ones two Resource Conservation and Development Districts placed in 20 districts as a demonstration project. A review of the wood pellet industry and of this particular project is provided.

  3. Do Lions Have Manes? For Children, Generics Are about Kinds Rather than Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandone, Amanda C.; Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Gelman, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Generic statements (e.g., "Lions have manes") make claims about kinds (e.g., lions as a category) and, for adults, are distinct from quantificational statements (e.g., "Most lions have manes"), which make claims about how many individuals have a given property. This article examined whether young children also understand that generics do not…

  4. 34 CFR 664.10 - What kinds of projects does the Secretary assist?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... does the Secretary assist? The Secretary assists projects designed to develop or improve programs in... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What kinds of projects does the Secretary assist? 664...) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FULBRIGHT-HAYS GROUP PROJECTS ABROAD...

  5. 34 CFR 664.10 - What kinds of projects does the Secretary assist?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... does the Secretary assist? The Secretary assists projects designed to develop or improve programs in... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What kinds of projects does the Secretary assist? 664...) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FULBRIGHT-HAYS GROUP PROJECTS ABROAD...

  6. 34 CFR 664.10 - What kinds of projects does the Secretary assist?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... does the Secretary assist? The Secretary assists projects designed to develop or improve programs in... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What kinds of projects does the Secretary assist? 664...) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FULBRIGHT-HAYS GROUP PROJECTS ABROAD...

  7. 34 CFR 645.10 - What kinds of projects are supported under the Upward Bound Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Bound Program? 645.10 Section 645.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UPWARD BOUND PROGRAM What Kinds of... programs of postsecondary education. (b) Upward Bound Math and Science Centers designed to prepare...

  8. 34 CFR 645.10 - What kinds of projects are supported under the Upward Bound Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Bound Program? 645.10 Section 645.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UPWARD BOUND PROGRAM What Kinds of... programs of postsecondary education. (b) Upward Bound Math and Science Centers designed to prepare...

  9. 34 CFR 637.11 - What kinds of projects are supported by this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What kinds of projects are supported by this program? 637.11 Section 637.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING...

  10. 34 CFR 637.11 - What kinds of projects are supported by this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What kinds of projects are supported by this program? 637.11 Section 637.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING...

  11. 34 CFR 637.11 - What kinds of projects are supported by this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What kinds of projects are supported by this program? 637.11 Section 637.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING...

  12. 34 CFR 645.10 - What kinds of projects are supported under the Upward Bound Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Bound Program? 645.10 Section 645.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UPWARD BOUND PROGRAM What Kinds of... programs of postsecondary education. (b) Upward Bound Math and Science Centers designed to prepare...

  13. 34 CFR 637.11 - What kinds of projects are supported by this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What kinds of projects are supported by this program? 637.11 Section 637.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING...

  14. 34 CFR 637.11 - What kinds of projects are supported by this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What kinds of projects are supported by this program? 637.11 Section 637.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING...

  15. 34 CFR 645.10 - What kinds of projects are supported under the Upward Bound Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Bound Program? 645.10 Section 645.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UPWARD BOUND PROGRAM What Kinds of... programs of postsecondary education. (b) Upward Bound Math and Science Centers designed to prepare...

  16. 13 CFR 142.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in program fraud enforcement? 142.2 Section 142.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 142.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who makes, or causes to be made, a...

  17. 13 CFR 142.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in program fraud enforcement? 142.2 Section 142.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 142.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who makes, or causes to be made, a...

  18. 13 CFR 142.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in program fraud enforcement? 142.2 Section 142.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 142.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who makes, or causes to be made, a...

  19. 13 CFR 142.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in program fraud enforcement? 142.2 Section 142.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 142.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who makes, or causes to be made, a...

  20. First kind symmetric periodic solutions of the generalized van der Waals Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Angelo; Vidal, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to prove the existence of a new symmetric family of periodic solutions of the generalized van der Waals Hamiltonian. In fact, we prove the existence of several families of first kind symmetric periodic solutions as continuation of circular orbits of the Kepler problem in the spatial case.

  1. The neural mediators of kindness-based meditation: a theoretical model

    PubMed Central

    Mascaro, Jennifer S.; Darcher, Alana; Negi, Lobsang T.; Raison, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Although kindness-based contemplative practices are increasingly employed by clinicians and cognitive researchers to enhance prosocial emotions, social cognitive skills, and well-being, and as a tool to understand the basic workings of the social mind, we lack a coherent theoretical model with which to test the mechanisms by which kindness-based meditation may alter the brain and body. Here, we link contemplative accounts of compassion and loving-kindness practices with research from social cognitive neuroscience and social psychology to generate predictions about how diverse practices may alter brain structure and function and related aspects of social cognition. Contingent on the nuances of the practice, kindness-based meditation may enhance the neural systems related to faster and more basic perceptual or motor simulation processes, simulation of another’s affective body state, slower and higher-level perspective-taking, modulatory processes such as emotion regulation and self/other discrimination, and combinations thereof. This theoretical model will be discussed alongside best practices for testing such a model and potential implications and applications of future work. PMID:25729374

  2. Children with Their Dreams--What Kind of Reveries Are Accepted in School Context?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokinen, Kimmo; Pohjola, Kirsi Anneli

    2011-01-01

    The media and the contemporary consumer culture are central categories in modern childhood. They have opened new kinds of experiences and learning situations for children. In this article we are interested in the role of the media and consumption in schoolchildren's daily life. The data consist of writings and drawings of 7-12-year-old…

  3. 25 CFR 900.53 - What kind of records shall the property management system maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Property Management... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kind of records shall the property management...

  4. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 24.13, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE § 24.13 Car,...

  5. 9 CFR 381.162 - “(Kind) steak or fillet.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false â(Kind) steak or fillet.â 381.162 Section 381.162 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  6. 9 CFR 381.161 - “(Kind) A La Kiev.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false â(Kind) A La Kiev.â 381.161 Section 381.161 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  7. 9 CFR 381.164 - “(Kind) barbecued.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false â(Kind) barbecued.â 381.164 Section 381.164 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  8. Remembering Kinds: New Evidence that Categories are Privileged in Children's Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimpian, Andrei; Erickson, Lucy C.

    2012-01-01

    What are the representations and learning mechanisms that underlie conceptual development? The present research provides evidence in favor of the claim that this process is guided by an early-emerging predisposition to think and learn about abstract kinds. Specifically, three studies (N=192) demonstrated that 4- to 7-year-old children have better…

  9. Expanded social fitness and Hamilton's rule for kin, kith, and kind.

    PubMed

    Queller, David C

    2011-06-28

    Inclusive fitness theory has a combination of simplicity, generality, and accuracy that has made it an extremely successful way of thinking about and modeling effects on kin. However, there are types of social interactions that, although covered, are not illuminated. Here, I expand the inclusive fitness approach and the corresponding neighbor-modulated approach to specify two other kinds of social selection. Kind selection, which includes greenbeards and many nonadditive games, is where selection depends on an actor's trait having different effects on others depending on whether they share the trait. Kith selection includes social effects that do not require either kin or kind, such as mutualism and manipulation. It involves social effects of a trait that affect a partner, with feedback to the actor's fitness. I derive expanded versions of Hamilton's rule for kith and kind selection, generalizing Hamilton's insight that we can model social selection through a sum of fitness effects, each multiplied by an appropriate association coefficient. Kinship is, thus, only one of the important types of association, but all can be incorporated within an expanded inclusive fitness.

  10. A solution of one dimensional Fredholm integral equations of the second kind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabrielsen, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Fredholm integral equations of the second kind of the one dimension are numerically solved. It is proven that the numerical solution converges to the exact solution of the integral equation. This is shown for periodic kernels and then extended to nonperiodic kernels. This development helps delineate a basic theory which has the potential of solving very complex problems.

  11. Time to Get a New Mountain? The Role of Function in Children's Conceptions of Natural Kinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiYanni, Cara; Kelemen, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Prior research indicates that young children are promiscuously teleological, attributing purpose not only to artifacts, but also to living and non-living natural entities. This study further examines the role of function in children's reasoning about different object kinds by indirectly probing children's intuitions about what types of entities…

  12. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006,...

  13. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006,...

  14. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006,...

  15. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006,...

  16. Understanding Students' Experiments--What Kind of Support Do They Need in Inquiry Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Julia Caroline; Kremer, Kerstin; Mayer, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Inquiry learning is a widely recognized method for fostering inquiry competence in science education. Nevertheless, there is discussion about how to best support students while working on inquiry tasks (in this case: experiments on causal relationships). To identify the kind of support students need in order to design experiments in upper grades,…

  17. Comparison of the Relative Effectiveness of Different Kinds of Reinforcers: A PEM Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Hsen-Hsing

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to apply the percentage of data points exceeding the median of baseline phase (PEM) approach for a meta-analysis of single-case experiments to compare the relative effectiveness of different kinds of reinforcers used in behavior modification. Altogether 153 studies were located, which produced 1091 effect…

  18. One Kind of Human Being: MACOS, the Human Sciences, and Governmentality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivens, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary reform movements have roots in post-World War II changes. Back then, social reformers in the United States targeted education as a field for the human sciences to intervene and impart a new kind of knowledge into daily life. These experts developed Man: A Course of Study (MACOS), a science-based curriculum, steeped in biological and…

  19. 11 CFR 104.13 - Disclosure of receipt and consumption of in-kind contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(a). (2) Except for items noted in 11 CFR 104.13(b), each in-kind... appropriate expenditure schedule, in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(b). (b) Contributions of stocks, bonds, art... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of receipt and consumption of...

  20. 11 CFR 104.13 - Disclosure of receipt and consumption of in-kind contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(a). (2) Except for items noted in 11 CFR 104.13(b), each in-kind... appropriate expenditure schedule, in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(b). (b) Contributions of stocks, bonds, art... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosure of receipt and consumption of...

  1. 7 CFR 800.83 - Sampling provisions by kind of movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sampling provisions by kind of movement. 800.83 Section 800.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Inspection Methods and Procedures...

  2. 7 CFR 800.83 - Sampling provisions by kind of movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sampling provisions by kind of movement. 800.83 Section 800.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Inspection Methods and Procedures...

  3. 21 CFR 822.19 - What kinds of decisions may you make?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES POSTMARKET SURVEILLANCE FDA Review and Action § 822.19 What kinds of decisions... timeframe case-by-case, based on the types of revisions or information that you must submit (c) Does not... specified timeframe. We will determine the timeframe case-by-case, based on the types of revisions...

  4. The neural mediators of kindness-based meditation: a theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Mascaro, Jennifer S; Darcher, Alana; Negi, Lobsang T; Raison, Charles L

    2015-01-01

    Although kindness-based contemplative practices are increasingly employed by clinicians and cognitive researchers to enhance prosocial emotions, social cognitive skills, and well-being, and as a tool to understand the basic workings of the social mind, we lack a coherent theoretical model with which to test the mechanisms by which kindness-based meditation may alter the brain and body. Here, we link contemplative accounts of compassion and loving-kindness practices with research from social cognitive neuroscience and social psychology to generate predictions about how diverse practices may alter brain structure and function and related aspects of social cognition. Contingent on the nuances of the practice, kindness-based meditation may enhance the neural systems related to faster and more basic perceptual or motor simulation processes, simulation of another's affective body state, slower and higher-level perspective-taking, modulatory processes such as emotion regulation and self/other discrimination, and combinations thereof. This theoretical model will be discussed alongside best practices for testing such a model and potential implications and applications of future work.

  5. On a kind of Noether symmetries and conservation laws in k-cosymplectic field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Marrero, Juan Carlos; Roman-Roy, Narciso; Salgado, Modesto; Vilarino, Silvia

    2011-02-15

    This paper is devoted to studying symmetries of certain kinds of k-cosymplectic Hamiltonian systems in first-order classical field theories. Thus, we introduce a particular class of symmetries and study the problem of associating conservation laws to them by means of a suitable generalization of Noether's theorem.

  6. What Kind of Citizen? An Analysis of the Social Studies Curriculum in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kus, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    The social studies curriculum was recently revised in Turkey, running in a pilot scheme in the school year 2004-05. It was then implemented in primary schools all over Turkey from 2006. This study describes the kind of citizen it aims to form by analysing all of the documents relating to social studies teaching. The social studies curriculum for…

  7. The preconditioned Gauss-Seidel iterative methods for solving Fredholm integral equations of the second kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthuvalu, Mohana Sundaram

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, performance analysis of the preconditioned Gauss-Seidel iterative methods for solving dense linear system arise from Fredholm integral equations of the second kind is investigated. The formulation and implementation of the preconditioned Gauss-Seidel methods are presented. Numerical results are included in order to verify the performance of the methods.

  8. The mind, the lab, and the field: Three kinds of populations in scientific practice.

    PubMed

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt; Giordano, Ryan; Edge, Michael D; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2015-08-01

    Scientists use models to understand the natural world, and it is important not to conflate model and nature. As an illustration, we distinguish three different kinds of populations in studies of ecology and evolution: theoretical, laboratory, and natural populations, exemplified by the work of R. A. Fisher, Thomas Park, and David Lack, respectively. Biologists are rightly concerned with all three types of populations. We examine the interplay between these different kinds of populations, and their pertinent models, in three examples: the notion of "effective" population size, the work of Thomas Park on Tribolium populations, and model-based clustering algorithms such as Structure. Finally, we discuss ways to move safely between three distinct population types while avoiding confusing models and reality.

  9. The interventional effects of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions and interpersonal interactions

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaoli; Shi, Wendian; Han, Xiangxiang; Wang, Nana; Zhang, Ni; Wang, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions, intragroup interactions, and complex understanding of others. A total of 50 freshmen not receiving any training in meditation intervention were randomly divided into the meditation group (25 subjects) and the control group (25 subjects). The meditation group was implemented with group meditation intervention for 4 weeks, three times a week, about 30 minutes each time. The results revealed that the effect sizes in interpersonal interaction and complex understanding of others in the meditation group were both above 0.8, indicating strong effects. It was concluded that loving-kindness meditation can effectively improve positive emotions, interpersonal interactions, and complex understanding of others in college students. PMID:26060402

  10. The mind, the lab, and the field: Three kinds of populations in scientific practice.

    PubMed

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt; Giordano, Ryan; Edge, Michael D; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2015-08-01

    Scientists use models to understand the natural world, and it is important not to conflate model and nature. As an illustration, we distinguish three different kinds of populations in studies of ecology and evolution: theoretical, laboratory, and natural populations, exemplified by the work of R. A. Fisher, Thomas Park, and David Lack, respectively. Biologists are rightly concerned with all three types of populations. We examine the interplay between these different kinds of populations, and their pertinent models, in three examples: the notion of "effective" population size, the work of Thomas Park on Tribolium populations, and model-based clustering algorithms such as Structure. Finally, we discuss ways to move safely between three distinct population types while avoiding confusing models and reality. PMID:25753677

  11. Two kinds of autism: a comparison of distinct understandings of psychiatric disease.

    PubMed

    Verhoeff, Berend

    2016-03-01

    In this article, I argue that the history and philosophy of autism need to account for two kinds of autism. Contemporary autism research and practice is structured, directed and connected by an 'ontological understanding of disease'. This implies that autism is understood as a disease like any other medical disease, existing independently of its particular manifestations in individual patients. In contrast, autism in the 1950s and 1960s was structured by a psychoanalytical framework and an 'individual understanding of disease'. This implied that autism was not a distinct disease but an idiosyncratic and meaningful response of the child to a disturbed development of the ego. These two kinds of autism are embedded in and reveal two very different 'styles of psychiatric thought'.

  12. Intrinsic equations for a relaxed elastic line of second kind on an oriented surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayram, Ergin; Kasap, Emin

    2016-11-01

    Let α(s) be an arc on a connected oriented surface S in E3, parameterized by arc length s, with torsion τ and length l. The total square torsion H of α is defined by H =∫0lτ2ds. The arc α is called a relaxed elastic line of second kind if it is an extremal for the variational problem of minimizing the value of H within the family of all arcs of length l on S having the same initial point and initial direction as α. In this study, we obtain differential equation and boundary conditions for a relaxed elastic line of second kind on an oriented surface.

  13. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for distinguishing different kinds of gunpowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavenda, TomáÅ.¡; Křesálek, Vojtech

    2013-10-01

    This article contains information about using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for the security industry, particularly for distinguishing chosen different kinds of gunpowder. The original focus of described research was the observation of characteristic spectrum of gunpowder (spectral fingerprint) in the terahertz range of the electromagnetic spectrum to use the terahertz radiation for gunpowder detection and identification. The results of this research lead to the finding that researched samples of gunpowder do not have any characteristic spectral lines or peaks in the terahertz range of the electromagnetic spectrum up to 2 THz. However, the comparison of samples of different kinds of gunpowder proves the possibility of their distinguishing by their absorbance (absorption spectrum). Introduction information about motivation of authors, methods of measurement, samples preparation, results of measurements with their interpretation and discussion about the results with conclusion are the main parts of this article.

  14. Kinds of well-being: A conceptual framework that provides direction for caring

    PubMed Central

    Todres, Les

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a conceptual framework by which different kinds and levels of well-being can be named, and as such, provides a foundation for a resource-oriented approach in situations of illness and vulnerability (rather than a deficit-oriented approach). Building on a previous paper that articulated the philosophical foundations of an existential theory of well-being (“Dwelling-mobility”), we show here how the theory can be further developed towards practice-relevant concerns. We introduce 18 kinds of well-being that are intertwined and inter-related, and consider how each emphasis can lead to the formulation of resources that have the potential to give rise to well-being as a felt experience. By focusing on a much wider range of well-being possibilities, practitioners may find new directions for care that are not just literal but also at an existential level. PMID:22171222

  15. Entanglement swapping of noisy states: A kind of superadditivity in nonclassicality

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Brukner, Caslav; Buzek, Vladimir; Zukowski, Marek

    2005-10-15

    We address the question as to whether an entangled state that satisfies local realism will give a violation of the same after entanglement swapping in a suitable scenario. We consider such a possibility as a kind of superadditivity in nonclassicality. Importantly, it will indicate that checking for violation of local realism, in the state obtained after entanglement swapping, can be a method for detecting entanglement in the input state of the swapping procedure. We investigate various entanglement swapping schemes, which involve mixed initial states. The strength of violation of local realism by the state obtained after entanglement swapping is compared with the one for the input states. We obtain a kind of superadditivity of violation of local realism for Werner states, consequent upon entanglement swapping involving Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-state measurements. We also discuss whether entanglement swapping of specific states may be used in quantum repeaters with a substantially reduced need to perform the entanglement distillation step.

  16. Open hearts build lives: positive emotions, induced through loving-kindness meditation, build consequential personal resources.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, Barbara L; Cohn, Michael A; Coffey, Kimberly A; Pek, Jolynn; Finkel, Sandra M

    2008-11-01

    B. L. Fredrickson's (1998, 2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions asserts that people's daily experiences of positive emotions compound over time to build a variety of consequential personal resources. The authors tested this build hypothesis in a field experiment with working adults (n = 139), half of whom were randomly-assigned to begin a practice of loving-kindness meditation. Results showed that this meditation practice produced increases over time in daily experiences of positive emotions, which, in turn, produced increases in a wide range of personal resources (e.g., increased mindfulness, purpose in life, social support, decreased illness symptoms). In turn, these increments in personal resources predicted increased life satisfaction and reduced depressive symptoms. Discussion centers on how positive emotions are the mechanism of change for the type of mind-training practice studied here and how loving-kindness meditation is an intervention strategy that produces positive emotions in a way that outpaces the hedonic treadmill effect.

  17. [GC-MS analysis of volatile constituents from five different kinds of Chinese eaglewood].

    PubMed

    Mei, Wen-Li; Zeng, Yan-Bo; Liu, Jun; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2007-05-01

    Volatile oils of five different kinds of Chinese eaglewood were extracted with aether at room temperature. The chemical constituents and relative contents of the volatile oils were analysed by GC-MS. It showed that all the five volatile oils were mainly composed of sesquiterpenes, aromatic constituents and fatty acids. Several sesquiterpenes, such as hinesol, nootkatone, valerenic acid, velleral, guaiol, gamma-gurjunene, gamma-selinene, viridiflorol, isoaromadendrene epoxide, valencene, alpha-costol et. al., together with several aromatic constituents, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol,4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol, phenylpropionic acid, 1-(benzyloxy)-8-naphthol, anisylacetone, et. al. were found in the volatile oils of Chinese eaglewood for the first time. The samilarities and differences of the volatile oils from the five kinds of Chinese eaglewood were compared. It suggested that the quality of Chinese eaglewood could be evaluated by GC-MS analyse of the volatile oil. PMID:17727060

  18. Characterization of Greenbeard Genes Involved in Long-Distance Kind Discrimination in a Microbial Eukaryote.

    PubMed

    Heller, Jens; Zhao, Jiuhai; Rosenfield, Gabriel; Kowbel, David J; Gladieux, Pierre; Glass, N Louise

    2016-04-01

    Microorganisms are capable of communication and cooperation to perform social activities. Cooperation can be enforced using kind discrimination mechanisms in which individuals preferentially help or punish others, depending on genetic relatedness only at certain loci. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, genetically identical asexual spores (germlings) communicate and fuse in a highly regulated process, which is associated with fitness benefits during colony establishment. Recognition and chemotropic interactions between isogenic germlings requires oscillation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction protein complex (NRC-1, MEK-2, MAK-2, and the scaffold protein HAM-5) to specialized cell fusion structures termed conidial anastomosis tubes. Using a population of 110 wild N. crassa isolates, we investigated germling fusion between genetically unrelated individuals and discovered that chemotropic interactions are regulated by kind discrimination. Distinct communication groups were identified, in which germlings within one communication group interacted at high frequency, while germlings from different communication groups avoided each other. Bulk segregant analysis followed by whole genome resequencing identified three linked genes (doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3), which were associated with communication group phenotype. Alleles at doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3 fell into five haplotypes that showed transspecies polymorphism. Swapping doc-1 and doc-2 alleles from different communication group strains was necessary and sufficient to confer communication group affiliation. During chemotropic interactions, DOC-1 oscillated with MAK-2 to the tips of conidial anastomosis tubes, while DOC-2 was statically localized to the plasma membrane. Our data indicate that doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3 function as "greenbeard" genes, involved in mediating long-distance kind recognition that involves actively searching for one's own type, resulting in cooperation between

  19. A New Kind of Bipartite Coherent-Entangled State and Its Applications in Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiang-Guo; Wang, Ji-Suo; Liang, Bao-Long

    2011-03-01

    A new kind of bipartite coherent-entangled state (CES) is introduced in the two-mode Fock space which exhibits the properties of both coherent state and entangled state. The set of CESs make up a complete and partly nonorthogonal representation. A simple experimental scheme to produce the CES is proposed by using a beam splitter. Some applications of the CES are also presented in quantum optics.

  20. Simulation and experimental verification of induction hardening process for some kinds of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, T.; Inout, H.; Uehara, T.

    1996-12-31

    Structure evolution and stress/distortion by induction hardening process of stationary type are simulated for ring shaped specimen made of several kinds of steel. Applicability of the method of simulation is evaluated by comparing the results of calculation on stress and distortion with the experiments for steels with and without hardenability and also for different geometry. Detail discussions on the distribution of residual stresses and the mode of distortion are made in relation to the material properties.

  1. Effect of 34 kinds of traditional Japanese herbal medicines on prolongation of cardiac allograft survival.

    PubMed

    Jin, X; Uchiyama, M; Zhang, Q; Harada, T; Otsuka, K; Shimokawa, T; Niimi, M

    2014-05-01

    Herbal medicines have been used for over 3,000 years in Asian as alternative therapy for their variety effects and have recently become popular in Europe and the United States. In the last 30 years, Japanese herbal medicines were widely used for treatment of diseases after been recognized officially by Japanese government. In this study, we investigated the effect of 34 kinds of traditional Japanese herbal medicines on alloimmune responses in a murine model of cardiac allograft transplantation. CBA mice (H2(k)) underwent transplantation of a C57BL/6 (H2(b)) heart and received oral administration of 2 g/kg/d of the 34 kinds of herbal medicines from the day of transplantation until 7 days afterward. Naïve CBA mice rejected B6 cardiac grafts acutely (median survival time [MST], 7 days). CBA transplant recipients given 2 g/kg/d of Sairei-to (TJ-114) and Tokishakuyaku-san (TJ-23) had prolonged C57BL/6 allograft survival indefinitely (both MSTs > 100 days). Moreover, CBA transplant recipients given Seisinrensiin (TJ-111), Tokishigyakukagoshuyushokyoto (TJ-38), Rikkunshito (TJ-43), Maobushisaishinto (TJ-127), Ninjin-yoei-to (TJ-108), Ryokan-kyomi-shinge-nin-to (TJ-119), Inchingorei-san (TJ-117), Hochuekkito (TJ-41), Kihi-to (TJ-65), and Sinbu-to (TJ-30) had also prolonged C57BL/6 allograft survival significantly (MSTs of 28, 22, 16, 14, 14, 13, 12, 9.5, 9 and 9 days, respectively). However, none of other 22 kinds of herbal medicines could prolong the allograft survival. Furthermore, oral administration of 2 g/kg/d of Daikenchuto (TJ-100) induced sudden death (within 1 minute) in CBA mice. In conclusion, 12 kinds of Japanese herbal medicines prolonged allograft survival and one showed toxic effect in mice.

  2. Characterization of Greenbeard Genes Involved in Long-Distance Kind Discrimination in a Microbial Eukaryote

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Jens; Zhao, Jiuhai; Rosenfield, Gabriel; Kowbel, David J.; Gladieux, Pierre; Glass, N. Louise

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms are capable of communication and cooperation to perform social activities. Cooperation can be enforced using kind discrimination mechanisms in which individuals preferentially help or punish others, depending on genetic relatedness only at certain loci. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, genetically identical asexual spores (germlings) communicate and fuse in a highly regulated process, which is associated with fitness benefits during colony establishment. Recognition and chemotropic interactions between isogenic germlings requires oscillation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction protein complex (NRC-1, MEK-2, MAK-2, and the scaffold protein HAM-5) to specialized cell fusion structures termed conidial anastomosis tubes. Using a population of 110 wild N. crassa isolates, we investigated germling fusion between genetically unrelated individuals and discovered that chemotropic interactions are regulated by kind discrimination. Distinct communication groups were identified, in which germlings within one communication group interacted at high frequency, while germlings from different communication groups avoided each other. Bulk segregant analysis followed by whole genome resequencing identified three linked genes (doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3), which were associated with communication group phenotype. Alleles at doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3 fell into five haplotypes that showed transspecies polymorphism. Swapping doc-1 and doc-2 alleles from different communication group strains was necessary and sufficient to confer communication group affiliation. During chemotropic interactions, DOC-1 oscillated with MAK-2 to the tips of conidial anastomosis tubes, while DOC-2 was statically localized to the plasma membrane. Our data indicate that doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3 function as “greenbeard” genes, involved in mediating long-distance kind recognition that involves actively searching for one’s own type, resulting in cooperation

  3. Parameter estimation for boundary value problems by integral equations of the second kind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Fumio

    1988-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the parameter estimation for boundary integral equations of the second kind. The parameter estimation technique through use of the spline collocation method is proposed. Based on the compactness assumption imposed on the parameter space, the convergence analysis for the numerical method of parameter estimation is discussed. The results obtained here are applied to a boundary parameter estimation for 2-D elliptic systems.

  4. [A kind of method for measuring absorbance spectrum with dual beam light and one detector].

    PubMed

    Wen, X; Lin, L; Wu, Y

    1998-10-01

    A kind of method of measuring spectral transmittivity with source compensated is introduced in this paper. It detects simultaneously intensity of source and transmission light with dual light road and one detector by means of the characters of selective frequence amplifing and coherent detection of a lock-in amplifier. The experimental result shows that the method is excellent on overcoming shake of a source and improving signal-to-noise ratio.

  5. The responses of three kinds of passive dosimeters to secondary cosmic rays in the lower atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhen; Chen, Bo Zhuo, Weihai; Fan, Dunhuang; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Chao

    2015-12-15

    For accurate measurements of the secondary cosmic rays by using passive dosimeters, the relative responses of the thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter, and radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter (RPLGD) were studied. The cosmic-ray shower generator was used to simulate the secondary cosmic rays at the sea level. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to calculate the air kerma and absorbed doses in each kind of dosimeter. The results showed that compared with their responses to gamma rays of {sup 137}Cs, the relative responses of the TLD, OSL, and RPLGD were 0.786, 0.707, and 0.735 to the hard component of cosmic rays, respectively, and the values were 0.904, 0.838, and 0.857 to the soft component of cosmic rays, respectively. To verify the simulations results, an in situ measurement with the three kinds of dosimeters was performed at the same place. The results indicated that the secondary cosmic rays monitored with the three kinds of dosimeters were well consistent with each other provided their relative responses were taken into account.

  6. Self-affirming trait kindness regulates disgust toward one's physical appearance.

    PubMed

    Powell, Philip A; Simpson, Jane; Overton, Paul G

    2015-01-01

    In two studies, self-affirming the behavioral trait of kindness was examined as a method of regulating state disgust toward one's physical appearance. In Study 1, 56 participants (37 women, 19 men, Mage=33.16 years) completed either a questionnaire designed to self-affirm kindness or a control equivalent and rated their disgust, anger, sadness, and happiness toward their appearance and behavior. In Study 2, 116 individuals (83 women, 33 men, Mage=24.90 years) participated in the same experiment over the internet in an ecologically valid context. When controlling for trait self-disgust, the self-affirmed in Study 1 reported significantly less disgust toward their appearance (ηp(2)=.12, p=.011). This effect was replicated in Study 2, but driven by lower state disgust levels in those higher in trait self-disgust (f(2)=.10, p=.001). Affirming valued traits, like kindness, may be a useful tool for regulating disgust toward body image. PMID:25462888

  7. The responses of three kinds of passive dosimeters to secondary cosmic rays in the lower atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Chen, Bo; Zhuo, Weihai; Fan, Dunhuang; Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Yu

    2015-12-01

    For accurate measurements of the secondary cosmic rays by using passive dosimeters, the relative responses of the thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter, and radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter (RPLGD) were studied. The cosmic-ray shower generator was used to simulate the secondary cosmic rays at the sea level. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to calculate the air kerma and absorbed doses in each kind of dosimeter. The results showed that compared with their responses to gamma rays of (137)Cs, the relative responses of the TLD, OSL, and RPLGD were 0.786, 0.707, and 0.735 to the hard component of cosmic rays, respectively, and the values were 0.904, 0.838, and 0.857 to the soft component of cosmic rays, respectively. To verify the simulations results, an in situ measurement with the three kinds of dosimeters was performed at the same place. The results indicated that the secondary cosmic rays monitored with the three kinds of dosimeters were well consistent with each other provided their relative responses were taken into account.

  8. The responses of three kinds of passive dosimeters to secondary cosmic rays in the lower atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Chen, Bo; Zhuo, Weihai; Fan, Dunhuang; Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Yu

    2015-12-01

    For accurate measurements of the secondary cosmic rays by using passive dosimeters, the relative responses of the thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter, and radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter (RPLGD) were studied. The cosmic-ray shower generator was used to simulate the secondary cosmic rays at the sea level. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to calculate the air kerma and absorbed doses in each kind of dosimeter. The results showed that compared with their responses to gamma rays of (137)Cs, the relative responses of the TLD, OSL, and RPLGD were 0.786, 0.707, and 0.735 to the hard component of cosmic rays, respectively, and the values were 0.904, 0.838, and 0.857 to the soft component of cosmic rays, respectively. To verify the simulations results, an in situ measurement with the three kinds of dosimeters was performed at the same place. The results indicated that the secondary cosmic rays monitored with the three kinds of dosimeters were well consistent with each other provided their relative responses were taken into account. PMID:26724019

  9. 43 CFR 3195.31 - What are the general terms of an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Crude Helium Sales Contract? 3195.31 Section 3195.31 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.31 What are the general terms of an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract? A BLM helium In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract requires you to:...

  10. 43 CFR 3195.31 - What are the general terms of an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Crude Helium Sales Contract? 3195.31 Section 3195.31 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.31 What are the general terms of an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract? A BLM helium In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract requires you to:...

  11. 43 CFR 3195.31 - What are the general terms of an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Crude Helium Sales Contract? 3195.31 Section 3195.31 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.31 What are the general terms of an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract? A BLM helium In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract requires you to:...

  12. 20 CFR 418.1265 - What kind of significant modified adjusted gross income reduction evidence will you need to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What kind of significant modified adjusted... What kind of significant modified adjusted gross income reduction evidence will you need to support your request? (a) You must provide evidence that one or more of the major life-changing...

  13. 20 CFR 416.1147 - How we value in-kind support and maintenance for a couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How we value in-kind support and maintenance for a couple. 416.1147 Section 416.1147 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income In-Kind Support and Maintenance...

  14. 20 CFR 416.1147 - How we value in-kind support and maintenance for a couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we value in-kind support and maintenance for a couple. 416.1147 Section 416.1147 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income In-Kind Support and Maintenance...

  15. 20 CFR 416.1147 - How we value in-kind support and maintenance for a couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How we value in-kind support and maintenance for a couple. 416.1147 Section 416.1147 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income In-Kind Support and Maintenance...

  16. 20 CFR 416.1147 - How we value in-kind support and maintenance for a couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How we value in-kind support and maintenance for a couple. 416.1147 Section 416.1147 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income In-Kind Support and Maintenance...

  17. 7 CFR 201.62 - Tests for determination of percentages of kind, variety, type, hybrid, or offtype.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., variety, type, hybrid, or offtype. 201.62 Section 201.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... for determination of percentages of kind, variety, type, hybrid, or offtype. Tolerances for tests for determination of percentages of kind, variety, type, hybrid, or offtype shall be those set forth in...

  18. 7 CFR 201.62 - Tests for determination of percentages of kind, variety, type, hybrid, or offtype.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., variety, type, hybrid, or offtype. 201.62 Section 201.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... for determination of percentages of kind, variety, type, hybrid, or offtype. Tolerances for tests for determination of percentages of kind, variety, type, hybrid, or offtype shall be those set forth in...

  19. 7 CFR 201.62 - Tests for determination of percentages of kind, variety, type, hybrid, or offtype.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., variety, type, hybrid, or offtype. 201.62 Section 201.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... for determination of percentages of kind, variety, type, hybrid, or offtype. Tolerances for tests for determination of percentages of kind, variety, type, hybrid, or offtype shall be those set forth in...

  20. 7 CFR 201.62 - Tests for determination of percentages of kind, variety, type, hybrid, or offtype.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., variety, type, hybrid, or offtype. 201.62 Section 201.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... for determination of percentages of kind, variety, type, hybrid, or offtype. Tolerances for tests for determination of percentages of kind, variety, type, hybrid, or offtype shall be those set forth in...

  1. 28 CFR 46.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of research proposals which have been approved under the procedure. (d) The department or agency head... kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 46... SUBJECTS § 46.110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than...

  2. 16 CFR 1028.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of research proposals which have been approved under the procedure. (d) The department or agency head... kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 1028... HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no...

  3. 40 CFR 26.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal... kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research....

  4. 40 CFR 26.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal... kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research....

  5. 43 CFR 3195.31 - What are the general terms of an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Crude Helium Sales Contract? 3195.31 Section 3195.31 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.31 What are the general terms of an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract? A BLM helium In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract requires you to:...

  6. 13 CFR 124.602 - What kind of annual financial statement must a Participant submit to SBA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS 8(a) Business Development Miscellaneous Reporting Requirements § 124.602 What kind of annual financial statement... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What kind of annual...

  7. 13 CFR 124.602 - What kind of annual financial statement must a Participant submit to SBA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS 8(a) Business Development Miscellaneous Reporting Requirements § 124.602 What kind of annual financial statement... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What kind of annual...

  8. 38 CFR 16.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 16.110 Section 16.110 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of...

  9. 40 CFR 26.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 26... HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than...

  10. 38 CFR 16.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 16.110 Section 16.110 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of...

  11. 16 CFR 1028.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 1028... HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. (a) The Secretary, HHS, has...

  12. 28 CFR 46.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 46... SUBJECTS § 46.110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. (a) The Secretary, HHS, has established,...

  13. 38 CFR 16.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 16.110 Section 16.110 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of...

  14. 38 CFR 16.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 16.110 Section 16.110 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of...

  15. 20 CFR 408.412 - What kinds of evidence of age do you need to give us?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What kinds of evidence of age do you need to give us? 408.412 Section 408.412 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Age § 408.412 What kinds of evidence of age...

  16. 20 CFR 408.412 - What kinds of evidence of age do you need to give us?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kinds of evidence of age do you need to give us? 408.412 Section 408.412 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Age § 408.412 What kinds of evidence of age...

  17. 20 CFR 408.412 - What kinds of evidence of age do you need to give us?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What kinds of evidence of age do you need to give us? 408.412 Section 408.412 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Age § 408.412 What kinds of evidence of age...

  18. 20 CFR 408.412 - What kinds of evidence of age do you need to give us?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What kinds of evidence of age do you need to give us? 408.412 Section 408.412 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Age § 408.412 What kinds of evidence of age...

  19. 20 CFR 408.412 - What kinds of evidence of age do you need to give us?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What kinds of evidence of age do you need to give us? 408.412 Section 408.412 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Age § 408.412 What kinds of evidence of age...

  20. High-Frequency Absorption Properties of Three Kinds of Hollow Multiphase Ceramic Microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Hongfei; Wang, Jianjiang; Hou, Yongshen; He, Ming; Zhao, Zhining

    2014-02-01

    Al-TiO2-Fe2O3-MnO2-Fe-Sucrose-Epoxy Resin as reaction system and self-reactive quenching technology which combines flame thermal spraying, self-propagating high-temperature synthesis and rapid solidification, were used to prepare three kinds of hollow multiphase ceramic microspheres (HMCMs) in different feeding gas (N2, O2) and dimension (coarse, fine). The characteristic results of three kinds of HMCMs indicated that various process parameters containing feeding gas and initial agglomerate size in this study can result in the change of surface organization, composition, morphology, and dimension. Investigation of microwave electromagnetic (EM) characteristics of three kinds of HMCMs showed that intrinsic characteristics play an important role in the determining the resulting properties. At 10-14.5 GHz, No. 3 HMCMs possess weak absorption intensity and narrow effective bandwidth (<-10 dB) owing to smaller dimension, but in higher-frequency band (14.5-17 GHz), an obvious absorption peak appears due to good EM match and nano-effects. Compared with No. 1 (O2 coarse) and No. 3 (O2 fine) HMCMs, enhanced absorption intensity and effective bandwidth (<-10 dB) were observed in No. 2 (N2 coarse) HMCMs. Enhancements of absorption intensity and effective bandwidth are associated with extra nitride (AlN, FeN), partial open microspheres, M-hexagonal crystal and micro-nano thick dendrite. No. 2 HMCMs presented excellent microwave-absorption property, with the minimum reflectivity ( R L) of -27.7 dB at 12.9 GHz. The effective bandwidth (<-10 dB) could reach to 4.1 GHz (10.9-15 GHz). This may be ascribed to the increased conductance loss, multiple scattering, magnetocrystalline anisotropy, and shape anisotropy.

  1. [Analysis of nine kinds of sweeteners in foods by LC/MS].

    PubMed

    Koyama, Masamichi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Uchibori, Nobutake; Wada, Ichirou; Akiyama, Kazuyuki; Sasaki, Tamami

    2005-06-01

    A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of nine kinds of sweeteners (acesulfame potassium, AK; sucralose, SUC; saccharin, SA; cyclamate, CYC; aspartame, APM; dulcin, DU; glycyrrhizic acid, GA; stevioside, STV; rebaudioside A, REB) in various foods by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) was developed. The LC separation was performed on a ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 (2.1 mm x 150 mm) with a mobile phase of 5 mmol/L dibutylammonium acetate (DBAA) and acetonitrile-water (8: 2). Mass spectral acquisition was done in the negative ion mode by applying selected ion monitoring (SIM). The sweeteners were extracted from foods with 0.08 mol/L phosphate buffer (pH 7.0)- ethanol (1:1), and the extract was cleaned up on a Sep-pak Vac C18 cartridge after the addition of tetrabutylammonium bromide and phosphate buffer (pH 3.0). The recovery of the nine kinds of sweeteners from five kinds of foods fortified at the level 0.01 g/kg, 0.05 g/kg and 0.20 g/kg was 75.7-109.2%, and the between-day SD values were 0.5-10.9%. The quantification limits of AK, SA, CYC, APM and STV were 0.001 g/kg, and those of SUC, DU, GA and REB were 0.005 g/kg. A recovery test from each cleaned-up sample solution was necessary to detect ionization suppression.

  2. Remote monitoring of environmental particulate pollution - A problem in inversion of first-kind integral equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fymat, A. L.

    1975-01-01

    The determination of the microstructure, chemical nature, and dynamical evolution of scattering particulates in the atmosphere is considered. A description is given of indirect sampling techniques which can circumvent most of the difficulties associated with direct sampling techniques, taking into account methods based on scattering, extinction, and diffraction of an incident light beam. Approaches for reconstructing the particulate size distribution from the direct and the scattered radiation are discussed. A new method is proposed for determining the chemical composition of the particulates and attention is given to the relevance of methods of solution involving first kind Fredholm integral equations.

  3. Development and Implementation of Kumamoto Technopolis Regional Database T-KIND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoue, Noriaki

    T-KIND (Techno-Kumamoto Information Network for Data-Base) is a system for effectively searching information of technology, human resources and industries which are necessary to realize Kumamoto Technopolis. It is composed of coded database, image database and LAN inside technoresearch park which is the center of R & D in the Technopolis. It constructs on-line system by networking general-purposed computers, minicomputers, optical disk file systems and so on, and provides the service through public telephone line. Two databases are now available on enterprise information and human resource information. The former covers about 4,000 enterprises, and the latter does about 2,000 persons.

  4. Mixed convection nanofluid flow in a vertical channel with boundary conditions of the third kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhatar, Nur Asiah Mohd; Siddheshwar, P. G.; Saleh, Habibis; Hashim, Ishak

    2015-09-01

    A numerical investigation is carried out into the heat transfer within a fully-developed mixed convection flow of Al2O3 - water, CuO - water and TiO2 - water nanoliquids in a vertical channel with boundary condition of third kind. The effects of Brinkman number, Br and mixed convection parameter, GR on the velocity distribution and temperature distribution are the focus of this study. The built-in routine, dsolve in MAPLE is applied for the numerical computation. It was found that, greater value of GR and lower value of Br greatly affected the heat transfer performance and resulted the occurrence of reversal flow.

  5. On Calculations of Legendre Functions and Associated Legendre Functions of the First Kind of Complex Degree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thylwe, Karl-Erik; McCabe, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Formulas for calculating Legendre functions and associated Legendre functions of the first kind of complex degree using an Ermakov-Lewis invariant are presented. These formulas are straight-forward to implement numerically and are motivated by the lack of computational routines in standard university tools like those of MatLab and Maple. Angular waves propagating in opposite directions are also obtained. The results are particularly useful in complex angular momentum theories and nearside/farside analysis of spin-dependent angular scattering from central potentials.

  6. Loving-kindness meditation to enhance recovery from negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David P; Penn, David L; Fredrickson, Barbara L; Meyer, Piper S; Kring, Ann M; Brantley, Mary

    2009-05-01

    In this article, we describe the clinical applicability of loving-kindness meditation (LKM) to individuals suffering from schizophrenia-spectrum disorders with persistent negative symptoms. LKM may have potential for reducing negative symptoms such as anhedonia, avolition, and asociality while enhancing factors consistent with psychological recovery such as hope and purpose in life. Case studies will illustrate how to conduct this group treatment with clients with negative symptoms, the potential benefits to the client, and difficulties that may arise. Although LKM requires further empirical support, it promises to be an important intervention since there are few treatments for clients afflicted with negative symptoms.

  7. A Kind of New Three-Mode Coherent-Entangled State and Its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong-Qi; Ren, Ting-Qi; Zhang, Yun-Hai; Xu, Xing-Lei

    2011-11-01

    A kind of new continuous variable three-mode coherent-entangled state (CV-CES) is proposed in Fock space by the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP), which exhibits both the properties of coherent state and entangled state, and spans a complete and orthonormal representation. The conjugate state of CV-CES is derived by Fourier transformation. Moreover, the simple experimental protocol of generating a CV-CES is proposed by beam-splitters. As applications of this CV-CES, a three-mode entangled state and a three-mode squeezing-Fresnel operator are constructed.

  8. A theorem regarding roots of the zero-order Bessel function of the first kind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, X.-A.; Agrawal, O. P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper investigates a problem on the steady-state, conduction-convection heat transfer process in cylindrical porous heat exchangers. The governing partial differential equations for the system are obtained using the energy conservation law. Solution of these equations and the concept of enthalpy lead to a new approach to prove a theorem that the sum of inverse squares of all the positive roots of the zero order Bessel function of the first kind equals to one-forth. As a corollary, it is shown that the sum of one over pth power (p greater than or equal to 2) of the roots converges to some constant.

  9. Life Long Learning Study of Enhancing Liberal Arts through Reading Various kinds of Books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Shoji

    Quick globalization makes people study thinking and way of life of other people. For this, studying liberal arts is inevitable for everybody. However, motivation to study liberal arts among young generation in high school as well as in university is shrinking. This comes from relaxation of entrance examination to university, due to decreasing competition of decreasing number of candidates. This paper deals with compensating lack of liberal arts as well as common knowledge during life long learnig study. The author proposes an idea of enhancing general knowledge by reading different kind of books which intensifies and widens the interest and curiosity of individual.

  10. New kind of amorphous superconducting alloy Ti/sub 80/Pd/sub 20/

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z.; Jin, D.; Jin, Z.; Ma, M.; Zhao, Z.; Luo, Q.

    1982-04-01

    We have made a new kind of amorphous superconducting alloy Ti/sub 80/Pd/sub 20/ by means of the levitation-melt-rapid-cooling method. We have determined its crystallization temperature T/sub cr/ to be 976 /sup 0/C by the DTA method and its glass temperature T/sub g/ to be 550 /sup 0/C by the DSC method. The low temperature measurements showed the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/ to be 2.1 K.

  11. A node-weight description on a kind of cooperation-competition networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Dan; He, Da-Ren

    2008-03-01

    Cooperation and competition between elements usually appear together in complex systems. We consider the kind of the systems, which can be described by bipartite graphs. In the networks there are two types of nodes: some activities, organizations or events, and the participators. The traditional bipartite graph statistical properties may describe the configuration of the cooperation-competition, and the statistical properties about a node weight may describe the different role of a node in cooperation or competition result. We shall present some empirical investigations on Chinese Movie Network, Beijing Restaurant Network and IT product Network as examples.

  12. UQ for Decision Making: How (at least five) Kinds of Probability Might Come Into Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    In 1959 IJ Good published the discussion "Kinds of Probability" in Science. Good identified (at least) five kinds. The need for (at least) a sixth kind of probability when quantifying uncertainty in the context of climate science is discussed. This discussion brings out the differences in weather-like forecasting tasks and climate-links tasks, with a focus on the effective use both of science and of modelling in support of decision making. Good also introduced the idea of a "Dynamic probability" a probability one expects to change without any additional empirical evidence; the probabilities assigned by a chess playing program when it is only half thorough its analysis being an example. This case is contrasted with the case of "Mature probabilities" where a forecast algorithm (or model) has converged on its asymptotic probabilities and the question hinges in whether or not those probabilities are expected to change significantly before the event in question occurs, even in the absence of new empirical evidence. If so, then how might one report and deploy such immature probabilities in scientific-support of decision-making rationally? Mature Probability is suggested as a useful sixth kind, although Good would doubtlessly argue that we can get by with just one, effective communication with decision makers may be enhanced by speaking as if the others existed. This again highlights the distinction between weather-like contexts and climate-like contexts. In the former context one has access to a relevant climatology (a relevant, arguably informative distribution prior to any model simulations), in the latter context that information is not available although one can fall back on the scientific basis upon which the model itself rests, and estimate the probability that the model output is in fact misinformative. This subjective "probability of a big surprise" is one way to communicate the probability of model-based information holding in practice, the probability that the

  13. On infinite series concerning zeros of Bessel functions of the first kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Andrea; Mainardi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    A relevant result independently obtained by Rayleigh and Sneddon on an identity on series involving the zeros of Bessel functions of the first kind is derived by an alternative method based on Laplace transforms. Our method leads to a Bernstein function of time, expressed by Dirichlet series, that allows us to recover the Rayleigh-Sneddon sum. We also consider another method arriving at the same result based on a relevant formula by Calogero. Moreover, we also provide an electrical example in which this sum results to be extremely useful in order to recover the analytical expression for the response of the system to a certain external input.

  14. Prediction of the furnace heat absorption by utilizing thermomechanical analysis for various kinds of coal firing

    SciTech Connect

    Ishinomori, T.; Watanabe, S.; Kiga, T.; Wall, T.F.; Gupta, R.P.; Gupta, S.K.

    1999-07-01

    In order to predict the furnace heat absorption, which is sensitive to coal properties, an attempt to make a model universally applicable for any kind of pulverized coal fired boiler is in progress. First of all, the heat absorption rates on to furnace wall were surveyed for 600MWe pulverized coal fired boiler, and they were ranked into four levels by indicating a furnace heat absorption index (FHAI). Some ash composition is relatively well related to the FHAI, while a new index from thermomechanical analysis (TMA) offers a good prediction of the furnace heat absorption.

  15. [Evaluation of zinc deficiency tolerance in different kinds of apple rootstocks].

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiao-dan; Liu, Fei; Wang, Yan-an; Fu, Chun-xia; Yan, Yu-jing; Sha, Guang-li; Shu, Huai-rui

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to screen and evaluate the zinc deficiency tolerance among eight apple rootstocks, i.e., Malus baccata, M. rockii, M. xiaojinensis, M. sikkimensis, M. sieversii, M. robusta, M. hupehensis and Malus 'Flame'. The experiment took these 8 kinds of root-stocks as the research materials to observe and analyze the index of the rootstock's height, dry biomass, root architecture and zinc concentration, and with help of the fuzzy membership function to work out a comprehensive evaluation on their zinc deficiency tolerance. The result showed that several obvious zinc deficiency symptoms were observed in three kinds of rootstocks (M. rockii, M. sikkimensis and M. sieversii), such as dwarfed plant and newborn small leaves, while such symptoms were not obvious in M. xiaojinensis and M. 'Flame'. The plant biomass, height and zinc accumulation of aerial part greatly decreased under zinc deficiency stress, while smaller reduction was observed in M. xiaojinensis than in other rootstocks. M. xiaojinensis and M. baccata had higher zinc concentrations in leaves than others. According to the fuzzy membership function and cluster analysis, the resistance of the eight apple rootstocks to zinc deficiency was ranked: M. xiaojinensis was the highest one; M. 'Flame' was the second; M. baccata, M. sikkimensis, M. robusta and M. hupehensis were rather weaker; M. rockii and M. sieversii demonstrated the highest sensitivity to zinc deficiency.

  16. Contribution of reductase activity to quinone toxicity in three kinds of hepatic cells.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Tsuji, Kaori; Ishii, Satomi; Kashiwagi, Kyoko; Shimamoto, Norio

    2012-01-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain quinone cytotoxicity: oxidative stress via the redox cycle, and the arylation of intracellular nucleophiles. The redox cycle is catalyzed by intracellular reductases, and therefore the toxicity of redox cycling quinone is considered to be closely associated with the reductase activity. This study examined the relationship between quinone toxicity and the intracellular reductase activity using 3 kinds of hepatic cells; rat primary hepatocytes, HepG2 and H4IIE. The intracellular reductase activity was; primary hepatocyte >HepG2>H4IIE. The three kinds of cells showed almost the same vulnerability to an arylating quinone, 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ). However, the susceptibility to a redox cycling quinone, 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ) was; primary hepatocyte>HepG2>H4IIE. In addition, the cytotoxicity elicited by DMNQ was significantly attenuated in HepG2 cells and almost completely suppressed in primary hepatocytes by diphenyleneiodonium chloride, a reductase inhibitor. These data suggest that cells with a high reductase activity are susceptible to redox cycling quinones. This study provides essential evidence to assess the toxicity of quinone-based drugs during their developmental processes.

  17. [Studies on toxicity of four kinds of heavy metals in water by synchronous-scan fluorescence].

    PubMed

    Duan, Jing-Bo; Liu, Wen-Qing; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Zhao, Nan-Jing; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Yin, Gao-Fang; Fang, Li; Liu, Jing

    2013-05-01

    Spectrofluorometry of chlorella pyrenoidosa was studied by three dimensional excitation-emission (3DEEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and synchronous scan fluorescence spectroscopy with Delta gamma = 20 nm in the stress of Hg+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+. The conclusion from two kinds of Spectrofluorometry was the same: after 96h stress by heavy metals, the maximum fluorescence values reduced obviously, chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b in the photosynthetic system were seriously damaged by heavy metal. Further analysis of the correlations between heavy metal concentration and fluorescence quenching efficiency I0/I can conclude that the toxicity of heavy metal and the fluorescence quenching efficiency I0/I were positively correlated, and they all increased with the heavy metal concentration and stress time. For one kind of heavy metals, synchronous scan fluorometry is a sensitive method for its toxicity assessment. Compared to 3DEEM fluorescence spectroscopy, synchronous scan fluorescence spectroscopy is less time consuming and of higher selectivity. It is suitable to assess the toxicity of pollutions in water.

  18. [A NIR qualitative and quantitative model of 8 kinds of carbonate-containing mineral Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming-Yang; Huang, Bi-Sheng; Yu, Chi; Liu, Yi-Mei; Chen, Ke-Li

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to apply near infrared spectroscopy techniques to construct a rapid identification method for 8 kinds of mineral Chinese Medicines containing carbonates. The qualitative model using clustering analysis method in OPUS software can identify accurately 8 kinds of carbonate-containing mineral Chinese medicines. The near-infrared quantitative model was established by using partial least squares method (PLS) for 7 mineral Chinese Medicines in which main component is calcium carbonate. Compared with the results by EDTA titration, the established quantitative analysis model for calcium carbonate content showed a good prediction result that when the content is between 47.61% -99.17%, the average relative deviation of the prediction result is 0.24% and the average recovery rate was 100.3%. The results also showed that the model using near infrared spectroscopy can get not only a rapid identification of the 8 mineral Chinese medicines containing carbonates, but also an accurate and reliabe content determination of calcium carbonate for the 7 mineral Chinese medicines which contain the component.

  19. [Evaluation of zinc deficiency tolerance in different kinds of apple rootstocks].

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiao-dan; Liu, Fei; Wang, Yan-an; Fu, Chun-xia; Yan, Yu-jing; Sha, Guang-li; Shu, Huai-rui

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to screen and evaluate the zinc deficiency tolerance among eight apple rootstocks, i.e., Malus baccata, M. rockii, M. xiaojinensis, M. sikkimensis, M. sieversii, M. robusta, M. hupehensis and Malus 'Flame'. The experiment took these 8 kinds of root-stocks as the research materials to observe and analyze the index of the rootstock's height, dry biomass, root architecture and zinc concentration, and with help of the fuzzy membership function to work out a comprehensive evaluation on their zinc deficiency tolerance. The result showed that several obvious zinc deficiency symptoms were observed in three kinds of rootstocks (M. rockii, M. sikkimensis and M. sieversii), such as dwarfed plant and newborn small leaves, while such symptoms were not obvious in M. xiaojinensis and M. 'Flame'. The plant biomass, height and zinc accumulation of aerial part greatly decreased under zinc deficiency stress, while smaller reduction was observed in M. xiaojinensis than in other rootstocks. M. xiaojinensis and M. baccata had higher zinc concentrations in leaves than others. According to the fuzzy membership function and cluster analysis, the resistance of the eight apple rootstocks to zinc deficiency was ranked: M. xiaojinensis was the highest one; M. 'Flame' was the second; M. baccata, M. sikkimensis, M. robusta and M. hupehensis were rather weaker; M. rockii and M. sieversii demonstrated the highest sensitivity to zinc deficiency. PMID:26995912

  20. The effect of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions: a meta-analytic review

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xianglong; Chiu, Cleo P. K.; Wang, Rong; Oei, Tian P. S.; Leung, Freedom Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    While it has been suggested that loving-kindness meditation (LKM) is an effective practice for promoting positive emotions, the empirical evidence in the literature remains unclear. Here, we provide a systematic review of 24 empirical studies (N = 1759) on LKM with self-reported positive emotions. The effect of LKM on positive emotions was estimated with meta-analysis, and the influence of variations across LKM interventions was further explored with subgroup analysis and meta-regression. The meta-analysis showed that (1) medium effect sizes for LKM interventions on daily positive emotions in both wait-list controlled RCTs and non-RCT studies; and (2) small to large effect sizes for the on-going practice of LKM on immediate positive emotions across different comparisons. Further analysis showed that (1) interventions focused on loving-kindness had medium effect size, but interventions focused on compassion showed small effect sizes; (2) the length of interventions and the time spent on meditation did not influence the effect sizes, but the studies without didactic components in interventions had small effect sizes. A few individual studies reported that the nature of positive emotions and individual differences also influenced the results. In sum, LKM practice and interventions are effective in enhancing positive emotions, but more studies are needed to identify the active components of the interventions, to compare different psychological operations, and to explore the applicability in clinical populations. PMID:26579061

  1. Capacitive mixing with electrodes of the same kind for energy production from salinity differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, M.; Kozynchenko, O.; Tennison, S.; Brogioli, D.

    2016-03-01

    The capacitive mixing technique is aimed at producing renewable energy from salinity differences, for example between sea and river water. The technique makes use of two electrodes that modify their potential in opposite directions when the concentration of the solution in which they are immersed is changed, as a consequence of the dynamics of the electric double layer which forms in the ionic solution. Unfortunately, it is difficult to find two electrodes presenting both optimal performances and opposite potential variations. In order to overcome this problem, we present here a cell scheme with electrodes of the same kind (and thus identical dependence of potential on concentration) which can be operated with a CapMix cycle; it is based on a concentration cell with identical electrodes dipped into two compartments separated by a non-perm-selective porous diaphragm. Thanks to the cyclic operation, the actual cell voltage rise and the power production are close to the values obtained with the traditional scheme, or even higher, depending on the features of the ion transport in the liquid junction region. We present an experimental demonstration of the working principles and we study the power production and energy efficiency in the light of the theory of ion transport in fluids. We show that our technique is competitive with respect to the other CapMix techniques, with the relevant advantage that we make use of only one kind of electrode.

  2. ISO terminological analysis of the VIM3 concepts 'quantity' and 'kind-of-quantity'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybkaer, René

    2010-06-01

    The recent third edition of the International Vocabulary of Metrology—Basic and General Concepts and Associated Terms (VIM3) (JCGM 200:2008 (Sèvres: BIPM); also ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007 3rd edn (Geneva: ISO)) has undergone important changes, not least by adhering to ISO International Standards on terminology work (ISO 704:2000 Terminology Work—Principles and Methods; ISO 1087-1:2000 Terminology Work—Vocabulary—Part 1: Theory and Application; ISO 10241:1992 International Terminology Standards—Preparation and Layout). A recent critique (Mari 2009 Metrologia 46 L11-L15)—based on Object-Oriented Analysis—centres on the meaning and relation of the two first and fundamental concepts 'quantity'Single quotation marks ('...') or bold type indicate a concept when necessary, double quotation marks ("...") a term or quotation. and the new entry 'kind-of-quantity'. This makes it timely to analyse the two concepts, their relation and their respective role in forming the generic hierarchical concept system of VIM3 from 'property' to individual quantities. It is suggested that 'kind-of-quantity' acts as a division criterionSynonyms are "criterion of subdivision", "type of characteristic(s)", see the annexe..

  3. Influence of heterogeneity on second-kind self-similar solutions for viscous gravity currents

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Zhong; Christov, Ivan  C.; Stone, Howard  A.

    2014-05-01

    We report experimental, theoretical and numerical results on the effects of horizontal heterogeneities on the propagation of viscous gravity currents. We use two geometries to highlight these effects: (a) a horizontal channel (or crack) whose gap thickness varies as a power-law function of the streamwise coordinate; (b) a heterogeneous porous medium whose permeability and porosity have power-law variations. We demonstrate that two types of self-similar behaviours emerge as a result of horizontal heterogeneity: (a) a first-kind self-similar solution is found using dimensional analysis (scaling) for viscous gravity currents that propagate away from the origin (a point of zero permeability); (b) a second-kind self-similar solution is found using a phase-plane analysis for viscous gravity currents that propagate toward the origin. These theoretical predictions, obtained using the ideas of self-similar intermediate asymptotics, are compared with experimental results and numerical solutions of the governing partial differential equation developed under the lubrication approximation. All three results are found to be in good agreement.

  4. Influence of heterogeneity on second-kind self-similar solutions for viscous gravity currents

    DOE PAGES

    Zheng, Zhong; Christov, Ivan  C.; Stone, Howard  A.

    2014-05-01

    We report experimental, theoretical and numerical results on the effects of horizontal heterogeneities on the propagation of viscous gravity currents. We use two geometries to highlight these effects: (a) a horizontal channel (or crack) whose gap thickness varies as a power-law function of the streamwise coordinate; (b) a heterogeneous porous medium whose permeability and porosity have power-law variations. We demonstrate that two types of self-similar behaviours emerge as a result of horizontal heterogeneity: (a) a first-kind self-similar solution is found using dimensional analysis (scaling) for viscous gravity currents that propagate away from the origin (a point of zero permeability); (b)more » a second-kind self-similar solution is found using a phase-plane analysis for viscous gravity currents that propagate toward the origin. These theoretical predictions, obtained using the ideas of self-similar intermediate asymptotics, are compared with experimental results and numerical solutions of the governing partial differential equation developed under the lubrication approximation. All three results are found to be in good agreement.« less

  5. [Oxygen transfer efficiency of four kinds substrates applied in artificial aeration vertical-flow wetland].

    PubMed

    Pan, Ji-Zheng; Li, Wen-Chao; Ke, Fan; Wang, Lei; Li, Xue-Juan

    2009-02-15

    In subsurface flow constructed wetlands, artificial aeration plays an important role in enhancing the ability of pollutant removal. Oxygenation capacity of four substrates, limestone, vesuvianite, 500 grade ceramisite and high-strength ceramisite, are tested under three kinds of gas volume [0.19, 0.38, 0.76 m3 x (m2 x h)(-1)] in artificial aeration vertical-flow wetland. When the gas volume is 0.19 m3 x (m2 x h)(-1), the results demonstrate that the oxygen utilization of 500 grade ceramisite and high-strength ceramisite are highest as 14.39% and 14.21%, and the oxygen utilization of limestone and vesuvianite are 11.68% and 13.11% respectively. With the increase of aeration intensity, oxygen transfer efficiency parameter KLa rises accordingly. However, the oxygen utilization of vesuvianite and two other kinds of ceramisite decreases with the increase of aeration intensity. The oxygen utilization of vesuvianite, 500 grad ceramisite and high-strength ceramisite are lower as 7.67%, 10.46% and 10.77% respectively when the aeration intensity is 0.76 m3 x (m2 x h)(-1). On the contrary, the oxygen utilization of limestone get its maximum value of 14.04% as the aeration intensity is 0.38 m3 x (m2 x h)(-1).

  6. Capacitive mixing with electrodes of the same kind for energy production from salinity differences.

    PubMed

    Marino, M; Kozynchenko, O; Tennison, S; Brogioli, D

    2016-03-23

    The capacitive mixing technique is aimed at producing renewable energy from salinity differences, for example between sea and river water. The technique makes use of two electrodes that modify their potential in opposite directions when the concentration of the solution in which they are immersed is changed, as a consequence of the dynamics of the electric double layer which forms in the ionic solution. Unfortunately, it is difficult to find two electrodes presenting both optimal performances and opposite potential variations. In order to overcome this problem, we present here a cell scheme with electrodes of the same kind (and thus identical dependence of potential on concentration) which can be operated with a CapMix cycle; it is based on a concentration cell with identical electrodes dipped into two compartments separated by a non-perm-selective porous diaphragm. Thanks to the cyclic operation, the actual cell voltage rise and the power production are close to the values obtained with the traditional scheme, or even higher, depending on the features of the ion transport in the liquid junction region. We present an experimental demonstration of the working principles and we study the power production and energy efficiency in the light of the theory of ion transport in fluids. We show that our technique is competitive with respect to the other CapMix techniques, with the relevant advantage that we make use of only one kind of electrode. PMID:26902918

  7. The fibrillar structure of the cemento-dentinal junction in different kinds of human teeth.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Domon, T; Takahashi, S; Islam, M N; Suzuki, R

    2001-10-01

    The cemento-dentinal junction was examined in human maxillary incisors, canines and premolars by scanning electron microscopy combined with NaOH maceration. The NaOH maceration was used to remove interfibrillar substances and to observe details of the fibrillar architecture. The teeth were half-sectioned longitudinally, demineralized and macerated for 3-4 days or for 10-14 days. In the 3-4 day-macerated specimens, longitudinal sections of the cemento-dentinal junction were examined. In the 10-14 day-macerated specimens, the cementum was detached and the inner cementum surface facing the cemento-dentinal junction was examined. Observations suggested that cemental fibrils intermingle with dentinal fibrils only in places at the cemento-dentinal junction in both acellular and cellular cementum. These structural features were consistent in all kinds of teeth investigated here. Using human molars, we have previously proposed that the adhesion of proteoglycans is a main factor for the cemento-dentinal attachment and that the fibril intermingling between dentin and cementum is an accessory or secondary factor. The present study suggests that this applies to other kinds of human teeth. PMID:11585119

  8. Loving-Kindness Meditation to Target Affect in Mood Disorders: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Petrocchi, Nicola; Steinberg, James; Lin, Muyu; Arimitsu, Kohki; Kind, Shelley; Mendes, Adriana; Stangier, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Conventional treatments for mood disorders primarily focus on reducing negative affect, but little on enhancing positive affect. Loving-kindness meditation (LKM) is a traditional meditation practice directly oriented toward enhancing unconditional and positive emotional states of kindness towards oneself and others. We report here two independent and uncontrolled studies carried out at different centers, one in Boston, USA (n = 10), and one in Frankfurt, Germany (n = 8), to examine the potential therapeutic utility of a brief LKM group intervention for symptoms of dysthymia and depression. Results at both centers suggest that LKM was associated with large-sized effects on self-reported symptoms of depression (d = 3.33 and 1.90), negative affect (d = 1.98 and 0.92), and positive affect (d = 1.63 and 0.94). Large effects were also found for clinician-reported changes in depression, rumination and specific positive emotions, and moderate effects for changes in adaptive emotion regulation strategies. The qualitative data analyses provide additional support for the potential clinical utility of the intervention. This proof-of-concept evaluation of LKM as a clinical strategy warrants further investigation.

  9. Loving-Kindness Meditation to Target Affect in Mood Disorders: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Petrocchi, Nicola; Steinberg, James; Lin, Muyu; Arimitsu, Kohki; Kind, Shelley; Mendes, Adriana; Stangier, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Conventional treatments for mood disorders primarily focus on reducing negative affect, but little on enhancing positive affect. Loving-kindness meditation (LKM) is a traditional meditation practice directly oriented toward enhancing unconditional and positive emotional states of kindness towards oneself and others. We report here two independent and uncontrolled studies carried out at different centers, one in Boston, USA (n = 10), and one in Frankfurt, Germany (n = 8), to examine the potential therapeutic utility of a brief LKM group intervention for symptoms of dysthymia and depression. Results at both centers suggest that LKM was associated with large-sized effects on self-reported symptoms of depression (d = 3.33 and 1.90), negative affect (d = 1.98 and 0.92), and positive affect (d = 1.63 and 0.94). Large effects were also found for clinician-reported changes in depression, rumination and specific positive emotions, and moderate effects for changes in adaptive emotion regulation strategies. The qualitative data analyses provide additional support for the potential clinical utility of the intervention. This proof-of-concept evaluation of LKM as a clinical strategy warrants further investigation. PMID:26136807

  10. The effect of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianglong; Chiu, Cleo P K; Wang, Rong; Oei, Tian P S; Leung, Freedom Y K

    2015-01-01

    While it has been suggested that loving-kindness meditation (LKM) is an effective practice for promoting positive emotions, the empirical evidence in the literature remains unclear. Here, we provide a systematic review of 24 empirical studies (N = 1759) on LKM with self-reported positive emotions. The effect of LKM on positive emotions was estimated with meta-analysis, and the influence of variations across LKM interventions was further explored with subgroup analysis and meta-regression. The meta-analysis showed that (1) medium effect sizes for LKM interventions on daily positive emotions in both wait-list controlled RCTs and non-RCT studies; and (2) small to large effect sizes for the on-going practice of LKM on immediate positive emotions across different comparisons. Further analysis showed that (1) interventions focused on loving-kindness had medium effect size, but interventions focused on compassion showed small effect sizes; (2) the length of interventions and the time spent on meditation did not influence the effect sizes, but the studies without didactic components in interventions had small effect sizes. A few individual studies reported that the nature of positive emotions and individual differences also influenced the results. In sum, LKM practice and interventions are effective in enhancing positive emotions, but more studies are needed to identify the active components of the interventions, to compare different psychological operations, and to explore the applicability in clinical populations. PMID:26579061

  11. Loving-Kindness Meditation practice associated with longer telomeres in women.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Elizabeth A; Chen, Maxine M; Orr, Esther; Metcalf, Christina A; Fischer, Laura E; Pollack, Mark H; De Vivo, Immaculata; Simon, Naomi M

    2013-08-01

    Relatively short telomere length may serve as a marker of accelerated aging, and shorter telomeres have been linked to chronic stress. Specific lifestyle behaviors that can mitigate the effects of stress might be associated with longer telomere lengths. Previous research suggests a link between behaviors that focus on the well-being of others, such as volunteering and caregiving, and overall health and longevity. We examined relative telomere length in a group of individuals experienced in Loving-Kindness Meditation (LKM), a practice derived from the Buddhist tradition which utilizes a focus on unselfish kindness and warmth towards all people, and control participants who had done no meditation. Blood was collected by venipuncture, and Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. Quantitative real time PCR was used to measure relative telomere length (RTL) (Cawthon, 2002) in fifteen LKM practitioners and 22 control participants. There were no significant differences in age, gender, race, education, or exposure to trauma, but the control group had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) and lower rates of past depression. The LKM practitioners had longer RTL than controls at the trend level (p=.083); among women, the LKM practitioners had significantly longer RTL than controls, (p=.007), which remained significant even after controlling for BMI and past depression. Although limited by small sample size, these results offer the intriguing possibility that LKM practice, especially in women, might alter RTL, a biomarker associated with longevity. PMID:23602876

  12. What Kind of a Girl Does Science? The Construction of School Science Identities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy W.; Lowery, Patricia; Schultz, Katherine

    2000-05-01

    A view of science as a culturally-mediated way of thinking and knowing suggests that learning can be defined as engagement with scientific practices. How students engage in school science is influenced by whether and how students view themselves and whether or not they are the kind of person who engages in science. It is therefore crucial to understand students' identities and how they do or do not overlap with school science identities. In this paper, we describe four middle school African American girls' engagement with science. They were selected in the 7th grade because they expressed a fondness for science in school or because they had science-related hobbies outside of school. The data were collected from the following sources: interviews of students, their parents and their teachers; observations in science classes; journal writing; and focus groups. These girls' stories provide us with a better understanding of the variety of ways girls choose to engage in science and how this engagement is shaped by their views of what kind of girl they are.

  13. [Theoretical study on nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the four kinds of curcumin analogues].

    PubMed

    Jia, Fei-yun; Ran, Ming; Su, Yu; Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Bo

    2013-09-01

    Abstract The structure of four kinds of curcumin analogues was optimized at the level of B3LYP/6-31G(d, p), under which the stability was verified by means of vibration analysis. Moreover, NMR spectra of urcumin analogues compounds were studied at the level of B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) by GIAO method. The results show that the structure of four kinds of compounds, a larger conjugated system, has good planarity. Because of introducing hydroxyl and methoxy, the compound-B/C/D-C3, C4 and compoud-A and compound-D-Cs have greater 8 value. delta value of compound-A-C4. C4 is relatively smaller, and delta value of C3 is relatively larger. In the conjugated carbonyl compounds, compared with the acetaldehyde delta value (201 ppm), carbonyl C13 delta value (183 ppm) decreases relatively, C(11, 15) (alpha-carbon) delta value(122 ppm) decreases relatively, and C(9, 17) (beta-carbon) delta value(145 ppm) increases relatively. Finally, the correlation between experimental delta value and theoretical delta value of the 1H NMR was analyzed through the linear regression method. Results show that they have good correlation, and the experimental values coincide with the theoretical values.

  14. Forgone but not forgotten: the effects of partial and full feedback in "harsh" and "kind" environments.

    PubMed

    Rakow, Tim; Newell, Ben R; Wright, Louise

    2015-12-01

    In a perfect world, the choice of any course of action would lead to a satisfactory outcome, and we would obtain feedback about both our chosen course and those we have chosen to forgo. In reality, however, we often face harsh environments in which we can only minimize losses, and we receive impoverished feedback. In these studies, we examined how decision makers dealt with these challenges in a simple task in which we manipulated three features of the decision: The outcomes from the available options were either mostly positive or mostly negative (kind or harsh environment); feedback was either full or partial (outcomes revealed for all options or only for the chosen option); and for the final 20 trials in a sequence, participants either chose on each trial or set an "advance-directive" policy. The propensity to choose the better option was explained by several factors: Full feedback was more beneficial in harsh than in kind environments; policy decisions encouraged better decisions and ameliorated the adverse impact of a harsh environment; and beliefs about the value of strategy diversification predicted switch rates and choice quality. The results suggest a subtle interplay between bottom-up and top-down processes: Although harsh environments encourage poor choices, and some decision makers choose less well than others, this need not imply that the decision maker has failed to identify the better option.

  15. Bacterial community analysis during fermentation of ten representative kinds of kimchi with barcoded pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jin; Chun, Jongsik; Cha, Chang-Jun; Park, Wan-Soo; Jeon, Che Ok; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2012-05-01

    Kimchi, a food made of fermented vegetables, is densely populated by indigenous microorganisms that originate from the raw ingredients under normal conditions. Most microbiological studies on kimchi have been on the most popular dish, baechu-kimchi (Chinese cabbage kimchi). Therefore, relatively little is known about the various other kinds of kimchi (depending on the region, season, main ingredient, starter culture inoculation and recipe). In this study, we collected 100 samples periodically during the fermentation of ten representative kinds of kimchi (including starter-inoculated kimchi) that were stored in the refrigerator (4 °C) during the 30-35 days fermentation period. The multiplex barcoded pyrosequencing of a hypervariable V1-V3 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene tagged with sample-specific barcodes for multiplex identifiers was employed for bacterial community profiling. We found that bacterial communities differed between starter-inoculated and non-inoculated kimchi at the early stages of fermentation, but overall there were no significant differences in the late phases. Also, the diversity and richness of bacterial communities varied depending on the various types of kimchi, and these differences could largely be explained by the major ingredients and the manufacture processes of each types of kimchi. This study provides the comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing the biodiversity of the kimchi ecosystem.

  16. Enhanced surface imprinting of lysozyme over a new kind of magnetic chitosan submicrospheres.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hao; Yuan, Dongying; Fu, Guoqi

    2015-02-15

    Surface protein imprinting over nano- or micron-sized substrates is an effective approach for improving the biomacromolecule mass transfer and rebinding capacity. For achieving high recognition performance, it is necessary to introduce certain functional groups onto the surface of the support materials which can interact with the template protein. Herein, we report a surface protein imprinting approach using a new kind of core-shell magnetic chitosan submicrospheres as the supports. The surface of these magnetic chitosan particles is tethered with uncross-linked chitosan chains, hence bearing plenty of amino and hydroxyl groups, where a large amount of functional ligands can be readily coupled for capturing of the protein template. With lysozyme as a model print protein, the magnetic supports were functionalized with maleic acid and then coated with imprinted polymer layers. The resulting imprinted microspheres show significantly selective rebinding for lysozyme. In particular, they exhibit a specific rebinding capacity about three times higher than achieved with our previous lysozyme-imprinted particles synthesized in similar way but with maleic acid modified silica nanoparticles as the supports. This can be attributed to the much higher template binding capacity to the modified magnetic chitosan submicrospheres. Also, the resultant imprinted particles can be easily collected by a magnet. Therefore, such kind of chitosan submicrospheres may be a versatile carrier for constructing high-capacity and magnetically recyclable surface protein-imprinted particles.

  17. Kind-Making, objectivity, and political neutrality; the case of Solastalgia.

    PubMed

    Glackin, Shane Nicholas

    2012-03-01

    Politics and science, it is customarily and broadly assumed, should not mix. I investigate a purported "new mental illness" arising from psychological stress associated with environmental damage. Previous assessments have concluded that the diagnosis of "solastalgia", which is clearly intended to advance a political agenda, may thereby lack scientific validity. Building on work by Ian Hacking and Nelson Goodman, and drawing comparisons with the history of "political medicine"--in particular, the scientific study of Child Abuse and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome--I argue that the political consequences of such a diagnosis may plausibly help to justify it as a distinct objective scientific kind, by demarcating it from alternative classifications. That science should be objective, then, does not require that it be politically neutral.

  18. A case series associated with different kinds of endo-perio lesions

    PubMed Central

    Serper, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Pulpal and periodontal problems are responsible for more than half of the tooth mortality. There are some articles published in the literature about this issue. Many of them are quite old. There has been also lack of knowledge about the effect of endodontic treatment on the periodontal tissue healing and suitable treatment interval between endodontic and periodontal treatments. In this case report, different kinds of endo-perio lesion were treated with sequential endodontic and periodontal treatment. The follow-up radiographs showed complete healing of the hard and soft tissue lesions. The tooth with endo-perio lesions should be evaluated thoroughly in terms of any cracks and fracture, especially furcation areas for a long term prognosis. In this case report, it was showed that 3 months treatment intervals between endodontic treatment and periodontal surgery has no harmful effect on periodontal tissue healing. Key words:Endo-perio lesion, furcation, mandibular molar, bone graft, crack line, treatment interval. PMID:24596642

  19. Kind-Making, objectivity, and political neutrality; the case of Solastalgia.

    PubMed

    Glackin, Shane Nicholas

    2012-03-01

    Politics and science, it is customarily and broadly assumed, should not mix. I investigate a purported "new mental illness" arising from psychological stress associated with environmental damage. Previous assessments have concluded that the diagnosis of "solastalgia", which is clearly intended to advance a political agenda, may thereby lack scientific validity. Building on work by Ian Hacking and Nelson Goodman, and drawing comparisons with the history of "political medicine"--in particular, the scientific study of Child Abuse and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome--I argue that the political consequences of such a diagnosis may plausibly help to justify it as a distinct objective scientific kind, by demarcating it from alternative classifications. That science should be objective, then, does not require that it be politically neutral. PMID:22326090

  20. Leopold 2.0: Training for a New Kind of Science Leadership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturner, P. H.; Matson, P. A.; Krebs, M.

    2011-12-01

    To meet the environment and resource challenges of the coming decade, a new kind of scientific leadership is needed - one that is defined by the ability to innovate and lead transformational change; create strategic visions and implement them; catalyze and create bridges among multiple audiences and stakeholder groups; and motivate change in patterns of behavior, processes, and key decision systems. The Leopold Leadership Program has, since 1999, been training mid-career academic leaders in both communication skills and other strategies to link and translate their knowledge to decision making. As a result of the program's recent evaluation and planning activities, and drawing on current social science research, the program has identified storytelling, message-building, interviewing, and dialogue as critical science communication skills for the future. This presentation will provide examples of these skills, and illustrate ways in which they are essential to the work of collaboration, innovation, and action at the heart of "scientific leadership 2.0."

  1. A kind of integrated method discuss of fOG signal processing circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jun; Pan, Xin; Ying, Jiaju; Liu, Jie

    2014-12-01

    In view of the circuit miniaturization need in project application of fiber optic gyroscope(FOG), a new integrated technical scheme adopting system in package(SIP) for signal processing circuit of FOG was put forward. At first, the principle on signal processing circuit of FOG was analyzed, and the technical scheme adopting SIP based on low-temperature co-fired substrate technology was presented according to circuit characteristic and actual condition. Secondly, under the prerequisite of the concept introduction of SIP and LTCC, the SIP prototype of signal processing circuit of FOG was trialed produced,and it passed through the debug test. This SIP modular is an overall circuit complete integrated the signal processing circuit of FOG, and only a potentiometer and EPROM do not case outside. The testing results indicate that SIP is a kind of feasible scheme that carries out miniaturization for signal processing circuit of FOG.

  2. [Effect of five kinds of vegetable seed oil on serum lipid and lipid peroxidation in rats].

    PubMed

    Guo, Y; Cai, X; Zhao, X; Shi, R

    2001-01-01

    The effects of vegetable seed oil on hyperlipidemia induced by high lipid diet in rats. Male adult Wistar rats were fed on the test diet containing 94% high lipid diet and 6% lard pinon seed oil, perilla seed oil, blackcurrent seed oil, borage seed oil and evening primrose seed oil respectively for 3 weeks. The results showed that the vale of trilyceride(TG), total cholesterol(TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C(high density lipoprotein cholesterol) ratio increased and the vale of HDL-C/TC ratio and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase(LCAT) activity decreased in the groups with vegetable seed oil were less than that of the control group. The results suggested that all the five kinds of vegetable seed oil had the effect of regulating lipid metabolism of hyperlipidemia rats to some extent. Pinon seed oil and borage seed oil may be well suited for the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:11255765

  3. The study and application of four kinds of organic ion-selective microsensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bi; Zheng, Xiao; Feng, Chu; Hong, Wen-Bing; Liu, Jun-Tao; Wang, Ru-Jiang

    1991-09-01

    Four kinds of organic ion-selective microelectrodes (two barrels, tip diameter 0.1-0.5 micron) have been developed for the measurement of acetylcholine, histamine, serotonin, and bile acid. Physiological and pathological models on the cellular or sub-cellular level have been established for the purpose of basic and clinical pharmacological research, treatment or diagnosis of certain diseases. The acetylcholine sensitive microelectrode has been applied to the study of acetylcholine activity in single erythrocytes of normal human subjects and patients suffering from manic depressive disorders. The bile acid selective microelectrode has been used for the direct measurement of intracellular bile acid activities both in colorectal cancer and colorectal mucosa in living condition.

  4. A New Kind of Shift Operators for Infinite Circular and Spherical Wells

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Guo-Hua; Launey, K. D.; Dytrych, T.; Dong, Shi-Hai; Draayer, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    A new kind of smore » hift operators for infinite circular and spherical wells is identified. These shift operators depend on all spatial variables of quantum systems and connect some eigenstates of confined systems of different radii R sharing energy levels with a common eigenvalue. In circular well, the momentum operators P ± = P x ± i P y play the role of shift operators. The P x and P y operators, the third projection of the orbital angular momentum operator L z , and the Hamiltonian H form a complete set of commuting operators with the SO(2) symmetry. In spherical well, the shift operators establish a novel relation between ψ l m ( r ) and ψ ( l ± 1 ) ( m ± 1 ) ( r ) .« less

  5. [Experimental research on the electromagnetic radiation immunity of a kind of portable monitor].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jun; Xiao, Dongping; Jian, Xin

    2010-11-01

    The paper is focused on a kind of portable monitor that is widely used in military hospitals. In order to study the electromagnetic radiation immunity of the monitor, the experiments of electromagnetic radiation caused by radio frequency continuous wave in reverberation chamber and by ultra wide band (UWB) electromagnetic pulse have been done. The study results show that UWB electromagnetic pulse interferes observably the operating state of the monitor. It should be paid high attention to take protective measures. The monitor tested has some electromagnetic immunity ability for radio frequency continuous wave radiation. The frequent abnormal phenomena are baseline drift and waveform distortion. The electromagnetic sensitivity of the monitor is related to the frequency of interference source. The monitor tested is most sensitive to the frequency of 390 MHz.

  6. [Indicators of anxiety and depression in subjects with different kinds of diet: vegetarians and omnivores].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Jiménez, J; Rodríguez, J R; Gonzaléz, M J

    1998-01-01

    The following study, one of the first done in Puerto Rico, investigate the different kinds of diet and the level of anxiety and depression that the subjects present. The sample consists of 80 subjects between 25 and 70 years age divided into two main groups (vegetarian versus no vegetarian) depending their diet consumption. The basic findings in the three psychological tests given (IDARE-1, IDARE-2 and CES-D) to the subjects demonstrate significant differences in anxiety and depression between groups. More anxiety and depression where reported in the no vegetarian groups in comparison with the vegetarian groups. In addition, diet analysis found more nutritional antioxidant agents levels in the vegetarian group in comparison with the no-vegetarian group.

  7. Building A New Kind of Graded-Z Shield for Swift's Burst Alert Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David W.

    2002-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on Swift has a graded-Z Shield that closes out the volume between the coded aperture mask and the Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) detector array. The purpose of the 37 kilogram shield is to attenuate gamma rays that have not penetrated the coded aperture mask of the BAT instrument and are therefore a major source of noise on the detector array. Unlike previous shields made from plates and panels, this shield consists of multiple layers of thin metal foils (lead, tantalum, tin, and copper) that are stitched together much like standard multi-layer insulation blankets. The shield sections are fastened around BAT, forming a curtain around the instrument aperture. Strength tests were performed to validate and improve the design, and the shield will be vibration tested along with BAT in late 2002. Practical aspects such as the layup design, methods of manufacture, and testing of this new kind of graded-Z Shield are presented.

  8. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Renyuan; Zhu, Zhencai; Cao, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of rope-guided conveyances is so complicated that the rope-guided hoisting system hasn't been understood thoroughly so far. In this paper, with user-defined functions loaded, ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 was employed to simulate lateral motion of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts. With rope-guided mine elevator and mine cages taken into account, results show that the lateral aerodynamic buffeting force is much larger than the Coriolis force, and the side aerodynamic force have the same order of magnitude as the Coriolis force. The lateral aerodynamic buffeting forces should also be considered especially when the conveyance moves along the ventilation air direction. The simulation shows that the closer size of the conveyances can weaken the transverse aerodynamic buffeting effect. PMID:25679522

  9. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Rope-Guided Conveyances in Two Typical Kinds of Shaft Layouts

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Renyuan; Zhu, Zhencai; Cao, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of rope-guided conveyances is so complicated that the rope-guided hoisting system hasn’t been understood thoroughly so far. In this paper, with user-defined functions loaded, ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 was employed to simulate lateral motion of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts. With rope-guided mine elevator and mine cages taken into account, results show that the lateral aerodynamic buffeting force is much larger than the Coriolis force, and the side aerodynamic force have the same order of magnitude as the Coriolis force. The lateral aerodynamic buffeting forces should also be considered especially when the conveyance moves along the ventilation air direction. The simulation shows that the closer size of the conveyances can weaken the transverse aerodynamic buffeting effect. PMID:25679522

  10. [Validation Study for Analytical Method of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisons in 9 Kinds of Shellfish].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kakimoto, Kensaku; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Okihashi, Masahiro; Kajimura, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 and dinophysistoxin-2 in shellfish using ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Shellfish poisons in spiked samples were extracted with methanol and 90% methanol, and were hydrolyzed with 2.5 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution. Purification was done on an HLB solid-phase extraction column. This method was validated in accordance with the notification of Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. As a result of the validation study in nine kinds of shellfish, the trueness, repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility were 79-101%, less than 12 and 16%, respectively. The trueness and precision met the target values of notification.

  11. A multistep game of kind between two economic systems under complete information

    SciTech Connect

    Malyukov, V.P.; Linder, N.V.

    1995-03-01

    We consider the problem of conflict interaction between two economic systems described by Leontief type single-commodity dynamic models. The problem is solved in the framework of a positional multistep game of kind under complete information assuming several terminal sets. The solution constructs optimality sets of the players that control the dynamic models and finds the winning strategies. As in the analysis of related games, the solution of the problem is found to depend on the relationship of the parameters that define the conflict interaction. Contrary to, our study does not assume nonnegativity of some of the game parameters. The solution is obtained for all possible relationships of game parameters; examples of a conflict interaction in dynamic economic models are given.

  12. Dependence of memory characteristics of fullerene-containing polymer on the kind of gate metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Anri; Shoji, Atsushi; Nagano, Kohei; Kajihara, Jun

    2015-10-01

    The memory operation of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric-acid-methyl-ester-containing polystyrene nanocomposites was investigated while varying the kind of gate metal used. Moderate magnitudes of flatband voltage shift were observed both after negative and positive programming voltages were applied to the Au gate. Excellent retention characteristics were obtained for electrons, whereas the retention time of holes was much shorter than that of electrons for the gate. An analysis of the band diagram indicated that carriers are injected and stored in the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital or highest occupied molecular orbital levels of fullerene. Au gates are promising from the practical viewpoint because they make the magnitudes of both the writing and erasing voltages small.

  13. Building a new kind of graded-Z shield for Swift's burst alert telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, David W.

    2003-03-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on Swift has a graded-Z Shield that closes out the volume between the coded aperture mask and the Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) detector array. The purpose of the 37-kilogram shield is to attenuate gamma rays that have not penetrated the coded aperture mask of the BAT instrument and are therefore a major source of noise on the detector array. Unlike previous shields made from plates and panels, this shield consists of multiple layers of thin metal foils (lead, tantalum, tin, and copper) that are stitched together much like standard multi-layer insulation blankets. The shield sections are fastened around BAT, forming a curtain around the instrument aperture. Strength tests were performed to validate and improve the design, and the shield will be vibration tested along with BAT in late 2002. Practical aspects such as the layup design, methods of manufacture, and testing of this new kind of graded-Z Shield are presented.

  14. Combustion behavior of different kinds of torrefied biomass and their blends with lignite.

    PubMed

    Toptas, Asli; Yildirim, Yeliz; Duman, Gozde; Yanik, Jale

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the combustion behavior of different kinds of torrefied biomass (lignocellulosic and animal wastes) and their blends with lignite was investigated via non-isothermal thermogravimetric method under air atmosphere. For comparison, combustion characteristics of raw biomasses were also determined. Torrefaction process improved the reactivity of char combustion step of biomasses. Characteristic combustion parameters for blends showed non-additivity behavior. It was found that the mixture of torrefied biomasses and lignite at a ratio of 1:1 had a lower ignition and burnout temperature than the coal-only sample. Although no interactions were observed between the lignite and torrefied biomass at initial step of combustion, a certain degree of interaction between the components occurred at char combustion step. Kinetic parameters of combustion were calculated by using the Coats Redfern model. Overall, this study showed that poultry litters can be used as a substitute fuel in coal/biomass co-firing systems by blending with lignocellulosic biomass.

  15. Preconditioning first and second kind integral formulations of the capacitance problem

    SciTech Connect

    Tausch, J.; White, J.

    1996-12-31

    Engineering programs which compute electrostatic capacitances for complicated arrangements of conductors commonly set up the electrostatic potential u as a superposition of surface carges {sigma} u(x) = {integral}{sub s}G(x, y){sigma}(y) dS(y). Where G(x, y) = {1/4}{pi}{vert_bar}x - y{vert_bar} is the Green`s function for the Laplacian in the three-space. For a specified potential on the conductor surface(s) S, this approach leads to an integral equation of the first kind on S for the charge density {sigma}. The capacitance is the net-charge on the conductors and is given by the surface integral of {sigma}.

  16. Individual Responsibility for Promoting Global Health: The Case for a New Kind of Socially Conscious Consumption.

    PubMed

    Hassoun, Nicole

    2016-06-01

    The problems of global health are truly terrible. Millions suffer and die from diseases like tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and malaria. One way of addressing these problems is via a Global Health Impact labeling campaign (http://global-health-impact.org/). If even a small percentage of consumers promote global health by purchasing Global Health Impact products, the incentive to use this label will be substantial. One might wonder, however, whether consumers are morally obligation to purchase any these goods or whether doing so is even morally permissible. This paper suggests that if the proposal is implemented, purchasing Global Health Impact labelled goods is at least morally permissible, if not morally required. Its argument should, moreover, be of much more general interest to those considering different kinds of ethical consumption. PMID:27338607

  17. A study on oscillating second-kind boundary condition for Pennes equation considering thermal relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Weiping; Xu, Peng; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Meimei; Liu, Huiming; Gong, Linghui; Lu, Junfeng

    2014-05-01

    To study the effects of the thermal relaxation, the blood perfusion and the oscillating of ambient heat flux on the living tissue temperature in detail, we analytically investigated the one-dimensional CV model, a thermal wave model presented by Cattaneo and Vernott, for Pennes' bio-heat transfer equation under oscillating second-kind boundary condition. The results showed that the blood perfusion has the effect of maintaining the tissue's temperature. The heat propagation velocity decreases with the thermal relaxation time, while the absolute value of tissue's mean excess temperature at steady state increases with the thermal relaxation time. When the ambient heat flux oscillates, the tissue's temperature oscillates in the same period with a lag time. The results obtained in this paper are valuable for the research reference on the topic of tumor hyperthermia, heat injury, etc.

  18. Learning from successful and failed experience: the moderating role of kind of after-event review.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Shmuel; Mendel, Rachel; Nir, Michal

    2006-05-01

    The claim that appropriate "after-event review (AER)" may increase the relative value of drawing lessons from successes, as compared with failures, was examined in the present study. The study was a laboratory experiment in which the effect of type of AER (failure-focused, success-focused, failure- and success-focused, and no AER review) on performance improvement and causal attributions was tested under conditions of earlier success and earlier failure. In general, 2 results were demonstrated: (a) Drawing lessons from successful experience is feasible, and its effectiveness is contingent upon the type of AER. More specifically, after successful events, the most effective review is that of wrong actions, whereas after failed events, any kind of event review (correct or wrong actions) is effective. (b) AERs elicit more internal (as opposed to external) and specific (as opposed to general) attributions. These 2 classifications moderate the effect of AERs on task performance.

  19. Environmental impacts of two kind of ponds for shrimp production at Northwest Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Ocampo, Hector; Romero-Schmidt, Heidi; Serrano-Pinto, Vania; Arguelles, Cerafina; Salinas, Federico; Rodríguez, Antonio; Castellanos, Aradit; Ortega-Rubio, Alfredo

    2004-01-01

    Aquaculture offers a major opportunity for the economic development of Baja California Sur (BCS), Mexico. The severely limited freshwater supply and the geographic isolation of the state place limits on other productive activities. Despite the aridity, the natural vegetation of BCS is diverse and structurally complex with a high percentage (20%) of endemic species. In this work we compare the environmental impacts produced by two kinds of aquaculture systems: coastal ponds vs. inland ponds. Construction and operation of coastal ponds does not require destruction of the natural vegetation and, as is true for inland ponds. Coastal ponds are also compatible with conservation of mangroves, sea grasses and sensitive habitats for fish and mollusks. To reduce the negative impacts of aquaculture and to protect the vegetation of Baja California Sur, we recommend the use of coastal ponds for shrimp production.

  20. Folding behaviors of lattice model proteins with three kinds of contact potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Meng; Wang, Jun; Tang, Yi; Wang, Wei

    2003-06-01

    The interaction potentials between the amino acids are very important in the study of protein folding and design. In this work, the folding behaviors of lattice model protein chains are studied using three kinds of contact potentials between the beads. For these three cases, a number of sequences are designed using the Z-score method, and then their folding behaviors are obtained via Monte Carlo simulations for different sizes of the chains. It is found that the proper weakening of hydrophobicity may speed up the folding and the elimination of the mixing interaction terms may deteriorate the foldability. The different features of the foldability are discussed by comparing the characteristics of the energy landscapes of these model chains. The formations of various contacts are also analyzed, which provide us with some microscopic information on the model systems and interaction potentials.

  1. Adaptive backstepping sliding mode control with fuzzy monitoring strategy for a kind of mechanical system.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhankui; Sun, Kaibiao

    2014-01-01

    A novel adaptive backstepping sliding mode control (ABSMC) law with fuzzy monitoring strategy is proposed for the tracking-control of a kind of nonlinear mechanical system. The proposed ABSMC scheme combining the sliding mode control and backstepping technique ensure that the occurrence of the sliding motion in finite-time and the trajectory of tracking-error converge to equilibrium point. To obtain a better perturbation rejection property, an adaptive control law is employed to compensate the lumped perturbation. Furthermore, we introduce fuzzy monitoring strategy to improve adaptive capacity and soften the control signal. The convergence and stability of the proposed control scheme are proved by using Lyaponov's method. Finally, numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  2. Humans and Deep Networks Largely Agree on Which Kinds of Variation Make Object Recognition Harder.

    PubMed

    Kheradpisheh, Saeed R; Ghodrati, Masoud; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad; Masquelier, Timothée

    2016-01-01

    View-invariant object recognition is a challenging problem that has attracted much attention among the psychology, neuroscience, and computer vision communities. Humans are notoriously good at it, even if some variations are presumably more difficult to handle than others (e.g., 3D rotations). Humans are thought to solve the problem through hierarchical processing along the ventral stream, which progressively extracts more and more invariant visual features. This feed-forward architecture has inspired a new generation of bio-inspired computer vision systems called deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN), which are currently the best models for object recognition in natural images. Here, for the first time, we systematically compared human feed-forward vision and DCNNs at view-invariant object recognition task using the same set of images and controlling the kinds of transformation (position, scale, rotation in plane, and rotation in depth) as well as their magnitude, which we call "variation level." We used four object categories: car, ship, motorcycle, and animal. In total, 89 human subjects participated in 10 experiments in which they had to discriminate between two or four categories after rapid presentation with backward masking. We also tested two recent DCNNs (proposed respectively by Hinton's group and Zisserman's group) on the same tasks. We found that humans and DCNNs largely agreed on the relative difficulties of each kind of variation: rotation in depth is by far the hardest transformation to handle, followed by scale, then rotation in plane, and finally position (much easier). This suggests that DCNNs would be reasonable models of human feed-forward vision. In addition, our results show that the variation levels in rotation in depth and scale strongly modulate both humans' and DCNNs' recognition performances. We thus argue that these variations should be controlled in the image datasets used in vision research. PMID:27642281

  3. Humans and Deep Networks Largely Agree on Which Kinds of Variation Make Object Recognition Harder

    PubMed Central

    Kheradpisheh, Saeed R.; Ghodrati, Masoud; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad; Masquelier, Timothée

    2016-01-01

    View-invariant object recognition is a challenging problem that has attracted much attention among the psychology, neuroscience, and computer vision communities. Humans are notoriously good at it, even if some variations are presumably more difficult to handle than others (e.g., 3D rotations). Humans are thought to solve the problem through hierarchical processing along the ventral stream, which progressively extracts more and more invariant visual features. This feed-forward architecture has inspired a new generation of bio-inspired computer vision systems called deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN), which are currently the best models for object recognition in natural images. Here, for the first time, we systematically compared human feed-forward vision and DCNNs at view-invariant object recognition task using the same set of images and controlling the kinds of transformation (position, scale, rotation in plane, and rotation in depth) as well as their magnitude, which we call “variation level.” We used four object categories: car, ship, motorcycle, and animal. In total, 89 human subjects participated in 10 experiments in which they had to discriminate between two or four categories after rapid presentation with backward masking. We also tested two recent DCNNs (proposed respectively by Hinton's group and Zisserman's group) on the same tasks. We found that humans and DCNNs largely agreed on the relative difficulties of each kind of variation: rotation in depth is by far the hardest transformation to handle, followed by scale, then rotation in plane, and finally position (much easier). This suggests that DCNNs would be reasonable models of human feed-forward vision. In addition, our results show that the variation levels in rotation in depth and scale strongly modulate both humans' and DCNNs' recognition performances. We thus argue that these variations should be controlled in the image datasets used in vision research. PMID:27642281

  4. Cell responses to two kinds of nanohydroxyapatite with different sizes and crystallinities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaochen; Zhao, Minzhi; Lu, Jingxiong; Ma, Jian; Wei, Jie; Wei, Shicheng

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hydroxyapatite (HA) is the principal inorganic constituent of human bone. Due to its good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, all kinds of HA particles were prepared by different methods. Numerous reports demonstrated that the properties of HA affected its biological effects. Methods Two kinds of nanohydroxyapatite with different sizes and crystallinities were obtained via a hydrothermal treatment method under different temperatures. It was found that at a temperature of 140°C, a rod-like crystal (n-HA1) with a diameter of 23 ± 5 nm, a length of 47 ± 14 nm, and crystallinity of 85% ± 5% was produced, while at a temperature of 80°C, a rod-like crystal (n-HA2) with a diameter of 16 ± 3 nm, a length of 40 ± 10 nm, and crystallinity of 65% ± 3% was produced. The influence of nanohydroxyapatite size and crystallinity on osteoblast viability was studied by MTT, scanning electron microscopy, and flow cytometry. Results n-HA1 gave a better biological response than n-HA2 in promoting cell growth and inhibiting cell apoptosis, and also exhibited much more active cell morphology. Alkaline phosphatase activity for both n-HA2 and n-HA1 was obviously higher than for the control, and no significant difference was found between n-HA1 and n-HA2. The same trend was observed on Western blotting for expression of type I collagen and osteopontin. In addition, it was found by transmission electron microscopy that large quantities of n-HA2 entered into the cell and damaged the cellular morphology. Release of tumor necrosis factor alpha from n-HA2 was markedly higher than from n-HA1, indicating that n-HA2 might trigger a severe inflammatory response. Conclusion This work indicates that not all nanohydroxyapatite should be considered a good biomaterial in future clinical applications. PMID:22419871

  5. Neural responses to kindness and malevolence differ in illness and recovery in women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    McAdams, Carrie J; Lohrenz, Terry; Montague, P Read

    2015-12-01

    In anorexia nervosa, problems with social relationships contribute to illness, and improvements in social support are associated with recovery. Using the multiround trust game and 3T MRI, we compare neural responses in a social relationship in three groups of women: women with anorexia nervosa, women in long-term weight recovery from anorexia nervosa, and healthy comparison women. Surrogate markers related to social signals in the game were computed each round to assess whether the relationship was improving (benevolence) or deteriorating (malevolence) for each subject. Compared with healthy women, neural responses to benevolence were diminished in the precuneus and right angular gyrus in both currently-ill and weight-recovered subjects with anorexia, but neural responses to malevolence differed in the left fusiform only in currently-ill subjects. Next, using a whole-brain regression, we identified an office assessment, the positive personalizing bias, that was inversely correlated with neural activity in the occipital lobe, the precuneus and posterior cingulate, the bilateral temporoparietal junctions, and dorsal anterior cingulate, during benevolence for all groups of subjects. The positive personalizing bias is a self-report measure that assesses the degree with which a person attributes positive experiences to other people. These data suggest that problems in perceiving kindness may be a consistent trait related to the development of anorexia nervosa, whereas recognizing malevolence may be related to recovery. Future work on social brain function, in both healthy and psychiatric populations, should consider positive personalizing biases as a possible marker of neural differences related to kindness perception.

  6. Humans and Deep Networks Largely Agree on Which Kinds of Variation Make Object Recognition Harder

    PubMed Central

    Kheradpisheh, Saeed R.; Ghodrati, Masoud; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad; Masquelier, Timothée

    2016-01-01

    View-invariant object recognition is a challenging problem that has attracted much attention among the psychology, neuroscience, and computer vision communities. Humans are notoriously good at it, even if some variations are presumably more difficult to handle than others (e.g., 3D rotations). Humans are thought to solve the problem through hierarchical processing along the ventral stream, which progressively extracts more and more invariant visual features. This feed-forward architecture has inspired a new generation of bio-inspired computer vision systems called deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN), which are currently the best models for object recognition in natural images. Here, for the first time, we systematically compared human feed-forward vision and DCNNs at view-invariant object recognition task using the same set of images and controlling the kinds of transformation (position, scale, rotation in plane, and rotation in depth) as well as their magnitude, which we call “variation level.” We used four object categories: car, ship, motorcycle, and animal. In total, 89 human subjects participated in 10 experiments in which they had to discriminate between two or four categories after rapid presentation with backward masking. We also tested two recent DCNNs (proposed respectively by Hinton's group and Zisserman's group) on the same tasks. We found that humans and DCNNs largely agreed on the relative difficulties of each kind of variation: rotation in depth is by far the hardest transformation to handle, followed by scale, then rotation in plane, and finally position (much easier). This suggests that DCNNs would be reasonable models of human feed-forward vision. In addition, our results show that the variation levels in rotation in depth and scale strongly modulate both humans' and DCNNs' recognition performances. We thus argue that these variations should be controlled in the image datasets used in vision research.

  7. [Effects of different microhabitas on growth and four kinds of volatile oil components of Atractylodes lancea].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Miki, Sakurai; Yang, Guang; Takeda, Xiu-ji; Chen, Mei-lan; Zhu, Shou-dong; Wang, Ling; Guo, Lan-ping

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the suitable site environment for Atractylodes lancea, field trials in different niches was carried out, and the seedling growth, biomass and volatile oil components in different microhabitas was studied. The study found that the survival rate, plant height, volatile oil content of those which growing under the bamboo were significantly higher than those exposed in the open field. The survival rate understory was (76 ± 15.1) %, plant height understory was (77 ± 14. 8) cm and the summation of the four kinds of volatile oil content understory reached up to 4.09%; The same evaluation values of these indicators of the four faces in the open field respectively: survival rate is 30%, plant height was (77 ± 14.8) cm and the summation of the four kinds of volatile oil content was 2.24%. But, the yield of the understory (41 ± 22.3) g was significantly lower than those four faces in the open field (104.5 g) on the contrary. For the four open field towards, the yield of the east facing, which organic matter and other nutritional conditions were better than others, was significantly higher than those in the other facings. A. lancea was found to be an anti-poor and shading-like or growing in east facing slope herb through the correlation analysis of light, temperature, soil and leaf nutrients with seedling growth, biomass and volatile oil components. It also reminds us that the understory herb with high survival rate, low incidence, low management costs, and high medicinal ingredients, although it's production is not so high, but it can be improved by increased organic fertilizer. So the ecological planting patterns which can intercropping herbs with the forest was proposed. PMID:27071246

  8. Two Kinds of "Elements" and the Dialectic between Synthetic-deductive and Analytic-genetic Approaches in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Hans-Georg

    1988-01-01

    Describes two kinds of elements in mathematics: Euclid's and Bourbaki's. Discusses some criticisms on the two concepts of elements from a philosophical, methodological, and didactical point of view. Suggests a complementarist view and several implications for mathematics education. (YP)

  9. Determining that a label is kind-referring: Factors that influence children’s and adults’ novel word extensions

    PubMed Central

    Tare, Medha; Gelman, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    The present studies examined factors that influence children’s and adults’ interpretation of a novel word. Four factors are hypothesized to emphasize that a label refers to a richly structured category (also known as a ‘kind’): generic language, internal property attributions, familiar kind labels, and absence of a target photograph. In Study 1, for college students (N = 125), internal property attributions resulted in more taxonomic and fewer shape responses. In Study 2, for 4-year-olds (N = 126), the presence of generic language and familiar kind labels resulted in more taxonomic choices. Further, the presence of familiar kind labels resulted in fewer shape choices. The results suggest that, when learning new words, children and adults are sensitive to factors that imply kind reference. PMID:19874640

  10. 34 CFR 365.15 - What requirements apply if the State's non-Federal share is in kind?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INDEPENDENT LIVING SERVICES How Does the Secretary Make a Grant to a State? § 365.15 What requirements apply if the State's non-Federal share is in kind? Subject to § 365.14, in-kind contributions may be— (a... subpart Q of 34 CFR part 74 or 34 CFR 80.22, as appropriate; and (b) Made to the program or project by...

  11. How Much In-Kind Support Do Low-Income Nonresident Fathers Provide? A Mixed-Method Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    Past child support research has largely focused on cash payments made through the courts (formal support) or given directly to the mother (informal support), almost to the exclusion of a third type: non-cash goods (in-kind support). Drawing on repeated, semistructured interviews with nearly 400 low-income noncustodial fathers, the authors found that in-kind support constitutes about one quarter of total support. Children in receipt of some in-kind support receive, on average, $60 per month worth of goods. Multilevel regression analyses demonstrated that children who are younger and have more hours of visitation, as well as those whose father has a high school education and no current substance abuse problem, receive in-kind support of greater value. Yet children whose fathers lack stable employment, or are Black, receive a greater proportion of their total support in kind. A subsequent qualitative analysis revealed that fathers' logic for providing in-kind support is primarily relational, and not financial. PMID:26052162

  12. A new kind of relativity: Compensated delays as phenomenal blind spots.

    PubMed

    Vrobel, Susie

    2015-12-01

    cones which display a new kind of (Δtlength-Δtdepth-) relativity. This new kind of relativity arises from the oberpants' inability to spot the systemic blindness that manifests itself in anticipated, i.e. compensated, delays.

  13. NO X fluxes from three kinds of agricultural lands in the Yangtze Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shuangxi; Mu, Yujing

    Static chamber method was adopted to measure the surface exchanges of NO and NO 2 between three kinds of agricultural lands and the atmosphere during spring-summer period in the Yangtze Delta, China. The average NO fluxes were 20.9, 27.4 and 21.4 ng N m -2 s -1, respectively, for cabbage (CA, cultivation of celery occurred along with cabbage), potato (PO) and soybean (SY) fields. The average NO 2 fluxes were -1.12, 0.93 and -0.68 ng N m -2 s -1, respectively, for the cabbage, potato and soybean fields. Apparently, negative linear correlation was found between the NO 2 fluxes from the CK plot (tilled conventionally but did not cultivate any seeds) and its ambient concentrations, and the compensation point was calculated to be 0.92 ppbv. The total NO emission from the vegetable lands and SY land in this region during spring-summer period was roughly estimated to be 15.9 Gg N, which accounted for about 11.2% of the estimated value of total NO emissions in the July of 1999 from Chinese agricultural fields.

  14. Two kinds of graphene-based composites for photoanode applying in dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bo; Hu, Guoxin

    2012-12-01

    Two kinds of graphene modified TiO2 composites are synthesized by hydrothermal method and layer-by-layer self-assembly technology. Graphene/titanate nanotubes (GTNTs) films have great light-harvesting efficiencies, and the amount of graphene does not obviously influence their optical performance. Alternating graphene/TiO2 (prepared by supercritical treatment, GSCT) multilayer films possess superior electron transport ability, and the number of bi-layers plays as a central role for their electrical property. The outstanding light scattering and carrier transport properties of these promising films promote the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The power conversion efficiencies (η) of the DSSCs reach 6.46% and 7.54% under AM-1.5G by using GSCT-P25 (10 μm) and P25-GTNTs (15 μm) photoanodes, and the increases are 33.8% and 20.6% compared with that of by using a P25 photoanode with same thickness. The η reaches 8.67% when a preliminarily optimized GSCT-P25-GTNTs (15 μm) photoanode is adopted, which is far better than employing a pure P25 photoanode (6.25%).

  15. Dynamics of Cd, Cu and Pb added to soil through different kinds of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Torri, S I; Lavado, R S

    2008-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was set up to study the distribution of Cd, Cu and Pb in three typical soils of the Pampas Region amended with sewage sludge. A sequential extraction procedure was used to obtain four operationally defined geochemical species: exchangeable, bound to organic matter, bound to carbonates, and residual. Two kinds of sewage sludge were used: pure sewage sludge and sewage sludge containing 30% DM of its own incinerated ash, at rates equivalent to a field application of 150 t DM ha(-1). Pots were maintained at 80% of field capacity through daily irrigation with distilled water. Soil samples were obtained on days 1, 60, 270 and 360, and then air-dried and passed through a 2 mm sieve for analysis. Results showed that sludge application increased the less available forms of Cd, Cu and Pb. The inorganic forms became the most prevalent forms for Cu and Pb, whereas Cd was only found in the residual fraction. The concentrations of OM-Cu and INOR-Cu in the amended soil samples were closely correlated with soil pH, whereas the chemical behavior of Cd and Pb did not depend on soil physico-chemical characteristics.

  16. Microwave-Absorption Properties of Three Kinds of Structured Cu/C Composites.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Linwen; Wang, Zhenhua; Li, Da; Geng, Dianyu; Wang, Yu; An, Jing; He, Jun; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhidong

    2016-06-01

    The microwave-absorption properties of three kinds of (core-shell, uniform-mixing and double-layer structured) Cu/C composites are investigated in the 2-18 GHz frequency range. The results show that the Cu/C composites with core-shell structure are favorable to obtain higher relative permittivity and better microwave-absorption properties in comparison with other Cu/C composites. The reflection loss (RL) values exceeding -10 dB are obtained in 13.0-17.2 GHz at the absorber thickness of 1.6 mm for the core-shell structured Cu/C nanoparticles, which cover most of Ku-band (12-18 GHz). The excellent microwave-absorption properties may result from synergetic effects induced by the tightly-connected core-shell interfaces. The synergetic effects are explained by a simulated physical model, wherein both the interfacial polarizations and interfacial multiple reflections are responsible to the excellent microwave-absorption performances.

  17. [Inhibitory effects of fifteen kinds of Chinese herbal drugs, vegetables and chemicals on SOS response].

    PubMed

    Jin, Z C; Qian, J

    1994-05-01

    Effects of 15 kinds of herbal drugs, vegetables and chemicals on lex-dependent sfi-SOS response were determined by micropersistent and/or pulse models induced by 4-Nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO) and Mitomycin C (MMC) in Escherichia coli(E. coli) PQ37 and PQ35, respectively. Results showed the water extract of Rhizoma Polygonati (RP), Fructus Chebulae (FC), Radix Polygoni Multiflori (RPM), Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL), Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii (BFT), shell of water chestnut with a pedicle, Chinese chives juice, and solutions of 5-Fluorouracil, Tannic acid and garlicin could inhibit SOS responses with a dose-response relationship and suggested the inhibitory effects took place both inside and outside E. coli cells. Water extract of FC, FLL, BFT, shell of water chestnut with a pedicle, Chinese chives juice and solution of 5-Fluorouracil and Tannic acid could intracellularly inhibit SOS responses induced by MMC in E. coli PQ35, and acetone extract of Grifola Frondosa (GF) could extracellularly inhibit SOS responses in E. coli PQ37 and intracellularly in PQ35 induced by 4NQO or MMC. Water extract of raw hawthorn. Radix Angelicae Duhuricae (RAD), Radix Ophiopogonis (RO), and 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine could extracellularly inhibit SOS responses induced by 4NQO in E coli PQ37. The possible mechanisms of intracellular inhibition and antidamage repair were discussed in the paper.

  18. Towards a new kind of experimental psycho-aesthetics? Reflections on the Parallellepipeda project

    PubMed Central

    Wagemans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Experimental psycho-aesthetics—the science aimed at understanding the factors that determine aesthetic experience—is reviewed briefly as background to describe the Parallellepipeda project, a cross-over project between artists and scientists in Leuven. In particular, I sketch how it started and developed further, with close interactions between the participating artists and scientists. A few examples of specific research projects are mentioned to illustrate the kind of research questions we address and the methodological approach we have taken. We often found an effect of providing participants with additional information, a difference between novice and expert participants, and a shift with increasing experience with an artwork, in the direction of tolerating more complexity and acquiring more order from it. By establishing more connections between parts of an artwork and more associations to the artwork, it becomes a stronger Gestalt, which is more easily mastered by the viewer and leads to increased appreciation. In the final part of the paper, I extract some general lessons from the project regarding a possible new way of doing psycho-aesthetics research, which is able to solve some of the problems of traditional experimental psycho-aesthetics (eg, trade-off between experimental control and ecological validity). PMID:23145251

  19. Effects of Various Kinds of Salt on the Quality and Storage Characteristics of Tteokgalbi

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Joon

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of various kinds of salt on the quality and storage characteristics of tteokgalbi. The tteokgalbi was prepared using four types of salt: 1.5% purified salt (control, C), 1.5% five-year-old solar salt (FS), 1.5% Topan solar salt (TS), and 1.5% French Guérande solar salt (GS). The moisture, crude lipid, crude ash, crude protein and calorie contents, water holding capacity, and cooking loss were not significantly different between control and all other treatments. As for the textural characteristics, the use of GS increased the hardness of the tteokgalbi. According to the sensory evaluation, the use of TS had the best score in springiness. Tteokgalbi made with TS and GS had the two highest scores in flavor and total acceptability. During 15 d of storage, the contents of 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and the total microbial counts increased, while the pH decreased. The TBA values of the tteokgalbi containing TS and GS were lower than that of C. Lightness (L) and yellowness (b) values decreased during storage, but redness (a) displayed no significant difference during storage. Overall, the best results, in terms of TBA value and sensory attributes, were obtained for the tteokgalbi containing TS and GS. PMID:26761494

  20. Flavonoids, Antioxidant Activity and Aroma Compounds Analysis from Different Kinds of Tartary Buckwheat Tea

    PubMed Central

    Peng, L. X.; Zou, L.; Wang, J. B.; Zhao, J. L.; Xiang, D. B.; Zhao, G.

    2015-01-01

    The rutin, quercetin concentrations, antioxidant activity, and aroma compounds in different commercial tartary buckwheat tea were analyzed in our study. Results revealed that the materials and the processing protocol affected the chemical composition and activity of tartary buckwheat tea. Rutin and quercetin concentrations, antioxidant activity were significantly different in various kinds of tartary buckwheat tea, where the whole bran tea and the whole plant tea had the lower rutin, but higher quercetin concentrations and higher antioxidant activity. The whole embryo tea had the converse results. There was strong correlation between quercetin concentration and antioxidant activity (r>0.98, P<0.05). Meanwhile, Twenty eight different aroma compounds in tartary buckwheat tea were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Those compounds were mainly composed of pyrazine, aldehydes, fatty acids and ketones. The main type of aroma compounds in different tartary buckwheat tea were similar, but their relative contents were different. The implications to the quality control of buckwheat tea were extensively discussed. PMID:26997692

  1. A new kind of efficiently preionic long-life-time TEA CO{sub 2} laser

    SciTech Connect

    Ren Deming; Liu Fengmei; Qu Yanchen; Hu Xiaoyong; Zhao Jingshan; Sheng Xinzhi

    1996-12-31

    In this work, the design and performance of a new kind TEA CO{sub 2} laser is reported. It was preionized by ultraviolet (UV) from surface corona discharge. A BN ceramic structure was employed as a assembly of resonators. The output energy of 143mJ, the pulse duration of 50ns, the transverse mode of TEM{sub 00}, the repetition-rate of 50Hz, the divergence of only 4mrad was obtained. Comparing with UV bare-spark-preionized (BSP) TEA CO{sub 2} lasers, it was found that (1) the uniform of the main electrode discharge was improved, (2) the repetition-rate was improved from 30Hz to 50Hz, (3) the input energy was four times lower than that of BSP TEA CO{sub 2} laser under the same output energy, (4) the lifetime reached 10{sup 6} pulse, (5) the stability of resonator was improved, the output energy eliminated only 14% after 3.5 hours operation. The performance was improved because the intrinsic efficiency of surface corona preionization (SCP) was four times higher than that of BSP one, the corona discharge was very uniform and photodissociation processes involved in BSP were avoided. The extremely low thermal-expansion of BN minimized the misalignment, so the high reliability can be obtained.

  2. Analysis of concrete targets with different kinds of reinforcements subjected to blast loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oña, M.; Morales-Alonso, G.; Gálvez, F.; Sánchez-Gálvez, V.; Cendón, D.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we describe an experimental campaign carried out to study and analyse the behaviour of concrete slabs when subjected to blast loading. Four different types of concrete have been tested: normal strength concrete with steel rebar, normal strength concrete with steel rebar retrofitted with Kevlar coating, steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) and polypropylene fibre reinforced concrete (PFRC). The major asset of the experimental setup used is that it allows to subject up to four specimens to the same blast load what, besides being cost effective, makes possible to have a measure of the experimental scatter. The results of SFRC and PFRC concretes have been analysed by using a previously developed material model for the numerical simulation of concrete elements subjected to blast. The experimental campaign and preliminary results of this numerical analysis show how the high strain rates, in spite of improving the mechanical properties of these kinds of fibre reinforced concretes, lead to an embrittlement of the material, which may be dangerous from the point of view of the structural behaviour.

  3. A special kind of local structure in the CMB intensity maps: duel peak structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao; Li, Ti-Pei

    2009-03-01

    We study the local structure of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature maps released by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) team, and find a new kind of structure, which can be described as follows: a peak (or valley) of average temperature is often followed by a peak of temperature fluctuation that is 4° away. This structure is important for the following reasons: both the well known cold spot detected by Cruz et al. and the hot spot detected by Vielva et al. with the same technology (the third spot in their article) have such structure; more spots that are similar to them can be found on CMB maps and they also tend to be significant cold/hot spots; if we change the 4° characteristic into an artificial one, such as 3° or 5°, there will be less 'similar spots', and the temperature peaks or valleys will be less significant. The presented 'similar spots' have passed a strict consistency test which requires them to be significant on at least three different CMB temperature maps. We hope that this article could arouse some interest in the relationship of average temperature with temperature fluctuation in local areas; meanwhile, we are also trying to find an explanation for it which might be important to CMB observation and theory.

  4. A new kind of low-inductance transformer type magnetic switch (TTMS) with coaxial cylindrical conductors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Jinliang

    2013-02-01

    As important devices for voltage boosting and switching, respectively, pulse transformer and magnetic switch are widely used in pulsed power technology. In this paper, a new kind of transformer type magnetic switch (TTMS) with coaxial cylindrical conductors is put forward to combine the functions of voltage boosting and switching in one power device. As a compact combination device of discrete pulse transformer and magnetic switch, the compact TTMS decreases the required volume of magnetic cores in a large scale. The primary windings of the TTMS have a parallel combination structure so that the TTMS which only has 3 turns of secondary windings has a step-up ratio at 1:9. Before the magnetic core saturates, the TTMS has low unsaturated inductances of windings and good pulse response characteristics, so it can be used to substitute the Marx generator to charge the pulse forming line (PFL) at the ranges of several hundred kV and several hundred ns. After the core saturates, the cylindrical conductors can decrease the saturated inductance of the secondary windings of TTMS to a level less than 400 nH. As a result, the proposed TTMS can be used as the boosting transformer and main switch of helical Blumlein PFL to form the quasi-square voltage pulse on the 160 Ω load with a short pulse rise time only at 60 ns.

  5. Beyond continuous mathematics and traditional scientific analysis: understanding and mining Wolfram's A New Kind of Science.

    PubMed

    McDowell, J J; Popa, Andrei

    2009-06-01

    In A New Kind of Science, Stephen Wolfram recommends abandoning traditional scientific analysis and the continuous mathematical description that it affords in favor of the study of simple rules. He focuses on a machine known as a cellular automaton as the prototype generator of complex phenomena such as those we see in nature. The simplest cellular automaton consists of a row of cells, each existing in one of two states. The states of the cells are updated from moment to moment by simple rules. Wolfram shows that these machines and their many variations can generate a host of outcomes ranging from very simple to extremely complex. He argues that among these outcomes representations of all the phenomena in the universe will be found, including presumably the behavior of organisms. The output of cellular automata can be mapped to behavior by considering, for example, one of the states of a cell to represent the emission of a behavior. For some cellular automaton rules, these mappings generate cumulative records and inter-response time distributions that are similar to those produced by live organisms. In addition, at least one cellular automaton generates the Herrnstein hyperbola as an emergent outcome. These results suggest that Wolfram's program and its mainstream version, which is known as complexity theory, is worth pursuing as a possible means of understanding and accounting for the behavior of organisms.

  6. A novel accelerometer based on the first kind of ferrofluid levitation principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jie; Chen, Yibiao; Li, Zhenkun; Zhang, Tianqi; Li, Decai

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a novel accelerometer exploiting the first kind of ferrofluid levitation principle is presented. The device consists of a piston-shaped container filled with ferrofluid surrounding a nonmagnetic insulating rod, which has the same shape as the container and is regarded as an inertial mass. Two annular magnets outside the container are used to create a non-uniform magnetic field which generates a powerful restoring force acting on the nonmagnetic rod. Under the influence of the external acceleration, two coils can detect the change of the volume distribution of the ferrofluid and transmit the voltage signal, which is proportional to the displacement of the nonmagnetic rod. The determination of the working range, linearity and sensitivity depends on the restoring force, thus these factors affecting the restoring force are sufficiently investigated by calculation and experiment. Furthermore, the comparison between numerical calculations and experimental measurements shows a good agreement. The static characteristics of the accelerometer are obtained by using an optimized structure.

  7. Modified homotopy perturbation method for solving hypersingular integral equations of the first kind.

    PubMed

    Eshkuvatov, Z K; Zulkarnain, F S; Nik Long, N M A; Muminov, Z

    2016-01-01

    Modified homotopy perturbation method (HPM) was used to solve the hypersingular integral equations (HSIEs) of the first kind on the interval [-1,1] with the assumption that the kernel of the hypersingular integral is constant on the diagonal of the domain. Existence of inverse of hypersingular integral operator leads to the convergence of HPM in certain cases. Modified HPM and its norm convergence are obtained in Hilbert space. Comparisons between modified HPM, standard HPM, Bernstein polynomials approach Mandal and Bhattacharya (Appl Math Comput 190:1707-1716, 2007), Chebyshev expansion method Mahiub et al. (Int J Pure Appl Math 69(3):265-274, 2011) and reproducing kernel Chen and Zhou (Appl Math Lett 24:636-641, 2011) are made by solving five examples. Theoretical and practical examples revealed that the modified HPM dominates the standard HPM and others. Finally, it is found that the modified HPM is exact, if the solution of the problem is a product of weights and polynomial functions. For rational solution the absolute error decreases very fast by increasing the number of collocation points. PMID:27652048

  8. What kinds of policies to reduce health inequalities in the UK do researchers support?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katherine E.; Kandlik Eltanani, Mor

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a wealth of research and policy initiatives, progress in tackling the UK's health inequalities has been limited. This article explores whether there appears to be consensus among researchers about the kinds of policies likely to reduce health inequalities. Methods Ninety-nine proposals for addressing health inequalities were identified from multiple sources. Forty-one researchers participated in a survey assessing the extent to which they believed each proposal would reduce health inequalities, based on three criteria. The 20 proposals generating most support were employed in a second stage, in which 92 researchers indicated which proposals they felt would have the greatest impact on reducing health inequalities. Results Some consensus exists among researchers about the policy approaches likely to reduce UK health inequalities: a more progressive distribution of income/wealth, greater investment in services for deprived communities, plus regulatory policies to limit the impact of lifestyle-behavioural risks. However, researchers' support for proposals varies depending whether they are asked to express their expert opinion or to comment on the strength of the available evidence. Conclusions When consulting researchers about health inequalities, policymakers need to consider whether they are seeking research-informed expertise or assessments of the available evidence; these questions are likely to yield different responses. PMID:25174045

  9. [Removal of tetracycline by a kind of nano-sized amorphous carbon].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-xiao; Li, Ai-min; Wang, Di-hua; Zhang, Wei-hao

    2015-01-01

    The experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption behavior of tetracycline on a kind of nano-sized amorphous carbon, which was synthetized in a molten salt electrochemical system, comprising a eutectic mixture of Li-Na-K carbonates. The results showed that, the carbon powder had a good adsorption performance. At 298K, the maximum adsorption capacity of tetracycline was 127.76 mg x g(-1). The adsorption data could be well fitted by the pseudo-second-order model and the Freundlich isotherm. Also, the thermodynamic tests for the adsorption were conducted. The adsorption was endothermic and spontaneous reaction with chemical bond as the dominant. The adsorption was pH dependent. The adsorption capacity reached the maximum when solution pH was 4 in the range from 2 to 11. The existence of cations had little effects on the adsorption. The adsorption capacity increased with the concentration of cations to a certain extent. Ion exchange may be one of the adsorption mechanisms, as well as, electric attraction and hydrogen bond. Moreover, desorption experiments were carried out in 0.25 mol x L(-1) CaCl2 or NaCl solution respectively. Desorption efficiency ranged from 7.42% to 25%, which was at a relatively low level. The result indicated that the chemical adsorption process was strong. PMID:25898667

  10. Clever and crude but not kind: narcissism, self-esteem, and the self-reference effect.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lara L; Brunell, Amy B

    2014-01-01

    According to the agency model of narcissism (Campbell, Brunell, & Finkel, 2006) narcissists view themselves as high on agentic traits but low on communal traits. To test if this self-view extends to recall, two experiments examined the extent to which narcissism was associated with self-ratings and recall of agentic and communal traits that varied in valence. Across both experiments a trait description task was followed by a surprise recall task for the trait words and then completion of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988). Within the self-reference condition narcissism was related to higher selection in the trait description task and to higher recall of positive-agentic (e.g., clever) traits. This general pattern of results occurred for narcissism even while controlling for the related personality variables of self-esteem, agency, and communion. In contrast to narcissism, within the self-referent group self-esteem predicted higher recall for positive-communal traits (e.g., kind) but lower recall for negative-communal traits, a finding consistent with mnemic neglect. Overall, results supported the agency model of narcissism and extended this model to suggest that narcissists rate themselves more highly not only on positive-agentic traits but also on negative-communal traits.

  11. In vitro colonic fermentation and glycemic response of different kinds of unripe banana flour.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Dan, Milana C T; Cardenette, Giselli H L; Goñi, Isabel; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Lajolo, Franco M

    2010-12-01

    This work aimed to study the in vitro colonic fermentation profile of unavailable carbohydrates of two different kinds of unripe banana flour and to evaluate their postprandial glycemic responses. The unripe banana mass (UBM), obtained from the cooked pulp of unripe bananas (Musa acuminata, Nanicão variety), and the unripe banana starch (UBS), obtained from isolated starch of unripe banana, plantain type (Musa paradisiaca) in natura, were studied. The fermentability of the flours was evaluated by different parameters, using rat inoculum, as well as the glycemic response produced after the ingestion by healthy volunteers. The flours presented high concentration of unavailable carbohydrates, which varied in the content of resistant starch, dietary fiber and indigestible fraction (IF). The in vitro colonic fermentation of the flours was high, 98% for the UBS and 75% for the UBM when expressed by the total amount of SCFA such as acetate, butyrate and propionate in relation to lactulose. The increase in the area under the glycemic curve after ingestion of the flours was 90% lower for the UBS and 40% lower for the UBM than the increase produced after bread intake. These characteristics highlight the potential of UBM and UBS as functional ingredients. However, in vivo studies are necessary in order to evaluate the possible benefit effects of the fermentation on intestinal health. PMID:20839056

  12. The Social Practice of Harm Reduction in Argentina: A “Latin” Kind of Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Shana

    2016-01-01

    “Harm reduction” is a public health model that places emphasis on reducing the negative effects of drug use rather than on eliminating drug use or ensuring abstinence. Based on sixteen months of ethnographic research, this article examines how harm reduction in Argentina is both envisioned and observed as a social practice by analyzing how local harm reductionists position their work in relation to “social context.” My informants consider this social emphasis to be characteristic of a “Latin” kind of intervention, which they differentiate from an “Anglo-Saxon” approach focused on individual behavior change. Differentiating between these “cultural” models of intervention helps Argentine harm reductionists guide their social orientation to drug use, risk, and harm by situating interventions in the contexts in which users live and operate. It also allows them to distinguish their social form of harm reduction from a neoliberal one that they associate with the global north. The construction of these distinct cultural models of intervention is a means of critiquing neoliberal approaches to health that advocate technical solutions to changing individual behavior. Ultimately, this construct acts as a political commentary on the limits of an individual-oriented harm reduction project when applied to the “Argentine context.” PMID:27182076

  13. Characteristics and stability of mercury vapor adsorption over two kinds of modified semicoke.

    PubMed

    Huawei, Zhang; Xiuli, Liu; Li, Wang; Peng, Liang

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to produce effective and lower price gaseous Hg(0) adsorbents, two methods of HCl and KMnO4/heat treatment were used respectively for the surface modification of liginite semicoke from inner Mongolia. The different effects of modification process on the surface physical and chemical properties were analyzed. The characteristics and stability of mercury vapor adsorption over two kinds of modified semicoke were investigated. The results indicated that modification process caused lower micropore quantity and volume capacity of semicoke; the C-Cl functional groups, C=O bond and delocalized electron π on the surface of Cl-SC, the amorphous higher valency Mn (x+) , and O=C-OH functional groups on the surface of Mn-H-SC were the active sites for oxidation and adsorption of gaseous Hg(0). Modification process led to higher mercury removal efficiency of semicoke at 140°C and reduced the stability of adsorbed mercury of semicoke in simulated water circumstance simultaneously. PMID:25309948

  14. Changes in the activities of the trunk muscles in different kinds of bridging exercises.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong Soo; Cho, Yong Ho; Park, Ji Won

    2013-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different types of bridging exercises on the activities of the trunk muscles. [Methods] Twenty-four students participated in this experiment. The activities of the internal oblique (IO), external oblique (EO), rectus abdominis (RA), and erector spinae (ES) muscles were measured in four different bridging exercises. [Results] There were significant differences in the IO, EO, RA, and ES among the four kinds of bridging exercise. The activities of IO, EO and RA were the highest in prone bridging (exercise 4), followed by unilateral bridging (exercise 3), and supine bridging on balance pads (exercise 2). In conventional bridging (exercise 1), the activities of IO, EO, and RA were the lowest. The activity of ES was the highest in exercise 3 followed by exercises 2 and 1. The activity of ES was the lowest than in exercise 1. [Conclusions] Bridging exercise in the prone position may be a more effective method of enhancing trunk muscle activities exercises in other positions. PMID:24409031

  15. The Enigmatic Variable Stars in DDO 187: Are they a new kind of object?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Abhijit

    2006-02-01

    A variable star study in the dwarf galaxy DDO 187 has yielded a putative distance modulus of 29.24 from a very few Cepheids detected near the faint limit (r ~ 24 ) with the KP 2.1m telescope. Three very bright ~ 22 (M_r >=-7.2) red long period variables with amplitudes greater than 2 mags in r and periods longer than 800 days were also discovered. Such objects are theoretically predicted as evolved products of Hubble Sandage variables, but only if the metallicity is poor enough to suppress damping of pulsations. There are no known counterparts of such high amplitude red variables of such high intrinsic brightness in the Galaxy, M31, M33 or the Clouds. DDO 187 may be unique in providing stars that are both very young and very metal poor in the local Universe, and thus be the nearest host of this new kind of variable. Or is the inferred distance to DDO 187 wrong, as has once been alleged? A deep color- magnitude diagram will show the tip of the red giant branch, and resolve any uncertainty about the distance. Gemini is needed to reach the required faint level. The pay-off is confirmation of a new constituent of the Universe.

  16. Characteristics and stability of mercury vapor adsorption over two kinds of modified semicoke.

    PubMed

    Huawei, Zhang; Xiuli, Liu; Li, Wang; Peng, Liang

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to produce effective and lower price gaseous Hg(0) adsorbents, two methods of HCl and KMnO4/heat treatment were used respectively for the surface modification of liginite semicoke from inner Mongolia. The different effects of modification process on the surface physical and chemical properties were analyzed. The characteristics and stability of mercury vapor adsorption over two kinds of modified semicoke were investigated. The results indicated that modification process caused lower micropore quantity and volume capacity of semicoke; the C-Cl functional groups, C=O bond and delocalized electron π on the surface of Cl-SC, the amorphous higher valency Mn (x+) , and O=C-OH functional groups on the surface of Mn-H-SC were the active sites for oxidation and adsorption of gaseous Hg(0). Modification process led to higher mercury removal efficiency of semicoke at 140°C and reduced the stability of adsorbed mercury of semicoke in simulated water circumstance simultaneously.

  17. Sustained Release of Naproxen in a New Kind Delivery System of Carbon Nanotubes Hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiahui; Zhuang, Qiang; Peng, Dongming; Dong, Qiuli; Tan, Lini; Jiao, Feipeng; Liu, Linqi; Liu, jingyu; Zhao, Chenxi; Wang, Xiaomei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were added into chitosan (CS) hydrogels in the form of chitosan modified CNTs (CS-CNTs) composites to prepare carbon nanotubes hydrogels (CNTs-GEL). The products, named CS-MWCNTs, were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Swelling properties and effect of pH on controlled release performance of the two kinds of hydrogels, CNTs- GEL and pure chitosan hydrogels without CNTs (GEL), were investigated respectively. The results showed that CNTs-GEL possess better controlled release performance than GEL. The releasing equilibrium time of CNTs-GEL was longer than that of GEL in both pH = w7.4 and pH=1.2 conditions, although the release ratios of the model drug are similar in the same pH buffer solutions. It is found that release kinetics is better fitted Ritger-Peppas empirical model indicating a fick-diffusion process in pH = 1.2, while in pH = 7.4 it was non-fick diffusion involving surface diffusion and corrosion diffusion processes. PMID:24523738

  18. Simultaneous determination of ten preservatives in ten kinds of foods by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao-Jing; Xie, Na; Zhao, Shan; Wu, Yu-Chen; Li, Jiang; Wang, Zhi

    2015-08-15

    An improved micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method (MEKC) for the simultaneous determination of ten preservatives in ten different kinds of food samples was reported. An uncoated fused-silica capillary with 50 μm i.d. and 70 cm total length was used. Under the optimized conditions, the linear response was observed in the range of 1.2-200mg/L for the analytes. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N=3) and limits of quantitation (LOQ, S/N=10) ranging from 0.4 to 0.5mg/L and 1.2 to 1.5mg/L, respectively were obtained. The method was used for the determination of sorbic and benzoic acids in two FAPAS® (Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme) proficiency test samples (jam and chocolate cake). The results showed that the current method with simple sample pretreatment and small reagent consumption could meet the needs for routine analysis of the ten preservatives in ten types of food products.

  19. Characteristics and Stability of Mercury Vapor Adsorption over Two Kinds of Modified Semicoke

    PubMed Central

    Huawei, Zhang; Xiuli, Liu; Li, Wang; Peng, Liang

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to produce effective and lower price gaseous Hg0 adsorbents, two methods of HCl and KMnO4/heat treatment were used respectively for the surface modification of liginite semicoke from inner Mongolia. The different effects of modification process on the surface physical and chemical properties were analyzed. The characteristics and stability of mercury vapor adsorption over two kinds of modified semicoke were investigated. The results indicated that modification process caused lower micropore quantity and volume capacity of semicoke; the C-Cl functional groups, C=O bond and delocalized electron π on the surface of Cl-SC, the amorphous higher valency Mnx+, and O=C–OH functional groups on the surface of Mn-H-SC were the active sites for oxidation and adsorption of gaseous Hg0. Modification process led to higher mercury removal efficiency of semicoke at 140°C and reduced the stability of adsorbed mercury of semicoke in simulated water circumstance simultaneously. PMID:25309948

  20. Understanding Students' Experiments—What kind of support do they need in inquiry tasks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Julia Caroline; Kremer, Kerstin; Mayer, Jürgen

    2014-11-01

    Inquiry learning is a widely recognized method for fostering inquiry competence in science education. Nevertheless, there is discussion about how to best support students while working on inquiry tasks (in this case: experiments on causal relationships). To identify the kind of support students need in order to design experiments in upper grades, an empirical study consisting of two parts was conducted. The first part, a quantitative test (N = 96), tested students' competences in designing an experiment. It was found that students need scaffolding in basic aspects of designing (like dependent and independent variables), to reach higher levels, since only about thirty percent reach levels II or III out of three levels. On more reflective aspects (like confounding variables, test times and repetitions), only a maximum of twenty-five percent reached level I or higher; therefore, even more support is needed on these aspects. The second part of the study was a qualitative video-analysis of students' discussions, designs and implementations of an experiment. It was found that support is needed on procedural knowledge and understanding. Possible implications for inquiry support are discussed.

  1. [Carbon cycle in ten kinds of forest ecosystem in Guangzhou City].

    PubMed

    Kang, Wen-xing; Tian, Zheng; He, Jie-nan; Cui, Sha-sha

    2009-12-01

    Based on an extensive collection of information and experimental data, this paper studied the carbon cycle in ten kinds of forest ecosystem in Guangzhou, China, aimed to explore the carbon cycling patterns in, southern subtropical forest ecosystems. For the test ecosystems, their carbon density ranged from 108.35 to 151.85 t C x hm(-2), with 10. 85-48.86 t C x hm(-2) in tree layer and 87.74-99.01 t C x hm(-2) in soil layer (0-60 cm), being lower than the national average. There were 4. 41-9. 15 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1) flowed from atmosphere to vegetation stratum, 0. 74-2.06 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1) from vegetation stratum to soil, and 3.94-5.42 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1) from soil to atmosphere, i.e., the forest systems absorbed 0.47-4.97 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1) from atmosphere. The net ecosystem production (NEP) varied with forest stand, being higher for broadleaved forest than coniferous forest, mixed forest than pure forest, and natural secondary forest than artificial forest.

  2. Neural Basis of Two Kinds of Social Influence: Obedience and Conformity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ying; Chen, Mingliang; Lai, Hongxia; Zhang, Wuke; Zhao, Zhen; Anwar, Ch Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used in this study to explore the neural mechanism of obedience and conformity on the model of online book purchasing. Participants were asked to decide as quickly as possible whether to buy a book based on limited information including its title, keywords and number of positive and negative reviews. Obedience was induced by forcing participants to buy books which received mostly negative reviews. In contrast, conformity was aroused by majority influence (caused by positive and negative comments). P3 and N2, two kinds of ERP components related to social cognitive process, were measured and recorded with electroencephalogram (EEG) test. The results show that compared with conformity decisions, obedience decisions induced greater cognitive conflicts. In ERP measurements, greater amplitudes of N2 component were observed in the context of obedience. However, consistency level did not make a difference on P3 peak latency for both conformity and obedience. This shows that classification process is implicit in both conformity and obedience decision-making. In addition, for both conformity and obedience decisions, augmented P3 was observed when the reviews consistency (either negative or positive) was higher.

  3. Comparison of hydration, tyrosinase resistance, and antioxidant activation in three kinds of pearl powders.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dong-Zi; Wang, Cheng-Kun; Hwang, Hann-Jang; Hung, Ching-Hsia; Chen, Yu-Wen

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, people have bred freshwater pearls as a substitute for natural pearls that occur in seawater, and they have also developed water-soluble pearl powder (P-w) and ultra-micro (P-mu) and ultra-nano pearl powder (P-n) products. However, neither the scientific value of pearl powder, nor the differences in efficiencies of different pearl powder products is still unknown. In this study, the effectiveness of three kinds of pearl powder products in various applications was compared. Tests for transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and evaluations of the skin surface hydration of test subjects showed that pearl powder has a satisfactory moisturizing effect on skin and that P-mu has a distinctly stronger moisturizing effect than P-w. The three pearl powder products can also significantly reduce the activation of tyrosinase and free radicals. In tests for reducing power and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for scavenging free radicals, P-n and P-mu showed better performance than P-w. These results provide a reliable scientific basis for the use of pearl powder in beauty treatment, resistance to aging, and clinical medical treatment. PMID:20447365

  4. In vitro colonic fermentation and glycemic response of different kinds of unripe banana flour.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Dan, Milana C T; Cardenette, Giselli H L; Goñi, Isabel; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Lajolo, Franco M

    2010-12-01

    This work aimed to study the in vitro colonic fermentation profile of unavailable carbohydrates of two different kinds of unripe banana flour and to evaluate their postprandial glycemic responses. The unripe banana mass (UBM), obtained from the cooked pulp of unripe bananas (Musa acuminata, Nanicão variety), and the unripe banana starch (UBS), obtained from isolated starch of unripe banana, plantain type (Musa paradisiaca) in natura, were studied. The fermentability of the flours was evaluated by different parameters, using rat inoculum, as well as the glycemic response produced after the ingestion by healthy volunteers. The flours presented high concentration of unavailable carbohydrates, which varied in the content of resistant starch, dietary fiber and indigestible fraction (IF). The in vitro colonic fermentation of the flours was high, 98% for the UBS and 75% for the UBM when expressed by the total amount of SCFA such as acetate, butyrate and propionate in relation to lactulose. The increase in the area under the glycemic curve after ingestion of the flours was 90% lower for the UBS and 40% lower for the UBM than the increase produced after bread intake. These characteristics highlight the potential of UBM and UBS as functional ingredients. However, in vivo studies are necessary in order to evaluate the possible benefit effects of the fermentation on intestinal health.

  5. Enhancement effects of two kinds of carbon black on piezoelectricity of PVDF-HFP composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bin; Hu, Ning; Wu, Liangke; Cui, Hao; Ying, Ji

    2015-12-01

    Two kinds of carbon black (CB) (i.e., CB#300 and CB#3350) were added into poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP), respectively, to improve its piezoelectricity. The results revealed that when 0.5 wt.% CB was added, the best performance of the PVDF-HFP/CB composite films was obtained. The calibrated open circuit voltage and the density of harvested power of 0.5 wt.% CB#3350 contained composite films were 204%, and 464% (AC) and 561% (DC) of those of neat PVDF-HFP films. Similarly, for 0.5 wt.% CB#300 contained films, they were 211%, and 475% (AC) and 624% (DC), respectively. The enhancement mechanisms of piezoelectricity were clarified by the observation of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). We found that the added CBs act as nucleate agents to promote the formation of elongated, oriented and fibrillar β-phase crystals during the fabrication process, which increase the piezoelectricity. Overdosed CBs lead to a lower crystallinity degree, resulting in the lower piezoelectricity. Compared with CB#3350, CB#300 performs slightly better, which may be ascribed to its higher specific surface area.

  6. Desmutagenicity of Melanoidins against Various Kinds of Mutagens and Activated Mutagens.

    PubMed

    Lee, I E; Chuyen, N V; Hayase, F; Kato, H

    1994-01-01

    The desmutagenic activities of low-molecular weight melanoidins (LM-MEL, MW 500-1000) and nondialyzable melanoidins (ND-MEL, MW above 1000) prepared from a glucose-glycine reaction system were examined by Ames' test on such mutagens/carcinogens as nitro or amino compounds of aromatics or heterocycles, azo compounds, nitroso compounds, and epoxides. ND-MEL and LM-MEL exhibited a desmutagenic activity of 25-75% against mutagenic aromatic or heterocyclic compounds such as aflatoxin B1, B[α]P, 2-aminofluorene, 4-aminobiphenyl, and 2-aminonaphthalene, as well as heterocyclic amines, using S. typhimurium TA98 in the presence of S9 mix. In the case of using S. typhimurium TA100 in the absence of S9 mix, ND-MEL and LM-MEL showed a desmutagenic activity of 20-50% against 2-nitrofluorene, 4NQO and 2-nitronaphthalene. The strong desmutagenic activity of MEL from various kinds of amino acids, peptides, or egg albumin hydrolyzates with glucose was also observed against Trp-P-1. Furthermore, MEL had marked desmutagenic activity against the Trp-P-1 activated by S9 mix and synthetic N-OH-Trp-P-2. PMID:27315699

  7. La partera profesional: articulating identity and cultural space for a new kind of midwife in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Davis-Floyd, R

    2001-01-01

    This article documents the emergence of a new kind of midwife in Mexico, the thoroughly postmodern partera profesional. It traces the transnational conjunctures that facilitated her creation, illustrates aspects of her philosophy and praxis, and probes her ongoing articulations of identity. These women, who are of diverse sociocultural backgrounds, initially sought training from American direct-entry midwives in the independent out-of-hospital midwifery model; now, they are adapting that model to the situation in Mexico. Through their own practices, through intensive liaison work with traditional midwives, and through organizing national midwifery conferences and meetings, they are creating midwifery as both incipient profession and nascent social movement. Some of them operate outside the medical system while others are carving a niche within it. The mere existence of these self-consciously activist midwives constitutes a critique of monological Mexican medicine and its high cesarean rates; however, these women face a long struggle to define their identities, legalize their practices, and generate a sustainable space within the emergent Mexican technocracy. To their intense dismay, this struggle must take place within the context of the escalating disappearance of the traditional midwives whom they seek to support. The tension they feel between their desire to preserve traditional midwifery and their desire to create professional midwifery is a recurrent theme. These goals alternately complement and conflict with one another, yet both are central to the partera profesional's ongoing efforts at identity articulation.

  8. Absorption of gaseous toluene in aqueous solutions of some kinds of fluorocarbon surfactant.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao; Yan, Bo; Fu, Jiamo; Xiao, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    A self-designed device was applied to treat a simulated exhaust gas loaded with toluene by aqueous solutions of five kinds of fluorocarbon surfactant (FS-3100, FS-22, FSN-100, FSO-100 and FSG) under the controlled laboratory conditions. The simulated exhaust gas is generated by a mixture of clean air and toluene vapor, and its toluene concentration can be controlled by changing the volume ratio of the inlet air to the vapor. Two mass transfer methods: liquid-liquid transfer and gas-liquid transfer, were compared for their toluene saturation capacities of these absorbent solutions, and it was found that more toluene was dissolved by the liquid-liquid transfer than by the gas-liquid transfer. According to the saturation capacities of these absorbent solutions and their Henry's Constants, FSO-100 is the best absorbent to treat the simulated exhaust gas and was selected for further experiments. The FSO-100 absorbent solution with a concentration of 0.1 % shows an efficient absorption to the simulated exhaust gas, with a toluene saturation capacity of 4.2 mg/g. Heating distillation (90- 95 oC) is highly efficient to recover toluene from the FSO-100 absorbent solution as well as regenerate it. A toluene recovery of about 85 % was achieved. The regenerated absorption solution can keep its initial toluene absorption capacity during the reuse.

  9. Automated detection system of single nucleotide polymorphisms using two kinds of functional magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongna; Li, Song; Wang, Zhifei; Li, Zhiyang; Deng, Yan; Wang, Hua; Shi, Zhiyang; He, Nongyue

    2008-11-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) comprise the most abundant source of genetic variation in the human genome wide codominant SNPs identification. Therefore, large-scale codominant SNPs identification, especially for those associated with complex diseases, has induced the need for completely high-throughput and automated SNP genotyping method. Herein, we present an automated detection system of SNPs based on two kinds of functional magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and dual-color hybridization. The amido-modified MNPs (NH 2-MNPs) modified with APTES were used for DNA extraction from whole blood directly by electrostatic reaction, and followed by PCR, was successfully performed. Furthermore, biotinylated PCR products were captured on the streptavidin-coated MNPs (SA-MNPs) and interrogated by hybridization with a pair of dual-color probes to determine SNP, then the genotype of each sample can be simultaneously identified by scanning the microarray printed with the denatured fluorescent probes. This system provided a rapid, sensitive and highly versatile automated procedure that will greatly facilitate the analysis of different known SNPs in human genome.

  10. Comparison of bioreactors with different kinds of submerged packed beds for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Nacheva, P Mijaylova; Moeller Chávez, G; Bustos, C; Garzón Zúñiga, M A; Hornelas Orozco, Y

    2008-01-01

    The performance of aerobic submerged packed bed reactors was studied for the treatment of domestic wastewater using different kinds of packing materials with high specific areas (760-1,200 m(2)/m(3)). The tested materials were ceramic spheres, crushed tezontle, grains of high density polyethylene (HDPE), of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and of polypropylene (PP), cubes of polyurethane (PU) and polyethylene tape (SESSIL). The bioreactors were operated in continuous regime, applying organic loads in the range of 0.8-6.0 g COD.m(-2).d(-1). The obtained specific COD removal rates were very similar in all the reactors when they were operated at organic loads up to 2.0 g COD.m(-2).d(-1), after which differences in effectiveness appeared and the best results were determined in the reactors with SESSIL, LDPE and PU. Very low TSS, O&G and turbidity were obtained in all the effluents. The NH(3)-N and TN removals were dependent on the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and the removals at DO of 5 mg/l were 84-99% and 61-74% respectively. The best removals were determined in the reactors with PU, SESSIL and LDPE. The reactor with tezontle had also a good performance when operated with loads up to 1.0 g TN.m(-2).d(-1). The best phosphate removals (38-49%) were obtained in the reactors with PU, tezontle, ceramic sheres and SESSIL.

  11. Generics license 30-month-olds' inferences about the atypical properties of novel kinds.

    PubMed

    Graham, Susan A; Gelman, Susan A; Clarke, Jessica

    2016-09-01

    We examined whether the distinction between generic and nongeneric language provides toddlers with a rapid and efficient means to learn about kinds. In Experiment 1, we examined 30-month-olds' willingness to extend atypical properties to members of an unfamiliar category when the properties were introduced in 1 of 3 ways: (a) using a generic noun phrase ("Blicks drink ketchup"); (b) using a nongeneric noun phrase ("These blicks drink ketchup"); and (c) using an attentional phrase ("Look at this"). Hearing a generic noun phrase boosted toddlers' extension of properties to both the model exemplars and to novel members of the same category, relative to when a property had been introduced with a nongeneric noun phrase or an attentional phrase. In Experiment 2, properties were introduced with a generic noun phrase, and toddlers extended novel properties to members of the same-category, but not to an out-of-category object. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that generics highlight the stability of a feature and foster generalization of the property to novel within-category exemplars. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27505699

  12. Neural Basis of Two Kinds of Social Influence: Obedience and Conformity

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ying; Chen, Mingliang; Lai, Hongxia; Zhang, Wuke; Zhao, Zhen; Anwar, Ch. Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used in this study to explore the neural mechanism of obedience and conformity on the model of online book purchasing. Participants were asked to decide as quickly as possible whether to buy a book based on limited information including its title, keywords and number of positive and negative reviews. Obedience was induced by forcing participants to buy books which received mostly negative reviews. In contrast, conformity was aroused by majority influence (caused by positive and negative comments). P3 and N2, two kinds of ERP components related to social cognitive process, were measured and recorded with electroencephalogram (EEG) test. The results show that compared with conformity decisions, obedience decisions induced greater cognitive conflicts. In ERP measurements, greater amplitudes of N2 component were observed in the context of obedience. However, consistency level did not make a difference on P3 peak latency for both conformity and obedience. This shows that classification process is implicit in both conformity and obedience decision-making. In addition, for both conformity and obedience decisions, augmented P3 was observed when the reviews consistency (either negative or positive) was higher. PMID:26941632

  13. Prevalence of Different Kinds of Maxillofacial Fractures and Their Associated Factors Are Surveyed in Patients

    PubMed Central

    Latifi, H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays maxillofacial fractures have increased. In this study prevalence of different kinds of maxillofacial fractures and their associated factors are surveyed in patients referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital, Urmia in 2011. Methods: The study was across-sectional observational study. 637cases of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of maxillofacial fractures in 2011 referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital, Urmia and their data records were analyzed using SPSS software and chi-square tests. Results: In this study, 457 patients were male and 178 were female and the mean age was 14.47±26.68 years. Falling was the most common cause of fractures after accidents and assaults were the most common causes. The most common site of nasal fractures was about 66.4% and then fractures in several places about 14.9% and mandibular 7.1%. Conclusions: Based on the results obtained in the present study with other studies in this area it is concluded that maxillofacial fractures in males and in 20 to 30 years of age is prevalent and is mostly due to falling and road accidents and are further seen in nasal bone and mandible. PMID:25363181

  14. Effects of sinusoidal electromagnetic field on structure and function of different kinds of cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sul, Ah Ram; Park, Si-Nae; Suh, Hwal

    2006-12-31

    This study investigated that whether a 2 mT, 60 Hz, sinusoidal electromagnetic field (EMF) alters the structure and function of cells. This research compared the effects of EMF on four kinds of cell lines: hFOB 1.19 (fetal osteoblast), T/G HA-VSMC (aortic vascular smooth muscle cell), RPMI 7666 (B lymphoblast), and HCN-2 (cortical neuronal cell). Over 14 days, cells were exposed to EMF for 1, 3, or 6 hours per day (hrs/d). The results pointed to a cell type-specific reaction to EMF exposure. In addition, the cellular responses were dependent on duration of EMF exposure. In the present study, cell proliferation was the trait most sensitive to EMF. EMF treatment promoted growth of hFOB 1.19 and HCN-2 compared with control cells at 7 and 14 days of incubation. When the exposure time was 3 hrs/d, EMF enhanced the proliferation of RPMI 7666 but inhibited that of T/G HA- VSMC. On the other hand, the effects of EMF on cell cycle distribution, cell differentiation, and actin distribution were unclear. Furthermore, we hardly found any correlation between EMF exposure and gap junctional intercellular communication in hFOB 1.19. This study revealed that EMF might serve as a potential tool for manipulating cell proliferation.

  15. Ballooning theory of the second kind--two dimensional tokamak modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, T.; Zhang, Y. Z.; Mahajan, S. M.; Wang, A. K.

    2012-07-01

    The 2-D ballooning transform, devised to study local high toroidal number (n) fluctuations in axisymmetric toroidal system (like tokamaks), yields a well-defined partial differential equation for the linear eigenmodes. In this paper, such a ballooning equation of the second kind is set up for ion temperature gradient driven modes pertinent to a 2-D non-dissipative fluid plasma; the resulting partial differential equation is numerically solved, to calculate the global eigenvalues, and the 2-D mode structure is presented graphically along with analytical companions. The radial localization of the mode results from translational symmetry breaking for growing modes and is a vivid manifestation of spontaneous symmetry breaking in tokamak physics. The eigenmode, poloidally ballooned at ϑ =±π/2, is radially shifted from associated rational surface. The global eigenvalue is found to be very close to the value obtained in 1-D parameterized (λ =∓π/2) case. The 2-D eigenmode theory is applied to estimate the toroidal seed Reynolds stress [Y. Z. Zhang, Nucl. Fusion Plasma Phys. 30, 193 (2010)]. The solution obtained from the relatively simplified ballooning theory is compared to the solution of the basic equation in original coordinate system (evaluated via FFTs); the agreement is rather good.

  16. Modified homotopy perturbation method for solving hypersingular integral equations of the first kind.

    PubMed

    Eshkuvatov, Z K; Zulkarnain, F S; Nik Long, N M A; Muminov, Z

    2016-01-01

    Modified homotopy perturbation method (HPM) was used to solve the hypersingular integral equations (HSIEs) of the first kind on the interval [-1,1] with the assumption that the kernel of the hypersingular integral is constant on the diagonal of the domain. Existence of inverse of hypersingular integral operator leads to the convergence of HPM in certain cases. Modified HPM and its norm convergence are obtained in Hilbert space. Comparisons between modified HPM, standard HPM, Bernstein polynomials approach Mandal and Bhattacharya (Appl Math Comput 190:1707-1716, 2007), Chebyshev expansion method Mahiub et al. (Int J Pure Appl Math 69(3):265-274, 2011) and reproducing kernel Chen and Zhou (Appl Math Lett 24:636-641, 2011) are made by solving five examples. Theoretical and practical examples revealed that the modified HPM dominates the standard HPM and others. Finally, it is found that the modified HPM is exact, if the solution of the problem is a product of weights and polynomial functions. For rational solution the absolute error decreases very fast by increasing the number of collocation points.

  17. Are major dissociative disorders characterized by a qualitatively different kind of dissociation?

    PubMed

    Rodewald, Frauke; Dell, Paul F; Wilhelm-Gossling, Claudia; Gast, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    A total of 66 patients with a major dissociative disorder, 54 patients with nondissociative disorders, and 30 nonclinical controls were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised, the Dissociative Experiences Scale, the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation, and the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised. Dissociative patients reported significantly more dissociative and nondissociative symptoms than did nondissociative patients and nonclinical controls. When general psychopathology was controlled, the dissociation scores of dissociative patients were still significantly higher than those of both other groups, whereas the dissociation scores of nondissociative patients and nonclinical controls no longer differed. These findings appear to be congruent with a typological model of dissociation that distinguishes between 2 qualitatively different kinds of dissociation. Specifically, the results of this study suggest that the dissociation that occurs in major dissociative disorders (i.e., dissociative identity disorder [DID] and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, Type 1 [DDNOS-1]) is qualitatively different from the dissociation that occurs in persons who do not have a dissociative disorder. In contrast to previous research, the dissociation of persons who do not have a dissociative disorder is not limited to absorption; it covers a much wider range of phenomena. The authors hypothesize that different mechanisms produce the dissociation of persons with DID and DDNOS-1 as opposed to the dissociation of persons who do not have a dissociative disorder.

  18. [Correlation of gene expression related to amount of ginseng saponin in 15 tissues and 6 kinds of ginseng saponin biosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Kang-yu; Zhang, Mei-ping; Li, Chuang; Jiang, Shi-cui; Yin, Rui; Sun, Chun-yu; Wang, Yi

    2015-08-01

    Fifteen tissues of 4-year-old fruit repining stage Jilin ginseng were chosen as materials, six kinds of monomer saponins (ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2 and Rd) content in 15 tissues was measured by HPLC and vanillin-sulfuric acid method. The relative expression of FPS, SQS, SQE, OSC, β-AS and P450 genes in 15 tissues was analyzed by real-time PCR. The correlations between ginseng saponin content in 15 tissues of Jilin ginseng and biosynthetic pathway -related genes were obtained. The results showed that was a synergistic increase and decrease trend of positive linear correlation among six kinds of monomer saponin content, and there was a significantly (P < 0.01) positive correlation between monomer saponin content and total saponins content. Monomer saponin content and 6 kinds of enzyme gene correlation were different. Biosynthesis of ginseng total saponins and monomer saponin were regulated by six kinds of participation ginsenoside biosynthesis enzyme genes, the expression of these six kinds of genes in different tissues of ginseng showed collaborative increase and decrease trend, and regulated biosynthesis of ginseng ginsenoside by group coordinative manner. PMID:26790286

  19. Self-assembled supramolecular nanocarrier hosting two kinds of guests in the site-isolation state.

    PubMed

    Lou, Xing-Long; Cheng, Fa; Cao, Peng-Fei; Tang, Qiang; Liu, Hua-Ji; Chen, Yu

    2009-11-01

    Hyperbranched polyethylenimine (HPEI) was simply mixed with a solution of amphiphilic calix[4]arene (AC4), which possesses four phenol groups and four aliphatic chains, in chloroform. This resulted in the novel supramolecular complex HPEI-AC4 through the noncovalent interaction of the amino groups of HPEI with the phenol groups of AC4. The formed HPEI-AC4 supramolecular complexes were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. The cationic water-soluble dye methyl blue (MB) and the anionic water-soluble dye methyl orange (MO) were used as the model guests to test the performance of HPEI-AC4 as a supramolecular nanocarrier. It was found that HPEI-AC4 could accommodate the anionic water-soluble MO guests into the HPEI core. The MO encapsulation capacity of HPEI-AC4 was pH sensitive, which reached maximum loading under weakly acidic conditions. The loaded MO molecules could be totally released when the pH value was reduced to be around 4.5 or raised to be around 9.5, and this process was reversible. HPEI-AC4 could not only accommodate the anionic MO with the HPEI core but could also simultaneously load the cationic MB molecules using the formed AC4 shell, thereby realizing the site isolation of the two kinds of functional units. The amount of MO and MB encapsulated by HPEI-AC4 could be controlled by varying the ratio of hydroxyl groups of AC4 to amino groups of HPEI.

  20. Survival rate and fracture strength of maxillary incisors, restored with different kinds of full veneers.

    PubMed

    Stappert, C F J; Stathopoulou, N; Gerds, T; Strub, J R

    2005-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the survival rate and fracture strength of different kinds of ceramic full veneers, fabricated with a new experimental press ceramic (EPC VP2117/TC2, Ivoclar-Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein). Eighty, caries-free human maxillary central incisors were used as abutments and were randomly divided into one control group and four test-groups of 16 samples each. In group A, unprepared teeth served as control. In the test groups, four different types of full veneer preparations were performed. In test groups B/C, the preparation was maintained in enamel and the contact point was on the tooth/on the veneer, respectively. In test groups D/E, the preparation was extended into dentin and the contact point was on the tooth/on the veneer, respectively. All veneers were adhesively luted using Variolink II (Ivoclar-Vivadent AG). Then, the samples were exposed to the artificial mouth for 1.2 million chewing cycles (49 N). After exposure in the artificial mouth, a survival rate of the abutment teeth of 81-100% was reported among the different groups, but was not significantly different between the groups. However, no failures of the ceramic materials could be recognized. The median fracture strength of group A was 713.3 N, of group B 647.1 N, of group C 594.8 N, of group D 483.8 N and of group E 502.6 N. Among the different groups no significant difference was found. All mean values obtained were within the limits of clinical acceptance, indicating further clinical investigations on full veneers made out of the EPC.

  1. Comparison Between Structures and Properties of ABS Nanocomposites Derived from Two Different Kinds of OMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yibing; Huang, Fenglin; Xia, Xin; Wei, Qufu; Tong, Xutao; Wei, Anfang; Gao, Weidong

    2010-03-01

    In the present work, the hexadecyl triphenyl phosphonium bromide (P16) and cetyl pyridium chloride (CPC) were used to modify montmorillonite (MMT) based on the structural characteristic of the engineering thermoplastic acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS) and the principle of “like dissolves like”, and then used to prepare the ABS/organic-modified montmorillonite (OMT) nanocomposites by melt-intercalation method. The influences of two different kinds of OMT on the structures and properties of the ABS nanocomposites were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), Cone calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA), respectively. The increased basal spacing showed that ABS intercalated into the gallery of the OMT. The morphology indicated that the OMT dispersed well in the ABS resin and the intercalated structure for ABS/OMT-P16 nanocomposites and intercalated-exfoliated structure for ABS/OMT-CPC nanocomposites were respectively formed. The TGA results revealed that onset temperature of thermal degradation and charred residue at 700 °C of the ABS nanocomposites was remarkably enhanced compared to the pure ABS. It was also found from the Cone calorimetry tests that the peak of heat release rate (PHRR) decreased significantly, contributing to the reduced flammability. The DMA measurements indicated that the loading of silicate clays improved the storage modulus of the ABS resin. The partial exfoliation of the OMT-CPC within ABS nanocomposites was advantageous to increasing thermal stability properties, decreasing flammability properties, and improving mechanical properties.

  2. Four ways to compute the inverse of the complete elliptic integral of the first kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, John P.

    2015-11-01

    The complete elliptic integral of the first kind arises in many applications. This article furnishes four different ways to compute the inverse of the elliptic integral. One motive for this study is simply that the author needed to compute the inverse integral for an application. Another is to develop a case study comparing different options for solving transcendental equations like those in the author's book (Boyd, 2014). A third motive is to develop analytical approximations, more useful to theorists than mere numbers. A fourth motive is to provide robust "black box" software for computing this function. The first solution strategy is "polynomialization" which replaces the elliptic integral by an exponentially convergent series of Chebyshev polynomials. The transcendental equation becomes a polynomial equation which is easily solved by finding the eigenvalues of the Chebyshev companion matrix. (The numerically ill-conditioned step of converting from the Chebyshev to monomial basis is never necessary). The second approximation is a regular perturbation series, accurate where the modulus is small. The third is a power-and-exponential series that converges over the entire range parameter range, albeit only sub-exponentially in the limit of zero modulus. Lastly, Newton's iteration is promoted from a local iteration to a global method by a Never-Failing Newton's Iteration (NFNI) in the form of the exponential of the ratio of a linear function divided by another linear polynomial. A short Matlab implementation is provided, easily translatable into other languages. The Matlab/Newton code is recommended for numerical purposes. The other methods are presented because (i) all are broadly applicable strategies useful for other rootfinding and inversion problems (ii) series and substitutions are often much more useful to theorists than numerical software and (iii) the Never-Failing Newton's Iteration was discovered only after a great deal of messing about with power series

  3. Radiofrequency ablation without the use of fluoroscopy – in what kind of patients is it feasible?

    PubMed Central

    Gawrysiak, Marcin; Piątkowska, Agnieszka; Lodziński, Piotr; Kiliszek, Marek; Małkowska, Sylwia; Zaczek, Rajmund; Piątkowski, Radosław; Opolski, Grzegorz; Kozłowski, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to describe the experience in performing ablation without fluoroscopy. Material and methods From 575 ablation procedures with CARTO performed in the period 2003–2008, 108 (42 M; age 40 ±16 years) were done without fluoroscopy. One patient had ablation using the Localisa system. There was one man with thrombocytopenia and two pregnant women. Results Right ventricular (RV) outflow tract arrhythmias and other RV arrhythmias were noted in 38 patients (35%) and 17 patients (15%), respectively. There were 5 (4.6%) left ventricular (LV) outflow tract arrhythmias and 19 (17.5%) other LV tachycardias; right accessory pathways in 17 patients (20%), in the middle cardiac vein in 1, Mahaim fibres in 1, and 3 cases of permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardias. One patient with CRT had AV node ablation (Localisa). In 3 patients there were also other arrhythmias treated: slow AV nodal pathway, typical flutter isthmus and right atrial tachycardia. In 2004, 1/96 CARTO procedures was done without fluoroscopy, in 2006 2/97, in 2007 19 (2 in LV) of 93, in 2008 87 (22 in LV) of 204. The percentage of ablations without fluoroscopy in every hundred CARTO procedures was: 1%, 1%, 8%, 23%, 46%, 28% (mean 18%). There were no procedure-related complications. Conclusions It is feasible to perform ablations within both right and left sides of the heart without fluoroscopy. The number and type of non-fluoroscopic procedures depends on the operator's experience. Pregnant patients, with malignant history or with hematologic diseases should be ablated without fluoroscopy in centres that specialise in these kinds of procedures. PMID:24273563

  4. Dissolution characteristics of megaloporous tablets prepared with two kinds of matrix granules.

    PubMed

    Ozgüney, Işik; Ertan, Gökhan; Güneri, Tamer

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain a drug release at a constant rate with a megaloporous tablet, which was prepared with a simple formulation. These tablets were prepared with two kinds of granules. One of them is the restraining-phase matrix granule (RMG) and it controls the release rate of the drug. The other one is the soluble housing-phase matrix granule (HMG) and controls liquid penetration into the system. Eudragit RL 100 and Eudragit L 100 polymers were used to constitute the restraining and housing matrix phases, respectively. The effect of the amount of Eudragit RL 100 in the RMG was investigated and decreasing of amount of Eudragit RL 100 in the RMG increased the drug release rate. The tablets were prepared with compaction pressures of 188, 377, 1884 and 7540 kg/cm(2) and it was observed that the compaction forces ranging from 377 to 7540 kg/cm(2) did not influence drug release. The effect of the size of the matrices was demonstrated and it was found that the drug release rate increased with decreasing of the size of the tablets. The impact of the dosage to the dissolution rates was also investigated using two different amounts of drug. Therefore, the tablets were designed with two different dosages to use once or twice a day at the dosage interval of every 12 or 24 h, respectively. The release kinetic of the best formulation (4K) of the study was evaluated with the goodness-of-fit analysis and it was seen that the target profile was nearly achieved. This study suggests using megaloporous tablets in therapy, which could be prepared with a simple and cheap way similarly to conventional tablets to obtain a constant drug release. PMID:15231431

  5. Extremely abundant antimicrobial peptides existed in the skins of nine kinds of Chinese odorous frogs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinwang; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Peptide agents are regarded as hopeful candidates to solve life-threatening resistance of pathogenic microorganisms to classic antibiotics due to their unique action mechanisms. Peptidomic and genomic investigation of natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from amphibian skin secretions can provide a large amount of structure-functional information to design peptide antibiotics with therapeutic potential. In the present study, we identified a large number of AMPs from the skins of nine kinds of Chinese odorous frogs. Eighty AMPs were purified from three different odorous frogs and confirmed by peptidomic analysis. Our results indicated that post-translational modification of AMPs rarely happened in odorous frogs. cDNAs encoding precursors of 728 AMPs, including all the precursors of the confirmed 80 native peptides, were cloned from the constructed AMP cDNA libraries of nine Chinese odorous frogs. On the basis of the sequence similarity of deduced mature peptides, these 728 AMPs were grouped into 97 different families in which 71 novel families were identified. Out of these 728 AMPs, 662 AMPs were novel and 28 AMPs were reported previously in other frog species. Our results revealed that identical AMPs were widely distributed in odorous frogs; 49 presently identified AMPs could find their identical molecules in different amphibian species. Purified peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against 4 tested microbe strains. Twenty-three deduced peptides were synthesized and their bioactivities, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, hemolytic, immunomodulatory and insulin-releasing activities, were evaluated. Our findings demonstrate the extreme diversity of AMPs in amphibian skins and provide plenty of templates to develop novel peptide antibiotics.

  6. Distinct neural activity associated with focused-attention meditation and loving-kindness meditation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tatia M C; Leung, Mei-Kei; Hou, Wai-Kai; Tang, Joey C Y; Yin, Jing; So, Kwok-Fai; Lee, Chack-Fan; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the dissociable neural effects of ānāpānasati (focused-attention meditation, FAM) and mettā (loving-kindness meditation, LKM) on BOLD signals during cognitive (continuous performance test, CPT) and affective (emotion-processing task, EPT, in which participants viewed affective pictures) processing. Twenty-two male Chinese expert meditators (11 FAM experts, 11 LKM experts) and 22 male Chinese novice meditators (11 FAM novices, 11 LKM novices) had their brain activity monitored by a 3T MRI scanner while performing the cognitive and affective tasks in both meditation and baseline states. We examined the interaction between state (meditation vs. baseline) and expertise (expert vs. novice) separately during LKM and FAM, using a conjunction approach to reveal common regions sensitive to the expert meditative state. Additionally, exclusive masking techniques revealed distinct interactions between state and group during LKM and FAM. Specifically, we demonstrated that the practice of FAM was associated with expertise-related behavioral improvements and neural activation differences in attention task performance. However, the effect of state LKM meditation did not carry over to attention task performance. On the other hand, both FAM and LKM practice appeared to affect the neural responses to affective pictures. For viewing sad faces, the regions activated for FAM practitioners were consistent with attention-related processing; whereas responses of LKM experts to sad pictures were more in line with differentiating emotional contagion from compassion/emotional regulation processes. Our findings provide the first report of distinct neural activity associated with forms of meditation during sustained attention and emotion processing.

  7. Nonlinear parameters of surface EMG in schizophrenia patients depend on kind of antipsychotic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Meigal, Alexander Yu.; Miroshnichenko, German G.; Kuzmina, Anna P.; Rissanen, Saara M.; Georgiadis, Stefanos D.; Karjalainen, Pasi A.

    2015-01-01

    We compared a set of surface EMG (sEMG) parameters in several groups of schizophrenia (SZ, n = 74) patients and healthy controls (n = 11) and coupled them with the clinical data. sEMG records were quantified with spectral, mutual information (MI) based and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) parameters, and with approximate and sample entropies (ApEn and SampEn). Psychotic deterioration was estimated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and with the positive subscale of PANSS. Neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism (NIP) motor symptoms were estimated with Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS). Dyskinesia was measured with Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS). We found that there was no difference in values of sEMG parameters between healthy controls and drug-naïve SZ patients. The most specific group was formed of SZ patients who were administered both typical and atypical antipsychotics (AP). Their sEMG parameters were significantly different from those of SZ patients taking either typical or atypical AP or taking no AP. This may represent a kind of synergistic effect of these two classes of AP. For the clinical data we found that PANSS, SAS, and AIMS were not correlated to any of the sEMG parameters. Conclusion: with nonlinear parameters of sEMG it is possible to reveal NIP in SZ patients, and it may help to discriminate between different clinical groups of SZ patients. Combined typical and atypical AP therapy has stronger effect on sEMG than a therapy with AP of only one class. PMID:26217236

  8. Self-assembled supramolecular nanocarrier hosting two kinds of guests in the site-isolation state.

    PubMed

    Lou, Xing-Long; Cheng, Fa; Cao, Peng-Fei; Tang, Qiang; Liu, Hua-Ji; Chen, Yu

    2009-11-01

    Hyperbranched polyethylenimine (HPEI) was simply mixed with a solution of amphiphilic calix[4]arene (AC4), which possesses four phenol groups and four aliphatic chains, in chloroform. This resulted in the novel supramolecular complex HPEI-AC4 through the noncovalent interaction of the amino groups of HPEI with the phenol groups of AC4. The formed HPEI-AC4 supramolecular complexes were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. The cationic water-soluble dye methyl blue (MB) and the anionic water-soluble dye methyl orange (MO) were used as the model guests to test the performance of HPEI-AC4 as a supramolecular nanocarrier. It was found that HPEI-AC4 could accommodate the anionic water-soluble MO guests into the HPEI core. The MO encapsulation capacity of HPEI-AC4 was pH sensitive, which reached maximum loading under weakly acidic conditions. The loaded MO molecules could be totally released when the pH value was reduced to be around 4.5 or raised to be around 9.5, and this process was reversible. HPEI-AC4 could not only accommodate the anionic MO with the HPEI core but could also simultaneously load the cationic MB molecules using the formed AC4 shell, thereby realizing the site isolation of the two kinds of functional units. The amount of MO and MB encapsulated by HPEI-AC4 could be controlled by varying the ratio of hydroxyl groups of AC4 to amino groups of HPEI. PMID:19760716

  9. Different kinds of information affect word learning in the preschool years: the case of part-term learning.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Megan M; Sabbagh, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    Two studies investigated how preschool children's interpretations of novel words as names for parts of objects were affected by 3 kinds of information: (a) whole object familiarity, (b) whole part juxtaposition, and (c) syntactic information indicating possession. Study 1 tested 3- to 4-year-olds and found that although there was evidence that all information affected children's part-term interpretations to some extent, they were most systematic when provided with 2 or more kinds of information. Study 2 adapted the procedure for use with 2.5-year-olds and found the same general pattern of results. Variations across studies were found that may reflect changes in how different kinds of information affect word learning with development.

  10. 30 CFR 1218.306 - May I receive a credit against production royalties for in-kind deliveries of electricity I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... royalties for in-kind deliveries of electricity I provide under contract to a State or county government... in-kind deliveries of electricity I provide under contract to a State or county government? (a) You may receive a credit against royalties for in-kind deliveries of electricity you provide...

  11. 30 CFR 1218.306 - May I receive a credit against production royalties for in-kind deliveries of electricity I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... royalties for in-kind deliveries of electricity I provide under contract to a State or county government... for in-kind deliveries of electricity I provide under contract to a State or county government? (a) You may receive a credit against royalties for in-kind deliveries of electricity you provide...

  12. 30 CFR 1218.306 - May I receive a credit against production royalties for in-kind deliveries of electricity I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... royalties for in-kind deliveries of electricity I provide under contract to a State or county government... in-kind deliveries of electricity I provide under contract to a State or county government? (a) You may receive a credit against royalties for in-kind deliveries of electricity you provide...

  13. 30 CFR 1218.306 - May I receive a credit against production royalties for in-kind deliveries of electricity I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... royalties for in-kind deliveries of electricity I provide under contract to a State or county government... in-kind deliveries of electricity I provide under contract to a State or county government? (a) You may receive a credit against royalties for in-kind deliveries of electricity you provide...

  14. 41 CFR 304-6.6 - How do we determine the value of payments in kind that are to be reported on Standard Form (SF) 326?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... value of payments in kind that are to be reported on Standard Form (SF) 326? 304-6.6 Section 304-6.6... determine the value of payments in kind that are to be reported on Standard Form (SF) 326? The following should be used in the determination of the value of payments in kind for reporting on SF 326: (a)...

  15. 41 CFR 304-6.6 - How do we determine the value of payments in kind that are to be reported on Standard Form (SF) 326?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... value of payments in kind that are to be reported on Standard Form (SF) 326? 304-6.6 Section 304-6.6... determine the value of payments in kind that are to be reported on Standard Form (SF) 326? The following should be used in the determination of the value of payments in kind for reporting on SF 326: (a)...

  16. 41 CFR 304-6.6 - How do we determine the value of payments in kind that are to be reported on Standard Form (SF) 326?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... value of payments in kind that are to be reported on Standard Form (SF) 326? 304-6.6 Section 304-6.6... determine the value of payments in kind that are to be reported on Standard Form (SF) 326? The following should be used in the determination of the value of payments in kind for reporting on SF 326: (a)...

  17. 41 CFR 304-6.6 - How do we determine the value of payments in kind that are to be reported on Standard Form (SF) 326?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... value of payments in kind that are to be reported on Standard Form (SF) 326? 304-6.6 Section 304-6.6... determine the value of payments in kind that are to be reported on Standard Form (SF) 326? The following should be used in the determination of the value of payments in kind for reporting on SF 326: (a)...

  18. Insight into the sporulation phosphorelay: Crystal structure of the sensor domain of Bacillus subtilis histidine kinase, KinD

    PubMed Central

    Wu, R; Gu, M; Wilton, R; Babnigg, G; Kim, Y; Pokkuluri, P R; Szurmant, H; Joachimiak, A; Schiffer, M

    2013-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis KinD signal-transducing histidine kinase is a part of the sporulation phosphorelay known to regulate important developmental decisions such as sporulation and biofilm formation. We have determined crystal structures of the extracytoplasmic sensing domain of KinD, which was copurified and crystallized with a pyruvate ligand. The structure of a ligand-binding site mutant was also determined; it was copurified and crystallized with an acetate ligand. The structure of the KinD extracytoplasmic segment is similar to that of several other sensing domains of signal transduction proteins and is composed of tandem Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS)-like domains. The KinD ligand-binding site is located on the membrane distal PAS-like domain and appears to be highly selective; a single mutation, R131A, abolishes pyruvate binding and the mutant binds acetate instead. Differential scanning fluorimetry, using a variety of monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic acids, identified pyruvate, propionate, and butyrate but not lactate, acetate, or malate as KinD ligands. A recent report found that malate induces biofilm formation in a KinD-dependent manner. It was suggested that malate might induce a metabolic shift and increased secretion of the KinD ligand of unknown identity. The structure and binding assays now suggests that this ligand is pyruvate and/or other small monocarboxylic acids. In summary, this study gives a first insight into the identity of a molecular ligand for one of the five phosphorelay kinases of B. subtilis. PMID:23436677

  19. Thermal Entanglement Properties in two Kinds of Two-qubit Spin Squeezing Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo-Hui, Yang

    2016-07-01

    Using the concurrence (C) criterion, we investigate the thermal entanglement properties in two-qubit spin squeezing model for two kinds of squeezing interaction: one-axis twisting model (OATM) and two-axis countertwisting model (TACM) with a transverse field. To the OATM, in the limit case of T→0, the ground state entanglement is initially increased from zero to the maximum value, then decreased in a period of time and suddenly disappeared finally with further enhancing the external magnetic field Ω. One interesting thing is that instead of decaying slowly to zero the entanglement is sudden disappeared with further enhancing Ω or μ (the spin squeezing interaction in X direction), and decreasing the parameter μ or Ω can obviously broaden the scope of entanglement exists. For the finite temperature case, a novelty point is the sudden birth phenomenon occured in the behaviors of entanglement, it is initially to be zero (persists for some time), with further improving Ω and μ the entanglement will be suddenly appeared, and the time interval (persists to be zero) before sudden birth is obviously prolonged with decreasing two parameters. The temperature range of entanglement exists can be extended evidently with increasing μ or Ω, and one can obtain entanglement at higher temperature through changing them. When to the TACM, the ground state entanglement is initially decreased from the maximum value and then suddenly disappeared with increasing Ω. While increasing γ the ground state entanglement is increased initially from zero to the maximum value and then sudden disappeared with further improving γ (the spin squeezing interaction in XY plane), proper tuing γ or Ω can prolong the lives of entanglement evidently. For the finite temperature case, the sudden birth phenomenon also occured in the the evoluted concurrence, the variation of parameters Ω and γ can reduce the time interval before sudden birth. The influence of the temperature T on thermal

  20. Connection Between Internal Structural Stresses of the Ist and the IInd kind and Operational Reliability of the Boiler Heating Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, Lyudmila; Tabakaev, Roman; Tashlykov, Alexander; Zavorin, Alexander; Zyubanov, Vadim

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents new approaches to solving problems of forecasting the life of heating surface of boilers, based on an analysis of internal structural stresses of the first and second kind that could affect the intragranular and intergranular strength and reliability of the pipeline in continuous operation by making it work without damage by preventing the disclosure of zone cracks.

  1. 22 CFR 225.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 225.110....110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. (a) The Secretary, HHS, has established, and published as...

  2. 7 CFR 1c.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... an expedited review procedure shall adopt a method for keeping all members advised of research... research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 1c.110 Section 1c... review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for...

  3. 21 CFR 56.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of....110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... Food and Drug Administration has established, and published in the Federal Register, a list...

  4. 21 CFR 56.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of....110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... Food and Drug Administration has established, and published in the Federal Register, a list...

  5. 21 CFR 56.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of....110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... Food and Drug Administration has established, and published in the Federal Register, a list...

  6. 14 CFR 1230.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 1230.110 Section 1230.110 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION...

  7. 14 CFR 1230.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 1230.110 Section 1230.110 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION...

  8. 14 CFR 1230.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 1230.110 Section 1230.110 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION...

  9. Promoting Prosocial Behavior and Self-Regulatory Skills in Preschool Children through a Mindfulness-Based Kindness Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flook, Lisa; Goldberg, Simon B.; Pinger, Laura; Davidson, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulatory abilities are robust predictors of important outcomes across the life span, yet they are rarely taught explicitly in school. Using a randomized controlled design, the present study investigated the effects of a 12-week mindfulness-based Kindness Curriculum (KC) delivered in a public school setting on executive function,…

  10. 34 CFR 365.14 - What conditions relating to cash or in-kind contributions apply to awards to grantees...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE INDEPENDENT LIVING SERVICES How Does the Secretary Make a... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What conditions relating to cash or in-kind contributions apply to awards to grantees, subgrantees, or contractors? 365.14 Section 365.14...

  11. 34 CFR 365.14 - What conditions relating to cash or in-kind contributions apply to awards to grantees...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE INDEPENDENT LIVING SERVICES How Does the Secretary Make a... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What conditions relating to cash or in-kind contributions apply to awards to grantees, subgrantees, or contractors? 365.14 Section 365.14...

  12. 7 CFR 201.62 - Tests for determination of percentages of kind, variety, type, hybrid, or offtype.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests for determination of percentages of kind, variety, type, hybrid, or offtype. 201.62 Section 201.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...

  13. Solving a system of Volterra-Fredholm integral equations of the second kind via fixed point method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Talaat I.; Salleh, Shaharuddin; Sulaiman, Nejmaddin A.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we consider the system of Volterra-Fredholm integral equations of the second kind (SVFI-2). We propose fixed point method (FPM) to solve SVFI-2. In addition, a few theorems and new algorithm is introduced. They are supported by numerical examples and simulations using Matlab. The results are reasonably good when compared with the exact solutions.

  14. 14 CFR 121.525 - Flight time limitations: Pilots serving in more than one kind of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots serving in more than one kind of flight crew. 121.525 Section 121.525 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  15. 14 CFR 121.525 - Flight time limitations: Pilots serving in more than one kind of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots serving in more than one kind of flight crew. 121.525 Section 121.525 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  16. 14 CFR 121.525 - Flight time limitations: Pilots serving in more than one kind of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots serving in more than one kind of flight crew. 121.525 Section 121.525 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  17. 14 CFR 121.525 - Flight time limitations: Pilots serving in more than one kind of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots serving in more than one kind of flight crew. 121.525 Section 121.525 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  18. 14 CFR 121.525 - Flight time limitations: Pilots serving in more than one kind of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots serving in more than one kind of flight crew. 121.525 Section 121.525 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  19. What Kind of Self-Care Strategies Do People Report Using and Is There an Association with Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Anna; Hilleras, Pernilla; Forsell, Yvonne

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe what kind of self-care strategies people report using to improve or maintain their well-being. Furthermore, we also wanted to investigate whether reports of using self-care strategies were associated with well-being. Methods: A selected sample (n = 871), aged between 20 and 64 years, living in…

  20. 34 CFR 658.10 - For what kinds of projects does the Secretary assist institutions of higher education?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... institutions of higher education? 658.10 Section 658.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... Program? § 658.10 For what kinds of projects does the Secretary assist institutions of higher education? (a) The Secretary may provide assistance to an institution of higher education, a consortium...